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Sample records for aviation fuel final

  1. [Research and workshop on alternative fuels for aviation. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1999-09-01

    The Renewable Aviation Fuels Development Center (RAFDC) at Baylor University was granted U. S. Department of Energy (US DOE) and Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) funds for research and development to improve the efficiency in ethanol powered aircraft, measure performance and compare emissions of ethanol, Ethyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (ETBE) and 100 LL aviation gasoline. The premise of the initial proposal was to use a test stand owned by Engine Components Inc. (ECI) based in San Antonio, Texas. After the grant was awarded, ECI decided to close down its test stand facility. Since there were no other test stands available at that time, RAFDC was forced to find additional support to build its own test stand. Baylor University provided initial funds for the test stand building. Other obstacles had to be overcome in order to initiate the program. The price of the emission testing equipment had increased substantially beyond the initial quote. Rosemount Analytical Inc. gave RAFDC an estimate of $120,000.00 for a basic emission testing package. RAFDC had to find additional funding to purchase this equipment. The electronic ignition unit also presented a series of time consuming problems. Since at that time there were no off-the-shelf units of this type available, one had to be specially ordered and developed. FAA funds were used to purchase a Super Flow dynamometer. Due to the many unforeseen obstacles, much more time and effort than originally anticipated had to be dedicated to the project, with much of the work done on a volunteer basis. Many people contributed their time to the program. One person, mainly responsible for the initial design of the test stand, was a retired engineer from Allison with extensive aircraft engine test stand experience. Also, many Baylor students volunteered to assemble the. test stand and continue to be involved in the current test program. Although the program presented many challenges, which resulted in delays, the RAFDC's test stand is

  2. Alternative aviation turbine fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grobman, J.

    1977-01-01

    The efficient utilization of fossil fuels by future jet aircraft may necessitate the broadening of current aviation turbine fuel specifications. The most significant changes in specifications would be an increased aromatics content and a higher final boiling point in order to minimize refinery energy consumption and costs. These changes would increase the freezing point and might lower the thermal stability of the fuel and could cause increased pollutant emissions, increased smoke and carbon formation, increased combustor liner temperatures, and poorer ignition characteristics. This paper discusses the effects that broadened specification fuels may have on present-day jet aircraft and engine components and the technology required to use fuels with broadened specifications.

  3. Future aviation fuels overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reck, G. M.

    1980-01-01

    The outlook for aviation fuels through the turn of the century is briefly discussed and the general objectives of the NASA Lewis Alternative Aviation Fuels Research Project are outlined. The NASA program involves the evaluation of potential characteristics of future jet aircraft fuels, the determination of the effects of those fuels on engine and fuel system components, and the development of a component technology to use those fuels.

  4. Aviation turbine fuels, 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Shelton, E.M.; Dickson, C.L.

    1983-03-01

    Properties of some aviation turbine fuels marketed in the United States during 1982 are presented in this report. The samples represented are typical 1982 production and were analyzed in the laboratories of 14 manufacturers of aviation turbine (jet) fuels. The data were submitted for study, calculation, and compilation under a cooperative agreement between the Department of Energy (DOE), Bartlesville Energy Technology Center (BETC), Bartlesville, Oklahoma, and the American Petroleum Institute (API). Results for the properties of 90 samples of aviation turbine fuels are included in the report for military grades JP-4 and HP-5, and commercial type Jet A.

  5. Alcohol fuels for aviation

    SciTech Connect

    Schauffler, P.

    1982-06-01

    The ten-fold increase in aviation fuel prices in eight years has caused a reassessment of alcohol fuels. In a recent test, methanol fuel-flow rate was high at takeoff, and levelled off at 10,000 feet, but above 18,000 fell 30% below avgas use. Because methanol sells thirty cents below avgas per gallon it is already an attractive fuel for piston-engine aircraft. But as 95% of aviation fuel is burned as kerosene in turbines a test program has been set up to look at the performance of small shaft turbine engines with various combinations of alcohols and water, and of straight methanol, and to look at major thrust engine at optimum fuel as well. These tests should determine the overall alcohol potentials for aviation. The tests will also tell if the breakthrough will be modest or major.

  6. Demonstration and implementation of ethanol as an aviation fuel. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-01-01

    The objectives of the program were to demonstrate the viability of ethanol as an aviation fuel at appropriate locations and audiences in the participating Biomass Energy Program Regions, and to promote implementation projects in the area. Seven demonstrations were to be performed during the Summer 1995 through December 1996 period. To maximize the cost effectiveness of the program, additional corporate co-sponsorships were sought at each demonstration site and the travel schedule was arranged to take advantage of appropriate events taking place in the vicinity of the schedule events or enroute. This way, the original funded amount was stretched to cover another year of activities increasing the number of demonstrations from seven to thirty-nine. While the Renewable Aviation Fuels Development Center (RAFDC) contract focused on ethanol as an aviation fuel, RAFDC also promoted the broader use of ethanol as a transportation fuel. The paper summarizes locations and occasions, and gives a brief description of each demonstration/exhibit/presentation held during the term of the project. Most of the demonstrations took place at regularly scheduled air shows, such as the Oshkosh, Wisconsin Air Show. The paper also reviews current and future activities in the areas of certification, emission testing, the international Clean Airports Program, air pollution monitoring with instrumented aircraft powered by renewable fuels, training operation and pilot project on ethanol, turbine fuel research, and educational programs.

  7. Environmentally safe aviation fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liberio, Patricia D.

    1995-01-01

    In response to the Air Force directive to remove Ozone Depleting Chemicals (ODC's) from military specifications and Defense Logistics Agency's Hazardous Waste Minimization Program, we are faced with how to ensure a quality aviation fuel without using such chemicals. Many of these chemicals are found throughout the fuel and fuel related military specifications and are part of test methods that help qualify the properties and quality of the fuels before they are procured. Many years ago there was a directive for military specifications to use commercially standard test methods in order to provide standard testing in private industry and government. As a result the test methods used in military specifications are governed by the American Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM). The Air Force has been very proactive in the removal or replacement of the ODC's and hazardous materials in these test methods. For example, ASTM D3703 (Standard Test Method for Peroxide Number of Aviation Turbine Fuels), requires the use of Freon 113, a known ODC. A new rapid, portable hydroperoxide test for jet fuels similar to ASTM D3703 that does not require the use of ODC's has been developed. This test has proved, in limited testing, to be a viable substitute method for ASTM D3703. The Air Force is currently conducting a round robin to allow the method to be accepted by ASTM and therefore replace the current method. This paper will describe the Air Force's initiatives to remove ODC's and hazardous materials from the fuel and fuel related military specifications that the Air Force Wright Laboratory.

  8. High freezing point fuels used for aviation turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, R.

    1979-01-01

    Broadened-specification aviation fuels could be produced from a greater fraction of crude source material with improvements in fuel supply and price. These fuels, particularly those with increased final boiling temperatures, would have higher freezing temperatures than current aviation turbine fuels. For the small but significant fraction of commercial flights where low fuel temperatures make higher freezing-point fuel use unacceptable, adaptations to the fuel or fuel system may be made to accommodate this fuel. Several techniques are discussed. Fuel heating is the most promising concept. One simple design uses existing heat rejection from the fuel-lubricating oil cooler, another uses an engine-driven generator for electrical heating.

  9. Aviation fuels outlook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Momenthy, A. M.

    1980-01-01

    Options for satisfying the future demand for commercial jet fuels are analyzed. It is concluded that the most effective means to this end are to attract more refiners to the jet fuel market and encourage development of processes to convert oil shale and coal to transportation fuels. Furthermore, changing the U.S. refineries fuel specification would not significantly alter jet fuel availability.

  10. Aviation turbine fuels: An assessment of alternatives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The general outlook for aviation turbine fuels, the effect that broadening permissible aviation turbine fuel properties could have on the overall availability of such fuels, the fuel properties most likely to be affected by use of lower grade petroleum crudes, and the research and technology required to ensure that aviation turbine fuels and engines can function satisfactorily with fuels having a range of fuel properties differing from those of current specification fuel are assessed. Views of industry representatives on alternative aviation turbine fuels are presented.

  11. Alternative Aviation Fuel Experiment (AAFEX)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, B. E.; Beyersdorf, A. J.; Hudgins, C. H.; Plant, J. V.; Thornhill, K. L.; Winstead, E. L.; Ziemba, L. D.; Howard, R.; Corporan, E.; Miake-Lye, R. C.; Herndon, S. C.; Timko, M.; Woods, E.; Dodds, W.; Lee, B.; Santoni, G.; Whitefield, P.; Hagen, D.; Lobo, P.; Knighton, W. B.; Bulzan, D.; Tacina, K.; Wey, C.; VanderWal, R.; Bhargava, A.

    2011-01-01

    The rising cost of oil coupled with the need to reduce pollution and dependence on foreign suppliers has spurred great interest and activity in developing alternative aviation fuels. Although a variety of fuels have been produced that have similar properties to standard Jet A, detailed studies are required to ascertain the exact impacts of the fuels on engine operation and exhaust composition. In response to this need, NASA acquired and burned a variety of alternative aviation fuel mixtures in the Dryden Flight Research Center DC-8 to assess changes in the aircraft s CFM-56 engine performance and emission parameters relative to operation with standard JP-8. This Alternative Aviation Fuel Experiment, or AAFEX, was conducted at NASA Dryden s Aircraft Operations Facility (DAOF) in Palmdale, California, from January 19 to February 3, 2009 and specifically sought to establish fuel matrix effects on: 1) engine and exhaust gas temperatures and compressor speeds; 2) engine and auxiliary power unit (APU) gas phase and particle emissions and characteristics; and 3) volatile aerosol formation in aging exhaust plumes

  12. NASA Alternative Aviation Fuel Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, B. E.; Beyersdorf, A. J.; Thornhill, K. L., II; Moore, R.; Shook, M.; Winstead, E.; Ziemba, L. D.; Crumeyrolle, S.

    2015-12-01

    We present an overview of research conducted by NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate to evaluate the performance and emissions of "drop-in" alternative jet fuels, highlighting experiment design and results from the Alternative Aviation Fuel Experiments (AAFEX-I & -II) and Alternative Fuel-Effects on Contrails and Cruise Emissions flight series (ACCESS-I & II). These projects included almost 100 hours of sampling exhaust emissions from the NASA DC-8 aircraft in both ground and airborne operation and at idle to takeoff thrust settings. Tested fuels included Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthetic kerosenes manufactured from coal and natural-gas feedstocks; Hydro-treated Esters and Fatty-Acids (HEFA) fuels made from beef-tallow and camelina-plant oil; and 50:50 blends of these alternative fuels with Jet A. Experiments were also conducted with FT and Jet A fuels doped with tetrahydrothiophene to examine the effects of fuel sulfur on volatile aerosol and contrail formation and microphysical properties. Results indicate that although the absence of aromatic compounds in the alternative fuels caused DC-8 fuel-system leaks, the fuels did not compromise engine performance or combustion efficiency. And whereas the alternative fuels produced only slightly different gas-phase emissions, dramatic reductions in non-volatile particulate matter (nvPM) emissions were observed when burning the pure alternative fuels, particularly at low thrust settings where particle number and mass emissions were an order of magnitude lower than measured from standard jet fuel combustion; 50:50 blends of Jet A and alternative fuels typically reduced nvPM emissions by ~50% across all thrust settings. Alternative fuels with the highest hydrogen content produced the greatest nvPM reductions. For Jet A and fuel blends, nvPM emissions were positively correlated with fuel aromatic and naphthalene content. Fuel sulfur content regulated nucleation mode aerosol number and mass concentrations within aging

  13. Aviation Fuel Lubricity Evaluation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-07-01

    cracking and subsequent fracture. The Pesco gear fuel pump in the JT-4 engine and the Chandler Evans gear fuel pump in the JT-3D engine also...TABLE 5 BOCLE ROUND-ROBIN I PARTICIPANTS Bendix Sundstrand US Navy US Air Force Chandler Evans Pratt & Whitney - East Hartford Exxon - USA Pratt...Research & Engineering X Naval Air Propulsion Center X X Esso Petroleum X Sundstrand X Lucas X Chandler Evans X Southwest Research Institute X Mountain

  14. A fuel-efficient cruise performance model for general aviation piston engine airplanes. Ph.D. Thesis. Final Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parkinson, R. C. H.

    1983-01-01

    A fuel-efficient cruise performance model which facilitates maximizing the specific range of General Aviation airplanes powered by spark-ignition piston engines and propellers is presented. Airplanes of fixed design only are considered. The uses and limitations of typical Pilot Operating Handbook cruise performance data, for constructing cruise performance models suitable for maximizing specific range, are first examined. These data are found to be inadequate for constructing such models. A new model of General Aviation piston-prop airplane cruise performance is then developed. This model consists of two subsystem models: the airframe-propeller-atmosphere subsystem model; and the engine-atmosphere subsystem model. The new model facilitates maximizing specific range; and by virtue of its implicity and low volume data storge requirements, appears suitable for airborne microprocessor implementation.

  15. Refining and blending of aviation turbine fuels.

    PubMed

    White, R D

    1999-02-01

    Aviation turbine fuels (jet fuels) are similar to other petroleum products that have a boiling range of approximately 300F to 550F. Kerosene and No.1 grades of fuel oil, diesel fuel, and gas turbine oil share many similar physical and chemical properties with jet fuel. The similarity among these products should allow toxicology data on one material to be extrapolated to the others. Refineries in the USA manufacture jet fuel to meet industry standard specifications. Civilian aircraft primarily use Jet A or Jet A-1 fuel as defined by ASTM D 1655. Military aircraft use JP-5 or JP-8 fuel as defined by MIL-T-5624R or MIL-T-83133D respectively. The freezing point and flash point are the principle differences between the finished fuels. Common refinery processes that produce jet fuel include distillation, caustic treatment, hydrotreating, and hydrocracking. Each of these refining processes may be the final step to produce jet fuel. Sometimes blending of two or more of these refinery process streams are needed to produce jet fuel that meets the desired specifications. Chemical additives allowed for use in jet fuel are also defined in the product specifications. In many cases, the customer rather than the refinery will put additives into the fuel to meet their specific storage or flight condition requirements.

  16. Research on aviation fuel instability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, C. E.; Bittker, D. A.; Cohen, S. M.; Seng, G. T.

    1983-01-01

    The underlying causes of fuel thermal degradation are discussed. Topics covered include: nature of fuel instability and its temperature dependence, methods of measuring the instability, chemical mechanisms involved in deposit formation, and instrumental methods for characterizing fuel deposits. Finally, some preliminary thoughts on design approaches for minimizing the effects of lowered thermal stability are briefly discussed.

  17. High-freezing-point fuels used for aviation turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, R.

    1979-01-01

    Broadened-specification aviation fuels could be produced from a greater fraction of crude source material with improvements in fuel supply and price. These fuels, particularly those with increased final boiling temperatures, would have higher freezing temperatures than current aviation turbine fuels. The higher-freezing-point fuels can be substituted in the majority of present commercial flights, since temperature data indicate that in-flight fuel temperatures are relatively mild. For the small but significant fraction of commercial flights where low fuel temperatures make higher freezing-point fuel use unacceptable, adaptations to the fuel or fuel system may be made to accommodate this fuel. Several techniques are discussed. Fuel heating is the most promising concept. One simple system design uses existing heat rejection from the fuel-lubricating oil cooler, another uses an engine-driven generator for electrical heating. Both systems offer advantages that outweigh the obvious penalties.

  18. Research on aviation fuel instability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, C. E.; Bittker, D. A.; Cohen, S. M.; Seng, G. T.

    1984-01-01

    Current aircraft turbine fuels do not present a significant problem with fuel thermal stability. However, turbine fuels with broadened properties or nonpetroleum derived fuels may have reduced thermal stability because of their higher content of olefins, heteroatoms, and trace metals. Moreover, advanced turbine engines will increase the thermal stress on fuels because of their higher pressure ratios and combustion temperature. In recognition of the importance of this problem, NASA Lewis is currently engaged in a broadly based research effort to better understand the underlying causes of fuel thermal degradation. The progress and status of our various activities in this area are discussed. Topics covered include: nature of fuel instability and its temperature dependence, methods of measuring the instability, chemical mechanisms involved in deposit formation, and instrumental methods for characterizing fuel deposits. Finally, some preliminary thoughts on design approaches for minimizing the effects of lowered thermal stability are briefly discussed.

  19. Emerging trends in alternative aviation fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corbett, Cody

    The days of petroleum-based aviation fuels are numbered. New regulations to be set in place in the coming years will force current fuels to be phased out in favor of cleaner fuels with less toxic emissions. The alternative fuel industry has already taken its foothold in other modes of transportation, and aviation will soon follow suit. Many companies have cropped up over the last decade, and a few have been around longer, that work hard to develop the alternative aviation fuels of the future. It is important, however, for the aviation community to know what to expect and when to expect it concerning alternative fuels. This study investigates where various companies in the alternative aviation fuel industry currently stand in their development and production processes, and how their products will affect aircraft owners and operators. By interviewing representatives from these companies and analyzing their responses to identify trends, an educated prediction can be made about where the industry is headed and when the aviation community can expect these fuel to be available. The findings of this study indicate that many companies are still in their developmental stages, with a few notable outliers, and that most of these companies expect to see production of their product by 2017. Also, the fuel manufacturers are dealing with all the legal hurdles regarding alternative fuels, so little to no effort will be required on the part of the consumer. These findings, along with their analysis, will enable the aviation community to make educated decisions concerning fuel and their aircraft, as well and do their part to help these beneficial fuels get to market.

  20. Synthetic and Biomass Alternate Fueling in Aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, R.C.; Bushnell, D.M.

    2009-01-01

    Worldwide, aviation alone uses 85 to 95 billion gallons of nonrenewable fossil fuel per year (2008). General transportation fueling can accommodate several different fuels; however, aviation fuels have very specific requirements. Biofuels have been flight demonstrated, are considered renewable, have the capacity to become "drop-in" replacements for Jet-A fuel, and solve the CO2 climate change problem. The major issue is cost; current biomass biofuels are not economically competitive. Biofuel feedstock sources being researched are halophytes, algae, cyanobacteria, weeds-to-crops, wastes with contingent restraints on use of crop land, freshwater, and climate change. There are five major renewable energy sources: solar thermal, solar photovoltaic, wind, drilled geothermal and biomass, each of which have an order of magnitude greater capacity to meet all energy needs. All five address aspects of climate change; biomass has massive potential as an energy fuel feedstock.

  1. Design for Corrosion Control of Aviation Fuel Storage and Distribution Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-06-01

    AD-AOll 588 DESIGN FOR CORROSION CONTROL OF AVIATION FUEL STORAGE AND DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS Fred Reinhart Civil Engineering Laboratory Prepared for...191137 OC DESIGN FOR CORROSION CONTROL OF AVIATION FUEL STORAGE AND DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS Fred Reinhart O Civil Engineering Laboratory Naval...ZOVERE, fFinal Report for: 15 Oct 70 DESIGN FOR CORROSION CONTROL OF AVIATION FUEL I STORGE AD DITRIBTIONSYSTMS thru 15 Oct 74 STORGE ND ISTIBUTON

  2. National Aviation Fuel Scenario Analysis Program (NAFSAP). Volume I. Model description. Volume II. User manual. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Vahovich, S.G.

    1980-03-01

    This report forecasts air carrier jet fuel usage by body type for three user defined markets. The model contains options which allow the user to easily change the composition of the future fleet so that fuel usage scenarios can be 'run'. Both Volumes I and II are contained in this report. Volume I describes the structure of the model. Volume II is a computer users manual.

  3. Aviation Fueling: A Cleaner, Greener Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, Robert C.; Bushnell, Dennis M.; Shouse, Dale T.

    2010-01-01

    Projected growth of aviation depends on fueling where specific needs must be met. Safety is paramount, and along with political, social, environmental and legacy transport systems requirements, alternate aviation fueling becomes an opportunity of enormous proportions. Biofuels sourced from halophytes, algae, cyanobacteria, and weeds using wastelands, waste water, and seawater have the capacity to be drop-in fuel replacements for petroleum fuels. Biojet fuels from such sources solves the aviation CO2 emissions issue and do not compete with food or freshwater needs. They are not detrimental to the social or environmental fabric and use the existing fuels infrastructure. Cost and sustainable supply remains the major impediments to alternate fuels. Halophytes are the near-term solution to biomass/biofuels capacity at reasonable costs; they simply involve more farming, at usual farming costs. Biofuels represent a win-win approach, proffering as they do at least the ones we are studying massive capacity, climate neutral-to-some sequestration, and ultimately, reasonable costs.

  4. Research on aviation fuel instability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, C. E.; Bittker, D. A.; Cohen, S. M.; Seng, G. T.

    1984-01-01

    The problems associated with aircraft fuel instability are discussed. What is currently known about the problem is reviewed and a research program to identify those areas where more research is needed is discussed. The term fuel instability generally refers to the gums, sediments, or deposits which can form as a result of a set of complex chemical reactions when a fuel is stored for a long period at ambient conditions or when the fuel is thermally stressed inside the fuel system of an aircraft.

  5. General aviation fuel quality control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poitz, H.

    1983-01-01

    Quality control measures for aviation gasoline, and some of the differences between quality control on avgas and mogas are discussed. One thing to keep in mind is that with motor gasoline you can always pull off to the side of the road. It's not so easy to do in an airplane. Consequently, there are reasons for having the tight specifications and the tight quality control measures on avgas as compared to motor gasoline.

  6. Synthetic and Biomass Alternate Fueling in Aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, R. C.; Bushnell, D. M.

    2009-01-01

    While transportation fueling can accommodate a broad range of alternate fuels, aviation fueling needs are specific, such as the fuel not freezing at altitude or become too viscous to flow properly or of low bulk energy density that shortens range. The fuel must also be compatible with legacy aircraft, some of which are more than 50 years old. Worldwide, the aviation industry alone uses some 85-95 billion gallons of hydrocarbon-based fossil fuel each year, which is about 10% of the transportation industry. US civil aviation alone consumes nearly 14 billion gallons. The enormity of the problem becomes overwhelming, and the aviation industry is taking alternate fueling issues very seriously. Biofuels (algae, cyanobacteria, halophytes, weeds that use wastelands, wastewater and seatwater), when properly sourced, have the capacity to be drop-in fuel replacements for petroleum fuels. As such, biojet from such sources solves the aviation CO2 emissions issue without the downsides of 'conventional' biofuels, such as competing with food and fresh water resources. Of the many current fundamental problems, the major biofuel problem is cost. Both research and development and creative engineering are required to reduce these biofuels costs. Research is also ongoing in several 'improvement' areas including refining/processing and biologics with greater disease resistance, greater bio-oil productivity, reduced water/nutrient requirements, etc. The authors' current research is aimed at aiding industry efforts in several areas. They are considering different modeling approaches, growth media and refining approaches, different biologic feedstocks, methods of sequestering carbon in the processes, fuel certification for aviation use and, overall, ensuring that biofuels are feasible from all aspects - operability, capacity, carbon cycle and financial. The authors are also providing common discussion grounds/opportunities for the various parties, disciplines and concerned organization to

  7. Synthetic and Biomass Alternate Fueling in Aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, Robert C.; Bushnell, Dennis M.

    2009-01-01

    Must use earth's most abundant natural resources - Biomass, Solar, Arid land (43%), Seawater (97%) with nutrients (80%) plus brackish waters and nutrients resolve environmental triangle of conflicts energy-food-freshwater and ultrafine particulate hazards. Requires Paradigm Shift - Develop and Use Solar* for energy; Biomass for aviation and hybrid-electric-compressed air mobility fueling with transition to hydrogen long term.

  8. Outlook for alternative energy sources. [aviation fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Card, M. E.

    1980-01-01

    Predictions are made concerning the development of alternative energy sources in the light of the present national energy situation. Particular emphasis is given to the impact of alternative fuels development on aviation fuels. The future outlook for aircraft fuels is that for the near term, there possibly will be no major fuel changes, but minor specification changes may be possible if supplies decrease. In the midterm, a broad cut fuel may be used if current development efforts are successful. As synfuel production levels increase beyond the 1990's there may be some mixtures of petroleum-based and synfuel products with the possibility of some shale distillate and indirect coal liquefaction products near the year 2000.

  9. Low-temperature properties of aviation fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Brunton, C.; Voisey, M.A.; Willcock, C.R.

    1983-01-01

    A review is presented of work on the low-temperature properties of aviation turbine fuels that has been carried out in recent years at Thornton Research Centre. Details of both simulated full-scale aircraft tank tests and laboratory evaluations are included. Zero holdup is considered as a low-temperature specification parameter and a novel method for measuring its value is described. Experimental results are presented which demonstrate that a change from a freezing point to a flow criterion could provide an increase in fuel availability without prejudicing flight safety.

  10. 26 CFR 48.4091-3 - Aviation fuel; conditions to allowance of refunds of aviation fuel tax under section 4091(d).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aviation fuel; conditions to allowance of refunds of aviation fuel tax under section 4091(d). 48.4091-3 Section 48.4091-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL... Aviation fuel; conditions to allowance of refunds of aviation fuel tax under section 4091(d). (a)...

  11. 26 CFR 48.4091-3 - Aviation fuel; conditions to allowance of refunds of aviation fuel tax under section 4091(d).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Aviation fuel; conditions to allowance of refunds of aviation fuel tax under section 4091(d). 48.4091-3 Section 48.4091-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL... Aviation fuel; conditions to allowance of refunds of aviation fuel tax under section 4091(d). (a)...

  12. 26 CFR 48.4091-3 - Aviation fuel; conditions to allowance of refunds of aviation fuel tax under section 4091(d).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Aviation fuel; conditions to allowance of refunds of aviation fuel tax under section 4091(d). 48.4091-3 Section 48.4091-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL... Aviation fuel; conditions to allowance of refunds of aviation fuel tax under section 4091(d). (a)...

  13. 26 CFR 48.4091-3 - Aviation fuel; conditions to allowance of refunds of aviation fuel tax under section 4091(d).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Aviation fuel; conditions to allowance of refunds of aviation fuel tax under section 4091(d). 48.4091-3 Section 48.4091-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL... Aviation fuel; conditions to allowance of refunds of aviation fuel tax under section 4091(d). (a)...

  14. 32 CFR 855.18 - Aviation fuel and oil purchases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Aviation fuel and oil purchases. 855.18 Section 855.18 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIRCRAFT CIVIL AIRCRAFT USE OF UNITED STATES AIR FORCE AIRFIELDS Civil Aircraft Landing Permits § 855.18 Aviation fuel...

  15. 32 CFR 855.18 - Aviation fuel and oil purchases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aviation fuel and oil purchases. 855.18 Section 855.18 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIRCRAFT CIVIL AIRCRAFT USE OF UNITED STATES AIR FORCE AIRFIELDS Civil Aircraft Landing Permits § 855.18 Aviation fuel...

  16. 32 CFR 855.18 - Aviation fuel and oil purchases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Aviation fuel and oil purchases. 855.18 Section 855.18 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIRCRAFT CIVIL AIRCRAFT USE OF UNITED STATES AIR FORCE AIRFIELDS Civil Aircraft Landing Permits § 855.18 Aviation fuel...

  17. 32 CFR 855.18 - Aviation fuel and oil purchases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Aviation fuel and oil purchases. 855.18 Section 855.18 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIRCRAFT CIVIL AIRCRAFT USE OF UNITED STATES AIR FORCE AIRFIELDS Civil Aircraft Landing Permits § 855.18 Aviation fuel...

  18. 32 CFR 855.18 - Aviation fuel and oil purchases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Aviation fuel and oil purchases. 855.18 Section 855.18 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIRCRAFT CIVIL AIRCRAFT USE OF UNITED STATES AIR FORCE AIRFIELDS Civil Aircraft Landing Permits § 855.18 Aviation fuel...

  19. 2015 CRC Aviation Meetings Particle Count Limits Recommendation for Aviation Fuel (Briefing Charts)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-05

    31 AUG 2015 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2015 to 00-00-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 2015 CRC Aviation Meetings Particle Count Limits...Recommendation for Aviation Fuel 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Joel Schmitigal 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e...ABSTRACT None 15. SUBJECT TERMS 2015 Coordinating Research Council Aviation Meetings 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT

  20. Experimental characterization of aviation-fuel cavitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunn, Patrick F.; Thomas, Flint O.; Davis, Michael P.; Dorofeeva, Irina E.

    2010-11-01

    The results of an experimental investigation of the gaseous cavitation of JP-8 aviation fuel in a converging-diverging nozzle are presented. Fuel cavitation is experimentally characterized by high-speed digital imaging, static pressure distributions, and nonintrusive void fraction and bubble velocity measurements. For comparative purposes, experiments were performed using distilled water and dodecane for the same nozzle and nozzle pressure ratios. Dodecane, the largest component of JP-8 by weight, served as its single-component surrogate. For each working fluid, the experiments examined two different flow regimes: an initially single-phase liquid flow in which no cavitation occurred and another that evolved into two-phase cavitating flow. Additional experiments were performed to study the effect of air bubbles injected into either water or JP-8 at the nozzle inlet. For a sufficiently low range of imposed back pressures, gaseous cavitation led to choked flow for each working fluid. The character of the cavitation in the three fluids was different. These differences are highlighted and plausible mechanisms responsible for the observed behavior are discussed.

  1. Certification of alternative aviation fuels and blend components

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson III, George R. ); Edwards, Tim; Corporan, Edwin ); Freerks, Robert L. )

    2013-01-15

    Aviation turbine engine fuel specifications are governed by ASTM International, formerly known as the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) International, and the British Ministry of Defence (MOD). ASTM D1655 Standard Specification for Aviation Turbine Fuels and MOD Defence Standard 91-91 are the guiding specifications for this fuel throughout most of the world. Both of these documents rely heavily on the vast amount of experience in production and use of turbine engine fuels from conventional sources, such as crude oil, natural gas condensates, heavy oil, shale oil, and oil sands. Turbine engine fuel derived from these resources and meeting the above specifications has properties that are generally considered acceptable for fuels to be used in turbine engines. Alternative and synthetic fuel components are approved for use to blend with conventional turbine engine fuels after considerable testing. ASTM has established a specification for fuels containing synthesized hydrocarbons under D7566, and the MOD has included additional requirements for fuels containing synthetic components under Annex D of DS91-91. New turbine engine fuel additives and blend components need to be evaluated using ASTM D4054, Standard Practice for Qualification and Approval of New Aviation Turbine Fuels and Fuel Additives. This paper discusses these specifications and testing requirements in light of recent literature claiming that some biomass-derived blend components, which have been used to blend in conventional aviation fuel, meet the requirements for aviation turbine fuels as specified by ASTM and the MOD. The 'Table 1' requirements listed in both D1655 and DS91-91 are predicated on the assumption that the feedstocks used to make fuels meeting these requirements are from approved sources. Recent papers have implied that commercial jet fuel can be blended with renewable components that are not hydrocarbons (such as fatty acid methyl esters). These are not allowed blend

  2. Progress on coal-derived fuels for aviation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witcofski, R. D.

    1978-01-01

    The results of engineering studies of coal-derived aviation fuels and their potential application to the air transportation system are presented. Synthetic aviation kerosene (SYN. JET-A), liquid methane (LCH4) and liquid hydrogen (LH2) appear to be the most promising coal-derived fuels. Aircraft configurations fueled with LH2, their fuel systems, and their ground requirements at the airport are identified. Energy efficiency, transportation hazards, and costs are among the factors considered. It is indicated that LCH4 is the most energy efficient to produce, and provides the most efficient utilization of coal resources and the least expensive ticket as well.

  3. A method for monitoring nuclear absorption coefficients of aviation fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sprinkle, Danny R.; Shen, Chih-Ping

    1989-01-01

    A technique for monitoring variability in the nuclear absorption characteristics of aviation fuels has been developed. It is based on a highly collimated low energy gamma radiation source and a sodium iodide counter. The source and the counter assembly are separated by a geometrically well-defined test fuel cell. A computer program for determining the mass attenuation coefficient of the test fuel sample, based on the data acquired for a preset counting period, has been developed and tested on several types of aviation fuel.

  4. Overview of Aviation Fuel Markets for Biofuels Stakeholders

    SciTech Connect

    Davidson, C.; Newes, E.; Schwab, A.; Vimmerstedt, L.

    2014-07-01

    This report is for biofuels stakeholders interested the U.S. aviation fuel market. Jet fuel production represents about 10% of U.S. petroleum refinery production. Exxon Mobil, Chevron, and BP top producers, and Texas, Louisiana, and California are top producing states. Distribution of fuel primarily involves transport from the Gulf Coast to other regions. Fuel is transported via pipeline (60%), barges on inland waterways (30%), tanker truck (5%), and rail (5%). Airport fuel supply chain organization and fuel sourcing may involve oil companies, airlines, airline consortia, airport owners and operators, and airport service companies. Most fuel is used for domestic, commercial, civilian flights. Energy efficiency has substantially improved due to aircraft fleet upgrades and advanced flight logistic improvements. Jet fuel prices generally track prices of crude oil and other refined petroleum products, whose prices are more volatile than crude oil price. The single largest expense for airlines is jet fuel, so its prices and persistent price volatility impact industry finances. Airlines use various strategies to manage aviation fuel price uncertainty. The aviation industry has established goals to mitigate its greenhouse gas emissions, and initial estimates of biojet life cycle greenhouse gas emissions exist. Biojet fuels from Fischer-Tropsch and hydroprocessed esters and fatty acids processes have ASTM standards. The commercial aviation industry and the U.S. Department of Defense have used aviation biofuels. Additional research is needed to assess the environmental, economic, and financial potential of biojet to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and mitigate long-term upward price trends, fuel price volatility, or both.

  5. Comparison of alcogas aviation fuel with export aviation gasoline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gage, V R; Sparrow, S W; Harper, D R

    1921-01-01

    Mixtures of gasoline and alcohol when used in internal combustion engines designed for gasoline have been found to possess the advantage of alcohol in withstanding high compression without "knock" while retaining advantages of gasoline with regard to starting characteristics. Test of such fuels for maximum power-producing ability and fuel economy at various rates of consumption are thus of practical importance, with especial reference to high-compression engine development. This report discusses the results of tests which compares the performance of alcogas with x gasoline (export grade) as a standard.

  6. Aviation Management Perception of Biofuel as an Alternative Fuel Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marticek, Michael

    The purpose of this phenomenological study was to explore lived experiences and perceptions from a population of 75 aviation managers in various locations in Pennsylvania about the use of aviation biofuel and how it will impact the aviation industry. The primary research question for this study focused on the impact of biofuel on the airline industry and how management believes biofuel can contribute to the reduction of fossil fuel. Grounded in the conceptual framework of sustainability, interview data collected from 27 airline and fueling leaders were analyzed for like terms, coded, and reduced to 3 themes. Data were organized and prioritized based on frequency of mention. The findings represented themes of (a) flight planning tools, (b) production, and (c) costs that are associated with aviation fuel. The results confirmed findings addressed in the literature review, specifically that aviation biofuel will transform the airline industry through lower cost and production. These findings have broad applicability for all management personnel in the aviation industry. Implications for social change and improved business environments could be realized with a cleaner environment, reduced fuel emissions, and improved air quality.

  7. FTIR analysis of aviation fuel deposits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helmick, L. S.; Seng, G. T.

    1984-01-01

    Five modes of operation of the Nicolet 7199 Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrophotometer have been evaluated for application in analysis of the chemical structure of accelerated storage/thermal deposits produced by jet fuels. Using primarily the absorption and emission modes, the effects of fuel type, stress temperature, stress time, type of spiking agent, spiking agent concentration, fuel flow, and post-depositional treatment on the chemical nature of fuel deposits have been determined.

  8. Aviation-fuel property effects on combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosfjord, T. J.

    1984-01-01

    The fuel chemical property influence on a gas turbine combustor was studied using 25 test fuels. Fuel physical properties were de-emphasized by using fuel injectors which produce highly-atomized, and hence rapidly vaporizing sprays. A substantial fuel spray characterization effort was conducted to allow selection of nozzles which assured that such sprays were achieved for all fuels. The fuels were specified to cover the following wide ranges of chemical properties: hydrogen, 9.1 to 15 (wt) pct; total aromatics, 0 to 100 (vol) pct; and naphthalene, 0 to 30 (vol) pct. standard fuels (e.g., Jet A, JP4), speciality products (e.g., decalin, xylene tower bottoms) and special fuel blends were included. The latter group included six, 4-component blends prepared to achieve parametric variations in fuel hydrogen, total aromatics and naphthalene contents. The principle influences of fuel chemical properties on the combustor behavior were reflected by the radiation, liner temperature, and exhaust smoke number (or equivalently, soot number density) data. Test results indicated that naphthalene content strongly influenced the radiative heat load while parametric variations in total aromatics did not.

  9. Aviation fuel property effects on altitude relight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venkataramani, K.

    1987-01-01

    The major objective of this experimental program was to investigate the effects of fuel property variation on altitude relight characteristics. Four fuels with widely varying volatility properties (JP-4, Jet A, a blend of Jet A and 2040 Solvent, and Diesel 2) were tested in a five-swirl-cup-sector combustor at inlet temperatures and flows representative of windmilling conditions of turbofan engines. The effects of fuel physical properties on atomization were eliminated by using four sets of pressure-atomizing nozzles designed to give the same spray Sauter mean diameter (50 + or - 10 micron) for each fuel at the same design fuel flow. A second series of tests was run with a set of air-blast nozzles. With comparable atomization levels, fuel volatility assumes only a secondary role for first-swirl-cup lightoff and complete blowout. Full propagation first-cup blowout were independent of fuel volatility and depended only on the combustor operating conditions.

  10. Low-energy gamma ray attenuation characteristics of aviation fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Jag J.; Shen, Chih-Ping; Sprinkle, Danny R.

    1990-01-01

    Am241 (59.5 keV) gamma ray attenuation characteristics were investigated in 270 aviation fuel (Jet A and Jet A-1) samples from 76 airports around the world as a part of world wide study to measure the variability of aviation fuel properties as a function of season and geographical origin. All measurements were made at room temperature which varied from 20 to 27 C. Fuel densities (rho) were measured concurrently with their linear attenuation coefficients (mu), thus providing a measure of mass attenuation coefficient (mu/rho) for the test samples. In 43 fuel samples, rho and mu values were measured at more than one room temperature, thus providing mu/rho values for them at several temperatures. The results were found to be independent of the temperature at which mu and rho values were measured. It is noted that whereas the individual mu and rho values vary considerably from airport to airport as well as season to season, the mu/rho values for all samples are constant at 0.1843 + or - 0.0013 cu cm/gm. This constancy of mu/rho value for aviation fuels is significant since a nuclear fuel quantity gauging system based on low energy gamma ray attenuation will be viable throughout the world.

  11. Alternative Fuel Sources for Military Aviation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-01

    sources, it is evident that there are many different technologies and opinions on which source of alternative energy would be best . for the US. The...Research Document. 1 Sources 2 Jet-A vs JP-5/8 2 ALTERNATIVE FUELS 2 Synthetic Fuel 2 Biofuels 4 Hydrogen Fuel Cell 6 Solar Energy 8 COST 11 Budget...Process , 12 Fischer-Tropsch process 13 Biofuels 14 Hydrogen Fuel Cell : 15 Solar Energy 15 NATIONAL SECURITY ISSUE ~ 16 CONCLUSIONS 17 FIGURES · 25

  12. Detailed studies of aviation fuel flowability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehta, H. K.; Armstrong, R. S.

    1985-01-01

    Six Jet A fuels, with varying compositions, were tested for low temperature flowability in a 190-liter simulator tank that modeled a section of a wing tank of a wide-body commercial airplane. The insulated tank was chilled by circulating coolant through the upper and lower surfaces. Flow-ability was determined as a function of fuel temperature by holdup, the fraction of unflowable fuel remaining in the tank after otherwise complete withdrawal. In static tests with subfreezing tank conditions, hold up varied with temperature and fuel composition. However, a general correlation of two or three classes of fuel type was obtained by plotting holdup as a function of the difference between freezing point and boundary-layer temperature, measured 0.6 cm above the bottom tank surface. Dynamic conditions of vibrations and slosh or rate of fuel withdrawal had very minor effects on holdup. Tests with cooling schedules to represent extreme, cold-day flights showed, at most, slight holdup for any combination of fuel type or dynamic conditions. Tests that superimposed external fuel heating and recirculation during the cooldown period indicates reduced hold up by modification of the low-temperature boundary layer. Fuel heating was just as effective when initiated during the later times of the tests as when applied continuously.

  13. Life-Cycle Analysis of Alternative Aviation Fuels in GREET

    SciTech Connect

    Elgowainy, A.; Han, J.; Wang, M.; Carter, N.; Stratton, R.; Hileman, J.; Malwitz, A.; Balasubramanian, S.

    2012-06-01

    The Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model, developed at Argonne National Laboratory, has been expanded to include well-to-wake (WTWa) analysis of aviation fuels and aircraft. This report documents the key WTWa stages and assumptions for fuels that represent alternatives to petroleum jet fuel. The aviation module in GREET consists of three spreadsheets that present detailed characterizations of well-to-pump and pump-to-wake parameters and WTWa results. By using the expanded GREET version (GREET1_2011), we estimate WTWa results for energy use (total, fossil, and petroleum energy) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide) for (1) each unit of energy (lower heating value) consumed by the aircraft or(2) each unit of distance traveled/ payload carried by the aircraft. The fuel pathways considered in this analysis include petroleum-based jet fuel from conventional and unconventional sources (i.e., oil sands); Fisher-Tropsch (FT) jet fuel from natural gas, coal, and biomass; bio-jet fuel from fast pyrolysis of cellulosic biomass; and bio-jet fuel from vegetable and algal oils, which falls under the American Society for Testing and Materials category of hydroprocessed esters and fatty acids. For aircraft operation, we considered six passenger aircraft classes and four freight aircraft classes in this analysis. Our analysis revealed that, depending on the feedstock source, the fuel conversion technology, and the allocation or displacement credit methodology applied to co-products, alternative bio-jet fuel pathways have the potential to reduce life-cycle GHG emissions by 55–85 percent compared with conventional (petroleum-based) jet fuel. Although producing FT jet fuel from fossil feedstock sources — such as natural gas and coal — could greatly reduce dependence on crude oil, production from such sources (especially coal) produces greater WTWa GHG emissions compared with petroleum jet

  14. Life-cycle analysis of alternative aviation fuels in GREET

    SciTech Connect

    Elgowainy, A.; Han, J.; Wang, M.; Carter, N.; Stratton, R.; Hileman, J.; Malwitz, A.; Balasubramanian, S.

    2012-07-23

    The Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model, developed at Argonne National Laboratory, has been expanded to include well-to-wake (WTWa) analysis of aviation fuels and aircraft. This report documents the key WTWa stages and assumptions for fuels that represent alternatives to petroleum jet fuel. The aviation module in GREET consists of three spreadsheets that present detailed characterizations of well-to-pump and pump-to-wake parameters and WTWa results. By using the expanded GREET version (GREET1{_}2011), we estimate WTWa results for energy use (total, fossil, and petroleum energy) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide) for (1) each unit of energy (lower heating value) consumed by the aircraft or (2) each unit of distance traveled/ payload carried by the aircraft. The fuel pathways considered in this analysis include petroleum-based jet fuel from conventional and unconventional sources (i.e., oil sands); Fisher-Tropsch (FT) jet fuel from natural gas, coal, and biomass; bio-jet fuel from fast pyrolysis of cellulosic biomass; and bio-jet fuel from vegetable and algal oils, which falls under the American Society for Testing and Materials category of hydroprocessed esters and fatty acids. For aircraft operation, we considered six passenger aircraft classes and four freight aircraft classes in this analysis. Our analysis revealed that, depending on the feedstock source, the fuel conversion technology, and the allocation or displacement credit methodology applied to co-products, alternative bio-jet fuel pathways have the potential to reduce life-cycle GHG emissions by 55-85 percent compared with conventional (petroleum-based) jet fuel. Although producing FT jet fuel from fossil feedstock sources - such as natural gas and coal - could greatly reduce dependence on crude oil, production from such sources (especially coal) produces greater WTWa GHG emissions compared with petroleum jet

  15. Progress on coal-derived fuels for aviation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witcofski, R. D.

    1978-01-01

    Synthetic aviation kerosene (Syn. Jet-A), liquid methane (LCH4), and liquid hydrogen (LH2) appear to be the most promising coal-derived fuels. Liquid hydrogen aircraft configurations, their fuel systems, and their ground requirements at the airport are identified. These aircraft appear viable, particularly for long haul use, where aircraft fueled with coal derived LH2 would consume 9 percent less coal resources than would aircraft fueled with coal derived Syn. Jet-A. Distribution of hydrogen from the point of manufacture to airports may pose problems. Synthetic JET-A would appear to cause fewer concerns to the air transportation industry. Of the three candidate fuels, LCH4 is the most energy efficient to produce, and an aircraft fueled with coal derived LCH4 may provide both the most efficient utilization of coal resources and the least expensive ticket as well.

  16. Energy modeling for aviation fuel efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, B.P.

    1981-01-01

    The fuel consumption and path profile description of an aircraft can be related by an energy balanced concept. Application of this concept has produced an equation set that can be utilized to analyze the energy efficiency of propeller and turbojet aircraft during various operating conditions. Analytical methods, results and aircraft specific constants are presented and discussed along with proposed extensions. 10 refs.

  17. Methane Hydrates: More Than a Viable Aviation Fuel Feedstock Option

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, Robert C.

    2007-01-01

    Demand for hydrocarbon fuels is steadily increasing, and greenhouse gas emissions continue to rise unabated with the energy demand. Alternate fuels will be coming on line to meet that demand. This report examines the recovering of methane from methane hydrates for fuel to meet this demand rather than permitting its natural release into the environment, which will be detrimental to the planet. Some background on the nature, vast sizes, and stability of sedimentary and permafrost formations of hydrates are discussed. A few examples of the severe problems associated with methane recovery from these hydrates are presented along with the potential impact on the environment and coastal waters. Future availability of methane from hydrates may become an attractive option for aviation fueling, and so future aircraft design associated with methane fueling is considered.

  18. 32 CFR 766.13 - Sale of aviation fuel, oil, services and supplies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sale of aviation fuel, oil, services and... MISCELLANEOUS RULES USE OF DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY AVIATION FACILITIES BY CIVIL AIRCRAFT § 766.13 Sale of aviation fuel, oil, services and supplies. (a) General policy. In accordance with sections 1107 and 1108...

  19. 32 CFR 766.13 - Sale of aviation fuel, oil, services and supplies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sale of aviation fuel, oil, services and... MISCELLANEOUS RULES USE OF DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY AVIATION FACILITIES BY CIVIL AIRCRAFT § 766.13 Sale of aviation fuel, oil, services and supplies. (a) General policy. In accordance with sections 1107 and 1108...

  20. 14 CFR Special Federal Aviation... - Fuel Tank System Fault Tolerance Evaluation Requirements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fuel Tank System Fault Tolerance Evaluation Requirements Federal Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 88 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION..., SFAR No. 88 Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 88—Fuel Tank System Fault Tolerance...

  1. 14 CFR Special Federal Aviation... - Fuel Tank System Fault Tolerance Evaluation Requirements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fuel Tank System Fault Tolerance Evaluation Requirements Federal Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 88 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION..., SFAR No. 88 Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 88—Fuel Tank System Fault Tolerance...

  2. 32 CFR 766.13 - Sale of aviation fuel, oil, services and supplies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sale of aviation fuel, oil, services and... MISCELLANEOUS RULES USE OF DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY AVIATION FACILITIES BY CIVIL AIRCRAFT § 766.13 Sale of aviation fuel, oil, services and supplies. (a) General policy. In accordance with sections 1107 and 1108...

  3. 32 CFR 766.13 - Sale of aviation fuel, oil, services and supplies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sale of aviation fuel, oil, services and... MISCELLANEOUS RULES USE OF DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY AVIATION FACILITIES BY CIVIL AIRCRAFT § 766.13 Sale of aviation fuel, oil, services and supplies. (a) General policy. In accordance with sections 1107 and 1108...

  4. 14 CFR Special Federal Aviation... - Fuel Tank System Fault Tolerance Evaluation Requirements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fuel Tank System Fault Tolerance Evaluation Requirements Federal Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 88 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION..., SFAR No. 88 Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 88—Fuel Tank System Fault Tolerance...

  5. 14 CFR Special Federal Aviation... - Fuel Tank System Fault Tolerance Evaluation Requirements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel Tank System Fault Tolerance Evaluation Requirements Federal Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 88 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION..., SFAR No. 88 Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 88—Fuel Tank System Fault Tolerance...

  6. 32 CFR 766.13 - Sale of aviation fuel, oil, services and supplies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sale of aviation fuel, oil, services and... MISCELLANEOUS RULES USE OF DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY AVIATION FACILITIES BY CIVIL AIRCRAFT § 766.13 Sale of aviation fuel, oil, services and supplies. (a) General policy. In accordance with sections 1107 and 1108...

  7. 14 CFR Special Federal Aviation... - Fuel Tank System Fault Tolerance Evaluation Requirements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fuel Tank System Fault Tolerance Evaluation Requirements Federal Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 88 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION..., SFAR No. 88 Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 88—Fuel Tank System Fault Tolerance...

  8. Effect of aviation fuel type and fuel injection conditions on the spray characteristics of pressure swirl and hybrid air blast fuel injectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feddema, Rick

    Feddema, Rick T. M.S.M.E., Purdue University, December 2013. Effect of Aviation Fuel Type and Fuel Injection Conditions on the Spray Characteristics of Pressure Swirl and Hybrid Air Blast Fuel Injectors. Major Professor: Dr. Paul E. Sojka, School of Mechanical Engineering Spray performance of pressure swirl and hybrid air blast fuel injectors are central to combustion stability, combustor heat management, and pollutant formation in aviation gas turbine engines. Next generation aviation gas turbine engines will optimize spray atomization characteristics of the fuel injector in order to achieve engine efficiency and emissions requirements. Fuel injector spray atomization performance is affected by the type of fuel injector, fuel liquid properties, fuel injection pressure, fuel injection temperature, and ambient pressure. Performance of pressure swirl atomizer and hybrid air blast nozzle type fuel injectors are compared in this study. Aviation jet fuels, JP-8, Jet A, JP-5, and JP-10 and their effect on fuel injector performance is investigated. Fuel injector set conditions involving fuel injector pressure, fuel temperature and ambient pressure are varied in order to compare each fuel type. One objective of this thesis is to contribute spray patternation measurements to the body of existing drop size data in the literature. Fuel droplet size tends to increase with decreasing fuel injection pressure, decreasing fuel injection temperature and increasing ambient injection pressure. The differences between fuel types at particular set conditions occur due to differences in liquid properties between fuels. Liquid viscosity and surface tension are identified to be fuel-specific properties that affect the drop size of the fuel. An open aspect of current research that this paper addresses is how much the type of aviation jet fuel affects spray atomization characteristics. Conventional aviation fuel specifications are becoming more important with new interest in alternative

  9. Detailed and Simplified Chemical Kinetics of Aviation Fuels and Surrogates

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-01

    group, an equilibrium constant for reaction (13) was calculated. Moreover, data for the enthalpy of formation of the C5H5 were obtained. Zhong and...of key rate constants combined with high-quality validation data. Progress for complex aviation fuel mixtures has been slower due to uncertainties in...approaches were used to derive estimates of the rate constants . Improved thermodynamic data for a wide range of intermediate species was also

  10. Detailed and Simplified Chemical Kinetics of Aviation Fuels and Surrogates

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-11-12

    group, an equilibrium constant for reaction (13) was calculated. Moreover, data for the enthalpy of formation of the C5H5 were obtained. Zhong and...of key rate constants combined with high-quality validation data. Progress for complex aviation fuel mixtures has been slower due to uncertainties in...approaches were used to derive estimates of the rate constants . Improved thermodynamic data for a wide range of intermediate species was also

  11. Aviation turbine fuel properties and their trends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, R.

    1981-01-01

    This paper is an examination of published Jet A inspection data covering selected property distributions, averages, and trends for the period from 1969 to 1979. Yearly median values of aromatics, mercaptan sulfur content, 10-percent distillation temperature, smoke point, and freezing point are changing with time, approaching their specification limit values, particularly in the last three years. A near-specification property is defined as one within a stated tolerance band around the specification limit. On this basis, most fuel samples have one to three near-specification properties, the most common being aromatics, smoke point, and freezing point.

  12. Future Fuel Scenarios and Their Potential Impact to Aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, Robert C.; Lowery, Nathan; Daggett, David L.; Anast, Peter

    2007-01-01

    In recent years fuel prices have been growing at a rapid pace. Current conservative projections predict that this is only a function of the natural volatility of oil prices, similar to the oil price spikes experienced in the 1970s. However, there is growing concern among analysts that the current price increases may not only be permanent, but that prices may continue to increase into the future before settling down at a much higher level than today. At high enough fuel prices, the aircraft industry would become very sensitive to fuel price. In this paper, the likelihood of fuel price increase is considered in three different price increase scenarios: "low," "medium," and "high." The impact of these scenarios on the aviation industry and alternatives are also addressed.

  13. Future Fuel Scenarios and Their Potential Impact to Aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, Robert C.; Daggett, David L.; Anast, Peter; Lowery, Nathan

    2011-01-01

    In recent years fuel prices have been growing at a rapid pace. Current conservative projections predict that this is only a function of the natural volatility of oil prices, similar to the oil price spikes experienced in the 1970s. However, there is growing concern among analysts that the current price increases may not only be permanent, but that prices may continue to increase into the future before settling down at a much higher level than today. At high enough fuel prices, the aircraft industry would become very sensitive to fuel price. In this paper, the likelihood of fuel price increase is considered in three different price increase scenarios: "low," "medium," and "high." The impact of these scenarios on the aviation industry and alternatives are also addressed.

  14. Forecast of future aviation fuels: The model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ayati, M. B.; Liu, C. Y.; English, J. M.

    1981-01-01

    A conceptual models of the commercial air transportation industry is developed which can be used to predict trends in economics, demand, and consumption. The methodology is based on digraph theory, which considers the interaction of variables and propagation of changes. Air transportation economics are treated by examination of major variables, their relationships, historic trends, and calculation of regression coefficients. A description of the modeling technique and a compilation of historic airline industry statistics used to determine interaction coefficients are included. Results of model validations show negligible difference between actual and projected values over the twenty-eight year period of 1959 to 1976. A limited application of the method presents forecasts of air tranportation industry demand, growth, revenue, costs, and fuel consumption to 2020 for two scenarios of future economic growth and energy consumption.

  15. Aviation Fuel Property Effects on Altitude Relight

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-05-01

    Final Report by K.S. Venkataramani GENERAL ELECTRIC COMPANY Aircraft Engine Business Group Cincinnati, Ohio 45215 Prepared for National Aeronautics and...Organihation Report No K. Vettkataiaman!. R87AEB111 10. Work Unit No 9. Performing Organization Name and Address GE Aircraft Engine Business Group 11...Contract or Grant No Aircraft Engine Business Group Evendale, Ohio 45215 NAS3-24215 5505-69-41 " _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 13 Type of Repcirelne Per•o

  16. Multi-Fuel Rotary Engine for General Aviation Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, C.; Ellis, D. R.; Meng, P. R.

    1983-01-01

    Design studies, conducted for NASA, of Advanced Multi-fuel General Aviation and Commuter Aircraft Rotary Stratified Charge Engines are summarized. Conceptual design studies of an advanced engine sized to provide 186/250 shaft KW/HP under cruise conditions at 7620/25,000 m/ft. altitude were performed. Relevant engine development background covering both prior and recent engine test results of the direct injected unthrottled rotary engine technology, including the capability to interchangeably operate on gasoline, diesel fuel, kerosene, or aviation jet fuel, are presented and related to growth predictions. Aircraft studies, using these resultant growth engines, define anticipated system effects of the performance and power density improvements for both single engine and twin engine airplanes. The calculated results indicate superior system performance and 30 to 35% fuel economy improvement for the Rotary-engine airplanes as compared to equivalent airframe concept designs with current baseline engines. The research and technology activities required to attain the projected engine performance levels are also discussed.

  17. Laboratory Evaluation of Light Obscuration Particle Counters used to Establish use Limits for Aviation Fuel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    Establish use Limits for Aviation Fuel December 2015 UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED Joel Schmitigal 27480 Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI-Std...To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Laboratory Evaluation of Light Obscuration Particle Counters used to Establish use Limits for Aviation Fuel 5a. CONTRACT...laboratory evaluations of automatic light obscuration particle counters to develop limits for aviation fuel cleanliness. The laboratory evaluations

  18. Comparison of hecter fuel with export aviation gasoline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickinson, H C; Gage, V R; Sparrow, S W

    1921-01-01

    Among the fuels which will operate at compression ratios up to at least 8.0 without preignition or "pinking" is hecter fuel, whence a careful determination of its performance is of importance. For the test data presented in this report the hecter fuel used was a mixture of 30 per cent benzol and 70 per cent cyclohexane, having a low freezing point, and distilling from first drop to 90 per cent at nearly a constant temperature, about 20 degrees c. below the average distillation temperature ("mean volatility") of the x gasoline (export grade). The results of these experiments show that the power developed by hecter fuel is the same as that developed by export aviation gasoline at about 1,800 r.p.m. at all altitudes. At lower speeds differences in the power developed by the fuels become evident. Comparisons at ground level were omitted to avoid any possibility of damaging the engine by operating with open throttle on gasoline at so high a compression. The fuel consumption per unit power based on weight, not volume, averaged more than 10 per cent greater with hecter than with x gasoline. The thermal efficiency of the engine when using hecter is less than when using gasoline, particularly at higher speeds. A generalization of the difference for all altitudes and speeds being 8 per cent. A general deduction from these facts is that more hecter is exhausted unburnt. Hecter can withstand high compression pressures and temperature without preignition. (author)

  19. Biodegradation of JP-5 Aviation Fuel by Subsurface Microbial Communities.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-01

    microorganisms. including more than 40 bacteria, 6 actinomycetes and 10 fungi have been isolated from soil contaminated with aviation fuels and adjacent...unsorted fluvial fine sand to gravel. underlain bv - o. m peat. The umoer stratum lies directly on Miocene marine grey silt and clay. which c=nfines the...0.5 g/L), dextrose (0.25 g/L), NaCI (0.25 g/L), yeast extract (0.25 g/L), pH 7; ( ) ACT - Actinomycete Isolation Agar (Difco: 22 g/L). glycerol (5 g/L

  20. Survey of Aviation Maintenance Technical Manuals Phase 3 Report: Final Report and Recommendations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-12-01

    DOTIFAAIAR-021123 Survey of Aviation Maintenance Office of Aviation Research Technical Manuals Phase 3 Washington, D.C. 20591 Report: Final Report...Title and Subtitle 5. Report Date SURVEY OF AVIATION MAINTENANCE TECHNICAL MANUALS PHASE 3 December 2002 REPORT: FINAL REPORT AND RECOMMENDATIONS 6

  1. Aircraft Engine Technology for Green Aviation to Reduce Fuel Burn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, Christopher E.; VanZante, Dale E.; Heidmann, James D.

    2013-01-01

    The NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Program Subsonic Fixed Wing Project and Integrated Systems Research Program Environmentally Responsible Aviation Project in the Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate are conducting research on advanced aircraft technology to address the environmental goals of reducing fuel burn, noise and NOx emissions for aircraft in 2020 and beyond. Both Projects, in collaborative partnerships with U.S. Industry, Academia, and other Government Agencies, have made significant progress toward reaching the N+2 (2020) and N+3 (beyond 2025) installed fuel burn goals by fundamental aircraft engine technology development, subscale component experimental investigations, full scale integrated systems validation testing, and development validation of state of the art computation design and analysis codes. Specific areas of propulsion technology research are discussed and progress to date.

  2. PROTOZOA IN SUBSURFACE SEDIMENTS FROM SITE CONTAMI- NATED WITH AVIATION GASOLINE OR JET FUEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Numbers of protozoa in the subsurface of aviation gasoline and jet fuel spill areas at a Coast Guard base at Traverse City, Mich., were determined. Boreholes were drilled in an uncontaminated location, in contaminated but untreated parts of the fuel plumes, and in the aviation ga...

  3. Cooperative Demonstration Program To Train Aviation Maintenance Technicians. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alabama Aviation and Technical Coll., Ozark.

    The Alabama Aviation and Technical College, working with representatives of the aviation industry, the military, the Alabama Department of Aeronautics, and the Federal Aviation Administration, developed a training program for aviation maintenance technicians. The program also aimed to emphasize and expand opportunities for minorities, females, and…

  4. Highly selective condensation of biomass-derived methyl ketones as a source of aviation fuel.

    PubMed

    Sacia, Eric R; Balakrishnan, Madhesan; Deaner, Matthew H; Goulas, Konstantinos A; Toste, F Dean; Bell, Alexis T

    2015-05-22

    Aviation fuel (i.e., jet fuel) requires a mixture of C9 -C16 hydrocarbons having both a high energy density and a low freezing point. While jet fuel is currently produced from petroleum, increasing concern with the release of CO2 into the atmosphere from the combustion of petroleum-based fuels has led to policy changes mandating the inclusion of biomass-based fuels into the fuel pool. Here we report a novel way to produce a mixture of branched cyclohexane derivatives in very high yield (>94 %) that match or exceed many required properties of jet fuel. As starting materials, we use a mixture of n-alkyl methyl ketones and their derivatives obtained from biomass. These synthons are condensed into trimers via base-catalyzed aldol condensation and Michael addition. Hydrodeoxygenation of these products yields mixtures of C12 -C21 branched, cyclic alkanes. Using models for predicting the carbon number distribution obtained from a mixture of n-alkyl methyl ketones and for predicting the boiling point distribution of the final mixture of cyclic alkanes, we show that it is possible to define the mixture of synthons that will closely reproduce the distillation curve of traditional jet fuel.

  5. Characterization of an Experimental Referee Broadened Specification (ERBS) aviation turbine fuel and ERBS fuel blends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seng, G. T.

    1982-01-01

    Characterization data and comparisons of these data are presented for three individual lots of a research test fuel designated as an Experimental Referee Broadened Specification (ERBS) aviation turbine fuel. This research fuel, which is a blend of kerosene and hydrotreated catalytic gas oil, is a representation of a kerojet fuel with broadened properties. To lower the hydrogen content of the ERBS fuel, a blending stock, composed of xylene bottoms and hydrotreated catalytic gas oil, was developed and employed to produce two different ERBS fuel blends. The ERBS fuel blends and the blending stock were also characterized and the results for the blends are compared to those of the original ERBS fuel. The characterization results indicate that with the exception of the freezing point for ERBS lot 2, which was slightly high, the three lots, produced over a 2 year period, met all general fuel requirements. However, although the properties of the fuels were found to be fairly consistent, there were differences in composition. Similarly, all major requirements for the ERBS fuel blends were met or closely approached, and the properties of the blended fuels were found to generally reflect those expected for the proportions of ERBS fuel and blending stock used in their production.

  6. Impact of 50% Alcohol to Jet Blends on Aviation Turbine Fuel Coalescence - Navy Coalescence Test

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-17

    Impact of 50% Alcohol to Jet Blends on Aviation Turbine Fuel Coalescence - Navy Coalescence Test NF&LCFT REPORT 441/15-001 17 October 2014...Alcohol to Jet Blends on Aviation Turbine Fuel Coalescence- Navy Coalescence Test 1.0 BACKGROUND In October 2009, Secretary of the Navy Ray Mabus...section 5.11.4 of MIL-STD- 3004D3, for aviation turbine fuel to be acceptable for fueling aircraft it shall contain no more 10 ppm by volume (ppmv

  7. Multi-fuel rotary engine for general aviation aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, C.; Ellis, D. R.; Meng, P. R.

    1983-01-01

    Design studies of advanced multifuel general aviation and commuter aircraft rotary stratified charge engines are summarized. Conceptual design studies were performed at two levels of technology, on advanced general aviation engines sized to provide 186/250 shaft kW/hp under cruise conditions at 7620 (25000 m/ft) altitude. A follow on study extended the results to larger (2500 hp max.) engine sizes suitable for applications such as commuter transports and helicopters. The study engine designs were derived from relevant engine development background including both prior and recent engine test results using direct injected unthrottled rotary engine technology. Aircraft studies, using these resultant growth engines, define anticipated system effects of the performance and power density improvements for both single engine and twin engine airplanes. The calculated results indicate superior system performance and 27 to 33 percent fuel economy improvement for the rotary engine airplanes as compared to equivalent airframe concept designs with current baseline engines. The research and technology activities required to attain the projected engine performance levels are also discussed.

  8. Forecast of Future Aviation Fuels. Part 1: Scenarios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    English, J. M.; Liu, C. Y.; Smith, J. L.; Yin, A. K. K.; Pan, G. A.; Ayati, M. B.; Gyamfi, M.; Arabzadah, M. R.

    1978-01-01

    A preliminary set of scenarios is described for depicting the air transport industry as it grows and changes, up to the year 2025. This provides the background for predicting the needs for future aviation fuels to meet the requirements of the industry as new basic sources, such as oil shale and coal, which are utilized to supplement petroleum. Five scenarios are written to encompass a range of futures from a serious resource-constrained economy to a continuous and optimistic economic growth. A unique feature is the choice of one immediate range scenario which is based on a serious interruption of economic growth occasioned by an energy shortfall. This is presumed to occur due to lags in starting a synfuels program.

  9. Aviation Fuel Tracer Simulation: Model Intercomparison and Implications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danilin, M. Y.; Fahey, D. W.; Schumann, U.; Prather, M. J.; Penner, J. E.; Ko, M. K. W.; Weisenstein, D. K.; Jackman, C. H.; Pitari, G.; Koehler, I.; Sausen, R.; Weaver, C. J.; Douglass, A. R.; Connell, P. S.; Kinnison, D. E.; Dentener, F. J.; Fleming, E. L.; Berntsen, T. K.; Isaksen, I. S. A.; Haywood, J. M.

    1998-01-01

    An upper limit for aircraft-produced perturbations to aerosols and gaseous exhaust products in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UT/LS) is derived using the 1992 aviation fuel tracer simulation performed by eleven global atmospheric models. Key Endings are that subsonic aircraft emissions: (1) have not be responsible for the observed water vapor trends at 40 deg N; (2) could be a significant source of soot mass near 12 km, but not at 20 km; (3) might cause a noticeable increase in the background sulfate aerosol surface area and number densities (but not mass density) near the northern mid-latitude tropopause; and (4) could provide a global, annual mean top of the atmosphere radiative forcing up to +0.006 W/sq m and -0.013 W/sq m due to emitted soot and sulfur, respectively.

  10. Aviation fuel tracer simulation: Model intercomparison and implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danilin, M. Y.; Fahey, D. W.; Schumann, U.; Prather, M. J.; Penner, J. E.; Ko, M. K. W.; Weisenstein, D. K.; Jackman, C. H.; Pitari, G.; Köhler, I.; Sausen, R.; Weaver, C. J.; Douglass, A. R.; Connell, P. S.; Kinnison, D. E.; Dentener, F. J.; Fleming, E. L.; Berntsen, T. K.; Isaksen, I. S. A.; Haywood, J. M.; Kärcher, B.

    An upper limit for aircraft-produced perturbations to aerosols and gaseous exhaust products in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UT/LS) is derived using the 1992 aviation fuel tracer simulation performed by eleven global atmospheric models. Key findings are that subsonic aircraft emissions: 1) have not be responsible for the observed water vapor trends at 40°N 2) could be a significant source of soot mass near 12 km, but not at 20 km, 3) might cause a noticeable increase in the background sulfate aerosol surface area and number densities (but not mass density) near the northern mid-latitude tropopause, and 4) could provide a global, annual mean top of the atmosphere radiative forcing up to +0.006 W/m² and -0.013 W/m² due to emitted soot and sulfur, respectively.

  11. Evaluation of Additives to Eliminate Free Water from Aviation Fuel Light Obscuration Particle Counts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-11-01

    5000 DISTRIBUTION A. Approved for public release: distribution unlimited. Evaluation of Additives to Eliminate Free Water from Aviation Fuel Light...April 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Evaluation of Additives to Eliminate Free Water from Aviation Fuel Light Obscuration Particle Counts 5a. CONTRACT...13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT This technical report details the evaluation fuel additives used to eliminate the effects of free water

  12. Impacts of aviation fuel sulfur content on climate and human health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapadia, Zarashpe Z.; Spracklen, Dominick V.; Arnold, Steve R.; Borman, Duncan J.; Mann, Graham W.; Pringle, Kirsty J.; Monks, Sarah A.; Reddington, Carly L.; Benduhn, François; Rap, Alexandru; Scott, Catherine E.; Butt, Edward W.; Yoshioka, Masaru

    2016-08-01

    Aviation emissions impact both air quality and climate. Using a coupled tropospheric chemistry-aerosol microphysics model we investigate the effects of varying aviation fuel sulfur content (FSC) on premature mortality from long-term exposure to aviation-sourced PM2.5 (particulate matter with a dry diameter of < 2.5 µm) and on the global radiation budget due to changes in aerosol and tropospheric ozone. We estimate that present-day non-CO2 aviation emissions with a typical FSC of 600 ppm result in ˜ 3600 [95 % CI: 1310-5890] annual premature mortalities globally due to increases in cases of cardiopulmonary disease and lung cancer, resulting from increased surface PM2.5 concentrations. We quantify the global annual mean combined radiative effect (REcomb) of non-CO2 aviation emissions as -13.3 mW m-2; from increases in aerosols (direct radiative effect and cloud albedo effect) and tropospheric ozone. Ultra-low sulfur jet fuel (ULSJ; FSC = 15 ppm) has been proposed as an option to reduce the adverse health impacts of aviation-induced PM2.5. We calculate that swapping the global aviation fleet to ULSJ fuel would reduce the global aviation-induced mortality rate by ˜ 620 [95 % CI: 230-1020] mortalities a-1 and increase REcomb by +7.0 mW m-2. We explore the impact of varying aviation FSC between 0 and 6000 ppm. Increasing FSC increases aviation-induced mortality, while enhancing climate cooling through increasing the aerosol cloud albedo effect (CAE). We explore the relationship between the injection altitude of aviation emissions and the resulting climate and air quality impacts. Compared to the standard aviation emissions distribution, releasing aviation emissions at the ground increases global aviation-induced mortality and produces a net warming effect, primarily through a reduced CAE. Aviation emissions injected at the surface are 5 times less effective at forming cloud condensation nuclei, reducing the aviation-induced CAE by a factor of 10. Applying high FSCs at

  13. Implementation of alternative bio-based fuels in aviation: The Clean Airports Program

    SciTech Connect

    Shauck, M.E.; Zanin, M.G.

    1997-12-31

    The Renewable Aviation Fuels Development Center at Baylor University in Waco, Texas, was designated, in March 1996, by the US Department of Energy (US DOE) as the national coordinator of the Clean Airports Program. This program, a spin-off of the Clean Cities Program, was initiated to increase the use of alternative fuels in aviation. There are two major fuels used in aviation today, the current piston engine aviation gasoline, and the current turbine engine fuel. The environmental impact of each of these fuels is significant. Aviation Gasoline (100LL), currently used in the General Aviation piston engine fleet, contributes 100% of the emissions containing lead in the USA today. In the case of the turbine engine fuel (Jet fuel), there are two major environmental impacts to be considered: the local, in the vicinity of the airports, and the global impact on climate change. The Clean Airports Program was established to promote the use of clean burning fuels in order to achieve and maintain clean air at and in the vicinities of airports through the use of alternative fuel-powered air and ground transportation vehicles.

  14. Impacts of aviation fuel sulfur content on climate and human health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapadia, Z. Z.; Spracklen, D. V.; Arnold, S. R.; Borman, D. J.; Mann, G. W.; Pringle, K. J.; Monks, S. A.; Reddington, C. L.; Benduhn, F.; Rap, A.; Scott, C. E.; Butt, E. W.; Yoshioka, M.

    2015-07-01

    Aviation emissions impact both air quality and climate. Using a coupled tropospheric chemistry-aerosol microphysics model we investigate the effects of varying aviation fuel sulfur content (FSC) on premature mortality from long-term exposure to aviation-sourced PM2.5 (particulate matter with a dry diameter of < 2.5 μm) and on the global radiation budget due to changes in aerosol and tropospheric ozone. We estimate that present-day non-CO2 aviation emissions with a typical FSC of 600 ppm result in 3597 (95 % CI: 1307-5888) annual mortalities globally due to increases in cases of cardiopulmonary disease and lung cancer, resulting from increased surface PM2.5 concentrations. We quantify the global annual mean combined radiative effect (REcomb) of non-CO2 aviation emissions as -13.3 mW m-2; from increases in aerosols (direct radiative effect and cloud albedo effect) and tropospheric ozone. Ultra-low sulfur jet fuel (ULSJ; FSC =15 ppm) has been proposed as an option to reduce the adverse health impacts of aviation-induced PM2.5. We calculate that swapping the global aviation fleet to ULSJ fuel would reduce the global aviation-induced mortality rate by 624 (95 % CI: 227-1021) mortalities a-1 and increase REcomb by +7.0 mW m-2. We explore the impact of varying aviation FSC between 0-6000 ppm. Increasing FSC increases annual mortality, while enhancing climate cooling through increasing the aerosol cloud albedo effect (aCAE). We explore the relationship between the injection altitude of aviation emissions and the resulting climate and air quality impacts. Compared to the standard aviation emissions distribution, releasing aviation emissions at the ground increases global aviation-induced mortality and produces a net warming effect, primarily through a reduced aCAE. Aviation emissions injected at the surface are 5 times less effective at forming cloud condensation nuclei, reducing the aviation-induced aCAE by a factor of 10. Applying high FSCs at aviation cruise altitudes

  15. Fischer-Tropsch Catalyst for Aviation Fuel Production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    deLaRee, Ana B.; Best, Lauren M.; Hepp, Aloysius F.

    2011-01-01

    As the oil supply declines, there is a greater need for cleaner alternative fuels. There will undoubtedly be a shift from crude oil to non-petroleum sources as a feedstock for aviation (and other transportation) fuels. The Fischer-Tropsch process uses a gas mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen which is converted into various liquid hydrocarbons; this versatile gas-to-liquid technology produces a complex product stream of paraffins, olefins, and oxygenated compounds such as alcohols and aldehydes. The Fischer-Tropsch process can produce a cleaner diesel oil fraction with a high cetane number (typically above 70) without any sulfur and aromatic compounds. It is most commonly catalyzed by cobalt supported on alumina, silica, or titania or unsupported alloyed iron powders. Cobalt is typically used more often than iron, in that cobalt is a longer-active catalyst, has lower water-gas shift activity, and lower yield of modified products. Promoters are valuable in improving Fischer-Tropsch catalyst as they can increase cobalt oxide dispersion, enhance the reduction of cobalt oxide to the active metal phase, stabilize a high metal surface area, and improve mechanical properties. Our goal is to build up the specificity of the Fischer-Tropsch catalyst while adding less-costly transition metals as promoters; the more common promoters used in Fischer-Tropsch synthesis are rhenium, platinum, and ruthenium. In this report we will describe our preliminary efforts to design and produce catalyst materials to achieve our goal of preferentially producing C8 to C18 paraffin compounds in the NASA Glenn Research Center Gas-To-Liquid processing plant. Efforts at NASA Glenn Research Center for producing green fuels using non-petroleum feedstocks support both the Sub-sonic Fixed Wing program of Fundamental Aeronautics and the In Situ Resource Utilization program of the Exploration Technology Development and Demonstration program.

  16. Fischer-Tropsch Catalyst for Aviation Fuel Production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeLaRee, Ana B.; Best, Lauren M.; Bradford, Robyn L.; Gonzalez-Arroyo, Richard; Hepp, Aloysius F.

    2012-01-01

    As the oil supply declines, there is a greater need for cleaner alternative fuels. There will undoubtedly be a shift from crude oil to nonpetroleum sources as a feedstock for aviation (and other transportation) fuels. The Fischer-Tropsch process uses a gas mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen which is converted into various liquid hydrocarbons; this versatile gas-to-liquid technology produces a complex product stream of paraffins, olefins, and oxygenated compounds such as alcohols and aldehydes. The Fischer-Tropsch process can produce a cleaner diesel oil fraction with a high cetane number (typically above 70) without any sulfur and aromatic compounds. It is most commonly catalyzed by cobalt supported on alumina, silica, or titania or unsupported alloyed iron powders. Cobalt is typically used more often than iron, in that cobalt is a longer-active catalyst, has lower water-gas shift activity, and lower yield of modified products. Promoters are valuable in improving Fischer-Tropsch catalyst as they can increase cobalt oxide dispersion, enhance the reduction of cobalt oxide to the active metal phase, stabilize a high metal surface area, and improve mechanical properties. Our goal is to build up the specificity of the Fischer-Tropsch catalyst while adding less-costly transition metals as promoters; the more common promoters used in Fischer-Tropsch synthesis are rhenium, platinum, and ruthenium. In this report we will describe our preliminary efforts to design and produce catalyst materials to achieve our goal of preferentially producing C8 to C18 paraffin compounds in the NASA Glenn Research Center Gas-To-Liquid processing plant. Efforts at NASA Glenn Research Center for producing green fuels using non-petroleum feedstocks support both the Sub-sonic Fixed Wing program of Fundamental Aeronautics and the In Situ Resource Utilization program of the Exploration Technology Development and Demonstration program.

  17. Evaluation of methods for rapid determination of freezing point of aviation fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mathiprakasam, B.

    1982-01-01

    Methods for identification of the more promising concepts for the development of a portable instrument to rapidly determine the freezing point of aviation fuels are described. The evaluation process consisted of: (1) collection of information on techniques previously used for the determination of the freezing point, (2) screening and selection of these techniques for further evaluation of their suitability in a portable unit for rapid measurement, and (3) an extensive experimental evaluation of the selected techniques and a final selection of the most promising technique. Test apparatuses employing differential thermal analysis and the change in optical transparency during phase change were evaluated and tested. A technique similar to differential thermal analysis using no reference fuel was investigated. In this method, the freezing point was obtained by digitizing the data and locating the point of inflection. Results obtained using this technique compare well with those obtained elsewhere using different techniques. A conceptual design of a portable instrument incorporating this technique is presented.

  18. Aircraft Fuel, Hydraulic and Pneumatic Systems (Course Outlines), Aviation Mechanics 3 (Air Frame): 9067.01.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    This document presents an outline for a 135-hour course designed to familiarize the student with the operation, inspection, and repair of aircraft fuel, hydraulic, and pneumatic systems. It is designed to help the trainee master the knowledge and skills necessary to become an aviation airframe mechanic. The aviation airframe maintenance technician…

  19. Aircraft emissions of methane and nitrous oxide during the alternative aviation fuel experiment.

    PubMed

    Santoni, Gregory W; Lee, Ben H; Wood, Ezra C; Herndon, Scott C; Miake-Lye, Richard C; Wofsy, Steven C; McManus, J Barry; Nelson, David D; Zahniser, Mark S

    2011-08-15

    Given the predicted growth of aviation and the recent developments of alternative aviation fuels, quantifying methane (CH(4)) and nitrous oxide (N(2)O) emission ratios for various aircraft engines and fuels can help constrain projected impacts of aviation on the Earth's radiative balance. Fuel-based emission indices for CH(4) and N(2)O were quantified from CFM56-2C1 engines aboard the NASA DC-8 aircraft during the first Alternative Aviation Fuel Experiment (AAFEX-I) in 2009. The measurements of JP-8 fuel combustion products indicate that at low thrust engine states (idle and taxi, or 4% and 7% maximum rated thrusts, respectively) the engines emit both CH(4) and N(2)O at a mean ± 1σ rate of 170 ± 160 mg CH(4) (kg Fuel)(-1) and 110 ± 50 mg N(2)O (kg Fuel)(-1), respectively. At higher thrust levels corresponding to greater fuel flow and higher engine temperatures, CH(4) concentrations in engine exhaust were lower than ambient concentrations. Average emission indices for JP-8 fuel combusted at engine thrusts between 30% and 100% of maximum rating were -54 ± 33 mg CH(4) (kg Fuel)(-1) and 32 ± 18 mg N(2)O (kg Fuel)(-1), where the negative sign indicates consumption of atmospheric CH(4) in the engine. Emission factors for the synthetic Fischer-Tropsch fuels were statistically indistinguishable from those for JP-8.

  20. Life-cycle analysis of bio-based aviation fuels.

    PubMed

    Han, Jeongwoo; Elgowainy, Amgad; Cai, Hao; Wang, Michael Q

    2013-12-01

    Well-to-wake (WTWa) analysis of bio-based aviation fuels, including hydroprocessed renewable jet (HRJ) from various oil seeds, Fischer-Tropsch jet (FTJ) from corn-stover and co-feeding of coal and corn-stover, and pyrolysis jet from corn stover, is conducted and compared with petroleum jet. WTWa GHG emission reductions relative to petroleum jet can be 41-63% for HRJ, 68-76% for pyrolysis jet and 89% for FTJ from corn stover. The HRJ production stage dominates WTWa GHG emissions from HRJ pathways. The differences in GHG emissions from HRJ production stage among considered feedstocks are much smaller than those from fertilizer use and N2O emissions related to feedstock collection stage. Sensitivity analyses on FTJ production from coal and corn-stover are also conducted, showing the importance of biomass share in the feedstock, carbon capture and sequestration options, and overall efficiency. For both HRJ and FTJ, co-product handling methods have significant impacts on WTWa results.

  1. Ethyl-tertiary-butyl-ether (ETBE) as an aviation fuel: Eleventh international symposium on alcohol fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Maben, G.D.; Shauck, M.E.; Zanin, M.G.

    1996-12-31

    This paper discusses the preliminary flight testing of an aircraft using neat burning ethyl-tertiary-butyl-ether (ETBE) as a fuel. No additional changes were made to the fuel delivery systems which had previously been modified to provide the higher fuel flow rates required to operate the engine on neat ethanol. Air-fuel ratios were manually adjusted with the mixture control. This system allows the pilot to adjust the mixture to compensate for changes in air density caused by altitude, pressure and temperature. The engine was instrumented to measure exhaust gas temperatures (EGT), cylinder head temperatures (CHT), and fuel flows, while the standard aircraft instruments were used to collect aircraft performance data. Baseline engine data for ETBE and Avgas are compared. Preliminary data indicates the technical and economic feasibility of using ETBE as an aviation fuel for the piston engine fleet. Furthermore, the energy density of ETBE qualifies it as a candidate for a turbine engine fuel of which 16.2 billion gallons are used in the US each year.

  2. A method for monitoring the variability in nuclear absorption characteristics of aviation fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sprinkle, Danny R.; Shen, Chih-Ping

    1988-01-01

    A technique for monitoring variability in the nuclear absorption characteristics of aviation fuels has been developed. It is based on a highly collimated low energy gamma radiation source and a sodium iodide counter. The source and the counter assembly are separated by a geometrically well-defined test fuel cell. A computer program for determining the mass attenuation coefficient of the test fuel sample, based on the data acquired for a preset counting period, has been developed and tested on several types of aviation fuel.

  3. Aircraft Fuel, Fuel Metering, Induction and Exhaust Systems (Course Outline), Aviation Mechanics (Power Plant): 9057.02.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    This document presents an outline for a 135-hour course designed to help the trainee gain the skills and knowledge necessary to become an aviation powerplant mechanic. The course outlines the theory of operation of various fuel systems, fuel metering, induction, and exhaust system components with an emphasis on troubleshooting, maintenance, and…

  4. Enhancement of Aviation Fuel Thermal Stability Characterization Through Application of Ellipsometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Browne, Samuel Tucker; Wong, Hubert; Hinderer, Cameron Branch; Klettlinger, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    ASTM D3241/Jet Fuel Thermal Oxidation Tester (JFTOT) procedure, the standard method for testing thermal stability of conventional aviation turbine fuels is inherently limited due to the subjectivity in the color standard for tube deposit rating. Quantitative assessment of the physical characteristics of oxidative fuel deposits provides a more powerful method for comparing the thermal oxidation stability characteristics of fuels, especially in a research setting. We propose employing a Spectroscopic Ellipsometer to determine the film thickness and profile of oxidative fuel deposits on JFTOT heater tubes. Using JP-8 aviation fuel and following a modified ASTM D3241 testing procedure, the capabilities of the Ellipsometer will be demonstrated by measuring oxidative fuel deposit profiles for a range of different deposit characteristics. The testing completed in this report was supported by the NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Subsonics Fixed Wing Project

  5. Temperature and flow measurements on near-freezing aviation fuels in a wing-tank model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, R.; Stockemer, F. J.

    1980-01-01

    Freezing behavior, pumpability, and temperature profiles for aviation turbine fuels were measured in a 190-liter tank, to simulate internal temperature gradients encountered in commercial airplane wing tanks. Two low-temperature situations were observed. Where the bulk of the fuel is above the specification freezing point, pumpout of the fuel removes all fuel except a layer adhering to the bottom chilled surfaces, and the unpumpable fraction depends on the fuel temperature near these surfaces. Where the bulk of the fuel is at or below the freezing point, pumpout ceases when solids block the pump inlet, and the unpumpable fraction depends on the overall average temperature.

  6. Temperature and flow measurements on near-freezing aviation fuels in a wing-tank model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, R.; Stockemer, F. J.

    1980-01-01

    Freezing behavior, pumpability, and temperature profiles for aviation turbine fuels were measured in a 190-liter tank chilled to simulate internal temperature gradients encountered in commercial airplane wing tanks. When the bulk of the fuel was above the specification freezing point, pumpout of the fuel removed all fuel except a layer adhering to the bottom chilled surfaces, and the unpumpable fraction depended on the fuel temperature near these surfaces. When the bulk of the fuel was at or below the freezing point, pumpout ceased when solids blocked the pump inlet, and the unpumpable fraction depended on the overall average temperature.

  7. Systems Analysis of NASA Aviation Safety Program: Final Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Sharon M.; Reveley, Mary S.; Withrow, Colleen A.; Evans, Joni K.; Barr, Lawrence; Leone, Karen

    2013-01-01

    A three-month study (February to April 2010) of the NASA Aviation Safety (AvSafe) program was conducted. This study comprised three components: (1) a statistical analysis of currently available civilian subsonic aircraft data from the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB), the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), and the Aviation Safety Information Analysis and Sharing (ASIAS) system to identify any significant or overlooked aviation safety issues; (2) a high-level qualitative identification of future safety risks, with an assessment of the potential impact of the NASA AvSafe research on the National Airspace System (NAS) based on these risks; and (3) a detailed, top-down analysis of the NASA AvSafe program using an established and peer-reviewed systems analysis methodology. The statistical analysis identified the top aviation "tall poles" based on NTSB accident and FAA incident data from 1997 to 2006. A separate examination of medical helicopter accidents in the United States was also conducted. Multiple external sources were used to develop a compilation of ten "tall poles" in future safety issues/risks. The top-down analysis of the AvSafe was conducted by using a modification of the Gibson methodology. Of the 17 challenging safety issues that were identified, 11 were directly addressed by the AvSafe program research portfolio.

  8. Landing on empty: estimating the benefits from reducing fuel uplift in US Civil Aviation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryerson, Megan S.; Hansen, Mark; Hao, Lu; Seelhorst, Michael

    2015-09-01

    Airlines and Air Navigation Service Providers are united in their goal to reduce fuel consumption. While changes to flight operations and technology investments are the focus of a number of studies, our study is among the first to investigate an untapped source of aviation fuel consumption: excess contingency fuel loading. Given the downside risk of fuel exhaustion of diverting to an alternate airport, airline dispatchers may load excess fuel onto an aircraft. Such conservatism comes at a cost of consuming excess fuel, as fuel consumed is a function of, among other factors, aircraft weight. The aim of this paper is to quantify, on a per-flight basis, the fuel burned due to carrying fuel beyond what is needed for foreseeable contingencies, and thereby motivate research, federal guidance, and investments that allow airline dispatchers to reduce fuel uplift while maintaining near zero risks of fuel exhaustion. We merge large publicly available aviation and weather databases with a detailed dataset from a major US airline. Upon estimating factors that capture the quantity fuel consumed due to carrying a pound of weight for a range of aircraft types, we calculate the cost and greenhouse gas emissions from carrying unused fuel on arrival and additional contingency fuel above a conservative buffer for foreseeable contingencies. We establish that the major US carrier does indeed load fuel conservatively. We find that 4.48% of the fuel consumed by an average flight is due to carrying unused fuel and 1.04% of the fuel consumed by an average flight is due to carrying additional contingency fuel above a reasonable buffer. We find that simple changes in flight dispatching that maintain a statistically minimal risk of fuel exhaustion could result in yearly savings of 338 million lbs of CO2, the equivalent to the fuel consumed from 4760 flights on midsized commercial aircraft. Moreover, policy changes regarding maximum fuel loads or investments that reduce uncertainty or increase

  9. Laboratory Evaluation of Light Obscuration Particle Counters used to Establish use Limits for Aviation Fuel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    concentration levels for ISO 12103-1 A1 Ultrafine and ISO 12103-1 A2 Fine test dusts, and down to a 5 ppm free water contamination was the best...technical solution for applying this technology to fuel applications. 15. SUBJECT TERMS fuel, JP-8, aviation fuel, contamination, free water ...undissolved water , Aqua-Glo, Particulate, Gravimetric 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT none 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 55 19a. NAME OF

  10. Alternative Fuels and Their Potential Impact on Aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daggett, D.; Hendricks, R.; Walther, R.

    2006-01-01

    With a growing gap between the growth rate of petroleum production and demand, and with mounting environmental needs, the aircraft industry is investigating issues related to fuel availability, candidates for alternative fuels, and improved aircraft fuel efficiency. Bio-derived fuels, methanol, ethanol, liquid natural gas, liquid hydrogen, and synthetic fuels are considered in this study for their potential to replace or supplement conventional jet fuels. Most of these fuels present the airplane designers with safety, logistical, and performance challenges. Synthetic fuel made from coal, natural gas, or other hydrocarbon feedstock shows significant promise as a fuel that could be easily integrated into present and future aircraft with little or no modification to current aircraft designs. Alternatives, such as biofuel, and in the longer term hydrogen, have good potential but presently appear to be better suited for use in ground transportation. With the increased use of these fuels, a greater portion of a barrel of crude oil can be used for producing jet fuel because aircraft are not as fuel-flexible as ground vehicles.

  11. Impact of aviation non-CO₂ combustion effects on the environmental feasibility of alternative jet fuels.

    PubMed

    Stratton, Russell W; Wolfe, Philip J; Hileman, James I

    2011-12-15

    Alternative fuels represent a potential option for reducing the climate impacts of the aviation sector. The climate impacts of alternatives fuel are traditionally considered as a ratio of life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to those of the displaced petroleum product; however, this ignores the climate impacts of the non-CO(2) combustion effects from aircraft in the upper atmosphere. The results of this study show that including non-CO(2) combustion emissions and effects in the life cycle of a Synthetic Paraffinic Kerosene (SPK) fuel can lead to a decrease in the relative merit of the SPK fuel relative to conventional jet fuel. For example, an SPK fuel option with zero life cycle GHG emissions would offer a 100% reduction in GHG emissions but only a 48% reduction in actual climate impact using a 100-year time window and the nominal climate modeling assumption set outlined herein. Therefore, climate change mitigation policies for aviation that rely exclusively on relative well-to-wake life cycle GHG emissions as a proxy for aviation climate impact may overestimate the benefit of alternative fuel use on the global climate system.

  12. Quantification of aldehydes emissions from alternative and renewable aviation fuels using a gas turbine engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hu; Altaher, Mohamed A.; Wilson, Chris W.; Blakey, Simon; Chung, Winson; Rye, Lucas

    2014-02-01

    In this research three renewable aviation fuel blends including two HEFA (Hydrotreated Ester and Fatty Acid) blends and one FAE (Fatty Acids Ethyl Ester) blend with conventional Jet A-1 along with a GTL (Gas To Liquid) fuel have been tested for their aldehydes emissions on a small gas turbine engine. Three strong ozone formation precursors: formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and acrolein were measured in the exhaust at different operational modes and compared to neat Jet A-1. The aim is to assess the impact of renewable and alternative aviation fuels on aldehydes emissions from aircraft gas turbine engines so as to provide informed knowledge for the future deployment of new fuels in aviation. The results show that formaldehyde was a major aldehyde species emitted with a fraction of around 60% of total measured aldehydes emissions for all fuels. Acrolein was the second major emitted aldehyde species with a fraction of ˜30%. Acetaldehyde emissions were very low for all the fuels and below the detention limit of the instrument. The formaldehyde emissions at cold idle were up to two to threefold higher than that at full power. The fractions of formaldehyde were 6-10% and 20% of total hydrocarbon emissions in ppm at idle and full power respectively and doubled on a g kg-1-fuel basis.

  13. Global climate impact of civil aviation for standard and desulfurized jet fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unger, Nadine

    2011-10-01

    Aircraft emissions can affect climate change through increasing carbon dioxide (CO2) but also via a host of other short-lived non-CO2 effects that are complex, involve impacts that are both warming and cooling and are unique to this sector. Previous assessments of aviation climate impacts have used a segmented approach whereby each effect was calculated separately and the effects summed. Integrated approaches using newly available Earth System models that allow simulation of more realistic interactions between effects are now possible. The NASA GISS Earth System Model (ModelE) is applied to reassess the net climate impact of civil aviation emissions based on a new inventory for year 2006 developed using the Federal Aviation Administration's (FAA) Aviation Environmental Design Tool (AEDT). The model simulates all known non-CO2 aviation climate impacts except linear contrails and contrail-cirrus for which a recent estimate is assumed. For standard jet fuel, the net global climate impact for sustained constant year 2006 aviation emissions is +44 ± 10 mWm-2 (2/3 due to non-CO2 effects) on a 20-year timescale and +73 ± 10 mWm-2 (over 1/3 due to non-CO2 effects) on a 100-year timescale. For desulfurized jet fuel, the net climate impact is +40 ± 10 mWm-2 on the 20-year timescale, slightly less warming than the standard fuel case due to the complex interplay between sulfate and nitrate and the competition for ammonia. Ozone (O3) greenhouse efficiency (W per g O3 change) is 20-60% larger for aviation than surface transportation emissions.

  14. Catalytic conversion wood syngas to synthetic aviation turbine fuels over a multifunctional catalyst.

    PubMed

    Yan, Qiangu; Yu, Fei; Liu, Jian; Street, Jason; Gao, Jinsen; Cai, Zhiyong; Zhang, Jilei

    2013-01-01

    A continuous process involving gasification, syngas cleaning, and Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis was developed to efficiently produce synthetic aviation turbine fuels (SATFs). Oak-tree wood chips were first gasified to syngas over a commercial pilot plant downdraft gasifier. The raw wood syngas contains about 47% N(2), 21% CO, 18% H(2), 12% CO(2,) 2% CH(4) and trace amounts of impurities. A purification reaction system was designed to remove the impurities in the syngas such as moisture, oxygen, sulfur, ammonia, and tar. The purified syngas meets the requirements for catalytic conversion to liquid fuels. A multi-functional catalyst was developed and tested for the catalytic conversion of wood syngas to SATFs. It was demonstrated that liquid fuels similar to commercial aviation turbine fuels (Jet A) was successfully synthesized from bio-syngas.

  15. Challenge to Aviation: Hatching a Leaner Pterosauer. [Improving Commercial Aircraft Design for Greater Fuel Efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moss, F. E.

    1975-01-01

    Modifications in commercial aircraft design, particularly the development of lighter aircraft, are discussed as effective means of reducing aviation fuel consumption. The modifications outlined include: (1) use of the supercritical wing; (2) generation of the winglet; (3) production and flight testing of composite materials; and, (4) implementation of fly-by-wire control systems. Attention is also given to engineering laminar air flow control, improving cargo payloads, and adapting hydrogen fuels for aircraft use.

  16. Fuel spill identification using solid-phase extraction and solid-phase microextraction. 1. Aviation turbine fuels.

    PubMed

    Lavine, B K; Brzozowski, D M; Ritter, J; Moores, A J; Mayfield, H T

    2001-12-01

    The water-soluble fraction of aviation jet fuels is examined using solid-phase extraction and solid-phase microextraction. Gas chromatographic profiles of solid-phase extracts and solid-phase microextracts of the water-soluble fraction of kerosene- and nonkerosene-based jet fuels reveal that each jet fuel possesses a unique profile. Pattern recognition analysis reveals fingerprint patterns within the data characteristic of fuel type. By using a novel genetic algorithm (GA) that emulates human pattern recognition through machine learning, it is possible to identify features characteristic of the chromatographic profile of each fuel class. The pattern recognition GA identifies a set of features that optimize the separation of the fuel classes in a plot of the two largest principal components of the data. Because principal components maximize variance, the bulk of the information encoded by the selected features is primarily about the differences between the fuel classes.

  17. Certification Report: Army Aviation Alternative Fuels Certification Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-08-01

    Words) The Department of Defense’s primary alternative fuels goal is to ensure operational military readiness, improve battle space effectiveness...Department of Defense’s primary alternative fuels goal is to ensure operational military readiness, improve battle space effectiveness, and further...testing protocols. 4 Table 1. MIL-HDBK-510A Overview of Tasks Chemical Tests (Appendix B) • Properties: • Chemical description of fuel • MSDS

  18. Toxicity of Jet A (aviation fuel) selected aquatic organisms. Technical report, August 1987-February 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Haley, M.V.; Landis, W.G.

    1989-03-01

    JP8 (jet propulsion) is an aviation fuel being considered for replacement of diesel fuel used in the generation of smoke on the battlefield. JP8 is projected to be more economical and also be used as a fuel for the ground machinery used in the transport and dissemination of JP8. Also, fog oil has naphthene constituents above the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) standards. JP8 trailing and testing could lead to contaminating surrounding aquatic ecosystems through runoff or wind transport. Therefore, the toxicity of JP8 to aquatic organisms must be known. Jet A (aviation fuel) was substituted for JP8 due to availability and similar distillation procedure. The aquatic toxicity of the soluble fraction of Jet A (aviation fuel) was examined. Acute 48-hr bioassays were performed using the water flea, Daphnia magna, and 96-hr growth inhibition bioassays were performed using a green unicellular alga, Selenastrum capricornutum. All tests were conducted according to guidelines set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM). The 48-hr EC50 for D. magna was 3.1 mg/L. The 96-hr IC50 for S. capricornutum was 4.2 mg/L.

  19. An Analysis of Microbial Contamination in Military Aviation Fuel Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-03-01

    industry /academia program to develop an additive package for JP-8. The additive agreed upon contained a detergent/dispersant (fuel injector cleaner...organisms created an abundance of samples in which no matches were found. Another limitation of this study derived from the lack of an “ industry ...Relationship With Fuel Fouling,” Revista Argentina de Microbiologia 30:105-114. 1998. Finefrock, V. H. and London, S. A. Microbial

  20. Safety engineering in handling fuels and lubricants in civil aviation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Protoereiskii, Aleksandr Stepanovich

    The book is concerned with methods of improving working conditions, work hygiene, safety engineering, and fire and explosion prevention during the storage and handling of petroleum products at fuel and lubricant storage facilities. The discussion covers methods of protection against static and atmospheric discharges, lightning protection, safety engineering in fuel and lubricant laboratories, and methods of fire prevention and fire extinction. Attention is also given to methods for administering first aid in case of accidents and poisoning.

  1. Long term deposit formation in aviation turbine fuel at elevated temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giovanetti, A. J.; Szetela, E. J.

    1986-01-01

    An experimental characterization is conducted for the relationships between deposit mass, operating time, and temperature, in coking associated with aviation fuels under conditions simulating those typical of turbine engine fuel systems. Jet A and Suntech A fuels were tested in stainless steel tubing heated to 420-750 K, over test durations of between 3 and 730 hr and at fuel velocities of 0.07-1.3 m/sec. Deposit rates are noted to be a strong function of tube temperature; for a given set of test conditions, deposition rates for Suntech A exceed those of Jet A by a factor of 10. Deposition rates increased markedly with test duration for both fuels. The heated tube data obtained are used to develop a global chemical kinetic model for fuel oxidation and carbon deposition.

  2. Bio-aviation fuel production from hydroprocessing castor oil promoted by the nickel-based bifunctional catalysts.

    PubMed

    Liu, Siyang; Zhu, Qingqing; Guan, Qingxin; He, Liangnian; Li, Wei

    2015-05-01

    Bio-aviation fuel was firstly synthesized by hydroprocessing castor oil in a continuous-flow fixed-bed microreactor with the main objective to obtain the high yield of aviation fuel and determine the elemental compositions of the product phases as well as the reaction mechanism. Highest aviation range alkane yields (91.6 wt%) were achieved with high isomer/n-alkane ratio (i/n) 4.4-7.2 over Ni supported on acidic zeolites. In addition, different fuel range alkanes can be obtained by adjusting the degree of hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) and hydrocracking. And the observations are rationalized by a set of reaction pathways for the various product phases.

  3. Coordinating Support of Fuels and Lubricant Research and Development (R&D) 2. Delivery Order 0002: Handbook of Aviation Fuel Properties - 2004 Third Edition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-12-01

    1-31 Handbook of Aviation Fuel Properties1.2.24 Mercaptan Sulfur by D 3227 The fuel sample is dissolved in an alcoholic sodium acetate titration...in the water at the fuel/ water interface and metabolize (break down) fuel hydrocarbons, particularly straight-chain and sulfur-bearing compounds...the fuel density (g/mL) and is now a density-based absorptivity with units of mL/ gcm . Using densities obtained from the CRC Handbook of Aviation Fuel

  4. Fuel consolidation demonstration program: Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-06-01

    EPRI, Northeast Utilities, Baltimore Gas and Electric, the US Department of Energy and Combustion Engineering are engaged in a program to develop a system for consolidating spent fuel and a method of storing the consolidated fuel in the spent fuel storage pool which is licensable by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Fuel consolidation offers a means of substantially increasing the capacity of spent fuel storage pools. This is a final report of the Fuel Consolidation Demonstration Program. It provides a review of the overall program, a summary of the results obtained, the lessons learned, and an assessment of the present status of the consolidation system developed in the program. 7 refs., 15 figs., 5 tabs.

  5. The Implications of Alternative Aviation Fuels on Airbase Air Quality.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-08-01

    quality. The American Petroleum Institute (API) empirical equations (References 7, 8, 9) predict the HC evaporative emissions. These equations compute...8217 Alternative Hydrocarbon Fuels: Combustion and Chemical Kinetics, Progress in Astronautics and Aeronautics Vol 62, AIAA, (1978). 5. American Petroleum Institute , "API

  6. EPA Finalizes Increases in Renewable Fuel Levels

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    (12/01/2015 - ATLANTA) - The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced final volume requirements under the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) program today for the years 2014, 2015 and 2016, and final volume requirements for biomass-based dies

  7. 26 CFR 48.4041-4 - Application of tax on sales of liquid for use as fuel in aircraft in noncommercial aviation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... as fuel in aircraft in noncommercial aviation. 48.4041-4 Section 48.4041-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL... aircraft in noncommercial aviation. (a) In general. The taxes imposed by subparagraphs (1)(A) and (2)(A) of... operator of an aircraft, for use as a fuel in the aircraft in noncommercial aviation. (b) Liability of...

  8. 26 CFR 48.4041-4 - Application of tax on sales of liquid for use as fuel in aircraft in noncommercial aviation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... fuel in aircraft in noncommercial aviation. 48.4041-4 Section 48.4041-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL... aircraft in noncommercial aviation. (a) In general. The taxes imposed by subparagraphs (1)(A) and (2)(A) of... operator of an aircraft, for use as a fuel in the aircraft in noncommercial aviation. (b) Liability of...

  9. 26 CFR 48.4041-4 - Application of tax on sales of liquid for use as fuel in aircraft in noncommercial aviation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... as fuel in aircraft in noncommercial aviation. 48.4041-4 Section 48.4041-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL... aircraft in noncommercial aviation. (a) In general. The taxes imposed by subparagraphs (1)(A) and (2)(A) of... operator of an aircraft, for use as a fuel in the aircraft in noncommercial aviation. (b) Liability of...

  10. 26 CFR 48.4041-4 - Application of tax on sales of liquid for use as fuel in aircraft in noncommercial aviation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... as fuel in aircraft in noncommercial aviation. 48.4041-4 Section 48.4041-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL... aircraft in noncommercial aviation. (a) In general. The taxes imposed by subparagraphs (1)(A) and (2)(A) of... operator of an aircraft, for use as a fuel in the aircraft in noncommercial aviation. (b) Liability of...

  11. Determination of the emissions from an aircraft auxiliary power unit (APU) during the Alternative Aviation Fuel Experiment (AAFEX).

    PubMed

    Kinsey, John S; Timko, Michael T; Herndon, Scott C; Wood, Ezra C; Yu, Zhenhong; Miake-Lye, Richard C; Lobo, Prem; Whitefield, Philip; Hagen, Donald; Wey, Changlie; Anderson, Bruce E; Beyersdorf, Andreas J; Hudgins, Charles H; Thornhill, K Lee; Winstead, Edward; Howard, Robert; Bulzan, Dan I; Tacina, Kathleen B; Knighton, W Berk

    2012-04-01

    The emissions from a Garrett-AiResearch (now Honeywell) Model GTCP85-98CK auxiliary power unit (APU) were determined as part of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Alternative Aviation Fuel Experiment (AAFEX) using both JP-8 and a coal-derived Fischer Tropsch fuel (FT-2). Measurements were conducted by multiple research organizations for sulfur dioxide (SO2, total hydrocarbons (THC), carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), speciated gas-phase emissions, particulate matter (PM) mass and number, black carbon, and speciated PM. In addition, particle size distribution (PSD), number-based geometric mean particle diameter (GMD), and smoke number were also determined from the data collected. The results of the research showed PM mass emission indices (EIs) in the range of 20 to 700 mg/kg fuel and PM number EIs ranging from 0.5 x 10(15) to 5 x 10(15) particles/kg fuel depending on engine load and fuel type. In addition, significant reductions in both the SO2 and PM EIs were observed for the use of the FT fuel. These reductions were on the order of approximately 90% for SO2 and particle mass EIs and approximately 60% for the particle number EI, with similar decreases observed for black carbon. Also, the size of the particles generated by JP-8 combustion are noticeably larger than those emitted by the APU burning the FT fuel with the geometric mean diameters ranging from 20 to 50 nm depending on engine load and fuel type. Finally, both particle-bound sulfate and organics were reduced during FT-2 combustion. The PM sulfate was reduced by nearly 100% due to lack of sulfur in the fuel, with the PM organics reduced by a factor of approximately 5 as compared with JP-8.

  12. 78 FR 69789 - Policy and Procedures Concerning the Use of Airport Revenue; Proceeds From Taxes on Aviation Fuel

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-21

    ... endeavor. A provision that may seem ambiguous in isolation is often clarified by the remainder of the... interpretation that effectively leaves aviation fuel tax proceeds subject to potentially unlimited state...

  13. Growth study and hydrocarbonoclastic potential of microorganisms isolated from aviation fuel spill site in Ibeno, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Etuk, C U; John, R C; Ekong, U E; Akpan, M M

    2012-10-01

    The growth study and hydrocarbonoclastic potential of microorganisms isolated from aviation fuel spill sites at Inua-eyet Ikot in Ibeno, Nigeria were examined using standard microbiological methods. The results of the analysis revealed that the viable plate count of microorganisms in the polluted soil ranged from 2.2 ± 0.04 × 10(3) to 3.4 ± 0.14 × 10(6) cfu/g for bacteria and 1.4 ± 0.5 × 10(2) to 2.3 ± 0.4 × 10(4) cfu/g for fungi while count of biodegraders ranged from 1.2 ± 0.4 × 10(3) to 2.1 ± 0.8 × 10(5) cfu/g. A total of 11 microbial isolates comprising of Micrococcus, Klebsiella, Flavobacterium, Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Candida, Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Penicillium, Saccharomyces and Fusarium were characterized. The ability of the selected isolates to utilize the pollutant (aviation fuel) as their sole source of carbon and energy was examined and noticed to vary in growth profiles between the isolates. The results of their degradability after 28 days of incubation shows that species of Cladosporium, Pseudomonas, Candida, Bacillus, Micrococcus and Penicillium were the most efficient Aviation fuel degraders with percentage weight loss of 86.2, 78.4, 78, 56, 53 and 50.6 respectively. Flavobacterium, Saccharomyces and Aspergillus exhibited moderate growth with percentage weight loss of 48, 45.8 and 43.4 respectively while Klebsiella and Fusarium species showed minimal growth with percentage weight loss of 20 and 18.5 respectively. The results imply that the most efficient biodegraders like Cladosporium, Pseudomonas, Candida, Bacillus and Microoccus could tolerate and remove aviation fuel from the environment.

  14. Scientific bases of biomass processing into basic component of aviation fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kachalov, V. V.; Lavrenov, V. A.; Lishchiner, I. I.; Malova, O. V.; Tarasov, A. L.; Zaichenko, V. M.

    2016-11-01

    A combination of feedstock pyrolysis and the cracking of the volatile pyrolysis products on the charcoal at 1000 °C allows to obtain a tarless synthesis gas which contains 90 vol% or more of carbon monoxide and hydrogen in approximately equal proportions. Basic component of aviation fuel was synthesized in a two-stage process from gas obtained by pyrolytic processing of biomass. Methanol and dimethyl ether can be efficiently produced in a two-layer loading of methanolic catalyst and γ-Al2O3. The total conversion of CO per pass was 38.2% using for the synthesis of oxygenates a synthesis gas with adverse ratio of H2/CO = 0.96. Conversion of CO to CH3OH was 15.3% and the conversion of CO to dimethyl ether was 20.9%. A high yield of basic component per oxygenates mass (44.6%) was obtained during conversion. The high selectivity of the synthesis process for liquid hydrocarbons was observed. An optimal recipe of aviation fuel B-92 based on a synthesized basic component was developed. The prototype of aviation fuel meets the requirements for B-92 when straight fractions of 50-100 °C (up to 35 wt%), isooctane (up to 10 wt%) and ethyl fluid (2.0 g/kg calculated as tetraethyl lead) is added to the basic component.

  15. Input/output models for general aviation piston-prop aircraft fuel economy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sweet, L. M.

    1982-01-01

    A fuel efficient cruise performance model for general aviation piston engine airplane was tested. The following equations were made: (1) for the standard atmosphere; (2) airframe-propeller-atmosphere cruise performance; and (3) naturally aspirated engine cruise performance. Adjustments are made to the compact cruise performance model as follows: corrected quantities, corrected performance plots, algebraic equations, maximize R with or without constraints, and appears suitable for airborne microprocessor implementation. The following hardwares are recommended: ignition timing regulator, fuel-air mass ration controller, microprocessor, sensors and displays.

  16. Use of bacteriophage to prevent Pseudomonas aeruginosa contamination and fouling in Jet A aviation fuel.

    PubMed

    Bojanowski, Caitlin L; Crookes-Goodson, Wendy J; Robinson, Jayne B

    2016-11-01

    In the present study, the use of bacteriophages to prevent growth and/or biofouling by Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 was investigated in microcosms containing Jet A aviation fuel as the carbon source. Bacteriophages were found to be effective at preventing biofilm formation but did not always prevent planktonic growth in the microcosms. This result was at odds with experiments conducted in nutrient-rich medium, demonstrating the necessity to test antimicrobial and antifouling strategies under conditions as near as possible to the 'real world'. The success of the bacteriophages at preventing biofilm formation makes them potential candidates as antifouling agents for fuel systems.

  17. Estimating the climate and air quality benefits of aviation fuel and emissions reductions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorbian, Christopher S.; Wolfe, Philip J.; Waitz, Ian A.

    2011-05-01

    In this study we consider the implications of our current understanding of aviation climate impacts as it relates to the ratio of non-CO 2 to CO 2 effects from aviation. We take as inputs recent estimates from the literature of the magnitude of the component aviation impacts and associated uncertainties. We then employ a simplified probabilistic impulse response function model for the climate and a range of damage functions to estimate the ratio of non-CO 2 to CO 2 impacts of aviation for a range of different metrics, scientific assumptions, future background emissions scenarios, economic growth scenarios, and discount rates. We take cost-benefit analysis as our primary context and thus focus on integral metrics that can be related to damages: the global warming potential, the time-integrated change in surface temperature, and the net present value of damages. We also present results based on an endpoint metric, the global temperature change potential. These latter results would be more appropriate for use in a cost-effectiveness framework (e.g., with a well-defined policy target for the anthropogenic change in surface temperature at a specified time in the future). We find that the parameter that most influences the ratio of non-CO 2 to CO 2 impacts of aviation is the discount rate, or analogously the time window used for physical metrics; both are expressions of the relative importance of long-lived versus short-lived impacts. Second to this is the influence of the radiative forcing values that are assumed for aviation-induced cloudiness effects. Given the large uncertainties in short-lived effects from aviation, and the dominating influence of discounting or time-windowing, we find that the choice of metric is relatively less influential. We express the ratios of non-CO 2 to CO 2 impacts on a per unit fuel burn basis so that they can be multiplied by a social cost of carbon to estimate the additional benefits of fuel burn reductions from aviation beyond those

  18. Spark ignition of aviation fuel in isotropic turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krisman, Alex; Lu, Tianfeng; Borghesi, Giulio; Chen, Jacqueline

    2016-11-01

    Turbulent spark ignition occurs in combustion engines where the spark must establish a viable flame kernel that leads to stable combustion. A competition exists between kernel growth, due to flame propagation, and kernel attenuation, due to flame stretch and turbulence. This competition can be measured by the Karlovitz number, Ka, and kernel viability decreases rapidly for Ka >> 1 . In this study, the evolution of an initially spherical flame kernel in a turbulent field is investigated at two cases: Ka- (Ka = 25) and Ka+ (Ka = 125) using direct numerical simulation (DNS). A detailed chemical mechanism for jet fuel (Jet-A) is used, which is relevant for many practical conditions, and the mechanism includes a pyrolysis sub-model which is important for the ignition of large hydrocarbon fuels. An auxiliary non-reacting DNS generates the initial field of isotropic turbulence with a turbulent Reynolds number of 500 (Ka-) and 1,500 (Ka+). The kernel is then imposed at the center of the domain and the reacting DNS is performed. The Ka- case survives and the Ka+ case is extinguished. An analysis of the turbulence chemistry interactions is performed and the process of extinction is described. Department of Energy - Office of Basic Energy Science under Award No. DE-SC0001198.

  19. Renewable Fuel Standard Program (RFS1): Final Rule Additional Resources

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The final rule of fuels and fuel additives: renewable fuel standard program is published on May 1, 2007 and is effective on September 1, 2007. You will find the links to this final rule and technical amendments supporting this rule.

  20. Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS2): Final Rule Additional Resources

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The final rule of fuels and fuel additives: renewable fuel standard program is published on March 26, 2010 and is effective on July 1, 2010. You will find the links to this final rule and technical amendments supporting this rule.

  1. Measurements of nitrous acid in commercial aircraft exhaust at the Alternative Aviation Fuel Experiment.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ben H; Santoni, Gregory W; Wood, Ezra C; Herndon, Scott C; Miake-Lye, Richard C; Zahniser, Mark S; Wofsy, Steven C; Munger, J William

    2011-09-15

    The Alternative Aviation Fuel Experiment (AAFEX), conducted in January of 2009 in Palmdale, California, quantified aerosol and gaseous emissions from a DC-8 aircraft equipped with CFM56-2C1 engines using both traditional and synthetic fuels. This study examines the emissions of nitrous acid (HONO) and nitrogen oxides (NO(x) = NO + NO(2)) measured 145 m behind the grounded aircraft. The fuel-based emission index (EI) for HONO increases approximately 6-fold from idle to takeoff conditions but plateaus between 65 and 100% of maximum rated engine thrust, while the EI for NO(x) increases continuously. At high engine power, NO(x) EI is greater when combusting traditional (JP-8) rather than Fischer-Tropsch fuels, while HONO exhibits the opposite trend. Additionally, hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) was identified in exhaust plumes emitted only during engine idle. Chemical reactions responsible for emissions and comparison to previous measurement studies are discussed.

  2. Determination of the Emissions from an Aircraft Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) during the Alternative Aviation Fuel Experiment (AAFEX)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The emissions from a Garrett-AiResearch (now Honeywell) Model GTCP85-98CK APU were determined as part of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Alternative Aviation Fuels Experiment using both JP-8 and a coal-derived Fischer Tropsch fuel (FT-2). Measurements...

  3. Biodegradation of JP-5 aviation fuel by subsurface microbial communities. Progress report, 1 January-15 March 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Swindoll, C.M.

    1988-01-01

    Leakage of the aviation fuels JP-5, JP-4 and AVGAS from storage tanks has resulted in a severe environmental insult to a Naval fuel farm and adjacent areas. As part of the reclamation effort, the indigenous microorganisms are being characterized. This information will be used to optimize the bioreclamation of the site. Approximately 60 aerobic microorganisms, including more than 40 bacteria, 6 actinomycetes and 10 fungi have been isolated from soil contaminated with aviation fuels and adjacent noncontaminated with aviation fuels and adjacent noncontaminated soil. All isolated bacteria were able to grow on JP-5 as their sole carbon source. Most of the bacteria from the contaminated sites were small, gram-negative rods, while most bacteria from the noncontaminated site were gram-positive rods. All of these microorganisms would be expected to contribute to the bioremediation of the contaminated site.

  4. Environmentally Responsible Aviation: Propulsion Research to Enable Fuel Burn, Noise and Emissions Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Zante, Dale E.; Suder, Kenneth L.

    2015-01-01

    The NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) program is maturing technologies to enable simultaneous reduction of fuel burn, noise and emissions from an aircraft engine system. Three engine related Integrated Technology Demonstrations (ITDs) have been completed at Glenn Research Center in collaboration with Pratt Whitney, General Electric and the Federal Aviation Administration. The engine technologies being matured are a low NOx, fuel flexible combustor in partnership with Pratt Whitney, an ultra-high bypass, ducted propulsor system in partnership with Pratt Whitney FAA and high pressure ratio, front-stage core compressor technology in partnership with General Electric. The technical rationale, test configurations and overall results from the test series in each ITD are described. ERA is using system analysis to project the benefits of the ITD technologies on potential aircraft systems in the 2025 timeframe. Data from the ITD experiments were used to guide the system analysis assumptions. Results from the current assessments for fuel burn, noise and oxides of nitrogen emissions are presented.

  5. Environmentally Responsible Aviation: Propulsion Research to Enable Fuel Burn, Noise and Emissions Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Zante, Dale; Suder, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    The NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) program is maturing technologies to enable simultaneous reduction of fuel burn, noise and emissions from an aircraft engine system. Three engine related Integrated Technology Demonstrations (ITDs) have been completed at Glenn Research Center in collaboration with Pratt Whitney, General Electric and the Federal Aviation Administration. The engine technologies being matured are: a low NOx, fuel flexible combustor in partnership with Pratt Whitney; an ultra-high bypass, ducted propulsor system in partnership with Pratt Whitney and FAA; and high pressure ratio, front-stage core compressor technology in partnership with General Electric. The technical rationale, test configurations and overall results from the test series in each ITD are described. ERA is using system analysis to project the benefits of the ITD technologies on potential aircraft systems in the 2025 timeframe. Data from the ITD experiments were used to guide the system analysis assumptions. Results from the current assessments for fuel burn, noise and oxides of nitrogen emissions are presented.

  6. Synthesis of high density aviation fuel with cyclopentanol derived from lignocellulose

    PubMed Central

    Sheng, Xueru; Li, Ning; Li, Guangyi; Wang, Wentao; Yang, Jinfan; Cong, Yu; Wang, Aiqin; Wang, Xiaodong; Zhang, Tao

    2015-01-01

    For the first time, renewable high density aviation fuels were synthesized at high overall yield (95.6%) by the Guerbet reaction of cyclopentanol which can be derived from lignocellulose, followed by the hydrodeoxygenation (HDO). The solvent-free Guerbet reaction of cyclopentanol was carried out under the co-catalysis of solid bases and Raney metals. Among the investigated catalyst systems, the combinations of magnesium-aluminium hydrotalcite (MgAl-HT) and Raney Ni (or Raney Co) exhibited the best performances. Over them, high carbon yield (96.7%) of C10 and C15 oxygenates was achieved. The Guerbet reaction products were further hydrodeoxygenated to bi(cyclopentane) and tri(cyclopentane) over a series of Ni catalysts. These alkanes have high densities (0.86 g mL−1 and 0.91 g mL−1) and can be used as high density aviation fuels or additives to bio-jet fuel. Among the investigated HDO catalysts, the 35 wt.% Ni-SiO2-DP prepared by deposition-precipitation method exhibited the highest activity. PMID:25826744

  7. Synthesis of high density aviation fuel with cyclopentanol derived from lignocellulose.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Xueru; Li, Ning; Li, Guangyi; Wang, Wentao; Yang, Jinfan; Cong, Yu; Wang, Aiqin; Wang, Xiaodong; Zhang, Tao

    2015-03-31

    For the first time, renewable high density aviation fuels were synthesized at high overall yield (95.6%) by the Guerbet reaction of cyclopentanol which can be derived from lignocellulose, followed by the hydrodeoxygenation (HDO). The solvent-free Guerbet reaction of cyclopentanol was carried out under the co-catalysis of solid bases and Raney metals. Among the investigated catalyst systems, the combinations of magnesium-aluminium hydrotalcite (MgAl-HT) and Raney Ni (or Raney Co) exhibited the best performances. Over them, high carbon yield (96.7%) of C10 and C15 oxygenates was achieved. The Guerbet reaction products were further hydrodeoxygenated to bi(cyclopentane) and tri(cyclopentane) over a series of Ni catalysts. These alkanes have high densities (0.86 g mL(-1) and 0.91 g mL(-1)) and can be used as high density aviation fuels or additives to bio-jet fuel. Among the investigated HDO catalysts, the 35 wt.% Ni-SiO2-DP prepared by deposition-precipitation method exhibited the highest activity.

  8. National Aviation Fuel Scenario Analysis Program (NAFSAP). Volume I. Model Description. Volume II. User Manual.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-03-01

    TESI CHART NATIONAI RUREAt (F ANDA[)Rt 1V4 A NATIONAL. AVIATION ~ FUEL SCENARIO.. ANALYSIS PROGRAM 49!! VOLUM I: MODEL DESCRIA~v 4<C VOLUME II: tr)ER...O %a 0 CD -00 a0 Dcc% %D Ln n q F u-u - ON 4w - u-u-MN N En -4C u-u-u-u- u- .- u-- - u--4uu 41 4t 1- The second major class of inputs to NAFSAP is the...this option determines the specific form of the number of new purchases (NOBUYS) computation. 14 L " - - .. .... . .I li I I q i . .. . . . . . r I I i

  9. Fuel composition and secondary organic aerosol formation: gas-turbine exhaust and alternative aviation fuels.

    PubMed

    Miracolo, Marissa A; Drozd, Greg T; Jathar, Shantanu H; Presto, Albert A; Lipsky, Eric M; Corporan, Edwin; Robinson, Allen L

    2012-08-07

    A series of smog chamber experiments were performed to investigate the effects of fuel composition on secondary particulate matter (PM) formation from dilute exhaust from a T63 gas-turbine engine. Tests were performed at idle and cruise loads with the engine fueled on conventional military jet fuel (JP-8), Fischer-Tropsch synthetic jet fuel (FT), and a 50/50 blend of the two fuels. Emissions were sampled into a portable smog chamber and exposed to sunlight or artificial UV light to initiate photo-oxidation. Similar to previous studies, neat FT fuel and a 50/50 FT/JP-8 blend reduced the primary particulate matter emissions compared to neat JP-8. After only one hour of photo-oxidation at typical atmospheric OH levels, the secondary PM production in dilute exhaust exceeded primary PM emissions, except when operating the engine at high load on FT fuel. Therefore, accounting for secondary PM production should be considered when assessing the contribution of gas-turbine engine emissions to ambient PM levels. FT fuel substantially reduced secondary PM formation in dilute exhaust compared to neat JP-8 at both idle and cruise loads. At idle load, the secondary PM formation was reduced by a factor of 20 with the use of neat FT fuel, and a factor of 2 with the use of the blend fuel. At cruise load, the use of FT fuel resulted in no measured formation of secondary PM. In every experiment, the secondary PM was dominated by organics with minor contributions from sulfate when the engine was operated on JP-8 fuel. At both loads, FT fuel produces less secondary organic aerosol than JP-8 because of differences in the composition of the fuels and the resultant emissions. This work indicates that fuel reformulation may be a viable strategy to reduce the contribution of emissions from combustion systems to secondary organic aerosol production and ultimately ambient PM levels.

  10. Occurrence of heterotrophic bacteria and fungi in an aviation fuel handling system and its relationship with fuel fouling.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, M D; Neirotti, E; Albornoz, C

    1998-01-01

    Clean, dry and contaminant-free fuel is necessary for safe and economical aircraft operation. Microbial growth in aviation fuel handling systems can alter the quality of the product. This paper reports the occurrence of heterotrophic bacteria and fungi in a handling system of jet A-1 aviation turbine fuel. A total of 350 samples were collected during 1990-1996. The aerobic microorganisms in fuel samples were mainly fungi, 85% of samples containing < or = 100 cfu/l (range 0 (< 1 cfu/l) to 2000 cfu/l). The predominant fungi were Cladosporium and Aspergillus. Water was observed mainly in samples extracted from the drainage pipes of two tanks used frequently as intermediate storage tanks. The aerobic heterotrophic microorganisms found in water samples were mostly bacteria, counts varying from 100 to 8.8 x 10(7) cfu/ml, with 85% of samples containing 10(4)-10(7) cfu/ml. There was a preponderance of Pseudomonas spp. Bacterial contaminants belonging to the genus Flavobacterium and Aeromonas were also identified. Sulphate reducing bacteria were detected in 80% of water samples. It was not possible to assign a maximum microbial contamination level above which maintenance is required and it is suggested that analysis of successive samples from the same site are necessary for this purpose. Microbial sludges produced in the laboratory and collected from a contaminated tank bottom were analysed chemically. The data are presented and discussed. Samples collected from the supply pipes of tanks and refueller trucks during the period surveyed always met the standard specifications.

  11. Determination of total and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in aviation jet fuel.

    PubMed

    Bernabei, M; Reda, R; Galiero, R; Bocchinfuso, G

    2003-01-24

    The aviation jet fuel widely used in turbine engine aircraft is manufactured from straight-run kerosene. The combustion quality of jet fuel is largely related to the hydrocarbon composition of the fuel itself; paraffins have better burning properties than aromatic compounds, especially naphthalenes and light polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), which are characterised as soot and smoke producers. For this reason the burning quality of fuel is generally measured as smoke fermation. This evaluation is carried out with UV spectrophotometric determination of total naphthalene hydrocarbons and a chromatographic analysis to determine the total aromatic compounds. These methods can be considered insufficient to evaluate the human health impact of these compounds due to their inability to measure trace (ppm) amounts of each aromatic hyrcarbon and each PAH in accordance with limitations imposed because of their toxicological properties. In this paper two analytical methods are presented. Both are based on a gas chromatographic technique with a mass detector operating in be selected ion monitoring mode. The first method was able to determine more than 60 aromatic hydrocarbons in a fuel sample in a 35-min chromatographic run, while the second was able to carry out the analysis of more than 30 PAHs in a 40-min chromatographic run. The linearity and sensitivity of the methods in measuring these analytes at trace levels are described.

  12. Composition-explicit distillation curves of aviation fuel JP-8 and a coal-based jet fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Beverly L. Smith; Thomas J. Bruno

    2007-09-15

    We have recently introduced several important improvements in the measurement of distillation curves for complex fluids. The modifications to the classical measurement provide for (1) a composition explicit data channel for each distillate fraction (for both qualitative and quantitative analysis); (2) temperature measurements that are true thermodynamic state points; (3) temperature, volume, and pressure measurements of low uncertainty suitable for an equation of state development; (4) consistency with a century of historical data; (5) an assessment of the energy content of each distillate fraction; (6) a trace chemical analysis of each distillate fraction; and (7) a corrosivity assessment of each distillate fraction. The most significant modification is achieved with a new sampling approach that allows precise qualitative as well as quantitative analyses of each fraction, on the fly. We have applied the new method to the measurement of rocket propellant, gasoline, and jet fuels. In this paper, we present the application of the technique to representative batches of the military aviation fuel JP-8, and also to a coal-derived fuel developed as a potential substitute. We present not only the distillation curves but also a chemical characterization of each fraction and discuss the contrasts between the two fluids. 26 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs.

  13. Lean blowout limits of a gas turbine combustor operated with aviation fuel and methane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Wei; Huang, Yong

    2016-05-01

    Lean blowout (LBO) limits is critical to the operational performance of combustion systems in propulsion and power generation. The swirl cup plays an important role in flame stability and has been widely used in aviation engines. Therefore, the effects of swirl cup geometry and flow dynamics on LBO limits are significant. An experiment was conducted for studying the lean blowout limits of a single dome rectangular model combustor with swirl cups. Three types of swirl cup (dual-axial swirl cup, axial-radial swirl cup, dual-radial swirl cup) were employed in the experiment which was operated with aviation fuel (Jet A-1) and methane under the idle condition. Experimental results showed that, with using both Jet A-1 and methane, the LBO limits increase with the air flow of primary swirler for dual-radial swirl cup, while LBO limits decrease with the air flow of primary swirler for dual-axial swirl cup. In addition, LBO limits increase with the swirl intensity for three swirl cups. The experimental results also showed that the flow dynamics instead of atomization poses a significant influence on LBO limits. An improved semi-empirical correlation of experimental data was derived to predict the LBO limits for gas turbine combustors.

  14. Production of aviation fuel via catalytic hydrothermal decarboxylation of fatty acids in microalgae oil.

    PubMed

    Yang, Cuiyue; Nie, Renfeng; Fu, Jie; Hou, Zhaoyin; Lu, Xiuyang

    2013-10-01

    A series of fatty acids in microalgae oil, such as stearic acid, palmitic acid, lauric acid, myristic acid, arachidic acid and behenic acid, were selected as the raw materials to produce aviation fuel via hydrothermal decarboxylation over a multi-wall carbon nanotube supported Pt catalyst (Pt/MWCNTs). It was found that Pt/MWCNTs catalysts exhibited higher activity for the hydrothermal decarboxylation of stearic acid with a 97% selectivity toward heptadecane compared to Pt/C and Ru/C under the same conditions. And Pt/MWCNTs is also capable for the decarboxylation of different fatty acids in microalgae oil. The reaction conditions, such as Pt/MWCNTs loading amount, reaction temperature and time were optimized. The activation energy of stearic acid decarboxylation over Pt/MWCNTs was calculated (114 kJ/mol).

  15. 2013 Renewable Fuel Standards for Renewable Fuel Standard Program (RFS2): Final Rulemaking Documents

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA's final rule establishes the 2013 renewable fuel standards for cellulosic biofuel, biomass-based diesel, advanced biofuel, and total renewable fuels. Find this final rule, proposed rule and fact sheet about this rule here.

  16. Effects of dimethyl or diethyl carbonate as an additive on volatility and flash point of an aviation fuel.

    PubMed

    Li, Dan; Fang, Wenjun; Xing, Yan; Guo, Yongsheng; Lin, Ruisen

    2009-01-30

    Vapor pressures and flash points for several mixtures of an aviation fuel with dimethyl carbonate (DMC) or diethyl carbonate (DEC) have been measured, respectively, over the entire composition range. Correlation between the experimental vapor pressures and the equilibrium temperatures by the Antoine equation is performed for each mixture. The bubble-point lines of pressure versus composition at different temperatures and those of temperature versus composition at different pressures are then obtained from the Antoine correlations. It is found that DMC and DEC are the oxygenated hydrocarbon additives that can adjust effectively the volatility and flash point of the aviation fuel. The correlation of the flash points with the vapor pressure data for the pseudo-binary mixtures of the fuel and DMC or DEC gives satisfactory results.

  17. Fuel conservation for fishing vessels. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-08-01

    The fuel monitoring system provided information that was sufficiently precise and generally reliable enough to be of use in making operational decisions. The curve of fuel consumption versus speed for a vessel will vary with changes in draft, trim, and bottom cleanliness. Therefore, although generalized fuel consumption/speed curves would be of value to an operator, maximum fuel savings can only be effected by applying the actual present fuel consumption, as supplied by a fuel monitor, and true ground speed, as derived by a LORAN C system, to the decision making process. The dividing line between maximum profits and minimum fuel consumption may be a fine line requiring information from a fuel monitor to assist the operator in making the proper decision. This study also addressed the relationship of engine maintenance and fuel monitoring systems.

  18. Evaluation of Particle Counter Technology for Detection of Fuel Contamination Detection Utilizing Advanced Aviation Forward Area Refueling System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-24

    replacement of water bottom removal.  Recirculation – Air was purged from the filter separator vessel and fuel was again pumped from the tank , through...8, Automatic Particle Counter, cleanliness, free water , Diesel 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT none 18. NUMBER OF...Advanced Aviation Forward Area Refueling System Joel Schmitigal U S Army Tank Automotive Research DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release

  19. Final Rule for Additional Qualifying Renewable Fuel Pathways Documents under the Renewable Fuel Standard Program

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA is issuing a supplemental final rule associated with the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) program, determining that renewable fuel made from giant reed (Arundo donax) and napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum) meet the GHG reduction requirements

  20. Extended life aluminide fuel. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, L.G.; Beeston, J.M.

    1986-06-01

    As the price of fuel fabrication, shipment of both new and spent fuel, and fuel reprocessing continue to rise at a rapid rate, researchers look for alternate methods to keep reactor fuel costs within their limited funding. Extended fuel element lifetimes, without jeopardizing reactor safety, can reduce fuel costs by up to a factor of two. The Extended Life Aluminide (ELAF) program was started at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) as a joint project of the United States Department of Energy (DOE), the University of Missouri, and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology research reactors. Fuel plates of Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) type construction were fabricated at Atomics International and irradiated in the ATR at the INEL. Four fuel matrix compositions were tested (i.e., 50 vol% UAl/sub x/ cores for reference, and 40, 45 and 50 vol% UAl/sub 2/ cores). The 50 vol% UAl/sub 2/ cores contained up to 3 grams U-235 per cm/sup 3/ of core. Three plates of each composition were irradiated to peak burnup levels of 3 x 10/sup 21/ fission/cm/sup 3/ of core. The only observed damage was due to external corrosion at similar rates experienced by UAl/sub x/ fuel elements in test reactors.

  1. Turbine fuel alternatives (near term). Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrara, A.M.

    1989-10-01

    This report discusses the results of a study which investigated several alternatives for turbine fuels, which are being considered for use in the near term, with the intent of identifying the necessary certification criteria. The fuels investigated include Jet-A/ethanol blends, Jet-A/methanol blends, JP-4/ethanol blends, and neat ethanol. The tests were conducted using a T-63 turboshaft engine, which was mounted on the Technical Center's dynamometer. The use of dual fuel systems was also considered. A short series of flight tests was conducted with a T-34, Mentor aircraft. These tests were used to identify the operating conditions which might result in elevated fuel temperature.

  2. AVGAS/AUTOGAS (Aviation Gasoline/Automobile Gasoline) Comparison. Winter Grade Fuels.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-07-01

    simulated conditions found in a general aviation aircraft. In these tests, automobile gasoline was tested and compared with aviation gasoline. The tendency...Distribution Statement Aviation Gasoline (Avgas) Vapor Lock Document is available to the U.S. public Automobile Gasoline (Autogas) through the National... Automobile Gasolines Tested by Sun Refining 19 and Marketing Company. 5 Properties of Several Mixtures of Avgas in Regular Unleaded 28 Autogas vi LIST OF

  3. The Aviation Careers Accessibility Program (ACAP) at Florida Memorial College. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida Memorial Coll., Miami.

    This project, referred to as the Aviation Careers Accessibility Program (ACAP) established a model program for inner-city minority high school students that would allow them information and accessibility to careers and opportunities in the aviation industry. The project featured two program components: an academic year component during and a 5- or…

  4. A Survey of Text Materials Used in Aviation Maintenance Technician Schools. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, David; Bowers, William K.

    The report documents the results of a national survey of book publishing firms and aviation maintenance technician schools to (1) identify the text materials used in the training of aviation mechanics; (2) appraise the suitability and availability of identified text materials; and (3) determine the adequacy of the text materials in meeting the…

  5. Impacts of alternative fuels in aviation on microphysical aerosol properties and predicted ice nuclei concentration at aircraft cruise altitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinzierl, B.; D'Ascoli, E.; Sauer, D. N.; Kim, J.; Scheibe, M.; Schlager, H.; Moore, R.; Anderson, B. E.; Ullrich, R.; Mohler, O.; Hoose, C.

    2015-12-01

    In the past decades air traffic has been substantially growing affecting air quality and climate. According to the International Civil Aviation Authority (ICAO), in the next few years world passenger and freight traffic is expected to increase annually by 6-7% and 4-5%, respectively. One possibility to reduce aviation impacts on the atmosphere and climate might be the replacement of fossil fuels by alternative fuels. However, so far the effects of alternative fuels on particle emissions from aircraft engines and their ability to form contrails remain uncertain. To study the effects of alternative fuels on particle emissions and the formation of contrails, the Alternative Fuel Effects on Contrails and Cruise Emissions (ACCESS) field experiment was conducted in California. In May 2014, the DLR Falcon 20 and the NASA HU-25 jet aircraft were instrumented with an extended aerosol and trace gas payload probing different types of fuels including JP-8 and JP-8 blended with HEFA (Hydroprocessed Esters and Fatty Acids) while the NASA DC8 aircraft acted as the source aircraft for ACCESS-2. Emission measurements were taken in the DC8 exhaust plumes at aircraft cruise level between 9-12 km altitude and at distances between 50 m and 20 km behind the DC8 engines. Here, we will present results from the ACCESS-2 aerosol measurements which show a 30-60% reduction of the non-volatile (mainly black carbon) particle number concentration in the aircraft exhaust for the HEFA-blend compared to conventional JP-8 fuel. Size-resolved particle emission indices show the largest reductions for larger particle sizes suggesting that the HEFA blend contains fewer and smaller black carbon particles. We will combine the airborne measurements with a parameterization of deposition nucleation developed during a number of ice nucleation experiments at the AIDA chamber in Karlsruhe and discuss the impact of alternative fuels on the abundance of potential ice nuclei at cruise conditions.

  6. Alcohol fuel production training program. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Burke, J.

    1982-06-30

    The purpose of the project was to offer instruction in the small scale production of ethanol, which can be added to gasoline by about 10%. The course was designed to help farmers in particular to make ethanol to extend fuel use. This project has four objectives. They are: (1) design an alcohol fuel production course with appropriate equipment for hands-on training; (2) offer at least three training sessions on alcohol fuel production in Cumberland County each year of the project; (3) work with the Governor's Task Force on Gasohol to disseminate the necessary information on alcohol production to the public; (4) identify, in consultation with the New Jersey Department of Energy and Agriculture, other training sites in the state and offer at least three training sessions outside of Cumberland County during the second year of the project. As of March 31, 1982, Cumberland County College completed all activities and objectives outlined in its Appropriate Technology project ''Alcohol Fuel Production.'' Given the six month extension requested to accommodate farmers in other parts of the state and the growing season, this project was completed within the stated time schedule. Although the response for the course was high in the beginning of 1981, the increased supply of low cost fuels at the end of the year probably accounts for the decline in the public's willingness to take a course of this nature.

  7. Fuel Cell Forklift Project Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Cummings, Clifton C

    2013-10-23

    This project addresses the DOE’s priorities related to acquiring data from real-world fuel cell operation, eliminating non-technical barriers, and increasing opportunities for market expansion of hydrogen fuel cell technologies. The project involves replacing the batteries in a complete fleet of class-1 electric lift trucks at FedEx Freight’s Springfield, MO parcel distribution center with 35 Plug Power GenDrive fuel cell power units. Fuel for the power units involves on-site hydrogen handling and dispensing equipment and liquid hydrogen delivery by Air Products. The project builds on FedEx Freight’s previous field trial experience with a handful of Plug Power’s GenDrive power units. Those trials demonstrated productivity gains and improved performance compared to battery-powered lift trucks. Full lift truck conversion at our Springfield location allows us to improve the competitiveness of our operations and helps the environment by reducing greenhouse gas emissions and toxic battery material use. Success at this distribution center may lead to further fleet conversions at some of our distribution centers.

  8. Tracked-vehicle fuel consumption. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-03-06

    This document describes test procedures for evaluating the fuel efficiency of tracked vehicles under controlled operating conditions. The test data are a major source for comparisons with similar vehicles, and can also serve to predict the operational range of these vehicles during tactical missions.

  9. Synthetic fuel utilization. Final report. Task 330

    SciTech Connect

    Singer, S.

    1983-01-01

    The presence of large coal resources in this country provided the spur for consideration of liquids derived from hydrogenation of coal in the search for alternate liquid fuels to replace petroleum. Previous developments particularly in German industry beginning in 1910 and reaching a capacity of approximately four million tons of products a year by 1944 and more recently a series of plants in South Africa have shown the practicability of coal liquefaction. A few more advanced processes have been developed variously to bench, pilot or commercial scale from among the thirty or more which were subject to study. Limitation in the amount of hydrogen used in these for reasons of economy and processing facility results in products containing major amounts of aromatics as well as significant portions of the sulfur and nitrogen of the coal feed. Combustion of the largely aromatic liquids can present problems in commercial burners designed for petroleum fuels, and combustion staging used to reduce NO/sub x/ emissions with the latter may encounter difficulties from sooting in the coal-derived fuels, which occurs readily with aromatics. This report presents a review of such problems in utilization of synthetic fuels from coal, emphasizing basic engineering and scientific studies which have been made. A research program involving a number of universities, industrial laboratories, and non-profit research institutions was carried out under the direction of the Department of Energy's Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center. This program is also reviewed. The major subjects covered are those of liquefaction product composition and properties, fuel spray and droplet processes, synfuel pyrolysis, combustion mechanics, soot formation, and pollutant emission. Recommendations concerning needs for investigation are made from an evaluation of the current status of the field and the results obtained in the program. 15 references, 1 figure, 7 tables.

  10. Workshop on disposable fuel cells. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Smyrl, W.H.

    1996-12-01

    The objective of the present workshop was to assess the feasibility of a low-power disposable fuel cell. The technological basis for the concept was evaluated along with the barriers that must be overcome for its development. The scope was limited to systems with a useful life of 500 hours or less and a power production of 1 kilowatt or less. Tabulated results reveal that such a system would have advantages related to mass over competitive batteries or other power systems, and this workshop compared other characteristics of such systems as well. Disposable devices infer that a major consideration will be the cost, but there is also implied a limited environment burden. The consensus of the participants was that a disposable fuel cell (DFC) is a viable concept and that there is merit pursuing its development.

  11. Farm alcohol fuel project. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Demmel, D.

    1981-11-15

    The Small Energy Project is a research and demonstration effort designed to assist small farmers in the utilization of energy conservation techniques on their farms. The Farm Alcohol Project was designed to demonstrate the production of alcohol fuels on small farms in order to reduce purchased liquid fuel requirements. The Project considered the use of on-farm raw materials for process heat and the production of fuel grade, low prood ethanol in volumes up to 10,000 gallons per year. The fuel would be used entirely on the farm. The approach considered low-cost systems the farmer could build himself from local resources. Various crops were considered for ethanol production. The interest in farm alcohol production reached a peak in 1980 and then decreased substantially as farmers learned that the process of alcohol production on the farm was much more complicated than earlier anticipated. Details of Alcohol Project experiences in ethanol production, primarily from corn, are included in this report. A one-bushel distillation plant was constructed as a learning tool to demonstrate the production of ethanol. The report discusses the various options in starch conversion, fermentation and distillation that can be utilized. The advantages and disavantages of atmospheric and the more complicated process of vacuum distillation are evaluated. Larger farm plants are considered in the report, although no experience in operating such plants was gained through the Project. Various precautions and other considerations are included for farm plant designs. A larger community portable distillery is also evaluated. Such a plant was considered for servicing farms with limited plant equipment. The farms serviced would perform only fermentation tasks, with the portable device performing distillation and starch conversion.

  12. Liquid fuels production from biomass. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, P. F.; Sanderson, J. E.; Ashare, E.; Wise, D. L.; Molyneaux, M. S.

    1980-06-30

    The current program to convert biomass into liquid hydrocarbon fuels is an extension of a previous program to ferment marine algae to acetic acid. In that study it was found that marine algae could be converted to higher aliphatic organic acids and that these acids could be readily removed from the fermentation broth by membrane or liquid-liquid extraction. It was then proposed to convert these higher organic acids via Kolbe electrolysis to aliphatic hydrocarbons, which may be used as a diesel fuel. The specific goals for the current porgram are: (1) establish conditions under which substrates other than marine algae may be converted in good yield to organic acids, here the primary task is methane suppression; (2) modify the current 300-liter fixed packed bed batch fermenter to operate in a continuous mode; (3) change from membrane extraction of organic acids to liquid-liquid extraction; (4) optimize the energy balance of the electrolytic oxidation process, the primary task is to reduce the working potential required for the electrolysis while maintaining an adequate current density; (5) scale the entire process up to match the output of the 300 liter fermenter; and (6) design pilot plant and commercial size plant (1000 tons/day) processes for converting biomass to liquid hydrocarbon fuels and perform an economic analysis for the 1000 ton/day design.

  13. Regulatory fire test requirements for plutonium air transport packages : JP-4 or JP-5 vs. JP-8 aviation fuel.

    SciTech Connect

    Figueroa, Victor G.; Lopez, Carlos; Nicolette, Vernon F.

    2010-10-01

    For certification, packages used for the transportation of plutonium by air must survive the hypothetical thermal environment specified in 10CFR71.74(a)(5). This regulation specifies that 'the package must be exposed to luminous flames from a pool fire of JP-4 or JP-5 aviation fuel for a period of at least 60 minutes.' This regulation was developed when jet propellant (JP) 4 and 5 were the standard jet fuels. However, JP-4 and JP-5 currently are of limited availability in the United States of America. JP-4 is very hard to obtain as it is not used much anymore. JP-5 may be easier to get than JP-4, but only through a military supplier. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate that readily-available JP-8 fuel is a possible substitute for the aforementioned certification test. Comparisons between the properties of the three fuels are given. Results from computer simulations that compared large JP-4 to JP-8 pool fires using Sandia's VULCAN fire model are shown and discussed. Additionally, the Container Analysis Fire (CAFE) code was used to compare the thermal response of a large calorimeter exposed to engulfing fires fueled by these three jet propellants. The paper then recommends JP-8 as an alternate fuel that complies with the thermal environment implied in 10CFR71.74.

  14. CHP Fuel Cell Durability Demonstration - Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Petrecky, James; Ashley, Christopher J

    2014-07-21

    Plug Power has managed a demonstration project that has tested multiple units of its high-temperature, PEM fuel cell system in micro-combined heat and power (μ-CHP) applications in California. The specific objective of the demonstration project was to substantiate the durability of GenSys Blue, and, thereby, verify its technology and commercial readiness for the marketplace. In the demonstration project, Plug Power, in partnership with the National Fuel Cell Research Center (NFCRC) at the University of California, Irvine (UCI), and Sempra, will execute two major tasks: • Task 1: Internal durability/reliability fleet testing. Six GenSys Blue units will be built and will undergo an internal test regimen to estimate failure rates. This task was modified to include 3 GenSys Blue units installed in a lab at UCI. • Task 2: External customer testing. Combined heat and power units will be installed and tested in real-world residential and/or light commercial end user locations in California.

  15. Biodegradation of international jet A-1 aviation fuel by microorganisms isolated from aircraft tank and joint hydrant storage systems.

    PubMed

    Itah, A Y; Brooks, A A; Ogar, B O; Okure, A B

    2009-09-01

    Microorganisms contaminating international Jet A-1 aircraft fuel and fuel preserved in Joint Hydrant Storage Tank (JHST) were isolated, characterized and identified. The isolates were Bacillus subtillis, Bacillus megaterium, Flavobacterium oderatum, Sarcina flava, Micrococcus varians, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus licheniformis, Bacillus cereus and Bacillus brevis. Others included Candida tropicalis, Candida albicans, Saccharomyces estuari, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus fumigatus, Cladosporium resinae, Penicillium citrinum and Penicillium frequentans. The viable plate count of microorganisms in the Aircraft Tank ranged from 1.3 (+/-0.01) x 104 cfu/mL to 2.2 (+/-1.6) x 104 cfu/mL for bacteria and 102 cfu/mL to 1.68 (+/-0.32) x 103 cfu/mL for fungi. Total bacterial counts of 1.79 (+/-0.2) x 104 cfu/mL to 2.58 (+/-0.04) x 104 cfu/mL and total fungal count of 2.1 (+/-0.1) x 103 cfu/mL to 2.28 (+/-0.5) x 103 cfu/mL were obtained for JHST. Selected isolates were re-inoculated into filter sterilized aircraft fuels and biodegradation studies carried out. After 14 days incubation, Cladosporium resinae exhibited the highest degradation rate with a percentage weight loss of 66 followed by Candida albicans (60.6) while Penicillium citrinum was the least degrader with a weight loss of 41.6%. The ability of the isolates to utilize the fuel as their sole source of carbon and energy was examined and found to vary in growth profile between the isolates. The results imply that aviation fuel could be biodegraded by hydrocarbonoclastic microorganisms. To avert a possible deterioration of fuel quality during storage, fuel pipe clogging and failure, engine component damage, wing tank corrosion and aircraft disaster, efficient routine monitoring of aircraft fuel systems is advocated.

  16. Impact of 50% Alcohol to Jet Blends on Aviation Turbine Fuel Filtration and Coalescence

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-20

    synthetic paraffin fuels produced from alcohols (isobutanol or n- butanol). Sugars , corn, grass/wood/biomass, and power plant/industrial CO2 are all...fuels are synthetic paraffin fuels produced from alcohols (isobutanol or n- butanol). Sugars , corn, grass/wood/biomass, and power plant/industrial CO2...currently being evaluated. ATJ fuels are synthetic paraffin fuels produced from alcohols (isobutanol or n-butanol). Sugars , corn, grass/wood/biomass

  17. Fuel Storage Facility Final Safety Analysis Report. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Linderoth, C.E.

    1984-03-01

    The Fuel Storage Facility (FSF) is an integral part of the Fast Flux Test Facility. Its purpose is to provide long-term storage (20-year design life) for spent fuel core elements used to provide the fast flux environment in FFTF, and for test fuel pins, components and subassemblies that have been irradiated in the fast flux environment. This Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) and its supporting documentation provides a complete description and safety evaluation of the site, the plant design, operations, and potential accidents.

  18. Taxation of United States general aviation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobieralski, Joseph Bernard

    General aviation in the United States has been an important part of the economy and American life. General aviation is defined as all flying excluding military and scheduled airline operations, and is utilized in many areas of our society. The majority of aircraft operations and airports in the United States are categorized as general aviation, and general aviation contributes more than one percent to the United States gross domestic product each year. Despite the many benefits of general aviation, the lead emissions from aviation gasoline consumption are of great concern. General aviation emits over half the lead emissions in the United States or over 630 tons in 2005. The other significant negative externality attributed to general aviation usage is aircraft accidents. General aviation accidents have caused over 8000 fatalities over the period 1994-2006. A recent Federal Aviation Administration proposed increase in the aviation gasoline tax from 19.4 to 70.1 cents per gallon has renewed interest in better understanding the implications of such a tax increase as well as the possible optimal rate of taxation. Few studies have examined aviation fuel elasticities and all have failed to study general aviation fuel elasticities. Chapter one fills that gap and examines the elasticity of aviation gasoline consumption in United States general aviation. Utilizing aggregate time series and dynamic panel data, the price and income elasticities of demand are estimated. The price elasticity of demand for aviation gasoline is estimated to range from -0.093 to -0.185 in the short-run and from -0.132 to -0.303 in the long-run. These results prove to be similar in magnitude to automobile gasoline elasticities and therefore tax policies could more closely mirror those of automobile tax policies. The second chapter examines the costs associated with general aviation accidents. Given the large number of general aviation operations as well as the large number of fatalities and

  19. The Chemical Resistance of Epoxy Adhesive Joints Exposed to Aviation Fuel and its Additives

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-03-01

    reference fuel containing cumene hydroperoxide. The corrosive nature of the DGME and water environment may be responsible for the observed degradation...in bonding and would simulate the conditions a repair at the bottom of a fuel tank may experience. Cumene hydroperoxide simulates a fuel degradation...to the DGME and water and reference fuel containing cumene hydroperoxide environments. The complex fracture modes observed for the composite samples

  20. Vaporization of synthetic fuels. Final report. [Thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Sirignano, W.A.; Yao, S.C.; Tong, A.Y.; Talley, D.

    1983-01-01

    The problem of transient droplet vaporization in a hot convective environment is examined. The main objective of the present study is to develop an algorithm for the droplet vaporization which is simple enough to be feasibly incorporated into a complete spray combustion analysis and yet will also account for the important physics such as liquid-phase internal circulation, unsteady droplet heating and axisymmetric gas-phase convection. A simplified liquid-phase model has been obtained based on the assumption of the existence of a Hill's spherical vortex inside the droplet together with some approximations made in the governing diffusion equation. The use of the simplified model in a spray situation has also been examined. It has been found that droplet heating and vaporization are essentially unsteady and droplet temperature is nonuniform for a significant portion of its lifetime. It has also been found that the droplet vaporization characteristic can be quite sensitive to the particular liquid-phase and gas-phase models. The results of the various models are compared with the existing experimental data. Due to large scattering in the experimental measurements, particularly the droplet diameter, no definite conclusion can be drawn based on the experimental data. Finally, certain research problems which are related to the present study are suggested for future studies.

  1. Applications of high pressure differential scanning calorimetry to aviation fuel thermal stability research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neveu, M. C.; Stocker, D. P.

    1985-01-01

    High pressure differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was studied as an alternate method for performing high temperature fuel thermal stability research. The DSC was used to measure the heat of reaction versus temperature of a fuel sample heated at a programmed rate in an oxygen pressurized cell. Pure hydrocarbons and model fuels were studied using typical DSC operating conditions of 600 psig of oxygen and a temperature range from ambient to 500 C. The DSC oxidation onset temperature was determined and was used to rate the fuels on thermal stability. Kinetic rate constants were determined for the global initial oxidation reaction. Fuel deposit formation is measured, and the high temperature volatility of some tetralin deposits is studied by thermogravimetric analysis. Gas chromatography and mass spectrometry are used to study the chemical composition of some DSC stressed fuels.

  2. Predictive Model Development for Aviation Black Carbon Mass Emissions from Alternative and Conventional Fuels at Ground and Cruise.

    PubMed

    Abrahamson, Joseph P; Zelina, Joseph; Andac, M Gurhan; Vander Wal, Randy L

    2016-11-01

    The first order approximation (FOA3) currently employed to estimate BC mass emissions underpredicts BC emissions due to inaccuracies in measuring low smoke numbers (SNs) produced by modern high bypass ratio engines. The recently developed Formation and Oxidation (FOX) method removes the need for and hence uncertainty associated with (SNs), instead relying upon engine conditions in order to predict BC mass. Using the true engine operating conditions from proprietary engine cycle data an improved FOX (ImFOX) predictive relation is developed. Still, the current methods are not optimized to estimate cruise emissions nor account for the use of alternative jet fuels with reduced aromatic content. Here improved correlations are developed to predict engine conditions and BC mass emissions at ground and cruise altitude. This new ImFOX is paired with a newly developed hydrogen relation to predict emissions from alternative fuels and fuel blends. The ImFOX is designed for rich-quench-lean style combustor technologies employed predominately in the current aviation fleet.

  3. Life cycle assessment of microalgae-based aviation fuel: Influence of lipid content with specific productivity and nitrogen nutrient effects.

    PubMed

    Guo, Fang; Zhao, Jing; A, Lusi; Yang, Xiaoyi

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this work is to compare the life cycle assessments of low-N and normal culture conditions for a balance between the lipid content and specific productivity. In order to achieve the potential contribution of lipid content to the life cycle assessment, this study established relationships between lipid content (nitrogen effect) and specific productivity based on three microalgae strains including Chlorella, Isochrysis and Nannochloropsis. For microalgae-based aviation fuel, the effects of the lipid content on fossil fuel consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are similar. The fossil fuel consumption (0.32-0.68MJ·MJ(-1)MBAF) and GHG emissions (17.23-51.04gCO2e·MJ(-1)MBAF) increase (59.70-192.22%) with the increased lipid content. The total energy input decreases (2.13-3.08MJ·MJ(-1)MBAF, 14.91-27.95%) with the increased lipid content. The LCA indicators increased (0-47.10%) with the decreased nitrogen recovery efficiency (75-50%).

  4. Experimental Study of Low Temperature Behavior of Aviation Turbine Fuels in a Wing Tank Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stockemer, Francis J.

    1979-01-01

    An experimental investigation was performed to study aircraft fuels at low temperatures near the freezing point. The objective was an improved understanding of the flowability and pumpability of the fuels under conditions encoutered during cold weather flight of a long range commercial aircraft. The test tank simulated a section of an outer wing tank and was chilled on the upper and lower surfaces. Fuels included commercial Jet A and Diesel D-2; JP-5 from oil shale; and Jet A, intermediate freeze point, and D-2 fuels derived from selected paraffinic and naphthenic crudes. A pour point depressant was tested.

  5. Comparative Study of Alternative Fuel Icing Inhibitor Additive Properties & Chemical Analysis of Metal Speciation in Aviation Fuels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-08-01

    the thermocouples and lines were held in place with a rubber stopper. The separatory funnels were first filled with 1500 mL of 5237 jet fuel, and... flowability of fuel. The results of this study however only showed a proportional increase in viscosity with respect to vol % concentration of FSII in

  6. Navy Field Evaluation of Particle Counter Technology for Aviation Fuel Contamination Detection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-02-06

    In addition, free water can potentially freeze and clog fuel lines and fuel pumps. The presence of free water can also facilitate the formation of...4 3.4 FREE WATER AND SEDIMENT ANALYSIS...0 ppm Free Water as Determined by ASTM Methods .................................................................................................10

  7. National Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Learning Demonstration Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Wipke, K.; Sprik, S.; Kurtz, J.; Ramsden, T.; Ainscough, C.; Saur, G.

    2012-07-01

    This report discusses key analysis results based on data from early 2005 through September 2011 from the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Validation and Demonstration Project, also referred to as the National Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle (FCEV) Learning Demonstration. This report serves as one of many mechanisms to help transfer knowledge and lessons learned within various parts of DOE's Fuel Cell Technologies Program, as well as externally to other stakeholders. It is the fifth and final such report in a series, with previous reports being published in July 2007, November 2007, April 2008, and September 2010.

  8. Synthetic Fischer-Tropsch (FT) JP-5/JP-8 Aviation Turbine Fuel Elastomer Compatibility

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-02-01

    of nitrile coupons and O-rings with selected petroleum-derived fuels, Fisher-Tropsch (FT) synthetic JP-5/JP-8 fuel, and blends of FT JP-5/JP-8 with...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES The original document contains color images. 14. ABSTRACT When some elastomer ( rubber ) compounds, and specifically those used for...various amounts of aromatic blend stock. This study provided a baseline for predicting the effects of static elastomer swell to the potential degree of

  9. PNNL Aviation Biofuels

    SciTech Connect

    Plaza, John; Holladay, John; Hallen, Rich

    2014-10-23

    Commercial airplanes really don’t have the option to move away from liquid fuels. Because of this, biofuels present an opportunity to create new clean energy jobs by developing technologies that deliver stable, long term fuel options. The Department of Energy’s Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is working with industrial partners on processes to convert biomass to aviation fuels.

  10. National Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Learning Demonstration Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Wipke, K.; Sprik, S.; Kurtz, J.; Ramsden, T.; Ainscough, C.; Saur, G.

    2012-07-01

    This report discusses key analysis results based on data from early 2005 through September 2011 from the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Validation and Demonstration Project, also referred to as the National Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle (FCEV) Learning Demonstration. It is the fifth and final such report in a series, with previous reports being published in July 2007, November 2007, April 2008, and September 2010.

  11. Bagnulo Heavy Fuel Internal Combustion Engine and Its Employment in Aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fiore, Amedeo

    1922-01-01

    We see with great satisfaction that Bagnulo's studies and experiments on his high-speed, heavy-fuel engines, promise to solve not only the general problem of economical power and hence of thermal efficiency, but also all other special problems, of weight and space, and, what is still more important, range of error.

  12. Aviation Turbine Fuels from Tar Sands Bitumen and Heavy Oils. Part 3. Laboratory Sample Production.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-12-01

    PREPARATION CONVERSION SECTION FLOW DIAGRAM ... ........... 12 3. TURBINE FUEL PRECURSOR 3LENDS .... ......... .. 21 4. EFFECT OF HYDROTREATING...SEVERITY ON JP-4 AROMATICS CONTENT ... .......... 30 5. EFFECT OF HYDROTREATING SEVERITY ON JP-4 SMOKE POINT ..... ............. 30 6. EFFECT OF...48 16. EFFECT OF HYDROGEN SPECIFICATION ON PRODUCT COSTS .... ............ 59 A-i. SAMPLE PREPARATION CONVERSION SECTION .. ........ A-3 A-2. SAMPLE

  13. Field Evaluation of Particle Counter Technology for Aviation Fuel Contamination Detection - Fort Campbell

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-06

    fibrous materials, coatings material including paint, elastomeric materials, hydrocarbon/oxidation materials, and any other solid matter. At a...storage volume for CAA to 1.3M gallons. The fuel offloaded is not filtered prior to storage. JP-8 is transferred via a 0.5 mile underground pipeline

  14. Final Report - MEA and Stack Durability for PEM Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yandrasits, Michael A.

    2008-02-15

    the same. (6) Through the use of statistical lifetime analysis methods, it is possible to develop new MEAs with predicted durability approaching the DOE 2010 targets. (7) A segmented cell was developed that extend the resolution from ~ 40 to 121 segments for a 50cm2 active area single cell which allowed for more precise investigation of the local phenomena in a operating fuel cell. (8) The single cell concept was extended to a fuel size stack to allow the first of its kind monitoring and mapping of an operational fuel cell stack. An internal check used during this project involved evaluating the manufacturability of any new MEA component. If a more durable MEA component was developed in the lab, but could not be scaled-up to ‘high speed, high volume manufacturing’, then that component was not selected for the final MEA-fuel cell system demonstration. It is the intent of the team to commercialize new products developed under this project, but commercialization can not occur if the manufacture of said new components is difficult or if the price is significantly greater than existing products as to make the new components not cost competitive. Thus, the end result of this project is the creation of MEA and fuel cell system technology that is capable of meeting the DOEs 2010 target of 40,000 hours for stationary fuel cell systems (although this lifetime has not been demonstrated in laboratory or field testing yet) at a cost that is economically viable for the developing fuel cell industry. We have demonstrated over 2,000 hours of run time for the MEA and system developed under this project.

  15. Final Scientific Report - "Improved Fuel Efficiency from Nanocomposite Tire Tread"

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Andrew Myers

    2005-12-30

    Rolling resistance, a measure of the energy lost as a tire rotates while moving, is a significant source of power and fuel loss. Recently, low rolling resistant tires have been formulated by adding silica to tire tread. These "Green Tires" (so named from the environmental advantages of lower emissions and improved fuel economy) have seen some commercial success in Europe, where high fuel prices and performance drive tire selection. Unfortunately, the higher costs of the silica and a more complicated manufacturing process have prevented significant commercialization - and the resulting fuel savings - in the U.S. In this project, TDA Research, Inc. (TDA) prepared an inexpensive alternative to silica that leads to tire components with lower rolling resistance. These new tire composite materials were processed with traditional rubber processing equipment. We prepared specially designed nanoparticle additives, based on a high purity, inorganic mineral whose surface can be easily modified for compatibility with tire tread formulations. Our nanocomposites decreased energy losses to hysteresis, the loss of energy from the compression and relaxation of an elastic material, by nearly 20% compared to a blank SBR sample. We also demonstrated better performance than a leading silica product, with easier production of our final rubber nanocomposite.

  16. The Department of Defense: Reducing Its Reliance on Fossil-Based Aviation Fuel - Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-15

    19 Figure 2. KC-135 Winglet Flight Tests at Dryden Flight Research Center . . . . 23 List of Tables Table 1...involving two or more opposing forces using rules, data, and procedures designed to depict an actual or assumed real life situation.” 19 Winglets , for...applying winglets to DOD aircraft. See page 24 of this report for further information. reflect the DOD’s true fuel costs, masks energy efficiency

  17. Comparative Toxicity of Selected Aviation Fuels as Measured by Insect Bioassay

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-07-01

    Arlian, 1979; Arlian & Eckstrand, 1975). Initial standardization of rice weevils with tritiated water (HTO) was accomplished by placing them in a closed...to actual water loss (Arlian, 1979; Arlian & Staiger, 1979; Arlian, 1972; Wharton & Devine, 1968). Loss of HTO from the rice weevil followed the first...determined as the slope of a semi log plot of mean (CPM) versus sample time. Passive water sorption in fuel treated rice weevils Passive water

  18. Greening the Mixture: An Evaluation of the Department of Defense’s Alternative Aviation Fuel Strategy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-08

    process begins with gasification of feedstocks such as coal, natural gas, or biomass towards the production of alternative fuels. With adequate carbon...Barrels per day CBTL Coal and Biomass to Liquid CCS Carbon Dioxide Capture and Sequestration CTL Coal to Liquid DARPA Defense Advanced Research...sequestration. Captured carbon dioxide from coal-to-liquid (CTL) or coal and biomass -to-liquid (CBTL) production could be readily injected into the

  19. AVIATION PSYCHOLOGY,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    PSYCHOLOGY , AERONAUTICS, FLIGHT, PILOTS, PERCEPTION, ATTENTION, READING, MEMORY( PSYCHOLOGY ), PERSONALITY, EMOTIONS, FATIGUE(PHYSIOLOGY), AVIATION SAFETY, AVIATION ACCIDENTS, PSYCHOMOTOR TESTS, PSYCHOLOGICAL TESTS, TRAINING.

  20. Direct fuel cell power plants: the final steps to commercialization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glenn, Donald R.

    Since the last paper presented at the Second Grove Fuel Cell Symposium, the Energy Research Corporation (ERC) has established two commercial subsidiaries, become a publically-held firm, expanded its facilities and has moved the direct fuel cell (DFC) technology and systems significantly closer to commercial readiness. The subsidiaries, the Fuel Cell Engineering Corporation (FCE) and Fuel Cell Manufacturing Corporation (FCMC) are perfecting their respective roles in the company's strategy to commercialize its DFC technology. FCE is the prime contractor for the Santa Clara Demonstration and is establishing the needed marketing, sales, engineering, and servicing functions. FCMC in addition to producing the stacks and stack modules for the Santa Clara demonstration plant is now upgrading its production capability and product yields, and retooling for the final stack scale-up for the commercial unit. ERC has built and operated the tallest and largest capacities-to-date carbonate fuel cell stacks as well as numerous short stacks. While most of these units were tested at ERC's Danbury, Connecticut (USA) R&D Center, others have been evaluated at other domestic and overseas facilities using a variety of fuels. ERC has supplied stacks to Elkraft and MTU for tests with natural gas, and RWE in Germany where coal-derived gas were used. Additional stack test activities have been performed by MELCO and Sanyo in Japan. Information from some of these activities is protected by ERC's license arrangements with these firms. However, permission for limited data releases will be requested to provide the Grove Conference with up-to-date results. Arguably the most dramatic demonstration of carbonate fuel cells in the utility-scale, 2 MW power plant demonstration unit, located in the City of Santa Clara, California. Construction of the unit's balance-of-plant (BOP) has been completed and the installed equipment has been operationally checked. Two of the four DFC stack sub-modules, each

  1. Development of a Turnkey Hydrogen Fueling Station Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    David E. Guro; Edward Kiczek; Kendral Gill; Othniel Brown

    2010-07-29

    The transition to hydrogen as a fuel source presents several challenges. One of the major hurdles is the cost-effective production of hydrogen in small quantities (less than 1MMscf/month). In the early demonstration phase, hydrogen can be provided by bulk distribution of liquid or compressed gas from central production plants; however, the next phase to fostering the hydrogen economy will likely include onsite generation and extensive pipeline networks to help effect a pervasive infrastructure. Providing inexpensive hydrogen at a fleet operator’s garage or local fueling station is a key enabling technology for direct hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles (FCVs). The objective of this project was to develop a comprehensive, turnkey, stand-alone, commercial hydrogen fueling station for FCVs with state-of-the-art technology that is cost-competitive with current hydrocarbon fuels. Such a station would promote the advent of the hydrogen fuel economy for buses, fleet vehicles, and ultimately personal vehicles. Air Products, partnering with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), The Pennsylvania State University, Harvest Energy Technology, and QuestAir, developed a turnkey hydrogen fueling station on the Penn State campus. Air Products aimed at designing a station that would have 65% overall station efficiency, 82% PSA (pressure swing adsorption) efficiency, and the capability of producing hydrogen at $3.00/kg (gge) H2 at mass production rates. Air Products designed a fueling station at Penn State from the ground up. This project was implemented in three phases. The first phase evaluated the various technologies available in hydrogen generation, compression, storage, and gas dispensing. In the second phase, Air Products designed the components chosen from the technologies examined. Finally, phase three entailed a several-month period of data collection, full-scale operation, maintenance of the station, and optimization of system reliability and performance. Based on field data

  2. The Impact of Petroleum, Synthetic and Cryogenic Fuels on Civil Aviation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-06-01

    DOE " Plans for effective public education and communication. No decision has been made regarding the final 250 million * Further studies of tax...are trying to accelerate the exploration. We’re trying to find out just what our national inventory is. Now we have nothing better than educated ...double the ’ , " 44i. and triple the coal resources of the U.S.A. The S L s also strategically. located to be able to take Spoc -sian Gulf if it should

  3. Final Report on the Fuel Saving Effectiveness of Various Driver Feedback Approaches

    SciTech Connect

    Gonder, J.; Earleywine, M.; Sparks, W.

    2011-03-01

    This final report quantifies the fuel-savings opportunities from specific driving behavior changes, identifies factors that influence drivers' receptiveness to adopting fuel-saving behaviors, and assesses various driver feedback approaches.

  4. Plate-Based Fuel Processing System Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Carlos Faz; Helen Liu; Jacques Nicole; David Yee

    2005-12-22

    took the initial steam reforming plate-reactor concept and advanced it towards an integrated fuel processing system. A substantial amount of modeling was performed to guide the catalyst development and prototype hardware design and fabrication efforts. The plate-reactor mechanical design was studied in detail to establish design guidelines which would help the plate reactor survive the stresses of repeated thermal cycles (from start-ups and shut-downs). Integrated system performance modeling was performed to predict system efficiencies and determine the parameters with the most significant impact on efficiency. In conjunction with the modeling effort, a significant effort was directed towards catalyst development. CESI developed a highly active, sulfur tolerant, coke resistant, precious metal based reforming catalyst. CESI also developed its own non-precious metal based water-gas shift catalyst and demonstrated the catalysts durability over several thousands of hours of testing. CESI also developed a unique preferential oxidation catalyst capable of reducing 1% CO to < 10 ppm CO over a 35 C operating window through a single pass plate-based reactor. Finally, CESI combined the modeling results and steam reforming catalyst development efforts into prototype hardware. The first generation 3kW(e) prototype was fabricated from existing heat-exchanger plates to expedite the fabrication process. This prototype demonstrated steady state operation ranging from 5 to 100% load conditions. The prototype also demonstrated a 20:1 turndown ratio, 10:1 load transient operation and rapid start-up capability.

  5. 78 FR 61203 - Aviation Services

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-03

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 87 Aviation Services AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final rule... permit ground testing of aviation data link systems, and decline to authorize remote monitoring of... the airport surface, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) seeks to expand the use of ASDE-X...

  6. Alcohol fuels technology program: Byng public school. Final progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-04-01

    This is the final report for the Energy Grant awarded to Byng School for the purpose of building a distillery and producing fuel alcohol to be used in the school vehicles. The distillery has been built and alcohol has been produced and tested. At the time of the grant award, it was feared gasoline would soon retail for $4 per gallon. Fortunately, this has not been the case and the school is able to purchase gasoline for about 97 cents. As it cost 93 cents per gallon to produce alcohol in the distillery, the plan to produce alcohol for use in the busses has temporarily been set aside. We are holding the distillery ready for production as insurance against an increase in gasoline price. The plant and process are described.

  7. PNNL Aviation Biofuels

    ScienceCinema

    Plaza, John; Holladay, John; Hallen, Rich

    2016-07-12

    Commercial airplanes really don’t have the option to move away from liquid fuels. Because of this, biofuels present an opportunity to create new clean energy jobs by developing technologies that deliver stable, long term fuel options. The Department of Energy’s Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is working with industrial partners on processes to convert biomass to aviation fuels.

  8. Hawaii alternative fuels utilization program. Phase 3, final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kinoshita, C.M.; Staackmann, M.

    1996-08-01

    The Hawaii Alternative Fuels Utilization Program originated as a five-year grant awarded by the US Department of Energy (USDOE) to the Hawaii Natural Energy Institute (HNEI) of the University of Hawaii at Manoa. The overall program included research and demonstration efforts aimed at encouraging and sustaining the use of alternative (i.e., substitutes for gasoline and diesel) ground transportation fuels in Hawaii. Originally, research aimed at overcoming technical impediments to the widespread adoption of alternative fuels was an important facet of this program. Demonstration activities centered on the use of methanol-based fuels in alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs). In the present phase, operations were expanded to include flexible fuel vehicles (FFVs) which can operate on M85 or regular unleaded gasoline or any combination of these two fuels. Additional demonstration work was accomplished in attempting to involve other elements of Hawaii in the promotion and use of alcohol fuels for ground transportation in Hawaii.

  9. Amtrak fuel consumption study. Final report May-Sep 80

    SciTech Connect

    Hitz, J.S.

    1981-02-01

    This report documents a study of fuel consumption on National Railroad Passenger Corporation (Amtrak) trains and is part of an effort to determine effective ways of conserving fuel on the Amtrak system. The study was performed by the Transportation Systems Center (TSC) under the sponsorship of the Federal Railroad Administration and in cooperation with Amtrak. A series of 26 test runs were conducted on Amtrak trains operating between Boston, Massachusetts, and New Haven, Connecticut, to measure fuel consumption, trip time and other fuel-use-related parameters. The test data were analyzed and compared with results of the TSC Train Performance Simulator replicating the same operations. Results of the tests showed that the average fuel consumption for the 157.7 mile trip was 368 gallons and that the average fuel use efficiency was 277 ton-miles per gallon. Fuel consumption and fuel use efficiency were found to increase consistently with increasing train tonnage. One locomotive was also found to consume about 12 percent more fuel than the other locomotive tested. The fuel consumption and trip time results for individual runs varied between +8.0 to -9.5 and +5.4 and -10.7 percent, respectively, of the Train Performance Simulator results. However, when averaged over the ten test runs analyzed, the fuel consumption and trip time results were within 1.04 and 0.03 percent, respectively, of the simulator. Throttle notch settings and train speed profiles also agreed well with simulated results.

  10. Chemistry of Aviation Fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knepper, Bryan; Hwang, Soon Muk; DeWitt, Kenneth J.

    2004-01-01

    Minimum ignition energies of various methanol/air mixtures were measured in a temperature controlled constant volume combustion vessel using a spark ignition method with a spark gap distance of 2 mm. The minimum ignition energies decrease rapidly as the mixture composition (equivalence ratio, Phi) changes from lean to stoichiometric, reach a minimum value, and then increase rather slowly with Phi. The minimum of the minimum ignition energy (MIE) and the corresponding mixture composition were determined to be 0.137 mJ and Phi = 1.16, a slightly rich mixture. The variation of minimum ignition energy with respect to the mixture composition is explained in terms of changes in reaction chemistry.

  11. Fuel Quality/Processing Study. Volume I. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    O'Hara, J B; Bela, A; Jentz, N E; Syverson, H T; Klumpe, H W; Kessler, R E; Kotzot, H T; Loran, B I

    1981-04-01

    This report presents the results of the Fuel Quality/Processing Study project for production of gas turbine fuels. The objective was to provide a data base for establishing intelligent trade-off between advanced turbine technology and liquid fuel quality. Synthetic fuels to be emphasized include those derived from coal and shale. The intent is to use the data base produced to guide the development of specifications for future synthetic liquid fuels anticipated for use in the time period 1985-2000. It is also to be used as a basis for evaluating the value and benefits of federally sponsored R and D efforts in the field of advanced gas turbine technology. The project assessed relative fuel costs, quality and energy efficiency for a number of fuel sources and processing alternatives. An objective was to accelerate implementation of fuel-flexible combustors for industrial and utility stationary gas turbine systems. This is to be accomplished by generating and demonstrating the technology base for development of reliable gas turbine combustors capable of sustained environmentally acceptable operation when using minimally processed synthetic fuels. The key program results are summarized for the following subject areas: literature survey, on-site fuel pretreatment, existing refineries to upgrade fuels, new refineries to upgrade fuels, and environmental considerations. An inhouse linear programming model served as the basis for determining economic processing paths for the existing refineries and new refineries syncrude upgrading. This involved development of extensive input data comprised of fuel properties, yields, component blending characteristics, incremental capital and operating costs, feed and product costs. Economics are based on March 1980 price levels.

  12. Alternative aircraft fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Longwell, J. P.; Grobman, J. S.

    1977-01-01

    The efficient utilization of fossil fuels by future jet aircraft may necessitate the broadening of current aviation turbine fuel specifications. The most significant changes in specifications would be an increased aromatics content and a higher final boiling point in order to minimize refinery energy consumption and costs. These changes would increase the freezing point and might lower the thermal stability of the fuel, and could cause increased pollutant emissions, increased combustor liner temperatures, and poorer ignition characteristics. The effects that broadened specification fuels may have on present-day jet aircraft and engine components and the technology required to use fuels with broadened specifications are discussed.

  13. Alcohol fuels: options for developing countries. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    This report summarizes information on alcohol fuel technologies for planners, investors, and technical assistance agencies in developing countries. Although the information is primarily aimed at the non-technical reader, it does contain some details of the technologies: references are included for those who wish more specialized information. This report explores the production and use of alcohol fuels and the production of ethanol and methanol. In addition it looks at the social, economic and environmental implications of using alcohol fuels. Positive and negative factors of using alcohol fuels are given. The report includes information on various tropical crops and their conversion to alcohols through both traditional and novel proceses.

  14. BWR fuel rod performance evaluation program. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Rowland, T.C.

    1986-05-01

    The joint EPRI/GE fuel performance program, RP510-1, involved thorough preirradiation characterization of fuel used in lead test assemblies, detailed surveillance of their operation, and interim site examinations of the assemblies during reactor outages. The program originally included four GE-5 lead test assemblies operating in the Peach Bottom-2 reactor. The program was later modified to include the pressurized fuel rod test assembly in the Peach Bottom-3 reactor (RP510-2). The program modification also included extending the operation of the Peach Bottom-2 and Peach Bottom-3 lead test assembly fuel beyond normal discharge exposures. Interim site examination results following the first four cycles of operation of the Peach Bottom-2 lead test assemblies up to 35 GWd/MT and the examination of the Peach Bottom-3 pressurized test assembly at 32 GWd/MT are presented in this report. Elements of the examinations included visual examination of the fuel bundles; individual fuel rod visual examinations, rod length measurements, ultrasonic and eddy current nondestructive testing, Zircaloy cladding oxide thickness measurements and fission gas measurements. Channel measurements were made on the PB-2 Lead Test Assemblies after each of the first three operating cycles. All of the bundles were found to be in good condition. Since the pressurized test assembly contained pressurized and nonpressurized fuel rods in symmetric positions, it was possible to make direct comparisons of the fission gas release from pairs of pressurized and nonpressurized fuel rods with identical power histories. With one exception, the release was less from the pressurized fuel rod of each pair. Fuel rod power histories were calculated using new physics methods for all of the fuel rods that were punctured for fission gas release measurements. 28 refs., 41 figs., 16 tabs.

  15. General Aviation Avionics Statistics.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-12-01

    No. 2. Government Accession No. 3. Recipient’s Catalog No. 5" FAA-MS-80-7* a and. SubtitleDecember 1&80 "GENERAL AVIATION AVIONICS STATISTICS 0 6...Altimeter 8. Fuel gage 3. Compass 9. Landing gear 4. Tachometer 10. Belts 5. Oil temperature 11. Special equipment for 6. Emergency locator over water

  16. Case histories of West Valley spent fuel shipments: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    In 1983, NRC/FC initiated a study on institutional issues related to spent fuel shipments originating at the former spent fuel processing facility in West Valley, New York. FC staff viewed the shipment campaigns as a one-time opportunity to document the institutional issues that may arise with a substantial increase in spent fuel shipping activity. NRC subsequently contracted with the Aerospace Corporation for the West Valley Study. This report contains a detailed description of the events which took place prior to and during the spent fuel shipments. The report also contains a discussion of the shipment issues that arose, and presents general findings. Most of the institutional issues discussed in the report do not fall under NRC's transportation authority. The case histories provide a reference to agencies and other institutions that may be involved in future spent fuel shipping campaigns. 130 refs., 7 figs., 19 tabs.

  17. Highway fuel economy study. Final report Sep 79-Mar 81

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, R.L.; Zub, R.W.

    1981-06-01

    In 1979, the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) with support from the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), convened a Task Force to develop a base of information on the effects of the 55 MPH speed limit. This report addresses the fuel consumption changes attributable to speed reduction and compliance with the 55 MPH speed limit. It also discusses the effects of vehicle size and type, and driver-controllable functions on vehicle fuel economy at highway speeds. Most of the analytical work in this report is related to passenger cars and light trucks. However, medium and heavy trucks, primarily commercial in application, have been included in the highway fuel economy analyses.

  18. Methanol fuel vehicle demonstration: Exhaust emission testing. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hyde, J.D.

    1993-07-01

    Ford Motor Company converted four stock 1986 Ford Crown Victoria sedans to methanol flexible fuel vehicles (FFVs). During 143,108 operational miles from 1987 to 1990, the FFVs underwent more than 300 dynamometer driving tests to measure exhaust emissions, catalytic activity, fuel economy, acceleration, and driveability with gasoline and methanol blend fuels. Dynamometer driving tests included the Federal Test Procedure (FTP), the Highway Fuel Economy Test, and the New York City Cycle. Exhaust emission measurements included carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), non- oxygenated hydrocarbons, organic material hydrocarbon equivalent (OMHCE), formaldehyde, and methanol. Catalytic activity was based on exhaust emissions data from active and inactive catalysts. OMHCE, CO, and NO{sub x} were usually lower with M85 (85% methanol, 15% gasoline) than with gasoline for both active and inactive catalysts when initial engine and catalyst temperatures were at or near normal operating temperatures. CO was higher with M85 than with gasoline when initial engine and catalyst temperatures were at or near ambient temperature. Formaldehyde and methanol were higher with M85. Active catalyst FTP OMHCE, CO, and NO{sub x} increased as vehicle mileage increased, but increased less with M85 than with gasoline. Energy based fuel economy remained almost constant with changes in fuel composition and vehicle mileage.

  19. Air quality effects of alternative fuels. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Guthrie, P.; Ligocki, M.; Looker, R.; Cohen, J.

    1997-11-01

    To support the Alternative Fuels Utilization Program, a comparison of potential air quality effects of alternative transportation fuels is being performed. This report presents the results of Phase 1 of this program, focusing on reformulated gasoline (RFG), methanol blended with 15 percent gasoline (M85), and compressed natural gas (CNG). The fuels are compared in terms of effects on simulated future concentrations of ozone and mobile source air toxics in a photochemical grid model. The fuel comparisons were carried out for the future year 2020 and assumed complete replacement of gasoline in the projected light-duty gasoline fleet by each of the candidate fuels. The model simulations were carried out for the areas surrounding Los Angeles and Baltimore/DC, and other (non-mobile) sources of atmospheric emissions were projected according to published estimates of economic and population growth, and planned emission control measures specific to each modeling domain. The future-year results are compared to a future-year run with all gasoline vehicle emissions removed. The results of the comparison indicate that the use of M85 is likely to produce similar ozone and air toxics levels as those projected from the use of RFG. Substitution of CNG is projected to produce significantly lower levels of ozone and the mobile source air toxics than those projected for RFG or M85. The relative benefits of CNG substitution are consistent in both modeling domains. The projection methodologies used for the comparison are subject to a large uncertainty, and modeled concentration distributions depend on meteorological conditions. The quantitative comparison of fuel effects is thus likely to be sensitive to alternative assumptions. The consistency of the results for two very different modeling domains, using very different base assumptions, lends credibility to the qualitative differentiation among these fuels. 32 refs., 42 figs., 47 tabs.

  20. CleanFleet. Final report: Volume 4, fuel economy

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    Fuel economy estimates are provided for the CleanFleet vans operated for two years by FedEx in Southern California. Between one and three vehicle manufacturers (Chevrolet, Dodge, and Ford) supplied vans powered by compressed natural gas (CNG), propane gas, California Phase 2 reformulated gasoline (RFG), methanol (M-85), and unleaded gasoline as a control. Two electric G-Vans, manufactured by Conceptor Corporation, were supplied by Southern California Edison. Vehicle and engine technologies are representative of those available in early 1992. A total of 111 vans were assigned to FedEx delivery routes at five demonstration sites. The driver and route assignments were periodically rotated within each site to ensure that each vehicle would experience a range of driving conditions. Regression analysis was used to estimate the relationships between vehicle fuel economy and factors such as the number of miles driven and the number of delivery stops made each day. The energy adjusted fuel economy (distance per energy consumed) of the alternative fuel vans operating on a typical FedEx duty cycle was between 13 percent lower and 4 percent higher than that of control vans from the same manufacturer. The driving range of vans operating on liquid and gaseous alternative fuels was 1 percent to 59 percent lower than for vans operating on unleaded gasoline. The driving range of the electric G-Vans was less than 50 miles. These comparisons are affected to varying degrees by differences in engine technology used in the alterative fuel and control vehicles. Relative fuel economy results from dynamometer emissions tests were generally consistent with those obtained from FedEx operations.

  1. Aviation Data Integration System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kulkarni, Deepak; Wang, Yao; Windrem, May; Patel, Hemil; Keller, Richard

    2003-01-01

    During the analysis of flight data and safety reports done in ASAP and FOQA programs, airline personnel are not able to access relevant aviation data for a variety of reasons. We have developed the Aviation Data Integration System (ADIS), a software system that provides integrated heterogeneous data to support safety analysis. Types of data available in ADIS include weather, D-ATIS, RVR, radar data, and Jeppesen charts, and flight data. We developed three versions of ADIS to support airlines. The first version has been developed to support ASAP teams. A second version supports FOQA teams, and it integrates aviation data with flight data while keeping identification information inaccessible. Finally, we developed a prototype that demonstrates the integration of aviation data into flight data analysis programs. The initial feedback from airlines is that ADIS is very useful in FOQA and ASAP analysis.

  2. Developing anthracite coal water slurry fuel. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Simmon, F.J.; Keller, D.V.; Marino, J.; Keller, D.S.; Ask, T.E.

    1993-09-01

    Public law has directed the Department of Defense (DOD) to increase the use of coal, particularly anthracite, at steam generating facilities. This study evaluates the feasibility of producing slurry fuel from anthracite coal and examines the combustion characteristics of the anthracite/water fuel slurry. The T-Process, a proprietary process developed by Otisca Industries, Ltd., Syracuse, NY, was used to produce anthracite-based coal water slurries for testing and combustion. Although it is feasible to manufacture anthracite water fuel, the slurries used in this research would not burn well without substantial amounts of natural gas cofiring. Stable combustion with reduced support fuel can probably be achieved by chemically or physically modifying the factors that affect combustion. Additional research to determine the differences between anthracite and bituminous slurries, to increase the residence time for anthracite slurries, and to manufacture slurries with oil rather than water needs to be conducted to help the DOD meet anthracite purchase/consumption targets. Coal, Combustion, Coal water fuel, Anthracite coal.

  3. Accelerating Acceptance of Fuel Cell Backup Power Systems - Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Petrecky, James; Ashley, Christopher

    2014-07-21

    Since 2001, Plug Power has installed more than 800 stationary fuel cell systems worldwide. Plug Power’s prime power systems have produced approximately 6.5 million kilowatt hours of electricity and have accumulated more than 2.5 million operating hours. Intermittent, or backup, power products have been deployed with telecommunications carriers and government and utility customers in North and South America, Europe, the United Kingdom, Japan and South Africa. Some of the largest material handling operations in North America are currently using the company’s motive power units in fuel cell-powered forklifts for their warehouses, distribution centers and manufacturing facilities. The low-temperature GenSys fuel cell system provides remote, off-grid and primary power where grid power is unreliable or nonexistent. Built reliable and designed rugged, low- temperature GenSys delivers continuous or backup power through even the most extreme conditions. Coupled with high-efficiency ratings, low-temperature GenSys reduces operating costs making it an economical solution for prime power requirements. Currently, field trials at telecommunication and industrial sites across the globe are proving the advantages of fuel cells—lower maintenance, fuel costs and emissions, as well as longer life—compared with traditional internal combustion engines.

  4. Multi-fuel reformers for fuel cells used in transportation. Multi-fuel reformers: Phase 1 -- Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    DOE has established the goal, through the Fuel Cells in Transportation Program, of fostering the rapid development and commercialization of fuel cells as economic competitors for the internal combustion engine. Central to this goal is a safe feasible means of supplying hydrogen of the required purity to the vehicular fuel cell system. Two basic strategies are being considered: (1) on-board fuel processing whereby alternative fuels such as methanol, ethanol or natural gas stored on the vehicle undergo reformation and subsequent processing to produce hydrogen, and (2) on-board storage of pure hydrogen provided by stationary fuel processing plants. This report analyzes fuel processor technologies, types of fuel and fuel cell options for on-board reformation. As the Phase 1 of a multi-phased program to develop a prototype multi-fuel reformer system for a fuel cell powered vehicle, the objective of this program was to evaluate the feasibility of a multi-fuel reformer concept and to select a reforming technology for further development in the Phase 2 program, with the ultimate goal of integration with a DOE-designated fuel cell and vehicle configuration. The basic reformer processes examined in this study included catalytic steam reforming (SR), non-catalytic partial oxidation (POX) and catalytic partial oxidation (also known as Autothermal Reforming, or ATR). Fuels under consideration in this study included methanol, ethanol, and natural gas. A systematic evaluation of reforming technologies, fuels, and transportation fuel cell applications was conducted for the purpose of selecting a suitable multi-fuel processor for further development and demonstration in a transportation application.

  5. Study of effects of fuel properties in turbine-powered business aircraft. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, F.D.; Biegen, R.J.; Weitz, P.G. Jr.; Duke, A.M.

    1984-04-01

    Increased interest in research and technology concerning aviation turbine fuels and their properties was prompted by recent changes in the supply and demand situation of these fuels. The most obvious change is the rapid increase in fuel price. For commercial airplanes, fuel costs now approach 50 percent of the direct operating costs. In addition, there were occasional local supply disruptions and gradual shifts in delivered values of certain fuel properties. Dwindling petroleum reserves and the politically sensitive nature of the major world suppliers make the continuation of these trends likely. A summary of the principal findings, and conclusions are presented. Much of the material, especially the tables and graphs, is considered in greater detail later. The economic analysis and examination of operational considerations are described. Because some of the assumptions on which the economic analysis is founded are not easily verified, the sensitivity of the analysis to alternates for these assumptions is examined. The data base on which the analyses are founded is defined in a set of appendices.

  6. Sunflower seed oil: automotive fuel source. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Denny, W.M.

    1984-01-01

    The intent of this portion of the project has to demonstrate the feasibility of utilizing sunflower seed oil as an alternate fuel for the spark ignition engine. The research was limited to small, one cylinder, air-cooled engines that are very common on the market place. Conventional fuels, such as gasoline, kerosene, diesel fuel blended with the sunflower oil were used. Sunfuel, sunflower oil, is difficult to procure and relatively expensive at approximately $4.00/gal. The research was unconcerned with how readily available or how competitively priced it was against petroleum products. All of the effort was to assume it was available and cost effective. We concentrated on making it burn in the heat engine and achieved it with marginal success. The review of the literature which was carried on concurrently with the research indicates several problems associated with producing Sunfuel.

  7. Nitrogen oxide abatement by distributed fuel addition. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Wendt, J.O.L.; Mereb, J.B.

    1991-09-20

    Reburning is examined as a means of NO{sub x} destruction in a 17 kW down-fired pulverized coal combustor. In reburning, a secondary fuel is introduced downstream of the primary flame to produce a reducing zone, favorable to NO destruction, and air is introduced further downstream to complete the combustion. Emphasis is on natural gas reburning and a bituminous coal primary flame. A parametric examination of reburning employing a statistical experimental design, is conducted, complemented by detailed experiments. Mechanisms governing the inter-conversion of nitrogenous species in the fuel rich reburn zone is explored. The effect of reburning on N{sub 2}O emissions, the effect of primary flame mode (premixed and diffusion) and the effect of distributing the reburning fuel, are also investigated.

  8. Fuel property effects on engine combustion processes. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Cernansky, N.P.; Miller, D.L.

    1995-04-27

    A major obstacle to improving spark ignition engine efficiency is the limitations on compression ratio imposed by tendency of hydrocarbon fuels to knock (autoignite). A research program investigated the knock problem in spark ignition engines. Objective was to understand low and intermediate temperature chemistry of combustion processes relevant to autoignition and knock and to determine fuel property effects. Experiments were conducted in an optically and physically accessible research engine, static reactor, and an atmospheric pressure flow reactor (APFR). Chemical kinetic models were developed for prediction of species evolution and autoignition behavior. The work provided insight into low and intermediate temperature chemistry prior to autoignition of n-butane, iso-butane, n-pentane, 1-pentene, n-heptane, iso-octane and some binary blends. Study of effects of ethers (MTBE, ETBE, TAME and DIPE ) and alcohols (methanol and ethanol) on the oxidation and autoignition of primary reference fuel (PRF) blends.

  9. Hydropyrolysis of biomass to produce liquid hydrocarbon fuels. Final report. Biomass Alternative-Fuels Program

    SciTech Connect

    Fujita, R K; Bodle, W W; Yuen, P C

    1982-10-01

    The ojective of the study is to provide a process design and cost estimates for a biomass hydropyrolysis plant and to establish its economic viability for commercial applications. A plant site, size, product slate, and the most probable feedstock or combination of feedstocks were determined. A base case design was made by adapting IGT's HYFLEX process to Hawaiian biomass feedstocks. The HYFLEX process was developed by IGT to produce liquid and/or gaseous fuels from carbonaceous materials. The essence of the process is the simultaneous extraction of valuable oil and gaseous products from cellulosic biomass feedstocks without forming a heavy hard-to-handle tar. By controlling rection time and temperature, the product slate can be varied according to feedstock and market demand. An optimum design and a final assessment of the applicability of the HYFLEX process to the conversion of Hawaiian biomass was made. In order to determine what feedstocks could be available in Hawaii to meet the demands of the proposed hydropyrolysis plant, various biomass sources were studied. These included sugarcane and pineapple wastes, indigenous and cultivated trees and indigenous and cultivated shrubs and grasses.

  10. Coal-fueled diesel: Technology development: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard, G.; Hsu, B.; Flynn, P.

    1989-03-01

    This project consisted of four tasks: (1) to determine if CWM could be ignited and burned rapidly enough for operation in a 1000-rpm diesel engine, (2) to demonstrate that a durable CWM-fueled engine could in principle be developed, (3) to assess current emissions control technology to determine the feasibility of cleaning the exhaust of a CWM-fueled diesel locomotive, and (4) to conduct an economic analysis to determine the attractiveness of powering US locomotives with CWM. 34 refs., 125 figs., 28 tabs.

  11. Final Technical Report for the MIT Annular Fuel Research Project

    SciTech Connect

    Mujid S. Kazimi; Pavel Hejzlar

    2008-01-31

    MIT-NFC-PR-082 (January 2006) Abstract This summary provides an overview of the results of the U.S. DOE funded NERI (Nuclear Research ENergy Initiative) program on development of the internally and externally cooled annular fuel for high power density PWRs. This new fuel was proposed by MIT to allow a substantial increase in poer density (on the order of 30% or higher) while maintaining or improving safety margins. A comprehensive study was performed by a team consisting of MIT (lead organization), Westinghuse Electric Corporation, Gamma Engineering Corporation, Framatome ANP(formerly Duke Engineering) and Atomic Energy of Canada Limited.

  12. Maritime Aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ravennes, Jean

    1922-01-01

    This report presents some studies of maritime aviation which cover the following principal points: employment of landplanes on maritime aerial warfare; their adaption to peculiar requirements of the Navy; and the establishment of a method of aerial pursuit and bombardment, likewise adapted to military aviation over land.

  13. Spent nuclear fuel retrieval system fuel handling development testing. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, D.R.; Meeuwsen, P.V.

    1997-09-01

    Fuel handling development testing was performed in support of the Fuel Retrieval System (FRS) Sub-Project, a subtask of the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project at the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. The FRS will be used to retrieve and repackage K-Basin Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) currently stored in old K-Plant storage basins. The FRS is required to retrieve full fuel canisters from the basin, clean the fuel elements inside the canister to remove excessive uranium corrosion products (or sludge), remove the contents from the canisters and sort the resulting debris, scrap, and fuel for repackaging. The fuel elements and scrap will be collected in fuel storage and scrap baskets in preparation for loading into a multi canister overpack (MCO), while the debris is loaded into a debris bin and disposed of as solid waste. This report describes fuel handling development testing performed from May 1, 1997 through the end of August 1997. Testing during this period was mainly focused on performance of a Schilling Robotic Systems` Conan manipulator used to simulate a custom designed version, labeled Konan, being fabricated for K-Basin deployment. In addition to the manipulator, the camera viewing system, process table layout, and fuel handling processes were evaluated. The Conan test manipulator was installed and fully functional for testing in early 1997. Formal testing began May 1. The purposes of fuel handling development testing were to provide proof of concept and criteria, optimize equipment layout, initialize the process definition, and identify special needs/tools and required design changes to support development of the performance specification. The test program was set up to accomplish these objectives through cold (non-radiological) development testing using simulated and prototype equipment.

  14. Final Progress Report, Renewable and Logistics Fuels for Fuel Cells at the Colorado School of Mines

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, Neal P.

    2012-08-06

    The objective of this program is to advance the current state of technology of solid-oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) to improve performance when operating on renewable and logistics hydrocarbon fuel streams. Outcomes will include: 1.) new SOFC materials and architectures that address the technical challenges associated with carbon-deposit formation and sulfur poisoning; 2.) new integration strategies for combining fuel reformers with SOFCs; 3.) advanced modeling tools that bridge the scales of fundamental charge-transfer chemistry to system operation and control; and 4.) outreach through creation of the Distinguished Lecturer Series to promote nationwide collaboration with fuel-cell researchers and scientists.

  15. Messiah College Biodiesel Fuel Generation Project Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Zummo, Michael M; Munson, J; Derr, A; Zemple, T; Bray, S; Studer, B; Miller, J; Beckler, J; Hahn, A; Martinez, P; Herndon, B; Lee, T; Newswanger, T; Wassall, M

    2012-03-30

    Many obvious and significant concerns arise when considering the concept of small-scale biodiesel production. Does the fuel produced meet the stringent requirements set by the commercial biodiesel industry? Is the process safe? How are small-scale producers collecting and transporting waste vegetable oil? How is waste from the biodiesel production process handled by small-scale producers? These concerns and many others were the focus of the research preformed in the Messiah College Biodiesel Fuel Generation project over the last three years. This project was a unique research program in which undergraduate engineering students at Messiah College set out to research the feasibility of small-biodiesel production for application on a campus of approximately 3000 students. This Department of Energy (DOE) funded research program developed out of almost a decade of small-scale biodiesel research and development work performed by students at Messiah College. Over the course of the last three years the research team focused on four key areas related to small-scale biodiesel production: Quality Testing and Assurance, Process and Processor Research, Process and Processor Development, and Community Education. The objectives for the Messiah College Biodiesel Fuel Generation Project included the following: 1. Preparing a laboratory facility for the development and optimization of processors and processes, ASTM quality assurance, and performance testing of biodiesel fuels. 2. Developing scalable processor and process designs suitable for ASTM certifiable small-scale biodiesel production, with the goals of cost reduction and increased quality. 3. Conduct research into biodiesel process improvement and cost optimization using various biodiesel feedstocks and production ingredients.

  16. Advanced Coal-Fueled Gas Turbine Program. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Horner, M.W.; Ekstedt, E.E.; Gal, E.; Jackson, M.R.; Kimura, S.G.; Lavigne, R.G.; Lucas, C.; Rairden, J.R.; Sabla, P.E.; Savelli, J.F.; Slaughter, D.M.; Spiro, C.L.; Staub, F.W.

    1989-02-01

    The objective of the original Request for Proposal was to establish the technological bases necessary for the subsequent commercial development and deployment of advanced coal-fueled gas turbine power systems by the private sector. The offeror was to identify the specific application or applications, toward which his development efforts would be directed; define and substantiate the technical, economic, and environmental criteria for the selected application; and conduct such component design, development, integration, and tests as deemed necessary to fulfill this objective. Specifically, the offeror was to choose a system through which ingenious methods of grouping subcomponents into integrated systems accomplishes the following: (1) Preserve the inherent power density and performance advantages of gas turbine systems. (2) System must be capable of meeting or exceeding existing and expected environmental regulations for the proposed application. (3) System must offer a considerable improvement over coal-fueled systems which are commercial, have been demonstrated, or are being demonstrated. (4) System proposed must be an integrated gas turbine concept, i.e., all fuel conditioning, all expansion gas conditioning, or post-expansion gas cleaning, must be integrated into the gas turbine system.

  17. Ethanol fuel modification for highway vehicle use. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    A number of problems that might occur if ethanol were used as a blending stock or replacement for gasoline in present cars are identified and characterized as to the probability of occurrence. The severity of their consequences is contrasted to those found with methanol in a previous contract study. Possibilities for correcting several problems are reported. Some problems are responsive to fuel modifications but others require or are better dealt with by modification of vehicles and the bulk fuel distribution system. In general, problems with ethanol in blends with gasoline were found to be less severe than those with methanol. Phase separation on exposure to water appears to be the major problem with ethanol/gasoline blends. Another potentially serious problem with blends is the illict recovery of ethanol for beverage usage, or bootlegging, which might be discouraged by the use of select denaturants. Ethanol blends have somewhat greater tendency to vapor lock than base gasoline but less than methanol blends. Gasoline engines would require modification to operate on fuels consisting mostly of ethanol. If such modifications were made, cold starting would still be a major problem, more difficult with ethanol than methanol. Startability can be provided by adding gasoline or light hydrocarbons. Addition of gasoline also reduces the explosibility of ethanol vapor and furthermore acts as denaturant.

  18. Advanced fuel cells for transportation applications. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-02-10

    This Research and Development (R and D) contract was directed at developing an advanced technology compressor/expander for supplying compressed air to Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cells in transportation applications. The objective of this project was to develop a low-cost high-efficiency long-life lubrication-free integrated compressor/expander utilizing scroll technology. The goal of this compressor/expander was to be capable of providing compressed air over the flow and pressure ranges required for the operation of 50 kW PEM fuel cells in transportation applications. The desired ranges of flow, pressure, and other performance parameters were outlined in a set of guidelines provided by DOE. The project consisted of the design, fabrication, and test of a prototype compressor/expander module. The scroll CEM development program summarized in this report has been very successful, demonstrating that scroll technology is a leading candidate for automotive fuel cell compressor/expanders. The objectives of the program are: develop an integrated scroll CEM; demonstrate efficiency and capacity goals; demonstrate manufacturability and cost goals; and evaluate operating envelope. In summary, while the scroll CEM program did not demonstrate a level of performance as high as the DOE guidelines in all cases, it did meet the overriding objectives of the program. A fully-integrated, low-cost CEM was developed that demonstrated high efficiency and reliable operation throughout the test program. 26 figs., 13 tabs.

  19. Evaluation of irradiated fuel during RIA simulation tests. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Montgomery, R.O.; Rashid, Y.R.

    1996-08-01

    A critical assessment of the RIA-simulation experiments performed to date on previously irradiated test rods is presented. Included in this assessment are the SPERT-CDC, the NSRR, and the CABRI REP Na experimental programs. Information was collected describing the base irradiation, test rod characterization, and test procedures and conditions. The representativeness of the test rods and test conditions to anticipated LWR RIA accident conditions was evaluated using analysis results from fuel behavior and three-dimensional spatial kinetics simulations. It was shown that the pulse characteristics and coolant conditions are significantly different from those anticipated in an LWR-Furthermore, the unrepresentative test conditions were found to exaggerate the mechanisms that caused cladding failure. The data review identified several test rods which contained unusual cladding damage incurred prior to the RIA-simulation test that produced the observed failures. The mechanisms responsible for the observed test rod failures have been shown to result from processes that have a second order effect of burnup. A correlation with burnup could not be appropriately established for the fuel enthalpy at failure. However, the successful test rods can be used to construct a conservative region of success for fuel rod behavior during an RIA event.

  20. Assessment of fuel-gas-cleanup systems. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Robson, F.L.; Blecher, W.A.

    1980-11-01

    This report presents the results of a study to evaluate the performance, economics and emission characteristics of low-, medium-, and high-temperature fuel gas cleanup processes for use in coal gasification combined-cycle power plants based on high-temperature gas turbines. Processes considered were the Allied Chemical low-temperature Selexol process, METC medium-temperature iron oxide process and Conoco high-temperature half-calcined dolomite process. Process evaluations were carried out for twenty-four combinations of gasifiers and cleanup processes. Based upon the process evaluations, five combinations of gasifiers and cleanup process were selected for integration with an advanced, 2600 F gas turbine into an overall power system. Heat and mass balances and process schematics for these plants were prepared and the cost of electricity estimated. The results of the study indicate that medium- or high-temperature cleanup systems in combined-cycle power plants could meet or exceed EPA New Source Performance Standards. Performance and cost of the systems studied can be improved by high- and intermediate-temperature cleanup systems or by integration of developmental hot gas heat exchangers with suitable commercially available low-temperature cleanup systems. Unresolved problems in the use of medium- and high-temperature cleanup are efficient regeneration of iron oxide, particulate removal at high temperature and the fate of fuel bound nitrogen and trace metals that may appear in the hot fuel gas.

  1. Simulated 2050 aviation radiative forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, C. C.; Gettelman, A.

    2015-12-01

    The radiative forcing from aviation is investigated by using a comprehensive general circulation model in the present (2006) and the future (2050). Global flight distance is projected to increase by a factor of 4 between 2006 and 2050. However, simulated contrail cirrus radiative forcing can increase by a factor of 7, and thus does not scale linearly with fuel emission mass. Simulations indicate negative radiative forcing induced by the indirect effect of aviation sulfate aerosols on liquid clouds that increasesby a factor of 4 in 2050. As a result, the net 2050 aviation radiative forcing is a cooling. Aviation sulfates emitted at cruise altitude canbe transported down to the lowest troposphere, increasing the aerosolconcentration, thus increasing the cloud drop number concentration and persistenceof low-level clouds. Aviation black carbon aerosols produce a negligible forcing.

  2. Fossil fuel derivatives with reduced carbon. Phase I final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kennel, E.B.; Zondlo, J.W.; Cessna, T.J.

    1999-06-30

    This project involves the simultaneous production of clean fossil fuel derivatives with reduced carbon and sulfur, along with value-added carbon nanofibers. This can be accomplished because the nanofiber production process removes carbon via a catalyzed pyrolysis reaction, which also has the effect of removing 99.9% of the sulfur, which is trapped in the nanofibers. The reaction is mildly endothermic, meaning that net energy production with real reductions in greenhouse emissions are possible. In Phase I research, the feasibility of generating clean fossil fuel derivatives with reduced carbon was demonstrated by the successful design, construction and operation of a facility capable of utilizing coal as well as natural gas as an inlet feedstock. In the case of coal, for example, reductions in CO{sub 2} emissions can be as much as 70% (normalized according to kilowatts produced), with the majority of carbon safely sequestered in the form of carbon nanofibers or coke. Both of these products are value-added commodities, indicating that low-emission coal fuel can be done at a profit rather than a loss as is the case with most clean-up schemes. The main results of this project were as follows: (1) It was shown that the nanofiber production process produces hydrogen as a byproduct. (2) The hydrogen, or hydrogen-rich hydrocarbon mixture can be consumed with net release of enthalpy. (3) The greenhouse gas emissions from both coal and natural gas are significantly reduced. Because coal consumption also creates coke, the carbon emission can be reduced by 75% per kilowatt-hour of power produced.

  3. 2011 Alkaline Membrane Fuel Cell Workshop Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Pivovar, B.

    2012-02-01

    A workshop addressing the current state-of-the-art in alkaline membrane fuel cells (AMFCs) was held May 8-9, 2011, at the Crystal Gateway Marriott in Arlington, Virginia. This workshop was the second of its kind, with the first being held December 11-13, 2006, in Phoenix, Arizona. The 2011 workshop and associated workshop report were created to assess the current state of AMFC technology (taking into account recent advances), investigate the performance potential of AMFC systems across all possible power ranges and applications, and identify the key research needs for commercial competitiveness in a variety of areas.

  4. 26 CFR 48.4041-11 - Tax-free sales of fuel for use in noncommercial aviation only if sellers and certain purchasers...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... aviation only if sellers and certain purchasers are registered. 48.4041-11 Section 48.4041-11 Internal... noncommercial aviation only if sellers and certain purchasers are registered. (a) In general. Any sale of liquid... noncommercial aviation but is used for a nontaxable purpose, see section 6427(a) for provisions relating...

  5. 26 CFR 48.4041-11 - Tax-free sales of fuel for use in noncommercial aviation only if sellers and certain purchasers...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... aviation only if sellers and certain purchasers are registered. 48.4041-11 Section 48.4041-11 Internal... noncommercial aviation only if sellers and certain purchasers are registered. (a) In general. Any sale of liquid... noncommercial aviation but is used for a nontaxable purpose, see section 6427(a) for provisions relating...

  6. 26 CFR 48.4041-11 - Tax-free sales of fuel for use in noncommercial aviation only if sellers and certain purchasers...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... aviation only if sellers and certain purchasers are registered. 48.4041-11 Section 48.4041-11 Internal... noncommercial aviation only if sellers and certain purchasers are registered. (a) In general. Any sale of liquid... noncommercial aviation but is used for a nontaxable purpose, see section 6427(a) for provisions relating...

  7. 26 CFR 48.4041-11 - Tax-free sales of fuel for use in noncommercial aviation only if sellers and certain purchasers...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... aviation only if sellers and certain purchasers are registered. 48.4041-11 Section 48.4041-11 Internal... noncommercial aviation only if sellers and certain purchasers are registered. (a) In general. Any sale of liquid... noncommercial aviation but is used for a nontaxable purpose, see section 6427(a) for provisions relating...

  8. Liquid Tin Anode Direct Coal Fuel Cell Final Program Report

    SciTech Connect

    Tao, Thomas

    2012-01-26

    This SBIR program will result in improved LTA cell technology which is the fundamental building block of the Direct Coal ECL concept. As described below, ECL can make enormous efficiency and cost contributions to utility scale coal power. This program will improve LTA cells for small scale power generation. As described in the Commercialization section, there are important intermediate military and commercial markets for LTA generators that will provide an important bridge to the coal power application. The specific technical information from this program relating to YSZ electrolyte durability will be broadly applicable SOFC developers working on coal based SOFC generally. This is an area about which very little is currently known and will be critical for successfully applying fuel cells to coal power generation.

  9. Determination of alternative fuels combustion products: Phase 2 final report

    SciTech Connect

    Whitney, K.A.

    1997-06-01

    This report describes the laboratory efforts to accomplish four independent tasks: (1) speciation of hydrocarbon exhaust emissions from a light-duty vehicle operated over the chassis dynamometer portion of the light-duty FTP after modifications for operation on butane and butane blends; (2) evaluation of NREL`s Variable Conductance Vacuum Insulated Catalytic Converter Test Article 4 for the reduction of cold-start FTP exhaust emissions after extended soak periods for a Ford FFV Taurus operating on E85; (3) support of UDRI in an attempt to define correlations between engine-out combustion products identified by SwRI during chassis dynamometer testing, and those found during flow tube reactor experiments conducted by UDRI; and (4) characterization of small-diameter particulate matter from a Ford Taurus FFV operating in a simulated fuel-rich failure mode on CNG, LPG, M85, E85, and reformulated gasoline. 22 refs., 18 figs., 17 tabs.

  10. Final report on LDRD project "proliferation-resistant fuel cycles"

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, N W; Hassberger, J A

    1999-02-25

    This report provides a summary of LDRD work completed during 1997 and 1998 to develop the ideas and concepts that lead to the Secure, Transportable, Autonomous Reactor (STAR) program proposals to the DOE Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (NERI). The STAR program consists of a team of three national laboratories (LLNL, ANL, and LANL), three universities, (UC Berkeley, TAMU, and MIT) and the Westinghouse Research Center. Based on the LLNL work and their own efforts on related work this team prepared and integrated a package of twelve proposals that will carry the LDRD work outlined here into the next phase of development. We are proposing to develop a new nuclear system that meets stringent requirements for a high degree of safety and proliferation resistance, and also deals directly with the related nuclear waste and spent fuel management issues.

  11. SP-100 coated-particle fuel development. Phase I. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-03-01

    This document is the final report of Phase I of the SP-100 Coated-Particle Fuel Development Program conducted by GA Technologies Inc. for the US Department of Energy under contract DE-AT03-82SF11690. The general objective of the study conducted between September and December 1982 was to evaluate coated-particle type fuel as an alternate or backup fuel to the UO/sub 2/ tile-and-fin arrangement currently incorporated into the reference design of the SP-100 reactor core. This report presents and discusses the following topics in the order listed: the need for an alternative fuel for the SP-100 nuclear reactor; an abbreviated description of the reference and coated-particle fuel module concepts; the bases and results of the study and analysis leading to the preliminary design of a coated particle suitable for the SP-100 space power reactor; incorporation of the fuel particles into compacts and heat-pipe-cooled modules; initial efforts and plans to fabricate coated-particle fuel and fuel compacts; the design and performance of the proposed alternative core relative that of the reference fuel; and a summary of critical issues and conclusions consistent with the level of effort and duration of the study.

  12. DNA Isolation of Microbial Contaminants in Aviation Turbine Fuel via Traditional Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and Direct PCR. Preliminary Results

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-11-01

    contamination of stored hydrocarbon fuels and its control. Revista de Microbiologia 30:1-10. 14. Dolan, R. M. 2002. Intergovernmental communication...2004;70:63-70. 29. Xiang, Y.Z., Lubeck, J., Kilbane, II, J.J. Characterization of Microbial Communities in Gas Industry Pipelines. App. and Environ. Microb. 2003; 69:5354-5363.

  13. 76 FR 17353 - Aviation Communications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 87 Aviation Communications AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final rule; suspension of effectiveness. SUMMARY: In this document, the Federal Communications...

  14. ClearFuels-Rentech Integrated Biorefinery Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Pearson, Joshua

    2014-02-26

    The project Final Report describes the validation of the performance of the integration of two technologies that were proven individually on a pilot scale and were demonstrated as a pilot scale integrated biorefinery. The integrated technologies were a larger scale ClearFuels’ (CF) advanced flexible biomass to syngas thermochemical high efficiency hydrothermal reformer (HEHTR) technology with Rentech’s (RTK) existing synthetic gas to liquids (GTL) technology.

  15. Shrimp monitor/locator for conservation of fuel. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    A demonstration project of a new type Shrimp Detector/Monitor has been completed. The test project proved the efficiency of the Shrimp Monitor/Detector in detecting shrimp, in identifying the number and size, in real time, but indicated that improvement could be effected which would enhance the operation. Data obtained from the test cruises indicate significant savings in diesel fuel will occur for those trawlers using the Shrimp Monitor/Detector in place of the usual trynet operation; 25% savings for the series model number 400, (the prototype tested) and expected 35%+ if the advanced series model number 500 were used. Fabrication and operational costs for the Shrimp Monitor/Detector are reasonable and well within the financial abilities of the usual large offshore trawler. Research and testing during this program resulted in the design of an advanced model incorporating significant improvements, and fabrication was commenced but the extra cost involved beyond the set value of this contract made the further experiments non-viable. Recommendations have been submitted for an extended program to fabricate and test the advanced model series number 500 which may be of more value and interest, market use, to the operating offshore shrimp trawlers. A marketing/sales program will be instituted to place the Shrimp Monitor/Detector in the commercial area serving the shrimp fleet.

  16. Conversion of atactic polypropylene waste to fuel oil. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bhatia, J.

    1981-04-01

    A stable, convenient thermal pyrolysis process was demonstrated on a large scale pilot plant. The process successfully converted high viscosity copolymer atactic polypropylene to predominantly liquid fuels which could be burned in commercial burners. Energy yield of the process was very high - in excess of 93% including gas phase heating value. Design and operating data were obtained to permit design of a commercial size atactic conversion plant. Atactic polypropylene can be cracked at temperatures around 850/sup 0/F and residence time of 5 minutes. The viscosity of the cracked product increases with decrease in time/temperature. A majority of the pyrolysis was carried out at a pressure of 50 psig. Thermal cracking of atactic polypropylene is seen to result in sigificant coke formation (0.4% to 0.8% on a weight of feed basis) although the coke levels were of an order of magnitude lower than those obtained during catalytic cracking. The discrepancy between batch and continuous test data can be atrributed to lowered heat transfer and diffusion rates. Oxidative pyrolysis is not seen as a viable commercial alternative due to a significant amount of water formation. However, introduction of controlled quantities of oxygen at lower temperatures to affect change in feedstock viscosity could be considered. It is essential to have a complete characterization of the polymer composition and structure in order to obtain useful and duplicable data because the pyrolysis products and probably the pyrolysis kinetics are affected by introduction of abnormalities into the polymer structure during polymerization. The polymer products from continuous testing contained an olefinic content of 80% or higher. This suggests that the pyrolysis products be investigated for use as olefinic raw materials. Catalytic cracking does not seem to result in any advantage over the Thermal Cracking process in terms of reaction rates or temperature of operation.

  17. Advanced alternate planar geometry solid oxide fuel cells. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Elangovan, S.; Prouse, D.; Khandkar, A.; Donelson, R.; Marianowski, L.

    1992-11-01

    The potential of high temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells as high performance, high efficiency energy conversion device is well known. Investigation of several cell designs have been undertaken by various researchers to derive the maximum performance benefit from the device while maintaining a lower cost of production to meet the commercialization cost target. The present investigation focused on the planar SOFC design which allows for the use of mature low cost production processes to be employed. A novel design concept was investigated which allows for improvements in performance through increased interface stability, and lowering of cost through enhanced structural integrity and the use of low cost metal interconnects. The new cell design consisted of a co-sintered porous/dense/porous zirconia layer with the electrode material infiltrated into the porous layers. The two year program conducted by a team involving Ceramatec and the Institute of Gas Technology, culminated in a multi-cell stack test that exhibited high performance. Considerable progress was achieved in the selection of cell components, and establishing and optimizing the cell and stack fabrication parameters. It was shown that the stack components exhibited high conductivities and low creep at the operating temperature. The inter-cell resistive losses were shown to be small through out-of-cell characterization. The source of performance loss was identified to be the anode electrolyte interface. This loss however can be minimized by improving the anode infiltration technique. Manifolding and sealing of the planar devices posed considerable challenge. Even though the open circuit voltage was 250 mV/cell lower than theoretical, the two cell stack had a performance of 300 mA/cm{sup 2} at 0.4V/cell with an area specific resistance of 1 {Omega}-cm{sup 2}/cell. improvements in manifolding are expected to provide much higher performance.

  18. Fuel grade ethanol by solvent extraction: Final subcontract report

    SciTech Connect

    Tedder, D.W.

    1987-04-01

    This report summarizes final results for ethanol recovery by solvent extraction and extractive distillation. At conclusion this work can be summarized as ethanol dehydration and recovery dilute fermentates is feasible using liquid/liquid extraction and extractive distillation. Compared to distillation, the economics are more attractive for less than 5 wt % ethanol. However, an economic bias in favor of SEED appears to exist even for 10 wt % feeds. It is of particular interest to consider the group extraction of ethanol and acetic acid followed by conversion to a mixture of ethanol and ethyl acetate. The latter species is a more valuable commodity and group extraction of inhibitory species is one feature of liquid/liquid extraction that is not easily accomodated using distillation. Upflow immobilized reactors offer the possibility of achieving high substrate conversion while also maintaining low metabolite concentrations. However, many questions remain to be answered with such a concept. 135 refs., 42 figs., 61 tabs.

  19. A case for biofuels in aviation

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    In the last 15 years, the technical and the economic feasibility of biomass based fuels for general aviation piston engines has been proven. Exhaustive ground and flight tests performed at the Renewable Aviation Fuels Development Center (RAFDC) using ethanol, ethanol/methanol blends, and ETBE have proven these fuels to be superior to aviation gasoline (avgas) in all aspects of performance except range. Two series of Lycoming engines have been certified. Record flights, including a transatlantic flight on pure ethanol, were made to demonstrate the reliability of the fuel. Aerobatic demonstrations with aircraft powered by ethanol, ethanol/methanol, and ETBE were flown at major airshows around the world. the use of bio-based fuels for aviation will benefit energy security, improve the balance of trade, domestic economy, and environmental quality. The United States has the resources to supply the aviation community`s needs with a domestically produced fuel using current available technology. The adoption of a renewable fuel in place of conventional petroleum-based fuels for aviation piston and turbine engines is long overdue.

  20. Intergovernmental Advanced Stationary PEM Fuel Cell System Demonstration Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Rich Chartrand

    2011-08-31

    reducing costs of PEMFC based power systems using LPG fuel and continues to makes steps towards meeting DOE's targets. Plug Power would like to thank DOE for their support of this program.

  1. Renewable wood fuel: Fuel feed system for a pulverized coal boiler. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-01

    This report evaluates a pilot test program conducted by New York State Gas & Electric Corporation to evaluate the feasibility of co-firing a pulverized coal plant with renewable wood fuels. The goal was to establish that such a co-firing system can reduce air emissions while maintaining good operational procedures and cost controls. The test fuel feed system employed at Greenidge Station`s Boiler 6 was shown to be effective in feeding wood products. Emission results were promising and an economic analysis indicates that it will be beneficial to pursue further refinements to the equipment and systems. The report recommends further evaluation of the generation and emission impacts using woods of varied moisture contents and at varied Btu input rates to determine if a drying system would be a cost-effective option.

  2. Final Rule to Identify Additional Fuel Pathways Documents under the Renewable Fuel Standard Program

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This final rule describes EPA’s evaluation of biofuels produced from camelina oil, which qualify as biomass-based diesel or advanced biofuel, as well as biofuels from energy cane which qualify as cellulosic biofuel. Find the final rule link here.

  3. Protocol of Test Methods for Evaluating High Heat Sink Fuel Thermal Stability Additives for Aviation Jet Fuel JP-8+100

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-04-01

    minute intervals: run time , crystal frequency, temperature, and headspace oxygen concentration. Fuels: In order to evaluate a thermal stability...begun. The run time , crystal frequency, reactor temperature, and headspace oxygen concentration are monitored and recorded at one minute intervals by

  4. Final Report: Development of a Thermal and Water Management System for PEM Fuel Cell

    SciTech Connect

    Zia Mirza, Program Manager

    2011-12-06

    This final program report is prepared to provide the status of program activities performed over the period of 9 years to develop a thermal and water management (TWM) system for an 80-kW PEM fuel cell power system. The technical information and data collected during this period are presented in chronological order by each calendar year. Balance of plant (BOP) components of a PEM fuel cell automotive system represents a significant portion of total cost based on the 2008 study by TIAX LLC, Cambridge, MA. The objectives of this TWM program were two-fold. The first objective was to develop an advanced cooling system (efficient radiator) to meet the fuel cell cooling requirements. The heat generated by the fuel cell stack is a low-quality heat (small difference between fuel cell stack operating temperature and ambient air temperature) that needs to be dissipated to the ambient air. To minimize size, weight, and cost of the radiator, advanced fin configurations were evaluated. The second objective was to evaluate air humidification systems which can meet the fuel cell stack inlet air humidity requirements. The moisture from the fuel cell outlet air is transferred to inlet air, thus eliminating the need for an outside water source. Two types of humidification devices were down-selected: one based on membrane and the other based on rotating enthalpy wheel. The sub-scale units for both of these devices have been successfully tested by the suppliers. This project addresses System Thermal and Water Management.

  5. 26 CFR 48.4082-6 - Kerosene; exemption for aviation-grade kerosene.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Kerosene; exemption for aviation-grade kerosene..., Tread Rubber, and Taxable Fuel Taxable Fuel § 48.4082-6 Kerosene; exemption for aviation-grade kerosene... entry of aviation-grade kerosene that is destined for use as a fuel in an aircraft. (b) Definition....

  6. 26 CFR 48.4082-6 - Kerosene; exemption for aviation-grade kerosene.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Kerosene; exemption for aviation-grade kerosene..., Tread Rubber, and Taxable Fuel Taxable Fuel § 48.4082-6 Kerosene; exemption for aviation-grade kerosene... entry of aviation-grade kerosene that is destined for use as a fuel in an aircraft. (b) Definition....

  7. 26 CFR 48.4082-6 - Kerosene; exemption for aviation-grade kerosene.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Kerosene; exemption for aviation-grade kerosene..., Tread Rubber, and Taxable Fuel Taxable Fuel § 48.4082-6 Kerosene; exemption for aviation-grade kerosene... entry of aviation-grade kerosene that is destined for use as a fuel in an aircraft. (b) Definition....

  8. 26 CFR 48.4082-6 - Kerosene; exemption for aviation-grade kerosene.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Kerosene; exemption for aviation-grade kerosene..., Tread Rubber, and Taxable Fuel Taxable Fuel § 48.4082-6 Kerosene; exemption for aviation-grade kerosene... entry of aviation-grade kerosene that is destined for use as a fuel in an aircraft. (b) Definition....

  9. 75 FR 59622 - Supplemental Determination for Renewable Fuels Produced Under the Final RFS2 Program From Canola Oil

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-28

    ... Fuel Standard (RFS) program as required by the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007. In... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 80 RIN 2060-AQ35 Supplemental Determination for Renewable Fuels Produced Under the...% as compared to the baseline petroleum fuel it will replace, petroleum diesel. This final rules...

  10. Fuels research: Fuel thermal stability overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, S. M.

    1980-01-01

    Alternative fuels or crude supplies are examined with respect to satisfying aviation fuel needs for the next 50 years. The thermal stability of potential future fuels is discussed and the effects of these characteristics on aircraft fuel systems are examined. Advanced fuel system technology and design guidelines for future fuels with lower thermal stability are reported.

  11. EPA's Denial of Petitions for Reconsideration of the Final Rule Establishing the 2013 Biomass-Based Diesel Volume Documents under the Renewable Fuel Standard Program

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA is denying two petitions for reconsideration of the final rule entitled Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: 2013 Biomass-Based Diesel Renewable Fuel Volume. Find the documents supporting this notice here.

  12. Aviation dentistry.

    PubMed

    Lakshmi; Sakthi, D Sri

    2014-03-01

    With the rapid expansion of the airline industry in all sectors, dentists should pay special attention to crews and frequent flyers, due to change of pressure in-flight, that cause different types of oro-facial pain. Aviation dentistry deals with evaluation, principles of prevention, treatment of diseases, disorders or conditions which are related to oral cavity and maxillofacial area or adjacent and associated structures and their impact on people who travel or on aircrew members and flight restrictions. Dentists should prevent the creation of in-flight hazards when they treat aircrew members and frequent flyers.

  13. Alternative fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grobman, J. S.; Butze, H. F.; Friedman, R.; Antoine, A. C.; Reynolds, T. W.

    1977-01-01

    Potential problems related to the use of alternative aviation turbine fuels are discussed and both ongoing and required research into these fuels is described. This discussion is limited to aviation turbine fuels composed of liquid hydrocarbons. The advantages and disadvantages of the various solutions to the problems are summarized. The first solution is to continue to develop the necessary technology at the refinery to produce specification jet fuels regardless of the crude source. The second solution is to minimize energy consumption at the refinery and keep fuel costs down by relaxing specifications.

  14. Learning through Aviation. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conway, Lee

    This study summarizes the effects of an educational experiment which used a light, single engine airplane to generate basic instructional and behavioral changes in an inner city junior high school class. The project involved 25 disadvantaged area, 13-year-old boys and their parents, four regular staff teachers, two pilot instructors and a college…

  15. Phase 1A Final Report for the AREVA Team Enhanced Accident Tolerant Fuels Concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Morrell, Mike E.

    2015-03-19

    In response to the Department of Energy (DOE) funded initiative to develop and deploy lead fuel assemblies (LFAs) of Enhanced Accident Tolerant Fuel (EATF) into a US reactor within 10 years, AREVA put together a team to develop promising technologies for improved fuel performance during off normal operations. This team consisted of the University of Florida (UF) and the University of Wisconsin (UW), Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), Duke Energy and Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA). This team brought broad experience and expertise to bear on EATF development. AREVA has been designing; manufacturing and testing nuclear fuel for over 50 years and is one of the 3 large international companies supplying fuel to the nuclear industry. The university and National Laboratory team members brought expertise in nuclear fuel concepts and materials development. Duke and TVA brought practical utility operating experience. This report documents the results from the initial “discovery phase” where the team explored options for EATF concepts that provide enhanced accident tolerance for both Design Basis (DB) and Beyond Design Basis Events (BDB). The main driver for the concepts under development were that they could be implemented in a 10 year time frame and be economically viable and acceptable to the nuclear fuel marketplace. The economics of fuel design make this DOE funded project very important to the nuclear industry. Even incremental changes to an existing fuel design can cost in the range of $100M to implement through to LFAs. If this money is invested evenly over 10 years then it can take the fuel vendor several decades after the start of the project to recover their initial investment and reach a breakeven point on the initial investment. Step or radical changes to a fuel assembly design can cost upwards of $500M and will take even longer for the fuel vendor to recover their investment. With the projected lifetimes of the current generation of nuclear power

  16. Wear mechanism and wear prevention in coal-fueled diesel engines. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Schwalb, J.A.; Ryan, T.W.

    1991-10-01

    Coal fueled diesel engines present unique wear problems in the piston ring/cylinder liner area because of their tendency to contaminate the lube-oil with high concentrations of highly abrasive particles. This program involved a series of bench-scale wear tests and engine tests designed to investigate various aspects of the ring/liner wear problem and to make specific recommendations to engine manufacturers as to how to alleviate these problems. The program was organized into tasks, designed to accomplish the following objectives: (1) define the predominant wear mechanisms causing accelerated wear in the ring/liner area; (2) investigate the effectiveness of traditional approaches to wear prevention to prevent wear in coal-fueled engines; (3) further refine information on the most promising approaches to wear prevention; (4) present detailed information and recommendations to engine manufacturers on the most promising approach to wear prevention; (5) present a final report covering the entire program; (6)complete engine tests with a coal-derived liquid fuel, and investigate the effects of the fuel on engine wear and emissions.

  17. Investigation of aviation emission impacts on global tropospheric chemistry and climate using a size-resolved aerosol-chemistry model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapadia, Zarashpe; Spracklen, Dominick; Arnold, Stephen; Borman, Duncan; Mann, Graham; Pringle, Kirsty; Monks, Sarah; Reddington, Carly; Rap, Alexandru; Scott, Catherine

    2014-05-01

    models are potentially over estimating the warming effect of aviation emissions, because they do not include SO2 emissions from aviation. Finally, we discuss the implications of these results for desulphurisation of aviation fuels

  18. Spent fuel sabotage test program, characterization of aerosol dispersal : interim final report.

    SciTech Connect

    Gregson, Michael Warren; Brockmann, John E.; Loiseau, Olivier; Klennert, Lindsay A.; Nolte, Oliver; Molecke, Martin Alan; Autrusson, Bruno A.; Koch, Wolfgang; Pretzsch, Gunter Guido; Brucher, Wenzel; Steyskal, Michele D.

    2008-03-01

    This multinational, multi-phase spent fuel sabotage test program is quantifying the aerosol particles produced when the products of a high energy density device (HEDD) interact with and explosively particulate test rodlets that contain pellets of either surrogate materials or actual spent fuel. This program provides source-term data that are relevant to plausible sabotage scenarios in relation to spent fuel transport and storage casks and associated risk assessments. We present details and significant results obtained from this program from 2001 through 2007. Measured aerosol results include: respirable fractions produced; amounts, nuclide content, and produced particle size distributions and morphology; measurements of volatile fission product species enhanced sorption--enrichment factors onto respirable particles; and, status on determination of the spent fuel ratio, SFR, needed for scaling studies. Emphasis is provided on recent Phase 3 tests using depleted uranium oxide pellets plus non-radioactive fission product dopants in surrogate spent fuel test rodlets, plus the latest surrogate cerium oxide results and aerosol laboratory supporting calibration work. The DUO{sub 2}, CeO{sub 2}, plus fission product dopant aerosol particle results are compared with available historical data. We also provide a status review on continuing preparations for the final Phase 4 in this program, tests using individual short rodlets containing actual spent fuel from U.S. PWR reactors, with both high- and lower-burnup fuel. The source-term data, aerosol results, and program design have been tailored to support and guide follow-on computer modeling of aerosol dispersal hazards and radiological consequence assessments. This spent fuel sabotage, aerosol test program was performed primarily at Sandia National Laboratories, with support provided by both the U.S. Department of Energy and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. This program has significant input from, and is cooperatively

  19. Handbook of Aviation Fuel Properties

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-01

    Inturfitep2 MAX, Ill ~ I Ill 11) 1I ) 1)1I) 28)) Witter Helm-t~ili Sepalraionlu MAX. 2 2 2 2 11 10114 21)) ADITIVES ’ 1. Aniilelltig Agemonlyol... Gum (mWlOO ml) MAX. 7 7 7 1) a081 Particulates (mgirilter) MAX. 1 1) 22󈨊 (0) Water Reaction Interface MAX. Ilb l1b Ilb D3 1004 Water Separation...STABILITY Potential Gum (mgllO nl) 60 MAX. (4) 1) 873 CONTAMINANTS Iron (parts per million) 10 MAX, 10 MAX. (6) Exiitvnt gum (mg/liter) 310 MAX. 100

  20. Fuel supply and distribution. Fixed base operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burian, L. C.

    1983-01-01

    Aviation gasoline versus other products, a changing marketplace, the Airline Deregulation Act of 1978, aviation fuel credit card purchases, strategic locations, storage, co-mingling of fuel, and transportation to/from central storage are discussed.

  1. Investigating the impacts of aviation NOX, SO2 and black carbon emissions on ozone, aerosol and climate.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapadia, Zarashpe; Borman, Duncan; Spracklen, Dominick; Arnold, Stephen; Mann, Graham; Williams, Paul

    2013-04-01

    quantifying the impacts of aviation non-CO2 emissions as baseline. Following on this project will project the future impacts of aviation emissions, and then finally the future impacts resultant from the use of alternative fuels through the development of various alternative fuels scenarios.

  2. Collegiate Aviation Review, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carney, Thomas Q., Ed.

    2000-01-01

    This issue contains seven papers. "University Aviation Education: An Integrated Model" (Merrill R. Karp) addresses potential educational enhancements through the implementation of an integrated aviation learning model, the Aviation Education Reinforcement Option. "The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA): A Tombstone Agency?…

  3. General Aviation Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Programs exploring and demonstrating new technologies in general aviation propulsion are considered. These programs are the quiet, clean, general aviation turbofan (QCGAT) program; the general aviation turbine engine (GATE) study program; the general aviation propeller technology program; and the advanced rotary, diesel, and reciprocating engine programs.

  4. Full-Length High-Temperature Severe Fuel Damage Test No. 5: Final safety analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Lanning, D.D.; Lombardo, N.J.; Panisko, F.E.

    1993-09-01

    This report presents the final safety analysis for the preparation, conduct, and post-test discharge operation for the Full-Length High Temperature Experiment-5 (FLHT-5) to be conducted in the L-24 position of the National Research Universal (NRU) Reactor at Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories (CRNL), Ontario, Canada. The test is sponsored by an international group organized by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The test is designed and conducted by staff from Pacific Northwest Laboratory with CRNL staff support. The test will study the consequences of loss-of-coolant and the progression of severe fuel damage.

  5. General aviation components. [performance and capabilities of general aviation aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    An overview is presented of selected aviation vehicles. The capabilities and performance of these vehicles are first presented, followed by a discussion of the aerodynamics, structures and materials, propulsion systems, noise, and configurations of fixed-wing aircraft. Finally the discussion focuses on the history, status, and future of attempts to provide vehicles capable of short-field operations.

  6. NASA Research on General Aviation Power Plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, W. L.; Weber, R. J.; Willis, E. A.; Sievers, G. K.

    1978-01-01

    Propulsion systems are key factors in the design and performance of general aviation airplanes. NASA research programs that are intended to support improvements in these engines are described. Reciprocating engines are by far the most numerous powerplants in the aviation fleet; near-term efforts are being made to lower their fuel consumption and emissions. Longer-term work includes advanced alternatives, such as rotary and lightweight diesel engines. Work is underway on improved turbofans and turboprops.

  7. Final Technical Report: Effects of Impurities on Fuel Cell Performance and Durability

    SciTech Connect

    James G. Goodwin, Jr.; Hector Colon-Mercado; Kitiya Hongsirikarn; and Jack Z. Zhang

    2011-11-11

    accessible for hydrogen activation. Of the impurities studied, CO, NH3, perchloroethylene (also known as tetrachloroethylene), tetrahydrofuran, diborane, and metal cations had significant negative effects on the components in a fuel cell. While CO has no effect on the Nafion, it significantly poisons the Pt catalyst by adsorbing and blocking hydrogen activation. The effect can be reversed with time once the flow of CO is stopped. NH3 has no effect on the Pt catalyst at fuel cell conditions; it poisons the proton sites on Nafion (by forming NH4+ cations), decreasing drastically the proton conductivity of Nafion. This poisoning can slowly be reversed once the flow of NH3 is stopped. Perchloroethylene has a major effect on fuel cell performance. Since it has little/no effect on Nafion conductivity, its poisoning effect is on the Pt catalyst. However, this effect takes place primarily for the Pt catalyst at the cathode, since the presence of oxygen is very important for this poisoning effect. Tetrahydrofuran was shown not to impact Nafion conductivity; however, it does affect fuel cell performance. Therefore, its primary effect is on the Pt catalyst. The effect of THF on fuel cell performance is reversible. Diborane also can significant affect fuel cell performance. This effect is reversible once diborane is removed from the inlet streams. H2O2 is not an impurity usually present in the hydrogen or oxygen streams to a fuel cell. However, it is generated during fuel cell operation. The presence of Fe cations in the Nafion due to system corrosion and/or arising from MEA production act to catalyze the severe degradation of the Nafion by H2O2. Finally, the presence of metal cation impurities (Na+, Ca 2+, Fe3+) in Nafion from MEA preparation or from corrosion significantly impacts its proton conductivity due to replacement of proton sites. This effect is not reversible. Hydrocarbons, such as ethylene, might be expected to affect Pt or Nafion but do not at a typical fuel cell

  8. 78 FR 47527 - Airworthiness Directives; Dassault Aviation Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-06

    ... / Tuesday, August 6, 2013 / Rules and Regulations#0;#0; ] DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation...-17540; AD 2013-16-02] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Dassault Aviation Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Final rule; request...

  9. 77 FR 52203 - Airworthiness Directives; Goodyear Aviation Tires

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-29

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 [Docket No. FAA-2012-0881; Directorate Identifier 2012-CE-029-AD; Amendment 39-17164; AD 2012-17-01] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Goodyear Aviation Tires AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule; request for...

  10. 78 FR 73687 - Airworthiness Directives; DASSAULT AVIATION Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-09

    ... / Monday, December 9, 2013 / Rules and Regulations#0;#0; ] DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation...-17697; AD 2013-25-01] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; DASSAULT AVIATION Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Final rule; request...

  11. Aviation Safety Issues Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morello, Samuel A.; Ricks, Wendell R.

    2009-01-01

    The aviation safety issues database was instrumental in the refinement and substantiation of the National Aviation Safety Strategic Plan (NASSP). The issues database is a comprehensive set of issues from an extremely broad base of aviation functions, personnel, and vehicle categories, both nationally and internationally. Several aviation safety stakeholders such as the Commercial Aviation Safety Team (CAST) have already used the database. This broader interest was the genesis to making the database publically accessible and writing this report.

  12. Multi-fuel reformers for fuel cells used in transportation: Assessment of hydrogen storage technologies. Phase 2: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    During Phase 1 of this program, the authors evaluated all known hydrogen storage technologies (including those that are now practiced and those that are development) in the context of fuel cell vehicles. They determined that among the development technologies, carbon sorbents could most benefit from closer scrutiny. During Phase 2 of this program, they tested ten different carbon sorbents at various practical temperatures and pressures, and developed the concept of the usable Capacity Ratio, which is the ratio of the mass of hydrogen that can be released from a carbon-filled tank to the mass of hydrogen that can be released from an empty tank. The authors also commissioned the design, fabrication, and NGV2 (Natural Gas Vehicle) testing of an aluminum-lined, carbon-composite, full-wrapped pressure vessel to store hydrogen at 78 K and 3,000 psi. They constructed a facility to pressure cycle the tank at 78 K and to temperature cycle the tank at 3,000 psi, tested one such tank, and submitted it for a burst test. Finally, they devised a means by which cryogenic compressed hydrogen gas tanks can be filled and discharged using standard hardware--that is, without using filters, valves, or pressure regulators that must operate at both low temperature and high pressure. This report describes test methods and test results of carbon sorbents and the design of tanks for cold storage. 7 refs., 91 figs., 10 tabs.

  13. EPA is Issuing a Final Rule to Expand the Definition of Heating Oil Documents under the Renewable Fuel Standard Program

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is issuing a final rule to expand the definition of heating oil in the regulations for the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) program. Find links to this final rule and fact sheet on this page.

  14. General aviation and community development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sincoff, M. Z. (Editor); Dajani, J. S. (Editor)

    1975-01-01

    The summer program is summarized. The reports presented concern (1) general aviation components, (2) general aviation environment, (3) community perspective, and (4) transportation and general aviation in Virginia.

  15. Novel catalysts for hydrogen fuel cell applications:Final report (FY03-FY05).

    SciTech Connect

    Thornberg, Steven Michael; Coker, Eric Nicholas; Jarek, Russell L.; Steen, William Arthur

    2005-12-01

    qualitatively as well as the ETEK material for the ORR, a non-trivial achievement. A fuel cell test showed that Pt/C outperformed the ETEK material by an average of 50% for a 300 hour test. Increasing surface area decreases the amount of Pt needed in a fuel cell, which translates into cost savings. Furthermore, the increased performance realized in the fuel cell test might ultimately mean less Pt is needed in a fuel cell; this again translates into cost savings. Finally, enhanced long-term stability is a key driver within the fuel cell community as improvements in this area must be realized before fuel cells find their way into the marketplace; these Pt/C materials hold great promise of enhanced stability over time. An external laser desorption ion source was successfully installed on the existing Fourier transform ion-cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) mass spectrometer. However, operation of this laser ablation source has only generated metal atom ions, no clusters have been found to date. It is believed that this is due to the design of the pulsed-nozzle/laser vaporization chamber. The final experimental configuration and design of the two source housings are described.

  16. An innovative fuel design concept for improved light water reactor performance and safety. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Tulenko, J.S.; Connell, R.G.

    1995-07-01

    Light water reactor (LWR) fuel performance is limited by thermal and mechanical constraints associated with the design, fabrication, and operation of fuel in a nuclear reactor. The purpose of this research was to explore a technique for extending fuel performance by thermally bonding LWR fuel with a non-alkaline liquid metal alloy. Current LWR fuel rod designs consist of enriched uranium oxide (UO{sub 2}) fuel pellets enclosed in a zirconium alloy cylindrical clad. The space between the pellets and the clad is filled by an inert gas. Due to the thermal conductivity of the gas, the gas space thermally insulates the fuel pellets from the reactor coolant outside the fuel rod, elevating the fuel temperatures. Filling the gap between the fuel and clad with a high conductivity liquid metal thermally bonds the fuel to the cladding, and eliminates the large temperature change across the gap, while preserving the expansion and pellet loading capabilities. The resultant lower fuel temperature directly impacts fuel performance limit margins and also core transient performance. The application of liquid bonding techniques to LWR fuel was explored for the purposes of increasing LWR fuel performance and safety. A modified version of the ESCORE fuel performance code (ESBOND) has been developed under the program to analyze the in-reactor performance of the liquid metal bonded fuel. An assessment of the technical feasibility of this concept for LWR fuel is presented, including the results of research into materials compatibility testing and the predicted lifetime performance of Liquid Metal Bonded LWR fuel.

  17. Dust survey following the final shutdown of TEXTOR: metal particles and fuel retention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortuna-Zaleśna, E.; Weckmann, A.; Grzonka, J.; Rubel, M.; Esser, H. G.; Freisinger, M.; Kreter, A.; Sergienko, G.; Ström, P.

    2016-02-01

    The work presents results of a broad TEXTOR dust survey in terms of its composition, structure, distribution and fuel content. The dust particles were collected after final shutdown of TEXTOR in December 2013. Fuel retention, as determined by thermal desorption, varied significantly, even by two orders of magnitude, dependent on the dust location in the machine. Dust structure was examined by means of scanning electron microscopy combined with energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, focused ion beam and scanning transmission electron microscopy. Several categories of dust have been identified. Carbon-based stratified and granular deposits were dominating, but the emphasis in studies was on metal dust. They were found in the form of small particles, small spheres, flakes and splashes which formed ‘comet’-like structures, clearly indicating directional effects in the impact on surfaces of plasma-facing components. Nickel-rich alloys from the Inconel liner and iron-based ones from various diagnostic holders were the main components of metal-containing dust, but also molybdenum and tungsten debris were detected. Their origin is discussed.

  18. Aviation Career Awareness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Aerospace Education, 1976

    1976-01-01

    Describes a kit containing seven units, each designed to increase the elementary school student's awareness of aviation and career possibilities in aviation. Includes a sample section from one unit. (MLH)

  19. Let's Explore Aviation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arvin, Jean

    1977-01-01

    Presents an intermediate level social studies unit dealing with air education, social aspects of aviation, and the importance of aviation to industry and transportation. Includes objectives, twelve activities, and evaluative procedures. (SL)

  20. Global Commercial Aviation Emissions Inventory for 2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkerson, J.; Balasubramanian, S.; Malwitz, A.; Wayson, R.; Fleming, G.; Jacobson, M. Z.; Naiman, A.; Lele, S.

    2008-12-01

    In 2004, the global commercial aircraft fleet included more than 13,000 aircraft flying over 30 billion km, burning more than 100 million tons of fuel. All this activity incurs substantial amounts of fossil-fuel combustion products at the cruise altitude within the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere that could potentially affect the atmospheric composition and climate. These emissions; such as CO, CO2, PM, NOx, SOx, are not distributed uniformly over the earth, so understanding the temporal and spatial distributions is an important component for modeling aviation climate impacts. Previous studies for specific years have shown that nearly all activity occurs in the northern hemisphere, and most is within mid-latitudes. Simply scaling older data by the annual global industry growth of 3-5 percent may provide emission trends which are not representative of geographically varying growth in aviation sector that has been noted over the past years. India, for example, increased its domestic aviation activity recently by 46 percent in one year. Therefore, it is important that aircraft emissions are best characterized and represented in the atmospheric models for impacts analysis. Data containing all global commercial flights for 2004 was computed using the Federal Aviation Administration's Aviation Environmental Design Tool (AEDT) and provided by the Volpe National Transportation Systems Center. The following is a summary of this data which illustrates the global aviation footprint for 2004, and provides temporal and three-dimensional spatial distribution statistics of several emissions constituents.

  1. Texas Hydrogen Highway Fuel Cell Hybrid Bus and Fueling Infrastructure Technology Showcase - Final Scientific/Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Hitchcock, David

    2012-06-29

    The Texas Hydrogen Highway project has showcased a hydrogen fuel cell transit bus and hydrogen fueling infrastructure that was designed and built through previous support from various public and private sector entities. The aim of this project has been to increase awareness among transit agencies and other public entities on these transportation technologies, and to place such technologies into commercial applications, such as a public transit agency. The initial project concept developed in 2004 was to show that a skid-mounted, fully-integrated, factory-built and tested hydrogen fueling station could be used to simplify the design, and lower the cost of fueling infrastructure for fuel cell vehicles. The approach was to design, engineer, build, and test the integrated fueling station at the factory then install it at a site that offered educational and technical resources and provide an opportunity to showcase both the fueling station and advanced hydrogen vehicles. The two primary technology components include: Hydrogen Fueling Station: The hydrogen fueling infrastructure was designed and built by Gas Technology Institute primarily through a funding grant from the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality. It includes hydrogen production, clean-up, compression, storage, and dispensing. The station consists of a steam methane reformer, gas clean-up system, gas compressor and 48 kilograms of hydrogen storage capacity for dispensing at 5000 psig. The station is skid-mounted for easy installation and can be relocated if needed. It includes a dispenser that is designed to provide temperaturecompensated fills using a control algorithm. The total station daily capacity is approximately 50 kilograms. Fuel Cell Bus: The transit passenger bus built by Ebus, a company located in Downey, CA, was commissioned and acquired by GTI prior to this project. It is a fuel cell plug-in hybrid electric vehicle which is ADA compliant, has air conditioning sufficient for Texas operations

  2. Environmentally Responsible Aviation N plus 2 Advanced Vehicle Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drake, Aaron; Harris, Christopher A.; Komadina, Steven C.; Wang, Donny P.; Bender, Anne M.

    2013-01-01

    This is the Northrop Grumman final report for the Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) N+2 Advanced Vehicle Study performed for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Northrop Grumman developed advanced vehicle concepts and associated enabling technologies with a high potential for simultaneously achieving significant reductions in emissions, airport area noise, and fuel consumption for transport aircraft entering service in 2025. A Preferred System Concept (PSC) conceptual design has been completed showing a 42% reduction in fuel burn compared to 1998 technology, and noise 75dB below Stage 4 for a 224- passenger, 8,000 nm cruise transport aircraft. Roadmaps have been developed for the necessary technology maturation to support the PSC. A conceptual design for a 55%-scale demonstrator aircraft to reduce development risk for the PSC has been completed.

  3. Securing General Aviation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-03

    ajor vulnerabilities still exist in ... general aviation security ,”3 the commission did not further elaborate on the nature of those vulnerabilities...commercial operations may make them an attractive alternative to terrorists seeking to identify and exploit vulnerabilities in aviation security . In this...3, 2003, p. A7. 2 See Report of the Aviation Security Advisory Committee Working Group on General Aviation Airport Security (October 1, 2003); and

  4. 14 CFR 25.979 - Pressure fueling system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ....979 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Fuel System § 25.979 Pressure fueling system. For pressure fueling systems, the following apply: (a) Each pressure fueling system fuel...

  5. Feasibility study of repowering the USCGC vindicator (WMEC-3) with modular diesel fueled direct fuel cells. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kumm, W.H.; Lisie, H.L.

    1997-05-01

    In 1988, AEL was awarded a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Phase I contract on Navy Topic N88-94 by the NAVSEA RD Officer, Code 03R. In 1990, this topic moved to Phase II with a contract involving the lab demonstration of the use of diesel type fuel in high temperature molten carbonate or Direct Fuel Cells (DFCs). The Phase II work was successfully completed in 1992. In 1995, Navy Code 03R agreed to transfer Topic N88-94 to the USCG RD Office, G-SIR. The Phase III Feasibility Study was awarded to AEL in 1996 to perform the work described in this report. The USCGC VINDICATOR (WMEC-3) has been evaluated as the candidate ship for fuel cell repowering at 2.58 MW. It is a former T-AGOS ship with diesel-electric propulsion and ship`s service. The four 600 kW diesel generators (2.4 MW) would be replaced with twelve 215 kW DFC one-sided-fit fuel cell modules embodying a `no-maintenance` rapid changeout approach. The repowered ship would be faster, consume half of the fuel for the equivalent range, be super-quiet, be air pollution-free, cut the crew complement and produce potable water onboard as a byproduct. The study evaluated technical aspects of fuel cells, naval architectural removals and additions, maintenance, risk and cost-effectiveness issues. The use of electric utility type DFCs, with the cost reduction and mass production advantages of this on-land marketplace will make possible early introduction of marine-derivative fuel cell power plants for ship applications. It is concluded that repowering ships with fuel cells is feasible and that the next step is a Preliminary Design.

  6. Simulated coal-gas fueled carbonate fuel cell power plant system verification. Final report, September 1990--June 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-01

    This report summarizes work performed under U.S. Department of Energy, Morgantown Energy Technology Center (DOE/METC) Contract DE-AC-90MC27168 for September 1990 through March 1995. Energy Research Corporation (ERC), with support from DOE, EPRI, and utilities, has been developing a carbonate fuel cell technology. ERC`s design is a unique direct fuel cell (DFC) which does not need an external fuel reformer. An alliance was formed with a representative group of utilities and, with their input, a commercial entry product was chosen. The first 2 MW demonstration unit was planned and construction begun at Santa Clara, CA. A conceptual design of a 10OMW-Class dual fuel power plant was developed; economics of natural gas versus coal gas use were analyzed. A facility was set up to manufacture 2 MW/yr of carbonate fuel cell stacks. A 100kW-Class subscale power plant was built and several stacks were tested. This power plant has achieved an efficiency of {approximately}50% (LHV) from pipeline natural gas to direct current electricity conversion. Over 6,000 hours of operation including 5,000 cumulative hours of stack operation were demonstrated. One stack was operated on natural gas at 130 kW, which is the highest carbonate fuel cell power produced to date, at 74% fuel utilization, with excellent performance distribution across the stack. In parallel, carbonate fuel cell performance has been improved, component materials have been proven stable with lifetimes projected to 40,000 hours. Matrix strength, electrolyte distribution, and cell decay rate have been improved. Major progress has been achieved in lowering stack cost.

  7. Altering Flight Schedules for Increased Fuel Efficiency

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-19

    7 Air Force Aviation Operations Energy Plan... Aviation Operations Energy Plan Pillars (Air Force, 2010) .............. 9 Figure 4. Aviation Operations Energy Utilization (Air Force, 2010...USAF) is the largest user of aviation fuel in the Department of Defense (DoD), and air mobility operations consume the greatest amount. Rising

  8. Freeze-casting as a Novel Manufacturing Process for Fast Reactor Fuels. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Wegst, Ulrike G.K.; Allen, Todd; Sridharan, Kumar

    2014-04-07

    Advanced burner reactors are designed to reduce the amount of long-lived radioactive isotopes that need to be disposed of as waste. The input feedstock for creating advanced fuel forms comes from either recycle of used light water reactor fuel or recycle of fuel from a fast burner reactor. Fuel for burner reactors requires novel fuel types based on new materials and designs that can achieve higher performance requirements (higher burn up, higher power, and greater margins to fuel melting) then yet achieved. One promising strategy to improved fuel performance is the manufacture of metal or ceramic scaffolds which are designed to allow for a well-defined placement of the fuel into the host, and this in a manner that permits greater control than that possible in the production of typical CERMET fuels.

  9. Decision-maker's guide to wood fuel for small industrial energy users. Final report. [Includes glossary

    SciTech Connect

    Levi, M. P.; O'Grady, M. J.

    1980-02-01

    The technology and economics of various wood energy systems available to the small industrial and commercial energy user are considered. This book is designed to help a plant manager, engineer, or others in a decision-making role to become more familiar with wood fuel systems and make informed decisions about switching to wood as a fuel. The following subjects are discussed: wood combustion, pelletized wood, fuel storage, fuel handling and preparation, combustion equipment, retrofitting fossil-fueled boilers, cogeneration, pollution abatement, and economic considerations of wood fuel use. (MHR)

  10. Powder Metallurgy of Uranium Alloy Fuels for TRU-Burning Reactors Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    McDeavitt, Sean M

    2011-04-29

    Overview Fast reactors were evaluated to enable the transmutation of transuranic isotopes generated by nuclear energy systems. The motivation for this was that TRU isotopes have high radiotoxicity and relatively long half-lives, making them unattractive for disposal in a long-term geologic repository. Fast reactors provide an efficient means to utilize the energy content of the TRUs while destroying them. An enabling technology that requires research and development is the fabrication metallic fuel containing TRU isotopes using powder metallurgy methods. This project focused upon developing a powder metallurgical fabrication method to produce U-Zr-transuranic (TRU) alloys at relatively low processing temperatures (500ºC to 600ºC) using either hot extrusion or alpha-phase sintering for charecterization. Researchers quantified the fundamental aspects of both processing methods using surrogate metals to simulate the TRU elements. The process produced novel solutions to some of the issues relating to metallic fuels, such as fuel-cladding chemical interactions, fuel swelling, volatility losses during casting, and casting mold material losses. Workscope There were two primary tasks associated with this project: 1. Hot working fabrication using mechanical alloying and extrusion • Design, fabricate, and assemble extrusion equipment • Extrusion database on DU metal • Extrusion database on U-10Zr alloys • Extrusion database on U-20xx-10Zr alloys • Evaluation and testing of tube sheath metals 2. Low-temperature sintering of U alloys • Design, fabricate, and assemble equipment • Sintering database on DU metal • Sintering database on U-10Zr alloys • Liquid assisted phase sintering on U-20xx-10Zr alloys Appendices Outline Appendix A contains a Fuel Cycle Research & Development (FCR&D) poster and contact presentation where TAMU made primary contributions. Appendix B contains MSNE theses and final defense presentations by David Garnetti and Grant Helmreich

  11. Final Report: Materials and Modules for Low Cost, High Performance Fuel Cell Humidifiers

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, William B

    2012-12-31

    remain gas impermeable during 20,000 relative humidity (RH) cycles, unlike the closest competitive options that fail very rapidly. It does suffer from a loss of performance with time at temperature because of inherent properties of the PFSA polymer, but this degradation is manageable through relatively simple system design changes. The final membrane of this program has been produced on manufacturing level equipment in a roll to roll form in the scale of hundreds of square meters. The process is readily scalable to automotive level volumes to allow production of a low-cost membrane required for this application. A full scale automotive air-to-air humidifier module has been designed, tested and built. The final module meets the design specifications required for automotive fuel cell use, and exceeds all the DOE 2017 targets for a cathode humidification module as determined in independent testing at Ford Motor Company. It has a small volume, less than 5 liters; a high water transfer rate, significantly greater than 5 g/s at the DOE specified conditions; acceptably low pressure drop; and is projected to maintain these properties over 5000 hours. Additionally, high volume cost projections suggest that the module can be produced for less than $100 per unit in a scale of 500,000 units per year.

  12. Knock-Limited Performance of Triptane and Xylidines Blended with 28-R Aviation Fuel at High Compression Ratios and Maximum-Economy Spark Setting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Held, Louis F.; Pritchard, Ernest I.

    1946-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to evaluate the possibilities of utilizing the high-performance characteristics of triptane and xylidines blended with 28-R fuel in order to increase fuel economy by the use of high compression ratios and maximum-economy spark setting. Full-scale single-cylinder knock tests were run with 20 deg B.T.C. and maximum-economy spark settings at compression ratios of 6.9, 8.0, and 10.0, and with two inlet-air temperatures. The fuels tested consisted of triptane, four triptane and one xylidines blend with 28-R, and 28-R fuel alone. Indicated specific fuel consumption at lean mixtures was decreased approximately 17 percent at a compression ratio of 10.0 and maximum-economy spark setting, as compared to that obtained with a compression ratio of 6.9 and normal spark setting. When compression ratio was increased from 6.9 to 10.0 at an inlet-air temperature of 150 F, normal spark setting, and a fuel-air ratio of 0.065, 55-percent triptane was required with 28-R fuel to maintain the knock-limited brake power level obtained with 28-R fuel at a compression ratio of 6.9. Brake specific fuel consumption was decreased 17.5 percent at a compression ratio of 10.0 relative to that obtained at a compression ratio of 6.9. Approximately similar results were noted at an inlet-air temperature of 250 F. For concentrations up through at least 20 percent, triptane can be more efficiently used at normal than at maximum-economy spark setting to maintain a constant knock-limited power output over the range of compression ratios tested.

  13. Spent-Fuel Test - Climax: An evaluation of the technical feasibility of geologic storage of spent nuclear fuel in granite: Executive summary of final results

    SciTech Connect

    Patrick, W.C.

    1986-09-02

    This summary volume outlines results that are covered in more detail in the final report of the Spent-Fuel Test - Climate project. The project was conducted between 1978 and 1983 in the granitic Climax stock at the Nevada Test Site. Results indicate that spent fuel can be safely stored for periods of years in this host medium and that nuclear waste so emplaced can be safely retrieved. We also evaluated the effects of heat and radiation (alone and in combination) on emplacement canisters and the surrounding rock mass. Storage of the spent-fuel affected the surrounding rock mass in measurable ways, but did not threaten the stability or safety of the facility at any time.

  14. EPA's Final Action Denying Petitions for Reconsideration of the 2013 Renewable Fuel Standards

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    These September 2016 letters from EPA denies the petition from Monroe Energy LLC, American Petroleum Institute, American Fuel and Petrochemical Manufacturers, regarding certain issues of the 2013 Renewable Fuel Standards Annual Rule.

  15. Dimensional, microstructural and compositional stability of metal fuels. Final performance report

    SciTech Connect

    Solomon, A.A.; Dayananda, M.A.

    1993-03-15

    The projects undertaken were to address two areas of concern for metal-fueled fast reactors: metallurgical compatibility of fuel and its fission products with the stainless steel cladding, and effects of porosity development in the fuel on fuel/cladding interactions and on sodium penetration in fuel. The following studies are reported on extensively in appendices: hot isostatic pressing of U-10Zr by coupled boundary diffusion/power law creep cavitation, liquid Na intrusion into porous U-10Zr fuel alloy by differential capillarity, interdiffusion between U-Zr fuel and selected Fe-Ni-Cr alloys, interdiffusion between U-Zr fuel vs selected cladding steels, and interdiffusion of Ce in Fe-base alloys with Ni or Cr.

  16. Flight simulation study to determine MLS lateral course width requirements on final approach for general aviation. [runway conditions affecting microwave landing systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crumrine, R. J.

    1976-01-01

    An investigation of the effects of various lateral course widths and runway lengths for manual CAT I Microwave Landing System instrument approaches was carried out with instrument rated pilots in a General Aviation simulator. Data are presented on the lateral dispersion at the touchdown zone, and the middle and outer markers, for approaches to 3,000, 8,000 (and trial 12,000 foot) runway lengths with full scale angular lateral course widths of + or - 1.19 deg, + or - 2.35 deg, and + or - 3.63 deg. The distance from touchdown where the localizer deviation went to full scale was also recorded. Pilot acceptance was measured according to the Cooper-Harper rating system.

  17. Lightweight diesel aircraft engines for general aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berenyi, S. G.

    1983-01-01

    Two different engines were studied. The advantages of a diesel to general aviation were reduced to fuel consumption, reduced operating costs, and reduced fire and explosion hazard. There were no ignition mixture control or inlet icing problems. There are fewer controls and no electrical interference problems.

  18. Vegetable oils as an on the farm diesel fuel substitute: the North Carolina situation. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Harwood, H.J.

    1981-06-01

    The state-of-the-art of using vegetable oil as a diesel fuel alternative is reviewed. Particular emphasis has been placed on using vegetable oil in farm vehicles as an emergency fuel which may be produced on-farm. The following are reviewed: the mechanical feasibility, on-farm fuel production, and economic analysis.

  19. Experimental and Modeling Studies of the Combustion Characteristics of Conventional and Alternative Jet Fuels. Final Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meeks, Ellen; Naik, Chitral V.; Puduppakkam, Karthik V.; Modak, Abhijit; Egolfopoulos, Fokion N.; Tsotsis, Theo; Westbrook, Charles K.

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of this project have been to develop a comprehensive set of fundamental data regarding the combustion behavior of jet fuels and appropriately associated model fuels. Based on the fundamental study results, an auxiliary objective was to identify differentiating characteristics of molecular fuel components that can be used to explain different fuel behavior and that may ultimately be used in the planning and design of optimal fuel-production processes. The fuels studied in this project were Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) fuels and biomass-derived jet fuels that meet certain specifications of currently used jet propulsion applications. Prior to this project, there were no systematic experimental flame data available for such fuels. One of the key goals has been to generate such data, and to use this data in developing and verifying effective kinetic models. The models have then been reduced through automated means to enable multidimensional simulation of the combustion characteristics of such fuels in real combustors. Such reliable kinetic models, validated against fundamental data derived from laminar flames using idealized flow models, are key to the development and design of optimal combustors and fuels. The models provide direct information about the relative contribution of different molecular constituents to the fuel performance and can be used to assess both combustion and emissions characteristics.

  20. Fuel Cell-Powered Lift Truck Fleet Deployment Projects Final Technical Report May 2014

    SciTech Connect

    Klingler, James J

    2014-05-06

    The overall objectives of this project were to evaluate the performance, operability and safety of fork lift trucks powered by fuel cells in large distribution centers. This was accomplished by replacing the batteries in over 350 lift trucks with fuel cells at five distribution centers operated by GENCO. The annual cost savings of lift trucks powered by fuel cell power units was between $2,400 and $5,300 per truck compared to battery powered lift trucks, excluding DOE contributions. The greatest savings were in fueling labor costs where a fuel cell powered lift truck could be fueled in a few minutes per day compared to over an hour for battery powered lift trucks which required removal and replacement of batteries. Lift truck operators where generally very satisfied with the performance of the fuel cell power units, primarily because there was no reduction in power over the duration of a shift as experienced with battery powered lift trucks. The operators also appreciated the fast and easy fueling compared to the effort and potential risk of injury associated with switching heavy batteries in and out of lift trucks. There were no safety issues with the fueling or operation of the fuel cells. Although maintenance costs for the fuel cells were higher than for batteries, these costs are expected to decrease significantly in the next generation of fuel cells, making them even more cost effective.

  1. Crude Glycerol as Cost-Effective Fuel for Combined Heat and Power to Replace Fossil Fuels, Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, William L

    2012-10-31

    The primary objectives of this work can be summed into two major categories. Firstly, the fundamentals of the combustion of glycerol (in both a refined and unrefined form) were to be investigated, with emphasis of the development of a system capable of reliably and repeatedly combusting glycerol as well as an analysis of the emissions produced during glycerol combustion. Focus was placed on quantifying common emissions in comparison to more traditional fuels and this work showed that the burner developed was able to completely combust glycerol within a relatively wide range of operating conditions. Additionally, focus was placed on examining specific emissions in more detail, namely interesting NOx emissions observed in initial trials, acrolein and other volatile organic emissions, and particulate and ash emissions. This work showed that the combustion of crude glycerol could result in significantly reduced NOx emissions as a function of the high fuel bound oxygen content within the glycerol fuel. It also showed that when burned properly, the combustion of crude glycerol did not result in excessive emissions of acrolein or any other VOC compared to the combustion from more traditional fuels. Lastly however, this work has shown that in any practical application in which glycerol is being burned, it will be necessary to explore ash mitigation techniques due to the very high particulate matter concentrations produced during glycerol combustion. These emissions are comparable to unfiltered coal combustion and are directly tied to the biodiesel production method. The second focus of this work was directed to developing a commercialization strategy for the use of glycerol as a fuel replacement. This strategy has identified a 30 month plan for the scaling up of the laboratory scale burner into a pre-pilot scale system. Additionally, financing options were explored and an assessment was made of the economics of replacing a traditional fuel (namely natural gas) with crude

  2. Reactor Physics and Criticality Benchmark Evaluations for Advanced Nuclear Fuel - Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    William Anderson; James Tulenko; Bradley Rearden; Gary Harms

    2008-09-11

    The nuclear industry interest in advanced fuel and reactor design often drives towards fuel with uranium enrichments greater than 5 wt% 235U. Unfortunately, little data exists, in the form of reactor physics and criticality benchmarks, for uranium enrichments ranging between 5 and 10 wt% 235U. The primary purpose of this project is to provide benchmarks for fuel similar to what may be required for advanced light water reactors (LWRs). These experiments will ultimately provide additional information for application to the criticality-safety bases for commercial fuel facilities handling greater than 5 wt% 235U fuel.

  3. Biomass Fuel Characterization : Testing and Evaluating the Combustion Characteristics of Selected Biomass Fuels : Final Report May 1, 1988-July, 1989.

    SciTech Connect

    Bushnell, Dwight J.; Haluzok, Charles; Dadkhah-Nikoo, Abbas

    1990-04-01

    Results show that two very important measures of combustion efficiency (gas temperature and carbon dioxide based efficiency) varied by only 5.2 and 5.4 percent respectively. This indicates that all nine different wood fuel pellet types behave very similarly under the prescribed range of operating parameters. The overall mean efficiency for all tests was 82.1 percent and the overall mean temperature was 1420 1{degree}F. Particulate (fly ash) ad combustible (in fly ash) data should the greatest variability. There was evidence of a relationship between maximum values for both particulate and combustible and the percentages of ash and chlorine in the pellet fuel. The greater the percentage of ash and chlorine (salt), the greater was the fly ash problem, also, combustion efficiency was decreased by combustible losses (unburned hydrocarbons) in the fly ash. Carbon monoxide and Oxides of Nitrogen showed the next greatest variability, but neither had data values greater than 215.0 parts per million (215.0 ppm is a very small quantity, i.e. 1 ppm = .001 grams/liter = 6.2E-5 1bm/ft{sup 3}). Visual evidence indicates that pellets fuels produced from salt laden material are corrosive, produce the largest quantities of ash, and form the only slag or clinker formations of all nine fuels. The corrosion is directly attributable to salt content (or more specifically, chloride ions and compounds formed during combustion). 45 refs., 23 figs., 19 tabs.

  4. Analysis of emission data from global commercial aviation: 2004 and 2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkerson, J. T.; Jacobson, M. Z.; Malwitz, A.; Balasubramanian, S.; Wayson, R.; Fleming, G.; Naiman, A. D.; Lele, S. K.

    2010-02-01

    The global commercial aircraft fleet in 2006 flew more than 31 million flights, burned nearly 190 million metric tons of fuel, and covered 38 billion kilometers. This activity emitted substantial amounts of fossil-fuel combustion products within the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere that affect atmospheric composition and climate. The emissions products, such as carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, sulfur compounds, and particulate matter, are not emitted uniformly over the Earth, so understanding the temporal and spatial distributions is an important component for modeling aviation climate impacts. Here, we analyze global commercial aircraft emission data for 2004 and 2006. Data, provided by the Volpe National Transportation Systems Center, were computed using the Federal Aviation Administration's Aviation Environmental Design Tool. For both years, analysis of flight data shows 93 percent of fuel was burned in the Northern Hemisphere, 69 percent between 30 N and 60 N latitudes; 77 (75) percent was burned above 7 km in 2004 (2006). This activity led to 177 (162) Tg of carbon from CO2 globally in 2004 (2006), with half being emitted over three dominant regions: United States, Europe, East Asia. The difference between 2004 and 2006 is a result of fewer flights in 2006 and the methodology used to compute fuel burn and emissions from those flights. We also show that despite receiving only a few percent of global emissions, the Arctic receives a concentration of emissions of the same order of magnitude as the global average. The following is a summary of this data which illustrates the global and regional aviation emissions footprints for 2004 and 2006, and provides temporal and spatial distribution statistics of several emissions constituents. Finally, we show that 87 (85) percent of all flights in 2004 (2006) are short-haul missions, yet those flights are responsible for only 38 (39) percent of total emissions.

  5. Final Technical Report: Residential Fuel Cell Demonstration by the Delaware County Electric Cooperative, Inc.

    SciTech Connect

    Mark Hilson Schneider

    2007-06-06

    This demonstration project contributes to the knowledge base in the area of fuel cells in stationary applications, propane fuel cells, edge-of-grid applications for fuel cells, and energy storage in combination with fuel cells. The project demonstrated that it is technically feasible to meet the whole-house electrical energy needs of a typical upstate New York residence with a 5-kW fuel cell in combination with in-home energy storage without any major modifications to the residence or modifications to the consumption patterns of the residents of the home. The use of a fuel cell at constant output power through a 120-Volt inverter leads to system performance issues including: • relatively poor power quality as quantified by the IEEE-defined short term flicker parameter • relatively low overall system efficiency Each of these issues is discussed in detail in the text of this report. The fuel cell performed well over the 1-year demonstration period in terms of availability and efficiency of conversion from chemical energy (propane) to electrical energy at the fuel cell output terminals. Another strength of fuel cell performance in the demonstration was the low requirements for maintenance and repair on the fuel cell. The project uncovered a new and important installation consideration for propane fuel cells. Alcohol added to new propane storage tanks is preferentially absorbed on the surface of some fuel cell reformer desulfurization filters. The experience on this project indicates that special attention must be paid to the volume and composition of propane tank additives. Size, composition, and replacement schedules for the de-sulfurization filter bed should be adjusted to account for propane tank additives to avoid sulfur poisoning of fuel cell stacks. Despite good overall technical performance of the fuel cell and the whole energy system, the demonstration showed that such a system is not economically feasible as compared to other commercially available

  6. Final Report: Cathode Catalysis in Hydrogen/Oxygen Fuel Cells: New Catalysts, Mechanism, and Characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Gewirth, Andrew A.; Kenis, Paul J.; Nuzzo, Ralph G.; Rauchfuss, Thomas B.

    2016-01-18

    In this research, we prosecuted a comprehensive plan of research directed at developing new catalysts and new understandings relevant to the operation of low temperature hydrogen-oxygen fuel cells. The focal point of this work was one centered on the Oxygen Reduction Reaction (ORR), the electrochemical process that most fundamentally limits the technological utility of these environmentally benign energy conversion devices. Over the period of grant support, we developed new ORR catalysts, based on Cu dimers and multimers. In this area, we developed substantial new insight into design rules required to establish better ORR materials, inspired by the three-Cu active site in laccase which has the highest ORR onset potential of any material known. We also developed new methods of characterization for the ORR on conventional (metal-based) catalysts. Finally, we developed a new platform to study the rate of proton transfer relevant to proton coupled electron transfer (PCET) reactions, of which the ORR is an exemplar. Other aspects of work involved theory and prototype catalyst testing.

  7. Transport impacts on atmosphere and climate: Aviation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, D. S.; Pitari, G.; Grewe, V.; Gierens, K.; Penner, J. E.; Petzold, A.; Prather, M. J.; Schumann, U.; Bais, A.; Berntsen, T.; Iachetti, D.; Lim, L. L.; Sausen, R.

    2010-12-01

    has also improved: a limited number of studies have demonstrated an increase in cirrus cloud attributable to aviation although the magnitude varies: however, these trend analyses may be impacted by satellite artefacts. The effect of aviation particles on clouds (with and without contrails) may give rise to either a positive forcing or a negative forcing: the modelling and the underlying processes are highly uncertain, although the overall effect of contrails and enhanced cloudiness is considered to be a positive forcing and could be substantial, compared with other effects. The debate over quantification of aviation impacts has also progressed towards studying potential mitigation and the technological and atmospheric tradeoffs. Current studies are still relatively immature and more work is required to determine optimal technological development paths, which is an aspect that atmospheric science has much to contribute. In terms of alternative fuels, liquid hydrogen represents a possibility and may reduce some of aviation's impacts on climate if the fuel is produced in a carbon-neutral way: such fuel is unlikely to be utilized until a 'hydrogen economy' develops. The introduction of biofuels as a means of reducing CO 2 impacts represents a future possibility. However, even over and above land-use concerns and greenhouse gas budget issues, aviation fuels require strict adherence to safety standards and thus require extra processing compared with biofuels destined for other sectors, where the uptake of such fuel may be more beneficial in the first instance.

  8. Final Report - Spent Nuclear Fuel Retrieval System Manipulator System Cold Validation Testing

    SciTech Connect

    D.R. Jackson; G.R. Kiebel

    1999-08-24

    Manipulator system cold validation testing (CVT) was performed in support of the Fuel Retrieval System (FRS) Sub-Project, a subtask of the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project at the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. The FRS will be used to retrieve and repackage K-Basin Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) currently stored in old K-Plant storage basins. The FRS is required to retrieve full fuel canisters from the basin; clean the fuel elements inside the canister to remove excessive uranium corrosion products (or sludge); remove the contents from the canisters; and sort the resulting debris, scrap, and fuel for repackaging. The fuel elements and scrap will be collected in fuel storage and scrap baskets in preparation for loading into a multi canister overpack (MCO), while the debris is loaded into a debris bin and disposed of as solid waste. The FRS is composed of three major subsystems. The Manipulator Subsystem provides remote handling of fuel, scrap, and debris; the In-Pool Equipment subsystem performs cleaning of fuel and provides a work surface for handling materials; and the Remote Viewing Subsystem provides for remote viewing of the work area by operators. There are two complete and identical FRS systems, one to be installed in the K-West basin and one to be installed in the K-East basin. Another partial system will be installed in a cold test facility to provide for operator training.

  9. Economic feasibility analysis of distributed electric power generation based upon the natural gas-fired fuel cell. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    The final report provides a summary of results of the Cost of Ownership Model and the circumstances under which a distributed fuel cell is economically viable. The analysis is based on a series of micro computer models estimate the capital and operations cost of a fuel cell central utility plant configuration. Using a survey of thermal and electrical demand profiles, the study defines a series of energy user classes. The energy user class demand requirements are entered into the central utility plant model to define the required size the fuel cell capacity and all supporting equipment. The central plant model includes provisions that enables the analyst to select optional plant features that are most appropriate to a fuel cell application, and that are cost effective. The model permits the choice of system features that would be suitable for a large condominium complex or a residential institution such as a hotel, boarding school or prison. Other applications are also practical; however, such applications have a higher relative demand for thermal energy, a characteristic that is well-suited to a fuel cell application with its free source of hot water or steam. The analysis combines the capital and operation from the preceding models into a Cost of Ownership Model to compute the plant capital and operating costs as a function of capacity and principal features and compares these estimates to the estimated operating cost of the same central plant configuration without a fuel cell.

  10. Environmentally Responsible Aviation - Real Solutions for Environmental Challenges Facing Aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collier, Fayette; Thomas, Russell; Burley, Casey; Nickol, Craig; Lee, Chi-Ming; Tong, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The combined reality of persistently strong growth in air traffic and the vital economic role of the air transport system result in continued demand for the progress of technology for the reduction of aircraft noise, emissions of oxides of nitrogen, and fuel burn. NASA s Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) project has set aggressive goals in these three areas including a noise goal of 42 dB cumulative below the Stage 4 certification level. The goal for the reduction of oxides of nitrogen is 75% below the current standard. The fuel burn reduction goal is 50% below that of a current state-of-the-art aircraft. Furthermore, the overall goal of ERA is to mature technologies that will meet these goals simultaneously and with a timeframe of 2020 for technical readiness. This paper outlines the key technologies and the progress achieved to date toward the goals.

  11. Fuel Burn Estimation Using Real Track Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chatterji, Gano B.

    2011-01-01

    A procedure for estimating fuel burned based on actual flight track data, and drag and fuel-flow models is described. The procedure consists of estimating aircraft and wind states, lift, drag and thrust. Fuel-flow for jet aircraft is determined in terms of thrust, true airspeed and altitude as prescribed by the Base of Aircraft Data fuel-flow model. This paper provides a theoretical foundation for computing fuel-flow with most of the information derived from actual flight data. The procedure does not require an explicit model of thrust and calibrated airspeed/Mach profile which are typically needed for trajectory synthesis. To validate the fuel computation method, flight test data provided by the Federal Aviation Administration were processed. Results from this method show that fuel consumed can be estimated within 1% of the actual fuel consumed in the flight test. Next, fuel consumption was estimated with simplified lift and thrust models. Results show negligible difference with respect to the full model without simplifications. An iterative takeoff weight estimation procedure is described for estimating fuel consumption, when takeoff weight is unavailable, and for establishing fuel consumption uncertainty bounds. Finally, the suitability of using radar-based position information for fuel estimation is examined. It is shown that fuel usage could be estimated within 5.4% of the actual value using positions reported in the Airline Situation Display to Industry data with simplified models and iterative takeoff weight computation.

  12. Consumer behavior towards fuel efficient vehicles. Volume II: consumer sentiments towards fuel efficient vehicles. Final report Sep 77-Feb 80

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman, L.; Manski, C.F.; Ginn, J.R.; Hill, D.H.; Hill, M.S.

    1980-02-01

    To meet the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration's (NHTSA) need for a capability of forecasting consumer response to fuel-efficient motor vehicle designs, a statistical analysis was performed on a longitudinal series of Surveys of Consumer Sentiment, administered by the University of Michigan's Survey Research Center. This volume examines a broad set of questions concerning consumer attitudes towards energy policy in general and motor vehicle-related conservation efforts in particular.

  13. The evaluation of the use of metal alloy fuels in pressurized water reactors. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Lancaster, D.

    1992-10-26

    The use of metal alloy fuels in a PWR was investigated. It was found that it would be feasible and competitive to design PWRs with metal alloy fuels but that there seemed to be no significant benefits. The new technology would carry with it added economic uncertainty and since no large benefits were found it was determined that metal alloy fuels are not recommended. Initially, a benefit was found for metal alloy fuels but when the oxide core was equally optimized the benefit faded. On review of the optimization of the current generation of ``advanced reactors,`` it became clear that reactor design optimization has been under emphasized. Current ``advanced reactors`` are severely constrained. The AP-600 required the use of a fuel design from the 1970`s. In order to find the best metal alloy fuel design, core optimization became a central effort. This work is ongoing.

  14. European Fuel Cells R&D Review. Final report, Purchase Order No. 062014

    SciTech Connect

    Michael, P.D.; Maguire, J.

    1994-09-01

    Aim of the Review is to present a statement on the status of fuel cell development in Europe, addressing the research, development and demonstration (RD&D) and commercialization activities being undertaken, identifying key European organizations active in development and commercialization of fuel cells and detailing their future plans. This document describes the RD&D activities in Europe on alkaline, phosphoric acid, polymer electrolyte, direct methanol, solid oxide, and molten carbonate fuel cell types. It describes the European Commission`s activities, its role in the European development of fuel cells, and its interaction with the national programs. It then presents a country-by-country breakdown. For each country, an overview is given, presented by fuel cell type. Scandinavian countries are covered in less detail. American organizations active in Europe, either in supplying fuel cell components, or in collaboration, are identified. Applications include transportation and cogeneration.

  15. Potential for energy cost reductions in 'Hamilton Class' cutters through fuel modification. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Plank, G.; Weidner, F.

    1981-09-01

    A review of all pertinent and available literature on the use of blended fuel and water-in-fuel emulsions in marine power plants was accomplished with special attention paid to the use of this technique with gas turbines. Telephone contact was made with the engineering officers on all of the available (in-port) 'Hamilton Class' cutters and 'Polar Class' icebreakers to determine the operating schedules of the gas turbines on these vessels as well as fuel consumption and maintenance history. The opinions of the engineering officers were solicited with respect to any special problems which may exist, either with the hardware or operations of the vessels that would act to prevent or impede the use of a water-in-fuel emulsion. A cost/benefit analysis was performed for the case of a blended fuel for the diesels and a water-in-blended fuel emulsion for the gas turbines.

  16. Aviation Education Services and Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Aviation Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    Developed by the Aviation Education Staff of the Office of General Aviation Affairs, this document identifies sources of teaching materials. Included in this resource guide is information pertaining to: (1) films and filmstrips, (2) aviation education workshops, (3) career opportunities in aviation, (4) aviation organizations, (5) government…

  17. Mulled coal: A beneficiated coal form for use as a fuel or fuel intermediate. Phase 3, Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    Energy International Corporation (El) was awarded a contract to evaluate a new concept for utilization of the fine coal wetcake produced by many of the physical beneficiation processes now under development. EI proposed development of a stabilized wetcake with properties that would facilitate storage, handling, transport, and subsequent conversion of the material into Coal-Water Fuel (CWF) at the point of use. The effort was performed in three phases. Phase I established the technical feasibility of stabilizing the fine coal ``wetcake`` in a form that can be readily handled and converted into a desired fuel form at the combustion site. The preferred form of stabilized ``wetcake`` was a granular free flowing material with the moisture encapsulated with the fine coal particles. The product was termed Mulled Coal. Phase I results indicated that the Mulled Coal was not only suitable as a CWF intermediate, but also had potential as a solid fuel. Phase II demonstrated the utilization of the Mulled Coal process to store and move fine coal products as a stable ``wetcake.`` Tasks in this phase tested components of the various systems required for storage, handling and combustion of the fine coals. Phase III expanded the technology by: 1. Evaluating Mulled Coal from representative coals from all producing regions in the US. 2. Development of bench-scale tests. 3. Design, construction, and operation of a 1 ton/hr continuous processing unit. 4. Evaluation of the effects of beneficiation. and 5. Developing an estimate of capital and operating costs for commercial units.

  18. Final Report - Effects of Impurities on Fuel Cell Performance and Durability

    SciTech Connect

    Trent Molter

    2012-08-18

    This program is focused on the experimental determination of the effects of key hydrogen side impurities on the performance of PEM fuel cells. Experimental data has been leveraged to create mathematical models that predict the performance of PEM fuel cells that are exposed to specific impurity streams. These models are validated through laboratory experimentation and utilized to develop novel technologies for mitigating the effects of contamination on fuel cell performance. Results are publicly disseminated through papers, conference presentations, and other means.

  19. Alternative fuels for vehicles fleet demonstration program final report. Volume 1: Summary

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-01

    The Alternative Fuels for Vehicles Fleet Demonstration Program (AFV-FDP) was a multiyear effort to collect technical data for use in determining the costs and benefits of alternative-fuel vehicles in typical applications in New York State. During 3 years of collecting data, 7.3 million miles of driving were accumulated, 1,003 chassis-dynamometer emissions tests were performed, 862,000 gallons of conventional fuel were saved, and unique information was developed about garage safety recommendations, vehicle performance, and other topics. Findings are organized by vehicle and fuel type. For light-duty compressed natural gas (CNG) vehicles, technology has evolved rapidly and closed-loop, electronically-controlled fuel systems provide performance and emissions advantages over open-loop, mechanical systems. The best CNG technology produces consistently low tailpipe emissions versus gasoline, and can eliminate evaporative emissions. Reduced driving range remains the largest physical drawback. Fuel cost is low ($/Btu) but capital costs are high, indicating that economics are best with vehicles that are used intensively. Propane produces impacts similar to CNG and is less expensive to implement, but fuel cost is higher than gasoline and safety codes limit use in urban areas. Light-duty methanol/ethanol vehicles provide performance and emissions benefits over gasoline with little impact on capital costs, but fuel costs are high. Heavy-duty CNG engines are evolving rapidly and provide large reductions in emissions versus diesel. Capital costs are high for CNG buses and fuel efficiency is reduced, but the fuel is less expensive and overall operating costs are about equal to those of diesel buses. Methanol buses provide performance and emissions benefits versus diesel, but fuel costs are high. Other emerging technologies were also evaluated, including electric vehicles, hybrid-electric vehicles, and fuel cells.

  20. Final Report: Contractor Readiness Assessment (CRA) for TREAT Fuel Movement and Control Rod Drives Isolation

    SciTech Connect

    Rowsell, David Leon

    2015-06-01

    This report documents the Contractor Readiness Assessment (CRA) for TREAT Fuel Movement and Control Rod Drives Isolation. The review followed the approved Plan of Action (POA) and Implementation Plan (IP) using the identified core requirements. The activity was limited scope focusing on the control rod drives functional isolation and fuel element movement. The purpose of this review is to ensure the facility's readiness to move fuel elements thus supporting inspection and functionally isolate the control rod drives to maintain the required shutdown margin.

  1. Improved electrolytes for fuel cells. Final report, June 16, 1988--June 15, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Gard, G.L.; Roe, D.K.

    1991-06-01

    Present day fuel cells based upon hydrogen and oxygen have limited performance due to the use of phosphoric acid as an electrolyte. Improved performance is desirable in electrolyte conductivity, electrolyte management, oxygen solubility, and the kinetics of the reduction of oxygen. Attention has turned to fluorosulfonic acids as additives or substitute electrolytes to improve fuel cell performance. The purpose of this project is to synthesize and electrochemically evaluate new fluorosulfonic acids as superior alternatives to phosphoric acid in fuel cells. (VC)

  2. ALTERNATIVE FUELS AND CHEMICALS FROM SYNTHESIS GAS. FINAL QUARTERLY STATUS REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    1999-04-01

    The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

  3. Investigation of low-cost LNG vehicle fuel tank concepts. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    O`Brien, J.E.; Siahpush, A.

    1998-02-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate development of a low-cost liquid natural gas (LNG) vehicle fuel storage tank with low fuel boil-off, low tank pressure, and high safety margin. One of the largest contributors to the cost of converting a vehicle to LNG is the cost of the LNG fuel tank. To minimize heat leak from the surroundings into the low-temperature fuel, these tanks are designed as cryogenic dewars with double walls separated by an evacuated insulation space containing multi-layer insulation. The cost of these fuel tanks is driven by this double-walled construction, both in terms of materials and labor. The primary focus of the analysis was to try to devise a fuel tank concept that would allow for the elimination of the double-wall requirement. Results of this study have validated the benefit of vacuum/MLI insulation for LNG fuel tanks and the difficulty in identifying viable alternatives. The thickness of a non-vacuum insulation layer would have to be unreasonably large to achieve an acceptable non-venting hold time. Reasonable hold times could be achieved by using an auxiliary tank to accept boil-off vapor from a non-vacuum insulated primary tank, if the vapor in the auxiliary tank can be stored at high pressure. The primary focus of the analysis was to try to devise a fuel tank concept that allowed for the elimination of the double-wall requirement. Thermodynamic relations were developed for analyzing the fuel tank transient response to heat transfer, venting of vapor, and out-flow of either vapor or liquid. One of the major costs associated with conversion of a vehicle to LNG fuel is the cost of the LNG fuel tank. The cost of these tanks is driven by the cryogenic nature of the fuel and by the fundamental design requirements of long non-venting hold times and low storage pressure.

  4. ALTERNATIVE FUELS AND CHEMICALS FROM SYNTHESIS GAS. FINAL QUARTERLY STATUS REPORT NO. 10

    SciTech Connect

    1998-11-01

    The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

  5. Alternative fuels for vehicles fleet demonstration program. Final report, volume 2: Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    The Alternative Fuels for Vehicles Fleet Demonstration Program (AFV-FDP) was a multiyear effort to collect technical data for use in determining the costs and benefits of alternative-fuel vehicles (AFVs) in typical applications in New York State. This report, Volume 2, includes 13 appendices to Volume 1 that expand upon issues raised therein. Volume 1 provides: (1) Information about the purpose and scope of the AFV-FDP; (2) A summary of AFV-FDP findings organized on the basis of vehicle type and fuel type; (3) A short review of the status of AFV technology development, including examples of companies in the State that are active in developing AFVs and AFV components; and (4) A brief overview of the status of AFV deployment in the State. Volume 3 provides expanded reporting of AFV-FDP technical details, including the complete texts of the brochure Garage Guidelines for Alternative Fuels and the technical report Fleet Experience Survey Report, plus an extensive glossary of AFV terminology. The appendices cover a wide range of issues including: emissions regulations in New York State; production and health effects of ozone; vehicle emissions and control systems; emissions from heavy-duty engines; reformulated gasoline; greenhouse gases; production and characteristics of alternative fuels; the Energy Policy Act of 1992; the Clean Fuel Fleet Program; garage design guidelines for alternative fuels; surveys of fleet managers using alternative fuels; taxes on conventional and alternative fuels; and zero-emission vehicle technology.

  6. Evaluation of fuel-cell technology for Coast Guard applications. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Barrett, T.J.

    1988-10-01

    Recent proposals and the literature show promise of fuel cells being commercially available in the next decade. We searched the literature to determine the current state of fuel-cell technology, to determine if fuel cells can be used by the U.S. Coast Guard, and to make proposals for possible research and development efforts by the Coast Guard. Alkaline and phosphoric acid fuel cell technologies are now technically capable of full scale commercial production. Molten-carbonate and solid-oxide fuel-cell technologies should be commercially produced within the next decade. Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell (PAFC) technology is the most promising for Coast Guard use. However, there is no operational need for fuel cells at present and high capital costs and low-energy prices make them economically noncompetitive. We suggest three areas of R D to prepare for changes in operational needs or energy economics. They are: operation of a 200-kW PAFC cogeneration plant to gain fuel-cell experience; development of low-maintenance/high availability PAFC system for remote power; and development of fuel cells for or aircraft propulsion in case there is a strategic crisis in petroleum-distillate supplies.

  7. Combustion characteristics of dry coal-powder-fueled adiabatic diesel engine: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kakwani, R.M.; Kamo, R.

    1989-01-01

    This report describes the progress and findings of a research program aimed at investigating the combustion characteristics of dry coal powder fueled diesel engine. During this program, significant achievements were made in overcoming many problems facing the coal-powder-fueled engine. The Thermal Ignition Combustion System (TICS) concept was used to enhance the combustion of coal powder fuel. The major coal-fueled engine test results and accomplishments are as follows: design, fabrication and engine testing of improved coal feed system for fumigation of coal powder to the intake air; design, fabrication and engine testing of the TICS chamber made from a superalloy material (Hastelloy X); design, fabrication and engine testing of wear resistant chrome oxide ceramic coated piston rings and cylinder liner; lubrication system was improved to separate coal particles from the contaminated lubricating oil; control of the ignition timing of fumigated coal powder by utilizing exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and variable TICS chamber temperature; coal-fueled engine testing was conducted in two configurations: dual fuel (with diesel pilot) and 100% coal-fueled engine without diesel pilot or heated intake air; cold starting of the 100% coal-powder-fueled engine with a glow plug; and coal-fueled-engine was operated from 800 to 1800 rpm speed and idle to full load engine conditions.

  8. Coal-liquid fuel/diesel engine operating compatibility. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, J.G.; Martin, F.W.

    1983-09-01

    This work is intended to assess the possibilities of using coal-derived liquids (CDL) represented by a specific type (SRC II) and shale-derived distillate fuel in blends of petroleum-derived fuels in medium-speed, high-output, heavy-duty diesel engines. Conclusions are as follows: (1) Blends of solvent refined coal and diesel fuel may be handled safely by experienced diesel engine mechanics. (2) A serious corrosion problem was found in the fuel pump parts when operating with solvent refined coal blended with petroleum. It is expected that a metallurgy change can overcome this problem. (3) Proper selection of materials for the fuel system is required to permit handling coal-derived liquid fuels. (4) A medium speed, high horsepower, 4-cycle diesel engine can be operated on blends of solvent refined coal and petroleum without serious consequences save the fuel system corrosion previously mentioned. This is based on a single, short durability test. (5) As represented by the product evaluated, 100% shale-derived distillate fuel may be used in a medium speed, high horsepower, 4-cycle diesel engine without significant consequences. (6) The shale product evaluated may be blended with petroleum distillate or petroleum residual materials and used as a fuel for medium speed, high horsepower, 4-cycle diesel engines. 7 references, 24 figures, 20 tables.

  9. Supply Chain Based Solution to Prevent Fuel Tax Evasion: Proof of Concept Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Capps, Gary J; Lascurain, Mary Beth; Franzese, Oscar; Earl, Dennis Duncan; West, David L; McIntyre, Timothy J; Chin, Shih-Miao; Hwang, Ho-Ling; Connatser, Raynella M; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur; Moore, Sheila A

    2011-12-01

    The goal of this research was to provide a proof-of-concept (POC) system for preventing non-taxable (non-highway diesel use) or low-taxable (jet fuel) petrochemical products from being blended with taxable fuel products and preventing taxable fuel products from cross-jurisdiction evasion. The research worked to fill the need to validate the legitimacy of individual loads, offloads, and movements by integrating and validating, on a near-real-time basis, information from global positioning system (GPS), valve sensors, level sensors, and fuel-marker sensors.

  10. Ultralean combustion in general aviation piston engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chirivella, J. E.

    1979-01-01

    The role of ultralean combustion in achieving fuel economy in general aviation piston engines was investigated. The aircraft internal combustion engine was reviewed with regard to general aviation requirements, engine thermodynamics and systems. Factors affecting fuel economy such as those connected with an ideal leanout to near the gasoline lean flammability limit (ultralean operation) were analyzed. A Lycoming T10-541E engine was tested in that program (both in the test cell and in flight). Test results indicate that hydrogen addition is not necessary to operate the engine ultralean. A 17 percent improvement in fuel economy was demonstrated in flight with the Beechcraft Duke B60 by simply leaning the engine at constant cruiser power and adjusting the ignition for best timing. No detonation was encountered, and a 25,000 ft ceiling was available. Engine roughness was shown to be the limiting factor in the leanout.

  11. Application of propfan propulsion to general aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Awker, R. W.

    1986-01-01

    Recent studies of advanced propfan propulsion systems have shown significant reductions in fuel consumption of 15-30 percent for transport class aircraft. This paper presents the results of a study which examined applying propfan propulsion to General Aviation class aircraft to determine if similar improvements could be achieved for business aircraft. In addition to the potential performance gains, this paper also addresses the cost aspects of propfan propulsion on General Aviation aircraft emphasizing the significant impact that the cost of capital and tax aspects have on determining the total cost of operation for business aircraft.

  12. Diesel fuel component contribution to engine emissions and performance. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Erwin, J.; Ryan, T.W. III; Moulton, D.S.

    1994-11-01

    Contemporary diesel fuel is a blend of several refinery streams chosen to meet specifications. The need to increase yield of transportation fuel from crude oil has resulted in converting increased proportions of residual oil to lighter products. This conversion is accomplished by thermal, catalytic, and hydrocracking of high molecular weight materials rich in aromatic compounds. The current efforts to reformulate California diesel fuel for reduced emissions from existing engines is an example of another driving force affecting refining practice: regulations designed to reduce exhaust emissions. Although derived from petroleum crude oil, reformulated diesel fuel is an alternative to current specification-grade diesel fuel, and this alternative presents opportunities and questions to be resolved by fuel and engine research. Various concerned parties have argued that regulations for fuel reformulation have not been based on an adequate data base. Despite numerous studies, much ambiguity remains about the relationship of exhaust parameters to fuel composition, particularly for diesel fuel. In an effort to gather pertinent data, the automobile industry and the oil refiners have joined forces in the Air Quality Improvement Research Program (AUTO/OIL) to address this question for gasoline. The objective of that work is to define the relationship between gasoline composition and the magnitude and composition of the exhaust emissions. The results of the AUTO/OEL program will also be used, along with other data bases, to define the EPA {open_quotes}complex model{close_quotes} for reformulated gasolines. Valuable insights have been gained for compression ignition engines in the Coordinating Research Council`s VE-1 program, but no program similar to AUTO/OIL has been started for diesel fuel reformulation. A more detailed understanding of the fuel/performance relationship is a readily apparent need.

  13. The NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    This is the fourteenth in a series of reports based on safety-related incidents submitted to the NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System by pilots, controllers, and, occasionally, other participants in the National Aviation System (refs. 1-13). ASRS operates under a memorandum of agreement between the National Aviation and Space Administration and the Federal Aviation Administration. The report contains, first, a special study prepared by the ASRS Office Staff, of pilot- and controller-submitted reports related to the perceived operation of the ATC system since the 1981 walkout of the controllers' labor organization. Next is a research paper analyzing incidents occurring while single-pilot crews were conducting IFR flights. A third section presents a selection of Alert Bulletins issued by ASRS, with the responses they have elicited from FAA and others concerned. Finally, the report contains a list of publications produced by ASRS with instructions for obtaining them.

  14. Production of liquid fuels and chemicals by microalgae. Final subcontract report

    SciTech Connect

    Weissman, J.C.; Goebel, R.P.

    1985-03-01

    An overall objective of the project was to conceptually determine if simple open pond systems have application for the production of fuels from microalgae. To demonstrate the overall objective, work concentrated on showing the potential microalgal yields that are possible from an open pond system on a sustained basis. Furthermore, problems associated with this experimental system were documented and reported so that future endeavors shall benefit. Finally, operational costs were documented to permit preliminary economic analysis of the system. The major conclusions of this project can be summarized as follows: (1) Using two wildtype species in northern California a yearly average productivity of 15 gm/m/sup 2//day, or 24 tons/acre/yr can be obtained in water with TDS = 4 to 8 ppt. (2) This can probably be increased to 20 to 25 gm/m/sup 2//day or 32 to 40 tons/acre/y in southern California. (3) Productivity can probably be further increased by using competitive strains screened for low respiration rates, tolerances to high levels of dissolved oxygen, broad temperature optima, and resistance to photoinhibition. (4) In systems with randomized, turbulent mixing, productivity is independent of channel velocity at least for productivities up to 25 to 30 gm/m/sup 2//day and velocities from 1 to 30 cm/sec. (5) Storage product induction requires one to three days of growth in batch mode under n-depleted conditions. (6) Critical cost centers include CO/sub 2/ input, harvesting and system capital cost. (7) Media recycling, necessary for water conservation, has no adverse effects, at least in the short term for strains which do not excrete organics, and when the harvesting method is at least moderately effective for all algal forms which may be present. 8 refs., 28 figs., 56 tabs.

  15. Solid oxide fuel cell processing using plasma arc spray deposition techniques. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Ray, E.R.; Spengler, C.J.; Herman, H.

    1991-07-01

    The Westinghouse Electric Corporation, in conjunction with the Thermal Spray Laboratory of the State University of New York, Stony Brook, investigated the fabrication of a gas-tight interconnect layer on a tubular solid oxide fuel cell with plasma arc spray deposition. The principal objective was to determine the process variables for the plasma spray deposition of an interconnect with adequate electrical conductivity and other desired properties. Plasma arc spray deposition is a process where the coating material in powder form is heated to or above its melting temperature, while being accelerated by a carrier gas stream through a high power electric arc. The molten powder particles are directed at the substrate, and on impact, form a coating consisting of many layers of overlapping, thin, lenticular particles or splats. The variables investigated were gun power, spray distance, powder feed rate, plasma gas flow rates, number of gun passes, powder size distribution, injection angle of powder into the plasma plume, vacuum or atmospheric plasma spraying, and substrate heating. Typically, coatings produced by both systems showed bands of lanthanum rich material and cracking with the coating. Preheating the substrate reduced but did not eliminate internal coating cracking. A uniformly thick, dense, adherent interconnect of the desired chemistry was finally achieved with sufficient gas- tightness to allow fabrication of cells and samples for measurement of physical and electrical properties. A cell was tested successfully at 1000{degree}C for over 1,000 hours demonstrating the mechanical, electrical, and chemical stability of a plasma-arc sprayed interconnect layer.

  16. The production of fuels and chemicals from food processing wastes & cellulosics. Final research report

    SciTech Connect

    Dale, M.C.; Okos, M.; Burgos, N.

    1997-06-15

    High strength food wastes of about 15-20 billion pounds solids are produced annually by US food producers. Low strength food wastes of 5-10 billion pounds/yr. are produced. Estimates of the various components of these waste streams are shown in Table 1. Waste paper/lignocellulosic crops could produce 2 to 5 billion gallons of ethanol per year or other valuable chemicals. Current oil imports cost the US about $60 billion dollars/yr. in out-going balance of trade costs. Many organic chemicals that are currently derived from petroleum can be produced through fermentation processes. Petroleum based processes have been preferred over biotechnology processes because they were typically cheaper, easier, and more efficient. The technologies developed during the course of this project are designed to allow fermentation based chemicals and fuels to compete favorably with petroleum based chemicals. Our goals in this project have been to: (1) develop continuous fermentation processes as compared to batch operations; (2) combine separation of the product with the fermentation, thus accomplishing the twin goals of achieving a purified product from a fermentation broth and speeding the conversion of substrate to product in the fermentation broth; (3) utilize food or cellulosic waste streams which pose a current cost or disposal problem as compared to high cost grains or sugar substrates; (4) develop low energy recovery methods for fermentation products; and finally (5) demonstrate successful lab scale technologies on a pilot/production scale and try to commercialize the processes. The scale of the wastes force consideration of {open_quotes}bulk commodity{close_quotes} type products if a high fraction of the wastes are to be utilized.

  17. DEMONSTRATION OF FUEL CELLS TO RECOVER ENERGY FROM LANDFILL GAS - PHASE I FINAL REPORT: CONCEPTUAL STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses results of a conceptual design, cost, and evaluation study of energy recovery from landfill gas using a commercial phosphoric acid fuel cell power plant. The conceptual design of the fuel cell energy recovery system is described, and its economic and environm...

  18. Study of the feasibility and desirability of using motor fuel dyes and markers. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1993-08-27

    This study includes a review of experience with the use of dyes and markers, an assessment of the benefits and costs associated with implementing a nationwide standard of motor fuel dyes and markers, and an evaluation of alternative means to achieve similar benefits in consumer fraud prevention and motor fuel tax enforcement.

  19. [Fuel substitution of vehicles by natural gas: Summaries of four final technical reports

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    This report contains summary information on three meetings and highlights of a fourth meeting held by the Society of Automotive Engineers on natural gas fueled vehicles. The meetings covered the following: Natural gas engine and vehicle technology; Safety aspects of alternately fueled vehicles; Catalysts and emission control--Meeting the legislative standards; and LNG--Strengthening the links.

  20. Alternative Fuel Transit Buses: DART's (Dallas Area Rapid Transit) LNG Bus Fleet Final Results

    SciTech Connect

    Chandler, K.; Norton, P.; Clark, N.

    2000-11-07

    In 1998, Dallas Area Rapid Transit, a public transit agency in Dallas, Texas, began operating a large fleet of heavy-duty buses powered by liquefied natural gas. As part of a $16 million commitment to alternative fuels, DART operates 139 LNG buses serviced by two new LNG fueling stations.

  1. Final Report on Two-Stage Fast Spectrum Fuel Cycle Options

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Won Sik; Lin, C. S.; Hader, J. S.; Park, T. K.; Deng, P.; Yang, G.; Jung, Y. S.; Kim, T. K.; Stauff, N. E.

    2016-01-30

    This report presents the performance characteristics of two “two-stage” fast spectrum fuel cycle options proposed to enhance uranium resource utilization and to reduce nuclear waste generation. One is a two-stage fast spectrum fuel cycle option of continuous recycle of plutonium (Pu) in a fast reactor (FR) and subsequent burning of minor actinides (MAs) in an accelerator-driven system (ADS). The first stage is a sodium-cooled FR fuel cycle starting with low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel; at the equilibrium cycle, the FR is operated using the recovered Pu and natural uranium without supporting LEU. Pu and uranium (U) are co-extracted from the discharged fuel and recycled in the first stage, and the recovered MAs are sent to the second stage. The second stage is a sodium-cooled ADS in which MAs are burned in an inert matrix fuel form. The discharged fuel of ADS is reprocessed, and all the recovered heavy metals (HMs) are recycled into the ADS. The other is a two-stage FR/ADS fuel cycle option with MA targets loaded in the FR. The recovered MAs are not directly sent to ADS, but partially incinerated in the FR in order to reduce the amount of MAs to be sent to the ADS. This is a heterogeneous recycling option of transuranic (TRU) elements

  2. General aviation energy-conservation research programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willis, E. A.

    1978-01-01

    A review is presented of nonturbine general aviation engine programs underway at the NASA-Lewis Research Center. The program encompasses conventional, lightweight diesel, and rotary engines. Its three major thrusts are: (1) reduced SFC's; (2) improved fuels tolerance; and (3) reducing emissions. Current and planned future programs in such areas as lean operation, improved fuel management, advanced cooling techniques, and advanced engine concepts, are described. These are expected to lay the technology base, by the mid to latter 1980's, for engines whose total fuel costs are as much as 30% lower than today's conventional engines.

  3. German approaches to closing the nuclear fuel cycle and final disposal of HLW

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, J. I.; Gompper, K. D.; Closs, K. D.; Kessler, G.; Faude, D.

    1996-10-01

    The paper describes the present situation of the German approach to closing the nuclear fuel cycle and the disposal concept for high level waste (HLW), either waste from reprocessing or spent fuel. The first part of the paper deals with the spent fuel generation from a 22 GWe scenario, comparing especially the anticipated plutonium inventories after different fuel burnup and its amounts in HLW for disposal with and without recycling. The second part comprises the geological disposal concept of HLW, either as spent fuel or vitrified high level waste from reprocessing, in a salt formation in Gorleben. The third part includes an approach to safety assessment of the HLW repository for the post-operational period by applying a multibarrier concept that covers the appraisal of the geochemical and migration behaviour of long-lived radionuclides in given aquifer systems.

  4. Silicon Based Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Chip for Portable Consumer Electronics -- Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Alan Ludwiszewski

    2009-06-29

    LSI’s fuel cell uses efficient Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (“SOFC”) technology, is manufactured using Micro Electrical Mechanical System (“MEMS”) fabrication methods, and runs on high energy fuels, such as butane and ethanol. The company’s Fuel Cell on a Chip™ technology enables a form-factor battery replacement for portable electronic devices that has the potential to provide an order-of-magnitude run-time improvement over current batteries. Further, the technology is clean and environmentally-friendly. This Department of Energy funded project focused on accelerating the commercialization and market introduction of this technology through improvements in fuel cell chip power output, lifetime, and manufacturability.

  5. Transit-bus fuel economy and performance simulation. Final report, October 1982-February 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Zub, R.

    1984-10-01

    This paper addresses the simulation element of the Urban Mass Transportation Administration's Fuel Economy Program. More specifically, it addresses the development of fuel economy and performance sensitivity information on standard-size transit vehicles using the Heavy-Duty Vehicle Simulation (HEVSIM) Program. HEVSIM provides fuel consumption and performance estimates of a specified bus as it executes a given driving schedule. This report presents the results of bus simulation studies which determined the effects of various design and operating parameters on bus fuel economy and performance. The bus components are first described in terms of how they are modeled. Then a variation of each component is performed and the resulting fuel economy and performance are presented as sensitivities and tradeoffs.

  6. Effects of coal-derived trace species on performance of molten carbonate fuel cells. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-01

    The Carbonate Fuel Cell is a very promising option for highly efficient generation of electricity from many fuels. If coal-gas is to be used, the interactions of coal-derived impurities on various fuel cell components need to be understood. Thus the effects on Carbonate Fuel Cell performance due to ten different coal-derived contaminants viz., NH{sub 3}, H{sub 2}S, HC{ell}, H{sub 2}Se, AsH{sub 3}, Zn, Pb, Cd, Sn, and Hg, have been studied at Energy Research Corporation. Both experimental and theoretical evaluations were performed, which have led to mechanistic insights and initial estimation of qualitative tolerance levels for each species individually and in combination with other species. The focus of this study was to investigate possible coal-gas contaminant effects on the anode side of the Carbonate Fuel Cell, using both out-of-cell thermogravimetric analysis by isothermal TGA, and fuel cell testing in bench-scale cells. Separate experiments detailing performance decay in these cells with high levels of ammonia contamination (1 vol %) and with trace levels of Cd, Hg, and Sn, have indicated that, on the whole, these elements do not affect carbonate fuel cell performance. However, some performance decay may result when a number of the other six species are present, singly or simultaneously, as contaminants in fuel gas. In all cases, tolerance levels have been estimated for each of the 10 species and preliminary models have been developed for six of them. At this stage the models are limited to isothermal, benchscale (300 cm{sup 2} size) single cells. The information obtained is expected to assist in the development of coal-gas cleanup systems, while the contaminant performance effects data will provide useful basic information for modeling fuel cell endurance in conjunction with integrated gasifier/fuel-cell systems (IGFC).

  7. 76 FR 79051 - Airworthiness Directives; Lycoming Engines, Fuel Injected Reciprocating Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-21

    ...-AD; Amendment 39-16894; AD 2011-26-04] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Lycoming Engines, Fuel Injected Reciprocating Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule... reciprocating engines manufactured by Lycoming Engines. That AD currently requires inspection, replacement...

  8. Industrial fuel gas plant project. Phase II. Memphis industrial fuel gas plant. Final report. [U-GAS process

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    The Industrial Fuel Gas Plant produces a nominal 50 billion Btu/day of product gas. The entire IFG production will be sold to MLGW. Under normal conditions, 20% of the output of the plant will be sold by MLGW to the local MAPCO refinery and exchanged for pipeline quality refinery gas. The MAPCO refinery gas will be inserted into the Memphis Natural Gas Distribution System. A portion (normally 10%) of the IFG output of the plant will be diverted to a Credit Generation Unit, owned by MLGW, where the IFG will be upgraded to pipeline quality (950 Btu/SCF). This gas will be inserted into MLGW's Natural Gas Distribution System. The remaining output of the IFG plant (gas with a gross heating value of 300 Btu/SCF) will be sold by MLGW as Industrial Fuel Gas. During periods when the IFG plant is partially or totally off-stream, natural gas from the Memphis Natural Gas Distribution System will be sent to an air mixing unit where the gas will be diluted to a medium Btu content and distributed to the IFG customers. Drawing 2200-1-50-00104 is the plant block flow diagram showing the process sequence and process related support facilities of this industrial plant. Each process unit as well as each process-related support facility is described briefly.

  9. Field Demonstration of Aviation Turbine Fuel MIL-T-83133C, Grade JP-8 (NATO Code F-34), at Fort Bliss, TX

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-09-01

    Research Facility (SwRI) Southwest Research Institute San Antonio, Texas Under Contract to U.S. Army Belvoir Research, Development and Engineering Center...DAAK70-87-C-0043 for the period 1 February 1989 through 30 September 1991. Work was funded by the U.S. Army Belvoir Research, Development and...Organization Standardization Agreement (i.e., NATO STANAG 4362) entitled "Fuel Requirements in Future Ground Equipment," which was developed in

  10. An Exploratory Research and Development Program Leading to Specifications for Aviation Turbine Fuel from Whole Crude Shale Oil. Part II. Process Variable Analyses and Laboratory Sample Production.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-01

    comprises moderate severity hydrotreating, fractionation, anhydrous HC1 extraction and hydrocracking. Plant capacities and product yields were not... Anhydrous Hydrogen Chloride Extraction Units - JP-8 Operation 36 12 Maximum JP-4 - Operating Conditions for Gas Oil HYdrocracker 37 13 Material Balance...DI4F nn-Dimethylformamide ix LIST OF SYMBOLS AND ABBREVIATIONS (Cont’d.) FOE Fuel Oil Equivalent H2 Hydrogen Gas HCl Anhydrous Hydrogen Chloride HP Sep

  11. An Exploratory Research and Development Program Leading to Specifications for Aviation Turbine Fuel from Whole Crude Shale Oil. Part I. Preliminary Process Analyses.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-01

    Hydrotreated Paraho Shale Oil 24 8 Simplified Flow Diagram of Anhydrous HCl Treating Plant for Processing Hydrotreated Paraho Shale 01 25 9 Simplified Flow...LIST OF SYMBOLS AND ABBREVIATIONS (Cont’d.) FOE Fuel Oil Equivalent H2 Hydrogen Gas HCl Anhydrous Hydrogen Chloride HP Sep High Pressure Separator... anhydrous HC1 can form the hydrochloride salt of either one or both of the nitrogen containing compounds. C5 H1 1 112 + HC ( anhydrous ) - . C5H11 NH2

  12. Rapid Response Research and Development (R&D) for the Aerospace Systems Directorate. Delivery Order 0021: Engineering Research and Technical Analyses of Advanced Airbreathing Propulsion Fuels, Subtask: Fit-for-Purpose (FFP) and Dynamic Seal Testing of Alternative Aviation Fuels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-01

    High Frequency Reciprocating Rig HRJ Hydroprocessed Renewable Jet Hz Hertz ID Ignition Delay IPK Iso -Paraffinic Kerosene IQTTM Ignition Quality ...RESEARCH DIVISION ISO 9001 CERTIFIED ISO 14001 CERTIFIED 247 Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. 248 Approved for public...JAMES T. EDWARDS MIGUEL A. MALDONADO, Chief Program Manager Fuels and Energy Branch Fuels and Energy Branch Turbine Engine Division Turbine

  13. FAA Aviation Forecasts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-02-01

    General Aviation .... ....... 110 General Economic Growth .......... .................. 110 Cost Factors ..................................... 110...General Aviation Aircraft Cost Indices ......... .. 261 -ii i Table of Contents (Continued) Page Appendix H: FAA Towered Airports...to GNP Growth (Constant Dollars) ..... 22 Commercial Air Carriers U.S. Air Carrier Revenue and Cost Trends .... ............... .28 Industry Operating

  14. Aviation Instructor's Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Aviation Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    This handbook is designed for ground instructors, flight instructors, and aviation maintenance instructors, providing beginning instructors the foundation to understand and apply fundamentals of instruction. The handbook also provides aviation instructors with up-to-date information on learning and teaching, and how to relate this information to…

  15. NASA and general aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ethell, J. L.

    1986-01-01

    General aviation remains the single most misunderstood sector of aeronautics in the United States. A detailed look at how general aviation functions and how NASA helps keep it on the cutting edge of technology in airfoils, airframes, commuter travel, environmental concerns, engines, propellers, air traffic control, agricultural development, electronics, and safety is given.

  16. Development of an advanced JP-8 fuel. Final report, August 1990-January 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Biddle, T.B.

    1993-12-01

    Technical effort was directed at increasing the design limit of current JP-8 fuel from 325 deg F (163 deg C) to 425 deg F (218 deg C) at the fuel nozzle. The objective was to accomplish this near-term thermal stability goal solely through the use of a fuel soluble additive package. JP-Thermally stable fuel was considered the thermal stability target since it has the high-temperature properties sought from the significantly more economical JP-8 + 100 formulation. The additives were evaluated in an additive-free Jet A considered typical of fuel most likely to be encountered in the field. DuPont JFA-5, currently the only accepted thermally stability improving additive, was considered state of the art and used as a bench mark. Additive manufacturers were surveyed and solicited for candidate additives that had potential for improving fuel thermal oxidative stability. Test methods were developed and/or refined for use in screening additives. Using the Hot Liquid Process Simulator (HLPS) in conjunction with a LECO Carbon Determinator, 152 additives were screened. Additive performance was ranked based on surface carbon and differential pressure. Additional screening was performed using the Isothermal Corrosion Oxidation Test (ICOT). Additives screened included oxygen, sulfur, and nitrogen-type antioxidants; dispersants; detergents; metal deactivators; antifoulants; and proprietary thermal stability improvers. Twenty-seven experimental blends comprised of various additive combinations were tested. Five baseline fuels were evaluated.

  17. Fuel effects on soot formation in turbojet engines. Final report, September 15, 1983-March 14, 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Gill, R.J.; Olson, D.B.

    1985-08-01

    The results of tests on how fuel composition affects the performance of three Navy aircraft engine combustors, the TF30, T56, and T53, were analyzed. The objective of this analysis was to identify which fuel property best correlated with the smoke-related measurements: radiation flux, liner temperature rise, smoke number, and smoke emissions. The effects of fuel composition were investigated by using a series of ten Naval Air Propulsion Center jet fuels with various properties, such as hydrogen contents of 12.83 to 13.82% and total aromatic hydrocarbon contents of 15.9 to 28.5%. Several laboratory combustion characteristics of these fuels were measured and these characteristics were used in analysis. Altogether, 15 fuel parameters were used to correlate the 45 combustor test results. The reported operating conditions of the tests, such as inlet air pressure, inlet air temperature, or fuel/air ratio, were also used as correlating parameters to determine whether variations in these variables, nearly constant for individual tests, also affected the smoke-related test results.

  18. Final Environmental Assessment for the Disposal of the Former Lynn Haven Fuel Depot, Tyndall Air Force Base, Florida

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    Lynn Haven Fuel Depot Final Environmental Assessment December 2015 viii ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS ACM Asbestos Containing Material AFB...at the site. Other environmental considerations for the property include the presence of lead-based paint and asbestos containing materials in some...Pirnie, 2009). 3.3.7.1.1 Asbestos Asbestos management at Air Force installations is established in Air Force Instruction (AFI) 32-1052, Facility

  19. Final Technical Report, Oct 2004 - Nov. 2006, High Performance Flexible Reversible Solid Oxide Fuel Cell

    SciTech Connect

    Guan, Jie; Minh, Nguyen

    2007-02-21

    This report summarizes the work performed for the program entitled “High Performance Flexible Reversible Solid Oxide Fuel Cell” under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC36-04GO14351 for the U. S. Department of Energy. The overall objective of this project is to demonstrate a single modular stack that generates electricity from a variety of fuels (hydrogen and other fuels such as biomass, distributed natural gas, etc.) and when operated in the reverse mode, produces hydrogen from steam. This project has evaluated and selected baseline cell materials, developed a set of materials for oxygen and hydrogen electrodes, and optimized electrode microstructures for reversible solid oxide fuel cells (RSOFCs); and demonstrated the feasibility and operation of a RSOFC multi-cell stack. A 10-cell reversible SOFC stack was operated over 1000 hours alternating between fuel cell (with hydrogen and methane as fuel) and steam electrolysis modes. The stack ran very successfully with high power density of 480 mW/cm2 at 0.7V and 80% fuel utilization in fuel cell mode and >6 SLPM hydrogen production in steam electrolysis mode using about 1.1 kW electrical power. The hydrogen generation is equivalent to a specific capability of 2.59 Nm3/m2 with electrical energy demand of 3 kWh/Nm3. The performance stability in electrolysis mode was improved vastly during the program with a degradation rate reduction from 8000 to 200 mohm-cm2/1000 hrs. This was accomplished by increasing the activity and improving microstructure of the oxygen electrode. Both cost estimate and technology assessment were conducted. Besides the flexibility running under both fuel cell mode and electrolysis mode, the reversible SOFC system has the potentials for low cost and high efficient hydrogen production through steam electrolysis. The cost for hydrogen production at large scale was estimated at ~$2.7/kg H2, comparing favorably with other electrolysis techology.

  20. Status and future opportunities for conversion of synthesis gas to liquid energy fuels: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Mills, G

    1993-05-01

    The manufacture of liquid energy fuels from syngas (a mixture of H{sub 2} and CO, usually containing CO{sub 2}) is of growing importance and enormous potential because: (1) Abundant US supplies of coal, gas, and biomass can be used to provide the needed syngas. (2) The liquid fuels produced, oxygenates or hydrocarbons, can help lessen environmental pollution. Indeed, oxygenates are required to a significant extent by the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990. (3) Such liquid synfuels make possible high engine efficiencies because they have high octane or cetane ratings. (4) There is new, significantly improved technology for converting syngas to liquid fuels and promising opportunities for further improvements. This is the subject of this report. The purpose of this report is to provide an account and evaluative assessment of advances in the technology for producing liquid energy fuels from syngas and to suggest opportunities for future research deemed promising for practical processes. Much of the improved technology for selective synthesis of desired fuels from syngas has resulted from advances in catalytic chemistry. However, novel process engineering has been particularly important recently, utilizing known catalysts in new configurations to create new catalytic processes. This report is an update of the 1988 study Catalysts for Fuels from Syngas: New Directions for Research (Mills 1988), which is included as Appendix A. Technology for manufacture of syngas is not part of this study. The manufacture of liquid synfuels is capital intensive. Thus, in evaluating advances in fuels technology, focus is on the potential for improved economics, particularly on lowering plant investment costs. A second important criteria is the potential for environmental benefits. The discussion is concerned with two types of hydrocarbon fuels and three types of oxygenate fuels that can be synthesized from syngas. Seven alternative reaction pathways are involved.

  1. Status and future opportunities for conversion of synthesis gas to liquid energy fuels: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Mills, G. . Center for Catalytic Science and Technology)

    1993-05-01

    The manufacture of liquid energy fuels from syngas (a mixture of H[sub 2] and CO, usually containing CO[sub 2]) is of growing importance and enormous potential because: (1) Abundant US supplies of coal, gas, and biomass can be used to provide the needed syngas. (2) The liquid fuels produced, oxygenates or hydrocarbons, can help lessen environmental pollution. Indeed, oxygenates are required to a significant extent by the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990. (3) Such liquid synfuels make possible high engine efficiencies because they have high octane or cetane ratings. (4) There is new, significantly improved technology for converting syngas to liquid fuels and promising opportunities for further improvements. This is the subject of this report. The purpose of this report is to provide an account and evaluative assessment of advances in the technology for producing liquid energy fuels from syngas and to suggest opportunities for future research deemed promising for practical processes. Much of the improved technology for selective synthesis of desired fuels from syngas has resulted from advances in catalytic chemistry. However, novel process engineering has been particularly important recently, utilizing known catalysts in new configurations to create new catalytic processes. This report is an update of the 1988 study Catalysts for Fuels from Syngas: New Directions for Research (Mills 1988), which is included as Appendix A. Technology for manufacture of syngas is not part of this study. The manufacture of liquid synfuels is capital intensive. Thus, in evaluating advances in fuels technology, focus is on the potential for improved economics, particularly on lowering plant investment costs. A second important criteria is the potential for environmental benefits. The discussion is concerned with two types of hydrocarbon fuels and three types of oxygenate fuels that can be synthesized from syngas. Seven alternative reaction pathways are involved.

  2. Evaluation of Exxon Donor Solvent (EDS) coal-derived liquid as utility diesel fuel. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Heater, W.R.; Froh, T.W.; Ariga, S.; Baker, Q.A.; Piispanen, W.; Webb, P.; Trayser, D.; Keane, W.J.

    1983-10-01

    The program consisted of three phases: (I) characterization of the physical and chemical properties of EDS, (II) evaluation of EDS in a laboratory medium-speed diesel engine, and (III) evaluation of EDS in a low-speed diesel engine operating at a utility. The characteristics of high aromatic content and low cetane number that were found during Phase I made it unlikely that EDS could be used as a direct substitute for diesel fuel without engine modification to provide ignition assistance. Phase II was conducted on a 12-cylinder General Electric Company 7FDL diesel engine. Blends of up to 30% EDS and 70% 0.2 diesel fuel (DF-2) were successfully consumed. Dual fuel tests were also conducted on a single cylinder by injecting EDS through the existing engine fuel oil system and injecting DF-2 through an auxiliary nozzle as an ignition source. Acceptable operation was achieved using 5 to 10% pilot oil heat input. Phase III was conducted on a 16-cylinder Cooper-Bessemer LSV-16-GDT diesel engine at an EUC plant in Easton, Maryland. Blends of up to 66.7% EDS and 33.3% DF-2 were successfully consumed. Dual fuel tests were also conducted on a single cylinder by injecting EDS through the existing fuel oil system and using a natural-gas-fueled precombustion chamber as an ignition source. Acceptable operation was achieved using 3 to 6% pilot gas heat input. The program confirmed that it is feasible to consume significant proportions of EDS in a diesel engine, but more development is needed before EDS can be considered a viable alternative liquid fuel for diesel engines, and an industrial hygiene program is needed to assure safe handling of the fuel.

  3. Consumer behavior towards fuel efficient vehicles. Volume I: executive summary. Final report Oct 77-Feb 80

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman, L.; Manski, C.F.; Ginn, J.R.

    1980-02-01

    This report assesses consumer behavior towards fuel-efficient vehicles designed to meet recently mandated federal fuel economy standards. The study involves a comprehensive evaluation of existing nationwide survey data as well as the development of a major new econometric forecasting model of household vehicle type choice. As a result, the report describes both an assessment of consumers' current reported sentiments toward fuel-efficient vehicles and insights into expected future changes in household vehicle purchase behavior in response to changes in vehicle designs and prices, demographics, and the energy environment.

  4. Signatures of Extended Storage of Used Nuclear Fuel Comprehensive Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Rauch, Eric Benton

    2016-09-21

    This report serves as a comprehensive overview of the Extended Storage of Used Nuclear Fuel work performed for the Material Protection, Accounting and Control Technologies campaign under the Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy. This paper describes a signature based on the source and fissile material distribution found within a population of used fuel assemblies combined with the neutron absorbers found within cask design that is unique to a specific cask with its specific arrangement of fuel. The paper describes all the steps used in producing and analyzing this signature from the beginning to the project end.

  5. Engineering evaluation of plant oils as diesel fuel. Final report. Vol. I

    SciTech Connect

    Engler, C.R.; Johnson, L.A.; Lepori, W.A.; Yarbrough, C.M.

    1983-09-13

    This project includes evaluations of cottonseed oils and sunflower oil ethyl esters in both direct injection and precombustion chamber design diesel engines. It is one part of a major research program at Texas A and M University to study the technical feasibility of using plant oils or animal fats as alternative diesel fuels. Goals for the overall program are to define physical and chemical characteristics and optimum processing methods required for high quality alternative diesel fuels from plant or animal oils and to investigate effects of engine design on alternative fuel performance. This report describes work done under the current contract which includes evaluations of cottonseed oils and sunflower oil interesterified with ethanol as alternative diesel fuels. 15 figures, 18 tables.

  6. 2012 Standards for the Renewable Fuel Standard Program: Final Rulemaking Additional Resources

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This regulatory action establishes these annual standards for cellulosic, biomass-based diesel, advanced biofuel, and total renewable fuels that apply to all gasoline and diesel produced or imported in year 2012.

  7. Scholarly research program in fuel analysis and combustion research. Final report, September 1987-September 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Striebich, R.C.

    1993-02-01

    A total of 40 individually funded tasks were performed under this effort. These tasks were concerned with many fuel analysis and combustion research, conducted for the Fuels Branch (WL/POSF), Lubrications Branch (WL/POSL) and other Aero Propulsion and Power Directorate Laboratories. This report is a compilation of 1-2 page summaries from each of the tasks. More information on each task is available in the technical reports, journal articles, letter reports or informal information listed for the project. Although the subjects covered under this contract are too varied to list here, the most often addressed areas were research topics in gas chromatography and related instrumentation, thermal stability testing and methods development, lubrications research and combustion studies.... Chemometrics flames, Fuel analysis, Mass spectrometry, Shelf Life, CARS, Thermal stability, P-Hydrogen detector, Gas chromatography, Atomic emission, High density fuel, System for Thermal Diagnostic Studies (STDS).

  8. Cyclone reburn using coal-water fuel: Pilot-scale development and testing. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Eckhart, C.F.; DeVault, R.F.

    1991-10-01

    There is an ongoing effort to develop retrofit technologies capable of converting oil- and/or gas-fired boilers to coal combustion. The objective of this project is to demonstrate the technical feasibility of an improved portion of a previously developed retrofit system designed for the purpose of converting oil/gas boilers. This improvement would almost entirely eliminate the use of premium fuels, thereby significantly increasing the economical attractiveness of the system. Specifically, the goals in this program were to replace natural gas as a reburning fuel with coal-water fuel (CWF). The advantages of such a system include: (1) increased return on investment (ROI) for conversions; (2) nearly complete elimination of premium oil or gas fuel; (3) a more integrated approach to the conversion of oil- or gas-designed boilers to CWF.

  9. Fuel Cell/Battery Powered Bus System. Final Report for period August 1987 - December 31, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Wimmer, R.

    1999-01-01

    Today, fuel cell systems are getting much attention from the automotive industry as a future replacement for the internal combustion engine (ICE). Every US automobile manufacturer and most foreign firms have major programs underway to develop fuel cell engines for transportation. The objective of this program was to investigate the feasibility of using fuel cells as an alternative to the ICE. Three such vehicles (30-foot buses) were introduced beginning in 1994. Extensive development and operational testing of fuel cell systems as a vehicle power source has been accomplished under this program. The development activity investigated total systems configuration and effectiveness for vehicle operations. Operational testing included vehicle performance testing, road operations, and extensive dynamometer emissions testing.

  10. Final report on accident tolerant fuel performance analysis of APMT-Steel Clad/UO₂ fuel and APMT-Steel Clad/UN-U₃Si₅ fuel concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Unal, Cetin; Galloway, Jack D.

    2014-09-12

    In FY2014 our group completed and documented analysis of new Accident Tolerant Fuel (ATF) concepts using BISON. We have modeled the viability of moving from Zircaloy to stainless steel cladding in traditional light water reactors (LWRs). We have explored the reactivity penalty of this change using the MCNP-based burnup code Monteburns, while attempting to minimize this penalty by increasing the fuel pellet radius and decreasing the cladding thickness. Fuel performance simulations using BISON have also been performed to quantify changes to structural integrity resulting from thinner stainless steel claddings. We account for thermal and irradiation creep, fission gas swelling, thermal swelling and fuel relocation in the models for both Zircaloy and stainless steel claddings. Additional models that account for the lower oxidation stainless steel APMT are also invoked where available. Irradiation data for HT9 is used as a fallback in the absence of appropriate models. In this study the isotopic vectors within each natural element are varied to assess potential reactivity gains if advanced enrichment capabilities were levied towards cladding technologies. Recommendations on cladding thicknesses for a robust cladding as well as the constitutive components of a less penalizing composition are provided. In the first section (section 1-3), we present results accepted for publication in the 2014 TOPFUEL conference regarding the APMT/UO₂ ATF concept (J. Galloway & C. Unal, Accident Tolerant and Neutronically Favorable LWR Cladding, Proceedings of WRFPM 2014, Sendai, Japan, Paper No.1000050). Next we discuss our preliminary findings from the thermo-mechanical analysis of UN-U₃Si₅ fuel with APMT clad. In this analysis we used models developed from limited data that need to be updated when the irradiation data from ATF-1 test is available. Initial results indicate a swelling rate less than 1.5% is needed to prevent excessive clad stress.

  11. Evaluation of anthracite as a coal-water slurry fuel. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-02-01

    This study evaluated the use of anthracite as a coal-water slurry fuel. The study consisted of two major activities: (1) fundamental slurry formulation experiments leading to the production and combustion characteristics investigation of suitable, anthracite slurries, and (2) analytical evaluations of the potential of anthracite slurry as a boiler fuel for new industrial and utility boiler application and for retrofit application of an industrial oil-fired boiler. The study results have shown that anthracite can be readily processed into a coal-water slurry with coal loading 70 wt % coal and 30% water plus chemical additives. Slurry viscosity, handling, and storage characteristics are similar to the bituminous coal-water slurries that are under active commercial development. Commercial anthracite-water slurry processing cost is projected to be only slightly higher than for bituminous coal-water slurry. Combustion testing in a small, industrial, water-tube boiler has shown that stable combustion of anthracite-water slurry can be achieved with high carbon conversion. The results also indicate that oxygen enrichment and secondary fuel firing can compensate for the low volatile content of the anthracite to achieve good combustion. Under the conditions assumed, anthracite-water slurry was not an economical fuel retrofit option for an existing oil-fired, industrial boiler. Contributing significantly to the economic results were the requirement for secondary fuel and oxygen to achieve good anthracite slurry combustion in the oil-designed boiler. Minimizing or eliminating the secondary fuel and oxygen requirements through a continued burner/boiler development program or more radical boiler modification to fire low-volatile fuel would greatly improve conversion economics and likely make anthracite-water slurry a candidate for industrial boiler fuel retrofit. 10 refs., 22 figs., 38 tabs.

  12. Fire-resistant fuel program analysis and program management documentation. Final report, December 1985-January 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Dye, C.A.

    1986-01-31

    There was an urgent need to transition management of the Fire Resistant Fuel (FRF) Program from the Materials Fuels and Lubricants Laboratory (MFLL) to the Logistics Support Directorate (LSD). It is recommended that the LSD develop program management documentation (PMD) that supports a Milestone I review as soon as possible to include the following: System Concept Paper, Concept Formulation Package and a Test Evaluation Master Plan. This report describes programmatic analyses and subsequent programmatic recommendations.

  13. Coal-fueled diesel technology development. Final report, March 3, 1988--January 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1994-01-31

    Since 1979, the US Department of Energy has been sponsoring Research and Development programs to use coal as a fuel for diesel engines. In 1984, under the partial sponsorship of the Burlington Northern and Norfolk Southern Railroads, GE completed a 30-month study on the economic viability of a coal-fueled locomotive. In response to a GE proposal to continue researching the economic and technical feasibility of a coal-fueled diesel engine for locomotives, DOE awarded a contract to GE Corporate Research and Development for a three-year program that began in March 1985 and was completed in 1988. That program was divided into two parts: an Economic Assessment Study and a Technical Feasibility Study. The Economic Assessment Study evaluated the benefits to be derived from development of a coal-fueled diesel engine. Seven areas and their economic impact on the use of coal-fueled diesels were examined; impact on railroad infrastructure, expected maintenance cost, environmental considerations, impact of higher capital costs, railroad training and crew costs, beneficiated coal costs for viable economics, and future cost of money. The Technical Feasibility Study used laboratory- and bench-scale experiments to investigate the combustion of coal. The major accomplishments of this study were the development of injection hardware for coal water slurry (CWS) fuel, successful testing of CWS fuel in a full-size, single-cylinder, medium-speed diesel engine, evaluation of full-scale engine wear rates with metal and ceramic components, and the characterization of gaseous and particulate emissions. Full combustion of CWS fuel was accomplished at full and part load with reasonable manifold conditions.

  14. Low NO/sub x/ Heavy Fuel Combustor Concept Program. Phase I. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Cutrone, M B

    1981-10-01

    Six combustor concepts were designed, fabricated, and underwent a series of combustion tests with the objective of evaluating and developing a combustor capable of meeting US New Source Performance Standards (NSPS), dry, for high-nitrogen liquid fuels. Three rich/lean and three lean/lean two-stage combustors were tested with ERBS distillate, petroleum residual, and SRC-II coal derived liquid (CDL) fuels with fuel-bound nitrogen contents of 0.0054, 0.23, and 0.87 weight percent, respectively. A lean/lean concept was demonstrated with ultralow NO/sub x/ emissions, dry, of 5 gm NO/sub x/kg fuel on ERBS, and NO/sub x/ emissions meeting the NSPS NO/sub x/ standard on residual fuel. This combustor concept met operational goals for pressure drop, smoke, exhaust pattern factor, and combustion efficiency. A rich/lean concept was identified and developed which demonstrated NO/sub x/ emissions approaching the NSPS standards, dry, for all liquid fuels including the 0.87 weight percent nitrogen SRC-II coal-derived liquid. Exhaust pattern factor and pressure drop met or approached goals. Smoke emissions were higher than the program goal. However, a significant improvement was made with only a minor modification of the fuel injector/air swirler system, and further development should result in meeting smoke goals for all fuels. Liner metal temperatures were higher than allowable for commercial application. Conceptual designs for further development of these two rich/lean and lean/lean concepts have been completed which address smoke and metal temperature concerns, and are available for the next phase of this NASA-sponsored, DOE-funded program. Tests of a rich/lean concept, and a catalytic combustor concept using low- and intermediate-Btu simulated coal-derived gases will be completed during the ongoing Phase IA extension of this program.

  15. Final report spent nuclear fuel retrieval system primary cleaning development testing

    SciTech Connect

    Ketner, G.L.; Meeuwsen, P.V.

    1997-09-01

    Developmental testing of the primary cleaning station for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and canisters is reported. A primary clean machine will be used to remove the gross sludge from canisters and fuel while maintaining water quality in the downstream process area. To facilitate SNF separation from canisters and minimize the impact to water quality, all canisters will be subjected to mechanical agitation and flushing with the Primary Clean Station. The Primary Clean Station consists of an outer containment box with an internally mounted, perforated wash basket. A single canister containing up to 14 fuel assemblies will be loaded into the wash basket, the confinement box lid closed, and the wash basket rotated for a fixed cycle time. During this cycle, basin water will be flushed through the wash basket and containment box to remove and entrain the sludge and carry it out of the box. Primary cleaning tests were performed to provide information concerning the removal of sludge from the fuel assemblies while in the basin canisters. The testing was also used to determine if additional fuel cleaning is required outside of the fuel canisters. Hydraulic performance and water demand requirements of the cleaning station were also evaluated. Thirty tests are reported in this document. Tests demonstrated that sludge can be dislodged and suspended sufficiently to remove it from the canister. Examination of fuel elements after cleaning suggested that more than 95% of the exposed fuel surfaces were cleaned so that no visual evidence of remained. As a result of testing, recommendations are made for the cleaning cycle. 3 refs., 16 figs., 4 tabs.

  16. Fuel cell power systems for remote applications. Phase 1 final report and business plan

    SciTech Connect

    1998-02-01

    The goal of the Fuel Cell Power Systems for Remote Applications project is to commercialize a 0.1--5 kW integrated fuel cell power system (FCPS). The project targets high value niche markets, including natural gas and oil pipelines, off-grid homes, yachts, telecommunication stations and recreational vehicles. Phase 1 includes the market research, technical and financial analysis of the fuel cell power system, technical and financial requirements to establish manufacturing capability, the business plan, and teaming arrangements. Phase 1 also includes project planning, scope of work, and budgets for Phases 2--4. The project is a cooperative effort of Teledyne Brown Engineering--Energy Systems, Schatz Energy Research Center, Hydrogen Burner Technology, and the City of Palm Desert. Phases 2 through 4 are designed to utilize the results of Phase 1, to further the commercial potential of the fuel cell power system. Phase 2 focuses on research and development of the reformer and fuel cell and is divided into three related, but potentially separate tasks. Budgets and timelines for Phase 2 can be found in section 4 of this report. Phase 2 includes: Task A--Develop a reformate tolerant fuel cell stack and 5 kW reformer; Task B--Assemble and deliver a fuel cell that operates on pure hydrogen to the University of Alaska or another site in Alaska; Task C--Provide support and training to the University of Alaska in the setting up and operating a fuel cell test lab. The Phase 1 research examined the market for power systems for off-grid homes, yachts, telecommunication stations and recreational vehicles. Also included in this report are summaries of the previously conducted market reports that examined power needs for remote locations along natural gas and oil pipelines. A list of highlights from the research can be found in the executive summary of the business plan.

  17. Development of a Liquid to Compressed Natural Gas (LCNG) Fueling Station. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, J. A.

    1999-06-30

    The program objective was the development of equipment and processes to produce compressed natural gas (CNG) from liquified natural gas (LNG) for heavy duty vehicular applications. The interest for this technology is a result of the increased use of alternative fuels for the reduction of emissions and dependency of foreign energy. Technology of the type developed under this program is critical for establishing natural gas as an economical alternative fuel.

  18. LWR fuel-cycle costs as a function of burnup. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Franks, W.; Goldstein, L.; Joseph, L.; Nikmohammadian, N.

    1984-11-01

    Utilities may be able to decrease fuel-cycle costs as much as 5% in PWRs and 6% in BWRs by increasing discharge burnup to optimum practical limits. With one exception, this analysis of 12- and 18-month fuel cycles indicated a potential for still further cost reductions at higher burnup rates than those considered (39 GWd/MtU for BWRs and 55 GWd/MtU for PWRs).

  19. Development of Techniques for Spent Fuel Assay – Differential Dieaway Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Swinhoe, Martyn Thomas; Goodsell, Alison; Ianakiev, Kiril Dimitrov; Iliev, Metodi; Desimone, David J.; Rael, Carlos D.; Henzl, Vladimir; Polk, Paul John

    2016-07-28

    This report summarizes the work done under a DNDO R&D funded project on the development of the differential dieaway method to measure plutonium in spent fuel. There are large amounts of plutonium that are contained in spent fuel assemblies, and currently there is no way to make quantitative non-destructive assay. This has led NA24 under the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) to establish a multi-year program to investigate, develop and implement measurement techniques for spent fuel. The techniques which are being experimentally tested by the existing NGSI project do not include any pulsed neutron active techniques. The present work covers the active neutron differential dieaway technique and has advanced the state of knowledge of this technique as well as produced a design for a practical active neutron interrogation instrument for spent fuel. Monte Carlo results from the NGSI effort show that much higher accuracy (1-2%) for the Pu content in spent fuel assemblies can be obtained with active neutron interrogation techniques than passive techniques, and this would allow their use for nuclear material accountancy independently of any information from the operator. The main purpose of this work was to develop an active neutron interrogation technique for spent nuclear fuel.

  20. Final Technical Report for Alternative Fuel Source Study-An Energy Efficient and Environmentally Friendly Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Zee, Ralph; Schindler, Anton; Duke, Steve; Burch, Thom; Bransby, David; Stafford, Don

    2010-08-31

    The objective of this project is to conduct research to determine the feasibility of using alternate fuel sources for the production of cement. Successful completion of this project will also be beneficial to other commercial processes that are highly energy intensive. During this report period, we have completed all the subtasks in the preliminary survey. Literature searches focused on the types of alternative fuels currently used in the cement industry around the world. Information was obtained on the effects of particular alternative fuels on the clinker/cement product and on cement plant emissions. Federal regulations involving use of waste fuels were examined. Information was also obtained about the trace elements likely to be found in alternative fuels, coal, and raw feeds, as well as the effects of various trace elements introduced into system at the feed or fuel stage on the kiln process, the clinker/cement product, and concrete made from the cement. The experimental part of this project involves the feasibility of a variety of alternative materials mainly commercial wastes to substitute for coal in an industrial cement kiln in Lafarge NA and validation of the experimental results with energy conversion consideration.

  1. Liquid natural gas as a transportation fuel in the heavy trucking industry. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Sutton, W.H.

    1997-06-30

    This report encompasses the second year of a proposed three year project with emphasis focused on fundamental research issues in Use of Liquid Natural Gas as a Transportation Fuel in the Heavy Trucking Industry. These issues may be categorized as (1) direct diesel replacement with LNG fuel, and (2) long term storage/utilization of LNG vent gases produced by tank storage and fueling/handling operation. The results of this work are expected to enhance utilization of LNG as a transportation fuel. The paper discusses the following topics: (A) Fueling Delivery to the Engine, Engine Considerations, and Emissions: (1) Atomization and/or vaporization of LNG for direct injection diesel-type natural gas engines; (2) Fundamentals of direct replacement of diesel fuel by LNG in simulated combustion; (3) Distribution of nitric oxide and emissions formation from natural gas injection; and (B) Short and long term storage: (1) Modification by partial direct conversion of natural gas composition for improved storage characteristics; (2) LNG vent gas adsorption and recovery using activate carbon and modified adsorbents; (3) LNG storage at moderate conditions.

  2. Feasibility study: fuel cell cogeneration in a water pollution control facility. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-02-01

    A conceptual design study was conducted to investigate the technical and economic feasibility of a cogeneration fuel cell power plant operating in a large water pollution control facility. The fuel cell power plant would use methane-rich digester gas from the water pollution control facility as a fuel feedstock to provide electrical and thermal energy. Several design configurations were evaluated. These configurations were comprised of combinations of options for locating the fuel cell power plant at the site, electrically connecting it with the water pollution control facility, using the rejected power plant heat, supplying fuel to the power plant, and for ownership and operation. A configuration was selected which met institutional/regulatory constraints and provided a net cost savings to the industry and the electric utility. This volume of the report contains the appendices: (A) abbreviations and definitions, glossary; (B) 4.5 MWe utility demonstrator power plant study information; (C) rejected heat utilization; (D) availability; (E) conceptual design specifications; (F) details of the economic analysis; (G) detailed description of the selected configuration; and (H) fuel cell power plant penetration analysis. (WHK)

  3. Potential impacts on air quality of the use of ethanol as an alternative fuel. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Gaffney, J.S.; Marley, N.A.

    1994-09-01

    The use of ethanol/gasoline mixtures in motor vehicles has been proposed as an alternative fuel strategy that might improve air quality while minimizing US dependence on foreign oil. New enzymatic production methodologies are being explored to develop ethanol as a viable, economic fuel. In an attempt to reduce urban carbon monoxide (CO) and ozone levels, a number of cities are currently mandating the use of ethanol/gasoline blends. However, it is not at all clear that these blended fuels will help to abate urban pollution. In fact, the use of these fuels may lead to increased levels of other air pollutants, specifically aldehydes and peroxyacyl nitrates. Although these pollutants are not currently regulated, their potential health and environmental impacts must be considered when assessing the impacts of alternative fuels on air quality. Indeed, formaldehyde has been identified as an important air pollutant that is currently being considered for control strategies by the State of California. This report focuses on measurements taken in Albuquerque, New Mexico during the summer of 1993 and the winter of 1994 as an initial attempt to evaluate the air quality effects of ethanol/gasoline mixtures. The results of this study have direct implications for the use of such fuel mixtures as a means to reduce CO emissions and ozone in a number of major cities and to bring these urban centers into compliance with the Clean Air Act.

  4. Final Report - Durable Catalysts for Fuel Cell Protection during Transient Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Atanasoski, Radoslav; van der Vliet, Dennis; Cullen, David; Atanasoska, Ljiljana

    2015-01-26

    The objective of this project was to develop catalysts that will enable proton exchange membranes (PEM) fuel cell systems to weather the damaging conditions in the fuel cell at voltages beyond the thermodynamic stability of water during the transient periods of start-up/shut-down and fuel starvation. Such catalysts are required to make it possible for the fuel cell to satisfy the 2015 DOE targets for performance and durability. The project addressed a key issue of importance for successful transition of PEM fuel cell technology from development to pre-commercial phase. This issue is the failure of the catalyst and the other thermodynamically unstable membrane electrode assembly (MEA) components during start-up/shut-down and local fuel starvation at the anode, commonly referred to as transient conditions. During these periods the electrodes can reach potentials higher than the usual 1.23V upper limit during normal operation. The most logical way to minimize the damage from such transient events is to minimize the potential seen by the electrodes. At lower positive potentials, increased stability of the catalysts themselves and reduced degradation of the other MEA components is expected.

  5. Engineering study: 105KE to 105KW Basin fuel and sludge transfer. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Gant, R.G.

    1994-09-20

    In the last five years, there have been three periods at the 105KE fuel storage basin (KE Basin) where the reported drawdown test rates were in excess of 25 gph. Drawdown rates in excess of this amount have been used during past operations as the primary indicators of leaks in the basin. The latest leak occurred in March, 1993. The reported water loss from the KE Basin was estimated at 25 gph. This engineering study was performed to identify and recommend the most feasible and practical method of transferring canisters of irradiated fuel and basin sludge from the KE Basin to the 105KW fuel storage basin (KW Basin). Six alternatives were identified during the performance of this study as possible methods for transferring the fuel and sludge from the KE Basin to the KW Basin. These methods were then assessed with regard to operations, safety, radiation exposure, packaging, environmental concerns, waste management, cost, and schedule; and the most feasible and practical methods of transfer were identified. The methods examined in detail in this study were based on shipment without cooling water except where noted: Transfer by rail using the previously used transfer system and water cooling; Transfer by rail using the previously used transfer system (without water cooling); Transfer by truck using the K Area fuel transfer cask (K Area cask); Transfer by truck using a DOE shipping cask; Transfer by truck using a commercial shipping cask; and Transfer by truck using a new fuel shipping cask.

  6. Savannah River Site Spent Nuclear Fuel Management Final Environmental Impact Statement

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    2000-04-14

    The proposed DOE action considered in this environmental impact statement (EIS) is to implement appropriate processes for the safe and efficient management of spent nuclear fuel and targets at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in Aiken County, South Carolina, including placing these materials in forms suitable for ultimate disposition. Options to treat, package, and store this material are discussed. The material included in this EIS consists of approximately 68 metric tons heavy metal (MTHM) of spent nuclear fuel 20 MTHM of aluminum-based spent nuclear fuel at SRS, as much as 28 MTHM of aluminum-clad spent nuclear fuel from foreign and domestic research reactors to be shipped to SRS through 2035, and 20 MTHM of stainless-steel or zirconium-clad spent nuclear fuel and some Americium/Curium Targets stored at SRS. Alternatives considered in this EIS encompass a range of new packaging, new processing, and conventional processing technologies, as well as the No Action Alternative. A preferred alternative is identified in which DOE would prepare about 97% by volume (about 60% by mass) of the aluminum-based fuel for disposition using a melt and dilute treatment process. The remaining 3% by volume (about 40% by mass) would be managed using chemical separation. Impacts are assessed primarily in the areas of water resources, air resources, public and worker health, waste management, socioeconomic, and cumulative impacts.

  7. 77 FR 10798 - Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-23

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of withdrawal of task assignment to the Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee (ARAC). SUMMARY: The FAA has withdrawn a task assigned to the Aviation Rulemaking...

  8. The economic impact of drag in general aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neal, R. D.

    1975-01-01

    General aviation aircraft fuel consumption and operating costs are closely linked to drag reduction methods. Improvements in airplane drag are envisioned for new models; their effects will be in the 5 to 10% range. Major improvements in fuel consumption over existing turbofan airplanes will be the combined results of improved aerodynamics plus additional effects from advanced turbofan engine designs.

  9. [Progress in synthesis technologies and application of aviation biofuels].

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaoying; Liu, Xiang; Zhao, Xuebing; Yang, Ming; Liu, Dehua

    2013-03-01

    Development of aviation biofuels has attracted great attention worldwide because that the shortage of fossil resources has become more and more serious. In the present paper, the development background, synthesis technologies, current application status and existing problems of aviation biofuels were reviewed. Several preparation routes of aviation biofuels were described, including Fischer-Tropsch process, catalytic hydrogenation and catalytic cracking of bio-oil. The status of flight tests and commercial operation were also introduced. Finally the problems for development and application of aviation biofuels were stated, and some accommodation were proposed.

  10. Propulsion and Power Rapid Response Research and Development (R&D) Support. Delivery Order 0011: Advanced Propulsion Fuels Research and Development-Subtask: Framework and Guidance for Estimating Greenhouse Gas Footprints of Aviation Fuels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-01

    59 15. Allocation of Energy Use Based on Plant - and Process-Level Analyses of a Petroleum Refinery (Wang, Lee and...such as the emissions from a vehicle hauling fuel from refinery to market, many of the elements in the life cycle emissions of a fuel system are not...A simple example is the allocation selection methodology associated with analyzing the greenhouse gas emissions associated with a refinery unit

  11. Mid-21st century chemical forcing of climate by the civil aviation sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unger, Nadine; Zhao, Yupu; Dang, Hongyan

    2013-02-01

    Abstract Strong growth in the civil <span class="hlt">aviation</span> sector will accelerate in the future. Here, we confront the future net chemical (ozone, methane, sulfate, nitrate, black carbon, and water vapor) global climate impact of <span class="hlt">aviation</span> at 2050 for three novel plausible scenarios constructed at the Volpe National Transportation Center using the U.S. Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Administration (FAA) <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Environmental Design Tool (AEDT). The <span class="hlt">aviation</span> net chemical climate impact is cooling in all cases and increases from -10 ± 4 mW m-2 in the contemporary climate up to -69 ± 21 mW m-2 by 2050. Future improvements in <span class="hlt">fuel</span> efficiency provide the opportunity to reduce <span class="hlt">aviation</span>'s net chemical climate impact by ~50% relative to a baseline scenario of unconstrained growth. On the 20 year time horizon, the cooling net <span class="hlt">aviation</span> chemical climate impact masks the <span class="hlt">aviation</span> CO2 global warming by up to 50-100% in the contemporary and future atmospheres.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhDT.......109H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhDT.......109H"><span>General <span class="hlt">aviation</span> in China</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hu, Xiaosi</p> <p></p> <p>In the last four decades, China has accomplished economic reform successfully and grown to be a leading country in the world. As the "world factory", the country is able to manufacture a variety of industrial products from clothes and shoes to rockets and satellites. But the <span class="hlt">aviation</span> industry has always been a weak spot and even the military relies on imported turbofan engines and jet fighters, not to mention the airlines. Recently China has launched programs such as ARJ21 and C919, and started reform to change the undeveloped situation of its <span class="hlt">aviation</span> industry. As the foundation of the <span class="hlt">aviation</span> industry, the development of general <span class="hlt">aviation</span> is essential for the rise of commercial <span class="hlt">aviation</span>. The primary goal of this study is to examine the general <span class="hlt">aviation</span> industry and finds the issues that constrain the development of the industry in the system. The research method used in this thesis is the narrative research of qualitative approach since the policy instead of statistical data is analyzed. It appears that the main constraint for the general <span class="hlt">aviation</span> industry is the government interference.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19790069737&hterms=Otto+engine&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DOtto%2Bengine','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19790069737&hterms=Otto+engine&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DOtto%2Bengine"><span>An overview of NASA research on positive displacement type general <span class="hlt">aviation</span> engines</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Kempke, E. E.; Willis, E. A.</p> <p>1979-01-01</p> <p>The paper surveys the current status of the <span class="hlt">aviation</span> positive displacement engine programs underway at the NASA Lewis Research Center. The program encompasses conventional, lightweight diesel, and rotary combustion engines. Attention is given to topics such as current production type engine improvement, cooling drag reduction, <span class="hlt">fuel</span> injection, and experimental and theoretical combustion studies. It is shown that the program's two major technical thrusts are directed toward lean operation of current production type spark ignition engines and advanced alternative engine concepts. <span class="hlt">Finally</span>, an Otto cycle computer model is also covered.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19780005056','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19780005056"><span>Agricultural <span class="hlt">aviation</span> research</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Chevalier, H. L. (Compiler); Bouse, L. F. (Compiler)</p> <p>1977-01-01</p> <p>A compilation of papers, comments, and results is provided during a workshop session. The purpose of the workshop was to review and evaluate the current state of the art of agricultural <span class="hlt">aviation</span>, to identify and rank potentially productive short and long range research and development areas, and to strengthen communications between research scientists and engineers involved in agricultural research. Approximately 71 individuals actively engaged in agricultural <span class="hlt">aviation</span> research were invited to participate in the workshop. These were persons familiar with problems related to agricultural <span class="hlt">aviation</span> and processing expertise which are of value for identifying and proposing beneficial research.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10170519','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10170519"><span>Oxygen electrode reaction in molten carbonate <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cells. <span class="hlt">Final</span> report, September 15, 1987--September 14, 1990</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Dave, Bhasker B.</p> <p>1992-07-07</p> <p>Molten carbonate <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cell system is a leading candidate for the utility power generation because of its high efficiency for <span class="hlt">fuel</span> to AC power conversion, capability for an internal reforming, and a very low environmental impact. However, the performance of the molten carbonate <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cell is limited by the oxygen reduction reaction and the cell life time is limited by the stability of the cathode material. An elucidation of oxygen reduction reaction in molten alkali carbonate is essential because overpotential losses in the molten carbonate <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cell are considerably greater at the oxygen cathode than at the <span class="hlt">fuel</span> anode. Oxygen reduction on a fully-immersed gold electrode in a lithium carbonate melt was investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry to determine electrode kinetic and mass transfer parameters. The dependences of electrode kinetic and mass transfer parameters on gas composition and temperature were examined to determine the reaction orders and the activation energies. The results showed that oxygen reduction in a pure lithium carbonate melt occurs via the peroxide mechanism. A mass transfer parameter, D<sub>O</sub><sup>1/2</sup>C<sub>O</sub>, estimated by the cyclic voltammetry concurred with that calculated by the EIS technique. The temperature dependence of the exchange current density and the product D<sub>O</sub><sup>1/2</sup>C<sub>O</sub> were examined and the apparent activation energies were determined to be about 122 and 175 kJ/ mol, respectively.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5446164','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5446164"><span>Feasibility study: <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cell cogeneration in a water pollution control facility. <span class="hlt">Final</span> report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Not Available</p> <p>1980-02-01</p> <p>A conceptual design study was conducted to investigate the technical and economic feasibility of a cogeneration <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cell power plant operating in a large water pollution control facility. In this particular application, the <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cell power plant would use methane-rich digester gas from the water pollution control facility as a <span class="hlt">fuel</span> feedstock to provide electrical and thermal energy. Several design configurations were evaluated. These configurations were comprised of combinations of options for locating the <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cell power plant at the site, electrically connecting it with the water pollution control facility, using the rejected power plant heat, supplying <span class="hlt">fuel</span> to the power plant, and for ownership and operation. A configuration was selected which met institutional/regulatory constraints and provided a net cost savings to the industry and the electric utility. The displacement of oil and coal resulting from the Bergen County Utilities Authority application was determined. A demonstration program based on the selected configuration was prepared to describe the scope of work, organization, schedules, and costs from preliminary design through actual tests and operation. The potential market for nationwide application of the concept was projected, along with the equivalent oil displacement resulting from estimated commercial application.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10176957','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10176957"><span>Data collection plan for Phase 2 Alternative <span class="hlt">Fuels</span> Bus Data Collection Program. <span class="hlt">Final</span> report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Krenelka, T</p> <p>1993-07-01</p> <p>This document constitutes the plan for collecting and reporting data associated with a special set of transit bus demonstrations to be conducted under the Urban Bus Program of the Alternative Motor <span class="hlt">Fuels</span> Act (AMFA) of 1988. This program, called the Phase 2 Bus Data Collection Program, serves as an adjunct to the Phase I Bus Data Collection Program, collecting detailed data on just a few buses to augment and enhance the Phase 1 data in fulfilling the urban bus requirements of AMFA. Demonstrations will be conducted at a few transit system locations throughout the US and will use alternative <span class="hlt">fuels</span> and associated technologies to reduce undesirable transit bus exhaust emissions. Several organizations will be involved in the data collection; NREL will manage the program, analyze and store vehicle data, and make these data available through the Alternative <span class="hlt">Fuels</span> Data Center. This information will enable transit agencies, equipment manufacturers, <span class="hlt">fuel</span> suppliers, and government policy makers to make informed decisions about buying and using alternative <span class="hlt">fuels</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1008341','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1008341"><span><span class="hlt">Final</span> Technical Report for the Martin County Hydrogen <span class="hlt">Fuel</span> Cell Development Project</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Eshraghi, Ray</p> <p>2011-03-09</p> <p>In September 2008, the U.S. Department of Energy and Martin County Economic Development Corporation entered into an agreement to further the advancement of a microtubular PEM <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cell developed by Microcell Corporation. The overall focus of this project was on research and development related to high volume manufacturing of <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cells and cost reduction in the <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cell manufacturing process. The extrusion process used for the microfiber <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cells in this project is inherently a low cost, high volume, high speed manufacturing process. In order to take advantage of the capabilities that the extrusion process provides, all subsequent manufacturing processes must be enhanced to meet the extrusion line’s speed and output. Significant research and development was completed on these subsequent processes to ensure that power output and performance were not negatively impacted by the higher speeds, design changes and process improvements developed in this project. All tasks were successfully completed resulting in cost reductions, performance improvements and process enhancements in the areas of speed and quality. These results support the Department of Energy’s goal of <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cell commercialization.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10125187','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10125187"><span>Novel injector techniques for coal-<span class="hlt">fueled</span> diesel engines. <span class="hlt">Final</span> report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Badgley, P.R.</p> <p>1992-09-01</p> <p>This report, entitled ``Novel Injector Techniques for Coal-<span class="hlt">Fueled</span> Diesel Engines,`` describes the progress and findings of a research program aimed at development of a dry coal powder <span class="hlt">fuel</span> injector in conjunction with the Thermal Ignition Combustion System (TICS) concept to achieve autoignition of dry powdered coal in a single-cylinder high speed diesel engine. The basic program consisted of concept selection, analysis and design, bench testing and single cylinder engine testing. The coal injector concept which was selected was a one moving part dry-coal-powder injector utilizing air blast injection. Adiabatics has had previous experience running high speed diesel engines on both direct injected directed coal-water-slurry (CWS) <span class="hlt">fuel</span> and also with dry coal powder aspirated into the intake air. The Thermal Ignition Combustion System successfully ignited these <span class="hlt">fuels</span> at all speeds and loads without requiring auxiliary ignition energy such as pilot diesel <span class="hlt">fuel</span>, heated intake air or glow or spark plugs. Based upon this prior experience, it was shown that the highest efficiency and fastest combustion was with the dry coal, but that the use of aspiration of coal resulted in excessive coal migration into the engine lubrication system. Based upon a desire of DOE to utilize a more modern test engine, the previous naturally-aspirated Caterpillar model 1Y73 single cylinder engine was replaced with a turbocharged (by use of shop air compressor and back pressure control valve) single cylinder version of the Cummins model 855 engine.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/541804','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/541804"><span>Investigation of the mechanism in Rijke pulse combustors with tangential air and <span class="hlt">fuel</span> injection. <span class="hlt">Final</span> report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Zinn, B.T.; Jagoda, J.I.; Daniel, B.R.; Bai, T.</p> <p>1993-03-01</p> <p>To study the mechanisms that control the operation of this combustor, an experimental setup is developed with access for detailed optical measurements. Propane is employed as <span class="hlt">fuel</span> because the absence of liquid drops and combustion generated particulates in the combustion region significantly simplifies the optical diagnostics. The experimental techniques utilized include acoustic pressure measurements, space and time resolved radiation measurements, steady temperature measurements, exhaust flow chemical analysis, high speed video and intensified images of the reacting flow field by a computer based CCD camera imaging system. Flow visualization by the imaging system and the results from radiation intensity distribution measurements suggest that the periodic combustion processes caused by periodic vortex shedding and impingement provide the energy required to sustain the pressure oscillations. High radiation intensity occurs during a relatively short period of time and is in phase with the pressure oscillations, indicating that Rayleigh`s criterion is satisfied. Periodic variations of the air and <span class="hlt">fuel</span> flow rates and, consequently, the air/<span class="hlt">fuel</span> ratio of the reacting mixture inside the combustor appear to be another mechanism that contributes to the occurrence of periodic combustion and heat release processes. The presence of this mechanism has been uncovered by acoustic pressure measurements that revealed the presence of traveling pressure waves inside the air and <span class="hlt">fuel</span> feed lines. These traveling waves produce periodic <span class="hlt">fuel</span> and air feed rates which, in turn, result in periodic combustion and heat release processes within the combustor.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_21 --> <div id="page_22" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="421"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5833155','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5833155"><span>Regenerative <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cell study for satellites in GEO orbit. <span class="hlt">Final</span> contractor report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Levy, A.; Vandine, L.L.; Stedman, J.K.</p> <p>1987-07-01</p> <p>Summarized are the results of a 12-month study to identify high performance regenerative hydrogen-oxygen <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cell concepts for geosynchronous satellite application. Emphasis was placed on concepts with the potential for high energy density (W-hr/lb) and passive means for water and heat management to maximize system reliability. Both polymer membrane and alkaline electrolyte <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cells were considered, with emphasis on the alkaline cell because of its high performance, advanced state of development, and proven ability to operate in a launch and space environment. Three alkaline system concepts were studied. The first, the integrated design, utilized a configuration in which the <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cell and electrolysis cells are alternately stacked inside a pressure vessel. Product water is transferred by diffusion during electrolysis and waste heat is conducted through the pressure wall, thus using completely passive means for transfer and control. The second alkaline system, the dedicated design, uses a separate <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cell and electrolysis stack so that each unit can be optimized in size and weight based on its orbital operating period. The third design was a dual function stack configuration, in which each cell can operate in both <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cell and electrolysis mode, thus eliminating the need for two separate stacks and associated equipment. Results indicate that using near term technology energy densities between 46 and 52 W-hr/lb can be achieved at efficiencies of 55 percent. System densities of 115 W-hr/lb are contemplated.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19740014158&hterms=weather+meteorology&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dweather%2Bmeteorology','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19740014158&hterms=weather+meteorology&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dweather%2Bmeteorology"><span>Improved weather information and <span class="hlt">aviation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hallahan, K.; Zdanys, V.</p> <p>1973-01-01</p> <p>The major impacts of weather forecasts on <span class="hlt">aviation</span> are reviewed. Topics discussed include: (1) present and projected structure of American <span class="hlt">aviation</span>, (2) weather problems considered particularly important for <span class="hlt">aviation</span>, (3) projected needs for improved weather information by <span class="hlt">aviators</span>, (4) safety and economics, and (5) future studies utilizing satellite meteorology.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/674640','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/674640"><span>Phase 1 feasibility study of an integrated hydrogen PEM <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cell system. <span class="hlt">Final</span> report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Luczak, F.</p> <p>1998-03-01</p> <p>Evaluated in the report is the use of hydrogen <span class="hlt">fueled</span> proton exchange membrane (PEM) <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cells for devices requiring less than 15 kW. Metal hydrides were specifically analyzed as a method of storing hydrogen. There is a business and technical part to the study that were developed with feedback from each other. The business potential of a small PEM product is reviewed by examining the markets, projected sales, and required investment. The major technical and cost hurdles to a product are also reviewed including: the membrane and electrode assembly (M and EA), water transport plate (WTP), and the metal hydrides. It was concluded that the best potential stationary market for hydrogen PEM <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cell less than 15 kW is for backup power use in telecommunications applications.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1184606','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1184606"><span><span class="hlt">Fuel</span> Fabrication Capability WBS 01.02.01.05 - HIP Bonding Experiments <span class="hlt">Final</span> Report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Dickerson, Patricia O'Donnell; Summa, Deborah Ann; Liu, Cheng; Tucker, Laura Arias; Chen, Ching-Fong; Aikin, Beverly; Aragon, Daniel Adrian; Beard, Timothy Vance; Montalvo, Joel Dwayne; Pena, Maria Isela; Dombrowski, David E.</p> <p>2015-06-10</p> <p>The goals of this project were to demonstrate reliable, reproducible solid state bonding of aluminum 6061 alloy plates together to encapsulate DU-10 wt% Mo surrogate <span class="hlt">fuel</span> foils. This was done as part of the CONVERT <span class="hlt">Fuel</span> Fabrication Capability effort in Process Baseline Development . Bonding was done using Hot Isotatic Pressing (HIP) of evacuated stainless steel cans (a.k.a HIP cans) containing <span class="hlt">fuel</span> plate components and strongbacks. Gross macroscopic measurements of HIP cans prior to HIP and after HIP were used as part of this demonstration, and were used to determine the accuracy of a finitie element model of the HIP bonding process. The quality of the bonding was measured by controlled miniature bulge testing for Al-Al, Al-Zr, and Zr-DU bonds. A special objective was to determine if the HIP process consistently produces good quality bonding and to determine the best characterization techniques for technology transfer.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140005559','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140005559"><span>Environmentally Responsible <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> (ERA) Project - N+2 Advanced Vehicle Concepts Study and Conceptual Design of Subscale Test Vehicle (STV) <span class="hlt">Final</span> Report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Bonet, John T.; Schellenger, Harvey G.; Rawdon, Blaine K.; Elmer, Kevin R.; Wakayama, Sean R.; Brown, Derrell L.; Guo, Yueping</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>NASA has set demanding goals for technology developments to meet national needs to improve <span class="hlt">fuel</span> efficiency concurrent with improving the environment to enable air transportation growth. A figure shows NASA's subsonic transport system metrics. The results of Boeing ERA N+2 Advanced Vehicle Concept Study show that the Blended Wing Body (BWB) vehicle, with ultra high bypass propulsion systems have the potential to meet the combined NASA ERA N+2 goals. This study had 3 main activities. 1) The development of an advanced vehicle concepts that can meet the NASA system level metrics. 2) Identification of key enabling technologies and the development of technology roadmaps and maturation plans. 3) The development of a subscale test vehicle that can demonstrate and mature the key enabling technologies needed to meet the NASA system level metrics. Technology maturation plans are presented and include key performance parameters and technical performance measures. The plans describe the risks that will be reduced with technology development and the expected progression of technical maturity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19780059506&hterms=Crude+oil&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DCrude%2Boil','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19780059506&hterms=Crude+oil&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DCrude%2Boil"><span>Jet <span class="hlt">fuels</span> from synthetic crudes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Antoine, A. C.; Gallagher, J. P.</p> <p>1977-01-01</p> <p>An investigation was conducted to determine the technical problems in the conversion of a significant portion of a barrel of either a shale oil or a coal synthetic crude oil into a suitable <span class="hlt">aviation</span> turbine <span class="hlt">fuel</span>. Three syncrudes were used, one from shale and two from coal, chosen as representative of typical crudes from future commercial production. The material was used to produce jet <span class="hlt">fuels</span> of varying specifications by distillation, hydrotreating, and hydrocracking. Attention is given to process requirements, hydrotreating process conditions, the methods used to analyze the <span class="hlt">final</span> products, the conditions for shale oil processing, and the coal liquid processing conditions. The results of the investigation show that jet <span class="hlt">fuels</span> of defined specifications can be made from oil shale and coal syncrudes using readily available commercial processes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1311233','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1311233"><span>Supply Chain-Based Solution to Prevent <span class="hlt">Fuel</span> Tax Evasion: <span class="hlt">Final</span> Report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Capps, Gary J.; Franzese, Oscar; Lascurain, Mary Beth; Siekmann, Adam; Barker, Alan M.</p> <p>2016-07-28</p> <p>The primary source of funding for the United States transportation system is derived from motor <span class="hlt">fuel</span> and other highway use taxes. Loss of revenue attributed to <span class="hlt">fuel</span>-tax evasion has been assessed to be somewhere between 1 billion and 3 billion per year. Any solution that addresses this problem needs to include not only the tax-collection agencies and auditors, but also the carriers transporting oil products and the carriers customers. This report presents a system developed by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for the Federal Highway Administration which has the potential to reduce or eliminate many <span class="hlt">fuel</span>-tax evasion schemes. The solution balances the needs of tax-auditors and those of the <span class="hlt">fuel</span>-hauling companies and their customers. The system has three main components. The on-board subsystem combined sensors, tracking and communication devices, and software (the on-board Evidential Reasoning System, or obERS) to detect, monitor, and geo-locate the transfer of <span class="hlt">fuel</span> among different locations. The back office sub-system (boERS) used self-learning algorithms to determine the legitimacy of the <span class="hlt">fuel</span> loading and offloading (important for tax auditors) and detect potential illicit operations such as <span class="hlt">fuel</span> theft (important for carriers and their customers, and may justify the deployment costs). The third sub-system, the <span class="hlt">Fuel</span> Distribution and Auditing System or FDAS, is a centralized database, which together with a user interface allows tax auditors to query the data submitted by the <span class="hlt">fuel</span>-hauling companies and correlate different parameters to quickly identify any anomalies. Industry partners included Barger Transport of Weber City, Virginia (fleet); Air-Weigh, of Eugene, Oregon (and their wires and harnesses); Liquid Bulk Tank (LBT) of Omaha, Nebraska (three five-compartment trailers); and Innovative Software Engineering (ISE) of Coralville, Iowa(on-board telematics device and back-office system). ORNL conducted a pilot test with the three instrumented vehicles</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA518060','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA518060"><span>Army <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Force Structure in Support of Counter Insurgency Operations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://publicaccess.dtic.mil/psm/api/service/search/search">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-03-01</p> <p>Battalion (30 UH - 60L Blackhawks), General Support <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Battalion (mix of 8 UH - 60L , 12 CH-47D Chinooks, and 15 HH- 60A MEDEVAC aircraft), <span class="hlt">Aviation</span>...the city which mitigated their limited <span class="hlt">fuel</span> endurance and slower airspeed when compared to the AH-64D Apache. The Air Assault Troop ( UH - 60L ...the BCT and supported Special Operations Forces. When combined with AH-64Ds or OH-58Ds the UH - 60Ls were critical to vehicular interdiction</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=aircraft&pg=7&id=EJ123263','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=aircraft&pg=7&id=EJ123263"><span><span class="hlt">Aviation</span> in the Future</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Kayten, Gerald G.</p> <p>1974-01-01</p> <p>Makes predications concerning future aerospace technology in the areas of supersonic transportation, aircraft design, airfreight, military <span class="hlt">aviation</span>, hypersonic aircraft and in the much distant future sub-orbital, rocket propelled transports. (BR)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-11-25/pdf/2013-27914.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-11-25/pdf/2013-27914.pdf"><span>78 FR 70200 - Airworthiness Directives; AQUILA-<span class="hlt">Aviation</span> by Excellence AG Airplanes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-11-25</p> <p>... Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Administration 14 CFR Part 39 [Docket No. FAA-2013-0963; Directorate Identifier 2013-CE-034-AD; Amendment 39-17663; AD 2013-23-08] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; AQUILA--<span class="hlt">Aviation</span> by Excellence AG Airplanes AGENCY: Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: <span class="hlt">Final</span> rule; request...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150023047','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150023047"><span>Development of Advanced Low Emission Injectors and High-Bandwidth <span class="hlt">Fuel</span> Flow Modulation Valves</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Mansour, Adel</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Parker Hannifin Corporation developed the 3-Zone <span class="hlt">fuel</span> nozzle for NASA's Environmentally Responsible <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Program to meet NASAs target of 75 LTO NOx reduction from CAEP6 regulation. The nozzle concept was envisioned as a drop-in replacement for currently used <span class="hlt">fuel</span> nozzle stem, and is built up from laminates to provide energetic mixing suitable for lean direct injection mode at high combustor pressure. A high frequency <span class="hlt">fuel</span> valve was also developed to provide <span class="hlt">fuel</span> modulation for the pilot injector. <span class="hlt">Final</span> testing result shows the LTO NOx level falling just shy of NASAs goal at 31.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5478225','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5478225"><span>Economic implications of substituting plant oils for diesel <span class="hlt">fuel</span>. Volume 2. <span class="hlt">Final</span> report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Griffin, R.C.; Collins, G.S.; Lacewell, R.D.; Chang, H.C.</p> <p>1983-08-01</p> <p>This study of expected economic impacts of substituting plant oils for diesel <span class="hlt">fuel</span> consisted of two components: (1) analysis of oilseed production and oilseed crushing capacity in the US and Texas and (2) simulation of impacts on US cropping patterns, crop prices, producer rent, and consumer surplus. The primary oilseed crops considered were soybeans, cottonseed, sunflowers, and peanuts. 19 references, 2 figures, 14 tables.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/992071','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/992071"><span><span class="hlt">Final</span> Scientific Report, New Proton Conductive Composite Materials for PEM <span class="hlt">Fuel</span> Cells</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lvov, Serguei</p> <p>2010-11-08</p> <p>This project covered one of the main challenges in present-day PEM <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cell technology: to design a membrane capable of maintaining high conductivity and mechanical integrity when temperature is elevated and water vapor pressure is severely reduced. The DOE conductivity milestone of 0.1 S cm-1 at 120 degrees C and 50 % relative humidity (RH) for designed membranes addressed the target for the project. Our approach presumed to develop a composite membrane with hydrophilic proton-conductive inorganic material and the proton conductive polymeric matrix that is able to “bridge” the conduction paths in the membrane. The unique aspect of our approach was the use of highly functionalized inorganic additives to benefit from their water retention properties and high conductivity as well. A promising result turns out that highly hydrophilic phosphorsilicate gels added in Nafion matrix improved PEM <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cell performance by over 50% compared with bare Nafion membrane at 120 degrees C and 50 % RH. This achievement realizes that the <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cell operating pressure can be kept low, which would make the PEM <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cell much more cost efficient and adaptable to practical operating conditions and facilitate its faster commercialization particularly in automotive and stationary applications.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/31374','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/31374"><span>Technology development goals for automotive <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cell power systems. <span class="hlt">Final</span> report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>James, B.D.; Baum, G.N.; Kuhn, I.F. Jr.</p> <p>1994-08-01</p> <p>This report determines cost and performance requirements for Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cell vehicles carrying pure H{sub 2} <span class="hlt">fuel</span>, to achieve parity with internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles. A conceptual design of a near term FCEV (<span class="hlt">fuel</span> cell electric vehicle) is presented. Complete power system weight and cost breakdowns are presented for baseline design. Near term FCEV power system weight is 6% higher than ICE system, mid-term FCEV projected weights are 29% lower than ICE`s. There are no inherently high-cost components in FCE, and at automotive production volumes, near term FCEV cost viability is closer at hand than at first thought. PEM current vs voltage performance is presented for leading PEM manufacturers and researchers. 5 current and proposed onboard hydrogen storage techniques are critically compared: pressurized gas, cryogenic liquid, combined pressurized/cryogenic, rechargeable hydride, adsorption. Battery, capacitor, and motor/controller performance is summarized. <span class="hlt">Fuel</span> cell power system component weight and cost densities (threshold and goal) are tabulated.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6380612','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6380612"><span>Comparison of three prospective analytical methods for benzene analysis in jet-<span class="hlt">fuel</span> environments. <span class="hlt">Final</span> report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Hossain, M.A.</p> <p>1990-08-01</p> <p>Accurate analysis of benzene in jet <span class="hlt">fuel</span> has been a concern over the past several years. The method we have been using to analyze benzene in jet <span class="hlt">fuel</span> is the NIOSH 1501 method, a method specifically designed for aromatic hydrocarbons including benzene. However, the method is not designed for analysis of benzene in jet <span class="hlt">fuel</span> environments. At the present time there is no approved (either by NIOSH or OSHA) method for analysis of benzene in <span class="hlt">fuel</span> environments. At the request of HQ AAC/SGPB, we recently conducted a study to compare three prospective analytical methods (NIOSH method 1501 (GC/FID wtih packed column) modified NIOSH 1501 method (GC/FID with capillary column), and High Pressure Liquid Chromatography with Ultraviolet Detection (HPLC/UV)). In this study spiked charcoal tube samples as well as air samples of known concentrations of benzene in JP-4 and Stoddard Solvents were analyzed by all three methods. The test results showed that modified NIOSH 1501 and HPLC methods had good correlation between spiked and measured amount of benzene in JP-4 and Stoddard Solvent mixtures. The NIOSH 1501 method utilizing packed column over estimated the test benzene concentration indicating positive interference from other hydrocarbons present in JP 4 and Stoddard Solvents.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5589424','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5589424"><span>Western New York State coal-water <span class="hlt">fuel</span> market and boiler-conversion study. <span class="hlt">Final</span> report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Not Available</p> <p>1987-04-01</p> <p>This report examines the feasibility of converting industrial boilers in Western New York to burn coal-water <span class="hlt">fuel</span> (CWF) and the attractiveness of producing CWF in this region. Use of coal would increase the diversification of <span class="hlt">fuel</span> supplies. The project began with a market study to determine the market size and estimate the potential demand for CWF. The project then evaluated the technical and economic feasibility of converting two coal-designed boilers in Western New York, currently firing oil, to CWF. A coal supplier was located and an analysis was made of the options for developing a 315,000 tpy CWF production facility. Adapting an existing site with the facilities for coal receiving, handling, storing, and pollution control, such as a steelmaking facility, would provide the least-cost <span class="hlt">fuel</span>. Coal-water <span class="hlt">fuel</span> could be competitive with oil and, to a lesser extent, gas; however, the estimated savings failed to provide an adequate rate of return against the costs associated with converting the industrial boilers at this time.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10194039','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10194039"><span>Design of gasifiers to optimize <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cell systems. <span class="hlt">Final</span> report, September 1990--September 1993</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Not Available</p> <p>1993-08-01</p> <p>Pursuing the key national goal of clean and efficient utilization of the abundant domestic coal resources for power generation, this study was conducted to evaluate the potential of optimizing the integrated catalytic gasification/carbonate <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cell power generation system. ERC in close collaboration with Fluor Daniel (providing engineering design and costing), conducted a detailed system configuration study to evaluate various catalytic gasification/carbonate <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cell power plant configurations and compare them to present day, as well as emerging, alternate coal-based power plant technologies to assess their competitive position. A Topical Report (1992) was submitted documenting this effort, and the three catalytic gasification case studies are summarized in Appendix A. Results of this study indicate that system efficiencies approaching 55% (HHV) can be achieved by integrating low temperature catalytic gasification with high efficiency carbonate <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cells. Thermal balance in the gasifier is achieved without oxygen by recycling hydrogen from the <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cell anode exhaust. A small amount of air is added to the gasifier to minimize hydrogen recycle. In order to validate the assumptions made in the case configurations, experimental studies were performed to determine the reactivity of Illinois No. 6 coal with the gasification catalysts. The reactivity of the catalyzed coal has significant bearing on gasifier sizing and hence system cost and efficiency.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED132709.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED132709.pdf"><span>Development of a School Bus <span class="hlt">Fuel</span> System Integrity Compliance Procedure. <span class="hlt">Final</span> Report.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Morrow, G. W.; Johnson, N. B.</p> <p></p> <p>This report presents a program that derived a compliance test procedure for school buses with a gross vehicle weight of 10,000 pounds or greater. The objective of this program was to evaluate <span class="hlt">Fuel</span> System Integrity (FMVSS 301) in relation to school buses, conduct a limited state-of-the-art survey and run full-scale dynamic tests to produce an…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6172774','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6172774"><span>Tracked-vehicle <span class="hlt">fuel</span> consumption. <span class="hlt">Final</span> report on international test operations procedure</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Not Available</p> <p>1987-05-18</p> <p>This document describes procedures for evaluating the <span class="hlt">fuel</span> efficiency of tracked vehicles under controlled operating conditions. The test data are a major source for comparisons with similar vehicles, and can also serve to predict the operational range of these vehicles during tactical missions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5144847','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5144847"><span>Assessment of the potential of colloidal <span class="hlt">fuels</span> in future energy usage. <span class="hlt">Final</span> report. [97 references</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Not Available</p> <p>1980-02-25</p> <p>Pulverized coal has been an increasing important source of energy over the past century. Most large utility boilers, all modern coking plants, and many industrial boilers and blast furnaces employ pulverized coal as a major feed stream. In periods of oil shortages, such as during World Wars I and II, the concept of adding powdered coal to oil for use in combustion equipment originally designed for oil has been actively pursued but rarely used. Over this same period of time, there have been attempts to use air suspensions of coal dust in diesel engines in Germany, and in turbines in various countries. The economic advantages to be enjoyed by substitution of powdered coal in oil are not generally realized. Oil costs at $30/bbl represent a <span class="hlt">fuel</span> value of about $5.00/10/sup 6/ Btu; coal at $25/ton is equivalent to approximately $1.00/10/sup 6/ Btu. Although capital costs for the use of coal are higher than those associated with the use of oil, coal is clearly becoming the least costly <span class="hlt">fuel</span>. Not only are considerable cost advantages possible, but an improvement in balance of payments and an increase in reliability of <span class="hlt">fuel</span> supplies are other potential benefits. It is therefore recommended that increased national attention be given to develop these finer grinds of carbonaceous <span class="hlt">fuels</span> to be used in various suspending fluids. Technical areas where significant additional support appear desirable are described.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_22 --> <div id="page_23" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="441"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5725381','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5725381"><span>Environmental interactions of hydrazine <span class="hlt">fuels</span> in soil/water systems. <span class="hlt">Final</span> report, March 1985-September 1987</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Street, J.; Johnston, C.; Mansell, R.; Bloom, S.</p> <p>1988-10-01</p> <p>Because the Air Force is the primary user of the rocket <span class="hlt">fuels</span>, hydrazine (Hz), monomethylhydrazine (MMH), and 1,1-dimethylhydrazine (UDMH), it is responsible for the environmental implications associated with the transport, storage, and handling of these <span class="hlt">fuels</span>. During handling, hydrazine <span class="hlt">fuels</span> could inadvertently be released to the atmosphere and the surrounding aqueous and terrestrial environments. The studies are divided into the following five areas: aqueous and soil suspension studies, surface interaction studies, biological interaction studies, soil column studies, and soil transport modeling. The objective of this work is to determine the fate of hydrazine <span class="hlt">fuel</span> released into an aqueous or soil environment. Aqueous degradation studies reveal that the extent of hydrazine degradation and the products formed are highly dependent upon several variables. Among these include the type of container used in the studies, the presence of certain metal ions, the ionic strength, the presence and type of pH buffer, the temperature, the presence of bacteria, and the amount of dissolved oxygen. Aqueous hydrazine degradation is particularly rapid in quartz vessels with copper ions ions and oxygen present. Degradation also increases with increasing ionic strength, pH buffer concentration, temperature, and bacteria content.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19561781','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19561781"><span>The actual development of European <span class="hlt">aviation</span> safety requirements in <span class="hlt">aviation</span> medicine: prospects of future EASA requirements.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Siedenburg, J</p> <p>2009-04-01</p> <p>Common Rules for <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Safety had been developed under the aegis of the Joint <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Authorities in the 1990s. In 2002 the Basic Regulation 1592/2002 was the founding document of a new entity, the European <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Safety Agency. Areas of activity were Certification and Maintenance of aircraft. On 18 March the new Basic Regulation 216/2008, repealing the original Basic Regulation was published and applicable from 08 April on. The included Essential Requirements extended the competencies of EASA inter alia to Pilot Licensing and Flight Operations. The future aeromedical requirements will be included as Annex II in another Implementing Regulation on Personnel Licensing. The detailed provisions will be published as guidance material. The proposals for these provisions have been published on 05 June 2008 as NPA 2008- 17c. After public consultation, processing of comments and <span class="hlt">final</span> adoption the new proposals may be applicable form the second half of 2009 on. A transition period of four year will apply. Whereas the provisions are based on Joint <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Requirement-Flight Crew Licensing (JAR-FCL) 3, a new Light Aircraft Pilot Licence (LAPL) project and the details of the associated medical certification regarding general practitioners will be something new in <span class="hlt">aviation</span> medicine. This paper consists of 6 sections. The introduction outlines the idea of international <span class="hlt">aviation</span> safety. The second section describes the development of the Joint <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Authorities (JAA), the first step to common rules for <span class="hlt">aviation</span> safety in Europe. The third section encompasses a major change as next step: the foundation of the European <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Safety Agency (EASA) and the development of its rules. In the following section provides an outline of the new medical requirements. Section five emphasizes the new concept of a Leisure Pilot Licence. The last section gives an outlook on ongoing rulemaking activities and the opportunities of the public to participate in them.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19990027600','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19990027600"><span>The UNO <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Monograph Series: <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Security: An Annotated Bibliography of Responses to the Gore Commission</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Carrico, John S.; Schaaf, Michaela M.</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>This monograph is a companion to UNOAI Monograph 96-2, "The Image of Airport Security: An Annotated Bibliography," compiled in June 1996. The White House Commission on <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Safety and Security, headed by Vice President Al Gore, was formed as a result of the TWA Flight 800 crash in August 1996. The Commission's <span class="hlt">final</span> report included 31 recommendations addressed toward <span class="hlt">aviation</span> security. The recommendations were cause for security issues to be revisited in the media and by the <span class="hlt">aviation</span> industry. These developments necessitated the need for an updated bibliography to review the resulting literature. Many of the articles were written in response to the recommendations made by the Gore Commission. "<span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Security: An Annotated Bibliography of Responses to the Gore Commission" is the result of this need.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/911478','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/911478"><span>Spent Nuclear <span class="hlt">Fuel</span> Dry Transfer System Cold Demonstration Project <span class="hlt">Final</span> Report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Christensen, Max R; McKinnon, M. A.</p> <p>1999-12-01</p> <p>The spent nuclear <span class="hlt">fuel</span> dry transfer system (DTS) provides an interface between large and small casks and between storage-only and transportation casks. It permits decommissioning of reactor pools after shutdown and allows the use of large storage-only casks for temporary onsite storage of spent nuclear <span class="hlt">fuel</span> irrespective of reactor or <span class="hlt">fuel</span> handling limitations at a reactor site. A cold demonstration of the DTS prototype was initiated in August 1996 at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The major components demonstrated included the <span class="hlt">fuel</span> assembly handling subsystem, the shield plug/lid handling subsystem, the cask interface subsystem, the demonstration control subsystem, a support frame, and a closed circuit television and lighting system. The demonstration included a complete series of DTS operations from source cask receipt and opening through <span class="hlt">fuel</span> transfer and closure of the receiving cask. The demonstration included both normal operations and recovery from off-normal events. It was designed to challenge the system to determine whether there were any activities that could be made to jeopardize the activities of another function or its safety. All known interlocks were challenged. The equipment ran smoothly and functioned as designed. A few "bugs" were corrected. Prior to completion of the demonstration testing, a number of DTS prototype systems were modified to apply lessons learned to date. Additional testing was performed to validate the modifications. In general, all the equipment worked exceptionally well. The demonstration also helped confirm cost estimates that had been made at several points in the development of the system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1011683','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1011683"><span>Two dimensional point of use <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cell : a <span class="hlt">final</span> LDRD project report.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Zavadil, Kevin Robert; Hickner, Michael A.; Gross, Matthew L.</p> <p>2011-03-01</p> <p>The Proliferation Assessment (program area - Things Thin) within the Defense Systems and Assessment Investment Area desires high energy density and long-lived power sources with moderate currents (mA) that can be used as building blocks in platforms for the continuous monitoring of chemical, biological, and radiological agents. <span class="hlt">Fuel</span> cells can be an optimum choice for a power source because of the high energy densities that are possible with liquid <span class="hlt">fuels</span>. Additionally, power generation and <span class="hlt">fuel</span> storage can be decoupled in a <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cell for independent control of energy and power density for customized, application-driven power solutions. Direct methanol <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cells (DMFC) are explored as a possible concept to develop into ultrathin or two-dimensional power sources. New developments in nanotechnology, advanced fabrication techniques, and materials science are exploited to create a planar DMFC that could be co-located with electronics in a chip format. Carbon nanotubes and pyrolyzed polymers are used as building block electrodes - porous, mechanically compliant current collectors. Directed assembly methods including surface functionalization and layer-by-layer deposition with polyelectrolytes are used to pattern, build, and add functionality to these electrodes. These same techniques are used to incorporate nanoscale selective electrocatalyst into the carbon electrodes to provide a high density of active electron transfer sites for the methanol oxidation and oxygen reduction reactions. The resulting electrodes are characterized in terms of their physical properties, electrocatalytic function, and selectivity to better understand how processing impacts their performance attributes. The basic function of a membrane electrode assembly is demonstrated for several prototype devices.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008PhDT.......244B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008PhDT.......244B"><span>Modeling, design and energy management of <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cell systems for aircraft</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bradley, Thomas Heenan</p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Fuel</span> cell powered aircraft have been of long term interest to the <span class="hlt">aviation</span> community because of their potential for improved performance and environmental compatibility. Only recently have improvements in the technological readiness of <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cell powerplants enabled the first <span class="hlt">aviation</span> applications of <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cell technology. Based on the results of conceptual design studies and a few technology demonstration projects, there has emerged a widespread understanding of the importance of <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cell powerplants for near-term and future <span class="hlt">aviation</span> applications. Despite this, many aspects of the performance, design and construction of robust and optimized <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cell powered aircraft have not been fully explored. This goal of this research then is to develop an improved understanding of the performance, design characteristics, design tradeoffs and viability of <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cell powerplants for <span class="hlt">aviation</span> applications. To accomplish these goals, new modeling, design, and experimental tools are developed, validated and applied to the design of <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cell powered unmanned aerial vehicles. First, a general sub-system model of <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cell powerplant performance, mass and geometry is derived from experimental and theoretical investigations of a <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cell powerplant that is developed in hardware. These validated <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cell subsystem models are then incorporated into a computer-based, application-integrated, parametric, and optimizeable design environment that allows for the concurrent design of the aircraft and <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cell powerplant. The advanced modeling and design techniques required for modern aircraft design (including multi-disciplinary analysis, performance optimization under uncertainty and system performance validation), are applied at the <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cell subsystem level and are linked to aircraft performance and design metrics. These tools and methods are then applied to the analysis and design of <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cell powered aircraft in a series of case studies and design experiments. Based on the results of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA520862','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA520862"><span>Flash Point and Chemical Composition of <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Kerosene (Jet A). Revision</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://publicaccess.dtic.mil/psm/api/service/search/search">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2000-05-26</p> <p><span class="hlt">fuel</span> flash point. In response to these recommen- dations, the FAA (FAA, 1997) has asked the <span class="hlt">aviation</span> industry (through the <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Regulatory Action...source. The petroleum industry and <span class="hlt">fuel</span> safety analysts often rely on the measured flash point to rank the explosion hazards of different <span class="hlt">fuels</span>. The...affect the flashpoint significantly. Our experience with storing Jet A is consistent with industry experience (Batts and Fathoni, 1991) with long term</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6447834','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6447834"><span>Potential impact of future <span class="hlt">fuels</span> on small gas turbine engines</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Saintsbury, J.A.; Sampath, P.</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>A review is made of the consequences of shortages of <span class="hlt">aviation</span> gasoline on small aircraft turbine engines and the air traffic. Since the future of <span class="hlt">fuels</span> is uncertain and supplies deplete the design modification for alternate <span class="hlt">fuels</span> are considered. The need to develop approximate engines is emphasized. Data are given of some experimental engines with <span class="hlt">fuels</span> not currently considered as <span class="hlt">aviation</span> <span class="hlt">fuels</span>. 11 refs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19800020799','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19800020799"><span>Aircraft Research and Technology for Future <span class="hlt">Fuels</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>The potential characteristics of future <span class="hlt">aviation</span> turbine <span class="hlt">fuels</span> and the property effects of these <span class="hlt">fuels</span> on propulsion system components are examined. The topics that are discussed include jet <span class="hlt">fuel</span> supply and demand trends, the effects of refining variables on <span class="hlt">fuel</span> properties, shekle oil processing, the characteristics of broadened property <span class="hlt">fuels</span>, the effects of <span class="hlt">fuel</span> property variations on combustor and <span class="hlt">fuel</span> system performance, and combuster and <span class="hlt">fuel</span> system technology for broadened property <span class="hlt">fuels</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/973825','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/973825"><span>Biomass-derived Syngas Utilization for <span class="hlt">Fuels</span> and Chemicals - <span class="hlt">Final</span> Report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Dayton, David C</p> <p>2010-03-24</p> <p>Executive Summary The growing gap between petroleum production and demand, mounting environmental concerns, and increasing <span class="hlt">fuel</span> prices have stimulated intense interest in research and development (R&D) of alternative <span class="hlt">fuels</span>, both synthetic and bio-derived. Currently, the most technically defined thermochemical route for producing alternative <span class="hlt">fuels</span> from lignocellulosic biomass involves gasification/reforming of biomass to produce syngas (carbon monoxide [CO] + hydrogen [H2]), followed by syngas cleaning, Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) or mixed alcohol synthesis, and some product upgrading via hydroprocessing or separation. A detailed techno-economic analysis of this type of process has recently been published [1] and it highlights the need for technical breakthroughs and technology demonstration for gas cleanup and <span class="hlt">fuel</span> synthesis. The latter two technical barrier areas contribute 40% of the total thermochemical ethanol cost and 70% of the production cost, if feedstock costs are factored out. Developing and validating technologies that reduce the capital and operating costs of these unit operations will greatly reduce the risk for commercializing integrated biomass gasification/<span class="hlt">fuel</span> synthesis processes for biofuel production. The objective of this project is to develop and demonstrate new catalysts and catalytic processes that can efficiently convert biomass-derived syngas into diesel <span class="hlt">fuel</span> and C2-C4 alcohols. The goal is to improve the economics of the processes by improving the catalytic activity and product selectivity, which could lead to commercialization. The project was divided into 4 tasks: Task 1: Reactor Systems: Construction of three reactor systems was a project milestone. Construction of a fixed-bed microreactor (FBR), a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR), and a slurry bubble column reactor (SBCR) were completed to meet this milestone. Task 2: Iron Fischer-Tropsch (FT) Catalyst: An attrition resistant iron FT catalyst will be developed and tested</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/970834','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/970834"><span>Bipolar plate materials in molten carbonate <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cells. <span class="hlt">Final</span> CRADA report.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Krumpelt, M. Gorelov, A. M.</p> <p>2004-06-01</p> <p>Advantages of implementation of power plants based on electrochemical reactions are successfully demonstrated in the USA and Japan. One of the msot promising types of <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cells (FC) is a type of high temperature <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cells. At present, thanks to the efforts of the leading countries that develop <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cell technologies power plants on the basis of molten carbonate <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cells (MCFC) and solid oxide <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cells (SOFC) are really close to commercialization. One of the problems that are to be solved for practical implementation of MCFC and SOFC is a problem of corrosion of metal components of stacks that are assembled of a number of <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cells. One of the major components of MCFC and SOFC stacks is a bipolar separator plate (BSP) that performs several functions - it is separation of reactant gas flows sealing of the joints between <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cells, and current collection from the surface of electrodes. The goal of Task 1 of the project is to develop new cost-effective nickel coatings for the Russian 20X23H18 steel for an MCFC bipolar separator plate using technological processes usually implemented to apply corrosion stable coatings onto the metal parts for products in the defense. There was planned the research on production of nickel coatings using different methods, first of all the galvanic one and the explosion cladding one. As a result of the works, 0.4 x 712 x 1296 mm plates coated with nickel on one side were to be made and passed to ANL. A line of 4 galvanic baths 600 liters was to be built for the galvanic coating applications. The goal of Task 2 of the project is the development of a new material of an MCFC bipolar separator plate with an upgraded corrosion stability, and development of a technology to produce cold roll sheets of this material the sizes of which will be 0.8 x 712x 1296 mm. As a result of these works, a pilot batch of the rolled material in sheets 0.8 x 712 x 1296 mm in size is to be made (in accordance with the norms and standards of the Russian</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1163294','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1163294"><span>Technical Report Cellulosic Based Black Liquor Gasification and <span class="hlt">Fuels</span> Plant <span class="hlt">Final</span> Technical Report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Fornetti, Micheal; Freeman, Douglas</p> <p>2012-10-31</p> <p>The Cellulosic Based Black Liquor Gasification and <span class="hlt">Fuels</span> Plant Project was developed to construct a black liquor to Methanol biorefinery in Escanaba, Michigan. The biorefinery was to be co-located at the existing pulp and paper mill, NewPage’s Escanaba Paper Mill and when in full operation would: • Generate renewable energy for Escanaba Paper Mill • Produce Methanol for transportation <span class="hlt">fuel</span> of further refinement to Dimethyl Ether • Convert black liquor to white liquor for pulping. Black liquor is a byproduct of the pulping process and as such is generated from abundant and renewable lignocellulosic biomass. The biorefinery would serve to validate the thermochemical pathway and economic models for black liquor gasification. It was a project goal to create a compelling new business model for the pulp and paper industry, and support the nation’s goal for increasing renewable <span class="hlt">fuels</span> production and reducing its dependence on foreign oil. NewPage Corporation planned to replicate this facility at other NewPage Corporation mills after this first demonstration scale plant was operational and had proven technical and economic feasibility. An overview of the process begins with black liquor being generated in a traditional Kraft pulping process. The black liquor would then be gasified to produce synthesis gas, sodium carbonate and hydrogen sulfide. The synthesis gas is then cleaned with hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide removed, and fed into a Methanol reactor where the liquid product is made. The hydrogen sulfide is converted into polysulfide for use in the Kraft pulping process. Polysulfide is a known additive to the Kraft process that increases pulp yield. The sodium carbonate salts are converted to caustic soda in a traditional recausticizing process. The caustic soda is then part of the white liquor that is used in the Kraft pulping process. Cellulosic Based Black Liquor Gasification and <span class="hlt">Fuels</span> Plant project set out to prove that black liquor gasification could</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1052138','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1052138"><span><span class="hlt">Final</span> Report - Advanced Cathode Catalysts and Supports for PEM <span class="hlt">Fuel</span> Cells</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Debe, Mark</p> <p>2012-09-28</p> <p>The principal objectives of the program were development of a durable, low cost, high performance cathode electrode (catalyst and support), that is fully integrated into a <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cell membrane electrode assembly with gas diffusion media, fabricated by high volume capable processes, and is able to meet or exceed the 2015 DOE targets. Work completed in this contract was an extension of the developments under three preceding cooperative agreements/grants Nos. DE-FC-02-97EE50473, DE-FC-99EE50582 and DE-FC36- 02AL67621 which investigated catalyzed membrane electrode assemblies for PEM <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cells based on a fundamentally new, nanostructured thin film catalyst and support system, and demonstrated the feasibility for high volume manufacturability.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5895801','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5895801"><span>Consumer behavior towards <span class="hlt">fuel</span> efficient vehicles. Volume II. <span class="hlt">Final</span> report Oct 77-Mar 81</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Heisler, J.T.; Groeneman, S.</p> <p>1981-03-01</p> <p>The Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975 requires <span class="hlt">fuel</span> efficiency standards through Model Year 1985 and requires that economic practicability (e.g., marketability, consumer impact) be considered in miles per gallon formulations. The purpose of this research is to develop information on likely market response to various vehicle design and performance changes to minimize the possibility of market rejection. The report is based on focus group discussions and consumer experiments with drivers in different vehicle size classes. Analysis focuses on the believability of the energy crisis and concern about its effects, the acceptability of possible <span class="hlt">fuel</span> economy options, consumer preferences with respect to vehicles embodying selected design and engineering changes, and predicted purchase and usage patterns under different future scenarios.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5812397','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5812397"><span>Consumer behavior towards <span class="hlt">fuel</span> efficient vehicles. Volume I: Executive summary. <span class="hlt">Final</span> report, October 1977-March 1981</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Heisler, J.T.; Groeneman, S.</p> <p>1981-03-01</p> <p>The Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975 requires <span class="hlt">fuel</span> efficiency standards through Model Year 1985 and requires that economic practicability (e.g., marketability, consumer impact) be considered in miles per gallon formulations. The purpose of this research is to develop information on likely market response to various vehicle design and performance changes to minimize the possibility of market rejection. The report is based on focus group discussions and consumer experiments with drivers in different vehicle size classes. Analysis focuses on the believability of the 'energy crisis' and concern about its effects, the acceptability of possible <span class="hlt">fuel</span> economy options, consumer preferences with respect to vehicles embodying selected design and engineering changes, and predicted purchase and usage patterns under different future scenarios.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/121885','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/121885"><span><span class="hlt">Fuel</span> cell balance of plant cost analysis. <span class="hlt">Final</span> report, June 1994-May 1995</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Chen, T.P.; Senetar, J.J.</p> <p>1995-05-01</p> <p>M-C Power Corporation currently plans to introduce its molten carbonate <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cell (MCFC) market entry unit in the year 2000 for distributed and on-site power generation. Extensive efforts have been made to analyze the cell stack manufacturing costs. However, the balance of plant (BOP) facilities, such as <span class="hlt">fuel</span> processing, waste heat recovery, inverter, and air supply system, have not received equal attention even though their combined cost may surpass the stack cost by a ratio of 2 to 1. The major objective of this study is to conduct a detailed analysis of BOP costs based on an initial design of the market entry unit to ensure M-C Power`s current development program will lead to a competitive product.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10127247','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10127247"><span>Maine State Planning Office, 1990--1991 heating season home heating <span class="hlt">fuels</span> price survey. <span class="hlt">Final</span> report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Not Available</p> <p>1991-12-31</p> <p>The 1990--1991 heating season was the first time in Maine that the Home Heating <span class="hlt">Fuels</span> Survey was conducted for the United States Department of Energy by the Maine State Planning Office. This season also marked the first time that dealers were surveyed for a price for propane. Under a late agreement, the State of Maine was picked up by the regional survey of the Energy Information Agency in the beginning of October. This accounted for the weekly survey of the traditional participants in the State`s Home Heating <span class="hlt">Fuels</span> Price Survey being supplemented by biweekly DOE surveys of separate survey samples of oil and propane dealers. The SPO sample identifies 36 dealers in the State of Maine, while the DOE sample was constructed around 22 oil dealers in Maine and New Hampshire and 29 propane dealers in Maine.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6527442','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6527442"><span>Environmental aspects of alternative wet technologies for producing energy/<span class="hlt">fuel</span> from peat. <span class="hlt">Final</span> report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Smith, R.T.</p> <p>1981-05-01</p> <p>Peat in situ contains up to 90% moisture, with about 50% of this moisture trapped as a colloidal gel. This colloidal moisture cannot be removed by conventional dewatering methods (filter presses, etc.) and must be removed by thermal drying, solvent extraction, or solar drying before the peat can be utilized as a <span class="hlt">fuel</span> feedstock for direct combustion or gasification. To circumvent the drying problem, alternative technologies such as wet oxidation, wet carbonization, and biogasification are possible for producing energy or enhanced <span class="hlt">fuel</span> from peat. This report describes these three alternative technologies, calculates material balances for given raw peat feed rates of 1000 tph, and evaluates the environmental consequences of all process effluent discharges. Wastewater discharges represent the most significant effluent due to the relatively large quantities of water removed during processing. Treated process water returned to the harvested bog may force in situ, acidic bog water into recieving streams, disrupting local aquatic ecosystems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10189926','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10189926"><span>Full-length high-temperature severe <span class="hlt">fuel</span> damage test No. 2. <span class="hlt">Final</span> safety analysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Hesson, G.M.; Lombardo, N.J.; Pilger, J.P.; Rausch, W.N.; King, L.L.; Hurley, D.E.; Parchen, L.J.; Panisko, F.E.</p> <p>1993-09-01</p> <p>Hazardous conditions associated with performing the Full-Length High- Temperature (FLHT). Severe <span class="hlt">Fuel</span> Damage Test No. 2 experiment have been analyzed. Major hazards that could cause harm or damage are (1) radioactive fission products, (2) radiation fields, (3) reactivity changes, (4) hydrogen generation, (5) materials at high temperature, (6) steam explosion, and (7) steam pressure pulse. As a result of this analysis, it is concluded that with proper precautions the FLHT- 2 test can be safely conducted.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/755409','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/755409"><span>Diesel Emission Reduction By On-Board <span class="hlt">Fuel</span> Reformulation. <span class="hlt">Final</span> Report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>D. L. Jassby; A. Rabinovich; L. Bromberg; N. Domingo</p> <p>2000-03-01</p> <p>In this Phase 1 proposal, four tasks were investigated: plasma reforming in the mode of energy neutral reforming, testing in a diesel engine with hydrogen injection (port-injection), analysis of the data, and system analysis. It was demonstrated that it is feasible using a compact microplasmatron <span class="hlt">fuel</span> converter to obtain near energy neutral reforming. Hydrogen addition was used in a compression ignition engine and a factor of 10 decrease in the particulate size concentration and mass was achieved.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_23 --> <div id="page_24" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="461"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/345034','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/345034"><span>Center for <span class="hlt">Fuel</span> Cell Research and Applications development phase. <span class="hlt">Final</span> report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p></p> <p>1998-12-01</p> <p>The deployment and operation of clean power generation is becoming critical as the energy and transportation sectors seek ways to comply with clean air standards and the national deregulation of the utility industry. However, for strategic business decisions, considerable analysis is required over the next few years to evaluate the appropriate application and value added from this emerging technology. To this end the Houston Advanced Research Center (HARC) is proposing a three-year industry-driven project that centers on the creation of ``The Center for <span class="hlt">Fuel</span> Cell Research and Applications.`` A collaborative laboratory housed at and managed by HARC, the Center will enable a core group of six diverse participating companies--industry participants--to investigate the economic and operational feasibility of proton-exchange-membrane (PEM) <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cells in a variety of applications (the core project). This document describes the unique benefits of a collaborative approach to PEM applied research, among them a shared laboratory concept leading to cost savings and shared risks as well as access to outstanding research talent and lab facilities. It also describes the benefits provided by implementing the project at HARC, with particular emphasis on HARC`s history of managing successful long-term research projects as well as its experience in dealing with industry consortia projects. The Center is also unique in that it will not duplicate the traditional university role of basic research or that of the <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cell industry in developing commercial products. Instead, the Center will focus on applications, testing, and demonstration of <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cell technology.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/257369','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/257369"><span>Utilization of <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cells to beneficially use coal mine methane. <span class="hlt">Final</span> report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Brown, J.T.; O`Brien, D.G.; Miller, A.R.; Atkins, R.; Sanders, M.</p> <p>1996-03-01</p> <p>DOE has been given the responsibility to encourage industry to recover and use methane that is currently being released to the atmosphere. At this time the only method being employed at the Left Fork Mine to remove methane is the mine ventilation system. The methane content was measured at one one-hundredth of a percent. To prevent this methane from being vented to the atmosphere, degasification wells are proposed. To use the coal mine methane, it is proposed to use phosphoric-acid <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cells to convert methane to electric power. These <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cells contain (1) a steam reformer to convert the methane to hydrogen (and carbon dioxide), (2) the <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cell stack, and (3) a power conditioner that provides 200 kW of 60 Hz alternating current output. The environmental impacts and benefits of using this technology ware summarized in the report. The study indicates the methane emission reduction that could be achieved on a national and Global level. The important point being that this technology is economically viable as is demonstrated in the report.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6242949','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6242949"><span>Secondary atomization of coal-water <span class="hlt">fuels</span> for gas turbine applications: <span class="hlt">Final</span> report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Yu, T.U.; Kang, S.W.; Beer, J.M.</p> <p>1988-12-01</p> <p>The main research objective was to determine the effectiveness of the CWF treatments on atomization quality when applied to an ultrafine coal-water <span class="hlt">fuel</span> (solids loading reduced to 50%) and to gas turbine operating conditions (atomization at elevated pressures). Three <span class="hlt">fuel</span> treatment techniques were studied: (1) heating of CWF under pressure to produce steam as the pressure drops during passage of the CWF through the atomizer nozzle, (2) absorption of CO/sub 2/ gas in the CWF to produce a similar effect, and (3) a combination of the two treatments above. These techniques were expected to produce secondary atomization, that is, disruptive shattering of CWF droplets subsequent to their leaving the atomizing nozzle, and to lead to better burnout and finer fly ash size distribution. A parallel objective was to present quantitative information on the spray characteristics (mean droplet size, radial distribution of droplet size, and spray shape) of CWF with and without <span class="hlt">fuel</span> treatment, applicable to the design of CWF-burning gas turbine combustors. The experiments included laser diffraction droplet size measurements and high-speed photographic studies in the MIT Spray Test Facility to determine mean droplet size (mass median diameter), droplet size distribution, and spray shape and angle. Three systems of atomized sprays were studied: (1) water sprays heated to a range of temperatures at atmospheric pressure; (2) CWF sprays heated at atmospheric pressure to different temperatures; and (3) sprays at elevated pressure. 31 refs., 47 figs., 1 tab.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/663436','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/663436"><span>Co-firing high sulfur coal with refuse derived <span class="hlt">fuels</span>. <span class="hlt">Final</span> report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Pan, W.P.; Riley, J.T.; Lloyd, W.G.</p> <p>1997-11-30</p> <p>This project was designed to evaluate the combustion performance of and emissions from a fluidized bed combustor during the combustion of mixtures of high sulfur and/or high chlorine coals and municipal solid waste (MSW). The project included four major tasks, which were as follows: (1) Selection, acquisition, and characterization of raw materials for <span class="hlt">fuels</span> and the determination of combustion profiles of combination <span class="hlt">fuels</span> using thermal analytical techniques; (2) Studies of the mechanisms for the formation of chlorinated organics during the combustion of MSW using a tube furnace; (3) Investigation of the effect of sulfur species on the formation of chlorinated organics; and (4) Examination of the combustion performance of combination <span class="hlt">fuels</span> in a laboratory scale fluidized bed combustor. Several kinds of coals and the major combustible components of the MSW, including PVC, newspaper, and cellulose were tested in this project. Coals with a wide range of sulfur and chlorine contents were used. TGA/MS/FTIR analyses were performed on the raw materials and their blends. The possible mechanism for the formation of chlorinated organics during combustion was investigated by conducting a series of experiments in a tube furnace. The effect of sulfur dioxide on the formation of molecular chlorine during combustion processes was examined in this study.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5038472','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5038472"><span>Liquid <span class="hlt">fuels</span> production from biomass. <span class="hlt">Final</span> report, for period ending June 30, 1980</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Levy, P. F.; Sanderson, J. E.; Ashare, E.; Wise, D. L.; Molyneaux, M. S.</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>The current program to convert biomass into liquid hydrocarbon <span class="hlt">fuels</span> is an extension of a previous program to ferment marine algae to acetic acid. In that study it was found that marine algae could be converted to higher aliphatic organic acids and that these acids could be readily removed from the fermentation broth by membrane or liquid-liquid extraction. It was then proposed to convert these higher organic acids via Kolbe electrolysis to aliphatic hydrocarbons, which may be used as a diesel <span class="hlt">fuel</span>. The specific goals for the current program are: (1) establish conditions under which substrates other than marine algae may be converted in good yield to organic acids, here the primary task is methane suppression; (2) modify the current 300-liter fixed packed bed batch fermenter to operate in a continuous mode; (3) change from membrane extraction of organic acids to liquid-liquid extraction; (4) optimize the energy balance of the electrolytic oxidation process, the primary task is to reduce the working potential required for the electrolysis while maintaining an adequate current density; (5) scale the entire process up to match the output of the 300 liter fermenter; and (6) design pilot plant and commercial size plant (1000 tons/day) processes for converting biomass to liquid hydrocarbon <span class="hlt">fuels</span> and perform an economic analysis for the 1000 ton/day design.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/629358','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/629358"><span>Co-production of electricity and alternate <span class="hlt">fuels</span> from coal. <span class="hlt">Final</span> report, August 1995</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p></p> <p>1995-12-31</p> <p>The Calderon process and its process development unit, PDU, were originally conceived to produce two useful products from a bituminous coal: a desulfurized medium BTU gas containing primarily CO, H{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, CO{sub 2}, and H{sub 2}O; and a desulfurized low BTU gas containing these same constituents plus N{sub 2} from the air used to provide heat for the process through the combustion of a portion of the <span class="hlt">fuel</span>. The process was viewed as a means for providing both a synthesis gas for liquid <span class="hlt">fuel</span> production (perhaps CH{sub 3}OH, alternatively CH{sub 4} or NH{sub 3}) and a pressurized, low BTU <span class="hlt">fuel</span> gas, for gas turbine based power generation. The Calderon coal process comprises three principle sections which perform the following functions: coal pyrolysis in a continuous, steady flow unit based on coke oven technology; air blown, slagging, coke gasification in a moving bed unit based on a blast furnace technology; and a novel, lime pebble based, product gas processing in which a variety of functions are accomplished including the cracking of hydrocarbons and the removal of sulfur, H{sub 2}S, and of particulates from both the medium and low BTU gases. The product gas processing unit, based on multiple moving beds, has also been conceived to regenerate the lime pebbles and recover sulfur as elemental S.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1183626','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1183626"><span><span class="hlt">Fuel</span> Thermo-physical Characterization Project. Fiscal Year 2014 <span class="hlt">Final</span> Report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Burkes, Douglas; Casella, Andrew M.; Buck, Edgar C.; Casella, Amanda J.; Edwards, Matthew K.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Pool, Karl N.; Slonecker, Bruce D.; Smith, Frances N.; Steen, Franciska H.</p> <p>2015-03-15</p> <p>The Office of Material Management and Minimization (M3) Reactor Conversion <span class="hlt">Fuel</span> Thermo-Physical Characterization Project at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was tasked with using PNNL facilities and processes to receive irradiated low enriched uranium–molybdenum (LEU-Mo) <span class="hlt">fuel</span> plate samples and perform analysis in support of the M3 Reactor Conversion Program. This work is in support of the M3 Reactor Conversion <span class="hlt">Fuel</span> Development Pillar that is managed by Idaho National Laboratory. The primary research scope was to determine the thermo-physical properties as a function of temperature and burnup. Work conducted in Fiscal Year (FY) 2014 complemented measurements performed in FY 2013 on four additional irradiated LEU-Mo <span class="hlt">fuel</span> plate samples. Specifically, the work in FY 2014 investigated the influence of different processing methods on thermal property behavior, the absence of aluminum alloy cladding on thermal property behavior for additional model validation, and the influence of higher operating surface heat flux / more aggressive irradiation conditions on thermal property behavior. The model developed in FY 2013 and refined in FY 2014 to extract thermal properties of the U-Mo alloy from the measurements conducted on an integral <span class="hlt">fuel</span> plate sample (i.e., U-Mo alloy with a thin Zr coating and clad in AA6061) continues to perform very well. Measurements conducted in FY 2014 on samples irradiated under similar conditions compare well to measurements performed in FY 2013. In general, there is no gross influence of fabrication method on thermal property behavior, although the difference in LEU-Mo foil microstructure does have a noticeable influence on recrystallization of grains during irradiation. Samples irradiated under more aggressive irradiation conditions, e.g., higher surface heat flux, revealed lower thermal conductivity when compared to samples irradiated at moderate surface heat fluxes, with the exception of one sample. This report documents thermal</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/441769','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/441769"><span>Analysis of burnable poison in Ford Nuclear Reactor <span class="hlt">fuel</span> to extend <span class="hlt">fuel</span> lifetime. <span class="hlt">Final</span> report, August 1, 1994--September 29, 1996</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Burn, R.R.; Lee, J.C.</p> <p>1996-12-01</p> <p>The objective of the project was to establish the feasibility of extending the lifetime of <span class="hlt">fuel</span> elements for the Ford Nuclear Reactor (FNR) by replacing current aluminide <span class="hlt">fuel</span> with silicide <span class="hlt">fuel</span> comprising a heavier uranium loading but with the same fissile enrichment of 19.5 wt% {sup 235}U. The project has focused on <span class="hlt">fuel</span> designs where burnable absorbers, in the form of B{sub 4}C, are admixed with uranium silicide in <span class="hlt">fuel</span> plates so that increases in the control reactivity requirements and peak power density, due to the heavier <span class="hlt">fuel</span> loading, may be minimized. The authors have developed equilibrium cycle models simulating current full-size aluminide core configurations with 43 {approximately} 45 <span class="hlt">fuel</span> elements. Adequacy of the overall equilibrium cycle approach has been verified through comparison with recent FNR experience in spent <span class="hlt">fuel</span> discharge rates and simulation of reactor physics characteristics for two representative cycles. <span class="hlt">Fuel</span> cycle studies have been performed to compare equilibrium cycle characteristics of silicide <span class="hlt">fuel</span> designs, including burnable absorbers, with current aluminide <span class="hlt">fuel</span>. These equilibrium cycle studies have established the feasibility of doubling the <span class="hlt">fuel</span> element lifetime, with minimal perturbations to the control reactivity requirements and peak power density, by judicious additions of burnable absorbers to silicide <span class="hlt">fuel</span>. Further study will be required to investigate a more practical silicide <span class="hlt">fuel</span> design, which incorporates burnable absorbers in side plates of each <span class="hlt">fuel</span> element rather than uniformly mixes them in <span class="hlt">fuel</span> plates.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6374113','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6374113"><span>Microalgae as a source of liquid <span class="hlt">fuels</span>. <span class="hlt">Final</span> technical report. [200 references</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Benemann, J.R.; Goebel, R.P.; Weissman, J.C.; Augenstein, D.C.</p> <p>1982-05-15</p> <p>The economics of liquid-<span class="hlt">fuels</span> production from microalgae was evaluated. A detailed review of published economic analyses of microalgae biomass production revealed wide variations in the published costs, which ranged from several dollars per pound for existing commercial health-food production in the Far East, to less than .05/lb costs projected for microalgae biomass for <span class="hlt">fuel</span> conversion. As little design information or specific cost data has been published, a credible cost estimate required the conceptual engineering design and cost estimating of microalgae to liquid-<span class="hlt">fuels</span> processes. Two systems were analyzed, shallow (2 to 3'') covered ponds and deeper (1 ft) open ponds. Only the latter was selected for an in-depth analysis due to the many technical shortcomings of the former approach. Based on the cost analysis of a very simple and low cost process, the most optimistic costs extrapolated were about $60/barrel. These were based on many optimistic assumptions. Additional, more detailed, engieering and cost analyses would be useful. However, the major emphasis in future work in this area should be on demonstrating the basic premises on which this design was based: high productivity and oil content of microalgae strains that can dominate in open ponds and which can be harvested by a simple bioflocculation process. Several specific basic research needs were identified: (1) Fundamentals of species selection and control in open pond systems. Effects of environmental variables on species dominance is of particular interest. (2) Mechanisms of algae bioflocculation. (3) Photosynthetic pathways and efficiency under conditions of high lipid production. (4) Effects of non-steady state operating conditions, particularly pH (CO/sub 2/ availability), on productivity. 18 figures, 47 tables.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6286148','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6286148"><span>Breeder Spent <span class="hlt">Fuel</span> Handling (BSFH) cask study for FY83. <span class="hlt">Final</span> report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Diggs, J M</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>This report documents a study conducted to investigate the applicability of existing LWR casks to shipment of long-cooled LMFBR <span class="hlt">fuel</span> from the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant (CRBRP) to the Breeder Reprocessing Engineering Test (BRET) Facility. This study considered a base case of physical constraints of plants and casks, handling capabilities of plants, through-put requirements, shielding requirements due to transportation regulation, and heat transfer capabilities of the cask designs. Each cask design was measured relative to the base case. 15 references, 4 figures, 6 tables.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1178819','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1178819"><span>Light Duty <span class="hlt">Fuel</span> Cell Electric Vehicle Validation Data. <span class="hlt">Final</span> Technical Report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Jelen, Deborah; Odom, Sara</p> <p>2015-04-30</p> <p>Electricore, along with partners from Quong & Associates, Inc., Honda R&D Americas (Honda), Nissan Technical Center North America (Nissan), and Toyota Motor Engineering & Manufacturing North America, Inc. (Toyota), participated in the Light Duty <span class="hlt">Fuel</span> Cell Electric Vehicle (FCEV) Validation Data program sponsored by the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (Cooperative Agreement No. DE-EE0005968). The goal of this program was to provide real world data from the operation of past and current FCEVs, in order to measure their performance and improvements over time. The program was successful; 85% of the data fields requested were provided and not restricted due to proprietary reasons. Overall, the team from Electricore provided at least 4.8 GB of data to DOE, which was combined with data from other participants to produce over 33 key data products. These products included vehicle performance and <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cell stack performance/durability. The data were submitted to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory’s National <span class="hlt">Fuel</span> Cell Technology Evaluation Center (NREL NFCTEC) and combined with input from other participants. NREL then produced composite data products (CDP) which anonymized the data in order to maintain confidentiality. The results were compared with past data, which showed a measurable improvement in FCEVs over the past several years. The results were presented by NREL at the 2014 <span class="hlt">Fuel</span> Cell Seminar, and 2014 and 2015 (planned) DOE Annual Merit Review. The project was successful. The team provided all of the data agreed upon and met all of its goals. The project finished on time and within budget. In addition, an extra $62,911 of cost sharing was provided by the Electricore team. All participants believed that the method used to collect, combine, anonymize, and present the data was technically and economically effective. This project helped EERE meet its mission of ensuring America’s security and prosperity by</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10191774','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10191774"><span>Direct conversion of light hydrocarbon gases to liquid <span class="hlt">fuel</span>. <span class="hlt">Final</span> report No. 33</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kaplan, R.D.; Foral, M.J.</p> <p>1992-05-16</p> <p>Amoco oil Company, has investigated the direct, non-catalytic conversion of light hydrocarbon gases to liquid <span class="hlt">fuels</span> (particularly methanol) via partial oxidation. The primary hydrocarbon feed used in these studies was natural gas. This report describes work completed in the course of our two-year project. In general we determined that the methanol yields delivered by this system were not high enough to make it economically attractive. Process variables studied included hydrocarbon feed composition, oxygen concentration, temperature and pressure effects, residence time, reactor design, and reactor recycle.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6567077','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6567077"><span>Parametric analysis support for alcohol-<span class="hlt">fuels</span> process development. <span class="hlt">Final</span> report, 1 January-30 June 1981</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Not Available</p> <p>1983-02-01</p> <p>Parametric analyses are described of an alcohol <span class="hlt">fuels</span> plant producing 50 million gal/y of ethanol by the high temperature dilute acid hydrolysis of aspen wood or corn stover. Analyses were carried out using a computer simulation. The simulation performs material and energy balances, estimates capital and operating costs, and calculates the selling price of ethanol. Pretretments and delignification are shown to be justified only if the value of lignin is greater than $0.40/lb. Sensitivity analyses determine the effect of hydrolysis conditions on yield and selling price. Sugar concentration prior to fermentation is shown not to be justified.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6130025','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6130025"><span>Compound cycle turbofan engine (CCTE). Task IX. Carbon-slurry <span class="hlt">fuel</span> combustion evaluation program. <span class="hlt">Final</span> report June-September 1979</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Bruce, T.W.; Mongia, H.</p> <p>1980-03-01</p> <p>The carbon-slurry <span class="hlt">fuel</span> evaluation program demonstrated the feasibility of running a currently available carbon-slurry <span class="hlt">fuel</span> in a combustion rig and a turbine engine. This program also established the preliminary design criteria for operating on carbon-slurry <span class="hlt">fuels</span>. Subcontracts work was performed by Pennsylvania State for <span class="hlt">fuel</span> droplet measurements and by Suntech, Inc. for <span class="hlt">fuel</span> development and manufacture.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1985ane..book.....N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1985ane..book.....N"><span><span class="hlt">Aviation</span> noise effects</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Newman, J. S.; Beattie, K. R.</p> <p>1985-03-01</p> <p>This report summarizes the effects of <span class="hlt">aviation</span> noise in many areas, ranging from human annoyance to impact on real estate values. It also synthesizes the findings of literature on several topics. Included in the literature were many original studies carried out under FAA and other Federal funding over the past two decades. Efforts have been made to present the critical findings and conclusions of pertinent research, providing, when possible, a bottom line conclusion, criterion or perspective. Issues related to <span class="hlt">aviation</span> noise are highlighted, and current policy is presented. Specific topic addressed include: annoyance; Hearing and hearing loss; noise metrics; human response to noise; speech interference; sleep interference; non-auditory health effects of noise; effects of noise on wild and domesticated animals; low frequency acoustical energy; impulsive noise; time of day weightings; noise contours; land use compatibility; and real estate values. This document is designed for a variety of users, from the individual completely unfamiliar with <span class="hlt">aviation</span> noise to experts in the field.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1033746','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1033746"><span>THERMODYNAMIC AND KINETIC MODELING OF ADVANCED NUCLEAR <span class="hlt">FUELS</span> - <span class="hlt">FINAL</span> LDRD-ER REPORT</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Turchi, P</p> <p>2011-11-28</p> <p>This project enhanced our theoretical capabilities geared towards establishing the basic science of a high-throughput protocol for the development of advanced nuclear <span class="hlt">fuel</span> that should couple modern computational materials modeling and simulation tools, fabrication and characterization capabilities, and targeted high throughput performance testing experiments. The successful conclusion of this ER project allowed us to upgrade state-of-the-art modeling codes, and apply these modeling tools to ab initio energetics and thermodynamic assessments of phase diagrams of various mixtures of actinide alloys, propose a tool for optimizing composition of complex alloys for specific properties, predict diffusion behavior in diffusion couples made of actinide and transition metals, include one new equation in the LLNL phase-field AMPE code, and predict microstructure evolution during alloy coring. In FY11, despite limited funding, the team also initiated an experimental activity, with collaboration from Texas A&M University by preparing samples of nuclear <span class="hlt">fuels</span> in bulk forms and for diffusion couple studies and metallic matrices, and performing preliminary characterization.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/10112972','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/10112972"><span>Evaluation of 450-MWe BGL GCC power plants <span class="hlt">fueled</span> with Pittsburgh No. 8 coal. <span class="hlt">Final</span> report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Pechtl, P.A.; Chen, T.P.; Thompson, B.H.; Greil, C.F.; Niermann, S.E.; Jandrisevits, M.; Attlefellner, H.</p> <p>1992-11-01</p> <p>In this study, a conceptual design and cost estimate were developed for a nominal 450 MW integrated gasification combined cycle plant using the British Gas/Lurgi slagging gasification process. The present study is a design update of a previous study (EPRI Report AP-6011). The major design improvements incorporated include use of the latest GE 7F gas turbine rating, integrating the air separation plant with gas turbine, use of <span class="hlt">fuel</span> gas saturation for NO{sub x} control, use of treated gasifier waste water as makeup water for the <span class="hlt">fuel</span> gas saturation, and several process changes in the acid gas removal and sulfur recovery areas. Alternate design options for feeding the excess coal fines to the gasifier, treating the gasifier waste water, and the use of conventional air separation without integration with gas turbine were evaluated. The design improvements incorporated were found to increase significantly the overall plant efficiency and reduce the cost reported in the previous study. The various design options evaluated were found to have significant impacts on the plant efficiency but negligible impacts on the cost of electricity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/979009','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/979009"><span>Hydrogen <span class="hlt">Fuel</span> Cell Analysis: Lessons Learned from Stationary Power Generation <span class="hlt">Final</span> Report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Scott E. Grasman; John W. Sheffield; Fatih Dogan; Sunggyu Lee; Umit O. Koylu; Angie Rolufs</p> <p>2010-04-30</p> <p>This study considered opportunities for hydrogen in stationary applications in order to make recommendations related to RD&D strategies that incorporate lessons learned and best practices from relevant national and international stationary power efforts, as well as cost and environmental modeling of pathways. The study analyzed the different strategies utilized in power generation systems and identified the different challenges and opportunities for producing and using hydrogen as an energy carrier. Specific objectives included both a synopsis/critical analysis of lessons learned from previous stationary power programs and recommendations for a strategy for hydrogen infrastructure deployment. This strategy incorporates all hydrogen pathways and a combination of distributed power generating stations, and provides an overview of stationary power markets, benefits of hydrogen-based stationary power systems, and competitive and technological challenges. The motivation for this project was to identify the lessons learned from prior stationary power programs, including the most significant obstacles, how these obstacles have been approached, outcomes of the programs, and how this information can be used by the Hydrogen, <span class="hlt">Fuel</span> Cells & Infrastructure Technologies Program to meet program objectives primarily related to hydrogen pathway technologies (production, storage, and delivery) and implementation of <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cell technologies for distributed stationary power. In addition, the lessons learned address environmental and safety concerns, including codes and standards, and education of key stakeholders.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5695942','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5695942"><span>A regulatory analysis on emergency preparedness for <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cycle and other radioactive material licensees: <span class="hlt">Final</span> report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>McGuire, S.A.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>The question this Regulatory Analysis sought to answer is: should the NRC impose additional emergency preparedness requirements on certain <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cycle and other radioactive material licensees for dealing with accidents that might have offsite releases of radioactive material. To answer the question, we analyzed potential accidents for 15 types of <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cycle and other radioactive material licensees. An appropriate plan would: (1) identify accidents for which protective actions should be taken by people offsite; (2) list the licensee's responsibilities for each type of accident, including notification of local authorities (fire and police generally); and (3) give sample messages for local authorities including protective action recommendations. This approach more closely follows the approach used for research reactors than for power reactors. The low potential offsite doses (acute fatalities and injuries not possible except possibly for UF/sub 6/ releases), the small areas where actions would be warranted, the small number of people involved, and the fact that the local police and fire departments would be doing essentially the same things they normally do, are all factors that tend to make a simple plan adequate. This report discusses the potentially hazardous accidents, and the likely effects of these accidents in terms of personnel danger.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7146956','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7146956"><span><span class="hlt">Fuels</span> from woody biomass. <span class="hlt">Final</span> technical report, June 1, 1978-May 31, 1981</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Frederick, D.J.; Kellison, R.C.; Gardner, W.E.</p> <p>1981-05-31</p> <p>Species selection and silvicultural systems have been investigated for producing <span class="hlt">fuels</span> from wood biomass in the southeastern United States. Four specific goals identified in development of this project include (1) summarizing existing species-site relationships and determining nutrient levels in trees and soils; (2) screening tree species and sources for suitability to intensive short-rotation biomass production; (3) determining optimum plantation management levels for the most promising species and quantifying biomass yields; and (4) employing genetic selection and breeding programs in location and development of trees for <span class="hlt">fuel</span> production. Progress to date includes summarization of existing species-site trials, refinement of foliar sampling techniques, relation of foliar nutrient levels to soil fertility, development of estimates and prediction equations for tree and component nutrient contents, early evaluation of Alnus sources, and establishment of several species-site trials including indigenous tree species, shrubby weed species, ornamentals and exotics. Progress in energy plantation management has included establishment on several different sites, of installations with multiple species and spacings arranged that blocks may be harvested at different rotation ages. Also, preliminary evaluations have been made of biomass yields, nutrient contents and distribution, and caloric contents. Continuing and needed research involves maintenace and evaluation of established studies, application of destructive sampling (harvesting) at alternative ages, coppice management factors, nutrient uptake impacts, refinement of site evaluation, application of genetic solution, heritability and breeding program to energy production, and evaluation of natural stands on similar sites.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_24 --> <div id="page_25" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="481"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5304007','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5304007"><span>Investigation of the transient <span class="hlt">fuel</span> preburner manifold and combustor. <span class="hlt">Final</span> report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Wang, Tensee; Chen, Yensen; Farmer, R.C.</p> <p>1989-06-01</p> <p>A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model with finite rate reactions, FDNS, was developed to study the start transient of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) <span class="hlt">fuel</span> preburner (FPB). FDNS is a time accurate, pressure based CFD code. An upwind scheme was employed for spatial discretization. The upwind scheme was based on second and fourth order central differencing with adaptive artificial dissipation. A state of the art two-equation k-epsilon (T) turbulence model was employed for the turbulence calculation. A Pade' Rational Solution (PARASOL) chemistry algorithm was coupled with the point implicit procedure. FDNS was benchmarked with three well documented experiments: a confined swirling coaxial jet, a non-reactive ramjet dump combustor, and a reactive ramjet dump combustor. Excellent comparisons were obtained for the benchmark cases. The code was then used to study the start transient of an axisymmetric SSME <span class="hlt">fuel</span> preburner. Predicted transient operation of the preburner agrees well with experiment. Furthermore, it was also found that an appreciable amount of unburned oxygen entered the turbine stages.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10177825','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10177825"><span>Development of high energy density <span class="hlt">fuels</span> from mild gasification of coal. <span class="hlt">Final</span> report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Not Available</p> <p>1991-12-01</p> <p>METC has concluded that MCG technology has the potential to simultaneously satisfy the transportation and power generation <span class="hlt">fuel</span> needs in the most cost-effective manner. MCG is based on low temperature pyrolysis, a technique known to the coal community for over a century. Most past pyrolysis developments were aimed at maximizing the liquids yield which results in a low quality tarry product requiring significant and capital intensive upgrading. By properly tailoring the pyrolysis severity to control the liquid yield-liquid quality relationship, it has been found that a higher quality distillate-boiling liquid can be readily ``skimmed`` from the coal. The resultant liquids have a much higher H/C ratio than conventional pyrolytic tars and therefore can be hydroprocessed at lower cost. These liquids are also extremely enriched in l-, 2-, and 3-ring aromatics. The co-product char material can be used in place of coal as a pulverized <span class="hlt">fuel</span> (pf) for power generation in a coal combustor. In this situation where the original coal has a high sulfur content, the MCG process can be practiced with a coal-lime mixture and the calcium values retained on the char can tie up the unconverted coal sulfur upon pf combustion of the char. Lime has also been shown to improve the yield and quality of the MCG liquids.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5375088','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5375088"><span>Study of the competitive viability of minority <span class="hlt">fuel</span> oil marketers. <span class="hlt">Final</span> report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p></p> <p>1981-09-30</p> <p>Previous studies on the competitive viability of the <span class="hlt">fuel</span> oil heating market had addressed some of the unique problems facing minority <span class="hlt">fuel</span> oil marketers (MFMs) within the total market sector (TMS). This study focused on identifying and developing quantitative information on MFMs in the TMS. The specific objective was to determine whether the business problems experienced by MFMs were directly related to their minority status or were characterstic of any firm in the TMS operating under comparable conditions. As an overall conclusion, thorough investigation of the MFMs considered to constitute the universe of minoriy firms within the TMS did not reveal any evidence of overt discrimination affecting the competitive viability of MFMs. Upon analysis, the problems reported by MFMs could not be reasonably ascribed to discrimination on the basis of their minority business status. The study, however, did point up problems unique to MFMs as the result of typical operational and financial characteristics. For example, MFMs, compared to the TMS norm, have not been in the market as long and are smaller in terms of total assets, number of employees, number of trucks, number of accounts and annual volume of oil delivered. Their primary customers are low-income families in urban areas. Financial indicators suggest that the average MFM does not have long-term financial stability. The basis for this overall conclusion, derived by analyses of information from MFMs, as well as many independent sources, is summarized in three parts: (1) MFM industry profile; (2) financial analyses; and (3) problem analyses.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2683453','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2683453"><span>The actual development of European <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Safety Requirements in <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Medicine: Prospects of Future EASA Requirements</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Siedenburg, J</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Common Rules for <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Safety had been developed under the aegis of the Joint <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Authorities in the 1990ies. In 2002 the Basic Regulation 1592/2002 was the founding document of a new entity, the European <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Safety Agency. Areas of activity were Certification and Maintenance of aircraft. On 18 March the new Basic Regulation 216/2008, repealing the original Basic Regulation was published and applicable from 08 April on. The included Essential Requirements extended the competencies of EASA inter alia to Pilot Licensing and Flight Operations. The future aeromedical requirements will be included as Annex II in another Implementing Regulation on Personnel Licensing. The detailed provisions will be published as guidance material. The proposals for these provisions have been published on 05 June 2008 as NPA 2008- 17c. After public consultation, processing of comments and <span class="hlt">final</span> adoption the new proposals may be applicable form the second half of 2009 on. A transition period of four year will apply. Whereas the provisions are based on Joint Awiation Requirement - Flight Crew Licensing (JAR-FCL) 3, a new Light Aircraft Pilot Licence (LAPL) project and the details of the associated medical certification regarding general practitioners will be something new in <span class="hlt">aviation</span> medicine. This paper consists of 6 sections. The introduction outlines the idea of international <span class="hlt">aviation</span> safety. The second section describes the development of the Joint <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Authorities (JAA), the first step to common rules for <span class="hlt">aviation</span> safety in Europe. The third section encompasses a major change as next step: the foundation of the European <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Safety Agency (EASA) and the development of its rules. In the following section provides an outline of the new medical requirements. Section five emphasizes the new concept of a Leisure Pilot Licence. The last section gives an outlook on ongoing rulemaking activities and the opportunities of the public to participate in them. PMID:19561781</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120014219','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120014219"><span>Alternate-<span class="hlt">Fueled</span> Flight: Halophytes, Algae, Bio-, and Synthetic <span class="hlt">Fuels</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hendricks, R. C.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Synthetic and biomass <span class="hlt">fueling</span> are now considered to be near-term <span class="hlt">aviation</span> alternate <span class="hlt">fueling</span>. The major impediment is a secure sustainable supply of these <span class="hlt">fuels</span> at reasonable cost. However, biomass <span class="hlt">fueling</span> raises major concerns related to uses of common food crops and grasses (some also called "weeds") for processing into <span class="hlt">aviation</span> <span class="hlt">fuels</span>. These issues are addressed, and then halophytes and algae are shown to be better suited as sources of aerospace <span class="hlt">fuels</span> and transportation <span class="hlt">fueling</span> in general. Some of the history related to alternate <span class="hlt">fuels</span> use is provided as a guideline for current and planned alternate <span class="hlt">fuels</span> testing (ground and flight) with emphasis on biofuel blends. It is also noted that lessons learned from terrestrial <span class="hlt">fueling</span> are applicable to space missions. These materials represent an update (to 2009) and additions to the Workshop on Alternate <span class="hlt">Fueling</span> Sustainable Supply and Halophyte Summit at Twinsburg, Ohio, October 17 to 18, 2007.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20080018613','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20080018613"><span>Alternate-<span class="hlt">Fueled</span> Flight: Halophytes, Algae, Bio-, and Synthetic <span class="hlt">Fuels</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hendricks, R. C.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Synthetic and biomass <span class="hlt">fueling</span> are now considered to be near-term <span class="hlt">aviation</span> alternate <span class="hlt">fueling</span>. The major impediment is a secure sustainable supply of these <span class="hlt">fuels</span> at reasonable cost. However, biomass <span class="hlt">fueling</span> raises major concerns related to uses of common food crops and grasses (some also called "weeds") for processing into <span class="hlt">aviation</span> <span class="hlt">fuels</span>. These issues are addressed, and then halophytes and algae are shown to be better suited as sources of aerospace <span class="hlt">fuels</span> and transportation <span class="hlt">fueling</span> in general. Some of the history related to alternate <span class="hlt">fuels</span> use is provided as a guideline for current and planned alternate <span class="hlt">fuels</span> testing (ground and flight) with emphasis on biofuel blends. It is also noted that lessons learned from terrestrial <span class="hlt">fueling</span> are applicable to space missions. These materials represent an update and additions to the Workshop on Alternate <span class="hlt">Fueling</span> Sustainable Supply and Halophyte Summit at Twinsburg, OH, Oct. 17 to 18, 2007 (ref. 1).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA258760','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA258760"><span>Criminal Acts Against Civil <span class="hlt">Aviation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://publicaccess.dtic.mil/psm/api/service/search/search">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>28 Soviet Union ...34 Feature Articles Civil <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> in the Soviet Union ................................................................. 39 Attacks on Airline...relief transport aircraft or hijackings; none were related to the Gulf war. Likewise, in Asia, there were few criminal acts against civil <span class="hlt">aviation</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=aviation+AND+materials&pg=3&id=EJ205465','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=aviation+AND+materials&pg=3&id=EJ205465"><span>Teachers' Guide For <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Education.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Aviation/Space, 1979</p> <p>1979-01-01</p> <p>This teacher's guide outlines the objectives, instructional procedures, student activities, and expected outcomes of an instructional unit on careers in <span class="hlt">aviation</span>, designed for fifth and sixth grade students. It emphasizes aerospace activities and job opportunities in <span class="hlt">aviation</span>. (GA)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1055681','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1055681"><span><span class="hlt">Final</span> Report of Project Nanometer Structures for <span class="hlt">Fuel</span> Cells and Displays, etc.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Ji, Qing</p> <p>2011-12-15</p> <p>Low-energy ion beam bombardment induced self-assembly has been used to form various periodic nano-size wave-ordered structures (WOS). Such WOS can be used as hard etching masks to produce nanowire arrays, trenches etc., on other materials by means of traditional etching or ion sputtering. These periodic nano-size structures have a wide range of applications, including flat panel displays, optical electronics, and clean energy technologies (solar and <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cells, lithium batteries). In order to achieve high throughput of the above processes, a large area RF-driven multicusp nitrogen ion source has been developed for the application of nitrogen ion beam induced surface modification. An integrated ion beam system, which can house either a large area RF-driven multicusp ion source or a commercially available microwave ion source (Roth & Rau AG Tamiris 400-f) have been designed, manufactured, assembled, and tested.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5539582','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5539582"><span>Environmentally based siting assessment for synthetic-liquid-<span class="hlt">fuels</span> facilities. <span class="hlt">Final</span> report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p></p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>A detailed assessment of the major environmental constraints to siting a synthetic <span class="hlt">fuels</span> industry and the results of that assessment are used to determine on a regional basis the potential for development of such an industry with minimal environmental conflicts. Secondly, the ability to mitigate some of the constraining impacts through alternative institutional arrangements, especially in areas that are judged to have a low development potential is also assessed. Limitations of the study are delineated, but specifically, the study is limited geographically to well-defined boundaries that include the prime coal and oil shale resource areas. The critical factors used in developing the framework are air quality, water availability, socioeconomic capacity, ecological sensitivity, environmental health, and the management of Federally owned lands. (MCW)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6872357','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6872357"><span>Feasibility of burning refuse derived <span class="hlt">fuel</span> in institutional size oil-fired boilers. <span class="hlt">Final</span> report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p></p> <p>1980-10-01</p> <p>This study investigates the feasibility of retrofitting existing oil-fired boilers of institutional size, approximately 3.63 to 36.3 Mg steam/h (8000 to 80,000 lbs steam/h) for co-firing with refuse-derived <span class="hlt">fuel</span> (RDF). Relevant quantities describing mixtures of oil and RDF and combustion products for various levels of excess air are computed. Savings to be realized from the use of RDF are derived under several assumptions and allowable costs for a retrofit are estimated. An extensive survey of manufacturers of burners, boilers, and combustion systems showed that no hardware or proven design is yet available for such retrofit. Approaches with significant promises are outlined: the slagging burner, and a dry ash double vortex burner for low heat input from RDF. These two systems, and an evaluation of a small separate RDF dedicated combustor in support of the oil-fired boiler, are recommended as topics for future study.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.A51C0127G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.A51C0127G"><span><span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Climate Change Research Initiative (ACCRI) - An Update</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gupta, M. L.</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Aviation</span> plays an important role in global and domestic economic development and transport mobility. There are environmental concerns associated with <span class="hlt">aviation</span> noise and emissions. Aircraft climate impacts are primarily due to release of emissions at the cruise altitude in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. Even though small in magnitude at present, <span class="hlt">aviation</span> climate impacts will likely increase with projected growth in air transport demand unless scientifically informed and balanced mitigation solutions are implemented in a timely manner. There are large uncertainties associated with global and regional non-CO2 <span class="hlt">aviation</span> climate impacts which need to be well quantified and constrained to support decision making. To meet future <span class="hlt">aviation</span> capacity needs, the United States is developing and implementing a dynamic, flexible and scalable Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) that is safe, secure, efficient and environmentally sound. One of the stated NextGen environmental goals is to limit or reduce the impacts of <span class="hlt">aviation</span> emissions on global climate. With the support from the participating agencies of the U.S. Climate Change Science Program, the Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Administration (FAA) has developed <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Climate Change Research Initiative (ACCRI) with the main objective to identify and address key scientific gaps and uncertainties that are most likely to be achieved in near (up to 18 months) and mid (up to 36 months) term horizons while providing timely scientific input to inform decision making. Till date, ACCRI funded activities have resulted in release of 8 subject-specific whitepapers and a report on The Way Forward. These documents can be accessed via http://www.faa.gov/about/office_org/headquarters_offices/aep/<span class="hlt">aviation_climate/media/ACCRI_Report_final</span>.pdf. This presentation will provide details on prioritized key scientific gaps and uncertainties to better characterize <span class="hlt">aviation</span> climate impacts. This presentation will also include a brief</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1222204','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1222204"><span>Thermochemical Conversion of Woody Biomass to <span class="hlt">Fuels</span> and Chemicals <span class="hlt">Final</span> Report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Pendse, Hemant P.</p> <p>2015-09-30</p> <p>Maine and its industries identified more efficient utilization of biomass as a critical economic development issue. In Phase I of this implementation project, a research team was assembled, research equipment was implemented and expertise was demonstrated in pyrolysis, hydrodeoxygenation of pyrolysis oils, catalyst synthesis and characterization, and reaction engineering. Phase II built upon the infrastructure to innovate reaction pathways and process engineering, and integrate new approaches for <span class="hlt">fuels</span> and chemical production within pulp and paper and other industries within the state. This research cluster brought together chemists, engineers, physicists and students from the University of Maine, Bates College, and Bowdoin College. The project developed collaborations with Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Brookhaven National Laboratory. The specific research projects within this proposal were of critical interest to the DoE - in particular the biomass program within EERE and the catalysis/chemical transformations program within BES. Scientific and Technical Merit highlights of this project included: (1) synthesis and physical characterization of novel size-selective catalyst/supports using engineered mesoporous (1-10 nm diameter pores) materials, (2) advances in fundamental knowledge of novel support/ metal catalyst systems tailored for pyrolysis oil upgrading, (3) a microcalorimetric sensing technique, (4) improved methods for pyrolysis oil characterization, (5) production and characterization of woody biomass-derived pyrolysis oils, (6) development of two new patented bio oil pathways: thermal deoxygenation (TDO) and formate assisted pyrolysis (FASP), and (7) technoeconomics of pyrolysis of Maine forest biomass. This research cluster has provided fundamental knowledge to enable and assess pathways to thermally convert biomass to hydrocarbon <span class="hlt">fuels</span> and chemicals.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1000304','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1000304"><span><span class="hlt">Final</span> Report: Investigation of Catalytic Pathways for Lignin Breakdown into Monomers and <span class="hlt">Fuels</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Gluckstein, Jeffrey A; Hu, Michael Z.; Kidder, Michelle; McFarlane, Joanna; Narula, Chaitanya Kumar; Sturgeon, Matthew R</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>Lignin is a biopolymer that comprises up to 35% of woody biomass by dry weight. It is currently underutilized compared to cellulose and hemicellulose, the other two primary components of woody biomass. Lignin has an irregular structure of methoxylated aromatic groups linked by a suite of ether and alkyl bonds which makes it difficult to degrade selectively. However, the aromatic components of lignin also make it promising as a base material for the production of aromatic <span class="hlt">fuel</span> additives and cyclic chemical feed stocks such as styrene, benzene, and cyclohexanol. Our laboratory research focused on three methods to selectively cleave and deoxygenate purified lignin under mild conditions: acidolysis, hydrogenation and electrocatalysis. (1) Acidolysis was undertaken in CH2Cl2 at room temperature. (2) Hydrogenation was carried out by dissolving lignin and a rhodium catalyst in 1:1 water:methoxyethanol under a 1 atm H2 environment. (3) Electrocatalysis of lignin involved reacting electrically generated hydrogen atoms at a catalytic palladium cathode with lignin dissolved in a solution of aqueous methanol. In all of the experiments, the lignin degradation products were identified and quantified by gas chromatography mass spectroscopy and flame ionization detection. Yields were low, but this may have reflected the difficulty in recovering the various fractions after conversion. The homogeneous hydrogenation of lignin showed fragmentation into monomers, while the electrocatalytic hydrogenation showed production of polyaromatic hydrocarbons and substituted benzenes. In addition to the experiments, promising pathways for the conversion of lignin were assessed. Three conversion methods were compared based on their material and energy inputs and proposed improvements using better catalyst and process technology. A variety of areas were noted as needing further experimental and theoretical effort to increase the feasibility of lignin conversion to <span class="hlt">fuels</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA470339','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA470339"><span>National Strategy for <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Security</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://publicaccess.dtic.mil/psm/api/service/search/search">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2007-03-26</p> <p>for <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Security (hereafter referred to as the Strategy") to protect the Nation and its interests from threats in the Air Domain. The Secretary of... <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> security is best achieved by integrating public and private <span class="hlt">aviation</span> security global activities into a coordinated effort to detect, deter...might occur. The Strategy aligns Federal government <span class="hlt">aviation</span> security programs and initiatives into a comprehensive and cohesive national effort</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/AD0263637','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/AD0263637"><span>DEVELOPMENT OF HIGH TEMPERATURE HYDROCARBON JET <span class="hlt">FUELS</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://publicaccess.dtic.mil/psm/api/service/search/search">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>AIRCRAFT ENGINE OILS, *<span class="hlt">AVIATION</span> <span class="hlt">FUELS</span>, *HYDROCARBONS, *JET ENGINE <span class="hlt">FUELS</span>, *LUBRICANTS, *POLYCYCLIC COMPOUNDS, ALKYL RADICALS, BENZENE, CATALYSIS...CHEMICAL REACTIONS , COMBUSTION, CUMENES, DECOMPOSITION, ETHYLENES, FORMALDEHYDE, FRAGMENTATION, HIGH TEMPERATURE, HYDROGENATION, NAPHTHALENES, PHYSICAL</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940020615','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940020615"><span>US general <span class="hlt">aviation</span>: The ingredients for a renaissance. A vision and technology strategy for US industry, NASA, FAA, universities</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Holmes, Bruce</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>General <span class="hlt">aviation</span> today is a vital component in the nation's air transportation system. It is threatened for survival but has enormous potential for expansion in utility and use. This potential for expansion is <span class="hlt">fueled</span> by new satellite navigation and communication systems, small computers, flat panel displays, and advanced aerodynamics, materials and manufacturing methods, and propulsion technologies which create opportunities for new levels of environmental and economic acceptability. Expanded general <span class="hlt">aviation</span> utility and use could have a large impact on the nation's jobs, commerce, industry, airspace capacity, trade balance, and quality of life. This paper presents, in viewgraph form, a general overview of U.S. general <span class="hlt">aviation</span>. Topics covered include general <span class="hlt">aviation</span> shipment and billings; airport and general <span class="hlt">aviation</span> infrastructure; cockpit, airplane, and airspace technologies; market demand; air traffic operations and <span class="hlt">aviation</span> accidents; <span class="hlt">fuel</span> efficiency comparisons; and general <span class="hlt">aviation</span> goals and strategy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Richard+AND+Adams&pg=3&id=ED408490','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Richard+AND+Adams&pg=3&id=ED408490"><span>Collegiate <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Review. September 1994.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Barker, Ballard M., Ed.</p> <p></p> <p>This document contains four papers on <span class="hlt">aviation</span> education. The first paper, "Why Aren't We Teaching Aeronautical Decision Making?" (Richard J. Adams), reviews 15 years of <span class="hlt">aviation</span> research into the causes of human performance errors in <span class="hlt">aviation</span> and provides guidelines for designing the next generation of aeronautical decision-making materials.…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=aviation+AND+engineer&id=ED408492','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=aviation+AND+engineer&id=ED408492"><span>Collegiate <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Review. September 1996.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Barker, Ballard M., Ed.</p> <p></p> <p>This document contains three papers on <span class="hlt">aviation</span> education. "Academic Integrity in Higher Education: Is Collegiate <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Education at Risk?" (Jeffrey A. Johnson) discusses academic integrity and legal issues in higher education and argues that academic integrity needs to be an integral part of collegiate <span class="hlt">aviation</span> education if students expect to…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-01-30/pdf/2013-01871.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-01-30/pdf/2013-01871.pdf"><span>78 FR 6276 - <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Communications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-01-30</p> <p>... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 87 <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Communications AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Proposed... pertaining to <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Communications remain up-to-date and continues to further the Commission's goals of... letter from the Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Administration (FAA) asking that the Commission not implement...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_25 --> <center> <div class="footer-extlink text-muted"><small>Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. 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