Science.gov

Sample records for aviation altitudes 2006-2008

  1. Dosimetry at aviation altitudes (2006-2008).

    PubMed

    Meier, Matthias M; Hubiak, Melina; Matthiä, Daniel; Wirtz, Michael; Reitz, Günther

    2009-10-01

    Based upon the European Union (EU)-Directive 96/29/EURATOM, legal regulations on the radiation protection of aircrew had to be implemented into the corresponding national law within the member states of the EU by 13 May 2000. In Article 42 the directive stipulates, among other things, that the exposure of the crew concerned shall be assessed. This requirement has been implemented by dose calculations for most aircrew members in the EU. Some airlines and research institutes regularly spot check the calculated doses by measuring flights. The solar minimum is a time period of particular interest since the dose rates at aviation altitudes reach their maximum within the 11-year solar cycle. For this reason, the German Aerospace Center (DLR) performed repeated measuring flights in cooperation with several German airlines during the past solar minimum from March 2006 to August 2008. The measuring devices used consisted of a tissue equivalent proportional counter, various types of Liulin semiconductor detectors and several bubble detectors.

  2. Measurements of the radiation quality factor Q at aviation altitudes during solar minimum (2006-2008)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meier, Matthias M.; Hubiak, Melina

    2010-05-01

    In radiation protection, the Q-factor has been defined to describe the biological effectiveness of the energy deposition or absorbed dose to humans in the mixed radiation fields at aviation altitudes. This particular radiation field is generated by the interactions of primary cosmic particles with the atoms of the constituents of the Earth’s atmosphere. Thus the intensity, characterized by the ambient dose equivalent rate H∗(10), depends on the flight altitude and the energy spectra of the particles, mainly protons and alpha particles, impinging on the atmosphere. These charged cosmic projectiles are deflected both by the interplanetary and the Earth’s magnetic field such that the corresponding energy spectra are modulated by these fields. The solar minimum is a time period of particular interest since the interplanetary magnetic field is weakest within the 11-year solar cycle and the dose rates at aviation altitudes reach their maximum due to the reduced shielding of galactic cosmic radiation. For this reason, the German Aerospace Center (DLR) performed repeated dosimetric on-board measurements in cooperation with several German airlines during the past solar minimum from March 2006 to August 2008. The Q-factors measured with a TEPC range from 1.98 at the equator to 2.60 in the polar region.

  3. Aviation fuel property effects on altitude relight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venkataramani, K.

    1987-01-01

    The major objective of this experimental program was to investigate the effects of fuel property variation on altitude relight characteristics. Four fuels with widely varying volatility properties (JP-4, Jet A, a blend of Jet A and 2040 Solvent, and Diesel 2) were tested in a five-swirl-cup-sector combustor at inlet temperatures and flows representative of windmilling conditions of turbofan engines. The effects of fuel physical properties on atomization were eliminated by using four sets of pressure-atomizing nozzles designed to give the same spray Sauter mean diameter (50 + or - 10 micron) for each fuel at the same design fuel flow. A second series of tests was run with a set of air-blast nozzles. With comparable atomization levels, fuel volatility assumes only a secondary role for first-swirl-cup lightoff and complete blowout. Full propagation first-cup blowout were independent of fuel volatility and depended only on the combustor operating conditions.

  4. Optically coupled digital altitude encoder for general aviation altimeters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryant, F. R.

    1975-01-01

    An optically coupled pressure altitude encoder which can be incorporated into commercially available inexpensive general aviation altimeters was successfully developed. The encoding of pressure altitude is accomplished in 100-ft (30.48-m) increments from -1000 to 20,000ft (-304.8 to 6096 m). The prototype encoders were retrofitted into two different internal altimeter configurations. A prototype encoder was checked for accuracy of transition points and environmental effects. Each altimeter configuration, with the encoder incorporated, was laboratory tested for performance and was subsequently flight-tested over the specified altitude range. With few exceptions, the assembled altimeter-encoder met aeronautical standards for altimeters and encoders. Design changes are suggested to improve performance to meet required standards consistently.

  5. ARMAS and NAIRAS Comparisons of Radiation at Aviation Altitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, L. D.

    2015-12-01

    Space Environment Technologies and the Space Weather Center (SWC) at Utah State University are deploying and obtaining effective dose rate radiation data from dosimeters flown on research aircraft. This project is called Automated Radiation Measurements for Aerospace Safety (ARMAS). Through several dozen flights since 2013 the ARMAS project has successfully demonstrated the operation of a micro-dosimeter on commercial aviation altitude aircraft that captures the real-time radiation environment resulting from galactic cosmic rays (GCR's) and solar energetic particles (SEP's). Space weather effects upon the near Earth environment are to dynamic changes in the energy transfer process from the Sun's photons, particles, and fields. The coupling between the solar and galactic high-energy particles, and atmospheric regions can significantly affect human tissue and the aircrafts technology as a result of radiation exposure. We describe and compare the types of radiation we have been measuring with the NAIRAS global climatological model as it relates to human tissue susceptibility and as a source at different altitude regions.

  6. Radiation environment at aviation altitudes and in space.

    PubMed

    Sihver, L; Ploc, O; Puchalska, M; Ambrožová, I; Kubančák, J; Kyselová, D; Shurshakov, V

    2015-06-01

    On the Earth, protection from cosmic radiation is provided by the magnetosphere and the atmosphere, but the radiation exposure increases with increasing altitude. Aircrew and especially space crew members are therefore exposed to an increased level of ionising radiation. Dosimetry onboard aircraft and spacecraft is however complicated by the presence of neutrons and high linear energy transfer particles. Film and thermoluminescent dosimeters, routinely used for ground-based personnel, do not reliably cover the range of particle types and energies found in cosmic radiation. Further, the radiation field onboard aircraft and spacecraft is not constant; its intensity and composition change mainly with altitude, geomagnetic position and solar activity (marginally also with the aircraft/spacecraft type, number of people aboard, amount of fuel etc.). The European Union Council directive 96/29/Euroatom of 1996 specifies that aircrews that could receive dose of >1 mSv y(-1) must be evaluated. The dose evaluation is routinely performed by computer programs, e.g. CARI-6, EPCARD, SIEVERT, PCAire, JISCARD and AVIDOS. Such calculations should however be carefully verified and validated. Measurements of the radiation field in aircraft are thus of a great importance. A promising option is the long-term deployment of active detectors, e.g. silicon spectrometer Liulin, TEPC Hawk and pixel detector Timepix. Outside the Earth's protective atmosphere and magnetosphere, the environment is much harsher than at aviation altitudes. In addition to the exposure to high energetic ionising cosmic radiation, there are microgravity, lack of atmosphere, psychological and psychosocial components etc. The milieu is therefore very unfriendly for any living organism. In case of solar flares, exposures of spacecraft crews may even be lethal. In this paper, long-term measurements of the radiation environment onboard Czech aircraft performed with the Liulin since 2001, as well as measurements and

  7. A space weather index for the radiation field at aviation altitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meier, Matthias M.; Matthiä, Daniel

    2014-04-01

    The additional dose contribution to the radiation exposure at aviation altitudes during Solar Particle Events (SPEs) has been a matter of concern for many years. After the Halloween storms in 2003 several airlines began to implement mitigation measures such as rerouting and lowering flight altitudes in response to alerts on the NOAA S-scale regarding solar radiation storms. These alerts are based on the integral proton flux above 10 MeV measured aboard the corresponding GOES-satellite which is operated outside the Earth's atmosphere in a geosynchronous orbit. This integral proton flux has, however, been proved to be an insufficient parameter to apply to the radiation field at aviation altitudes without an accompanying analysis of the shape of the energy spectrum. Consequently, false alarms and corresponding disproportionate reactions ensued. Since mitigating measures can be quite cost-intensive, there has been a demand for appropriate space weather information among responsible airline managers for about a decade. Against this background, we propose the introduction of a new Space Weather index D, based on dose rates at aviation altitudes produced by solar protons during solar radiation storms, as the relevant parameter for the assessment of corresponding radiation exposure. The Space Weather index D is a natural number given by a graduated table of ranges of dose rates in ascending order which is derived by an equation depending on the dose rate of solar protons.

  8. Longterm Monitoring of Ambient Dose Equivalent Rates at Aviation Altitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Möller, Thomas; Briese, J.; Burda, O.; Burmeister, S.; Glaßmeier, K. H.; Haag, K. H.; Heber, B.; Klages, T.; Langner, F.; Luchtenberg, F.; Matthiae, D.; Meier, M.; Nezel, M.; Reitz, G.; Wissmann, F.

    Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCRs) are high energetic charged particles, mainly protons and alpha-particles, originating from galactic sources and impinging on the Earth from all directions. The intensity of these particles is modulated by the solar activity, the Earth's magnetosphere and its atmosphere. Depending on the geomagnetic latitude only particles above certain cut-off rigidities can reach the top of the atmosphere. The cut-off rigidity is independent of the par-ticle sort; it is lowest over the magnetic poles and highest close to the equator. In the Earth's atmosphere, interactions of incident cosmic particles with atoms of the atmosphere's compo-nents cause not only deceleration or absorption of the primary particles but also production of new secondary particles which in turn can generate further particles. This results in a sec-ondary radiation field in the lower layers of the atmosphere, the composition and dose rate of which is dependent on altitude and magnetic latitude respectively. Beside this slowly varying background, solar energetic particle events (SPEs) may temporarily change this radiation field. One of the scientific goals of the RAMONA cooperation (RAdiation Monitoring ON board Aircraft) is to investigate the impact of SPEs on the radiation environment at flight altitudes. Although different models for such Space Weather effects have been developed, it is still im-possible to forecast the occurrence of a relevant SPE. Therefore, the permanent operation of appropriate dosimetric instruments onboard aircraft is pursued in order to gain knowledge for further model developments. Three NAVIDOS dosimetry systems (NAVIgation DOSimeter) developed by the RAMONA cooperation, have already been installed in aircraft. First results of the corresponding measurements will be presented.

  9. Cancer registration literature update (2006-2008).

    PubMed

    2008-01-01

    Using Cancer Registration and Registry as search items with PubMed, a survey of the relevant literature for the years 2006-2008 was performed. A total of 207 abstracts were scanned for core findings and classified under general incidence and mortality, methodology and specific organ headings, these accounting for 27%, 5% and 68% of papers, respectively. Further sub-division into geographical area and country showed 34% from Europe, less than 1% from Africa, 42% from Asia (almost half in the APJCP), 2% from Australasia and the remaining 21% from the Americas. Breast cancer was the most common specific cancer covered, followed by colorectal and childhood, then lung and urinary tract, but clear differences were noted in the focus of different countries, partially reflecting variation in prevalence. The distributions across and within continents point to geographical areas and countries in which assistance might allow a more comprehensive picture of cancer incidence and mortality to be generated, facilitating worldwide efforts for cancer control. Variation within countries also appears to require more emphasis in the future.

  10. Reducing The Climate Change Impact of Aviation By Restricting Cruise Altitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, V.; Noland, R. B.; Toumi, R.

    Aviation has the potential to influence the global climate. The total annual fuel burned by aircraft contributes a small but significant proportion of global anthropogenic car- bon dioxide emissions, with this proportion set to increase with the projected rise in demand for air travel. Additionally, the emission of nitrogen oxides at altitude can have a much greater impact on ozone, and in turn on the atmospheric radiation bud- get, than emission at the surface. A third mechanism for the influence of aviation on climate is through the production of contrails. Contrails cover 0.1 Cruise altitude restrictions could severely constrain air space capacity, especially in parts of Europe. In addition, carbon emissions may increase due to less efficient air- craft operation at lower cruise altitudes, which would offset some of the benefits of eliminating contrail formation. An analysis of these trade-offs is presented, using the RAMS air space simulation model as applied to European airspace. This model sim- ulates the flight paths and altitudes of each aircraft and is here used to calculate emis- sions of carbon dioxide and changes in the journey time. Our analysis demonstrates that altitude restrictions on commercial aircraft could be an effective means of re- ducing climate change impacts, though it will be necessary to mitigate the increased controller workload conflicts that this will generate.

  11. RaD-X: Complementary measurements of dose rates at aviation altitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meier, Matthias M.; Matthiä, Daniel; Forkert, Tomas; Wirtz, Michael; Scheibinger, Markus; Hübel, Robert; Mertens, Christopher J.

    2016-09-01

    The RaD-X stratospheric balloon flight organized by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration was launched from Fort Sumner on 25 September 2015 and carried several instruments to measure the radiation field in the upper atmosphere at the average vertical cutoff rigidity Rc of 4.1 GV. The German Aerospace Center (Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt) in cooperation with Lufthansa German Airlines supported this campaign with an independent measuring flight at the altitudes of civil aviation on a round trip from Germany to Japan. The goal was to measure dose rates under similar space weather conditions over an area on the Northern Hemisphere opposite to the RaD-X flight. Dose rates were measured in the target areas, i.e., around vertical cutoff rigidity Rc of 4.1 GV, at two flight altitudes for about 1 h at each position with acceptable counting statistics. The analysis of the space weather situation during the flights shows that measuring data were acquired under stable and moderate space weather conditions with a virtually undisturbed magnetosphere. The measured rates of absorbed dose in silicon and ambient dose equivalent complement the data recorded during the balloon flight. The combined measurements provide a set of experimental data suitable for validating and improving numerical models for the calculation of radiation exposure at aviation altitudes.

  12. Aviation-induced radiative forcing and surface temperature change in dependency of the emission altitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    FröMming, C.; Ponater, M.; Dahlmann, K.; Grewe, V.; Lee, D. S.; Sausen, R.

    2012-10-01

    The present study provides a detailed assessment of the net impact of global flight altitude changes on radiative forcing and temperature response. Changes in contrail coverage, chemical perturbations (H2O, O3, CH4) and associated radiative forcings were determined from simulations with a quasi CTM. Future development of global mean radiative forcing and temperature response was calculated by means of a linear response model. The range of possible effects arising from various future scenarios is analyzed, and tradeoffs between partially counteracting short- and long term effects are studied. Present-day global mean radiative forcing of short-lived species and CH4 is reduced when flying lower, whereas that of CO2increases. The opposite effect is found for higher flight altitudes. For increasing and sustained emissions, the climate impact changes are dominated by the effect of short-lived species, yielding a reduction for lower flight altitudes and an increase for higher flight altitudes. For future scenarios involving a reduction or termination of emissions, radiative forcing of short-lived species decreases immediately, that of longer lived species decreases gradually, and respective temperature responses start to decay slowly. After disappearance of the shorter lived effects, only the counteracting CO2 effect remains, resulting in an increased climate effect for lower flight altitudes and a decrease for higher flight altitudes. Incorporating knowledge about the altitude sensitivity of aviation climate impact in the route planning process offers substantial mitigation potential. Scenarios and time horizons for the evaluation of future effects of mitigation instruments must be chosen carefully depending on the mitigation aim.

  13. Long-term measurements of H*(10) at aviation altitudes in the northern hemisphere.

    PubMed

    Wissmann, F

    2006-01-01

    Monitoring the radiation field at aviation altitudes is achieved by the dosemeter system piDOS installed in a passenger aircraft. The basic detector is a 2 in. tissue-equivalent proportional counter (TEPC) mounted in a cabin-baggage-sized aluminium suitcase. The entire system was characterised in neutron and photon reference fields from which two calibration factors were determined according to the splitting of the measured dose deposition spectrum yd(y) into low-LET and high-LET regions. A total of 255 flights in the northern hemisphere was analysed. The dependencies of the ambient dose equivalent rates on altitude, latitude and solar activity have been determined. These new data extend the data base used in Germany for the validation of program codes to calculate the radiation exposure of air crew members.

  14. CONCORD: comparison of cosmic radiation detectors in the radiation field at aviation altitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meier, Matthias M.; Trompier, François; Ambrozova, Iva; Kubancak, Jan; Matthiä, Daniel; Ploc, Ondrej; Santen, Nicole; Wirtz, Michael

    2016-05-01

    Space weather can strongly affect the complex radiation field at aviation altitudes. The assessment of the corresponding radiation exposure of aircrew and passengers has been a challenging task as well as a legal obligation in the European Union for many years. The response of several radiation measuring instruments operated by different European research groups during joint measuring flights was investigated in the framework of the CONCORD (COmparisoN of COsmic Radiation Detectors) campaign in the radiation field at aviation altitudes. This cooperation offered the opportunity to measure under the same space weather conditions and contributed to an independent quality control among the participating groups. The CONCORD flight campaign was performed with the twin-jet research aircraft Dassault Falcon 20E operated by the flight facility Oberpfaffenhofen of the German Aerospace Center (Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt, DLR). Dose rates were measured at four positions in the atmosphere in European airspace for about one hour at each position in order to obtain acceptable counting statistics. The analysis of the space weather situation during the measuring flights demonstrates that short-term solar activity did not affect the results which show a very good agreement between the readings of the instruments of the different institutes.

  15. Flight duration, airspeed practices and altitude management of airplanes involved in the NASA VGH General Aviation Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jewel, Joseph W., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Flight duration, airspeed, and altitude information obtained from NASA velocity gravity height (VGH) recorders is presented for each of 95 general aviation airplanes flown in twin- and single-engine executive, personal, instructional, commercial survey, aerial application, aerobatic, commuter, and float operations. These data complement normal acceleration data obtained from the same airplanes and reported in NASA-TM-84660, and together they provide a data base for the design and analysis of general aviation airplane operations.

  16. Dressing for Altitude: U.S. Aviation Pressure Suits--Wiley Post to Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenkins, Dennis R.

    2012-01-01

    Since its earliest days, flight has been about pushing the limits of technology and, in many cases, pushing the limits of human endurance. The human body can be the limiting factor in the design of aircraft and spacecraft. Humans cannot survive unaided at high altitudes. There have been a number of books written on the subject of spacesuits, but the literature on the high-altitude pressure suits is lacking. This volume provides a high-level summary of the technological development and operational use of partial- and full-pressure suits, from the earliest models to the current high altitude, full-pressure suits used for modern aviation, as well as those that were used for launch and entry on the Space Shuttle. The goal of this work is to provide a resource on the technology for suits designed to keep humans alive at the edge of space. Hopefully, future generations will learn from the hard-fought lessons of the past. NASA is committed to the future of aerospace, and a key component of that future is the workforce. Without these men and women, technological advancements would not be possible. Dressing for Altitude is designed to provide the history of the technology and to explore the lessons learned through years of research in creating, testing, and utilizing today s high-altitude suits. It is our hope that this information will prove helpful in the development of future suits. Even with the closeout of the Space Shuttle and the planned ending of the U-2 program, pressure suits will be needed for protection as long as humans seek to explore high frontiers. The NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate is committed to the training of the current and future aerospace workforce. This book and the other books published by the NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate are in support of this commitment. Hopefully, you will find this book a valuable resource for many years to come.

  17. Vertical mixing of commercial aviation emissions from cruise altitude to the surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitt, D. B.; Jacobson, M. Z.; Wilkerson, J. T.; Naiman, A. D.; Lele, S. K.

    2011-07-01

    Data analysis and numerical simulations were used to examine vertical transport of cruise-altitude commercial aircraft emissions to the surface. First, aircraft emission data were compared with static stability and potential temperature data from satellites. Second, we ran global 3-D simulations of a passive tracer released uniformly at 11 km (cruise altitude). We present global, regional, and seasonal results of the data comparisons as well as approximate time scales of vertical mixing derived from the simulations. Using the year 2006 as a case study, we found that 24% of all global commercial aviation emissions occurred in the stratosphere, 17% occurred both north of 40° N and above the 330 K isentrope, and 54% occurred in regions of at least moderate static stability (N2 > 10-4 s-2). In addition, 74% of emissions in the Arctic Circle were in the stratosphere. In the 3-D simulations, the globally averaged tracer-plume e-folding lifetime against vertical transport to any other altitude was 16 days during January and 14 days during July. Furthermore, the passive tracer took 15 days longer in January (77 days) compared with July (62 days) to achieve a surface-to-cruise mixing ratio fraction greater than 0.5 at all latitudes. The dynamical mixing time scales of extratropical cruise-altitude emissions were significantly longer than the globally averaged wet removal time of 4-5 days for aerosol particles emitted in the lower troposphere. Thus, it is unlikely that cruise-altitude emissions affect surface air quality via transport alone outside the tropics.

  18. 2006-2008 Studies on the Employability of UKM Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Omar, Ramli; Khoon, Koh Aik; Hamzah, Mohd Fauzi; Ahmadan, Siti Rohayu

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the employability of UKM graduates in the job market from 2006-2008. Studies showed that the employability varied from discipline to discipline with the dentistry and medical graduates leading the pack. In recent years UKM graduates have made inroads into GLC's, a positive development indeed. (Contains 2 tables.)

  19. 2006-2008 Studies on the Employability of UKM Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Omar, Ramli; Khoon, Koh Aik; Hamzah, Mohd Fauzi; Ahmadan, Siti Rohayu

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the employability of UKM graduates in the job market from 2006-2008. Studies showed that the employability varied from discipline to discipline with the dentistry and medical graduates leading the pack. In recent years UKM graduates have made inroads into GLC's, a positive development indeed. (Contains 2 tables.)

  20. A Systematic Global Mapping of the Radiation Field at Aviation Altitudes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stassinopoulos, E. G.; Stauffer, C. A.; Brucker, G. J.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents early results from aircraft measurements made by a Low-LET Radiation Spectrometer (LoLRS), as part of a long-range effort to study the complex dynamics of the atmospheric radiation field. For this purpose, a comprehensive data base is being generated to enable a multivariable global mapping (and eventually modeling) of doses and Linear-Energy-Transfer (LET) spectra at aviation altitudes. To accomplish this, a methodical collection of data from the LoLRS (and other instruments), is planned over extended periods of time, in a manner that complements some previous isolated and sporadic measurements by other workers, with the objective to generate a detailed long-range description of the cosmic-ray induced particle environment and to study its variability and dependence on atmospheric thickness, magnetic latitude, L-shell or rigidity, space weather, solar particle events, solar cycle effects, magnetic field variation, diurnal and seasonal effects, and atmospheric weather. Analysis of initial data indicates that the dose is rising with increasing altitude and increasing magnetic latitude. Comparison of total doses with predictions is in good agreement.

  1. Numerical calculation of the radiation exposure from galactic cosmic rays at aviation altitudes with the PANDOCA core model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthiä, Daniel; Meier, Matthias M.; Reitz, Günther

    2014-03-01

    The increased radiation exposure at aviation altitudes is of public interest as well as of legal relevance in many countries. The dose rates that are elevated compared to sea level are mainly caused by galactic cosmic ray particles interacting with the atmosphere and producing a complex radiation field at aviation altitudes. The intensity and composition of this radiation field mainly depend on altitude, geomagnetic shielding, and primary particle intensity. In this work, we present a model based on Monte Carlo simulations, which retrospectively estimates secondary particle fluence as well as ambient dose equivalent rates and effective dose rates at any point in the atmosphere. This model will be used as the physical core in the Professional Aviation Dose Calculator (PANDOCA) software developed by the German Aerospace Center (Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt) for the calculation of route doses in aviation. The calculations are based on galactic cosmic ray spectra taking into account primary nuclei from hydrogen to iron by direct transport calculations of hydrogen and helium nuclei and approximating heavier nuclei by the number of protons equaling the corresponding atomic number. A comparison to experimental data recorded on several flights with a tissue equivalent proportional counter shows a very good agreement between model calculations and measurements.

  2. Responses of selected neutron monitors to cosmic radiation at aviation altitudes.

    PubMed

    Yasuda, Hiroshi; Yajima, Kazuaki; Sato, Tatsuhiko; Takada, Masashi; Nakamura, Takashi

    2009-06-01

    Cosmic radiation exposure of aircraft crew, which is generally evaluated by numerical simulations, should be verified by measurements. From the perspective of radiological protection, the most contributing radiation component at aviation altitude is neutrons. Measurements of cosmic neutrons, however, are difficult in a civilian aircraft because of the limitations of space and electricity; a small, battery-operated dosimeter is required whereas larger-size instruments are generally used to detect neutrons with a broad range of energy. We thus examined the applicability of relatively new transportable neutron monitors for use in an aircraft. They are (1) a conventional rem meter with a polyethylene moderator (NCN1), (2) an extended energy-range rem meter with a tungsten-powder mixed moderator (WENDI-II), and (3) a recoil-proton scintillation rem meter (PRESCILA). These monitors were installed onto the racks of a business jet aircraft that flew two times near Japan. Observed data were compared to model calculations using a PHITS-based Analytical Radiation Model in the Atmosphere (PARMA). Excellent agreement between measured and calculated values was found for the WENDI-II. The NCN1 showed approximately half of predicted values, which were lower than those expected from its response function. The observations made with PRESCILA showed much higher than expected values; which is attributable to the presence of cosmic-ray protons and muons. These results indicate that careful attention must be paid to the dosimetric properties of a detector employed for verification of cosmic neutron dose.

  3. Nathan Zuntz (1847-1920)--a German pioneer in high altitude physiology and aviation medicine, Part II: Scientific work.

    PubMed

    Gunga, H C; Kirsch, K A

    1995-02-01

    For over 52 years, the work of Nathan Zuntz (1847-1920) covered an amazingly wide spectrum of research fields; metabolism, nutrition, respiration, blood gases, exercise, and high altitude physiology were the main themes. Zuntz achieved fame for his invention of the Zuntz-Geppert respiratory apparatus in 1886 and the first Laufband (treadmill) in 1889. To this experimental setup Zuntz later added an X-ray apparatus in 1914 to determine the changes in heart volume during exercise. Moreover, he constructed a climate chamber to study exercise under varying and sometimes extreme climates. For field studies Zuntz invented a transportable Gasuhr (dry gas measuring device). Zuntz was the first to describe the difference between laboratory data gained in a hypobaric chamber and the measurements at high altitude. He found that the barometric formula is not applicable in the field. Two balloon expeditions in 1902 by Zuntz and his pupil, v. Schroetter, marked the step from terrestrial physiology towards aviation medicine. An outline of the development of scientific aviation in Berlin from 1880-1918 elucidates how closely the aviation union, army, and scientific departments were connected with and dependent upon each other. In cooperation with these institutions Zuntz and v. Schroetter constructed an oxygen supply system and planned a pressure cabin for extreme altitudes above 10,000 m, a forerunner of modern systems in aviation and astronautics. In 1912, Zuntz and v. Schroetter each published papers on aviation medicine, both publications internationally unique in style and extent. Zuntz's work in its empirical approach was the counterpart to the established formal mathematical-physical reductionism of the German Physiological Society.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. Aviation.

    PubMed

    Karl, Richard C

    2009-01-01

    An increased awareness of the need for safety in medicine in general and in surgery in particular has prompted comparisons between the cockpit and the operating room. These comparisons seem to make sense but tend to be oversimplified. Attempts in healthcare to mimic programs that have been credited for the safety of commercial aviation have met with varying results. The risk here is that oversimplified application of an aviation model may result in the abandonment of good ideas in medicine. This paper describes in more depth the differences between medicine and commercial aviation: from the hiring process, through initial operating experience, recurrent training, and the management of emergencies. These programs add up to a cultural difference. Aviation assumes that personnel are subject to mistake making and that systems and culture need to be constructed to catch and mitigate error; medicine is still focused on the perfection of each individual's performance. The implications of these differences are explored.

  5. The activity of autumn meteor showers in 2006-2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kartashova, Anna

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of meteor observations in INASAN is the study of meteor showers, as the elements of the migrant substance of the Solar System, and estimation of risk of hazardous collisions of spacecrafts with the particles of streams. Therefore we need to analyze the meteor events with brightness of up to 8 m, which stay in meteoroid streams for a long time and can be a hazardous for the spacecraft. The results of our single station TV observations of autumn meteor showers for the period from 2006 to 2008 are presented. The high-sensitive hybrid camera (the system with coupled of the Image Intensifier) FAVOR with limiting magnitude for meteors about 9m. . .10m in the field of view 20 × 18 was used for observations. In 2006-2008 from October to November more than 3 thousand of meteors were detected, 65% from them have the brightness from 6m to 9m. The identification with autumn meteor showers (Orionids, Taurids, Draconids, Leonids) was carried out. In order to estimate the density of the influx of meteor matter to the Earth for these meteor showers the Index of meteor activity (IMA) was calculated. The IMA distribution for the period 2006 - 2008 is given. The distributions of autumn meteor showers (the meteors with brightness of up to 8 m) by stellar magnitude from 2006 to 2008 are also presented.

  6. Management of glioblastoma in Victoria, Australia (2006-2008).

    PubMed

    Gan, Hui K; Rosenthal, Mark A; Cher, Lawrence; Dally, Michael; Drummond, Katharine; Murphy, Michael; Thursfield, Vicky

    2015-09-01

    We describe the management of patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) in a population-based cohort and compare this to a previously studied cohort. We performed a retrospective cohort study of patients diagnosed with GBM from 2006-2008 in Victoria, Australia. Patients were identified from the population-based Victorian Cancer Registry and their treating doctors surveyed by questionnaire. Outcomes were then compared to a study of GBM patients who were diagnosed between 1998 and 2000 using an identical methodology. We reviewed 351 eligible patients. There were slightly more males (62%) and a minority had multifocal disease (13%). Total macroscopic resection, partial resection or biopsy only was performed in 32%, 37% and 24% of patients, respectively. The majority of patients were referred to a radiation oncologist and medical oncologist postoperatively. A total of 56% of patients were treated with postoperative radiotherapy with concurrent and sequential temozolomide and had a median survival of 14.4 months. This was significantly better than patients treated with postoperative radiotherapy alone in the current or earlier cohorts (2006-2008: median survival 6.2 months, p<0.0001 versus 1998-2000: 8.9 months, p<0.0001). This study demonstrates that postoperative chemoradiation has become the standard of care in this Victorian population with an associated improvement in median survival.

  7. High altitude hypoxia, a mask and a Street. Donation of an aviation BLB oxygen mask apparatus from World War 2.

    PubMed

    Cooper, M G; Street, N E

    2017-03-01

    The history of hypoxia prevention is closely inter-related with high altitude mountain and aviation physiology. One pioneering attempt to overcome low inspired oxygen partial pressures in aviation was the BLB mask-named after the three designers-Walter M Boothby, W Randolph Lovelace II and Arthur H Bulbulian. This mask and its variations originated just prior to World War 2 when aircraft were able to fly higher than 10,000 feet and pilot hypoxia affecting performance was an increasing problem. We give a brief description of the mask and its designers and discuss the donation of a model used by the British War Office in October 1940 and donated to the Harry Daly Museum at the Australian Society of Anaesthetists by the family of Dr Fred Street. Dr Street was a pioneering paediatric surgeon in Australia and served as a doctor in the Middle East and New Guinea in World War 2. He received the Military Cross.

  8. Midair collisions in U.S. civil aviation 2000-2004: the roles of radio communications and altitude.

    PubMed

    de Voogt, Alexander J; van Doorn, Robert R

    2006-12-01

    Midair collisions are destructive to aircraft and often fatal to occupants, with the additional possibility of death and destruction on the ground. We sought to determine the characteristics of civil aviation mid-air collisions in U.S. airspace with focus on the altitudes at which the collisions took place and radio communications prior to the collisions. Accident reports published by the National Transportation and Safety Board for the period 2000-2004 were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Additional information was extracted from the narrative report of each accident. During the 5-yr period, 48 collisions in U.S. civil aviation occurred with 78 fatalities and 7 persons severely injured. There were 46 aircraft destroyed and 37 substantially damaged. In 14 cases no radio communication was reported. In 19 cases there appeared regular radio communication with a tower or other aircraft. Midair collisions resulted in fewer severe injuries at lower altitudes. Visibility and weather were not contributing factors. Radio communication is recommended to assist aircraft where practical, but pilots need to be made aware of the limitations of radio communication for the avoidance of midair collisions.

  9. The effects of energy beverages in counteracting the symptoms of mild hypoxia at legal general aviation altitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bull, Daniel Mark

    The purpose of this thesis was to conduct preliminary research, in the form of a pilot study, concerning the natural effects of hypoxia compared to the effects of hypoxia experienced after the consumption of an energy beverage. The study evaluated the effects of hypoxia on FAA certificated pilots at a simulated legal general aviation altitude, utilizing the normobaric High Altitude Lab (HAL) located at Embry Riddle Aeronautical University, Daytona Beach, Florida. The researcher tested 11 subjects, who completed three simulated flight tasks within the HAL using the Frasca International Mentor Advanced Aviation Training Device (AATD). The flight tasks were completed after consuming Red BullRTM, MonsterRTM , or a placebo beverage. The researcher derived three test variables from core outputs of the AATD: lateral deviations from the glide slope, vertical deviations from the localizer, and airspeed deviations from the target speed of 100 knots. A repeated-measures ANOVA was carried out to determine effects of the beverages on the test variables. While results were non-significant, the researcher concluded that further research should be conducted with a larger sample.

  10. Travel-associated Dengue surveillance - United States, 2006-2008.

    PubMed

    2010-06-18

    Dengue is caused by four antigenically related viruses (DENV-1, DENV-2, DENV-3, and DENV-4). Dengue fever is endemic in most tropical and subtropical areas of the world, and in 2007 nearly 1 million cases were reported in the Americas alone. Dengue infections commonly occur among U.S. residents returning from travel to endemic areas and are more prevalent than malaria among returning travelers from the Caribbean, South America, South Central Asia, and Southeast Asia. This report summarizes information about dengue cases reported to CDC through two CDC-maintained passive surveillance systems: 1) the ArboNET surveillance system, a national CDC arboviral surveillance system maintained by CDC's Arboviral Diseases Branch and initially developed in response to the introduction of West Nile virus in the United States, and 2) a system maintained for decades by the CDC Dengue Branch (CDCDB), which collects information on all suspected dengue cases whose specimens are sent to the branch. During 2006-2008, a total of 1,125 unique reports were made to either ArboNET or CDCDB. Of these, the highest proportion of laboratory-confirmed and probable cases with known travel histories were in persons who reported travel to the Dominican Republic (121; 20%), Mexico (55; 9%), and India (43; 7%). Health-care providers should consider dengue in the differential diagnosis of patients with a history of travel to endemic areas within 14 days of fever onset.

  11. Impacts of alternative fuels in aviation on microphysical aerosol properties and predicted ice nuclei concentration at aircraft cruise altitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinzierl, B.; D'Ascoli, E.; Sauer, D. N.; Kim, J.; Scheibe, M.; Schlager, H.; Moore, R.; Anderson, B. E.; Ullrich, R.; Mohler, O.; Hoose, C.

    2015-12-01

    In the past decades air traffic has been substantially growing affecting air quality and climate. According to the International Civil Aviation Authority (ICAO), in the next few years world passenger and freight traffic is expected to increase annually by 6-7% and 4-5%, respectively. One possibility to reduce aviation impacts on the atmosphere and climate might be the replacement of fossil fuels by alternative fuels. However, so far the effects of alternative fuels on particle emissions from aircraft engines and their ability to form contrails remain uncertain. To study the effects of alternative fuels on particle emissions and the formation of contrails, the Alternative Fuel Effects on Contrails and Cruise Emissions (ACCESS) field experiment was conducted in California. In May 2014, the DLR Falcon 20 and the NASA HU-25 jet aircraft were instrumented with an extended aerosol and trace gas payload probing different types of fuels including JP-8 and JP-8 blended with HEFA (Hydroprocessed Esters and Fatty Acids) while the NASA DC8 aircraft acted as the source aircraft for ACCESS-2. Emission measurements were taken in the DC8 exhaust plumes at aircraft cruise level between 9-12 km altitude and at distances between 50 m and 20 km behind the DC8 engines. Here, we will present results from the ACCESS-2 aerosol measurements which show a 30-60% reduction of the non-volatile (mainly black carbon) particle number concentration in the aircraft exhaust for the HEFA-blend compared to conventional JP-8 fuel. Size-resolved particle emission indices show the largest reductions for larger particle sizes suggesting that the HEFA blend contains fewer and smaller black carbon particles. We will combine the airborne measurements with a parameterization of deposition nucleation developed during a number of ice nucleation experiments at the AIDA chamber in Karlsruhe and discuss the impact of alternative fuels on the abundance of potential ice nuclei at cruise conditions.

  12. HEMP (High-Altitude Electromagnetic Pulse) validation of FAA (Federal Aviation Administration) radio facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanders, Stephen C.

    1989-05-01

    The Harry Diamond Lab. provided high-altitude electromagnetic pulse (HEMP) and partial lightning hardness verification testing to a high-frequency radio facility for the FAA. The facility consisted of a shielded enclosure with antennas and cables connected through protective devices at the shield to dummy loads within the shield. It was exposed to low-level radiation with measurements of internal fields extrapolated to threat levels and compared to specific criteria. Each typical penetration was injected with a simulated lightning source, and internal measurements were compared to specific criteria. Although criteria were not always met, it was judged with confidence that the facility would protect radio equipment. It was noted that the ac power spark gap would remain shorted until ac power shut down, resulting in system upset.

  13. Breeding colonies of least terns (Sternula antillarum) in northern Sonora, Mexico, 2006-2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosemartin, Alyssa; van Riper, Charles

    2012-01-01

    We document distribution of breeding least terns (Sternula antillarum) in northern Sonora, Mexico, 2006-2008. We report breeding activity at six sites with active colonies, including three previously undocumented colonies.

  14. Assessment of thunderstorm neutron radiation environment at altitudes of aviation flights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drozdov, A.; Grigoriev, A.; Malyshkin, Y.

    2013-02-01

    High-energy radiation emitted from thunderclouds supposes generation of neutrons in photonuclear reactions of the gamma photons with air. This observation is supported by registration of neutrons during thunderstorm activity in a number of experiments, most of which established correlation with lightning. In this work we perform a modeling of the neutron generation and propagation processes at low atmospheric altitudes using current knowledge of the TGF source properties. On this basis we obtain dosimetric maps of thunderstorm neutron radiation and investigate possible radiation threat for aircraft flights. We estimate the maximal effective neutron dose that potentially can be received on board an aircraft in close proximity to the gamma source, to be of the order of 0.54 mSv over a time less than 0.1 s. This dose is considerably less than estimations obtained earlier for the associated electron and gamma radiation; nevertheless, this value is quite large by itself and under some circumstances the neutron component seems to be the most important for the dosimetric effect. Due to wide distribution in space, the thunderstorm neutrons are thought to also provide a convenient means for experimental investigation of gamma emissions from thunderclouds. To register neutrons from powerful gamma flashes that occur at the tops of thunderclouds, however, in the most favorable case one has to take a location above the 2 km level that is appropriate to mountains or aircraft facilities.

  15. Federal Aviation Administration High Altitude Pollution Program, Second Biennial Report Prepared in Accordance with the Ozone Protection Provision, Section 153(g), of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1977.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-12-01

    AVIATION ADMINISTRATION HIGH ALTITUDE POLLUTION PROGRAM ........................................... 14 HAPP Scientific Advisory Committee...16 HAPP Studies ................................................. 16 Laboratory Studies ........................................... 16...The percentage change in ozone concentration due to the HAPP -projected 1990 high and low fleet estimates ............................... 9 Figure 5

  16. 2006-2008 Eruptions and Volcano Hazards Of Soputan Volcano, North Sulawesi, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendratno, K.; Pallister, J. S.; McCausland, W. A.; Kristianto, M.; Bina, F. R.; Carn, S. A.; Haerani, N.; Griswold, J.; Keeler, R.

    2010-12-01

    Soputan is a basalt volcano located in North Sulawesi near the southern margin of the Quaternary Tondano Caldera. Unusual for a basalt volcano, Soputan produces summit lava domes and explosive eruptions, as well as voluminous basaltic tephra deposits and lava flows. Soputan erupted five times during 2006-2008: on 14 December, 2006, 12-15 August, 2007, 25-26 October, 2007, 5-6 June, 2008, and 5-6 October, 2008. The 2006-2007 eruptions destroyed a lava dome at the volcano’s summit and exposed the conduit, resulting in Vulcanian eruptions and St. Vincent type pyroclastic flows from an open vent structure. We used high-resolution satellite images and digital elevation models to make photo-geologic maps of the deposits from the 2006, 2007 and 2008 eruptions, to estimate volumes of deposits using GIS and to model potential flow hazards. In March, 2008 and in March 2009 we conducted reconnaissance geologic field investigations at Soputan. This work was done to field-check our photo-geologic mapping, to reconstruct the sequence of eruptive events in 2006-2008 and to collect samples for geochemical and petrographic analysis. We also analyzed seismic records and SO2 emission data from the eruptions and we interpreted these data in the context of our geologic and geochemical data to provide insights into the ascent and degassing of magmas. On the basis of the eruptive history and modeling of potential lahar inundation areas we present an updated assessment of volcano hazards and a forecast for future eruptions at Soputan. Our analysis of field and petrologic data indicates that Soputan is an open-system volcano, which taps basalt magma from great depth, apparently with little shallow storage of this magma. Degassing of the magma as it rises within the conduit results in growth of micro-phenocrysts, evolution of the matrix melt and a commensurate increase in the viscosity of the magma. This, in turn, results in growth of lava domes and more explosive eruptions than are

  17. Genetic comparison among dolphin morbillivirus in the 1990-1992 and 2006-2008 Mediterranean outbreaks.

    PubMed

    Bellière, Edwige Nina; Esperón, Fernando; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, José Manuel

    2011-12-01

    In 1990, dolphin morbillivirus (DMV) killed thousands of striped dolphins in the Mediterranean. Subsequently, the prevalence of the infection declined in this species. In 2006-2008, the virus killed not only numerous striped dolphins but also long-finned pilot whales. All partial sequences of the phosphoprotein and nucleoprotein genes obtained thus far from different host species during the 2006-2008 outbreak show 100% identity, suggesting that a single virus was involved, and these sequences are nearly identical to the 1990 Spanish strain. Here our first objective was to determine the sequence identity between the morbillivirus from the 2006-2008 outbreak and the 1990 Spanish strain by sequencing more extensive genomic regions of strains from one pilot whale and one striped dolphin stranded in 2007. The second objective was to investigate the relationship between the 1990 and 2007 strains by constructing a phylogenetic tree based on the phosphoprotein gene to compare several Cetacean morbilliviruses, and another tree based on the nearly complete genomes of Mediterranean DMV. The third objective was to identify the most variable regions in the DMV genomes. Results showed that the two 2007 Spanish strains were 99.9% identical over 9050 bp and should be considered the same virus, and that this virus is 99.3-99.4% similar to the 1990 Spanish strain. The phylogenetic trees, together with the common geographical area for the two outbreaks, suggest that the 2007 DMV strains evolved from the 1990 DMV strain. Pilot whales do not seem to have been exposed or infected during the 1990-1992 epidemic, since these populations appeared to be immunologically naïve in 2006-2008. Our results suggest that the virus may have evolved in striped dolphin populations prior to the 2006-2008 outbreak, after which it entered the long-finned pilot whale, perhaps aided by an alanine to valine mutation in the N-terminal domain of the fusion protein. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  18. The assessment of the impact of aviation NOx on ozone and other radiative forcing responses - The importance of representing cruise altitudes accurately

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skowron, A.; Lee, D. S.; De León, R. R.

    2013-08-01

    Aviation emissions of NOx result in the formation of tropospheric ozone (warming) and destruction of a small amount of methane (cooling), positive and negative radiative forcing effects. In addition, the reduction of methane results in a small long-term reduction in tropospheric ozone (cooling) and, in addition, a long-term reduction in water vapour in the stratosphere (cooling) from reduced oxidation of methane, both negative radiative forcing impacts. Taking all these radiative effects together, aircraft NOx is still thought to result in a positive (warming) radiative effect under constant emissions assumptions. Previously, comparative modelling studies have focussed on the variability between models, using the same emissions database. In this study, we rather quantify the variability and uncertainty arising from different estimations of present-day aircraft NOx emissions. Six different aircraft NOx emissions inventories were used in the global chemical transport model, MOZART v3. The inventories were normalized to give the same global emission of NOx in order to remove one element of uncertainty. Emissions differed in the normalized cases by 23% at cruise altitudes (283-200 hPa, where the bulk of emission occurs, globally). However, the resultant short-term ozone chemical perturbation varied by 15% between the different inventories. Once all the effects that give rise to positive and negative radiative impacts were accounted for, the variability of net radiative forcing impacts was 94%. Using these radiative effects to formulate a net aviation NOx Global Warming Potential (GWP) for a 100-year time horizon resulted in GWPs ranging from 60 to 4, over an order of magnitude. It is concluded that the detailed placement of emissions at chemically sensitive cruise altitudes strongly affects the assessment of the total radiative impact, introducing a hitherto previously unidentified large fraction of the uncertainty of impacts between different modelling assessments. It

  19. [Aviation and high-altitude medicine for anaesthetists. Part 4: human performance limitations and crew resource management].

    PubMed

    Egerth, Martin; Pump, Stefan; Graf, Jürgen

    2013-06-01

    For pilots and doctors, as well as a variety of other professions the knowledge of human performance limitations is essential, especially in critical situations. Crew resource management was developed in the 1980s in the aviation industry in order to ensure systematic training and support in such instances. Just recently, the value is recognized not only in other high reliability organizations but also in medicine.

  20. Free fall and evaporation of N-Octane droplets in the atmosphere as applied to the jettisoning of aviation gasoline at altitude

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowell, Herman H

    1953-01-01

    In connection with proposed rapid jettisoning of aviation gasoline at altitude, a theoretical study was made of the free fall and evaporation of N-octane droplets in the atmosphere ; N-octane was selected for study because of the expected similarity of over-all evaporation behavior of N-octane and gasoline. It was concluded that gasoline (or N-octane) droplets larger than 2000 microns in diameter would be unstable ; terminal speeds and Reynolds numbers were obtained for droplets not larger than 2000 microns at altitudes to 11,000 feet. The motion data were used in the calculation of N-octane evaporation rates under various conditions. It was found that a droplet having an original diameter of 2000 microns would fall about 4000 feet from 6000 feet under NACA standard atmosphere conditions before coming virtually to rest. Finally, it was concluded that temperature effects are of paramount importance; at highest air temperatures a 1000-foot ground clearance would probably be adequate to prevent ground contamination, whereas at lowest air temperatures only an atomizing spray arrangement would prevent ground contamination, irrespective of ground clearance.

  1. Federal Aviation Administration: High Altitude Pollution Program, third biennial report prepared in accordance with the Stratospheric Ozone Protection Provision, section 153(g), of the Clean Air Act amendments of 1977. Report for Jan 80-Dec 81

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-12-01

    The impact of high altitude aviation on stratospheric ozone is now believed to be a decrease in total columnar ozone for flights above 15 km (about 49,000 feet). The model calculations also show that the current subsonic fleet (and the fleet foreseeable to 1990) will result in a net ozone increase of about 1 percent, considering normal flight altitudes. Whatever the net change in total column ozone, increases or depletions will occur at different altitudes. These are expected to have subtle influences on atmospheric circulation, the effects of which are only beginning to be understood. As a formal program, the High Altitude Pollution Program will be terminated in 1982 with the issuance of a final report. The FAA will continue to maintain and update, as appropriate, its capability to make quantitative assessments of the environmental effects of cruise-altitude emissions, and will monitor and assist, as possible, other research programs, both here and abroad.

  2. 75 FR 52437 - IFR Altitudes; Miscellaneous Amendments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-26

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 95 IFR Altitudes; Miscellaneous Amendments AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This amendment adopts miscellaneous... Programs Division, Flight Standards Service, Federal Aviation Administration, Mike ] Monroney Aeronautical...

  3. Combustion analysis for flame stability predictions at ground level and altitude in aviation gas turbine engines with low emissions combustors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turek, Tomas

    Low emissions combustors operating with low fuel/air ratios may have challenges with flame stability. As combustion is made leaner in the primary zone, the flame can lose its stability, resulting in operability problems such as relight, flameout or cold starting. This thesis analyzes combustion processes for the prediction of flame stability in low emissions combustors. A detailed review of the literature on flame stability was conducted and main approaches in flame stability modelling were indicated. Three flame stability models were proposed (Characteristic Time, Loading Parameter, and Combustion Efficiency models) and developed into a unique Preliminary Multi-Disciplinary Design Optimization (PMDO) tool. Results were validated with a database of experimental combustor test data and showed that flame stability can be predicted for an arbitrary shape of combustors running at any operational conditions including ground and altitude situations with various jet fuels and nozzles. In conclusion, flame stability can be predicted for newly designed low emission combustors.

  4. Radiological risk assessment of cosmic radiation at aviation altitudes (a trip from Houston Intercontinental Airport to Lagos International Airport).

    PubMed

    Enyinna, Paschal Ikenna

    2016-01-01

    Radiological risk parameters associated with aircrew members traveling from Houston Intercontinental Airport to Lagos International Airport have been computed using computer software called EPCARD (version 3.2). The mean annual effective dose of radiation was computed to be 2.94 mSv/year. This result is above the standard permissible limit of 1 mSv/year set for the public and pregnant aircrew members but below the limit set for occupationally exposed workers. The Risk of cancer mortality and excess career time cancer risk computed ranged from 3.5 × 10(-5) to 24.5 × 10(-5) (with average of 14.7 × 10(-5)) and 7 × 10(-4) to 49 × 10(-4) (with average of 29.4 × 10(-4)). Passengers and aircrew members should be aware of the extra cosmic radiation doses taken in during flights. All aircraft operators should monitor radiation doses incurred during aviation trips.

  5. Radiological risk assessment of cosmic radiation at aviation altitudes (a trip from Houston Intercontinental Airport to Lagos International Airport)

    PubMed Central

    Enyinna, Paschal Ikenna

    2016-01-01

    Radiological risk parameters associated with aircrew members traveling from Houston Intercontinental Airport to Lagos International Airport have been computed using computer software called EPCARD (version 3.2). The mean annual effective dose of radiation was computed to be 2.94 mSv/year. This result is above the standard permissible limit of 1 mSv/year set for the public and pregnant aircrew members but below the limit set for occupationally exposed workers. The Risk of cancer mortality and excess career time cancer risk computed ranged from 3.5 × 10−5 to 24.5 × 10−5 (with average of 14.7 × 10−5) and 7 × 10−4 to 49 × 10−4 (with average of 29.4 × 10−4). Passengers and aircrew members should be aware of the extra cosmic radiation doses taken in during flights. All aircraft operators should monitor radiation doses incurred during aviation trips. PMID:27651568

  6. Sex, role models, and specialty choices among graduates of US medical schools in 2006-2008.

    PubMed

    Jagsi, Reshma; Griffith, Kent A; DeCastro, Rochelle A; Ubel, Peter

    2014-03-01

    Undergraduate education studies have suggested instructor sex can influence female students to pursue a discipline. We sought to evaluate a similar hypothesis in medical students. We obtained Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC) data about the specialization of 2006-2008 graduates of US medical schools, the sex of their faculty and department chairs, and sex of residents in the residency programs in which they enrolled. We used logistic regression to examine associations between faculty and leadership sex and female students' pursuit of 5 surgical specialties along with 3 nonsurgical specialties for context. We used Wilcoxon rank-sum tests to evaluate whether women entered residency programs with a higher proportion of female residents. In 2006-2008, US medical school graduates included 23,642 women. Women were substantially under-represented among residents in neurosurgery, orthopaedics, urology, otolaryngology, general surgery, and radiology; women constituted 47.4% of US graduates specializing in internal medicine and 74.9% in pediatrics. We found no significant associations between exposure to a female department chair and selection of that specialty and no consistent associations with the proportion of female full-time faculty. Compared with male students, female students entered residency programs in their chosen specialty that had significantly higher proportions of women residents in the year before their graduation. Although we did not detect consistent significant associations between exposure to potential female faculty role models and specialty choice, we observed that female students were more likely than males to enter programs with higher proportions of female residents. Sex differences in students' specialization decisions merit additional investigation. Copyright © 2014 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Characteristics and management of the 2006-2008 volcanic crisis at the Ubinas volcano (Peru)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivera, Marco; Thouret, Jean-Claude; Mariño, Jersy; Berolatti, Rossemary; Fuentes, José

    2010-12-01

    Ubinas volcano is located 75 km East of Arequipa and ca. 5000 people are living within 12 km from the summit. This composite cone is considered the most active volcano in southern Peru owing to its 24 low to moderate magnitude (VEI 1-3) eruptions in the past 500 years. The onset of the most recent eruptive episode occurred on 27 March 2006, following 8 months of heightened fumarolic activity. Vulcanian explosions occurred between 14 April 2006 and September 2007, at a time ejecting blocks up to 40 cm in diameter to distances of 2 km. Ash columns commonly rose to 3.5 km above the caldera rim and dispersed fine ash and aerosols to distances of 80 km between April 2006 and April 2007. Until April 2007, the total volume of ash was estimated at 0.004 km 3, suggesting that the volume of fresh magma was small. Ash fallout has affected residents, livestock, water supplies, and crop cultivation within an area of ca. 100 km 2 around the volcano. Continuous degassing and intermittent mild vulcanian explosions lasted until the end of 2008. Shortly after the initial explosions on mid April 2006 that spread ash fallout within 7 km of the volcano, an integrated Scientific Committee including three Peruvian institutes affiliated to the Regional Committee of Civil Defense for Moquegua, aided by members of the international cooperation, worked together to: i) elaborate and publish volcanic hazard maps; ii) inform and educate the population; and iii) advise regional authorities in regard to the management of the volcanic crisis and the preparation of contingency plans. Although the 2006-2008 volcanic crisis has been moderate, its management has been a difficult task even though less than 5000 people now live around the Ubinas volcano. However, the successful management has provided experience and skills to the scientific community. This volcanic crisis was not the first one that Peru has experienced but the 2006-2008 experience is the first long-lasting crisis that the Peruvian civil

  8. Characaterization of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses isolated from poultry in Pakistan 2006-2008

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Nine avian influenza viruses (AIV), H5N1 subtype, were isolated from dead poultry in the Karachi region of Pakistan from 2006-2008. The intravenous pathogenicity indices and HA protein cleavage sites of all nine viruses were consistent with highly pathogenic AIV. Based on phylogenetic analysis of ...

  9. A study of success predictors in the entrance examination to the school medicine (2006-2008).

    PubMed

    Lucchese, Marcela; Enders, Julia; Burrone, María S; Fernández, Alicia R

    2010-01-01

    Institutions involved in training health professionals are permanently concerned with improving the quality of their graduates and their skills for meeting healthcare demands. Research has been conducted in the field of health education and related areas with the purpose of identifying the incidence of high-school GPAs, learning styles and demographic factors on pre-university performance of students. It has been widely assumed that performance at this stage is one of the best predictors of subsequent academic performance. In the year 2000 the School of Medicine of the Universidad Nacional de Córdoba introduced an Entrance Examination as part of a comprehensive curricular reform. Therefore, the study of the predictors of performance in the entrance examination can be a valuable contribution to pedagogical decision making. Our aim is to assess the predictive capacity of a series of indicators associated to the population of candidates attempting entrance to medical studies. The survey comprises the period 2006-2008. The variables under study are: sociodemographic characteristics, high-school specialization, and high-school grade point average (GPA). ANOVA was applied to measurable variables, whereas attribute variables were submitted to categorical data and multiple correspondence analyses. We conclude that predictors are associated to sociocultural factors related to family environment, mainly educational level of the mother, and to a high-school GPA value between 8 and 9 points.

  10. Local seismic events in area of Poland based on data from PASSEQ 2006-2008 experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polkowski, Marcin; Plesiewicz, Beata; Wiszniowski, Jan; Wilde-Piórko, Monika; Passeq Working Group

    2014-05-01

    PASSEQ 2006-2008 (Passive Seismic Experiment in TESZ; Wilde-Piórko et al, 2008) was the biggest so far passive seismic experiment in the area of Central Europe (Poland, Germany, Czech Republic and Lithuania). 196 seismic stations (including 49 broadband seismometers) worked simultaneously for over two years. During experiment multiple types of data recorders and seismometers were used making analysis more complex and time consuming. Dataset was unified and repaired to start the detection of local seismic events. Two different approaches for detection were applied for stations located in Poland. One used standard STA/LTA triggers (Carl Johnson's STA/LTA algorithm) and grid search to classify and locate events. Result was manually verified. Other approach used Real Time Recurrent Network (RTRN) detection (Wiszniowski et al, 2014). Both methods gave similar results showing four previously unknown seismic events located in area of Gulf Of Gdańsk in southern Baltic Sea. The investigation of local seismicity is a good opportunity for verification of new seismic models of lithosphere in the area. In this paper we discuss both detection methods with their pros and cons (accuracy, efficiency, manual work required, scalability). We also show details of all detected and previously unknown events in discussed area. This work was partially supported by NCN grant UMO-2011/01/B/ST10/06653.

  11. Comparison of defects identified through Minnesota's Birth Defects Information System And Vital Records, 2006-2008.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Emily; Zabel, Erik; Alexander, Bruce

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the differences in birth defects identified through passive and active surveillance systems in Hennepin and Ramsey counties in Minnesota, 2006-2008. This was done by comparing birth defects identified on birth certificates through the Minnesota Department of Health's Office of the State Registrar's Birth and Death Registry (vital records) with those identified by the Minnesota Department of Health's Birth Defects Information System (BDIS), an active birth defects surveillance system. The study population included 73,059 babies born to residents of Hennepin and Ramsey counties. There were 1,882 babies that either vital records and/or BDIS identified as having 1 or more birth defects. Cases identified by BDIS were then linked with matching birth certificates found in the vital records database. Using BDIS as the gold standard, it was observed that the vital records database had an overall underreporting rate of 89% when all broad groups of defects were compared, and 72% when 11 specific defects tracked by both registries were compared. The sensitivity and positive predictive values of vital records to identify cases were also compared using BDIS as the gold standard, and demonstrated low sensitivities for most of the 11 comparable defects (range: 0% for tracheoesophageal fistula to 80% for anencephalus). These observations indicate that BDIS has significantly improved the quality of birth defects surveillance in Minnesota.

  12. West Pearl Queen CO2 sequestration pilot test and modeling project 2006-2008.

    SciTech Connect

    Engler, Bruce Phillip; Cooper, Scott Patrick; Symons, Neill Phillip; Bartel, Lewis Clark; Byrer, Charles; Elbring, Gregory Jay; McNemar, Andrea; Aldridge, David Franklin; Lorenz, John Clay

    2008-08-01

    The West Pearl Queen is a depleted oil reservoir that has produced approximately 250,000 bbl of oil since 1984. Production had slowed prior to CO{sub 2} injection, but no previous secondary or tertiary recovery methods had been applied. The initial project involved reservoir characterization and field response to injection of CO{sub 2}; the field experiment consisted of injection, soak, and venting. For fifty days (December 20, 2002, to February 11, 2003) 2090 tons of CO{sub 2} were injected into the Shattuck Sandstone Member of the Queen Formation at the West Pearl Queen site. This technical report highlights the test results of the numerous research participants and technical areas from 2006-2008. This work included determination of lateral extents of the permeability units using outcrop observations, core results, and well logs. Pre- and post-injection 3D seismic data were acquired. To aid in interpreting seismic data, we performed numerical simulations of the effects of CO{sub 2} replacement of brine where the reservoir model was based upon correlation lengths established by the permeability studies. These numerical simulations are not intended to replicate field data, but to provide insight of the effects of CO{sub 2}.

  13. Outpatient management of heart failure in the United States, 2006-2008.

    PubMed

    Mosalpuria, Kailash; Agarwal, Sunil K; Yaemsiri, Sirin; Pierre-Louis, Bredy; Saba, Samir; Alvarez, Rene; Russell, Stuart D

    2014-06-01

    Better outpatient management of heart failure might improve outcomes and reduce the number of rehospitalizations. This study describes recent outpatient heart-failure management in the United States. We analyzed data from the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey of 2006-2008, a multistage random sampling of non-Federal physician offices and hospital outpatient departments. Annually, 1.7% of all outpatient visits were for heart failure (51% females and 77% non-Hispanic whites; mean age, 73 ± 0.5 yr). Typical comorbidities were hypertension (62%), hyperlipidemia (36%), diabetes mellitus (35%), and ischemic heart disease (29%). Body weight and blood pressure were recorded in about 80% of visits, and health education was given in about 40%. The percentage of patients taking β-blockers was 38%; the percentage taking angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers (ACEI/ARBs) was 32%. Medication usage did not differ significantly by race or sex. In multivariate-adjusted logistic regression models, a visit to a cardiologist, hypertension, heart failure as a primary reason for the visit, and a visit duration longer than 15 minutes were positively associated with ACEI/ARB use; and a visit to a cardiologist, heart failure as a primary reason for the visit, the presence of ischemic heart disease, and visit duration longer than 15 minutes were positively associated with β-blocker use. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease was negatively associated with β-blocker use. Approximately 1% of heart-failure visits resulted in hospitalization. In outpatient heart-failure management, gaps that might warrant attention include suboptimal health education and low usage rates of medications, specifically ACEI/ARBs and β-blockers.

  14. Characteristics associated with seasonal influenza vaccination of preschool children--Oregon, 2006-2008.

    PubMed

    2011-07-29

    Starting with the 2010-11 influenza season, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommended that all children aged ≥6 months be vaccinated against influenza annually, and that previously unvaccinated children aged ≤8 years be given 2 doses of vaccine. The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) also recommends influenza vaccinations for this population. Throughout influenza seasons, preschool children often have higher rates of influenza-related hospitalization than any other age group except older adults. To estimate influenza vaccination coverage and identify sociodemographic and health-care usage correlates of influenza vaccination status among children aged 2 years, data from the 2006-2008 Oregon Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring Survey follow-back survey (Oregon PRAMS-2) were analyzed. This report summarizes the results. In Oregon, 37.7% of mothers reported that their children had received an influenza vaccination during the most recent influenza season. Factors positively associated with recent influenza vaccination in the multivariable-adjusted model were children's influenza vaccination in the previous year, children's receipt of all recommended immunizations, children's uninterrupted health insurance coverage, and mothers' unmarried status. The only factor negatively associated with vaccination was use of a family doctor rather than a pediatrician for well-child visits. The concern about vaccinations most commonly identified by mothers of children who had not received an influenza vaccination during the most recent influenza season (33.9%) was the opinion that too many shots are given at a time. This report highlights the need for health-care provider-based and community-based strategies to increase influenza vaccination coverage for children in Oregon.

  15. Human comfort studies in Debrecen regarding the 2006-2008 period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gyarmati, R.; Toth, T.; Szegedi, S.; Kapocska, L.

    2010-09-01

    Human comfort studies in Debrecen regarding the 2006-2008 period Renata Gyarmati, Tamas Toth, Sandor Szegedi and Laszlo Kapocska University of Debrecen Department of Meteorology, 4032 Debrecen Egyetem tér 1. The significance of human meteorological studies, primarily the importance of observing the sensitivity to fronts has been verified by several foreign and native authors. However, this field of research has shown few exact scientific achievements so far, but the understanding of the connection between weather and human comfort could be promotive factor of human health preservation. This project is quite current since a great part of so called ‘healthy people', who are not suffered from constant diseases are sorely tried by the changing weather. Frequent occurrence of extreme meteorological events will increase the number of meteoropathies in the near future. The whole living world is sensitive to changes in temperature, pressure, humidity and wind speed caused by meteorological events. Frequent fluctuations cause a great trial to pregnant women. The presence of the contact between weather and obstetrical events, formerly proved by Raics (1972), Nowinszky-Nowinszky (1996-1997), Puskás (2008) is supported by our examined data from the University of Debrecen Medical School and Health Science Centre Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. During our observation we scrutinized the relation between frontal passage macrosynoptic types and birth number. It's evident that higher data of birth number can be observed during on-coming weather fronts. In case of resident warm fronts, contrast with free-from-front days increasing values can't be experienced although an increase can be observed at the other front types. In the mentioned term over the change of pressure a significant change in temperature probably produced an effect on start of labours. This is in harmony with macrosynoptic types applied to the Carpathian basin. According to this, higher birth number was

  16. The relationship between repeated unintended pregnancies and current contraceptive use: National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG) 2006-2008 data.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Yui; Masho, Saba; McGrath, Jacqueline M

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between the number of unintended pregnancies and current contraceptive use. This is a secondary analysis of a cross-sectional survey, the 2006-2008 National Survey of Family Growth, which included 4,052 women between the ages of 15 and 44 years. A statistically significant association was found between the nonuse of contraceptives and repeated unintended pregnancies, as well as among those who used an effective contraceptive method and repeated unintended pregnancies. Nurses are encouraged to ask questions about intendedness of pregnancies during women's visits and help women choose appropriate contraceptive methods.

  17. AVIATION PSYCHOLOGY,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    PSYCHOLOGY , AERONAUTICS, FLIGHT, PILOTS, PERCEPTION, ATTENTION, READING, MEMORY( PSYCHOLOGY ), PERSONALITY , EMOTIONS, FATIGUE(PHYSIOLOGY), AVIATION SAFETY, AVIATION ACCIDENTS, PSYCHOMOTOR TESTS, PSYCHOLOGICAL TESTS, TRAINING.

  18. Local Seismic Events in the Area of Poland Based on Data from the PASSEQ 2006-2008 Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polkowski, Marcin; Plesiewicz, Beata; Wiszniowski, Jan; Wilde-Piórko, Monika

    2016-12-01

    PASSEQ 2006-2008 (Passive Seismic Experiment in TESZ; Wilde-Piórko et al. 2008) was the biggest passive seismic experiment carried out so far in the area of Central Europe (Poland, Germany, the Czech Republic and Lithuania). 196 seismic stations (including 49 broadband seismometers) worked simultaneously for over two years. During the experiment, multiple types of data recorders and seismometers were used, making the analysis more complex and time consuming. The dataset was unified and repaired to start the detection of local seismic events. Two different approaches for detection were applied for stations located in Poland. The first one used standard STA/LTA triggers (Carl Johnson's STA/LTA algorithm) and grid search to classify and locate the events. The result was manually verified. The second approach used Real Time Recurrent Network (RTRN) detection (Wiszniowski et al. 2014). Both methods gave similar results, showing four previously unknown seismic events located in the Gulf of Gdańsk area, situated in the southern Baltic Sea. In this paper we discuss both detection methods with their pros and cons (accuracy, efficiency, manual work required, scalability). We also show details of all detected and previously unknown events in the discussed area.

  19. Benchmark study on glyphosate-resistant cropping systems in the United States. Part 1: Introduction to 2006-2008.

    PubMed

    Shaw, David R; Owen, Micheal D K; Dixon, Philip M; Weller, Stephen C; Young, Bryan G; Wilson, Robert G; Jordan, David L

    2011-07-01

    Glyphosate-resistant (GR) crop technology has dramatically impacted agriculture. The adoption of GR systems in canola, maize, cotton, soybean and sugar beets has been widespread in the United States. However, weed scientists are concerned that growers' current herbicide programs and weed management tactics will affect their sustainability and effectiveness. Without proper management, the potential for weed populations to express a high degree of resistance to glyphosate will adversely impact the utility of glyphosate. In 2005, weed scientists from six universities initiated a long-term research study to assess the sustainability of GR technology. This paper introduces five other articles in this series. Over 150 fields of at least 10 ha were selected to participate in a long-term field-scale study, and each field was split in half. On one-half the grower continued using the current weed management program; on the other half the grower used academic-recommended herbicide resistance best management practices. Field data were collected in 2006-2008 to determine the impact of the two weed management programs on weed populations, diversity, seedbank, crop yields and economic returns. This long-term study will provide invaluable data for determining the sustainability and profitability of diversified weed management programs designed to lower the risk of evolving weed resistance to glyphosate.

  20. Sexual behavior, sexual attraction, and sexual identity in the United States: data from the 2006-2008 National Survey of Family Growth.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Anjani; Mosher, William D; Copen, Casey; Sionean, Catlainn

    2011-03-03

    This report presents national estimates of several measures of sexual behavior, sexual attraction, and sexual identity among males and females aged 15-44 years in the United States, based on the 2006-2008 National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG). These data are relevant to demographic and public health concerns, including fertility and sexually transmitted infections among teenagers and adults. Data from the 2006-2008 NSFG are compared with data from the 2002 NSFG and other national surveys. Data for 2006-2008 were collected through in-person interviews with a national sample of 13,495 males and females in the household population of the United States. The measures presented in this report were collected using audio computer-assisted self interviewing (ACASI), in which the respondent enters his or her own answers into the computer without telling them to an interviewer. The overall response rate for the 2006-2008 NSFG was 75%. Sexual behaviors among males and females aged 15-44 based on the 2006-2008 NSFG were generally similar to those reported based on the 2002 NSFG. Among adults aged 25-44, about 98% of women and 97% of men ever had vaginal intercourse, 89% of women and 90% of men ever had oral sex with an opposite-sex partner, and 36% of women and 44% of men ever had anal sex with an opposite-sex partner. Twice as many women aged 25-44 (12%) reported any same-sex contact in their lifetimes compared with men (5.8%). Among teenagers aged 15-19, 7% of females and 9% of males have had oral sex with an opposite-sex partner, but no vaginal intercourse. Sexual attraction and identity correlates closely but not completely with reports of sexual behavior. Sexual behaviors, attraction, and identity vary by age, marital or cohabiting status, education, and race and Hispanic origin.

  1. NASA aviation safety reporting system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    During the third quarter of operation of the Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS), 1429 reports concerning aviation safety were received from pilots, air traffic controllers, and others in the national aviation system. Details of the administration and results of the program are discussed. The design and construction of the ASRS data base are briefly presented. Altitude deviations and potential aircraft conflicts associated with misunderstood clearances were studied and the results are discussed. Summary data regarding alert bulletins, examples of alert bulletins and responses to them, and a sample of deidentified ASRS reports are provided.

  2. Simulated 2050 aviation radiative forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, C. C.; Gettelman, A.

    2015-12-01

    The radiative forcing from aviation is investigated by using a comprehensive general circulation model in the present (2006) and the future (2050). Global flight distance is projected to increase by a factor of 4 between 2006 and 2050. However, simulated contrail cirrus radiative forcing can increase by a factor of 7, and thus does not scale linearly with fuel emission mass. Simulations indicate negative radiative forcing induced by the indirect effect of aviation sulfate aerosols on liquid clouds that increasesby a factor of 4 in 2050. As a result, the net 2050 aviation radiative forcing is a cooling. Aviation sulfates emitted at cruise altitude canbe transported down to the lowest troposphere, increasing the aerosolconcentration, thus increasing the cloud drop number concentration and persistenceof low-level clouds. Aviation black carbon aerosols produce a negligible forcing.

  3. Relationship between pubertal timing and chronic nonspecific pain in adolescent girls: the Young-HUNT3 study (2006-2008).

    PubMed

    Kløven, Barbro; Hoftun, Gry B; Romundstad, Pål R; Rygg, Marite

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to examine a possible relationship between early puberty and chronic nonspecific pain in 13- to 18-year-old girls. All adolescents in Nord-Trøndelag County, Norway, were invited to participate in the Young-HUNT3 study (2006-2008). Of the invited girls, 81% answered the questionnaire and of these 3982 were 13 to 18 years of age. Menarche and perceived physical maturation were used as exposure measures. Early menarche was defined as <12 years, normal menarche as ≥12 and <14 years, and late menarche as ≥14 years. Perceived physical maturation was divided into maturing earlier, the same or later than others of their own age. The main outcome measure was chronic nonspecific pain, defined as pain in at least one location not related to any known disease or injury, for at least once a week during the last 3 months. The median age at menarche was 13.2 years. Chronic nonspecific pain was more prevalent among girls with early menarche (68%, 95% CI: 64%-72%) compared to girls with either normal (55%, 95% CI: 53%-57%), late (50%, 95% CI: 46%-54%), or no menarche (35%, 95% CI: 29%-40%). The association persisted after adjusting for age, body mass index, socioeconomic factors, and anxiety and depression. A similar association was found between girls that perceived themselves as earlier physically matured than their peers and chronic nonspecific pain. Headache/migraine was the most common type of chronic nonspecific pain regardless of menarcheal age. In all reported locations, pain was more prevalent in the group with early menarche compared to normal or late menarche.

  4. Inequalities in infant mortality among municipalities in Brazil according to the Family Development Index, 2006-2008.

    PubMed

    Ramalho, Walter Massa; Sardinha, Luciana Monteiro Vasconcelos; Rodrigues, Isabela Pereira; Duarte, Elisabeth Carmen

    2013-03-01

    To describe inequalities in the infant mortality rate (IMR) according to socioeconomic indicators among geographic areas and municipalities in Brazil. This was an exploratory ecological study of space aggregates that described IMR in 2006-2008 according to municipalities, states, and the Family Development Index (FDI), a socioeconomic indicator that ranges from 0 to 1. All the municipalities in Brazil were categorized according to four strata as defined by FDI quartiles, where stratum 4 included those with better FDI conditions, and stratum 1, worse conditions. The selected inequality measures were: Concentration Index, Attributable Risk Percent, Population Attributable Risk Percent, Rate Ratio, and number of avoidable events (number of infant deaths). The average IMR (per 1 000 live births) according to the FDI strata were: stratum 1 (FDI = 0.41-0.52) = 18.8; stratum 2 (FDI = 0.53-0.55) = 17.9; stratum 3 (FDI = 0.56-0.58) = 15.0; and stratum 4 (FDI = 0.59-0.73) = 13.4. Overall, the Concentration Index was 0.02. Moreover, stratum 1, with a proportion of 17% of all live births in the population, had a concentration of 20% of infant deaths. Additionally, the profile of causes and ages of infant mortality also differed qualitatively when stratum 1 was compared to stratum 4. The results suggest an association between the socioeconomic indicators, specifically the FDI, and the risk of infant death. These results call attention to the specific population groups in Brazil that are most vulnerable to infant mortality and demonstrate that the FDI can be used to identify these populations.

  5. Aviation Medicine: global historical perspectives and the development of Aviation Medicine alongside the growth of Singapore's aviation landscape.

    PubMed

    Gan, W H; Low, R; Singh, J

    2011-05-01

    Aviation Medicine traces its roots to high altitude physiology more than 400 years ago. Since then, great strides have been made in this medical specialty, initially catalysed by the need to reduce pilot medical attrition during the World Wars, and more recently, fuelled by the explosive growth in globalised commercial air travel. This paper traces the historical milestones in Aviation Medicine, and maps its development in Singapore since the 1960s. Advancements in military aviation platforms and technology as well as the establishment of Singapore as an international aviation hub have propelled Aviation Medicine in Singapore to the forefront of many domains. These span Aviation Physiology training, selection medical standards, performance maximisation, as well as crew and passenger protection against communicable diseases arising from air travel. The year 2011 marks the centennial milestone of the first manned flight in Singapore, paving the way for further growth of Aviation Medicine as a mature specialty in Singapore.

  6. 14 CFR Appendix - Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 97

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 97 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES IFR ALTITUDES Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 97 Editorial Note: For the text of SFAR No. 97, see part 91...

  7. 14 CFR Appendix - Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 97

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 97 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES IFR ALTITUDES Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 97 Editorial...

  8. 14 CFR Appendix - Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 97

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 97 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES IFR ALTITUDES Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 97 Editorial...

  9. Dengue incidence in urban and rural Cambodia: results from population-based active fever surveillance, 2006-2008.

    PubMed

    Vong, Sirenda; Khieu, Virak; Glass, Olivier; Ly, Sowath; Duong, Veasna; Huy, Rekol; Ngan, Chantha; Wichmann, Ole; Letson, G William; Margolis, Harold S; Buchy, Philippe

    2010-11-30

    Dengue vaccines are now in late-stage development, and evaluation and robust estimates of dengue disease burden are needed to facilitate further development and introduction. In Cambodia, the national dengue case-definition only allows reporting of children less than 16 years of age, and little is known about dengue burden in rural areas and among older persons. To estimate the true burden of dengue in the largest province of Cambodia, Kampong Cham, we conducted community-based active dengue fever surveillance among the 0-to-19-year age group in rural villages and urban areas during 2006-2008. Active surveillance for febrile illness was conducted in 32 villages and 10 urban areas by mothers trained to use digital thermometers combined with weekly home visits to identify persons with fever. An investigation team visited families with febrile persons to obtain informed consent for participation in the follow-up study, which included collection of personal data and blood specimens. Dengue-related febrile illness was defined using molecular and serological testing of paired acute and convalescent blood samples. Over the three years of surveillance, 6,121 fever episodes were identified with 736 laboratory-confirmed dengue virus (DENV) infections for incidences of 13.4-57.8/1,000 person-seasons. Average incidence was highest among children less than 7 years of age (41.1/1,000 person-seasons) and lowest among the 16-to-19-year age group (11.3/1,000 person-seasons). The distribution of dengue was highly focal, with incidence rates in villages and urban areas ranging from 1.5-211.5/1,000 person-seasons (median 36.5). During a DENV-3 outbreak in 2007, rural areas were affected more than urban areas (incidence 71 vs. 17/1,000 person-seasons, p<0.001). The large-scale active surveillance study for dengue fever in Cambodia found a higher disease incidence than reported to the national surveillance system, particularly in preschool children and that disease incidence was high in

  10. Unintended pregnancy risk and contraceptive use among women 45-50 years old: Massachusetts, 2006, 2008, and 2010.

    PubMed

    Godfrey, Emily M; Zapata, Lauren B; Cox, Carie M; Curtis, Kathryn M; Marchbanks, Polly A

    2016-06-01

    Little is known about unintended pregnancy risk and current contraceptive use among women ≥45 years old in the United States. The purpose of this study was to describe the prevalence of women ages 45-50 years old at risk for unintended pregnancy and their current contraceptive use, and to compare these findings to those of women in younger age groups. We analyzed 2006, 2008, and 2010 Massachusetts Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data, the only state in the United States to collect contraceptive data routinely from women >44 years old. Women 18-50 years old (n = 4930) were considered to be at risk for unintended pregnancy unless they reported current pregnancy, hysterectomy, not being sexually active in the past year, having a same-sex partner, or wanting to become pregnant. Among women who were considered to be at risk (n = 3605), we estimated the prevalence of current contraceptive use by age group. Among women who were considered to be at risk and who were 45-50 years old (n = 940), we examined characteristics that were associated with current method use. Analyses were conducted on weighted data using SAS-callable SUDAAN (RTI International, Research Triangle Park, NC). Among women who were 45-50 years old, 77.6% were at risk for unintended pregnancy, which was similar to other age groups. As age increased, hormonal contraceptive use (shots, pills, patch, or ring) decreased, and permanent contraception (tubal ligation or vasectomy) increased as did non-use of contraception. Of women who were 45-50 years old and at risk for unintended pregnancy, 66.9% reported using some contraceptive method; permanent contraception was the leading method reported by 44.0% and contraceptive non-use was reported by 16.8%. A substantial proportion of women who were 45-50 years old were considered to be at risk for unintended pregnancy. Permanent contraception was most commonly used by women in this age group. Compared with other age groups, more women who were 45

  11. Maritime Aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ravennes, Jean

    1922-01-01

    This report presents some studies of maritime aviation which cover the following principal points: employment of landplanes on maritime aerial warfare; their adaption to peculiar requirements of the Navy; and the establishment of a method of aerial pursuit and bombardment, likewise adapted to military aviation over land.

  12. Creation of a Dynamical Stratospheric Turbulence Forecasting and Nowcasting Tool for High Altitude Airships and Other Aircraft

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-10-20

    propagation to high altitudes (Broutman et al., 2003, 2006, 2008; Eckermann et al., 2006); 3 3. characterization of the statistical potential for...resolution across the forecasting domain. Examples of the turbulence structures for KHI and GW breaking from which we determine turbulence statistics ...improve. deterministic MW and turbulence forecast statistical convective GW and turbulence forecast statistical jet stream GW and

  13. Water-chemistry data for selected springs, geysers, and streams in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, 2006-2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ball, James W.; McMleskey, R. Blaine; Nordstrom, D. Kirk

    2010-01-01

    Water analyses are reported for 104 samples collected from numerous thermal and non-thermal features in Yellowstone National Park (YNP) during 2006-2008. Water samples were collected and analyzed for major and trace constituents from 10 areas of YNP including Apollinaris Spring and Nymphy Creek along the Norris-Mammoth corridor, Beryl Spring in Gibbon Canyon, Norris Geyser Basin, Lower Geyser Basin, Crater Hills, the Geyser Springs Group, Nez Perce Creek, Rabbit Creek, the Mud Volcano area, and Washburn Hot Springs. These water samples were collected and analyzed as part of research investigations in YNP on arsenic, antimony, iron, nitrogen, and sulfur redox species in hot springs and overflow drainages, and the occurrence and distribution of dissolved mercury. Most samples were analyzed for major cations and anions, trace metals, redox species of antimony, arsenic, iron, nitrogen, and sulfur, and isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen. Analyses were performed at the sampling site, in an on-site mobile laboratory vehicle, or later in a U.S. Geological Survey laboratory, depending on stability of the constituent and whether it could be preserved effectively. Water samples were filtered and preserved on-site. Water temperature, specific conductance, pH, emf (electromotive force or electrical potential), and dissolved hydrogen sulfide were measured on-site at the time of sampling. Dissolved hydrogen sulfide was measured a few to several hours after sample collection by ion-specific electrode on samples preserved on-site. Acidity was determined by titration, usually within a few days of sample collection. Alkalinity was determined by titration within 1 to 2 weeks of sample collection. Concentrations of thiosulfate and polythionate were determined as soon as possible (generally a few to several hours after sample collection) by ion chromatography in an on-site mobile laboratory vehicle. Total dissolved iron and ferrous iron concentrations often were measured on-site in the

  14. Aviation Fuel Property Effects on Altitude Relight

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-05-01

    Final Report by K.S. Venkataramani GENERAL ELECTRIC COMPANY Aircraft Engine Business Group Cincinnati, Ohio 45215 Prepared for National Aeronautics and...Organihation Report No K. Vettkataiaman!. R87AEB111 10. Work Unit No 9. Performing Organization Name and Address GE Aircraft Engine Business Group 11...Contract or Grant No Aircraft Engine Business Group Evendale, Ohio 45215 NAS3-24215 5505-69-41 " _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 13 Type of Repcirelne Per•o

  15. 14 CFR 29.1527 - Maximum operating altitude.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maximum operating altitude. 29.1527 Section 29.1527 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... Limitations § 29.1527 Maximum operating altitude. The maximum altitude up to which operation is allowed,...

  16. 14 CFR 27.1527 - Maximum operating altitude.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Maximum operating altitude. 27.1527 Section 27.1527 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... § 27.1527 Maximum operating altitude. The maximum altitude up to which operation is allowed, as...

  17. 14 CFR 27.1527 - Maximum operating altitude.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Maximum operating altitude. 27.1527 Section 27.1527 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... § 27.1527 Maximum operating altitude. The maximum altitude up to which operation is allowed, as...

  18. 14 CFR 27.1527 - Maximum operating altitude.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maximum operating altitude. 27.1527 Section 27.1527 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... § 27.1527 Maximum operating altitude. The maximum altitude up to which operation is allowed, as...

  19. 14 CFR 29.1527 - Maximum operating altitude.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Maximum operating altitude. 29.1527 Section 29.1527 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... Limitations § 29.1527 Maximum operating altitude. The maximum altitude up to which operation is allowed,...

  20. 14 CFR 29.1527 - Maximum operating altitude.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Maximum operating altitude. 29.1527 Section 29.1527 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... Limitations § 29.1527 Maximum operating altitude. The maximum altitude up to which operation is allowed,...

  1. 14 CFR 27.1527 - Maximum operating altitude.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Maximum operating altitude. 27.1527 Section 27.1527 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... § 27.1527 Maximum operating altitude. The maximum altitude up to which operation is allowed, as...

  2. 14 CFR 29.1527 - Maximum operating altitude.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Maximum operating altitude. 29.1527 Section 29.1527 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... Limitations § 29.1527 Maximum operating altitude. The maximum altitude up to which operation is allowed,...

  3. 14 CFR 27.1527 - Maximum operating altitude.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Maximum operating altitude. 27.1527 Section 27.1527 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... § 27.1527 Maximum operating altitude. The maximum altitude up to which operation is allowed, as...

  4. 14 CFR 29.1527 - Maximum operating altitude.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Maximum operating altitude. 29.1527 Section 29.1527 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... Limitations § 29.1527 Maximum operating altitude. The maximum altitude up to which operation is allowed,...

  5. NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Problems in briefing of relief by air traffic controllers are discussed, including problems that arise when duty positions are changed by controllers. Altimeter reading and setting errors as factors in aviation safety are discussed, including problems associated with altitude-including instruments. A sample of reports from pilots and controllers is included, covering the topics of ATIS broadcasts an clearance readback problems. A selection of Alert Bulletins, with their responses, is included.

  6. Abundance, stable isotopic composition, and export fluxes of DOC, POC, and DIC from the Lower Mississippi River during 2006-2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Yihua; Guo, Laodong; Wang, Xuri; Aiken, George

    2015-11-01

    Sources, abundance, isotopic compositions, and export fluxes of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), dissolved and colloidal organic carbon (DOC and COC), and particulate organic carbon (POC), and their response to hydrologic regimes were examined through monthly sampling from the Lower Mississippi River during 2006-2008. DIC was the most abundant carbon species, followed by POC and DOC. Concentration and δ13C of DIC decreased with increasing river discharge, while those of DOC remained fairly stable. COC comprised 61 ± 3% of the bulk DOC with similar δ13C abundances but higher percentages of hydrophobic organic acids than DOC, suggesting its aromatic and diagenetically younger status. POC showed peak concentrations during medium flooding events and at the rising limb of large flooding events. While δ13C-POC increased, δ15N of particulate nitrogen decreased with increasing discharge. Overall, the differences in δ13C between DOC or DIC and POC show an inverse correlation with river discharge. The higher input of soil organic matter and respired CO2 during wet seasons was likely the main driver for the convergence of δ13C between DIC and DOC or POC, whereas enhanced in situ primary production and respiration during dry seasons might be responsible for their isotopic divergence. Carbon export fluxes from the Mississippi River were estimated to be 13.6 Tg C yr-1 for DIC, 1.88 Tg C yr-1 for DOC, and 2.30 Tg C yr-1 for POC during 2006-2008. The discharge-normalized DIC yield decreased during wet seasons, while those of POC and DOC increased and remained constant, respectively, implying variable responses in carbon export to the increasing discharge.

  7. Aviation Medicine Research: A Historical Review.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-11-18

    the fields of naval aviation, aerospace medicine, and environmental physiology . 2 ROBERT E. MITCHELL CAPTAIN, MEDICAL CORPS, UNITED STATES NAVY...In the tale a fictional character, A Rasselas, indicated concern about certain physiological N A R R A T I V E limitations of altitude as related to...into programs." Early on, during balloon flights, it became obvious there were physiological limitations to flight, related to altitude. Later, during

  8. 14 CFR Appendix - Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 97

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 97 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES IFR ALTITUDES Pt. 95, SFAR No. 97, Note Special Federal...

  9. 14 CFR Appendix - Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 97

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 97 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES IFR ALTITUDES Pt. 95, SFAR No. 97, Note Special Federal...

  10. Use of a self-assessment questionnaire for food safety education in the home kitchen --- Los Angeles County, California, 2006-2008.

    PubMed

    2010-09-03

    Foodborne diseases remain an important cause of morbidity in the United States among all age groups. A potentially important contributor to this morbidity is improper food handling and preparation practices in kitchens at restaurants and in private homes. In 1998, the Los Angeles County Department of Public Health (LACDPH) established numeric scores for restaurant inspections and posted grades for these inspections publicly; by the end of 1998 this initiative was credited with helping to reduce by 13.1% (compared with 1997) the number of hospitalizations for foodborne infections from nontyphoidal Salmonella, Campylobacter, and Escherichia coli in the region. In the spring of 2006, the LACDPH Environmental Health Program launched the Home Kitchen Self-Inspection Program, a voluntary self-inspection and education program, to promote safer food hygiene practices at home. This report describes the implementation of this program and the results from its web-based self-assessment questionnaire, the Food Safety Quiz, for the initial program period of 2006--2008. Overall, approximately 13,000 adults completed the quiz; 34% received an A rating, 27% a B, 25% a C, and 14% received a numeric score because they scored lower than 70% on the self-assessment. Use of interactive, online learning tools such as the Food Safety Quiz can be used to promote home food safety in the community. Further research is needed to evaluate and improve the program content and to assess its effect on changing food handling and preparation practices in the home kitchen.

  11. General Aviation Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Programs exploring and demonstrating new technologies in general aviation propulsion are considered. These programs are the quiet, clean, general aviation turbofan (QCGAT) program; the general aviation turbine engine (GATE) study program; the general aviation propeller technology program; and the advanced rotary, diesel, and reciprocating engine programs.

  12. Collegiate Aviation Review, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carney, Thomas Q., Ed.

    2000-01-01

    This issue contains seven papers. "University Aviation Education: An Integrated Model" (Merrill R. Karp) addresses potential educational enhancements through the implementation of an integrated aviation learning model, the Aviation Education Reinforcement Option. "The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA): A Tombstone Agency?…

  13. Collegiate Aviation Review, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carney, Thomas Q., Ed.

    2000-01-01

    This issue contains seven papers. "University Aviation Education: An Integrated Model" (Merrill R. Karp) addresses potential educational enhancements through the implementation of an integrated aviation learning model, the Aviation Education Reinforcement Option. "The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA): A Tombstone Agency?…

  14. Federal Aviation Administration: High Altitude Pollution Program, Third Biennial Report Prepared in Accordance with the Stratospheric Ozone Protection Provision, Section 153(g), of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1977.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-12-01

    Clean Air Act Amendments of 1977. 8. Performing Organization Report No. 7. Authorls) FAA-EE-82-09 9. Performing Organization Name and Address 10. Work...accordance with the Stratospheric Ozone Protection provisions of Public Law 95-95, the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1977. The impact of high altitude...stratospheric ozone protection provision of the Clean Air Act Amendments (1977) contains a summary of the current scientific understanding of the possible

  15. Aviation Safety Issues Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morello, Samuel A.; Ricks, Wendell R.

    2009-01-01

    The aviation safety issues database was instrumental in the refinement and substantiation of the National Aviation Safety Strategic Plan (NASSP). The issues database is a comprehensive set of issues from an extremely broad base of aviation functions, personnel, and vehicle categories, both nationally and internationally. Several aviation safety stakeholders such as the Commercial Aviation Safety Team (CAST) have already used the database. This broader interest was the genesis to making the database publically accessible and writing this report.

  16. Inverse relationship between type 1 diabetes mellitus and migraine. Data from the Nord-Trøndelag Health Surveys 1995-1997 and 2006-2008.

    PubMed

    Hagen, Knut; Åsvold, Bjørn Olav; Midthjell, Kristian; Stovner, Lars Jacob; Zwart, John-Anker; Linde, Mattias

    2017-01-01

    Aims The aim of this cross-sectional population-based study was to investigate the associations between migraine and type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). Methods We used data from the second (1995-1997) and third survey (2006-2008) in the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study. Analyses were made for the 26,121 participants (30-97 years of age, median 58.3 years) with known headache and DM status in both surveys, and for the 39,584 participants in the third survey (20-97 years, median 54.1 years). The diagnosis of migraine was given to those who fulfilled the questionnaire-based migraine diagnosis in the second and/or third survey. Associations were assessed using multiple logistic regression, estimating prevalence odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results In the multivariate analysis of the 26,121 participants in both surveys, adjusting for age, gender, years of education, and smoking, classical type 1 DM (n = 81) was associated with a lower prevalence of any headache (OR = 0.55, 95% CI 0.34-0.88),and migraine (OR = 0.47, 95% CI 0.26-0.96) compared to those without DM (n = 24,779). Correspondingly, the merged group of classical type 1 DM and latent autoimmune diabetes of adults (LADA) (n = 153) were less likely to have migraine (OR = 0.53, 95% CI 0.31-0.91). Similarly, an inverse relationship between type 1 DM and migraine was found in analyses of 39,584 participants in the third survey. No clear association was found between headache and type 2 DM. Conclusions In this cross-sectional population-based study of mainly middle-aged participants, type 1 DM was inversely associated with headache, in particular migraine.

  17. Surface and subsurface oceanic variability observed in the eastern equatorial Indian Ocean during three consecutive Indian Ocean dipole events: 2006 - 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iskandar, I.; Mardiansyah, W.; Setiabudidaya, D.; Affandi, A. K.; Syamsuddin, F.

    2014-09-01

    8-year and 4-year long velocity time series records from the equatorial Indian Ocean successfully captured, for the first time, complete evolution of subsurface currents associated with three consecutive Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) events in 2006 - 2008. It is found that strong eastward subsurface zonal currents in the layer between about 90 m and 150 m were observed, which were opposite to the normal conditions. Vertical structure of the zonal currents resembles that of the typical zonal currents in the equatorial Pacific with an eastward subsurface current lies beneath the surface westward currents. This vertical structure of the zonal currents was associated with anomalous easterly winds along the equatorial Indian Ocean during the maturing phase of the IOD events. In addition, subsurface temperature structures obtained from RAMA buoy network show negative temperature anomalies preceded the surface temperature evolution associated with the IOD events. The negative subsurface temperature anomaly lasted for several months before it changes into positive anomaly as the IOD terminated. The surface temperature structure indicated by the Dipole Mode Index (DMI) revealed that the 2006 IOD was a strong event, while the 2007 and 2008 events were weaker and short-lived events. The evolution of the IOD events were linked to the dynamics of oceanic equatorial wave. It is found that upwelling equatorial Kelvin waves forced by anomalous easterly wind stress play an important role in generating cooling tendency during the development and maturing phase of the IOD events. The demise of the IOD events, on the other hand, was linked to eastern-boundary-reflected Rossby waves that terminated the cooling tendency in the eastern Indian Ocean induced by the wind-forced Kelvin waves. Weakening of the zonal heat advection, then, provided a favor condition for the surface heat flux to warm the sea surface temperature in the eastern equatorial Indian Ocean.

  18. Phytoplankton community dynamics during late spring coccolithophore blooms at the continental margin of the Celtic Sea (North East Atlantic, 2006-2008)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Oostende, Nicolas; Harlay, Jérôme; Vanelslander, Bart; Chou, Lei; Vyverman, Wim; Sabbe, Koen

    2012-10-01

    We determined the spatial and temporal dynamics of major phytoplankton groups in relation to biogeochemical and physical variables during the late spring coccolithophore blooms (May-June) along and across the continental margin in the Celtic Sea (2006-2008). Photosynthetic biomass (chl a) of the dominant plankton groups was determined by CHEMTAX analysis of chromatographic (HPLC) pigment signatures. Phytoplankton standing stock biomass varied substantially between and during the campaigns (areal chl a [mg chl a m-2] in June 2006: 63.8 ± 26.5, May 2007: 27.9 ± 8.4, and May 2008: 41.3 ± 21.8), reflecting the different prevailing conditions of weather, irradiance, and sea surface temperature between the campaigns. Coccolithophores, represented mainly by Emiliania huxleyi, and diatoms were the dominant phytoplankton groups, with a maximal contribution of, respectively, 72% and 89% of the total chl a. Prasinophytes, dinoflagellates, and chrysophytes often co-occurred during coccolithophorid blooms, while diatoms dominated the phytoplankton biomass independently of the biomass of other groups. The location of the stations on the shelf or on the slope side of the continental margin did not influence the biomass and the composition of the phytoplankton community despite significantly stronger water column stratification and lower nutrient concentrations on the shelf. The alternation between diatom and coccolithophorid blooms of similar biomass, following the mostly diatom-dominated main spring bloom, was partly driven by changes in nutrient stoichiometry (N:P and dSi:N). High concentrations of transparent exopolymer particles (TEP) were associated with stratified, coccolithophore-rich water masses, which probably originated from the slope of the continental margin and warmed during advection onto the shelf. Although we did not determine the proportion of export production attributed to phytoplankton groups, the abundance of coccolithophores, together with TEP and

  19. General aviation and community development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sincoff, M. Z. (Editor); Dajani, J. S. (Editor)

    1975-01-01

    The summer program is summarized. The reports presented concern (1) general aviation components, (2) general aviation environment, (3) community perspective, and (4) transportation and general aviation in Virginia.

  20. Altitude Decompression Illness - The Operational Risk at Sustained Altitudes up to 35,000 ft.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-06-01

    Intracardiac septal defects, in the form of a patent foramen ovale (PFO), appear to exist in around 20-30% of the human population and have been implicated in...GB (1991). Patent foramen ovale and Type II altitude decompression sickness. Aviat Space Environ Med 62:445 DIXON GA, ADAMS JD & HARVEY WT (1986...AGARDograph 125. GARRETT JL (1992). The role of patent foramen ovale in altitude-induced decompression sickness. In: The Proceedings of the 1990 Hypobaric

  1. Global Commercial Aviation Emissions Inventory for 2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkerson, J.; Balasubramanian, S.; Malwitz, A.; Wayson, R.; Fleming, G.; Jacobson, M. Z.; Naiman, A.; Lele, S.

    2008-12-01

    In 2004, the global commercial aircraft fleet included more than 13,000 aircraft flying over 30 billion km, burning more than 100 million tons of fuel. All this activity incurs substantial amounts of fossil-fuel combustion products at the cruise altitude within the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere that could potentially affect the atmospheric composition and climate. These emissions; such as CO, CO2, PM, NOx, SOx, are not distributed uniformly over the earth, so understanding the temporal and spatial distributions is an important component for modeling aviation climate impacts. Previous studies for specific years have shown that nearly all activity occurs in the northern hemisphere, and most is within mid-latitudes. Simply scaling older data by the annual global industry growth of 3-5 percent may provide emission trends which are not representative of geographically varying growth in aviation sector that has been noted over the past years. India, for example, increased its domestic aviation activity recently by 46 percent in one year. Therefore, it is important that aircraft emissions are best characterized and represented in the atmospheric models for impacts analysis. Data containing all global commercial flights for 2004 was computed using the Federal Aviation Administration's Aviation Environmental Design Tool (AEDT) and provided by the Volpe National Transportation Systems Center. The following is a summary of this data which illustrates the global aviation footprint for 2004, and provides temporal and three-dimensional spatial distribution statistics of several emissions constituents.

  2. A review of the recent evidence (2006-2008) for 532-nm photoselective laser vaporisation and holmium laser enucleation of the prostate.

    PubMed

    Naspro, Richard; Bachmann, Alexander; Gilling, Peter; Kuntz, Rainer; Madersbacher, Stephan; Montorsi, Francesco; Reich, Oliver; Stief, Christian; Vavassori, Ivano

    2009-06-01

    Holmium laser enucleation of the prostate (HoLEP) and 532-nm laser vaporisation of the prostate (with potassium titanyl phosphate [KTP] or lithium borate [LBO]) are promising alternatives to transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) and open prostatectomy (OP). To assess safety, efficacy, and durability by analysing the most recent evidence of both techniques, aiming to identify advantages, pitfalls, and unresolved issues. A Medline search of recently published data (2006-2008) regarding both techniques over the last 2 yr (January 2006 to September 2008) was performed using evidence obtained from randomised trials (level of evidence: 1b), well-designed controlled studies without randomisation (level of evidence: 2a), individual cohort studies (level of evidence: 2b), individual case control studies (level of evidence: 3), and case series (level of evidence: 4). In the last 2 yr, several case-control and cohort studies have demonstrated reproducibility, safety, and efficacy of HoLEP and 80-W KTP laser vaporisation. Four randomised controlled trials (RCTs) were available for HoLEP, two compared with TURP and two compared with OP, with follow-up >24 mo. Results confirmed general efficacy and durability of HoLEP, as compared with both standard techniques. Only two RCTs were available comparing KTP laser vaporisation with TURP with short-term follow-up, and only one RCT was available comparing KTP laser vaporisation with OP. The results confirmed the overall low perioperative morbidity of KTP laser vaporisation, although efficacy was comparable to TURP in the short term, despite a higher reoperation rate. Although they are at different points of maturation, KTP or LBO laser vaporisation and HoLEP are promising alternatives to both TURP and OP. Sufficient data proves HoLEP's durability for most prostate sizes at long-term follow-up; KTP laser vaporisation needs further evaluation to define the reoperation rate. Increasing the number of quality prospective RCTs with

  3. Aviation Career Awareness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Aerospace Education, 1976

    1976-01-01

    Describes a kit containing seven units, each designed to increase the elementary school student's awareness of aviation and career possibilities in aviation. Includes a sample section from one unit. (MLH)

  4. Let's Explore Aviation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arvin, Jean

    1977-01-01

    Presents an intermediate level social studies unit dealing with air education, social aspects of aviation, and the importance of aviation to industry and transportation. Includes objectives, twelve activities, and evaluative procedures. (SL)

  5. Let's Explore Aviation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arvin, Jean

    1977-01-01

    Presents an intermediate level social studies unit dealing with air education, social aspects of aviation, and the importance of aviation to industry and transportation. Includes objectives, twelve activities, and evaluative procedures. (SL)

  6. Aviation Career Awareness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Aerospace Education, 1976

    1976-01-01

    Describes a kit containing seven units, each designed to increase the elementary school student's awareness of aviation and career possibilities in aviation. Includes a sample section from one unit. (MLH)

  7. Securing General Aviation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-03

    ajor vulnerabilities still exist in ... general aviation security ,”3 the commission did not further elaborate on the nature of those vulnerabilities...commercial operations may make them an attractive alternative to terrorists seeking to identify and exploit vulnerabilities in aviation security . In this...3, 2003, p. A7. 2 See Report of the Aviation Security Advisory Committee Working Group on General Aviation Airport Security (October 1, 2003); and

  8. Comparison of global 3-D aviation emissions datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsen, S. C.; Wuebbles, D. J.; Owen, B.

    2013-01-01

    Aviation emissions are unique from other transportation emissions, e.g., from road transportation and shipping, in that they occur at higher altitudes as well as at the surface. Aviation emissions of carbon dioxide, soot, and water vapor have direct radiative impacts on the Earth's climate system while emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulfur oxides, carbon monoxide (CO), and hydrocarbons (HC) impact air quality and climate through their effects on ozone, methane, and clouds. The most accurate estimates of the impact of aviation on air quality and climate utilize three-dimensional chemistry-climate models and gridded four dimensional (space and time) aviation emissions datasets. We compare five available aviation emissions datasets currently and historically used to evaluate the impact of aviation on climate and air quality: NASA-Boeing 1992, NASA-Boeing 1999, QUANTIFY 2000, Aero2k 2002, and AEDT 2006 and aviation fuel usage estimates from the International Energy Agency. Roughly 90% of all aviation emissions are in the Northern Hemisphere and nearly 60% of all fuelburn and NOx emissions occur at cruise altitudes in the Northern Hemisphere. While these datasets were created by independent methods and are thus not strictly suitable for analyzing trends they suggest that commercial aviation fuelburn and NOx emissions increased over the last two decades while HC emissions likely decreased and CO emissions did not change significantly. The bottom-up estimates compared here are consistently lower than International Energy Agency fuelburn statistics although the gap is significantly smaller in the more recent datasets. Overall the emissions distributions are quite similar for fuelburn and NOx with regional peaks over the populated land masses of North America, Europe, and East Asia. For CO and HC there are relatively larger differences. There are however some distinct differences in the altitude distribution of emissions in certain regions for the Aero2k dataset.

  9. Comparison of global 3-D aviation emissions datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsen, S. C.; Wuebbles, D. J.; Owen, B.

    2012-07-01

    Aviation emissions are unique from other transportation emissions, e.g., from road transportation and shipping, in that they occur at higher altitudes as well as at the surface. Aviation emissions of carbon dioxide, soot, and water vapor have direct radiative impacts on the Earth's climate system while emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulfur oxides, carbon monoxide (CO), and hydrocarbons (HC) impact air quality and climate through their effects on ozone, methane, and clouds. The most accurate estimates of the impact of aviation on air quality and climate utilize three-dimensional chemistry-climate models and gridded four dimensional (space and time) aviation emissions datasets. We compare five available aviation emissions datasets currently and historically used to evaluate the impact of aviation on climate and air quality: NASA-Boeing 1992, NASA-Boeing 1999, QUANTIFY 2000, Aero2k 2002, and AEDT 2006 and aviation fuel usage estimates from the International Energy Agency. Roughly 90% of all aviation emissions are in the Northern Hemisphere and nearly 60% of all fuelburn and NOx emissions occur at cruise altitudes in the Northern Hemisphere. While these datasets were created by independent methods and are thus not strictly suitable for analyzing trends they suggest that commercial aviation fuelburn and NOx emissions increased over the last two decades while HC emissions likely decreased and CO emissions did not change significantly. The bottom-up estimates compared here are consistently lower than International Energy Agency fuelburn statistics although the gap is significantly lower in the more recent datasets. Overall the emissions distributions are quite similar for fuelburn and NOx while for CO and HC there are relatively larger differences. There are however some distinct differences in the altitude distribution of emissions in certain regions for the Aero2k dataset.

  10. AWE: Aviation Weather Data Visualization Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spirkovska, Lilly; Lodha, Suresh K.

    2000-01-01

    The two official sources for aviation weather reports both provide weather information to a pilot in a textual format. A number of systems have recently become available to help pilots with the visualization task by providing much of the data graphically. However, two types of aviation weather data are still not being presented graphically. These are airport-specific current weather reports (known as meteorological observations, or METARs) and forecast weather reports (known as terminal area forecasts, or TAFs). Our system, Aviation Weather Environment (AWE), presents intuitive graphical displays for both METARs and TAFs, as well as winds aloft forecasts. We start with a computer-generated textual aviation weather briefing. We map this briefing onto a cartographic grid specific to the pilot's area of interest. The pilot is able to obtain aviation-specific weather for the entire area or for his specific route. The route, altitude, true airspeed, and proposed departure time can each be modified in AWE. Integral visual display of these three elements of weather reports makes AWE a useful planning tool, as well as a weather briefing tool.

  11. Human factors in aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiener, Earl L. (Editor); Nagel, David C. (Editor)

    1988-01-01

    The fundamental principles of human-factors (HF) analysis for aviation applications are examined in a collection of reviews by leading experts, with an emphasis on recent developments. The aim is to provide information and guidance to the aviation community outside the HF field itself. Topics addressed include the systems approach to HF, system safety considerations, the human senses in flight, information processing, aviation workloads, group interaction and crew performance, flight training and simulation, human error in aviation operations, and aircrew fatigue and circadian rhythms. Also discussed are pilot control; aviation displays; cockpit automation; HF aspects of software interfaces; the design and integration of cockpit-crew systems; and HF issues for airline pilots, general aviation, helicopters, and ATC.

  12. Aviation Education Services and Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Aviation Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    Developed by the Aviation Education Staff of the Office of General Aviation Affairs, this document identifies sources of teaching materials. Included in this resource guide is information pertaining to: (1) films and filmstrips, (2) aviation education workshops, (3) career opportunities in aviation, (4) aviation organizations, (5) government…

  13. Diving at altitude: from definition to practice.

    PubMed

    Egi, S Murat; Pieri, Massimo; Marroni, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    Diving above sea level has different motivations for recreational, military, commercial and scientific activities. Despite the apparently wide practice of inland diving, there are three major discrepancies about diving at altitude: threshold elevation that requires changes in sea level procedures; upper altitude limit of the applicability of these modifications; and independent validation of altitude adaptation methods of decompression algorithms. The first problem is solved by converting the normal fluctuation in barometric pressure to an altitude equivalent. Based on the barometric variations recorded from a meteorological center, it is possible to suggest 600 meters as a threshold for classifying a dive as an "altitude" dive. The second problem is solved by proposing the threshold altitude of aviation (2,400 meters) to classify "high" altitude dives. The DAN (Divers Alert Network) Europe diving database (DB) is analyzed to solve the third problem. The database consists of 65,050 dives collected from different dive computers. A total of 1,467 dives were found to be classified as altitude dives. However, by checking the elevation according to the logged geographical coordinates, 1,284 dives were disqualified because the altitude setting had been used as a conservative setting by the dive computer despite the fact that the dive was made at sea level. Furthermore, according to the description put forward in this manuscript, 72 dives were disqualified because the surface level elevation is lower than 600 meters. The number of field data (111 dives) is still very low to use for the validation of any particular method of altitude adaptation concerning decompression algorithms.

  14. Aviation Climate Change Research Initiative (ACCRI) - An Update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, M. L.

    2009-12-01

    Aviation plays an important role in global and domestic economic development and transport mobility. There are environmental concerns associated with aviation noise and emissions. Aircraft climate impacts are primarily due to release of emissions at the cruise altitude in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. Even though small in magnitude at present, aviation climate impacts will likely increase with projected growth in air transport demand unless scientifically informed and balanced mitigation solutions are implemented in a timely manner. There are large uncertainties associated with global and regional non-CO2 aviation climate impacts which need to be well quantified and constrained to support decision making. To meet future aviation capacity needs, the United States is developing and implementing a dynamic, flexible and scalable Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) that is safe, secure, efficient and environmentally sound. One of the stated NextGen environmental goals is to limit or reduce the impacts of aviation emissions on global climate. With the support from the participating agencies of the U.S. Climate Change Science Program, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has developed Aviation Climate Change Research Initiative (ACCRI) with the main objective to identify and address key scientific gaps and uncertainties that are most likely to be achieved in near (up to 18 months) and mid (up to 36 months) term horizons while providing timely scientific input to inform decision making. Till date, ACCRI funded activities have resulted in release of 8 subject-specific whitepapers and a report on The Way Forward. These documents can be accessed via http://www.faa.gov/about/office_org/headquarters_offices/aep/aviation_climate/media/ACCRI_Report_final.pdf. This presentation will provide details on prioritized key scientific gaps and uncertainties to better characterize aviation climate impacts. This presentation will also include a brief

  15. Impacts of aviation fuel sulfur content on climate and human health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapadia, Zarashpe Z.; Spracklen, Dominick V.; Arnold, Steve R.; Borman, Duncan J.; Mann, Graham W.; Pringle, Kirsty J.; Monks, Sarah A.; Reddington, Carly L.; Benduhn, François; Rap, Alexandru; Scott, Catherine E.; Butt, Edward W.; Yoshioka, Masaru

    2016-08-01

    Aviation emissions impact both air quality and climate. Using a coupled tropospheric chemistry-aerosol microphysics model we investigate the effects of varying aviation fuel sulfur content (FSC) on premature mortality from long-term exposure to aviation-sourced PM2.5 (particulate matter with a dry diameter of < 2.5 µm) and on the global radiation budget due to changes in aerosol and tropospheric ozone. We estimate that present-day non-CO2 aviation emissions with a typical FSC of 600 ppm result in ˜ 3600 [95 % CI: 1310-5890] annual premature mortalities globally due to increases in cases of cardiopulmonary disease and lung cancer, resulting from increased surface PM2.5 concentrations. We quantify the global annual mean combined radiative effect (REcomb) of non-CO2 aviation emissions as -13.3 mW m-2; from increases in aerosols (direct radiative effect and cloud albedo effect) and tropospheric ozone. Ultra-low sulfur jet fuel (ULSJ; FSC = 15 ppm) has been proposed as an option to reduce the adverse health impacts of aviation-induced PM2.5. We calculate that swapping the global aviation fleet to ULSJ fuel would reduce the global aviation-induced mortality rate by ˜ 620 [95 % CI: 230-1020] mortalities a-1 and increase REcomb by +7.0 mW m-2. We explore the impact of varying aviation FSC between 0 and 6000 ppm. Increasing FSC increases aviation-induced mortality, while enhancing climate cooling through increasing the aerosol cloud albedo effect (CAE). We explore the relationship between the injection altitude of aviation emissions and the resulting climate and air quality impacts. Compared to the standard aviation emissions distribution, releasing aviation emissions at the ground increases global aviation-induced mortality and produces a net warming effect, primarily through a reduced CAE. Aviation emissions injected at the surface are 5 times less effective at forming cloud condensation nuclei, reducing the aviation-induced CAE by a factor of 10. Applying high FSCs at

  16. [Impact on the direct medical cost related to the influenza virus during 2009 in children under 5 years compared to the period 2006-2008 in a pediatric hospital].

    PubMed

    Giglio, Norberto D; Castellano, Vanesa E; Rüttimann, Ricardo W; Vidal, Gabriela I; Gentile, Angela

    2012-01-01

    Epidemic outbreaks of influenza occur every year and healthcare systems must amplify their response in accordance with available medical resources. This situation generates cost increases. During the recent influenza A pandemic, costs were likely to have been greater than in previous years. To estimate direct health costs of influenza-related illness during 2009 compared to costs expended in the previous 3-year period at Ricardo Gutiérrez Children's Hospital, City of Buenos Aires, Argentina. We conducted a cross-sectional epidemiological study with retrospective control group to estimate influenza-related costs for the years 2006 to 2009 using data from outpatient consultations and hospital admissions for Acute Respiratory Infections attributable to Influenza virus in children under 5 years old. Incremental costs were estimated for the year 2009 compared to average costs for the period 2006-2008. Total incremental cost of hospital admissions and outpatient consultations for influenza was US$ 91512 for the year 2009 compared to average cost for 2006-2008 period (incremental cost of US$ 147560 for hospital admissions and US$ -56048 for outpatient consultations). Influenza-related costs were greater in 2009 than in previous years due to higher number of hospital admissions attributable to influenza A H1N1.

  17. [Aviation and space flight ophthalmology].

    PubMed

    Daumann, F J; Draeger, J

    1993-08-01

    So far it has not been possible to adapt man genetically to the specific environmental conditions of flying. A variety of disturbing factors act on the human body and affect its vital as well as sensory functions, vision being considered the most important sense for providing information. The effects of oxygen deficiency caused by increasing altitude, acceleration and centrifugal force affecting visual function, ocular motility, and pupillary reactions are well known. Like visual illusions, vibrations, high accelerative forces, high illuminance and glare at high altitudes impair the visual perception of the environment. In space flight further problems ensue from weightlessness and short-wave radiation. The high medical standards that must be met by the eyes of flying personnel, as will as for air-traffic controllers, result in the enhancement of flight safety. After operations on the cornea or retina or cataract operations in pilote, the retinal findings and DOP must be monitored closely. Special attention must be paid to means of visual aids, corrective lenses, contact lenses, and intraocular lenses. Ophthalmology is a very important element of aviation and aerospace medicine.

  18. Aviation Instructor's Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Aviation Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    This handbook is designed for ground instructors, flight instructors, and aviation maintenance instructors, providing beginning instructors the foundation to understand and apply fundamentals of instruction. The handbook also provides aviation instructors with up-to-date information on learning and teaching, and how to relate this information to…

  19. Aviation. Teacher Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2001

    This teacher's guide contains information, lesson plans, and diverse student learning activities focusing on aviation. The guide is divided into seven sections: (1) "Drawing Activities" (Airmail Art; Eyewitness; Kite Power); (2) "Geography" (U.S. Airports); (3) "Information" (Aviation Alphabet; Glossary; Four Forces…

  20. Aviation Instructor's Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Aviation Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    This handbook is designed for ground instructors, flight instructors, and aviation maintenance instructors, providing beginning instructors the foundation to understand and apply fundamentals of instruction. The handbook also provides aviation instructors with up-to-date information on learning and teaching, and how to relate this information to…

  1. NASA and general aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ethell, J. L.

    1986-01-01

    General aviation remains the single most misunderstood sector of aeronautics in the United States. A detailed look at how general aviation functions and how NASA helps keep it on the cutting edge of technology in airfoils, airframes, commuter travel, environmental concerns, engines, propellers, air traffic control, agricultural development, electronics, and safety is given.

  2. Tests of artificial flight at high altitudes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gradenwitz, Arthur

    1920-01-01

    If we wish to form an accurate idea of the extraordinary progress achieved in aeronautics, a comparison must be made of the latest altitude records and the figures regarded as highest attainable limit some ten years ago. It is desirable, for two reasons, that we should be able to define the limit of the altitudes that can be reached without artificial aid. First, to know to what extent the human body can endure the inhalation of rarified air. Second, the mental capacity of the aviator must be tested at high altitudes and the limit known below which he is able to make reliable observations without being artificially supplied with oxygen. A pneumatic chamber was used for the most accurate observations.

  3. Impacts of aviation fuel sulfur content on climate and human health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapadia, Z. Z.; Spracklen, D. V.; Arnold, S. R.; Borman, D. J.; Mann, G. W.; Pringle, K. J.; Monks, S. A.; Reddington, C. L.; Benduhn, F.; Rap, A.; Scott, C. E.; Butt, E. W.; Yoshioka, M.

    2015-07-01

    Aviation emissions impact both air quality and climate. Using a coupled tropospheric chemistry-aerosol microphysics model we investigate the effects of varying aviation fuel sulfur content (FSC) on premature mortality from long-term exposure to aviation-sourced PM2.5 (particulate matter with a dry diameter of < 2.5 μm) and on the global radiation budget due to changes in aerosol and tropospheric ozone. We estimate that present-day non-CO2 aviation emissions with a typical FSC of 600 ppm result in 3597 (95 % CI: 1307-5888) annual mortalities globally due to increases in cases of cardiopulmonary disease and lung cancer, resulting from increased surface PM2.5 concentrations. We quantify the global annual mean combined radiative effect (REcomb) of non-CO2 aviation emissions as -13.3 mW m-2; from increases in aerosols (direct radiative effect and cloud albedo effect) and tropospheric ozone. Ultra-low sulfur jet fuel (ULSJ; FSC =15 ppm) has been proposed as an option to reduce the adverse health impacts of aviation-induced PM2.5. We calculate that swapping the global aviation fleet to ULSJ fuel would reduce the global aviation-induced mortality rate by 624 (95 % CI: 227-1021) mortalities a-1 and increase REcomb by +7.0 mW m-2. We explore the impact of varying aviation FSC between 0-6000 ppm. Increasing FSC increases annual mortality, while enhancing climate cooling through increasing the aerosol cloud albedo effect (aCAE). We explore the relationship between the injection altitude of aviation emissions and the resulting climate and air quality impacts. Compared to the standard aviation emissions distribution, releasing aviation emissions at the ground increases global aviation-induced mortality and produces a net warming effect, primarily through a reduced aCAE. Aviation emissions injected at the surface are 5 times less effective at forming cloud condensation nuclei, reducing the aviation-induced aCAE by a factor of 10. Applying high FSCs at aviation cruise altitudes

  4. General aviation in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Xiaosi

    In the last four decades, China has accomplished economic reform successfully and grown to be a leading country in the world. As the "world factory", the country is able to manufacture a variety of industrial products from clothes and shoes to rockets and satellites. But the aviation industry has always been a weak spot and even the military relies on imported turbofan engines and jet fighters, not to mention the airlines. Recently China has launched programs such as ARJ21 and C919, and started reform to change the undeveloped situation of its aviation industry. As the foundation of the aviation industry, the development of general aviation is essential for the rise of commercial aviation. The primary goal of this study is to examine the general aviation industry and finds the issues that constrain the development of the industry in the system. The research method used in this thesis is the narrative research of qualitative approach since the policy instead of statistical data is analyzed. It appears that the main constraint for the general aviation industry is the government interference.

  5. Agricultural aviation research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chevalier, H. L. (Compiler); Bouse, L. F. (Compiler)

    1977-01-01

    A compilation of papers, comments, and results is provided during a workshop session. The purpose of the workshop was to review and evaluate the current state of the art of agricultural aviation, to identify and rank potentially productive short and long range research and development areas, and to strengthen communications between research scientists and engineers involved in agricultural research. Approximately 71 individuals actively engaged in agricultural aviation research were invited to participate in the workshop. These were persons familiar with problems related to agricultural aviation and processing expertise which are of value for identifying and proposing beneficial research.

  6. Aviation turbine fuels, 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Shelton, E.M.; Dickson, C.L.

    1983-03-01

    Properties of some aviation turbine fuels marketed in the United States during 1982 are presented in this report. The samples represented are typical 1982 production and were analyzed in the laboratories of 14 manufacturers of aviation turbine (jet) fuels. The data were submitted for study, calculation, and compilation under a cooperative agreement between the Department of Energy (DOE), Bartlesville Energy Technology Center (BETC), Bartlesville, Oklahoma, and the American Petroleum Institute (API). Results for the properties of 90 samples of aviation turbine fuels are included in the report for military grades JP-4 and HP-5, and commercial type Jet A.

  7. Aviation turbine fuels, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Shelton, E M

    1981-03-01

    Properties of some aviation turbine fuels marketed in the United States during 1980 are presented in this report. The samples represented are typical 1980 production and were analyzed in the laboratories of 17 manufacturers of aviation turbine (jet) fuels. The data were submitted for study, calculation, and compilation under a cooperative agreement between the Department of Energy (DOE), Bartlesville Energy Technology Center (BETC), Bartlesville, Oklahoma, and the American Petroleum Institute (API). Results for the properties of 98 samples of aviation turbine fuels are included in the report for military grades JP-4 and JP-5 and commercial type Jet A.

  8. The Dynamics of the Atmospheric Radiation Environment at Aviation Altitudes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stassinopoulos, Epaminondas G.

    2004-01-01

    Single Event Effects vulnerability of on-board computers that regulate the: navigational, flight control, communication, and life support systems has become an issue in advanced modern aircraft, especially those that may be equipped with new technology devices in terabit memory banks (low voltage, nanometer feature size, gigabit integration). To address this concern, radiation spectrometers need to fly continually on a multitude of carriers over long periods of time so as to accumulate sufficient information that will broaden our understanding of the very dynamic and complex nature of the atmospheric radiation environment regarding: composition, spectral distribution, intensity, temporal variation, and spatial variation.

  9. Cosmic Ray Abundance at Aircraft Altitudes in the Earth's Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, D.

    1999-08-01

    Recent investigations of cosmic ray primaries and secondaries at aviation altitudes in the Earth's atmosphere include the study of Z≥2 particles along the London-New York flight routes on supersonic aircraft. Preliminary charge spectra will be presented for these nuclei and comparisons will be made with the predictions of cosmic ray transport models in the Earth's atmosphere.

  10. The General Aviation Propulsion (GAP) Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The General Aviation Propulsion (GAP) Program Turbine Engine Element focused on the development of an advanced small turbofan engine. Goals were good fuel consumption and thrust-to-weight ratio, and very low production cost. The resulting FJX-2 turbofan engine showed the potential to meet all of these goals. The development of the engine was carried through to proof of concept testing of a complete engine system. The proof of concept engine was ground tested at sea level and in altitude test chambers. A turboprop derivative was also sea-level tested.

  11. 14 CFR 121.358 - Low-altitude windshear system equipment requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Low-altitude windshear system equipment requirements. 121.358 Section 121.358 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... § 121.358 Low-altitude windshear system equipment requirements. (a) Airplanes manufactured after...

  12. 14 CFR 121.358 - Low-altitude windshear system equipment requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Low-altitude windshear system equipment requirements. 121.358 Section 121.358 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... § 121.358 Low-altitude windshear system equipment requirements. (a) Airplanes manufactured after...

  13. 14 CFR 121.358 - Low-altitude windshear system equipment requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Low-altitude windshear system equipment requirements. 121.358 Section 121.358 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... § 121.358 Low-altitude windshear system equipment requirements. (a) Airplanes manufactured after...

  14. 14 CFR 121.358 - Low-altitude windshear system equipment requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Low-altitude windshear system equipment requirements. 121.358 Section 121.358 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... § 121.358 Low-altitude windshear system equipment requirements. (a) Airplanes manufactured after...

  15. 14 CFR 121.358 - Low-altitude windshear system equipment requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Low-altitude windshear system equipment requirements. 121.358 Section 121.358 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... § 121.358 Low-altitude windshear system equipment requirements. (a) Airplanes manufactured after...

  16. Aviation in the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kayten, Gerald G.

    1974-01-01

    Makes predications concerning future aerospace technology in the areas of supersonic transportation, aircraft design, airfreight, military aviation, hypersonic aircraft and in the much distant future sub-orbital, rocket propelled transports. (BR)

  17. Aviation Data Integration System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kulkarni, Deepak; Wang, Yao; Windrem, May; Patel, Hemil; Keller, Richard

    2003-01-01

    During the analysis of flight data and safety reports done in ASAP and FOQA programs, airline personnel are not able to access relevant aviation data for a variety of reasons. We have developed the Aviation Data Integration System (ADIS), a software system that provides integrated heterogeneous data to support safety analysis. Types of data available in ADIS include weather, D-ATIS, RVR, radar data, and Jeppesen charts, and flight data. We developed three versions of ADIS to support airlines. The first version has been developed to support ASAP teams. A second version supports FOQA teams, and it integrates aviation data with flight data while keeping identification information inaccessible. Finally, we developed a prototype that demonstrates the integration of aviation data into flight data analysis programs. The initial feedback from airlines is that ADIS is very useful in FOQA and ASAP analysis.

  18. Aviation in the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kayten, Gerald G.

    1974-01-01

    Makes predications concerning future aerospace technology in the areas of supersonic transportation, aircraft design, airfreight, military aviation, hypersonic aircraft and in the much distant future sub-orbital, rocket propelled transports. (BR)

  19. Future aviation fuels overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reck, G. M.

    1980-01-01

    The outlook for aviation fuels through the turn of the century is briefly discussed and the general objectives of the NASA Lewis Alternative Aviation Fuels Research Project are outlined. The NASA program involves the evaluation of potential characteristics of future jet aircraft fuels, the determination of the effects of those fuels on engine and fuel system components, and the development of a component technology to use those fuels.

  20. Review of Aviator Selection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-07-01

    The amount approaches $500,000 per candidate by the end of flight school for US Army aviators. 2 Since World War I, the military services have explored...34Simulation-based tests may significantly increment the validity of cognitive tests when the two approaches are used together. These results are consistent...Conscientiousness (Norman, 1963; Tupes & 5 Christal, 1961) would likely be enlightening , but has not (yet) been done in the aviator selection arena. Griffin and

  1. Venus Altitude Cycling Balloon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Jong, M. L.

    2015-04-01

    A novel balloon concept is demonstrated that uses mechanical compression as altitude control mechanism to sustain long duration balloon probe flight in the cloud level region of Venus’ atmosphere between 45 and 58 km altitude.

  2. Ears and Altitude

    MedlinePlus

    ... ENTCareers Marketplace Find an ENT Doctor Near You Ears and Altitude Ears and Altitude Patient Health Information ... uncomfortable feeling of fullness or pressure. Why do ears pop? Normally, swallowing causes a little click or ...

  3. [Academician O.G. Gazenko and aviation medicine].

    PubMed

    Ushakov, I B; Bednenko, V S; Khomenko, M N; Stepanov, V K

    2008-01-01

    The paper analyzes the contribution of O.G. Gazenko to the theory and practice of aviation medicine in the period of his service at the State Test and Research Institute of Aviation and Space Medicine under the USSR Ministry of Defense (1947-1969). O.G. Gazenko took the leadership and participated in personally in the broad investigations of the altitude effects on human organism, medical care of the staff of AF units and troops based in the Arctic, improvement of life and duty conditions for pilots and technicians in hot climate, ejection seat testing, development of methods modeling erroneous pilot's actions in order to understand their triggers.

  4. Aviation Weather Program (AWP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foote, Brant

    1993-01-01

    The Aviation Weather Program (AWP) combines additional weather observations, improved forecast technology, and more efficient distribution of information to pilots, controllers, and automated systems to improve the weather information provided to the air traffic control system, pilots, and other users of aviation weather information. Specific objectives include the needs to: improve airport and en-route capacity by accurate, high resolution, timely forecasts of changing weather conditions affecting airport and en-route operations; improve analyses and forecasts of upper-level winds for efficient flight planning and traffic management; and increase flight safety through improved aviation weather hazard forecasting (e.g. icing, turbulence, severe storms, microbursts, or strong winds). The AWP would benefit from participation in a cooperative multiscale experiment by obtaining data for: evaluation of aviation weather forecast products, analysis of four dimensional data assimilation schemes, and experimental techniques for retrieving aerosol and other visibility parameters. A multiscale experiment would also be helpful to AWP by making it possible to evaluate the added benefit of enhanced data sets collected during the experiment on those forecast and analysis products. The goals of the Coperative Multiscale Experiment (CME) are an essential step in attaining the long-term AWP objective of providing two-to-four hour location-specific forecasts of significant weather. Although the possibility of a funding role for the AWP in the CME is presently unclear, modest involvement of Federal Aviation Administration (FAA)/AWP personnel could be expected.

  5. High altitude decelerator systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silbert, Mendel N.; Moltedo, A. David; Gilbertson, Gaylord S.

    1989-01-01

    High Altitude Decelerator Systems are used to provide a stable descending platform when deployed from a sounding rocket at altitudes greater than 40 kilometers allowing a scientific mission to be conducted in a specific altitude region. The High Altitude Decelerator is designed to provide a highly stable, high drag area system packed in a minimum volume to deploy successfully from a sounding rocket. Deployment altitudes greater than 100 kilometers have been successfully demonstrated at dynamic pressures as low as 0.004 pounds per square foot.

  6. High-Altitude Medicine.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Nicholas J; Luks, Andrew M

    2016-03-01

    Individuals may seek the advice of medical providers when considering travel to high altitude. This article provides a basic framework for counseling and evaluating such patients. After defining "high altitude" and describing the key environmental features at higher elevations, the physiologic changes that occur at high altitude and how these changes are experienced by the traveler are discussed. Clinical features and strategies for prevention and treatment of the main forms of acute altitude illness are outlined, and frameworks for approaching the common clinical scenarios that may be encountered regarding high-altitude travelers are provided. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Alcohol fuels for aviation

    SciTech Connect

    Schauffler, P.

    1982-06-01

    The ten-fold increase in aviation fuel prices in eight years has caused a reassessment of alcohol fuels. In a recent test, methanol fuel-flow rate was high at takeoff, and levelled off at 10,000 feet, but above 18,000 fell 30% below avgas use. Because methanol sells thirty cents below avgas per gallon it is already an attractive fuel for piston-engine aircraft. But as 95% of aviation fuel is burned as kerosene in turbines a test program has been set up to look at the performance of small shaft turbine engines with various combinations of alcohols and water, and of straight methanol, and to look at major thrust engine at optimum fuel as well. These tests should determine the overall alcohol potentials for aviation. The tests will also tell if the breakthrough will be modest or major.

  8. Aviation noise effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, J. S.; Beattie, K. R.

    1985-03-01

    This report summarizes the effects of aviation noise in many areas, ranging from human annoyance to impact on real estate values. It also synthesizes the findings of literature on several topics. Included in the literature were many original studies carried out under FAA and other Federal funding over the past two decades. Efforts have been made to present the critical findings and conclusions of pertinent research, providing, when possible, a bottom line conclusion, criterion or perspective. Issues related to aviation noise are highlighted, and current policy is presented. Specific topic addressed include: annoyance; Hearing and hearing loss; noise metrics; human response to noise; speech interference; sleep interference; non-auditory health effects of noise; effects of noise on wild and domesticated animals; low frequency acoustical energy; impulsive noise; time of day weightings; noise contours; land use compatibility; and real estate values. This document is designed for a variety of users, from the individual completely unfamiliar with aviation noise to experts in the field.

  9. Athletes at High Altitude

    PubMed Central

    Khodaee, Morteza; Grothe, Heather L.; Seyfert, Jonathan H.; VanBaak, Karin

    2016-01-01

    Context: Athletes at different skill levels perform strenuous physical activity at high altitude for a variety of reasons. Multiple team and endurance events are held at high altitude and may place athletes at increased risk for developing acute high altitude illness (AHAI). Training at high altitude has been a routine part of preparation for some of the high level athletes for a long time. There is a general belief that altitude training improves athletic performance for competitive and recreational athletes. Evidence Acquisition: A review of relevant publications between 1980 and 2015 was completed using PubMed and Google Scholar. Study Design: Clinical review. Level of Evidence: Level 3. Results: AHAI is a relatively uncommon and potentially serious condition among travelers to altitudes above 2500 m. The broad term AHAI includes several syndromes such as acute mountain sickness (AMS), high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE), and high altitude cerebral edema (HACE). Athletes may be at higher risk for developing AHAI due to faster ascent and more vigorous exertion compared with nonathletes. Evidence regarding the effects of altitude training on athletic performance is weak. The natural live high, train low altitude training strategy may provide the best protocol for enhancing endurance performance in elite and subelite athletes. High altitude sports are generally safe for recreational athletes, but they should be aware of their individual risks. Conclusion: Individualized and appropriate acclimatization is an essential component of injury and illness prevention. PMID:26863894

  10. Endotracheal Tube Cuff Management at Altitude

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-02-05

    Thomas C. Blakeman, RRT2; Dario Rodriquez Jr., RRT1; Capt Heather Ortiz, RN , FNP-C3; Maj John Eggert, RN1 1U.S. Air Force School of Aerospace...Middle East and is credited with improvements in outcomes (Ingalls N, Zonies D, Bailey JA, et al. A decade of care in the air: review of the first 10... quality , and postsleep performance. Aviat Space Environ Med 2009; 80(8):691-7. 7. Ruth MJ. Pressure changes in tracheal tube cuffs at altitude

  11. Federal Aviation Administration Curriculum Guide for Aviation Magnet Schools Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strickler, Mervin K., Jr.

    The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and its predecessor organizations, Civil Aeronautics Agency (CAA) and the Civil Aeronautics Administration (CAA) have pioneered the use of aviation education in working with schools and colleges of the nation to attain their objectives. This publication includes: a brief history of the role of aviation in…

  12. 76 FR 39884 - Aviation Security Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-07

    ... SECURITY Aviation Security Advisory Committee AGENCY: Transportation Security Administration, DHS. ACTION... Security Administration (TSA) announces the re-establishment of the Aviation Security Advisory Committee... and cost, and have a lower impact on the commerce of aviation. The Aviation Security...

  13. Teachers' Guide For Aviation Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aviation/Space, 1979

    1979-01-01

    This teacher's guide outlines the objectives, instructional procedures, student activities, and expected outcomes of an instructional unit on careers in aviation, designed for fifth and sixth grade students. It emphasizes aerospace activities and job opportunities in aviation. (GA)

  14. Teachers' Guide For Aviation Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aviation/Space, 1979

    1979-01-01

    This teacher's guide outlines the objectives, instructional procedures, student activities, and expected outcomes of an instructional unit on careers in aviation, designed for fifth and sixth grade students. It emphasizes aerospace activities and job opportunities in aviation. (GA)

  15. Human factors in general aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The relation of the pilot to the aircraft in general aviation is considered. The human component is analyzed, along with general aviation facilities. The man-machine interface, and the man-environment interface are discussed.

  16. National Strategy for Aviation Security

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-26

    for Aviation Security (hereafter referred to as the Strategy") to protect the Nation and its interests from threats in the Air Domain. The Secretary of... Aviation security is best achieved by integrating public and private aviation security global activities into a coordinated effort to detect, deter...might occur. The Strategy aligns Federal government aviation security programs and initiatives into a comprehensive and cohesive national effort

  17. Collegiate Aviation Review. September 1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Ballard M., Ed.

    This document contains three papers on aviation education. "Academic Integrity in Higher Education: Is Collegiate Aviation Education at Risk?" (Jeffrey A. Johnson) discusses academic integrity and legal issues in higher education and argues that academic integrity needs to be an integral part of collegiate aviation education if students expect to…

  18. Aviation Education Services and Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Aviation Administration (DOT), Washington, DC. Office of General Aviation.

    A list of sources of information and material relating to aviation education is presented in this pamphlet issued in May, 1972. Following a brief description of the mission of the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), reference materials mostly appropriate for school use are incorporated under the headings: Aviation Education Workshops, Careers…

  19. Aviation--An Individualized Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seeds, Fred F.

    1974-01-01

    Describes an individualized aviation course for high school seniors. The course, broken down into Learner Education Guides with students progressing at their own learning rates, consists of the history of aviation, career opportunities, the space program, basic aeronautics, navigation, meteorology, Federal Aviation Administration regulations and…

  20. Collegiate Aviation Review. September 1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Ballard M., Ed.

    This document contains three papers on aviation education. "Academic Integrity in Higher Education: Is Collegiate Aviation Education at Risk?" (Jeffrey A. Johnson) discusses academic integrity and legal issues in higher education and argues that academic integrity needs to be an integral part of collegiate aviation education if students expect to…

  1. General Aviation Pilot Education Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Warren L.

    General Aviation Pilot Education (GAPE) was a safety program designed to improve the aeronautical education of the general aviation pilot in anticipation that the national aircraft accident rate might be improved. GAPE PROGRAM attempted to reach the average general aviation pilot with specific and factual information regarding the pitfalls of his…

  2. Collegiate Aviation Review. September 1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Ballard M., Ed.

    This document contains four papers on aviation education. The first paper, "Why Aren't We Teaching Aeronautical Decision Making?" (Richard J. Adams), reviews 15 years of aviation research into the causes of human performance errors in aviation and provides guidelines for designing the next generation of aeronautical decision-making materials.…

  3. General Aviation Pilot Education Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Warren L.

    General Aviation Pilot Education (GAPE) was a safety program designed to improve the aeronautical education of the general aviation pilot in anticipation that the national aircraft accident rate might be improved. GAPE PROGRAM attempted to reach the average general aviation pilot with specific and factual information regarding the pitfalls of his…

  4. Collegiate Aviation Review. September 1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Ballard M., Ed.

    This document contains four papers on aviation education. The first paper, "Why Aren't We Teaching Aeronautical Decision Making?" (Richard J. Adams), reviews 15 years of aviation research into the causes of human performance errors in aviation and provides guidelines for designing the next generation of aeronautical decision-making materials.…

  5. Bolden at Aviation High School

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-01-16

    NASA Administrator Charles Bolden listens to students at Aviation High School at a lunch and learn session Tuesday, Jan. 15, 2013 in Des Moines, WA. Aviation High School is a college preparatory aviation- and aerospace-themed school and a premier school of choice for science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) in the Pacific Northwest. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  6. Bolden at Aviation High School

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-01-16

    NASA Administrator Charles Bolden speaks to students at Aviation High School at a lunch and learn session Tuesday, Jan. 15, 2013 in Des Moines, WA. Aviation High School is a college preparatory aviation- and aerospace-themed school and a premier school of choice for science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) in the Pacific Northwest. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  7. Aviation--An Individualized Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seeds, Fred F.

    1974-01-01

    Describes an individualized aviation course for high school seniors. The course, broken down into Learner Education Guides with students progressing at their own learning rates, consists of the history of aviation, career opportunities, the space program, basic aeronautics, navigation, meteorology, Federal Aviation Administration regulations and…

  8. The engineering options for mitigating the climate impacts of aviation.

    PubMed

    Williams, Victoria

    2007-12-15

    Aviation is a growing contributor to climate change, with unique impacts due to the altitude of emissions. If existing traffic growth rates continue, radical engineering solutions will be required to prevent aviation becoming one of the dominant contributors to climate change. This paper reviews the engineering options for mitigating the climate impacts of aviation using aircraft and airspace technologies. These options include not only improvements in fuel efficiency, which would reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, but also measures to reduce non-CO2 impacts including the formation of persistent contrails. Integrated solutions to optimize environmental performance will require changes to airframes, engines, avionics, air traffic control systems and airspace design. While market-based measures, such as offset schemes and emissions trading, receive growing attention, this paper sets out the crucial role of engineering in the challenge to develop a 'green air traffic system'.

  9. Aviation in Social Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Aerospace Education, 1974

    1974-01-01

    Describes an interdisciplinary unit approach for teaching social science concepts using aviation as a vehicle to create interest and provide a meaningful context for grades K through 8. The general objectives and understandings for each grade level are described and some sample activities listed. (BR)

  10. Aerospace - Aviation Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Arthur I.; Jones, K. K.

    This document outlines the aerospace-aviation education program of the State of Texas. In this publication the course structures have been revised to fit the quarter system format of secondary schools in Texas. The four courses outlined here have been designed for students who will be consumers of aerospace products, spinoffs, and services or who…

  11. Collegiate Aviation Review, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carney, Thomas Q., Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This issue contains these 12 papers: "Exploring the Viability of an Organizational Readiness Assessment for Participatory Management Programs in a Passenger Airline Carrier" (Al Bellamy); "Teaching the Pilots of the New Millennium: Adult Cooperative Education in Aviation Education" (Joseph F. Clark, III); "The Transfer of…

  12. General Aviation Avionics Statistics.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-12-01

    No. 2. Government Accession No. 3. Recipient’s Catalog No. 5" FAA-MS-80-7* a and. SubtitleDecember 1&80 "GENERAL AVIATION AVIONICS STATISTICS 0 6...Altimeter 8. Fuel gage 3. Compass 9. Landing gear 4. Tachometer 10. Belts 5. Oil temperature 11. Special equipment for 6. Emergency locator over water

  13. General Aviation Manpower Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feller, Richard

    1982-01-01

    Highlights a study examining manpower supply/demand in general aviation. Eight job categories were examined: pilots, flight instructors, engineers, machinists/toolers, and A&P, airframe, and avionics technicians. Findings among others indicate that shortages in indicated job categories exist because personnel are recruited by other industries.…

  14. PNNL Aviation Biofuels

    SciTech Connect

    Plaza, John; Holladay, John; Hallen, Rich

    2014-10-23

    Commercial airplanes really don’t have the option to move away from liquid fuels. Because of this, biofuels present an opportunity to create new clean energy jobs by developing technologies that deliver stable, long term fuel options. The Department of Energy’s Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is working with industrial partners on processes to convert biomass to aviation fuels.

  15. General Aviation Manpower Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feller, Richard

    1982-01-01

    Highlights a study examining manpower supply/demand in general aviation. Eight job categories were examined: pilots, flight instructors, engineers, machinists/toolers, and A&P, airframe, and avionics technicians. Findings among others indicate that shortages in indicated job categories exist because personnel are recruited by other industries.…

  16. Metrics for Aviation Electronics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Gloria S., Ed.; Magisos, Joel H., Ed.

    Designed to meet the job-related metric measurement needs of aviation electronics students, this instructional package is one of four for the transportation occupations cluster, part of a set of 55 packages for metric instruction in different occupations. The package is intended for students who already know the occupational terminology,…

  17. Collegiate Aviation Review, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carney, Thomas Q., Ed.; Luedtke, Jacqueline R., Ed.; Johnson, Jeffrey A., Ed.

    1999-01-01

    This document, published annually, contains six papers devoted to aviation education. "Enhancing Global Competitiveness: Benchmarking Airline Operational Performance in Highly Regulated Environments" (Brent D. Bowen, Dean Headley, Karisa D. Kane, Rebecca K. Lutte) outlines a model to help policymakers and others evaluate the effects of…

  18. Aviation and Space News

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-06-24

    demonstrated at Jingmen City, where the campers also visited a hydroplane and boarded a China-made Y-5 airplane to have a bird’s-eye view of the city in the rain...Mansion of Yellow Crane). Lectures on the history of aviation, the MiG fighters, military transports, hydroplanes , balloons and blimps were given to the

  19. Collegiate Aviation Review, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carney, Thomas Q., Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This issue contains these 12 papers: "Exploring the Viability of an Organizational Readiness Assessment for Participatory Management Programs in a Passenger Airline Carrier" (Al Bellamy); "Teaching the Pilots of the New Millennium: Adult Cooperative Education in Aviation Education" (Joseph F. Clark, III); "The Transfer of…

  20. Politics of aviation fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vivent, Jacques

    1922-01-01

    In short, the "politics of aviation" lies in a few propositions: the need of having as large a number of fields as possible and of sufficient area; the utilization of the larger part of the existing military fields; the selection of uncultivated or unproductive fields, whenever technical conditions permit; ability to disregard (save in exceptional cases) objections of an agricultural nature.

  1. Collegiate Aviation Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehrer, Henry R., Ed.

    This document contains five research papers devoted to aviation education and training. The first paper, "An Examination of the U.S. Airline Policy Regarding Child Restraint Systems" (Larry Carstenson, Donald Sluti, and Jacqueline Luedtke), examines communication of airline policy from airline management to airline personnel to the…

  2. Aviation Forecasting in ICAO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcmahon, J.

    1972-01-01

    Opinions or plans of qualified experts in the field are used for forecasting future requirements for air navigational facilities and services of international civil aviation. ICAO periodically collects information from Stators and operates on anticipated future operations, consolidates this information, and forecasts the future level of activity at different airports.

  3. Synthetic and Biomass Alternate Fueling in Aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, R. C.; Bushnell, D. M.

    2009-01-01

    While transportation fueling can accommodate a broad range of alternate fuels, aviation fueling needs are specific, such as the fuel not freezing at altitude or become too viscous to flow properly or of low bulk energy density that shortens range. The fuel must also be compatible with legacy aircraft, some of which are more than 50 years old. Worldwide, the aviation industry alone uses some 85-95 billion gallons of hydrocarbon-based fossil fuel each year, which is about 10% of the transportation industry. US civil aviation alone consumes nearly 14 billion gallons. The enormity of the problem becomes overwhelming, and the aviation industry is taking alternate fueling issues very seriously. Biofuels (algae, cyanobacteria, halophytes, weeds that use wastelands, wastewater and seatwater), when properly sourced, have the capacity to be drop-in fuel replacements for petroleum fuels. As such, biojet from such sources solves the aviation CO2 emissions issue without the downsides of 'conventional' biofuels, such as competing with food and fresh water resources. Of the many current fundamental problems, the major biofuel problem is cost. Both research and development and creative engineering are required to reduce these biofuels costs. Research is also ongoing in several 'improvement' areas including refining/processing and biologics with greater disease resistance, greater bio-oil productivity, reduced water/nutrient requirements, etc. The authors' current research is aimed at aiding industry efforts in several areas. They are considering different modeling approaches, growth media and refining approaches, different biologic feedstocks, methods of sequestering carbon in the processes, fuel certification for aviation use and, overall, ensuring that biofuels are feasible from all aspects - operability, capacity, carbon cycle and financial. The authors are also providing common discussion grounds/opportunities for the various parties, disciplines and concerned organization to

  4. Guidelines for Federal Aviation Administration Regional Aviation Education Coordinators and Aviation Education Facilitators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strickler, Mervin K., Jr.

    This publication is designed to provide both policy guidance and examples of how to work with various constituencies in planning and carrying out appropriate Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) aviation education activities. Information is provided on the history of aerospace/aviation education, FAA educational materials, aerospace/aviation…

  5. Fulminant high altitude blindness.

    PubMed

    Mashkovskiy, Evgeny; Szawarski, Piotr; Ryzhkov, Pavel; Goslar, Tomaz; Mrak, Irena

    2016-06-01

    Prolonged altitude exposure even with acclimatization continues to present a physiological challenge to all organ systems including the central nervous system. We describe a case of a 41-year-old Caucasian female climber who suffered severe visual loss that was due to possible optic nerve pathology occurring during a high altitude expedition in the Himalayas. This case is atypical of classic high altitude cerebral oedema and highlights yet another danger of prolonged sojourn at extreme altitudes. © International Society of Travel Medicine, 2016. All rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. [Tuberculosis in Romania between 2006-2008].

    PubMed

    Marica, Constantin; Chiotan, Domnica; Didilescu, Cristian; Popescu-Hagen, Mara; Tănăsescu, Mihaela; Galie, Nicolae

    2009-01-01

    The high level of TB incidence places Romania among first places in Europe and on the first place in European Union; in the last years a slowly, but hopefully descending trend can be observed (from 114.2 per hundred thousand in 2006 to 109.8 per hundred thousand in 2007 and 108 per hundred thousand in 2008). TB incidence in children has also decreased from 31.6 per hundred thousand in 2006 to 30.8 per hundred thousand in 2007 and 28.5 per hundred thousand in 2008. TB mortality decreased to 7.8 per hundred thousand in 2006 and 7.4 per hundred thousand in 2007. Every year, 800 cases with MDR TB are notified in Romania. The results obtained in the cohort of new patients with pulmonary SS(+) tuberculosis: the success rate reached in 2003 was 79.5% and 83.9% in 2006. The success rate was greater in pulmonary patients confirmed by culture: 82% in 2003 and 85.5% in 2006. In conclusion, the results of NTP implementation in Romania, reflected by the evolution of the principal epidemio-metrical indicators (decrease of the global incidence, TB incidence at children, TB mortality and increase of therapeutical successes) confirms the TB control activities efficacy.

  7. Corporate Social Responsibility in Aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, Edwin D.

    2006-01-01

    The dialog within aviation management education regarding ethics is incomplete without a discussion of corporate social responsibility (CSR). CSR research requires discussion involving: (a) the current emphasis on CSR in business in general and aviation specifically; (b) business and educational theory that provide a basis for aviation companies to engage in socially responsible actions; (c) techniques used by aviation and aerospace companies to fulfill this responsibility; and (d) a glimpse of teaching approaches used in university aviation management classes. The summary of this research suggests educators explain CSR theory and practice to students in industry and collegiate aviation management programs. Doing so extends the discussion of ethical behavior and matches the current high level of interest and activity within the aviation industry toward CSR.

  8. Experimental Characterization of Gas Turbine Emissions at Simulated Flight Altitude Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, R. P.; Wormhoudt, J. C.; Whitefield, P. D.

    1996-01-01

    NASA's Atmospheric Effects of Aviation Project (AEAP) is developing a scientific basis for assessment of the atmospheric impact of subsonic and supersonic aviation. A primary goal is to assist assessments of United Nations scientific organizations and hence, consideration of emissions standards by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO). Engine tests have been conducted at AEDC to fulfill the need of AEAP. The purpose of these tests is to obtain a comprehensive database to be used for supplying critical information to the atmospheric research community. It includes: (1) simulated sea-level-static test data as well as simulated altitude data; and (2) intrusive (extractive probe) data as well as non-intrusive (optical techniques) data. A commercial-type bypass engine with aviation fuel was used in this test series. The test matrix was set by parametrically selecting the temperature, pressure, and flow rate at sea-level-static and different altitudes to obtain a parametric set of data.

  9. Aviation Particle Emissions Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wey, Chowen C. (Editor)

    2004-01-01

    The Aviation Particle Emissions Workshop was held on November 18 19, 2003, in Cleveland, Ohio. It was sponsored by the National Aeronautic and Space Administration (NASA) under the Vehicle Systems Program (VSP) and the Ultra- Efficient Engine Technology (UEET) Project. The objectives were to build a sound foundation for a comprehensive particulate research roadmap and to provide a forum for discussion among U.S. stakeholders and researchers. Presentations included perspectives from the Federal Aviation Administration, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, NASA, and United States airports. There were five interactive technical sessions: sampling methodology, measurement methodology, particle modeling, database, inventory and test venue, and air quality. Each group presented technical issues which generated excellent discussion. The five session leads collaborated with their members to present summaries and conclusions to each content area.

  10. PNNL Aviation Biofuels

    ScienceCinema

    Plaza, John; Holladay, John; Hallen, Rich

    2016-07-12

    Commercial airplanes really don’t have the option to move away from liquid fuels. Because of this, biofuels present an opportunity to create new clean energy jobs by developing technologies that deliver stable, long term fuel options. The Department of Energy’s Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is working with industrial partners on processes to convert biomass to aviation fuels.

  11. Aviation Noise Effects,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-03-01

    included , ,.,-,;. 17 e18 . Distribution StatementA rcrafe, aviation, noise, annoyance, This document is available to the public helicopter, sleep, speech...measurement of real-ear protection of hearing protectors and physical attenuation of earmuffs. ANSI/ ASTM E336-77 (1977): Standard test method for...measurement of airborne sound insulation in buildings. ANSI/ ASTM E413-73 (1980): Standard classification for sound transmission class. ANSI/SAE ARP1071

  12. Fatigue in aviation.

    PubMed

    Caldwell, John A

    2005-05-01

    Pilot fatigue is a significant, but often under-reported problem in both civilian and military aviation operations. Although estimates vary, official statistics indicate that fatigue is involved in at least 4-8% of aviation mishaps, and surveys of pilots and aircrew members reveal that fatigue is an important concern throughout today's 24/7 flight operations. Regulatory efforts aimed at limiting flight hours and ensuring at least minimal periods of crew rest have to some extent mitigated fatigue-related difficulties in the cockpit, but it is clear that much remains to be done about this insidious threat to air safety. Scheduling factors, sleep deprivation, circadian disruptions, and extended duty periods continue to challenge the alertness and performance levels of both short-haul and long-haul pilots and crews. Solutions for these problems are not straightforward, but they can be developed through the cooperative efforts of scientists, regulators, managers, and the pilots themselves. Over the past 20 years, scientific understanding of human sleep, fatigue, and circadian rhythms has expanded considerably. The thorough integration of this new knowledge into modern crew-resource management practices will facilitate the establishment of optimal crew scheduling routines and the implementation of valid aviation fatigue countermeasures.

  13. [The exposure of man to altitude when flying: from Paul Bert to today].

    PubMed

    Marotte, Henri

    2006-01-01

    This paper is organised around Paul Bert's inputs to modern aviation physiology. Paul Bert gave a masterly historical work, which established the notion of oxygen partial pressure as the right physiological parameter for the body. Human protection against aviation altitude takes this notion into account, by modifying either the pressure surrounding the body or the oxygen fraction in inhaled gases. We also consider the case of protection against accidental loss of aircraft pressurization.

  14. Cosmic radiation in commercial aviation.

    PubMed

    Bagshaw, Michael

    2008-05-01

    This paper reviews the current knowledge of cosmic radiation and its applicability to commercial aviation. Galactic cosmic radiation emanates from outside the solar system, while occasionally a disturbance in the suns' atmosphere leads to a surge in radiation particles. Protection is provided by the suns' magnetic field, the earths' magnetic field, and the earths' atmosphere. Dose rates are dependent on the altitude, the geomagnetic latitude and the solar cycle. For occupational exposure to ionising radiation, which includes aircrew, the International Commission on Radiological Protection recommends maximum mean body effective dose limits of 20mSv/yr (averaged over 5 years, with a maximum in any 1 year of 50mSv). Radiation doses can be measured during flight or may be calculated using a computer-modelling program such as CARI, EPCARD, SIEVERT or PCAIRE. Mean ambient equivalent dose rates are consistently reported in the region of 4-5microSv/h for long-haul pilots and 1-3microSv/h for short-haul, giving an annual mean effective exposure of the order 2-3mSv for long-haul and 1-2mSv for short-haul pilots. Epidemiological studies of flight crew have not shown conclusive evidence for any increase in cancer mortality or cancer incidence directly attributable to ionising radiation exposure. Whilst there is no level of radiation exposure below which effects do not occur, current evidence indicates that the probability of airline crew or passengers suffering adverse health effects as a result of exposure to cosmic radiation is very low.

  15. Simulated 2050 aviation radiative forcing from contrails and aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chih-Chieh; Gettelman, Andrew

    2016-06-01

    The radiative forcing from aviation-induced cloudiness is investigated by using the Community Atmosphere Model Version 5 (CAM5) in the present (2006) and the future (through 2050). Global flight distance is projected to increase by a factor of 4 between 2006 and 2050. However, simulated contrail cirrus radiative forcing in 2050 can reach 87 mW m-2, an increase by a factor of 7 from 2006, and thus does not scale linearly with fuel emission mass. This is due to non-uniform regional increase in air traffic and different sensitivities for contrail radiative forcing in different regions. CAM5 simulations indicate that negative radiative forcing induced by the indirect effect of aviation sulfate aerosols on liquid clouds in 2050 can be as large as -160 mW m-2, an increase by a factor of 4 from 2006. As a result, the net 2050 radiative forcing of contrail cirrus and aviation aerosols may have a cooling effect on the planet. Aviation sulfate aerosols emitted at cruise altitude can be transported down to the lower troposphere, increasing the aerosol concentration, thus increasing the cloud drop number concentration and persistence of low-level clouds. Aviation black carbon aerosols produce a negligible net forcing globally in 2006 and 2050 in this model study. Uncertainties in the methodology and the modeling are significant and discussed in detail. Nevertheless, the projected percentage increase in contrail radiative forcing is important for future aviation impacts. In addition, the role of aviation aerosols in the cloud nucleation processes can greatly influence on the simulated radiative forcing from aircraft-induced cloudiness and even change its sign. Future research to confirm these results is necessary.

  16. Dental fractures on acute exposure to high altitude.

    PubMed

    Zadik, Yehuda; Einy, Shmuel; Pokroy, Russell; Bar Dayan, Yaron; Goldstein, Liav

    2006-06-01

    There is little in the literature on dental restoration breakage in the aviation environment since reports of problems in combat aviators in War World II. We report two cases of dental fractures during acute exposure to a hypobaric environment. Case 1 was a young officer who suffered an amalgam restoration breakage during a 25,000-ft decompression chamber simulation. Case 2 occurred in an experienced aviator who had a tooth cusp fracture in a molar with a defective amalgam restoration during an unpressurized helicopter flight to 18,000 ft. In both cases, after removing the defective fillings, deep secondary caries were found; both teeth were successfully restored. Because hard-tissue tooth fracture during a high-altitude flight is a rare event, few flight surgeons or dentists are familiar with this phenomenon. We recommend regular dental examinations with careful assessment of previous dental restorations in aircrew subject to decompression.

  17. Considerations of high altitude emissions. [from supersonic cruise aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broderick, A. J.; Krull, N. P.

    1976-01-01

    The status of the Federal Aviation Administration's High Altitude Pollution Program is described which was instituted to develop the detailed quantitative information needed to judge whether or not regulatory action to limit such exhaust emissions would be necessary. The complexities of this question and the nature and magnitude of uncertainties still present in our scientific understanding of the potential interactions between aircraft exhaust emissions and stratospheric ozone and climate are reviewed. The direction and scope of future Federal and international activities are described.

  18. Aircraft Survivability: Survivability in The Low Altitude Regime, Summer 2009

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    Lower Explosive Limit and Ullage Combustion Reactions by Mark Couch and Vincent Volpe Aviation jet fuels are typically a complex blend of paraffinic...War on Terror at low altitude, while preparing for the next major conflict. 30 The Educator’s Corner—Single Hit Vulnerable Areaby Mark Couch Welcome...Rich Huffman from the Air Force Institute of Technology, and Dr. Mark Couch from the Institute for Defense Analyses. Because many of our readers may

  19. Use of alcohol and drugs with addiction potential among older women and men in a population-based study. The Nord-Trøndelag Health Study 2006-2008 (HUNT3).

    PubMed

    Tevik, Kjerstin; Selbæk, Geir; Engedal, Knut; Seim, Arnfinn; Krokstad, Steinar; Helvik, Anne-S

    2017-01-01

    Little is known about the consumption habits of older adults in Norway with respect to alcohol and the use of drugs with addiction potential, such as benzodiazepines, z-hypnotics and opioids, among regular drinkers. We studied the prevalence of self-reported consumption of alcohol on a regular basis in community-living older men and women (≥ 65 years). Furthermore, we investigated the prevalence of dispensed prescribed drugs with addiction potential in older men and women who were regular drinkers. We used data from the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study 2006-2008 (HUNT3). Of 12,361 older adults in the HUNT3 study, 11,545 had answered the alcohol consumption item and were included in our study. Regular drinkers were defined as consuming alcohol one or more days a week. Data on dispensed drugs with addiction potential were drawn from the Norwegian Prescription Database. Addiction potential was defined as at least one prescription for benzodiazepines, z-hypnotics or opioids during one year for a minimum of two consecutive years. In total 28.2% of older Norwegian adults were regular drinkers. Men in the study were more likely to be regular drinkers than women. Drugs with addiction potential were used by 32.4% of participants, and were more commonly used by women. Nearly 12% of participants used benzodiazepines, 19% z-hypnotics and 12.4% opioids. Among regular drinkers, 29% used drugs with addiction potential, which was also more common among women. Adjusted for age, gender and living situation, use of z-hypnotics was associated with regular alcohol intake, while use of opioids was associated with no regular alcohol intake. The prevalence of the use of drugs with addiction potential was high in a Norwegian population of older adults who reported regular consumption of alcohol. Strategies should be developed to reduce or prevent alcohol consumption among older adults who use drugs with addiction potential.

  20. The Future of Green Aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Dr. Edwards'presentation provides an overview of aviation's economic impact in the U.S. including aviation's impact on environment and energy. The presentation discusses NASA's contributions to the advancement of commercial aircraft design highlighting the technology drivers and recent technology advancements for addressing community noise, energy efficiency and emissions. The presentation concludes with a preview of some of NASA's integrated systems solutions, such as novel aircraft concepts and advancements in propulsion that will enable the future of more environmentally compatible aviation.

  1. Bolden at Aviation High School

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-01-16

    Austin McHenry, a student at Aviation High School, introduces himself at a lunch and learn session with NASA Administrator Charles Bolden, Tuesday, Jan. 15, 2013 in Des Moines, WA. Aviation High School is a college preparatory aviation- and aerospace-themed school and a premier school of choice for science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) in the Pacific Northwest. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  2. Bolden at Aviation High School

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-01-16

    Aviation High School student, Katie McConville, introduces herself at a lunch and learn session with NASA Administrator Charles Bolden, Tuesday, Jan. 15, 2013 in Des Moines, WA. Aviation High School is a college preparatory aviation- and aerospace-themed school and a premier school of choice for science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) in the Pacific Northwest. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  3. Bolden at Aviation High School

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-01-16

    Chris Lu (third from left), a student at Aviation High School, asks a question at a lunch and learn session with NASA Administrator Charles Bolden, Tuesday, Jan. 15, 2013 in Des Moines, WA. Aviation High School is a college preparatory aviation- and aerospace-themed school and a premier school of choice for science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) in the Pacific Northwest. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  4. NASA aviation safety reporting system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    During the second quarter of the Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) operation, 1,497 reports were received from pilots, controllers, and others in the national aviation system. Details of the administration and results of the program to date are presented. Examples of alert bulletins disseminated to the aviation community are presented together with responses to those bulletins. Several reports received by ASRS are also presented to illustrate the diversity of topics covered by reports to the system.

  5. Technical highlights in general aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stickle, J. W.

    1977-01-01

    Improvements in performance, safety, efficiency, and emissions control in general aviation craft are reviewed. While change is slow, the U.S. industries still account for the bulk (90%) of the world's general aviation fleet. Advances in general aviation aerodynamics, structures and materials, acoustics, avionics, and propulsion are described. Supercritical airfoils, drag reduction design, stall/spin studies, crashworthiness and passenger safety, fiberglass materials, flight noise abatement, interior noise and vibration reduction, navigation systems, quieter and cleaner (reciprocating, turboprop, turbofan) engines, and possible benefits of the Global Position Satellite System to general aviation navigation are covered in the discussion. Some of the developments are illustrated.

  6. Suggestions for Popularizing Civil Aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1926-01-01

    The public generally is taking very little interest in the progress of Civil Aviation, and the time has come to educate the public in aeronautics and to make them realize the far-reaching importance of air transport. Briefly, the whole problem resolves itself into discovering and applying means for bringing some of the many aspects and effects of civil aviation into the everyday lives of the public. The report suggests three principal groups of methods: (1) Bring aviation into daily contact with the public. (2) Bring the public into daily contact with aviation. (3) General publicity.

  7. Contributive factors to aviation accidents.

    PubMed

    Fajer, Marcia; Almeida, Ildeberto Muniz de; Fischer, Frida Marina

    2011-04-01

    The objective of the study was to compare the results of aviation accident analyses performed by the Center for Investigation and Prevention of Aviation Accidents (CENIPA) with the method Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS). The final reports of thirty-six general aviation accidents occurring between 2000 and 2005 in the State of São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil were analyzed and compared. CENIPA reports mentioned 163 contributive factors, while HFACS identified 370 factors. It was concluded that CENIPA reports did not contemplate the organizational factors associated with aviation accidents.

  8. General Aviation Task Force report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    General aviation is officially defined as all aviation except scheduled airlines and the military. It is the only air transportation to many communities throughout the world. In order to reverse the recent decline in general aviation aircraft produced in the United States, the Task Force recommends that NASA provide the expertise and facilities such as wind tunnels and computer codes for aircraft design. General aviation manufacturers are receptive to NASA's innovations and technological leadership and are expected to be effective users of NASA-generated technologies.

  9. General aviation avionics equipment maintenance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, C. D.; Tommerdahl, J. B.

    1978-01-01

    Maintenance of general aviation avionics equipment was investigated with emphasis on single engine and light twin engine general aviation aircraft. Factors considered include the regulatory agencies, avionics manufacturers, avionics repair stations, the statistical character of the general aviation community, and owners and operators. The maintenance, environment, and performance, repair costs, and reliability of avionics were defined. It is concluded that a significant economic stratification is reflected in the maintenance problems encountered, that careful attention to installations and use practices can have a very positive impact on maintenance problems, and that new technologies and a general growth in general aviation will impact maintenance.

  10. Agricultural aviation medicine in the Soviet Union.

    PubMed

    Mohler, S R

    1980-05-01

    The Soviet Union has developed one of the world's most sophisticated civil aviation medicine programs. The program gives specific attention to aerial application operations and includes special preflight pilot medical examinations, aircraft with specialized protective airflow systems for the pilots, minimum flight altitude spraying limit of 5 m, and the use of a "chemical log book" by each pilot in addition to the flight log book. These and additional steps--i.e. limiting a pilot's daily agricultural flights to 4-6 h--have led to a reported USSR agricultural aviation annual accident rate near zero. The Soviet workhorse aircraft, the Antonov AN-2, can serve multipurpose roles since, when not used for application flights, it can be rapidly converted to executive, courier, cargo, or air taxi, or air ambulance use. A new, single-engine turbojet biplane, the Polish M-15, is undergoing evaluation in the Soviet Union as a replacement for the AN-2. Countries with very high agricultural aircraft accident rates may wish to study the Soviet approach, especially the use by the pilot of a chemical log book.

  11. Fatigue countermeasures in aviation.

    PubMed

    Caldwell, John A; Mallis, Melissa M; Caldwell, J Lynn; Paul, Michel A; Miller, James C; Neri, David F

    2009-01-01

    Pilot fatigue is a significant problem in modern aviation operations, largely because of the unpredictable work hours, long duty periods, circadian disruptions, and insufficient sleep that are commonplace in both civilian and military flight operations. The full impact of fatigue is often underappreciated, but many of its deleterious effects have long been known. Compared to people who are well-rested, people who are sleep deprived think and move more slowly, make more mistakes, and have memory difficulties. These negative effects may and do lead to aviation errors and accidents. In the 1930s, flight time limitations, suggested layover durations, and aircrew sleep recommendations were developed in an attempt to mitigate aircrew fatigue. Unfortunately, there have been few changes to aircrew scheduling provisions and flight time limitations since the time they were first introduced, despite evidence that updates are needed. Although the scientific understanding of fatigue, sleep, shift work, and circadian physiology has advanced significantly over the past several decades, current regulations and industry practices have in large part failed to adequately incorporate the new knowledge. Thus, the problem of pilot fatigue has steadily increased along with fatigue-related concerns over air safety. Accident statistics, reports from pilots themselves, and operational flight studies all show that fatigue is a growing concern within aviation operations. This position paper reviews the relevant scientific literature, summarizes applicable U.S. civilian and military flight regulations, evaluates various in-flight and pre-/postflight fatigue countermeasures, and describes emerging technologies for detecting and countering fatigue. Following the discussion of each major issue, position statements address ways to deal with fatigue in specific contexts with the goal of using current scientific knowledge to update policy and provide tools and techniques for improving air safety.

  12. Entrepreneurship within General Aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ullmann, Brian M.

    1995-01-01

    Many modern economic theories place great importance upon entrepreneurship in the economy. Some see the entrepreneur as the individual who bears risk of operating a business in the face of uncertainty about future conditions and who is rewarded through profits and losses. The 20th century economist Joseph Schumpter saw the entrepreneur as the medium by which advancing technology is incorporated into society as businesses seek competitive advantages through more efficient product development processes. Due to the importance that capitalistic systems place upon entrepreneurship, it has become a well studied subject with many texts to discuss how entrepreneurs can succeed in modern society. Many entrepreneuring and business management courses go so far as to discuss the characteristic phases and prominent challenges that fledgling companies face in their efforts to bring a new product into a competitive market. However, even with all of these aids, start-up companies fail at an enormous rate. Indeed, the odds of shepherding a new company through the travails of becoming a well established company (as measured by the ability to reach Initial Public Offering (IPO)) have been estimated to be six in 1,000,000. Each niche industry has characteristic challenges which act as barriers to entry for new products into that industry. Thus, the applicability of broad generalizations is subject to limitations within niche markets. This paper will discuss entrepreneurship as it relates to general aviation. The goals of this paper will be to: introduce general aviation; discuss the details of marrying entrepreneurship with general aviation; and present a sample business plan which would characterize a possible entrepreneurial venture.

  13. Alternative aviation turbine fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grobman, J.

    1977-01-01

    The efficient utilization of fossil fuels by future jet aircraft may necessitate the broadening of current aviation turbine fuel specifications. The most significant changes in specifications would be an increased aromatics content and a higher final boiling point in order to minimize refinery energy consumption and costs. These changes would increase the freezing point and might lower the thermal stability of the fuel and could cause increased pollutant emissions, increased smoke and carbon formation, increased combustor liner temperatures, and poorer ignition characteristics. This paper discusses the effects that broadened specification fuels may have on present-day jet aircraft and engine components and the technology required to use fuels with broadened specifications.

  14. Alternative aviation turbine fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grobman, J.

    1977-01-01

    The efficient utilization of fossil fuels by future jet aircraft may necessitate the broadening of current aviation turbine fuel specifications. The most significant changes in specifications would be an increased aromatics content and a higher final boiling point in order to minimize refinery energy consumption and costs. These changes would increase the freezing point and might lower the thermal stability of the fuel and could cause increased pollutant emissions, increased smoke and carbon formation, increased combustor liner temperatures, and poorer ignition characteristics. This paper discusses the effects that broadened specification fuels may have on present-day jet aircraft and engine components and the technology required to use fuels with broadened specifications.

  15. General aviation technology assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, I. D.

    1975-01-01

    The existing problem areas in general aviation were investigated in order to identify those which can benefit from technological payoffs. The emphasis was placed on acceptance by the pilot/passenger in areas such as performance, safety, handling qualities, ride quality, etc. Inputs were obtained from three sectors: industry; government; and user, although slanted toward the user group. The results should only be considered preliminary due to the small sample sizes of the data. Trends are evident however and a general methodology for allocating effort in future programs is proposed.

  16. Aviation Officer Requirements Study.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-08-31

    In the dynamics of the planning process, when potential force level changes are fre- quent, these computations are tedious and subject to error . Since...was tedious and subject to both computational and entry errors . The current ver- sion of the model corrects this deficiency. The Aviation Officer...k.N )) ,iFY(Fr\\) ,NniALT c nTn ,TIVP.W £-430 PROJ3 = POS-:(PRn1 Z=m4m) f-440 PROC, = Pnr3(PrOnf2="-) E.4! - INI T (1-F(20) )TR(PrOFL,. 137> C,460 = TIPO

  17. Aviation Safety Simulation Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houser, Scott; Yackovetsky, Robert (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Aviation Safety Simulation Model is a software tool that enables users to configure a terrain, a flight path, and an aircraft and simulate the aircraft's flight along the path. The simulation monitors the aircraft's proximity to terrain obstructions, and reports when the aircraft violates accepted minimum distances from an obstruction. This model design facilitates future enhancements to address other flight safety issues, particularly air and runway traffic scenarios. This report shows the user how to build a simulation scenario and run it. It also explains the model's output.

  18. High altitude illness

    PubMed

    Hartman-Ksycińska, Anna; Kluz-Zawadzka, Jolanta; Lewandowski, Bogumił

    High-altitude illness is a result of prolonged high-altitude exposure of unacclimatized individuals. The illness is seen in the form of acute mountain sickness (AMS) which if not treated leads to potentially life-threatening high altitude pulmonary oedema and high-altitude cerebral oedema. Medical problems are caused by hypobaric hypoxia stimulating hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) release. As a result, the central nervous system, circulation and respiratory system function impairment occurs. The most important factor in AMS treatment is acclimatization, withdrawing further ascent and rest or beginning to descent; oxygen supplementation, and pharmacological intervention, and, if available, a portable hyperbaric chamber. Because of the popularity of high-mountain sports and tourism better education of the population at risk is essential.

  19. Demonstration Aids for Aviation Education [National Aviation Education Workshop].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Aviation Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    This manual, compiled by a Committee of the Curriculum Laboratory of the Civil Air Patrol, contains 105 demonstrations and activities which can be used to introduce the elementary student to the properties of air as related to aviation, what makes airplanes fly, and the role of weather in aviation. (CP)

  20. Endurance training at altitude.

    PubMed

    Saunders, Philo U; Pyne, David B; Gore, Christopher J

    2009-01-01

    Since the 1968 Olympic Games when the effects of altitude on endurance performance became evident, moderate altitude training ( approximately 2000 to 3000 m) has become popular to improve competition performance both at altitude and sea level. When endurance athletes are exposed acutely to moderate altitude, a number of physiological responses occur that can comprise performance at altitude; these include increased ventilation, increased heart rate, decreased stroke volume, reduced plasma volume, and lower maximal aerobic power ((.)Vo(2max)) by approximately 15% to 20%. Over a period of several weeks, one primary acclimatization response is an increase in the volume of red blood cells and consequently of (.)Vo(2max). Altitudes > approximately 2000 m for >3 weeks and adequate iron stores are required to elicit these responses. However, the primacy of more red blood cells for superior sea-level performance is not clear-cut since the best endurance athletes in the world, from Ethiopia (approximately 2000 to 3000 m), have only marginally elevated hemoglobin concentrations. The substantial reduction in (.)Vo(2max) of athletes at moderate altitude implies that their training should include adequate short-duration (approximately 1 to 2 min), high-intensity efforts with long recoveries to avoid a reduction in race-specific fitness. At the elite level, athlete performance is not dependent solely on (.)Vo(2max), and the "smallest worthwhile change" in performance for improving race results is as little as 0.5%. Consequently, contemporary statistical approaches that utilize the concept of the smallest worthwhile change are likely to be more appropriate than conventional statistical methods when attempting to understand the potential benefits and mechanisms of altitude training.

  1. Altitude and endurance training.

    PubMed

    Rusko, Heikki K; Tikkanen, Heikki O; Peltonen, Juha E

    2004-10-01

    The benefits of living and training at altitude (HiHi) for an improved altitude performance of athletes are clear, but controlled studies for an improved sea-level performance are controversial. The reasons for not having a positive effect of HiHi include: (1) the acclimatization effect may have been insufficient for elite athletes to stimulate an increase in red cell mass/haemoglobin mass because of too low an altitude (< 2000-2200 m) and/or too short an altitude training period (<3-4 weeks); (2) the training effect at altitude may have been compromised due to insufficient training stimuli for enhancing the function of the neuromuscular and cardiovascular systems; and (3) enhanced stress with possible overtraining symptoms and an increased frequency of infections. Moreover, the effects of hypoxia in the brain may influence both training intensity and physiological responses during training at altitude. Thus, interrupting hypoxic exposure by training in normoxia may be a key factor in avoiding or minimizing the noxious effects that are known to occur in chronic hypoxia. When comparing HiHi and HiLo (living high and training low), it is obvious that both can induce a positive acclimatization effect and increase the oxygen transport capacity of blood, at least in 'responders', if certain prerequisites are met. The minimum dose to attain a haematological acclimatization effect is > 12 h a day for at least 3 weeks at an altitude or simulated altitude of 2100-2500 m. Exposure to hypoxia appears to have some positive transfer effects on subsequent training in normoxia during and after HiLo. The increased oxygen transport capacity of blood allows training at higher intensity during and after HiLo in subsequent normoxia, thereby increasing the potential to improve some neuromuscular and cardiovascular determinants of endurance performance. The effects of hypoxic training and intermittent short-term severe hypoxia at rest are not yet clear and they require further study.

  2. CAT altitude avoidance system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gary, B. L. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    A method and apparatus are provided for indicating the altitude of the tropopause or of an inversion layer wherein clear air turbulence (CAT) may occur, and the likely severity of any such CAT, includes directing a passive microwave radiometer on the aircraft at different angles with respect to the horizon. The microwave radiation measured at a frequency of about 55 GHz represents the temperature of the air at an ""average'' range of about 3 kilometers, so that the sine of the angle of the radiometer times 3 kilometers equals the approximate altitude of the air whose temperature is measured. A plot of altitude (with respect to the aircraft) versus temperature of the air at that altitude, can indicate when an inversion layer is present and can indicate the altitude of the tropopause or of such an inversion layer. The plot can also indicate the severity of any CAT in an inversion layer. If CAT has been detected in the general area, then the aircraft can be flown at an altitude to avoid the tropopause or inversion layer.

  3. High Altitude Pilgrimage Medicine

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Religious pilgrims have been going to high altitude pilgrimages long before trekkers and climbers sojourned in high altitude regions, but the medical literature about high altitude pilgrimage is sparse. Gosainkunda Lake (4300 m) near Kathmandu, Nepal, and Shri Amarnath Yatra (3800 m) in Sri Nagar, Kashmir, India, are the two sites in the Himalayas from where the majority of published reports of high altitude pilgrimage have originated. Almost all travels to high altitude pilgrimages are characterized by very rapid ascents by large congregations, leading to high rates of acute mountain sickness (AMS). In addition, epidemiological studies of pilgrims from Gosainkunda Lake show that some of the important risk factors for AMS in pilgrims are female sex and older age group. Studies based on the Shri Amarnath Yatra pilgrims show that coronary artery disease, complications of diabetes, and peptic ulcer disease are some of the common, important reasons for admission to hospital during the trip. In this review, the studies that have reported these and other relevant findings will be discussed and appropriate suggestions made to improve pilgrims' safety at high altitude. PMID:25330393

  4. Aviation Pilot Training II. Task Analyses: [Year II.] Field Review Copy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Upchurch, Richard

    This guide for aviation pilot II training begins with a course description, resource information, and a course outline. Tasks/competencies are categorized into 10 concept/duty areas: understanding aircraft staffs and procedures for safe recovery; understanding procedures for constant altitude turns; understanding procedures for traffic pattern…

  5. 78 FR 41183 - Federal Aviation Administration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Meeting: RTCA Program Management Committee AGENCY: Federal Aviation.... Paige Williams, Management Analyst, NextGen, Business Operations Group, Federal Aviation...

  6. 75 FR 22352 - Aviation Service Rules

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-28

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 87 Aviation Service Rules AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Proposed... the Federal Communications Commission we address pending issues regarding certain Aviation Service... Telecommunications and Information Administration (NTIA), and supported by the Federal Aviation Administration...

  7. 78 FR 13395 - Federal Aviation Administration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-27

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Notice of Availability of Draft Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act (ANILCA) Section 810 Subsistence Evaluation. AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA... Aviation Administration, Airports Division, 222 West 7th Avenue, Box 14, Anchorage, AK 99513. 5....

  8. 77 FR 64837 - Federal Aviation Administration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-23

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Fourth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 227, Standards of Navigation Performance AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION... 15, 2012. Kathy Hitt, Management Analyst, Business Operations Group, Federal Aviation...

  9. General Aviation Data Framework

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blount, Elaine M.; Chung, Victoria I.

    2006-01-01

    The Flight Research Services Directorate at the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) provides development and operations services associated with three general aviation (GA) aircraft used for research experiments. The GA aircraft includes a Cessna 206X Stationair, a Lancair Colombia 300X, and a Cirrus SR22X. Since 2004, the GA Data Framework software was designed and implemented to gather data from a varying set of hardware and software sources as well as enable transfer of the data to other computers or devices. The key requirements for the GA Data Framework software include platform independence, the ability to reuse the framework for different projects without changing the framework code, graphics display capabilities, and the ability to vary the interfaces and their performance. Data received from the various devices is stored in shared memory. This paper concentrates on the object oriented software design patterns within the General Aviation Data Framework, and how they enable the construction of project specific software without changing the base classes. The issues of platform independence and multi-threading which enable interfaces to run at different frame rates are also discussed in this paper.

  10. Aviation Communications Emulation Testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheehe, Charles; Mulkerin, Tom

    2004-01-01

    Aviation related applications that rely upon datalink for information exchange are increasingly being developed and deployed. The increase in the quantity of applications and associated data communications will expose problems and issues to resolve. NASA s Glenn Research Center has prepared to study the communications issues that will arise as datalink applications are employed within the National Airspace System (NAS) by developing an aviation communications emulation testbed. The Testbed is evolving and currently provides the hardware and software needed to study the communications impact of Air Traffic Control (ATC) and surveillance applications in a densely populated environment. The communications load associated with up to 160 aircraft transmitting and receiving ATC and surveillance data can be generated in realtime in a sequence similar to what would occur in the NAS. The ATC applications that can be studied are the Aeronautical Telecommunications Network s (ATN) Context Management (CM) and Controller Pilot Data Link Communications (CPDLC). The Surveillance applications are Automatic Dependent Surveillance - Broadcast (ADS-B) and Traffic Information Services - Broadcast (TIS-B).

  11. Some Aviation Growth Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spearman, M. Leroy

    2002-01-01

    The growth of aviation since the first flight of a heavier-than-air powered manned vehicle in 1903 has been somewhat remarkable. Some of the events that have influenced this growth are reviewed in this paper. This review will include some events prior to World War I; the influence of the war itself; the events during the post-war years including the establishment of aeronautical research laboratories; and the influence of World War II which, among other things, introduced new technologies that included rocket and jet propulsion and supersonic aerodynamics. The subsequent era of aeronautical research and the attendant growth in aviation over the past half century will be reviewed from the view point of the author who, since 1944, has been involved in the NACA/NASA aeronautical research effort at what is now the Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia. The review will discuss some of the research programs related to the development of some experimental aircraft, the Century series of fighter aircraft, multi-mission aircraft, advanced military aircraft and missiles, advanced civil aircraft, supersonic transports, spacecraft and others.

  12. Global Civil Aviation Black Carbon Particle Mass and Number Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stettler, M. E. J.

    2015-12-01

    Black carbon (BC) is a product of incomplete combustion emitted by aircraft engines. In the atmosphere, BC particles strongly absorb incoming solar radiation and influence cloud formation processes leading to highly uncertain, but likely net positive warming of the earth's atmosphere. At cruise altitude, BC particle number emissions can influence the concentration of ice nuclei that can lead to contrail formation, with significant and highly uncertainty climate impacts. BC particles emitted by aircraft engines also degrade air quality in the vicinity of airports and globally. A significant contribution to the uncertainty in environmental impacts of aviation BC emissions is the uncertainty in emissions inventories. Previous work has shown that global aviation BC mass emissions are likely to have been underestimated by a factor of three. In this study, we present an updated global BC particle number inventory and evaluate parameters that contribute to uncertainty using global sensitivity analysis techniques. The method of calculating particle number from mass utilises a description of the mobility of fractal aggregates and uses the geometric mean diameter, geometric standard deviation, mass-mobility exponent, primary particle diameter and material density to relate the particle number concentration to the total mass concentration. Model results show good agreement with existing measurements of aircraft BC emissions at ground level and at cruise altitude. It is hoped that the results of this study can be applied to estimate direct and indirect climate impacts of aviation BC emissions in future studies.

  13. Aerospace/Aviation Science Occupations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of Occupational Education.

    The guide was developed to provide secondary students the opportunity to study aviation and aerospace education from the conceptual and career approach coupled with general education specifically related to science. Unit plans were prepared to motivate, develop skills, and offer counseling to the students of aviation science and occupational…

  14. Portraying Careers Awareness in Aviation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckingham, Roy A.; Amato, Vincent

    1980-01-01

    Discusses the purpose of the half-day program at Indiana State University which provides some notion of careers available in the aviation industry focusing on the professional pilot career. It utilizes the simulators and aviation teaching materials within the Aerospace Department's inventory to help orient college-bound high school students to…

  15. Aviation Weather Information Requirements Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keel, Byron M.; Stancil, Charles E.; Eckert, Clifford A.; Brown, Susan M.; Gimmestad, Gary G.; Richards, Mark A.; Schaffner, Philip R. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Aviation Safety Program (AvSP) has as its goal an improvement in aviation safety by a factor of 5 over the next 10 years and a factor of 10 over the next 20 years. Since weather has a big impact on aviation safety and is associated with 30% of all aviation accidents, Weather Accident Prevention (WxAP) is a major element under this program. The Aviation Weather Information (AWIN) Distribution and Presentation project is one of three projects under this element. This report contains the findings of a study conducted by the Georgia Tech Research Institute (GTRI) under the Enhanced Weather Products effort, which is a task under AWIN. The study examines current aviation weather products and there application. The study goes on to identify deficiencies in the current system and to define requirements for aviation weather products that would lead to an increase in safety. The study also provides an overview the current set of sensors applied to the collection of aviation weather information. New, modified, or fused sensor systems are identified which could be applied in improving the current set of weather products and in addressing the deficiencies defined in the report. In addition, the study addresses and recommends possible sensors for inclusion in an electronic pilot reporting (EPIREP) system.

  16. Overcoming Stereotypes: Women in Aviation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parrish, Beth; Lea, Luanne

    1991-01-01

    Analyzes how certain traits became associated with women in aviation. Uses media of popular culture to compare prevailing cultural misconceptions to the reality of research studies and personal experiences. Offers four recommendations to dispel myths and to encourage more women to participate in rewarding nontraditional careers in aviation. (NB)

  17. Portraying Careers Awareness in Aviation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckingham, Roy A.; Amato, Vincent

    1980-01-01

    Discusses the purpose of the half-day program at Indiana State University which provides some notion of careers available in the aviation industry focusing on the professional pilot career. It utilizes the simulators and aviation teaching materials within the Aerospace Department's inventory to help orient college-bound high school students to…

  18. [Heliogeophysical factors and aviation accidents].

    PubMed

    Komarov, F I; Oraevskiĭ, V N; Sizov, Iu P; Tsirul'nik, L B; Kanonidi, Kh D; Ushakov, I B; Shalimov, P M; Kimlyk, M V; Glukhov, D V

    1998-01-01

    It was shown by two independent methods that there is a certain correlation between the number of aviation accidents and heliogeophysical factors. The statistical and spectral analyses of time series of heliogeomagnetic factors and the number of aviation accidents in 1989-1995 showed that, of 216 accidents, 58% are related to sudden geomagnetic storms. A similar relation was revealed for aviation catastrophes (64% out of 86 accidents) and emergencies (54% out of 130 accidents) that coincided in time with heliogeomagnetic storms. General periodicities of the series were revealed by the method of spectral analysis, namely, cycles of 30, 42, 46, 64, 74, 83, 99, 115, 143, 169, 339 days, which confirms the causative relation between the number of aviation accidents and heliogeomagnetic factors. It is assumed that some aviation accidents that coincided in time with geomagnetic storms, are due to changes in professional abilities of pilots that were in the zone of storms.

  19. Quality factor of secondary cosmic radiation at flight altitudes.

    PubMed

    Burda, O; Sato, T; Wissmann, F

    2013-06-01

    Dosimetry at aviation altitudes requires instruments that are able to measure the dose contributions of all field components. Tissue-equivalent proportional counters (TEPCs) are well suited for this task. From the measured lineal energy distribution, the absorbed dose and the dose equivalent can be obtained. The ratio of both quantities is named the quality factor, which is a measure of the biological effectiveness of the radiation field. The results of this work show that the mean quality factors obtained by using a TEPC are independent of the altitude, at least at altitudes between flight level (FL) 300 and FL 400, but show a significant dependence on the vertical cutoff rigidity. From a numerical simulation of the radiation field inside an aircraft, the influence of the aircraft structure can be shown.

  20. Altitude Modulates Concussion Incidence

    PubMed Central

    Smith, David W.; Myer, Gregory D.; Currie, Dustin W.; Comstock, R. Dawn; Clark, Joseph F.; Bailes, Julian E.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Recent research indicates that the volume and/or pressure of intracranial fluid, a physiology affected by one’s altitude (ie, elevation above sea level), may be associated with the likelihood and/or severity of a concussion. The objective was to employ an epidemiological field investigation to evaluate the relationship between altitude and concussion rate in high school sports. Hypothesis: Because of the physiologies that occur during acclimatization, including a decline in intracranial compliance (a “tighter fit”), increased altitude may be related to a reduction in concussion rates in high school athletes. Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: Data on concussions and athlete exposures (AEs) between 2005-2006 and 2011-2012 were obtained from a large national sample of high schools (National High School Sports-Related Injury Surveillance System [High School RIO]) and were used to calculate total, competition, and practice concussion rates for aggregated sports and for football only. Results: Altitude of participating schools ranged from 7 to 6903 ft (median, 600 ft), and a total of 5936 concussions occurred in 20,618,915 exposures (2.88 per 10,000 AEs). When concussion rates were dichotomized by altitude using the median, elevated altitude was associated with a reduction in concussion rates overall (rate ratio [RR], 1.31; P < .001), in competition (RR, 1.31; P < .001), and in practice (RR, 1.29; P < .001). Specifically, high school sports played at higher altitude demonstrated a 31% reduction (95% confidence interval [CI], 25%-38%) in the incidence of total reported concussions. Likewise, concussion rates at increased altitude were reduced 30% for overall exposures, 27% for competition exposures, and 28% for practice exposures in football players (P < .001). Conclusion: The results of this epidemiological investigation indicate increased physiological responses to altitude may be associated with a reduction in sports

  1. High Altitude Medical Problems

    PubMed Central

    Hultgren, Herbert N.

    1979-01-01

    Increased travel to high altitude areas by mountaineers and nonclimbing tourists has emphasized the clinical problems associated with rapid ascent. Acute mountain sickness affects most sojourners at elevations above 10,000 feet. Symptoms are usually worse on the second or third day after arrival. Gradual ascent, spending one to three days at an intermediate altitude, and the use of acetazolamide (Diamox) will prevent or ameliorate symptoms in most instances. Serious and potentially fatal problems, such as high altitude pulmonary edema or cerebral edema, occur in approximately 0.5 percent to 1.0 percent of visitors to elevations above 10,000 feet—especially with heavy physical exertion on arrival, such as climbing or skiing. Early recognition, high flow oxygen therapy and prompt descent are crucially important in management. Our knowledge of the causes of these and other high altitude problems, such as retinal hemorrhage, systemic edema and pulmonary hypertension, is still incomplete. Even less is known of the effect of high altitudes on medical conditions common at sea level or on the action of commonly used drugs. ImagesFigure 2. PMID:483805

  2. High-altitude medicine

    PubMed Central

    Paralikar, Swapnil J.; Paralikar, Jagdish H.

    2010-01-01

    Sojourns to high altitude have become common for recreation and adventure purposes. In most individuals, gradual ascent to a high altitude leads to a series of adaptive changes in the body, termed as acclimatization. These include changes in the respiratory, cardiovascular, hematologic systems and cellular adaptations that enhance oxygen delivery to the tissues and augment oxygen uptake. Thus there is an increase in pulmonary ventilation, increase in diffusing capacity in the lung, an increase in the cardiac output and increase in the red blood cell count due to an increase in erythropoietin secretion by the kidney, all of which enhance oxygen delivery to the cells. Cellular changes like increase in the number of mitochondria and augmentation of cytochrome oxidase systems take months or years to develop. Too rapid an ascent or inability to acclimatize leads to high-altitude illnesses. These include acute mountain sickness (AMS), high-altitude cerebral edema (HACE) and high-altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE). Acute mountain sickness is self limiting if recognized early. Both HACE and HAPE are life threatening and need to be treated aggressively. The key to treatment of these illnesses is early recognition; administration of supplemental oxygen; and descent if required. Drugs like acetazolamide, dexamethasone, nifedipine may be administered as recommended. PMID:20808661

  3. 75 FR 60493 - Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee; Renewal

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-30

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee; Renewal AGENCY: Federal Aviation... Regulations, the FAA gives notice it has renewed the Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee (ARAC) for a 2..., Executive Director, Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee. BILLING CODE 4910-13-P...

  4. 78 FR 72141 - Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-02

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee; Meeting AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee (ARAC) meeting. SUMMARY: The... December 12, 2013. ADDRESSES: The meeting will take place at the Federal Aviation Administration,...

  5. 78 FR 34139 - Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-06

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee; Meeting AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee (ARAC) meeting. SUMMARY: The... 13, 2013. ADDRESSES: The meeting will take place at the Federal Aviation Administration,...

  6. Safer Aviation Materials Tested

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palaszewski, Bryan A.

    2001-01-01

    A series of thermally stable polymer samples were tested. These materials are called low heat release materials and are designed for aircraft interior decorative materials. The materials are designed to give off a minimum amount of noxious gases when heated, which increases the possibility that people can escape from a burning aircraft. New cabin materials have suitably low heat release so that fire does not spread, toxic chemicals are not given off, and the fire-emergency escape time for crew and passengers is lengthened. These low heat-release materials have a variety of advantages and applications: interiors for ground-based facilities, interiors of space vehicles, and many commercial fire-protection environments. A microscale combustion calorimeter at the Federal Aviation Administration's (FAA) Technical Center tested NASA Langley Research Center materials samples. The calorimeter is shown. A sharp, quantitative, and reproducible heat-release-rate peak is obtained in the microscale heat-release-rate test. The newly tested NASA materials significantly reduced the heat release capacity and total heat release. The thermal stability and flammability behavior of the samples was very good. The new materials demonstrated a factor of 4 reduction in total heat release over ULTEM (a currently used material). This information is provided in the following barchart. In other tests, the materials showed greater than a factor 9 reduction in heat-release capacity over ULTEM. The newly tested materials were developed for low dielectric constant, low color, and good solubility. A scale up of the material samples is needed to determine the repeatability of the performance in larger samples. Larger panels composed of the best candidate materials will be tested in a larger scale FAA Technical Center fire facility. The NASA Glenn Research Center, Langley (Jeff Hinkley), and the FAA Technical Center (Richard Lyon) cooperatively tested these materials for the Accident Mitigation

  7. Environmentally safe aviation fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liberio, Patricia D.

    1995-01-01

    In response to the Air Force directive to remove Ozone Depleting Chemicals (ODC's) from military specifications and Defense Logistics Agency's Hazardous Waste Minimization Program, we are faced with how to ensure a quality aviation fuel without using such chemicals. Many of these chemicals are found throughout the fuel and fuel related military specifications and are part of test methods that help qualify the properties and quality of the fuels before they are procured. Many years ago there was a directive for military specifications to use commercially standard test methods in order to provide standard testing in private industry and government. As a result the test methods used in military specifications are governed by the American Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM). The Air Force has been very proactive in the removal or replacement of the ODC's and hazardous materials in these test methods. For example, ASTM D3703 (Standard Test Method for Peroxide Number of Aviation Turbine Fuels), requires the use of Freon 113, a known ODC. A new rapid, portable hydroperoxide test for jet fuels similar to ASTM D3703 that does not require the use of ODC's has been developed. This test has proved, in limited testing, to be a viable substitute method for ASTM D3703. The Air Force is currently conducting a round robin to allow the method to be accepted by ASTM and therefore replace the current method. This paper will describe the Air Force's initiatives to remove ODC's and hazardous materials from the fuel and fuel related military specifications that the Air Force Wright Laboratory.

  8. Ash cloud aviation advisories

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, T.J.; Ellis, J.S.; Schalk, W.W.; Nasstrom, J.S.

    1992-06-25

    During the recent (12--22 June 1991) Mount Pinatubo volcano eruptions, the US Air Force Global Weather Central (AFGWC) requested assistance of the US Department of Energy`s Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) in creating volcanic ash cloud aviation advisories for the region of the Philippine Islands. Through application of its three-dimensional material transport and diffusion models using AFGWC meteorological analysis and forecast wind fields ARAC developed extensive analysis and 12-hourly forecast ash cloud position advisories extending to 48 hours for a period of five days. The advisories consisted of ``relative`` ash cloud concentrations in ten layers (surface-5,000 feet, 5,000--10,000 feet and every 10,000 feet to 90,000 feet). The ash was represented as a log-normal size distribution of 10--200 {mu}m diameter solid particles. Size-dependent ``ashfall`` was simulated over time as the eruption clouds dispersed. Except for an internal experimental attempt to model one of the Mount Redoubt, Alaska, eruptions (12/89), ARAC had no prior experience in modeling volcanic eruption ash hazards. For the cataclysmic eruption of 15--16 June, the complex three-dimensional atmospheric structure of the region produced dramatically divergent ash cloud patterns. The large eruptions (> 7--10 km) produced ash plume clouds with strong westward transport over the South China Sea, Southeast Asia, India and beyond. The low-level eruptions (< 7 km) and quasi-steady-state venting produced a plume which generally dispersed to the north and east throughout the support period. Modeling the sequence of eruptions presented a unique challenge. Although the initial approach proved viable, further refinement is necessary and possible. A distinct need exists to quantify eruptions consistently such that ``relative`` ash concentrations relate to specific aviation hazard categories.

  9. NASA aviation safety reporting system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    An analytical study of reports relating to cockpit altitude alert systems was performed. A recent change in the Federal Air Regulation permits the system to be modified so that the alerting signal approaching altitude has only a visual component; the auditory signal would continue to be heard if a deviation from an assigned altitude occurred. Failure to observe altitude alert signals and failure to reset the system were the commonest cause of altitude deviations related to this system. Cockpit crew distraction was the most frequent reason for these failures. It was noted by numerous reporters that the presence of altitude alert system made them less aware of altitude; this lack of altitude awareness is discussed. Failures of crew coordination were also noted. It is suggested that although modification of the altitude alert system may be highly desirable in short-haul aircraft, it may not be desirable for long-haul aircraft in which cockpit workloads are much lower for long periods of time. In these cockpits, the aural alert approaching altitudes is perceived as useful and helpful. If the systems are to be modified, it appears that additional emphasis on altitude awareness during recurrent training will be necessary; it is also possible that flight crew operating procedures during climb and descent may need examination with respect to monitoring responsibilities. A selection of alert bulletins and responses to them is presented.

  10. 75 FR 18047 - Amendment of Low Altitude Area Navigation Route T-254; Houston, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-09

    ... Route T-254; Houston, TX AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action amends low altitude Area Navigation (RNAV) route T-254 in the Houston, TX, terminal area by... the College Station, TX, VORTAC. The FAA is taking this action to eliminate a portion of T-254 that...

  11. Space Station Freedom altitude strategy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdonald, Brian M.; Teplitz, Scott B.

    1990-01-01

    The Space Station Freedom (SSF) altitude strategy provides guidelines and assumptions to determine an altitude profile for Freedom. The process for determining an altitude profile incorporates several factors such as where the Space Shuttle will rendezvous with the SSF, when reboosts must occur, and what atmospheric conditions exist causing decay. The altitude strategy has an influence on all areas of SSF development and mission planning. The altitude strategy directly affects the micro-gravity environment for experiments, propulsion and control system sizing, and Space Shuttle delivery manifests. Indirectly the altitude strategy influences almost every system and operation within the Space Station Program. Evolution of the SSF altitude strategy has been a very dynamic process over the past few years. Each altitude strategy in turn has emphasized a different consideration. Examples include a constant Space Shuttle rendezvous altitude for mission planning simplicity, or constant micro-gravity levels with its inherent emphasis on payloads, or lifetime altitudes to provide a safety buffer to loss of control conditions. Currently a new altitude strategy is in development. This altitude strategy will emphasize Space Shuttle delivery optimization. Since propellant is counted against Space Shuttle payload-to-orbit capacity, lowering the rendezvous altitude will not always increase the net payload-to-orbit, since more propellant would be required for reboost. This altitude strategy will also consider altitude biases to account for Space Shuttle launch slips and an unexpected worsening of atmospheric conditions. Safety concerns will define a lower operational altitude limit, while radiation levels will define upper altitude constraints. The evolution of past and current SSF altitude strategies and the development of a new altitude strategy which focuses on operational issues as opposed to design are discussed.

  12. Agricultural aviation user requirement priorities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaplan, R. L.; Meeland, T.; Peterson, J. E.

    1977-01-01

    The results are given of a research project pertaining to the development of agricultural aviation user requirement priorities. The raw data utilized in the project was obtained from the National Agricultural Aviation Association. A specially configured poll, developed by the Actuarial Research Corporation was used to solicit responses from NAAA members and others. The primary product of the poll is the specification of seriousness as determined by the respondents for some selected agricultural aviation problem areas identified and defined during the course of an intensive analysis by the Actuarial Research Corporation.

  13. Choroidal Nevi in USAF Aviators

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-12-01

    choroidal neovescularizs- tion. Figure 2. Distribution of choroidal nevus in the fundus. 3 None of the aviators had any defect in visual acuity, stereopsis ...I1DT IC F-1LEw COP Y USAFSAM-TP-89-1 1 CHOROIDAL NEVI IN USAF AVIATORS AD-A233 042 Daniel L. Vandivort, Second Lieutenant, USAF Thomas J. Tredici...COVERED I Dec 1990 Interim 88/06-89/06 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE S. FUNDING NUMBERS Choroidal Nevi in USAF Aviators PE 62202F PR 7755 6. AUTHOR(S) TA 24 WU 02

  14. Experimental characterization of gas turbine emissions at simulated flight altitude conditions. Final report, January 1995-April 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Howard, R.P.; Wormhoudt, J.C.; Whitefield, P.D.

    1996-09-01

    NASA`s Atmospheric Effects of Aviation Project (AEAP) is developing a scientific basis for assessment of the atmospheric impact of subsonic and supersonic aviation. A primary goal is to assist assessments of United Nations scientific organizations and hence, consideration of emissions standards by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO). Engine tests have been conducted at AEDC to fulfill the need of AEAP. The purpose of these tests is to obtain a comprehensive database to be used for supplying critical information to the atmospheric research community. It includes (1) simulated sea-level-static test data as well as simulated altitude data; and (2) intrusive (extractive probe) data as well as non-intrusive (optical techniques) data. A commercial-type bypass engine with aviation fuel was used in this test series. The test matrix was set by parametrically selecting the temperature, pressure, and flow rate at sea-level-static and different altitudes to obtain a parametric set of data.

  15. A Guide To Aviation Education Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Coalition for Aviation Education, Washington, DC.

    This guide to aviation education resources was compiled by the National Coalition for Aviation Education (NCAE) which represents government, industry, and labor. NCAE's mission is to: (1) promote aviation education activities and resources; (2) increase public understanding of the importance of aviation; and (3) support educational initiatives at…

  16. Aviation. Career Focus, Volume 3, No. 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese, Susan

    2001-01-01

    This special section on aviation careers describes the programs of Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University, the Metro Tech Aviation Career Campus in Oklahoma City, the Aviation Technology Center at Vincennes University in Indianapolis, and the Miami-Dade Community College's Eig-Watson School of Aviation. (JOW)

  17. Aviation. Career Focus, Volume 3, No. 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese, Susan

    2001-01-01

    This special section on aviation careers describes the programs of Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University, the Metro Tech Aviation Career Campus in Oklahoma City, the Aviation Technology Center at Vincennes University in Indianapolis, and the Miami-Dade Community College's Eig-Watson School of Aviation. (JOW)

  18. A Hypermedia Information System for Aviation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartzell, Karin M.

    The Hypermedia Information System (HIS) is being developed under the auspices of the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Office of Aviation Medicine's (AAM) Human Factors in Aviation Maintenance (HFAM) research program. The goal of the hypermedia project is to create new tools and methods for aviation-related information storage and retrieval.…

  19. Anaerobic performance at altitude.

    PubMed

    Coudert, J

    1992-10-01

    Anaerobic metabolism is usually evaluated by the determination of the anaerobic capacity and the maximal anaerobic mechanical external power (Wmax). Conflicting results are reported on anaerobic capacity evaluated by maximal oxygen deficit and debt, and maximal blood lactate concentration during acute or chronic hypoxia (acclimatized subjects). Data on muscle biopsies (lactate concentration, changes in ATP, phosphocreatine and glycogen stores, glycolytic enzyme activities) and the few studies on lactate flux give in most cases evidence of a non-alteration of the anaerobic capacity for altitudes up to 5,500 m. No differences are observed in Wmax measured at high altitudes up to 5,200 m during intense short-term exercises: (1) jumps on a force platform which is a good indicator of alactic Wmax, and (2) 7-10 s sprints (i.e. force-velocity test) which solicit alactic metabolism but also lactic pathway. For exercises of duration equal or more than 30 s (i.e. Wingate test), there are conflicting results because a lower participation of aerobic metabolism during this test at high altitude can interfere with anaerobic performance. In conclusion, we can admit that anaerobic performances are not altered by high altitudes up to 5,200 m if the length of exposure does not exceed 5 weeks. After this period, muscle mass begins to decrease.

  20. 75 FR 60163 - The Future of Aviation Advisory Committee (FAAC) Aviation Safety Subcommittee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-29

    ... Office of the Secretary of Transportation The Future of Aviation Advisory Committee (FAAC) Aviation... of Transportation. ACTION: The Future of Aviation Advisory Committee (FAAC): Aviation Safety... Transportation, announces a meeting of the FAAC Aviation Safety Subcommittee, which will be held October 19,...

  1. 75 FR 44998 - The Future of Aviation Advisory Committee (FAAC) Aviation Safety Subcommittee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-30

    ...-OST-2010-0074] The Future of Aviation Advisory Committee (FAAC) Aviation Safety Subcommittee; Notice.... ACTION: The Future of Aviation Advisory Committee (FAAC): Aviation Safety Subcommittee; Notice of meeting... meeting of the FAAC Aviation Safety Subcommittee, which will be held August 24, 2010, in Chicago,...

  2. 76 FR 17347 - Aviation Communications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Parts 1, 2 and 87 Aviation Communications AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: In this document, the Federal Communications Commission (Commission or...

  3. 78 FR 6276 - Aviation Communications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 87 Aviation Communications AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Proposed rules. SUMMARY: In this document, the Federal Communications Commission (Commission) invites comment...

  4. 78 FR 61203 - Aviation Services

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 87 Aviation Services AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: In this document, the Federal Communications Commission (Commission) amends its rules...

  5. Accelerating to New Aviation Horizons

    NASA Image and Video Library

    NASA has a 10-year plan to accelerate aviation research that includes the design, build and flight of a series of piloted X-planes -- experimental aircraft -- which will test advanced technologies ...

  6. General Aviation Aircraft Reliability Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pettit, Duane; Turnbull, Andrew; Roelant, Henk A. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This reliability study was performed in order to provide the aviation community with an estimate of Complex General Aviation (GA) Aircraft System reliability. To successfully improve the safety and reliability for the next generation of GA aircraft, a study of current GA aircraft attributes was prudent. This was accomplished by benchmarking the reliability of operational Complex GA Aircraft Systems. Specifically, Complex GA Aircraft System reliability was estimated using data obtained from the logbooks of a random sample of the Complex GA Aircraft population.

  7. Volcanic hazards and aviation safety

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Casadevall, Thomas J.; Thompson, Theodore B.; Ewert, John W.; ,

    1996-01-01

    An aeronautical chart was developed to determine the relative proximity of volcanoes or ash clouds to the airports and flight corridors that may be affected by volcanic debris. The map aims to inform and increase awareness about the close spatial relationship between volcanoes and aviation operations. It shows the locations of the active volcanoes together with selected aeronautical navigation aids and great-circle routes. The map mitigates the threat that volcanic hazards pose to aircraft and improves aviation safety.

  8. PRCC Aviation Students

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne's Jeff Hansell, right, explains functions of a space shuttle main engine to Pearl River Community College Aviation Maintenance Technology Program students. Christopher Bryon, left, of Bay St. Louis, Ret Tolar of Kiln, Dan Holston of Baxterville and Billy Zugg of Long Beach took a recent tour of the SSME Processing Facility and the E-1 Test Complex at Stennis Space Center in South Mississippi. The students attend class adjacent to the Stennis International Airport tarmac in Kiln, where they get hands-on experience. PRCC's program prepares students to be responsible for the inspection, repair and maintenance of technologically advanced aircraft. A contractor to NASA, Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne in Canoga Park, Calif., manufactures the space shuttle main engine and its high-pressure turbo pumps. SSC was established in the 1960s to test the huge engines for the Saturn V moon rockets. Now 40 years later, the center tests every main engine for the space shuttle, and is America's largest rocket engine test complex. SSC will soon begin testing the rocket engines that will power spacecraft carrying Americans back to the moon and on to Mars.

  9. PRCC Aviation Students

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-01-26

    Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne's Jeff Hansell, right, explains functions of a space shuttle main engine to Pearl River Community College Aviation Maintenance Technology Program students. Christopher Bryon, left, of Bay St. Louis, Ret Tolar of Kiln, Dan Holston of Baxterville and Billy Zugg of Long Beach took a recent tour of the SSME Processing Facility and the E-1 Test Complex at Stennis Space Center in South Mississippi. The students attend class adjacent to the Stennis International Airport tarmac in Kiln, where they get hands-on experience. PRCC's program prepares students to be responsible for the inspection, repair and maintenance of technologically advanced aircraft. A contractor to NASA, Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne in Canoga Park, Calif., manufactures the space shuttle main engine and its high-pressure turbo pumps. SSC was established in the 1960s to test the huge engines for the Saturn V moon rockets. Now 40 years later, the center tests every main engine for the space shuttle, and is America's largest rocket engine test complex. SSC will soon begin testing the rocket engines that will power spacecraft carrying Americans back to the moon and on to Mars.

  10. PRCC Aviation Students

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne's Jeff Hansell, right, explains functions of a space shuttle main engine to Pearl River Community College Aviation Maintenance Technology Program students. Christopher Bryon, left, of Bay St. Louis, Ret Tolar of Kiln, Dan Holston of Baxterville and Billy Zugg of Long Beach took a recent tour of the SSME Processing Facility and the E-1 Test Complex at Stennis Space Center in South Mississippi. The students attend class adjacent to the Stennis International Airport tarmac in Kiln, where they get hands-on experience. PRCC's program prepares students to be responsible for the inspection, repair and maintenance of technologically advanced aircraft. A contractor to NASA, Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne in Canoga Park, Calif., manufactures the space shuttle main engine and its high-pressure turbo pumps. SSC was established in the 1960s to test the huge engines for the Saturn V moon rockets. Now 40 years later, the center tests every main engine for the space shuttle, and is America's largest rocket engine test complex. SSC will soon begin testing the rocket engines that will power spacecraft carrying Americans back to the moon and on to Mars.

  11. Proceedings: Annual Workshop on Meteorological and Environmental Inputs to Aviation Systems (5th) Held on 31 March-2 April 1981.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-12-01

    interaction of many dif- I. Introduction. Acid Pain. ferent disciplines . It is much more exciting to talk to people all working in aviation mete...OAW 3 TNESEUIV SPACE ’INST TULLAHOMA F/6 1/2 AcAlIPROCEEDNS9 ANNUAL WORKSHOP ON METEOROLOSUCAL ND ENVIRONT ~A--CTC (U) VCLASSIFIED DCa D CAWFOT NASA...correct. I think Ted Fujita, approach altitude and decision height altitude who is working with me very closely, is really of a potential aircraft approach

  12. Cardiovascular medicine at high altitude.

    PubMed

    Whayne, Thomas F

    2014-07-01

    Altitude physiology began with Paul Bert in 1878. Chronic mountain sickness (CMS) was defined by Carlos Monge in the 1940s in the Peruvian Andes as consisting of excess polycythemia. Hurtado et al performed studies in the Peruvian Andes in the 1950s to 1960s which defined acclimatization in healthy altitude natives, including polycythemia, moderate pulmonary hypertension, and low systemic blood pressure (BP). Electrocardiographic changes of right ventricular hypertrophy (RVH) were noted. Acclimatization of newcomers to altitude involves hyperventilation stimulated by hypoxia and is usually benign. Acute mountain sickness (AMS) in travelers to altitude is characterized by hypoxia-induced anorexia, dyspnea, headache, insomnia, and nausea. The extremes of AMS are high-altitude cerebral edema and high-altitude pulmonary edema. The susceptible high-altitude resident can lose their tolerance to altitude and develop CMS, also referred to as Monge disease. The CMS includes extreme polycythemia, severe RVH, excess pulmonary hypertension, low systemic BP, arterial oxygen desaturation, and hypoventilation.

  13. Ear - blocked at high altitudes

    MedlinePlus

    ... ears; Flying and blocked ears; Eustachian tube dysfunction - high altitude ... to the eardrum) and the back of the nose and upper throat. ... down from high altitudes. Chewing gum the entire time you are ...

  14. Aviation Maintenance Technology. General. G101 Aviation Mathematics and Physics. Instructor Material.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Board of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    These instructor materials for an aviation maintenance technology course contain three instructional modules covering safety, aviation mathematics, and aviation physics. Each module may contain an introduction and module objective, specific objectives, an instructor's module implementation guide, technical information supplements, transparency…

  15. General Aviation: A Stepping Stone to a World Career in Aviation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hulley, Bruce J.

    1999-01-01

    A survey of 27 countries identified private pilot flight-hour requirements, pilot training costs, youth aviation programs, and career information about aviation occupations. The information can be used to motivate young people to enter aviation careers. (JOW)

  16. Aviation Maintenance Technology. General. G101 Aviation Mathematics and Physics. Instructor Material.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Board of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    These instructor materials for an aviation maintenance technology course contain three instructional modules covering safety, aviation mathematics, and aviation physics. Each module may contain an introduction and module objective, specific objectives, an instructor's module implementation guide, technical information supplements, transparency…

  17. General Aviation: A Stepping Stone to a World Career in Aviation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hulley, Bruce J.

    1999-01-01

    A survey of 27 countries identified private pilot flight-hour requirements, pilot training costs, youth aviation programs, and career information about aviation occupations. The information can be used to motivate young people to enter aviation careers. (JOW)

  18. Sensitivity of Regional Radiative Forcing and Temperature Response to Aviation-induced Ozone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lund, M. T.; Fuglestvedt, J. S.; Berntsen, T.

    2015-12-01

    Aviation emissions affect the atmosphere and climate through a number of mechanisms. One important mechanism is the change in ozone budged resulting from emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and other precursor gases. Significant spatial heterogeneity exists in the aviation-induced ozone changes and consequent climate impact, which may have important implications for the design and evaluation of mitigation strategies for the sector. However, further studies are needed to increase the knowledge of regional impacts. This study investigates spatial variability - from emissions to temperature response - of aviation ozone perturbations. Using the AEDT year 2006 and 2050 aviation emission inventory in the chemistry-transport model OsloCTM3, we quantify the radiative forcing (RF) due to regional aviation NOx emissions. In addition to the information provided by RF, there is an increasing need to also quantify the temperature impacts. In order to examine the sensitivity of regional temperature response to aviation-induced ozone perturbations, we perform simulations with the Community Earth System model (CESM). Results are compared to estimates of temperature response calculated using the Regional Temperature change Potential (RTP) metric with aviation RF results from the Aviation Climate Change Research Initiative (ACCRI). Furthermore, we focus in particular on the vertical sensitivity in the ozone forcing-response relationship, especially at higher latitudes where the short-wave component of the ozone RF becomes more important than globally. This also allows for an investigation of potential differences between the temperature response sensitivity to ozone changes caused by aviation emissions and by lower-altitude emissions from other sectors.

  19. A historical overview of stall/spin characteristics of general aviation aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, S. B.

    1978-01-01

    Even today, stall/spin accidents involving general aviation aircraft account for more fatal and serious injuries than any other kind of accident. The classic stall/spin accident is one in which the pilot stalls the aircraft at too low an altitude to affect recovery. The primary attention in the investigation is given to aerodynamic considerations, although it is recognized that human factors and pilot training are also very important aspects of the total problem. A review of some 70 years of flight indicates that incorporation of the proper combination of aerodynamic parameters to provide good stall/spin avoidance has persistently remained an elusive goal for designers of general aviation aircraft.

  20. High altitude diving depths.

    PubMed

    Paulev, Poul-Erik; Zubieta-Calleja, Gustavo

    2007-01-01

    In order to make any sea level dive table usable during high altitude diving, a new conversion factor is created. We introduce the standardized equivalent sea depth (SESD), which allows conversion of the actual lake diving depth (ALDD) to an equivalent sea dive depth. SESD is defined as the sea depth in meters or feet for a standardized sea dive, equivalent to a mountain lake dive at any altitude, such that [image omitted] [image omitted] [image omitted] Mountain lakes contain fresh water with a relative density that can be standardized to 1,000 kg m(-3), and sea water can likewise be standardized to a relative density of 1,033 kg m(-3), at the general gravity of 9.80665 m s(-2). The water density ratio (1,000/1,033) refers to the fresh lake water and the standardized sea water densities. Following calculation of the SESD factor, we recommend the use of our simplified diving table or any acceptable sea level dive table with two fundamental guidelines: 1. The classical decompression stages (30, 20, and 10 feet or 9, 6, and 3 m) are corrected to the altitude lake level, dividing the stage depth by the SESD factor. 2. Likewise, the lake ascent rate during diving is equal to the sea ascent rate divided by the SESD factor.

  1. Cyber threats within civil aviation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heitner, Kerri A.

    Existing security policies in civil aviation do not adequately protect against evolving cyber threats. Cybersecurity has been recognized as a top priority among some aviation industry leaders. Heightened concerns regarding cyber threats and vulnerabilities surround components utilized in compliance with the Federal Aviation Administration's (FAA) Next Generation Air Transportation (NextGen) implementation. Automated Dependent Surveillance-B (ADS-B) and Electronic Flight Bags (EFB) have both been exploited through the research of experienced computer security professionals. Civil aviation is essential to international infrastructure and if its critical assets were compromised, it could pose a great risk to public safety and financial infrastructure. The purpose of this research was to raise awareness of aircraft system vulnerabilities in order to provoke change among current national and international cybersecurity policies, procedures and standards. Although the education of cyber threats is increasing in the aviation industry, there is not enough urgency when creating cybersecurity policies. This project intended to answer the following questions: What are the cyber threats to ADS-B of an aircraft in-flight? What are the cyber threats to EFB? What is the aviation industry's response to the issue of cybersecurity and in-flight safety? ADS-B remains unencrypted while the FAA's mandate to implement this system is rapidly approaching. The cyber threat of both portable and non-portable EFB's have received increased publicity, however, airlines are not responding quick enough (if at all) to create policies for the use of these devices. Collectively, the aviation industry is not being proactive enough to protect its aircraft or airport network systems. That is not to say there are not leaders in cybersecurity advancement. These proactive organizations must set the standard for the future to better protect society and it's most reliable form of transportation.

  2. A Start Toward Micronucleus-Based Decompression Models; Altitude Decompression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Liew, H. D.; Conkin, Johnny

    2007-01-01

    Do gaseous micronuclei trigger the formation of bubbles in decompression sickness (DCS)? Most previous instructions for DCS prevention have been oriented toward supersaturated gas in tissue. We are developing a mathematical model that is oriented toward the expected behavior of micronuclei. The issue is simplified in altitude decompressions because the aviator or astronaut is exposed only to decompression, whereas in diving there is a compression before the decompression. The model deals with four variables: duration of breathing of 100% oxygen before going to altitude (O2 prebreathing), altitude of the exposure, exposure duration, and rate of ascent. Assumptions: a) there is a population of micronuclei of various sizes having a range of characteristics, b) micronuclei are stable until they grow to a certain critical nucleation radius, c) it takes time for gas to diffuse in or out of micronuclei, and d) all other variables being equal, growth of micronuclei upon decompression is more rapid at high altitude because of the rarified gas in the micronuclei. To estimate parameters, we use a dataset of 4,756 men in altitude chambers exposed to various combinations of the model s variables. The model predicts occurrence of DCS symptoms quite well. It is notable that both the altitude chamber data and the model show little effect of O2 prebreathing until it lasts more than 60 minutes; this is in contrast to a conventional idea that the benefit of prebreathing is directly due to exponential washout of tissue nitrogen. The delay in response to O2 prebreathing can be interpreted as time required for outward diffusion of nitrogen; when the micronuclei become small enough, they are disabled, either by crushing or because they cannot expand to a critical nucleation size when the subject ascends to altitude.

  3. Vortex safety in aviation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turchak, L. I.

    2012-10-01

    The objective is the general review of impact of aircraft wake vortices on the follower aircraft encountering the wake. Currently, the presence of wake vortices past aircraft limits the airspace capacity and flight safety level for aircraft of different purposes. However, wake vortex nature and evolution have not been studied in full measure. A mathematical model simulating the process of near wake generation past bodies of different shapes, as well as the wake evolution after rolling-up into wake vortices (far wake) is developed. The processes are suggested to be modeled by means of the Method of Discrete Vortices. Far wake evolution is determined by its complex interaction with the atmosphere and ground boundary layer. The main factors that are supposed to take into account are: wind and ambient turbulence 3Ddistributions, temperature stratification of the atmosphere, wind shear, as well as some others which effects will be manifested as considerable during the investigation. The ground boundary layer effects on wake vortex evolution are substantial at low flight altitudes and are determined through the boundary layer separation.

  4. The Typical General Aviation Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turnbull, Andrew

    1999-01-01

    The reliability of General Aviation aircraft is unknown. In order to "assist the development of future GA reliability and safety requirements", a reliability study needs to be performed. Before any studies on General Aviation aircraft reliability begins, a definition of a typical aircraft that encompasses most of the general aviation characteristics needs to be defined. In this report, not only is the typical general aviation aircraft defined for the purpose of the follow-on reliability study, but it is also separated, or "sifted" into several different categories where individual analysis can be performed on the reasonably independent systems. In this study, the typical General Aviation aircraft is a four-place, single engine piston, all aluminum fixed-wing certified aircraft with a fixed tricycle landing gear and a cable operated flight control system. The system breakdown of a GA aircraft "sifts" the aircraft systems and components into five categories: Powerplant, Airframe, Aircraft Control Systems, Cockpit Instrumentation Systems, and the Electrical Systems. This breakdown was performed along the lines of a failure of the system. Any component that caused a system to fail was considered a part of that system.

  5. Spatial orientation in aviation: visual contributions.

    PubMed

    Regan, D

    1995-01-01

    Misjudgment of spatial orientation is reported to be an important factor in a substantial proportion of aviation accidents. The likelihood of such misjudgment is particularly high when there are conflicting interactions between labyrinthine and visual signals. In a manoeuvering aircraft, visual information is often a crucial factor in the pilot's ability to judge the aircraft's altitude and position with respect to external and terrain features. A body of research evidence supports the following conceptual framework. (1) The human visual system processes a limited number of visual dimensions almost independently of each other (for example, colour, luminance, spatial frequency, orientation, changing size, motion in depth, time to contact). (2) Each of these selective sensitivities shows considerable intersubject variability. (3) Intersubject variability is far from perfectly correlated across the set of selective sensitivities. This paper discusses the relevance of this framework for predicting, first the specific situations in which visual judgments are most likely to occur and, second, which individual pilots are most likely to make the visual misjudgments.

  6. NASA aviation safety reporting system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billings, C. E.; Lauber, J. K.; Funkhouser, H.; Lyman, E. G.; Huff, E. M.

    1976-01-01

    The origins and development of the NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) are briefly reviewed. The results of the first quarter's activity are summarized and discussed. Examples are given of bulletins describing potential air safety hazards, and the disposition of these bulletins. During the first quarter of operation, the ASRS received 1464 reports; 1407 provided data relevant to air safety. All reports are being processed for entry into the ASRS data base. During the reporting period, 130 alert bulletins describing possible problems in the aviation system were generated and disseminated. Responses were received from FAA and others regarding 108 of the alert bulletins. Action was being taken with respect to 70 of the 108 responses received. Further studies are planned of a number of areas, including human factors problems related to automation of the ground and airborne portions of the national aviation system.

  7. Satellite altitude determination uncertainties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siry, J. W.

    1972-01-01

    Satellite altitude determination uncertainties will be discussed from the standpoint of the GEOS-C satellite, from the longer range viewpoint afforded by the Geopause concept. Data are focused on methods for short-arc tracking which are essentially geometric in nature. One uses combinations of lasers and collocated cameras. The other method relies only on lasers, using three or more to obtain the position fix. Two typical locales are looked at, the Caribbean area, and a region associated with tracking sites at Goddard, Bermuda and Canada which encompasses a portion of the Gulf Stream in which meanders develop.

  8. Distributed Aviation Concepts and Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Mark D.

    2008-01-01

    Aviation has experienced one hundred years of evolution, resulting in the current air transportation system dominated by commercial airliners in a hub and spoke infrastructure. While the first fifty years involved disruptive technologies that required frequent vehicle adaptation, the second fifty years produced a stable evolutionary optimization of decreasing costs with increasing safety. This optimization has resulted in traits favoring a centralized service model with high vehicle productivity and cost efficiency. However, it may also have resulted in a system that is not sufficiently robust to withstand significant system disturbances. Aviation is currently facing rapid change from issues such as environmental damage, terrorism threat, congestion and capacity limitations, and cost of energy. Currently, these issues are leading to a loss of service for weaker spoke markets. These catalysts and a lack of robustness could result in a loss of service for much larger portions of the aviation market. The impact of other competing transportation services may be equally important as casual factors of change. Highway system forecasts indicate a dramatic slow down as congestion reaches a point of non-linearly increasing delay. In the next twenty-five years, there is the potential for aviation to transform itself into a more robust, scalable, adaptive, secure, safe, affordable, convenient, efficient and environmentally friendly system. To achieve these characteristics, the new system will likely be based on a distributed model that enables more direct services. Short range travel is already demonstrating itself to be inefficient with a centralized model, providing opportunities for emergent distributed services through air-taxi models. Technologies from the on-demand revolution in computers and communications are now available as major drivers for aviation on-demand adaptation. Other technologies such as electric propulsion are currently transforming the automobile

  9. Distributed Aviation Concepts and Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Mark D.

    2008-01-01

    Aviation has experienced one hundred years of evolution, resulting in the current air transportation system dominated by commercial airliners in a hub and spoke infrastructure. While the first fifty years involved disruptive technologies that required frequent vehicle adaptation, the second fifty years produced a stable evolutionary optimization of decreasing costs with increasing safety. This optimization has resulted in traits favoring a centralized service model with high vehicle productivity and cost efficiency. However, it may also have resulted in a system that is not sufficiently robust to withstand significant system disturbances. Aviation is currently facing rapid change from issues such as environmental damage, terrorism threat, congestion and capacity limitations, and cost of energy. Currently, these issues are leading to a loss of service for weaker spoke markets. These catalysts and a lack of robustness could result in a loss of service for much larger portions of the aviation market. The impact of other competing transportation services may be equally important as casual factors of change. Highway system forecasts indicate a dramatic slow down as congestion reaches a point of non-linearly increasing delay. In the next twenty-five years, there is the potential for aviation to transform itself into a more robust, scalable, adaptive, secure, safe, affordable, convenient, efficient and environmentally friendly system. To achieve these characteristics, the new system will likely be based on a distributed model that enables more direct services. Short range travel is already demonstrating itself to be inefficient with a centralized model, providing opportunities for emergent distributed services through air-taxi models. Technologies from the on-demand revolution in computers and communications are now available as major drivers for aviation on-demand adaptation. Other technologies such as electric propulsion are currently transforming the automobile

  10. General aviation IFR operational problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolz, E. H.; Eisele, J. E.

    1979-01-01

    Operational problems of general aviation IFR operators (particularly single pilot operators) were studied. Several statistical bases were assembled and utilized to identify the more serious problems and to demonstrate their magnitude. These bases include official activity projections, historical accident data and delay data, among others. The GA operating environment and cockpit environment were analyzed in detail. Solutions proposed for each of the problem areas identified are based on direct consideration of currently planned enhancements to the ATC system, and on a realistic assessment of the present and future limitations of general aviation avionics. A coordinated set of research program is suggested which would provide the developments necessary to implement the proposed solutions.

  11. 78 FR 41882 - Airworthiness Directives; Dassault Aviation Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-12

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Dassault Aviation Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM... Aviation Model Falcon 2000 series airplanes. That AD currently requires repetitive operational...

  12. 77 FR 56909 - Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee (ARAC); Renewal

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-14

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee (ARAC); Renewal AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Renewal. SUMMARY: The FAA announces the charter renewal of the Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee (ARAC), a Federal Advisory Committee that works...

  13. FAA Statistical Handbook of Aviation, Calendar Year 1981.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-12-31

    Evanston Aviation Chautauqua Airlines, Inc. Executive Aviation, Inc. Choi Aviation, Inc. Far West Airlines Christman Air System Flamenco Airways, Inc...3 2 ......... Flamenco ALways 2 . ... .. .. 2 ron tier Flying Svc. 5 ---.... . -- .... 5 --- Gifford Aviation. Inc. 4 --- .... 4 ---.. Golden

  14. General aviation components. [performance and capabilities of general aviation aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    An overview is presented of selected aviation vehicles. The capabilities and performance of these vehicles are first presented, followed by a discussion of the aerodynamics, structures and materials, propulsion systems, noise, and configurations of fixed-wing aircraft. Finally the discussion focuses on the history, status, and future of attempts to provide vehicles capable of short-field operations.

  15. Federal Aviation Administration weather program to improve aviation safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wedan, R. W.

    1983-01-01

    The implementation of the National Airspace System (NAS) will improve safety services to aviation. These services include collision avoidance, improved landing systems and better weather data acquisition and dissemination. The program to improve the quality of weather information includes the following: Radar Remote Weather Display System; Flight Service Automation System; Automatic Weather Observation System; Center Weather Processor, and Next Generation Weather Radar Development.

  16. Federal Aviation Administration weather program to improve aviation safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wedan, R. W.

    1983-01-01

    The implementation of the National Airspace System (NAS) will improve safety services to aviation. These services include collision avoidance, improved landing systems and better weather data acquisition and dissemination. The program to improve the quality of weather information includes the following: Radar Remote Weather Display System; Flight Service Automation System; Automatic Weather Observation System; Center Weather Processor, and Next Generation Weather Radar Development.

  17. Aviation Warrant Officer Program and Enlisted Aviator Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-11-01

    Advanced Courses Hours Instructional Segement Purose 4 Enlisted Personnel Procedures for enlisted person- Management nel classification, assignment...way that will provide "aircraft qualified" aviators to operational units. The units would then conduct unit training to support whatever geographic

  18. Brain Food at High Altitude.

    PubMed

    Jain, Vishal

    2016-01-01

    Scenic view at high altitude is a pleasure to the eyes, but it has some shortcoming effects as well. High altitude can be divided into different categories, i.e., high altitude (3000-5000 ft), very high altitude (5000-8000 ft), and extreme altitude (above 8000 ft). Much of the population resides at high altitude, and others go there for tourism. Military personnel are also posted there to defend boundaries. As we ascent to high altitude, partial pressure of oxygen reduces, whereas concentration remains the same; this reduces the availability of oxygen to different body parts. This pathophysiological condition is known as hypobaric hypoxia (HH) which leads to oxidative stress and further causes cognitive dysfunction in some cases. Hypoxia causes neurodegeneration in different brain regions; however, the hippocampus is found to be more prone in comparison to other brain regions. As the hippocampus is affected most, therefore, spatial memory is impaired most during such condition. This chapter will give a brief review of the damaging effect of high altitude on cognition and also throw light on possible herbal interventions at high altitude, which can improve cognitive performance as well as provide protection against the deteriorating effect of hypobaric hypoxia at high altitude.

  19. Aviation Safety Analyst Flies with Blue Angels

    NASA Image and Video Library

    Abegael "Abby" Jakey has aviation in her blood, taking her first flight at six months old in a Globe Swift. Now a contractor with Booz Allen Hamilton, Inc. working for NASA's Aviation Safety Report...

  20. 75 FR 6433 - Federal Aviation Administration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-09

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Notice of Availability of a Draft Environmental Assessment and Public Information Workshop for the Proposed ORD Airport Surveillance Radar, Model 9, West Chicago, IL AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Availability of a Draft...

  1. Aviation Pilot Training I and Aviation Technician I: Task Analyses. Semester I. Field Review Copy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Upchurch, Richard

    This guide for aviation pilot and aviation technician training begins with a course description, resource information, and a course outline. Tasks/competencies are categorized into 10 concept/duty areas: understanding aviation career opportunities; comprehending the history of aviation; understanding classes, categories, and types of aircraft;…

  2. Civil Aviation and Facilities. Aerospace Education II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callaway, R. O.; Elmer, James D.

    This is a revised textbook for use in the Air Force ROTC training program. The main theme of the book is concerned with the kinds of civil aviation facilities and many intricacies involved in their use. The first chapter traces the development of civil aviation and the formation of organizations to control aviation systems. The second chapter…

  3. Civil Aviation and Facilities. Aerospace Education II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orser, N. A.; Glascoff, W. G., III

    This book, which is to be used only in the Air Force ROTC training program, deals with the kinds of civil aviation facilities and the intricacies and procedures of the use of flying. The first chapter traces the development of civil aviation and the formation of organizations to control aviation systems. The second chapter describes varieties of…

  4. Aviation Maintenance Technology. General. Curriculum Implementation Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, John, Jr.; And Others

    This curriculum implementation guide is a scope and sequence for the general section of a course in aviation maintenance technology. The course materials were prepared through a cooperative effort of airframe and powerplant mechanics, general aviation industry representatives, Federal Aviation Administration representatives, and vocational…

  5. 14 CFR Special Federal Aviation... - 2

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false 2 Federal Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 50 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Special Federal Aviation Regulation No....

  6. 14 CFR Special Federal Aviation... - 2

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false 2 Federal Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 100 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Federal Aviation Regulation No. 100-2 Editorial Note: For the text of SFAR No. 100-2, see part 61 of...

  7. 14 CFR Special Federal Aviation... - 2

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false 2 Federal Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 50 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Federal Aviation Regulation No. 50-2 Editorial Note: For the text of SFAR No. 50-2, see part 91 of...

  8. 14 CFR Special Federal Aviation... - 2

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false 2 Federal Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 50 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Federal Aviation Regulation No. 50-2 Editorial Note: For the text of SFAR No. 50-2, see part 91 of...

  9. 14 CFR Special Federal Aviation... - 2

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false 2 Federal Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 100 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS OTHER THAN PILOTS Special Federal Aviation Regulation...

  10. 78 FR 25524 - Federal Aviation Administration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Notice of Request To Release Airport Property AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Intent to Rule on Request to Release Airport Property..., Airports Compliance Specialist, Federal Aviation Administration, Airports Division, ACE- 610C, 901...

  11. 75 FR 12809 - Federal Aviation Administration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-17

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Notice of Intent To Rule on Request To Release Airport Property at the Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport, DFW Airport, Texas AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA... provisions of Section 125 of the Wendell H. Ford Aviation Investment Reform Act for the 21st Century (AIR...

  12. 14 CFR Special Federal Aviation... - 2

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false 2 Federal Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 50 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Federal Aviation Regulation No. 50-2 Editorial Note: For the text of SFAR No. 50-2, see part 91 of...

  13. 14 CFR Special Federal Aviation... - 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false 1 Federal Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 100 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS Special Federal Aviation Regulation...

  14. 14 CFR Special Federal Aviation... - 2

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false 2 Federal Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 100 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS Special Federal Aviation Regulation...

  15. 14 CFR Special Federal Aviation... - 2

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false 2 Federal Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 100 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS Special Federal Aviation Regulation...

  16. 14 CFR Special Federal Aviation... - 2

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false 2 Federal Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 50 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Special Federal Aviation Regulation No....

  17. 14 CFR Special Federal Aviation... - 2

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false 2 Federal Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 100 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS OTHER THAN PILOTS Special Federal Aviation Regulation...

  18. 14 CFR Special Federal Aviation... - 2

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false 2 Federal Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 100 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Federal Aviation Regulation No. 100-2 Editorial Note: For the text of SFAR No. 100-2, see part 61 of...

  19. 14 CFR Special Federal Aviation... - 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false 1 Federal Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 100 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS OTHER THAN PILOTS Special Federal Aviation Regulation...

  20. 14 CFR Special Federal Aviation... - 2

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false 2 Federal Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 50 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Special Federal Aviation Regulation No....

  1. 14 CFR Special Federal Aviation... - 2

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false 2 Federal Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 50 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Federal Aviation Regulation No. 50-2 Editorial Note: For the text of SFAR No. 50-2, see part 91 of...

  2. 14 CFR Special Federal Aviation... - 2

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false 2 Federal Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 50 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Special Federal Aviation Regulation No....

  3. 14 CFR Special Federal Aviation... - 2

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false 2 Federal Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 50 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Federal Aviation Regulation No. 50-2 Editorial Note: For the text of SFAR No. 50-2, see part 91 of...

  4. 14 CFR Special Federal Aviation... - 2

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false 2 Federal Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 50 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Special Federal Aviation Regulation No....

  5. Aviation Maintenance Technology. General. Curriculum Implementation Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, John, Jr.; And Others

    This curriculum implementation guide is a scope and sequence for the general section of a course in aviation maintenance technology. The course materials were prepared through a cooperative effort of airframe and powerplant mechanics, general aviation industry representatives, Federal Aviation Administration representatives, and vocational…

  6. Aviation combustion toxicology: an overview.

    PubMed

    Chaturvedi, Arvind K

    2010-01-01

    Aviation combustion toxicology is a subspecialty of the field of aerospace toxicology, which is composed of aerospace and toxicology. The term aerospace, that is, the environment extending above and beyond the surface of the Earth, is also used to represent the combined fields of aeronautics and astronautics. Aviation is another term interchangeably used with aerospace and aeronautics and is explained as the science and art of operating powered aircraft. Toxicology deals with the adverse effects of substances on living organisms. Although toxicology borrows knowledge from biology, chemistry, immunology, pathology, physiology, and public health, the most closely related field to toxicology is pharmacology. Economic toxicology, environmental toxicology, and forensic toxicology, including combustion toxicology, are the three main branches of toxicology. In this overview, a literature search for the period of 1960-2007 was performed and information related to aviation combustion toxicology collected. The overview included introduction; combustion, fire, and smoke; smoke gas toxicity; aircraft material testing; fire gases and their interactive effects; result interpretation; carboxyhemoglobin and blood cyanide ion levels; pyrolytic products of aircraft engine oils, fluids, and lubricants; and references. This review is anticipated to be an informative resource for aviation combustion toxicology and fire-related casualties.

  7. NASA aviation safety reporting system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The human factors frequency considered a cause of or contributor to hazardous events onboard air carriers are examined with emphasis on distractions. Safety reports that have been analyzed, processed, and entered into the aviation safety reporting system data base are discussed. A sampling of alert bulletins and responses to them is also presented.

  8. International standardization compliance in aviation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spence, Tyler B.

    The commercial aviation industry is global in the sense that passengers travel around the world from destination to destination. It is also global in that the states of the world (countries) regulate the industry domestically and internationally. There is a unique stage where the world comes together to promote aviation, discuss ideas and establish international standards. This stage is the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO). The 191 current member states signed treaties acknowledging their commitment to abiding by the standards and practices established by ICAO. No state is 100 percent compliant with international standards, however, and the purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between the fulfillment of compliance by individual member states and the safety of the commercial aviation industry in terms of fatality rates. Analysis of the results suggested that there is a relationship between compliance and fatalities, as compliance percentage increases the fatality rate decreases. Further analysis indicated the results were statistically significant regardless of the wealth of a state or size of a state's commercial operation.

  9. College Level Aviation Curriculum Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattson, Betty J.

    This document describes a college-level curriculum for airplane pilots that is expected to be available at Muskegon (Michigan) College of Business and Technology in fall 1990. The curriculum offers associate or bachelor degree, college credit for earned flight ratings, private license, transfer credit for other aviation college programs, the…

  10. Aviation Insights: Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deal, Walter F., III

    2005-01-01

    Aviation as people know it today is a mature but very young technology as time goes. Considering that the 100th anniversary of flight was celebrated just a few years ago in 2003, millions of people fly from city to city or from nation to nation and across the oceans and around the world effortlessly and economically. Additionally, they have space…

  11. NASA aviation safety reporting system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Aviation safety reports that relate to loss of control in flight, problems that occur as a result of similar sounding alphanumerics, and pilot incapacitation are presented. Problems related to the go around maneuver in air carrier operations, and bulletins (and FAA responses to them) that pertain to air traffic control systems and procedures are included.

  12. Collegiate Aviation Review. September 1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCoy, C. Elaine, Ed.

    This document contains five papers on aviation education. "Training Considerations for Expert Pilot Decision Making" (Richard J. Adams, Ronald John Lofaro) is a report on research identifying the differences between expert and novice decision makers from a cognitive information processing perspective and correlating the development of expert pilot…

  13. Aviation Insights: Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deal, Walter F., III

    2005-01-01

    Aviation as people know it today is a mature but very young technology as time goes. Considering that the 100th anniversary of flight was celebrated just a few years ago in 2003, millions of people fly from city to city or from nation to nation and across the oceans and around the world effortlessly and economically. Additionally, they have space…

  14. College Level Aviation Curriculum Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattson, Betty J.

    This document describes a college-level curriculum for airplane pilots that is expected to be available at Muskegon (Michigan) College of Business and Technology in fall 1990. The curriculum offers associate or bachelor degree, college credit for earned flight ratings, private license, transfer credit for other aviation college programs, the…

  15. Collegiate Aviation Review. September 1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Ballard M., Ed.

    This document contains two papers on aviation education. "Chief Pilots of Regional Airlines Perceive Basic Instrument Skills as Most Important with Respect to Need for Additional Training of Entry-Level Pilots" (William C. Herrick) reports the results of a study in which 126 (of a population of 197) randomly selected regional airlines' chief…

  16. A concept for a fuel efficient flight planning aid for general aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, B. P.; Haines, A. L.; Wales, C. J.

    1982-01-01

    A core equation for estimation of fuel burn from path profile data was developed. This equation was used as a necessary ingredient in a dynamic program to define a fuel efficient flight path. The resultant algorithm is oriented toward use by general aviation. The pilot provides a description of the desired ground track, standard aircraft parameters, and weather at selected waypoints. The algorithm then derives the fuel efficient altitudes and velocities at the waypoints.

  17. Aviation Epidemiology Data Register: Coronary Angiography Outcomes of Civilian Aviators Flying U.S. Aircraft

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-08-01

    All Army aviators participate in a cardiovascular disease screening program. Five percent of Army aviators are civilian. The U.S. Army Aviation...Center requested a review of cardiovascular disease screening outcomes among this subgroup of aviators. The AEDR was queried to determine the coronary...angiography outcomes of civilian aviators who failed levels 1 and 2 of cardiovascular disease screening program during the period 1988 to 1992. Among 847

  18. Theodor Benzinger, German pioneer in high altitude physiology research and altitude protection.

    PubMed

    Harsch, Viktor

    2007-09-01

    Theodore Benzinger was a pilot-physician who performed pioneering research-often involving self-experimentation-in areas related to flight at high altitude during World War II. Of greatest historical interest to those of us in aerospace medicine is his work on the effects of rapid decompression and related oxygen equipment. Benzinger was born in Stuttgart, Germany, on 28th August 1905. He studied medicine and natural sciences at the universities of Tuebingen, Munich, and Berlin. From 1934 to 1944, Benzinger headed the aeromedical laboratory "EMed" in Rechlin, where he was instrumental in conducting studies related to stratospheric flight, including self-experimentation with rapid decompression up to 19,000 m (62,320 ft). His Rechlin experiments made an important contribution to understanding the physiology and life-support requirements for high-altitude aviation and later work under space-equivalent conditions. Following World War II, Benzinger joined the staff of the U.S. Army Air Force Aeromedical Center in Heidelberg. In 1947 he was recruited by "Operation Paperclip" to work at the U.S. Naval Medical Research Institute (NMRI) in Bethesda, MD, where he worked on various aspects of human physiology. He died as a U.S. citizen in Bethesda, MD, on 26th October 1999.

  19. Infectious Diseases at High Altitude.

    PubMed

    Basnyat, Buddha; Starling, Jennifer M

    2015-08-01

    Travel to elevations above 2,500 m is an increasingly common activity undertaken by a diverse population of individuals. These may be trekkers, climbers, miners in high-altitude sites in South America, and more recently, soldiers deployed for high-altitude duty in remote areas of the world. What is also being increasingly recognized is the plight of the millions of pilgrims, many with comorbidities, who annually ascend to high-altitude sacred areas. There are also 400 million people who reside permanently in high mountain ranges, which cover one-fifth of the Earth's surface. Many of these high-altitude areas are in developing countries, for example, the Himalayan range in South Asia. Although high-altitude areas may not harbor any specific infectious disease agents, it is important to know about the pathogens encountered in the mountains to be better able to help both the ill sojourner and the native high-altitude dweller. Often the same pathogens prevalent in the surrounding lowlands are found at high altitude, but various factors such as immunomodulation, hypoxia, poor physiological adaptation, and harsh environmental stressors at high altitude may enhance susceptibility to these pathogens. Against this background, various gastrointestinal, respiratory, dermatological, neurological, and other infections encountered at high altitude are discussed.

  20. Bipolar Disorder in Aviation Medicine.

    PubMed

    Vuorio, Alpo; Laukkala, Tanja; Navathe, Pooshan; Budowle, Bruce; Bor, Robert; Sajantila, Antti

    2017-01-01

    One of the most difficult challenges in aviation medicine is to diagnose, as early as possible, pilots with psychiatric disorders that may impair pilot performance and increase the risk of incidents and accidents. This diagnosis applies particularly to bipolar disorder (BD), where return to flying duty is not an option in the majority of cases. BD is a long-term mental disorder presenting remittent depressive, hypomanic, manic, or mixed episodes between low symptomatic or asymptomatic intermediate periods. Onset in most cases is in late teen or early adult years. Suicidal intentions and suicide risk are significantly elevated in individuals with BD compared to the general population. A systematic literature search was performed of BD and aviation accidents and the National Transportation Safety Board database of fatal general aviation accidents was searched. One case report and two database reports of interest from 1994 to 2014 were identified. The findings set a minimum frequency of BD in general aviation fatalities to be approximately 2 out of 8648 (0.023%) in the United States. The reported incidence may underestimate the real number of BD cases for several reasons, including the fact that the medical history of pilots is not always available or is sometimes not the primary interest of a safety investigation. This study suggests that the demarcation of psychiatric disorder related to fitness to fly is an important step in safety.Vuorio A, Laukkala T, Navathe P, Budowle B, Bor R, Sajantila A. Bipolar disorder in aviation medicine. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2017; 88(1):42-47.

  1. Altitude release mechanism

    DOEpatents

    Kulhanek, Frank C.

    1977-01-01

    An altitude release mechanism for releasing a radiosonde or other measuring instrument from a balloon carrying it up into the atmosphere includes a bottle partially filled with water, a tube sealed into the bottle having one end submerged in the water in the bottle and the free end extending above the top of the bottle and a strip of water-disintegrable paper held within the free end of the tube linking the balloon to the remainder of the package. As the balloon ascends, the lowered atmospheric air pressure causes the air in the bottle to expand, forcing the water in the bottle up the tubing to wet and disintegrate the paper, releasing the package from the balloon.

  2. High Altitude Emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bulzan, Dan

    2007-01-01

    An overview of emissions related research being conducted as part of the Fundamental Aeronautics Supersonics Project is presented. The overview includes project objectives, milestones, and descriptions of major research areas. The overview also includes information on the emissions research being conducted under NASA Research Announcements. Technical challenges include: 1) Environmental impact of supersonic cruise emissions is greater due to higher flight altitudes which makes emissions reduction increasingly important. 2) Accurate prediction tools to enable combustor designs that reduce emissions at supersonic cruise are needed as well as intelligent systems to minimize emissions. 3) Combustor operating conditions at supersonic cruise are different than at subsonic cruise since inlet fuel and air temperatures are considerably increased.

  3. NASA's Aviation Safety and Modeling Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chidester, Thomas R.; Statler, Irving C.

    2006-01-01

    The Aviation Safety Monitoring and Modeling (ASMM) Project of NASA's Aviation Safety program is cultivating sources of data and developing automated computer hardware and software to facilitate efficient, comprehensive, and accurate analyses of the data collected from large, heterogeneous databases throughout the national aviation system. The ASMM addresses the need to provide means for increasing safety by enabling the identification and correcting of predisposing conditions that could lead to accidents or to incidents that pose aviation risks. A major component of the ASMM Project is the Aviation Performance Measuring System (APMS), which is developing the next generation of software tools for analyzing and interpreting flight data.

  4. Certification and safety aspects relating to the transport of passengers on high altitude balloons in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoenmaker, Annelie

    2014-07-01

    High-altitude balloons typically fly between 25 and 50 km in altitude, which, while below the Karman line of 100 km, is yet far above the altitudes typically flown by aircraft. For example, the highest-flying commercial aircraft - the Concorde - had a maximum cruising altitude of only 18 km. zero2infinity, a Spanish company, is currently developing a pressurized pod named “bloon” which will be capable of lifting six people, including two pilot crew members and four paying passengers, to an altitude of 36 km through the use of high-altitude balloons. The boundary between Airspace and Outer Space has never been legally defined, mostly because of the lack of activities taking place between the altitude where airplanes fly and the lowest orbiting spacecraft. High-altitude balloons do fly at these in-between altitudes and the prospect of commercializing access to these parts of the stratosphere poses some questions in a new light. Given the relatively low altitude at which they fly, it may well be that these types of balloons would be considered to operate exclusively within air space. However, given the technology involved in crewed high altitude balloon flights, which is more similar to spacecraft engineering than to traditional hot-air or gas ballooning, it is necessary to evaluate the various legal regimes, codes, and regulations that would apply to such flights, especially regarding licenses and liabilities. For high altitude balloon flights commencing in Europe, the European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) would very likely be the competent certification or licensing agency for these flights, although there would likely be input from various national aviation authorities as well. However, because the European Commission (EC) has not yet issued regulations regarding commercial spaceflight, particularly the use of high altitude balloons, new rules and regulations governing such flights may still need to be drafted and promulgated. With the development of

  5. The NASA Aviation Safety Program: Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shin, Jaiwon

    2000-01-01

    In 1997, the United States set a national goal to reduce the fatal accident rate for aviation by 80% within ten years based on the recommendations by the Presidential Commission on Aviation Safety and Security. Achieving this goal will require the combined efforts of government, industry, and academia in the areas of technology research and development, implementation, and operations. To respond to the national goal, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has developed a program that will focus resources over a five year period on performing research and developing technologies that will enable improvements in many areas of aviation safety. The NASA Aviation Safety Program (AvSP) is organized into six research areas: Aviation System Modeling and Monitoring, System Wide Accident Prevention, Single Aircraft Accident Prevention, Weather Accident Prevention, Accident Mitigation, and Synthetic Vision. Specific project areas include Turbulence Detection and Mitigation, Aviation Weather Information, Weather Information Communications, Propulsion Systems Health Management, Control Upset Management, Human Error Modeling, Maintenance Human Factors, Fire Prevention, and Synthetic Vision Systems for Commercial, Business, and General Aviation aircraft. Research will be performed at all four NASA aeronautics centers and will be closely coordinated with Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and other government agencies, industry, academia, as well as the aviation user community. This paper provides an overview of the NASA Aviation Safety Program goals, structure, and integration with the rest of the aviation community.

  6. Altitude measurement for model rocketry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caughey, David A.

    2007-05-01

    The simple, ballistic time-of-flight equation for the maximum altitude of a vertically launched rocket neglects the effects of atmospheric drag. We show that the error introduced by using this equation to estimate the maximum altitude is typically less than 1% because of the effective cancellations of timing errors during the ascent and descent of the rocket.

  7. [Altitude and the cardiovascular system].

    PubMed

    Richalet, Jean-Paul

    2012-06-01

    A stay at high altitude exposes an individual to various environmental changes (cold, exercise, isolation) but the most stressful for the body is hypoxia. However, the cardiovascular system yields some efficient mechanisms of acclimatization to oxygen lack. Hypoxia activates the adrenergic system and induces a tachycardia that decreases during a prolonged stay at altitude. The desensitization of the adrenergic system leads to a decrease in maximal heart rate and a protection of the myocardium against an energy disequilibrium that could be potentially harmful for the heart. Hypoxia induces a peripheral vasodilation and a pulmonary vasoconstriction, leading to few changes in systemic blood pressure and an increase in pulmonary blood pressure (PHT) that can contribute to a high altitude pulmonary edema. Advice to a cardiac patient who plans to go to high altitude should take into account that all diseases aggravated by increased adrenergic activity or associated with a PHT or a hypoxemia (right-to-left shunt) will be aggravated at high altitude. As altitude increases, a patient with a coronary disease will present an ischemic threshold for a lower power output during an EKG exercise test. The only test allowing predicting the tolerance to high altitude is the hypoxia exercise test realized at 30% of maxVO(2)and at an equivalent altitude of 4,800m.

  8. [Classification of altitude decompression sickness].

    PubMed

    Katuntsev, V P

    2000-01-01

    The article is devoted to the discussion of principles of and approaches to classification of altitude decompression sickness (DCS), one of the most methodically formidable aspects of the problem. Based on his own multiyear experience in altitude DCS investigations and critical review of literature, the author reasons his concept of clinical classification of altitude DCS. The author's concept places emphasis on obligatory consideration of three stages in DCS development: A--pre-disease (the premorbid syndrome), B--uncomplicated (light) and C--complicated (severe) forms. The objective sign of the premorbid state is "silent" gas bubbles in organism detectable by ultrasonic devices. Signs of uncomplicated altitude DCS are musculoarticular pains, local edema and skin itching. Complicated altitude DCS is diagnosed by systemic (respiratory, neurological and cardiovascular) disorders.

  9. Aviation security: A system's perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, J.P.

    1988-01-01

    For many years the aviation industry and airports operated with security methods and equipment common to most other large industrial complexes. At that time, the security systems primarily provided asset and property protection. However, soon after the first aircraft hijacking the focus of security shifted to emphasize the security requirements necessary for protecting the traveling public and the one feature of the aviation industry that makes it unique---the airplane. The airplane and its operation offered attractive opportunities for the homesick refugee, the mentally unstable person and the terrorist wanting to make a political statement. The airport and its aircraft were the prime targets requiring enhanced security against this escalated threat. In response, the FAA, airport operators and air carriers began to develop plans for increasing security and assigning responsibilities for implementation.

  10. Managing human error in aviation.

    PubMed

    Helmreich, R L

    1997-05-01

    Crew resource management (CRM) programs were developed to address team and leadership aspects of piloting modern airplanes. The goal is to reduce errors through team work. Human factors research and social, cognitive, and organizational psychology are used to develop programs tailored for individual airlines. Flight crews study accident case histories, group dynamics, and human error. Simulators provide pilots with the opportunity to solve complex flight problems. CRM in the simulator is called line-oriented flight training (LOFT). In automated cockpits CRM promotes the idea of automation as a crew member. Cultural aspects of aviation include professional, business, and national culture. The aviation CRM model has been adapted for training surgeons and operating room staff in human factors.

  11. Researcher Role in Aviation Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-05-31

    That use-inspired research would be a good path towards accelerating the process of putting basic knowledge to practical use will be revisited in...14-D-6501-0009 Researcher Role in Aviation Operations 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER...ADDRESS(ES) 10. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S ACRONYM(S) Air Force Materiel Command Air Force Research Laboratory 711 Human Performance Wing Airman Systems

  12. General aviation fuel quality control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poitz, H.

    1983-01-01

    Quality control measures for aviation gasoline, and some of the differences between quality control on avgas and mogas are discussed. One thing to keep in mind is that with motor gasoline you can always pull off to the side of the road. It's not so easy to do in an airplane. Consequently, there are reasons for having the tight specifications and the tight quality control measures on avgas as compared to motor gasoline.

  13. Commercial aviation icing research requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koegeboehn, L. P.

    1981-01-01

    A short range and long range icing research program was proposed. A survey was made to various industry and goverment agencies to obtain their views of needs for commercial aviation ice protection. Through these responsed, other additional data, and Douglas Aircraft icing expertise; an assessment of the state-of-the-art of aircraft icing data and ice protection systems was made. The information was then used to formulate the icing research programs.

  14. Managing the Aviation Insider Threat

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-01

    this report 100 percent employee screening is described as application “of the same standards as apply to passengers at airport security screening...airport where 12 employees were charged with using forged immigration documents to verify their identity and thus 11 acquire airport security badges...in the various aspects of aviation security such as passenger screening, law enforcement responsibilities, airport security program, and operations

  15. General aviation fuel quality control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poitz, H.

    1983-01-01

    Quality control measures for aviation gasoline, and some of the differences between quality control on avgas and mogas are discussed. One thing to keep in mind is that with motor gasoline you can always pull off to the side of the road. It's not so easy to do in an airplane. Consequently, there are reasons for having the tight specifications and the tight quality control measures on avgas as compared to motor gasoline.

  16. Radar Studies of Aviation Hazards

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-05-31

    4. TITLE AND SURTITLE S. FUNDING NUMBERS RADAR STUDIES OF AVIATION HAZARDS F1 9628-93- C -0054 _____________ __PE63707F 6. AUTHOR(S) PR278 1...foilowing processing steps have been adopted: a. acquire single scan radar data, b. distinguish individual storms, c . eliminate spurious data for...occurred only with radar reflectivities above 40 dBZ at the -10° C level and cloud tops above the -200C level. Lightning occurred only when tops extended

  17. Human error in aviation operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billings, C. E.; Lanber, J. K.; Cooper, G. E.

    1974-01-01

    This report is a brief description of research being undertaken by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The project is designed to seek out factors in the aviation system which contribute to human error, and to search for ways of minimizing the potential threat posed by these factors. The philosophy and assumptions underlying the study are discussed, together with an outline of the research plan.

  18. Alternative Aviation Fuel Experiment (AAFEX)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, B. E.; Beyersdorf, A. J.; Hudgins, C. H.; Plant, J. V.; Thornhill, K. L.; Winstead, E. L.; Ziemba, L. D.; Howard, R.; Corporan, E.; Miake-Lye, R. C.; hide

    2011-01-01

    The rising cost of oil coupled with the need to reduce pollution and dependence on foreign suppliers has spurred great interest and activity in developing alternative aviation fuels. Although a variety of fuels have been produced that have similar properties to standard Jet A, detailed studies are required to ascertain the exact impacts of the fuels on engine operation and exhaust composition. In response to this need, NASA acquired and burned a variety of alternative aviation fuel mixtures in the Dryden Flight Research Center DC-8 to assess changes in the aircraft s CFM-56 engine performance and emission parameters relative to operation with standard JP-8. This Alternative Aviation Fuel Experiment, or AAFEX, was conducted at NASA Dryden s Aircraft Operations Facility (DAOF) in Palmdale, California, from January 19 to February 3, 2009 and specifically sought to establish fuel matrix effects on: 1) engine and exhaust gas temperatures and compressor speeds; 2) engine and auxiliary power unit (APU) gas phase and particle emissions and characteristics; and 3) volatile aerosol formation in aging exhaust plumes

  19. Energy at high altitude.

    PubMed

    Hill, N E; Stacey, M J; Woods, D R

    2011-03-01

    For the military doctor, an understanding of the metabolic effects of high altitude (HA) exposure is highly relevant. This review examines the acute metabolic challenge and subsequent changes in nutritional homeostasis that occur when troops deploy rapidly to HA. Key factors that impact on metabolism include the hypoxic-hypobaric environment, physical exercise and diet. Expected metabolic changes include augmentation of basal metabolic rate (BMR), decreased availability of oxygen in peripheral metabolic tissues, reduction in VO2 max, increased glucose dependency and lactate accumulation during exercise. The metabolic demands of exercise at HA are crucial. Equivalent activity requires greater effort and more energy than it does at sea level. Soldiers working at HA show high energy expenditure and this may exceed energy intake significantly. Energy intake at HA is affected adversely by reduced availability, reduced appetite and changes in endocrine parameters. Energy imbalance and loss of body water result in weight loss, which is extremely common at HA. Loss of fat predominates over loss of fat-free mass. This state resembles starvation and the preferential primary fuel source shifts from carbohydrate towards fat, reducing performance efficiency. However, these adverse effects can be mitigated by increasing energy intake in association with a high carbohydrate ration. Commanders must ensure that individuals are motivated, educated, strongly encouraged and empowered to meet their energy needs in order to maximise mission-effectiveness.

  20. High Altitude Dermatology.

    PubMed

    Singh, Lt Col G K

    2017-01-01

    Approximately, 140 million people worldwide live permanently at high altitudes (HAs) and approximately another 40 million people travel to HA area (HAA) every year for reasons of occupation, sports or recreation. In India, whole of Ladakh region, part of Northwest Kashmir, Northern part of Sikkim and Tenga valley of Arunachal are considered inhabited areas of HAA. The low quantity of oxygen, high exposure of ultraviolet (UV) light, very low humidity, extreme subzero temperature in winter, high wind velocity, make this region difficult for lowlanders as well as for tourists. Acute mountain sickness, HA pulmonary edema, HA cerebral edema, and thromboembolic conditions are known to occur in HA. However, enough knowledge has not been shared on dermatoses peculiar to this region. Xerosis, UV-related skin disorders (tanning, photomelanosis, acute and chronic sunburn, polymorphic light eruption, chronic actinic dermatitis, actinic cheilitis, etc.), cold injuries (frostbite, chilblains, acrocyanosis, erythrocyanosis, etc.) nail changes (koilonychias), airborne contact dermatitis, insect bite reaction, and skin carcinoma (basal cell carcinomas, squamous cell carcinomas, and also rarely malignant melanoma) are the dermatoses seen in HAAs. Early diagnosis and knowledge of HA dermatoses may prevent serious consequences of disease and improve the quality of life for the visitors as well as for native of the place.

  1. High altitude reconnaissance aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yazdo, Renee Anna; Moller, David

    1990-01-01

    At the equator the ozone layer ranges from 65,000 to 130,000 plus feet, which is beyond the capabilities of the ER-2, NASA's current high altitude reconnaissance aircraft. The Universities Space Research Association, in cooperation with NASA, is sponsoring an undergraduate program which is geared to designing an aircraft that can study the ozone layer at the equator. This aircraft must be able to cruise at 130,000 feet for six hours at Mach 0.7, while carrying 3,000 lbs. of payload. In addition, the aircraft must have a minimum range of 6,000 miles. In consideration of the novel nature of this project, the pilot must be able to take control in the event of unforeseen difficulties. Three aircraft configurations were determined to be the most suitable - a joined-wing, a biplane, and a twin-boom conventional airplane. The performance of each configuration was analyzed to investigate the feasibility of the project.

  2. High Altitude Dermatology

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Lt. Col. G K

    2017-01-01

    Approximately, 140 million people worldwide live permanently at high altitudes (HAs) and approximately another 40 million people travel to HA area (HAA) every year for reasons of occupation, sports or recreation. In India, whole of Ladakh region, part of Northwest Kashmir, Northern part of Sikkim and Tenga valley of Arunachal are considered inhabited areas of HAA. The low quantity of oxygen, high exposure of ultraviolet (UV) light, very low humidity, extreme subzero temperature in winter, high wind velocity, make this region difficult for lowlanders as well as for tourists. Acute mountain sickness, HA pulmonary edema, HA cerebral edema, and thromboembolic conditions are known to occur in HA. However, enough knowledge has not been shared on dermatoses peculiar to this region. Xerosis, UV-related skin disorders (tanning, photomelanosis, acute and chronic sunburn, polymorphic light eruption, chronic actinic dermatitis, actinic cheilitis, etc.), cold injuries (frostbite, chilblains, acrocyanosis, erythrocyanosis, etc.) nail changes (koilonychias), airborne contact dermatitis, insect bite reaction, and skin carcinoma (basal cell carcinomas, squamous cell carcinomas, and also rarely malignant melanoma) are the dermatoses seen in HAAs. Early diagnosis and knowledge of HA dermatoses may prevent serious consequences of disease and improve the quality of life for the visitors as well as for native of the place. PMID:28216727

  3. Standard Atmosphere - Tables and Data for Altitudes to 65,800 Feet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1955-01-01

    Report includes calculated detailed tables of pressures and densities of a standard atmosphere in both metric and english units for altitudes from -5,000 meters to 20,000 meters and from -16,500 feet to 65,800 feet. Tables, figures, physical constants, and basic equations are based upon the text, reproduced herein, of the manual of the ICAO standard atmosphere, International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) draft of December 1952. (author)

  4. Cognitive Performance During 12 Hours at 10,000 Ft Altitude During Night Conditions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-01

    To) 03-2008 Abstract in Journal 2007 - 2008 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Sa. CONTRACT NUMBER Cognitive Performance During 12 Hours at 10,000 Ft Altitude...Aviation Space and Environmental Medicine Journal. 1S. S UBJECT TERMS Cognitive performance, hypobaric exposures, night-operational ai rcraft...opiates, stimulants, barbiturates, benzodiazepines, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID), ana lgesics, antidepressants, and cannabis

  5. Satellite Delivery of Aviation Weather Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerczewski, Robert J.; Haendel, Richard

    2001-01-01

    With aviation traffic continuing to increase worldwide, reducing the aviation accident rate and aviation schedule delays is of critical importance. In the United States, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has established the Aviation Safety Program and the Aviation System Capacity Program to develop and test new technologies to increase aviation safety and system capacity. Weather is a significant contributor to aviation accidents and schedule delays. The timely dissemination of weather information to decision makers in the aviation system, particularly to pilots, is essential in reducing system delays and weather related aviation accidents. The NASA Glenn Research Center is investigating improved methods of weather information dissemination through satellite broadcasting directly to aircraft. This paper describes an on-going cooperative research program with NASA, Rockwell Collins, WorldSpace, Jeppesen and American Airlines to evaluate the use of satellite digital audio radio service (SDARS) for low cost broadcast of aviation weather information, called Satellite Weather Information Service (SWIS). The description and results of the completed SWIS Phase 1 are presented, and the description of the on-going SWIS Phase 2 is given.

  6. The global impact of the transport sectors on atmospheric aerosol in 2030 - Part 2: Aviation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Righi, M.; Hendricks, J.; Sausen, R.

    2015-12-01

    We use the EMAC (ECHAM/MESSy Atmospheric Chemistry) global climate-chemistry model coupled to the aerosol module MADE (Modal Aerosol Dynamics model for Europe, adapted for global applications) to simulate the impact of aviation emissions on global atmospheric aerosol and climate in 2030. Emissions of short-lived gas and aerosol species follow the four Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) designed in support of the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. We compare our findings with the results of a previous study with the same model configuration focusing on year 2000 emissions. We also characterize the aviation results in the context of the other transport sectors presented in a companion paper. In spite of a relevant increase in aviation traffic volume and resulting emissions of aerosol (black carbon) and aerosol precursor species (nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide), the aviation effect on particle mass concentration in 2030 remains quite negligible (on the order of a few ng m-3), about one order of magnitude less than the increase in concentration due to other emission sources. Due to the relatively small size of the aviation-induced aerosol, however, the increase in particle number concentration is significant in all scenarios (about 1000 cm-3), mostly affecting the northern mid-latitudes at typical flight altitudes (7-12 km). This largely contributes to the overall change in particle number concentration between 2000 and 2030, which results also in significant climate effects due to aerosol-cloud interactions. Aviation is the only transport sector for which a larger impact on the Earth's radiation budget is simulated in the future: The aviation-induced RF in 2030 is more than doubled with respect to the year 2000 value of -15 mW m-2, with a maximum value of -63 mW m-2 simulated for RCP2.6.

  7. The global impact of the transport sectors on atmospheric aerosol in 2030 - Part 2: Aviation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Righi, Mattia; Hendricks, Johannes; Sausen, Robert

    2016-04-01

    We use the EMAC (ECHAM/MESSy Atmospheric Chemistry) global climate-chemistry model coupled to the aerosol module MADE (Modal Aerosol Dynamics model for Europe, adapted for global applications) to simulate the impact of aviation emissions on global atmospheric aerosol and climate in 2030. Emissions of short-lived gas and aerosol species follow the four Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) designed in support of the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. We compare our findings with the results of a previous study with the same model configuration focusing on year 2000 emissions. We also characterize the aviation results in the context of the other transport sectors presented in a companion paper. In spite of a relevant increase in aviation traffic volume and resulting emissions of aerosol (black carbon) and aerosol precursor species (nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide), the aviation effect on particle mass concentration in 2030 remains quite negligible (on the order of a few ng m-3), about 1 order of magnitude less than the increase in concentration due to other emission sources. Due to the relatively small size of the aviation-induced aerosol, however, the increase in particle number concentration is significant in all scenarios (about 1000 cm-3), mostly affecting the northern mid-latitudes at typical flight altitudes (7-12 km). This largely contributes to the overall change in particle number concentration between 2000 and 2030, which also results in significant climate effects due to aerosol-cloud interactions. Aviation is the only transport sector for which a larger impact on the Earth's radiation budget is simulated in the future: the aviation-induced radiative forcing in 2030 is more than doubled with respect to the year 2000 value of -15 mW m-2 in all scenarios, with a maximum value of -63 mW m-2 simulated for RCP2.6.

  8. Altitude training experiences and perspectives: survey of 67 professional pilots.

    PubMed

    Hackworth, Carla; Peterson, Linda; Jack, Dan; Williams, Clara

    2005-04-01

    Pilots and crewmembers of flights exceeding 7620 m/mean sea level (msl) are required to complete ground training in high-altitude physiology, including hypoxia training. However, regulations do not require altitude chamber training (ACT). An anonymous questionnaire concerning their experiences and perceptions of hypoxia training was filled out by 67 pilots attending an aviation safety conference. All pilots had logged professional business flight hours in the previous 6 mo. There were 62 pilots who reported receiving hypoxia training, and of these, 71% reported having initial ACT. Most of the pilots surveyed agreed that all pilots should receive introductory hypoxia training (92%), recurrent hypoxia training (86%), initial ACT (85%), and recurrent ACT (70%). Initial ACT received lower endorsements for private (32%) or recreational (10%) pilots than for commercial (74%) and air transport (90%) pilots. When asked if ACT should be based on the altitude capability of an aircraft, 59% responded affirmatively. Apparently, the perceived need for ACT was based on the likelihood of flying at higher altitudes and not simply the level of certification. When asked if the current regulations (i.e., not requiring ACT) addressing high-altitude flying (above 7620 m/msl) are sufficient, 52% of the current sample disagreed or strongly disagreed. Generally, these professional pilots perceived that pilot training should include introductory hypoxia training, recurrent hypoxia training, and ACT. Exceptions were initial ACT for recreational pilots and private pilots. Generalizability of these results may be affected by the specificity and size of the sample. Distributing the survey to a wider audience of pilots would provide additional information regarding perceptions of hypoxia training.

  9. Lung Disease at High Altitude

    PubMed Central

    Stream, JO; Luks, AM; Grissom, CK

    2016-01-01

    Large numbers of people travel to high altitudes, entering an environment of hypobaric hypoxia. Exposure to low oxygen tension leads to a series of important physiologic responses that allow individuals to tolerate these hypoxic conditions. However, in some cases hypoxia triggers maladaptive responses that lead to various forms of acute and chronic high altitude illness, such as high-altitude pulmonary edema or chronic mountain sickness. Because the respiratory system plays a critical role in these adaptive and maladaptive responses, patients with underlying lung disease may be at increased risk for complications in this environment and warrant careful evaluation before any planned sojourn to higher altitudes. In this review, we describe respiratory disorders that occur with both acute and chronic exposures to high altitudes. These disorders may occur in any individual who ascends to high altitude, regardless of his/her baseline pulmonary status. We then consider the safety of high-altitude travel in patients with various forms of underlying lung disease. The available data regarding how these patients fare in hypoxic conditions are reviewed, and recommendations are provided for management prior to and during the planned sojourn. PMID:20477353

  10. Peak expiratory flow at altitude.

    PubMed

    Thomas, P S; Harding, R M; Milledge, J S

    1990-08-01

    The mini Wright peak flow meter is a useful, portable instrument for field studies but being sensitive to air density will under-read at altitude. True peak expiratory flow will increase at altitude, however, because of the decreased air density, given that dynamic resistance is unchanged. The effect of simulated altitude on peak expiratory flow (PEF) was determined in six subjects with both the mini Wright meter and a volumetric spirometer (which is unaffected by air density). With increasing altitude PEF as measured by the spirometer increased linearly with decreasing pressure, so that at a barometric pressure of 380 mm Hg* (half an atmosphere, corresponding to an altitude of 5455 m) there was a 20% increase over sea level values. The mini Wright flow meter gave readings 6% below sea level values for this altitude--that is, under-reading by 26%. Measurements of PEF made at altitude with the mini Wright meter should be corrected by adding 6.6% per 100 mm Hg drop in barometric pressure.

  11. Tracking performance with two breathing oxygen concentrations after high altitude rapid decompression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nesthus, Thomas E.; Schiflett, Samuel G.; Oakley, Carolyn J.

    1992-01-01

    Current military aircraft Liquid Oxygen (LOX) systems supply 99.5 pct. gaseous Aviator's Breathing Oxygen (ABO) to aircrew. Newer Molecular Sieve Oxygen Generation Systems (MSOGS) supply breathing gas concentration of 93 to 95 pct. O2. The margin is compared of hypoxia protection afforded by ABO and MSOGS breathing gas after a 5 psi differential rapid decompression (RD) in a hypobaric research chamber. The barometric pressures equivalent to the altitudes of 46000, 52000, 56000, and 60000 ft were achieved from respective base altitudes in 1 to 1.5 s decompressions. During each exposure, subjects remained at the simulated peak altitude breathing either 100 or 94 pct. O2 with positive pressure for 60 s, followed by a rapid descent to 40000 ft. Subjects used the Tactical Life Support System (TLSS) for high altitude protection. Subcritical tracking task performance on the Performance Evaluation Device (PED) provided psychomotor test measures. Overall tracking task performance results showed no differences between the MSOGS breathing O2 concentration of 94 pct. and ABO. Significance RMS error differences were found between the ground level and base altitude trials compared to peak altitude trials. The high positive breathing pressures occurring at the peak altitudes explained the differences.

  12. Prostate cancer incidence in Air Force aviators compared with non-aviators

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, David; Boyd, Douglas D.; Fox, Erin E.; Cooper, Sharon; Goldhagen, Marc; Shen, Yu; del Junco, Deborah J.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Several studies investigating whether prostate cancer incidence is elevated in aviators both in the civilian and military sectors have yielded inconsistent findings. Most investigations have compared aviators to the general population. Instead, our study compared prostate cancer incidence rates among officer aviator and non-aviators in the United States Air Force to reduce confounding by socioeconomic status and frequency of medical exams. Methods This retrospective analysis ascertained prostate cancer cases using the Automated Cancer Tumor Registry of the Department of Defense linked to personnel records from the USAF Personnel Center to identify aviators and non-aviators. Survival analysis using the Cox Proportional Hazards model allowed comparison of prostate cancer incidence rates in USAF aviators and non-aviators. Results After adjustment for age and race, the hazards ratio for prostate cancer incidence comparing aviators with non-aviators was 1.15 (95 % confidence interval, 0.85-1.44). Neither prostate cancer incidence nor time to diagnosis differed significantly between the two groups. Conclusion Our study compared prostate cancer rates in aviators with a reference group of non-aviators similar in socio-economic level and frequency of exams. When compared to this internal reference group the risk of prostate cancer in USAF officer aviators appeared similar with no significant excess. PMID:22097644

  13. Prostate cancer incidence in U.S. Air Force aviators compared with non-aviators.

    PubMed

    Rogers, David; Boyd, Douglas D; Fox, Erin E; Cooper, Sharon; Goldhagen, Marc; Shen, Yu; Del Junco, Deborah J

    2011-11-01

    Several studies investigating whether prostate cancer incidence is elevated in aviators both in the civilian and military sectors have yielded inconsistent findings. Most investigations have compared aviators to the general population. Instead, our study compared prostate cancer incidence rates among officer aviators and non-aviators in the U.S. Air Force (USAF) to reduce confounding by socioeconomic status and frequency of medical exams. This retrospective analysis ascertained prostate cancer cases using the Automated Cancer Tumor Registry of the Department of Defense linked to personnel records from the USAF Personnel Center to identify aviators and non-aviators. Survival analysis using the Cox Proportional Hazards model allowed comparison of prostate cancer incidence rates in USAF aviators and non-aviators. After adjustment for age and race, the hazards ratio for prostate cancer incidence comparing aviators with non-aviators was 1.15 (95% confidence interval, 0.85-1.44). Neither prostate cancer incidence nor time to diagnosis differed significantly between the two groups. Our study compared prostate cancer rates in aviators with a reference group of non-aviators similar in socio-economic level and frequency of exams. When compared to this internal reference group the risk of prostate cancer in USAF officer aviators appeared similar with no significant excess.

  14. Accidents associated with aerobatic maneuvers in U.S. aviation.

    PubMed

    de Voogt, Alexander J; van Doom, Robert R A

    2009-08-01

    Aerobatic flights are the most significant risk factor for fatal injury and make up 50% of U.S. accidents in general aviation involving airport transport pilots. An analysis of the dangers of these maneuvers is presented using 25 yr of U.S. reported accidents. More than 80% of the 494 accidents were fatal. The main cause of accident was not maintaining (proper) altitude while adverse weather was not present as a cause of accident. Nearly half the number of pilots had over 7500 h of flight experience. Homebuilt aircraft appear significantly more likely to be part of a fatal accident, showing more structural, engine, and system failures. Although there is a downward trend in the number of aerobatic-related accidents, the reduction of accidents is much assisted by either regulation or awareness training of pilots using homebuilt aircraft in aerobatic maneuvers.

  15. Taxation of United States general aviation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobieralski, Joseph Bernard

    General aviation in the United States has been an important part of the economy and American life. General aviation is defined as all flying excluding military and scheduled airline operations, and is utilized in many areas of our society. The majority of aircraft operations and airports in the United States are categorized as general aviation, and general aviation contributes more than one percent to the United States gross domestic product each year. Despite the many benefits of general aviation, the lead emissions from aviation gasoline consumption are of great concern. General aviation emits over half the lead emissions in the United States or over 630 tons in 2005. The other significant negative externality attributed to general aviation usage is aircraft accidents. General aviation accidents have caused over 8000 fatalities over the period 1994-2006. A recent Federal Aviation Administration proposed increase in the aviation gasoline tax from 19.4 to 70.1 cents per gallon has renewed interest in better understanding the implications of such a tax increase as well as the possible optimal rate of taxation. Few studies have examined aviation fuel elasticities and all have failed to study general aviation fuel elasticities. Chapter one fills that gap and examines the elasticity of aviation gasoline consumption in United States general aviation. Utilizing aggregate time series and dynamic panel data, the price and income elasticities of demand are estimated. The price elasticity of demand for aviation gasoline is estimated to range from -0.093 to -0.185 in the short-run and from -0.132 to -0.303 in the long-run. These results prove to be similar in magnitude to automobile gasoline elasticities and therefore tax policies could more closely mirror those of automobile tax policies. The second chapter examines the costs associated with general aviation accidents. Given the large number of general aviation operations as well as the large number of fatalities and

  16. Index to USA Aviation Digest, 1991

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-11-01

    Aviation Digest; Nov-Dec 1991: p. 42. CIPPS SEE CIVILIAN INTEGRATION INTO THE PERSONNEL PROPONENCY SYSTEM ( CIPPS ) CIVILIAN INTEGRATION INTO THE PERSONNEL...PROPONENCY SYSTEM ( CIPPS ) Civilian integration into the Personnel Proponency System ( CIPPS ). USA Aviation Digest; Jul-Aug 1991: p. 28. CMIF SEE...HASTINGS, ROBERT T. Twenty commandments for platoon leaders. USA Aviation Digest; Mar-Apr 1991: p. 30-31. HAYES, THOMAS M. Delta models at the

  17. The role of aviation in climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fahey, D. W.

    2015-12-01

    Aviation emissions contribute to the radiative forcing (RF) of climate. Of importance are emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), aerosols and their precursors (soot and sulphate), and increased cloudiness in the form of persistent linear contrails and induced-cirrus cloudiness. Aviation operations have grown strongly over the past years and further growth is expected. This presentation will provide an updated perspective on new research and understanding of the role of aviation in climate and where uncertainties and gaps remain.

  18. 40 Years of Safer Aviation Through Reporting

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-09-28

    NASA’s Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) is one of the tools used to make aviation in the United States as safe as it is. Celebrating its 40th anniversary this year, NASA’s confidential ASRS is widely used by pilots and other airline employees to identify potential hazards. Over the past 40 years, the ASRS has issued more than 6,200 safety alerts to the FAA and other decision makers in the aviation community.

  19. 76 FR 81009 - Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee-New Task

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-27

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee--New Task AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of new task assignment for the Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee (ARAC). SUMMARY: The FAA assigned the Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee (ARAC) a new task...

  20. 78 FR 49595 - Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee-New Task

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-14

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee--New Task AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of new task assignment for the Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee (ARAC). SUMMARY: The FAA assigned the Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee (ARAC) a new task...

  1. 77 FR 10797 - Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee-New Task

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-23

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee--New Task AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of withdrawal of task assignment for the Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee (ARAC). SUMMARY: The FAA has withdrawn a task assigned to the Aviation Rulemaking...

  2. 76 FR 21936 - Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee-New Task

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-19

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee--New Task AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of new task assignment for the Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee (ARAC). SUMMARY: The FAA assigned the Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee (ARAC) a new task...

  3. KREAM: Korean Radiation Exposure Assessment Model for Aviation Route Dose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, J.; Dokgo, K.; Choi, E. J.; Kim, K. C.; Kim, H. P.; Cho, K. S. F.

    2014-12-01

    Since Korean Air has begun to use the polar route from Seoul/ICN airport to New York/JFK airport on August 2006, there are explosive needs for the estimation and prediction against cosmic radiation exposure for Korean aircrew and passengers in South Korea from public. To keep pace with those needs of public, Korean government made the law on safety standards and managements of cosmic radiation for the flight attendants and the pilots in 2013. And we have begun to develop our own Korean Radiation Exposure Assessment Model (KREAM) for aviation route dose since last year funded by Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA). GEANT4 model and NRLMSIS 00 model are used for calculation of the energetic particles' transport in the atmosphere and for obtaining the background atmospheric neutral densities depending on altitude. For prediction the radiation exposure in many routes depending on the various space weather effects, we constructed a database from pre-arranged simulations using all possible combinations of R, S, and G, which are the space weather effect scales provided by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). To get the solar energetic particles' spectrum at the 100 km altitude which we set as a top of the atmospheric layers in the KREAM, we use ACE and GOES satellites' proton flux observations. We compare the results between KREAM and the other cosmic radiation estimation programs such as CARI-6M which is provided by the Federal Aviation Agency (FAA). We also validate KREAM's results by comparison with the measurement from Liulin-6K LET spectrometer onboard Korean commercial flights and Korean Air Force reconnaissance flights.

  4. Evaluation of Aviation Career Pay Incentives Among the Naval Aviation Enterprise Utilizing Auction Mechanisms

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-01

    efficiently utilize the required resources and maximize combat readiness. The typical career path for a Navy aviation officer includes five stages...AVIATION CAREER PAY INCENTIVES AMONG THE NAVAL AVIATION ENTERPRISE UTILIZING AUCTION MECHANISMS by Brett M. Williams March 2015 Thesis Advisor...REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED March 2015 Master ’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS EVALUATION OF AVIATION CAREER PAY INCENTIVES

  5. FAA (Federal Aviation Administration) Aviation Forecasts - Fiscal Years 1984-1995,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-02-01

    certificated Associates. These projections are route air carriers, commuter airlines combined with projections of aviation and air taxis, general aviation ...Forecast. The increased use of avionics by commuter airlines and general aviation will contribute most of the .i"wth in instrument operations at FAA...increased demand will come primarily from commuter airlines and general aviation . Commuter aircraft handled at the Centers are projected to more than

  6. Altitude transitions in energy climbs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weston, A. R.; Cliff, E. M.; Kelley, H. J.

    1982-01-01

    The aircraft energy-climb trajectory for configurations with a sharp transonic drag rise is well known to possess two branches in the altitude/Mach-number plane. Transition in altitude between the two branches occurs instantaneously, a 'corner' in the minimum-time solution obtained with the energy-state model. If the initial and final values of altitude do not lie on the energy-climb trajectory, then additional jumps (crude approximations to dives and zooms) are required at the initial and terminal points. With a singular-perturbation approach, a 'boundary-layer' correction is obtained for each altitude jump, the transonic jump being a so-called 'internal' boundary layer, different in character from the initial and terminal layers. The determination of this internal boundary layer is examined and some computational results for an example presented.

  7. Acute high-altitude sickness.

    PubMed

    Luks, Andrew M; Swenson, Erik R; Bärtsch, Peter

    2017-01-01

    At any point 1-5 days following ascent to altitudes ≥2500 m, individuals are at risk of developing one of three forms of acute altitude illness: acute mountain sickness, a syndrome of nonspecific symptoms including headache, lassitude, dizziness and nausea; high-altitude cerebral oedema, a potentially fatal illness characterised by ataxia, decreased consciousness and characteristic changes on magnetic resonance imaging; and high-altitude pulmonary oedema, a noncardiogenic form of pulmonary oedema resulting from excessive hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction which can be fatal if not recognised and treated promptly. This review provides detailed information about each of these important clinical entities. After reviewing the clinical features, epidemiology and current understanding of the pathophysiology of each disorder, we describe the current pharmacological and nonpharmacological approaches to the prevention and treatment of these diseases. Copyright ©ERS 2017.

  8. Post stapedotomy aviation: A changing scenario

    PubMed Central

    Rajguru, Renu

    2014-01-01

    Aeromedical implications of stapedotomy like rapid barometric changes and G forces are generally thought to put an end to the aviation career of an aviator. Aviation industry has grown tremendously in the last few decades, and aviation now is not only occupational but also recreational. The Indian Military Aviation rules state that, “Stapedectomy cases will be assessed permanently unfit for flying duties. These cases will be cautioned against flying in an unpressurised aircraft.” The basis of this is the aeromedical concerns associated with stapedotomy as clinical conditions which are of minor significance on the ground may become aggravated in the air. With an ever expanding civil and military aviation industry, the number of aviators who have undergone stapedotomy has also increased. Though grounding the aircrew is the safest option, but if medical certification is denied to all, then the majority who can fly safely will also be excluded, thus denying the organization of its trained resources. This paper discusses post otosclerosis and post stapedotomy aeromedical concerns, reviews existing literature concerning post stapedotomy aviation and various post stapedotomy aviation policies. PMID:25598613

  9. Effectiveness of the Civil Aviation Security Program.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-04-19

    AD-At𔃻A 424 FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION WASHINGToN DC OFFICE 7 ETC F/6 1/2 EFFECTIVENESS OF THE CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY PROGRAM. U) APR 76...April 19, 1976 Semiannual Report to Congress -on the Effectiveness 6. Pefom,-g o,qn.st.,n Cad of the Civil Aviation Security Program __._. P..I.,mng O,oon...Aviatio’n Administration Office of Civil Aviation Security 1i. C0a,,,c , ,No. 0800 Independence Avenue, SW. Washington, D.C. 20591 13. 7ype of Row iaend Pe

  10. Aviation turbine fuels: An assessment of alternatives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The general outlook for aviation turbine fuels, the effect that broadening permissible aviation turbine fuel properties could have on the overall availability of such fuels, the fuel properties most likely to be affected by use of lower grade petroleum crudes, and the research and technology required to ensure that aviation turbine fuels and engines can function satisfactorily with fuels having a range of fuel properties differing from those of current specification fuel are assessed. Views of industry representatives on alternative aviation turbine fuels are presented.

  11. Post stapedotomy aviation: A changing scenario.

    PubMed

    Rajguru, Renu

    2014-01-01

    Aeromedical implications of stapedotomy like rapid barometric changes and G forces are generally thought to put an end to the aviation career of an aviator. Aviation industry has grown tremendously in the last few decades, and aviation now is not only occupational but also recreational. The Indian Military Aviation rules state that, "Stapedectomy cases will be assessed permanently unfit for flying duties. These cases will be cautioned against flying in an unpressurised aircraft." The basis of this is the aeromedical concerns associated with stapedotomy as clinical conditions which are of minor significance on the ground may become aggravated in the air. With an ever expanding civil and military aviation industry, the number of aviators who have undergone stapedotomy has also increased. Though grounding the aircrew is the safest option, but if medical certification is denied to all, then the majority who can fly safely will also be excluded, thus denying the organization of its trained resources. This paper discusses post otosclerosis and post stapedotomy aeromedical concerns, reviews existing literature concerning post stapedotomy aviation and various post stapedotomy aviation policies.

  12. Crashworthy design considerations for general aviation seats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alfaro-Bou, E.; Fasanella, E. L.; Williams, M. S.

    1985-01-01

    This report summarizes the experimental research conducted at the NASA Langley Research Center on general aviation seat and occupant crash response and discusses seat design considerations. Included are typical floor acceleration pulses from general aviation airplane crash tests, the performance of typical general aviation seats in a simulated crash environment, and the performance of prototype energy absorbing (EA) seat designs. Static and dynamic seat testing procedures and test facilities are discussed. Also presented are results from a series of dynamic tests of typical general aviation seats and prototype EA seats.

  13. Multi-Fuel Rotary Engine for General Aviation Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, C.; Ellis, D. R.; Meng, P. R.

    1983-01-01

    Design studies, conducted for NASA, of Advanced Multi-fuel General Aviation and Commuter Aircraft Rotary Stratified Charge Engines are summarized. Conceptual design studies of an advanced engine sized to provide 186/250 shaft KW/HP under cruise conditions at 7620/25,000 m/ft. altitude were performed. Relevant engine development background covering both prior and recent engine test results of the direct injected unthrottled rotary engine technology, including the capability to interchangeably operate on gasoline, diesel fuel, kerosene, or aviation jet fuel, are presented and related to growth predictions. Aircraft studies, using these resultant growth engines, define anticipated system effects of the performance and power density improvements for both single engine and twin engine airplanes. The calculated results indicate superior system performance and 30 to 35% fuel economy improvement for the Rotary-engine airplanes as compared to equivalent airframe concept designs with current baseline engines. The research and technology activities required to attain the projected engine performance levels are also discussed.

  14. Design of a 4-seat, general aviation, electric aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajagopalan, Arvindhakshan

    Range and payload of current electric aircraft is limited primarily due to low energy density of batteries. However, recent advances in battery technology promise storage of more than 1 kWh of energy per kilogram of weight in the near future. This kind of energy storage makes possible the design of an electric aircraft comparable to, if not better than existing state-of-the art general aviation aircraft powered by internal combustion engines. This thesis explores through parametric studies the effect of lift-to-drag ratio, flight speed, and cruise altitude on required thrust power and battery energy and presents the conceptual and preliminary design of a four-seat, general aviation electric aircraft with a takeoff weight of 1750 kg, a range of 800 km, and a cruise speed of 200 km/h. An innovative configuration design will take full advantage of the electric propulsion system, while a Lithium-Polymer battery and a DC brush less motor will provide the power. Advanced aerodynamics will explore the greatest possible extend of laminar flow on the fuselage, the wing, and the empennage surfaces to minimize drag, while advanced composite structures will provide the greatest possible savings on empty weight. The proposed design is intended to be certifiable under current FAR 23 requirements.

  15. Multi-fuel rotary engine for general aviation aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, C.; Ellis, D. R.; Meng, P. R.

    1983-01-01

    Design studies of advanced multifuel general aviation and commuter aircraft rotary stratified charge engines are summarized. Conceptual design studies were performed at two levels of technology, an advanced general aviation engines sized to provide 186/250 shaft kW/hp under cruise conditions at 7620 (25,000 m/ft) altitude. A follow on study extended the results to larger (2500 hp max.) engine sizes suitable for applications such as commuter transports and helicopters. The study engine designs were derived from relevant engine development background including both prior and recent engine test results using direct injected unthrottled rotary engine technology. Aircraft studies, using these resultant growth engines, define anticipated system effects of the performance and power density improvements for both single engine and twin engine airplanes. The calculated results indicate superior system performance and 27 to 33 percent fuel economy improvement for the rotary engine airplanes as compared to equivalent airframe concept designs with current baseline engines. The research and technology activities required to attain the projected engine performance levels are also discussed. Previously announced in STAR as N83-18910

  16. Multi-fuel rotary engine for general aviation aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, C.; Ellis, D. R.; Meng, P. R.

    1983-01-01

    Design studies of advanced multifuel general aviation and commuter aircraft rotary stratified charge engines are summarized. Conceptual design studies were performed at two levels of technology, on advanced general aviation engines sized to provide 186/250 shaft kW/hp under cruise conditions at 7620 (25000 m/ft) altitude. A follow on study extended the results to larger (2500 hp max.) engine sizes suitable for applications such as commuter transports and helicopters. The study engine designs were derived from relevant engine development background including both prior and recent engine test results using direct injected unthrottled rotary engine technology. Aircraft studies, using these resultant growth engines, define anticipated system effects of the performance and power density improvements for both single engine and twin engine airplanes. The calculated results indicate superior system performance and 27 to 33 percent fuel economy improvement for the rotary engine airplanes as compared to equivalent airframe concept designs with current baseline engines. The research and technology activities required to attain the projected engine performance levels are also discussed.

  17. A3 Altitude Test Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dulreix, Lionel J.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation shows drawings, diagrams and photographs of the A3 Altitude Test Facility. It includes a review of the A3 Facility requirements, and drawings of the various sections of the facility including Engine Deck and Superstructure, Test Cell and Thrust Takeout, Structure and Altitude Support Systems, Chemical Steam generators, and the subscale diffuser. There are also pictures of the construction site, and the facility under construction. A Diagram of the A3 Steam system schematic is also shown

  18. Psychological testing at high altitudes.

    PubMed

    Nelson, M

    1982-02-01

    Psychological testing was done on 20 subjects at various altitudes (sea level, 3,8,10 m, and 5,000 m) during a 35-d mountaineering expedition to Denali (Mt. McKinley). Intellectual functioning and personality changes were studied. While little variation was noted at the lower altitude, at 5,000 m there was a marked deterioration in cognitive ability. This was accompanied by a sharp increase in paranoia and obsessive-compulsiveness and smaller increases in depression and hostility.

  19. Aviation Maintenance (Aircraft Mechanics & Aircraft & Instrument Repair Personnel). Aviation Careers Series. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaharevitz, Walter

    This booklet, one in a series on aviation careers, outlines career opportunities in aviation maintenance. The booklet provides the following information about aviation maintenance jobs: nature of the work, working conditions, where the jobs are, wages and benefits, opportunities for advancement, requirements to enter the job, opportunities for…

  20. Collegiate Aviation Research and Education Solutions to Critical Safety Issues. UNO Aviation Monograph Series. UNOAI Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowen, Brent, Ed.

    This document contains four papers concerning collegiate aviation research and education solutions to critical safety issues. "Panel Proposal Titled Collegiate Aviation Research and Education Solutions to Critical Safety Issues for the Tim Forte Collegiate Aviation Safety Symposium" (Brent Bowen) presents proposals for panels on the…

  1. Aviation and the Environment. A Selected, Annotated Bibliography Related to Aviation's Responses Toward Improving the Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Jane

    This informal, brief bibliography attempts to stress the positive side of aviation, annotating documents that explain how the airlines, aircraft engine manufacturers, government agencies, military aviation, and general aviation are meeting their responsibilities in solving environmental problems. Topics arousing public concern are identified:…

  2. Eustachian tube evaluation in aviators.

    PubMed

    Iannella, Giannicola; Lucertini, Marco; Pasquariello, Benedetta; Manno, Alessandra; Angeletti, Diletta; Re, Massimo; Magliulo, Giuseppe

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study is to evaluate the Eustachian tube functionality in a group of aviators to underline a subclinical dysfunction and the related risk of ear fullness or barotitis. Hypobaric chamber allows to simulate the pressure variation of the flight. This prospective study enrolled 42 aviation pilots, members of the Italian Air Force, to whom were evaluated Eustachian tube functionality by Tubomanometry, patients subjective assessments concerning feasibility of Valsalva's and Toynbee's clinical symptoms, tympanometry, and objective Valsalva before and after exposure to hypobaric chamber. The new Eustachian tube score (ETS-7) was also calculated for each pilot before and after exposure to hypobaric chamber. Results of our examination showed that: before chamber exposition, in 92.8 % of pilots, an ETS-7 of eight or more was found bilaterally. In three (7.2 %) cases, a unilateral ETS-7 ≤ 7 was found and two of those had a positive history. After undergoing the hypobaric chamber session, the evaluation of ETS-7 showed only 19 % of pilots with an ETD score ≤7, in particular three bilateral and five unilateral cases. Three of those pilots were clinically positive: two airmen reported persistent fullness, while the other one had a barotitis. Therefore, the combined use of TMM and ETS-7 before and after hypobaric chamber exposure appears to be a reliable method for assessing the functional capacity of the Eustachian tube in aviators, the stressful effect of flight on it, to exclude subjects at increased risk of ear pain, fullness, or barotrauma.

  3. Human error in aviation operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagel, David C.

    1988-01-01

    The role of human error in commercial and general aviation accidents and the techniques used to evaluate it are reviewed from a human-factors perspective. Topics addressed include the general decline in accidents per million departures since the 1960s, the increase in the proportion of accidents due to human error, methods for studying error, theoretical error models, and the design of error-resistant systems. Consideration is given to information acquisition and processing errors, visually guided flight, disorientation, instrument-assisted guidance, communication errors, decision errors, debiasing, and action errors.

  4. Omega navigation for general aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollister, W. M.

    1976-01-01

    A 70-hour flight test evaluation of an Omega navigation system was performed using a Piper Cherokee 180, to determine the feasibility of Omega for worldwide general aviation navigation. Measurements were made of position accuracy, noise phenomena, and signal to noise ratio. It was found that Omega accuracy is essentially insensitive to local geography, but that there are isolated local interference phenomena associated with radio transmitters, although the strongest noise source observed was due to the onboard power source for the VHF comm/nav radio. An occurrence of lane jumps was observed when attempting to navigate with one weak station.

  5. Spatial sensitivities of human health risk to intercontinental and high-altitude pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koo, Jamin; Wang, Qiqi; Henze, Daven K.; Waitz, Ian A.; Barrett, Steven R. H.

    2013-06-01

    We perform the first long-term (>1 year) continuous adjoint simulations with a global atmospheric chemistry-transport model focusing on population exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and associated risk of early death. Sensitivities relevant to intercontinental and high-altitude PM pollution are calculated with particular application to aircraft emissions. Specifically, the sensitivities of premature mortality risk in different regions to NOx, SOx, CO, VOC and primary PM2.5 emissions as a function of location are computed. We apply the resultant sensitivity matrices to aircraft emissions, finding that NOx emissions are responsible for 93% of population exposure to aircraft-attributable PM2.5. Aircraft NOx accounts for all of aircraft-attributable nitrate exposure (as expected) and 53% of aircraft-attributable sulfate exposure due to the strong "oxidative coupling" between aircraft NOx emissions and non-aviation SO2 emissions in terms of sulfate formation. Of the health risk-weighted human PM2.5 exposure attributable to aviation, 73% occurs in Asia, followed by 18% in Europe. 95% of the air quality impacts of aircraft emissions in the US are incurred outside the US. We also assess the impact of uncertainty or changes in (non-aviation) ammonia emissions on aviation-attributable PM2.5 exposure by calculating second-order sensitivities. We note the potential application of the sensitivity matrices as a rapid policy analysis tool in aviation environmental policy contexts.

  6. Characteristics of successful aviation leaders of Oklahoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kutz, Mary N. Hill

    Scope and method of study. The purpose of the study was to examine the personal traits, skills, practices, behaviors, background, academic, and career success patterns of selected aviation leaders in Oklahoma. A purposive sample of 18 leaders who had achieved a top-ranked position of aviation leadership in an organization or a position of influence in the community was selected for interview. The leaders chosen for interview came from a variety of aviation organizations including government, academia, military, corporate aviation, and air carrier leadership as well as community leadership (specifically those aviation personnel who were engaged in a political or civic leadership role). Findings and conclusions. This study identified no common career choices, educational, family, or other background factors exclusively responsible for leadership success of all of the participants. Some of the more significant findings were that a high percentage of the leaders held undergraduate and advanced degrees; however, success had been achieved by some who had little or no college education. Aviation technical experience was not a prerequisite for aviation leadership success in that a significant number of the participants held no airman rating and some had entered positions of aviation leadership from non-aviation related careers. All had received some positive learning experience from their family background even those backgrounds which were less than desirable. All of the participants had been involved in volunteer civic or humanitarian leadership roles, and all had received numerous honors. The most frequently identified value expressed by the leaders was honesty; the predominant management style was participative with a strong backup style for directing, the most important skills were communication and listening skills, and the most frequently mentioned characteristics of success were honesty, credibility, vision, high standards, love for aviation and fiscal

  7. 78 FR 20685 - Aviation Security Advisory Committee (ASAC) Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-05

    ... SECURITY Transportation Security Administration Aviation Security Advisory Committee (ASAC) Meeting AGENCY... Committee Meeting. SUMMARY: The Aviation Security Advisory Committee (ASAC) will meet in Arlington, VA. This.... L. 92-463). The Aviation Security Advisory Committee (ASAC) provides advice and...

  8. Aviation/Aerospace Teacher Education Workshops: Program Development and Implementation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Mavis F.

    1998-01-01

    Describes an aviation/aerospace teacher-education workshop that allows elementary school teachers to become familiar with aviation fundamentals and issues and with ways to incorporate aviation topics into their curricula. (JOW)

  9. 78 FR 71706 - Advisory Committee for Aviation Consumer Protection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-29

    ... Office of the Secretary Advisory Committee for Aviation Consumer Protection AGENCY: Office of the.... SUMMARY: This notice announces the fifth meeting of the Advisory Committee for Aviation Consumer... Kathleen Blank Riether, Senior Attorney, Office of Aviation Enforcement and Proceedings,...

  10. Aviation medicine and the Army.

    PubMed

    Vyrnwy-Jones, P; Thornton, R

    1984-10-01

    The purpose of this short series of articles is not to present the reader with a vast amount of technical data, soon to be forgotten, but to provide some items of general interest from the past, present, and future of Army aviation. Obviously there will be a concentration on medical matters, but the aim is to give the reader a feel for the rapid progress being made in helicopter design and the likely problems we may face in the future. The first article serves as an introduction to the series and three further articles will cover various aspects of the speciality. The second will be concerned with AAC helicopter accidents and will include accident investigation, crashworthiness and the contribution made by pilot error. The third article will cover major environmental problems of helicopters, particularly noise, vibration and thermal stress. The fourth article will examine ways in which microprocessors and modern technology will affect future helicopter and ancillary equipment development; for instance, a helicopter with no external windows has been suggested, 'The Iron Cockpit'. The fifth article will be concerned with the clinical aspects of Army Aviation medicine.

  11. A mitigation strategy for commercial aviation impact on NOx-related O3 change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wasiuk, D. K.; Khan, M. A. H.; Shallcross, D. E.; Derwent, R. G.; Lowenberg, M. H.

    2016-07-01

    An operational mitigation strategy for commercial aircraft impact on atmospheric composition, referred to as the turboprop replacement strategy (TRS), is described in this paper. The global air traffic between 2005 and 2011 was modeled with the TRS in which turbofan powered aircraft were replaced with nine chosen turboprop powered aircraft on all routes up to 1700 nautical miles (NM) in range. The results of this TRS double the global number of departures, as well as global mission distance, while global mission time grows by nearly a factor of 3. However, the global mission fuel and the emissions of aviation CO2, H2O, and SOx remain approximately unchanged, and the total global aviation CO, hydrocarbons (HC), and NOx emissions are reduced by 79%, 21%, and 11% on average between 2005 and 2011. The TRS lowers the global mean cruise altitude of flights up to 1700 NM by 2.7 km which leads to a significant decrease in global mission fuel burn, mission time, distance flown, and the aircraft emissions of CO2, CO, H2O, NOx, SOx, and HC above 9.2 km. The replacement of turbofans with turboprops in regional fleets on a global scale leads to an overall reduction in levels of tropospheric O3 at the current estimated mean cruise altitude near the tropopause where the radiative forcing of O3 is strongest. Further, the replacement strategy results in a reduction of ground-level aviation CO and NOx emissions by 33 and 29%, respectively, between 2005 and 2011.

  12. "Oops, It didn't arm." - A Case Study of Two Automation Assisted Altitude Deviations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plamer, Everett; Shafto, Michael G. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    Altitude deviations are the most common pilot error reported to the Aviation Safety Reporting System. Last year, altitude deviations were reported to the ASRS at the rate of about one per hour. The reporting pilot's narrative is usually our only source of information about what happened in these incidents. In a recent line-oriented, simulator study, twenty-two airline crews flew a realistic, two-hour mission in a DC-9 and an MD-88 aircraft. This paper will describe and analyze two of the five altitude deviations that were observed during this study. The paper focuses on the flight crews' use (or misuse) of the autopilot and autothrottle during these incidents.

  13. Comparison of hecter fuel with export aviation gasoline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickinson, H C; Gage, V R; Sparrow, S W

    1921-01-01

    Among the fuels which will operate at compression ratios up to at least 8.0 without preignition or "pinking" is hecter fuel, whence a careful determination of its performance is of importance. For the test data presented in this report the hecter fuel used was a mixture of 30 per cent benzol and 70 per cent cyclohexane, having a low freezing point, and distilling from first drop to 90 per cent at nearly a constant temperature, about 20 degrees c. below the average distillation temperature ("mean volatility") of the x gasoline (export grade). The results of these experiments show that the power developed by hecter fuel is the same as that developed by export aviation gasoline at about 1,800 r.p.m. at all altitudes. At lower speeds differences in the power developed by the fuels become evident. Comparisons at ground level were omitted to avoid any possibility of damaging the engine by operating with open throttle on gasoline at so high a compression. The fuel consumption per unit power based on weight, not volume, averaged more than 10 per cent greater with hecter than with x gasoline. The thermal efficiency of the engine when using hecter is less than when using gasoline, particularly at higher speeds. A generalization of the difference for all altitudes and speeds being 8 per cent. A general deduction from these facts is that more hecter is exhausted unburnt. Hecter can withstand high compression pressures and temperature without preignition. (author)

  14. Machinist's Mate J 1 and C: Aviation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naval Training Publications Center, Memphis, TN.

    The rate training manual is one of a series of training manuals prepared for enlisted personnel of the Navy and Naval Reserve studying for advancement from the Aviation Machinist's Mate ADJ2 rating to ADJ1 to ADJC. Aviation Machinist's Mates J maintain aircraft jet engines and their related systems. Chpater 1 discusses the enlisted rating…

  15. Systems Engineering of Coast Guard Aviator Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Eugene R.; Caro, Paul W.

    This paper describes a total-program application of the systems engineering concept of the U.S. Coast Guard aviation training programs. The systems approach used treats all aspects of the training to produce the most cost-effective integration of academic, synthetic, and flight training for the production of graduate Coast Guard aviators. The…

  16. Aviation & Space Curriculum Guide K-3. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alabama State Dept. of Education, Montgomery.

    This guide is designed for teachers of grades K-3 who have little or no experience in the area of aviation or space. The purpose of this guide is to provide an array of aviation and space activities which may be used by teachers to enrich locally-designed programs. Units in this book include: (1) History of Aerospace; (2) Kinds and Uses of…

  17. Meteorological Input to General Aviation Pilot Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colomy, J. R.

    1979-01-01

    The meteorological education of general aviation pilots is discussed in terms of the definitions and concepts of learning and good educational procedures. The effectiveness of the metoeorological program in the training of general aviations pilots is questioned. It is suggested that flight instructors provide real experience during low ceilings and visibilities, and that every pilot receiving an instrument rating should experience real instrument flight.

  18. Machinist's Mate J 1 and C: Aviation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naval Training Publications Center, Memphis, TN.

    The rate training manual is one of a series of training manuals prepared for enlisted personnel of the Navy and Naval Reserve studying for advancement from the Aviation Machinist's Mate ADJ2 rating to ADJ1 to ADJC. Aviation Machinist's Mates J maintain aircraft jet engines and their related systems. Chpater 1 discusses the enlisted rating…

  19. Sports aviation accidents: fatality and aircraft specificity.

    PubMed

    de Voogt, Alexander J; van Doorn, Robert R A

    2010-11-01

    Sports aviation is a special category of general aviation characterized by diverse aircraft types and a predominantly recreational flight operation. A general comparison of aircraft accidents within sports aviation is missing, but should guide future research. A comparison of accidents in sports aviation was made using 2118 records from the National Transportation Safety Board for the period 1982-2007. In addition, the available denominator data from the Federal Aviation Administration were used to interpret the data. The highest number of accidents was found with gliders (N = 991), but the highest relative number of fatal accidents came from ultra-light (45%) and gyroplane operations (40%), which are homebuilt more often than other aircraft types. The most common cause of accident in sports aviation was in-flight planning and decision-making (N = 200, 9.4%). The most frequent occurrences were hard landings and undershoots, of which the numbers differ significantly from one aircraft type to the other. Homebuilt aircraft are at particular risk in sports aviation. Although denominator data remain problematic for motorized sports aviation, these aircraft show a high proportion of homebuilt aircraft and, more importantly, a higher relative number of fatal accidents.

  20. The Air Force Aviation Investment Challenge

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-17

    brown . 9 See CRS Insight IN10095, Budget Highlight: Air Force Long Range Strike Bomber. 0.00...Gertler Specialist in Military Aviation jgertler@crs.loc.gov, 7-5107 Acknowledgments The author thanks CRS colleague Pat Towell and aviation

  1. 19 CFR 122.167 - Aviation smuggling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aviation smuggling. 122.167 Section 122.167 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Penalties § 122.167 Aviation smuggling. (a) Civil penalties. Any...

  2. Agricultural aviation application in the USA

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The United States has the most advanced equipment and applications in agricultural aviation. It also has a complete service system in agricultural aviation. This article introduces the current status of aerial application including service, equipment, and aerial application techniques. It has a c...

  3. The Politics of Aviation English Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alderson, J. Charles

    2011-01-01

    The International Civil Aviation Association has developed a set of Language Proficiency Requirements (LPRs) and a Language Proficiency Rating Scale, which seeks to define proficiency in the language needed for aviation purposes at six different levels. Pilots, air traffic controllers and aeronautical station operators are required to achieve at…

  4. 19 CFR 122.167 - Aviation smuggling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Aviation smuggling. 122.167 Section 122.167 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Penalties § 122.167 Aviation smuggling. (a) Civil penalties. Any...

  5. 19 CFR 122.167 - Aviation smuggling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aviation smuggling. 122.167 Section 122.167 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Penalties § 122.167 Aviation smuggling. (a) Civil penalties. Any...

  6. 19 CFR 122.167 - Aviation smuggling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Aviation smuggling. 122.167 Section 122.167 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Penalties § 122.167 Aviation smuggling. (a) Civil penalties. Any...

  7. 19 CFR 122.167 - Aviation smuggling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Aviation smuggling. 122.167 Section 122.167 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Penalties § 122.167 Aviation smuggling. (a) Civil penalties. Any...

  8. Aviation System Analysis Capability Executive Assistant Analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, Eileen; Kostiuk, Peter

    1999-01-01

    This document describes the analyses that may be incorporated into the Aviation System Analysis Capability Executive Assistant. The document will be used as a discussion tool to enable NASA and other integrated aviation system entities to evaluate, discuss, and prioritize analyses.

  9. Aviation Career Awareness Program [and Related Materials].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petrie, Edwin T.

    The learning packet focuses on general aviation and is to be used in career awareness programs at the elementary level. It includes a document which presents a group of units on general aviation and its related careers. The units include the following: (1) aircraft manufacturing, (2) instruments and controls, (3) how airplanes fly, (4) flight…

  10. Air Age Education. Aviation Career Awareness Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petrie, Edwin T.

    Described is a program designed to help introduce the broad scope of occupational careers available with general aviation. The program is designed to aid the teacher in presenting the basic principles of flight, essential facts about general aviation as well as its occupational opportunities. It replaces previous elementary student materials, and…

  11. Aviation Career Awareness Program [and Related Materials].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petrie, Edwin T.

    The learning packet focuses on general aviation and is to be used in career awareness programs at the elementary level. It includes a document which presents a group of units on general aviation and its related careers. The units include the following: (1) aircraft manufacturing, (2) instruments and controls, (3) how airplanes fly, (4) flight…

  12. A Survey of the Aviation Mechanics Occupation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, David; Bowers, William K.

    The report documents the results of a national survey of the aviation mechanics' occupation. The study surveyed 151 companies in the four industrial categories of the aviation industry and was concerned only with the certificated airframe and powerplant mechanic. Results of the study provide the following: (1) identification of the technical…

  13. Army Aviation -- Back to Its Roots

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-03

    2 Ibid., 5 – 11, and Richard P. Weinert , Jr., A History of Army Aviation – 1950-1962 (Fort Monroe, VA: U.S. Army Training and Doctrine Command, 1991...Doctrine, 75 – 76. 9 Richard P. Weinert , Jr., A History of Army Aviation – 1950-1962 (Fort Monroe, VA: U.S. Army Training and Doctrine Command, 1991

  14. Aviation Education: Perceptions of Airport Consultants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Michelle; Truitt, Lawrence J.

    1997-01-01

    Airport consultants (54 responses from 251 surveyed) in the United States and Canada evaluated a proposed master's of public administration in aviation. They considered the curriculum adequate. State/local government operations and oral/written communication were important content areas. Aviation-specific software may grow in importance. (SK)

  15. The Politics of Aviation English Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alderson, J. Charles

    2011-01-01

    The International Civil Aviation Association has developed a set of Language Proficiency Requirements (LPRs) and a Language Proficiency Rating Scale, which seeks to define proficiency in the language needed for aviation purposes at six different levels. Pilots, air traffic controllers and aeronautical station operators are required to achieve at…

  16. High altitude medicine and physiology in the former Soviet Union.

    PubMed

    Gippenreiter, E; West, J B

    1996-06-01

    The countries of the former Soviet Union have a long history of studies in high-altitude medicine and physiology, but much of the information is difficult to obtain in the West because of the inaccessibility of the journals and the lack of familiarity with the language. The purpose of present review is to improve this situation. In the 1880's, Ivan Sechenov (1829-1905), one of the founders of the Russian school of physiology, introduced the notion of the "inner altitude," that is, how the alveolar Po2 changes with barometric pressure. Later in the 19th century, Russian army physicians made extensive studies of the fitness of soldiers at high altitude and of procedures for improving acclimatization. With the birth of Soviet mountaineering in 1923, a large series of expeditions went to high altitude, first in the Alps, and later in the Caucasus. Nikolay N. Sirotinin (1896-1977) led 9 pre-war research expeditions to Mt. Elbrus and other areas, and, because he thought the alkalosis was partly responsible for mountain sickness, he introduced acid mixtures to be taken orally. Zoia I. Barbashova (1910-1980) made extensive studies of tissue adaptation, especially enzyme activities, in animals exposed to hypoxia. More recently Oleg G. Gazenko (1918-) and his colleagues have carried out extensive studies associated with aviation medicine and the selection of cosmonauts for the Soviet space program. Among many topics, one is the study of how adaptation to one type of physiologic stress (e.g., hypoxia) can improve tolerance to another stress (e.g., acceleration).

  17. The Rotary Combustion Engine: a Candidate for General Aviation. [conferences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The state of development of the rotary combustion engine is discussed. The nonturbine engine research programs for general aviation and future requirements for general aviation powerplants are emphasized.

  18. Environmentally Responsible Aviation - Real Solutions for Environmental Challenges Facing Aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collier, Fayette; Thomas, Russell; Burley, Casey; Nickol, Craig; Lee, Chi-Ming; Tong, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The combined reality of persistently strong growth in air traffic and the vital economic role of the air transport system result in continued demand for the progress of technology for the reduction of aircraft noise, emissions of oxides of nitrogen, and fuel burn. NASA s Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) project has set aggressive goals in these three areas including a noise goal of 42 dB cumulative below the Stage 4 certification level. The goal for the reduction of oxides of nitrogen is 75% below the current standard. The fuel burn reduction goal is 50% below that of a current state-of-the-art aircraft. Furthermore, the overall goal of ERA is to mature technologies that will meet these goals simultaneously and with a timeframe of 2020 for technical readiness. This paper outlines the key technologies and the progress achieved to date toward the goals.

  19. Point-of-Care Ultrasound Utility and Potential for High Altitude Crew Recovery Missions.

    PubMed

    Galdamez, Laura A; Clark, Jonathan B; Antonsen, Erik L

    2017-02-01

    Flights to high altitude can lead to exposure and unique pathology not seen in normal commercial aviation. This paper assesses the potential for point-of-care ultrasound to aid in management and disposition of injured crewmembers from a high altitude incident. This was accomplished through a systematic literature review regarding current diagnostic and therapeutic uses of ultrasound for injuries expected in high altitude free fall and parachuting. While current research supports its utility in diagnostics, therapeutic procedures, and triage decisions, little research has been done regarding its utility in high altitude specific pathology, but its potential has been demonstrated. An algorithm was created for use in high altitude missions, in the event of an emergency descent and traumatic landing for an unconscious and hypotensive pilot, to rule out most life threatening causes. Each endpoint includes disposition, allowing concise decision-making.Galdamez LA, Clark JB, Antonsen EL. Point-of-care ultrasound utility and potential for high altitude crew recovery missions. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2017; 88(2):128-136.

  20. Helicopter pilot scan techniques during low-altitude high-speed flight.

    PubMed

    Kirby, Christopher E; Kennedy, Quinn; Yang, Ji Hyun

    2014-07-01

    This study examined pilots' visual scan patterns during a simulated high-speed, low-level flight and how their scan rates related to flight performance. As helicopters become faster and more agile, pilots are expected to navigate at low altitudes while traveling at high speeds. A pilot's ability to interpret information from a combination of visual sources determines not only mission success, but also aircraft and crew survival. In a fixed-base helicopter simulator modeled after the U.S. Navy's MH-60S, 17 active-duty Navy helicopter pilots with varying total flight times flew and navigated through a simulated southern Californian desert course. Pilots' scan rate and fixation locations were monitored using an eye-tracking system while they flew through the course. Flight parameters, including altitude, were recorded using the simulator's recording system. Experienced pilots with more than 1000 total flight hours better maintained a constant altitude (mean altitude deviation = 48.52 ft, SD = 31.78) than less experienced pilots (mean altitude deviation = 73.03 ft, SD = 10.61) and differed in some aspects of their visual scans. They spent more time looking at the instrument display and less time looking out the window (OTW) than less experienced pilots. Looking OTW was associated with less consistency in maintaining altitude. Results may aid training effectiveness specific to helicopter aviation, particularly in high-speed low-level flight conditions.

  1. Quantifying the risk of extreme aviation accidents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Kumer Pial; Dey, Asim Kumer

    2016-12-01

    Air travel is considered a safe means of transportation. But when aviation accidents do occur they often result in fatalities. Fortunately, the most extreme accidents occur rarely. However, 2014 was the deadliest year in the past decade causing 111 plane crashes, and among them worst four crashes cause 298, 239, 162 and 116 deaths. In this study, we want to assess the risk of the catastrophic aviation accidents by studying historical aviation accidents. Applying a generalized Pareto model we predict the maximum fatalities from an aviation accident in future. The fitted model is compared with some of its competitive models. The uncertainty in the inferences are quantified using simulated aviation accident series, generated by bootstrap resampling and Monte Carlo simulations.

  2. Asteroid airburst altitude vs. strength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, Darrel; Wheeler, Lorien; Mathias, Donovan

    2016-10-01

    Small NEO asteroids (<Ø140m) may not be a threat on a national or global level but can still cause a significant amount of local damage as demonstrated by the Chelyabinsk event where there was over $33 million worth of damage (1 billion roubles) and 1500 were injured, mostly due to broken glass. The ground damage from a small asteroid depends strongly on the altitude at which they "burst" where most of the energy is deposited in the atmosphere. The ability to accurately predict ground damage is useful in determining appropriate evacuation or shelter plans and emergency management.Strong asteroids, such as a monolithic boulder, fail and create peak energy deposition close to the altitude at which ram dynamic pressure exceeds the material cohesive strength. Weaker asteroids, such as a rubble pile, structurally fail at higher altitude, but it requires the increased aerodynamic pressure at lower altitude to disrupt and disperse the rubble. Consequently the resulting airbursts have a peak energy deposition at similar altitudes.In this study hydrocode simulations of the entry and break-up of small asteroids were performed to examine the effect of strength, size, composition, entry angle, and speed on the resulting airburst. This presentation will show movies of the simulations, the results of peak burst height, and the comparison to semi-analytical models.

  3. Asteroid airburst altitude vs. strength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, D. K.; Wheeler, L.; Mathias, D.

    2016-12-01

    The entry and break-up of small asteroids were simulated with a hydrocode to examine the effect of strength, size, composition, entry angle, and speed on the resulting airburst. A strong asteroid, such as a monolithic boulder, structurally fail and deposit most of their energy around the altitude at which dynamic ram pressure exceeds the cohesive strength of the asteroid. A weaker asteroid, such as a loose rubble pile, will structurally fail at high altitude, but continue to fly through the atmosphere as a single unit until reaching lower altitudes where the increased aerodynamic pressure is sufficient to disrupt and disperse the rubble resulting in a flare. Airburst from weak asteroids consequently have a peak energy deposition at similar altitudes.This study focuses on small NEO asteroids which are likely to airburst rather than impact the ground where the damage created on the ground depends strongly on the altitude at which most of the energy is deposited in the atmosphere. The ability to accurately predict ground damage is useful in determining appropriate evacuation or shelter plans and emergency management. Airbursting asteroids are not a threat on a national level but can still cause a significant amount of local damage as demonstrated by the Chelyabinsk event where there was over $33 million worth of damage (1 billion roubles) and 1500 were injured by flying glass.

  4. Travelling safely to places at high altitude - Understanding and preventing altitude illness.

    PubMed

    Parise, Ivan

    2017-06-01

    Greater numbers of people are travelling to places at high altitude each year. Altitude illness is common in places at high altitude and may be life-threatening. General practitioners (GPs) are best placed to provide evidence-based advice to keep travellers well informed of the possible risks they may encounter in places at high altitude. The aim of this article is to review knowledge on altitude illness in order to help GPs assist patients to travel safely to places at high altitude. Acclimatisation to high altitude is a complex process and when inadequate leads to the pathological changes of altitude illness, including high-altitude headache, cerebral oedema, pulmonary oedema and acute mountain sickness. Higher ascent, faster rate of ascent and a previous history of altitude illness increase the risk of altitude illness. Acetazolamide and other medications used to prevent altitude illness are discussed in detail, including the finding that inhaled budesonide may prevent altitude illness.

  5. Space Weather Nowcasting of Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation for Aviation Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mertens, Christopher J.; Wilson, John W.; Blattnig, Steve R.; Solomon, Stan C.; Wiltberger, J.; Kunches, Joseph; Kress, Brian T.; Murray, John J.

    2007-01-01

    There is a growing concern for the health and safety of commercial aircrew and passengers due to their exposure to ionizing radiation with high linear energy transfer (LET), particularly at high latitudes. The International Commission of Radiobiological Protection (ICRP), the EPA, and the FAA consider the crews of commercial aircraft as radiation workers. During solar energetic particle (SEP) events, radiation exposure can exceed annual limits, and the number of serious health effects is expected to be quite high if precautions are not taken. There is a need for a capability to monitor the real-time, global background radiations levels, from galactic cosmic rays (GCR), at commercial airline altitudes and to provide analytical input for airline operations decisions for altering flight paths and altitudes for the mitigation and reduction of radiation exposure levels during a SEP event. The Nowcast of Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation for Aviation Safety (NAIRAS) model is new initiative to provide a global, real-time radiation dosimetry package for archiving and assessing the biologically harmful radiation exposure levels at commercial airline altitudes. The NAIRAS model brings to bear the best available suite of Sun-Earth observations and models for simulating the atmospheric ionizing radiation environment. Observations are utilized from ground (neutron monitors), from the atmosphere (the METO analysis), and from space (NASA/ACE and NOAA/GOES). Atmospheric observations provide the overhead shielding information and the ground- and space-based observations provide boundary conditions on the GCR and SEP energy flux distributions for transport and dosimetry simulations. Dose rates are calculated using the parametric AIR (Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation) model and the physics-based HZETRN (High Charge and Energy Transport) code. Empirical models of the near-Earth radiation environment (GCR/SEP energy flux distributions and geomagnetic cut-off rigidity) are benchmarked

  6. Venus balloons at low altitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishimura, J.; Hinada, M.; Yajima, N.; Fujii, M.

    1994-02-01

    The Venus balloons are one of the most important vehicles to explore the dynamics and composition of Venusian atmosphere and several feasibility studies have been reported. We here propose the balloons at low altitude of 10 to 20 km floating below the cloud in the Venus atmosphere, which will make it possible to perform the study of the Venus atmosphere at low altitude together with a direct observation of the Venus surface. The atmospheric pressure is 20 to 40 atm. at this altitude, and the temperature is as high as 300 C to 400 C. The balloons proposed here are of the spherical shape of super pressure type filled by the Helium gas. The balloons are made of thin Ti alloy or reinforced by CFRP, and have capabilities to carry the payloads of weights of several kg. This type of the balloon has several merits on the weight considerations over the normal inflatable balloons with gas containers and its inlet systems.

  7. Venus balloons at low altitudes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishimura, J.; Hinada, M.; Yajima, N.; Fujii, M.

    1994-02-01

    The Venus balloons are one of the most important vehicles to explore the dynamics and composition of Venusian atmosphere. The authors here propose the balloons at low altitude of 10 to 20 km floating below the cloud in the Venus atmosphere, which will make it possible to perform the study of the Venus atmosphere at low altitude together with a direct observation of the Venus surface. The atmospheric pressure is 20 to 40 atm at this altitude, and the temperature is as high as 300°C to 400°C. The balloons proposed here are of the spherical shape of super pressure type filled by the Helium gas. The balloons are made of thin Ti alloy or reinforced by CFRP, and have capabilities to carry the payloads of weights of several kg.

  8. Solar collector with altitude tracking

    DOEpatents

    Barak, Amitzur Z.

    1977-01-01

    A device is provided for turning a solar collector about an east-west horizontal axis so that the collector is tilted toward the sun as the EWV altitude of the sun varies each day. It includes one or more heat responsive elements and a shading means aligned so that within a range of EWV altitudes of the sun during daylight hours the shading means shades the element or elements while during the rest of the daylight hours the elements or elements are heated by the sun to assume heated, stable states. Mechanical linkage between the collector and the element is responsive to the states of the element or elements to tilt the collector in accordance with variations in the EWV altitude of the sun.

  9. Return to Activity at Altitude After High-Altitude Illness

    PubMed Central

    DeWeber, Kevin; Scorza, Keith

    2010-01-01

    Context: Sports and other activities at high altitude are popular, yet they pose the unique risk for high-altitude illness (HAI). Once those who have suffered from a HAI recover, they commonly desire or need to perform the same activity at altitude in the immediate or distant future. Evidence Acquisition: As based on key text references and peer-reviewed journal articles from a Medline search, this article reviews the pathophysiology and general treatment principles of HAI. Results: In addition to the type of HAI experienced and the current level of recovery, factors needing consideration in the return-to-play plan include physical activity requirements, flexibility of the activity schedule, and available medical equipment and facilities. Most important, adherence to prudent acclimatization protocols and gradual ascent recommendations (when above 3000 m, no more than 600-m net elevation gain per day, and 1 rest day every 1 to 2 ascent days) is powerful in its preventive value and thus strongly recommended. When these are not practical, prophylactic medications (acetazolamide, dexamethasone, salmeterol, nifedipine, or phosphodiesterase inhibitors, depending on the type of prior HAI) may be prescribed and can reduce the risk of illness. Athletes with HAI should be counseled that physical and mental performance may be adversely affected if activity at altitude continues before recovery is complete and that there is a risk of progression to a more serious HAI. Conclusion: With a thoughtful plan, most recurrent HAI in athletes can be prevented. PMID:23015950

  10. Cognitive function at high altitude.

    PubMed

    Kramer, A F; Coyne, J T; Strayer, D L

    1993-06-01

    The effects of altitude on human performance and cognition were evaluated in a field study performed on Mount Denali in Alaska during the summer of 1990. Climbers performed a series of perceptual, cognitive, and sensory-motor tasks before, during, and after climbing the West Buttress route on Denali. Relative to a matched control group that performed the tasks at sea level, the climbers showed deficits of learning and retention in perceptual and memory tasks. Furthermore, climbers performed more slowly on most tasks than did the control group, suggesting long-term deficits that may be attributed to repeated forays to high altitudes.

  11. NASA aviation safety reporting system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The study deals with 165 inadvertent operations on or into inappropriate portions of the aircraft areas at controlled airports. Pilot-initiated and controller-initiated incursions are described and discussed. It was found that a majority of the pilot-initiated occurrences involved operation without a clearance; controller-initiated occurrences usually involved failure to maintain assured separation. The factors associated with these occurrences are analyzed. It appears that a major problem in these occurrences is inadequate coordination among the various system participants. Reasons for this, and some possible solutions to various aspects of the problem, are discussed. A sample of reports from pilots and controllers is presented. These relate to undesired occurrences in air transport, general aviation, and air traffic control operations; to ATC coordination problems; and to a recurrent problem in ASRS reports, parachuting operations. A sample of alert bulletins and responses to them is presented.

  12. Studies in general aviation aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winkelmann, Allen E.

    1990-01-01

    The Department of Aerospace Engineering at the University of Maryland has completed a research study for NASA Langley on the application of drooped leading edges to high aspect wings. The experimental study conducted for this grant was a natural extension of work previously conducted at NASA Ames, the University of Michigan, NASA Langley and the University of Maryland. Previous research had shown that wing planform modifications (commonly referred to as drooped leading edge mods) could have a significant effect on reducing or eliminating the stall/spin characteristics of General Aviation (GA) aircraft. All aircraft studied in the earlier work had relatively low aspect ratio wings (AR = 6). Since future GA aircraft will feature higher aspect ratio wings, the obvious question was: how well will the dropped leading edge work on higher aspect ratio wings? The focus of the current study was to examine the effectiveness of the drooped leading edge modifications to higher aspect ratio wings with AR = 9 to 12.

  13. Aviation Research and the Internet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, Antoinette M.

    1995-01-01

    The Internet is a network of networks. It was originally funded by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency or DOD/DARPA and evolved in part from the connection of supercomputer sites across the United States. The National Science Foundation (NSF) made the most of their supercomputers by connecting the sites to each other. This made the supercomputers more efficient and now allows scientists, engineers and researchers to access the supercomputers from their own labs and offices. The high speed networks that connect the NSF supercomputers form the backbone of the Internet. The World Wide Web (WWW) is a menu system. It gathers Internet resources from all over the world into a series of screens that appear on your computer. The WWW is also a distributed. The distributed system stores data information on many computers (servers). These servers can go out and get data when you ask for it. Hypermedia is the base of the WWW. One can 'click' on a section and visit other hypermedia (pages). Our approach to demonstrating the importance of aviation research through the Internet began with learning how to put pages on the Internet (on-line) ourselves. We were assigned two aviation companies; Vision Micro Systems Inc. and Innovative Aerodynamic Technologies (IAT). We developed home pages for these SBIR companies. The equipment used to create the pages were the UNIX and Macintosh machines. HTML Supertext software was used to write the pages and the Sharp JX600S scanner to scan the images. As a result, with the use of the UNIX, Macintosh, Sun, PC, and AXIL machines, we were able to present our home pages to over 800,000 visitors.

  14. Altitude deviations: Breakdowns of an error-tolerant system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmer, Everett A.; Hutchins, Edwin L.; Ritter, Richard D.; Vancleemput, Inge

    1993-01-01

    Pilot reports of aviation incidents to the Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) provide a window on the problems occurring in today's airline cockpits. The narratives of 10 pilot reports of errors made in the automation-assisted altitude-change task are used to illustrate some of the issues of pilots interacting with automatic systems. These narratives are then used to construct a description of the cockpit as an information processing system. The analysis concentrates on the error-tolerant properties of the system and on how breakdowns can occasionally occur. An error-tolerant system can detect and correct its internal processing errors. The cockpit system consists of two or three pilots supported by autoflight, flight-management, and alerting systems. These humans and machines have distributed access to clearance information and perform redundant processing of information. Errors can be detected as deviations from either expected behavior or as deviations from expected information. Breakdowns in this system can occur when the checking and cross-checking tasks that give the system its error-tolerant properties are not performed because of distractions or other task demands. Recommendations based on the analysis for improving the error tolerance of the cockpit system are given.

  15. Workload management and geographic disorientation in aviation incidents: A review of the ASRS data base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Henry P.; Tham, Mingpo; Wickens, Christopher D.

    1993-01-01

    NASA's Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) incident reports are reviewed in two related areas: pilots' failures to appropriately manage tasks, and breakdowns in geographic orientation. Examination of 51 relevant reports on task management breakdowns revealed that altitude busts and inappropriate runway usee were the most frequently reported consequences. Task management breakdowns appeared to occur at all levels of expertise, and prominent causal factors were related to breakdowns in crew communications, over-involvement with the flight management system and, for small (general aviation) aircraft, preoccupation with weather. Analysis of the 83 cases of geographic disorientation suggested that these too occurred at all levels of pilot experience. With regard to causal factors, a majority was related to poor cockpit resource management, in which inattention led to a loss of geographic awareness. Other leading causes were related to poor weather and poor decision making. The potential of the ASRS database for contributing to research and design issues is addressed.

  16. Design and flight testing of a digital optimal control general aviation autopilot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broussard, J. R.; Downing, D. R.; Bryant, W. H.

    1982-01-01

    This paper presents the designs of Proportional-Integral-Filter (PIF) autopilots for a General Aviation (NAVION) aircraft. The PIF autopilots use modern control theory to determine heading select and altitude select and hold autopilot modes. The PIF control law uses typical General Aviation sensors for state feedback; command error integration for command tracking; digital complimentary filtering and analog prefiltering for sensor noise suppression; a control filter for computation delay accommodation; and the incremental form to eliminate trim values in implementation. Theoretical developments for the control law are described which combine the sampled-data regulator with command generator tracking for use as a digital flight control system. The digital PIF autopilots are evaluated using closed-loop eigenvalues and simulations. Successful flight test results for the PIF autopilots are presented for different turbulence conditions and quadratic weights.

  17. A synopsis of the weather problems facing today's general aviation pilots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pope, J. C.

    1977-01-01

    Concentration on weather to data has primarily been at the point of observation. There have been efforts to obtain and disseminate en route weather through pilot reports (PIREPS), but the efforts have been meager. What is needed is the cooperative efforts on the application of technology to the acquisition and dissemination of the en route weather data for those pilots in the air as well as those who are flight planning on the ground. A comprehensive three-dimensional computer storage system is proposed that receives weather information from all aircraft on IFR flight plans and stores this information by altitude and geographic coordinates. Also, a report on the Federal Aviation Administration's Research Engineering and Development Aviation Weather Program from the aspect of past, present and future is given.

  18. Workload management and geographic disorientation in aviation incidents: A review of the ASRS data base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Henry P.; Tham, Mingpo; Wickens, Christopher D.

    1993-01-01

    NASA's Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) incident reports are reviewed in two related areas: pilots' failures to appropriately manage tasks, and breakdowns in geographic orientation. Examination of 51 relevant reports on task management breakdowns revealed that altitude busts and inappropriate runway usee were the most frequently reported consequences. Task management breakdowns appeared to occur at all levels of expertise, and prominent causal factors were related to breakdowns in crew communications, over-involvement with the flight management system and, for small (general aviation) aircraft, preoccupation with weather. Analysis of the 83 cases of geographic disorientation suggested that these too occurred at all levels of pilot experience. With regard to causal factors, a majority was related to poor cockpit resource management, in which inattention led to a loss of geographic awareness. Other leading causes were related to poor weather and poor decision making. The potential of the ASRS database for contributing to research and design issues is addressed.

  19. Aircraft Crew Radiation Exposure in Aviation Altitudes During Quiet and Solar Storm Periods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, Peter

    The European Commission Directorate General Transport and Energy published in 2004 a summary report of research on aircrew dosimetry carried out by the EURADOS working group WG5 (European Radiation Dosimetry Group, http://www.eurados.org/). The aim of the EURADOS working group WG5 was to bring together, in particular from European research groups, the available, preferably published, experimental data and results of calculations, together with detailed descriptions of the methods of measurement and calculation. The purpose is to provide a dataset for all European Union Member States for the assessment of individual doses and/or to assess the validity of different approaches, and to provide an input to technical recommendations by the experts and the European Commission. Furthermore EURADOS (European Radiation Dosimetry Group, http://www.eurados.org/) started to coordinate research activities in model improvements for dose assessment of solar particle events. Preliminary results related to the European research project CONRAD (Coordinated Network for Radiation Dosimetry) on complex mixed radiation fields at workplaces are presented. The major aim of this work is the validation of models for dose assessment of solar particle events, using data from neutron ground level monitors, in-flight measurement results obtained during a solar particle event and proton satellite data. The radiation protection quantity of interest is effective dose, E (ISO), but the comparison of measurement results obtained by different methods or groups, and comparison of measurement results and the results of calculations, is done in terms of the operational quantity ambient dose equivalent, H* (10). This paper gives an overview of aircrew radiation exposure measurements during quiet and solar storm conditions and focuses on dose results using the EURADOS In-Flight Radiation Data Base and published data on solar particle events

  20. The study of the evolution of aerosol concentrations at altitudes of civil aviation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamontov, Alexey; Gurvich, Alexander

    2017-04-01

    Clear Air Turbulence refers to turbulences in air without cloud, usually located in high troposphere and low stratosphere. Those CAT are a serious issue for inflight plane security and are responsible for numerous injuries or even reported deaths every year. Planes crossing such CAT can be strongly vertically shaken and passengers with security belt unfastened can be seriously injured. There is nowadays no alert system able to detect CAT at typical flight height. Indeed, onboard weather radars are blind to clear air turbulence. Today, Clear Air Turbulences are a serious flight security problem because there exists no ground or onboard detection devices. Besides, the physical phenomenon is far from being clearly understood. The understanding of CAT phenomenon is poor because: 1) is difficult to measure the CAT atmospheric parameters in situ (relatively low occurrence) 2) the simulations are complex. Therefore, this original project intends to 1) obtain a complete measured data set by remote sensing from the ground 2) join two different know-how to address the theoretical simulation aspects of CAT. Archive for the research was obtained in the performance of the European research program DELICAT (Demonstration of LIDAR based Clear Air Turbulence detection), which was a fullfledged performer IAP RAS(Obukhov Institute of atmospheric physics of Russian Academy of Science. The task of the flight test project DELICAT was to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed methods of lidar detection of turbulence. Flight tests were conducted using aircraft lidar instrument on board aircraft research vessel Cessna Citation II. Flight tests have given not only the information necessary to take into account the properties of airborne noise, but also provided us with data on atmospheric aerosol along the flight path. Questions aerosol scattering and the resulting data in this direction have not been claimed by European participants DELICAT. In practice many hours continuous recording of lidar response proportional to the intensity of the scattered radiation is observed, broke for further processing of measured data into segments lasting 1 minute. For the analysis of selected segments of the flight with constant values: height, direction and speed of the aircraft. An exploratory analysis of a small number of selected flights. Created data archive, a method of constructing 2D distributions have experience highlight areas free from congestion and provide estimates of the aerosol extinction. It should also be noted that the publication of lidar observations from the aircraft in the direction of the flight path we have not found, and their absence lends even greater urgency in the research.

  1. Study of the dosimetric characteristics of cosmic radiation at civil aviation altitudes.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, A; Pellicioni, M; Rancati, T

    2002-01-01

    The dependence of the doses on solar activity for intermediate levels of the solar modulation parameter has been studied by means of simulations carried out by the Monte Carlo transport code FLUKA. The vertical cut-off rigidities investigated lie between 0.4 and 6.1 GV. The calculated results show that the linear dependence proposed in a previous work, for the effective dose rate as a function of the solar modulation parameter, can be considered as an acceptable approximation. In addition, some dosimetric characteristics of cosmic radiation and some properties of the dosemeters in use for monitoring in the cosmic ray environment have been analysed with a view to simplifying measurements. The depth-dose curves in the ICRU sphere and the response of a tissue-equivalent ionisation chamber have been determined by the FLUKA code for a number of cosmic ray spectra On the basis of the calculated results, it is concluded that a value of the depth. d, which would make the ambient dose equivalent a conservative predictor of the effective dose, cannot be specified for cosmic radiation. However, the operational quantity can be useful in order to verify the predictions of Monte Carlo calculations. It is demonstrated that a crude approximation of the ambient dose equivalent could be obtained by multiplying by 2 the absorbed dose measured by a tissue-equivalent ionisation chamber with wall thickness of 10 mm.

  2. Aviation spatial orientation in relationship to head position, altitude interpretation, and control.

    PubMed

    Smith, D R; Cacioppo, A J; Hinman, G E

    1997-06-01

    Recently, a visually driven neck reflex was identified as causing head tilt toward the horizon during VMC flight. If this is the case, then pilots orient about a fixed rather than moving horizon, implying current attitude instruments inaccurately present spatial information. The purpose of this study was to determine if the opto-kinetic cervical neck reflex has an effect dependent on passive (autopilot) or active control of the aircraft. Further, findings could help determine if the opto-kinetic cervical reflex is characteristic of other flight crewmembers. There were 16 military pilots who flew two 13-min VMC low-level routes in a large dome flight simulator. Head position in relation to aircraft bank angle was recorded by a head tracker device. During one low-level route, the pilot had a supervisory role as the autopilot flew the aircraft (passive). The other route was flow manually by the pilot (active). Pilots consistently tilted the head to maintain alignment with the horizon. Similar head tilt angles were found in both the active and passive flight phases. However, head tilt had a faster onset rate in the passive condition. Results indicate the opto-kinetic cervical reflex affects pilots while actively flying or in a supervisory role as the autopilot flies. The consistent head tilt angles in both conditions should be considered in attitude indicator, HUD, and HMD designs. Further, results seem to indicate that non-pilot flight crewmembers are affected by the opto-kinetic cervical reflex which should be considered in spatial disorientation and airsickness discussions.

  3. Altitude preexposure recommendations for inducing acclimatization.

    PubMed

    Muza, Stephen R; Beidleman, Beth A; Fulco, Charles S

    2010-01-01

    For many low-altitude (<1500 m) residents, their travel itineraries may cause them to ascend rapidly to high (>2400 m) altitudes without having the time to develop an adequate degree of altitude acclimatization. Prior to departing on these trips, low-altitude residents can induce some degree of altitude acclimatization by ascending to moderate (>1500 m) or high altitudes during either continuous or intermittent altitude preexposures. Generally, the degree of altitude acclimatization developed is proportional to the altitude attained and the duration of exposure. The available evidence suggests that continuous residence at 2200 m or higher for 1 to 2 days or daily 1.5- to 4-h exposures to >4000 m induce ventilatory acclimatization. Six days at 2200 m substantially decreases acute mountain sickness (AMS) and improves work performance after rapid ascent to 4300 m. There is evidence that 5 or more days above 3000 m within the last 2 months will significantly decrease AMS during a subsequent rapid ascent to 4500 m. Exercise training during the altitude preexposures may augment improvement in physical performance. The persistence of altitude acclimatization after return to low altitude appears to be proportional to the degree of acclimatization developed. The subsequent ascent to high altitude should be scheduled as soon as possible after the last altitude preexposure.

  4. Mask-on hypoxia training for tactical jet aviators: evaluation of an alternate instructional paradigm.

    PubMed

    Artino, Anthony R; Folga, Richard V; Swan, Brian D

    2006-08-01

    Hypoxia familiarization instruction has been an integral part of military aviation training for more than 60 yr. Traditionally, aircrew learn hypoxia recognition while being exposed to hypobaric conditions in a low-pressure chamber (LPC). A training device has been developed that induces hypoxia using mixed gas delivered through an aviator's oxygen mask. The reduced oxygen breathing device (ROBD) simulates the diminished oxygen present at altitude by mixing breathing air and nitrogen under normobaric conditions. The purpose of this paper is to describe an alternate hypoxia training paradigm that combines the ROBD with tactical flight simulators and to present results from student surveys. Dynamic hypoxia instruction was provided inside F/A-18 tactical flight simulators using a second generation ROBD (ROBD-2). There were 121 naval aviators who were individually exposed to a simulated altitude of 7620 m (25,000 ft) while performing complex flight duties. Subsequent to ROBD training, all students completed a 19-question, anonymous survey that asked them to rate the quality of the instruction. Of the 121 students trained with the ROBD-2 in combination with a flight simulator, 114 (94.2%) were able to recognize their hypoxia symptoms and recover the aircraft, 117 (96.7%) rated ROBD training as more realistic, and 110 (90.9%) as more effective than traditional LPC training. Student feedback from this instructional evaluation indicates that using an ROBD in combination with actual flight duties is a safe, effective, and preferred means of training experienced tactical jet aviators to recognize and recover from hypoxia.

  5. Development of Aptitude at Altitude

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogan, Alexandra M.; Virues-Ortega, Javier; Botti, Ana Baya; Bucks, Romola; Holloway, John W.; Rose-Zerilli, Matthew J.; Palmer, Lyle J.; Webster, Rebecca J.; Baldeweg, Torsten; Kirkham, Fenella J.

    2010-01-01

    Millions of people currently live at altitudes in excess of 2500 metres, where oxygen supply is limited, but very little is known about the development of brain and behavioural function under such hypoxic conditions. We describe the physiological, cognitive and behavioural profile of a large cohort of infants (6-12 months), children (6-10 years)…

  6. Development of Aptitude at Altitude

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogan, Alexandra M.; Virues-Ortega, Javier; Botti, Ana Baya; Bucks, Romola; Holloway, John W.; Rose-Zerilli, Matthew J.; Palmer, Lyle J.; Webster, Rebecca J.; Baldeweg, Torsten; Kirkham, Fenella J.

    2010-01-01

    Millions of people currently live at altitudes in excess of 2500 metres, where oxygen supply is limited, but very little is known about the development of brain and behavioural function under such hypoxic conditions. We describe the physiological, cognitive and behavioural profile of a large cohort of infants (6-12 months), children (6-10 years)…

  7. Alaska High Altitude Photography Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petersen, Earl V.; Knutson, Martin A.; Ekstrand, Robert E.

    1986-01-01

    In 1978, the Alaska High Altitude Photography Program was initiated to obtain simultaneous black and white and color IR aerial photography of Alaska. Dual RC-10 and Zeiss camera systems were used for this program on NASA's U-2 and WB-57F, respectively. Data collection, handling, and distribution are discussed as well as general applications and the current status.

  8. Lidar Altitude Data Read Routine

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-03-19

    ... Profile products. It is written in Interactive Data Language (IDL) and uses HDF routine calls to read the altitude data which are ... Data Read routine  (1.5 KB) Interactive Data Language (IDL) is available from  Exelis Visual Information Solutions . ...

  9. Altitude Compensating Nozzle Concepts Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soni, Bharat

    2000-01-01

    This report contains the summary of work accomplished during summer of 2000 by Mr. Chad Hammons, undergraduate senior student, Mississippi State University/ERC in support of NASA/MSFC mission pertinent to Altitude compensating nozzle concepts evaluations. In particular, the development of automatic grid generator applicable in conducting sensitivity analysis involving Aerospike engine is described.

  10. Alaska High Altitude Photography Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petersen, Earl V.; Knutson, Martin A.; Ekstrand, Robert E.

    1986-01-01

    In 1978, the Alaska High Altitude Photography Program was initiated to obtain simultaneous black and white and color IR aerial photography of Alaska. Dual RC-10 and Zeiss camera systems were used for this program on NASA's U-2 and WB-57F, respectively. Data collection, handling, and distribution are discussed as well as general applications and the current status.

  11. Cooperative Demonstration Program To Train Aviation Maintenance Technicians. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alabama Aviation and Technical Coll., Ozark.

    The Alabama Aviation and Technical College, working with representatives of the aviation industry, the military, the Alabama Department of Aeronautics, and the Federal Aviation Administration, developed a training program for aviation maintenance technicians. The program also aimed to emphasize and expand opportunities for minorities, females, and…

  12. 14 CFR 183.21 - Aviation Medical Examiners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Aviation Medical Examiners. 183.21 Section 183.21 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED... Aviation Medical Examiners. An Aviation Medical Examiner may— (a) Accept applications for...

  13. 78 FR 11728 - Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-19

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee; Meeting AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee (ARAC) meeting. SUMMARY: The... held on March 5, 2013, at 1:00 p.m. ADDRESSES: The meeting will take place at the Federal...

  14. 49 CFR 1.82 - The Federal Aviation Administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false The Federal Aviation Administration. 1.82 Section... AND DUTIES Operating Administrations § 1.82 The Federal Aviation Administration. Is responsible for... countries; (9) Promoting aviation safety and efficiency through technical aviation assistance to...

  15. 14 CFR 153.5 - Aviation safety inspector airport access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Aviation safety inspector airport access. 153.5 Section 153.5 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS AIRPORT OPERATIONS Aviation Safety Inspector Access § 153.5 Aviation...

  16. 77 FR 15293 - Airworthiness Directives; Dassault Aviation Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-15

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Dassault Aviation Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM... Aviation Model FALCON 7X airplanes. The existing AD currently requires revising the Abnormal Procedures...

  17. 14 CFR 153.5 - Aviation safety inspector airport access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Aviation safety inspector airport access. 153.5 Section 153.5 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS AIRPORT OPERATIONS Aviation Safety Inspector Access § 153.5 Aviation...

  18. 14 CFR 153.5 - Aviation safety inspector airport access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aviation safety inspector airport access. 153.5 Section 153.5 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS AIRPORT OPERATIONS Aviation Safety Inspector Access § 153.5 Aviation...

  19. 78 FR 44473 - Airworthiness Directives; Dassault Aviation Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-24

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Dassault Aviation Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM). SUMMARY: We propose to adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for all DASSAULT AVIATION Model FAN...

  20. 77 FR 60323 - Airworthiness Directives; DASSUALT AVIATION Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-03

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; DASSUALT AVIATION Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of... DASSAULT AVIATION Model MYSTERE-FALCON 50 airplanes. This proposed AD was prompted by a...

  1. 77 FR 69916 - Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-21

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee; Meeting AGENCY: Federal Aviation... public of a meeting of the Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee. DATES: The meeting will be held on December 6, 2012, at 1:00 p.m. ADDRESSES: The meeting will take place at the Federal...

  2. 14 CFR Special Federal Aviation... - Alternative Communications and Dispatching Procedures

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Procedures Federal Special Federal Aviation Regulation 80 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... No. 80 Special Federal Aviation Regulation 80—Alternative Communications and Dispatching Procedures 1. Applicability. This Special Federal Aviation Regulation applies to each holder of an air carrier or...

  3. 77 FR 44511 - Airworthiness Directives; Alpha Aviation Concept Limited Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-30

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Alpha Aviation Concept Limited Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of Transportation (DOT... (AD) for Alpha Aviation Concept Limited Model R2160 Airplanes. This proposed AD results from...

  4. 14 CFR 183.21 - Aviation Medical Examiners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Aviation Medical Examiners. 183.21 Section 183.21 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED... Aviation Medical Examiners. An Aviation Medical Examiner may— (a) Accept applications for...

  5. 14 CFR 183.21 - Aviation Medical Examiners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Aviation Medical Examiners. 183.21 Section 183.21 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED... Aviation Medical Examiners. An Aviation Medical Examiner may— (a) Accept applications for...

  6. 78 FR 8052 - Airworthiness Directives; DASSAULT AVIATION Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-05

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; DASSAULT AVIATION Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM). SUMMARY: We propose to adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for certain DASSAULT AVIATION...

  7. 49 CFR 1.82 - The Federal Aviation Administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false The Federal Aviation Administration. 1.82 Section... AND DUTIES Operating Administrations § 1.82 The Federal Aviation Administration. Is responsible for... countries; (9) Promoting aviation safety and efficiency through technical aviation assistance to...

  8. 49 CFR 1.82 - The Federal Aviation Administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false The Federal Aviation Administration. 1.82 Section... AND DUTIES Operating Administrations § 1.82 The Federal Aviation Administration. Is responsible for... countries; (9) Promoting aviation safety and efficiency through technical aviation assistance to...

  9. 14 CFR 183.21 - Aviation Medical Examiners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Aviation Medical Examiners. 183.21 Section 183.21 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED... Aviation Medical Examiners. An Aviation Medical Examiner may— (a) Accept applications for...

  10. 76 FR 11308 - Aviation Noise Impacts Roadmap Annual Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Aviation Noise Impacts Roadmap Annual Meeting AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of meeting participation. SUMMARY: This notice advises interested persons that the First Annual Meeting of the Aviation Noise Impacts Roadmap will be held on...

  11. 77 FR 61539 - Airworthiness Directives; DASSAULT AVIATION Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-10

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; DASSAULT AVIATION Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of... DASSAULT AVIATION Model FALCON 2000, FALCON 2000EX, MYSTERE- FALCON 900 and FALCON 900EX airplanes; and...

  12. 78 FR 58973 - Airworthiness Directives; Dassault Aviation Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-25

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Dassault Aviation Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM). SUMMARY: We propose to adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for all Dassault Aviation Model...

  13. 32 CFR 705.32 - Aviation events and parachute demonstrations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Aviation events and parachute demonstrations... STATES NAVY REGULATIONS AND OFFICIAL RECORDS PUBLIC AFFAIRS REGULATIONS § 705.32 Aviation events and... appropriate for aviation participation include: Dedication of airports; aviation shows; aircraft...

  14. 14 CFR 153.5 - Aviation safety inspector airport access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Aviation safety inspector airport access. 153.5 Section 153.5 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS AIRPORT OPERATIONS Aviation Safety Inspector Access § 153.5 Aviation...

  15. 14 CFR 153.5 - Aviation safety inspector airport access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Aviation safety inspector airport access. 153.5 Section 153.5 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS AIRPORT OPERATIONS Aviation Safety Inspector Access § 153.5 Aviation...

  16. 77 FR 36950 - Airworthiness Directives; Dassault Aviation Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-20

    ...-36951] [FR Doc No: 2012-15097] DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part... Directives; Dassault Aviation Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of... rulemaking (NPRM) that proposed a new airworthiness directive (AD) for certain Dassault Aviation Model...

  17. 14 CFR 183.21 - Aviation Medical Examiners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aviation Medical Examiners. 183.21 Section 183.21 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED... Aviation Medical Examiners. An Aviation Medical Examiner may— (a) Accept applications for...

  18. 14 CFR Special Federal Aviation... - Alternative Communications and Dispatching Procedures

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Procedures Federal Special Federal Aviation Regulation 80 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... No. 80 Special Federal Aviation Regulation 80—Alternative Communications and Dispatching Procedures 1. Applicability. This Special Federal Aviation Regulation applies to each holder of an air carrier or...

  19. 2015 CRC Aviation Meetings Particle Count Limits Recommendation for Aviation Fuel (Briefing Charts)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-05

    31 AUG 2015 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2015 to 00-00-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 2015 CRC Aviation Meetings Particle Count Limits...Recommendation for Aviation Fuel 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Joel Schmitigal 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e...ABSTRACT None 15. SUBJECT TERMS 2015 Coordinating Research Council Aviation Meetings 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT

  20. FAA (Federal Aviation Administration) Aviation Forecasts, Fiscal Years 1990-2001

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-03-01

    REVENUE PASSENGER commuter type aircraft (see technical notes at the beginning of Chapter X ENPLANEMENTS for Table 7 and Table 15 ). At the industry level...Aviation Administration Fiscal Years 1990-2001 Office of Aviation Policy and Plans 14. Sponsoring Agency Code Washington, DC 20591 15 . Supplementary Notes 10...flight services performed. Hours flown by general aviation are forecast to increase 19.2 percent and revenue passenger miles (RPM’s) are forecast to