Science.gov

Sample records for aviation fuel demand

  1. Future aviation fuels overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reck, G. M.

    1980-01-01

    The outlook for aviation fuels through the turn of the century is briefly discussed and the general objectives of the NASA Lewis Alternative Aviation Fuels Research Project are outlined. The NASA program involves the evaluation of potential characteristics of future jet aircraft fuels, the determination of the effects of those fuels on engine and fuel system components, and the development of a component technology to use those fuels.

  2. Aviation turbine fuels, 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Shelton, E.M.; Dickson, C.L.

    1983-03-01

    Properties of some aviation turbine fuels marketed in the United States during 1982 are presented in this report. The samples represented are typical 1982 production and were analyzed in the laboratories of 14 manufacturers of aviation turbine (jet) fuels. The data were submitted for study, calculation, and compilation under a cooperative agreement between the Department of Energy (DOE), Bartlesville Energy Technology Center (BETC), Bartlesville, Oklahoma, and the American Petroleum Institute (API). Results for the properties of 90 samples of aviation turbine fuels are included in the report for military grades JP-4 and HP-5, and commercial type Jet A.

  3. Alcohol fuels for aviation

    SciTech Connect

    Schauffler, P.

    1982-06-01

    The ten-fold increase in aviation fuel prices in eight years has caused a reassessment of alcohol fuels. In a recent test, methanol fuel-flow rate was high at takeoff, and levelled off at 10,000 feet, but above 18,000 fell 30% below avgas use. Because methanol sells thirty cents below avgas per gallon it is already an attractive fuel for piston-engine aircraft. But as 95% of aviation fuel is burned as kerosene in turbines a test program has been set up to look at the performance of small shaft turbine engines with various combinations of alcohols and water, and of straight methanol, and to look at major thrust engine at optimum fuel as well. These tests should determine the overall alcohol potentials for aviation. The tests will also tell if the breakthrough will be modest or major.

  4. Aviation fuels outlook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Momenthy, A. M.

    1980-01-01

    Options for satisfying the future demand for commercial jet fuels are analyzed. It is concluded that the most effective means to this end are to attract more refiners to the jet fuel market and encourage development of processes to convert oil shale and coal to transportation fuels. Furthermore, changing the U.S. refineries fuel specification would not significantly alter jet fuel availability.

  5. Alternative aviation turbine fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grobman, J.

    1977-01-01

    The efficient utilization of fossil fuels by future jet aircraft may necessitate the broadening of current aviation turbine fuel specifications. The most significant changes in specifications would be an increased aromatics content and a higher final boiling point in order to minimize refinery energy consumption and costs. These changes would increase the freezing point and might lower the thermal stability of the fuel and could cause increased pollutant emissions, increased smoke and carbon formation, increased combustor liner temperatures, and poorer ignition characteristics. This paper discusses the effects that broadened specification fuels may have on present-day jet aircraft and engine components and the technology required to use fuels with broadened specifications.

  6. Environmentally safe aviation fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liberio, Patricia D.

    1995-01-01

    In response to the Air Force directive to remove Ozone Depleting Chemicals (ODC's) from military specifications and Defense Logistics Agency's Hazardous Waste Minimization Program, we are faced with how to ensure a quality aviation fuel without using such chemicals. Many of these chemicals are found throughout the fuel and fuel related military specifications and are part of test methods that help qualify the properties and quality of the fuels before they are procured. Many years ago there was a directive for military specifications to use commercially standard test methods in order to provide standard testing in private industry and government. As a result the test methods used in military specifications are governed by the American Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM). The Air Force has been very proactive in the removal or replacement of the ODC's and hazardous materials in these test methods. For example, ASTM D3703 (Standard Test Method for Peroxide Number of Aviation Turbine Fuels), requires the use of Freon 113, a known ODC. A new rapid, portable hydroperoxide test for jet fuels similar to ASTM D3703 that does not require the use of ODC's has been developed. This test has proved, in limited testing, to be a viable substitute method for ASTM D3703. The Air Force is currently conducting a round robin to allow the method to be accepted by ASTM and therefore replace the current method. This paper will describe the Air Force's initiatives to remove ODC's and hazardous materials from the fuel and fuel related military specifications that the Air Force Wright Laboratory.

  7. Aviation Frontiers: On-Demand Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Mark D.

    2010-01-01

    Throughout the 20th Century, NASA has defined the forefront of aeronautical technology, and the aviation industry owes much of its prosperity to this knowledge and technology. In recent decades, centralized aeronautics has become a mature discipline, which raises questions concerning the future aviation innovation frontiers. Three transformational aviation capabilities, bounded together by the development of a Free Flight airspace management system, have the potential to transform 21st Century society as profoundly as civil aviation transformed the 20th Century. These mobility breakthroughs will re-establish environmental sustainable centralized aviation, while opening up latent markets for civil distributed sensing and on-demand rural and regional transportation. Of these three transformations, on-demand aviation has the potential to have the largest market and productivity improvement to society. The information system revolution over the past 20 years shows that vehicles lead, and the interconnecting infrastructure to make them more effective follows; that is, unless on-demand aircraft are pioneered, a distributed Air Traffic Control system will likely never be established. There is no single technology long-pole that will enable on-demand vehicle solutions. However, fully digital aircraft that include electric propulsion has the potential to be a multi-disciplinary initiator of solid state technologies that can provide order of magnitude improvements in the ease of use, safety/reliability, community and environmental friendliness, and affordability.

  8. Aviation turbine fuels: An assessment of alternatives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The general outlook for aviation turbine fuels, the effect that broadening permissible aviation turbine fuel properties could have on the overall availability of such fuels, the fuel properties most likely to be affected by use of lower grade petroleum crudes, and the research and technology required to ensure that aviation turbine fuels and engines can function satisfactorily with fuels having a range of fuel properties differing from those of current specification fuel are assessed. Views of industry representatives on alternative aviation turbine fuels are presented.

  9. Alternative Aviation Fuel Experiment (AAFEX)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, B. E.; Beyersdorf, A. J.; Hudgins, C. H.; Plant, J. V.; Thornhill, K. L.; Winstead, E. L.; Ziemba, L. D.; Howard, R.; Corporan, E.; Miake-Lye, R. C.; Herndon, S. C.; Timko, M.; Woods, E.; Dodds, W.; Lee, B.; Santoni, G.; Whitefield, P.; Hagen, D.; Lobo, P.; Knighton, W. B.; Bulzan, D.; Tacina, K.; Wey, C.; VanderWal, R.; Bhargava, A.

    2011-01-01

    The rising cost of oil coupled with the need to reduce pollution and dependence on foreign suppliers has spurred great interest and activity in developing alternative aviation fuels. Although a variety of fuels have been produced that have similar properties to standard Jet A, detailed studies are required to ascertain the exact impacts of the fuels on engine operation and exhaust composition. In response to this need, NASA acquired and burned a variety of alternative aviation fuel mixtures in the Dryden Flight Research Center DC-8 to assess changes in the aircraft s CFM-56 engine performance and emission parameters relative to operation with standard JP-8. This Alternative Aviation Fuel Experiment, or AAFEX, was conducted at NASA Dryden s Aircraft Operations Facility (DAOF) in Palmdale, California, from January 19 to February 3, 2009 and specifically sought to establish fuel matrix effects on: 1) engine and exhaust gas temperatures and compressor speeds; 2) engine and auxiliary power unit (APU) gas phase and particle emissions and characteristics; and 3) volatile aerosol formation in aging exhaust plumes

  10. NASA Alternative Aviation Fuel Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, B. E.; Beyersdorf, A. J.; Thornhill, K. L., II; Moore, R.; Shook, M.; Winstead, E.; Ziemba, L. D.; Crumeyrolle, S.

    2015-12-01

    We present an overview of research conducted by NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate to evaluate the performance and emissions of "drop-in" alternative jet fuels, highlighting experiment design and results from the Alternative Aviation Fuel Experiments (AAFEX-I & -II) and Alternative Fuel-Effects on Contrails and Cruise Emissions flight series (ACCESS-I & II). These projects included almost 100 hours of sampling exhaust emissions from the NASA DC-8 aircraft in both ground and airborne operation and at idle to takeoff thrust settings. Tested fuels included Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthetic kerosenes manufactured from coal and natural-gas feedstocks; Hydro-treated Esters and Fatty-Acids (HEFA) fuels made from beef-tallow and camelina-plant oil; and 50:50 blends of these alternative fuels with Jet A. Experiments were also conducted with FT and Jet A fuels doped with tetrahydrothiophene to examine the effects of fuel sulfur on volatile aerosol and contrail formation and microphysical properties. Results indicate that although the absence of aromatic compounds in the alternative fuels caused DC-8 fuel-system leaks, the fuels did not compromise engine performance or combustion efficiency. And whereas the alternative fuels produced only slightly different gas-phase emissions, dramatic reductions in non-volatile particulate matter (nvPM) emissions were observed when burning the pure alternative fuels, particularly at low thrust settings where particle number and mass emissions were an order of magnitude lower than measured from standard jet fuel combustion; 50:50 blends of Jet A and alternative fuels typically reduced nvPM emissions by ~50% across all thrust settings. Alternative fuels with the highest hydrogen content produced the greatest nvPM reductions. For Jet A and fuel blends, nvPM emissions were positively correlated with fuel aromatic and naphthalene content. Fuel sulfur content regulated nucleation mode aerosol number and mass concentrations within aging

  11. Aviation Fuel Lubricity Evaluation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-07-01

    cracking and subsequent fracture. The Pesco gear fuel pump in the JT-4 engine and the Chandler Evans gear fuel pump in the JT-3D engine also...TABLE 5 BOCLE ROUND-ROBIN I PARTICIPANTS Bendix Sundstrand US Navy US Air Force Chandler Evans Pratt & Whitney - East Hartford Exxon - USA Pratt...Research & Engineering X Naval Air Propulsion Center X X Esso Petroleum X Sundstrand X Lucas X Chandler Evans X Southwest Research Institute X Mountain

  12. Emerging trends in alternative aviation fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corbett, Cody

    The days of petroleum-based aviation fuels are numbered. New regulations to be set in place in the coming years will force current fuels to be phased out in favor of cleaner fuels with less toxic emissions. The alternative fuel industry has already taken its foothold in other modes of transportation, and aviation will soon follow suit. Many companies have cropped up over the last decade, and a few have been around longer, that work hard to develop the alternative aviation fuels of the future. It is important, however, for the aviation community to know what to expect and when to expect it concerning alternative fuels. This study investigates where various companies in the alternative aviation fuel industry currently stand in their development and production processes, and how their products will affect aircraft owners and operators. By interviewing representatives from these companies and analyzing their responses to identify trends, an educated prediction can be made about where the industry is headed and when the aviation community can expect these fuel to be available. The findings of this study indicate that many companies are still in their developmental stages, with a few notable outliers, and that most of these companies expect to see production of their product by 2017. Also, the fuel manufacturers are dealing with all the legal hurdles regarding alternative fuels, so little to no effort will be required on the part of the consumer. These findings, along with their analysis, will enable the aviation community to make educated decisions concerning fuel and their aircraft, as well and do their part to help these beneficial fuels get to market.

  13. Methane Hydrates: More Than a Viable Aviation Fuel Feedstock Option

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, Robert C.

    2007-01-01

    Demand for hydrocarbon fuels is steadily increasing, and greenhouse gas emissions continue to rise unabated with the energy demand. Alternate fuels will be coming on line to meet that demand. This report examines the recovering of methane from methane hydrates for fuel to meet this demand rather than permitting its natural release into the environment, which will be detrimental to the planet. Some background on the nature, vast sizes, and stability of sedimentary and permafrost formations of hydrates are discussed. A few examples of the severe problems associated with methane recovery from these hydrates are presented along with the potential impact on the environment and coastal waters. Future availability of methane from hydrates may become an attractive option for aviation fueling, and so future aircraft design associated with methane fueling is considered.

  14. High Speed Mobility Through On-Demand Aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Mark D.; Goodrich, Ken; Viken, Jeff; Smith, Jeremy; Fredericks, Bill; Trani, Toni; Barraclough, Jonathan; German, Brian; Patterson, Michael

    2013-01-01

    automobiles. ?? Community Noise: Hub and smaller GA airports are facing increasing noise restrictions, and while commercial airliners have dramatically decreased their community noise footprint over the past 30 years, GA aircraft noise has essentially remained same, and moreover, is located in closer proximity to neighborhoods and businesses. ?? Operating Costs: GA operating costs have risen dramatically due to average fuel costs of over $6 per gallon, which has constrained the market over the past decade and resulted in more than 50% lower sales and 35% less yearly operations. Infusion of autonomy and electric propulsion technologies can accomplish not only a transformation of the GA market, but also provide a technology enablement bridge for both larger aircraft and the emerging civil Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) markets. The NASA Advanced General Aviation Transport Experiments (AGATE) project successfully used a similar approach to enable the introduction of primary composite structures and flat panel displays in the 1990s, establishing both the technology and certification standardization to permit quick adoption through partnerships with industry, academia, and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). Regional and airliner markets are experiencing constant pressure to achieve decreasing levels of community emissions and noise, while lowering operating costs and improving safety. But to what degree can these new technology frontiers impact aircraft safety, the environment, operations, cost, and performance? Are the benefits transformational enough to fundamentally alter aircraft competiveness and productivity to permit much greater aviation use for high speed and On-Demand Mobility (ODM)? These questions were asked in a Zip aviation system study named after the Zip Car, an emerging car-sharing business model. Zip Aviation investigates the potential to enable new emergent markets for aviation that offer "more flexibility than the existing transportation solutions

  15. Synthetic and Biomass Alternate Fueling in Aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, R.C.; Bushnell, D.M.

    2009-01-01

    Worldwide, aviation alone uses 85 to 95 billion gallons of nonrenewable fossil fuel per year (2008). General transportation fueling can accommodate several different fuels; however, aviation fuels have very specific requirements. Biofuels have been flight demonstrated, are considered renewable, have the capacity to become "drop-in" replacements for Jet-A fuel, and solve the CO2 climate change problem. The major issue is cost; current biomass biofuels are not economically competitive. Biofuel feedstock sources being researched are halophytes, algae, cyanobacteria, weeds-to-crops, wastes with contingent restraints on use of crop land, freshwater, and climate change. There are five major renewable energy sources: solar thermal, solar photovoltaic, wind, drilled geothermal and biomass, each of which have an order of magnitude greater capacity to meet all energy needs. All five address aspects of climate change; biomass has massive potential as an energy fuel feedstock.

  16. Research on aviation fuel instability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, C. E.; Bittker, D. A.; Cohen, S. M.; Seng, G. T.

    1984-01-01

    Current aircraft turbine fuels do not present a significant problem with fuel thermal stability. However, turbine fuels with broadened properties or nonpetroleum derived fuels may have reduced thermal stability because of their higher content of olefins, heteroatoms, and trace metals. Moreover, advanced turbine engines will increase the thermal stress on fuels because of their higher pressure ratios and combustion temperature. In recognition of the importance of this problem, NASA Lewis is currently engaged in a broadly based research effort to better understand the underlying causes of fuel thermal degradation. The progress and status of our various activities in this area are discussed. Topics covered include: nature of fuel instability and its temperature dependence, methods of measuring the instability, chemical mechanisms involved in deposit formation, and instrumental methods for characterizing fuel deposits. Finally, some preliminary thoughts on design approaches for minimizing the effects of lowered thermal stability are briefly discussed.

  17. Research on aviation fuel instability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, C. E.; Bittker, D. A.; Cohen, S. M.; Seng, G. T.

    1983-01-01

    The underlying causes of fuel thermal degradation are discussed. Topics covered include: nature of fuel instability and its temperature dependence, methods of measuring the instability, chemical mechanisms involved in deposit formation, and instrumental methods for characterizing fuel deposits. Finally, some preliminary thoughts on design approaches for minimizing the effects of lowered thermal stability are briefly discussed.

  18. Aviation Fueling: A Cleaner, Greener Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, Robert C.; Bushnell, Dennis M.; Shouse, Dale T.

    2010-01-01

    Projected growth of aviation depends on fueling where specific needs must be met. Safety is paramount, and along with political, social, environmental and legacy transport systems requirements, alternate aviation fueling becomes an opportunity of enormous proportions. Biofuels sourced from halophytes, algae, cyanobacteria, and weeds using wastelands, waste water, and seawater have the capacity to be drop-in fuel replacements for petroleum fuels. Biojet fuels from such sources solves the aviation CO2 emissions issue and do not compete with food or freshwater needs. They are not detrimental to the social or environmental fabric and use the existing fuels infrastructure. Cost and sustainable supply remains the major impediments to alternate fuels. Halophytes are the near-term solution to biomass/biofuels capacity at reasonable costs; they simply involve more farming, at usual farming costs. Biofuels represent a win-win approach, proffering as they do at least the ones we are studying massive capacity, climate neutral-to-some sequestration, and ultimately, reasonable costs.

  19. Research on aviation fuel instability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, C. E.; Bittker, D. A.; Cohen, S. M.; Seng, G. T.

    1984-01-01

    The problems associated with aircraft fuel instability are discussed. What is currently known about the problem is reviewed and a research program to identify those areas where more research is needed is discussed. The term fuel instability generally refers to the gums, sediments, or deposits which can form as a result of a set of complex chemical reactions when a fuel is stored for a long period at ambient conditions or when the fuel is thermally stressed inside the fuel system of an aircraft.

  20. General aviation fuel quality control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poitz, H.

    1983-01-01

    Quality control measures for aviation gasoline, and some of the differences between quality control on avgas and mogas are discussed. One thing to keep in mind is that with motor gasoline you can always pull off to the side of the road. It's not so easy to do in an airplane. Consequently, there are reasons for having the tight specifications and the tight quality control measures on avgas as compared to motor gasoline.

  1. Synthetic and Biomass Alternate Fueling in Aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, R. C.; Bushnell, D. M.

    2009-01-01

    While transportation fueling can accommodate a broad range of alternate fuels, aviation fueling needs are specific, such as the fuel not freezing at altitude or become too viscous to flow properly or of low bulk energy density that shortens range. The fuel must also be compatible with legacy aircraft, some of which are more than 50 years old. Worldwide, the aviation industry alone uses some 85-95 billion gallons of hydrocarbon-based fossil fuel each year, which is about 10% of the transportation industry. US civil aviation alone consumes nearly 14 billion gallons. The enormity of the problem becomes overwhelming, and the aviation industry is taking alternate fueling issues very seriously. Biofuels (algae, cyanobacteria, halophytes, weeds that use wastelands, wastewater and seatwater), when properly sourced, have the capacity to be drop-in fuel replacements for petroleum fuels. As such, biojet from such sources solves the aviation CO2 emissions issue without the downsides of 'conventional' biofuels, such as competing with food and fresh water resources. Of the many current fundamental problems, the major biofuel problem is cost. Both research and development and creative engineering are required to reduce these biofuels costs. Research is also ongoing in several 'improvement' areas including refining/processing and biologics with greater disease resistance, greater bio-oil productivity, reduced water/nutrient requirements, etc. The authors' current research is aimed at aiding industry efforts in several areas. They are considering different modeling approaches, growth media and refining approaches, different biologic feedstocks, methods of sequestering carbon in the processes, fuel certification for aviation use and, overall, ensuring that biofuels are feasible from all aspects - operability, capacity, carbon cycle and financial. The authors are also providing common discussion grounds/opportunities for the various parties, disciplines and concerned organization to

  2. Synthetic and Biomass Alternate Fueling in Aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, Robert C.; Bushnell, Dennis M.

    2009-01-01

    Must use earth's most abundant natural resources - Biomass, Solar, Arid land (43%), Seawater (97%) with nutrients (80%) plus brackish waters and nutrients resolve environmental triangle of conflicts energy-food-freshwater and ultrafine particulate hazards. Requires Paradigm Shift - Develop and Use Solar* for energy; Biomass for aviation and hybrid-electric-compressed air mobility fueling with transition to hydrogen long term.

  3. Refining and blending of aviation turbine fuels.

    PubMed

    White, R D

    1999-02-01

    Aviation turbine fuels (jet fuels) are similar to other petroleum products that have a boiling range of approximately 300F to 550F. Kerosene and No.1 grades of fuel oil, diesel fuel, and gas turbine oil share many similar physical and chemical properties with jet fuel. The similarity among these products should allow toxicology data on one material to be extrapolated to the others. Refineries in the USA manufacture jet fuel to meet industry standard specifications. Civilian aircraft primarily use Jet A or Jet A-1 fuel as defined by ASTM D 1655. Military aircraft use JP-5 or JP-8 fuel as defined by MIL-T-5624R or MIL-T-83133D respectively. The freezing point and flash point are the principle differences between the finished fuels. Common refinery processes that produce jet fuel include distillation, caustic treatment, hydrotreating, and hydrocracking. Each of these refining processes may be the final step to produce jet fuel. Sometimes blending of two or more of these refinery process streams are needed to produce jet fuel that meets the desired specifications. Chemical additives allowed for use in jet fuel are also defined in the product specifications. In many cases, the customer rather than the refinery will put additives into the fuel to meet their specific storage or flight condition requirements.

  4. Outlook for alternative energy sources. [aviation fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Card, M. E.

    1980-01-01

    Predictions are made concerning the development of alternative energy sources in the light of the present national energy situation. Particular emphasis is given to the impact of alternative fuels development on aviation fuels. The future outlook for aircraft fuels is that for the near term, there possibly will be no major fuel changes, but minor specification changes may be possible if supplies decrease. In the midterm, a broad cut fuel may be used if current development efforts are successful. As synfuel production levels increase beyond the 1990's there may be some mixtures of petroleum-based and synfuel products with the possibility of some shale distillate and indirect coal liquefaction products near the year 2000.

  5. Low-temperature properties of aviation fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Brunton, C.; Voisey, M.A.; Willcock, C.R.

    1983-01-01

    A review is presented of work on the low-temperature properties of aviation turbine fuels that has been carried out in recent years at Thornton Research Centre. Details of both simulated full-scale aircraft tank tests and laboratory evaluations are included. Zero holdup is considered as a low-temperature specification parameter and a novel method for measuring its value is described. Experimental results are presented which demonstrate that a change from a freezing point to a flow criterion could provide an increase in fuel availability without prejudicing flight safety.

  6. High freezing point fuels used for aviation turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, R.

    1979-01-01

    Broadened-specification aviation fuels could be produced from a greater fraction of crude source material with improvements in fuel supply and price. These fuels, particularly those with increased final boiling temperatures, would have higher freezing temperatures than current aviation turbine fuels. For the small but significant fraction of commercial flights where low fuel temperatures make higher freezing-point fuel use unacceptable, adaptations to the fuel or fuel system may be made to accommodate this fuel. Several techniques are discussed. Fuel heating is the most promising concept. One simple design uses existing heat rejection from the fuel-lubricating oil cooler, another uses an engine-driven generator for electrical heating.

  7. 26 CFR 48.4091-3 - Aviation fuel; conditions to allowance of refunds of aviation fuel tax under section 4091(d).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aviation fuel; conditions to allowance of refunds of aviation fuel tax under section 4091(d). 48.4091-3 Section 48.4091-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL... Aviation fuel; conditions to allowance of refunds of aviation fuel tax under section 4091(d). (a)...

  8. 26 CFR 48.4091-3 - Aviation fuel; conditions to allowance of refunds of aviation fuel tax under section 4091(d).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Aviation fuel; conditions to allowance of refunds of aviation fuel tax under section 4091(d). 48.4091-3 Section 48.4091-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL... Aviation fuel; conditions to allowance of refunds of aviation fuel tax under section 4091(d). (a)...

  9. 26 CFR 48.4091-3 - Aviation fuel; conditions to allowance of refunds of aviation fuel tax under section 4091(d).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Aviation fuel; conditions to allowance of refunds of aviation fuel tax under section 4091(d). 48.4091-3 Section 48.4091-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL... Aviation fuel; conditions to allowance of refunds of aviation fuel tax under section 4091(d). (a)...

  10. 26 CFR 48.4091-3 - Aviation fuel; conditions to allowance of refunds of aviation fuel tax under section 4091(d).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Aviation fuel; conditions to allowance of refunds of aviation fuel tax under section 4091(d). 48.4091-3 Section 48.4091-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL... Aviation fuel; conditions to allowance of refunds of aviation fuel tax under section 4091(d). (a)...

  11. 32 CFR 855.18 - Aviation fuel and oil purchases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Aviation fuel and oil purchases. 855.18 Section 855.18 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIRCRAFT CIVIL AIRCRAFT USE OF UNITED STATES AIR FORCE AIRFIELDS Civil Aircraft Landing Permits § 855.18 Aviation fuel...

  12. 32 CFR 855.18 - Aviation fuel and oil purchases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aviation fuel and oil purchases. 855.18 Section 855.18 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIRCRAFT CIVIL AIRCRAFT USE OF UNITED STATES AIR FORCE AIRFIELDS Civil Aircraft Landing Permits § 855.18 Aviation fuel...

  13. 32 CFR 855.18 - Aviation fuel and oil purchases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Aviation fuel and oil purchases. 855.18 Section 855.18 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIRCRAFT CIVIL AIRCRAFT USE OF UNITED STATES AIR FORCE AIRFIELDS Civil Aircraft Landing Permits § 855.18 Aviation fuel...

  14. 32 CFR 855.18 - Aviation fuel and oil purchases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Aviation fuel and oil purchases. 855.18 Section 855.18 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIRCRAFT CIVIL AIRCRAFT USE OF UNITED STATES AIR FORCE AIRFIELDS Civil Aircraft Landing Permits § 855.18 Aviation fuel...

  15. 32 CFR 855.18 - Aviation fuel and oil purchases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Aviation fuel and oil purchases. 855.18 Section 855.18 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIRCRAFT CIVIL AIRCRAFT USE OF UNITED STATES AIR FORCE AIRFIELDS Civil Aircraft Landing Permits § 855.18 Aviation fuel...

  16. High-freezing-point fuels used for aviation turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, R.

    1979-01-01

    Broadened-specification aviation fuels could be produced from a greater fraction of crude source material with improvements in fuel supply and price. These fuels, particularly those with increased final boiling temperatures, would have higher freezing temperatures than current aviation turbine fuels. The higher-freezing-point fuels can be substituted in the majority of present commercial flights, since temperature data indicate that in-flight fuel temperatures are relatively mild. For the small but significant fraction of commercial flights where low fuel temperatures make higher freezing-point fuel use unacceptable, adaptations to the fuel or fuel system may be made to accommodate this fuel. Several techniques are discussed. Fuel heating is the most promising concept. One simple system design uses existing heat rejection from the fuel-lubricating oil cooler, another uses an engine-driven generator for electrical heating. Both systems offer advantages that outweigh the obvious penalties.

  17. 2015 CRC Aviation Meetings Particle Count Limits Recommendation for Aviation Fuel (Briefing Charts)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-05

    31 AUG 2015 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2015 to 00-00-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 2015 CRC Aviation Meetings Particle Count Limits...Recommendation for Aviation Fuel 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Joel Schmitigal 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e...ABSTRACT None 15. SUBJECT TERMS 2015 Coordinating Research Council Aviation Meetings 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT

  18. Experimental characterization of aviation-fuel cavitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunn, Patrick F.; Thomas, Flint O.; Davis, Michael P.; Dorofeeva, Irina E.

    2010-11-01

    The results of an experimental investigation of the gaseous cavitation of JP-8 aviation fuel in a converging-diverging nozzle are presented. Fuel cavitation is experimentally characterized by high-speed digital imaging, static pressure distributions, and nonintrusive void fraction and bubble velocity measurements. For comparative purposes, experiments were performed using distilled water and dodecane for the same nozzle and nozzle pressure ratios. Dodecane, the largest component of JP-8 by weight, served as its single-component surrogate. For each working fluid, the experiments examined two different flow regimes: an initially single-phase liquid flow in which no cavitation occurred and another that evolved into two-phase cavitating flow. Additional experiments were performed to study the effect of air bubbles injected into either water or JP-8 at the nozzle inlet. For a sufficiently low range of imposed back pressures, gaseous cavitation led to choked flow for each working fluid. The character of the cavitation in the three fluids was different. These differences are highlighted and plausible mechanisms responsible for the observed behavior are discussed.

  19. Certification of alternative aviation fuels and blend components

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson III, George R. ); Edwards, Tim; Corporan, Edwin ); Freerks, Robert L. )

    2013-01-15

    Aviation turbine engine fuel specifications are governed by ASTM International, formerly known as the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) International, and the British Ministry of Defence (MOD). ASTM D1655 Standard Specification for Aviation Turbine Fuels and MOD Defence Standard 91-91 are the guiding specifications for this fuel throughout most of the world. Both of these documents rely heavily on the vast amount of experience in production and use of turbine engine fuels from conventional sources, such as crude oil, natural gas condensates, heavy oil, shale oil, and oil sands. Turbine engine fuel derived from these resources and meeting the above specifications has properties that are generally considered acceptable for fuels to be used in turbine engines. Alternative and synthetic fuel components are approved for use to blend with conventional turbine engine fuels after considerable testing. ASTM has established a specification for fuels containing synthesized hydrocarbons under D7566, and the MOD has included additional requirements for fuels containing synthetic components under Annex D of DS91-91. New turbine engine fuel additives and blend components need to be evaluated using ASTM D4054, Standard Practice for Qualification and Approval of New Aviation Turbine Fuels and Fuel Additives. This paper discusses these specifications and testing requirements in light of recent literature claiming that some biomass-derived blend components, which have been used to blend in conventional aviation fuel, meet the requirements for aviation turbine fuels as specified by ASTM and the MOD. The 'Table 1' requirements listed in both D1655 and DS91-91 are predicated on the assumption that the feedstocks used to make fuels meeting these requirements are from approved sources. Recent papers have implied that commercial jet fuel can be blended with renewable components that are not hydrocarbons (such as fatty acid methyl esters). These are not allowed blend

  20. Forecast of future aviation fuels: The model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ayati, M. B.; Liu, C. Y.; English, J. M.

    1981-01-01

    A conceptual models of the commercial air transportation industry is developed which can be used to predict trends in economics, demand, and consumption. The methodology is based on digraph theory, which considers the interaction of variables and propagation of changes. Air transportation economics are treated by examination of major variables, their relationships, historic trends, and calculation of regression coefficients. A description of the modeling technique and a compilation of historic airline industry statistics used to determine interaction coefficients are included. Results of model validations show negligible difference between actual and projected values over the twenty-eight year period of 1959 to 1976. A limited application of the method presents forecasts of air tranportation industry demand, growth, revenue, costs, and fuel consumption to 2020 for two scenarios of future economic growth and energy consumption.

  1. Trends of jet fuel demand and properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, R.

    1984-01-01

    Petroleum industry forecasts predict an increasing demand for jet fuels, a decrease in the gasoline-to-distillate (heavier fuel) demand ratio, and a greater influx of poorer quality petroleum in the next two to three decades. These projections are important for refinery product analyses. The forecasts have not been accurate, however, in predicting the recent, short term fluctuations in jet fuel and competing product demand. Changes in petroleum quality can be assessed, in part, by a review of jet fuel property inspections. Surveys covering the last 10 years show that average jet fuel freezing points, aromatic contents, and smoke points have trends toward their specification limits.

  2. Progress on coal-derived fuels for aviation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witcofski, R. D.

    1978-01-01

    The results of engineering studies of coal-derived aviation fuels and their potential application to the air transportation system are presented. Synthetic aviation kerosene (SYN. JET-A), liquid methane (LCH4) and liquid hydrogen (LH2) appear to be the most promising coal-derived fuels. Aircraft configurations fueled with LH2, their fuel systems, and their ground requirements at the airport are identified. Energy efficiency, transportation hazards, and costs are among the factors considered. It is indicated that LCH4 is the most energy efficient to produce, and provides the most efficient utilization of coal resources and the least expensive ticket as well.

  3. A method for monitoring nuclear absorption coefficients of aviation fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sprinkle, Danny R.; Shen, Chih-Ping

    1989-01-01

    A technique for monitoring variability in the nuclear absorption characteristics of aviation fuels has been developed. It is based on a highly collimated low energy gamma radiation source and a sodium iodide counter. The source and the counter assembly are separated by a geometrically well-defined test fuel cell. A computer program for determining the mass attenuation coefficient of the test fuel sample, based on the data acquired for a preset counting period, has been developed and tested on several types of aviation fuel.

  4. Overview of Aviation Fuel Markets for Biofuels Stakeholders

    SciTech Connect

    Davidson, C.; Newes, E.; Schwab, A.; Vimmerstedt, L.

    2014-07-01

    This report is for biofuels stakeholders interested the U.S. aviation fuel market. Jet fuel production represents about 10% of U.S. petroleum refinery production. Exxon Mobil, Chevron, and BP top producers, and Texas, Louisiana, and California are top producing states. Distribution of fuel primarily involves transport from the Gulf Coast to other regions. Fuel is transported via pipeline (60%), barges on inland waterways (30%), tanker truck (5%), and rail (5%). Airport fuel supply chain organization and fuel sourcing may involve oil companies, airlines, airline consortia, airport owners and operators, and airport service companies. Most fuel is used for domestic, commercial, civilian flights. Energy efficiency has substantially improved due to aircraft fleet upgrades and advanced flight logistic improvements. Jet fuel prices generally track prices of crude oil and other refined petroleum products, whose prices are more volatile than crude oil price. The single largest expense for airlines is jet fuel, so its prices and persistent price volatility impact industry finances. Airlines use various strategies to manage aviation fuel price uncertainty. The aviation industry has established goals to mitigate its greenhouse gas emissions, and initial estimates of biojet life cycle greenhouse gas emissions exist. Biojet fuels from Fischer-Tropsch and hydroprocessed esters and fatty acids processes have ASTM standards. The commercial aviation industry and the U.S. Department of Defense have used aviation biofuels. Additional research is needed to assess the environmental, economic, and financial potential of biojet to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and mitigate long-term upward price trends, fuel price volatility, or both.

  5. Comparison of alcogas aviation fuel with export aviation gasoline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gage, V R; Sparrow, S W; Harper, D R

    1921-01-01

    Mixtures of gasoline and alcohol when used in internal combustion engines designed for gasoline have been found to possess the advantage of alcohol in withstanding high compression without "knock" while retaining advantages of gasoline with regard to starting characteristics. Test of such fuels for maximum power-producing ability and fuel economy at various rates of consumption are thus of practical importance, with especial reference to high-compression engine development. This report discusses the results of tests which compares the performance of alcogas with x gasoline (export grade) as a standard.

  6. Demand Forecasting: DLA’S Aviation Supply Chain High Value Products

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-09

    pbofbp= = = Demand Forecasting: DLA’S Aviation Supply Chain High Value Products 9 April, 2015 LCDR Mordocai Kiflu, USN LCDR Carlos Lopez, USN...APR 2015 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2015 to 00-00-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Demand Forecasting: DLA’S Aviation Supply Chain High...both achieve target service levels and quantify the risk of stock-outs in the DLA aviation supply chain. This vision culminated in a simple process

  7. Aviation Management Perception of Biofuel as an Alternative Fuel Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marticek, Michael

    The purpose of this phenomenological study was to explore lived experiences and perceptions from a population of 75 aviation managers in various locations in Pennsylvania about the use of aviation biofuel and how it will impact the aviation industry. The primary research question for this study focused on the impact of biofuel on the airline industry and how management believes biofuel can contribute to the reduction of fossil fuel. Grounded in the conceptual framework of sustainability, interview data collected from 27 airline and fueling leaders were analyzed for like terms, coded, and reduced to 3 themes. Data were organized and prioritized based on frequency of mention. The findings represented themes of (a) flight planning tools, (b) production, and (c) costs that are associated with aviation fuel. The results confirmed findings addressed in the literature review, specifically that aviation biofuel will transform the airline industry through lower cost and production. These findings have broad applicability for all management personnel in the aviation industry. Implications for social change and improved business environments could be realized with a cleaner environment, reduced fuel emissions, and improved air quality.

  8. FTIR analysis of aviation fuel deposits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helmick, L. S.; Seng, G. T.

    1984-01-01

    Five modes of operation of the Nicolet 7199 Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrophotometer have been evaluated for application in analysis of the chemical structure of accelerated storage/thermal deposits produced by jet fuels. Using primarily the absorption and emission modes, the effects of fuel type, stress temperature, stress time, type of spiking agent, spiking agent concentration, fuel flow, and post-depositional treatment on the chemical nature of fuel deposits have been determined.

  9. Aviation-fuel property effects on combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosfjord, T. J.

    1984-01-01

    The fuel chemical property influence on a gas turbine combustor was studied using 25 test fuels. Fuel physical properties were de-emphasized by using fuel injectors which produce highly-atomized, and hence rapidly vaporizing sprays. A substantial fuel spray characterization effort was conducted to allow selection of nozzles which assured that such sprays were achieved for all fuels. The fuels were specified to cover the following wide ranges of chemical properties: hydrogen, 9.1 to 15 (wt) pct; total aromatics, 0 to 100 (vol) pct; and naphthalene, 0 to 30 (vol) pct. standard fuels (e.g., Jet A, JP4), speciality products (e.g., decalin, xylene tower bottoms) and special fuel blends were included. The latter group included six, 4-component blends prepared to achieve parametric variations in fuel hydrogen, total aromatics and naphthalene contents. The principle influences of fuel chemical properties on the combustor behavior were reflected by the radiation, liner temperature, and exhaust smoke number (or equivalently, soot number density) data. Test results indicated that naphthalene content strongly influenced the radiative heat load while parametric variations in total aromatics did not.

  10. Aviation fuel property effects on altitude relight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venkataramani, K.

    1987-01-01

    The major objective of this experimental program was to investigate the effects of fuel property variation on altitude relight characteristics. Four fuels with widely varying volatility properties (JP-4, Jet A, a blend of Jet A and 2040 Solvent, and Diesel 2) were tested in a five-swirl-cup-sector combustor at inlet temperatures and flows representative of windmilling conditions of turbofan engines. The effects of fuel physical properties on atomization were eliminated by using four sets of pressure-atomizing nozzles designed to give the same spray Sauter mean diameter (50 + or - 10 micron) for each fuel at the same design fuel flow. A second series of tests was run with a set of air-blast nozzles. With comparable atomization levels, fuel volatility assumes only a secondary role for first-swirl-cup lightoff and complete blowout. Full propagation first-cup blowout were independent of fuel volatility and depended only on the combustor operating conditions.

  11. Low-energy gamma ray attenuation characteristics of aviation fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Jag J.; Shen, Chih-Ping; Sprinkle, Danny R.

    1990-01-01

    Am241 (59.5 keV) gamma ray attenuation characteristics were investigated in 270 aviation fuel (Jet A and Jet A-1) samples from 76 airports around the world as a part of world wide study to measure the variability of aviation fuel properties as a function of season and geographical origin. All measurements were made at room temperature which varied from 20 to 27 C. Fuel densities (rho) were measured concurrently with their linear attenuation coefficients (mu), thus providing a measure of mass attenuation coefficient (mu/rho) for the test samples. In 43 fuel samples, rho and mu values were measured at more than one room temperature, thus providing mu/rho values for them at several temperatures. The results were found to be independent of the temperature at which mu and rho values were measured. It is noted that whereas the individual mu and rho values vary considerably from airport to airport as well as season to season, the mu/rho values for all samples are constant at 0.1843 + or - 0.0013 cu cm/gm. This constancy of mu/rho value for aviation fuels is significant since a nuclear fuel quantity gauging system based on low energy gamma ray attenuation will be viable throughout the world.

  12. Alternative Fuel Sources for Military Aviation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-01

    sources, it is evident that there are many different technologies and opinions on which source of alternative energy would be best . for the US. The...Research Document. 1 Sources 2 Jet-A vs JP-5/8 2 ALTERNATIVE FUELS 2 Synthetic Fuel 2 Biofuels 4 Hydrogen Fuel Cell 6 Solar Energy 8 COST 11 Budget...Process , 12 Fischer-Tropsch process 13 Biofuels 14 Hydrogen Fuel Cell : 15 Solar Energy 15 NATIONAL SECURITY ISSUE ~ 16 CONCLUSIONS 17 FIGURES · 25

  13. Detailed studies of aviation fuel flowability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehta, H. K.; Armstrong, R. S.

    1985-01-01

    Six Jet A fuels, with varying compositions, were tested for low temperature flowability in a 190-liter simulator tank that modeled a section of a wing tank of a wide-body commercial airplane. The insulated tank was chilled by circulating coolant through the upper and lower surfaces. Flow-ability was determined as a function of fuel temperature by holdup, the fraction of unflowable fuel remaining in the tank after otherwise complete withdrawal. In static tests with subfreezing tank conditions, hold up varied with temperature and fuel composition. However, a general correlation of two or three classes of fuel type was obtained by plotting holdup as a function of the difference between freezing point and boundary-layer temperature, measured 0.6 cm above the bottom tank surface. Dynamic conditions of vibrations and slosh or rate of fuel withdrawal had very minor effects on holdup. Tests with cooling schedules to represent extreme, cold-day flights showed, at most, slight holdup for any combination of fuel type or dynamic conditions. Tests that superimposed external fuel heating and recirculation during the cooldown period indicates reduced hold up by modification of the low-temperature boundary layer. Fuel heating was just as effective when initiated during the later times of the tests as when applied continuously.

  14. Life-Cycle Analysis of Alternative Aviation Fuels in GREET

    SciTech Connect

    Elgowainy, A.; Han, J.; Wang, M.; Carter, N.; Stratton, R.; Hileman, J.; Malwitz, A.; Balasubramanian, S.

    2012-06-01

    The Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model, developed at Argonne National Laboratory, has been expanded to include well-to-wake (WTWa) analysis of aviation fuels and aircraft. This report documents the key WTWa stages and assumptions for fuels that represent alternatives to petroleum jet fuel. The aviation module in GREET consists of three spreadsheets that present detailed characterizations of well-to-pump and pump-to-wake parameters and WTWa results. By using the expanded GREET version (GREET1_2011), we estimate WTWa results for energy use (total, fossil, and petroleum energy) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide) for (1) each unit of energy (lower heating value) consumed by the aircraft or(2) each unit of distance traveled/ payload carried by the aircraft. The fuel pathways considered in this analysis include petroleum-based jet fuel from conventional and unconventional sources (i.e., oil sands); Fisher-Tropsch (FT) jet fuel from natural gas, coal, and biomass; bio-jet fuel from fast pyrolysis of cellulosic biomass; and bio-jet fuel from vegetable and algal oils, which falls under the American Society for Testing and Materials category of hydroprocessed esters and fatty acids. For aircraft operation, we considered six passenger aircraft classes and four freight aircraft classes in this analysis. Our analysis revealed that, depending on the feedstock source, the fuel conversion technology, and the allocation or displacement credit methodology applied to co-products, alternative bio-jet fuel pathways have the potential to reduce life-cycle GHG emissions by 55–85 percent compared with conventional (petroleum-based) jet fuel. Although producing FT jet fuel from fossil feedstock sources — such as natural gas and coal — could greatly reduce dependence on crude oil, production from such sources (especially coal) produces greater WTWa GHG emissions compared with petroleum jet

  15. Life-cycle analysis of alternative aviation fuels in GREET

    SciTech Connect

    Elgowainy, A.; Han, J.; Wang, M.; Carter, N.; Stratton, R.; Hileman, J.; Malwitz, A.; Balasubramanian, S.

    2012-07-23

    The Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model, developed at Argonne National Laboratory, has been expanded to include well-to-wake (WTWa) analysis of aviation fuels and aircraft. This report documents the key WTWa stages and assumptions for fuels that represent alternatives to petroleum jet fuel. The aviation module in GREET consists of three spreadsheets that present detailed characterizations of well-to-pump and pump-to-wake parameters and WTWa results. By using the expanded GREET version (GREET1{_}2011), we estimate WTWa results for energy use (total, fossil, and petroleum energy) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide) for (1) each unit of energy (lower heating value) consumed by the aircraft or (2) each unit of distance traveled/ payload carried by the aircraft. The fuel pathways considered in this analysis include petroleum-based jet fuel from conventional and unconventional sources (i.e., oil sands); Fisher-Tropsch (FT) jet fuel from natural gas, coal, and biomass; bio-jet fuel from fast pyrolysis of cellulosic biomass; and bio-jet fuel from vegetable and algal oils, which falls under the American Society for Testing and Materials category of hydroprocessed esters and fatty acids. For aircraft operation, we considered six passenger aircraft classes and four freight aircraft classes in this analysis. Our analysis revealed that, depending on the feedstock source, the fuel conversion technology, and the allocation or displacement credit methodology applied to co-products, alternative bio-jet fuel pathways have the potential to reduce life-cycle GHG emissions by 55-85 percent compared with conventional (petroleum-based) jet fuel. Although producing FT jet fuel from fossil feedstock sources - such as natural gas and coal - could greatly reduce dependence on crude oil, production from such sources (especially coal) produces greater WTWa GHG emissions compared with petroleum jet

  16. Progress on coal-derived fuels for aviation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witcofski, R. D.

    1978-01-01

    Synthetic aviation kerosene (Syn. Jet-A), liquid methane (LCH4), and liquid hydrogen (LH2) appear to be the most promising coal-derived fuels. Liquid hydrogen aircraft configurations, their fuel systems, and their ground requirements at the airport are identified. These aircraft appear viable, particularly for long haul use, where aircraft fueled with coal derived LH2 would consume 9 percent less coal resources than would aircraft fueled with coal derived Syn. Jet-A. Distribution of hydrogen from the point of manufacture to airports may pose problems. Synthetic JET-A would appear to cause fewer concerns to the air transportation industry. Of the three candidate fuels, LCH4 is the most energy efficient to produce, and an aircraft fueled with coal derived LCH4 may provide both the most efficient utilization of coal resources and the least expensive ticket as well.

  17. Energy modeling for aviation fuel efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, B.P.

    1981-01-01

    The fuel consumption and path profile description of an aircraft can be related by an energy balanced concept. Application of this concept has produced an equation set that can be utilized to analyze the energy efficiency of propeller and turbojet aircraft during various operating conditions. Analytical methods, results and aircraft specific constants are presented and discussed along with proposed extensions. 10 refs.

  18. 32 CFR 766.13 - Sale of aviation fuel, oil, services and supplies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sale of aviation fuel, oil, services and... MISCELLANEOUS RULES USE OF DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY AVIATION FACILITIES BY CIVIL AIRCRAFT § 766.13 Sale of aviation fuel, oil, services and supplies. (a) General policy. In accordance with sections 1107 and 1108...

  19. 32 CFR 766.13 - Sale of aviation fuel, oil, services and supplies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sale of aviation fuel, oil, services and... MISCELLANEOUS RULES USE OF DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY AVIATION FACILITIES BY CIVIL AIRCRAFT § 766.13 Sale of aviation fuel, oil, services and supplies. (a) General policy. In accordance with sections 1107 and 1108...

  20. 14 CFR Special Federal Aviation... - Fuel Tank System Fault Tolerance Evaluation Requirements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fuel Tank System Fault Tolerance Evaluation Requirements Federal Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 88 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION..., SFAR No. 88 Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 88—Fuel Tank System Fault Tolerance...

  1. 14 CFR Special Federal Aviation... - Fuel Tank System Fault Tolerance Evaluation Requirements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fuel Tank System Fault Tolerance Evaluation Requirements Federal Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 88 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION..., SFAR No. 88 Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 88—Fuel Tank System Fault Tolerance...

  2. 32 CFR 766.13 - Sale of aviation fuel, oil, services and supplies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sale of aviation fuel, oil, services and... MISCELLANEOUS RULES USE OF DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY AVIATION FACILITIES BY CIVIL AIRCRAFT § 766.13 Sale of aviation fuel, oil, services and supplies. (a) General policy. In accordance with sections 1107 and 1108...

  3. 32 CFR 766.13 - Sale of aviation fuel, oil, services and supplies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sale of aviation fuel, oil, services and... MISCELLANEOUS RULES USE OF DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY AVIATION FACILITIES BY CIVIL AIRCRAFT § 766.13 Sale of aviation fuel, oil, services and supplies. (a) General policy. In accordance with sections 1107 and 1108...

  4. 14 CFR Special Federal Aviation... - Fuel Tank System Fault Tolerance Evaluation Requirements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fuel Tank System Fault Tolerance Evaluation Requirements Federal Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 88 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION..., SFAR No. 88 Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 88—Fuel Tank System Fault Tolerance...

  5. 14 CFR Special Federal Aviation... - Fuel Tank System Fault Tolerance Evaluation Requirements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel Tank System Fault Tolerance Evaluation Requirements Federal Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 88 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION..., SFAR No. 88 Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 88—Fuel Tank System Fault Tolerance...

  6. 32 CFR 766.13 - Sale of aviation fuel, oil, services and supplies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sale of aviation fuel, oil, services and... MISCELLANEOUS RULES USE OF DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY AVIATION FACILITIES BY CIVIL AIRCRAFT § 766.13 Sale of aviation fuel, oil, services and supplies. (a) General policy. In accordance with sections 1107 and 1108...

  7. 14 CFR Special Federal Aviation... - Fuel Tank System Fault Tolerance Evaluation Requirements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fuel Tank System Fault Tolerance Evaluation Requirements Federal Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 88 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION..., SFAR No. 88 Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 88—Fuel Tank System Fault Tolerance...

  8. Detailed and Simplified Chemical Kinetics of Aviation Fuels and Surrogates

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-01

    group, an equilibrium constant for reaction (13) was calculated. Moreover, data for the enthalpy of formation of the C5H5 were obtained. Zhong and...of key rate constants combined with high-quality validation data. Progress for complex aviation fuel mixtures has been slower due to uncertainties in...approaches were used to derive estimates of the rate constants . Improved thermodynamic data for a wide range of intermediate species was also

  9. Detailed and Simplified Chemical Kinetics of Aviation Fuels and Surrogates

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-11-12

    group, an equilibrium constant for reaction (13) was calculated. Moreover, data for the enthalpy of formation of the C5H5 were obtained. Zhong and...of key rate constants combined with high-quality validation data. Progress for complex aviation fuel mixtures has been slower due to uncertainties in...approaches were used to derive estimates of the rate constants . Improved thermodynamic data for a wide range of intermediate species was also

  10. Aviation turbine fuel properties and their trends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, R.

    1981-01-01

    This paper is an examination of published Jet A inspection data covering selected property distributions, averages, and trends for the period from 1969 to 1979. Yearly median values of aromatics, mercaptan sulfur content, 10-percent distillation temperature, smoke point, and freezing point are changing with time, approaching their specification limit values, particularly in the last three years. A near-specification property is defined as one within a stated tolerance band around the specification limit. On this basis, most fuel samples have one to three near-specification properties, the most common being aromatics, smoke point, and freezing point.

  11. Future Fuel Scenarios and Their Potential Impact to Aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, Robert C.; Lowery, Nathan; Daggett, David L.; Anast, Peter

    2007-01-01

    In recent years fuel prices have been growing at a rapid pace. Current conservative projections predict that this is only a function of the natural volatility of oil prices, similar to the oil price spikes experienced in the 1970s. However, there is growing concern among analysts that the current price increases may not only be permanent, but that prices may continue to increase into the future before settling down at a much higher level than today. At high enough fuel prices, the aircraft industry would become very sensitive to fuel price. In this paper, the likelihood of fuel price increase is considered in three different price increase scenarios: "low," "medium," and "high." The impact of these scenarios on the aviation industry and alternatives are also addressed.

  12. Future Fuel Scenarios and Their Potential Impact to Aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, Robert C.; Daggett, David L.; Anast, Peter; Lowery, Nathan

    2011-01-01

    In recent years fuel prices have been growing at a rapid pace. Current conservative projections predict that this is only a function of the natural volatility of oil prices, similar to the oil price spikes experienced in the 1970s. However, there is growing concern among analysts that the current price increases may not only be permanent, but that prices may continue to increase into the future before settling down at a much higher level than today. At high enough fuel prices, the aircraft industry would become very sensitive to fuel price. In this paper, the likelihood of fuel price increase is considered in three different price increase scenarios: "low," "medium," and "high." The impact of these scenarios on the aviation industry and alternatives are also addressed.

  13. Multi-Fuel Rotary Engine for General Aviation Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, C.; Ellis, D. R.; Meng, P. R.

    1983-01-01

    Design studies, conducted for NASA, of Advanced Multi-fuel General Aviation and Commuter Aircraft Rotary Stratified Charge Engines are summarized. Conceptual design studies of an advanced engine sized to provide 186/250 shaft KW/HP under cruise conditions at 7620/25,000 m/ft. altitude were performed. Relevant engine development background covering both prior and recent engine test results of the direct injected unthrottled rotary engine technology, including the capability to interchangeably operate on gasoline, diesel fuel, kerosene, or aviation jet fuel, are presented and related to growth predictions. Aircraft studies, using these resultant growth engines, define anticipated system effects of the performance and power density improvements for both single engine and twin engine airplanes. The calculated results indicate superior system performance and 30 to 35% fuel economy improvement for the Rotary-engine airplanes as compared to equivalent airframe concept designs with current baseline engines. The research and technology activities required to attain the projected engine performance levels are also discussed.

  14. Clean fuel for demanding environmental markets

    SciTech Connect

    Josewicz, W.; Natschke, D.E.

    1995-12-31

    Acurex Environmental Corporation is bringing Clean Fuel to the environmentally demand Krakow market, through the cooperative agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy. Clean fuel is a proprietary clean burning coal-based energy source intended for use in stoves and hand stoked boilers. Clean Fuel is a home heating fuel that is similar in form and function to raw coal, but is more environmentally friendly and lower in cost. The heating value of Clean Fuel is 24,45 kJ/kg. Extensive sets of confirmation runs were conducted in the Academy of Mining and Metallurgy in the Krakow laboratories. It demonstrated up to 54 percent reduction of particulate matter emission, up to 35 percent reduction of total hydrocarbon emissions. Most importantly, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (toxic and carcinogens compounds) emissions were reduced by up to 85 percent, depending on species measured. The above comparison was made against premium chunk coal that is currently available in Krakow for approximately $83 to 93/ton. Clean Fuel will be made available in Krakow at a price approximately 10 percent lower than that of the premium chunk coal.

  15. Design for Corrosion Control of Aviation Fuel Storage and Distribution Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-06-01

    AD-AOll 588 DESIGN FOR CORROSION CONTROL OF AVIATION FUEL STORAGE AND DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS Fred Reinhart Civil Engineering Laboratory Prepared for...191137 OC DESIGN FOR CORROSION CONTROL OF AVIATION FUEL STORAGE AND DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS Fred Reinhart O Civil Engineering Laboratory Naval...ZOVERE, fFinal Report for: 15 Oct 70 DESIGN FOR CORROSION CONTROL OF AVIATION FUEL I STORGE AD DITRIBTIONSYSTMS thru 15 Oct 74 STORGE ND ISTIBUTON

  16. Laboratory Evaluation of Light Obscuration Particle Counters used to Establish use Limits for Aviation Fuel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    Establish use Limits for Aviation Fuel December 2015 UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED Joel Schmitigal 27480 Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI-Std...To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Laboratory Evaluation of Light Obscuration Particle Counters used to Establish use Limits for Aviation Fuel 5a. CONTRACT...laboratory evaluations of automatic light obscuration particle counters to develop limits for aviation fuel cleanliness. The laboratory evaluations

  17. Alternative Fuels and Their Potential Impact on Aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daggett, D.; Hendricks, R.; Walther, R.

    2006-01-01

    With a growing gap between the growth rate of petroleum production and demand, and with mounting environmental needs, the aircraft industry is investigating issues related to fuel availability, candidates for alternative fuels, and improved aircraft fuel efficiency. Bio-derived fuels, methanol, ethanol, liquid natural gas, liquid hydrogen, and synthetic fuels are considered in this study for their potential to replace or supplement conventional jet fuels. Most of these fuels present the airplane designers with safety, logistical, and performance challenges. Synthetic fuel made from coal, natural gas, or other hydrocarbon feedstock shows significant promise as a fuel that could be easily integrated into present and future aircraft with little or no modification to current aircraft designs. Alternatives, such as biofuel, and in the longer term hydrogen, have good potential but presently appear to be better suited for use in ground transportation. With the increased use of these fuels, a greater portion of a barrel of crude oil can be used for producing jet fuel because aircraft are not as fuel-flexible as ground vehicles.

  18. Comparison of hecter fuel with export aviation gasoline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickinson, H C; Gage, V R; Sparrow, S W

    1921-01-01

    Among the fuels which will operate at compression ratios up to at least 8.0 without preignition or "pinking" is hecter fuel, whence a careful determination of its performance is of importance. For the test data presented in this report the hecter fuel used was a mixture of 30 per cent benzol and 70 per cent cyclohexane, having a low freezing point, and distilling from first drop to 90 per cent at nearly a constant temperature, about 20 degrees c. below the average distillation temperature ("mean volatility") of the x gasoline (export grade). The results of these experiments show that the power developed by hecter fuel is the same as that developed by export aviation gasoline at about 1,800 r.p.m. at all altitudes. At lower speeds differences in the power developed by the fuels become evident. Comparisons at ground level were omitted to avoid any possibility of damaging the engine by operating with open throttle on gasoline at so high a compression. The fuel consumption per unit power based on weight, not volume, averaged more than 10 per cent greater with hecter than with x gasoline. The thermal efficiency of the engine when using hecter is less than when using gasoline, particularly at higher speeds. A generalization of the difference for all altitudes and speeds being 8 per cent. A general deduction from these facts is that more hecter is exhausted unburnt. Hecter can withstand high compression pressures and temperature without preignition. (author)

  19. Biodegradation of JP-5 Aviation Fuel by Subsurface Microbial Communities.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-01

    microorganisms. including more than 40 bacteria, 6 actinomycetes and 10 fungi have been isolated from soil contaminated with aviation fuels and adjacent...unsorted fluvial fine sand to gravel. underlain bv - o. m peat. The umoer stratum lies directly on Miocene marine grey silt and clay. which c=nfines the...0.5 g/L), dextrose (0.25 g/L), NaCI (0.25 g/L), yeast extract (0.25 g/L), pH 7; ( ) ACT - Actinomycete Isolation Agar (Difco: 22 g/L). glycerol (5 g/L

  20. Aircraft Engine Technology for Green Aviation to Reduce Fuel Burn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, Christopher E.; VanZante, Dale E.; Heidmann, James D.

    2013-01-01

    The NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Program Subsonic Fixed Wing Project and Integrated Systems Research Program Environmentally Responsible Aviation Project in the Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate are conducting research on advanced aircraft technology to address the environmental goals of reducing fuel burn, noise and NOx emissions for aircraft in 2020 and beyond. Both Projects, in collaborative partnerships with U.S. Industry, Academia, and other Government Agencies, have made significant progress toward reaching the N+2 (2020) and N+3 (beyond 2025) installed fuel burn goals by fundamental aircraft engine technology development, subscale component experimental investigations, full scale integrated systems validation testing, and development validation of state of the art computation design and analysis codes. Specific areas of propulsion technology research are discussed and progress to date.

  1. PROTOZOA IN SUBSURFACE SEDIMENTS FROM SITE CONTAMI- NATED WITH AVIATION GASOLINE OR JET FUEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Numbers of protozoa in the subsurface of aviation gasoline and jet fuel spill areas at a Coast Guard base at Traverse City, Mich., were determined. Boreholes were drilled in an uncontaminated location, in contaminated but untreated parts of the fuel plumes, and in the aviation ga...

  2. Characterization of an Experimental Referee Broadened Specification (ERBS) aviation turbine fuel and ERBS fuel blends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seng, G. T.

    1982-01-01

    Characterization data and comparisons of these data are presented for three individual lots of a research test fuel designated as an Experimental Referee Broadened Specification (ERBS) aviation turbine fuel. This research fuel, which is a blend of kerosene and hydrotreated catalytic gas oil, is a representation of a kerojet fuel with broadened properties. To lower the hydrogen content of the ERBS fuel, a blending stock, composed of xylene bottoms and hydrotreated catalytic gas oil, was developed and employed to produce two different ERBS fuel blends. The ERBS fuel blends and the blending stock were also characterized and the results for the blends are compared to those of the original ERBS fuel. The characterization results indicate that with the exception of the freezing point for ERBS lot 2, which was slightly high, the three lots, produced over a 2 year period, met all general fuel requirements. However, although the properties of the fuels were found to be fairly consistent, there were differences in composition. Similarly, all major requirements for the ERBS fuel blends were met or closely approached, and the properties of the blended fuels were found to generally reflect those expected for the proportions of ERBS fuel and blending stock used in their production.

  3. Impact of 50% Alcohol to Jet Blends on Aviation Turbine Fuel Coalescence - Navy Coalescence Test

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-17

    Impact of 50% Alcohol to Jet Blends on Aviation Turbine Fuel Coalescence - Navy Coalescence Test NF&LCFT REPORT 441/15-001 17 October 2014...Alcohol to Jet Blends on Aviation Turbine Fuel Coalescence- Navy Coalescence Test 1.0 BACKGROUND In October 2009, Secretary of the Navy Ray Mabus...section 5.11.4 of MIL-STD- 3004D3, for aviation turbine fuel to be acceptable for fueling aircraft it shall contain no more 10 ppm by volume (ppmv

  4. Multi-fuel rotary engine for general aviation aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, C.; Ellis, D. R.; Meng, P. R.

    1983-01-01

    Design studies of advanced multifuel general aviation and commuter aircraft rotary stratified charge engines are summarized. Conceptual design studies were performed at two levels of technology, on advanced general aviation engines sized to provide 186/250 shaft kW/hp under cruise conditions at 7620 (25000 m/ft) altitude. A follow on study extended the results to larger (2500 hp max.) engine sizes suitable for applications such as commuter transports and helicopters. The study engine designs were derived from relevant engine development background including both prior and recent engine test results using direct injected unthrottled rotary engine technology. Aircraft studies, using these resultant growth engines, define anticipated system effects of the performance and power density improvements for both single engine and twin engine airplanes. The calculated results indicate superior system performance and 27 to 33 percent fuel economy improvement for the rotary engine airplanes as compared to equivalent airframe concept designs with current baseline engines. The research and technology activities required to attain the projected engine performance levels are also discussed.

  5. Forecast of Future Aviation Fuels. Part 1: Scenarios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    English, J. M.; Liu, C. Y.; Smith, J. L.; Yin, A. K. K.; Pan, G. A.; Ayati, M. B.; Gyamfi, M.; Arabzadah, M. R.

    1978-01-01

    A preliminary set of scenarios is described for depicting the air transport industry as it grows and changes, up to the year 2025. This provides the background for predicting the needs for future aviation fuels to meet the requirements of the industry as new basic sources, such as oil shale and coal, which are utilized to supplement petroleum. Five scenarios are written to encompass a range of futures from a serious resource-constrained economy to a continuous and optimistic economic growth. A unique feature is the choice of one immediate range scenario which is based on a serious interruption of economic growth occasioned by an energy shortfall. This is presumed to occur due to lags in starting a synfuels program.

  6. Aviation Fuel Tracer Simulation: Model Intercomparison and Implications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danilin, M. Y.; Fahey, D. W.; Schumann, U.; Prather, M. J.; Penner, J. E.; Ko, M. K. W.; Weisenstein, D. K.; Jackman, C. H.; Pitari, G.; Koehler, I.; Sausen, R.; Weaver, C. J.; Douglass, A. R.; Connell, P. S.; Kinnison, D. E.; Dentener, F. J.; Fleming, E. L.; Berntsen, T. K.; Isaksen, I. S. A.; Haywood, J. M.

    1998-01-01

    An upper limit for aircraft-produced perturbations to aerosols and gaseous exhaust products in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UT/LS) is derived using the 1992 aviation fuel tracer simulation performed by eleven global atmospheric models. Key Endings are that subsonic aircraft emissions: (1) have not be responsible for the observed water vapor trends at 40 deg N; (2) could be a significant source of soot mass near 12 km, but not at 20 km; (3) might cause a noticeable increase in the background sulfate aerosol surface area and number densities (but not mass density) near the northern mid-latitude tropopause; and (4) could provide a global, annual mean top of the atmosphere radiative forcing up to +0.006 W/sq m and -0.013 W/sq m due to emitted soot and sulfur, respectively.

  7. Aviation fuel tracer simulation: Model intercomparison and implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danilin, M. Y.; Fahey, D. W.; Schumann, U.; Prather, M. J.; Penner, J. E.; Ko, M. K. W.; Weisenstein, D. K.; Jackman, C. H.; Pitari, G.; Köhler, I.; Sausen, R.; Weaver, C. J.; Douglass, A. R.; Connell, P. S.; Kinnison, D. E.; Dentener, F. J.; Fleming, E. L.; Berntsen, T. K.; Isaksen, I. S. A.; Haywood, J. M.; Kärcher, B.

    An upper limit for aircraft-produced perturbations to aerosols and gaseous exhaust products in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UT/LS) is derived using the 1992 aviation fuel tracer simulation performed by eleven global atmospheric models. Key findings are that subsonic aircraft emissions: 1) have not be responsible for the observed water vapor trends at 40°N 2) could be a significant source of soot mass near 12 km, but not at 20 km, 3) might cause a noticeable increase in the background sulfate aerosol surface area and number densities (but not mass density) near the northern mid-latitude tropopause, and 4) could provide a global, annual mean top of the atmosphere radiative forcing up to +0.006 W/m² and -0.013 W/m² due to emitted soot and sulfur, respectively.

  8. [Research and workshop on alternative fuels for aviation. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1999-09-01

    The Renewable Aviation Fuels Development Center (RAFDC) at Baylor University was granted U. S. Department of Energy (US DOE) and Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) funds for research and development to improve the efficiency in ethanol powered aircraft, measure performance and compare emissions of ethanol, Ethyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (ETBE) and 100 LL aviation gasoline. The premise of the initial proposal was to use a test stand owned by Engine Components Inc. (ECI) based in San Antonio, Texas. After the grant was awarded, ECI decided to close down its test stand facility. Since there were no other test stands available at that time, RAFDC was forced to find additional support to build its own test stand. Baylor University provided initial funds for the test stand building. Other obstacles had to be overcome in order to initiate the program. The price of the emission testing equipment had increased substantially beyond the initial quote. Rosemount Analytical Inc. gave RAFDC an estimate of $120,000.00 for a basic emission testing package. RAFDC had to find additional funding to purchase this equipment. The electronic ignition unit also presented a series of time consuming problems. Since at that time there were no off-the-shelf units of this type available, one had to be specially ordered and developed. FAA funds were used to purchase a Super Flow dynamometer. Due to the many unforeseen obstacles, much more time and effort than originally anticipated had to be dedicated to the project, with much of the work done on a volunteer basis. Many people contributed their time to the program. One person, mainly responsible for the initial design of the test stand, was a retired engineer from Allison with extensive aircraft engine test stand experience. Also, many Baylor students volunteered to assemble the. test stand and continue to be involved in the current test program. Although the program presented many challenges, which resulted in delays, the RAFDC's test stand is

  9. Evaluation of Additives to Eliminate Free Water from Aviation Fuel Light Obscuration Particle Counts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-11-01

    5000 DISTRIBUTION A. Approved for public release: distribution unlimited. Evaluation of Additives to Eliminate Free Water from Aviation Fuel Light...April 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Evaluation of Additives to Eliminate Free Water from Aviation Fuel Light Obscuration Particle Counts 5a. CONTRACT...13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT This technical report details the evaluation fuel additives used to eliminate the effects of free water

  10. Impacts of aviation fuel sulfur content on climate and human health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapadia, Zarashpe Z.; Spracklen, Dominick V.; Arnold, Steve R.; Borman, Duncan J.; Mann, Graham W.; Pringle, Kirsty J.; Monks, Sarah A.; Reddington, Carly L.; Benduhn, François; Rap, Alexandru; Scott, Catherine E.; Butt, Edward W.; Yoshioka, Masaru

    2016-08-01

    Aviation emissions impact both air quality and climate. Using a coupled tropospheric chemistry-aerosol microphysics model we investigate the effects of varying aviation fuel sulfur content (FSC) on premature mortality from long-term exposure to aviation-sourced PM2.5 (particulate matter with a dry diameter of < 2.5 µm) and on the global radiation budget due to changes in aerosol and tropospheric ozone. We estimate that present-day non-CO2 aviation emissions with a typical FSC of 600 ppm result in ˜ 3600 [95 % CI: 1310-5890] annual premature mortalities globally due to increases in cases of cardiopulmonary disease and lung cancer, resulting from increased surface PM2.5 concentrations. We quantify the global annual mean combined radiative effect (REcomb) of non-CO2 aviation emissions as -13.3 mW m-2; from increases in aerosols (direct radiative effect and cloud albedo effect) and tropospheric ozone. Ultra-low sulfur jet fuel (ULSJ; FSC = 15 ppm) has been proposed as an option to reduce the adverse health impacts of aviation-induced PM2.5. We calculate that swapping the global aviation fleet to ULSJ fuel would reduce the global aviation-induced mortality rate by ˜ 620 [95 % CI: 230-1020] mortalities a-1 and increase REcomb by +7.0 mW m-2. We explore the impact of varying aviation FSC between 0 and 6000 ppm. Increasing FSC increases aviation-induced mortality, while enhancing climate cooling through increasing the aerosol cloud albedo effect (CAE). We explore the relationship between the injection altitude of aviation emissions and the resulting climate and air quality impacts. Compared to the standard aviation emissions distribution, releasing aviation emissions at the ground increases global aviation-induced mortality and produces a net warming effect, primarily through a reduced CAE. Aviation emissions injected at the surface are 5 times less effective at forming cloud condensation nuclei, reducing the aviation-induced CAE by a factor of 10. Applying high FSCs at

  11. Implementation of alternative bio-based fuels in aviation: The Clean Airports Program

    SciTech Connect

    Shauck, M.E.; Zanin, M.G.

    1997-12-31

    The Renewable Aviation Fuels Development Center at Baylor University in Waco, Texas, was designated, in March 1996, by the US Department of Energy (US DOE) as the national coordinator of the Clean Airports Program. This program, a spin-off of the Clean Cities Program, was initiated to increase the use of alternative fuels in aviation. There are two major fuels used in aviation today, the current piston engine aviation gasoline, and the current turbine engine fuel. The environmental impact of each of these fuels is significant. Aviation Gasoline (100LL), currently used in the General Aviation piston engine fleet, contributes 100% of the emissions containing lead in the USA today. In the case of the turbine engine fuel (Jet fuel), there are two major environmental impacts to be considered: the local, in the vicinity of the airports, and the global impact on climate change. The Clean Airports Program was established to promote the use of clean burning fuels in order to achieve and maintain clean air at and in the vicinities of airports through the use of alternative fuel-powered air and ground transportation vehicles.

  12. Impacts of aviation fuel sulfur content on climate and human health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapadia, Z. Z.; Spracklen, D. V.; Arnold, S. R.; Borman, D. J.; Mann, G. W.; Pringle, K. J.; Monks, S. A.; Reddington, C. L.; Benduhn, F.; Rap, A.; Scott, C. E.; Butt, E. W.; Yoshioka, M.

    2015-07-01

    Aviation emissions impact both air quality and climate. Using a coupled tropospheric chemistry-aerosol microphysics model we investigate the effects of varying aviation fuel sulfur content (FSC) on premature mortality from long-term exposure to aviation-sourced PM2.5 (particulate matter with a dry diameter of < 2.5 μm) and on the global radiation budget due to changes in aerosol and tropospheric ozone. We estimate that present-day non-CO2 aviation emissions with a typical FSC of 600 ppm result in 3597 (95 % CI: 1307-5888) annual mortalities globally due to increases in cases of cardiopulmonary disease and lung cancer, resulting from increased surface PM2.5 concentrations. We quantify the global annual mean combined radiative effect (REcomb) of non-CO2 aviation emissions as -13.3 mW m-2; from increases in aerosols (direct radiative effect and cloud albedo effect) and tropospheric ozone. Ultra-low sulfur jet fuel (ULSJ; FSC =15 ppm) has been proposed as an option to reduce the adverse health impacts of aviation-induced PM2.5. We calculate that swapping the global aviation fleet to ULSJ fuel would reduce the global aviation-induced mortality rate by 624 (95 % CI: 227-1021) mortalities a-1 and increase REcomb by +7.0 mW m-2. We explore the impact of varying aviation FSC between 0-6000 ppm. Increasing FSC increases annual mortality, while enhancing climate cooling through increasing the aerosol cloud albedo effect (aCAE). We explore the relationship between the injection altitude of aviation emissions and the resulting climate and air quality impacts. Compared to the standard aviation emissions distribution, releasing aviation emissions at the ground increases global aviation-induced mortality and produces a net warming effect, primarily through a reduced aCAE. Aviation emissions injected at the surface are 5 times less effective at forming cloud condensation nuclei, reducing the aviation-induced aCAE by a factor of 10. Applying high FSCs at aviation cruise altitudes

  13. Fischer-Tropsch Catalyst for Aviation Fuel Production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    deLaRee, Ana B.; Best, Lauren M.; Hepp, Aloysius F.

    2011-01-01

    As the oil supply declines, there is a greater need for cleaner alternative fuels. There will undoubtedly be a shift from crude oil to non-petroleum sources as a feedstock for aviation (and other transportation) fuels. The Fischer-Tropsch process uses a gas mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen which is converted into various liquid hydrocarbons; this versatile gas-to-liquid technology produces a complex product stream of paraffins, olefins, and oxygenated compounds such as alcohols and aldehydes. The Fischer-Tropsch process can produce a cleaner diesel oil fraction with a high cetane number (typically above 70) without any sulfur and aromatic compounds. It is most commonly catalyzed by cobalt supported on alumina, silica, or titania or unsupported alloyed iron powders. Cobalt is typically used more often than iron, in that cobalt is a longer-active catalyst, has lower water-gas shift activity, and lower yield of modified products. Promoters are valuable in improving Fischer-Tropsch catalyst as they can increase cobalt oxide dispersion, enhance the reduction of cobalt oxide to the active metal phase, stabilize a high metal surface area, and improve mechanical properties. Our goal is to build up the specificity of the Fischer-Tropsch catalyst while adding less-costly transition metals as promoters; the more common promoters used in Fischer-Tropsch synthesis are rhenium, platinum, and ruthenium. In this report we will describe our preliminary efforts to design and produce catalyst materials to achieve our goal of preferentially producing C8 to C18 paraffin compounds in the NASA Glenn Research Center Gas-To-Liquid processing plant. Efforts at NASA Glenn Research Center for producing green fuels using non-petroleum feedstocks support both the Sub-sonic Fixed Wing program of Fundamental Aeronautics and the In Situ Resource Utilization program of the Exploration Technology Development and Demonstration program.

  14. Fischer-Tropsch Catalyst for Aviation Fuel Production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeLaRee, Ana B.; Best, Lauren M.; Bradford, Robyn L.; Gonzalez-Arroyo, Richard; Hepp, Aloysius F.

    2012-01-01

    As the oil supply declines, there is a greater need for cleaner alternative fuels. There will undoubtedly be a shift from crude oil to nonpetroleum sources as a feedstock for aviation (and other transportation) fuels. The Fischer-Tropsch process uses a gas mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen which is converted into various liquid hydrocarbons; this versatile gas-to-liquid technology produces a complex product stream of paraffins, olefins, and oxygenated compounds such as alcohols and aldehydes. The Fischer-Tropsch process can produce a cleaner diesel oil fraction with a high cetane number (typically above 70) without any sulfur and aromatic compounds. It is most commonly catalyzed by cobalt supported on alumina, silica, or titania or unsupported alloyed iron powders. Cobalt is typically used more often than iron, in that cobalt is a longer-active catalyst, has lower water-gas shift activity, and lower yield of modified products. Promoters are valuable in improving Fischer-Tropsch catalyst as they can increase cobalt oxide dispersion, enhance the reduction of cobalt oxide to the active metal phase, stabilize a high metal surface area, and improve mechanical properties. Our goal is to build up the specificity of the Fischer-Tropsch catalyst while adding less-costly transition metals as promoters; the more common promoters used in Fischer-Tropsch synthesis are rhenium, platinum, and ruthenium. In this report we will describe our preliminary efforts to design and produce catalyst materials to achieve our goal of preferentially producing C8 to C18 paraffin compounds in the NASA Glenn Research Center Gas-To-Liquid processing plant. Efforts at NASA Glenn Research Center for producing green fuels using non-petroleum feedstocks support both the Sub-sonic Fixed Wing program of Fundamental Aeronautics and the In Situ Resource Utilization program of the Exploration Technology Development and Demonstration program.

  15. Aircraft Fuel, Hydraulic and Pneumatic Systems (Course Outlines), Aviation Mechanics 3 (Air Frame): 9067.01.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    This document presents an outline for a 135-hour course designed to familiarize the student with the operation, inspection, and repair of aircraft fuel, hydraulic, and pneumatic systems. It is designed to help the trainee master the knowledge and skills necessary to become an aviation airframe mechanic. The aviation airframe maintenance technician…

  16. Aircraft emissions of methane and nitrous oxide during the alternative aviation fuel experiment.

    PubMed

    Santoni, Gregory W; Lee, Ben H; Wood, Ezra C; Herndon, Scott C; Miake-Lye, Richard C; Wofsy, Steven C; McManus, J Barry; Nelson, David D; Zahniser, Mark S

    2011-08-15

    Given the predicted growth of aviation and the recent developments of alternative aviation fuels, quantifying methane (CH(4)) and nitrous oxide (N(2)O) emission ratios for various aircraft engines and fuels can help constrain projected impacts of aviation on the Earth's radiative balance. Fuel-based emission indices for CH(4) and N(2)O were quantified from CFM56-2C1 engines aboard the NASA DC-8 aircraft during the first Alternative Aviation Fuel Experiment (AAFEX-I) in 2009. The measurements of JP-8 fuel combustion products indicate that at low thrust engine states (idle and taxi, or 4% and 7% maximum rated thrusts, respectively) the engines emit both CH(4) and N(2)O at a mean ± 1σ rate of 170 ± 160 mg CH(4) (kg Fuel)(-1) and 110 ± 50 mg N(2)O (kg Fuel)(-1), respectively. At higher thrust levels corresponding to greater fuel flow and higher engine temperatures, CH(4) concentrations in engine exhaust were lower than ambient concentrations. Average emission indices for JP-8 fuel combusted at engine thrusts between 30% and 100% of maximum rating were -54 ± 33 mg CH(4) (kg Fuel)(-1) and 32 ± 18 mg N(2)O (kg Fuel)(-1), where the negative sign indicates consumption of atmospheric CH(4) in the engine. Emission factors for the synthetic Fischer-Tropsch fuels were statistically indistinguishable from those for JP-8.

  17. Life-cycle analysis of bio-based aviation fuels.

    PubMed

    Han, Jeongwoo; Elgowainy, Amgad; Cai, Hao; Wang, Michael Q

    2013-12-01

    Well-to-wake (WTWa) analysis of bio-based aviation fuels, including hydroprocessed renewable jet (HRJ) from various oil seeds, Fischer-Tropsch jet (FTJ) from corn-stover and co-feeding of coal and corn-stover, and pyrolysis jet from corn stover, is conducted and compared with petroleum jet. WTWa GHG emission reductions relative to petroleum jet can be 41-63% for HRJ, 68-76% for pyrolysis jet and 89% for FTJ from corn stover. The HRJ production stage dominates WTWa GHG emissions from HRJ pathways. The differences in GHG emissions from HRJ production stage among considered feedstocks are much smaller than those from fertilizer use and N2O emissions related to feedstock collection stage. Sensitivity analyses on FTJ production from coal and corn-stover are also conducted, showing the importance of biomass share in the feedstock, carbon capture and sequestration options, and overall efficiency. For both HRJ and FTJ, co-product handling methods have significant impacts on WTWa results.

  18. Ethyl-tertiary-butyl-ether (ETBE) as an aviation fuel: Eleventh international symposium on alcohol fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Maben, G.D.; Shauck, M.E.; Zanin, M.G.

    1996-12-31

    This paper discusses the preliminary flight testing of an aircraft using neat burning ethyl-tertiary-butyl-ether (ETBE) as a fuel. No additional changes were made to the fuel delivery systems which had previously been modified to provide the higher fuel flow rates required to operate the engine on neat ethanol. Air-fuel ratios were manually adjusted with the mixture control. This system allows the pilot to adjust the mixture to compensate for changes in air density caused by altitude, pressure and temperature. The engine was instrumented to measure exhaust gas temperatures (EGT), cylinder head temperatures (CHT), and fuel flows, while the standard aircraft instruments were used to collect aircraft performance data. Baseline engine data for ETBE and Avgas are compared. Preliminary data indicates the technical and economic feasibility of using ETBE as an aviation fuel for the piston engine fleet. Furthermore, the energy density of ETBE qualifies it as a candidate for a turbine engine fuel of which 16.2 billion gallons are used in the US each year.

  19. A method for monitoring the variability in nuclear absorption characteristics of aviation fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sprinkle, Danny R.; Shen, Chih-Ping

    1988-01-01

    A technique for monitoring variability in the nuclear absorption characteristics of aviation fuels has been developed. It is based on a highly collimated low energy gamma radiation source and a sodium iodide counter. The source and the counter assembly are separated by a geometrically well-defined test fuel cell. A computer program for determining the mass attenuation coefficient of the test fuel sample, based on the data acquired for a preset counting period, has been developed and tested on several types of aviation fuel.

  20. Developing Passenger Demand Models for International Aviation from/to Egypt: A Case Study of Cairo Airport and Egyptair

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbas, Khaled A.; Fattah, Nabil Abdel; Reda, Hala R.

    2003-01-01

    This research is concerned with developing passenger demand models for international aviation from/to Egypt. In this context, aviation sector in Egypt is represented by the biggest and main airport namely Cairo airport as well as by the main Egyptian international air carrier namely Egyptair. The developed models utilize two variables to represent aviation demand, namely total number of international flights originating from and attracted to Cairo airport as well as total number of passengers using Egyptair international flights originating from and attracted to Cairo airport. Such demand variables were related, using different functional forms, to several explanatory variables including population, GDP and number of foreign tourists. Finally, two models were selected based on their logical acceptability, best fit and statistical significance. To demonstrate usefulness of developed models, these were used to forecast future demand patterns.

  1. Aircraft Fuel, Fuel Metering, Induction and Exhaust Systems (Course Outline), Aviation Mechanics (Power Plant): 9057.02.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    This document presents an outline for a 135-hour course designed to help the trainee gain the skills and knowledge necessary to become an aviation powerplant mechanic. The course outlines the theory of operation of various fuel systems, fuel metering, induction, and exhaust system components with an emphasis on troubleshooting, maintenance, and…

  2. Enhancement of Aviation Fuel Thermal Stability Characterization Through Application of Ellipsometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Browne, Samuel Tucker; Wong, Hubert; Hinderer, Cameron Branch; Klettlinger, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    ASTM D3241/Jet Fuel Thermal Oxidation Tester (JFTOT) procedure, the standard method for testing thermal stability of conventional aviation turbine fuels is inherently limited due to the subjectivity in the color standard for tube deposit rating. Quantitative assessment of the physical characteristics of oxidative fuel deposits provides a more powerful method for comparing the thermal oxidation stability characteristics of fuels, especially in a research setting. We propose employing a Spectroscopic Ellipsometer to determine the film thickness and profile of oxidative fuel deposits on JFTOT heater tubes. Using JP-8 aviation fuel and following a modified ASTM D3241 testing procedure, the capabilities of the Ellipsometer will be demonstrated by measuring oxidative fuel deposit profiles for a range of different deposit characteristics. The testing completed in this report was supported by the NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Subsonics Fixed Wing Project

  3. Temperature and flow measurements on near-freezing aviation fuels in a wing-tank model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, R.; Stockemer, F. J.

    1980-01-01

    Freezing behavior, pumpability, and temperature profiles for aviation turbine fuels were measured in a 190-liter tank, to simulate internal temperature gradients encountered in commercial airplane wing tanks. Two low-temperature situations were observed. Where the bulk of the fuel is above the specification freezing point, pumpout of the fuel removes all fuel except a layer adhering to the bottom chilled surfaces, and the unpumpable fraction depends on the fuel temperature near these surfaces. Where the bulk of the fuel is at or below the freezing point, pumpout ceases when solids block the pump inlet, and the unpumpable fraction depends on the overall average temperature.

  4. Temperature and flow measurements on near-freezing aviation fuels in a wing-tank model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, R.; Stockemer, F. J.

    1980-01-01

    Freezing behavior, pumpability, and temperature profiles for aviation turbine fuels were measured in a 190-liter tank chilled to simulate internal temperature gradients encountered in commercial airplane wing tanks. When the bulk of the fuel was above the specification freezing point, pumpout of the fuel removed all fuel except a layer adhering to the bottom chilled surfaces, and the unpumpable fraction depended on the fuel temperature near these surfaces. When the bulk of the fuel was at or below the freezing point, pumpout ceased when solids blocked the pump inlet, and the unpumpable fraction depended on the overall average temperature.

  5. Landing on empty: estimating the benefits from reducing fuel uplift in US Civil Aviation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryerson, Megan S.; Hansen, Mark; Hao, Lu; Seelhorst, Michael

    2015-09-01

    Airlines and Air Navigation Service Providers are united in their goal to reduce fuel consumption. While changes to flight operations and technology investments are the focus of a number of studies, our study is among the first to investigate an untapped source of aviation fuel consumption: excess contingency fuel loading. Given the downside risk of fuel exhaustion of diverting to an alternate airport, airline dispatchers may load excess fuel onto an aircraft. Such conservatism comes at a cost of consuming excess fuel, as fuel consumed is a function of, among other factors, aircraft weight. The aim of this paper is to quantify, on a per-flight basis, the fuel burned due to carrying fuel beyond what is needed for foreseeable contingencies, and thereby motivate research, federal guidance, and investments that allow airline dispatchers to reduce fuel uplift while maintaining near zero risks of fuel exhaustion. We merge large publicly available aviation and weather databases with a detailed dataset from a major US airline. Upon estimating factors that capture the quantity fuel consumed due to carrying a pound of weight for a range of aircraft types, we calculate the cost and greenhouse gas emissions from carrying unused fuel on arrival and additional contingency fuel above a conservative buffer for foreseeable contingencies. We establish that the major US carrier does indeed load fuel conservatively. We find that 4.48% of the fuel consumed by an average flight is due to carrying unused fuel and 1.04% of the fuel consumed by an average flight is due to carrying additional contingency fuel above a reasonable buffer. We find that simple changes in flight dispatching that maintain a statistically minimal risk of fuel exhaustion could result in yearly savings of 338 million lbs of CO2, the equivalent to the fuel consumed from 4760 flights on midsized commercial aircraft. Moreover, policy changes regarding maximum fuel loads or investments that reduce uncertainty or increase

  6. Laboratory Evaluation of Light Obscuration Particle Counters used to Establish use Limits for Aviation Fuel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    concentration levels for ISO 12103-1 A1 Ultrafine and ISO 12103-1 A2 Fine test dusts, and down to a 5 ppm free water contamination was the best...technical solution for applying this technology to fuel applications. 15. SUBJECT TERMS fuel, JP-8, aviation fuel, contamination, free water ...undissolved water , Aqua-Glo, Particulate, Gravimetric 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT none 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 55 19a. NAME OF

  7. Impact of aviation non-CO₂ combustion effects on the environmental feasibility of alternative jet fuels.

    PubMed

    Stratton, Russell W; Wolfe, Philip J; Hileman, James I

    2011-12-15

    Alternative fuels represent a potential option for reducing the climate impacts of the aviation sector. The climate impacts of alternatives fuel are traditionally considered as a ratio of life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to those of the displaced petroleum product; however, this ignores the climate impacts of the non-CO(2) combustion effects from aircraft in the upper atmosphere. The results of this study show that including non-CO(2) combustion emissions and effects in the life cycle of a Synthetic Paraffinic Kerosene (SPK) fuel can lead to a decrease in the relative merit of the SPK fuel relative to conventional jet fuel. For example, an SPK fuel option with zero life cycle GHG emissions would offer a 100% reduction in GHG emissions but only a 48% reduction in actual climate impact using a 100-year time window and the nominal climate modeling assumption set outlined herein. Therefore, climate change mitigation policies for aviation that rely exclusively on relative well-to-wake life cycle GHG emissions as a proxy for aviation climate impact may overestimate the benefit of alternative fuel use on the global climate system.

  8. Quantification of aldehydes emissions from alternative and renewable aviation fuels using a gas turbine engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hu; Altaher, Mohamed A.; Wilson, Chris W.; Blakey, Simon; Chung, Winson; Rye, Lucas

    2014-02-01

    In this research three renewable aviation fuel blends including two HEFA (Hydrotreated Ester and Fatty Acid) blends and one FAE (Fatty Acids Ethyl Ester) blend with conventional Jet A-1 along with a GTL (Gas To Liquid) fuel have been tested for their aldehydes emissions on a small gas turbine engine. Three strong ozone formation precursors: formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and acrolein were measured in the exhaust at different operational modes and compared to neat Jet A-1. The aim is to assess the impact of renewable and alternative aviation fuels on aldehydes emissions from aircraft gas turbine engines so as to provide informed knowledge for the future deployment of new fuels in aviation. The results show that formaldehyde was a major aldehyde species emitted with a fraction of around 60% of total measured aldehydes emissions for all fuels. Acrolein was the second major emitted aldehyde species with a fraction of ˜30%. Acetaldehyde emissions were very low for all the fuels and below the detention limit of the instrument. The formaldehyde emissions at cold idle were up to two to threefold higher than that at full power. The fractions of formaldehyde were 6-10% and 20% of total hydrocarbon emissions in ppm at idle and full power respectively and doubled on a g kg-1-fuel basis.

  9. Global climate impact of civil aviation for standard and desulfurized jet fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unger, Nadine

    2011-10-01

    Aircraft emissions can affect climate change through increasing carbon dioxide (CO2) but also via a host of other short-lived non-CO2 effects that are complex, involve impacts that are both warming and cooling and are unique to this sector. Previous assessments of aviation climate impacts have used a segmented approach whereby each effect was calculated separately and the effects summed. Integrated approaches using newly available Earth System models that allow simulation of more realistic interactions between effects are now possible. The NASA GISS Earth System Model (ModelE) is applied to reassess the net climate impact of civil aviation emissions based on a new inventory for year 2006 developed using the Federal Aviation Administration's (FAA) Aviation Environmental Design Tool (AEDT). The model simulates all known non-CO2 aviation climate impacts except linear contrails and contrail-cirrus for which a recent estimate is assumed. For standard jet fuel, the net global climate impact for sustained constant year 2006 aviation emissions is +44 ± 10 mWm-2 (2/3 due to non-CO2 effects) on a 20-year timescale and +73 ± 10 mWm-2 (over 1/3 due to non-CO2 effects) on a 100-year timescale. For desulfurized jet fuel, the net climate impact is +40 ± 10 mWm-2 on the 20-year timescale, slightly less warming than the standard fuel case due to the complex interplay between sulfate and nitrate and the competition for ammonia. Ozone (O3) greenhouse efficiency (W per g O3 change) is 20-60% larger for aviation than surface transportation emissions.

  10. Catalytic conversion wood syngas to synthetic aviation turbine fuels over a multifunctional catalyst.

    PubMed

    Yan, Qiangu; Yu, Fei; Liu, Jian; Street, Jason; Gao, Jinsen; Cai, Zhiyong; Zhang, Jilei

    2013-01-01

    A continuous process involving gasification, syngas cleaning, and Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis was developed to efficiently produce synthetic aviation turbine fuels (SATFs). Oak-tree wood chips were first gasified to syngas over a commercial pilot plant downdraft gasifier. The raw wood syngas contains about 47% N(2), 21% CO, 18% H(2), 12% CO(2,) 2% CH(4) and trace amounts of impurities. A purification reaction system was designed to remove the impurities in the syngas such as moisture, oxygen, sulfur, ammonia, and tar. The purified syngas meets the requirements for catalytic conversion to liquid fuels. A multi-functional catalyst was developed and tested for the catalytic conversion of wood syngas to SATFs. It was demonstrated that liquid fuels similar to commercial aviation turbine fuels (Jet A) was successfully synthesized from bio-syngas.

  11. Oil Price Uncertainty, Transport Fuel Demand and Public Health

    PubMed Central

    He, Ling-Yun; Yang, Sheng; Chang, Dongfeng

    2017-01-01

    Based on the panel data of 306 cities in China from 2002 to 2012, this paper investigates China’s road transport fuel (i.e., gasoline and diesel) demand system by using the Almost Ideal Demand System (AIDS) and the Quadratic AIDS (QUAIDS) models. The results indicate that own-price elasticities for different vehicle categories range from −1.215 to −0.459 (by AIDS) and from −1.399 to −0.369 (by QUAIDS). Then, this study estimates the air pollution emissions (CO, NOx and PM2.5) and public health damages from the road transport sector under different oil price shocks. Compared to the base year 2012, results show that a fuel price rise of 30% can avoid 1,147,270 tonnes of pollution emissions; besides, premature deaths and economic losses decrease by 16,149 cases and 13,817.953 million RMB yuan respectively; while based on the non-linear health effect model, the premature deaths and total economic losses decrease by 15,534 and 13,291.4 million RMB yuan respectively. Our study combines the fuel demand and health evaluation models and is the first attempt to address how oil price changes influence public health through the fuel demand system in China. Given its serious air pollution emission and substantial health damages, this paper provides important insights for policy makers in terms of persistent increasing in fuel consumption and the associated health and economic losses. PMID:28257076

  12. Oil Price Uncertainty, Transport Fuel Demand and Public Health.

    PubMed

    He, Ling-Yun; Yang, Sheng; Chang, Dongfeng

    2017-03-01

    Based on the panel data of 306 cities in China from 2002 to 2012, this paper investigates China's road transport fuel (i.e., gasoline and diesel) demand system by using the Almost Ideal Demand System (AIDS) and the Quadratic AIDS (QUAIDS) models. The results indicate that own-priceelasticitiesfordifferentvehiclecategoriesrangefrom-1.215to-0.459(byAIDS)andfrom -1.399 to-0.369 (by QUAIDS). Then, this study estimates the air pollution emissions (CO, NOx and PM2.5) and public health damages from the road transport sector under different oil price shocks. Compared to the base year 2012, results show that a fuel price rise of 30% can avoid 1,147,270 tonnes of pollution emissions; besides, premature deaths and economic losses decrease by 16,149 cases and 13,817.953 million RMB yuan respectively; while based on the non-linear health effect model, the premature deaths and total economic losses decrease by 15,534 and 13,291.4 million RMB yuan respectively. Our study combines the fuel demand and health evaluation models and is the first attempt to address how oil price changes influence public health through the fuel demand system in China. Given its serious air pollution emission and substantial health damages, this paper provides important insights for policy makers in terms of persistent increasing in fuel consumption and the associated health and economic losses.

  13. Challenge to Aviation: Hatching a Leaner Pterosauer. [Improving Commercial Aircraft Design for Greater Fuel Efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moss, F. E.

    1975-01-01

    Modifications in commercial aircraft design, particularly the development of lighter aircraft, are discussed as effective means of reducing aviation fuel consumption. The modifications outlined include: (1) use of the supercritical wing; (2) generation of the winglet; (3) production and flight testing of composite materials; and, (4) implementation of fly-by-wire control systems. Attention is also given to engineering laminar air flow control, improving cargo payloads, and adapting hydrogen fuels for aircraft use.

  14. Fuel spill identification using solid-phase extraction and solid-phase microextraction. 1. Aviation turbine fuels.

    PubMed

    Lavine, B K; Brzozowski, D M; Ritter, J; Moores, A J; Mayfield, H T

    2001-12-01

    The water-soluble fraction of aviation jet fuels is examined using solid-phase extraction and solid-phase microextraction. Gas chromatographic profiles of solid-phase extracts and solid-phase microextracts of the water-soluble fraction of kerosene- and nonkerosene-based jet fuels reveal that each jet fuel possesses a unique profile. Pattern recognition analysis reveals fingerprint patterns within the data characteristic of fuel type. By using a novel genetic algorithm (GA) that emulates human pattern recognition through machine learning, it is possible to identify features characteristic of the chromatographic profile of each fuel class. The pattern recognition GA identifies a set of features that optimize the separation of the fuel classes in a plot of the two largest principal components of the data. Because principal components maximize variance, the bulk of the information encoded by the selected features is primarily about the differences between the fuel classes.

  15. Certification Report: Army Aviation Alternative Fuels Certification Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-08-01

    Words) The Department of Defense’s primary alternative fuels goal is to ensure operational military readiness, improve battle space effectiveness...Department of Defense’s primary alternative fuels goal is to ensure operational military readiness, improve battle space effectiveness, and further...testing protocols. 4 Table 1. MIL-HDBK-510A Overview of Tasks Chemical Tests (Appendix B) • Properties: • Chemical description of fuel • MSDS

  16. Demonstration and implementation of ethanol as an aviation fuel. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-01-01

    The objectives of the program were to demonstrate the viability of ethanol as an aviation fuel at appropriate locations and audiences in the participating Biomass Energy Program Regions, and to promote implementation projects in the area. Seven demonstrations were to be performed during the Summer 1995 through December 1996 period. To maximize the cost effectiveness of the program, additional corporate co-sponsorships were sought at each demonstration site and the travel schedule was arranged to take advantage of appropriate events taking place in the vicinity of the schedule events or enroute. This way, the original funded amount was stretched to cover another year of activities increasing the number of demonstrations from seven to thirty-nine. While the Renewable Aviation Fuels Development Center (RAFDC) contract focused on ethanol as an aviation fuel, RAFDC also promoted the broader use of ethanol as a transportation fuel. The paper summarizes locations and occasions, and gives a brief description of each demonstration/exhibit/presentation held during the term of the project. Most of the demonstrations took place at regularly scheduled air shows, such as the Oshkosh, Wisconsin Air Show. The paper also reviews current and future activities in the areas of certification, emission testing, the international Clean Airports Program, air pollution monitoring with instrumented aircraft powered by renewable fuels, training operation and pilot project on ethanol, turbine fuel research, and educational programs.

  17. Effect of aviation fuel type and fuel injection conditions on the spray characteristics of pressure swirl and hybrid air blast fuel injectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feddema, Rick

    Feddema, Rick T. M.S.M.E., Purdue University, December 2013. Effect of Aviation Fuel Type and Fuel Injection Conditions on the Spray Characteristics of Pressure Swirl and Hybrid Air Blast Fuel Injectors. Major Professor: Dr. Paul E. Sojka, School of Mechanical Engineering Spray performance of pressure swirl and hybrid air blast fuel injectors are central to combustion stability, combustor heat management, and pollutant formation in aviation gas turbine engines. Next generation aviation gas turbine engines will optimize spray atomization characteristics of the fuel injector in order to achieve engine efficiency and emissions requirements. Fuel injector spray atomization performance is affected by the type of fuel injector, fuel liquid properties, fuel injection pressure, fuel injection temperature, and ambient pressure. Performance of pressure swirl atomizer and hybrid air blast nozzle type fuel injectors are compared in this study. Aviation jet fuels, JP-8, Jet A, JP-5, and JP-10 and their effect on fuel injector performance is investigated. Fuel injector set conditions involving fuel injector pressure, fuel temperature and ambient pressure are varied in order to compare each fuel type. One objective of this thesis is to contribute spray patternation measurements to the body of existing drop size data in the literature. Fuel droplet size tends to increase with decreasing fuel injection pressure, decreasing fuel injection temperature and increasing ambient injection pressure. The differences between fuel types at particular set conditions occur due to differences in liquid properties between fuels. Liquid viscosity and surface tension are identified to be fuel-specific properties that affect the drop size of the fuel. An open aspect of current research that this paper addresses is how much the type of aviation jet fuel affects spray atomization characteristics. Conventional aviation fuel specifications are becoming more important with new interest in alternative

  18. Toxicity of Jet A (aviation fuel) selected aquatic organisms. Technical report, August 1987-February 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Haley, M.V.; Landis, W.G.

    1989-03-01

    JP8 (jet propulsion) is an aviation fuel being considered for replacement of diesel fuel used in the generation of smoke on the battlefield. JP8 is projected to be more economical and also be used as a fuel for the ground machinery used in the transport and dissemination of JP8. Also, fog oil has naphthene constituents above the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) standards. JP8 trailing and testing could lead to contaminating surrounding aquatic ecosystems through runoff or wind transport. Therefore, the toxicity of JP8 to aquatic organisms must be known. Jet A (aviation fuel) was substituted for JP8 due to availability and similar distillation procedure. The aquatic toxicity of the soluble fraction of Jet A (aviation fuel) was examined. Acute 48-hr bioassays were performed using the water flea, Daphnia magna, and 96-hr growth inhibition bioassays were performed using a green unicellular alga, Selenastrum capricornutum. All tests were conducted according to guidelines set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM). The 48-hr EC50 for D. magna was 3.1 mg/L. The 96-hr IC50 for S. capricornutum was 4.2 mg/L.

  19. An Analysis of Microbial Contamination in Military Aviation Fuel Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-03-01

    industry /academia program to develop an additive package for JP-8. The additive agreed upon contained a detergent/dispersant (fuel injector cleaner...organisms created an abundance of samples in which no matches were found. Another limitation of this study derived from the lack of an “ industry ...Relationship With Fuel Fouling,” Revista Argentina de Microbiologia 30:105-114. 1998. Finefrock, V. H. and London, S. A. Microbial

  20. Safety engineering in handling fuels and lubricants in civil aviation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Protoereiskii, Aleksandr Stepanovich

    The book is concerned with methods of improving working conditions, work hygiene, safety engineering, and fire and explosion prevention during the storage and handling of petroleum products at fuel and lubricant storage facilities. The discussion covers methods of protection against static and atmospheric discharges, lightning protection, safety engineering in fuel and lubricant laboratories, and methods of fire prevention and fire extinction. Attention is also given to methods for administering first aid in case of accidents and poisoning.

  1. Long term deposit formation in aviation turbine fuel at elevated temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giovanetti, A. J.; Szetela, E. J.

    1986-01-01

    An experimental characterization is conducted for the relationships between deposit mass, operating time, and temperature, in coking associated with aviation fuels under conditions simulating those typical of turbine engine fuel systems. Jet A and Suntech A fuels were tested in stainless steel tubing heated to 420-750 K, over test durations of between 3 and 730 hr and at fuel velocities of 0.07-1.3 m/sec. Deposit rates are noted to be a strong function of tube temperature; for a given set of test conditions, deposition rates for Suntech A exceed those of Jet A by a factor of 10. Deposition rates increased markedly with test duration for both fuels. The heated tube data obtained are used to develop a global chemical kinetic model for fuel oxidation and carbon deposition.

  2. Bio-aviation fuel production from hydroprocessing castor oil promoted by the nickel-based bifunctional catalysts.

    PubMed

    Liu, Siyang; Zhu, Qingqing; Guan, Qingxin; He, Liangnian; Li, Wei

    2015-05-01

    Bio-aviation fuel was firstly synthesized by hydroprocessing castor oil in a continuous-flow fixed-bed microreactor with the main objective to obtain the high yield of aviation fuel and determine the elemental compositions of the product phases as well as the reaction mechanism. Highest aviation range alkane yields (91.6 wt%) were achieved with high isomer/n-alkane ratio (i/n) 4.4-7.2 over Ni supported on acidic zeolites. In addition, different fuel range alkanes can be obtained by adjusting the degree of hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) and hydrocracking. And the observations are rationalized by a set of reaction pathways for the various product phases.

  3. Coordinating Support of Fuels and Lubricant Research and Development (R&D) 2. Delivery Order 0002: Handbook of Aviation Fuel Properties - 2004 Third Edition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-12-01

    1-31 Handbook of Aviation Fuel Properties1.2.24 Mercaptan Sulfur by D 3227 The fuel sample is dissolved in an alcoholic sodium acetate titration...in the water at the fuel/ water interface and metabolize (break down) fuel hydrocarbons, particularly straight-chain and sulfur-bearing compounds...the fuel density (g/mL) and is now a density-based absorptivity with units of mL/ gcm . Using densities obtained from the CRC Handbook of Aviation Fuel

  4. Miniature fuel-cell system complete with on-demand fuel and oxidant supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hur, Janet I.; Kim, Chang-Jin

    2015-01-01

    The size of a functioning "system" rather than the individual components determines the success of many miniaturization efforts. While most of the existing micro fuel-cell research has been focusing on the fuel-cell stack, our approach has been to systematically eliminate all the ancillary components with the goal of miniaturizing the full system. In this paper, we present a miniature fuel-cell system that combines the self-pumping of fuel and self-generation of oxidant altogether in a box-shape device of a few centimeters. Since the fuel is pumped on demand inside the system without requiring any external assistance, the device is self-sufficient and portable. Furthermore, the oxygen is generated on demand inside the system without requiring the ambient air, so that the device can be stacked in multiple. Constructed simply as liquids in a solid container, this active fuel-cell system resembles a battery to the user.

  5. The Implications of Alternative Aviation Fuels on Airbase Air Quality.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-08-01

    quality. The American Petroleum Institute (API) empirical equations (References 7, 8, 9) predict the HC evaporative emissions. These equations compute...8217 Alternative Hydrocarbon Fuels: Combustion and Chemical Kinetics, Progress in Astronautics and Aeronautics Vol 62, AIAA, (1978). 5. American Petroleum Institute , "API

  6. 26 CFR 48.4041-4 - Application of tax on sales of liquid for use as fuel in aircraft in noncommercial aviation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... as fuel in aircraft in noncommercial aviation. 48.4041-4 Section 48.4041-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL... aircraft in noncommercial aviation. (a) In general. The taxes imposed by subparagraphs (1)(A) and (2)(A) of... operator of an aircraft, for use as a fuel in the aircraft in noncommercial aviation. (b) Liability of...

  7. 26 CFR 48.4041-4 - Application of tax on sales of liquid for use as fuel in aircraft in noncommercial aviation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... fuel in aircraft in noncommercial aviation. 48.4041-4 Section 48.4041-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL... aircraft in noncommercial aviation. (a) In general. The taxes imposed by subparagraphs (1)(A) and (2)(A) of... operator of an aircraft, for use as a fuel in the aircraft in noncommercial aviation. (b) Liability of...

  8. 26 CFR 48.4041-4 - Application of tax on sales of liquid for use as fuel in aircraft in noncommercial aviation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... as fuel in aircraft in noncommercial aviation. 48.4041-4 Section 48.4041-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL... aircraft in noncommercial aviation. (a) In general. The taxes imposed by subparagraphs (1)(A) and (2)(A) of... operator of an aircraft, for use as a fuel in the aircraft in noncommercial aviation. (b) Liability of...

  9. 26 CFR 48.4041-4 - Application of tax on sales of liquid for use as fuel in aircraft in noncommercial aviation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... as fuel in aircraft in noncommercial aviation. 48.4041-4 Section 48.4041-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL... aircraft in noncommercial aviation. (a) In general. The taxes imposed by subparagraphs (1)(A) and (2)(A) of... operator of an aircraft, for use as a fuel in the aircraft in noncommercial aviation. (b) Liability of...

  10. Issues in International Energy Consumption Analysis: Chinese Transportation Fuel Demand

    EIA Publications

    2014-01-01

    Since the 1990s, China has experienced tremendous growth in its transportation sector. By the end of 2010, China's road infrastructure had emerged as the second-largest transportation system in the world after the United States. Passenger vehicle sales are dramatically increasing from a little more than half a million in 2000, to 3.7 million in 2005, to 13.8 million in 2010. This represents a twenty-fold increase from 2000 to 2010. The unprecedented motorization development in China led to a significant increase in oil demand, which requires China to import progressively more petroleum from other countries, with its share of petroleum imports exceeding 50% of total petroleum demand since 2009. In response to growing oil import dependency, the Chinese government is adopting a broad range of policies, including promotion of fuel-efficient vehicles, fuel conservation, increasing investments in oil resources around the world, and many others.

  11. 78 FR 69789 - Policy and Procedures Concerning the Use of Airport Revenue; Proceeds From Taxes on Aviation Fuel

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-21

    ... endeavor. A provision that may seem ambiguous in isolation is often clarified by the remainder of the... interpretation that effectively leaves aviation fuel tax proceeds subject to potentially unlimited state...

  12. Growth study and hydrocarbonoclastic potential of microorganisms isolated from aviation fuel spill site in Ibeno, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Etuk, C U; John, R C; Ekong, U E; Akpan, M M

    2012-10-01

    The growth study and hydrocarbonoclastic potential of microorganisms isolated from aviation fuel spill sites at Inua-eyet Ikot in Ibeno, Nigeria were examined using standard microbiological methods. The results of the analysis revealed that the viable plate count of microorganisms in the polluted soil ranged from 2.2 ± 0.04 × 10(3) to 3.4 ± 0.14 × 10(6) cfu/g for bacteria and 1.4 ± 0.5 × 10(2) to 2.3 ± 0.4 × 10(4) cfu/g for fungi while count of biodegraders ranged from 1.2 ± 0.4 × 10(3) to 2.1 ± 0.8 × 10(5) cfu/g. A total of 11 microbial isolates comprising of Micrococcus, Klebsiella, Flavobacterium, Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Candida, Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Penicillium, Saccharomyces and Fusarium were characterized. The ability of the selected isolates to utilize the pollutant (aviation fuel) as their sole source of carbon and energy was examined and noticed to vary in growth profiles between the isolates. The results of their degradability after 28 days of incubation shows that species of Cladosporium, Pseudomonas, Candida, Bacillus, Micrococcus and Penicillium were the most efficient Aviation fuel degraders with percentage weight loss of 86.2, 78.4, 78, 56, 53 and 50.6 respectively. Flavobacterium, Saccharomyces and Aspergillus exhibited moderate growth with percentage weight loss of 48, 45.8 and 43.4 respectively while Klebsiella and Fusarium species showed minimal growth with percentage weight loss of 20 and 18.5 respectively. The results imply that the most efficient biodegraders like Cladosporium, Pseudomonas, Candida, Bacillus and Microoccus could tolerate and remove aviation fuel from the environment.

  13. Scientific bases of biomass processing into basic component of aviation fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kachalov, V. V.; Lavrenov, V. A.; Lishchiner, I. I.; Malova, O. V.; Tarasov, A. L.; Zaichenko, V. M.

    2016-11-01

    A combination of feedstock pyrolysis and the cracking of the volatile pyrolysis products on the charcoal at 1000 °C allows to obtain a tarless synthesis gas which contains 90 vol% or more of carbon monoxide and hydrogen in approximately equal proportions. Basic component of aviation fuel was synthesized in a two-stage process from gas obtained by pyrolytic processing of biomass. Methanol and dimethyl ether can be efficiently produced in a two-layer loading of methanolic catalyst and γ-Al2O3. The total conversion of CO per pass was 38.2% using for the synthesis of oxygenates a synthesis gas with adverse ratio of H2/CO = 0.96. Conversion of CO to CH3OH was 15.3% and the conversion of CO to dimethyl ether was 20.9%. A high yield of basic component per oxygenates mass (44.6%) was obtained during conversion. The high selectivity of the synthesis process for liquid hydrocarbons was observed. An optimal recipe of aviation fuel B-92 based on a synthesized basic component was developed. The prototype of aviation fuel meets the requirements for B-92 when straight fractions of 50-100 °C (up to 35 wt%), isooctane (up to 10 wt%) and ethyl fluid (2.0 g/kg calculated as tetraethyl lead) is added to the basic component.

  14. Input/output models for general aviation piston-prop aircraft fuel economy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sweet, L. M.

    1982-01-01

    A fuel efficient cruise performance model for general aviation piston engine airplane was tested. The following equations were made: (1) for the standard atmosphere; (2) airframe-propeller-atmosphere cruise performance; and (3) naturally aspirated engine cruise performance. Adjustments are made to the compact cruise performance model as follows: corrected quantities, corrected performance plots, algebraic equations, maximize R with or without constraints, and appears suitable for airborne microprocessor implementation. The following hardwares are recommended: ignition timing regulator, fuel-air mass ration controller, microprocessor, sensors and displays.

  15. Use of bacteriophage to prevent Pseudomonas aeruginosa contamination and fouling in Jet A aviation fuel.

    PubMed

    Bojanowski, Caitlin L; Crookes-Goodson, Wendy J; Robinson, Jayne B

    2016-11-01

    In the present study, the use of bacteriophages to prevent growth and/or biofouling by Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 was investigated in microcosms containing Jet A aviation fuel as the carbon source. Bacteriophages were found to be effective at preventing biofilm formation but did not always prevent planktonic growth in the microcosms. This result was at odds with experiments conducted in nutrient-rich medium, demonstrating the necessity to test antimicrobial and antifouling strategies under conditions as near as possible to the 'real world'. The success of the bacteriophages at preventing biofilm formation makes them potential candidates as antifouling agents for fuel systems.

  16. Estimating the climate and air quality benefits of aviation fuel and emissions reductions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorbian, Christopher S.; Wolfe, Philip J.; Waitz, Ian A.

    2011-05-01

    In this study we consider the implications of our current understanding of aviation climate impacts as it relates to the ratio of non-CO 2 to CO 2 effects from aviation. We take as inputs recent estimates from the literature of the magnitude of the component aviation impacts and associated uncertainties. We then employ a simplified probabilistic impulse response function model for the climate and a range of damage functions to estimate the ratio of non-CO 2 to CO 2 impacts of aviation for a range of different metrics, scientific assumptions, future background emissions scenarios, economic growth scenarios, and discount rates. We take cost-benefit analysis as our primary context and thus focus on integral metrics that can be related to damages: the global warming potential, the time-integrated change in surface temperature, and the net present value of damages. We also present results based on an endpoint metric, the global temperature change potential. These latter results would be more appropriate for use in a cost-effectiveness framework (e.g., with a well-defined policy target for the anthropogenic change in surface temperature at a specified time in the future). We find that the parameter that most influences the ratio of non-CO 2 to CO 2 impacts of aviation is the discount rate, or analogously the time window used for physical metrics; both are expressions of the relative importance of long-lived versus short-lived impacts. Second to this is the influence of the radiative forcing values that are assumed for aviation-induced cloudiness effects. Given the large uncertainties in short-lived effects from aviation, and the dominating influence of discounting or time-windowing, we find that the choice of metric is relatively less influential. We express the ratios of non-CO 2 to CO 2 impacts on a per unit fuel burn basis so that they can be multiplied by a social cost of carbon to estimate the additional benefits of fuel burn reductions from aviation beyond those

  17. Spark ignition of aviation fuel in isotropic turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krisman, Alex; Lu, Tianfeng; Borghesi, Giulio; Chen, Jacqueline

    2016-11-01

    Turbulent spark ignition occurs in combustion engines where the spark must establish a viable flame kernel that leads to stable combustion. A competition exists between kernel growth, due to flame propagation, and kernel attenuation, due to flame stretch and turbulence. This competition can be measured by the Karlovitz number, Ka, and kernel viability decreases rapidly for Ka >> 1 . In this study, the evolution of an initially spherical flame kernel in a turbulent field is investigated at two cases: Ka- (Ka = 25) and Ka+ (Ka = 125) using direct numerical simulation (DNS). A detailed chemical mechanism for jet fuel (Jet-A) is used, which is relevant for many practical conditions, and the mechanism includes a pyrolysis sub-model which is important for the ignition of large hydrocarbon fuels. An auxiliary non-reacting DNS generates the initial field of isotropic turbulence with a turbulent Reynolds number of 500 (Ka-) and 1,500 (Ka+). The kernel is then imposed at the center of the domain and the reacting DNS is performed. The Ka- case survives and the Ka+ case is extinguished. An analysis of the turbulence chemistry interactions is performed and the process of extinction is described. Department of Energy - Office of Basic Energy Science under Award No. DE-SC0001198.

  18. Measurements of nitrous acid in commercial aircraft exhaust at the Alternative Aviation Fuel Experiment.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ben H; Santoni, Gregory W; Wood, Ezra C; Herndon, Scott C; Miake-Lye, Richard C; Zahniser, Mark S; Wofsy, Steven C; Munger, J William

    2011-09-15

    The Alternative Aviation Fuel Experiment (AAFEX), conducted in January of 2009 in Palmdale, California, quantified aerosol and gaseous emissions from a DC-8 aircraft equipped with CFM56-2C1 engines using both traditional and synthetic fuels. This study examines the emissions of nitrous acid (HONO) and nitrogen oxides (NO(x) = NO + NO(2)) measured 145 m behind the grounded aircraft. The fuel-based emission index (EI) for HONO increases approximately 6-fold from idle to takeoff conditions but plateaus between 65 and 100% of maximum rated engine thrust, while the EI for NO(x) increases continuously. At high engine power, NO(x) EI is greater when combusting traditional (JP-8) rather than Fischer-Tropsch fuels, while HONO exhibits the opposite trend. Additionally, hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) was identified in exhaust plumes emitted only during engine idle. Chemical reactions responsible for emissions and comparison to previous measurement studies are discussed.

  19. Highly selective condensation of biomass-derived methyl ketones as a source of aviation fuel.

    PubMed

    Sacia, Eric R; Balakrishnan, Madhesan; Deaner, Matthew H; Goulas, Konstantinos A; Toste, F Dean; Bell, Alexis T

    2015-05-22

    Aviation fuel (i.e., jet fuel) requires a mixture of C9 -C16 hydrocarbons having both a high energy density and a low freezing point. While jet fuel is currently produced from petroleum, increasing concern with the release of CO2 into the atmosphere from the combustion of petroleum-based fuels has led to policy changes mandating the inclusion of biomass-based fuels into the fuel pool. Here we report a novel way to produce a mixture of branched cyclohexane derivatives in very high yield (>94 %) that match or exceed many required properties of jet fuel. As starting materials, we use a mixture of n-alkyl methyl ketones and their derivatives obtained from biomass. These synthons are condensed into trimers via base-catalyzed aldol condensation and Michael addition. Hydrodeoxygenation of these products yields mixtures of C12 -C21 branched, cyclic alkanes. Using models for predicting the carbon number distribution obtained from a mixture of n-alkyl methyl ketones and for predicting the boiling point distribution of the final mixture of cyclic alkanes, we show that it is possible to define the mixture of synthons that will closely reproduce the distillation curve of traditional jet fuel.

  20. Behavioral economic analysis of demand for fuel in North America.

    PubMed

    Reed, Derek D; Partington, Scott W; Kaplan, Brent A; Roma, Peter G; Hursh, Steven R

    2013-01-01

    Emerging research clearly indicates that human behavior is contributing to climate change, notably, the use of fossil fuels as a form of energy for everyday behaviors. This dependence on oil in North America has led to assertions that the current level of demand is the social equivalent to an "addiction." The purpose of this study was to apply behavioral economic demand curves-a broadly applicable method of evaluating relative reinforcer efficacy in behavioral models of addiction-to North American oil consumption to examine whether such claims of oil addiction are warranted. Toward this end, we examined government data from the United States and Canada on per capita energy consumption for transportation and oil prices between 1995 and 2008. Our findings indicate that consumption either persisted or simultaneously increased despite sharp increases in oil price per barrel over the past decade.

  1. Determination of the Emissions from an Aircraft Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) during the Alternative Aviation Fuel Experiment (AAFEX)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The emissions from a Garrett-AiResearch (now Honeywell) Model GTCP85-98CK APU were determined as part of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Alternative Aviation Fuels Experiment using both JP-8 and a coal-derived Fischer Tropsch fuel (FT-2). Measurements...

  2. Biodegradation of JP-5 aviation fuel by subsurface microbial communities. Progress report, 1 January-15 March 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Swindoll, C.M.

    1988-01-01

    Leakage of the aviation fuels JP-5, JP-4 and AVGAS from storage tanks has resulted in a severe environmental insult to a Naval fuel farm and adjacent areas. As part of the reclamation effort, the indigenous microorganisms are being characterized. This information will be used to optimize the bioreclamation of the site. Approximately 60 aerobic microorganisms, including more than 40 bacteria, 6 actinomycetes and 10 fungi have been isolated from soil contaminated with aviation fuels and adjacent noncontaminated with aviation fuels and adjacent noncontaminated soil. All isolated bacteria were able to grow on JP-5 as their sole carbon source. Most of the bacteria from the contaminated sites were small, gram-negative rods, while most bacteria from the noncontaminated site were gram-positive rods. All of these microorganisms would be expected to contribute to the bioremediation of the contaminated site.

  3. Environmentally Responsible Aviation: Propulsion Research to Enable Fuel Burn, Noise and Emissions Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Zante, Dale E.; Suder, Kenneth L.

    2015-01-01

    The NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) program is maturing technologies to enable simultaneous reduction of fuel burn, noise and emissions from an aircraft engine system. Three engine related Integrated Technology Demonstrations (ITDs) have been completed at Glenn Research Center in collaboration with Pratt Whitney, General Electric and the Federal Aviation Administration. The engine technologies being matured are a low NOx, fuel flexible combustor in partnership with Pratt Whitney, an ultra-high bypass, ducted propulsor system in partnership with Pratt Whitney FAA and high pressure ratio, front-stage core compressor technology in partnership with General Electric. The technical rationale, test configurations and overall results from the test series in each ITD are described. ERA is using system analysis to project the benefits of the ITD technologies on potential aircraft systems in the 2025 timeframe. Data from the ITD experiments were used to guide the system analysis assumptions. Results from the current assessments for fuel burn, noise and oxides of nitrogen emissions are presented.

  4. Environmentally Responsible Aviation: Propulsion Research to Enable Fuel Burn, Noise and Emissions Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Zante, Dale; Suder, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    The NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) program is maturing technologies to enable simultaneous reduction of fuel burn, noise and emissions from an aircraft engine system. Three engine related Integrated Technology Demonstrations (ITDs) have been completed at Glenn Research Center in collaboration with Pratt Whitney, General Electric and the Federal Aviation Administration. The engine technologies being matured are: a low NOx, fuel flexible combustor in partnership with Pratt Whitney; an ultra-high bypass, ducted propulsor system in partnership with Pratt Whitney and FAA; and high pressure ratio, front-stage core compressor technology in partnership with General Electric. The technical rationale, test configurations and overall results from the test series in each ITD are described. ERA is using system analysis to project the benefits of the ITD technologies on potential aircraft systems in the 2025 timeframe. Data from the ITD experiments were used to guide the system analysis assumptions. Results from the current assessments for fuel burn, noise and oxides of nitrogen emissions are presented.

  5. Synthesis of high density aviation fuel with cyclopentanol derived from lignocellulose

    PubMed Central

    Sheng, Xueru; Li, Ning; Li, Guangyi; Wang, Wentao; Yang, Jinfan; Cong, Yu; Wang, Aiqin; Wang, Xiaodong; Zhang, Tao

    2015-01-01

    For the first time, renewable high density aviation fuels were synthesized at high overall yield (95.6%) by the Guerbet reaction of cyclopentanol which can be derived from lignocellulose, followed by the hydrodeoxygenation (HDO). The solvent-free Guerbet reaction of cyclopentanol was carried out under the co-catalysis of solid bases and Raney metals. Among the investigated catalyst systems, the combinations of magnesium-aluminium hydrotalcite (MgAl-HT) and Raney Ni (or Raney Co) exhibited the best performances. Over them, high carbon yield (96.7%) of C10 and C15 oxygenates was achieved. The Guerbet reaction products were further hydrodeoxygenated to bi(cyclopentane) and tri(cyclopentane) over a series of Ni catalysts. These alkanes have high densities (0.86 g mL−1 and 0.91 g mL−1) and can be used as high density aviation fuels or additives to bio-jet fuel. Among the investigated HDO catalysts, the 35 wt.% Ni-SiO2-DP prepared by deposition-precipitation method exhibited the highest activity. PMID:25826744

  6. Synthesis of high density aviation fuel with cyclopentanol derived from lignocellulose.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Xueru; Li, Ning; Li, Guangyi; Wang, Wentao; Yang, Jinfan; Cong, Yu; Wang, Aiqin; Wang, Xiaodong; Zhang, Tao

    2015-03-31

    For the first time, renewable high density aviation fuels were synthesized at high overall yield (95.6%) by the Guerbet reaction of cyclopentanol which can be derived from lignocellulose, followed by the hydrodeoxygenation (HDO). The solvent-free Guerbet reaction of cyclopentanol was carried out under the co-catalysis of solid bases and Raney metals. Among the investigated catalyst systems, the combinations of magnesium-aluminium hydrotalcite (MgAl-HT) and Raney Ni (or Raney Co) exhibited the best performances. Over them, high carbon yield (96.7%) of C10 and C15 oxygenates was achieved. The Guerbet reaction products were further hydrodeoxygenated to bi(cyclopentane) and tri(cyclopentane) over a series of Ni catalysts. These alkanes have high densities (0.86 g mL(-1) and 0.91 g mL(-1)) and can be used as high density aviation fuels or additives to bio-jet fuel. Among the investigated HDO catalysts, the 35 wt.% Ni-SiO2-DP prepared by deposition-precipitation method exhibited the highest activity.

  7. National Aviation Fuel Scenario Analysis Program (NAFSAP). Volume I. Model Description. Volume II. User Manual.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-03-01

    TESI CHART NATIONAI RUREAt (F ANDA[)Rt 1V4 A NATIONAL. AVIATION ~ FUEL SCENARIO.. ANALYSIS PROGRAM 49!! VOLUM I: MODEL DESCRIA~v 4<C VOLUME II: tr)ER...O %a 0 CD -00 a0 Dcc% %D Ln n q F u-u - ON 4w - u-u-MN N En -4C u-u-u-u- u- .- u-- - u--4uu 41 4t 1- The second major class of inputs to NAFSAP is the...this option determines the specific form of the number of new purchases (NOBUYS) computation. 14 L " - - .. .... . .I li I I q i . .. . . . . . r I I i

  8. Fuel composition and secondary organic aerosol formation: gas-turbine exhaust and alternative aviation fuels.

    PubMed

    Miracolo, Marissa A; Drozd, Greg T; Jathar, Shantanu H; Presto, Albert A; Lipsky, Eric M; Corporan, Edwin; Robinson, Allen L

    2012-08-07

    A series of smog chamber experiments were performed to investigate the effects of fuel composition on secondary particulate matter (PM) formation from dilute exhaust from a T63 gas-turbine engine. Tests were performed at idle and cruise loads with the engine fueled on conventional military jet fuel (JP-8), Fischer-Tropsch synthetic jet fuel (FT), and a 50/50 blend of the two fuels. Emissions were sampled into a portable smog chamber and exposed to sunlight or artificial UV light to initiate photo-oxidation. Similar to previous studies, neat FT fuel and a 50/50 FT/JP-8 blend reduced the primary particulate matter emissions compared to neat JP-8. After only one hour of photo-oxidation at typical atmospheric OH levels, the secondary PM production in dilute exhaust exceeded primary PM emissions, except when operating the engine at high load on FT fuel. Therefore, accounting for secondary PM production should be considered when assessing the contribution of gas-turbine engine emissions to ambient PM levels. FT fuel substantially reduced secondary PM formation in dilute exhaust compared to neat JP-8 at both idle and cruise loads. At idle load, the secondary PM formation was reduced by a factor of 20 with the use of neat FT fuel, and a factor of 2 with the use of the blend fuel. At cruise load, the use of FT fuel resulted in no measured formation of secondary PM. In every experiment, the secondary PM was dominated by organics with minor contributions from sulfate when the engine was operated on JP-8 fuel. At both loads, FT fuel produces less secondary organic aerosol than JP-8 because of differences in the composition of the fuels and the resultant emissions. This work indicates that fuel reformulation may be a viable strategy to reduce the contribution of emissions from combustion systems to secondary organic aerosol production and ultimately ambient PM levels.

  9. Occurrence of heterotrophic bacteria and fungi in an aviation fuel handling system and its relationship with fuel fouling.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, M D; Neirotti, E; Albornoz, C

    1998-01-01

    Clean, dry and contaminant-free fuel is necessary for safe and economical aircraft operation. Microbial growth in aviation fuel handling systems can alter the quality of the product. This paper reports the occurrence of heterotrophic bacteria and fungi in a handling system of jet A-1 aviation turbine fuel. A total of 350 samples were collected during 1990-1996. The aerobic microorganisms in fuel samples were mainly fungi, 85% of samples containing < or = 100 cfu/l (range 0 (< 1 cfu/l) to 2000 cfu/l). The predominant fungi were Cladosporium and Aspergillus. Water was observed mainly in samples extracted from the drainage pipes of two tanks used frequently as intermediate storage tanks. The aerobic heterotrophic microorganisms found in water samples were mostly bacteria, counts varying from 100 to 8.8 x 10(7) cfu/ml, with 85% of samples containing 10(4)-10(7) cfu/ml. There was a preponderance of Pseudomonas spp. Bacterial contaminants belonging to the genus Flavobacterium and Aeromonas were also identified. Sulphate reducing bacteria were detected in 80% of water samples. It was not possible to assign a maximum microbial contamination level above which maintenance is required and it is suggested that analysis of successive samples from the same site are necessary for this purpose. Microbial sludges produced in the laboratory and collected from a contaminated tank bottom were analysed chemically. The data are presented and discussed. Samples collected from the supply pipes of tanks and refueller trucks during the period surveyed always met the standard specifications.

  10. Determination of total and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in aviation jet fuel.

    PubMed

    Bernabei, M; Reda, R; Galiero, R; Bocchinfuso, G

    2003-01-24

    The aviation jet fuel widely used in turbine engine aircraft is manufactured from straight-run kerosene. The combustion quality of jet fuel is largely related to the hydrocarbon composition of the fuel itself; paraffins have better burning properties than aromatic compounds, especially naphthalenes and light polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), which are characterised as soot and smoke producers. For this reason the burning quality of fuel is generally measured as smoke fermation. This evaluation is carried out with UV spectrophotometric determination of total naphthalene hydrocarbons and a chromatographic analysis to determine the total aromatic compounds. These methods can be considered insufficient to evaluate the human health impact of these compounds due to their inability to measure trace (ppm) amounts of each aromatic hyrcarbon and each PAH in accordance with limitations imposed because of their toxicological properties. In this paper two analytical methods are presented. Both are based on a gas chromatographic technique with a mass detector operating in be selected ion monitoring mode. The first method was able to determine more than 60 aromatic hydrocarbons in a fuel sample in a 35-min chromatographic run, while the second was able to carry out the analysis of more than 30 PAHs in a 40-min chromatographic run. The linearity and sensitivity of the methods in measuring these analytes at trace levels are described.

  11. Evaluation of methods for rapid determination of freezing point of aviation fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mathiprakasam, B.

    1982-01-01

    Methods for identification of the more promising concepts for the development of a portable instrument to rapidly determine the freezing point of aviation fuels are described. The evaluation process consisted of: (1) collection of information on techniques previously used for the determination of the freezing point, (2) screening and selection of these techniques for further evaluation of their suitability in a portable unit for rapid measurement, and (3) an extensive experimental evaluation of the selected techniques and a final selection of the most promising technique. Test apparatuses employing differential thermal analysis and the change in optical transparency during phase change were evaluated and tested. A technique similar to differential thermal analysis using no reference fuel was investigated. In this method, the freezing point was obtained by digitizing the data and locating the point of inflection. Results obtained using this technique compare well with those obtained elsewhere using different techniques. A conceptual design of a portable instrument incorporating this technique is presented.

  12. COMPARISON OF METHODS TO DETERMINE OXYGEN DEMAND FOR BIOREMEDIATION OF A FUEL CONTAMINATED AQUIFER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Four analytical methods were compared for estimating concentrations of fuel contaminants in subsurface core samples. The methods were total organic carbon, chemical oxygen demand, oil and grease, and a solvent extraction of fuel hydrocarbons combined with a gas chromatographic te...

  13. Composition-explicit distillation curves of aviation fuel JP-8 and a coal-based jet fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Beverly L. Smith; Thomas J. Bruno

    2007-09-15

    We have recently introduced several important improvements in the measurement of distillation curves for complex fluids. The modifications to the classical measurement provide for (1) a composition explicit data channel for each distillate fraction (for both qualitative and quantitative analysis); (2) temperature measurements that are true thermodynamic state points; (3) temperature, volume, and pressure measurements of low uncertainty suitable for an equation of state development; (4) consistency with a century of historical data; (5) an assessment of the energy content of each distillate fraction; (6) a trace chemical analysis of each distillate fraction; and (7) a corrosivity assessment of each distillate fraction. The most significant modification is achieved with a new sampling approach that allows precise qualitative as well as quantitative analyses of each fraction, on the fly. We have applied the new method to the measurement of rocket propellant, gasoline, and jet fuels. In this paper, we present the application of the technique to representative batches of the military aviation fuel JP-8, and also to a coal-derived fuel developed as a potential substitute. We present not only the distillation curves but also a chemical characterization of each fraction and discuss the contrasts between the two fluids. 26 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs.

  14. Lean blowout limits of a gas turbine combustor operated with aviation fuel and methane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Wei; Huang, Yong

    2016-05-01

    Lean blowout (LBO) limits is critical to the operational performance of combustion systems in propulsion and power generation. The swirl cup plays an important role in flame stability and has been widely used in aviation engines. Therefore, the effects of swirl cup geometry and flow dynamics on LBO limits are significant. An experiment was conducted for studying the lean blowout limits of a single dome rectangular model combustor with swirl cups. Three types of swirl cup (dual-axial swirl cup, axial-radial swirl cup, dual-radial swirl cup) were employed in the experiment which was operated with aviation fuel (Jet A-1) and methane under the idle condition. Experimental results showed that, with using both Jet A-1 and methane, the LBO limits increase with the air flow of primary swirler for dual-radial swirl cup, while LBO limits decrease with the air flow of primary swirler for dual-axial swirl cup. In addition, LBO limits increase with the swirl intensity for three swirl cups. The experimental results also showed that the flow dynamics instead of atomization poses a significant influence on LBO limits. An improved semi-empirical correlation of experimental data was derived to predict the LBO limits for gas turbine combustors.

  15. Production of aviation fuel via catalytic hydrothermal decarboxylation of fatty acids in microalgae oil.

    PubMed

    Yang, Cuiyue; Nie, Renfeng; Fu, Jie; Hou, Zhaoyin; Lu, Xiuyang

    2013-10-01

    A series of fatty acids in microalgae oil, such as stearic acid, palmitic acid, lauric acid, myristic acid, arachidic acid and behenic acid, were selected as the raw materials to produce aviation fuel via hydrothermal decarboxylation over a multi-wall carbon nanotube supported Pt catalyst (Pt/MWCNTs). It was found that Pt/MWCNTs catalysts exhibited higher activity for the hydrothermal decarboxylation of stearic acid with a 97% selectivity toward heptadecane compared to Pt/C and Ru/C under the same conditions. And Pt/MWCNTs is also capable for the decarboxylation of different fatty acids in microalgae oil. The reaction conditions, such as Pt/MWCNTs loading amount, reaction temperature and time were optimized. The activation energy of stearic acid decarboxylation over Pt/MWCNTs was calculated (114 kJ/mol).

  16. Effects of dimethyl or diethyl carbonate as an additive on volatility and flash point of an aviation fuel.

    PubMed

    Li, Dan; Fang, Wenjun; Xing, Yan; Guo, Yongsheng; Lin, Ruisen

    2009-01-30

    Vapor pressures and flash points for several mixtures of an aviation fuel with dimethyl carbonate (DMC) or diethyl carbonate (DEC) have been measured, respectively, over the entire composition range. Correlation between the experimental vapor pressures and the equilibrium temperatures by the Antoine equation is performed for each mixture. The bubble-point lines of pressure versus composition at different temperatures and those of temperature versus composition at different pressures are then obtained from the Antoine correlations. It is found that DMC and DEC are the oxygenated hydrocarbon additives that can adjust effectively the volatility and flash point of the aviation fuel. The correlation of the flash points with the vapor pressure data for the pseudo-binary mixtures of the fuel and DMC or DEC gives satisfactory results.

  17. Analysis of technology requirements and potential demand for general aviation avionics systems for operation in the 1980's

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohn, D. M.; Kayser, J. H.; Senko, G. M.; Glenn, D. R.

    1974-01-01

    Avionics systems are identified which promise to reduce economic constraints and provide significant improvements in performance, operational capability and utility for general aviation aircraft in the 1980's.

  18. Aircraft Research and Technology for Future Fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The potential characteristics of future aviation turbine fuels and the property effects of these fuels on propulsion system components are examined. The topics that are discussed include jet fuel supply and demand trends, the effects of refining variables on fuel properties, shekle oil processing, the characteristics of broadened property fuels, the effects of fuel property variations on combustor and fuel system performance, and combuster and fuel system technology for broadened property fuels.

  19. Evaluation of Particle Counter Technology for Detection of Fuel Contamination Detection Utilizing Advanced Aviation Forward Area Refueling System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-24

    replacement of water bottom removal.  Recirculation – Air was purged from the filter separator vessel and fuel was again pumped from the tank , through...8, Automatic Particle Counter, cleanliness, free water , Diesel 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT none 18. NUMBER OF...Advanced Aviation Forward Area Refueling System Joel Schmitigal U S Army Tank Automotive Research DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release

  20. AVGAS/AUTOGAS (Aviation Gasoline/Automobile Gasoline) Comparison. Winter Grade Fuels.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-07-01

    simulated conditions found in a general aviation aircraft. In these tests, automobile gasoline was tested and compared with aviation gasoline. The tendency...Distribution Statement Aviation Gasoline (Avgas) Vapor Lock Document is available to the U.S. public Automobile Gasoline (Autogas) through the National... Automobile Gasolines Tested by Sun Refining 19 and Marketing Company. 5 Properties of Several Mixtures of Avgas in Regular Unleaded 28 Autogas vi LIST OF

  1. Impacts of alternative fuels in aviation on microphysical aerosol properties and predicted ice nuclei concentration at aircraft cruise altitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinzierl, B.; D'Ascoli, E.; Sauer, D. N.; Kim, J.; Scheibe, M.; Schlager, H.; Moore, R.; Anderson, B. E.; Ullrich, R.; Mohler, O.; Hoose, C.

    2015-12-01

    In the past decades air traffic has been substantially growing affecting air quality and climate. According to the International Civil Aviation Authority (ICAO), in the next few years world passenger and freight traffic is expected to increase annually by 6-7% and 4-5%, respectively. One possibility to reduce aviation impacts on the atmosphere and climate might be the replacement of fossil fuels by alternative fuels. However, so far the effects of alternative fuels on particle emissions from aircraft engines and their ability to form contrails remain uncertain. To study the effects of alternative fuels on particle emissions and the formation of contrails, the Alternative Fuel Effects on Contrails and Cruise Emissions (ACCESS) field experiment was conducted in California. In May 2014, the DLR Falcon 20 and the NASA HU-25 jet aircraft were instrumented with an extended aerosol and trace gas payload probing different types of fuels including JP-8 and JP-8 blended with HEFA (Hydroprocessed Esters and Fatty Acids) while the NASA DC8 aircraft acted as the source aircraft for ACCESS-2. Emission measurements were taken in the DC8 exhaust plumes at aircraft cruise level between 9-12 km altitude and at distances between 50 m and 20 km behind the DC8 engines. Here, we will present results from the ACCESS-2 aerosol measurements which show a 30-60% reduction of the non-volatile (mainly black carbon) particle number concentration in the aircraft exhaust for the HEFA-blend compared to conventional JP-8 fuel. Size-resolved particle emission indices show the largest reductions for larger particle sizes suggesting that the HEFA blend contains fewer and smaller black carbon particles. We will combine the airborne measurements with a parameterization of deposition nucleation developed during a number of ice nucleation experiments at the AIDA chamber in Karlsruhe and discuss the impact of alternative fuels on the abundance of potential ice nuclei at cruise conditions.

  2. Reducing Battlefield Fuel Demand: Mitigating a Marine Corp Critical Vulnerability

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    Marine Corps’ battlefield dependence on fossil fuels carries not only fiscal implications, but far more importantly, it is costing the lives of Marines...dangerous confluence of strategic energy dependence and the mammoth effort required to deliver that energy to the battlefield prompted General James

  3. Demand for waste as fuel in the swedish district heating sector: a production function approach.

    PubMed

    Furtenback, Orjan

    2009-01-01

    This paper evaluates inter-fuel substitution in the Swedish district heating industry by analyzing almost all the district heating plants in Sweden in the period 1989-2003, specifically those plants incinerating waste. A multi-output plant-specific production function is estimated using panel data methods. A procedure for weighting the elasticities of factor demand to produce a single matrix for the whole industry is introduced. The price of waste is assumed to increase in response to the energy and CO2 tax on waste-to-energy incineration that was introduced in Sweden on 1 July 2006. Analysis of the plants involved in waste incineration indicates that an increase in the net price of waste by 10% is likely to reduce the demand for waste by 4.2%, and increase the demand for bio-fuels, fossil fuels, other fuels and electricity by 5.5%, 6.0%, 6.0% and 6.0%, respectively.

  4. Taxation of United States general aviation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobieralski, Joseph Bernard

    General aviation in the United States has been an important part of the economy and American life. General aviation is defined as all flying excluding military and scheduled airline operations, and is utilized in many areas of our society. The majority of aircraft operations and airports in the United States are categorized as general aviation, and general aviation contributes more than one percent to the United States gross domestic product each year. Despite the many benefits of general aviation, the lead emissions from aviation gasoline consumption are of great concern. General aviation emits over half the lead emissions in the United States or over 630 tons in 2005. The other significant negative externality attributed to general aviation usage is aircraft accidents. General aviation accidents have caused over 8000 fatalities over the period 1994-2006. A recent Federal Aviation Administration proposed increase in the aviation gasoline tax from 19.4 to 70.1 cents per gallon has renewed interest in better understanding the implications of such a tax increase as well as the possible optimal rate of taxation. Few studies have examined aviation fuel elasticities and all have failed to study general aviation fuel elasticities. Chapter one fills that gap and examines the elasticity of aviation gasoline consumption in United States general aviation. Utilizing aggregate time series and dynamic panel data, the price and income elasticities of demand are estimated. The price elasticity of demand for aviation gasoline is estimated to range from -0.093 to -0.185 in the short-run and from -0.132 to -0.303 in the long-run. These results prove to be similar in magnitude to automobile gasoline elasticities and therefore tax policies could more closely mirror those of automobile tax policies. The second chapter examines the costs associated with general aviation accidents. Given the large number of general aviation operations as well as the large number of fatalities and

  5. A fuel-efficient cruise performance model for general aviation piston engine airplanes. Ph.D. Thesis. Final Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parkinson, R. C. H.

    1983-01-01

    A fuel-efficient cruise performance model which facilitates maximizing the specific range of General Aviation airplanes powered by spark-ignition piston engines and propellers is presented. Airplanes of fixed design only are considered. The uses and limitations of typical Pilot Operating Handbook cruise performance data, for constructing cruise performance models suitable for maximizing specific range, are first examined. These data are found to be inadequate for constructing such models. A new model of General Aviation piston-prop airplane cruise performance is then developed. This model consists of two subsystem models: the airframe-propeller-atmosphere subsystem model; and the engine-atmosphere subsystem model. The new model facilitates maximizing specific range; and by virtue of its implicity and low volume data storge requirements, appears suitable for airborne microprocessor implementation.

  6. Nutrient demand in bioventing of fuel oil pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Breedveld, G.D.; Hauge, A.; Olstad, G.; Briseid, T.

    1995-12-31

    The effect of nutrient addition on bioventing of fuel oil pollution in an artificially polluted sandy soil has been studied at different experimental scales to assess the predictive value of laboratory treatability studies. The results of batch studies, laboratory column studies, and pilot-scale field tests (10 tons of soil) were compared. The qualitative response to nutrient addition was comparable in all experiments. Without nutrient addition, a minimal respiration rate was observed. With nutrient addition, respiration rates increased almost instantaneously. The highest rates were observed in the batch studies. The column study and pilot-scale field test indicated similar respiration rates, at approximately one sixth the respiration rates in the batch study. Respiration rates in the pilot-scale field study decreased during the winter season. Analysis of the residual oil composition in soil samples showed a relation between the degree of weathering, measured as the n-C{sub 17}/pristane and n-C{sub 18}/phytane ratio, and nutrient addition. Lower n-C{sub 17}/pristane ratios were observed at higher total nitrogen content. After 1 year of bioventing with nutrient addition, a 66% reduction in TPH content was observed. Without nutrient addition, the residual oil still closely resembled the original fuel oil product, with only minor removal of the light-end compounds.

  7. Regulatory fire test requirements for plutonium air transport packages : JP-4 or JP-5 vs. JP-8 aviation fuel.

    SciTech Connect

    Figueroa, Victor G.; Lopez, Carlos; Nicolette, Vernon F.

    2010-10-01

    For certification, packages used for the transportation of plutonium by air must survive the hypothetical thermal environment specified in 10CFR71.74(a)(5). This regulation specifies that 'the package must be exposed to luminous flames from a pool fire of JP-4 or JP-5 aviation fuel for a period of at least 60 minutes.' This regulation was developed when jet propellant (JP) 4 and 5 were the standard jet fuels. However, JP-4 and JP-5 currently are of limited availability in the United States of America. JP-4 is very hard to obtain as it is not used much anymore. JP-5 may be easier to get than JP-4, but only through a military supplier. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate that readily-available JP-8 fuel is a possible substitute for the aforementioned certification test. Comparisons between the properties of the three fuels are given. Results from computer simulations that compared large JP-4 to JP-8 pool fires using Sandia's VULCAN fire model are shown and discussed. Additionally, the Container Analysis Fire (CAFE) code was used to compare the thermal response of a large calorimeter exposed to engulfing fires fueled by these three jet propellants. The paper then recommends JP-8 as an alternate fuel that complies with the thermal environment implied in 10CFR71.74.

  8. Determination of the emissions from an aircraft auxiliary power unit (APU) during the Alternative Aviation Fuel Experiment (AAFEX).

    PubMed

    Kinsey, John S; Timko, Michael T; Herndon, Scott C; Wood, Ezra C; Yu, Zhenhong; Miake-Lye, Richard C; Lobo, Prem; Whitefield, Philip; Hagen, Donald; Wey, Changlie; Anderson, Bruce E; Beyersdorf, Andreas J; Hudgins, Charles H; Thornhill, K Lee; Winstead, Edward; Howard, Robert; Bulzan, Dan I; Tacina, Kathleen B; Knighton, W Berk

    2012-04-01

    The emissions from a Garrett-AiResearch (now Honeywell) Model GTCP85-98CK auxiliary power unit (APU) were determined as part of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Alternative Aviation Fuel Experiment (AAFEX) using both JP-8 and a coal-derived Fischer Tropsch fuel (FT-2). Measurements were conducted by multiple research organizations for sulfur dioxide (SO2, total hydrocarbons (THC), carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), speciated gas-phase emissions, particulate matter (PM) mass and number, black carbon, and speciated PM. In addition, particle size distribution (PSD), number-based geometric mean particle diameter (GMD), and smoke number were also determined from the data collected. The results of the research showed PM mass emission indices (EIs) in the range of 20 to 700 mg/kg fuel and PM number EIs ranging from 0.5 x 10(15) to 5 x 10(15) particles/kg fuel depending on engine load and fuel type. In addition, significant reductions in both the SO2 and PM EIs were observed for the use of the FT fuel. These reductions were on the order of approximately 90% for SO2 and particle mass EIs and approximately 60% for the particle number EI, with similar decreases observed for black carbon. Also, the size of the particles generated by JP-8 combustion are noticeably larger than those emitted by the APU burning the FT fuel with the geometric mean diameters ranging from 20 to 50 nm depending on engine load and fuel type. Finally, both particle-bound sulfate and organics were reduced during FT-2 combustion. The PM sulfate was reduced by nearly 100% due to lack of sulfur in the fuel, with the PM organics reduced by a factor of approximately 5 as compared with JP-8.

  9. Fuel-mix, fuel efficiency, and transport demand affect prospects for biofuels in northern Europe.

    PubMed

    Bright, Ryan M; Strømman, Anders Hammer

    2010-04-01

    Rising greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the road transport sector represents a difficult mitigation challenge due to a multitude of intricate factors, namely the dependency on liquid energy carriers and infrastructure lock-in. For this reason, low-carbon renewable energy carriers, particularly second generation biofuels, are often seen as a prominent candidate for realizing reduced emissions and lowered oil dependency over the medium- and long-term horizons. However, the overarching question is whether advanced biofuels can be an environmentally effective mitigation strategy in the face of increasing consumption and resource constraints. Here we develop both biofuel production and road transport consumption scenarios for northern Europe-a region with a vast surplus of forest bioenergy resources-to assess the potential role that forest-based biofuels may play over the medium- and long-term time horizons using an environmentally extended, multiregion input-output model. Through scenarios, we explore how evolving vehicle technologies and consumption patterns will affect the mitigation opportunities afforded by any future supply of forest biofuels. We find that in a scenario involving ambitious biofuel targets, the size of the GHG mitigation wedge attributed to the market supply of biofuels is severely reduced under business-as-usual growth in consumption in the road transport sector. Our results indicate that climate policies targeting the road transport sector which give high emphases to reducing demand (volume), accelerating the deployment of more fuel-efficient vehicles, and promoting altered consumption patterns (structure) can be significantly more effective than those with single emphasis on expanded biofuel supply.

  10. Biodegradation of international jet A-1 aviation fuel by microorganisms isolated from aircraft tank and joint hydrant storage systems.

    PubMed

    Itah, A Y; Brooks, A A; Ogar, B O; Okure, A B

    2009-09-01

    Microorganisms contaminating international Jet A-1 aircraft fuel and fuel preserved in Joint Hydrant Storage Tank (JHST) were isolated, characterized and identified. The isolates were Bacillus subtillis, Bacillus megaterium, Flavobacterium oderatum, Sarcina flava, Micrococcus varians, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus licheniformis, Bacillus cereus and Bacillus brevis. Others included Candida tropicalis, Candida albicans, Saccharomyces estuari, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus fumigatus, Cladosporium resinae, Penicillium citrinum and Penicillium frequentans. The viable plate count of microorganisms in the Aircraft Tank ranged from 1.3 (+/-0.01) x 104 cfu/mL to 2.2 (+/-1.6) x 104 cfu/mL for bacteria and 102 cfu/mL to 1.68 (+/-0.32) x 103 cfu/mL for fungi. Total bacterial counts of 1.79 (+/-0.2) x 104 cfu/mL to 2.58 (+/-0.04) x 104 cfu/mL and total fungal count of 2.1 (+/-0.1) x 103 cfu/mL to 2.28 (+/-0.5) x 103 cfu/mL were obtained for JHST. Selected isolates were re-inoculated into filter sterilized aircraft fuels and biodegradation studies carried out. After 14 days incubation, Cladosporium resinae exhibited the highest degradation rate with a percentage weight loss of 66 followed by Candida albicans (60.6) while Penicillium citrinum was the least degrader with a weight loss of 41.6%. The ability of the isolates to utilize the fuel as their sole source of carbon and energy was examined and found to vary in growth profile between the isolates. The results imply that aviation fuel could be biodegraded by hydrocarbonoclastic microorganisms. To avert a possible deterioration of fuel quality during storage, fuel pipe clogging and failure, engine component damage, wing tank corrosion and aircraft disaster, efficient routine monitoring of aircraft fuel systems is advocated.

  11. Impact of 50% Alcohol to Jet Blends on Aviation Turbine Fuel Filtration and Coalescence

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-20

    synthetic paraffin fuels produced from alcohols (isobutanol or n- butanol). Sugars , corn, grass/wood/biomass, and power plant/industrial CO2 are all...fuels are synthetic paraffin fuels produced from alcohols (isobutanol or n- butanol). Sugars , corn, grass/wood/biomass, and power plant/industrial CO2...currently being evaluated. ATJ fuels are synthetic paraffin fuels produced from alcohols (isobutanol or n-butanol). Sugars , corn, grass/wood/biomass

  12. The Chemical Resistance of Epoxy Adhesive Joints Exposed to Aviation Fuel and its Additives

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-03-01

    reference fuel containing cumene hydroperoxide. The corrosive nature of the DGME and water environment may be responsible for the observed degradation...in bonding and would simulate the conditions a repair at the bottom of a fuel tank may experience. Cumene hydroperoxide simulates a fuel degradation...to the DGME and water and reference fuel containing cumene hydroperoxide environments. The complex fracture modes observed for the composite samples

  13. Fuel cells for transport: can the promise be fulfilled? Technical requirements and demands from customers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klaiber, Thomas

    The paper discusses the technical requirements and the customer demands for vehicles that have an on-board methanol reformer and fuel cells. The research concentrates on the technical developmental risks which include minimizing volume, reducing weight and, at the same time, improving efficiency and system dynamics. Fuel cell powered vehicles with methanol reformers are not only suitable for a niche market but also these vehicles will compete with conventional vehicles. The greatest hindrance will be the price of the fuel cell. A possible progressive development of the number of fuel cell powered vehicles in conjunction with a reduction in costs will be discussed in the paper. When fuel cell vehicles come to the market it is necessary that an infrastructure for the fuel methanol or hydrogen is installed. Therefore, it will only be possible to introduce fuel cell vehicles into special markets, e.g. California. Such a process will need to be subsidized by additional incentives like tax concessions. Today there are many technical risks and unsolved problems relating to production technologies, infrastructure, and costs. Nevertheless, among the alternative power units, the fuel cell seems to be the only one that might be competitive to the conventional power unit, especially relating to emissions.

  14. US general aviation: The ingredients for a renaissance. A vision and technology strategy for US industry, NASA, FAA, universities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, Bruce

    1993-01-01

    General aviation today is a vital component in the nation's air transportation system. It is threatened for survival but has enormous potential for expansion in utility and use. This potential for expansion is fueled by new satellite navigation and communication systems, small computers, flat panel displays, and advanced aerodynamics, materials and manufacturing methods, and propulsion technologies which create opportunities for new levels of environmental and economic acceptability. Expanded general aviation utility and use could have a large impact on the nation's jobs, commerce, industry, airspace capacity, trade balance, and quality of life. This paper presents, in viewgraph form, a general overview of U.S. general aviation. Topics covered include general aviation shipment and billings; airport and general aviation infrastructure; cockpit, airplane, and airspace technologies; market demand; air traffic operations and aviation accidents; fuel efficiency comparisons; and general aviation goals and strategy.

  15. Peak oil demand: the role of fuel efficiency and alternative fuels in a global oil production decline.

    PubMed

    Brandt, Adam R; Millard-Ball, Adam; Ganser, Matthew; Gorelick, Steven M

    2013-07-16

    Some argue that peak conventional oil production is imminent due to physical resource scarcity. We examine the alternative possibility of reduced oil use due to improved efficiency and oil substitution. Our model uses historical relationships to project future demand for (a) transport services, (b) all liquid fuels, and (c) substitution with alternative energy carriers, including electricity. Results show great increases in passenger and freight transport activity, but less reliance on oil. Demand for liquids inputs to refineries declines significantly after 2070. By 2100 transport energy demand rises >1000% in Asia, while flattening in North America (+23%) and Europe (-20%). Conventional oil demand declines after 2035, and cumulative oil production is 1900 Gbbl from 2010 to 2100 (close to the U.S. Geological Survey median estimate of remaining oil, which only includes projected discoveries through 2025). These results suggest that effort is better spent to determine and influence the trajectory of oil substitution and efficiency improvement rather than to focus on oil resource scarcity. The results also imply that policy makers should not rely on liquid fossil fuel scarcity to constrain damage from climate change. However, there is an unpredictable range of emissions impacts depending on which mix of substitutes for conventional oil gains dominance-oil sands, electricity, coal-to-liquids, or others.

  16. Applications of high pressure differential scanning calorimetry to aviation fuel thermal stability research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neveu, M. C.; Stocker, D. P.

    1985-01-01

    High pressure differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was studied as an alternate method for performing high temperature fuel thermal stability research. The DSC was used to measure the heat of reaction versus temperature of a fuel sample heated at a programmed rate in an oxygen pressurized cell. Pure hydrocarbons and model fuels were studied using typical DSC operating conditions of 600 psig of oxygen and a temperature range from ambient to 500 C. The DSC oxidation onset temperature was determined and was used to rate the fuels on thermal stability. Kinetic rate constants were determined for the global initial oxidation reaction. Fuel deposit formation is measured, and the high temperature volatility of some tetralin deposits is studied by thermogravimetric analysis. Gas chromatography and mass spectrometry are used to study the chemical composition of some DSC stressed fuels.

  17. Predictive Model Development for Aviation Black Carbon Mass Emissions from Alternative and Conventional Fuels at Ground and Cruise.

    PubMed

    Abrahamson, Joseph P; Zelina, Joseph; Andac, M Gurhan; Vander Wal, Randy L

    2016-11-01

    The first order approximation (FOA3) currently employed to estimate BC mass emissions underpredicts BC emissions due to inaccuracies in measuring low smoke numbers (SNs) produced by modern high bypass ratio engines. The recently developed Formation and Oxidation (FOX) method removes the need for and hence uncertainty associated with (SNs), instead relying upon engine conditions in order to predict BC mass. Using the true engine operating conditions from proprietary engine cycle data an improved FOX (ImFOX) predictive relation is developed. Still, the current methods are not optimized to estimate cruise emissions nor account for the use of alternative jet fuels with reduced aromatic content. Here improved correlations are developed to predict engine conditions and BC mass emissions at ground and cruise altitude. This new ImFOX is paired with a newly developed hydrogen relation to predict emissions from alternative fuels and fuel blends. The ImFOX is designed for rich-quench-lean style combustor technologies employed predominately in the current aviation fleet.

  18. Life cycle assessment of microalgae-based aviation fuel: Influence of lipid content with specific productivity and nitrogen nutrient effects.

    PubMed

    Guo, Fang; Zhao, Jing; A, Lusi; Yang, Xiaoyi

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this work is to compare the life cycle assessments of low-N and normal culture conditions for a balance between the lipid content and specific productivity. In order to achieve the potential contribution of lipid content to the life cycle assessment, this study established relationships between lipid content (nitrogen effect) and specific productivity based on three microalgae strains including Chlorella, Isochrysis and Nannochloropsis. For microalgae-based aviation fuel, the effects of the lipid content on fossil fuel consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are similar. The fossil fuel consumption (0.32-0.68MJ·MJ(-1)MBAF) and GHG emissions (17.23-51.04gCO2e·MJ(-1)MBAF) increase (59.70-192.22%) with the increased lipid content. The total energy input decreases (2.13-3.08MJ·MJ(-1)MBAF, 14.91-27.95%) with the increased lipid content. The LCA indicators increased (0-47.10%) with the decreased nitrogen recovery efficiency (75-50%).

  19. Experimental Study of Low Temperature Behavior of Aviation Turbine Fuels in a Wing Tank Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stockemer, Francis J.

    1979-01-01

    An experimental investigation was performed to study aircraft fuels at low temperatures near the freezing point. The objective was an improved understanding of the flowability and pumpability of the fuels under conditions encoutered during cold weather flight of a long range commercial aircraft. The test tank simulated a section of an outer wing tank and was chilled on the upper and lower surfaces. Fuels included commercial Jet A and Diesel D-2; JP-5 from oil shale; and Jet A, intermediate freeze point, and D-2 fuels derived from selected paraffinic and naphthenic crudes. A pour point depressant was tested.

  20. Comparative Study of Alternative Fuel Icing Inhibitor Additive Properties & Chemical Analysis of Metal Speciation in Aviation Fuels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-08-01

    the thermocouples and lines were held in place with a rubber stopper. The separatory funnels were first filled with 1500 mL of 5237 jet fuel, and... flowability of fuel. The results of this study however only showed a proportional increase in viscosity with respect to vol % concentration of FSII in

  1. Navy Field Evaluation of Particle Counter Technology for Aviation Fuel Contamination Detection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-02-06

    In addition, free water can potentially freeze and clog fuel lines and fuel pumps. The presence of free water can also facilitate the formation of...4 3.4 FREE WATER AND SEDIMENT ANALYSIS...0 ppm Free Water as Determined by ASTM Methods .................................................................................................10

  2. Synthetic Fischer-Tropsch (FT) JP-5/JP-8 Aviation Turbine Fuel Elastomer Compatibility

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-02-01

    of nitrile coupons and O-rings with selected petroleum-derived fuels, Fisher-Tropsch (FT) synthetic JP-5/JP-8 fuel, and blends of FT JP-5/JP-8 with...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES The original document contains color images. 14. ABSTRACT When some elastomer ( rubber ) compounds, and specifically those used for...various amounts of aromatic blend stock. This study provided a baseline for predicting the effects of static elastomer swell to the potential degree of

  3. PNNL Aviation Biofuels

    SciTech Connect

    Plaza, John; Holladay, John; Hallen, Rich

    2014-10-23

    Commercial airplanes really don’t have the option to move away from liquid fuels. Because of this, biofuels present an opportunity to create new clean energy jobs by developing technologies that deliver stable, long term fuel options. The Department of Energy’s Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is working with industrial partners on processes to convert biomass to aviation fuels.

  4. Bagnulo Heavy Fuel Internal Combustion Engine and Its Employment in Aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fiore, Amedeo

    1922-01-01

    We see with great satisfaction that Bagnulo's studies and experiments on his high-speed, heavy-fuel engines, promise to solve not only the general problem of economical power and hence of thermal efficiency, but also all other special problems, of weight and space, and, what is still more important, range of error.

  5. Aviation Turbine Fuels from Tar Sands Bitumen and Heavy Oils. Part 3. Laboratory Sample Production.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-12-01

    PREPARATION CONVERSION SECTION FLOW DIAGRAM ... ........... 12 3. TURBINE FUEL PRECURSOR 3LENDS .... ......... .. 21 4. EFFECT OF HYDROTREATING...SEVERITY ON JP-4 AROMATICS CONTENT ... .......... 30 5. EFFECT OF HYDROTREATING SEVERITY ON JP-4 SMOKE POINT ..... ............. 30 6. EFFECT OF...48 16. EFFECT OF HYDROGEN SPECIFICATION ON PRODUCT COSTS .... ............ 59 A-i. SAMPLE PREPARATION CONVERSION SECTION .. ........ A-3 A-2. SAMPLE

  6. Field Evaluation of Particle Counter Technology for Aviation Fuel Contamination Detection - Fort Campbell

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-06

    fibrous materials, coatings material including paint, elastomeric materials, hydrocarbon/oxidation materials, and any other solid matter. At a...storage volume for CAA to 1.3M gallons. The fuel offloaded is not filtered prior to storage. JP-8 is transferred via a 0.5 mile underground pipeline

  7. The Department of Defense: Reducing Its Reliance on Fossil-Based Aviation Fuel - Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-15

    19 Figure 2. KC-135 Winglet Flight Tests at Dryden Flight Research Center . . . . 23 List of Tables Table 1...involving two or more opposing forces using rules, data, and procedures designed to depict an actual or assumed real life situation.” 19 Winglets , for...applying winglets to DOD aircraft. See page 24 of this report for further information. reflect the DOD’s true fuel costs, masks energy efficiency

  8. Comparative Toxicity of Selected Aviation Fuels as Measured by Insect Bioassay

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-07-01

    Arlian, 1979; Arlian & Eckstrand, 1975). Initial standardization of rice weevils with tritiated water (HTO) was accomplished by placing them in a closed...to actual water loss (Arlian, 1979; Arlian & Staiger, 1979; Arlian, 1972; Wharton & Devine, 1968). Loss of HTO from the rice weevil followed the first...determined as the slope of a semi log plot of mean (CPM) versus sample time. Passive water sorption in fuel treated rice weevils Passive water

  9. Greening the Mixture: An Evaluation of the Department of Defense’s Alternative Aviation Fuel Strategy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-08

    process begins with gasification of feedstocks such as coal, natural gas, or biomass towards the production of alternative fuels. With adequate carbon...Barrels per day CBTL Coal and Biomass to Liquid CCS Carbon Dioxide Capture and Sequestration CTL Coal to Liquid DARPA Defense Advanced Research...sequestration. Captured carbon dioxide from coal-to-liquid (CTL) or coal and biomass -to-liquid (CBTL) production could be readily injected into the

  10. Environmentally Responsible Aviation - Real Solutions for Environmental Challenges Facing Aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collier, Fayette; Thomas, Russell; Burley, Casey; Nickol, Craig; Lee, Chi-Ming; Tong, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The combined reality of persistently strong growth in air traffic and the vital economic role of the air transport system result in continued demand for the progress of technology for the reduction of aircraft noise, emissions of oxides of nitrogen, and fuel burn. NASA s Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) project has set aggressive goals in these three areas including a noise goal of 42 dB cumulative below the Stage 4 certification level. The goal for the reduction of oxides of nitrogen is 75% below the current standard. The fuel burn reduction goal is 50% below that of a current state-of-the-art aircraft. Furthermore, the overall goal of ERA is to mature technologies that will meet these goals simultaneously and with a timeframe of 2020 for technical readiness. This paper outlines the key technologies and the progress achieved to date toward the goals.

  11. AVIATION PSYCHOLOGY,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    PSYCHOLOGY , AERONAUTICS, FLIGHT, PILOTS, PERCEPTION, ATTENTION, READING, MEMORY( PSYCHOLOGY ), PERSONALITY, EMOTIONS, FATIGUE(PHYSIOLOGY), AVIATION SAFETY, AVIATION ACCIDENTS, PSYCHOMOTOR TESTS, PSYCHOLOGICAL TESTS, TRAINING.

  12. PNNL Aviation Biofuels

    ScienceCinema

    Plaza, John; Holladay, John; Hallen, Rich

    2016-07-12

    Commercial airplanes really don’t have the option to move away from liquid fuels. Because of this, biofuels present an opportunity to create new clean energy jobs by developing technologies that deliver stable, long term fuel options. The Department of Energy’s Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is working with industrial partners on processes to convert biomass to aviation fuels.

  13. Chemistry of Aviation Fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knepper, Bryan; Hwang, Soon Muk; DeWitt, Kenneth J.

    2004-01-01

    Minimum ignition energies of various methanol/air mixtures were measured in a temperature controlled constant volume combustion vessel using a spark ignition method with a spark gap distance of 2 mm. The minimum ignition energies decrease rapidly as the mixture composition (equivalence ratio, Phi) changes from lean to stoichiometric, reach a minimum value, and then increase rather slowly with Phi. The minimum of the minimum ignition energy (MIE) and the corresponding mixture composition were determined to be 0.137 mJ and Phi = 1.16, a slightly rich mixture. The variation of minimum ignition energy with respect to the mixture composition is explained in terms of changes in reaction chemistry.

  14. Away-from-reactor storage of spent nuclear fuel: factors affecting demand

    SciTech Connect

    Dinneen, P.M.; Solomon, K.A.; Triplett, M.B.

    1980-10-01

    This report analyzes factors that affect the magnitude and timing of demand for government AFRs, relative to the demand for other storage options, to assist policymakers in predicting this demand. Past predictions of AFT demand range widely and often appear to conflict. This report helps to explain the apparent conflicts among existing demand predictions by demonstrating their sensitivity to changes in key assumptions. Specifically, the report analyzes factors affecting the demand for government AFR storage facilities; illustrates why demand estimates may vary; and identifies actions that may be undertaken by groups, within and outside the government, to influence the level and timing of demands.

  15. Dynamic modeling, experimental evaluation, optimal design and control of integrated fuel cell system and hybrid energy systems for building demands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Gia Luong Huu

    obtained experimental data, the research studied the control of airflow to regulate the temperature of reactors within the fuel processor. The dynamic model provided a platform to test the dynamic response for different control gains. With sufficient sensing and appropriate control, a rapid response to maintain the temperature of the reactor despite an increase in power was possible. The third part of the research studied the use of a fuel cell in conjunction with photovoltaic panels, and energy storage to provide electricity for buildings. This research developed an optimization framework to determine the size of each device in the hybrid energy system to satisfy the electrical demands of buildings and yield the lowest cost. The advantage of having the fuel cell with photovoltaic and energy storage was the ability to operate the fuel cell at baseload at night, thus reducing the need for large battery systems to shift the solar power produced in the day to the night. In addition, the dispatchability of the fuel cell provided an extra degree of freedom necessary for unforeseen disturbances. An operation framework based on model predictive control showed that the method is suitable for optimizing the dispatch of the hybrid energy system.

  16. General Aviation Avionics Statistics.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-12-01

    No. 2. Government Accession No. 3. Recipient’s Catalog No. 5" FAA-MS-80-7* a and. SubtitleDecember 1&80 "GENERAL AVIATION AVIONICS STATISTICS 0 6...Altimeter 8. Fuel gage 3. Compass 9. Landing gear 4. Tachometer 10. Belts 5. Oil temperature 11. Special equipment for 6. Emergency locator over water

  17. General Aviation Manpower Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feller, Richard

    1982-01-01

    Highlights a study examining manpower supply/demand in general aviation. Eight job categories were examined: pilots, flight instructors, engineers, machinists/toolers, and A&P, airframe, and avionics technicians. Findings among others indicate that shortages in indicated job categories exist because personnel are recruited by other industries.…

  18. Analysis of policy options for meeting the demand for wood fuels in the province of Ilocos Norte, the Philippines

    SciTech Connect

    Hyman, E.L.

    1985-01-01

    Ilocos Norte is the second most deforested province in the Philippines. It has a high demand for wood fuels for household cooking and tobacco curing. The government has constructed a 3-MW wood-fired electric power plant and is planning two pig iron furnaces that will require large amounts of wood charcoal. Key options for producing or saving large quantities of wood fuels are tree farming, improved woodstoves, bamboo substitution, and kerosene substitution. At realistic rather than ideal implementation effectiveness, the present value of net economic benefits (PVNB) is highest for woodstoves. Tree farming has the second highest PVNB when fuelwood is valued at the market price, but bamboo substitution does when fuelwood is shadow priced at the value of collection time. Kerosene substitution has a negative PVNB, and LPG or electricity are even more expensive fuels.

  19. ENERGY DEMANDS AND OTHER ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS ACROSS THE LIFE CYCLE OF BIOETHANOL USED AS FUEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Most assessments of converting biomass to fuels are limited to energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) balances to determine if there is a net loss or gain. A fairly consistent conclusion of these studies is that the use of bio-ethanol in place of conventional fuels leads to a net gain....

  20. Maritime Aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ravennes, Jean

    1922-01-01

    This report presents some studies of maritime aviation which cover the following principal points: employment of landplanes on maritime aerial warfare; their adaption to peculiar requirements of the Navy; and the establishment of a method of aerial pursuit and bombardment, likewise adapted to military aviation over land.

  1. Flying into the future: aviation emissions scenarios to 2050.

    PubMed

    Owen, Bethan; Lee, David S; Lim, Ling

    2010-04-01

    This study describes the methodology and results for calculating future global aviation emissions of carbon dioxide and oxides of nitrogen from air traffic under four of the IPCC/SRES (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change/Special Report on Emissions Scenarios) marker scenarios: A1B, A2, B1, and B2. In addition, a mitigation scenario has been calculated for the B1 scenario, requiring rapid and significant technology development and transition. A global model of aircraft movements and emissions (FAST) was used to calculate fuel use and emissions to 2050 with a further outlook to 2100. The aviation emission scenarios presented are designed to interpret the SRES and have been developed to aid in the quantification of the climate change impacts of aviation. Demand projections are made for each scenario, determined by SRES economic growth factors and the SRES storylines. Technology trends are examined in detail and developed for each scenario providing plausible projections for fuel efficiency and emissions control technology appropriate to the individual SRES storylines. The technology trends that are applied are calculated from bottom-up inventory calculations and industry technology trends and targets. Future emissions of carbon dioxide are projected to grow between 2000 and 2050 by a factor in the range of 2.0 and 3.6 depending on the scenario. Emissions of oxides of nitrogen associated with aviation over the same period are projected to grow by between a factor of 1.2 and 2.7.

  2. Simulated 2050 aviation radiative forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, C. C.; Gettelman, A.

    2015-12-01

    The radiative forcing from aviation is investigated by using a comprehensive general circulation model in the present (2006) and the future (2050). Global flight distance is projected to increase by a factor of 4 between 2006 and 2050. However, simulated contrail cirrus radiative forcing can increase by a factor of 7, and thus does not scale linearly with fuel emission mass. Simulations indicate negative radiative forcing induced by the indirect effect of aviation sulfate aerosols on liquid clouds that increasesby a factor of 4 in 2050. As a result, the net 2050 aviation radiative forcing is a cooling. Aviation sulfates emitted at cruise altitude canbe transported down to the lowest troposphere, increasing the aerosolconcentration, thus increasing the cloud drop number concentration and persistenceof low-level clouds. Aviation black carbon aerosols produce a negligible forcing.

  3. National Aviation Fuel Scenario Analysis Program (NAFSAP). Volume I. Model description. Volume II. User manual. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Vahovich, S.G.

    1980-03-01

    This report forecasts air carrier jet fuel usage by body type for three user defined markets. The model contains options which allow the user to easily change the composition of the future fleet so that fuel usage scenarios can be 'run'. Both Volumes I and II are contained in this report. Volume I describes the structure of the model. Volume II is a computer users manual.

  4. State participation in the creation of fuel-cell-based power plants to meet civilian demand in Russia

    SciTech Connect

    Pekhota, F.N.

    1996-04-01

    At present, up to 70% of Russian territory is not covered by central electrical distribution systems. In the field of fuel cell power plants, Russia is at parity with the leading foreign countries with respect to both technical and economic performance and the level of research being conducted. Civilian use of these generating systems on a broad scale, however, demands that a number of problems be solved, particularly those relating to the need for longer plant service life, lower unit cost of electricity, etc. The Ministry of Science and technical Policy of the Russian Federation issued a decree creating a new are of concentration, `Fuel Cell Based Power Plants for Civilian Needs,` in the GNTPR `Environmentally Clean Power Industry,` which will form the basis for financial support in this area out of the federal budget.

  5. 26 CFR 48.4041-11 - Tax-free sales of fuel for use in noncommercial aviation only if sellers and certain purchasers...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... aviation only if sellers and certain purchasers are registered. 48.4041-11 Section 48.4041-11 Internal... noncommercial aviation only if sellers and certain purchasers are registered. (a) In general. Any sale of liquid... noncommercial aviation but is used for a nontaxable purpose, see section 6427(a) for provisions relating...

  6. 26 CFR 48.4041-11 - Tax-free sales of fuel for use in noncommercial aviation only if sellers and certain purchasers...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... aviation only if sellers and certain purchasers are registered. 48.4041-11 Section 48.4041-11 Internal... noncommercial aviation only if sellers and certain purchasers are registered. (a) In general. Any sale of liquid... noncommercial aviation but is used for a nontaxable purpose, see section 6427(a) for provisions relating...

  7. 26 CFR 48.4041-11 - Tax-free sales of fuel for use in noncommercial aviation only if sellers and certain purchasers...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... aviation only if sellers and certain purchasers are registered. 48.4041-11 Section 48.4041-11 Internal... noncommercial aviation only if sellers and certain purchasers are registered. (a) In general. Any sale of liquid... noncommercial aviation but is used for a nontaxable purpose, see section 6427(a) for provisions relating...

  8. 26 CFR 48.4041-11 - Tax-free sales of fuel for use in noncommercial aviation only if sellers and certain purchasers...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... aviation only if sellers and certain purchasers are registered. 48.4041-11 Section 48.4041-11 Internal... noncommercial aviation only if sellers and certain purchasers are registered. (a) In general. Any sale of liquid... noncommercial aviation but is used for a nontaxable purpose, see section 6427(a) for provisions relating...

  9. DNA Isolation of Microbial Contaminants in Aviation Turbine Fuel via Traditional Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and Direct PCR. Preliminary Results

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-11-01

    contamination of stored hydrocarbon fuels and its control. Revista de Microbiologia 30:1-10. 14. Dolan, R. M. 2002. Intergovernmental communication...2004;70:63-70. 29. Xiang, Y.Z., Lubeck, J., Kilbane, II, J.J. Characterization of Microbial Communities in Gas Industry Pipelines. App. and Environ. Microb. 2003; 69:5354-5363.

  10. Alternate-Fueled Combustion-Sector Emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saxena, Nikita T.; Thomas, Anna E.; Shouse, Dale T.; Neuroth, Craig; Hendricks, Robert C.; Lynch, Amy; Frayne, Charles W.; Stutrud, Jeffrey S.; Corporan, Edwin; Hankins, Terry

    2012-01-01

    In order to meet rapidly growing demand for fuel, as well as address environmental concerns, the aviation industry has been testing alternate fuels for performance and technical usability in commercial and military aircraft. Currently, alternate aviation fuels must satisfy MIL-DTL- 83133F(2008) (military) or ASTM D 7566- Annex(2011) (commercial) standards and are termed drop-in fuel replacements. Fuel blends of up to 50% alternative fuel blended with petroleum (JP-8), which have become a practical alternative, are individually certified on the market. In order to make alternate fuels (and blends) a viable option for aviation, the fuel must be able to perform at a similar or higher level than traditional petroleum fuel. They also attempt to curb harmful emissions, and therefore a truly effective alternate fuel would emit at or under the level of currently used fuel. This paper analyzes data from gaseous and particulate emissions of an aircraft combustor sector. The data were evaluated at various inlet conditions, including variation in pressure and temperature, fuel-to-air ratios, and percent composition of alternate fuel. Traditional JP-8+100 data were taken as a baseline, and blends of JP- 8+100 with synthetic-paraffinic-kerosene (SPK) fuel (Fischer-Tropsch (FT)) were used for comparison. Gaseous and particulate emissions, as well as flame luminosity, were assessed for differences between FT composition of 0%, 50%, and 100%. The data showed that SPK fuel (a FT-derived fuel) had slightly lower harmful gaseous emissions, and smoke number information corroborated the hypothesis that SPK-FT fuels are cleaner burning fuels.

  11. Effects of Operating Parameters on Measurements of Biochemical Oxygen Demand Using a Mediatorless Microbial Fuel Cell Biosensor

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Min-Chi; Cheng, Chiu-Yu; Liu, Man-Hai; Chung, Ying-Chien

    2015-01-01

    The conventional Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) method takes five days to analyze samples. A microbial fuel cell (MFC) may be an alternate tool for rapid BOD determination in water. However, a MFC biosensor for continuous BOD measurements of water samples is still unavailable. In this study, a MFC biosensor inoculated with known mixed cultures was used to determine the BOD concentration. Effects of important parameters on establishing a calibration curve between the BOD concentration and output signal from the MFC were evaluated. The results indicate monosaccharides were good fuel, and methionine, phenylalanine, and ethanol were poor fuels for electricity generation by the MFC. Ions in the influent did not significantly affect the MFC performance. CN− in the influent could alleviate the effect of antagonistic electron acceptors on the MFC performance. The regression equation for BOD concentration and current density of the biosensor was y = 0.0145x + 0.3317. It was adopted to measure accurately and continuously the BOD concentration in actual water samples at an acceptable error margin. These results clearly show the developed MFC biosensor has great potential as an alternative BOD sensing device for online measurements of wastewater BOD. PMID:26729113

  12. Effects of Operating Parameters on Measurements of Biochemical Oxygen Demand Using a Mediatorless Microbial Fuel Cell Biosensor.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Min-Chi; Cheng, Chiu-Yu; Liu, Man-Hai; Chung, Ying-Chien

    2015-12-28

    The conventional Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) method takes five days to analyze samples. A microbial fuel cell (MFC) may be an alternate tool for rapid BOD determination in water. However, a MFC biosensor for continuous BOD measurements of water samples is still unavailable. In this study, a MFC biosensor inoculated with known mixed cultures was used to determine the BOD concentration. Effects of important parameters on establishing a calibration curve between the BOD concentration and output signal from the MFC were evaluated. The results indicate monosaccharides were good fuel, and methionine, phenylalanine, and ethanol were poor fuels for electricity generation by the MFC. Ions in the influent did not significantly affect the MFC performance. CN(-) in the influent could alleviate the effect of antagonistic electron acceptors on the MFC performance. The regression equation for BOD concentration and current density of the biosensor was y = 0.0145x + 0.3317. It was adopted to measure accurately and continuously the BOD concentration in actual water samples at an acceptable error margin. These results clearly show the developed MFC biosensor has great potential as an alternative BOD sensing device for online measurements of wastewater BOD.

  13. Alternate-Fueled Combustor-Sector Emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saxena, Nikita T.; Thomas, Anna E.; Shouse, Dale T.; Neuroth, Craig; Hendricks, Robert C.; Lynch, Amy; Frayne, Charles W.; Stutrud, Jeffrey S.; Corporan, Edwin; Hankins, Terry

    2013-01-01

    In order to meet rapidly growing demand for fuel, as well as address environmental concerns, the aviation industry has been testing alternate fuels for performance and technical usability in commercial and military aircraft. In order to make alternate fuels (and blends) a viable option for aviation, the fuel must be able to perform at a similar or higher level than traditional petroleum fuel. They also attempt to curb harmful emissions, and therefore a truly effective alternate fuel would emit at or under the level of currently used fuel. This report analyzes data from gaseous and particulate emissions of an aircraft combustor sector. The data were evaluated at various inlet conditions, including variation in pressure and temperature, fuel-to-air ratios, and percent composition of alternate fuel. Traditional JP-8+100 data were taken as a baseline, and blends of JP-8+100 with synthetic-paraffinic-kerosene (SPK) fuel (Fischer-Tropsch (FT)) were used for comparison. Gaseous and particulate emissions, as well as flame luminosity, were assessed for differences between FT composition of 0, 50, and 100 percent. The data show that SPK fuel (an FT-derived fuel) had slightly lower harmful gaseous emissions, and smoke number information corroborated the hypothesis that SPK-FT fuels are cleaner burning fuels.

  14. A case for biofuels in aviation

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    In the last 15 years, the technical and the economic feasibility of biomass based fuels for general aviation piston engines has been proven. Exhaustive ground and flight tests performed at the Renewable Aviation Fuels Development Center (RAFDC) using ethanol, ethanol/methanol blends, and ETBE have proven these fuels to be superior to aviation gasoline (avgas) in all aspects of performance except range. Two series of Lycoming engines have been certified. Record flights, including a transatlantic flight on pure ethanol, were made to demonstrate the reliability of the fuel. Aerobatic demonstrations with aircraft powered by ethanol, ethanol/methanol, and ETBE were flown at major airshows around the world. the use of bio-based fuels for aviation will benefit energy security, improve the balance of trade, domestic economy, and environmental quality. The United States has the resources to supply the aviation community`s needs with a domestically produced fuel using current available technology. The adoption of a renewable fuel in place of conventional petroleum-based fuels for aviation piston and turbine engines is long overdue.

  15. Determining marginal electricity for near-term plug-in and fuel cell vehicle demands in California: Impacts on vehicle greenhouse gas emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarthy, Ryan; Yang, Christopher

    California has taken steps to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from the transportation sector. One example is the recent adoption of the Low Carbon Fuel Standard, which aims to reduce the carbon intensity of transportation fuels. To effectively implement this and similar policies, it is necessary to understand well-to-wheels emissions associated with distinct vehicle and fuel platforms, including those using electricity. This analysis uses an hourly electricity dispatch model to simulate and investigate operation of the current California grid and its response to added vehicle and fuel-related electricity demands in the near term. The model identifies the "marginal electricity mix" - the mix of power plants that is used to supply the incremental electricity demand from vehicles and fuels - and calculates greenhouse gas emissions from those plants. It also quantifies the contribution from electricity to well-to-wheels greenhouse gas emissions from battery-electric, plug-in hybrid, and fuel cell vehicles and explores sensitivities of electricity supply and emissions to hydro-power availability, timing of electricity demand (including vehicle recharging), and demand location within the state. The results suggest that the near-term marginal electricity mix for vehicles and fuels in California will come from natural gas-fired power plants, including a significant fraction (likely as much as 40%) from relatively inefficient steam- and combustion-turbine plants. The marginal electricity emissions rate will be higher than the average rate from all generation - likely to exceed 600 gCO 2 equiv. kWh -1 during most hours of the day and months of the year - and will likely be more than 60% higher than the value estimated in the Low Carbon Fuel Standard. But despite the relatively high fuel carbon intensity of marginal electricity in California, alternative vehicle and fuel platforms still reduce emissions compared to conventional gasoline vehicles and hybrids, through improved

  16. Protocol of Test Methods for Evaluating High Heat Sink Fuel Thermal Stability Additives for Aviation Jet Fuel JP-8+100

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-04-01

    minute intervals: run time , crystal frequency, temperature, and headspace oxygen concentration. Fuels: In order to evaluate a thermal stability...begun. The run time , crystal frequency, reactor temperature, and headspace oxygen concentration are monitored and recorded at one minute intervals by

  17. 26 CFR 48.4082-6 - Kerosene; exemption for aviation-grade kerosene.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Kerosene; exemption for aviation-grade kerosene..., Tread Rubber, and Taxable Fuel Taxable Fuel § 48.4082-6 Kerosene; exemption for aviation-grade kerosene... entry of aviation-grade kerosene that is destined for use as a fuel in an aircraft. (b) Definition....

  18. 26 CFR 48.4082-6 - Kerosene; exemption for aviation-grade kerosene.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Kerosene; exemption for aviation-grade kerosene..., Tread Rubber, and Taxable Fuel Taxable Fuel § 48.4082-6 Kerosene; exemption for aviation-grade kerosene... entry of aviation-grade kerosene that is destined for use as a fuel in an aircraft. (b) Definition....

  19. 26 CFR 48.4082-6 - Kerosene; exemption for aviation-grade kerosene.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Kerosene; exemption for aviation-grade kerosene..., Tread Rubber, and Taxable Fuel Taxable Fuel § 48.4082-6 Kerosene; exemption for aviation-grade kerosene... entry of aviation-grade kerosene that is destined for use as a fuel in an aircraft. (b) Definition....

  20. 26 CFR 48.4082-6 - Kerosene; exemption for aviation-grade kerosene.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Kerosene; exemption for aviation-grade kerosene..., Tread Rubber, and Taxable Fuel Taxable Fuel § 48.4082-6 Kerosene; exemption for aviation-grade kerosene... entry of aviation-grade kerosene that is destined for use as a fuel in an aircraft. (b) Definition....

  1. From microbial fuel cell (MFC) to microbial electrochemical snorkel (MES): maximizing chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal from wastewater.

    PubMed

    Erable, Benjamin; Etcheverry, Luc; Bergel, Alain

    2011-03-01

    The paper introduces the concept of the microbial electrochemical snorkel (MES), a simplified design of a "short-circuited" microbial fuel cell (MFC). The MES cannot provide current but it is optimized for wastewater treatment. An electrochemically active biofilm (EAB) was grown on graphite felt under constant polarization in an urban wastewater. Controlling the electrode potential and inoculating the bioreactor with a suspension of an established EAB improved the performance and the reproducibility of the anodes. Anodes, colonized by an EAB were tested for the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal from urban wastewater using a variety of bio-electrochemical processes (microbial electrolysis, MFC, MES). The MES technology, as well as a short-circuited MFC, led to a COD removal 57% higher than a 1000 Ω-connected MFC, confirming the potential for wastewater treatment.

  2. Enhanced response of microbial fuel cell using sulfonated poly ether ether ketone membrane as a biochemical oxygen demand sensor.

    PubMed

    Ayyaru, Sivasankaran; Dharmalingam, Sangeetha

    2014-03-25

    The present study is focused on the development of single chamber microbial fuel cell (SCMFC) using sulfonated poly ether ether ketone (SPEEK) membrane to determine the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) matter present in artificial wastewater (AW). The biosensor produces a good linear relationship with the BOD concentration up to 650 ppm when using artificial wastewater. This sensing range was 62.5% higher than that of Nafion(®). The most serious problem in using MFC as a BOD sensor is the oxygen diffusion into the anode compartment, which consumes electrons in the anode compartment, thereby reducing the coulomb yield and reducing the electrical signal from the MFC. SPEEK exhibited one order lesser oxygen permeability than Nafion(®), resulting in low internal resistance and substrate loss, thus improving the sensing range of BOD. The system was further improved by making a double membrane electrode assembly (MEA) with an increased electrode surface area which provide high surface area for electrically active bacteria.

  3. Combined energy production and waste management in manned spacecraft utilizing on-demand hydrogen production and fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elitzur, Shani; Rosenband, Valery; Gany, Alon

    2016-11-01

    Energy supply and waste management are among the most significant challenges in human spacecraft. Great efforts are invested in managing solid waste, recycling grey water and urine, cleaning the atmosphere, removing CO2, generating and saving energy, and making further use of components and products. This paper describes and investigates a concept for managing waste water and urine to simultaneously produce electric and heat energies as well as fresh water. It utilizes an original technique for aluminum activation to react spontaneously with water at room temperature to produce hydrogen on-site and on-demand. This reaction has further been proven to be effective also when using waste water and urine. Applying the hydrogen produced in a fuel cell, one obtains electric energy as well as fresh (drinking) water. The method was compared to the traditional energy production technology of the Space Shuttle, which is based on storing the fuel cell reactants, hydrogen and oxygen, in cryogenic tanks. It is shown that the alternative concept presented here may provide improved safety, compactness (reduction of more than one half of the volume of the hydrogen storage system), and management of waste liquids for energy generation and drinking water production. Nevertheless, it adds mass compared to the cryogenic hydrogen technology. It is concluded that the proposed method may be used as an emergency and backup power system as well as an additional hydrogen source for extended missions in human spacecraft.

  4. Factors affecting the performance of a single-chamber microbial fuel cell-type biological oxygen demand sensor.

    PubMed

    Yang, Gai-Xiu; Sun, Yong-Ming; Kong, Xiao-Ying; Zhen, Feng; Li, Ying; Li, Lian-Hua; Lei, Ting-Zhou; Yuan, Zhen-Hong; Chen, Guan-Yi

    2013-01-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are devices that exploit microorganisms as biocatalysts to degrade organic matter or sludge present in wastewater (WW), and thereby generate electricity. We developed a simple, low-cost single-chamber microbial fuel cell (SCMFC)-type biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) sensor using carbon felt (anode) and activated sludge, and demonstrated its feasibility in the construction of a real-time BOD measurement system. Further, the effects of anodic pH and organic concentration on SCMFC performance were examined, and the correlation between BOD concentration and its response time was analyzed. Our results demonstrated that the SCMFC exhibited a stable voltage after 132 min following the addition of synthetic WW (BOD concentration: 200 mg/L). Notably, the response signal increased with an increase in BOD concentration (range: 5-200 mg/L) and was found to be directly proportional to the substrate concentration. However, at higher BOD concentrations (>120 mg/L) the response signal remained unaltered. Furthermore, we optimized the SCMFC using synthetic WW, and tested it with real WW. Upon feeding real WW, the BOD values exhibited a standard deviation from 2.08 to 8.3% when compared to the standard BOD5 method, thus demonstrating the practical applicability of the developed system to real treatment effluents.

  5. Review of Biojet Fuel Conversion Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Wei-Cheng; Tao, Ling; Markham, Jennifer; Zhang, Yanan; Tan, Eric; Batan, Liaw; Warner, Ethan; Biddy, Mary

    2016-07-01

    Biomass-derived jet (biojet) fuel has become a key element in the aviation industry’s strategy to reduce operating costs and environmental impacts. Researchers from the oil-refining industry, the aviation industry, government, biofuel companies, agricultural organizations, and academia are working toward developing commercially viable and sustainable processes that produce long-lasting renewable jet fuels with low production costs and low greenhouse gas emissions. Additionally, jet fuels must meet ASTM International specifications and potentially be a 100% drop-in replacement for the current petroleum jet fuel. The combustion characteristics and engine tests demonstrate the benefits of running the aviation gas turbine with biojet fuels. In this study, the current technologies for producing renewable jet fuels, categorized by alcohols-to-jet, oil-to-jet, syngas-to-jet, and sugar-to-jet pathways, are reviewed. The main challenges for each technology pathway, including feedstock availability, conceptual process design, process economics, life-cycle assessment of greenhouse gas emissions, and commercial readiness, are discussed. Although the feedstock price and availability and energy intensity of the process are significant barriers, biomass-derived jet fuel has the potential to replace a significant portion of conventional jet fuel required to meet commercial and military demand.

  6. Fuels research: Fuel thermal stability overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, S. M.

    1980-01-01

    Alternative fuels or crude supplies are examined with respect to satisfying aviation fuel needs for the next 50 years. The thermal stability of potential future fuels is discussed and the effects of these characteristics on aircraft fuel systems are examined. Advanced fuel system technology and design guidelines for future fuels with lower thermal stability are reported.

  7. Aviation dentistry.

    PubMed

    Lakshmi; Sakthi, D Sri

    2014-03-01

    With the rapid expansion of the airline industry in all sectors, dentists should pay special attention to crews and frequent flyers, due to change of pressure in-flight, that cause different types of oro-facial pain. Aviation dentistry deals with evaluation, principles of prevention, treatment of diseases, disorders or conditions which are related to oral cavity and maxillofacial area or adjacent and associated structures and their impact on people who travel or on aircrew members and flight restrictions. Dentists should prevent the creation of in-flight hazards when they treat aircrew members and frequent flyers.

  8. Environmental, economic and social impact of aviation biofuel production in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Cremonez, Paulo André; Feroldi, Michael; de Jesus de Oliveira, Carlos; Teleken, Joel Gustavo; Alves, Helton José; Sampaio, Silvio Cézar

    2015-03-25

    The Brazilian aviation industry is currently developing biofuel technologies that can maintain the operational and energy demands of the sector, while reducing the dependence on fossil fuels (mainly kerosene) and greenhouse gas emissions. The aim of the current research was to identify the major environmental, economic and social impacts arising from the production of aviation biofuels in Brazil. Despite the great potential of these fuels, there is a significant need for improved routes of production and specifically for lower production costs of these materials. In addition, the productive chains of raw materials for obtaining these bioenergetics can be linked to environmental impacts by NOx emissions, extensive use of agricultural land, loss of wildlife and intensive water use, as well as economic, social and political impacts.

  9. Alternative fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grobman, J. S.; Butze, H. F.; Friedman, R.; Antoine, A. C.; Reynolds, T. W.

    1977-01-01

    Potential problems related to the use of alternative aviation turbine fuels are discussed and both ongoing and required research into these fuels is described. This discussion is limited to aviation turbine fuels composed of liquid hydrocarbons. The advantages and disadvantages of the various solutions to the problems are summarized. The first solution is to continue to develop the necessary technology at the refinery to produce specification jet fuels regardless of the crude source. The second solution is to minimize energy consumption at the refinery and keep fuel costs down by relaxing specifications.

  10. Army Aviation and Unified Land Operations: Renewing Army Aviation’s Role and Doctrine to Dominate the Third Dimension of Land Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-17

    iUniverse, 2005), 69. 20 Jr. Weinert , Richard P., A History of Army Aviation- 1950-1962, ed. Susan Canedy, TRADOC Historical Monograph Series...demand for nearly 100 organic aircraft per division. Weinert , Army Aviation 1950-1962, 142. 24 Department of the Army, FM 20-100: Army Aviation...37 Weinert , Army Aviation 1950-1962, 147. 38 Gast, "Army Aviation ROAD Organizations," 56-58. 39

  11. Handbook of Aviation Fuel Properties

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-01

    Inturfitep2 MAX, Ill ~ I Ill 11) 1I ) 1)1I) 28)) Witter Helm-t~ili Sepalraionlu MAX. 2 2 2 2 11 10114 21)) ADITIVES ’ 1. Aniilelltig Agemonlyol... Gum (mWlOO ml) MAX. 7 7 7 1) a081 Particulates (mgirilter) MAX. 1 1) 22󈨊 (0) Water Reaction Interface MAX. Ilb l1b Ilb D3 1004 Water Separation...STABILITY Potential Gum (mgllO nl) 60 MAX. (4) 1) 873 CONTAMINANTS Iron (parts per million) 10 MAX, 10 MAX. (6) Exiitvnt gum (mg/liter) 310 MAX. 100

  12. Distributed Aviation Concepts and Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Mark D.

    2008-01-01

    Aviation has experienced one hundred years of evolution, resulting in the current air transportation system dominated by commercial airliners in a hub and spoke infrastructure. While the first fifty years involved disruptive technologies that required frequent vehicle adaptation, the second fifty years produced a stable evolutionary optimization of decreasing costs with increasing safety. This optimization has resulted in traits favoring a centralized service model with high vehicle productivity and cost efficiency. However, it may also have resulted in a system that is not sufficiently robust to withstand significant system disturbances. Aviation is currently facing rapid change from issues such as environmental damage, terrorism threat, congestion and capacity limitations, and cost of energy. Currently, these issues are leading to a loss of service for weaker spoke markets. These catalysts and a lack of robustness could result in a loss of service for much larger portions of the aviation market. The impact of other competing transportation services may be equally important as casual factors of change. Highway system forecasts indicate a dramatic slow down as congestion reaches a point of non-linearly increasing delay. In the next twenty-five years, there is the potential for aviation to transform itself into a more robust, scalable, adaptive, secure, safe, affordable, convenient, efficient and environmentally friendly system. To achieve these characteristics, the new system will likely be based on a distributed model that enables more direct services. Short range travel is already demonstrating itself to be inefficient with a centralized model, providing opportunities for emergent distributed services through air-taxi models. Technologies from the on-demand revolution in computers and communications are now available as major drivers for aviation on-demand adaptation. Other technologies such as electric propulsion are currently transforming the automobile

  13. Fuel supply and distribution. Fixed base operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burian, L. C.

    1983-01-01

    Aviation gasoline versus other products, a changing marketplace, the Airline Deregulation Act of 1978, aviation fuel credit card purchases, strategic locations, storage, co-mingling of fuel, and transportation to/from central storage are discussed.

  14. Collegiate Aviation Review, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carney, Thomas Q., Ed.

    2000-01-01

    This issue contains seven papers. "University Aviation Education: An Integrated Model" (Merrill R. Karp) addresses potential educational enhancements through the implementation of an integrated aviation learning model, the Aviation Education Reinforcement Option. "The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA): A Tombstone Agency?…

  15. General Aviation Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Programs exploring and demonstrating new technologies in general aviation propulsion are considered. These programs are the quiet, clean, general aviation turbofan (QCGAT) program; the general aviation turbine engine (GATE) study program; the general aviation propeller technology program; and the advanced rotary, diesel, and reciprocating engine programs.

  16. NASA Research on General Aviation Power Plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, W. L.; Weber, R. J.; Willis, E. A.; Sievers, G. K.

    1978-01-01

    Propulsion systems are key factors in the design and performance of general aviation airplanes. NASA research programs that are intended to support improvements in these engines are described. Reciprocating engines are by far the most numerous powerplants in the aviation fleet; near-term efforts are being made to lower their fuel consumption and emissions. Longer-term work includes advanced alternatives, such as rotary and lightweight diesel engines. Work is underway on improved turbofans and turboprops.

  17. Aviation Safety Issues Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morello, Samuel A.; Ricks, Wendell R.

    2009-01-01

    The aviation safety issues database was instrumental in the refinement and substantiation of the National Aviation Safety Strategic Plan (NASSP). The issues database is a comprehensive set of issues from an extremely broad base of aviation functions, personnel, and vehicle categories, both nationally and internationally. Several aviation safety stakeholders such as the Commercial Aviation Safety Team (CAST) have already used the database. This broader interest was the genesis to making the database publically accessible and writing this report.

  18. General aviation and community development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sincoff, M. Z. (Editor); Dajani, J. S. (Editor)

    1975-01-01

    The summer program is summarized. The reports presented concern (1) general aviation components, (2) general aviation environment, (3) community perspective, and (4) transportation and general aviation in Virginia.

  19. Propulsion and Energetics Panel Working Group 13 on Alternative Jet Engine Fuels. Volume 2. Main Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-07-01

    trends in military and commercial aviation fuel usage and refinery product yields, energy consumption, and costs: and furthermore the fuels out!ook be...requires collection of baseline data on crude usage , refinery processing, product distribution, projections in energy, feedstock and product demands as...product blending. Crude usage by area and individual refineries is available from both published data and surveys. Projections of crude usage can

  20. Aviation Career Awareness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Aerospace Education, 1976

    1976-01-01

    Describes a kit containing seven units, each designed to increase the elementary school student's awareness of aviation and career possibilities in aviation. Includes a sample section from one unit. (MLH)

  1. Let's Explore Aviation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arvin, Jean

    1977-01-01

    Presents an intermediate level social studies unit dealing with air education, social aspects of aviation, and the importance of aviation to industry and transportation. Includes objectives, twelve activities, and evaluative procedures. (SL)

  2. Global Commercial Aviation Emissions Inventory for 2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkerson, J.; Balasubramanian, S.; Malwitz, A.; Wayson, R.; Fleming, G.; Jacobson, M. Z.; Naiman, A.; Lele, S.

    2008-12-01

    In 2004, the global commercial aircraft fleet included more than 13,000 aircraft flying over 30 billion km, burning more than 100 million tons of fuel. All this activity incurs substantial amounts of fossil-fuel combustion products at the cruise altitude within the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere that could potentially affect the atmospheric composition and climate. These emissions; such as CO, CO2, PM, NOx, SOx, are not distributed uniformly over the earth, so understanding the temporal and spatial distributions is an important component for modeling aviation climate impacts. Previous studies for specific years have shown that nearly all activity occurs in the northern hemisphere, and most is within mid-latitudes. Simply scaling older data by the annual global industry growth of 3-5 percent may provide emission trends which are not representative of geographically varying growth in aviation sector that has been noted over the past years. India, for example, increased its domestic aviation activity recently by 46 percent in one year. Therefore, it is important that aircraft emissions are best characterized and represented in the atmospheric models for impacts analysis. Data containing all global commercial flights for 2004 was computed using the Federal Aviation Administration's Aviation Environmental Design Tool (AEDT) and provided by the Volpe National Transportation Systems Center. The following is a summary of this data which illustrates the global aviation footprint for 2004, and provides temporal and three-dimensional spatial distribution statistics of several emissions constituents.

  3. Securing General Aviation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-03

    ajor vulnerabilities still exist in ... general aviation security ,”3 the commission did not further elaborate on the nature of those vulnerabilities...commercial operations may make them an attractive alternative to terrorists seeking to identify and exploit vulnerabilities in aviation security . In this...3, 2003, p. A7. 2 See Report of the Aviation Security Advisory Committee Working Group on General Aviation Airport Security (October 1, 2003); and

  4. 14 CFR 25.979 - Pressure fueling system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ....979 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Fuel System § 25.979 Pressure fueling system. For pressure fueling systems, the following apply: (a) Each pressure fueling system fuel...

  5. Altering Flight Schedules for Increased Fuel Efficiency

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-19

    7 Air Force Aviation Operations Energy Plan... Aviation Operations Energy Plan Pillars (Air Force, 2010) .............. 9 Figure 4. Aviation Operations Energy Utilization (Air Force, 2010...USAF) is the largest user of aviation fuel in the Department of Defense (DoD), and air mobility operations consume the greatest amount. Rising

  6. 14 CFR Appendix - Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 89

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 89 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS... AND ON DEMAND OPERATIONS AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Special Federal...

  7. 14 CFR Appendix - Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 71

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 71 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS... AND ON DEMAND OPERATIONS AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Special Federal...

  8. 14 CFR Appendix - Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 36

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 36 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS... AND ON DEMAND OPERATIONS AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Special Federal...

  9. 14 CFR Appendix - Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 97

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 97 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS... AND ON DEMAND OPERATIONS AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Special Federal...

  10. 14 CFR Appendix - Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 106

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 106 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS... AND ON DEMAND OPERATIONS AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Special Federal...

  11. 14 CFR Appendix - Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 97

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 97 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS... AND ON DEMAND OPERATIONS AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Special Federal...

  12. 14 CFR Appendix - Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 106

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 106 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS... AND ON DEMAND OPERATIONS AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Special Federal...

  13. 14 CFR Appendix - Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 89

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 89 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS... AND ON DEMAND OPERATIONS AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Special Federal...

  14. 14 CFR Appendix - Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 93

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 93 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS... AND ON DEMAND OPERATIONS AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Special Federal...

  15. 14 CFR Appendix - Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 106

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 106 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS... AND ON DEMAND OPERATIONS AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Special Federal...

  16. 14 CFR Appendix - Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 89

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 89 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS... AND ON DEMAND OPERATIONS AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Special Federal...

  17. 14 CFR Appendix - Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 108

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 108 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS... AND ON DEMAND OPERATIONS AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Special Federal...

  18. 14 CFR Appendix - Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 71

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 71 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS... AND ON DEMAND OPERATIONS AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Special Federal...

  19. 14 CFR Appendix - Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 108

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 108 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS... AND ON DEMAND OPERATIONS AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Special Federal...

  20. 14 CFR Appendix - Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 108

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 108 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS... AND ON DEMAND OPERATIONS AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Special Federal...

  1. 14 CFR Appendix - Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 106

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 106 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS... AND ON DEMAND OPERATIONS AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Special Federal...

  2. 14 CFR Appendix - Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 97

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 97 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS... AND ON DEMAND OPERATIONS AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Special Federal...

  3. 14 CFR Appendix - Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 89

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 89 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS... AND ON DEMAND OPERATIONS AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Special Federal...

  4. 14 CFR Appendix - Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 89

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 89 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS... AND ON DEMAND OPERATIONS AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Special Federal...

  5. 14 CFR Appendix - Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 71

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 71 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS... AND ON DEMAND OPERATIONS AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Special Federal...

  6. 14 CFR Appendix - Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 93

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 93 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS... AND ON DEMAND OPERATIONS AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Special Federal...

  7. 14 CFR Appendix - Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 106

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 106 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS... AND ON DEMAND OPERATIONS AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Special Federal...

  8. 14 CFR Appendix - Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 36

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 36 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS... AND ON DEMAND OPERATIONS AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Special Federal...

  9. 14 CFR Appendix - Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 108

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 108 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS... AND ON DEMAND OPERATIONS AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Special Federal...

  10. 14 CFR Appendix - Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 97

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 97 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS... AND ON DEMAND OPERATIONS AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Special Federal...

  11. 14 CFR Appendix - Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 71

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 71 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS... AND ON DEMAND OPERATIONS AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Special Federal...

  12. 14 CFR Appendix - Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 97

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 97 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS... AND ON DEMAND OPERATIONS AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Special Federal...

  13. 14 CFR Appendix - Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 108

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 108 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS... AND ON DEMAND OPERATIONS AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Special Federal...

  14. 14 CFR Appendix - Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 71

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 71 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS... AND ON DEMAND OPERATIONS AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Special Federal...

  15. Knock-Limited Performance of Triptane and Xylidines Blended with 28-R Aviation Fuel at High Compression Ratios and Maximum-Economy Spark Setting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Held, Louis F.; Pritchard, Ernest I.

    1946-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to evaluate the possibilities of utilizing the high-performance characteristics of triptane and xylidines blended with 28-R fuel in order to increase fuel economy by the use of high compression ratios and maximum-economy spark setting. Full-scale single-cylinder knock tests were run with 20 deg B.T.C. and maximum-economy spark settings at compression ratios of 6.9, 8.0, and 10.0, and with two inlet-air temperatures. The fuels tested consisted of triptane, four triptane and one xylidines blend with 28-R, and 28-R fuel alone. Indicated specific fuel consumption at lean mixtures was decreased approximately 17 percent at a compression ratio of 10.0 and maximum-economy spark setting, as compared to that obtained with a compression ratio of 6.9 and normal spark setting. When compression ratio was increased from 6.9 to 10.0 at an inlet-air temperature of 150 F, normal spark setting, and a fuel-air ratio of 0.065, 55-percent triptane was required with 28-R fuel to maintain the knock-limited brake power level obtained with 28-R fuel at a compression ratio of 6.9. Brake specific fuel consumption was decreased 17.5 percent at a compression ratio of 10.0 relative to that obtained at a compression ratio of 6.9. Approximately similar results were noted at an inlet-air temperature of 250 F. For concentrations up through at least 20 percent, triptane can be more efficiently used at normal than at maximum-economy spark setting to maintain a constant knock-limited power output over the range of compression ratios tested.

  16. Lightweight diesel aircraft engines for general aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berenyi, S. G.

    1983-01-01

    Two different engines were studied. The advantages of a diesel to general aviation were reduced to fuel consumption, reduced operating costs, and reduced fire and explosion hazard. There were no ignition mixture control or inlet icing problems. There are fewer controls and no electrical interference problems.

  17. Sensor performance considerations for aviation weather observations for the NOAA Consolidated Observations Requirements List (CORL CT-AWX)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, John; Helms, David; Miner, Cecilia

    2008-08-01

    Airspace system demand is expected to increase as much as 300 percent by the year 2025 and the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) is being developed to accommodate the super-density operations that this will entail. Concomitantly, significant improvements in observations and forecasting are being undertaken to support NextGen which will require greatly improved and more uniformly applied data for aviation weather hazards and constraints which typically comprise storm-scale and microscale observables. Various phenomena are associated with these hazards and constraints such as convective weather, in-flight icing, turbulence, and volcanic ash as well as more mundane aviation parameters such as cloud tops and bases and fuel-freeze temperatures at various flight levels. Emerging problems for aviation in space weather and the environmental impacts of aviation are also occurring at these scales. Until recently, the threshold and objective observational requirements for these observables had not been comprehensively documented in a single, authoritative source. Scientists at NASA and NOAA have recently completed this task and have established baseline observational requirements for the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) and expanded and updated the NOAA Consolidated Observations Requirements List (CORL) for Aviation (CT-AWX) to better inform National Weather Service investments for current and future observing systems. This paper describes the process and results of this effort. These comprehensive aviation observation requirements will now be used to conduct gap analyses for the aviation component of the Integrated Earth Observing System and to inform the investment strategies of the FAA, NASA, and NOAA that are needed to develop the observational architecture to support NextGen and other users of storm and microscale observations.

  18. Transport impacts on atmosphere and climate: Aviation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, D. S.; Pitari, G.; Grewe, V.; Gierens, K.; Penner, J. E.; Petzold, A.; Prather, M. J.; Schumann, U.; Bais, A.; Berntsen, T.; Iachetti, D.; Lim, L. L.; Sausen, R.

    2010-12-01

    has also improved: a limited number of studies have demonstrated an increase in cirrus cloud attributable to aviation although the magnitude varies: however, these trend analyses may be impacted by satellite artefacts. The effect of aviation particles on clouds (with and without contrails) may give rise to either a positive forcing or a negative forcing: the modelling and the underlying processes are highly uncertain, although the overall effect of contrails and enhanced cloudiness is considered to be a positive forcing and could be substantial, compared with other effects. The debate over quantification of aviation impacts has also progressed towards studying potential mitigation and the technological and atmospheric tradeoffs. Current studies are still relatively immature and more work is required to determine optimal technological development paths, which is an aspect that atmospheric science has much to contribute. In terms of alternative fuels, liquid hydrogen represents a possibility and may reduce some of aviation's impacts on climate if the fuel is produced in a carbon-neutral way: such fuel is unlikely to be utilized until a 'hydrogen economy' develops. The introduction of biofuels as a means of reducing CO 2 impacts represents a future possibility. However, even over and above land-use concerns and greenhouse gas budget issues, aviation fuels require strict adherence to safety standards and thus require extra processing compared with biofuels destined for other sectors, where the uptake of such fuel may be more beneficial in the first instance.

  19. Aviation Education Services and Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Aviation Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    Developed by the Aviation Education Staff of the Office of General Aviation Affairs, this document identifies sources of teaching materials. Included in this resource guide is information pertaining to: (1) films and filmstrips, (2) aviation education workshops, (3) career opportunities in aviation, (4) aviation organizations, (5) government…

  20. A Terrestrial Single Chamber Microbial Fuel Cell-based Biosensor for Biochemical Oxygen Demand of Synthetic Rice Washed Wastewater

    PubMed Central

    Logroño, Washington; Guambo, Alex; Pérez, Mario; Kadier, Abudukeremu; Recalde, Celso

    2016-01-01

    Microbial fuel cells represent an innovative technology which allow simultaneous waste treatment, electricity production, and environmental monitoring. This study provides a preliminary investigation of the use of terrestrial Single chamber Microbial Fuel Cells (SMFCs) as biosensors. Three cells were created using Andean soil, each one for monitoring a BOD concentration of synthetic washed rice wastewater (SRWW) of 10, 100, and 200 mg/L for SMFC1, SMFC2 and SMFC3, respectively. The results showed transient, exponential, and steady stages in the SMFCs. The maximum open circuit voltage (OCV) peaks were reached during the elapsed time of the transient stages, according to the tested BOD concentrations. A good linearity between OCV and time was observed in the increasing stage. The average OCV in this stage increased independently of the tested concentrations. SMFC1 required less time than SMFC2 to reach the steady stage, suggesting the BOD concentration is an influencing factor in SMFCs, and SMFC3 did not reach it. The OCV ratios were between 40.6–58.8 mV and 18.2–32.9 mV for SMFC1 and SMFC2. The reproducibility of the SMFCs was observed in four and three cycles for SMFC1 and SMFC2, respectively. The presented SMFCs had a good response and reproducibility as biosensor devices, and could be an alternative for environmental monitoring. PMID:26784197

  1. A Terrestrial Single Chamber Microbial Fuel Cell-based Biosensor for Biochemical Oxygen Demand of Synthetic Rice Washed Wastewater.

    PubMed

    Logroño, Washington; Guambo, Alex; Pérez, Mario; Kadier, Abudukeremu; Recalde, Celso

    2016-01-15

    Microbial fuel cells represent an innovative technology which allow simultaneous waste treatment, electricity production, and environmental monitoring. This study provides a preliminary investigation of the use of terrestrial Single chamber Microbial Fuel Cells (SMFCs) as biosensors. Three cells were created using Andean soil, each one for monitoring a BOD concentration of synthetic washed rice wastewater (SRWW) of 10, 100, and 200 mg/L for SMFC1, SMFC2 and SMFC3, respectively. The results showed transient, exponential, and steady stages in the SMFCs. The maximum open circuit voltage (OCV) peaks were reached during the elapsed time of the transient stages, according to the tested BOD concentrations. A good linearity between OCV and time was observed in the increasing stage. The average OCV in this stage increased independently of the tested concentrations. SMFC1 required less time than SMFC2 to reach the steady stage, suggesting the BOD concentration is an influencing factor in SMFCs, and SMFC3 did not reach it. The OCV ratios were between 40.6-58.8 mV and 18.2-32.9 mV for SMFC1 and SMFC2. The reproducibility of the SMFCs was observed in four and three cycles for SMFC1 and SMFC2, respectively. The presented SMFCs had a good response and reproducibility as biosensor devices, and could be an alternative for environmental monitoring.

  2. Ultralean combustion in general aviation piston engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chirivella, J. E.

    1979-01-01

    The role of ultralean combustion in achieving fuel economy in general aviation piston engines was investigated. The aircraft internal combustion engine was reviewed with regard to general aviation requirements, engine thermodynamics and systems. Factors affecting fuel economy such as those connected with an ideal leanout to near the gasoline lean flammability limit (ultralean operation) were analyzed. A Lycoming T10-541E engine was tested in that program (both in the test cell and in flight). Test results indicate that hydrogen addition is not necessary to operate the engine ultralean. A 17 percent improvement in fuel economy was demonstrated in flight with the Beechcraft Duke B60 by simply leaning the engine at constant cruiser power and adjusting the ignition for best timing. No detonation was encountered, and a 25,000 ft ceiling was available. Engine roughness was shown to be the limiting factor in the leanout.

  3. Application of propfan propulsion to general aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Awker, R. W.

    1986-01-01

    Recent studies of advanced propfan propulsion systems have shown significant reductions in fuel consumption of 15-30 percent for transport class aircraft. This paper presents the results of a study which examined applying propfan propulsion to General Aviation class aircraft to determine if similar improvements could be achieved for business aircraft. In addition to the potential performance gains, this paper also addresses the cost aspects of propfan propulsion on General Aviation aircraft emphasizing the significant impact that the cost of capital and tax aspects have on determining the total cost of operation for business aircraft.

  4. Selected supplies prognosis problems of aviation techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Żurek, J.; Czapla, R.

    2016-06-01

    Aviation technology, i.e. aircraft, control and airfield infrastructure wear out, become defective and need servicing. It seems indispensible to maintain facilities and spare parts at a level necessary to keep the technology in commission. The paper discusses the factors influencing spare parts supply requirements to secure air operations. Aviation technology has been classified with regard to various criteria, which influence the choice of supply management strategies, along with availability and aircraft exploitation cost. The method of optimization of the stock for a complex system characterized by series reliability structure according to the wear-out and cost criteria assuming Poisson's process of demand has been presented.

  5. General aviation energy-conservation research programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willis, E. A.

    1978-01-01

    A review is presented of nonturbine general aviation engine programs underway at the NASA-Lewis Research Center. The program encompasses conventional, lightweight diesel, and rotary engines. Its three major thrusts are: (1) reduced SFC's; (2) improved fuels tolerance; and (3) reducing emissions. Current and planned future programs in such areas as lean operation, improved fuel management, advanced cooling techniques, and advanced engine concepts, are described. These are expected to lay the technology base, by the mid to latter 1980's, for engines whose total fuel costs are as much as 30% lower than today's conventional engines.

  6. Field Demonstration of Aviation Turbine Fuel MIL-T-83133C, Grade JP-8 (NATO Code F-34), at Fort Bliss, TX

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-09-01

    Research Facility (SwRI) Southwest Research Institute San Antonio, Texas Under Contract to U.S. Army Belvoir Research, Development and Engineering Center...DAAK70-87-C-0043 for the period 1 February 1989 through 30 September 1991. Work was funded by the U.S. Army Belvoir Research, Development and...Organization Standardization Agreement (i.e., NATO STANAG 4362) entitled "Fuel Requirements in Future Ground Equipment," which was developed in

  7. An Exploratory Research and Development Program Leading to Specifications for Aviation Turbine Fuel from Whole Crude Shale Oil. Part II. Process Variable Analyses and Laboratory Sample Production.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-01

    comprises moderate severity hydrotreating, fractionation, anhydrous HC1 extraction and hydrocracking. Plant capacities and product yields were not... Anhydrous Hydrogen Chloride Extraction Units - JP-8 Operation 36 12 Maximum JP-4 - Operating Conditions for Gas Oil HYdrocracker 37 13 Material Balance...DI4F nn-Dimethylformamide ix LIST OF SYMBOLS AND ABBREVIATIONS (Cont’d.) FOE Fuel Oil Equivalent H2 Hydrogen Gas HCl Anhydrous Hydrogen Chloride HP Sep

  8. An Exploratory Research and Development Program Leading to Specifications for Aviation Turbine Fuel from Whole Crude Shale Oil. Part I. Preliminary Process Analyses.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-01

    Hydrotreated Paraho Shale Oil 24 8 Simplified Flow Diagram of Anhydrous HCl Treating Plant for Processing Hydrotreated Paraho Shale 01 25 9 Simplified Flow...LIST OF SYMBOLS AND ABBREVIATIONS (Cont’d.) FOE Fuel Oil Equivalent H2 Hydrogen Gas HCl Anhydrous Hydrogen Chloride HP Sep High Pressure Separator... anhydrous HC1 can form the hydrochloride salt of either one or both of the nitrogen containing compounds. C5 H1 1 112 + HC ( anhydrous ) - . C5H11 NH2

  9. Rapid Response Research and Development (R&D) for the Aerospace Systems Directorate. Delivery Order 0021: Engineering Research and Technical Analyses of Advanced Airbreathing Propulsion Fuels, Subtask: Fit-for-Purpose (FFP) and Dynamic Seal Testing of Alternative Aviation Fuels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-01

    High Frequency Reciprocating Rig HRJ Hydroprocessed Renewable Jet Hz Hertz ID Ignition Delay IPK Iso -Paraffinic Kerosene IQTTM Ignition Quality ...RESEARCH DIVISION ISO 9001 CERTIFIED ISO 14001 CERTIFIED 247 Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. 248 Approved for public...JAMES T. EDWARDS MIGUEL A. MALDONADO, Chief Program Manager Fuels and Energy Branch Fuels and Energy Branch Turbine Engine Division Turbine

  10. FAA Aviation Forecasts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-02-01

    General Aviation .... ....... 110 General Economic Growth .......... .................. 110 Cost Factors ..................................... 110...General Aviation Aircraft Cost Indices ......... .. 261 -ii i Table of Contents (Continued) Page Appendix H: FAA Towered Airports...to GNP Growth (Constant Dollars) ..... 22 Commercial Air Carriers U.S. Air Carrier Revenue and Cost Trends .... ............... .28 Industry Operating

  11. Aviation Instructor's Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Aviation Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    This handbook is designed for ground instructors, flight instructors, and aviation maintenance instructors, providing beginning instructors the foundation to understand and apply fundamentals of instruction. The handbook also provides aviation instructors with up-to-date information on learning and teaching, and how to relate this information to…

  12. NASA and general aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ethell, J. L.

    1986-01-01

    General aviation remains the single most misunderstood sector of aeronautics in the United States. A detailed look at how general aviation functions and how NASA helps keep it on the cutting edge of technology in airfoils, airframes, commuter travel, environmental concerns, engines, propellers, air traffic control, agricultural development, electronics, and safety is given.

  13. 77 FR 10798 - Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-23

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of withdrawal of task assignment to the Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee (ARAC). SUMMARY: The FAA has withdrawn a task assigned to the Aviation Rulemaking...

  14. The economic impact of drag in general aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neal, R. D.

    1975-01-01

    General aviation aircraft fuel consumption and operating costs are closely linked to drag reduction methods. Improvements in airplane drag are envisioned for new models; their effects will be in the 5 to 10% range. Major improvements in fuel consumption over existing turbofan airplanes will be the combined results of improved aerodynamics plus additional effects from advanced turbofan engine designs.

  15. Propulsion and Power Rapid Response Research and Development (R&D) Support. Delivery Order 0011: Advanced Propulsion Fuels Research and Development-Subtask: Framework and Guidance for Estimating Greenhouse Gas Footprints of Aviation Fuels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-01

    59 15. Allocation of Energy Use Based on Plant - and Process-Level Analyses of a Petroleum Refinery (Wang, Lee and...such as the emissions from a vehicle hauling fuel from refinery to market, many of the elements in the life cycle emissions of a fuel system are not...A simple example is the allocation selection methodology associated with analyzing the greenhouse gas emissions associated with a refinery unit

  16. Mid-21st century chemical forcing of climate by the civil aviation sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unger, Nadine; Zhao, Yupu; Dang, Hongyan

    2013-02-01

    Abstract Strong growth in the civil <span class="hlt">aviation</span> sector will accelerate in the future. Here, we confront the future net chemical (ozone, methane, sulfate, nitrate, black carbon, and water vapor) global climate impact of <span class="hlt">aviation</span> at 2050 for three novel plausible scenarios constructed at the Volpe National Transportation Center using the U.S. Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Administration (FAA) <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Environmental Design Tool (AEDT). The <span class="hlt">aviation</span> net chemical climate impact is cooling in all cases and increases from -10 ± 4 mW m-2 in the contemporary climate up to -69 ± 21 mW m-2 by 2050. Future improvements in <span class="hlt">fuel</span> efficiency provide the opportunity to reduce <span class="hlt">aviation</span>'s net chemical climate impact by ~50% relative to a baseline scenario of unconstrained growth. On the 20 year time horizon, the cooling net <span class="hlt">aviation</span> chemical climate impact masks the <span class="hlt">aviation</span> CO2 global warming by up to 50-100% in the contemporary and future atmospheres.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhDT.......109H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhDT.......109H"><span>General <span class="hlt">aviation</span> in China</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hu, Xiaosi</p> <p></p> <p>In the last four decades, China has accomplished economic reform successfully and grown to be a leading country in the world. As the "world factory", the country is able to manufacture a variety of industrial products from clothes and shoes to rockets and satellites. But the <span class="hlt">aviation</span> industry has always been a weak spot and even the military relies on imported turbofan engines and jet fighters, not to mention the airlines. Recently China has launched programs such as ARJ21 and C919, and started reform to change the undeveloped situation of its <span class="hlt">aviation</span> industry. As the foundation of the <span class="hlt">aviation</span> industry, the development of general <span class="hlt">aviation</span> is essential for the rise of commercial <span class="hlt">aviation</span>. The primary goal of this study is to examine the general <span class="hlt">aviation</span> industry and finds the issues that constrain the development of the industry in the system. The research method used in this thesis is the narrative research of qualitative approach since the policy instead of statistical data is analyzed. It appears that the main constraint for the general <span class="hlt">aviation</span> industry is the government interference.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19780005056','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19780005056"><span>Agricultural <span class="hlt">aviation</span> research</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Chevalier, H. L. (Compiler); Bouse, L. F. (Compiler)</p> <p>1977-01-01</p> <p>A compilation of papers, comments, and results is provided during a workshop session. The purpose of the workshop was to review and evaluate the current state of the art of agricultural <span class="hlt">aviation</span>, to identify and rank potentially productive short and long range research and development areas, and to strengthen communications between research scientists and engineers involved in agricultural research. Approximately 71 individuals actively engaged in agricultural <span class="hlt">aviation</span> research were invited to participate in the workshop. These were persons familiar with problems related to agricultural <span class="hlt">aviation</span> and processing expertise which are of value for identifying and proposing beneficial research.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19740014158&hterms=weather+meteorology&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dweather%2Bmeteorology','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19740014158&hterms=weather+meteorology&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dweather%2Bmeteorology"><span>Improved weather information and <span class="hlt">aviation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hallahan, K.; Zdanys, V.</p> <p>1973-01-01</p> <p>The major impacts of weather forecasts on <span class="hlt">aviation</span> are reviewed. Topics discussed include: (1) present and projected structure of American <span class="hlt">aviation</span>, (2) weather problems considered particularly important for <span class="hlt">aviation</span>, (3) projected needs for improved weather information by <span class="hlt">aviators</span>, (4) safety and economics, and (5) future studies utilizing satellite meteorology.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JPS...309...99L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JPS...309...99L"><span>On-<span class="hlt">demand</span> supply of slurry <span class="hlt">fuels</span> to a porous anode of a direct carbon <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cell: Attempts to increase <span class="hlt">fuel</span>-anode contact and realize long-term operation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Li, Chengguo; Yi, Hakgyu; Lee, Donggeun</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>In this paper, we propose a novel idea that might allow resolution of the two biggest challenges that hinder practical use of direct carbon <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cells (DCFC). This work involved 1) the use of three types of porous Ni anode with different pore sizes, 2) size matching between the anode pores and solid <span class="hlt">fuel</span> particles in a molten-carbonate (MC) slurry, and 3) provision of a continuous supply of <span class="hlt">fuel</span>-MC slurry through the porous Ni anode. As a result, larger numbers of smaller pores in the anode were preferred for extending the triple phase boundary (TPB), as long as the <span class="hlt">fuel</span> particles were sufficiently small to have full access to the inner pore spaces of the anode. For example, the maximal power density achieved in the case of optimal size matching, reached 645 mW cm-2, which is 14-times greater than that for the case of poorest size-matching and 64-times larger than that for a non-porous anode, and lasted for more than 20 h. After 20 h of steady operation at a fixed current density (700 mA cm-2), the electric potential slightly decreased due to partial consumption of the <span class="hlt">fuel</span>. The cell performance readily recovered after restarting the supply of MC-<span class="hlt">fuel</span> slurry.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_15 --> <div id="page_16" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="301"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA518060','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA518060"><span>Army <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Force Structure in Support of Counter Insurgency Operations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://publicaccess.dtic.mil/psm/api/service/search/search">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-03-01</p> <p>Battalion (30 UH - 60L Blackhawks), General Support <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Battalion (mix of 8 UH - 60L , 12 CH-47D Chinooks, and 15 HH- 60A MEDEVAC aircraft), <span class="hlt">Aviation</span>...the city which mitigated their limited <span class="hlt">fuel</span> endurance and slower airspeed when compared to the AH-64D Apache. The Air Assault Troop ( UH - 60L ...the BCT and supported Special Operations Forces. When combined with AH-64Ds or OH-58Ds the UH - 60Ls were critical to vehicular interdiction</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20030065976','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20030065976"><span><span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Data Integration System</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Kulkarni, Deepak; Wang, Yao; Windrem, May; Patel, Hemil; Keller, Richard</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>During the analysis of flight data and safety reports done in ASAP and FOQA programs, airline personnel are not able to access relevant <span class="hlt">aviation</span> data for a variety of reasons. We have developed the <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Data Integration System (ADIS), a software system that provides integrated heterogeneous data to support safety analysis. Types of data available in ADIS include weather, D-ATIS, RVR, radar data, and Jeppesen charts, and flight data. We developed three versions of ADIS to support airlines. The first version has been developed to support ASAP teams. A second version supports FOQA teams, and it integrates <span class="hlt">aviation</span> data with flight data while keeping identification information inaccessible. Finally, we developed a prototype that demonstrates the integration of <span class="hlt">aviation</span> data into flight data analysis programs. The initial feedback from airlines is that ADIS is very useful in FOQA and ASAP analysis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=aircraft&pg=7&id=EJ123263','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=aircraft&pg=7&id=EJ123263"><span><span class="hlt">Aviation</span> in the Future</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Kayten, Gerald G.</p> <p>1974-01-01</p> <p>Makes predications concerning future aerospace technology in the areas of supersonic transportation, aircraft design, airfreight, military <span class="hlt">aviation</span>, hypersonic aircraft and in the much distant future sub-orbital, rocket propelled transports. (BR)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19990019603','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19990019603"><span><span class="hlt">Aviation</span> System Analysis Capability Air Carrier Investment Model-Cargo</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Johnson, Jesse; Santmire, Tara</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>The purpose of the <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> System Analysis Capability (ASAC) Air Cargo Investment Model-Cargo (ACIMC), is to examine the economic effects of technology investment on the air cargo market, particularly the market for new cargo aircraft. To do so, we have built an econometrically based model designed to operate like the ACIM. Two main drivers account for virtually all of the <span class="hlt">demand</span>: the growth rate of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and changes in the fare yield (which is a proxy of the price charged or fare). These differences arise from a combination of the nature of air cargo <span class="hlt">demand</span> and the peculiarities of the air cargo market. The net effect of these two factors are that sales of new cargo aircraft are much less sensitive to either increases in GDP or changes in the costs of labor, capital, <span class="hlt">fuel</span>, materials, and energy associated with the production of new cargo aircraft than the sales of new passenger aircraft. This in conjunction with the relatively small size of the cargo aircraft market means technology improvements to the cargo aircraft will do relatively very little to spur increased sales of new cargo aircraft.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA520862','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA520862"><span>Flash Point and Chemical Composition of <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Kerosene (Jet A). Revision</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://publicaccess.dtic.mil/psm/api/service/search/search">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2000-05-26</p> <p><span class="hlt">fuel</span> flash point. In response to these recommen- dations, the FAA (FAA, 1997) has asked the <span class="hlt">aviation</span> industry (through the <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Regulatory Action...source. The petroleum industry and <span class="hlt">fuel</span> safety analysts often rely on the measured flash point to rank the explosion hazards of different <span class="hlt">fuels</span>. The...affect the flashpoint significantly. Our experience with storing Jet A is consistent with industry experience (Batts and Fathoni, 1991) with long term</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6447834','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6447834"><span>Potential impact of future <span class="hlt">fuels</span> on small gas turbine engines</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Saintsbury, J.A.; Sampath, P.</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>A review is made of the consequences of shortages of <span class="hlt">aviation</span> gasoline on small aircraft turbine engines and the air traffic. Since the future of <span class="hlt">fuels</span> is uncertain and supplies deplete the design modification for alternate <span class="hlt">fuels</span> are considered. The need to develop approximate engines is emphasized. Data are given of some experimental engines with <span class="hlt">fuels</span> not currently considered as <span class="hlt">aviation</span> <span class="hlt">fuels</span>. 11 refs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.A51C0127G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.A51C0127G"><span><span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Climate Change Research Initiative (ACCRI) - An Update</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gupta, M. L.</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Aviation</span> plays an important role in global and domestic economic development and transport mobility. There are environmental concerns associated with <span class="hlt">aviation</span> noise and emissions. Aircraft climate impacts are primarily due to release of emissions at the cruise altitude in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. Even though small in magnitude at present, <span class="hlt">aviation</span> climate impacts will likely increase with projected growth in air transport <span class="hlt">demand</span> unless scientifically informed and balanced mitigation solutions are implemented in a timely manner. There are large uncertainties associated with global and regional non-CO2 <span class="hlt">aviation</span> climate impacts which need to be well quantified and constrained to support decision making. To meet future <span class="hlt">aviation</span> capacity needs, the United States is developing and implementing a dynamic, flexible and scalable Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) that is safe, secure, efficient and environmentally sound. One of the stated NextGen environmental goals is to limit or reduce the impacts of <span class="hlt">aviation</span> emissions on global climate. With the support from the participating agencies of the U.S. Climate Change Science Program, the Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Administration (FAA) has developed <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Climate Change Research Initiative (ACCRI) with the main objective to identify and address key scientific gaps and uncertainties that are most likely to be achieved in near (up to 18 months) and mid (up to 36 months) term horizons while providing timely scientific input to inform decision making. Till date, ACCRI funded activities have resulted in release of 8 subject-specific whitepapers and a report on The Way Forward. These documents can be accessed via http://www.faa.gov/about/office_org/headquarters_offices/aep/<span class="hlt">aviation</span>_climate/media/ACCRI_Report_final.pdf. This presentation will provide details on prioritized key scientific gaps and uncertainties to better characterize <span class="hlt">aviation</span> climate impacts. This presentation will also include a brief</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19790019432','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19790019432"><span>Energy supply and <span class="hlt">demand</span> in California</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Griffith, E. D.</p> <p>1978-01-01</p> <p>The author expresses his views on future energy <span class="hlt">demand</span> on the west coast of the United States and how that energy <span class="hlt">demand</span> translates into <span class="hlt">demand</span> for major <span class="hlt">fuels</span>. He identifies the major uncertainties in determining what future <span class="hlt">demands</span> may be. The major supply options that are available to meet projected <span class="hlt">demands</span> and the policy implications that flow from these options are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1985ane..book.....N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1985ane..book.....N"><span><span class="hlt">Aviation</span> noise effects</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Newman, J. S.; Beattie, K. R.</p> <p>1985-03-01</p> <p>This report summarizes the effects of <span class="hlt">aviation</span> noise in many areas, ranging from human annoyance to impact on real estate values. It also synthesizes the findings of literature on several topics. Included in the literature were many original studies carried out under FAA and other Federal funding over the past two decades. Efforts have been made to present the critical findings and conclusions of pertinent research, providing, when possible, a bottom line conclusion, criterion or perspective. Issues related to <span class="hlt">aviation</span> noise are highlighted, and current policy is presented. Specific topic addressed include: annoyance; Hearing and hearing loss; noise metrics; human response to noise; speech interference; sleep interference; non-auditory health effects of noise; effects of noise on wild and domesticated animals; low frequency acoustical energy; impulsive noise; time of day weightings; noise contours; land use compatibility; and real estate values. This document is designed for a variety of users, from the individual completely unfamiliar with <span class="hlt">aviation</span> noise to experts in the field.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120014219','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120014219"><span>Alternate-<span class="hlt">Fueled</span> Flight: Halophytes, Algae, Bio-, and Synthetic <span class="hlt">Fuels</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hendricks, R. C.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Synthetic and biomass <span class="hlt">fueling</span> are now considered to be near-term <span class="hlt">aviation</span> alternate <span class="hlt">fueling</span>. The major impediment is a secure sustainable supply of these <span class="hlt">fuels</span> at reasonable cost. However, biomass <span class="hlt">fueling</span> raises major concerns related to uses of common food crops and grasses (some also called "weeds") for processing into <span class="hlt">aviation</span> <span class="hlt">fuels</span>. These issues are addressed, and then halophytes and algae are shown to be better suited as sources of aerospace <span class="hlt">fuels</span> and transportation <span class="hlt">fueling</span> in general. Some of the history related to alternate <span class="hlt">fuels</span> use is provided as a guideline for current and planned alternate <span class="hlt">fuels</span> testing (ground and flight) with emphasis on biofuel blends. It is also noted that lessons learned from terrestrial <span class="hlt">fueling</span> are applicable to space missions. These materials represent an update (to 2009) and additions to the Workshop on Alternate <span class="hlt">Fueling</span> Sustainable Supply and Halophyte Summit at Twinsburg, Ohio, October 17 to 18, 2007.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20080018613','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20080018613"><span>Alternate-<span class="hlt">Fueled</span> Flight: Halophytes, Algae, Bio-, and Synthetic <span class="hlt">Fuels</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hendricks, R. C.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Synthetic and biomass <span class="hlt">fueling</span> are now considered to be near-term <span class="hlt">aviation</span> alternate <span class="hlt">fueling</span>. The major impediment is a secure sustainable supply of these <span class="hlt">fuels</span> at reasonable cost. However, biomass <span class="hlt">fueling</span> raises major concerns related to uses of common food crops and grasses (some also called "weeds") for processing into <span class="hlt">aviation</span> <span class="hlt">fuels</span>. These issues are addressed, and then halophytes and algae are shown to be better suited as sources of aerospace <span class="hlt">fuels</span> and transportation <span class="hlt">fueling</span> in general. Some of the history related to alternate <span class="hlt">fuels</span> use is provided as a guideline for current and planned alternate <span class="hlt">fuels</span> testing (ground and flight) with emphasis on biofuel blends. It is also noted that lessons learned from terrestrial <span class="hlt">fueling</span> are applicable to space missions. These materials represent an update and additions to the Workshop on Alternate <span class="hlt">Fueling</span> Sustainable Supply and Halophyte Summit at Twinsburg, OH, Oct. 17 to 18, 2007 (ref. 1).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA258760','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA258760"><span>Criminal Acts Against Civil <span class="hlt">Aviation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://publicaccess.dtic.mil/psm/api/service/search/search">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>28 Soviet Union ...34 Feature Articles Civil <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> in the Soviet Union ................................................................. 39 Attacks on Airline...relief transport aircraft or hijackings; none were related to the Gulf war. Likewise, in Asia, there were few criminal acts against civil <span class="hlt">aviation</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=aviation+AND+materials&pg=3&id=EJ205465','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=aviation+AND+materials&pg=3&id=EJ205465"><span>Teachers' Guide For <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Education.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Aviation/Space, 1979</p> <p>1979-01-01</p> <p>This teacher's guide outlines the objectives, instructional procedures, student activities, and expected outcomes of an instructional unit on careers in <span class="hlt">aviation</span>, designed for fifth and sixth grade students. It emphasizes aerospace activities and job opportunities in <span class="hlt">aviation</span>. (GA)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA470339','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA470339"><span>National Strategy for <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Security</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://publicaccess.dtic.mil/psm/api/service/search/search">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2007-03-26</p> <p>for <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Security (hereafter referred to as the Strategy") to protect the Nation and its interests from threats in the Air Domain. The Secretary of... <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> security is best achieved by integrating public and private <span class="hlt">aviation</span> security global activities into a coordinated effort to detect, deter...might occur. The Strategy aligns Federal government <span class="hlt">aviation</span> security programs and initiatives into a comprehensive and cohesive national effort</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/AD0263637','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/AD0263637"><span>DEVELOPMENT OF HIGH TEMPERATURE HYDROCARBON JET <span class="hlt">FUELS</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://publicaccess.dtic.mil/psm/api/service/search/search">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>AIRCRAFT ENGINE OILS, *<span class="hlt">AVIATION</span> <span class="hlt">FUELS</span>, *HYDROCARBONS, *JET ENGINE <span class="hlt">FUELS</span>, *LUBRICANTS, *POLYCYCLIC COMPOUNDS, ALKYL RADICALS, BENZENE, CATALYSIS...CHEMICAL REACTIONS , COMBUSTION, CUMENES, DECOMPOSITION, ETHYLENES, FORMALDEHYDE, FRAGMENTATION, HIGH TEMPERATURE, HYDROGENATION, NAPHTHALENES, PHYSICAL</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Richard+AND+Adams&pg=3&id=ED408490','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Richard+AND+Adams&pg=3&id=ED408490"><span>Collegiate <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Review. September 1994.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Barker, Ballard M., Ed.</p> <p></p> <p>This document contains four papers on <span class="hlt">aviation</span> education. The first paper, "Why Aren't We Teaching Aeronautical Decision Making?" (Richard J. Adams), reviews 15 years of <span class="hlt">aviation</span> research into the causes of human performance errors in <span class="hlt">aviation</span> and provides guidelines for designing the next generation of aeronautical decision-making materials.…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=aviation+AND+engineer&id=ED408492','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=aviation+AND+engineer&id=ED408492"><span>Collegiate <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Review. September 1996.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Barker, Ballard M., Ed.</p> <p></p> <p>This document contains three papers on <span class="hlt">aviation</span> education. "Academic Integrity in Higher Education: Is Collegiate <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Education at Risk?" (Jeffrey A. Johnson) discusses academic integrity and legal issues in higher education and argues that academic integrity needs to be an integral part of collegiate <span class="hlt">aviation</span> education if students expect to…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-01-30/pdf/2013-01871.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-01-30/pdf/2013-01871.pdf"><span>78 FR 6276 - <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Communications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-01-30</p> <p>... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 87 <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Communications AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Proposed... pertaining to <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Communications remain up-to-date and continues to further the Commission's goals of... letter from the Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Administration (FAA) asking that the Commission not implement...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-03-29/pdf/2011-4003.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-03-29/pdf/2011-4003.pdf"><span>76 FR 17347 - <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Communications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-03-29</p> <p>... COMMISSION 47 CFR Parts 1, 2 and 87 <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Communications AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION...) addresses a number of important issues pertaining to the <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Radio Services, amending its rules in the interest of accommodating the communications needs of the <span class="hlt">aviation</span> community to the greatest...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-10-03/pdf/2013-22500.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-10-03/pdf/2013-22500.pdf"><span>78 FR 61203 - <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Services</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-10-03</p> <p>... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 87 <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Services AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final rule... permit ground testing of <span class="hlt">aviation</span> data link systems, and decline to authorize remote monitoring of... the airport surface, the Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Administration (FAA) seeks to expand the use of ASDE-X...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_16 --> <div id="page_17" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="321"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=development+AND+aeronautical&pg=3&id=ED026568','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=development+AND+aeronautical&pg=3&id=ED026568"><span>General <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Pilot Education Program.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Cole, Warren L.</p> <p></p> <p>General <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Pilot Education (GAPE) was a safety program designed to improve the aeronautical education of the general <span class="hlt">aviation</span> pilot in anticipation that the national aircraft accident rate might be improved. GAPE PROGRAM attempted to reach the average general <span class="hlt">aviation</span> pilot with specific and factual information regarding the pitfalls of his…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=meteorology&pg=7&id=EJ123264','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=meteorology&pg=7&id=EJ123264"><span><span class="hlt">Aviation</span>--An Individualized Approach</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Seeds, Fred F.</p> <p>1974-01-01</p> <p>Describes an individualized <span class="hlt">aviation</span> course for high school seniors. The course, broken down into Learner Education Guides with students progressing at their own learning rates, consists of the history of <span class="hlt">aviation</span>, career opportunities, the space program, basic aeronautics, navigation, meteorology, Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Administration regulations and…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED072923.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED072923.pdf"><span><span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Education Services and Resources.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Federal Aviation Administration (DOT), Washington, DC. Office of General Aviation.</p> <p></p> <p>A list of sources of information and material relating to <span class="hlt">aviation</span> education is presented in this pamphlet issued in May, 1972. Following a brief description of the mission of the Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Administration (FAA), reference materials mostly appropriate for school use are incorporated under the headings: <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Education Workshops, Careers…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA400335','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA400335"><span>Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Administration. <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Safety Counselor Manual</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://publicaccess.dtic.mil/psm/api/service/search/search">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>1996-06-17</p> <p>walking or driving unauthorized vehicles onto the aircraft operational areas. ASC’s should be alert for the presence of animals on the airport and...areas should be clean and free of debris. There should be no apparent <span class="hlt">fuel</span> leaks or spills . Pumps should be placarded for proper octane and/or <span class="hlt">fuel</span>...serve: You need: Coffee , Tea ____Thermal cups ____Spoons ____Sugar or substitute ____Cream or substitute ____Napkins Carbonated Soft Drinks or Fruit</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED439267.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED439267.pdf"><span>Collegiate <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Review, 1999.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Carney, Thomas Q., Ed.; Luedtke, Jacqueline R., Ed.; Johnson, Jeffrey A., Ed.</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>This document, published annually, contains six papers devoted to <span class="hlt">aviation</span> education. "Enhancing Global Competitiveness: Benchmarking Airline Operational Performance in Highly Regulated Environments" (Brent D. Bowen, Dean Headley, Karisa D. Kane, Rebecca K. Lutte) outlines a model to help policymakers and others evaluate the effects of…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=aerospace+AND+industry+AND+activities&id=ED159071','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=aerospace+AND+industry+AND+activities&id=ED159071"><span>Aerospace - <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Education.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Martin, Arthur I.; Jones, K. K.</p> <p></p> <p>This document outlines the aerospace-<span class="hlt">aviation</span> education program of the State of Texas. In this publication the course structures have been revised to fit the quarter system format of secondary schools in Texas. The four courses outlined here have been designed for students who will be consumers of aerospace products, spinoffs, and services or who…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=propulsion&pg=5&id=ED459321','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=propulsion&pg=5&id=ED459321"><span>Collegiate <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Review, 2001.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Carney, Thomas Q., Ed.</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>This issue contains these 12 papers: "Exploring the Viability of an Organizational Readiness Assessment for Participatory Management Programs in a Passenger Airline Carrier" (Al Bellamy); "Teaching the Pilots of the New Millennium: Adult Cooperative Education in <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Education" (Joseph F. Clark, III); "The Transfer of…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=aviation+AND+materials&pg=6&id=EJ123265','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=aviation+AND+materials&pg=6&id=EJ123265"><span><span class="hlt">Aviation</span> in Social Studies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Journal of Aerospace Education, 1974</p> <p>1974-01-01</p> <p>Describes an interdisciplinary unit approach for teaching social science concepts using <span class="hlt">aviation</span> as a vehicle to create interest and provide a meaningful context for grades K through 8. The general objectives and understandings for each grade level are described and some sample activities listed. (BR)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19730024132','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19730024132"><span><span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Forecasting in ICAO</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Mcmahon, J.</p> <p>1972-01-01</p> <p>Opinions or plans of qualified experts in the field are used for forecasting future requirements for air navigational facilities and services of international civil <span class="hlt">aviation</span>. ICAO periodically collects information from Stators and operates on anticipated future operations, consolidates this information, and forecasts the future level of activity at different airports.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930083025','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930083025"><span>Politics of <span class="hlt">aviation</span> fields</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Vivent, Jacques</p> <p>1922-01-01</p> <p>In short, the "politics of <span class="hlt">aviation</span>" lies in a few propositions: the need of having as large a number of fields as possible and of sufficient area; the utilization of the larger part of the existing military fields; the selection of uncultivated or unproductive fields, whenever technical conditions permit; ability to disregard (save in exceptional cases) objections of an agricultural nature.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED425297.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED425297.pdf"><span>Collegiate <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Review.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Lehrer, Henry R., Ed.</p> <p></p> <p>This document contains five research papers devoted to <span class="hlt">aviation</span> education and training. The first paper, "An Examination of the U.S. Airline Policy Regarding Child Restraint Systems" (Larry Carstenson, Donald Sluti, and Jacqueline Luedtke), examines communication of airline policy from airline management to airline personnel to the…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED247118.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED247118.pdf"><span>Guidelines for Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Administration Regional <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Education Coordinators and <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Education Facilitators.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Strickler, Mervin K., Jr.</p> <p></p> <p>This publication is designed to provide both policy guidance and examples of how to work with various constituencies in planning and carrying out appropriate Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Administration (FAA) <span class="hlt">aviation</span> education activities. Information is provided on the history of aerospace/<span class="hlt">aviation</span> education, FAA educational materials, aerospace/aviation…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA549973','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA549973"><span><span class="hlt">Aviation</span> <span class="hlt">Fueling</span>: A Cleaner, Greener Approach</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://publicaccess.dtic.mil/psm/api/service/search/search">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Malvaceae family, which includes kenaf, okra , and cotton (Figure 2 [8–10]). Additional potential markets include fibers, bioplastics, food/feed, and...International Journal of Rotating Machinery Bioplastics and fibers potential Cotton Okra Kenaf Kosteletzkya virginica (seashore mallow) Figure 2: Malvaceae family...en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cot- ton. [9] Wikipedia, “ Okra ,” 2009, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Okra . [10] Wikipedia, “Kenaf,” 2009, http://en.wikipedia.org</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA183088','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA183088"><span><span class="hlt">Aviation</span> <span class="hlt">Fuel</span> Property Effects on Altitude Relight</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://publicaccess.dtic.mil/psm/api/service/search/search">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>1987-05-01</p> <p>Final Report by K.S. Venkataramani GENERAL ELECTRIC COMPANY Aircraft Engine Business Group Cincinnati, Ohio 45215 Prepared for National Aeronautics and...Organihation Report No K. Vettkataiaman!. R87AEB111 10. Work Unit No 9. Performing Organization Name and Address GE Aircraft Engine Business Group 11...Contract or Grant No Aircraft Engine Business Group Evendale, Ohio 45215 NAS3-24215 5505-69-41 " _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 13 Type of Repcirelne Per•o</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-09-13/pdf/2010-22653.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-09-13/pdf/2010-22653.pdf"><span>75 FR 55626 - Office of the Secretary of Transportation: The Future of <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Advisory Committee (FAAC...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-09-13</p> <p>... evolving transportation needs, challenges, and opportunities of the global economy. The Environment Subcommittee is charged with examining steps and strategies that can be taken by <span class="hlt">aviation</span>-sector stakeholders... operational and technological improvements, sustainable alternative <span class="hlt">fuels</span>, and harmonized domestic and...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=126469&keyword=Aviation&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=78765616&CFTOKEN=95584945','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=126469&keyword=Aviation&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=78765616&CFTOKEN=95584945"><span>POLLUTION PREVENTION OPPORTUNITY ASSESSMENT - U.S. COAST GUARD <span class="hlt">AVIATION</span> TRAINING CENTER - MOBILE, AL</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>An assessment of pollution prevention opportunities at the U.S. Coast Guard <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Training Center in Mobile, AL, identified waste reduction opportunities in five major processing areas: flight simulator operation, aircraft maintenance, aircraft <span class="hlt">fueling</span>, aircraft washing, and...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19810007459','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19810007459"><span>A feasibility study for advanced technology integration for general <span class="hlt">aviation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Kohlman, D. L.; Matsuyama, G. T.; Hawley, K. E.; Meredith, P. T.</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>An investigation was conducted to identify candidate technologies and specific developments which offer greatest promise for improving safety, <span class="hlt">fuel</span> efficiency, performance, and utility of general <span class="hlt">aviation</span> airplanes. Interviews were conducted with general <span class="hlt">aviation</span> airframe and systems manufacturers and NASA research centers. The following technologies were evaluated for use in airplane design tradeoff studies conducted during the study: avionics, aerodynamics, configurations, structures, flight controls, and propulsion. Based on industry interviews and design tradeoff studies, several recommendations were made for further high payoff research. The most attractive technologies for use by the general <span class="hlt">aviation</span> industry appear to be advanced engines, composite materials, natural laminar flow airfoils, and advanced integrated avionics systems. The integration of these technologies in airplane design can yield significant increases in speeds, ranges, and payloads over present aircraft with 40 percent to 50 percent reductions in <span class="hlt">fuel</span> used.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20060046466','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20060046466"><span>Corporate Social Responsibility in <span class="hlt">Aviation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Phillips, Edwin D.</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>The dialog within <span class="hlt">aviation</span> management education regarding ethics is incomplete without a discussion of corporate social responsibility (CSR). CSR research requires discussion involving: (a) the current emphasis on CSR in business in general and <span class="hlt">aviation</span> specifically; (b) business and educational theory that provide a basis for <span class="hlt">aviation</span> companies to engage in socially responsible actions; (c) techniques used by <span class="hlt">aviation</span> and aerospace companies to fulfill this responsibility; and (d) a glimpse of teaching approaches used in university <span class="hlt">aviation</span> management classes. The summary of this research suggests educators explain CSR theory and practice to students in industry and collegiate <span class="hlt">aviation</span> management programs. Doing so extends the discussion of ethical behavior and matches the current high level of interest and activity within the <span class="hlt">aviation</span> industry toward CSR.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ACP....13..429O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ACP....13..429O"><span>Comparison of global 3-D <span class="hlt">aviation</span> emissions datasets</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Olsen, S. C.; Wuebbles, D. J.; Owen, B.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Aviation</span> emissions are unique from other transportation emissions, e.g., from road transportation and shipping, in that they occur at higher altitudes as well as at the surface. <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> emissions of carbon dioxide, soot, and water vapor have direct radiative impacts on the Earth's climate system while emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulfur oxides, carbon monoxide (CO), and hydrocarbons (HC) impact air quality and climate through their effects on ozone, methane, and clouds. The most accurate estimates of the impact of <span class="hlt">aviation</span> on air quality and climate utilize three-dimensional chemistry-climate models and gridded four dimensional (space and time) <span class="hlt">aviation</span> emissions datasets. We compare five available <span class="hlt">aviation</span> emissions datasets currently and historically used to evaluate the impact of <span class="hlt">aviation</span> on climate and air quality: NASA-Boeing 1992, NASA-Boeing 1999, QUANTIFY 2000, Aero2k 2002, and AEDT 2006 and <span class="hlt">aviation</span> <span class="hlt">fuel</span> usage estimates from the International Energy Agency. Roughly 90% of all <span class="hlt">aviation</span> emissions are in the Northern Hemisphere and nearly 60% of all fuelburn and NOx emissions occur at cruise altitudes in the Northern Hemisphere. While these datasets were created by independent methods and are thus not strictly suitable for analyzing trends they suggest that commercial <span class="hlt">aviation</span> fuelburn and NOx emissions increased over the last two decades while HC emissions likely decreased and CO emissions did not change significantly. The bottom-up estimates compared here are consistently lower than International Energy Agency fuelburn statistics although the gap is significantly smaller in the more recent datasets. Overall the emissions distributions are quite similar for fuelburn and NOx with regional peaks over the populated land masses of North America, Europe, and East Asia. For CO and HC there are relatively larger differences. There are however some distinct differences in the altitude distribution of emissions in certain regions for the Aero2k dataset.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ACPD...1216885O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ACPD...1216885O"><span>Comparison of global 3-D <span class="hlt">aviation</span> emissions datasets</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Olsen, S. C.; Wuebbles, D. J.; Owen, B.</p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Aviation</span> emissions are unique from other transportation emissions, e.g., from road transportation and shipping, in that they occur at higher altitudes as well as at the surface. <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> emissions of carbon dioxide, soot, and water vapor have direct radiative impacts on the Earth's climate system while emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulfur oxides, carbon monoxide (CO), and hydrocarbons (HC) impact air quality and climate through their effects on ozone, methane, and clouds. The most accurate estimates of the impact of <span class="hlt">aviation</span> on air quality and climate utilize three-dimensional chemistry-climate models and gridded four dimensional (space and time) <span class="hlt">aviation</span> emissions datasets. We compare five available <span class="hlt">aviation</span> emissions datasets currently and historically used to evaluate the impact of <span class="hlt">aviation</span> on climate and air quality: NASA-Boeing 1992, NASA-Boeing 1999, QUANTIFY 2000, Aero2k 2002, and AEDT 2006 and <span class="hlt">aviation</span> <span class="hlt">fuel</span> usage estimates from the International Energy Agency. Roughly 90% of all <span class="hlt">aviation</span> emissions are in the Northern Hemisphere and nearly 60% of all fuelburn and NOx emissions occur at cruise altitudes in the Northern Hemisphere. While these datasets were created by independent methods and are thus not strictly suitable for analyzing trends they suggest that commercial <span class="hlt">aviation</span> fuelburn and NOx emissions increased over the last two decades while HC emissions likely decreased and CO emissions did not change significantly. The bottom-up estimates compared here are consistently lower than International Energy Agency fuelburn statistics although the gap is significantly lower in the more recent datasets. Overall the emissions distributions are quite similar for fuelburn and NOx while for CO and HC there are relatively larger differences. There are however some distinct differences in the altitude distribution of emissions in certain regions for the Aero2k dataset.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_17 --> <div id="page_18" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="341"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-03-12/pdf/2012-5806.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-03-12/pdf/2012-5806.pdf"><span>77 FR 14583 - Notice to Manufacturers of Alternative <span class="hlt">Fuel</span> Vans</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-03-12</p> <p>... Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Administration Notice to Manufacturers of Alternative <span class="hlt">Fuel</span> Vans AGENCY: Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Administration (FAA), U.S. DOT. ACTION: Notice to Manufacturers of Alternative <span class="hlt">Fuel</span> Vans. SUMMARY: Projects... manufacturers of alternative <span class="hlt">fuel</span> vans. This notice requests information from manufacturers of alternative...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1082447','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1082447"><span><span class="hlt">Fuel</span> and <span class="hlt">fuel</span> blending components from biomass derived pyrolysis oil</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>McCall, Michael J.; Brandvold, Timothy A.; Elliott, Douglas C.</p> <p>2012-12-11</p> <p>A process for the conversion of biomass derived pyrolysis oil to liquid <span class="hlt">fuel</span> components is presented. The process includes the production of diesel, <span class="hlt">aviation</span>, and naphtha boiling point range <span class="hlt">fuels</span> or <span class="hlt">fuel</span> blending components by two-stage deoxygenation of the pyrolysis oil and separation of the products.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/212711','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/212711"><span>A survey of processes for producing hydrogen <span class="hlt">fuel</span> from different sources for automotive-propulsion <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cells</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Brown, L.F.</p> <p>1996-03-01</p> <p>Seven common <span class="hlt">fuels</span> are compared for their utility as hydrogen sources for proton-exchange-membrane <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cells used in automotive propulsion. Methanol, natural gas, gasoline, diesel <span class="hlt">fuel</span>, <span class="hlt">aviation</span> jet <span class="hlt">fuel</span>, ethanol, and hydrogen are the <span class="hlt">fuels</span> considered. Except for the steam reforming of methanol and using pure hydrogen, all processes for generating hydrogen from these <span class="hlt">fuels</span> require temperatures over 1000 K at some point. With the same two exceptions, all processes require water-gas shift reactors of significant size. All processes require low-sulfur or zero-sulfur <span class="hlt">fuels</span>, and this may add cost to some of them. <span class="hlt">Fuels</span> produced by steam reforming contain {approximately}70-80% hydrogen, those by partial oxidation {approximately}35-45%. The lower percentages may adversely affect cell performance. Theoretical input energies do not differ markedly among the various processes for generating hydrogen from organic-chemical <span class="hlt">fuels</span>. Pure hydrogen has severe distribution and storage problems. As a result, the steam reforming of methanol is the leading candidate process for on-board generation of hydrogen for automotive propulsion. If methanol unavailability or a high price <span class="hlt">demands</span> an alternative process, steam reforming appears preferable to partial oxidation for this purpose.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title14-vol1-sec29-979.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title14-vol1-sec29-979.pdf"><span>14 CFR 29.979 - Pressure refueling and <span class="hlt">fueling</span> provisions below <span class="hlt">fuel</span> level.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>... below <span class="hlt">fuel</span> level. 29.979 Section 29.979 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL <span class="hlt">AVIATION</span> ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant <span class="hlt">Fuel</span> System § 29.979 Pressure refueling and <span class="hlt">fueling</span> provisions below <span class="hlt">fuel</span> level. (a) Each <span class="hlt">fueling</span>...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title14-vol1-sec29-979.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title14-vol1-sec29-979.pdf"><span>14 CFR 29.979 - Pressure refueling and <span class="hlt">fueling</span> provisions below <span class="hlt">fuel</span> level.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>... below <span class="hlt">fuel</span> level. 29.979 Section 29.979 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL <span class="hlt">AVIATION</span> ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant <span class="hlt">Fuel</span> System § 29.979 Pressure refueling and <span class="hlt">fueling</span> provisions below <span class="hlt">fuel</span> level. (a) Each <span class="hlt">fueling</span>...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title14-vol1-sec29-979.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title14-vol1-sec29-979.pdf"><span>14 CFR 29.979 - Pressure refueling and <span class="hlt">fueling</span> provisions below <span class="hlt">fuel</span> level.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>... below <span class="hlt">fuel</span> level. 29.979 Section 29.979 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL <span class="hlt">AVIATION</span> ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant <span class="hlt">Fuel</span> System § 29.979 Pressure refueling and <span class="hlt">fueling</span> provisions below <span class="hlt">fuel</span> level. (a) Each <span class="hlt">fueling</span>...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title14-vol1-sec29-979.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title14-vol1-sec29-979.pdf"><span>14 CFR 29.979 - Pressure refueling and <span class="hlt">fueling</span> provisions below <span class="hlt">fuel</span> level.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>... below <span class="hlt">fuel</span> level. 29.979 Section 29.979 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL <span class="hlt">AVIATION</span> ADMINISTRATION... System § 29.979 Pressure refueling and <span class="hlt">fueling</span> provisions below <span class="hlt">fuel</span> level. (a) Each <span class="hlt">fueling</span> connection below the <span class="hlt">fuel</span> level in each tank must have means to prevent the escape of hazardous quantities of...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title14-vol1-sec29-979.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title14-vol1-sec29-979.pdf"><span>14 CFR 29.979 - Pressure refueling and <span class="hlt">fueling</span> provisions below <span class="hlt">fuel</span> level.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>... below <span class="hlt">fuel</span> level. 29.979 Section 29.979 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL <span class="hlt">AVIATION</span> ADMINISTRATION... System § 29.979 Pressure refueling and <span class="hlt">fueling</span> provisions below <span class="hlt">fuel</span> level. (a) Each <span class="hlt">fueling</span> connection below the <span class="hlt">fuel</span> level in each tank must have means to prevent the escape of hazardous quantities of...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..DFD.L4008K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..DFD.L4008K"><span>Comparison of atomization characteristics of drop-in and conventional jet <span class="hlt">fuels</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kannaiyan, Kumaran; Sadr, Reza; Micro Scale Thermo-Fluids Lab Team</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>Surge in energy <span class="hlt">demand</span> and stringent emission norms have been driving the interest on alternative drop-in <span class="hlt">fuels</span> in <span class="hlt">aviation</span> industry. The gas-to-liquid (GTL), synthetic paraffinic kerosene <span class="hlt">fuel</span> derived from natural gas, has drawn significant attention as drop-in <span class="hlt">fuel</span> due to its cleaner combustion characteristics when compared to other alternative <span class="hlt">fuels</span> derived from various feedstocks. The <span class="hlt">fuel</span> specifications such as chemical and physical properties of drop-in <span class="hlt">fuels</span> are different from those of the conventional jet <span class="hlt">fuels</span>, which can affect their atomization characteristics and in turn the combustion performance. The near nozzle liquid sheet dynamics of the drop-in <span class="hlt">fuel</span>, GTL, is studied at different nozzle operating conditions and compared with that of the conventional Jet A-1 <span class="hlt">fuel</span>. The statistical analysis of the near nozzle sheet dynamics shows that the drop-in <span class="hlt">fuel</span> atomization characteristics are comparable to those of the conventional <span class="hlt">fuel</span>. Furthermore, the microscopic spray characteristics measured using phase Doppler anemometry at downstream locations are slightly different between the <span class="hlt">fuels</span>. Authors acknowledge the support by National Priorities Research Program (NPRP) of Qatar National Research Fund through the Grant NPRP-7-1449-2-523.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20040191356','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20040191356"><span><span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Particle Emissions Workshop</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Wey, Chowen C. (Editor)</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Particle Emissions Workshop was held on November 18 19, 2003, in Cleveland, Ohio. It was sponsored by the National Aeronautic and Space Administration (NASA) under the Vehicle Systems Program (VSP) and the Ultra- Efficient Engine Technology (UEET) Project. The objectives were to build a sound foundation for a comprehensive particulate research roadmap and to provide a forum for discussion among U.S. stakeholders and researchers. Presentations included perspectives from the Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Administration, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, NASA, and United States airports. There were five interactive technical sessions: sampling methodology, measurement methodology, particle modeling, database, inventory and test venue, and air quality. Each group presented technical issues which generated excellent discussion. The five session leads collaborated with their members to present summaries and conclusions to each content area.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA455302','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA455302"><span>Review of <span class="hlt">Aviator</span> Selection</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://publicaccess.dtic.mil/psm/api/service/search/search">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2006-07-01</p> <p>Inventory ( Christal , 1975; Christal , Barucky, Driskill, & Collis, 1997; Tupes & Christal , 1961). Some of the research specifically focused on developing...Conscientiousness (Norman, 1963; Tupes & 5 Christal , 1961) would likely be enlightening, but has not (yet) been done in the <span class="hlt">aviator</span> selection arena. Griffin and...Tupes & Christal , 1961) or some other model (e.g., Hogan, 1991; Hough, Eaton, Dunnette, Kamp, & McCloy, 1990) as an organizing structure. One well</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20080031112','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20080031112"><span>The General <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Propulsion (GAP) Program</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>The General <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Propulsion (GAP) Program Turbine Engine Element focused on the development of an advanced small turbofan engine. Goals were good <span class="hlt">fuel</span> consumption and thrust-to-weight ratio, and very low production cost. The resulting FJX-2 turbofan engine showed the potential to meet all of these goals. The development of the engine was carried through to proof of concept testing of a complete engine system. The proof of concept engine was ground tested at sea level and in altitude test chambers. A turboprop derivative was also sea-level tested.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26549933','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26549933"><span>Using random forests to diagnose <span class="hlt">aviation</span> turbulence.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Williams, John K</p> <p></p> <p>Atmospheric turbulence poses a significant hazard to <span class="hlt">aviation</span>, with severe encounters costing airlines millions of dollars per year in compensation, aircraft damage, and delays due to required post-event inspections and repairs. Moreover, attempts to avoid turbulent airspace cause flight delays and en route deviations that increase air traffic controller workload, disrupt schedules of air crews and passengers and use extra <span class="hlt">fuel</span>. For these reasons, the Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Administration and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration have funded the development of automated turbulence detection, diagnosis and forecasting products. This paper describes a methodology for fusing data from diverse sources and producing a real-time diagnosis of turbulence associated with thunderstorms, a significant cause of weather delays and turbulence encounters that is not well-addressed by current turbulence forecasts. The data fusion algorithm is trained using a retrospective dataset that includes objective turbulence reports from commercial aircraft and collocated predictor data. It is evaluated on an independent test set using several performance metrics including receiver operating characteristic curves, which are used for FAA turbulence product evaluations prior to their deployment. A prototype implementation fuses data from Doppler radar, geostationary satellites, a lightning detection network and a numerical weather prediction model to produce deterministic and probabilistic turbulence assessments suitable for use by air traffic managers, dispatchers and pilots. The algorithm is scheduled to be operationally implemented at the National Weather Service's <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Weather Center in 2014.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23844612','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23844612"><span>Global civil <span class="hlt">aviation</span> black carbon emissions.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Stettler, Marc E J; Boies, Adam M; Petzold, Andreas; Barrett, Steven R H</p> <p>2013-09-17</p> <p>Aircraft black carbon (BC) emissions contribute to climate forcing, but few estimates of BC emitted by aircraft at cruise exist. For the majority of aircraft engines the only BC-related measurement available is smoke number (SN)-a filter based optical method designed to measure near-ground plume visibility, not mass. While the first order approximation (FOA3) technique has been developed to estimate BC mass emissions normalized by <span class="hlt">fuel</span> burn [EI(BC)] from SN, it is shown that it underestimates EI(BC) by >90% in 35% of directly measured cases (R(2) = -0.10). As there are no plans to measure BC emissions from all existing certified engines-which will be in service for several decades-it is necessary to estimate EI(BC) for existing aircraft on the ground and at cruise. An alternative method, called FOX, that is independent of the SN is developed to estimate BC emissions. Estimates of EI(BC) at ground level are significantly improved (R(2) = 0.68), whereas estimates at cruise are within 30% of measurements. Implementing this approach for global civil <span class="hlt">aviation</span> estimated aircraft BC emissions are revised upward by a factor of ~3. Direct radiative forcing (RF) due to <span class="hlt">aviation</span> BC emissions is estimated to be ~9.5 mW/m(2), equivalent to ~1/3 of the current RF due to <span class="hlt">aviation</span> CO2 emissions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160000873','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160000873"><span>Parametric Modeling Investigation of a Radially-Staged Low-Emission <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Combustor</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Heath, Christopher M.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Aviation</span> gas-turbine combustion <span class="hlt">demands</span> high efficiency, wide operability and minimal trace gas emissions. Performance critical design parameters include injector geometry, combustor layout, <span class="hlt">fuel</span>-air mixing and engine cycle conditions. The present investigation explores these factors and their impact on a radially staged low-emission <span class="hlt">aviation</span> combustor sized for a next-generation 24,000-lbf-thrust engine. By coupling multi-fidelity computational tools, a design exploration was performed using a parameterized annular combustor sector at projected 100% takeoff power conditions. Design objectives included nitrogen oxide emission indices and overall combustor pressure loss. From the design space, an optimal configuration was selected and simulated at 7.1, 30 and 85% part-power operation, corresponding to landing-takeoff cycle idle, approach and climb segments. All results were obtained by solution of the steady-state Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations. Species concentrations were solved directly using a reduced 19-step reaction mechanism for Jet-A. Turbulence closure was obtained using a nonlinear K-epsilon model. This research demonstrates revolutionary combustor design exploration enabled by multi-fidelity physics-based simulation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=305769','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=305769"><span>Opportunities and challenges for developing an oilseed to renewable jet <span class="hlt">fuel</span> industry</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Military and commercial <span class="hlt">aviation</span> have expressed interest in using renewable <span class="hlt">aviation</span> biofuels, with an initial goal of 1 billion gallons of drop-in <span class="hlt">aviation</span> biofuels by 2018. While these <span class="hlt">fuels</span> could come from many sources, hydrotreated renewable jet <span class="hlt">fuel</span> (HRJ) from vegetable oils have been demonstra...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120014267','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120014267"><span>The Future of Green <span class="hlt">Aviation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Edwards, Thomas</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Dr. Edwards'presentation provides an overview of <span class="hlt">aviation</span>'s economic impact in the U.S. including <span class="hlt">aviation</span>'s impact on environment and energy. The presentation discusses NASA's contributions to the advancement of commercial aircraft design highlighting the technology drivers and recent technology advancements for addressing community noise, energy efficiency and emissions. The presentation concludes with a preview of some of NASA's integrated systems solutions, such as novel aircraft concepts and advancements in propulsion that will enable the future of more environmentally compatible <span class="hlt">aviation</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19770009059','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19770009059"><span>NASA <span class="hlt">aviation</span> safety reporting system</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1976-01-01</p> <p>During the second quarter of the <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Safety Reporting System (ASRS) operation, 1,497 reports were received from pilots, controllers, and others in the national <span class="hlt">aviation</span> system. Details of the administration and results of the program to date are presented. Examples of alert bulletins disseminated to the <span class="hlt">aviation</span> community are presented together with responses to those bulletins. Several reports received by ASRS are also presented to illustrate the diversity of topics covered by reports to the system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19950005050','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19950005050"><span>General <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Task Force report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>General <span class="hlt">aviation</span> is officially defined as all <span class="hlt">aviation</span> except scheduled airlines and the military. It is the only air transportation to many communities throughout the world. In order to reverse the recent decline in general <span class="hlt">aviation</span> aircraft produced in the United States, the Task Force recommends that NASA provide the expertise and facilities such as wind tunnels and computer codes for aircraft design. General <span class="hlt">aviation</span> manufacturers are receptive to NASA's innovations and technological leadership and are expected to be effective users of NASA-generated technologies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19780016189','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19780016189"><span>General <span class="hlt">aviation</span> avionics equipment maintenance</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Parker, C. D.; Tommerdahl, J. B.</p> <p>1978-01-01</p> <p>Maintenance of general <span class="hlt">aviation</span> avionics equipment was investigated with emphasis on single engine and light twin engine general <span class="hlt">aviation</span> aircraft. Factors considered include the regulatory agencies, avionics manufacturers, avionics repair stations, the statistical character of the general <span class="hlt">aviation</span> community, and owners and operators. The maintenance, environment, and performance, repair costs, and reliability of avionics were defined. It is concluded that a significant economic stratification is reflected in the maintenance problems encountered, that careful attention to installations and use practices can have a very positive impact on maintenance problems, and that new technologies and a general growth in general <span class="hlt">aviation</span> will impact maintenance.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_18 --> <div id="page_19" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="361"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20090015031','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20090015031"><span>Suggestions for Popularizing Civil <span class="hlt">Aviation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1926-01-01</p> <p>The public generally is taking very little interest in the progress of Civil <span class="hlt">Aviation</span>, and the time has come to educate the public in aeronautics and to make them realize the far-reaching importance of air transport. Briefly, the whole problem resolves itself into discovering and applying means for bringing some of the many aspects and effects of civil <span class="hlt">aviation</span> into the everyday lives of the public. The report suggests three principal groups of methods: (1) Bring <span class="hlt">aviation</span> into daily contact with the public. (2) Bring the public into daily contact with <span class="hlt">aviation</span>. (3) General publicity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19770035385&hterms=aviation+materials&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Daviation%2Bmaterials','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19770035385&hterms=aviation+materials&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Daviation%2Bmaterials"><span>Technical highlights in general <span class="hlt">aviation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Stickle, J. W.</p> <p>1977-01-01</p> <p>Improvements in performance, safety, efficiency, and emissions control in general <span class="hlt">aviation</span> craft are reviewed. While change is slow, the U.S. industries still account for the bulk (90%) of the world's general <span class="hlt">aviation</span> fleet. Advances in general <span class="hlt">aviation</span> aerodynamics, structures and materials, acoustics, avionics, and propulsion are described. Supercritical airfoils, drag reduction design, stall/spin studies, crashworthiness and passenger safety, fiberglass materials, flight noise abatement, interior noise and vibration reduction, navigation systems, quieter and cleaner (reciprocating, turboprop, turbofan) engines, and possible benefits of the Global Position Satellite System to general <span class="hlt">aviation</span> navigation are covered in the discussion. Some of the developments are illustrated.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title14-vol1-sec34-81.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title14-vol1-sec34-81.pdf"><span>14 CFR 34.81 - <span class="hlt">Fuel</span> specifications.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false <span class="hlt">Fuel</span> specifications. 34.81 Section 34.81 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL <span class="hlt">AVIATION</span> ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT <span class="hlt">FUEL</span> VENTING AND... Emissions (Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 34.81 <span class="hlt">Fuel</span> specifications. <span class="hlt">Fuel</span> having specifications as...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title14-vol1-sec34-81.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title14-vol1-sec34-81.pdf"><span>14 CFR 34.81 - <span class="hlt">Fuel</span> specifications.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false <span class="hlt">Fuel</span> specifications. 34.81 Section 34.81 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL <span class="hlt">AVIATION</span> ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT <span class="hlt">FUEL</span> VENTING AND... Emissions (Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 34.81 <span class="hlt">Fuel</span> specifications. <span class="hlt">Fuel</span> having specifications as...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title14-vol1-sec34-81.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title14-vol1-sec34-81.pdf"><span>14 CFR 34.81 - <span class="hlt">Fuel</span> specifications.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false <span class="hlt">Fuel</span> specifications. 34.81 Section 34.81 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL <span class="hlt">AVIATION</span> ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT <span class="hlt">FUEL</span> VENTING AND... Emissions (Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 34.81 <span class="hlt">Fuel</span> specifications. <span class="hlt">Fuel</span> having specifications as...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19970003122','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19970003122"><span>Entrepreneurship within General <span class="hlt">Aviation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Ullmann, Brian M.</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>Many modern economic theories place great importance upon entrepreneurship in the economy. Some see the entrepreneur as the individual who bears risk of operating a business in the face of uncertainty about future conditions and who is rewarded through profits and losses. The 20th century economist Joseph Schumpter saw the entrepreneur as the medium by which advancing technology is incorporated into society as businesses seek competitive advantages through more efficient product development processes. Due to the importance that capitalistic systems place upon entrepreneurship, it has become a well studied subject with many texts to discuss how entrepreneurs can succeed in modern society. Many entrepreneuring and business management courses go so far as to discuss the characteristic phases and prominent challenges that fledgling companies face in their efforts to bring a new product into a competitive market. However, even with all of these aids, start-up companies fail at an enormous rate. Indeed, the odds of shepherding a new company through the travails of becoming a well established company (as measured by the ability to reach Initial Public Offering (IPO)) have been estimated to be six in 1,000,000. Each niche industry has characteristic challenges which act as barriers to entry for new products into that industry. Thus, the applicability of broad generalizations is subject to limitations within niche markets. This paper will discuss entrepreneurship as it relates to general <span class="hlt">aviation</span>. The goals of this paper will be to: introduce general <span class="hlt">aviation</span>; discuss the details of marrying entrepreneurship with general <span class="hlt">aviation</span>; and present a sample business plan which would characterize a possible entrepreneurial venture.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19180856','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19180856"><span>Fatigue countermeasures in <span class="hlt">aviation</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Caldwell, John A; Mallis, Melissa M; Caldwell, J Lynn; Paul, Michel A; Miller, James C; Neri, David F</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Pilot fatigue is a significant problem in modern <span class="hlt">aviation</span> operations, largely because of the unpredictable work hours, long duty periods, circadian disruptions, and insufficient sleep that are commonplace in both civilian and military flight operations. The full impact of fatigue is often underappreciated, but many of its deleterious effects have long been known. Compared to people who are well-rested, people who are sleep deprived think and move more slowly, make more mistakes, and have memory difficulties. These negative effects may and do lead to <span class="hlt">aviation</span> errors and accidents. In the 1930s, flight time limitations, suggested layover durations, and aircrew sleep recommendations were developed in an attempt to mitigate aircrew fatigue. Unfortunately, there have been few changes to aircrew scheduling provisions and flight time limitations since the time they were first introduced, despite evidence that updates are needed. Although the scientific understanding of fatigue, sleep, shift work, and circadian physiology has advanced significantly over the past several decades, current regulations and industry practices have in large part failed to adequately incorporate the new knowledge. Thus, the problem of pilot fatigue has steadily increased along with fatigue-related concerns over air safety. Accident statistics, reports from pilots themselves, and operational flight studies all show that fatigue is a growing concern within <span class="hlt">aviation</span> operations. This position paper reviews the relevant scientific literature, summarizes applicable U.S. civilian and military flight regulations, evaluates various in-flight and pre-/postflight fatigue countermeasures, and describes emerging technologies for detecting and countering fatigue. Following the discussion of each major issue, position statements address ways to deal with fatigue in specific contexts with the goal of using current scientific knowledge to update policy and provide tools and techniques for improving air safety.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19790041857&hterms=plant+research&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dplant%2Bresearch','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19790041857&hterms=plant+research&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dplant%2Bresearch"><span>NASA research on general <span class="hlt">aviation</span> power plants</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Stewart, W. L.; Weber, R. J.; Willis, E. A.; Sievers, G. K.</p> <p>1979-01-01</p> <p>Research activities within NASA to support general <span class="hlt">aviation</span> industry in improving propulsion engines are described. Near-term objectives include improvements of gasoline piston engines to achieve <span class="hlt">fuel</span> savings and reduce emissions well below EPA levels. To meet the longer term goals, advanced combustion research has been considered as essential in obtaining further improvements in BSFC (break specific <span class="hlt">fuel</span> consumption). Modifications of an aircraft rotary engine were tested and it was found that by increasing the compression ratio and other refinements the BSFC was improved by 15%. The applicability of available large turbofan engine technology to small engines in order to obtain significant reductions in noise and pollutant emissions is being tested. Studies have been conducted at exploring the possibility of achieving high improvements in cost and performance for turboprop engines of less than 1000 horsepower.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA134293','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA134293"><span><span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Officer Requirements Study.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://publicaccess.dtic.mil/psm/api/service/search/search">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>1982-08-31</p> <p>In the dynamics of the planning process, when potential force level changes are fre- quent, these computations are tedious and subject to error . Since...was tedious and subject to both computational and entry errors . The current ver- sion of the model corrects this deficiency. The <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Officer...k.N )) ,iFY(Fr\\) ,NniALT c nTn ,TIVP.W £-430 PROJ3 = POS-:(PRn1 Z=m4m) f-440 PROC, = Pnr3(PrOnf2="-) E.4! - INI T (1-F(20) )TR(PrOFL,. 137> C,460 = TIPO</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19760007001','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19760007001"><span>General <span class="hlt">aviation</span> technology assessment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Jacobson, I. D.</p> <p>1975-01-01</p> <p>The existing problem areas in general <span class="hlt">aviation</span> were investigated in order to identify those which can benefit from technological payoffs. The emphasis was placed on acceptance by the pilot/passenger in areas such as performance, safety, handling qualities, ride quality, etc. Inputs were obtained from three sectors: industry; government; and user, although slanted toward the user group. The results should only be considered preliminary due to the small sample sizes of the data. Trends are evident however and a general methodology for allocating effort in future programs is proposed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20010060385','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20010060385"><span><span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Safety Simulation Model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Houser, Scott; Yackovetsky, Robert (Technical Monitor)</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Safety Simulation Model is a software tool that enables users to configure a terrain, a flight path, and an aircraft and simulate the aircraft's flight along the path. The simulation monitors the aircraft's proximity to terrain obstructions, and reports when the aircraft violates accepted minimum distances from an obstruction. This model design facilitates future enhancements to address other flight safety issues, particularly air and runway traffic scenarios. This report shows the user how to build a simulation scenario and run it. It also explains the model's output.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED065293.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED065293.pdf"><span>Demonstration Aids for <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Education [National <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Education Workshop].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Federal Aviation Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.</p> <p></p> <p>This manual, compiled by a Committee of the Curriculum Laboratory of the Civil Air Patrol, contains 105 demonstrations and activities which can be used to introduce the elementary student to the properties of air as related to <span class="hlt">aviation</span>, what makes airplanes fly, and the role of weather in <span class="hlt">aviation</span>. (CP)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19780009117','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19780009117"><span>General <span class="hlt">aviation</span> energy-conservation research programs at NASA-Lewis Research Center</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Willis, E. A.</p> <p>1977-01-01</p> <p>The major thrust of NASA's nonturbine general <span class="hlt">aviation</span> engine programs is directed toward (1) reduced specific <span class="hlt">fuel</span> consumption, (2) improved <span class="hlt">fuel</span> tolerance; and (3) emission reduction. Current and planned future programs in such areas as lean operation, improved <span class="hlt">fuel</span> management, advanced cooling techniques and advanced engine concepts, are described. These are expected to lay the technology base, by the mid to latter 1980's, for engines whose total <span class="hlt">fuel</span> costs are as much as 30% lower than today's conventional engines.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7169891','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7169891"><span>The impact of improved cookstoves on the <span class="hlt">demand</span> for <span class="hlt">fuel</span> wood in sub-Saharan Africa, and its relation to deforestation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Zeinelabdin, E.O.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>Improved cooking stoves have been introduced over forty years ago to achieve a multiplicity of objectives, including containment of deforestation. This research has attempted to evaluate the experience of improve stoves in Sub-Saharan Africa in relation to the phenomenon of forest depletion, and to propose a procedure for calculating second order effects in the form of increased <span class="hlt">fuel</span> purchases. The procedure is designed to economize on data requirements, which often prevent analysis of important issues in less developed countries. Three prerequisite conditions for evaluation of improved stoves are examined: first, the relation of biomass energy consumption to forest depletion; second, the ability of improved stoves to realize significant improvements in <span class="hlt">fuel</span> burning efficiency and wide scale diffusion among households; and limited secondary purchases of <span class="hlt">fuel</span> wood. Examination of these conditions indicted that improved stoves will be effective in slowing deforestation in Sub-Saharan Africa where <span class="hlt">fuel</span> wood consumption contributes significantly to forest destruction. Results indicate that income-induced secondary purchases of <span class="hlt">fuel</span> are modest, but purchases resulting from price adjustments are relatively large.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19780009286','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19780009286"><span>Alternative aircraft <span class="hlt">fuels</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Longwell, J. P.; Grobman, J. S.</p> <p>1977-01-01</p> <p>The efficient utilization of fossil <span class="hlt">fuels</span> by future jet aircraft may necessitate the broadening of current <span class="hlt">aviation</span> turbine <span class="hlt">fuel</span> specifications. The most significant changes in specifications would be an increased aromatics content and a higher final boiling point in order to minimize refinery energy consumption and costs. These changes would increase the freezing point and might lower the thermal stability of the <span class="hlt">fuel</span>, and could cause increased pollutant emissions, increased combustor liner temperatures, and poorer ignition characteristics. The effects that broadened specification <span class="hlt">fuels</span> may have on present-day jet aircraft and engine components and the technology required to use <span class="hlt">fuels</span> with broadened specifications are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-07-09/pdf/2013-16464.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-07-09/pdf/2013-16464.pdf"><span>78 FR 41183 - Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Administration</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-07-09</p> <p>... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Administration Meeting: RTCA Program Management Committee AGENCY: Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span>.... Paige Williams, Management Analyst, NextGen, Business Operations Group, Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span>...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-02-09/pdf/2010-2710.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-02-09/pdf/2010-2710.pdf"><span>75 FR 6433 - Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Administration</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-02-09</p> <p>... Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Administration Notice of Availability of a Draft Environmental Assessment and Public...: Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Availability of a Draft Environmental... Chicago, Illinois. SUMMARY: The Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Administration (FAA) proposes to fund, construct,...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-12-20/pdf/2011-32500.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-12-20/pdf/2011-32500.pdf"><span>76 FR 78966 - Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Administration</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-12-20</p> <p>... Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Administration Approval of Noise Compatibility Program for Kona International Airport at Keahole, Keahole, North Kona, HI AGENCY: Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Administration, DOT. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Administration (FAA) announces its findings on the noise compatibility...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-04-28/pdf/2010-9096.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-04-28/pdf/2010-9096.pdf"><span>75 FR 22352 - <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Service Rules</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-04-28</p> <p>... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 87 <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Service Rules AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Proposed... the Federal Communications Commission we address pending issues regarding certain <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Service... Telecommunications and Information Administration (NTIA), and supported by the Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Administration...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-02-27/pdf/2013-04578.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-02-27/pdf/2013-04578.pdf"><span>78 FR 13395 - Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Administration</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-02-27</p> <p>... Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Administration Notice of Availability of Draft Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act (ANILCA) Section 810 Subsistence Evaluation. AGENCY: Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Administration (FAA... <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Administration, Airports Division, 222 West 7th Avenue, Box 14, Anchorage, AK 99513. 5....</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_19 --> <div id="page_20" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="381"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-10-23/pdf/2012-26034.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-10-23/pdf/2012-26034.pdf"><span>77 FR 64837 - Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Administration</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-10-23</p> <p>... Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Administration Fourth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 227, Standards of Navigation Performance AGENCY: Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Administration (FAA), U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION... 15, 2012. Kathy Hitt, Management Analyst, Business Operations Group, Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span>...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20060046507','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20060046507"><span>General <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Data Framework</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Blount, Elaine M.; Chung, Victoria I.</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>The Flight Research Services Directorate at the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) provides development and operations services associated with three general <span class="hlt">aviation</span> (GA) aircraft used for research experiments. The GA aircraft includes a Cessna 206X Stationair, a Lancair Colombia 300X, and a Cirrus SR22X. Since 2004, the GA Data Framework software was designed and implemented to gather data from a varying set of hardware and software sources as well as enable transfer of the data to other computers or devices. The key requirements for the GA Data Framework software include platform independence, the ability to reuse the framework for different projects without changing the framework code, graphics display capabilities, and the ability to vary the interfaces and their performance. Data received from the various devices is stored in shared memory. This paper concentrates on the object oriented software design patterns within the General <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Data Framework, and how they enable the construction of project specific software without changing the base classes. The issues of platform independence and multi-threading which enable interfaces to run at different frame rates are also discussed in this paper.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20040139158','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20040139158"><span><span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Communications Emulation Testbed</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Sheehe, Charles; Mulkerin, Tom</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Aviation</span> related applications that rely upon datalink for information exchange are increasingly being developed and deployed. The increase in the quantity of applications and associated data communications will expose problems and issues to resolve. NASA s Glenn Research Center has prepared to study the communications issues that will arise as datalink applications are employed within the National Airspace System (NAS) by developing an <span class="hlt">aviation</span> communications emulation testbed. The Testbed is evolving and currently provides the hardware and software needed to study the communications impact of Air Traffic Control (ATC) and surveillance applications in a densely populated environment. The communications load associated with up to 160 aircraft transmitting and receiving ATC and surveillance data can be generated in realtime in a sequence similar to what would occur in the NAS. The ATC applications that can be studied are the Aeronautical Telecommunications Network s (ATN) Context Management (CM) and Controller Pilot Data Link Communications (CPDLC). The Surveillance applications are Automatic Dependent Surveillance - Broadcast (ADS-B) and Traffic Information Services - Broadcast (TIS-B).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20030001006','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20030001006"><span>Some <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Growth Events</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Spearman, M. Leroy</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>The growth of <span class="hlt">aviation</span> since the first flight of a heavier-than-air powered manned vehicle in 1903 has been somewhat remarkable. Some of the events that have influenced this growth are reviewed in this paper. This review will include some events prior to World War I; the influence of the war itself; the events during the post-war years including the establishment of aeronautical research laboratories; and the influence of World War II which, among other things, introduced new technologies that included rocket and jet propulsion and supersonic aerodynamics. The subsequent era of aeronautical research and the attendant growth in <span class="hlt">aviation</span> over the past half century will be reviewed from the view point of the author who, since 1944, has been involved in the NACA/NASA aeronautical research effort at what is now the Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia. The review will discuss some of the research programs related to the development of some experimental aircraft, the Century series of fighter aircraft, multi-mission aircraft, advanced military aircraft and missiles, advanced civil aircraft, supersonic transports, spacecraft and others.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20000074058','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20000074058"><span><span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Weather Information Requirements Study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Keel, Byron M.; Stancil, Charles E.; Eckert, Clifford A.; Brown, Susan M.; Gimmestad, Gary G.; Richards, Mark A.; Schaffner, Philip R. (Technical Monitor)</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Safety Program (AvSP) has as its goal an improvement in <span class="hlt">aviation</span> safety by a factor of 5 over the next 10 years and a factor of 10 over the next 20 years. Since weather has a big impact on <span class="hlt">aviation</span> safety and is associated with 30% of all <span class="hlt">aviation</span> accidents, Weather Accident Prevention (WxAP) is a major element under this program. The <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Weather Information (AWIN) Distribution and Presentation project is one of three projects under this element. This report contains the findings of a study conducted by the Georgia Tech Research Institute (GTRI) under the Enhanced Weather Products effort, which is a task under AWIN. The study examines current <span class="hlt">aviation</span> weather products and there application. The study goes on to identify deficiencies in the current system and to define requirements for <span class="hlt">aviation</span> weather products that would lead to an increase in safety. The study also provides an overview the current set of sensors applied to the collection of <span class="hlt">aviation</span> weather information. New, modified, or fused sensor systems are identified which could be applied in improving the current set of weather products and in addressing the deficiencies defined in the report. In addition, the study addresses and recommends possible sensors for inclusion in an electronic pilot reporting (EPIREP) system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED118732.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED118732.pdf"><span>Aerospace/<span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Science Occupations.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of Occupational Education.</p> <p></p> <p>The guide was developed to provide secondary students the opportunity to study <span class="hlt">aviation</span> and aerospace education from the conceptual and career approach coupled with general education specifically related to science. Unit plans were prepared to motivate, develop skills, and offer counseling to the students of <span class="hlt">aviation</span> science and occupational…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ239311.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ239311.pdf"><span>Portraying Careers Awareness in <span class="hlt">Aviation</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Buckingham, Roy A.; Amato, Vincent</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>Discusses the purpose of the half-day program at Indiana State University which provides some notion of careers available in the <span class="hlt">aviation</span> industry focusing on the professional pilot career. It utilizes the simulators and <span class="hlt">aviation</span> teaching materials within the Aerospace Department's inventory to help orient college-bound high school students to…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19780045421&hterms=energy+conservation&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Denergy%2Bconservation','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19780045421&hterms=energy+conservation&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Denergy%2Bconservation"><span>General <span class="hlt">aviation</span> energy-conservation research programs at NASA-Lewis Research Center. [for non-turbine general <span class="hlt">aviation</span> engines</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Willis, E. A.</p> <p>1977-01-01</p> <p>A review is presented of non-turbine general <span class="hlt">aviation</span> engine programs underway at the NASA-Lewis Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio. The program encompasses conventional, lightweight diesel and rotary engines. Its three major thrusts are, in order of priority: (1) reduced SFCs; (2) improved <span class="hlt">fuels</span> tolerance; and (3) reducing emissions. Current and planned future programs in such areas as lean operation, improved <span class="hlt">fuel</span> management, advanced cooling techniques and advanced engine concepts, are described. These are expected to lay the technology base, by the mid to latter 1980s, for engines whose total <span class="hlt">fuel</span> costs are as much as 30% lower than today's conventional engines.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19790026811&hterms=alternative+energy+source&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dalternative%2Benergy%2Bsource','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19790026811&hterms=alternative+energy+source&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dalternative%2Benergy%2Bsource"><span>Alternative aircraft <span class="hlt">fuels</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Longwell, J. P.; Grobman, J.</p> <p>1978-01-01</p> <p>In connection with the anticipated impossibility to provide on a long-term basis liquid <span class="hlt">fuels</span> derived from petroleum, an investigation has been conducted with the objective to assess the suitability of jet <span class="hlt">fuels</span> made from oil shale and coal and to develop a data base which will allow optimization of future <span class="hlt">fuel</span> characteristics, taking energy efficiency of manufacture and the tradeoffs in aircraft and engine design into account. The properties of future <span class="hlt">aviation</span> <span class="hlt">fuels</span> are examined and proposed solutions to problems of alternative <span class="hlt">fuels</span> are discussed. Attention is given to the refining of jet <span class="hlt">fuel</span> to current specifications, the control of <span class="hlt">fuel</span> thermal stability, and combustor technology for use of broad specification <span class="hlt">fuels</span>. The first solution is to continue to develop the necessary technology at the refinery to produce specification jet <span class="hlt">fuels</span> regardless of the crude source.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17855219','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17855219"><span>The engineering options for mitigating the climate impacts of <span class="hlt">aviation</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Williams, Victoria</p> <p>2007-12-15</p> <p><span class="hlt">Aviation</span> is a growing contributor to climate change, with unique impacts due to the altitude of emissions. If existing traffic growth rates continue, radical engineering solutions will be required to prevent <span class="hlt">aviation</span> becoming one of the dominant contributors to climate change. This paper reviews the engineering options for mitigating the climate impacts of <span class="hlt">aviation</span> using aircraft and airspace technologies. These options include not only improvements in <span class="hlt">fuel</span> efficiency, which would reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, but also measures to reduce non-CO2 impacts including the formation of persistent contrails. Integrated solutions to optimize environmental performance will require changes to airframes, engines, avionics, air traffic control systems and airspace design. While market-based measures, such as offset schemes and emissions trading, receive growing attention, this paper sets out the crucial role of engineering in the challenge to develop a 'green air traffic system'.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3zF7BfJtBtA','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3zF7BfJtBtA"><span>Solving <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Challenges</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.nasa.gov/multimedia/videogallery/index.html">NASA Video Gallery</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>This video highlights the challenges NASA aeronautics researchers are tackling to reduce aircraft noise, emissions, <span class="hlt">fuel</span> consumption, and the innovative ways they're helping to debut NextGen, a rev...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/677060','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/677060"><span>Proceedings of the 6. international conference on stability and handling of liquid <span class="hlt">fuels</span>. Volume 1</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Giles, H.N.</p> <p>1998-12-01</p> <p>Volume 1 of these proceedings contain 29 papers related to <span class="hlt">aviation</span> <span class="hlt">fuels</span> and long term and strategic storage. Studies investigated <span class="hlt">fuel</span> contamination, separation processes, measurement techniques, thermal stability, compatibility with <span class="hlt">fuel</span> system materials, oxidation reactions, and degradation during storage.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-08-16/pdf/2013-19932.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-08-16/pdf/2013-19932.pdf"><span>78 FR 50138 - <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Rulemaking Advisory Committee; Meeting</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-08-16</p> <p>... Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Administration <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Rulemaking Advisory Committee; Meeting AGENCY: Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Rulemaking Advisory Committee (ARAC) meeting. SUMMARY: The... September 12, 2013. ADDRESSES: The meeting will take place at the Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Administration,...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-09-30/pdf/2010-24538.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-09-30/pdf/2010-24538.pdf"><span>75 FR 60493 - <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Rulemaking Advisory Committee; Renewal</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-09-30</p> <p>... Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Administration <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Rulemaking Advisory Committee; Renewal AGENCY: Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span>... Regulations, the FAA gives notice it has renewed the <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Rulemaking Advisory Committee (ARAC) for a 2..., Executive Director, <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Rulemaking Advisory Committee. BILLING CODE 4910-13-P...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-12-02/pdf/2013-28720.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-12-02/pdf/2013-28720.pdf"><span>78 FR 72141 - <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Rulemaking Advisory Committee; Meeting</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-12-02</p> <p>... Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Administration <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Rulemaking Advisory Committee; Meeting AGENCY: Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Rulemaking Advisory Committee (ARAC) meeting. SUMMARY: The... December 12, 2013. ADDRESSES: The meeting will take place at the Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Administration,...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-06-06/pdf/2013-13335.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-06-06/pdf/2013-13335.pdf"><span>78 FR 34139 - <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Rulemaking Advisory Committee; Meeting</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-06-06</p> <p>... Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Administration <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Rulemaking Advisory Committee; Meeting AGENCY: Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Rulemaking Advisory Committee (ARAC) meeting. SUMMARY: The... 13, 2013. ADDRESSES: The meeting will take place at the Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Administration,...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/AD1001842','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/AD1001842"><span>Alcohol-to-Jet (ATJ) <span class="hlt">Fuel</span> Blending Study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://publicaccess.dtic.mil/psm/api/service/search/search">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>to-Jet (ATJ) <span class="hlt">fuels</span> are slowly making their way through the approval process at ASTM as candidate <span class="hlt">aviation</span> <span class="hlt">fuels</span> or blendstocks. To expand upon...to-Jet (ATJ) <span class="hlt">fuels</span> are slowly making their way through the approval process at ASTM as candidate <span class="hlt">aviation</span> <span class="hlt">fuels</span> or blendstocks. Extensive testing... <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> <span class="hlt">Fuels</span> D5452 Total Contamination mg/L 0.30 0.30 1.0 max Total Volume Used mL 1000 1000 Distillation D86 IBP °C 174.1</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ACP....16.7317C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ACP....16.7317C"><span>Simulated 2050 <span class="hlt">aviation</span> radiative forcing from contrails and aerosols</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chen, Chih-Chieh; Gettelman, Andrew</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>The radiative forcing from <span class="hlt">aviation</span>-induced cloudiness is investigated by using the Community Atmosphere Model Version 5 (CAM5) in the present (2006) and the future (through 2050). Global flight distance is projected to increase by a factor of 4 between 2006 and 2050. However, simulated contrail cirrus radiative forcing in 2050 can reach 87 mW m-2, an increase by a factor of 7 from 2006, and thus does not scale linearly with <span class="hlt">fuel</span> emission mass. This is due to non-uniform regional increase in air traffic and different sensitivities for contrail radiative forcing in different regions. CAM5 simulations indicate that negative radiative forcing induced by the indirect effect of <span class="hlt">aviation</span> sulfate aerosols on liquid clouds in 2050 can be as large as -160 mW m-2, an increase by a factor of 4 from 2006. As a result, the net 2050 radiative forcing of contrail cirrus and <span class="hlt">aviation</span> aerosols may have a cooling effect on the planet. <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> sulfate aerosols emitted at cruise altitude can be transported down to the lower troposphere, increasing the aerosol concentration, thus increasing the cloud drop number concentration and persistence of low-level clouds. <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> black carbon aerosols produce a negligible net forcing globally in 2006 and 2050 in this model study. Uncertainties in the methodology and the modeling are significant and discussed in detail. Nevertheless, the projected percentage increase in contrail radiative forcing is important for future <span class="hlt">aviation</span> impacts. In addition, the role of <span class="hlt">aviation</span> aerosols in the cloud nucleation processes can greatly influence on the simulated radiative forcing from aircraft-induced cloudiness and even change its sign. Future research to confirm these results is necessary.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10178303','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10178303"><span>Ash cloud <span class="hlt">aviation</span> advisories</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Sullivan, T.J.; Ellis, J.S.; Schalk, W.W.; Nasstrom, J.S.</p> <p>1992-06-25</p> <p>During the recent (12--22 June 1991) Mount Pinatubo volcano eruptions, the US Air Force Global Weather Central (AFGWC) requested assistance of the US Department of Energy`s Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) in creating volcanic ash cloud <span class="hlt">aviation</span> advisories for the region of the Philippine Islands. Through application of its three-dimensional material transport and diffusion models using AFGWC meteorological analysis and forecast wind fields ARAC developed extensive analysis and 12-hourly forecast ash cloud position advisories extending to 48 hours for a period of five days. The advisories consisted of ``relative`` ash cloud concentrations in ten layers (surface-5,000 feet, 5,000--10,000 feet and every 10,000 feet to 90,000 feet). The ash was represented as a log-normal size distribution of 10--200 {mu}m diameter solid particles. Size-dependent ``ashfall`` was simulated over time as the eruption clouds dispersed. Except for an internal experimental attempt to model one of the Mount Redoubt, Alaska, eruptions (12/89), ARAC had no prior experience in modeling volcanic eruption ash hazards. For the cataclysmic eruption of 15--16 June, the complex three-dimensional atmospheric structure of the region produced dramatically divergent ash cloud patterns. The large eruptions (> 7--10 km) produced ash plume clouds with strong westward transport over the South China Sea, Southeast Asia, India and beyond. The low-level eruptions (< 7 km) and quasi-steady-state venting produced a plume which generally dispersed to the north and east throughout the support period. Modeling the sequence of eruptions presented a unique challenge. Although the initial approach proved viable, further refinement is necessary and possible. A distinct need exists to quantify eruptions consistently such that ``relative`` ash concentrations relate to specific <span class="hlt">aviation</span> hazard categories.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20050196673','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20050196673"><span>Safer <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Materials Tested</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Palaszewski, Bryan A.</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>A series of thermally stable polymer samples were tested. These materials are called low heat release materials and are designed for aircraft interior decorative materials. The materials are designed to give off a minimum amount of noxious gases when heated, which increases the possibility that people can escape from a burning aircraft. New cabin materials have suitably low heat release so that fire does not spread, toxic chemicals are not given off, and the fire-emergency escape time for crew and passengers is lengthened. These low heat-release materials have a variety of advantages and applications: interiors for ground-based facilities, interiors of space vehicles, and many commercial fire-protection environments. A microscale combustion calorimeter at the Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Administration's (FAA) Technical Center tested NASA Langley Research Center materials samples. The calorimeter is shown. A sharp, quantitative, and reproducible heat-release-rate peak is obtained in the microscale heat-release-rate test. The newly tested NASA materials significantly reduced the heat release capacity and total heat release. The thermal stability and flammability behavior of the samples was very good. The new materials demonstrated a factor of 4 reduction in total heat release over ULTEM (a currently used material). This information is provided in the following barchart. In other tests, the materials showed greater than a factor 9 reduction in heat-release capacity over ULTEM. The newly tested materials were developed for low dielectric constant, low color, and good solubility. A scale up of the material samples is needed to determine the repeatability of the performance in larger samples. Larger panels composed of the best candidate materials will be tested in a larger scale FAA Technical Center fire facility. The NASA Glenn Research Center, Langley (Jeff Hinkley), and the FAA Technical Center (Richard Lyon) cooperatively tested these materials for the Accident Mitigation</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_20 --> <div id="page_21" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="401"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=multicultural+AND+administration&pg=3&id=EJ895594','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=multicultural+AND+administration&pg=3&id=EJ895594"><span><span class="hlt">Demanding</span> Satisfaction</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Oguntoyinbo, Lekan</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>It was the kind of crisis most universities dread. In November 2006, a group of minority student leaders at Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis (IUPUI) threatened to sue the university if administrators did not heed <span class="hlt">demands</span> that included providing more funding for multicultural student groups. This article discusses how this threat…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20010081950','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20010081950"><span>AWE: <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Weather Data Visualization</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Spirkovska, Lilly; Lodha, Suresh K.</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>The two official sources for <span class="hlt">aviation</span> weather reports both require the pilot to mentally visualize the provided information. In contrast, our system, <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Weather Environment (AWE) presents <span class="hlt">aviation</span> specific weather available to pilots in an easy to visualize form. We start with a computer-generated textual briefing for a specific area. We map this briefing onto a grid specific to the pilot's route that includes only information relevant to his flight route that includes only information relevant to his flight as defined by route, altitude, true airspeed, and proposed departure time. By modifying various parameters, the pilot can use AWE as a planning tool as well as a weather briefing tool.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19770017132','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19770017132"><span>NASA <span class="hlt">aviation</span> safety reporting system</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1977-01-01</p> <p>During the third quarter of operation of the <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Safety Reporting System (ASRS), 1429 reports concerning <span class="hlt">aviation</span> safety were received from pilots, air traffic controllers, and others in the national <span class="hlt">aviation</span> system. Details of the administration and results of the program are discussed. The design and construction of the ASRS data base are briefly presented. Altitude deviations and potential aircraft conflicts associated with misunderstood clearances were studied and the results are discussed. Summary data regarding alert bulletins, examples of alert bulletins and responses to them, and a sample of deidentified ASRS reports are provided.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19770021116','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19770021116"><span>Agricultural <span class="hlt">aviation</span> user requirement priorities</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Kaplan, R. L.; Meeland, T.; Peterson, J. E.</p> <p>1977-01-01</p> <p>The results are given of a research project pertaining to the development of agricultural <span class="hlt">aviation</span> user requirement priorities. The raw data utilized in the project was obtained from the National Agricultural <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Association. A specially configured poll, developed by the Actuarial Research Corporation was used to solicit responses from NAAA members and others. The primary product of the poll is the specification of seriousness as determined by the respondents for some selected agricultural <span class="hlt">aviation</span> problem areas identified and defined during the course of an intensive analysis by the Actuarial Research Corporation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19770011161','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19770011161"><span>Alternative aircraft <span class="hlt">fuels</span> technology</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Grobman, J.</p> <p>1976-01-01</p> <p>NASA is studying the characteristics of future aircraft <span class="hlt">fuels</span> produced from either petroleum or nonpetroleum sources such as oil shale or coal. These future hydrocarbon based <span class="hlt">fuels</span> may have chemical and physical properties that are different from present <span class="hlt">aviation</span> turbine <span class="hlt">fuels</span>. This research is aimed at determining what those characteristics may be, how present aircraft and engine components and materials would be affected by <span class="hlt">fuel</span> specification changes, and what changes in both aircraft and engine design would be required to utilize these future <span class="hlt">fuels</span> without sacrificing performance, reliability, or safety. This <span class="hlt">fuels</span> technology program was organized to include both in-house and contract research on the synthesis and characterization of <span class="hlt">fuels</span>, component evaluations of combustors, turbines, and <span class="hlt">fuel</span> systems, and, eventually, full-scale engine demonstrations. A review of the various elements of the program and significant results obtained so far are presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED388252.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED388252.pdf"><span>A Hypermedia Information System for <span class="hlt">Aviation</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Hartzell, Karin M.</p> <p></p> <p>The Hypermedia Information System (HIS) is being developed under the auspices of the Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Administration (FAA) Office of <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Medicine's (AAM) Human Factors in <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Maintenance (HFAM) research program. The goal of the hypermedia project is to create new tools and methods for <span class="hlt">aviation</span>-related information storage and retrieval.…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Aviation&pg=3&id=EJ634233','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Aviation&pg=3&id=EJ634233"><span><span class="hlt">Aviation</span>. Career Focus, Volume 3, No. 4.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Reese, Susan</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>This special section on <span class="hlt">aviation</span> careers describes the programs of Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University, the Metro Tech <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Career Campus in Oklahoma City, the <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Technology Center at Vincennes University in Indianapolis, and the Miami-Dade Community College's Eig-Watson School of <span class="hlt">Aviation</span>. (JOW)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED411143.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED411143.pdf"><span>A Guide To <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Education Resources.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>National Coalition for Aviation Education, Washington, DC.</p> <p></p> <p>This guide to <span class="hlt">aviation</span> education resources was compiled by the National Coalition for <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Education (NCAE) which represents government, industry, and labor. NCAE's mission is to: (1) promote <span class="hlt">aviation</span> education activities and resources; (2) increase public understanding of the importance of <span class="hlt">aviation</span>; and (3) support educational initiatives at…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-09-29/pdf/2010-24367.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-09-29/pdf/2010-24367.pdf"><span>75 FR 60163 - The Future of <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Advisory Committee (FAAC) <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Safety Subcommittee; Notice of Meeting</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-09-29</p> <p>... Office of the Secretary of Transportation The Future of <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Advisory Committee (FAAC) <span class="hlt">Aviation</span>... of Transportation. ACTION: The Future of <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Advisory Committee (FAAC): <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Safety... Transportation, announces a meeting of the FAAC <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Safety Subcommittee, which will be held October 19,...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-09-17/pdf/2010-23205.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-09-17/pdf/2010-23205.pdf"><span>75 FR 57103 - The Future of <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Advisory Committee (FAAC) <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Safety Subcommittee; Notice of Meeting</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-09-17</p> <p>... Office of the Secretary of Transportation The Future of <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Advisory Committee (FAAC) <span class="hlt">Aviation</span>... of Transportation. ACTION: The Future of <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Advisory Committee (FAAC): <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Safety... Transportation, announces a meeting of the FAAC <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Safety Subcommittee, which will be held September...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-07-30/pdf/2010-18722.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-07-30/pdf/2010-18722.pdf"><span>75 FR 44998 - The Future of <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Advisory Committee (FAAC) <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Safety Subcommittee; Notice of Meeting</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-07-30</p> <p>...-OST-2010-0074] The Future of <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Advisory Committee (FAAC) <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Safety Subcommittee; Notice.... ACTION: The Future of <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Advisory Committee (FAAC): <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Safety Subcommittee; Notice of meeting... meeting of the FAAC <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Safety Subcommittee, which will be held August 24, 2010, in Chicago,...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19820025471','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19820025471"><span>Impact of Advanced Propeller Technology on Aircraft/Mission Characteristics of Several General <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Aircraft</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Keiter, I. D.</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>Studies of several General <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> aircraft indicated that the application of advanced technologies to General <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> propellers can reduce <span class="hlt">fuel</span> consumption in future aircraft by a significant amount. Propeller blade weight reductions achieved through the use of composites, propeller efficiency and noise improvements achieved through the use of advanced concepts and improved propeller analytical design methods result in aircraft with lower operating cost, acquisition cost and gross weight.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19990063635','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19990063635"><span>Principles and Guidelines for Duty and Rest Scheduling in Commercial <span class="hlt">Aviation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Dinges, David F.; Graeber, R. Curtis; Rosekind, Mark R.; Samel, Alexander</p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">aviation</span> industry requires 24-hour activities to meet operational <span class="hlt">demands</span>. Growth in global long-haul, regional, overnight cargo, and short-haul domestic operations will continue to increase these round-the-clock requirements. Flight crews must be available to support 24-hour-a-day operations to meet these industry <span class="hlt">demands</span>. Both domestic and international <span class="hlt">aviation</span> can also require crossing multiple time zones. Therefore, shift work, night work, irregular work schedules, unpredictable work schedules, and dm zone changes will continue to be commonplace components of the <span class="hlt">aviation</span> industry. These factors pose known challenges to human physiology, and because they result in performance-impairing fatigue, they pose a risk to safety. It is critical to acknowledge and, whenever possible, incorporate scientific information on fatigue, human sleep, and circadian physiology into 24-hour <span class="hlt">aviation</span> operations. Utilization of such scientific information can help promote crew performance and alertness during flight operations and thereby maintain and improve the safety margin.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Yfr6WDFN7d0','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Yfr6WDFN7d0"><span>Accelerating to New <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Horizons</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.nasa.gov/multimedia/videogallery/index.html">NASA Video Gallery</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>NASA has a 10-year plan to accelerate <span class="hlt">aviation</span> research that includes the design, build and flight of a series of piloted X-planes -- experimental aircraft -- which will test advanced technologies ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-03-29/pdf/2011-4007.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-03-29/pdf/2011-4007.pdf"><span>76 FR 17353 - <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Communications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-03-29</p> <p>... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 87 <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Communications AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final rule; suspension of effectiveness. SUMMARY: In this document, the Federal Communications...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19810013522','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19810013522"><span>Quiet Clean General <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Turbofan (QCGAT) technology study, volume 1</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1975-01-01</p> <p>The preliminary design of an engine which satisfies the requirements of a quiet, clean, general <span class="hlt">aviation</span> turbofan (QCGAT) engine is described. Also an experimental program to demonstrate performance is suggested. The T700 QCGAT engine preliminary design indicates that it will radiate noise at the same level as an aircraft without engine noise, have exhaust emissions within the EPA 1981 Standards, have lower <span class="hlt">fuel</span> consumption than is available in comparable size engines, and have sufficient life for five years between overhauls.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19820014394','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19820014394"><span>Advanced general <span class="hlt">aviation</span> engine/airframe integration study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Zmroczek, L. A.</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>A comparison of the in-airframe performance and efficiency of the advanced engine concepts is presented. The results indicate that the proposed advanced engines can significantly improve the performance and economy of general <span class="hlt">aviation</span> airplanes. The engine found to be most promising is the highly advanced version of a rotary combustion (Wankel) engine. The low weight and <span class="hlt">fuel</span> consumption of this engine, as well as its small size, make it suited for aircraft use.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6340062','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6340062"><span>General <span class="hlt">aviation</span> activity and avionics survey. Annual summary report, CY 1985</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Not Available</p> <p>1987-03-01</p> <p>This report presents the results and a description of the 1985 General <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Activity and Avionics Survey. The survey was conducted during 1986 by the FAA to obtain information on the activity and avionics of the United States registered general <span class="hlt">aviation</span> aircraft fleet, the dominant component of civil <span class="hlt">aviation</span> in the U.S. The survey was based on a statistically selected sample of about 10.3 percent of the general <span class="hlt">aviation</span> fleet. A responses rate of 63.7 percent was obtained. Survey results based upon response but are expanded upward to represent the total population. Survey results revealed that during 1985 an estimated 34.1 million hours of flying time were logged and 88.7 million operations were performed by the 210,654 active general <span class="hlt">aviation</span> aircraft in the U.S. fleet. The mean annual flight time per aircraft was 158.2 hours. The active aircraft represented about 77.9 percent of the registered general <span class="hlt">aviation</span> fleet. The report contains breakdowns of these and other statistics by manufacturer/model group, aircraft, state and region of based aircraft, and primary use. Also included are <span class="hlt">fuel</span> consumption, lifetime airframe hours, avionics, engine hours, and miles flown estimates, as well as tables for detailed analysis of the avionics capabilities of the general <span class="hlt">aviation</span> fleet. New to the report this year are estimates of the number of landings, IFR hours flown, and the cost and grade of <span class="hlt">fuel</span> consumed by the GA fleet.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20010027423','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20010027423"><span>General <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Aircraft Reliability Study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Pettit, Duane; Turnbull, Andrew; Roelant, Henk A. (Technical Monitor)</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>This reliability study was performed in order to provide the <span class="hlt">aviation</span> community with an estimate of Complex General <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> (GA) Aircraft System reliability. To successfully improve the safety and reliability for the next generation of GA aircraft, a study of current GA aircraft attributes was prudent. This was accomplished by benchmarking the reliability of operational Complex GA Aircraft Systems. Specifically, Complex GA Aircraft System reliability was estimated using data obtained from the logbooks of a random sample of the Complex GA Aircraft population.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70017724','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70017724"><span>Volcanic hazards and <span class="hlt">aviation</span> safety</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Casadevall, Thomas J.; Thompson, Theodore B.; Ewert, John W.; ,</p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>An aeronautical chart was developed to determine the relative proximity of volcanoes or ash clouds to the airports and flight corridors that may be affected by volcanic debris. The map aims to inform and increase awareness about the close spatial relationship between volcanoes and <span class="hlt">aviation</span> operations. It shows the locations of the active volcanoes together with selected aeronautical navigation aids and great-circle routes. The map mitigates the threat that volcanic hazards pose to aircraft and improves <span class="hlt">aviation</span> safety.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_21 --> <div id="page_22" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="421"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/AD1015591','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/AD1015591"><span>Researcher Role in <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Operations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://publicaccess.dtic.mil/psm/api/service/search/search">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2016-05-31</p> <p>PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) AND ADDRESS(ES) German Aerospace Center, Linder Hohe, 51145 Koln, Germany (1) Psychology Dept., Wright...International Symposium on <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Psychology (ISAP) in May of 2015. This Panel followed the Practitioner Plenary Panel held on the preceding day of...this chapter. 15. SUBJECT TERMS <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Psychology , Research Design, Safety, Researcher/Practitioner Communications 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=SSC-2007-00060&hterms=kiln&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dkiln','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=SSC-2007-00060&hterms=kiln&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dkiln"><span>PRCC <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Students</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne's Jeff Hansell, right, explains functions of a space shuttle main engine to Pearl River Community College <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Maintenance Technology Program students. Christopher Bryon, left, of Bay St. Louis, Ret Tolar of Kiln, Dan Holston of Baxterville and Billy Zugg of Long Beach took a recent tour of the SSME Processing Facility and the E-1 Test Complex at Stennis Space Center in South Mississippi. The students attend class adjacent to the Stennis International Airport tarmac in Kiln, where they get hands-on experience. PRCC's program prepares students to be responsible for the inspection, repair and maintenance of technologically advanced aircraft. A contractor to NASA, Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne in Canoga Park, Calif., manufactures the space shuttle main engine and its high-pressure turbo pumps. SSC was established in the 1960s to test the huge engines for the Saturn V moon rockets. Now 40 years later, the center tests every main engine for the space shuttle, and is America's largest rocket engine test complex. SSC will soon begin testing the rocket engines that will power spacecraft carrying Americans back to the moon and on to Mars.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20080000860','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20080000860"><span>Potential Carbon Negative Commercial <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> through Land Management</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hendricks, Robert C.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Brazilian terra preta soil and char-enhanced soil agricultural systems have demonstrated both enhanced plant biomass and crop yield and functions as a carbon sink. Similar carbon sinking has been demonstrated for both glycophyte and halophyte plants and plant roots. Within the assumption of 3.7 t-C/ha/yr soils and plant root carbon sinking, it is possible to provide carbon neutral U.S. commercial <span class="hlt">aviation</span> using about 8.5% of U.S. arable lands. The total airline CO2 release would be offset by carbon credits for properly managed soils and plant rooting, becoming carbon neutral for carbon sequestered synjet processing. If these lands were also used to produce biomass <span class="hlt">fuel</span> crops such as soybeans at an increased yield of 60 bu/acre (225gal/ha), they would provide over 3.15 10(exp 9) gallons biodiesel <span class="hlt">fuel</span>. If all this <span class="hlt">fuel</span> were refined into biojet it would provide a 16% biojet-84% synjet blend. This allows the U.S. <span class="hlt">aviation</span> industry to become carbon negative (carbon negative commercial <span class="hlt">aviation</span> through carbon credits). Arid land recovery could yield even greater benefits.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA570667','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA570667"><span>An Analysis of <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Maintenance Operations and Supporting Costs, and Cost Capturing Systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://publicaccess.dtic.mil/psm/api/service/search/search">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-12-04</p> <p>ABBREVIATIONS ACES <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Cost Evaluation System AESA Active Electronically Scanned Array AFAST <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Financial Analysis Support Tool AIMD Aircraft...the Secretary of Defense SAF/FM Secretary of the Air Force, Financial Management SUF Suffix TEC Type Equipment Code TD Technical Directive TOC... Array (AESA), was installed and its <span class="hlt">demand</span> placed on the GCU in 2005 compared to the current utilization. The utilization change is illustrated by</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA576313','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA576313"><span>An Analysis of <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Maintenance Operations and Supporting Costs, and Cost Capturing Systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://publicaccess.dtic.mil/psm/api/service/search/search">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>AND ABBREVIATIONS AESA Active Electronically Scanned Array ACES <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Cost Evaluation System AFAST <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Financial Analysis Support Tool...Tempo OSD Office of the Secretary of Defense SAF/FM Secretary of the Air Force, Financial Management SUF Suffix TEC Type Equipment Code TD...utilization. Figure 1 illustrates a time stamp when the new radar system, Active Electronically Scanned Array (AESA) was installed and its <span class="hlt">demand</span> placed</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA107106','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA107106"><span>Symposium on Commercial <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Energy Conservation Strategies, April 2-3, 1981. Papers and Presentations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://publicaccess.dtic.mil/psm/api/service/search/search">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>1981-04-03</p> <p>controversy. As the costs of jet <span class="hlt">fuel</span> have continued to spiral upward, many people in the <span class="hlt">aviation</span> Industry have expressed interest in obtain- ing...fully automated operations, all other approaches have usually been people intensive and as such have repeatedly come under the scrutiny of cost ...delays cost the airline industry some 1,000,000,000 gallons of wasted <span class="hlt">fuel</span>. The most productive way to reduce this huge waste of <span class="hlt">fuel</span> is to develop a</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title14-vol3/pdf/CFR-2011-title14-vol3-sec125-133.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title14-vol3/pdf/CFR-2011-title14-vol3-sec125-133.pdf"><span>14 CFR 125.133 - <span class="hlt">Fuel</span> valves.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false <span class="hlt">Fuel</span> valves. 125.133 Section 125.133 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL <span class="hlt">AVIATION</span> ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS....133 <span class="hlt">Fuel</span> valves. Each <span class="hlt">fuel</span> valve must— (a) Comply with § 125.155; (b) Have positive stops or...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title14-vol3/pdf/CFR-2014-title14-vol3-sec125-133.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title14-vol3/pdf/CFR-2014-title14-vol3-sec125-133.pdf"><span>14 CFR 125.133 - <span class="hlt">Fuel</span> valves.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false <span class="hlt">Fuel</span> valves. 125.133 Section 125.133 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL <span class="hlt">AVIATION</span> ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS....133 <span class="hlt">Fuel</span> valves. Each <span class="hlt">fuel</span> valve must— (a) Comply with § 125.155; (b) Have positive stops or...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title14-vol3/pdf/CFR-2012-title14-vol3-sec125-133.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title14-vol3/pdf/CFR-2012-title14-vol3-sec125-133.pdf"><span>14 CFR 125.133 - <span class="hlt">Fuel</span> valves.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false <span class="hlt">Fuel</span> valves. 125.133 Section 125.133 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL <span class="hlt">AVIATION</span> ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS....133 <span class="hlt">Fuel</span> valves. Each <span class="hlt">fuel</span> valve must— (a) Comply with § 125.155; (b) Have positive stops or...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title14-vol1-sec27-991.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title14-vol1-sec27-991.pdf"><span>14 CFR 27.991 - <span class="hlt">Fuel</span> pumps.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false <span class="hlt">Fuel</span> pumps. 27.991 Section 27.991 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL <span class="hlt">AVIATION</span> ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant <span class="hlt">Fuel</span> System Components § 27.991 <span class="hlt">Fuel</span> pumps. Compliance...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title14-vol1-sec27-991.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title14-vol1-sec27-991.pdf"><span>14 CFR 27.991 - <span class="hlt">Fuel</span> pumps.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false <span class="hlt">Fuel</span> pumps. 27.991 Section 27.991 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL <span class="hlt">AVIATION</span> ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant <span class="hlt">Fuel</span> System Components § 27.991 <span class="hlt">Fuel</span> pumps. Compliance...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title14-vol3/pdf/CFR-2013-title14-vol3-sec125-133.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title14-vol3/pdf/CFR-2013-title14-vol3-sec125-133.pdf"><span>14 CFR 125.133 - <span class="hlt">Fuel</span> valves.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false <span class="hlt">Fuel</span> valves. 125.133 Section 125.133 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL <span class="hlt">AVIATION</span> ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS....133 <span class="hlt">Fuel</span> valves. Each <span class="hlt">fuel</span> valve must— (a) Comply with § 125.155; (b) Have positive stops or...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title14-vol1-sec27-991.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title14-vol1-sec27-991.pdf"><span>14 CFR 27.991 - <span class="hlt">Fuel</span> pumps.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false <span class="hlt">Fuel</span> pumps. 27.991 Section 27.991 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL <span class="hlt">AVIATION</span> ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant <span class="hlt">Fuel</span> System Components § 27.991 <span class="hlt">Fuel</span> pumps. Compliance...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title14-vol1-sec27-991.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title14-vol1-sec27-991.pdf"><span>14 CFR 27.991 - <span class="hlt">Fuel</span> pumps.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false <span class="hlt">Fuel</span> pumps. 27.991 Section 27.991 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL <span class="hlt">AVIATION</span> ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant <span class="hlt">Fuel</span> System Components § 27.991 <span class="hlt">Fuel</span> pumps. Compliance...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title14-vol1-sec27-991.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title14-vol1-sec27-991.pdf"><span>14 CFR 27.991 - <span class="hlt">Fuel</span> pumps.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false <span class="hlt">Fuel</span> pumps. 27.991 Section 27.991 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL <span class="hlt">AVIATION</span> ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant <span class="hlt">Fuel</span> System Components § 27.991 <span class="hlt">Fuel</span> pumps. Compliance...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title14-vol3/pdf/CFR-2010-title14-vol3-sec125-133.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title14-vol3/pdf/CFR-2010-title14-vol3-sec125-133.pdf"><span>14 CFR 125.133 - <span class="hlt">Fuel</span> valves.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false <span class="hlt">Fuel</span> valves. 125.133 Section 125.133 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL <span class="hlt">AVIATION</span> ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS....133 <span class="hlt">Fuel</span> valves. Each <span class="hlt">fuel</span> valve must— (a) Comply with § 125.155; (b) Have positive stops or...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Aviation&pg=6&id=EJ585074','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Aviation&pg=6&id=EJ585074"><span>General <span class="hlt">Aviation</span>: A Stepping Stone to a World Career in <span class="hlt">Aviation</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Hulley, Bruce J.</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>A survey of 27 countries identified private pilot flight-hour requirements, pilot training costs, youth <span class="hlt">aviation</span> programs, and career information about <span class="hlt">aviation</span> occupations. The information can be used to motivate young people to enter <span class="hlt">aviation</span> careers. (JOW)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=aviation+AND+materials&id=ED279823','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=aviation+AND+materials&id=ED279823"><span><span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Maintenance Technology. General. G101 <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Mathematics and Physics. Instructor Material.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Oklahoma State Board of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.</p> <p></p> <p>These instructor materials for an <span class="hlt">aviation</span> maintenance technology course contain three instructional modules covering safety, <span class="hlt">aviation</span> mathematics, and <span class="hlt">aviation</span> physics. Each module may contain an introduction and module objective, specific objectives, an instructor's module implementation guide, technical information supplements, transparency…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19770021378','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19770021378"><span>Alternate aircraft <span class="hlt">fuels</span>: Prospects and operational implications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Witcofski, R. D.</p> <p>1977-01-01</p> <p>The potential use of coal-derived <span class="hlt">aviation</span> <span class="hlt">fuels</span> was assessed. The studies addressed the prices and thermal efficiencies associated with the production of coal-derived <span class="hlt">aviation</span> kerosene, liquid methane and liquid hydrogen and the air terminal requirements and subsonic transport performance when utilizing liquid hydrogen. The <span class="hlt">fuel</span> production studies indicated that liquid methane can be produced at a lower price and with a higher thermal efficiency than <span class="hlt">aviation</span> kerosene or liquid hydrogen. Ground facilities of liquefaction, storage, distribution and refueling of liquid hydrogen <span class="hlt">fueled</span> aircraft at airports appear technically feasibile. The aircraft studies indicate modest onboard energy savings for hydrogen compared to conventional <span class="hlt">fuels</span>. Liquid hydrogen was found to be superior to both <span class="hlt">aviation</span> kerosene and liquid methane from the standpoint of aircraft engine emissions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19800020807','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19800020807"><span>Military jet <span class="hlt">fuel</span> from shale oil</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Coppola, E. N.</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>Investigations leading to a specification for <span class="hlt">aviation</span> turbine <span class="hlt">fuel</span> produced from whole crude shale oil are described. Refining methods involving hydrocracking, hydrotreating, and extraction processes are briefly examined and their production capabilities are assessed.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_22 --> <div id="page_23" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="441"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhDT.......219H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhDT.......219H"><span>Cyber threats within civil <span class="hlt">aviation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Heitner, Kerri A.</p> <p></p> <p>Existing security policies in civil <span class="hlt">aviation</span> do not adequately protect against evolving cyber threats. Cybersecurity has been recognized as a top priority among some <span class="hlt">aviation</span> industry leaders. Heightened concerns regarding cyber threats and vulnerabilities surround components utilized in compliance with the Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Administration's (FAA) Next Generation Air Transportation (NextGen) implementation. Automated Dependent Surveillance-B (ADS-B) and Electronic Flight Bags (EFB) have both been exploited through the research of experienced computer security professionals. Civil <span class="hlt">aviation</span> is essential to international infrastructure and if its critical assets were compromised, it could pose a great risk to public safety and financial infrastructure. The purpose of this research was to raise awareness of aircraft system vulnerabilities in order to provoke change among current national and international cybersecurity policies, procedures and standards. Although the education of cyber threats is increasing in the <span class="hlt">aviation</span> industry, there is not enough urgency when creating cybersecurity policies. This project intended to answer the following questions: What are the cyber threats to ADS-B of an aircraft in-flight? What are the cyber threats to EFB? What is the <span class="hlt">aviation</span> industry's response to the issue of cybersecurity and in-flight safety? ADS-B remains unencrypted while the FAA's mandate to implement this system is rapidly approaching. The cyber threat of both portable and non-portable EFB's have received increased publicity, however, airlines are not responding quick enough (if at all) to create policies for the use of these devices. Collectively, the <span class="hlt">aviation</span> industry is not being proactive enough to protect its aircraft or airport network systems. That is not to say there are not leaders in cybersecurity advancement. These proactive organizations must set the standard for the future to better protect society and it's most reliable form of transportation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19830014175&hterms=fuel+oil&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Dfuel%2Boil','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19830014175&hterms=fuel+oil&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Dfuel%2Boil"><span>Lightweight aircraft engines, the potential and problems for use of automotive <span class="hlt">fuels</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Patterson, D. J.</p> <p>1983-01-01</p> <p>A comprehensive data research and analysis for evaluating the use of automotive <span class="hlt">fuels</span> as a substitute for <span class="hlt">aviation</span> grade <span class="hlt">fuel</span> by piston-type general <span class="hlt">aviation</span> aircraft engines is presented. Historically known problems and potential problems with <span class="hlt">fuels</span> were reviewed for possible impact relative to application to an aircraft operational environment. This report reviews areas such as: <span class="hlt">fuel</span> specification requirements, combustion knock, preignition, vapor lock, spark plug fouling, additives for <span class="hlt">fuel</span> and oil, and storage stability.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16648727','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16648727"><span>Veterans Health Administration Office of Nursing Services exploration of positive patient care synergies <span class="hlt">fueled</span> by consumer <span class="hlt">demand</span>: care coordination, advanced clinic access, and patient self-management.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wertenberger, Sydney; Yerardi, Ruth; Drake, Audrey C; Parlier, Renee</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>The consumers who utilize the Veterans Health Administration healthcare system are older, and most are learning to live with chronic diseases. Their desires and needs have driven changes within the Veterans Health Administration. Through patient satisfaction initiatives and other feedback sources, consumers have made it clear that they do not want to wait for their care, they want a say in what care is provided to them, and they want to remain as independent as possible. Two interdisciplinary processes/models of healthcare are being implemented on the national level to address these issues: advanced clinic access and care coordination. These programs have a synergistic relationship and are integrated with patient self-management initiatives. Positive outcomes of these programs also meet the needs of our staff. As these new processes and programs are implemented nationwide, skills of both patients and nursing staff who provide their care need to be enhanced to meet the challenges of providing nursing care now and into the 21st century. Veterans Health Administration Office of Nursing Services Strategic Planning Work Group is defining and implementing processes/programs to ensure nurses have the knowledge, information, and skills to meet these patient care <span class="hlt">demands</span> at all levels within the organization.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title14-vol1-sec23-993.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title14-vol1-sec23-993.pdf"><span>14 CFR 23.993 - <span class="hlt">Fuel</span> system lines and fittings.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false <span class="hlt">Fuel</span> system lines and fittings. 23.993 Section 23.993 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL <span class="hlt">AVIATION</span> ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... <span class="hlt">Fuel</span> System Components § 23.993 <span class="hlt">Fuel</span> system lines and fittings. (a) Each <span class="hlt">fuel</span> line must be...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title14-vol1-sec23-961.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title14-vol1-sec23-961.pdf"><span>14 CFR 23.961 - <span class="hlt">Fuel</span> system hot weather operation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false <span class="hlt">Fuel</span> system hot weather operation. 23.961 Section 23.961 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL <span class="hlt">AVIATION</span> ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... <span class="hlt">Fuel</span> System § 23.961 <span class="hlt">Fuel</span> system hot weather operation. Each <span class="hlt">fuel</span> system must be free from vapor...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title14-vol1-sec23-961.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title14-vol1-sec23-961.pdf"><span>14 CFR 23.961 - <span class="hlt">Fuel</span> system hot weather operation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false <span class="hlt">Fuel</span> system hot weather operation. 23.961 Section 23.961 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL <span class="hlt">AVIATION</span> ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... <span class="hlt">Fuel</span> System § 23.961 <span class="hlt">Fuel</span> system hot weather operation. Each <span class="hlt">fuel</span> system must be free from vapor...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title14-vol1-sec23-961.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title14-vol1-sec23-961.pdf"><span>14 CFR 23.961 - <span class="hlt">Fuel</span> system hot weather operation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false <span class="hlt">Fuel</span> system hot weather operation. 23.961 Section 23.961 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL <span class="hlt">AVIATION</span> ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... <span class="hlt">Fuel</span> System § 23.961 <span class="hlt">Fuel</span> system hot weather operation. Each <span class="hlt">fuel</span> system must be free from vapor...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title14-vol1-sec23-961.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title14-vol1-sec23-961.pdf"><span>14 CFR 23.961 - <span class="hlt">Fuel</span> system hot weather operation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false <span class="hlt">Fuel</span> system hot weather operation. 23.961 Section 23.961 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL <span class="hlt">AVIATION</span> ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... <span class="hlt">Fuel</span> System § 23.961 <span class="hlt">Fuel</span> system hot weather operation. Each <span class="hlt">fuel</span> system must be free from vapor...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title14-vol1-sec23-961.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title14-vol1-sec23-961.pdf"><span>14 CFR 23.961 - <span class="hlt">Fuel</span> system hot weather operation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false <span class="hlt">Fuel</span> system hot weather operation. 23.961 Section 23.961 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL <span class="hlt">AVIATION</span> ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... <span class="hlt">Fuel</span> System § 23.961 <span class="hlt">Fuel</span> system hot weather operation. Each <span class="hlt">fuel</span> system must be free from vapor...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title14-vol1-sec29-971.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title14-vol1-sec29-971.pdf"><span>14 CFR 29.971 - <span class="hlt">Fuel</span> tank sump.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false <span class="hlt">Fuel</span> tank sump. 29.971 Section 29.971 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL <span class="hlt">AVIATION</span> ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant <span class="hlt">Fuel</span> System § 29.971 <span class="hlt">Fuel</span> tank sump. (a) Each <span class="hlt">fuel</span>...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title14-vol1-sec29-971.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title14-vol1-sec29-971.pdf"><span>14 CFR 29.971 - <span class="hlt">Fuel</span> tank sump.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false <span class="hlt">Fuel</span> tank sump. 29.971 Section 29.971 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL <span class="hlt">AVIATION</span> ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant <span class="hlt">Fuel</span> System § 29.971 <span class="hlt">Fuel</span> tank sump. (a) Each <span class="hlt">fuel</span>...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title14-vol1-sec25-971.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title14-vol1-sec25-971.pdf"><span>14 CFR 25.971 - <span class="hlt">Fuel</span> tank sump.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false <span class="hlt">Fuel</span> tank sump. 25.971 Section 25.971 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL <span class="hlt">AVIATION</span> ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant <span class="hlt">Fuel</span> System § 25.971 <span class="hlt">Fuel</span> tank sump. (a) Each <span class="hlt">fuel</span>...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title14-vol1-sec25-971.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title14-vol1-sec25-971.pdf"><span>14 CFR 25.971 - <span class="hlt">Fuel</span> tank sump.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false <span class="hlt">Fuel</span> tank sump. 25.971 Section 25.971 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL <span class="hlt">AVIATION</span> ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant <span class="hlt">Fuel</span> System § 25.971 <span class="hlt">Fuel</span> tank sump. (a) Each <span class="hlt">fuel</span>...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title14-vol1-sec29-971.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title14-vol1-sec29-971.pdf"><span>14 CFR 29.971 - <span class="hlt">Fuel</span> tank sump.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false <span class="hlt">Fuel</span> tank sump. 29.971 Section 29.971 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL <span class="hlt">AVIATION</span> ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant <span class="hlt">Fuel</span> System § 29.971 <span class="hlt">Fuel</span> tank sump. (a) Each <span class="hlt">fuel</span>...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19760026757','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19760026757"><span>NASA <span class="hlt">aviation</span> safety reporting system</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Billings, C. E.; Lauber, J. K.; Funkhouser, H.; Lyman, E. G.; Huff, E. M.</p> <p>1976-01-01</p> <p>The origins and development of the NASA <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Safety Reporting System (ASRS) are briefly reviewed. The results of the first quarter's activity are summarized and discussed. Examples are given of bulletins describing potential air safety hazards, and the disposition of these bulletins. During the first quarter of operation, the ASRS received 1464 reports; 1407 provided data relevant to air safety. All reports are being processed for entry into the ASRS data base. During the reporting period, 130 alert bulletins describing possible problems in the <span class="hlt">aviation</span> system were generated and disseminated. Responses were received from FAA and others regarding 108 of the alert bulletins. Action was being taken with respect to 70 of the 108 responses received. Further studies are planned of a number of areas, including human factors problems related to automation of the ground and airborne portions of the national <span class="hlt">aviation</span> system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19790013897','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19790013897"><span>General <span class="hlt">aviation</span> IFR operational problems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Bolz, E. H.; Eisele, J. E.</p> <p>1979-01-01</p> <p>Operational problems of general <span class="hlt">aviation</span> IFR operators (particularly single pilot operators) were studied. Several statistical bases were assembled and utilized to identify the more serious problems and to demonstrate their magnitude. These bases include official activity projections, historical accident data and delay data, among others. The GA operating environment and cockpit environment were analyzed in detail. Solutions proposed for each of the problem areas identified are based on direct consideration of currently planned enhancements to the ATC system, and on a realistic assessment of the present and future limitations of general <span class="hlt">aviation</span> avionics. A coordinated set of research program is suggested which would provide the developments necessary to implement the proposed solutions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-07-23/pdf/2012-15908.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-07-23/pdf/2012-15908.pdf"><span>77 FR 43137 - <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Environmental and Energy Policy Statement</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-07-23</p> <p>... Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Administration <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Environmental and Energy Policy Statement AGENCY: Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Policy Statement. SUMMARY: This is a statement affirming the FAA's environmental and energy policy for U.S. civil <span class="hlt">aviation</span>. This policy statement outlines...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-07-12/pdf/2013-15952.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-07-12/pdf/2013-15952.pdf"><span>78 FR 41882 - Airworthiness Directives; Dassault <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Airplanes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-07-12</p> <p>... Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Dassault <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Airplanes AGENCY: Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM... <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Model Falcon 2000 series airplanes. That AD currently requires repetitive operational...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-03-08/pdf/2013-05452.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-03-08/pdf/2013-05452.pdf"><span>78 FR 14912 - International <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Safety Assessment (IASA) Program Change</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-03-08</p> <p>... Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Administration 14 CFR Part 129 International <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Safety Assessment (IASA) Program Change AGENCY: Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Policy statement. SUMMARY: This statement describes a policy change to the FAA's International <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Safety Assessment (IASA)...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-09-14/pdf/2012-22713.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-09-14/pdf/2012-22713.pdf"><span>77 FR 56909 - <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Rulemaking Advisory Committee (ARAC); Renewal</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-09-14</p> <p>... Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Administration <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Rulemaking Advisory Committee (ARAC); Renewal AGENCY: Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Renewal. SUMMARY: The FAA announces the charter renewal of the <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Rulemaking Advisory Committee (ARAC), a Federal Advisory Committee that works...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_23 --> <div id="page_24" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="461"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19840015562','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19840015562"><span>Assessment of Alternative Aircraft <span class="hlt">Fuels</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>The purpose of this symposium is to provide representatives from industry, government, and academia concerned with the availability and quality of future <span class="hlt">aviation</span> turbine <span class="hlt">fuels</span> with recent technical results and a status review of DOD and NASA sponsored <span class="hlt">fuels</span> research projects. The symposium has included presentations on the potential crude sources, refining methods, and characteristics of future <span class="hlt">fuels</span>; the effects of changing <span class="hlt">fuel</span> characteristics on the performance and durability of jet aircraft components and systems; and the prospects for evolving suitable technology to produce and use future <span class="hlt">fuels</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19760004907','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19760004907"><span>General <span class="hlt">aviation</span> components. [performance and capabilities of general <span class="hlt">aviation</span> aircraft</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1975-01-01</p> <p>An overview is presented of selected <span class="hlt">aviation</span> vehicles. The capabilities and performance of these vehicles are first presented, followed by a discussion of the aerodynamics, structures and materials, propulsion systems, noise, and configurations of fixed-wing aircraft. Finally the discussion focuses on the history, status, and future of attempts to provide vehicles capable of short-field operations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19830025560&hterms=national+weather+service&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dnational%2Bweather%2Bservice','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19830025560&hterms=national+weather+service&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dnational%2Bweather%2Bservice"><span>Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Administration weather program to improve <span class="hlt">aviation</span> safety</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Wedan, R. W.</p> <p>1983-01-01</p> <p>The implementation of the National Airspace System (NAS) will improve safety services to <span class="hlt">aviation</span>. These services include collision avoidance, improved landing systems and better weather data acquisition and dissemination. The program to improve the quality of weather information includes the following: Radar Remote Weather Display System; Flight Service Automation System; Automatic Weather Observation System; Center Weather Processor, and Next Generation Weather Radar Development.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA049284','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA049284"><span><span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Warrant Officer Program and Enlisted <span class="hlt">Aviator</span> Study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://publicaccess.dtic.mil/psm/api/service/search/search">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>1977-11-01</p> <p>Advanced Courses Hours Instructional Segement Purose 4 Enlisted Personnel Procedures for enlisted person- Management nel classification, assignment...way that will provide "aircraft qualified" <span class="hlt">aviators</span> to operational units. The units would then conduct unit training to support whatever geographic</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6A4mjrxht8Y','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6A4mjrxht8Y"><span><span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Safety Analyst Flies with Blue Angels</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.nasa.gov/multimedia/videogallery/index.html">NASA Video Gallery</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Abegael "Abby" Jakey has <span class="hlt">aviation</span> in her blood, taking her first flight at six months old in a Globe Swift. Now a contractor with Booz Allen Hamilton, Inc. working for NASA's <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Safety Report...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-07-07/pdf/2011-17038.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-07-07/pdf/2011-17038.pdf"><span>76 FR 39884 - <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Security Advisory Committee</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-07-07</p> <p>... SECURITY <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Security Advisory Committee AGENCY: Transportation Security Administration, DHS. ACTION... Security Administration (TSA) announces the re-establishment of the <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Security Advisory Committee...-governmental organizations (NGOs) and stakeholder representatives concerning potential risks to...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-01-14/pdf/2011-818.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-01-14/pdf/2011-818.pdf"><span>76 FR 2745 - Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Administration</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-01-14</p> <p>... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Administration Eighty-Fourth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 159: Global Positioning System (GPS) AGENCY: Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of RTCA Special...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED338878.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED338878.pdf"><span><span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Pilot Training I and <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Technician I: Task Analyses. Semester I. Field Review Copy.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Upchurch, Richard</p> <p></p> <p>This guide for <span class="hlt">aviation</span> pilot and <span class="hlt">aviation</span> technician training begins with a course description, resource information, and a course outline. Tasks/competencies are categorized into 10 concept/duty areas: understanding <span class="hlt">aviation</span> career opportunities; comprehending the history of <span class="hlt">aviation</span>; understanding classes, categories, and types of aircraft;…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930091971','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930091971"><span>Estimation of F-3 and F-4 knock-limited performance ratings for ternary and quaternary blends containing triptane or other high-antiknock <span class="hlt">aviation-fuel</span> blending agents</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Barnett, Henry C</p> <p>1948-01-01</p> <p>Charts are presented that permit the estimation of F-3 and F-4 knock-limited performance ratings for certain ternary and quaternary <span class="hlt">fuel</span> blends. Ratings for various ternary and quaternary blends estimated from these charts compare favorably with experimental F-3 and F-4 ratings. Because of the unusual behavior of some of the aromatic blends in the F-3 engine, the charts for aromatic-paraffinic blends are probably less accurate than the charts for purely paraffinic blends.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title14-vol3/pdf/CFR-2012-title14-vol3-part121-appFederal.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title14-vol3/pdf/CFR-2012-title14-vol3-part121-appFederal.pdf"><span>14 CFR Special Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span>... - 2</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false 2 Federal Special Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Regulation No. 50 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL <span class="hlt">AVIATION</span> ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Special Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Regulation No....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title14-vol2/pdf/CFR-2013-title14-vol2-part63-appFederal.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title14-vol2/pdf/CFR-2013-title14-vol2-part63-appFederal.pdf"><span>14 CFR Special Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span>... - 2</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false 2 Federal Special Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Regulation No. 100 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL <span class="hlt">AVIATION</span> ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Regulation No. 100-2 Editorial Note: For the text of SFAR No. 100-2, see part 61 of...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title14-vol3/pdf/CFR-2014-title14-vol3-part135-appFederal.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title14-vol3/pdf/CFR-2014-title14-vol3-part135-appFederal.pdf"><span>14 CFR Special Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span>... - 2</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false 2 Federal Special Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Regulation No. 50 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL <span class="hlt">AVIATION</span> ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Regulation No. 50-2 Editorial Note: For the text of SFAR No. 50-2, see part 91 of...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title14-vol3/pdf/CFR-2011-title14-vol3-part135-appFederal.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title14-vol3/pdf/CFR-2011-title14-vol3-part135-appFederal.pdf"><span>14 CFR Special Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span>... - 2</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false 2 Federal Special Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Regulation No. 50 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL <span class="hlt">AVIATION</span> ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Regulation No. 50-2 Editorial Note: For the text of SFAR No. 50-2, see part 91 of...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title14-vol2/pdf/CFR-2012-title14-vol2-part63-appFederal.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title14-vol2/pdf/CFR-2012-title14-vol2-part63-appFederal.pdf"><span>14 CFR Special Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span>... - 2</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false 2 Federal Special Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Regulation No. 100 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL <span class="hlt">AVIATION</span> ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS OTHER THAN PILOTS Special Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Regulation...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-05-01/pdf/2013-10287.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-05-01/pdf/2013-10287.pdf"><span>78 FR 25524 - Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Administration</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-05-01</p> <p>... TRANSPORTATION Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Administration Notice of Request To Release Airport Property AGENCY: Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Intent to Rule on Request to Release Airport Property..., Airports Compliance Specialist, Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Administration, Airports Division, ACE- 610C, 901...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-03-17/pdf/2010-5538.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-03-17/pdf/2010-5538.pdf"><span>75 FR 12809 - Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Administration</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-03-17</p> <p>... Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Administration Notice of Intent To Rule on Request To Release Airport Property at the Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport, DFW Airport, Texas AGENCY: Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Administration (FAA... provisions of Section 125 of the Wendell H. Ford <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Investment Reform Act for the 21st Century (AIR...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title14-vol3/pdf/CFR-2010-title14-vol3-part135-appFederal.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title14-vol3/pdf/CFR-2010-title14-vol3-part135-appFederal.pdf"><span>14 CFR Special Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span>... - 2</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false 2 Federal Special Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Regulation No. 50 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL <span class="hlt">AVIATION</span> ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Regulation No. 50-2 Editorial Note: For the text of SFAR No. 50-2, see part 91 of...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title14-vol2/pdf/CFR-2010-title14-vol2-part65-appFederal.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title14-vol2/pdf/CFR-2010-title14-vol2-part65-appFederal.pdf"><span>14 CFR Special Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span>... - 1</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false 1 Federal Special Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Regulation No. 100 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL <span class="hlt">AVIATION</span> ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS Special Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Regulation...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title14-vol2/pdf/CFR-2011-title14-vol2-part65-appFederal.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title14-vol2/pdf/CFR-2011-title14-vol2-part65-appFederal.pdf"><span>14 CFR Special Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span>... - 2</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false 2 Federal Special Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Regulation No. 100 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL <span class="hlt">AVIATION</span> ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS Special Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Regulation...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title14-vol2/pdf/CFR-2012-title14-vol2-part65-appFederal.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title14-vol2/pdf/CFR-2012-title14-vol2-part65-appFederal.pdf"><span>14 CFR Special Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span>... - 2</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false 2 Federal Special Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Regulation No. 100 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL <span class="hlt">AVIATION</span> ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS Special Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Regulation...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_24 --> <div id="page_25" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="481"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title14-vol3/pdf/CFR-2014-title14-vol3-part121-appFederal.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title14-vol3/pdf/CFR-2014-title14-vol3-part121-appFederal.pdf"><span>14 CFR Special Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span>... - 2</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false 2 Federal Special Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Regulation No. 50 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL <span class="hlt">AVIATION</span> ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Special Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Regulation No....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title14-vol2/pdf/CFR-2011-title14-vol2-part63-appFederal.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title14-vol2/pdf/CFR-2011-title14-vol2-part63-appFederal.pdf"><span>14 CFR Special Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span>... - 2</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false 2 Federal Special Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Regulation No. 100 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL <span class="hlt">AVIATION</span> ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS OTHER THAN PILOTS Special Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Regulation...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title14-vol2/pdf/CFR-2014-title14-vol2-part63-appFederal.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title14-vol2/pdf/CFR-2014-title14-vol2-part63-appFederal.pdf"><span>14 CFR Special Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span>... - 2</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false 2 Federal Special Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Regulation No. 100 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL <span class="hlt">AVIATION</span> ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Regulation No. 100-2 Editorial Note: For the text of SFAR No. 100-2, see part 61 of...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title14-vol2/pdf/CFR-2010-title14-vol2-part63-appFederal.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title14-vol2/pdf/CFR-2010-title14-vol2-part63-appFederal.pdf"><span>14 CFR Special Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span>... - 1</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false 1 Federal Special Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Regulation No. 100 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL <span class="hlt">AVIATION</span> ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS OTHER THAN PILOTS Special Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Regulation...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title14-vol3/pdf/CFR-2013-title14-vol3-part121-appFederal.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title14-vol3/pdf/CFR-2013-title14-vol3-part121-appFederal.pdf"><span>14 CFR Special Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span>... - 2</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false 2 Federal Special Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Regulation No. 50 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL <span class="hlt">AVIATION</span> ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Special Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Regulation No....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title14-vol3/pdf/CFR-2013-title14-vol3-part135-appFederal.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title14-vol3/pdf/CFR-2013-title14-vol3-part135-appFederal.pdf"><span>14 CFR Special Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span>... - 2</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false 2 Federal Special Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Regulation No. 50 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL <span class="hlt">AVIATION</span> ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Regulation No. 50-2 Editorial Note: For the text of SFAR No. 50-2, see part 91 of...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title14-vol3/pdf/CFR-2010-title14-vol3-part121-appFederal.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title14-vol3/pdf/CFR-2010-title14-vol3-part121-appFederal.pdf"><span>14 CFR Special Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span>... - 2</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false 2 Federal Special Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Regulation No. 50 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL <span class="hlt">AVIATION</span> ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Special Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Regulation No....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title14-vol3/pdf/CFR-2012-title14-vol3-part135-appFederal.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title14-vol3/pdf/CFR-2012-title14-vol3-part135-appFederal.pdf"><span>14 CFR Special Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span>... - 2</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false 2 Federal Special Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Regulation No. 50 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL <span class="hlt">AVIATION</span> ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Regulation No. 50-2 Editorial Note: For the text of SFAR No. 50-2, see part 91 of...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-06-01/pdf/2011-13554.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-06-01/pdf/2011-13554.pdf"><span>76 FR 31511 - <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Data Modernization</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-06-01</p> <p>... Office of the Secretary 14 CFR Parts 217, 241, 298 (Docket Nos OST-98-4043) RIN 2105-AC71 <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Data... rules governing the nature, scope, source of and means for collecting and processing <span class="hlt">aviation</span> traffic... methodology for <span class="hlt">aviation</span> data modernization. DATES: June 1, 2011. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT:...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title14-vol3/pdf/CFR-2011-title14-vol3-part121-appFederal.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title14-vol3/pdf/CFR-2011-title14-vol3-part121-appFederal.pdf"><span>14 CFR Special Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span>... - 2</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false 2 Federal Special Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Regulation No. 50 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL <span class="hlt">AVIATION</span> ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Special Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Regulation No....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED111625.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED111625.pdf"><span>Civil <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> and Facilities. Aerospace Education II.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Callaway, R. O.; Elmer, James D.</p> <p></p> <p>This is a revised textbook for use in the Air Force ROTC training program. The main theme of the book is concerned with the kinds of civil <span class="hlt">aviation</span> facilities and many intricacies involved in their use. The first chapter traces the development of civil <span class="hlt">aviation</span> and the formation of organizations to control <span class="hlt">aviation</span> systems. The second chapter…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED068290.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED068290.pdf"><span>Civil <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> and Facilities. Aerospace Education II.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Orser, N. A.; Glascoff, W. G., III</p> <p></p> <p>This book, which is to be used only in the Air Force ROTC training program, deals with the kinds of civil <span class="hlt">aviation</span> facilities and the intricacies and procedures of the use of flying. The first chapter traces the development of civil <span class="hlt">aviation</span> and the formation of organizations to control <span class="hlt">aviation</span> systems. The second chapter describes varieties of…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=aviation+AND+materials&pg=2&id=ED279822','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=aviation+AND+materials&pg=2&id=ED279822"><span><span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Maintenance Technology. General. Curriculum Implementation Guide.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Moore, John, Jr.; And Others</p> <p></p> <p>This curriculum implementation guide is a scope and sequence for the general section of a course in <span class="hlt">aviation</span> maintenance technology. The course materials were prepared through a cooperative effort of airframe and powerplant mechanics, general <span class="hlt">aviation</span> industry representatives, Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Administration representatives, and vocational…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110009984','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110009984"><span>Causal Factors and Adverse Events of <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Accidents and Incidents Related to Integrated Vehicle Health Management</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Reveley, Mary S.; Briggs, Jeffrey L.; Evans, Joni K.; Jones, Sharon M.; Kurtoglu, Tolga; Leone, Karen M.; Sandifer, Carl E.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Causal factors in <span class="hlt">aviation</span> accidents and incidents related to system/component failure/malfunction (SCFM) were examined for Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Regulation Parts 121 and 135 operations to establish future requirements for the NASA <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Safety Program s Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) Project. Data analyzed includes National Transportation Safety Board (NSTB) accident data (1988 to 2003), Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Administration (FAA) incident data (1988 to 2003), and <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Safety Reporting System (ASRS) incident data (1993 to 2008). Failure modes and effects analyses were examined to identify possible modes of SCFM. A table of potential adverse conditions was developed to help evaluate IVHM research technologies. Tables present details of specific SCFM for the incidents and accidents. Of the 370 NTSB accidents affected by SCFM, 48 percent involved the engine or <span class="hlt">fuel</span> system, and 31 percent involved landing gear or hydraulic failure and malfunctions. A total of 35 percent of all SCFM accidents were caused by improper maintenance. Of the 7732 FAA database incidents affected by SCFM, 33 percent involved landing gear or hydraulics, and 33 percent involved the engine and <span class="hlt">fuel</span> system. The most frequent SCFM found in ASRS were turbine engine, pressurization system, hydraulic main system, flight management system/flight management computer, and engine. Because the IVHM Project does not address maintenance issues, and landing gear and hydraulic systems accidents are usually not fatal, the focus of research should be those SCFMs that occur in the engine/<span class="hlt">fuel</span> and flight control/structures systems as well as power systems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997PhDT.......196T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997PhDT.......196T"><span>Application of automotive engine control technology to general <span class="hlt">aviation</span> aircraft powerplants</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tennant, Christopher John</p> <p>1997-10-01</p> <p>The general <span class="hlt">aviation</span> industry has lagged behind the automotive industry in powerplant development due to depressed economic conditions in their marketplace. Recent efforts to revitalize the industry have encountered the hindrance of thirty-year-old engine technology. Current automotive engine control technology has been reviewed for its potential for transfer to existing general <span class="hlt">aviation</span> powerplants. Current automotive engine control technology was classified into basic, correction, and feedback elements for the control of <span class="hlt">fuel</span> flow and ignition timing. The value of each element was assessed for application to a general <span class="hlt">aviation</span> powerplant in terms of an <span class="hlt">aviation</span> duty cycle. An extensive database produced from tests of a 1.9 liter Saturn automotive engine was used to quantify potential benefits by providing information about engine operation over a wide range of air/<span class="hlt">fuel</span> ratios and ignition timings. It was assumed that compliance with future emissions regulations for aircraft was a serious concern. A method for quantifying the effects of some controller elements that took into account emissions, thermal efficiency and power output of the engine was developed. The study concluded that all existing automotive engine control elements offer benefits to <span class="hlt">aviation</span> powerplants, the most predominant of which are those that control <span class="hlt">fuel</span> delivery.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=aircraft+AND+flight&pg=2&id=EJ726746','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=aircraft+AND+flight&pg=2&id=EJ726746"><span><span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Insights: Unmanned Aerial Vehicles</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Deal, Walter F., III</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Aviation</span> as people know it today is a mature but very young technology as time goes. Considering that the 100th anniversary of flight was celebrated just a few years ago in 2003, millions of people fly from city to city or from nation to nation and across the oceans and around the world effortlessly and economically. Additionally, they have space…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Richard+AND+Adams&pg=3&id=ED408488','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Richard+AND+Adams&pg=3&id=ED408488"><span>Collegiate <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Review. September 1992.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>McCoy, C. Elaine, Ed.</p> <p></p> <p>This document contains five papers on <span class="hlt">aviation</span> education. "Training Considerations for Expert Pilot Decision Making" (Richard J. Adams, Ronald John Lofaro) is a report on research identifying the differences between expert and novice decision makers from a cognitive information processing perspective and correlating the development of expert pilot…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19800009747','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19800009747"><span>NASA <span class="hlt">aviation</span> safety reporting system</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1979-01-01</p> <p>The human factors frequency considered a cause of or contributor to hazardous events onboard air carriers are examined with emphasis on distractions. Safety reports that have been analyzed, processed, and entered into the <span class="hlt">aviation</span> safety reporting system data base are discussed. A sampling of alert bulletins and responses to them is also presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19820007152','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19820007152"><span>NASA <span class="hlt">aviation</span> safety reporting system</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1981-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Aviation</span> safety reports that relate to loss of control in flight, problems that occur as a result of similar sounding alphanumerics, and pilot incapacitation are presented. Problems related to the go around maneuver in air carrier operations, and bulletins (and FAA responses to them) that pertain to air traffic control systems and procedures are included.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhDT.......312S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhDT.......312S"><span>International standardization compliance in <span class="hlt">aviation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Spence, Tyler B.</p> <p></p> <p>The commercial <span class="hlt">aviation</span> industry is global in the sense that passengers travel around the world from destination to destination. It is also global in that the states of the world (countries) regulate the industry domestically and internationally. There is a unique stage where the world comes together to promote <span class="hlt">aviation</span>, discuss ideas and establish international standards. This stage is the International Civil <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Organization (ICAO). The 191 current member states signed treaties acknowledging their commitment to abiding by the standards and practices established by ICAO. No state is 100 percent compliant with international standards, however, and the purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between the fulfillment of compliance by individual member states and the safety of the commercial <span class="hlt">aviation</span> industry in terms of fatality rates. Analysis of the results suggested that there is a relationship between compliance and fatalities, as compliance percentage increases the fatality rate decreases. Further analysis indicated the results were statistically significant regardless of the wealth of a state or size of a state's commercial operation.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_25 --> <center> <div class="footer-extlink text-muted"><small>Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. 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