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Sample records for aviation fuel final

  1. [Research and workshop on alternative fuels for aviation. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1999-09-01

    The Renewable Aviation Fuels Development Center (RAFDC) at Baylor University was granted U. S. Department of Energy (US DOE) and Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) funds for research and development to improve the efficiency in ethanol powered aircraft, measure performance and compare emissions of ethanol, Ethyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (ETBE) and 100 LL aviation gasoline. The premise of the initial proposal was to use a test stand owned by Engine Components Inc. (ECI) based in San Antonio, Texas. After the grant was awarded, ECI decided to close down its test stand facility. Since there were no other test stands available at that time, RAFDC was forced to find additional support to build its own test stand. Baylor University provided initial funds for the test stand building. Other obstacles had to be overcome in order to initiate the program. The price of the emission testing equipment had increased substantially beyond the initial quote. Rosemount Analytical Inc. gave RAFDC an estimate of $120,000.00 for a basic emission testing package. RAFDC had to find additional funding to purchase this equipment. The electronic ignition unit also presented a series of time consuming problems. Since at that time there were no off-the-shelf units of this type available, one had to be specially ordered and developed. FAA funds were used to purchase a Super Flow dynamometer. Due to the many unforeseen obstacles, much more time and effort than originally anticipated had to be dedicated to the project, with much of the work done on a volunteer basis. Many people contributed their time to the program. One person, mainly responsible for the initial design of the test stand, was a retired engineer from Allison with extensive aircraft engine test stand experience. Also, many Baylor students volunteered to assemble the. test stand and continue to be involved in the current test program. Although the program presented many challenges, which resulted in delays, the RAFDC's test stand is

  2. Alternative aviation turbine fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grobman, J.

    1977-01-01

    The efficient utilization of fossil fuels by future jet aircraft may necessitate the broadening of current aviation turbine fuel specifications. The most significant changes in specifications would be an increased aromatics content and a higher final boiling point in order to minimize refinery energy consumption and costs. These changes would increase the freezing point and might lower the thermal stability of the fuel and could cause increased pollutant emissions, increased smoke and carbon formation, increased combustor liner temperatures, and poorer ignition characteristics. This paper discusses the effects that broadened specification fuels may have on present-day jet aircraft and engine components and the technology required to use fuels with broadened specifications.

  3. Future aviation fuels overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reck, G. M.

    1980-01-01

    The outlook for aviation fuels through the turn of the century is briefly discussed and the general objectives of the NASA Lewis Alternative Aviation Fuels Research Project are outlined. The NASA program involves the evaluation of potential characteristics of future jet aircraft fuels, the determination of the effects of those fuels on engine and fuel system components, and the development of a component technology to use those fuels.

  4. Aviation fueling hose

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    This standard provides comprehensive specifications and identifies appropriate test procedures for aircraft fueling hose, hose couplings, and coupled hose assemblies suitable for use on aviation fuel servicing equipment (fuelers/hydrant dispensers).

  5. Demonstration and implementation of ethanol as an aviation fuel. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-01-01

    The objectives of the program were to demonstrate the viability of ethanol as an aviation fuel at appropriate locations and audiences in the participating Biomass Energy Program Regions, and to promote implementation projects in the area. Seven demonstrations were to be performed during the Summer 1995 through December 1996 period. To maximize the cost effectiveness of the program, additional corporate co-sponsorships were sought at each demonstration site and the travel schedule was arranged to take advantage of appropriate events taking place in the vicinity of the schedule events or enroute. This way, the original funded amount was stretched to cover another year of activities increasing the number of demonstrations from seven to thirty-nine. While the Renewable Aviation Fuels Development Center (RAFDC) contract focused on ethanol as an aviation fuel, RAFDC also promoted the broader use of ethanol as a transportation fuel. The paper summarizes locations and occasions, and gives a brief description of each demonstration/exhibit/presentation held during the term of the project. Most of the demonstrations took place at regularly scheduled air shows, such as the Oshkosh, Wisconsin Air Show. The paper also reviews current and future activities in the areas of certification, emission testing, the international Clean Airports Program, air pollution monitoring with instrumented aircraft powered by renewable fuels, training operation and pilot project on ethanol, turbine fuel research, and educational programs.

  6. Environmentally safe aviation fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liberio, Patricia D.

    1995-01-01

    In response to the Air Force directive to remove Ozone Depleting Chemicals (ODC's) from military specifications and Defense Logistics Agency's Hazardous Waste Minimization Program, we are faced with how to ensure a quality aviation fuel without using such chemicals. Many of these chemicals are found throughout the fuel and fuel related military specifications and are part of test methods that help qualify the properties and quality of the fuels before they are procured. Many years ago there was a directive for military specifications to use commercially standard test methods in order to provide standard testing in private industry and government. As a result the test methods used in military specifications are governed by the American Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM). The Air Force has been very proactive in the removal or replacement of the ODC's and hazardous materials in these test methods. For example, ASTM D3703 (Standard Test Method for Peroxide Number of Aviation Turbine Fuels), requires the use of Freon 113, a known ODC. A new rapid, portable hydroperoxide test for jet fuels similar to ASTM D3703 that does not require the use of ODC's has been developed. This test has proved, in limited testing, to be a viable substitute method for ASTM D3703. The Air Force is currently conducting a round robin to allow the method to be accepted by ASTM and therefore replace the current method. This paper will describe the Air Force's initiatives to remove ODC's and hazardous materials from the fuel and fuel related military specifications that the Air Force Wright Laboratory.

  7. Aviation fuels outlook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Momenthy, A. M.

    1980-01-01

    Options for satisfying the future demand for commercial jet fuels are analyzed. It is concluded that the most effective means to this end are to attract more refiners to the jet fuel market and encourage development of processes to convert oil shale and coal to transportation fuels. Furthermore, changing the U.S. refineries fuel specification would not significantly alter jet fuel availability.

  8. High freezing point fuels used for aviation turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, R.

    1979-01-01

    Broadened-specification aviation fuels could be produced from a greater fraction of crude source material with improvements in fuel supply and price. These fuels, particularly those with increased final boiling temperatures, would have higher freezing temperatures than current aviation turbine fuels. For the small but significant fraction of commercial flights where low fuel temperatures make higher freezing-point fuel use unacceptable, adaptations to the fuel or fuel system may be made to accommodate this fuel. Several techniques are discussed. Fuel heating is the most promising concept. One simple design uses existing heat rejection from the fuel-lubricating oil cooler, another uses an engine-driven generator for electrical heating.

  9. Aviation turbine fuels: An assessment of alternatives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The general outlook for aviation turbine fuels, the effect that broadening permissible aviation turbine fuel properties could have on the overall availability of such fuels, the fuel properties most likely to be affected by use of lower grade petroleum crudes, and the research and technology required to ensure that aviation turbine fuels and engines can function satisfactorily with fuels having a range of fuel properties differing from those of current specification fuel are assessed. Views of industry representatives on alternative aviation turbine fuels are presented.

  10. Alternative Aviation Fuel Experiment (AAFEX)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, B. E.; Beyersdorf, A. J.; Hudgins, C. H.; Plant, J. V.; Thornhill, K. L.; Winstead, E. L.; Ziemba, L. D.; Howard, R.; Corporan, E.; Miake-Lye, R. C.; Herndon, S. C.; Timko, M.; Woods, E.; Dodds, W.; Lee, B.; Santoni, G.; Whitefield, P.; Hagen, D.; Lobo, P.; Knighton, W. B.; Bulzan, D.; Tacina, K.; Wey, C.; VanderWal, R.; Bhargava, A.

    2011-01-01

    The rising cost of oil coupled with the need to reduce pollution and dependence on foreign suppliers has spurred great interest and activity in developing alternative aviation fuels. Although a variety of fuels have been produced that have similar properties to standard Jet A, detailed studies are required to ascertain the exact impacts of the fuels on engine operation and exhaust composition. In response to this need, NASA acquired and burned a variety of alternative aviation fuel mixtures in the Dryden Flight Research Center DC-8 to assess changes in the aircraft s CFM-56 engine performance and emission parameters relative to operation with standard JP-8. This Alternative Aviation Fuel Experiment, or AAFEX, was conducted at NASA Dryden s Aircraft Operations Facility (DAOF) in Palmdale, California, from January 19 to February 3, 2009 and specifically sought to establish fuel matrix effects on: 1) engine and exhaust gas temperatures and compressor speeds; 2) engine and auxiliary power unit (APU) gas phase and particle emissions and characteristics; and 3) volatile aerosol formation in aging exhaust plumes

  11. NASA Alternative Aviation Fuel Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, B. E.; Beyersdorf, A. J.; Thornhill, K. L., II; Moore, R.; Shook, M.; Winstead, E.; Ziemba, L. D.; Crumeyrolle, S.

    2015-12-01

    We present an overview of research conducted by NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate to evaluate the performance and emissions of "drop-in" alternative jet fuels, highlighting experiment design and results from the Alternative Aviation Fuel Experiments (AAFEX-I & -II) and Alternative Fuel-Effects on Contrails and Cruise Emissions flight series (ACCESS-I & II). These projects included almost 100 hours of sampling exhaust emissions from the NASA DC-8 aircraft in both ground and airborne operation and at idle to takeoff thrust settings. Tested fuels included Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthetic kerosenes manufactured from coal and natural-gas feedstocks; Hydro-treated Esters and Fatty-Acids (HEFA) fuels made from beef-tallow and camelina-plant oil; and 50:50 blends of these alternative fuels with Jet A. Experiments were also conducted with FT and Jet A fuels doped with tetrahydrothiophene to examine the effects of fuel sulfur on volatile aerosol and contrail formation and microphysical properties. Results indicate that although the absence of aromatic compounds in the alternative fuels caused DC-8 fuel-system leaks, the fuels did not compromise engine performance or combustion efficiency. And whereas the alternative fuels produced only slightly different gas-phase emissions, dramatic reductions in non-volatile particulate matter (nvPM) emissions were observed when burning the pure alternative fuels, particularly at low thrust settings where particle number and mass emissions were an order of magnitude lower than measured from standard jet fuel combustion; 50:50 blends of Jet A and alternative fuels typically reduced nvPM emissions by ~50% across all thrust settings. Alternative fuels with the highest hydrogen content produced the greatest nvPM reductions. For Jet A and fuel blends, nvPM emissions were positively correlated with fuel aromatic and naphthalene content. Fuel sulfur content regulated nucleation mode aerosol number and mass concentrations within aging

  12. A fuel-efficient cruise performance model for general aviation piston engine airplanes. Ph.D. Thesis. Final Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parkinson, R. C. H.

    1983-01-01

    A fuel-efficient cruise performance model which facilitates maximizing the specific range of General Aviation airplanes powered by spark-ignition piston engines and propellers is presented. Airplanes of fixed design only are considered. The uses and limitations of typical Pilot Operating Handbook cruise performance data, for constructing cruise performance models suitable for maximizing specific range, are first examined. These data are found to be inadequate for constructing such models. A new model of General Aviation piston-prop airplane cruise performance is then developed. This model consists of two subsystem models: the airframe-propeller-atmosphere subsystem model; and the engine-atmosphere subsystem model. The new model facilitates maximizing specific range; and by virtue of its implicity and low volume data storge requirements, appears suitable for airborne microprocessor implementation.

  13. Refining and blending of aviation turbine fuels.

    PubMed

    White, R D

    1999-02-01

    Aviation turbine fuels (jet fuels) are similar to other petroleum products that have a boiling range of approximately 300F to 550F. Kerosene and No.1 grades of fuel oil, diesel fuel, and gas turbine oil share many similar physical and chemical properties with jet fuel. The similarity among these products should allow toxicology data on one material to be extrapolated to the others. Refineries in the USA manufacture jet fuel to meet industry standard specifications. Civilian aircraft primarily use Jet A or Jet A-1 fuel as defined by ASTM D 1655. Military aircraft use JP-5 or JP-8 fuel as defined by MIL-T-5624R or MIL-T-83133D respectively. The freezing point and flash point are the principle differences between the finished fuels. Common refinery processes that produce jet fuel include distillation, caustic treatment, hydrotreating, and hydrocracking. Each of these refining processes may be the final step to produce jet fuel. Sometimes blending of two or more of these refinery process streams are needed to produce jet fuel that meets the desired specifications. Chemical additives allowed for use in jet fuel are also defined in the product specifications. In many cases, the customer rather than the refinery will put additives into the fuel to meet their specific storage or flight condition requirements.

  14. Research on aviation fuel instability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, C. E.; Bittker, D. A.; Cohen, S. M.; Seng, G. T.

    1983-01-01

    The underlying causes of fuel thermal degradation are discussed. Topics covered include: nature of fuel instability and its temperature dependence, methods of measuring the instability, chemical mechanisms involved in deposit formation, and instrumental methods for characterizing fuel deposits. Finally, some preliminary thoughts on design approaches for minimizing the effects of lowered thermal stability are briefly discussed.

  15. High-freezing-point fuels used for aviation turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, R.

    1979-01-01

    Broadened-specification aviation fuels could be produced from a greater fraction of crude source material with improvements in fuel supply and price. These fuels, particularly those with increased final boiling temperatures, would have higher freezing temperatures than current aviation turbine fuels. The higher-freezing-point fuels can be substituted in the majority of present commercial flights, since temperature data indicate that in-flight fuel temperatures are relatively mild. For the small but significant fraction of commercial flights where low fuel temperatures make higher freezing-point fuel use unacceptable, adaptations to the fuel or fuel system may be made to accommodate this fuel. Several techniques are discussed. Fuel heating is the most promising concept. One simple system design uses existing heat rejection from the fuel-lubricating oil cooler, another uses an engine-driven generator for electrical heating. Both systems offer advantages that outweigh the obvious penalties.

  16. Demonstration of alcohol as an aviation fuel

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-01

    A recently funded Southeastern Regional Biomass Energy Program (SERBEP) project with Baylor University will demonstrate the effectiveness of ethanols as an aviation fuel while providing several environmental and economic benefits. Part of this concern is caused by the petroleum industry. The basis for the petroleum industry to find an alternative aviation fuel will be dictated mainly by economic considerations. Three other facts compound the problem. First is the disposal of oil used in engines burning leaded fuel. This oil will contain too much lead to be burned in incinerators and will have to be treated as a toxic waste with relatively high disposal fees. Second, as a result of a greater demand for alkalites to be used in the automotive reformulated fuel, the costs of these components are likely to increase. Third, the Montreal Protocol will ban in 1998 the use of Ethyl-Di-Bromide, a lead scavenger used in leaded aviation fuel. Without a lead scavenger, leaded fuels cannot be used. The search for alternatives to leaded aviation fuels has been underway by different organizations for some time. As part of the search for alternatives, the Renewable Aviation Fuels Development Center (RAFDC) at Baylor University in Waco, Texas, has received a grant from the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) to improve the efficiencies of ethanol powered aircraft engines and to test other non-petroleum alternatives to aviation fuel.

  17. Rating hydrogen as a potential aviation fuel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witcofski, R. D.

    1980-01-01

    The viability of liquid hydrogen, liquid methane, and synthetic aviation kerosene as future alternate fuels for transport aircraft is analyzed, and the results of a comparative assessment are given in terms of cost, energy resource utilization, areas of fuel production, transmission airport facilities, and ultimate use in the aircraft. Important safety (fires) and some environmental aspects (CO2 balance) are also described. It is concluded that fuel price estimates indicate the price of synthetic aviation kerosene (synjet) would be approximately half of the price calculated for liquid hydrogen and somewhat less than that of liquid methane, with synjet from oil shale reported to be the least expensive.

  18. Aviation-fuel lubricity evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-07-01

    Fuel-system components have experienced problems with the slipperiness or lubricity of the fuel back to the early 1960's. As a consequence of the level of refinement necessary for the PWA 523 fuel (now designated MIL-T-38219 grade JP-7) to obtain its high-temperature stability, many of the polar compounds contributing to lubricity had been removed, resulting in abnormal hydraulic fuel-pump wear. A lubricity-enhancing compound was developed (PWA 536) to eliminate the wear problem. High-pressure piston-type fuel pumps were one of the first parts of the engine fuel system to exhibit problems related to fuel properties. One early problem manifested itself as corrosion of silver-plated slipper pads and was related to carryover of residual-chlorides fuel. Fuel controls were another part of the engine fuel system susceptible to fuel properties. Lack of lubricity agents caused fuel control sliding servo valves to stick.

  19. Synthetic and Biomass Alternate Fueling in Aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, R.C.; Bushnell, D.M.

    2009-01-01

    Worldwide, aviation alone uses 85 to 95 billion gallons of nonrenewable fossil fuel per year (2008). General transportation fueling can accommodate several different fuels; however, aviation fuels have very specific requirements. Biofuels have been flight demonstrated, are considered renewable, have the capacity to become "drop-in" replacements for Jet-A fuel, and solve the CO2 climate change problem. The major issue is cost; current biomass biofuels are not economically competitive. Biofuel feedstock sources being researched are halophytes, algae, cyanobacteria, weeds-to-crops, wastes with contingent restraints on use of crop land, freshwater, and climate change. There are five major renewable energy sources: solar thermal, solar photovoltaic, wind, drilled geothermal and biomass, each of which have an order of magnitude greater capacity to meet all energy needs. All five address aspects of climate change; biomass has massive potential as an energy fuel feedstock.

  20. Aviation Fueling: A Cleaner, Greener Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, Robert C.; Bushnell, Dennis M.; Shouse, Dale T.

    2010-01-01

    Projected growth of aviation depends on fueling where specific needs must be met. Safety is paramount, and along with political, social, environmental and legacy transport systems requirements, alternate aviation fueling becomes an opportunity of enormous proportions. Biofuels sourced from halophytes, algae, cyanobacteria, and weeds using wastelands, waste water, and seawater have the capacity to be drop-in fuel replacements for petroleum fuels. Biojet fuels from such sources solves the aviation CO2 emissions issue and do not compete with food or freshwater needs. They are not detrimental to the social or environmental fabric and use the existing fuels infrastructure. Cost and sustainable supply remains the major impediments to alternate fuels. Halophytes are the near-term solution to biomass/biofuels capacity at reasonable costs; they simply involve more farming, at usual farming costs. Biofuels represent a win-win approach, proffering as they do at least the ones we are studying massive capacity, climate neutral-to-some sequestration, and ultimately, reasonable costs.

  1. Synthetic and Biomass Alternate Fueling in Aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, R. C.; Bushnell, D. M.

    2009-01-01

    While transportation fueling can accommodate a broad range of alternate fuels, aviation fueling needs are specific, such as the fuel not freezing at altitude or become too viscous to flow properly or of low bulk energy density that shortens range. The fuel must also be compatible with legacy aircraft, some of which are more than 50 years old. Worldwide, the aviation industry alone uses some 85-95 billion gallons of hydrocarbon-based fossil fuel each year, which is about 10% of the transportation industry. US civil aviation alone consumes nearly 14 billion gallons. The enormity of the problem becomes overwhelming, and the aviation industry is taking alternate fueling issues very seriously. Biofuels (algae, cyanobacteria, halophytes, weeds that use wastelands, wastewater and seatwater), when properly sourced, have the capacity to be drop-in fuel replacements for petroleum fuels. As such, biojet from such sources solves the aviation CO2 emissions issue without the downsides of 'conventional' biofuels, such as competing with food and fresh water resources. Of the many current fundamental problems, the major biofuel problem is cost. Both research and development and creative engineering are required to reduce these biofuels costs. Research is also ongoing in several 'improvement' areas including refining/processing and biologics with greater disease resistance, greater bio-oil productivity, reduced water/nutrient requirements, etc. The authors' current research is aimed at aiding industry efforts in several areas. They are considering different modeling approaches, growth media and refining approaches, different biologic feedstocks, methods of sequestering carbon in the processes, fuel certification for aviation use and, overall, ensuring that biofuels are feasible from all aspects - operability, capacity, carbon cycle and financial. The authors are also providing common discussion grounds/opportunities for the various parties, disciplines and concerned organization to

  2. Synthetic and Biomass Alternate Fueling in Aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, Robert C.; Bushnell, Dennis M.

    2009-01-01

    Must use earth's most abundant natural resources - Biomass, Solar, Arid land (43%), Seawater (97%) with nutrients (80%) plus brackish waters and nutrients resolve environmental triangle of conflicts energy-food-freshwater and ultrafine particulate hazards. Requires Paradigm Shift - Develop and Use Solar* for energy; Biomass for aviation and hybrid-electric-compressed air mobility fueling with transition to hydrogen long term.

  3. Outlook for alternative energy sources. [aviation fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Card, M. E.

    1980-01-01

    Predictions are made concerning the development of alternative energy sources in the light of the present national energy situation. Particular emphasis is given to the impact of alternative fuels development on aviation fuels. The future outlook for aircraft fuels is that for the near term, there possibly will be no major fuel changes, but minor specification changes may be possible if supplies decrease. In the midterm, a broad cut fuel may be used if current development efforts are successful. As synfuel production levels increase beyond the 1990's there may be some mixtures of petroleum-based and synfuel products with the possibility of some shale distillate and indirect coal liquefaction products near the year 2000.

  4. Recent trends in aviation turbine fuel properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, R.

    1982-01-01

    Plots and tables, compiled from Department of Energy (and predecessor agency) inspection reports from 1969 to 1980, present ranges, averages, extremes, and trends for most of the 22 properties of Jet A aviation turbine fuel. In recent years, average values of aromatics content, mercaptan sulfur content, distillation temperature of 10 percent recovered, smoke point, and freezing point show small but recognizable trends toward their specification limits. About 80 percent of the fuel samples had at least one property near specification, defined as within a standard band about the specification limit. By far the most common near-specification properties were aromatics content, smoke point, and freezing point.

  5. 26 CFR 48.4091-3 - Aviation fuel; conditions to allowance of refunds of aviation fuel tax under section 4091(d).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Aviation fuel; conditions to allowance of refunds of aviation fuel tax under section 4091(d). 48.4091-3 Section 48.4091-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL... Aviation fuel; conditions to allowance of refunds of aviation fuel tax under section 4091(d). (a)...

  6. 26 CFR 48.4091-3 - Aviation fuel; conditions to allowance of refunds of aviation fuel tax under section 4091(d).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Aviation fuel; conditions to allowance of refunds of aviation fuel tax under section 4091(d). 48.4091-3 Section 48.4091-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL... Aviation fuel; conditions to allowance of refunds of aviation fuel tax under section 4091(d). (a)...

  7. 26 CFR 48.4091-3 - Aviation fuel; conditions to allowance of refunds of aviation fuel tax under section 4091(d).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Aviation fuel; conditions to allowance of refunds of aviation fuel tax under section 4091(d). 48.4091-3 Section 48.4091-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL... Aviation fuel; conditions to allowance of refunds of aviation fuel tax under section 4091(d). (a)...

  8. 26 CFR 48.4091-3 - Aviation fuel; conditions to allowance of refunds of aviation fuel tax under section 4091(d).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aviation fuel; conditions to allowance of refunds of aviation fuel tax under section 4091(d). 48.4091-3 Section 48.4091-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL... Aviation fuel; conditions to allowance of refunds of aviation fuel tax under section 4091(d). (a)...

  9. 32 CFR 855.18 - Aviation fuel and oil purchases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Aviation fuel and oil purchases. 855.18 Section 855.18 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIRCRAFT CIVIL AIRCRAFT USE OF UNITED STATES AIR FORCE AIRFIELDS Civil Aircraft Landing Permits § 855.18 Aviation fuel...

  10. 32 CFR 855.18 - Aviation fuel and oil purchases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aviation fuel and oil purchases. 855.18 Section 855.18 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIRCRAFT CIVIL AIRCRAFT USE OF UNITED STATES AIR FORCE AIRFIELDS Civil Aircraft Landing Permits § 855.18 Aviation fuel...

  11. 32 CFR 855.18 - Aviation fuel and oil purchases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Aviation fuel and oil purchases. 855.18 Section 855.18 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIRCRAFT CIVIL AIRCRAFT USE OF UNITED STATES AIR FORCE AIRFIELDS Civil Aircraft Landing Permits § 855.18 Aviation fuel...

  12. 32 CFR 855.18 - Aviation fuel and oil purchases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Aviation fuel and oil purchases. 855.18 Section 855.18 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIRCRAFT CIVIL AIRCRAFT USE OF UNITED STATES AIR FORCE AIRFIELDS Civil Aircraft Landing Permits § 855.18 Aviation fuel...

  13. 32 CFR 855.18 - Aviation fuel and oil purchases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Aviation fuel and oil purchases. 855.18 Section 855.18 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIRCRAFT CIVIL AIRCRAFT USE OF UNITED STATES AIR FORCE AIRFIELDS Civil Aircraft Landing Permits § 855.18 Aviation fuel...

  14. Certification of alternative aviation fuels and blend components

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson III, George R. ); Edwards, Tim; Corporan, Edwin ); Freerks, Robert L. )

    2013-01-15

    Aviation turbine engine fuel specifications are governed by ASTM International, formerly known as the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) International, and the British Ministry of Defence (MOD). ASTM D1655 Standard Specification for Aviation Turbine Fuels and MOD Defence Standard 91-91 are the guiding specifications for this fuel throughout most of the world. Both of these documents rely heavily on the vast amount of experience in production and use of turbine engine fuels from conventional sources, such as crude oil, natural gas condensates, heavy oil, shale oil, and oil sands. Turbine engine fuel derived from these resources and meeting the above specifications has properties that are generally considered acceptable for fuels to be used in turbine engines. Alternative and synthetic fuel components are approved for use to blend with conventional turbine engine fuels after considerable testing. ASTM has established a specification for fuels containing synthesized hydrocarbons under D7566, and the MOD has included additional requirements for fuels containing synthetic components under Annex D of DS91-91. New turbine engine fuel additives and blend components need to be evaluated using ASTM D4054, Standard Practice for Qualification and Approval of New Aviation Turbine Fuels and Fuel Additives. This paper discusses these specifications and testing requirements in light of recent literature claiming that some biomass-derived blend components, which have been used to blend in conventional aviation fuel, meet the requirements for aviation turbine fuels as specified by ASTM and the MOD. The 'Table 1' requirements listed in both D1655 and DS91-91 are predicated on the assumption that the feedstocks used to make fuels meeting these requirements are from approved sources. Recent papers have implied that commercial jet fuel can be blended with renewable components that are not hydrocarbons (such as fatty acid methyl esters). These are not allowed blend

  15. Comparison of alcogas aviation fuel with export aviation gasoline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gage, V R; Sparrow, S W; Harper, D R

    1921-01-01

    Mixtures of gasoline and alcohol when used in internal combustion engines designed for gasoline have been found to possess the advantage of alcohol in withstanding high compression without "knock" while retaining advantages of gasoline with regard to starting characteristics. Test of such fuels for maximum power-producing ability and fuel economy at various rates of consumption are thus of practical importance, with especial reference to high-compression engine development. This report discusses the results of tests which compares the performance of alcogas with x gasoline (export grade) as a standard.

  16. Progress on coal-derived fuels for aviation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witcofski, R. D.

    1978-01-01

    The results of engineering studies of coal-derived aviation fuels and their potential application to the air transportation system are presented. Synthetic aviation kerosene (SYN. JET-A), liquid methane (LCH4) and liquid hydrogen (LH2) appear to be the most promising coal-derived fuels. Aircraft configurations fueled with LH2, their fuel systems, and their ground requirements at the airport are identified. Energy efficiency, transportation hazards, and costs are among the factors considered. It is indicated that LCH4 is the most energy efficient to produce, and provides the most efficient utilization of coal resources and the least expensive ticket as well.

  17. A method for monitoring nuclear absorption coefficients of aviation fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sprinkle, Danny R.; Shen, Chih-Ping

    1989-01-01

    A technique for monitoring variability in the nuclear absorption characteristics of aviation fuels has been developed. It is based on a highly collimated low energy gamma radiation source and a sodium iodide counter. The source and the counter assembly are separated by a geometrically well-defined test fuel cell. A computer program for determining the mass attenuation coefficient of the test fuel sample, based on the data acquired for a preset counting period, has been developed and tested on several types of aviation fuel.

  18. Aviation Management Perception of Biofuel as an Alternative Fuel Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marticek, Michael

    The purpose of this phenomenological study was to explore lived experiences and perceptions from a population of 75 aviation managers in various locations in Pennsylvania about the use of aviation biofuel and how it will impact the aviation industry. The primary research question for this study focused on the impact of biofuel on the airline industry and how management believes biofuel can contribute to the reduction of fossil fuel. Grounded in the conceptual framework of sustainability, interview data collected from 27 airline and fueling leaders were analyzed for like terms, coded, and reduced to 3 themes. Data were organized and prioritized based on frequency of mention. The findings represented themes of (a) flight planning tools, (b) production, and (c) costs that are associated with aviation fuel. The results confirmed findings addressed in the literature review, specifically that aviation biofuel will transform the airline industry through lower cost and production. These findings have broad applicability for all management personnel in the aviation industry. Implications for social change and improved business environments could be realized with a cleaner environment, reduced fuel emissions, and improved air quality.

  19. Overview of Aviation Fuel Markets for Biofuels Stakeholders

    SciTech Connect

    Davidson, C.; Newes, E.; Schwab, A.; Vimmerstedt, L.

    2014-07-01

    This report is for biofuels stakeholders interested the U.S. aviation fuel market. Jet fuel production represents about 10% of U.S. petroleum refinery production. Exxon Mobil, Chevron, and BP top producers, and Texas, Louisiana, and California are top producing states. Distribution of fuel primarily involves transport from the Gulf Coast to other regions. Fuel is transported via pipeline (60%), barges on inland waterways (30%), tanker truck (5%), and rail (5%). Airport fuel supply chain organization and fuel sourcing may involve oil companies, airlines, airline consortia, airport owners and operators, and airport service companies. Most fuel is used for domestic, commercial, civilian flights. Energy efficiency has substantially improved due to aircraft fleet upgrades and advanced flight logistic improvements. Jet fuel prices generally track prices of crude oil and other refined petroleum products, whose prices are more volatile than crude oil price. The single largest expense for airlines is jet fuel, so its prices and persistent price volatility impact industry finances. Airlines use various strategies to manage aviation fuel price uncertainty. The aviation industry has established goals to mitigate its greenhouse gas emissions, and initial estimates of biojet life cycle greenhouse gas emissions exist. Biojet fuels from Fischer-Tropsch and hydroprocessed esters and fatty acids processes have ASTM standards. The commercial aviation industry and the U.S. Department of Defense have used aviation biofuels. Additional research is needed to assess the environmental, economic, and financial potential of biojet to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and mitigate long-term upward price trends, fuel price volatility, or both.

  20. General aviation fuel conservation in the 1980's

    SciTech Connect

    Bromley, G.R.

    1980-01-01

    General aviation aircraft manufacturers are helping pilots save fuel by issuing rules of good practice and by revising the formats for performance data to highlight the tradeoffs between fuel economy and speed. Meanwhile drag clean-up programs improved the flight efficiencies of several models. Now flight planning innovations (some exploiting the latest computer technology) help pilots more easily determine the optimum altitudes and power settings for various winds and trip lengths. Additional flight testing will more clearly identify optimum climb and descent schedules. And, for airplanes of the future, new design criteria will place more emphasis on fuel economy than on top speed or STOL-like performance. This paper urges general aviation flight test engineers to maintain a leadership role in aviation fuel conservation.

  1. Development of surrogates for aviation jet fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasseri, Seyed Ali

    Surrogate fuels are mixtures of pure hydrocarbons that mimic specific properties of a real fuel. The use of a small number of pure compounds in their formulation ensures that chemical composition is well controlled, helping increase reproducibility of experiments and reduce the computational cost associated with numerical modeling. In this work, surrogate mixtures were developed for Jet A fuel based on correlations between fuel properties (cetane number, smoke point, threshold sooting index (TSI), density, viscosity, boiling point and freezing point) and the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra of the fuel as a measure of the fuel's chemical composition. Comparison of the chemical composition and target fuel properties of the surrogate fuels developed in this work to a Jet A fuel sample and other surrogate fuels proposed in the literature revealed the superiority of these surrogate fuels in mimicking the fuel properties of interest.

  2. Aviation-fuel property effects on combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosfjord, T. J.

    1984-01-01

    The fuel chemical property influence on a gas turbine combustor was studied using 25 test fuels. Fuel physical properties were de-emphasized by using fuel injectors which produce highly-atomized, and hence rapidly vaporizing sprays. A substantial fuel spray characterization effort was conducted to allow selection of nozzles which assured that such sprays were achieved for all fuels. The fuels were specified to cover the following wide ranges of chemical properties: hydrogen, 9.1 to 15 (wt) pct; total aromatics, 0 to 100 (vol) pct; and naphthalene, 0 to 30 (vol) pct. standard fuels (e.g., Jet A, JP4), speciality products (e.g., decalin, xylene tower bottoms) and special fuel blends were included. The latter group included six, 4-component blends prepared to achieve parametric variations in fuel hydrogen, total aromatics and naphthalene contents. The principle influences of fuel chemical properties on the combustor behavior were reflected by the radiation, liner temperature, and exhaust smoke number (or equivalently, soot number density) data. Test results indicated that naphthalene content strongly influenced the radiative heat load while parametric variations in total aromatics did not.

  3. Aviation fuel property effects on altitude relight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venkataramani, K.

    1987-01-01

    The major objective of this experimental program was to investigate the effects of fuel property variation on altitude relight characteristics. Four fuels with widely varying volatility properties (JP-4, Jet A, a blend of Jet A and 2040 Solvent, and Diesel 2) were tested in a five-swirl-cup-sector combustor at inlet temperatures and flows representative of windmilling conditions of turbofan engines. The effects of fuel physical properties on atomization were eliminated by using four sets of pressure-atomizing nozzles designed to give the same spray Sauter mean diameter (50 + or - 10 micron) for each fuel at the same design fuel flow. A second series of tests was run with a set of air-blast nozzles. With comparable atomization levels, fuel volatility assumes only a secondary role for first-swirl-cup lightoff and complete blowout. Full propagation first-cup blowout were independent of fuel volatility and depended only on the combustor operating conditions.

  4. Detailed studies of aviation fuel flowability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehta, H. K.; Armstrong, R. S.

    1985-01-01

    Six Jet A fuels, with varying compositions, were tested for low temperature flowability in a 190-liter simulator tank that modeled a section of a wing tank of a wide-body commercial airplane. The insulated tank was chilled by circulating coolant through the upper and lower surfaces. Flow-ability was determined as a function of fuel temperature by holdup, the fraction of unflowable fuel remaining in the tank after otherwise complete withdrawal. In static tests with subfreezing tank conditions, hold up varied with temperature and fuel composition. However, a general correlation of two or three classes of fuel type was obtained by plotting holdup as a function of the difference between freezing point and boundary-layer temperature, measured 0.6 cm above the bottom tank surface. Dynamic conditions of vibrations and slosh or rate of fuel withdrawal had very minor effects on holdup. Tests with cooling schedules to represent extreme, cold-day flights showed, at most, slight holdup for any combination of fuel type or dynamic conditions. Tests that superimposed external fuel heating and recirculation during the cooldown period indicates reduced hold up by modification of the low-temperature boundary layer. Fuel heating was just as effective when initiated during the later times of the tests as when applied continuously.

  5. Low-energy gamma ray attenuation characteristics of aviation fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Jag J.; Shen, Chih-Ping; Sprinkle, Danny R.

    1990-01-01

    Am241 (59.5 keV) gamma ray attenuation characteristics were investigated in 270 aviation fuel (Jet A and Jet A-1) samples from 76 airports around the world as a part of world wide study to measure the variability of aviation fuel properties as a function of season and geographical origin. All measurements were made at room temperature which varied from 20 to 27 C. Fuel densities (rho) were measured concurrently with their linear attenuation coefficients (mu), thus providing a measure of mass attenuation coefficient (mu/rho) for the test samples. In 43 fuel samples, rho and mu values were measured at more than one room temperature, thus providing mu/rho values for them at several temperatures. The results were found to be independent of the temperature at which mu and rho values were measured. It is noted that whereas the individual mu and rho values vary considerably from airport to airport as well as season to season, the mu/rho values for all samples are constant at 0.1843 + or - 0.0013 cu cm/gm. This constancy of mu/rho value for aviation fuels is significant since a nuclear fuel quantity gauging system based on low energy gamma ray attenuation will be viable throughout the world.

  6. Meteorological impact on aviation fuel efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winer, D. E.; Wesler, J. E.

    1981-01-01

    The connection between fuel consumption and weather data is discussed. Fuel efficient flights creating adequate near real time weather information are examined. The lack of highly resolved real time and near real time wind and temperature data at flight altitudes is investigated. The existing systems, which is based on twice a day balloon observations, supplemented by pilot reports or other occasional data, is not adequate for optimum flight planning. The impacts of upper winds and temperatures on fuel efficiency and flight planning are not widely appreciated and developing new weather products are considered.

  7. Life-Cycle Analysis of Alternative Aviation Fuels in GREET

    SciTech Connect

    Elgowainy, A.; Han, J.; Wang, M.; Carter, N.; Stratton, R.; Hileman, J.; Malwitz, A.; Balasubramanian, S.

    2012-06-01

    The Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model, developed at Argonne National Laboratory, has been expanded to include well-to-wake (WTWa) analysis of aviation fuels and aircraft. This report documents the key WTWa stages and assumptions for fuels that represent alternatives to petroleum jet fuel. The aviation module in GREET consists of three spreadsheets that present detailed characterizations of well-to-pump and pump-to-wake parameters and WTWa results. By using the expanded GREET version (GREET1_2011), we estimate WTWa results for energy use (total, fossil, and petroleum energy) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide) for (1) each unit of energy (lower heating value) consumed by the aircraft or(2) each unit of distance traveled/ payload carried by the aircraft. The fuel pathways considered in this analysis include petroleum-based jet fuel from conventional and unconventional sources (i.e., oil sands); Fisher-Tropsch (FT) jet fuel from natural gas, coal, and biomass; bio-jet fuel from fast pyrolysis of cellulosic biomass; and bio-jet fuel from vegetable and algal oils, which falls under the American Society for Testing and Materials category of hydroprocessed esters and fatty acids. For aircraft operation, we considered six passenger aircraft classes and four freight aircraft classes in this analysis. Our analysis revealed that, depending on the feedstock source, the fuel conversion technology, and the allocation or displacement credit methodology applied to co-products, alternative bio-jet fuel pathways have the potential to reduce life-cycle GHG emissions by 55–85 percent compared with conventional (petroleum-based) jet fuel. Although producing FT jet fuel from fossil feedstock sources — such as natural gas and coal — could greatly reduce dependence on crude oil, production from such sources (especially coal) produces greater WTWa GHG emissions compared with petroleum jet

  8. Life-cycle analysis of alternative aviation fuels in GREET

    SciTech Connect

    Elgowainy, A.; Han, J.; Wang, M.; Carter, N.; Stratton, R.; Hileman, J.; Malwitz, A.; Balasubramanian, S.

    2012-07-23

    The Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model, developed at Argonne National Laboratory, has been expanded to include well-to-wake (WTWa) analysis of aviation fuels and aircraft. This report documents the key WTWa stages and assumptions for fuels that represent alternatives to petroleum jet fuel. The aviation module in GREET consists of three spreadsheets that present detailed characterizations of well-to-pump and pump-to-wake parameters and WTWa results. By using the expanded GREET version (GREET1{_}2011), we estimate WTWa results for energy use (total, fossil, and petroleum energy) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide) for (1) each unit of energy (lower heating value) consumed by the aircraft or (2) each unit of distance traveled/ payload carried by the aircraft. The fuel pathways considered in this analysis include petroleum-based jet fuel from conventional and unconventional sources (i.e., oil sands); Fisher-Tropsch (FT) jet fuel from natural gas, coal, and biomass; bio-jet fuel from fast pyrolysis of cellulosic biomass; and bio-jet fuel from vegetable and algal oils, which falls under the American Society for Testing and Materials category of hydroprocessed esters and fatty acids. For aircraft operation, we considered six passenger aircraft classes and four freight aircraft classes in this analysis. Our analysis revealed that, depending on the feedstock source, the fuel conversion technology, and the allocation or displacement credit methodology applied to co-products, alternative bio-jet fuel pathways have the potential to reduce life-cycle GHG emissions by 55-85 percent compared with conventional (petroleum-based) jet fuel. Although producing FT jet fuel from fossil feedstock sources - such as natural gas and coal - could greatly reduce dependence on crude oil, production from such sources (especially coal) produces greater WTWa GHG emissions compared with petroleum jet

  9. Progress on coal-derived fuels for aviation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witcofski, R. D.

    1978-01-01

    Synthetic aviation kerosene (Syn. Jet-A), liquid methane (LCH4), and liquid hydrogen (LH2) appear to be the most promising coal-derived fuels. Liquid hydrogen aircraft configurations, their fuel systems, and their ground requirements at the airport are identified. These aircraft appear viable, particularly for long haul use, where aircraft fueled with coal derived LH2 would consume 9 percent less coal resources than would aircraft fueled with coal derived Syn. Jet-A. Distribution of hydrogen from the point of manufacture to airports may pose problems. Synthetic JET-A would appear to cause fewer concerns to the air transportation industry. Of the three candidate fuels, LCH4 is the most energy efficient to produce, and an aircraft fueled with coal derived LCH4 may provide both the most efficient utilization of coal resources and the least expensive ticket as well.

  10. 14 CFR Special Federal Aviation... - Fuel Tank System Fault Tolerance Evaluation Requirements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel Tank System Fault Tolerance Evaluation Requirements Federal Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 88 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION..., SFAR No. 88 Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 88—Fuel Tank System Fault Tolerance...

  11. 32 CFR 766.13 - Sale of aviation fuel, oil, services and supplies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sale of aviation fuel, oil, services and... MISCELLANEOUS RULES USE OF DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY AVIATION FACILITIES BY CIVIL AIRCRAFT § 766.13 Sale of aviation fuel, oil, services and supplies. (a) General policy. In accordance with sections 1107 and 1108...

  12. 14 CFR Special Federal Aviation... - Fuel Tank System Fault Tolerance Evaluation Requirements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fuel Tank System Fault Tolerance Evaluation Requirements Federal Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 88 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION..., SFAR No. 88 Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 88—Fuel Tank System Fault Tolerance...

  13. 14 CFR Special Federal Aviation... - Fuel Tank System Fault Tolerance Evaluation Requirements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fuel Tank System Fault Tolerance Evaluation Requirements Federal Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 88 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION..., SFAR No. 88 Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 88—Fuel Tank System Fault Tolerance...

  14. 32 CFR 766.13 - Sale of aviation fuel, oil, services and supplies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sale of aviation fuel, oil, services and... MISCELLANEOUS RULES USE OF DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY AVIATION FACILITIES BY CIVIL AIRCRAFT § 766.13 Sale of aviation fuel, oil, services and supplies. (a) General policy. In accordance with sections 1107 and 1108...

  15. 32 CFR 766.13 - Sale of aviation fuel, oil, services and supplies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sale of aviation fuel, oil, services and... MISCELLANEOUS RULES USE OF DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY AVIATION FACILITIES BY CIVIL AIRCRAFT § 766.13 Sale of aviation fuel, oil, services and supplies. (a) General policy. In accordance with sections 1107 and 1108...

  16. 32 CFR 766.13 - Sale of aviation fuel, oil, services and supplies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sale of aviation fuel, oil, services and... MISCELLANEOUS RULES USE OF DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY AVIATION FACILITIES BY CIVIL AIRCRAFT § 766.13 Sale of aviation fuel, oil, services and supplies. (a) General policy. In accordance with sections 1107 and 1108...

  17. 32 CFR 766.13 - Sale of aviation fuel, oil, services and supplies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sale of aviation fuel, oil, services and... MISCELLANEOUS RULES USE OF DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY AVIATION FACILITIES BY CIVIL AIRCRAFT § 766.13 Sale of aviation fuel, oil, services and supplies. (a) General policy. In accordance with sections 1107 and 1108...

  18. 14 CFR Special Federal Aviation... - Fuel Tank System Fault Tolerance Evaluation Requirements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fuel Tank System Fault Tolerance Evaluation Requirements Federal Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 88 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION..., SFAR No. 88 Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 88—Fuel Tank System Fault Tolerance...

  19. 14 CFR Special Federal Aviation... - Fuel Tank System Fault Tolerance Evaluation Requirements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fuel Tank System Fault Tolerance Evaluation Requirements Federal Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 88 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION..., SFAR No. 88 Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 88—Fuel Tank System Fault Tolerance...

  20. Aviation turbine fuel properties and their trends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, R.

    1981-01-01

    This paper is an examination of published Jet A inspection data covering selected property distributions, averages, and trends for the period from 1969 to 1979. Yearly median values of aromatics, mercaptan sulfur content, 10-percent distillation temperature, smoke point, and freezing point are changing with time, approaching their specification limit values, particularly in the last three years. A near-specification property is defined as one within a stated tolerance band around the specification limit. On this basis, most fuel samples have one to three near-specification properties, the most common being aromatics, smoke point, and freezing point.

  1. Methane Hydrates: More Than a Viable Aviation Fuel Feedstock Option

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, Robert C.

    2007-01-01

    Demand for hydrocarbon fuels is steadily increasing, and greenhouse gas emissions continue to rise unabated with the energy demand. Alternate fuels will be coming on line to meet that demand. This report examines the recovering of methane from methane hydrates for fuel to meet this demand rather than permitting its natural release into the environment, which will be detrimental to the planet. Some background on the nature, vast sizes, and stability of sedimentary and permafrost formations of hydrates are discussed. A few examples of the severe problems associated with methane recovery from these hydrates are presented along with the potential impact on the environment and coastal waters. Future availability of methane from hydrates may become an attractive option for aviation fueling, and so future aircraft design associated with methane fueling is considered.

  2. Fuel additives: Excluding aviation fuels. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning compositions, applications and performance of additives in fuels. Evaluations and environmental testing of additives in automotive, diesel, and boiler fuels are discussed. Additive effects on air pollution control, combustion stability, fuel economy and fuel storage are presented. Aviation fuel additives are covered in a separate bibliography. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  3. Forecast of future aviation fuels: The model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ayati, M. B.; Liu, C. Y.; English, J. M.

    1981-01-01

    A conceptual models of the commercial air transportation industry is developed which can be used to predict trends in economics, demand, and consumption. The methodology is based on digraph theory, which considers the interaction of variables and propagation of changes. Air transportation economics are treated by examination of major variables, their relationships, historic trends, and calculation of regression coefficients. A description of the modeling technique and a compilation of historic airline industry statistics used to determine interaction coefficients are included. Results of model validations show negligible difference between actual and projected values over the twenty-eight year period of 1959 to 1976. A limited application of the method presents forecasts of air tranportation industry demand, growth, revenue, costs, and fuel consumption to 2020 for two scenarios of future economic growth and energy consumption.

  4. Future Fuel Scenarios and Their Potential Impact to Aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, Robert C.; Daggett, David L.; Anast, Peter; Lowery, Nathan

    2011-01-01

    In recent years fuel prices have been growing at a rapid pace. Current conservative projections predict that this is only a function of the natural volatility of oil prices, similar to the oil price spikes experienced in the 1970s. However, there is growing concern among analysts that the current price increases may not only be permanent, but that prices may continue to increase into the future before settling down at a much higher level than today. At high enough fuel prices, the aircraft industry would become very sensitive to fuel price. In this paper, the likelihood of fuel price increase is considered in three different price increase scenarios: "low," "medium," and "high." The impact of these scenarios on the aviation industry and alternatives are also addressed.

  5. Future Fuel Scenarios and Their Potential Impact to Aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, Robert C.; Lowery, Nathan; Daggett, David L.; Anast, Peter

    2007-01-01

    In recent years fuel prices have been growing at a rapid pace. Current conservative projections predict that this is only a function of the natural volatility of oil prices, similar to the oil price spikes experienced in the 1970s. However, there is growing concern among analysts that the current price increases may not only be permanent, but that prices may continue to increase into the future before settling down at a much higher level than today. At high enough fuel prices, the aircraft industry would become very sensitive to fuel price. In this paper, the likelihood of fuel price increase is considered in three different price increase scenarios: "low," "medium," and "high." The impact of these scenarios on the aviation industry and alternatives are also addressed.

  6. Multi-Fuel Rotary Engine for General Aviation Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, C.; Ellis, D. R.; Meng, P. R.

    1983-01-01

    Design studies, conducted for NASA, of Advanced Multi-fuel General Aviation and Commuter Aircraft Rotary Stratified Charge Engines are summarized. Conceptual design studies of an advanced engine sized to provide 186/250 shaft KW/HP under cruise conditions at 7620/25,000 m/ft. altitude were performed. Relevant engine development background covering both prior and recent engine test results of the direct injected unthrottled rotary engine technology, including the capability to interchangeably operate on gasoline, diesel fuel, kerosene, or aviation jet fuel, are presented and related to growth predictions. Aircraft studies, using these resultant growth engines, define anticipated system effects of the performance and power density improvements for both single engine and twin engine airplanes. The calculated results indicate superior system performance and 30 to 35% fuel economy improvement for the Rotary-engine airplanes as compared to equivalent airframe concept designs with current baseline engines. The research and technology activities required to attain the projected engine performance levels are also discussed.

  7. Cooperative Demonstration Program To Train Aviation Maintenance Technicians. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alabama Aviation and Technical Coll., Ozark.

    The Alabama Aviation and Technical College, working with representatives of the aviation industry, the military, the Alabama Department of Aeronautics, and the Federal Aviation Administration, developed a training program for aviation maintenance technicians. The program also aimed to emphasize and expand opportunities for minorities, females, and…

  8. Effect of aviation fuel type and fuel injection conditions on the spray characteristics of pressure swirl and hybrid air blast fuel injectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feddema, Rick

    Feddema, Rick T. M.S.M.E., Purdue University, December 2013. Effect of Aviation Fuel Type and Fuel Injection Conditions on the Spray Characteristics of Pressure Swirl and Hybrid Air Blast Fuel Injectors. Major Professor: Dr. Paul E. Sojka, School of Mechanical Engineering Spray performance of pressure swirl and hybrid air blast fuel injectors are central to combustion stability, combustor heat management, and pollutant formation in aviation gas turbine engines. Next generation aviation gas turbine engines will optimize spray atomization characteristics of the fuel injector in order to achieve engine efficiency and emissions requirements. Fuel injector spray atomization performance is affected by the type of fuel injector, fuel liquid properties, fuel injection pressure, fuel injection temperature, and ambient pressure. Performance of pressure swirl atomizer and hybrid air blast nozzle type fuel injectors are compared in this study. Aviation jet fuels, JP-8, Jet A, JP-5, and JP-10 and their effect on fuel injector performance is investigated. Fuel injector set conditions involving fuel injector pressure, fuel temperature and ambient pressure are varied in order to compare each fuel type. One objective of this thesis is to contribute spray patternation measurements to the body of existing drop size data in the literature. Fuel droplet size tends to increase with decreasing fuel injection pressure, decreasing fuel injection temperature and increasing ambient injection pressure. The differences between fuel types at particular set conditions occur due to differences in liquid properties between fuels. Liquid viscosity and surface tension are identified to be fuel-specific properties that affect the drop size of the fuel. An open aspect of current research that this paper addresses is how much the type of aviation jet fuel affects spray atomization characteristics. Conventional aviation fuel specifications are becoming more important with new interest in alternative

  9. Comparison of hecter fuel with export aviation gasoline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickinson, H C; Gage, V R; Sparrow, S W

    1921-01-01

    Among the fuels which will operate at compression ratios up to at least 8.0 without preignition or "pinking" is hecter fuel, whence a careful determination of its performance is of importance. For the test data presented in this report the hecter fuel used was a mixture of 30 per cent benzol and 70 per cent cyclohexane, having a low freezing point, and distilling from first drop to 90 per cent at nearly a constant temperature, about 20 degrees c. below the average distillation temperature ("mean volatility") of the x gasoline (export grade). The results of these experiments show that the power developed by hecter fuel is the same as that developed by export aviation gasoline at about 1,800 r.p.m. at all altitudes. At lower speeds differences in the power developed by the fuels become evident. Comparisons at ground level were omitted to avoid any possibility of damaging the engine by operating with open throttle on gasoline at so high a compression. The fuel consumption per unit power based on weight, not volume, averaged more than 10 per cent greater with hecter than with x gasoline. The thermal efficiency of the engine when using hecter is less than when using gasoline, particularly at higher speeds. A generalization of the difference for all altitudes and speeds being 8 per cent. A general deduction from these facts is that more hecter is exhausted unburnt. Hecter can withstand high compression pressures and temperature without preignition. (author)

  10. Aircraft Engine Technology for Green Aviation to Reduce Fuel Burn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, Christopher E.; VanZante, Dale E.; Heidmann, James D.

    2013-01-01

    The NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Program Subsonic Fixed Wing Project and Integrated Systems Research Program Environmentally Responsible Aviation Project in the Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate are conducting research on advanced aircraft technology to address the environmental goals of reducing fuel burn, noise and NOx emissions for aircraft in 2020 and beyond. Both Projects, in collaborative partnerships with U.S. Industry, Academia, and other Government Agencies, have made significant progress toward reaching the N+2 (2020) and N+3 (beyond 2025) installed fuel burn goals by fundamental aircraft engine technology development, subscale component experimental investigations, full scale integrated systems validation testing, and development validation of state of the art computation design and analysis codes. Specific areas of propulsion technology research are discussed and progress to date.

  11. PROTOZOA IN SUBSURFACE SEDIMENTS FROM SITE CONTAMI- NATED WITH AVIATION GASOLINE OR JET FUEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Numbers of protozoa in the subsurface of aviation gasoline and jet fuel spill areas at a Coast Guard base at Traverse City, Mich., were determined. Boreholes were drilled in an uncontaminated location, in contaminated but untreated parts of the fuel plumes, and in the aviation ga...

  12. Aviation fuel additives. (Latest citations from the NTIS Bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning research and development of aviation fuel additives and their effectiveness. Articles include studies on antioxidant, antimist, antistatic, lubricity, corrosion inhibition, and icing inhibition additives. Other applications are covered in investigations of additives for vulnerability reduction, thermal stability, and storage stability of aviation fuels. (Contains a minimum of 168 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  13. Multi-fuel rotary engine for general aviation aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, C.; Ellis, D. R.; Meng, P. R.

    1983-01-01

    Design studies of advanced multifuel general aviation and commuter aircraft rotary stratified charge engines are summarized. Conceptual design studies were performed at two levels of technology, on advanced general aviation engines sized to provide 186/250 shaft kW/hp under cruise conditions at 7620 (25000 m/ft) altitude. A follow on study extended the results to larger (2500 hp max.) engine sizes suitable for applications such as commuter transports and helicopters. The study engine designs were derived from relevant engine development background including both prior and recent engine test results using direct injected unthrottled rotary engine technology. Aircraft studies, using these resultant growth engines, define anticipated system effects of the performance and power density improvements for both single engine and twin engine airplanes. The calculated results indicate superior system performance and 27 to 33 percent fuel economy improvement for the rotary engine airplanes as compared to equivalent airframe concept designs with current baseline engines. The research and technology activities required to attain the projected engine performance levels are also discussed.

  14. Forecast of Future Aviation Fuels. Part 1: Scenarios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    English, J. M.; Liu, C. Y.; Smith, J. L.; Yin, A. K. K.; Pan, G. A.; Ayati, M. B.; Gyamfi, M.; Arabzadah, M. R.

    1978-01-01

    A preliminary set of scenarios is described for depicting the air transport industry as it grows and changes, up to the year 2025. This provides the background for predicting the needs for future aviation fuels to meet the requirements of the industry as new basic sources, such as oil shale and coal, which are utilized to supplement petroleum. Five scenarios are written to encompass a range of futures from a serious resource-constrained economy to a continuous and optimistic economic growth. A unique feature is the choice of one immediate range scenario which is based on a serious interruption of economic growth occasioned by an energy shortfall. This is presumed to occur due to lags in starting a synfuels program.

  15. Aviation Fuel Tracer Simulation: Model Intercomparison and Implications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danilin, M. Y.; Fahey, D. W.; Schumann, U.; Prather, M. J.; Penner, J. E.; Ko, M. K. W.; Weisenstein, D. K.; Jackman, C. H.; Pitari, G.; Koehler, I.; Sausen, R.; Weaver, C. J.; Douglass, A. R.; Connell, P. S.; Kinnison, D. E.; Dentener, F. J.; Fleming, E. L.; Berntsen, T. K.; Isaksen, I. S. A.; Haywood, J. M.

    1998-01-01

    An upper limit for aircraft-produced perturbations to aerosols and gaseous exhaust products in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UT/LS) is derived using the 1992 aviation fuel tracer simulation performed by eleven global atmospheric models. Key Endings are that subsonic aircraft emissions: (1) have not be responsible for the observed water vapor trends at 40 deg N; (2) could be a significant source of soot mass near 12 km, but not at 20 km; (3) might cause a noticeable increase in the background sulfate aerosol surface area and number densities (but not mass density) near the northern mid-latitude tropopause; and (4) could provide a global, annual mean top of the atmosphere radiative forcing up to +0.006 W/sq m and -0.013 W/sq m due to emitted soot and sulfur, respectively.

  16. Impacts of aviation fuel sulfur content on climate and human health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapadia, Zarashpe Z.; Spracklen, Dominick V.; Arnold, Steve R.; Borman, Duncan J.; Mann, Graham W.; Pringle, Kirsty J.; Monks, Sarah A.; Reddington, Carly L.; Benduhn, François; Rap, Alexandru; Scott, Catherine E.; Butt, Edward W.; Yoshioka, Masaru

    2016-08-01

    Aviation emissions impact both air quality and climate. Using a coupled tropospheric chemistry-aerosol microphysics model we investigate the effects of varying aviation fuel sulfur content (FSC) on premature mortality from long-term exposure to aviation-sourced PM2.5 (particulate matter with a dry diameter of < 2.5 µm) and on the global radiation budget due to changes in aerosol and tropospheric ozone. We estimate that present-day non-CO2 aviation emissions with a typical FSC of 600 ppm result in ˜ 3600 [95 % CI: 1310-5890] annual premature mortalities globally due to increases in cases of cardiopulmonary disease and lung cancer, resulting from increased surface PM2.5 concentrations. We quantify the global annual mean combined radiative effect (REcomb) of non-CO2 aviation emissions as -13.3 mW m-2; from increases in aerosols (direct radiative effect and cloud albedo effect) and tropospheric ozone. Ultra-low sulfur jet fuel (ULSJ; FSC = 15 ppm) has been proposed as an option to reduce the adverse health impacts of aviation-induced PM2.5. We calculate that swapping the global aviation fleet to ULSJ fuel would reduce the global aviation-induced mortality rate by ˜ 620 [95 % CI: 230-1020] mortalities a-1 and increase REcomb by +7.0 mW m-2. We explore the impact of varying aviation FSC between 0 and 6000 ppm. Increasing FSC increases aviation-induced mortality, while enhancing climate cooling through increasing the aerosol cloud albedo effect (CAE). We explore the relationship between the injection altitude of aviation emissions and the resulting climate and air quality impacts. Compared to the standard aviation emissions distribution, releasing aviation emissions at the ground increases global aviation-induced mortality and produces a net warming effect, primarily through a reduced CAE. Aviation emissions injected at the surface are 5 times less effective at forming cloud condensation nuclei, reducing the aviation-induced CAE by a factor of 10. Applying high FSCs at

  17. 77 FR 18297 - Air Traffic Noise, Fuel Burn, and Emissions Modeling Using the Aviation Environmental Design Tool...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-27

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Air Traffic Noise, Fuel Burn, and Emissions Modeling Using the Aviation... Aviation Environmental Design Tool version 2a (AEDT 2a) to analyze noise, fuel burn, and emissions for FAA... assess noise, fuel burn, and emissions impacts of such actions under the National Environmental...

  18. Highly selective condensation of biomass-derived methyl ketones as a source of aviation fuel.

    PubMed

    Sacia, Eric R; Balakrishnan, Madhesan; Deaner, Matthew H; Goulas, Konstantinos A; Toste, F Dean; Bell, Alexis T

    2015-05-22

    Aviation fuel (i.e., jet fuel) requires a mixture of C9 -C16 hydrocarbons having both a high energy density and a low freezing point. While jet fuel is currently produced from petroleum, increasing concern with the release of CO2 into the atmosphere from the combustion of petroleum-based fuels has led to policy changes mandating the inclusion of biomass-based fuels into the fuel pool. Here we report a novel way to produce a mixture of branched cyclohexane derivatives in very high yield (>94 %) that match or exceed many required properties of jet fuel. As starting materials, we use a mixture of n-alkyl methyl ketones and their derivatives obtained from biomass. These synthons are condensed into trimers via base-catalyzed aldol condensation and Michael addition. Hydrodeoxygenation of these products yields mixtures of C12 -C21 branched, cyclic alkanes. Using models for predicting the carbon number distribution obtained from a mixture of n-alkyl methyl ketones and for predicting the boiling point distribution of the final mixture of cyclic alkanes, we show that it is possible to define the mixture of synthons that will closely reproduce the distillation curve of traditional jet fuel.

  19. Impacts of aviation fuel sulfur content on climate and human health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapadia, Z. Z.; Spracklen, D. V.; Arnold, S. R.; Borman, D. J.; Mann, G. W.; Pringle, K. J.; Monks, S. A.; Reddington, C. L.; Benduhn, F.; Rap, A.; Scott, C. E.; Butt, E. W.; Yoshioka, M.

    2015-07-01

    Aviation emissions impact both air quality and climate. Using a coupled tropospheric chemistry-aerosol microphysics model we investigate the effects of varying aviation fuel sulfur content (FSC) on premature mortality from long-term exposure to aviation-sourced PM2.5 (particulate matter with a dry diameter of < 2.5 μm) and on the global radiation budget due to changes in aerosol and tropospheric ozone. We estimate that present-day non-CO2 aviation emissions with a typical FSC of 600 ppm result in 3597 (95 % CI: 1307-5888) annual mortalities globally due to increases in cases of cardiopulmonary disease and lung cancer, resulting from increased surface PM2.5 concentrations. We quantify the global annual mean combined radiative effect (REcomb) of non-CO2 aviation emissions as -13.3 mW m-2; from increases in aerosols (direct radiative effect and cloud albedo effect) and tropospheric ozone. Ultra-low sulfur jet fuel (ULSJ; FSC =15 ppm) has been proposed as an option to reduce the adverse health impacts of aviation-induced PM2.5. We calculate that swapping the global aviation fleet to ULSJ fuel would reduce the global aviation-induced mortality rate by 624 (95 % CI: 227-1021) mortalities a-1 and increase REcomb by +7.0 mW m-2. We explore the impact of varying aviation FSC between 0-6000 ppm. Increasing FSC increases annual mortality, while enhancing climate cooling through increasing the aerosol cloud albedo effect (aCAE). We explore the relationship between the injection altitude of aviation emissions and the resulting climate and air quality impacts. Compared to the standard aviation emissions distribution, releasing aviation emissions at the ground increases global aviation-induced mortality and produces a net warming effect, primarily through a reduced aCAE. Aviation emissions injected at the surface are 5 times less effective at forming cloud condensation nuclei, reducing the aviation-induced aCAE by a factor of 10. Applying high FSCs at aviation cruise altitudes

  20. Implementation of alternative bio-based fuels in aviation: The Clean Airports Program

    SciTech Connect

    Shauck, M.E.; Zanin, M.G.

    1997-12-31

    The Renewable Aviation Fuels Development Center at Baylor University in Waco, Texas, was designated, in March 1996, by the US Department of Energy (US DOE) as the national coordinator of the Clean Airports Program. This program, a spin-off of the Clean Cities Program, was initiated to increase the use of alternative fuels in aviation. There are two major fuels used in aviation today, the current piston engine aviation gasoline, and the current turbine engine fuel. The environmental impact of each of these fuels is significant. Aviation Gasoline (100LL), currently used in the General Aviation piston engine fleet, contributes 100% of the emissions containing lead in the USA today. In the case of the turbine engine fuel (Jet fuel), there are two major environmental impacts to be considered: the local, in the vicinity of the airports, and the global impact on climate change. The Clean Airports Program was established to promote the use of clean burning fuels in order to achieve and maintain clean air at and in the vicinities of airports through the use of alternative fuel-powered air and ground transportation vehicles.

  1. Characterization of an Experimental Referee Broadened Specification (ERBS) aviation turbine fuel and ERBS fuel blends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seng, G. T.

    1982-01-01

    Characterization data and comparisons of these data are presented for three individual lots of a research test fuel designated as an Experimental Referee Broadened Specification (ERBS) aviation turbine fuel. This research fuel, which is a blend of kerosene and hydrotreated catalytic gas oil, is a representation of a kerojet fuel with broadened properties. To lower the hydrogen content of the ERBS fuel, a blending stock, composed of xylene bottoms and hydrotreated catalytic gas oil, was developed and employed to produce two different ERBS fuel blends. The ERBS fuel blends and the blending stock were also characterized and the results for the blends are compared to those of the original ERBS fuel. The characterization results indicate that with the exception of the freezing point for ERBS lot 2, which was slightly high, the three lots, produced over a 2 year period, met all general fuel requirements. However, although the properties of the fuels were found to be fairly consistent, there were differences in composition. Similarly, all major requirements for the ERBS fuel blends were met or closely approached, and the properties of the blended fuels were found to generally reflect those expected for the proportions of ERBS fuel and blending stock used in their production.

  2. A National Study of the Aviation Mechanics Occupation. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, David

    To meet the current demand for certified aviation mechanics and satisfy student learning needs, a nationwide study developed a core curriculum based on related technical knowledge and skills. Endorsed by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) this 5-year study modified a number of the emerging concepts appropriate to vocational education and…

  3. Fischer-Tropsch Catalyst for Aviation Fuel Production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    deLaRee, Ana B.; Best, Lauren M.; Hepp, Aloysius F.

    2011-01-01

    As the oil supply declines, there is a greater need for cleaner alternative fuels. There will undoubtedly be a shift from crude oil to non-petroleum sources as a feedstock for aviation (and other transportation) fuels. The Fischer-Tropsch process uses a gas mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen which is converted into various liquid hydrocarbons; this versatile gas-to-liquid technology produces a complex product stream of paraffins, olefins, and oxygenated compounds such as alcohols and aldehydes. The Fischer-Tropsch process can produce a cleaner diesel oil fraction with a high cetane number (typically above 70) without any sulfur and aromatic compounds. It is most commonly catalyzed by cobalt supported on alumina, silica, or titania or unsupported alloyed iron powders. Cobalt is typically used more often than iron, in that cobalt is a longer-active catalyst, has lower water-gas shift activity, and lower yield of modified products. Promoters are valuable in improving Fischer-Tropsch catalyst as they can increase cobalt oxide dispersion, enhance the reduction of cobalt oxide to the active metal phase, stabilize a high metal surface area, and improve mechanical properties. Our goal is to build up the specificity of the Fischer-Tropsch catalyst while adding less-costly transition metals as promoters; the more common promoters used in Fischer-Tropsch synthesis are rhenium, platinum, and ruthenium. In this report we will describe our preliminary efforts to design and produce catalyst materials to achieve our goal of preferentially producing C8 to C18 paraffin compounds in the NASA Glenn Research Center Gas-To-Liquid processing plant. Efforts at NASA Glenn Research Center for producing green fuels using non-petroleum feedstocks support both the Sub-sonic Fixed Wing program of Fundamental Aeronautics and the In Situ Resource Utilization program of the Exploration Technology Development and Demonstration program.

  4. Fischer-Tropsch Catalyst for Aviation Fuel Production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeLaRee, Ana B.; Best, Lauren M.; Bradford, Robyn L.; Gonzalez-Arroyo, Richard; Hepp, Aloysius F.

    2012-01-01

    As the oil supply declines, there is a greater need for cleaner alternative fuels. There will undoubtedly be a shift from crude oil to nonpetroleum sources as a feedstock for aviation (and other transportation) fuels. The Fischer-Tropsch process uses a gas mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen which is converted into various liquid hydrocarbons; this versatile gas-to-liquid technology produces a complex product stream of paraffins, olefins, and oxygenated compounds such as alcohols and aldehydes. The Fischer-Tropsch process can produce a cleaner diesel oil fraction with a high cetane number (typically above 70) without any sulfur and aromatic compounds. It is most commonly catalyzed by cobalt supported on alumina, silica, or titania or unsupported alloyed iron powders. Cobalt is typically used more often than iron, in that cobalt is a longer-active catalyst, has lower water-gas shift activity, and lower yield of modified products. Promoters are valuable in improving Fischer-Tropsch catalyst as they can increase cobalt oxide dispersion, enhance the reduction of cobalt oxide to the active metal phase, stabilize a high metal surface area, and improve mechanical properties. Our goal is to build up the specificity of the Fischer-Tropsch catalyst while adding less-costly transition metals as promoters; the more common promoters used in Fischer-Tropsch synthesis are rhenium, platinum, and ruthenium. In this report we will describe our preliminary efforts to design and produce catalyst materials to achieve our goal of preferentially producing C8 to C18 paraffin compounds in the NASA Glenn Research Center Gas-To-Liquid processing plant. Efforts at NASA Glenn Research Center for producing green fuels using non-petroleum feedstocks support both the Sub-sonic Fixed Wing program of Fundamental Aeronautics and the In Situ Resource Utilization program of the Exploration Technology Development and Demonstration program.

  5. Aircraft Fuel, Hydraulic and Pneumatic Systems (Course Outlines), Aviation Mechanics 3 (Air Frame): 9067.01.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    This document presents an outline for a 135-hour course designed to familiarize the student with the operation, inspection, and repair of aircraft fuel, hydraulic, and pneumatic systems. It is designed to help the trainee master the knowledge and skills necessary to become an aviation airframe mechanic. The aviation airframe maintenance technician…

  6. Evaluation of methods for rapid determination of freezing point of aviation fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mathiprakasam, B.

    1982-01-01

    Methods for identification of the more promising concepts for the development of a portable instrument to rapidly determine the freezing point of aviation fuels are described. The evaluation process consisted of: (1) collection of information on techniques previously used for the determination of the freezing point, (2) screening and selection of these techniques for further evaluation of their suitability in a portable unit for rapid measurement, and (3) an extensive experimental evaluation of the selected techniques and a final selection of the most promising technique. Test apparatuses employing differential thermal analysis and the change in optical transparency during phase change were evaluated and tested. A technique similar to differential thermal analysis using no reference fuel was investigated. In this method, the freezing point was obtained by digitizing the data and locating the point of inflection. Results obtained using this technique compare well with those obtained elsewhere using different techniques. A conceptual design of a portable instrument incorporating this technique is presented.

  7. Life-cycle analysis of bio-based aviation fuels.

    PubMed

    Han, Jeongwoo; Elgowainy, Amgad; Cai, Hao; Wang, Michael Q

    2013-12-01

    Well-to-wake (WTWa) analysis of bio-based aviation fuels, including hydroprocessed renewable jet (HRJ) from various oil seeds, Fischer-Tropsch jet (FTJ) from corn-stover and co-feeding of coal and corn-stover, and pyrolysis jet from corn stover, is conducted and compared with petroleum jet. WTWa GHG emission reductions relative to petroleum jet can be 41-63% for HRJ, 68-76% for pyrolysis jet and 89% for FTJ from corn stover. The HRJ production stage dominates WTWa GHG emissions from HRJ pathways. The differences in GHG emissions from HRJ production stage among considered feedstocks are much smaller than those from fertilizer use and N2O emissions related to feedstock collection stage. Sensitivity analyses on FTJ production from coal and corn-stover are also conducted, showing the importance of biomass share in the feedstock, carbon capture and sequestration options, and overall efficiency. For both HRJ and FTJ, co-product handling methods have significant impacts on WTWa results.

  8. Aircraft emissions of methane and nitrous oxide during the alternative aviation fuel experiment.

    PubMed

    Santoni, Gregory W; Lee, Ben H; Wood, Ezra C; Herndon, Scott C; Miake-Lye, Richard C; Wofsy, Steven C; McManus, J Barry; Nelson, David D; Zahniser, Mark S

    2011-08-15

    Given the predicted growth of aviation and the recent developments of alternative aviation fuels, quantifying methane (CH(4)) and nitrous oxide (N(2)O) emission ratios for various aircraft engines and fuels can help constrain projected impacts of aviation on the Earth's radiative balance. Fuel-based emission indices for CH(4) and N(2)O were quantified from CFM56-2C1 engines aboard the NASA DC-8 aircraft during the first Alternative Aviation Fuel Experiment (AAFEX-I) in 2009. The measurements of JP-8 fuel combustion products indicate that at low thrust engine states (idle and taxi, or 4% and 7% maximum rated thrusts, respectively) the engines emit both CH(4) and N(2)O at a mean ± 1σ rate of 170 ± 160 mg CH(4) (kg Fuel)(-1) and 110 ± 50 mg N(2)O (kg Fuel)(-1), respectively. At higher thrust levels corresponding to greater fuel flow and higher engine temperatures, CH(4) concentrations in engine exhaust were lower than ambient concentrations. Average emission indices for JP-8 fuel combusted at engine thrusts between 30% and 100% of maximum rating were -54 ± 33 mg CH(4) (kg Fuel)(-1) and 32 ± 18 mg N(2)O (kg Fuel)(-1), where the negative sign indicates consumption of atmospheric CH(4) in the engine. Emission factors for the synthetic Fischer-Tropsch fuels were statistically indistinguishable from those for JP-8.

  9. Systems Analysis of NASA Aviation Safety Program: Final Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Sharon M.; Reveley, Mary S.; Withrow, Colleen A.; Evans, Joni K.; Barr, Lawrence; Leone, Karen

    2013-01-01

    A three-month study (February to April 2010) of the NASA Aviation Safety (AvSafe) program was conducted. This study comprised three components: (1) a statistical analysis of currently available civilian subsonic aircraft data from the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB), the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), and the Aviation Safety Information Analysis and Sharing (ASIAS) system to identify any significant or overlooked aviation safety issues; (2) a high-level qualitative identification of future safety risks, with an assessment of the potential impact of the NASA AvSafe research on the National Airspace System (NAS) based on these risks; and (3) a detailed, top-down analysis of the NASA AvSafe program using an established and peer-reviewed systems analysis methodology. The statistical analysis identified the top aviation "tall poles" based on NTSB accident and FAA incident data from 1997 to 2006. A separate examination of medical helicopter accidents in the United States was also conducted. Multiple external sources were used to develop a compilation of ten "tall poles" in future safety issues/risks. The top-down analysis of the AvSafe was conducted by using a modification of the Gibson methodology. Of the 17 challenging safety issues that were identified, 11 were directly addressed by the AvSafe program research portfolio.

  10. A method for monitoring the variability in nuclear absorption characteristics of aviation fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sprinkle, Danny R.; Shen, Chih-Ping

    1988-01-01

    A technique for monitoring variability in the nuclear absorption characteristics of aviation fuels has been developed. It is based on a highly collimated low energy gamma radiation source and a sodium iodide counter. The source and the counter assembly are separated by a geometrically well-defined test fuel cell. A computer program for determining the mass attenuation coefficient of the test fuel sample, based on the data acquired for a preset counting period, has been developed and tested on several types of aviation fuel.

  11. Ethyl-tertiary-butyl-ether (ETBE) as an aviation fuel: Eleventh international symposium on alcohol fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Maben, G.D.; Shauck, M.E.; Zanin, M.G.

    1996-12-31

    This paper discusses the preliminary flight testing of an aircraft using neat burning ethyl-tertiary-butyl-ether (ETBE) as a fuel. No additional changes were made to the fuel delivery systems which had previously been modified to provide the higher fuel flow rates required to operate the engine on neat ethanol. Air-fuel ratios were manually adjusted with the mixture control. This system allows the pilot to adjust the mixture to compensate for changes in air density caused by altitude, pressure and temperature. The engine was instrumented to measure exhaust gas temperatures (EGT), cylinder head temperatures (CHT), and fuel flows, while the standard aircraft instruments were used to collect aircraft performance data. Baseline engine data for ETBE and Avgas are compared. Preliminary data indicates the technical and economic feasibility of using ETBE as an aviation fuel for the piston engine fleet. Furthermore, the energy density of ETBE qualifies it as a candidate for a turbine engine fuel of which 16.2 billion gallons are used in the US each year.

  12. Enhancement of Aviation Fuel Thermal Stability Characterization Through Application of Ellipsometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Browne, Samuel Tucker; Wong, Hubert; Hinderer, Cameron Branch; Klettlinger, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    ASTM D3241/Jet Fuel Thermal Oxidation Tester (JFTOT) procedure, the standard method for testing thermal stability of conventional aviation turbine fuels is inherently limited due to the subjectivity in the color standard for tube deposit rating. Quantitative assessment of the physical characteristics of oxidative fuel deposits provides a more powerful method for comparing the thermal oxidation stability characteristics of fuels, especially in a research setting. We propose employing a Spectroscopic Ellipsometer to determine the film thickness and profile of oxidative fuel deposits on JFTOT heater tubes. Using JP-8 aviation fuel and following a modified ASTM D3241 testing procedure, the capabilities of the Ellipsometer will be demonstrated by measuring oxidative fuel deposit profiles for a range of different deposit characteristics. The testing completed in this report was supported by the NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Subsonics Fixed Wing Project

  13. Aircraft Fuel, Fuel Metering, Induction and Exhaust Systems (Course Outline), Aviation Mechanics (Power Plant): 9057.02.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    This document presents an outline for a 135-hour course designed to help the trainee gain the skills and knowledge necessary to become an aviation powerplant mechanic. The course outlines the theory of operation of various fuel systems, fuel metering, induction, and exhaust system components with an emphasis on troubleshooting, maintenance, and…

  14. Temperature and flow measurements on near-freezing aviation fuels in a wing-tank model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, R.; Stockemer, F. J.

    1980-01-01

    Freezing behavior, pumpability, and temperature profiles for aviation turbine fuels were measured in a 190-liter tank chilled to simulate internal temperature gradients encountered in commercial airplane wing tanks. When the bulk of the fuel was above the specification freezing point, pumpout of the fuel removed all fuel except a layer adhering to the bottom chilled surfaces, and the unpumpable fraction depended on the fuel temperature near these surfaces. When the bulk of the fuel was at or below the freezing point, pumpout ceased when solids blocked the pump inlet, and the unpumpable fraction depended on the overall average temperature.

  15. Temperature and flow measurements on near-freezing aviation fuels in a wing-tank model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, R.; Stockemer, F. J.

    1980-01-01

    Freezing behavior, pumpability, and temperature profiles for aviation turbine fuels were measured in a 190-liter tank, to simulate internal temperature gradients encountered in commercial airplane wing tanks. Two low-temperature situations were observed. Where the bulk of the fuel is above the specification freezing point, pumpout of the fuel removes all fuel except a layer adhering to the bottom chilled surfaces, and the unpumpable fraction depends on the fuel temperature near these surfaces. Where the bulk of the fuel is at or below the freezing point, pumpout ceases when solids block the pump inlet, and the unpumpable fraction depends on the overall average temperature.

  16. Protozoa in subsurface sediments from sites contaminated with aviation gasoline or jet fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Sinclair, J.L.; Kampbell, D.H.; Cook, M.L.; Wilson, J.T.

    1993-01-01

    Numbers of protozoa in the subsurface of aviation gasoline and jet fuel spill areas at a Coast Guard base at Traverse City, Mich., were determined. Boreholes were drilled in an uncontaminated location, in contaminated but untreated parts of the fuel plumes, and in the aviation gasoline source area undergoing H2O2 biotreatment. Protozoa were found to occur in elevated numbers in the unsaturated zone, where fuel vapors mixed with atmospheric oxygen, and below the layer of floating fuel, where uncontaminated groundwater came into contact with fuel. Numbers of protozoa in some contaminated areas equalled or exceeded those found in surface soil. The abundance of protozoa in the biotreatment area was high enough that it would be expected to significantly reduce the bacterial community that was degrading the fuel.

  17. A concept for a fuel efficient flight planning aid for general aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, B. P.; Haines, A. L.; Wales, C. J.

    1982-01-01

    A core equation for estimation of fuel burn from path profile data was developed. This equation was used as a necessary ingredient in a dynamic program to define a fuel efficient flight path. The resultant algorithm is oriented toward use by general aviation. The pilot provides a description of the desired ground track, standard aircraft parameters, and weather at selected waypoints. The algorithm then derives the fuel efficient altitudes and velocities at the waypoints.

  18. Landing on empty: estimating the benefits from reducing fuel uplift in US Civil Aviation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryerson, Megan S.; Hansen, Mark; Hao, Lu; Seelhorst, Michael

    2015-09-01

    Airlines and Air Navigation Service Providers are united in their goal to reduce fuel consumption. While changes to flight operations and technology investments are the focus of a number of studies, our study is among the first to investigate an untapped source of aviation fuel consumption: excess contingency fuel loading. Given the downside risk of fuel exhaustion of diverting to an alternate airport, airline dispatchers may load excess fuel onto an aircraft. Such conservatism comes at a cost of consuming excess fuel, as fuel consumed is a function of, among other factors, aircraft weight. The aim of this paper is to quantify, on a per-flight basis, the fuel burned due to carrying fuel beyond what is needed for foreseeable contingencies, and thereby motivate research, federal guidance, and investments that allow airline dispatchers to reduce fuel uplift while maintaining near zero risks of fuel exhaustion. We merge large publicly available aviation and weather databases with a detailed dataset from a major US airline. Upon estimating factors that capture the quantity fuel consumed due to carrying a pound of weight for a range of aircraft types, we calculate the cost and greenhouse gas emissions from carrying unused fuel on arrival and additional contingency fuel above a conservative buffer for foreseeable contingencies. We establish that the major US carrier does indeed load fuel conservatively. We find that 4.48% of the fuel consumed by an average flight is due to carrying unused fuel and 1.04% of the fuel consumed by an average flight is due to carrying additional contingency fuel above a reasonable buffer. We find that simple changes in flight dispatching that maintain a statistically minimal risk of fuel exhaustion could result in yearly savings of 338 million lbs of CO2, the equivalent to the fuel consumed from 4760 flights on midsized commercial aircraft. Moreover, policy changes regarding maximum fuel loads or investments that reduce uncertainty or increase

  19. 78 FR 69789 - Policy and Procedures Concerning the Use of Airport Revenue; Proceeds From Taxes on Aviation Fuel

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-21

    ... proceeds from taxes touching aviation fuel, this notice solicits public comment on the proposed policy... sales tax upon retail sales of products and services, but at some point had exempted the sale of... petroleum products generally or general sales taxes on all goods that touch on aviation fuel. It seems to...

  20. Alternative Fuels and Their Potential Impact on Aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daggett, D.; Hendricks, R.; Walther, R.

    2006-01-01

    With a growing gap between the growth rate of petroleum production and demand, and with mounting environmental needs, the aircraft industry is investigating issues related to fuel availability, candidates for alternative fuels, and improved aircraft fuel efficiency. Bio-derived fuels, methanol, ethanol, liquid natural gas, liquid hydrogen, and synthetic fuels are considered in this study for their potential to replace or supplement conventional jet fuels. Most of these fuels present the airplane designers with safety, logistical, and performance challenges. Synthetic fuel made from coal, natural gas, or other hydrocarbon feedstock shows significant promise as a fuel that could be easily integrated into present and future aircraft with little or no modification to current aircraft designs. Alternatives, such as biofuel, and in the longer term hydrogen, have good potential but presently appear to be better suited for use in ground transportation. With the increased use of these fuels, a greater portion of a barrel of crude oil can be used for producing jet fuel because aircraft are not as fuel-flexible as ground vehicles.

  1. Quantification of aldehydes emissions from alternative and renewable aviation fuels using a gas turbine engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hu; Altaher, Mohamed A.; Wilson, Chris W.; Blakey, Simon; Chung, Winson; Rye, Lucas

    2014-02-01

    In this research three renewable aviation fuel blends including two HEFA (Hydrotreated Ester and Fatty Acid) blends and one FAE (Fatty Acids Ethyl Ester) blend with conventional Jet A-1 along with a GTL (Gas To Liquid) fuel have been tested for their aldehydes emissions on a small gas turbine engine. Three strong ozone formation precursors: formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and acrolein were measured in the exhaust at different operational modes and compared to neat Jet A-1. The aim is to assess the impact of renewable and alternative aviation fuels on aldehydes emissions from aircraft gas turbine engines so as to provide informed knowledge for the future deployment of new fuels in aviation. The results show that formaldehyde was a major aldehyde species emitted with a fraction of around 60% of total measured aldehydes emissions for all fuels. Acrolein was the second major emitted aldehyde species with a fraction of ˜30%. Acetaldehyde emissions were very low for all the fuels and below the detention limit of the instrument. The formaldehyde emissions at cold idle were up to two to threefold higher than that at full power. The fractions of formaldehyde were 6-10% and 20% of total hydrocarbon emissions in ppm at idle and full power respectively and doubled on a g kg-1-fuel basis.

  2. Impact of aviation non-CO₂ combustion effects on the environmental feasibility of alternative jet fuels.

    PubMed

    Stratton, Russell W; Wolfe, Philip J; Hileman, James I

    2011-12-15

    Alternative fuels represent a potential option for reducing the climate impacts of the aviation sector. The climate impacts of alternatives fuel are traditionally considered as a ratio of life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to those of the displaced petroleum product; however, this ignores the climate impacts of the non-CO(2) combustion effects from aircraft in the upper atmosphere. The results of this study show that including non-CO(2) combustion emissions and effects in the life cycle of a Synthetic Paraffinic Kerosene (SPK) fuel can lead to a decrease in the relative merit of the SPK fuel relative to conventional jet fuel. For example, an SPK fuel option with zero life cycle GHG emissions would offer a 100% reduction in GHG emissions but only a 48% reduction in actual climate impact using a 100-year time window and the nominal climate modeling assumption set outlined herein. Therefore, climate change mitigation policies for aviation that rely exclusively on relative well-to-wake life cycle GHG emissions as a proxy for aviation climate impact may overestimate the benefit of alternative fuel use on the global climate system.

  3. Catalytic conversion wood syngas to synthetic aviation turbine fuels over a multifunctional catalyst.

    PubMed

    Yan, Qiangu; Yu, Fei; Liu, Jian; Street, Jason; Gao, Jinsen; Cai, Zhiyong; Zhang, Jilei

    2013-01-01

    A continuous process involving gasification, syngas cleaning, and Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis was developed to efficiently produce synthetic aviation turbine fuels (SATFs). Oak-tree wood chips were first gasified to syngas over a commercial pilot plant downdraft gasifier. The raw wood syngas contains about 47% N(2), 21% CO, 18% H(2), 12% CO(2,) 2% CH(4) and trace amounts of impurities. A purification reaction system was designed to remove the impurities in the syngas such as moisture, oxygen, sulfur, ammonia, and tar. The purified syngas meets the requirements for catalytic conversion to liquid fuels. A multi-functional catalyst was developed and tested for the catalytic conversion of wood syngas to SATFs. It was demonstrated that liquid fuels similar to commercial aviation turbine fuels (Jet A) was successfully synthesized from bio-syngas. PMID:23131653

  4. Catalytic conversion wood syngas to synthetic aviation turbine fuels over a multifunctional catalyst.

    PubMed

    Yan, Qiangu; Yu, Fei; Liu, Jian; Street, Jason; Gao, Jinsen; Cai, Zhiyong; Zhang, Jilei

    2013-01-01

    A continuous process involving gasification, syngas cleaning, and Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis was developed to efficiently produce synthetic aviation turbine fuels (SATFs). Oak-tree wood chips were first gasified to syngas over a commercial pilot plant downdraft gasifier. The raw wood syngas contains about 47% N(2), 21% CO, 18% H(2), 12% CO(2,) 2% CH(4) and trace amounts of impurities. A purification reaction system was designed to remove the impurities in the syngas such as moisture, oxygen, sulfur, ammonia, and tar. The purified syngas meets the requirements for catalytic conversion to liquid fuels. A multi-functional catalyst was developed and tested for the catalytic conversion of wood syngas to SATFs. It was demonstrated that liquid fuels similar to commercial aviation turbine fuels (Jet A) was successfully synthesized from bio-syngas.

  5. Challenge to aviation: Hatching a leaner pterosauer. [improving commercial aircraft design for greater fuel efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moss, F. E.

    1975-01-01

    Modifications in commercial aircraft design, particularly the development of lighter aircraft, are discussed as effective means of reducing aviation fuel consumption. The modifications outlined include: (1) use of the supercritical wing; (2) generation of the winglet; (3) production and flight testing of composite materials; and, (4) implementation of fly-by-wire control systems. Attention is also given to engineering laminar air flow control, improving cargo payloads, and adapting hydrogen fuels for aircraft use.

  6. Safety engineering in handling fuels and lubricants in civil aviation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Protoereiskii, Aleksandr Stepanovich

    The book is concerned with methods of improving working conditions, work hygiene, safety engineering, and fire and explosion prevention during the storage and handling of petroleum products at fuel and lubricant storage facilities. The discussion covers methods of protection against static and atmospheric discharges, lightning protection, safety engineering in fuel and lubricant laboratories, and methods of fire prevention and fire extinction. Attention is also given to methods for administering first aid in case of accidents and poisoning.

  7. Additional experiments on flowability improvements of aviation fuels at low temperatures, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stockemer, F. J.; Deane, R. L.

    1982-01-01

    An investigation was performed to study flow improver additives and scale-model fuel heating systems for use with aviation hydrocarbon fuel at low temperatures. Test were performed in a facility that simulated the heat transfer and temperature profiles anticipated in wing fuel tanks during flight of long-range commercial aircraft. The results are presented of experiments conducted in a test tank simulating a section of an outer wing integral fuel tank approximately full-scale in height, chilled through heat exchange panels bonded to the upper and lower horizontal surfaces. A separate system heated lubricating oil externally by a controllable electric heater, to transfer heat to fuel pumped from the test tank through an oil-to-fuel heat exchanger, and to recirculate the heated fuel back to the test tank.

  8. Toxicity of Jet A (aviation fuel) selected aquatic organisms. Technical report, August 1987-February 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Haley, M.V.; Landis, W.G.

    1989-03-01

    JP8 (jet propulsion) is an aviation fuel being considered for replacement of diesel fuel used in the generation of smoke on the battlefield. JP8 is projected to be more economical and also be used as a fuel for the ground machinery used in the transport and dissemination of JP8. Also, fog oil has naphthene constituents above the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) standards. JP8 trailing and testing could lead to contaminating surrounding aquatic ecosystems through runoff or wind transport. Therefore, the toxicity of JP8 to aquatic organisms must be known. Jet A (aviation fuel) was substituted for JP8 due to availability and similar distillation procedure. The aquatic toxicity of the soluble fraction of Jet A (aviation fuel) was examined. Acute 48-hr bioassays were performed using the water flea, Daphnia magna, and 96-hr growth inhibition bioassays were performed using a green unicellular alga, Selenastrum capricornutum. All tests were conducted according to guidelines set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM). The 48-hr EC50 for D. magna was 3.1 mg/L. The 96-hr IC50 for S. capricornutum was 4.2 mg/L.

  9. Bio-aviation fuel production from hydroprocessing castor oil promoted by the nickel-based bifunctional catalysts.

    PubMed

    Liu, Siyang; Zhu, Qingqing; Guan, Qingxin; He, Liangnian; Li, Wei

    2015-05-01

    Bio-aviation fuel was firstly synthesized by hydroprocessing castor oil in a continuous-flow fixed-bed microreactor with the main objective to obtain the high yield of aviation fuel and determine the elemental compositions of the product phases as well as the reaction mechanism. Highest aviation range alkane yields (91.6 wt%) were achieved with high isomer/n-alkane ratio (i/n) 4.4-7.2 over Ni supported on acidic zeolites. In addition, different fuel range alkanes can be obtained by adjusting the degree of hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) and hydrocracking. And the observations are rationalized by a set of reaction pathways for the various product phases.

  10. Long term deposit formation in aviation turbine fuel at elevated temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giovanetti, A. J.; Szetela, E. J.

    1986-01-01

    An experimental characterization is conducted for the relationships between deposit mass, operating time, and temperature, in coking associated with aviation fuels under conditions simulating those typical of turbine engine fuel systems. Jet A and Suntech A fuels were tested in stainless steel tubing heated to 420-750 K, over test durations of between 3 and 730 hr and at fuel velocities of 0.07-1.3 m/sec. Deposit rates are noted to be a strong function of tube temperature; for a given set of test conditions, deposition rates for Suntech A exceed those of Jet A by a factor of 10. Deposition rates increased markedly with test duration for both fuels. The heated tube data obtained are used to develop a global chemical kinetic model for fuel oxidation and carbon deposition.

  11. 26 CFR 48.4041-4 - Application of tax on sales of liquid for use as fuel in aircraft in noncommercial aviation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... as fuel in aircraft in noncommercial aviation. 48.4041-4 Section 48.4041-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL... aircraft in noncommercial aviation. (a) In general. The taxes imposed by subparagraphs (1)(A) and (2)(A) of... operator of an aircraft, for use as a fuel in the aircraft in noncommercial aviation. (b) Liability of...

  12. 26 CFR 48.4041-4 - Application of tax on sales of liquid for use as fuel in aircraft in noncommercial aviation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... fuel in aircraft in noncommercial aviation. 48.4041-4 Section 48.4041-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL... aircraft in noncommercial aviation. (a) In general. The taxes imposed by subparagraphs (1)(A) and (2)(A) of... operator of an aircraft, for use as a fuel in the aircraft in noncommercial aviation. (b) Liability of...

  13. 26 CFR 48.4041-4 - Application of tax on sales of liquid for use as fuel in aircraft in noncommercial aviation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... as fuel in aircraft in noncommercial aviation. 48.4041-4 Section 48.4041-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL... aircraft in noncommercial aviation. (a) In general. The taxes imposed by subparagraphs (1)(A) and (2)(A) of... operator of an aircraft, for use as a fuel in the aircraft in noncommercial aviation. (b) Liability of...

  14. 26 CFR 48.4041-4 - Application of tax on sales of liquid for use as fuel in aircraft in noncommercial aviation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... as fuel in aircraft in noncommercial aviation. 48.4041-4 Section 48.4041-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL... aircraft in noncommercial aviation. (a) In general. The taxes imposed by subparagraphs (1)(A) and (2)(A) of... operator of an aircraft, for use as a fuel in the aircraft in noncommercial aviation. (b) Liability of...

  15. Growth study and hydrocarbonoclastic potential of microorganisms isolated from aviation fuel spill site in Ibeno, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Etuk, C U; John, R C; Ekong, U E; Akpan, M M

    2012-10-01

    The growth study and hydrocarbonoclastic potential of microorganisms isolated from aviation fuel spill sites at Inua-eyet Ikot in Ibeno, Nigeria were examined using standard microbiological methods. The results of the analysis revealed that the viable plate count of microorganisms in the polluted soil ranged from 2.2 ± 0.04 × 10(3) to 3.4 ± 0.14 × 10(6) cfu/g for bacteria and 1.4 ± 0.5 × 10(2) to 2.3 ± 0.4 × 10(4) cfu/g for fungi while count of biodegraders ranged from 1.2 ± 0.4 × 10(3) to 2.1 ± 0.8 × 10(5) cfu/g. A total of 11 microbial isolates comprising of Micrococcus, Klebsiella, Flavobacterium, Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Candida, Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Penicillium, Saccharomyces and Fusarium were characterized. The ability of the selected isolates to utilize the pollutant (aviation fuel) as their sole source of carbon and energy was examined and noticed to vary in growth profiles between the isolates. The results of their degradability after 28 days of incubation shows that species of Cladosporium, Pseudomonas, Candida, Bacillus, Micrococcus and Penicillium were the most efficient Aviation fuel degraders with percentage weight loss of 86.2, 78.4, 78, 56, 53 and 50.6 respectively. Flavobacterium, Saccharomyces and Aspergillus exhibited moderate growth with percentage weight loss of 48, 45.8 and 43.4 respectively while Klebsiella and Fusarium species showed minimal growth with percentage weight loss of 20 and 18.5 respectively. The results imply that the most efficient biodegraders like Cladosporium, Pseudomonas, Candida, Bacillus and Microoccus could tolerate and remove aviation fuel from the environment.

  16. Protozoa in Subsurface Sediments from Sites Contaminated with Aviation Gasoline or Jet Fuel

    PubMed Central

    Sinclair, James L.; Kampbell, Don H.; Cook, Mike L.; Wilson, John T.

    1993-01-01

    Numbers of protozoa in the subsurface of aviation gasoline and jet fuel spill areas at a Coast Guard base at Traverse City, Mich., were determined. Boreholes were drilled in an uncontaminated location, in contaminated but untreated parts of the fuel plumes, and in the aviation gasoline source area undergoing H2O2 biotreatment. Samples were taken from the unsaturated zone to depths slightly below the floating free product in the saturated zone. Protozoa were found to occur in elevated numbers in the unsaturated zone, where fuel vapors mixed with atmospheric oxygen, and below the layer of floating fuel, where uncontaminated groundwater came into contact with fuel. The same trends were noted in the biotreatment area, except that numbers of protozoa were higher. Numbers of protozoa in some contaminated areas equalled or exceeded those found in surface soil. The abundance of protozoa in the biotreatment area was high enough that it would be expected to significantly reduce the bacterial community that was degrading the fuel. Little reduction in hydraulic conductivity was observed, and no bacterial fouling of the aquifer was observed during biotreatment. PMID:16348871

  17. Protozoa in subsurface sediments from sites contaminated with aviation gasoline or jet fuel.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, J L; Kampbell, D H; Cook, M L; Wilson, J T

    1993-02-01

    Numbers of protozoa in the subsurface of aviation gasoline and jet fuel spill areas at a Coast Guard base at Traverse City, Mich., were determined. Boreholes were drilled in an uncontaminated location, in contaminated but untreated parts of the fuel plumes, and in the aviation gasoline source area undergoing H(2)O(2) biotreatment. Samples were taken from the unsaturated zone to depths slightly below the floating free product in the saturated zone. Protozoa were found to occur in elevated numbers in the unsaturated zone, where fuel vapors mixed with atmospheric oxygen, and below the layer of floating fuel, where uncontaminated groundwater came into contact with fuel. The same trends were noted in the biotreatment area, except that numbers of protozoa were higher. Numbers of protozoa in some contaminated areas equalled or exceeded those found in surface soil. The abundance of protozoa in the biotreatment area was high enough that it would be expected to significantly reduce the bacterial community that was degrading the fuel. Little reduction in hydraulic conductivity was observed, and no bacterial fouling of the aquifer was observed during biotreatment.

  18. Estimating the climate and air quality benefits of aviation fuel and emissions reductions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorbian, Christopher S.; Wolfe, Philip J.; Waitz, Ian A.

    2011-05-01

    In this study we consider the implications of our current understanding of aviation climate impacts as it relates to the ratio of non-CO 2 to CO 2 effects from aviation. We take as inputs recent estimates from the literature of the magnitude of the component aviation impacts and associated uncertainties. We then employ a simplified probabilistic impulse response function model for the climate and a range of damage functions to estimate the ratio of non-CO 2 to CO 2 impacts of aviation for a range of different metrics, scientific assumptions, future background emissions scenarios, economic growth scenarios, and discount rates. We take cost-benefit analysis as our primary context and thus focus on integral metrics that can be related to damages: the global warming potential, the time-integrated change in surface temperature, and the net present value of damages. We also present results based on an endpoint metric, the global temperature change potential. These latter results would be more appropriate for use in a cost-effectiveness framework (e.g., with a well-defined policy target for the anthropogenic change in surface temperature at a specified time in the future). We find that the parameter that most influences the ratio of non-CO 2 to CO 2 impacts of aviation is the discount rate, or analogously the time window used for physical metrics; both are expressions of the relative importance of long-lived versus short-lived impacts. Second to this is the influence of the radiative forcing values that are assumed for aviation-induced cloudiness effects. Given the large uncertainties in short-lived effects from aviation, and the dominating influence of discounting or time-windowing, we find that the choice of metric is relatively less influential. We express the ratios of non-CO 2 to CO 2 impacts on a per unit fuel burn basis so that they can be multiplied by a social cost of carbon to estimate the additional benefits of fuel burn reductions from aviation beyond those

  19. Input/output models for general aviation piston-prop aircraft fuel economy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sweet, L. M.

    1982-01-01

    A fuel efficient cruise performance model for general aviation piston engine airplane was tested. The following equations were made: (1) for the standard atmosphere; (2) airframe-propeller-atmosphere cruise performance; and (3) naturally aspirated engine cruise performance. Adjustments are made to the compact cruise performance model as follows: corrected quantities, corrected performance plots, algebraic equations, maximize R with or without constraints, and appears suitable for airborne microprocessor implementation. The following hardwares are recommended: ignition timing regulator, fuel-air mass ration controller, microprocessor, sensors and displays.

  20. Determination of the emissions from an aircraft auxiliary power unit (APU) during the Alternative Aviation Fuel Experiment (AAFEX).

    PubMed

    Kinsey, John S; Timko, Michael T; Herndon, Scott C; Wood, Ezra C; Yu, Zhenhong; Miake-Lye, Richard C; Lobo, Prem; Whitefield, Philip; Hagen, Donald; Wey, Changlie; Anderson, Bruce E; Beyersdorf, Andreas J; Hudgins, Charles H; Thornhill, K Lee; Winstead, Edward; Howard, Robert; Bulzan, Dan I; Tacina, Kathleen B; Knighton, W Berk

    2012-04-01

    The emissions from a Garrett-AiResearch (now Honeywell) Model GTCP85-98CK auxiliary power unit (APU) were determined as part of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Alternative Aviation Fuel Experiment (AAFEX) using both JP-8 and a coal-derived Fischer Tropsch fuel (FT-2). Measurements were conducted by multiple research organizations for sulfur dioxide (SO2, total hydrocarbons (THC), carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), speciated gas-phase emissions, particulate matter (PM) mass and number, black carbon, and speciated PM. In addition, particle size distribution (PSD), number-based geometric mean particle diameter (GMD), and smoke number were also determined from the data collected. The results of the research showed PM mass emission indices (EIs) in the range of 20 to 700 mg/kg fuel and PM number EIs ranging from 0.5 x 10(15) to 5 x 10(15) particles/kg fuel depending on engine load and fuel type. In addition, significant reductions in both the SO2 and PM EIs were observed for the use of the FT fuel. These reductions were on the order of approximately 90% for SO2 and particle mass EIs and approximately 60% for the particle number EI, with similar decreases observed for black carbon. Also, the size of the particles generated by JP-8 combustion are noticeably larger than those emitted by the APU burning the FT fuel with the geometric mean diameters ranging from 20 to 50 nm depending on engine load and fuel type. Finally, both particle-bound sulfate and organics were reduced during FT-2 combustion. The PM sulfate was reduced by nearly 100% due to lack of sulfur in the fuel, with the PM organics reduced by a factor of approximately 5 as compared with JP-8. PMID:22616284

  1. Determination of the emissions from an aircraft auxiliary power unit (APU) during the Alternative Aviation Fuel Experiment (AAFEX).

    PubMed

    Kinsey, John S; Timko, Michael T; Herndon, Scott C; Wood, Ezra C; Yu, Zhenhong; Miake-Lye, Richard C; Lobo, Prem; Whitefield, Philip; Hagen, Donald; Wey, Changlie; Anderson, Bruce E; Beyersdorf, Andreas J; Hudgins, Charles H; Thornhill, K Lee; Winstead, Edward; Howard, Robert; Bulzan, Dan I; Tacina, Kathleen B; Knighton, W Berk

    2012-04-01

    The emissions from a Garrett-AiResearch (now Honeywell) Model GTCP85-98CK auxiliary power unit (APU) were determined as part of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Alternative Aviation Fuel Experiment (AAFEX) using both JP-8 and a coal-derived Fischer Tropsch fuel (FT-2). Measurements were conducted by multiple research organizations for sulfur dioxide (SO2, total hydrocarbons (THC), carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), speciated gas-phase emissions, particulate matter (PM) mass and number, black carbon, and speciated PM. In addition, particle size distribution (PSD), number-based geometric mean particle diameter (GMD), and smoke number were also determined from the data collected. The results of the research showed PM mass emission indices (EIs) in the range of 20 to 700 mg/kg fuel and PM number EIs ranging from 0.5 x 10(15) to 5 x 10(15) particles/kg fuel depending on engine load and fuel type. In addition, significant reductions in both the SO2 and PM EIs were observed for the use of the FT fuel. These reductions were on the order of approximately 90% for SO2 and particle mass EIs and approximately 60% for the particle number EI, with similar decreases observed for black carbon. Also, the size of the particles generated by JP-8 combustion are noticeably larger than those emitted by the APU burning the FT fuel with the geometric mean diameters ranging from 20 to 50 nm depending on engine load and fuel type. Finally, both particle-bound sulfate and organics were reduced during FT-2 combustion. The PM sulfate was reduced by nearly 100% due to lack of sulfur in the fuel, with the PM organics reduced by a factor of approximately 5 as compared with JP-8.

  2. Measurements of nitrous acid in commercial aircraft exhaust at the Alternative Aviation Fuel Experiment.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ben H; Santoni, Gregory W; Wood, Ezra C; Herndon, Scott C; Miake-Lye, Richard C; Zahniser, Mark S; Wofsy, Steven C; Munger, J William

    2011-09-15

    The Alternative Aviation Fuel Experiment (AAFEX), conducted in January of 2009 in Palmdale, California, quantified aerosol and gaseous emissions from a DC-8 aircraft equipped with CFM56-2C1 engines using both traditional and synthetic fuels. This study examines the emissions of nitrous acid (HONO) and nitrogen oxides (NO(x) = NO + NO(2)) measured 145 m behind the grounded aircraft. The fuel-based emission index (EI) for HONO increases approximately 6-fold from idle to takeoff conditions but plateaus between 65 and 100% of maximum rated engine thrust, while the EI for NO(x) increases continuously. At high engine power, NO(x) EI is greater when combusting traditional (JP-8) rather than Fischer-Tropsch fuels, while HONO exhibits the opposite trend. Additionally, hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) was identified in exhaust plumes emitted only during engine idle. Chemical reactions responsible for emissions and comparison to previous measurement studies are discussed.

  3. Environmentally Responsible Aviation: Propulsion Research to Enable Fuel Burn, Noise and Emissions Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Zante, Dale; Suder, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    The NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) program is maturing technologies to enable simultaneous reduction of fuel burn, noise and emissions from an aircraft engine system. Three engine related Integrated Technology Demonstrations (ITDs) have been completed at Glenn Research Center in collaboration with Pratt Whitney, General Electric and the Federal Aviation Administration. The engine technologies being matured are: a low NOx, fuel flexible combustor in partnership with Pratt Whitney; an ultra-high bypass, ducted propulsor system in partnership with Pratt Whitney and FAA; and high pressure ratio, front-stage core compressor technology in partnership with General Electric. The technical rationale, test configurations and overall results from the test series in each ITD are described. ERA is using system analysis to project the benefits of the ITD technologies on potential aircraft systems in the 2025 timeframe. Data from the ITD experiments were used to guide the system analysis assumptions. Results from the current assessments for fuel burn, noise and oxides of nitrogen emissions are presented.

  4. Environmentally Responsible Aviation: Propulsion Research to Enable Fuel Burn, Noise and Emissions Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Zante, Dale E.; Suder, Kenneth L.

    2015-01-01

    The NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) program is maturing technologies to enable simultaneous reduction of fuel burn, noise and emissions from an aircraft engine system. Three engine related Integrated Technology Demonstrations (ITDs) have been completed at Glenn Research Center in collaboration with Pratt Whitney, General Electric and the Federal Aviation Administration. The engine technologies being matured are a low NOx, fuel flexible combustor in partnership with Pratt Whitney, an ultra-high bypass, ducted propulsor system in partnership with Pratt Whitney FAA and high pressure ratio, front-stage core compressor technology in partnership with General Electric. The technical rationale, test configurations and overall results from the test series in each ITD are described. ERA is using system analysis to project the benefits of the ITD technologies on potential aircraft systems in the 2025 timeframe. Data from the ITD experiments were used to guide the system analysis assumptions. Results from the current assessments for fuel burn, noise and oxides of nitrogen emissions are presented.

  5. Synthesis of high density aviation fuel with cyclopentanol derived from lignocellulose.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Xueru; Li, Ning; Li, Guangyi; Wang, Wentao; Yang, Jinfan; Cong, Yu; Wang, Aiqin; Wang, Xiaodong; Zhang, Tao

    2015-01-01

    For the first time, renewable high density aviation fuels were synthesized at high overall yield (95.6%) by the Guerbet reaction of cyclopentanol which can be derived from lignocellulose, followed by the hydrodeoxygenation (HDO). The solvent-free Guerbet reaction of cyclopentanol was carried out under the co-catalysis of solid bases and Raney metals. Among the investigated catalyst systems, the combinations of magnesium-aluminium hydrotalcite (MgAl-HT) and Raney Ni (or Raney Co) exhibited the best performances. Over them, high carbon yield (96.7%) of C10 and C15 oxygenates was achieved. The Guerbet reaction products were further hydrodeoxygenated to bi(cyclopentane) and tri(cyclopentane) over a series of Ni catalysts. These alkanes have high densities (0.86 g mL(-1) and 0.91 g mL(-1)) and can be used as high density aviation fuels or additives to bio-jet fuel. Among the investigated HDO catalysts, the 35 wt.% Ni-SiO2-DP prepared by deposition-precipitation method exhibited the highest activity.

  6. Synthesis of high density aviation fuel with cyclopentanol derived from lignocellulose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheng, Xueru; Li, Ning; Li, Guangyi; Wang, Wentao; Yang, Jinfan; Cong, Yu; Wang, Aiqin; Wang, Xiaodong; Zhang, Tao

    2015-03-01

    For the first time, renewable high density aviation fuels were synthesized at high overall yield (95.6%) by the Guerbet reaction of cyclopentanol which can be derived from lignocellulose, followed by the hydrodeoxygenation (HDO). The solvent-free Guerbet reaction of cyclopentanol was carried out under the co-catalysis of solid bases and Raney metals. Among the investigated catalyst systems, the combinations of magnesium-aluminium hydrotalcite (MgAl-HT) and Raney Ni (or Raney Co) exhibited the best performances. Over them, high carbon yield (96.7%) of C10 and C15 oxygenates was achieved. The Guerbet reaction products were further hydrodeoxygenated to bi(cyclopentane) and tri(cyclopentane) over a series of Ni catalysts. These alkanes have high densities (0.86 g mL-1 and 0.91 g mL-1) and can be used as high density aviation fuels or additives to bio-jet fuel. Among the investigated HDO catalysts, the 35 wt.% Ni-SiO2-DP prepared by deposition-precipitation method exhibited the highest activity.

  7. Determination of the Emissions from an Aircraft Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) during the Alternative Aviation Fuel Experiment (AAFEX)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The emissions from a Garrett-AiResearch (now Honeywell) Model GTCP85-98CK APU were determined as part of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Alternative Aviation Fuels Experiment using both JP-8 and a coal-derived Fischer Tropsch fuel (FT-2). Measurements...

  8. Determination of total and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in aviation jet fuel.

    PubMed

    Bernabei, M; Reda, R; Galiero, R; Bocchinfuso, G

    2003-01-24

    The aviation jet fuel widely used in turbine engine aircraft is manufactured from straight-run kerosene. The combustion quality of jet fuel is largely related to the hydrocarbon composition of the fuel itself; paraffins have better burning properties than aromatic compounds, especially naphthalenes and light polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), which are characterised as soot and smoke producers. For this reason the burning quality of fuel is generally measured as smoke fermation. This evaluation is carried out with UV spectrophotometric determination of total naphthalene hydrocarbons and a chromatographic analysis to determine the total aromatic compounds. These methods can be considered insufficient to evaluate the human health impact of these compounds due to their inability to measure trace (ppm) amounts of each aromatic hyrcarbon and each PAH in accordance with limitations imposed because of their toxicological properties. In this paper two analytical methods are presented. Both are based on a gas chromatographic technique with a mass detector operating in be selected ion monitoring mode. The first method was able to determine more than 60 aromatic hydrocarbons in a fuel sample in a 35-min chromatographic run, while the second was able to carry out the analysis of more than 30 PAHs in a 40-min chromatographic run. The linearity and sensitivity of the methods in measuring these analytes at trace levels are described.

  9. Fuel composition and secondary organic aerosol formation: gas-turbine exhaust and alternative aviation fuels.

    PubMed

    Miracolo, Marissa A; Drozd, Greg T; Jathar, Shantanu H; Presto, Albert A; Lipsky, Eric M; Corporan, Edwin; Robinson, Allen L

    2012-08-01

    A series of smog chamber experiments were performed to investigate the effects of fuel composition on secondary particulate matter (PM) formation from dilute exhaust from a T63 gas-turbine engine. Tests were performed at idle and cruise loads with the engine fueled on conventional military jet fuel (JP-8), Fischer-Tropsch synthetic jet fuel (FT), and a 50/50 blend of the two fuels. Emissions were sampled into a portable smog chamber and exposed to sunlight or artificial UV light to initiate photo-oxidation. Similar to previous studies, neat FT fuel and a 50/50 FT/JP-8 blend reduced the primary particulate matter emissions compared to neat JP-8. After only one hour of photo-oxidation at typical atmospheric OH levels, the secondary PM production in dilute exhaust exceeded primary PM emissions, except when operating the engine at high load on FT fuel. Therefore, accounting for secondary PM production should be considered when assessing the contribution of gas-turbine engine emissions to ambient PM levels. FT fuel substantially reduced secondary PM formation in dilute exhaust compared to neat JP-8 at both idle and cruise loads. At idle load, the secondary PM formation was reduced by a factor of 20 with the use of neat FT fuel, and a factor of 2 with the use of the blend fuel. At cruise load, the use of FT fuel resulted in no measured formation of secondary PM. In every experiment, the secondary PM was dominated by organics with minor contributions from sulfate when the engine was operated on JP-8 fuel. At both loads, FT fuel produces less secondary organic aerosol than JP-8 because of differences in the composition of the fuels and the resultant emissions. This work indicates that fuel reformulation may be a viable strategy to reduce the contribution of emissions from combustion systems to secondary organic aerosol production and ultimately ambient PM levels. PMID:22732009

  10. Fuel composition and secondary organic aerosol formation: gas-turbine exhaust and alternative aviation fuels.

    PubMed

    Miracolo, Marissa A; Drozd, Greg T; Jathar, Shantanu H; Presto, Albert A; Lipsky, Eric M; Corporan, Edwin; Robinson, Allen L

    2012-08-01

    A series of smog chamber experiments were performed to investigate the effects of fuel composition on secondary particulate matter (PM) formation from dilute exhaust from a T63 gas-turbine engine. Tests were performed at idle and cruise loads with the engine fueled on conventional military jet fuel (JP-8), Fischer-Tropsch synthetic jet fuel (FT), and a 50/50 blend of the two fuels. Emissions were sampled into a portable smog chamber and exposed to sunlight or artificial UV light to initiate photo-oxidation. Similar to previous studies, neat FT fuel and a 50/50 FT/JP-8 blend reduced the primary particulate matter emissions compared to neat JP-8. After only one hour of photo-oxidation at typical atmospheric OH levels, the secondary PM production in dilute exhaust exceeded primary PM emissions, except when operating the engine at high load on FT fuel. Therefore, accounting for secondary PM production should be considered when assessing the contribution of gas-turbine engine emissions to ambient PM levels. FT fuel substantially reduced secondary PM formation in dilute exhaust compared to neat JP-8 at both idle and cruise loads. At idle load, the secondary PM formation was reduced by a factor of 20 with the use of neat FT fuel, and a factor of 2 with the use of the blend fuel. At cruise load, the use of FT fuel resulted in no measured formation of secondary PM. In every experiment, the secondary PM was dominated by organics with minor contributions from sulfate when the engine was operated on JP-8 fuel. At both loads, FT fuel produces less secondary organic aerosol than JP-8 because of differences in the composition of the fuels and the resultant emissions. This work indicates that fuel reformulation may be a viable strategy to reduce the contribution of emissions from combustion systems to secondary organic aerosol production and ultimately ambient PM levels.

  11. Lean blowout limits of a gas turbine combustor operated with aviation fuel and methane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Wei; Huang, Yong

    2016-05-01

    Lean blowout (LBO) limits is critical to the operational performance of combustion systems in propulsion and power generation. The swirl cup plays an important role in flame stability and has been widely used in aviation engines. Therefore, the effects of swirl cup geometry and flow dynamics on LBO limits are significant. An experiment was conducted for studying the lean blowout limits of a single dome rectangular model combustor with swirl cups. Three types of swirl cup (dual-axial swirl cup, axial-radial swirl cup, dual-radial swirl cup) were employed in the experiment which was operated with aviation fuel (Jet A-1) and methane under the idle condition. Experimental results showed that, with using both Jet A-1 and methane, the LBO limits increase with the air flow of primary swirler for dual-radial swirl cup, while LBO limits decrease with the air flow of primary swirler for dual-axial swirl cup. In addition, LBO limits increase with the swirl intensity for three swirl cups. The experimental results also showed that the flow dynamics instead of atomization poses a significant influence on LBO limits. An improved semi-empirical correlation of experimental data was derived to predict the LBO limits for gas turbine combustors.

  12. Composition-explicit distillation curves of aviation fuel JP-8 and a coal-based jet fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Beverly L. Smith; Thomas J. Bruno

    2007-09-15

    We have recently introduced several important improvements in the measurement of distillation curves for complex fluids. The modifications to the classical measurement provide for (1) a composition explicit data channel for each distillate fraction (for both qualitative and quantitative analysis); (2) temperature measurements that are true thermodynamic state points; (3) temperature, volume, and pressure measurements of low uncertainty suitable for an equation of state development; (4) consistency with a century of historical data; (5) an assessment of the energy content of each distillate fraction; (6) a trace chemical analysis of each distillate fraction; and (7) a corrosivity assessment of each distillate fraction. The most significant modification is achieved with a new sampling approach that allows precise qualitative as well as quantitative analyses of each fraction, on the fly. We have applied the new method to the measurement of rocket propellant, gasoline, and jet fuels. In this paper, we present the application of the technique to representative batches of the military aviation fuel JP-8, and also to a coal-derived fuel developed as a potential substitute. We present not only the distillation curves but also a chemical characterization of each fraction and discuss the contrasts between the two fluids. 26 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs.

  13. Fuel consolidation demonstration program: Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-06-01

    EPRI, Northeast Utilities, Baltimore Gas and Electric, the US Department of Energy and Combustion Engineering are engaged in a program to develop a system for consolidating spent fuel and a method of storing the consolidated fuel in the spent fuel storage pool which is licensable by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Fuel consolidation offers a means of substantially increasing the capacity of spent fuel storage pools. This is a final report of the Fuel Consolidation Demonstration Program. It provides a review of the overall program, a summary of the results obtained, the lessons learned, and an assessment of the present status of the consolidation system developed in the program. 7 refs., 15 figs., 5 tabs.

  14. [Aviation fuels and aircraft emissions. A risk characterization for airport neighbors using Hamburg Airport as an example].

    PubMed

    Tesseraux, I; Mach, B; Koss, G

    1998-06-01

    Aviation fuels are well characterised regarding their physical and chemical properties. Health effects of fuel vapours and of liquid fuel are described after occupational exposure and in animal studies. Exposure of the general population (airport visitors and people living in the vicinity of airports) may occur during fuel supply particularly in warm summers (odour). Aircraft emissions vary with the engine type and the kind of fuel. Combustion of aviation fuel results in CO2, H2O, CO, C, NOx and a great number of organic compounds. Among the emitted polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) no compound characteristic for jet engines (tracer) could be detected so far. Hardly any data exist on the toxicology of jet engine emissions. According to analyses of their chemical composition, however, they contain various toxicologically relevant compounds including carcinogenic substances. Measurements in ambient air around the Hamburg Airport show no elevated pollutant levels. However, no such data exist on aldehydes, black smoke or fine particles. Annoying odours have been stated in some areas around the airport, which were mainly attributed to the aircraft engine emissions rather than to fuel vapours.

  15. [Aviation fuels and aircraft emissions. A risk characterization for airport neighbors using Hamburg Airport as an example].

    PubMed

    Tesseraux, I; Mach, B; Koss, G

    1998-06-01

    Aviation fuels are well characterised regarding their physical and chemical properties. Health effects of fuel vapours and of liquid fuel are described after occupational exposure and in animal studies. Exposure of the general population (airport visitors and people living in the vicinity of airports) may occur during fuel supply particularly in warm summers (odour). Aircraft emissions vary with the engine type and the kind of fuel. Combustion of aviation fuel results in CO2, H2O, CO, C, NOx and a great number of organic compounds. Among the emitted polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) no compound characteristic for jet engines (tracer) could be detected so far. Hardly any data exist on the toxicology of jet engine emissions. According to analyses of their chemical composition, however, they contain various toxicologically relevant compounds including carcinogenic substances. Measurements in ambient air around the Hamburg Airport show no elevated pollutant levels. However, no such data exist on aldehydes, black smoke or fine particles. Annoying odours have been stated in some areas around the airport, which were mainly attributed to the aircraft engine emissions rather than to fuel vapours. PMID:9686444

  16. Three-Dimensional Measurements of Fuel Distribution in High-Pressure, High- Temperature, Next-Generation Aviation Gas Turbine Combustors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hicks, Yolanda R.; Locke, Randy J.; Anderson, Robert C.; Zaller, Michelle M.

    1998-01-01

    In our world-class, optically accessible combustion facility at the NASA Lewis Research Center, we have developed the unique capability of making three-dimensional fuel distribution measurements of aviation gas turbine fuel injectors at actual operating conditions. These measurements are made in situ at the actual operating temperatures and pressures using the JP-grade fuels of candidate next-generation advanced aircraft engines for the High Speed Research (HSR) and Advanced Subsonics Technology (AST) programs. The inlet temperature and pressure ranges used thus far are 300 to 1100 F and 80 to 250 psia. With these data, we can obtain the injector spray angles, the fuel mass distributions of liquid and vapor, the degree of fuel vaporization, and the degree to which fuel has been consumed. The data have been used to diagnose the performance of injectors designed both in-house and by major U.S. engine manufacturers and to design new fuel injectors with overall engine performance goals of increased efficiency and reduced environmental impact. Mie scattering is used to visualize the liquid fuel, and laser-induced fluorescence is used to visualize both liquid and fuel vapor.

  17. Impacts of alternative fuels in aviation on microphysical aerosol properties and predicted ice nuclei concentration at aircraft cruise altitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinzierl, B.; D'Ascoli, E.; Sauer, D. N.; Kim, J.; Scheibe, M.; Schlager, H.; Moore, R.; Anderson, B. E.; Ullrich, R.; Mohler, O.; Hoose, C.

    2015-12-01

    In the past decades air traffic has been substantially growing affecting air quality and climate. According to the International Civil Aviation Authority (ICAO), in the next few years world passenger and freight traffic is expected to increase annually by 6-7% and 4-5%, respectively. One possibility to reduce aviation impacts on the atmosphere and climate might be the replacement of fossil fuels by alternative fuels. However, so far the effects of alternative fuels on particle emissions from aircraft engines and their ability to form contrails remain uncertain. To study the effects of alternative fuels on particle emissions and the formation of contrails, the Alternative Fuel Effects on Contrails and Cruise Emissions (ACCESS) field experiment was conducted in California. In May 2014, the DLR Falcon 20 and the NASA HU-25 jet aircraft were instrumented with an extended aerosol and trace gas payload probing different types of fuels including JP-8 and JP-8 blended with HEFA (Hydroprocessed Esters and Fatty Acids) while the NASA DC8 aircraft acted as the source aircraft for ACCESS-2. Emission measurements were taken in the DC8 exhaust plumes at aircraft cruise level between 9-12 km altitude and at distances between 50 m and 20 km behind the DC8 engines. Here, we will present results from the ACCESS-2 aerosol measurements which show a 30-60% reduction of the non-volatile (mainly black carbon) particle number concentration in the aircraft exhaust for the HEFA-blend compared to conventional JP-8 fuel. Size-resolved particle emission indices show the largest reductions for larger particle sizes suggesting that the HEFA blend contains fewer and smaller black carbon particles. We will combine the airborne measurements with a parameterization of deposition nucleation developed during a number of ice nucleation experiments at the AIDA chamber in Karlsruhe and discuss the impact of alternative fuels on the abundance of potential ice nuclei at cruise conditions.

  18. Taxation of United States general aviation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobieralski, Joseph Bernard

    General aviation in the United States has been an important part of the economy and American life. General aviation is defined as all flying excluding military and scheduled airline operations, and is utilized in many areas of our society. The majority of aircraft operations and airports in the United States are categorized as general aviation, and general aviation contributes more than one percent to the United States gross domestic product each year. Despite the many benefits of general aviation, the lead emissions from aviation gasoline consumption are of great concern. General aviation emits over half the lead emissions in the United States or over 630 tons in 2005. The other significant negative externality attributed to general aviation usage is aircraft accidents. General aviation accidents have caused over 8000 fatalities over the period 1994-2006. A recent Federal Aviation Administration proposed increase in the aviation gasoline tax from 19.4 to 70.1 cents per gallon has renewed interest in better understanding the implications of such a tax increase as well as the possible optimal rate of taxation. Few studies have examined aviation fuel elasticities and all have failed to study general aviation fuel elasticities. Chapter one fills that gap and examines the elasticity of aviation gasoline consumption in United States general aviation. Utilizing aggregate time series and dynamic panel data, the price and income elasticities of demand are estimated. The price elasticity of demand for aviation gasoline is estimated to range from -0.093 to -0.185 in the short-run and from -0.132 to -0.303 in the long-run. These results prove to be similar in magnitude to automobile gasoline elasticities and therefore tax policies could more closely mirror those of automobile tax policies. The second chapter examines the costs associated with general aviation accidents. Given the large number of general aviation operations as well as the large number of fatalities and

  19. Regulatory fire test requirements for plutonium air transport packages : JP-4 or JP-5 vs. JP-8 aviation fuel.

    SciTech Connect

    Figueroa, Victor G.; Lopez, Carlos; Nicolette, Vernon F.

    2010-10-01

    For certification, packages used for the transportation of plutonium by air must survive the hypothetical thermal environment specified in 10CFR71.74(a)(5). This regulation specifies that 'the package must be exposed to luminous flames from a pool fire of JP-4 or JP-5 aviation fuel for a period of at least 60 minutes.' This regulation was developed when jet propellant (JP) 4 and 5 were the standard jet fuels. However, JP-4 and JP-5 currently are of limited availability in the United States of America. JP-4 is very hard to obtain as it is not used much anymore. JP-5 may be easier to get than JP-4, but only through a military supplier. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate that readily-available JP-8 fuel is a possible substitute for the aforementioned certification test. Comparisons between the properties of the three fuels are given. Results from computer simulations that compared large JP-4 to JP-8 pool fires using Sandia's VULCAN fire model are shown and discussed. Additionally, the Container Analysis Fire (CAFE) code was used to compare the thermal response of a large calorimeter exposed to engulfing fires fueled by these three jet propellants. The paper then recommends JP-8 as an alternate fuel that complies with the thermal environment implied in 10CFR71.74.

  20. Heating experiments for flowability improvement of near-freezing aviation fuel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, R.; Stockemer, F. J.

    1984-01-01

    An experimental jet fuel with a -33 C freezing point was chilled in a wing tank simulator with superimposed fuel heating to improve low temperature flowability. Heating consisted of circulating a portion of the fuel to an external heat exchanger and returning the heated fuel to the tank. Flowability was determined by the mass percent of unpumpable fuel (holdup) left in the simulator upon withdrawal of fuel at the conclusion of testing. The study demonstrated that fuel heating is feasible and improves flowability as compared to that of baseline, unheated tests. Delayed heating with initiation when the fuel reaches a prescribed low temperature limit, showed promise of being more efficient than continuous heating. Regardless of the mode or rate of heating, complete flowability (zero holdup) could not be restored by fuel heating. The severe, extreme-day environment imposed by the test caused a very small amount of subfreezing fuel to be retained near the tank surfaces even at high rates of heating. Correlations of flowability established for unheated fuel tests also could be applied to the heated test results if based on boundary-layer temperature or a solid index (subfreezing point) characteristic of the fuel. Previously announced in STAR as N82-26483

  1. PNNL Aviation Biofuels

    SciTech Connect

    Plaza, John; Holladay, John; Hallen, Rich

    2014-10-23

    Commercial airplanes really don’t have the option to move away from liquid fuels. Because of this, biofuels present an opportunity to create new clean energy jobs by developing technologies that deliver stable, long term fuel options. The Department of Energy’s Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is working with industrial partners on processes to convert biomass to aviation fuels.

  2. Fuel-efficient cruise performance model for general aviation piston engine airplanes

    SciTech Connect

    Parkinson, R.C.H.

    1982-01-01

    The uses and limitations of typical Pilot Operating Handbook cruise performance data, for constructing cruise performance models suitable for maximizing specific range, are first examined. These data are found to be inadequate for constructing such models. A new model of General Aviation piston-prop airplane cruise performance is then developed. This model consists of two subsystem models: the airframe-propeller-atmosphere subsystem model; and the engine-atmosphere subsystem model. The new model facilitates maximizing specific range; and by virtue of its simplicity and low volume data storage requirements, appears suitable for airborne microprocessor implementation.

  3. Applications of high pressure differential scanning calorimetry to aviation fuel thermal stability research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neveu, M. C.; Stocker, D. P.

    1985-01-01

    High pressure differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was studied as an alternate method for performing high temperature fuel thermal stability research. The DSC was used to measure the heat of reaction versus temperature of a fuel sample heated at a programmed rate in an oxygen pressurized cell. Pure hydrocarbons and model fuels were studied using typical DSC operating conditions of 600 psig of oxygen and a temperature range from ambient to 500 C. The DSC oxidation onset temperature was determined and was used to rate the fuels on thermal stability. Kinetic rate constants were determined for the global initial oxidation reaction. Fuel deposit formation is measured, and the high temperature volatility of some tetralin deposits is studied by thermogravimetric analysis. Gas chromatography and mass spectrometry are used to study the chemical composition of some DSC stressed fuels.

  4. Availability and cost estimate of a high naphthene, modified aviation turbine fuel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prok, George M.

    1988-01-01

    Information from an Air Force study was used to determine the potential availability and cost of a modified conventional fuel with a naphthene content which could have a thermal stability near that of JP-7 for high-speed civil transports. Results showed sufficient capacity for a fuel made of a blend of 50 percent naphthenic straight run kerosene and 50 percent hydrocracked product, assuming a near-term requirement of 210,000 BBL per day. Fuel cost would be as low as 62.5 to 64.5 cents per gallon, assuming 20 dollars per barrel for crude.

  5. Protozoa in subsurface sediments from sites contaminated with aviation gasoline or jet fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Sinclair, J.L.; Kampbell, D.H.; Cook, M.L.; Wilson, J.T. )

    1993-02-01

    Fuel hydrocarbons are known to be readily biodegraded and protozoa may be associated with this process. The objective of this study is to determine whether protozoa are numerous enough in the contaminated areas of the subsurface to play a significant role in the microbial community. The results indicate that protozoa can become very numerous in the subsurface at fuel-contaminated sites with the greatest abundance of protozoa in the unsaturated zone, where fuel vapors mixed with atmospheric oxygen, and slightly beneath the floating fuel on the water table. In contrast, bacteria seemed to adapt to local conditions and showed less change in numbers in different parts of the profile than protozoa. Bioremediation of subsurface sediments is dependent on a sufficient hydraulic conductivity to permit pumping nutrients through the affected area. Bacteria have been known to cause large reductions in hydraulic conductivity. At the study area this reduction was not noted in spite of large concentrations of bacteria. The authors conclude that this may indicate a role for protozoa in maintaining hydraulic conductivity during biotreatment of readily degraded organic contaminants.

  6. Bagnulo Heavy Fuel Internal Combustion Engine and Its Employment in Aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fiore, Amedeo

    1922-01-01

    We see with great satisfaction that Bagnulo's studies and experiments on his high-speed, heavy-fuel engines, promise to solve not only the general problem of economical power and hence of thermal efficiency, but also all other special problems, of weight and space, and, what is still more important, range of error.

  7. Alcohol fuel production training program. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Burke, J.

    1982-06-30

    The purpose of the project was to offer instruction in the small scale production of ethanol, which can be added to gasoline by about 10%. The course was designed to help farmers in particular to make ethanol to extend fuel use. This project has four objectives. They are: (1) design an alcohol fuel production course with appropriate equipment for hands-on training; (2) offer at least three training sessions on alcohol fuel production in Cumberland County each year of the project; (3) work with the Governor's Task Force on Gasohol to disseminate the necessary information on alcohol production to the public; (4) identify, in consultation with the New Jersey Department of Energy and Agriculture, other training sites in the state and offer at least three training sessions outside of Cumberland County during the second year of the project. As of March 31, 1982, Cumberland County College completed all activities and objectives outlined in its Appropriate Technology project ''Alcohol Fuel Production.'' Given the six month extension requested to accommodate farmers in other parts of the state and the growing season, this project was completed within the stated time schedule. Although the response for the course was high in the beginning of 1981, the increased supply of low cost fuels at the end of the year probably accounts for the decline in the public's willingness to take a course of this nature.

  8. Fuel Cell Forklift Project Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Cummings, Clifton C

    2013-10-23

    This project addresses the DOE’s priorities related to acquiring data from real-world fuel cell operation, eliminating non-technical barriers, and increasing opportunities for market expansion of hydrogen fuel cell technologies. The project involves replacing the batteries in a complete fleet of class-1 electric lift trucks at FedEx Freight’s Springfield, MO parcel distribution center with 35 Plug Power GenDrive fuel cell power units. Fuel for the power units involves on-site hydrogen handling and dispensing equipment and liquid hydrogen delivery by Air Products. The project builds on FedEx Freight’s previous field trial experience with a handful of Plug Power’s GenDrive power units. Those trials demonstrated productivity gains and improved performance compared to battery-powered lift trucks. Full lift truck conversion at our Springfield location allows us to improve the competitiveness of our operations and helps the environment by reducing greenhouse gas emissions and toxic battery material use. Success at this distribution center may lead to further fleet conversions at some of our distribution centers.

  9. Synthetic fuel utilization. Final report. Task 330

    SciTech Connect

    Singer, S.

    1983-01-01

    The presence of large coal resources in this country provided the spur for consideration of liquids derived from hydrogenation of coal in the search for alternate liquid fuels to replace petroleum. Previous developments particularly in German industry beginning in 1910 and reaching a capacity of approximately four million tons of products a year by 1944 and more recently a series of plants in South Africa have shown the practicability of coal liquefaction. A few more advanced processes have been developed variously to bench, pilot or commercial scale from among the thirty or more which were subject to study. Limitation in the amount of hydrogen used in these for reasons of economy and processing facility results in products containing major amounts of aromatics as well as significant portions of the sulfur and nitrogen of the coal feed. Combustion of the largely aromatic liquids can present problems in commercial burners designed for petroleum fuels, and combustion staging used to reduce NO/sub x/ emissions with the latter may encounter difficulties from sooting in the coal-derived fuels, which occurs readily with aromatics. This report presents a review of such problems in utilization of synthetic fuels from coal, emphasizing basic engineering and scientific studies which have been made. A research program involving a number of universities, industrial laboratories, and non-profit research institutions was carried out under the direction of the Department of Energy's Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center. This program is also reviewed. The major subjects covered are those of liquefaction product composition and properties, fuel spray and droplet processes, synfuel pyrolysis, combustion mechanics, soot formation, and pollutant emission. Recommendations concerning needs for investigation are made from an evaluation of the current status of the field and the results obtained in the program. 15 references, 1 figure, 7 tables.

  10. Holt Alternate Farm Fuels demonstration. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Holt, J.H. Jr.

    1981-09-30

    The main objective of this project is the establishment of alcohol fuel production capacity. The developmental aspects of this project include extensive research of alcohol fuel production techniques. This research consists of review of literature, fact finding contacts, alternate fuel seminars and site visits. Based on the research it was decided that a distillation system with a capacity of 25 gallons per hour was feasible and needed. Resource development has resulted in the fabrication of a 12 inch distillation column, vaporizer, primary cooker/fermenter, primary heat source and a demonstration cooker/fermenter /distillation unit. The resources developed were designed to meet the 25 gph requirement. The alteration and reconditioning of pumps, storage tanks and power units as well as site preparation are also development aspects of this project. The demonstration cooker/fermenter/distillation unit is manually operated to aid research, instruction and demonstration of alcohol production. This will help create and promote interest in the Harwood Community Coop. The establishment of this Coop is a key to the future and growth of this program. 19 refs.

  11. Liquid fuels production from biomass. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, P. F.; Sanderson, J. E.; Ashare, E.; Wise, D. L.; Molyneaux, M. S.

    1980-06-30

    The current program to convert biomass into liquid hydrocarbon fuels is an extension of a previous program to ferment marine algae to acetic acid. In that study it was found that marine algae could be converted to higher aliphatic organic acids and that these acids could be readily removed from the fermentation broth by membrane or liquid-liquid extraction. It was then proposed to convert these higher organic acids via Kolbe electrolysis to aliphatic hydrocarbons, which may be used as a diesel fuel. The specific goals for the current porgram are: (1) establish conditions under which substrates other than marine algae may be converted in good yield to organic acids, here the primary task is methane suppression; (2) modify the current 300-liter fixed packed bed batch fermenter to operate in a continuous mode; (3) change from membrane extraction of organic acids to liquid-liquid extraction; (4) optimize the energy balance of the electrolytic oxidation process, the primary task is to reduce the working potential required for the electrolysis while maintaining an adequate current density; (5) scale the entire process up to match the output of the 300 liter fermenter; and (6) design pilot plant and commercial size plant (1000 tons/day) processes for converting biomass to liquid hydrocarbon fuels and perform an economic analysis for the 1000 ton/day design.

  12. Advanced direct methanol fuel cells. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hamdan, Monjid; Kosek, John A.

    1999-11-01

    The goal of the program was an advanced proton-exchange membrane (PEM) for use as the electrolyte in a liquid feed direct methanol fuel cell which provides reduced methanol crossover while simultaneously providing high conductivity and low membrane water content. The approach was to use a membrane containing precross-linked fluorinated base polymer films and subsequently to graft the base film with selected materials. Over 80 different membranes were prepared. The rate of methanol crossover through the advanced membranes was reduced 90%. A 5-cell stack provided stable performance over a 100-hour life test. Preliminary cost estimates predicted a manufacturing cost at $4 to $9 per kW.

  13. CHP Fuel Cell Durability Demonstration - Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Petrecky, James; Ashley, Christopher J

    2014-07-21

    Plug Power has managed a demonstration project that has tested multiple units of its high-temperature, PEM fuel cell system in micro-combined heat and power (μ-CHP) applications in California. The specific objective of the demonstration project was to substantiate the durability of GenSys Blue, and, thereby, verify its technology and commercial readiness for the marketplace. In the demonstration project, Plug Power, in partnership with the National Fuel Cell Research Center (NFCRC) at the University of California, Irvine (UCI), and Sempra, will execute two major tasks: • Task 1: Internal durability/reliability fleet testing. Six GenSys Blue units will be built and will undergo an internal test regimen to estimate failure rates. This task was modified to include 3 GenSys Blue units installed in a lab at UCI. • Task 2: External customer testing. Combined heat and power units will be installed and tested in real-world residential and/or light commercial end user locations in California.

  14. Aviation Data Integration System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kulkarni, Deepak; Wang, Yao; Windrem, May; Patel, Hemil; Keller, Richard

    2003-01-01

    During the analysis of flight data and safety reports done in ASAP and FOQA programs, airline personnel are not able to access relevant aviation data for a variety of reasons. We have developed the Aviation Data Integration System (ADIS), a software system that provides integrated heterogeneous data to support safety analysis. Types of data available in ADIS include weather, D-ATIS, RVR, radar data, and Jeppesen charts, and flight data. We developed three versions of ADIS to support airlines. The first version has been developed to support ASAP teams. A second version supports FOQA teams, and it integrates aviation data with flight data while keeping identification information inaccessible. Finally, we developed a prototype that demonstrates the integration of aviation data into flight data analysis programs. The initial feedback from airlines is that ADIS is very useful in FOQA and ASAP analysis.

  15. Fuel Storage Facility Final Safety Analysis Report. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Linderoth, C.E.

    1984-03-01

    The Fuel Storage Facility (FSF) is an integral part of the Fast Flux Test Facility. Its purpose is to provide long-term storage (20-year design life) for spent fuel core elements used to provide the fast flux environment in FFTF, and for test fuel pins, components and subassemblies that have been irradiated in the fast flux environment. This Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) and its supporting documentation provides a complete description and safety evaluation of the site, the plant design, operations, and potential accidents.

  16. Chemistry of Aviation Fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knepper, Bryan; Hwang, Soon Muk; DeWitt, Kenneth J.

    2004-01-01

    Minimum ignition energies of various methanol/air mixtures were measured in a temperature controlled constant volume combustion vessel using a spark ignition method with a spark gap distance of 2 mm. The minimum ignition energies decrease rapidly as the mixture composition (equivalence ratio, Phi) changes from lean to stoichiometric, reach a minimum value, and then increase rather slowly with Phi. The minimum of the minimum ignition energy (MIE) and the corresponding mixture composition were determined to be 0.137 mJ and Phi = 1.16, a slightly rich mixture. The variation of minimum ignition energy with respect to the mixture composition is explained in terms of changes in reaction chemistry.

  17. Vaporization of synthetic fuels. Final report. [Thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Sirignano, W.A.; Yao, S.C.; Tong, A.Y.; Talley, D.

    1983-01-01

    The problem of transient droplet vaporization in a hot convective environment is examined. The main objective of the present study is to develop an algorithm for the droplet vaporization which is simple enough to be feasibly incorporated into a complete spray combustion analysis and yet will also account for the important physics such as liquid-phase internal circulation, unsteady droplet heating and axisymmetric gas-phase convection. A simplified liquid-phase model has been obtained based on the assumption of the existence of a Hill's spherical vortex inside the droplet together with some approximations made in the governing diffusion equation. The use of the simplified model in a spray situation has also been examined. It has been found that droplet heating and vaporization are essentially unsteady and droplet temperature is nonuniform for a significant portion of its lifetime. It has also been found that the droplet vaporization characteristic can be quite sensitive to the particular liquid-phase and gas-phase models. The results of the various models are compared with the existing experimental data. Due to large scattering in the experimental measurements, particularly the droplet diameter, no definite conclusion can be drawn based on the experimental data. Finally, certain research problems which are related to the present study are suggested for future studies.

  18. National Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Learning Demonstration Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Wipke, K.; Sprik, S.; Kurtz, J.; Ramsden, T.; Ainscough, C.; Saur, G.

    2012-07-01

    This report discusses key analysis results based on data from early 2005 through September 2011 from the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Validation and Demonstration Project, also referred to as the National Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle (FCEV) Learning Demonstration. This report serves as one of many mechanisms to help transfer knowledge and lessons learned within various parts of DOE's Fuel Cell Technologies Program, as well as externally to other stakeholders. It is the fifth and final such report in a series, with previous reports being published in July 2007, November 2007, April 2008, and September 2010.

  19. Simulated 2050 aviation radiative forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, C. C.; Gettelman, A.

    2015-12-01

    The radiative forcing from aviation is investigated by using a comprehensive general circulation model in the present (2006) and the future (2050). Global flight distance is projected to increase by a factor of 4 between 2006 and 2050. However, simulated contrail cirrus radiative forcing can increase by a factor of 7, and thus does not scale linearly with fuel emission mass. Simulations indicate negative radiative forcing induced by the indirect effect of aviation sulfate aerosols on liquid clouds that increasesby a factor of 4 in 2050. As a result, the net 2050 aviation radiative forcing is a cooling. Aviation sulfates emitted at cruise altitude canbe transported down to the lowest troposphere, increasing the aerosolconcentration, thus increasing the cloud drop number concentration and persistenceof low-level clouds. Aviation black carbon aerosols produce a negligible forcing.

  20. National Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Learning Demonstration Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Wipke, K.; Sprik, S.; Kurtz, J.; Ramsden, T.; Ainscough, C.; Saur, G.

    2012-07-01

    This report discusses key analysis results based on data from early 2005 through September 2011 from the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Validation and Demonstration Project, also referred to as the National Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle (FCEV) Learning Demonstration. It is the fifth and final such report in a series, with previous reports being published in July 2007, November 2007, April 2008, and September 2010.

  1. [Aviation physiology].

    PubMed

    Frank, P W

    1999-10-01

    Aviation physiology should be known at least in parts by the physicians advising air travellers. Due to reducing atmospheric pressure at altitude gas volume in body cavities expands (Boyle's law). This might not be a problem during ascend since air can disappear easily through natural ways. However, air must return to body cavities during descend and a person with a cold may suffer from painful barotitis. Hypoxia is mostly due to a reduced pO2 in high altitude (Daltons's Law). This may be prevented by an aircraft cabin or supplemented oxygen. Decompression sickness is very rare in aviation but divers should comply to a dive free interval before flying. PMID:10568247

  2. Final Scientific Report - "Improved Fuel Efficiency from Nanocomposite Tire Tread"

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Andrew Myers

    2005-12-30

    Rolling resistance, a measure of the energy lost as a tire rotates while moving, is a significant source of power and fuel loss. Recently, low rolling resistant tires have been formulated by adding silica to tire tread. These "Green Tires" (so named from the environmental advantages of lower emissions and improved fuel economy) have seen some commercial success in Europe, where high fuel prices and performance drive tire selection. Unfortunately, the higher costs of the silica and a more complicated manufacturing process have prevented significant commercialization - and the resulting fuel savings - in the U.S. In this project, TDA Research, Inc. (TDA) prepared an inexpensive alternative to silica that leads to tire components with lower rolling resistance. These new tire composite materials were processed with traditional rubber processing equipment. We prepared specially designed nanoparticle additives, based on a high purity, inorganic mineral whose surface can be easily modified for compatibility with tire tread formulations. Our nanocomposites decreased energy losses to hysteresis, the loss of energy from the compression and relaxation of an elastic material, by nearly 20% compared to a blank SBR sample. We also demonstrated better performance than a leading silica product, with easier production of our final rubber nanocomposite.

  3. Final Report - MEA and Stack Durability for PEM Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yandrasits, Michael A.

    2008-02-15

    the same. (6) Through the use of statistical lifetime analysis methods, it is possible to develop new MEAs with predicted durability approaching the DOE 2010 targets. (7) A segmented cell was developed that extend the resolution from ~ 40 to 121 segments for a 50cm2 active area single cell which allowed for more precise investigation of the local phenomena in a operating fuel cell. (8) The single cell concept was extended to a fuel size stack to allow the first of its kind monitoring and mapping of an operational fuel cell stack. An internal check used during this project involved evaluating the manufacturability of any new MEA component. If a more durable MEA component was developed in the lab, but could not be scaled-up to ‘high speed, high volume manufacturing’, then that component was not selected for the final MEA-fuel cell system demonstration. It is the intent of the team to commercialize new products developed under this project, but commercialization can not occur if the manufacture of said new components is difficult or if the price is significantly greater than existing products as to make the new components not cost competitive. Thus, the end result of this project is the creation of MEA and fuel cell system technology that is capable of meeting the DOEs 2010 target of 40,000 hours for stationary fuel cell systems (although this lifetime has not been demonstrated in laboratory or field testing yet) at a cost that is economically viable for the developing fuel cell industry. We have demonstrated over 2,000 hours of run time for the MEA and system developed under this project.

  4. 78 FR 49595 - Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee-New Task

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-14

    ... final guidance on appointment of lobbyists to federal boards and commissions (76 FR 61756, October 5... Federal Aviation Administration Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee--New Task AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of new task assignment for the Aviation Rulemaking Advisory...

  5. 26 CFR 48.4041-11 - Tax-free sales of fuel for use in noncommercial aviation only if sellers and certain purchasers...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... aviation only if sellers and certain purchasers are registered. 48.4041-11 Section 48.4041-11 Internal... noncommercial aviation only if sellers and certain purchasers are registered. (a) In general. Any sale of liquid... noncommercial aviation but is used for a nontaxable purpose, see section 6427(a) for provisions relating...

  6. 26 CFR 48.4041-11 - Tax-free sales of fuel for use in noncommercial aviation only if sellers and certain purchasers...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... aviation only if sellers and certain purchasers are registered. 48.4041-11 Section 48.4041-11 Internal... noncommercial aviation only if sellers and certain purchasers are registered. (a) In general. Any sale of liquid... noncommercial aviation but is used for a nontaxable purpose, see section 6427(a) for provisions relating...

  7. 26 CFR 48.4041-11 - Tax-free sales of fuel for use in noncommercial aviation only if sellers and certain purchasers...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... aviation only if sellers and certain purchasers are registered. 48.4041-11 Section 48.4041-11 Internal... noncommercial aviation only if sellers and certain purchasers are registered. (a) In general. Any sale of liquid... noncommercial aviation but is used for a nontaxable purpose, see section 6427(a) for provisions relating...

  8. 26 CFR 48.4041-11 - Tax-free sales of fuel for use in noncommercial aviation only if sellers and certain purchasers...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... aviation only if sellers and certain purchasers are registered. 48.4041-11 Section 48.4041-11 Internal... noncommercial aviation only if sellers and certain purchasers are registered. (a) In general. Any sale of liquid... noncommercial aviation but is used for a nontaxable purpose, see section 6427(a) for provisions relating...

  9. Direct fuel cell power plants: the final steps to commercialization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glenn, Donald R.

    Since the last paper presented at the Second Grove Fuel Cell Symposium, the Energy Research Corporation (ERC) has established two commercial subsidiaries, become a publically-held firm, expanded its facilities and has moved the direct fuel cell (DFC) technology and systems significantly closer to commercial readiness. The subsidiaries, the Fuel Cell Engineering Corporation (FCE) and Fuel Cell Manufacturing Corporation (FCMC) are perfecting their respective roles in the company's strategy to commercialize its DFC technology. FCE is the prime contractor for the Santa Clara Demonstration and is establishing the needed marketing, sales, engineering, and servicing functions. FCMC in addition to producing the stacks and stack modules for the Santa Clara demonstration plant is now upgrading its production capability and product yields, and retooling for the final stack scale-up for the commercial unit. ERC has built and operated the tallest and largest capacities-to-date carbonate fuel cell stacks as well as numerous short stacks. While most of these units were tested at ERC's Danbury, Connecticut (USA) R&D Center, others have been evaluated at other domestic and overseas facilities using a variety of fuels. ERC has supplied stacks to Elkraft and MTU for tests with natural gas, and RWE in Germany where coal-derived gas were used. Additional stack test activities have been performed by MELCO and Sanyo in Japan. Information from some of these activities is protected by ERC's license arrangements with these firms. However, permission for limited data releases will be requested to provide the Grove Conference with up-to-date results. Arguably the most dramatic demonstration of carbonate fuel cells in the utility-scale, 2 MW power plant demonstration unit, located in the City of Santa Clara, California. Construction of the unit's balance-of-plant (BOP) has been completed and the installed equipment has been operationally checked. Two of the four DFC stack sub-modules, each

  10. Development of a Turnkey Hydrogen Fueling Station Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    David E. Guro; Edward Kiczek; Kendral Gill; Othniel Brown

    2010-07-29

    The transition to hydrogen as a fuel source presents several challenges. One of the major hurdles is the cost-effective production of hydrogen in small quantities (less than 1MMscf/month). In the early demonstration phase, hydrogen can be provided by bulk distribution of liquid or compressed gas from central production plants; however, the next phase to fostering the hydrogen economy will likely include onsite generation and extensive pipeline networks to help effect a pervasive infrastructure. Providing inexpensive hydrogen at a fleet operator’s garage or local fueling station is a key enabling technology for direct hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles (FCVs). The objective of this project was to develop a comprehensive, turnkey, stand-alone, commercial hydrogen fueling station for FCVs with state-of-the-art technology that is cost-competitive with current hydrocarbon fuels. Such a station would promote the advent of the hydrogen fuel economy for buses, fleet vehicles, and ultimately personal vehicles. Air Products, partnering with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), The Pennsylvania State University, Harvest Energy Technology, and QuestAir, developed a turnkey hydrogen fueling station on the Penn State campus. Air Products aimed at designing a station that would have 65% overall station efficiency, 82% PSA (pressure swing adsorption) efficiency, and the capability of producing hydrogen at $3.00/kg (gge) H2 at mass production rates. Air Products designed a fueling station at Penn State from the ground up. This project was implemented in three phases. The first phase evaluated the various technologies available in hydrogen generation, compression, storage, and gas dispensing. In the second phase, Air Products designed the components chosen from the technologies examined. Finally, phase three entailed a several-month period of data collection, full-scale operation, maintenance of the station, and optimization of system reliability and performance. Based on field data

  11. Aviation dentistry.

    PubMed

    Lakshmi; Sakthi, D Sri

    2014-03-01

    With the rapid expansion of the airline industry in all sectors, dentists should pay special attention to crews and frequent flyers, due to change of pressure in-flight, that cause different types of oro-facial pain. Aviation dentistry deals with evaluation, principles of prevention, treatment of diseases, disorders or conditions which are related to oral cavity and maxillofacial area or adjacent and associated structures and their impact on people who travel or on aircrew members and flight restrictions. Dentists should prevent the creation of in-flight hazards when they treat aircrew members and frequent flyers.

  12. Aviation Dentistry

    PubMed Central

    Lakshmi; Sakthi, D Sri

    2014-01-01

    With the rapid expansion of the airline industry in all sectors, dentists should pay special attention to crews and frequent flyers, due to change of pressure in-flight, that cause different types of oro-facial pain. Aviation dentistry deals with evaluation, principles of prevention, treatment of diseases, disorders or conditions which are related to oral cavity and maxillofacial area or adjacent and associated structures and their impact on people who travel or on aircrew members and flight restrictions. Dentists should prevent the creation of in-flight hazards when they treat aircrew members and frequent flyers. PMID:24783162

  13. A case for biofuels in aviation

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    In the last 15 years, the technical and the economic feasibility of biomass based fuels for general aviation piston engines has been proven. Exhaustive ground and flight tests performed at the Renewable Aviation Fuels Development Center (RAFDC) using ethanol, ethanol/methanol blends, and ETBE have proven these fuels to be superior to aviation gasoline (avgas) in all aspects of performance except range. Two series of Lycoming engines have been certified. Record flights, including a transatlantic flight on pure ethanol, were made to demonstrate the reliability of the fuel. Aerobatic demonstrations with aircraft powered by ethanol, ethanol/methanol, and ETBE were flown at major airshows around the world. the use of bio-based fuels for aviation will benefit energy security, improve the balance of trade, domestic economy, and environmental quality. The United States has the resources to supply the aviation community`s needs with a domestically produced fuel using current available technology. The adoption of a renewable fuel in place of conventional petroleum-based fuels for aviation piston and turbine engines is long overdue.

  14. Technology outlook for aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, L.

    1976-01-01

    Growth projections for aviation technology are put forth for a quarter-century ahead. Three main trends envisaged are towards: great efficiency and economy and longer range and endurance for subsonic aircraft; new generations of short-range fixed-wing craft and rotorcraft with versatile applicability; supersonic and hypersonic speeds. Improvements in lift/drag ratio, specific fuel consumption, structural weight factor, aerodynamic improvements (laminar flow control, increased wing aspect ratio, drag reduction for specified lift, propulsion efficiency, higher bypass ratios, composite structures) are discussed along with V/STOL, controllable twist rotors, circulation control rotors, variable-cycle engines, and higher structural efficiencies.

  15. Final Report on the Fuel Saving Effectiveness of Various Driver Feedback Approaches

    SciTech Connect

    Gonder, J.; Earleywine, M.; Sparks, W.

    2011-03-01

    This final report quantifies the fuel-savings opportunities from specific driving behavior changes, identifies factors that influence drivers' receptiveness to adopting fuel-saving behaviors, and assesses various driver feedback approaches.

  16. Plate-Based Fuel Processing System Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Carlos Faz; Helen Liu; Jacques Nicole; David Yee

    2005-12-22

    took the initial steam reforming plate-reactor concept and advanced it towards an integrated fuel processing system. A substantial amount of modeling was performed to guide the catalyst development and prototype hardware design and fabrication efforts. The plate-reactor mechanical design was studied in detail to establish design guidelines which would help the plate reactor survive the stresses of repeated thermal cycles (from start-ups and shut-downs). Integrated system performance modeling was performed to predict system efficiencies and determine the parameters with the most significant impact on efficiency. In conjunction with the modeling effort, a significant effort was directed towards catalyst development. CESI developed a highly active, sulfur tolerant, coke resistant, precious metal based reforming catalyst. CESI also developed its own non-precious metal based water-gas shift catalyst and demonstrated the catalysts durability over several thousands of hours of testing. CESI also developed a unique preferential oxidation catalyst capable of reducing 1% CO to < 10 ppm CO over a 35 C operating window through a single pass plate-based reactor. Finally, CESI combined the modeling results and steam reforming catalyst development efforts into prototype hardware. The first generation 3kW(e) prototype was fabricated from existing heat-exchanger plates to expedite the fabrication process. This prototype demonstrated steady state operation ranging from 5 to 100% load conditions. The prototype also demonstrated a 20:1 turndown ratio, 10:1 load transient operation and rapid start-up capability.

  17. Alternative aircraft fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Longwell, J. P.; Grobman, J. S.

    1977-01-01

    The efficient utilization of fossil fuels by future jet aircraft may necessitate the broadening of current aviation turbine fuel specifications. The most significant changes in specifications would be an increased aromatics content and a higher final boiling point in order to minimize refinery energy consumption and costs. These changes would increase the freezing point and might lower the thermal stability of the fuel, and could cause increased pollutant emissions, increased combustor liner temperatures, and poorer ignition characteristics. The effects that broadened specification fuels may have on present-day jet aircraft and engine components and the technology required to use fuels with broadened specifications are discussed.

  18. 26 CFR 48.4082-6 - Kerosene; exemption for aviation-grade kerosene.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Kerosene; exemption for aviation-grade kerosene..., Tread Rubber, and Taxable Fuel Taxable Fuel § 48.4082-6 Kerosene; exemption for aviation-grade kerosene... entry of aviation-grade kerosene that is destined for use as a fuel in an aircraft. (b) Definition....

  19. 26 CFR 48.4082-6 - Kerosene; exemption for aviation-grade kerosene.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Kerosene; exemption for aviation-grade kerosene..., Tread Rubber, and Taxable Fuel Taxable Fuel § 48.4082-6 Kerosene; exemption for aviation-grade kerosene... entry of aviation-grade kerosene that is destined for use as a fuel in an aircraft. (b) Definition....

  20. 26 CFR 48.4082-6 - Kerosene; exemption for aviation-grade kerosene.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Kerosene; exemption for aviation-grade kerosene..., Tread Rubber, and Taxable Fuel Taxable Fuel § 48.4082-6 Kerosene; exemption for aviation-grade kerosene... entry of aviation-grade kerosene that is destined for use as a fuel in an aircraft. (b) Definition....

  1. 26 CFR 48.4082-6 - Kerosene; exemption for aviation-grade kerosene.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Kerosene; exemption for aviation-grade kerosene..., Tread Rubber, and Taxable Fuel Taxable Fuel § 48.4082-6 Kerosene; exemption for aviation-grade kerosene... entry of aviation-grade kerosene that is destined for use as a fuel in an aircraft. (b) Definition....

  2. Hawaii alternative fuels utilization program. Phase 3, final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kinoshita, C.M.; Staackmann, M.

    1996-08-01

    The Hawaii Alternative Fuels Utilization Program originated as a five-year grant awarded by the US Department of Energy (USDOE) to the Hawaii Natural Energy Institute (HNEI) of the University of Hawaii at Manoa. The overall program included research and demonstration efforts aimed at encouraging and sustaining the use of alternative (i.e., substitutes for gasoline and diesel) ground transportation fuels in Hawaii. Originally, research aimed at overcoming technical impediments to the widespread adoption of alternative fuels was an important facet of this program. Demonstration activities centered on the use of methanol-based fuels in alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs). In the present phase, operations were expanded to include flexible fuel vehicles (FFVs) which can operate on M85 or regular unleaded gasoline or any combination of these two fuels. Additional demonstration work was accomplished in attempting to involve other elements of Hawaii in the promotion and use of alcohol fuels for ground transportation in Hawaii.

  3. Collegiate Aviation Review, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carney, Thomas Q., Ed.

    2000-01-01

    This issue contains seven papers. "University Aviation Education: An Integrated Model" (Merrill R. Karp) addresses potential educational enhancements through the implementation of an integrated aviation learning model, the Aviation Education Reinforcement Option. "The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA): A Tombstone Agency? Putting the Nickname…

  4. General Aviation Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Programs exploring and demonstrating new technologies in general aviation propulsion are considered. These programs are the quiet, clean, general aviation turbofan (QCGAT) program; the general aviation turbine engine (GATE) study program; the general aviation propeller technology program; and the advanced rotary, diesel, and reciprocating engine programs.

  5. Aviation Safety Issues Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morello, Samuel A.; Ricks, Wendell R.

    2009-01-01

    The aviation safety issues database was instrumental in the refinement and substantiation of the National Aviation Safety Strategic Plan (NASSP). The issues database is a comprehensive set of issues from an extremely broad base of aviation functions, personnel, and vehicle categories, both nationally and internationally. Several aviation safety stakeholders such as the Commercial Aviation Safety Team (CAST) have already used the database. This broader interest was the genesis to making the database publically accessible and writing this report.

  6. General aviation components. [performance and capabilities of general aviation aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    An overview is presented of selected aviation vehicles. The capabilities and performance of these vehicles are first presented, followed by a discussion of the aerodynamics, structures and materials, propulsion systems, noise, and configurations of fixed-wing aircraft. Finally the discussion focuses on the history, status, and future of attempts to provide vehicles capable of short-field operations.

  7. General aviation activity survey. Annual summary report for 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    This report presents the results of the annual General Aviation Activity Survey. The survey is conducted by the FAA to obtain information on the flight activity of the United States registered general aviation aircraft fleet. The report contains breakdowns of active aircraft, annual flight hours, average flight hours and other statistics by manufacturer/model group, aircraft type, state and region of based aircraft, and primary use. Also included are fuel consumption, lifetime airframe hours, engine hours, miles flown estimates, estimates of the number of landings, IFR hours flown, and grade of fuel consumed by the general aviation fleet. Aircraft, Aircraft activity, Aircraft use, Fuel consumption, General aviation, Hours flown, Miles flown.

  8. Fuel Quality/Processing Study. Volume I. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    O'Hara, J B; Bela, A; Jentz, N E; Syverson, H T; Klumpe, H W; Kessler, R E; Kotzot, H T; Loran, B I

    1981-04-01

    This report presents the results of the Fuel Quality/Processing Study project for production of gas turbine fuels. The objective was to provide a data base for establishing intelligent trade-off between advanced turbine technology and liquid fuel quality. Synthetic fuels to be emphasized include those derived from coal and shale. The intent is to use the data base produced to guide the development of specifications for future synthetic liquid fuels anticipated for use in the time period 1985-2000. It is also to be used as a basis for evaluating the value and benefits of federally sponsored R and D efforts in the field of advanced gas turbine technology. The project assessed relative fuel costs, quality and energy efficiency for a number of fuel sources and processing alternatives. An objective was to accelerate implementation of fuel-flexible combustors for industrial and utility stationary gas turbine systems. This is to be accomplished by generating and demonstrating the technology base for development of reliable gas turbine combustors capable of sustained environmentally acceptable operation when using minimally processed synthetic fuels. The key program results are summarized for the following subject areas: literature survey, on-site fuel pretreatment, existing refineries to upgrade fuels, new refineries to upgrade fuels, and environmental considerations. An inhouse linear programming model served as the basis for determining economic processing paths for the existing refineries and new refineries syncrude upgrading. This involved development of extensive input data comprised of fuel properties, yields, component blending characteristics, incremental capital and operating costs, feed and product costs. Economics are based on March 1980 price levels.

  9. Final Report for the H2Fuel Bus

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobs, W.D.

    1998-11-25

    The H2Fuel Bus is the world's first hydrogen-fueled electric hybrid transit bus. It was a project developed through a public/private partnership involving several leading technological and industrial organizations, with primary funding by the Department of Energy (DOE). The primary goals of the project are to gain valuable information on the technical readiness and economic viability of hydrogen fueled buses and to enhance the public awareness and acceptance of emerging hydrogen technologies.

  10. Packaging and shipment of irradiated spent fuel. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kohli, R.; Lawrence, A.

    1988-10-01

    Irradiated spent fuel rods, rod sections, and other loose fuel were retrieved from various storage locations at the Battelle hot cells, packaged in stainless steel tubes, and inserted in a new basket assembly in preparation for shipment to EG&G Idaho. Few assemblies Connecticut Yankee S004 and Turkey Point 817 were also retrieved and prepared for shipment. All three fuel assemblies were loaded in shipping cask TN8-L and shipped to EG&G Idaho for storage.

  11. Simulated Coal-Gas-Fueled Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell Development Program. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-08-01

    This final report summarizes the technical work performed under Department of Energy Contract DE-AC21-91MC27393, ``Simulated Coal- Gas-Fueled Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell Development Program.`` This work consists of five major tasks and their respective subtasks as listed below. A brief description of each task is also provided. The Stack Design Requirements task focused on requirements and specification for designing, constructing, and testing a nominal 100-kilowatt integrated stack and on requirements for the balance-of-plant equipment to support a 1000-kilowatt integrated stack demonstrator. The Stack Design Preparation task focused on the mechanical design of a 100-kilowatt stack comprised of 8-ft{sup 2} cells incorporating the new cell configuration and component technology improvements developed in the previous DOE MCFC contract. Electrode Casting focused on developing a faster drying solvent for use in the electrode tape casting process. Electrode Heat Treatment was directed at scaling up the laboratory continuous debinding process to a new full-size IFC debinding oven coupled to a continuous belt furnace that will both debind and sinter the electrodes in one continuous process train. Repeat Part Quality Assurance and Testing provided the appropriate effort to ensure consistent, high-quality, reproducible and comparable repeat parts.

  12. BWR fuel rod performance evaluation program. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Rowland, T.C.

    1986-05-01

    The joint EPRI/GE fuel performance program, RP510-1, involved thorough preirradiation characterization of fuel used in lead test assemblies, detailed surveillance of their operation, and interim site examinations of the assemblies during reactor outages. The program originally included four GE-5 lead test assemblies operating in the Peach Bottom-2 reactor. The program was later modified to include the pressurized fuel rod test assembly in the Peach Bottom-3 reactor (RP510-2). The program modification also included extending the operation of the Peach Bottom-2 and Peach Bottom-3 lead test assembly fuel beyond normal discharge exposures. Interim site examination results following the first four cycles of operation of the Peach Bottom-2 lead test assemblies up to 35 GWd/MT and the examination of the Peach Bottom-3 pressurized test assembly at 32 GWd/MT are presented in this report. Elements of the examinations included visual examination of the fuel bundles; individual fuel rod visual examinations, rod length measurements, ultrasonic and eddy current nondestructive testing, Zircaloy cladding oxide thickness measurements and fission gas measurements. Channel measurements were made on the PB-2 Lead Test Assemblies after each of the first three operating cycles. All of the bundles were found to be in good condition. Since the pressurized test assembly contained pressurized and nonpressurized fuel rods in symmetric positions, it was possible to make direct comparisons of the fission gas release from pairs of pressurized and nonpressurized fuel rods with identical power histories. With one exception, the release was less from the pressurized fuel rod of each pair. Fuel rod power histories were calculated using new physics methods for all of the fuel rods that were punctured for fission gas release measurements. 28 refs., 41 figs., 16 tabs.

  13. Investigation of aviation emission impacts on global tropospheric chemistry and climate using a size-resolved aerosol-chemistry model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapadia, Zarashpe; Spracklen, Dominick; Arnold, Stephen; Borman, Duncan; Mann, Graham; Pringle, Kirsty; Monks, Sarah; Reddington, Carly; Rap, Alexandru; Scott, Catherine

    2014-05-01

    models are potentially over estimating the warming effect of aviation emissions, because they do not include SO2 emissions from aviation. Finally, we discuss the implications of these results for desulphurisation of aviation fuels

  14. General aviation and community development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sincoff, M. Z. (Editor); Dajani, J. S. (Editor)

    1975-01-01

    The summer program is summarized. The reports presented concern (1) general aviation components, (2) general aviation environment, (3) community perspective, and (4) transportation and general aviation in Virginia.

  15. Use of alcohol fuel: engine-conversion demonstration. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Marsh, W.K.

    1982-01-01

    The use of ethanol as a fuel extender when mixed with gasoline, and the use of both hydrated and anhydrous ethanol as a fuel in gasoline and diesel engines are discussed. Required engine modifications for efficient use of ethanol are described, and include engine compression alterations, carburetor adjustments, and arrangement for fuel preheating. In 1981 and 1982 a demonstration of ethanol use in spark ignition engines was conducted at a major public park in South Carolina. The demonstration included a controlled road test with a pick-up truck and a demonstration of ethanol use in small, air cooled gasoline engines. One problem that was identified was that of contaminated fuel that clogged the fuel system after a few days' operation. (LEW)

  16. Case histories of West Valley spent fuel shipments: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    In 1983, NRC/FC initiated a study on institutional issues related to spent fuel shipments originating at the former spent fuel processing facility in West Valley, New York. FC staff viewed the shipment campaigns as a one-time opportunity to document the institutional issues that may arise with a substantial increase in spent fuel shipping activity. NRC subsequently contracted with the Aerospace Corporation for the West Valley Study. This report contains a detailed description of the events which took place prior to and during the spent fuel shipments. The report also contains a discussion of the shipment issues that arose, and presents general findings. Most of the institutional issues discussed in the report do not fall under NRC's transportation authority. The case histories provide a reference to agencies and other institutions that may be involved in future spent fuel shipping campaigns. 130 refs., 7 figs., 19 tabs.

  17. Research engine test of coal slurry fuels. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-02-01

    The program discussed in this report involved evaluation of the combustion characteristics of several coal slurry fuels in a single cylinder test engine operating under conditions simulating medium size and speed commercial diesel engines. Baseline performance was established using a reference DF-2 test fuel. Slurry fuels tested included: (1) 45% of a low volatile coal in diesel fuel; (2) 40% of cleaned of a cleaned high-volatile coal in a carrier containing 91% methanol and 9% water; and (3) 41% cleaned, high volatile coal in methanol. The testing program demonstrated the importance of several engine operating and fuel composition parameters on engine and ancillary system performance: (1) coal particle top size of 38 microns was identified as the limiting value for the test equipment utilized in this study; coal volatility affects burnout, but ignition is unaffected as long as the slurry carrier provides the ignition source; coal ash content affects the wear rate, but wear rate is not linear with ash content or total ash throughput; and engine components may require modifications in order to handle fuels containing abrasive solid materials. These tests demonstrated that slurry fuels are a viable alternative to highly refined petroleum fuels in medium speed diesel engine applications. However, additional research is required before widespread application of these fuels can occur. The study demonstrated the lack of available information on the microscale mechanisms of slurry fuel atomization, ignition, and combustion in the diesel engine combustion chamber environment. Also, the problems of burning a coal/water slurry in the engine were not addressed. 12 references, 51 figures, 14 tables.

  18. NASA Research on General Aviation Power Plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, W. L.; Weber, R. J.; Willis, E. A.; Sievers, G. K.

    1978-01-01

    Propulsion systems are key factors in the design and performance of general aviation airplanes. NASA research programs that are intended to support improvements in these engines are described. Reciprocating engines are by far the most numerous powerplants in the aviation fleet; near-term efforts are being made to lower their fuel consumption and emissions. Longer-term work includes advanced alternatives, such as rotary and lightweight diesel engines. Work is underway on improved turbofans and turboprops.

  19. Aviation Career Awareness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Aerospace Education, 1976

    1976-01-01

    Describes a kit containing seven units, each designed to increase the elementary school student's awareness of aviation and career possibilities in aviation. Includes a sample section from one unit. (MLH)

  20. Let's Explore Aviation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arvin, Jean

    1977-01-01

    Presents an intermediate level social studies unit dealing with air education, social aspects of aviation, and the importance of aviation to industry and transportation. Includes objectives, twelve activities, and evaluative procedures. (SL)

  1. Investigating the impacts of aviation NOX, SO2 and black carbon emissions on ozone, aerosol and climate.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapadia, Zarashpe; Borman, Duncan; Spracklen, Dominick; Arnold, Stephen; Mann, Graham; Williams, Paul

    2013-04-01

    quantifying the impacts of aviation non-CO2 emissions as baseline. Following on this project will project the future impacts of aviation emissions, and then finally the future impacts resultant from the use of alternative fuels through the development of various alternative fuels scenarios.

  2. CleanFleet. Final report: Volume 4, fuel economy

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    Fuel economy estimates are provided for the CleanFleet vans operated for two years by FedEx in Southern California. Between one and three vehicle manufacturers (Chevrolet, Dodge, and Ford) supplied vans powered by compressed natural gas (CNG), propane gas, California Phase 2 reformulated gasoline (RFG), methanol (M-85), and unleaded gasoline as a control. Two electric G-Vans, manufactured by Conceptor Corporation, were supplied by Southern California Edison. Vehicle and engine technologies are representative of those available in early 1992. A total of 111 vans were assigned to FedEx delivery routes at five demonstration sites. The driver and route assignments were periodically rotated within each site to ensure that each vehicle would experience a range of driving conditions. Regression analysis was used to estimate the relationships between vehicle fuel economy and factors such as the number of miles driven and the number of delivery stops made each day. The energy adjusted fuel economy (distance per energy consumed) of the alternative fuel vans operating on a typical FedEx duty cycle was between 13 percent lower and 4 percent higher than that of control vans from the same manufacturer. The driving range of vans operating on liquid and gaseous alternative fuels was 1 percent to 59 percent lower than for vans operating on unleaded gasoline. The driving range of the electric G-Vans was less than 50 miles. These comparisons are affected to varying degrees by differences in engine technology used in the alterative fuel and control vehicles. Relative fuel economy results from dynamometer emissions tests were generally consistent with those obtained from FedEx operations.

  3. Air quality effects of alternative fuels. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Guthrie, P.; Ligocki, M.; Looker, R.; Cohen, J.

    1997-11-01

    To support the Alternative Fuels Utilization Program, a comparison of potential air quality effects of alternative transportation fuels is being performed. This report presents the results of Phase 1 of this program, focusing on reformulated gasoline (RFG), methanol blended with 15 percent gasoline (M85), and compressed natural gas (CNG). The fuels are compared in terms of effects on simulated future concentrations of ozone and mobile source air toxics in a photochemical grid model. The fuel comparisons were carried out for the future year 2020 and assumed complete replacement of gasoline in the projected light-duty gasoline fleet by each of the candidate fuels. The model simulations were carried out for the areas surrounding Los Angeles and Baltimore/DC, and other (non-mobile) sources of atmospheric emissions were projected according to published estimates of economic and population growth, and planned emission control measures specific to each modeling domain. The future-year results are compared to a future-year run with all gasoline vehicle emissions removed. The results of the comparison indicate that the use of M85 is likely to produce similar ozone and air toxics levels as those projected from the use of RFG. Substitution of CNG is projected to produce significantly lower levels of ozone and the mobile source air toxics than those projected for RFG or M85. The relative benefits of CNG substitution are consistent in both modeling domains. The projection methodologies used for the comparison are subject to a large uncertainty, and modeled concentration distributions depend on meteorological conditions. The quantitative comparison of fuel effects is thus likely to be sensitive to alternative assumptions. The consistency of the results for two very different modeling domains, using very different base assumptions, lends credibility to the qualitative differentiation among these fuels. 32 refs., 42 figs., 47 tabs.

  4. High-pressure coal fuel processor development. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Greenhalgh, M.L.

    1992-12-01

    Caterpillar shares DOE/METC interest in demonstrating the technology required to displace petroleum-based engine fuels with various forms of low cost coal. Current DOE/METC programs on mild gasification and coal-water-slurries are addressing two approaches to this end. Engine and fuel processor system concept studies by Caterpillar have identified a third, potentially promising, option. This option includes high-pressure fuel processing of run-of-the-mine coal and direct injection of the resulting low-Btu gas stream into an ignition assisted, high compression ratio diesel engine. The compactness and predicted efficiency of the system make it suitable for application to line-haul railroad locomotives. Two overall conclusions resulted from Task 1. First direct injected, ignition assisted Diesel cycle engine combustion systems can be suitably modified to efficiently utilize low-Btu gas fuels. Second, high pressure gasification of selected run-of-the-mine coals in batch-loaded fuel processors is feasible. These two findings, taken together, significantly reduce the perceived technical risk associated with the further development of the proposed coal gas fueled Diesel cycle power plant concept. The significant conclusions from Task 2 were: An engine concept, derived from a Caterpillar 3600 series engine, and a fuel processor concept, based on scaling up a removable-canister configuration from the test rig, appear feasible; and although the results of this concept study are encouraging, further, full-scale component research and development are required before attempting a full-scale integrated system demonstration effort.

  5. Accelerating Acceptance of Fuel Cell Backup Power Systems - Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Petrecky, James; Ashley, Christopher

    2014-07-21

    Since 2001, Plug Power has installed more than 800 stationary fuel cell systems worldwide. Plug Power’s prime power systems have produced approximately 6.5 million kilowatt hours of electricity and have accumulated more than 2.5 million operating hours. Intermittent, or backup, power products have been deployed with telecommunications carriers and government and utility customers in North and South America, Europe, the United Kingdom, Japan and South Africa. Some of the largest material handling operations in North America are currently using the company’s motive power units in fuel cell-powered forklifts for their warehouses, distribution centers and manufacturing facilities. The low-temperature GenSys fuel cell system provides remote, off-grid and primary power where grid power is unreliable or nonexistent. Built reliable and designed rugged, low- temperature GenSys delivers continuous or backup power through even the most extreme conditions. Coupled with high-efficiency ratings, low-temperature GenSys reduces operating costs making it an economical solution for prime power requirements. Currently, field trials at telecommunication and industrial sites across the globe are proving the advantages of fuel cells—lower maintenance, fuel costs and emissions, as well as longer life—compared with traditional internal combustion engines.

  6. Hydropyrolysis of biomass to produce liquid hydrocarbon fuels. Final report. Biomass Alternative-Fuels Program

    SciTech Connect

    Fujita, R K; Bodle, W W; Yuen, P C

    1982-10-01

    The ojective of the study is to provide a process design and cost estimates for a biomass hydropyrolysis plant and to establish its economic viability for commercial applications. A plant site, size, product slate, and the most probable feedstock or combination of feedstocks were determined. A base case design was made by adapting IGT's HYFLEX process to Hawaiian biomass feedstocks. The HYFLEX process was developed by IGT to produce liquid and/or gaseous fuels from carbonaceous materials. The essence of the process is the simultaneous extraction of valuable oil and gaseous products from cellulosic biomass feedstocks without forming a heavy hard-to-handle tar. By controlling rection time and temperature, the product slate can be varied according to feedstock and market demand. An optimum design and a final assessment of the applicability of the HYFLEX process to the conversion of Hawaiian biomass was made. In order to determine what feedstocks could be available in Hawaii to meet the demands of the proposed hydropyrolysis plant, various biomass sources were studied. These included sugarcane and pineapple wastes, indigenous and cultivated trees and indigenous and cultivated shrubs and grasses.

  7. Fuel property effects on engine combustion processes. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Cernansky, N.P.; Miller, D.L.

    1995-04-27

    A major obstacle to improving spark ignition engine efficiency is the limitations on compression ratio imposed by tendency of hydrocarbon fuels to knock (autoignite). A research program investigated the knock problem in spark ignition engines. Objective was to understand low and intermediate temperature chemistry of combustion processes relevant to autoignition and knock and to determine fuel property effects. Experiments were conducted in an optically and physically accessible research engine, static reactor, and an atmospheric pressure flow reactor (APFR). Chemical kinetic models were developed for prediction of species evolution and autoignition behavior. The work provided insight into low and intermediate temperature chemistry prior to autoignition of n-butane, iso-butane, n-pentane, 1-pentene, n-heptane, iso-octane and some binary blends. Study of effects of ethers (MTBE, ETBE, TAME and DIPE ) and alcohols (methanol and ethanol) on the oxidation and autoignition of primary reference fuel (PRF) blends.

  8. Radioactive contamination at nuclear fuel cycle facilities. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bernhardt, D.E.; Grant, M.W.; Rich, D.C.; Jensen, C.M.; Macbeth, P.J.

    1982-01-01

    This report presents information to characterize uranium fuel cycle facilities (excluding reactors), levels of contamination at those facilities, and volumes and activity of wastes associated with their decontamination and decommissioning (DandD). It is one of a series of reports providing information to assist the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in setting standards and guidelines for permissible residual levels of radioactivity from DandD. The categories of facilities covered by this report are: Uranium mines, Uranium mills, Uranium hexafluoride conversion plants, Fuel fabrication plants, including both low and high enriched uranium and mixed oxide facilities. Both active and inactive facilities are identified. The highest volumes of DandD waste (hundreds of millions of cubic meters) are associated with uranium mines, while the highest amounts of radioactivity are a result of DandD at fuel reprocessing plants.

  9. Sunflower seed oil: automotive fuel source. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Denny, W.M.

    1984-01-01

    The intent of this portion of the project has to demonstrate the feasibility of utilizing sunflower seed oil as an alternate fuel for the spark ignition engine. The research was limited to small, one cylinder, air-cooled engines that are very common on the market place. Conventional fuels, such as gasoline, kerosene, diesel fuel blended with the sunflower oil were used. Sunfuel, sunflower oil, is difficult to procure and relatively expensive at approximately $4.00/gal. The research was unconcerned with how readily available or how competitively priced it was against petroleum products. All of the effort was to assume it was available and cost effective. We concentrated on making it burn in the heat engine and achieved it with marginal success. The review of the literature which was carried on concurrently with the research indicates several problems associated with producing Sunfuel.

  10. Nitrogen oxide abatement by distributed fuel addition. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Wendt, J.O.L.; Mereb, J.B.

    1991-09-20

    Reburning is examined as a means of NO{sub x} destruction in a 17 kW down-fired pulverized coal combustor. In reburning, a secondary fuel is introduced downstream of the primary flame to produce a reducing zone, favorable to NO destruction, and air is introduced further downstream to complete the combustion. Emphasis is on natural gas reburning and a bituminous coal primary flame. A parametric examination of reburning employing a statistical experimental design, is conducted, complemented by detailed experiments. Mechanisms governing the inter-conversion of nitrogenous species in the fuel rich reburn zone is explored. The effect of reburning on N{sub 2}O emissions, the effect of primary flame mode (premixed and diffusion) and the effect of distributing the reburning fuel, are also investigated.

  11. Coal-fueled diesel: Technology development: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard, G.; Hsu, B.; Flynn, P.

    1989-03-01

    This project consisted of four tasks: (1) to determine if CWM could be ignited and burned rapidly enough for operation in a 1000-rpm diesel engine, (2) to demonstrate that a durable CWM-fueled engine could in principle be developed, (3) to assess current emissions control technology to determine the feasibility of cleaning the exhaust of a CWM-fueled diesel locomotive, and (4) to conduct an economic analysis to determine the attractiveness of powering US locomotives with CWM. 34 refs., 125 figs., 28 tabs.

  12. Use of RDF as a kiln fuel. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1980-10-01

    Refuse derived fuel (RDF) has been experimented with and/or proposed for use in kilns for the production of portland cement, lime, and expanded shale (a form of lightweight aggregate). Technological issues affecting the use of RDF in kilns are reviewed as are the results of trials in which RDF has been used as a kiln fuel. Three future research/demonstration projects for addressing the major unresolved issues are discussed. These projects are: a lime plant trial; a trial in a pre-calcining furnace; and an extended trial in a cement kiln.

  13. Final Technical Report for the MIT Annular Fuel Research Project

    SciTech Connect

    Mujid S. Kazimi; Pavel Hejzlar

    2008-01-31

    MIT-NFC-PR-082 (January 2006) Abstract This summary provides an overview of the results of the U.S. DOE funded NERI (Nuclear Research ENergy Initiative) program on development of the internally and externally cooled annular fuel for high power density PWRs. This new fuel was proposed by MIT to allow a substantial increase in poer density (on the order of 30% or higher) while maintaining or improving safety margins. A comprehensive study was performed by a team consisting of MIT (lead organization), Westinghuse Electric Corporation, Gamma Engineering Corporation, Framatome ANP(formerly Duke Engineering) and Atomic Energy of Canada Limited.

  14. Multi-fuel reformers for fuel cells used in transportation. Multi-fuel reformers: Phase 1 -- Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    DOE has established the goal, through the Fuel Cells in Transportation Program, of fostering the rapid development and commercialization of fuel cells as economic competitors for the internal combustion engine. Central to this goal is a safe feasible means of supplying hydrogen of the required purity to the vehicular fuel cell system. Two basic strategies are being considered: (1) on-board fuel processing whereby alternative fuels such as methanol, ethanol or natural gas stored on the vehicle undergo reformation and subsequent processing to produce hydrogen, and (2) on-board storage of pure hydrogen provided by stationary fuel processing plants. This report analyzes fuel processor technologies, types of fuel and fuel cell options for on-board reformation. As the Phase 1 of a multi-phased program to develop a prototype multi-fuel reformer system for a fuel cell powered vehicle, the objective of this program was to evaluate the feasibility of a multi-fuel reformer concept and to select a reforming technology for further development in the Phase 2 program, with the ultimate goal of integration with a DOE-designated fuel cell and vehicle configuration. The basic reformer processes examined in this study included catalytic steam reforming (SR), non-catalytic partial oxidation (POX) and catalytic partial oxidation (also known as Autothermal Reforming, or ATR). Fuels under consideration in this study included methanol, ethanol, and natural gas. A systematic evaluation of reforming technologies, fuels, and transportation fuel cell applications was conducted for the purpose of selecting a suitable multi-fuel processor for further development and demonstration in a transportation application.

  15. Alternative fuels for medium-speed diesel engines (AFFMSED) project: slurries, emulsions and blended-fuel extenders; cylinder wear measurements, staged injection. Third research phase final report

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, Q.A. Jr.; Wakenell, J.F.; Ariga, S.

    1983-08-01

    The third year of research activity on an ongoing research, development and demonstration effort to investigate the use of alternative fuels for medium-speed engines is described. Tests were performed using laboratory medium-speed diesel engines to define the ability of these engines to operate on alternative fuels, the fuel property limits that the engines can tolerate, the problems associated with alternative fuels use, and methods to improve fuel tolerance and to overcome the problems identified. The fuels studied during the Phase III program were alcohol-in-diesel fuel emulsions, water-in-diesel fuel emulsions, sunflower oil/diesel fuel blends, No. 6 fuel oil/diesel fuel blends, and a carbon black/diesel fuel slurry. Also studied were methods to measure cylinder liner and piston ring wear rates in a short period of engine operation. Finally, staged injection was investigated as a means to improve engine performance on low cetane number fuels.

  16. Evaluation of a 2-MW carbonate fuel cell power plant fueled by landfill gas. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Meade, D.B.; Selander, S.; Rastler, D.M.

    1991-11-01

    This project assessed the technical and economic feasibility of operating an atmospheric pressure 2 MW carbonate fuel cell power plant on landfill gas. A commercially available low pressure gas pre-treatment system was identified for this application. System simulation studies were performed to identify component bottle-necks which would limit power production, or preclude system operation. An economic assessment was conducted to assess the competitiveness of the fuel cell system. The analysis confirmed the technical feasibility of operating Energy Research Corporation`s 2MW fuel cell system on landfill gas. Resulting net electrical efficiency was 50% based on the fuel`s lower heating value. Plant capital cost increased by {approximately}$180/kw; this was primarily for gas cleanup. Bus bar power costs for market entry and commercial fuel cell plants were found to be competitive with power produced from baseload coal plants in Minnesota.

  17. Spent nuclear fuel retrieval system fuel handling development testing. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, D.R.; Meeuwsen, P.V.

    1997-09-01

    Fuel handling development testing was performed in support of the Fuel Retrieval System (FRS) Sub-Project, a subtask of the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project at the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. The FRS will be used to retrieve and repackage K-Basin Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) currently stored in old K-Plant storage basins. The FRS is required to retrieve full fuel canisters from the basin, clean the fuel elements inside the canister to remove excessive uranium corrosion products (or sludge), remove the contents from the canisters and sort the resulting debris, scrap, and fuel for repackaging. The fuel elements and scrap will be collected in fuel storage and scrap baskets in preparation for loading into a multi canister overpack (MCO), while the debris is loaded into a debris bin and disposed of as solid waste. This report describes fuel handling development testing performed from May 1, 1997 through the end of August 1997. Testing during this period was mainly focused on performance of a Schilling Robotic Systems` Conan manipulator used to simulate a custom designed version, labeled Konan, being fabricated for K-Basin deployment. In addition to the manipulator, the camera viewing system, process table layout, and fuel handling processes were evaluated. The Conan test manipulator was installed and fully functional for testing in early 1997. Formal testing began May 1. The purposes of fuel handling development testing were to provide proof of concept and criteria, optimize equipment layout, initialize the process definition, and identify special needs/tools and required design changes to support development of the performance specification. The test program was set up to accomplish these objectives through cold (non-radiological) development testing using simulated and prototype equipment.

  18. The carbon dioxide challenge facing aviation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hileman, James I.; De la Rosa Blanco, Elena; Bonnefoy, Philippe A.; Carter, Nicholas A.

    2013-11-01

    This paper investigates the challenge that U.S. aviation would face in meeting future Greenhouse Gas (GHG) reduction goals to mitigate global climate change via technological options. This investigation is done within a framework that considers aviation GHG emissions as a function of aviation growth, aircraft efficiency, operational efficiency, and life cycle GHG emissions of aviation fuels. The concept of life cycle GHG intensity (LGI) with units of grams carbon dioxide equivalent per payload distance traveled is used for this purpose as it can be decomposed into components that quantify improvements in aircraft design, operations, and alternative fuels. For example, the life cycle GHG intensity of U.S. aviation in 2005 was 1.37 g CO2e/kg km. If U.S. aviation is to meet the IATA 2050 goal of a 50% reduction in CO2 relative to a 2005 baseline while allowing for a 3.2% annual growth rate in payload-distance traveled, it will need to decrease to 0.22 g CO2e/kg km in 2050, an 84% reduction. The analysis framework that is developed in this manuscript was used to compare the improvements in life cycle GHG intensity that could accompany the use of advanced aircraft designs, operational improvements, and alternative fuels to those required on a fleet-wide basis to meet the future GHG reduction goals under varied aviation growth scenarios. The results indicate that the narrow body segment of the fleet could indeed meet ambitious goals of reducing GHG emissions by 50%, relative to 2005 levels, with a 3.2% annual growth rate; however, it would require relatively rapid adoption of innovative aircraft designs and the widespread use of alternative fuels with relatively low life cycle GHG emissions.

  19. Final Progress Report, Renewable and Logistics Fuels for Fuel Cells at the Colorado School of Mines

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, Neal P.

    2012-08-06

    The objective of this program is to advance the current state of technology of solid-oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) to improve performance when operating on renewable and logistics hydrocarbon fuel streams. Outcomes will include: 1.) new SOFC materials and architectures that address the technical challenges associated with carbon-deposit formation and sulfur poisoning; 2.) new integration strategies for combining fuel reformers with SOFCs; 3.) advanced modeling tools that bridge the scales of fundamental charge-transfer chemistry to system operation and control; and 4.) outreach through creation of the Distinguished Lecturer Series to promote nationwide collaboration with fuel-cell researchers and scientists.

  20. Messiah College Biodiesel Fuel Generation Project Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Zummo, Michael M; Munson, J; Derr, A; Zemple, T; Bray, S; Studer, B; Miller, J; Beckler, J; Hahn, A; Martinez, P; Herndon, B; Lee, T; Newswanger, T; Wassall, M

    2012-03-30

    Many obvious and significant concerns arise when considering the concept of small-scale biodiesel production. Does the fuel produced meet the stringent requirements set by the commercial biodiesel industry? Is the process safe? How are small-scale producers collecting and transporting waste vegetable oil? How is waste from the biodiesel production process handled by small-scale producers? These concerns and many others were the focus of the research preformed in the Messiah College Biodiesel Fuel Generation project over the last three years. This project was a unique research program in which undergraduate engineering students at Messiah College set out to research the feasibility of small-biodiesel production for application on a campus of approximately 3000 students. This Department of Energy (DOE) funded research program developed out of almost a decade of small-scale biodiesel research and development work performed by students at Messiah College. Over the course of the last three years the research team focused on four key areas related to small-scale biodiesel production: Quality Testing and Assurance, Process and Processor Research, Process and Processor Development, and Community Education. The objectives for the Messiah College Biodiesel Fuel Generation Project included the following: 1. Preparing a laboratory facility for the development and optimization of processors and processes, ASTM quality assurance, and performance testing of biodiesel fuels. 2. Developing scalable processor and process designs suitable for ASTM certifiable small-scale biodiesel production, with the goals of cost reduction and increased quality. 3. Conduct research into biodiesel process improvement and cost optimization using various biodiesel feedstocks and production ingredients.

  1. Evaluation of peat as a utility boiler fuel. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bongiorno, S.J.; Strianse, R.V.

    1983-03-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the technical and economic feasibility of the direct combustion of peat for electric power generation in the United States. The study includes a review of peat literature, selection of a region in the US to locate a hypothetical peat-harvesting operation, and an assessment of current practices for peat utilization in Europe, including peat harvesting, environmental control, and combustion technology. The conceptual design of a peat-harvesting facility supplying 1.4 million tons/yr of peat to a 2 x 150 MW power plant located in eastern North Carolina is developed for the purpose of estimating peat fuel costs. Environmental-control measures and peat transportation systems are identified. Budget capital and operating costs for a peat-fired power plant are estimated and the busbar cost of electricity compared to that for a 1 x 300 MW coal-fired power plant. Technical feasibility is demonstrated, although environmental acceptability of a large-scale peat harvesting operation must be confirmed on a site-specific basis. Peat fuel costs are found to be less than coal costs for a power plant located adjacent to the peat bogs in eastern North Carolina. The higher capital cost of a peat-fired power plant offsets to some extent the fuel cost advantage. Peat is found to have an electricity cost advantage of about 5 to 25% when compared to coal on a 30 year levelized basis depending on the peat escalation rate assumed.

  2. Regional environmental impacts of methanol-fueled vehicles. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Belian, T.; Morris, R.E.; Ligocki, M.P.; Whitten, G.Z.

    1991-12-27

    The objectives of the study were to obtain, through simulation modeling, preliminary estimates of the regional environmental impacts methanol-fueled vehicles and to estimate the sensitivity of the model to important parameters and assumptions that affect the calculation of the impacts. The regional environmental effects of the use of M85 fuel (85 percent methanol and 15 percent gasoline) and M100 (neat methanol) relative to gasoline (an indoline blend) were estimated using a Lagrangian (trajectory) acid deposition model. The Comprehensive Chemistry Acid Deposition Model (CCADM), contains a detailed treatment of gas-phase and aqueous-phase chemistry and associated mass transfer, but provides for a less comprehensive representation of advection and diffusion. Two different meteorological regimes were analyzed: clear sky conditions and cloudy skies with a rain event. The study also included a review of gas- and aqueous-phase chemistry, with particular emphasis on methanol. The CCADM chemical mechanism was updated to include state-of-the-science (as of 1990) gas- and aqueous-phase chemistry including methanol chemistry. The CCADM was then used to analyze the regional environmental impacts from the use of methanol fuels. In performing such an analysis it was necessary to make several assumptions. The sensitivity of the analysis was examined through a series of simulations that varied key input parameters within their ranges of uncertainty.

  3. Advanced fuel cells for transportation applications. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-02-10

    This Research and Development (R and D) contract was directed at developing an advanced technology compressor/expander for supplying compressed air to Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cells in transportation applications. The objective of this project was to develop a low-cost high-efficiency long-life lubrication-free integrated compressor/expander utilizing scroll technology. The goal of this compressor/expander was to be capable of providing compressed air over the flow and pressure ranges required for the operation of 50 kW PEM fuel cells in transportation applications. The desired ranges of flow, pressure, and other performance parameters were outlined in a set of guidelines provided by DOE. The project consisted of the design, fabrication, and test of a prototype compressor/expander module. The scroll CEM development program summarized in this report has been very successful, demonstrating that scroll technology is a leading candidate for automotive fuel cell compressor/expanders. The objectives of the program are: develop an integrated scroll CEM; demonstrate efficiency and capacity goals; demonstrate manufacturability and cost goals; and evaluate operating envelope. In summary, while the scroll CEM program did not demonstrate a level of performance as high as the DOE guidelines in all cases, it did meet the overriding objectives of the program. A fully-integrated, low-cost CEM was developed that demonstrated high efficiency and reliable operation throughout the test program. 26 figs., 13 tabs.

  4. Evaluation of irradiated fuel during RIA simulation tests. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Montgomery, R.O.; Rashid, Y.R.

    1996-08-01

    A critical assessment of the RIA-simulation experiments performed to date on previously irradiated test rods is presented. Included in this assessment are the SPERT-CDC, the NSRR, and the CABRI REP Na experimental programs. Information was collected describing the base irradiation, test rod characterization, and test procedures and conditions. The representativeness of the test rods and test conditions to anticipated LWR RIA accident conditions was evaluated using analysis results from fuel behavior and three-dimensional spatial kinetics simulations. It was shown that the pulse characteristics and coolant conditions are significantly different from those anticipated in an LWR-Furthermore, the unrepresentative test conditions were found to exaggerate the mechanisms that caused cladding failure. The data review identified several test rods which contained unusual cladding damage incurred prior to the RIA-simulation test that produced the observed failures. The mechanisms responsible for the observed test rod failures have been shown to result from processes that have a second order effect of burnup. A correlation with burnup could not be appropriately established for the fuel enthalpy at failure. However, the successful test rods can be used to construct a conservative region of success for fuel rod behavior during an RIA event.

  5. Ethanol fuel modification for highway vehicle use. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    A number of problems that might occur if ethanol were used as a blending stock or replacement for gasoline in present cars are identified and characterized as to the probability of occurrence. The severity of their consequences is contrasted to those found with methanol in a previous contract study. Possibilities for correcting several problems are reported. Some problems are responsive to fuel modifications but others require or are better dealt with by modification of vehicles and the bulk fuel distribution system. In general, problems with ethanol in blends with gasoline were found to be less severe than those with methanol. Phase separation on exposure to water appears to be the major problem with ethanol/gasoline blends. Another potentially serious problem with blends is the illict recovery of ethanol for beverage usage, or bootlegging, which might be discouraged by the use of select denaturants. Ethanol blends have somewhat greater tendency to vapor lock than base gasoline but less than methanol blends. Gasoline engines would require modification to operate on fuels consisting mostly of ethanol. If such modifications were made, cold starting would still be a major problem, more difficult with ethanol than methanol. Startability can be provided by adding gasoline or light hydrocarbons. Addition of gasoline also reduces the explosibility of ethanol vapor and furthermore acts as denaturant.

  6. Advanced Coal-Fueled Gas Turbine Program. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Horner, M.W.; Ekstedt, E.E.; Gal, E.; Jackson, M.R.; Kimura, S.G.; Lavigne, R.G.; Lucas, C.; Rairden, J.R.; Sabla, P.E.; Savelli, J.F.; Slaughter, D.M.; Spiro, C.L.; Staub, F.W.

    1989-02-01

    The objective of the original Request for Proposal was to establish the technological bases necessary for the subsequent commercial development and deployment of advanced coal-fueled gas turbine power systems by the private sector. The offeror was to identify the specific application or applications, toward which his development efforts would be directed; define and substantiate the technical, economic, and environmental criteria for the selected application; and conduct such component design, development, integration, and tests as deemed necessary to fulfill this objective. Specifically, the offeror was to choose a system through which ingenious methods of grouping subcomponents into integrated systems accomplishes the following: (1) Preserve the inherent power density and performance advantages of gas turbine systems. (2) System must be capable of meeting or exceeding existing and expected environmental regulations for the proposed application. (3) System must offer a considerable improvement over coal-fueled systems which are commercial, have been demonstrated, or are being demonstrated. (4) System proposed must be an integrated gas turbine concept, i.e., all fuel conditioning, all expansion gas conditioning, or post-expansion gas cleaning, must be integrated into the gas turbine system.

  7. Global Commercial Aviation Emissions Inventory for 2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkerson, J.; Balasubramanian, S.; Malwitz, A.; Wayson, R.; Fleming, G.; Jacobson, M. Z.; Naiman, A.; Lele, S.

    2008-12-01

    In 2004, the global commercial aircraft fleet included more than 13,000 aircraft flying over 30 billion km, burning more than 100 million tons of fuel. All this activity incurs substantial amounts of fossil-fuel combustion products at the cruise altitude within the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere that could potentially affect the atmospheric composition and climate. These emissions; such as CO, CO2, PM, NOx, SOx, are not distributed uniformly over the earth, so understanding the temporal and spatial distributions is an important component for modeling aviation climate impacts. Previous studies for specific years have shown that nearly all activity occurs in the northern hemisphere, and most is within mid-latitudes. Simply scaling older data by the annual global industry growth of 3-5 percent may provide emission trends which are not representative of geographically varying growth in aviation sector that has been noted over the past years. India, for example, increased its domestic aviation activity recently by 46 percent in one year. Therefore, it is important that aircraft emissions are best characterized and represented in the atmospheric models for impacts analysis. Data containing all global commercial flights for 2004 was computed using the Federal Aviation Administration's Aviation Environmental Design Tool (AEDT) and provided by the Volpe National Transportation Systems Center. The following is a summary of this data which illustrates the global aviation footprint for 2004, and provides temporal and three-dimensional spatial distribution statistics of several emissions constituents.

  8. Fossil fuel derivatives with reduced carbon. Phase I final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kennel, E.B.; Zondlo, J.W.; Cessna, T.J.

    1999-06-30

    This project involves the simultaneous production of clean fossil fuel derivatives with reduced carbon and sulfur, along with value-added carbon nanofibers. This can be accomplished because the nanofiber production process removes carbon via a catalyzed pyrolysis reaction, which also has the effect of removing 99.9% of the sulfur, which is trapped in the nanofibers. The reaction is mildly endothermic, meaning that net energy production with real reductions in greenhouse emissions are possible. In Phase I research, the feasibility of generating clean fossil fuel derivatives with reduced carbon was demonstrated by the successful design, construction and operation of a facility capable of utilizing coal as well as natural gas as an inlet feedstock. In the case of coal, for example, reductions in CO{sub 2} emissions can be as much as 70% (normalized according to kilowatts produced), with the majority of carbon safely sequestered in the form of carbon nanofibers or coke. Both of these products are value-added commodities, indicating that low-emission coal fuel can be done at a profit rather than a loss as is the case with most clean-up schemes. The main results of this project were as follows: (1) It was shown that the nanofiber production process produces hydrogen as a byproduct. (2) The hydrogen, or hydrogen-rich hydrocarbon mixture can be consumed with net release of enthalpy. (3) The greenhouse gas emissions from both coal and natural gas are significantly reduced. Because coal consumption also creates coke, the carbon emission can be reduced by 75% per kilowatt-hour of power produced.

  9. 2011 Alkaline Membrane Fuel Cell Workshop Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Pivovar, B.

    2012-02-01

    A workshop addressing the current state-of-the-art in alkaline membrane fuel cells (AMFCs) was held May 8-9, 2011, at the Crystal Gateway Marriott in Arlington, Virginia. This workshop was the second of its kind, with the first being held December 11-13, 2006, in Phoenix, Arizona. The 2011 workshop and associated workshop report were created to assess the current state of AMFC technology (taking into account recent advances), investigate the performance potential of AMFC systems across all possible power ranges and applications, and identify the key research needs for commercial competitiveness in a variety of areas.

  10. Human factors in aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiener, Earl L. (Editor); Nagel, David C. (Editor)

    1988-01-01

    The fundamental principles of human-factors (HF) analysis for aviation applications are examined in a collection of reviews by leading experts, with an emphasis on recent developments. The aim is to provide information and guidance to the aviation community outside the HF field itself. Topics addressed include the systems approach to HF, system safety considerations, the human senses in flight, information processing, aviation workloads, group interaction and crew performance, flight training and simulation, human error in aviation operations, and aircrew fatigue and circadian rhythms. Also discussed are pilot control; aviation displays; cockpit automation; HF aspects of software interfaces; the design and integration of cockpit-crew systems; and HF issues for airline pilots, general aviation, helicopters, and ATC.

  11. Aviation Design Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    DARcorporation developed a General Aviation CAD package through a Small Business Innovation Research contract from Langley Research Center. This affordable, user-friendly preliminary design system for General Aviation aircraft runs on the popular 486 IBM-compatible personal computers. Individuals taking the home-built approach, small manufacturers of General Aviation airplanes, as well as students and others interested in the analysis and design of aircraft are possible users of the package. The software can cut design and development time in half.

  12. Liquid Tin Anode Direct Coal Fuel Cell Final Program Report

    SciTech Connect

    Tao, Thomas

    2012-01-26

    This SBIR program will result in improved LTA cell technology which is the fundamental building block of the Direct Coal ECL concept. As described below, ECL can make enormous efficiency and cost contributions to utility scale coal power. This program will improve LTA cells for small scale power generation. As described in the Commercialization section, there are important intermediate military and commercial markets for LTA generators that will provide an important bridge to the coal power application. The specific technical information from this program relating to YSZ electrolyte durability will be broadly applicable SOFC developers working on coal based SOFC generally. This is an area about which very little is currently known and will be critical for successfully applying fuel cells to coal power generation.

  13. Determination of alternative fuels combustion products: Phase 2 final report

    SciTech Connect

    Whitney, K.A.

    1997-06-01

    This report describes the laboratory efforts to accomplish four independent tasks: (1) speciation of hydrocarbon exhaust emissions from a light-duty vehicle operated over the chassis dynamometer portion of the light-duty FTP after modifications for operation on butane and butane blends; (2) evaluation of NREL`s Variable Conductance Vacuum Insulated Catalytic Converter Test Article 4 for the reduction of cold-start FTP exhaust emissions after extended soak periods for a Ford FFV Taurus operating on E85; (3) support of UDRI in an attempt to define correlations between engine-out combustion products identified by SwRI during chassis dynamometer testing, and those found during flow tube reactor experiments conducted by UDRI; and (4) characterization of small-diameter particulate matter from a Ford Taurus FFV operating in a simulated fuel-rich failure mode on CNG, LPG, M85, E85, and reformulated gasoline. 22 refs., 18 figs., 17 tabs.

  14. Final report on LDRD project "proliferation-resistant fuel cycles"

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, N W; Hassberger, J A

    1999-02-25

    This report provides a summary of LDRD work completed during 1997 and 1998 to develop the ideas and concepts that lead to the Secure, Transportable, Autonomous Reactor (STAR) program proposals to the DOE Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (NERI). The STAR program consists of a team of three national laboratories (LLNL, ANL, and LANL), three universities, (UC Berkeley, TAMU, and MIT) and the Westinghouse Research Center. Based on the LLNL work and their own efforts on related work this team prepared and integrated a package of twelve proposals that will carry the LDRD work outlined here into the next phase of development. We are proposing to develop a new nuclear system that meets stringent requirements for a high degree of safety and proliferation resistance, and also deals directly with the related nuclear waste and spent fuel management issues.

  15. Thermionic Fuel Element performance: TFE Verification Program. Final test report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    The program objective is to demonstrate the technology readiness of a Thermionic Fuel Element (TFE) suitable for use as the basic element in a thermionic reactor with electric power output in the 0.5 to 5.0 MW(e) range, and a full power life of 7 years. A TFE was designed that met the reliability and lifetime requirements for a 2 MW(e) conceptual reactor design. Analysis showed that this TFE could be used over the range of 0.5 to 5 megawatts. This was used as the basis for designing components for test and evaluation. The demonstration of a 7-year component lifetime capability was through the combined use of analytical models and accelerated, confirmatory tests in a fast test reactor. Iterative testing was performed in which the results of one test series led to evolutionary improvements in the next test specimens. The TFE components underwent screening and initial development testing in ex-reactor tests. Several design and materials options were considered for each component. As screening tests permitted, down selection occurred to very specific designs and materials. In parallel with ex-reactor testing, and fast reactor component testing, components were integrated into a TFE and tested in the TRIGA test reactor at GA. Realtime testing of partial length TFEs was used to test support, alignment and interconnective TFE components, and to verify TFE performance in-reactor with integral cesium reservoirs. Realtime testing was also used to verify the relation between TFE performance and fueled emitter swelling, to test the durability of intercell insulation, to check temperature distributions, and to verify the adequacy over time of the fission gas venting channels. Predictions of TFE lifetime rested primarily on the accelerated component testing results, as correlated and extended to realtime by the use of analytical models.

  16. Aviation and the Community College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finch, Harold L.; Watson, Russell W.

    This report summarizes the major conclusions of the Aviation Briefing for Community Colleges, which met to establish dialogue between community colleges and the aviation industry. Included are: (1) an overview of community college aviation, covering the topics of the aviation industry, the rationale for aviation in the community college, the types…

  17. Aviation Education Services and Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Aviation Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    Developed by the Aviation Education Staff of the Office of General Aviation Affairs, this document identifies sources of teaching materials. Included in this resource guide is information pertaining to: (1) films and filmstrips, (2) aviation education workshops, (3) career opportunities in aviation, (4) aviation organizations, (5) government…

  18. ClearFuels-Rentech Integrated Biorefinery Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Pearson, Joshua

    2014-02-26

    The project Final Report describes the validation of the performance of the integration of two technologies that were proven individually on a pilot scale and were demonstrated as a pilot scale integrated biorefinery. The integrated technologies were a larger scale ClearFuels’ (CF) advanced flexible biomass to syngas thermochemical high efficiency hydrothermal reformer (HEHTR) technology with Rentech’s (RTK) existing synthetic gas to liquids (GTL) technology.

  19. SP-100 coated-particle fuel development. Phase I. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-03-01

    This document is the final report of Phase I of the SP-100 Coated-Particle Fuel Development Program conducted by GA Technologies Inc. for the US Department of Energy under contract DE-AT03-82SF11690. The general objective of the study conducted between September and December 1982 was to evaluate coated-particle type fuel as an alternate or backup fuel to the UO/sub 2/ tile-and-fin arrangement currently incorporated into the reference design of the SP-100 reactor core. This report presents and discusses the following topics in the order listed: the need for an alternative fuel for the SP-100 nuclear reactor; an abbreviated description of the reference and coated-particle fuel module concepts; the bases and results of the study and analysis leading to the preliminary design of a coated particle suitable for the SP-100 space power reactor; incorporation of the fuel particles into compacts and heat-pipe-cooled modules; initial efforts and plans to fabricate coated-particle fuel and fuel compacts; the design and performance of the proposed alternative core relative that of the reference fuel; and a summary of critical issues and conclusions consistent with the level of effort and duration of the study.

  20. Environmentally Responsible Aviation N plus 2 Advanced Vehicle Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drake, Aaron; Harris, Christopher A.; Komadina, Steven C.; Wang, Donny P.; Bender, Anne M.

    2013-01-01

    This is the Northrop Grumman final report for the Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) N+2 Advanced Vehicle Study performed for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Northrop Grumman developed advanced vehicle concepts and associated enabling technologies with a high potential for simultaneously achieving significant reductions in emissions, airport area noise, and fuel consumption for transport aircraft entering service in 2025. A Preferred System Concept (PSC) conceptual design has been completed showing a 42% reduction in fuel burn compared to 1998 technology, and noise 75dB below Stage 4 for a 224- passenger, 8,000 nm cruise transport aircraft. Roadmaps have been developed for the necessary technology maturation to support the PSC. A conceptual design for a 55%-scale demonstrator aircraft to reduce development risk for the PSC has been completed.

  1. Shrimp monitor/locator for conservation of fuel. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    A demonstration project of a new type Shrimp Detector/Monitor has been completed. The test project proved the efficiency of the Shrimp Monitor/Detector in detecting shrimp, in identifying the number and size, in real time, but indicated that improvement could be effected which would enhance the operation. Data obtained from the test cruises indicate significant savings in diesel fuel will occur for those trawlers using the Shrimp Monitor/Detector in place of the usual trynet operation; 25% savings for the series model number 400, (the prototype tested) and expected 35%+ if the advanced series model number 500 were used. Fabrication and operational costs for the Shrimp Monitor/Detector are reasonable and well within the financial abilities of the usual large offshore trawler. Research and testing during this program resulted in the design of an advanced model incorporating significant improvements, and fabrication was commenced but the extra cost involved beyond the set value of this contract made the further experiments non-viable. Recommendations have been submitted for an extended program to fabricate and test the advanced model series number 500 which may be of more value and interest, market use, to the operating offshore shrimp trawlers. A marketing/sales program will be instituted to place the Shrimp Monitor/Detector in the commercial area serving the shrimp fleet.

  2. Lightweight diesel aircraft engines for general aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berenyi, S. G.

    1983-01-01

    Two different engines were studied. The advantages of a diesel to general aviation were reduced to fuel consumption, reduced operating costs, and reduced fire and explosion hazard. There were no ignition mixture control or inlet icing problems. There are fewer controls and no electrical interference problems.

  3. College Aviation Programs - Equally Diverse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Aerospace Education, 1974

    1974-01-01

    Gives an overview of kinds of aviation programs (both career and non-career) offered by community colleges which includes information on flight programs, aviation technology programs, aviation administration, flight service programs and short courses. (BR)

  4. Aviation. Teacher Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2001

    This teacher's guide contains information, lesson plans, and diverse student learning activities focusing on aviation. The guide is divided into seven sections: (1) "Drawing Activities" (Airmail Art; Eyewitness; Kite Power); (2) "Geography" (U.S. Airports); (3) "Information" (Aviation Alphabet; Glossary; Four Forces of Flight; What about Wind?;…

  5. Collegiate Aviation Review 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carney, Thomas Q., Ed.; Luedtke, Jacqueline R., Ed.; Johnson, Jeffrey A., Ed.

    1998-01-01

    This document contains four peer-reviewed papers about university-level aviation education that were presented at the 1998 Fall Education Conference of the University Aviation Association. "Setting the Foundation for Effective Learning: Utilizing the Cognitive, Affective, and Psychomotor Domains to Establish Rigorous Performance Learning…

  6. NASA and general aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ethell, J. L.

    1986-01-01

    General aviation remains the single most misunderstood sector of aeronautics in the United States. A detailed look at how general aviation functions and how NASA helps keep it on the cutting edge of technology in airfoils, airframes, commuter travel, environmental concerns, engines, propellers, air traffic control, agricultural development, electronics, and safety is given.

  7. Conversion of atactic polypropylene waste to fuel oil. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bhatia, J.

    1981-04-01

    A stable, convenient thermal pyrolysis process was demonstrated on a large scale pilot plant. The process successfully converted high viscosity copolymer atactic polypropylene to predominantly liquid fuels which could be burned in commercial burners. Energy yield of the process was very high - in excess of 93% including gas phase heating value. Design and operating data were obtained to permit design of a commercial size atactic conversion plant. Atactic polypropylene can be cracked at temperatures around 850/sup 0/F and residence time of 5 minutes. The viscosity of the cracked product increases with decrease in time/temperature. A majority of the pyrolysis was carried out at a pressure of 50 psig. Thermal cracking of atactic polypropylene is seen to result in sigificant coke formation (0.4% to 0.8% on a weight of feed basis) although the coke levels were of an order of magnitude lower than those obtained during catalytic cracking. The discrepancy between batch and continuous test data can be atrributed to lowered heat transfer and diffusion rates. Oxidative pyrolysis is not seen as a viable commercial alternative due to a significant amount of water formation. However, introduction of controlled quantities of oxygen at lower temperatures to affect change in feedstock viscosity could be considered. It is essential to have a complete characterization of the polymer composition and structure in order to obtain useful and duplicable data because the pyrolysis products and probably the pyrolysis kinetics are affected by introduction of abnormalities into the polymer structure during polymerization. The polymer products from continuous testing contained an olefinic content of 80% or higher. This suggests that the pyrolysis products be investigated for use as olefinic raw materials. Catalytic cracking does not seem to result in any advantage over the Thermal Cracking process in terms of reaction rates or temperature of operation.

  8. Advanced alternate planar geometry solid oxide fuel cells. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Elangovan, S.; Prouse, D.; Khandkar, A.; Donelson, R.; Marianowski, L.

    1992-11-01

    The potential of high temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells as high performance, high efficiency energy conversion device is well known. Investigation of several cell designs have been undertaken by various researchers to derive the maximum performance benefit from the device while maintaining a lower cost of production to meet the commercialization cost target. The present investigation focused on the planar SOFC design which allows for the use of mature low cost production processes to be employed. A novel design concept was investigated which allows for improvements in performance through increased interface stability, and lowering of cost through enhanced structural integrity and the use of low cost metal interconnects. The new cell design consisted of a co-sintered porous/dense/porous zirconia layer with the electrode material infiltrated into the porous layers. The two year program conducted by a team involving Ceramatec and the Institute of Gas Technology, culminated in a multi-cell stack test that exhibited high performance. Considerable progress was achieved in the selection of cell components, and establishing and optimizing the cell and stack fabrication parameters. It was shown that the stack components exhibited high conductivities and low creep at the operating temperature. The inter-cell resistive losses were shown to be small through out-of-cell characterization. The source of performance loss was identified to be the anode electrolyte interface. This loss however can be minimized by improving the anode infiltration technique. Manifolding and sealing of the planar devices posed considerable challenge. Even though the open circuit voltage was 250 mV/cell lower than theoretical, the two cell stack had a performance of 300 mA/cm{sup 2} at 0.4V/cell with an area specific resistance of 1 {Omega}-cm{sup 2}/cell. improvements in manifolding are expected to provide much higher performance.

  9. Fuel grade ethanol by solvent extraction: Final subcontract report

    SciTech Connect

    Tedder, D.W.

    1987-04-01

    This report summarizes final results for ethanol recovery by solvent extraction and extractive distillation. At conclusion this work can be summarized as ethanol dehydration and recovery dilute fermentates is feasible using liquid/liquid extraction and extractive distillation. Compared to distillation, the economics are more attractive for less than 5 wt % ethanol. However, an economic bias in favor of SEED appears to exist even for 10 wt % feeds. It is of particular interest to consider the group extraction of ethanol and acetic acid followed by conversion to a mixture of ethanol and ethyl acetate. The latter species is a more valuable commodity and group extraction of inhibitory species is one feature of liquid/liquid extraction that is not easily accomodated using distillation. Upflow immobilized reactors offer the possibility of achieving high substrate conversion while also maintaining low metabolite concentrations. However, many questions remain to be answered with such a concept. 135 refs., 42 figs., 61 tabs.

  10. The NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    This is the fourteenth in a series of reports based on safety-related incidents submitted to the NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System by pilots, controllers, and, occasionally, other participants in the National Aviation System (refs. 1-13). ASRS operates under a memorandum of agreement between the National Aviation and Space Administration and the Federal Aviation Administration. The report contains, first, a special study prepared by the ASRS Office Staff, of pilot- and controller-submitted reports related to the perceived operation of the ATC system since the 1981 walkout of the controllers' labor organization. Next is a research paper analyzing incidents occurring while single-pilot crews were conducting IFR flights. A third section presents a selection of Alert Bulletins issued by ASRS, with the responses they have elicited from FAA and others concerned. Finally, the report contains a list of publications produced by ASRS with instructions for obtaining them.

  11. Intergovernmental Advanced Stationary PEM Fuel Cell System Demonstration Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Rich Chartrand

    2011-08-31

    reducing costs of PEMFC based power systems using LPG fuel and continues to makes steps towards meeting DOE's targets. Plug Power would like to thank DOE for their support of this program.

  12. Environmentally Responsible Aviation - Real Solutions for Environmental Challenges Facing Aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collier, Fayette; Thomas, Russell; Burley, Casey; Nickol, Craig; Lee, Chi-Ming; Tong, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The combined reality of persistently strong growth in air traffic and the vital economic role of the air transport system result in continued demand for the progress of technology for the reduction of aircraft noise, emissions of oxides of nitrogen, and fuel burn. NASA s Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) project has set aggressive goals in these three areas including a noise goal of 42 dB cumulative below the Stage 4 certification level. The goal for the reduction of oxides of nitrogen is 75% below the current standard. The fuel burn reduction goal is 50% below that of a current state-of-the-art aircraft. Furthermore, the overall goal of ERA is to mature technologies that will meet these goals simultaneously and with a timeframe of 2020 for technical readiness. This paper outlines the key technologies and the progress achieved to date toward the goals.

  13. Flight simulation study to determine MLS lateral course width requirements on final approach for general aviation. [runway conditions affecting microwave landing systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crumrine, R. J.

    1976-01-01

    An investigation of the effects of various lateral course widths and runway lengths for manual CAT I Microwave Landing System instrument approaches was carried out with instrument rated pilots in a General Aviation simulator. Data are presented on the lateral dispersion at the touchdown zone, and the middle and outer markers, for approaches to 3,000, 8,000 (and trial 12,000 foot) runway lengths with full scale angular lateral course widths of + or - 1.19 deg, + or - 2.35 deg, and + or - 3.63 deg. The distance from touchdown where the localizer deviation went to full scale was also recorded. Pilot acceptance was measured according to the Cooper-Harper rating system.

  14. Renewable wood fuel: Fuel feed system for a pulverized coal boiler. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-01

    This report evaluates a pilot test program conducted by New York State Gas & Electric Corporation to evaluate the feasibility of co-firing a pulverized coal plant with renewable wood fuels. The goal was to establish that such a co-firing system can reduce air emissions while maintaining good operational procedures and cost controls. The test fuel feed system employed at Greenidge Station`s Boiler 6 was shown to be effective in feeding wood products. Emission results were promising and an economic analysis indicates that it will be beneficial to pursue further refinements to the equipment and systems. The report recommends further evaluation of the generation and emission impacts using woods of varied moisture contents and at varied Btu input rates to determine if a drying system would be a cost-effective option.

  15. General aviation in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Xiaosi

    In the last four decades, China has accomplished economic reform successfully and grown to be a leading country in the world. As the "world factory", the country is able to manufacture a variety of industrial products from clothes and shoes to rockets and satellites. But the aviation industry has always been a weak spot and even the military relies on imported turbofan engines and jet fighters, not to mention the airlines. Recently China has launched programs such as ARJ21 and C919, and started reform to change the undeveloped situation of its aviation industry. As the foundation of the aviation industry, the development of general aviation is essential for the rise of commercial aviation. The primary goal of this study is to examine the general aviation industry and finds the issues that constrain the development of the industry in the system. The research method used in this thesis is the narrative research of qualitative approach since the policy instead of statistical data is analyzed. It appears that the main constraint for the general aviation industry is the government interference.

  16. Application of propfan propulsion to general aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Awker, R. W.

    1986-01-01

    Recent studies of advanced propfan propulsion systems have shown significant reductions in fuel consumption of 15-30 percent for transport class aircraft. This paper presents the results of a study which examined applying propfan propulsion to General Aviation class aircraft to determine if similar improvements could be achieved for business aircraft. In addition to the potential performance gains, this paper also addresses the cost aspects of propfan propulsion on General Aviation aircraft emphasizing the significant impact that the cost of capital and tax aspects have on determining the total cost of operation for business aircraft.

  17. Final Report: Development of a Thermal and Water Management System for PEM Fuel Cell

    SciTech Connect

    Zia Mirza, Program Manager

    2011-12-06

    This final program report is prepared to provide the status of program activities performed over the period of 9 years to develop a thermal and water management (TWM) system for an 80-kW PEM fuel cell power system. The technical information and data collected during this period are presented in chronological order by each calendar year. Balance of plant (BOP) components of a PEM fuel cell automotive system represents a significant portion of total cost based on the 2008 study by TIAX LLC, Cambridge, MA. The objectives of this TWM program were two-fold. The first objective was to develop an advanced cooling system (efficient radiator) to meet the fuel cell cooling requirements. The heat generated by the fuel cell stack is a low-quality heat (small difference between fuel cell stack operating temperature and ambient air temperature) that needs to be dissipated to the ambient air. To minimize size, weight, and cost of the radiator, advanced fin configurations were evaluated. The second objective was to evaluate air humidification systems which can meet the fuel cell stack inlet air humidity requirements. The moisture from the fuel cell outlet air is transferred to inlet air, thus eliminating the need for an outside water source. Two types of humidification devices were down-selected: one based on membrane and the other based on rotating enthalpy wheel. The sub-scale units for both of these devices have been successfully tested by the suppliers. This project addresses System Thermal and Water Management.

  18. Agricultural aviation research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chevalier, H. L. (Compiler); Bouse, L. F. (Compiler)

    1977-01-01

    A compilation of papers, comments, and results is provided during a workshop session. The purpose of the workshop was to review and evaluate the current state of the art of agricultural aviation, to identify and rank potentially productive short and long range research and development areas, and to strengthen communications between research scientists and engineers involved in agricultural research. Approximately 71 individuals actively engaged in agricultural aviation research were invited to participate in the workshop. These were persons familiar with problems related to agricultural aviation and processing expertise which are of value for identifying and proposing beneficial research.

  19. Disposal options for burner ash from spent graphite fuel. Final study report November 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Pinto, A.P.

    1994-08-01

    Three major disposal alternatives are being considered for Fort St. Vrain Reactor (FSVR) and Peach Bottom Reactor (PBR) spent fuels: direct disposal of packaged, intact spent fuel elements; (2) removal of compacts to separate fuel into high-level waste (HLW) and low-level waste (LLW); and (3) physical/chemical processing to reduce waste volumes and produce stable waste forms. For the third alternative, combustion of fuel matrix graphite and fuel particle carbon coatings is a preferred technique for head-end processing as well as for volume reduction and chemical pretreatment prior to final fixation, packaging, and disposal of radioactive residuals (fissile and fertile materials together with fission and activation products) in a final repository. This report presents the results of a scoping study of alternate means for processing and/or disposal of fissile-bearing particles and ash remaining after combustion of FSVR and PBR spent graphite fuels. Candidate spent fuel ash (SFA) waste forms in decreasing order of estimated technical feasibility include glass-ceramics (GCs), polycrystalline ceramic assemblages (PCAs), and homogeneous amorphous glass. Candidate SFA waste form production processes in increasing order of estimated effort and cost for implementation are: low-density GCs via fuel grinding and simultaneous combustion and waste form production in a slagging cyclone combustor (SCC); glass or low-density GCs via fluidized bed SFA production followed by conventional melting of SFA and frit; PCAs via fluidized bed SFA production followed by hot isostatic pressing (HIPing) of SFA/frit mixtures; and high-density GCs via fluidized bed SFA production followed by HIPing of Calcine/Frit/SFA mixtures.

  20. Analysis of fuel savings associated with fuel computers in multifamily buildings. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    McNamara, M.; Anderson, J.; Huggins, E.

    1993-06-01

    This research was undertaken to quantify the energy savings associated with the installation of a direct monitoring control system (DMC) on steam heating plants in multi-family buildings located in the New York City metropolitan area. The primary objective was to determine whether fuel consumption was lower in buildings employing a DMC relative to those using the more common indirect monitoring control system (IMC) and if so, to what extent. The analysis compares the fuel consumption of 442 buildings over 12 months. The type of control system installed in these buildings was either a Heat-Timer (identified as IMC equipment) or a computer-based unit (identified as DMC equipment). IMC provides control by running the boiler for longer or shorter periods depending on outdoor temperature. This system is termed indirect because there is no feedback from indoor (apartment) temperatures to the control. DMC provides control by sensing apartment temperatures. In a typical multifamily building, sensors are hard wired to between 5 and 10 apartments sensors. The annual savings and simple payback were computed for the DMC buildings by comparing annual fuel consumption among the building groupings. The comparison is based on mean BTUs per degree day consumed annually and normalized for building characteristics, such as, equipment maintenance and boiler steady state efficiency as well as weather conditions. The average annual energy consumption for the DMC buildings was 14.1 percent less than the annual energy consumption for the IMC buildings. This represents 3,826 gallons of No. 6 fuel oil or $2,295 at a price of $0.60 per gallon. A base DMC system costs from $8,400 to $10,000 installed depending on the number of sensors and complexity of the system. The standard IMC system costs from $2,000 to $3,000 installed. Based on this analysis the average simple payback is 2.9 or 4.0 years depending on either an upgrade from IMC to DMC (4.0 years) or a new installation (2.9) years.

  1. Ultralean combustion in general aviation piston engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chirivella, J. E.

    1979-01-01

    The role of ultralean combustion in achieving fuel economy in general aviation piston engines was investigated. The aircraft internal combustion engine was reviewed with regard to general aviation requirements, engine thermodynamics and systems. Factors affecting fuel economy such as those connected with an ideal leanout to near the gasoline lean flammability limit (ultralean operation) were analyzed. A Lycoming T10-541E engine was tested in that program (both in the test cell and in flight). Test results indicate that hydrogen addition is not necessary to operate the engine ultralean. A 17 percent improvement in fuel economy was demonstrated in flight with the Beechcraft Duke B60 by simply leaning the engine at constant cruiser power and adjusting the ignition for best timing. No detonation was encountered, and a 25,000 ft ceiling was available. Engine roughness was shown to be the limiting factor in the leanout.

  2. Analysis of emission data from global commercial aviation: 2004 and 2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkerson, J. T.; Jacobson, M. Z.; Malwitz, A.; Balasubramanian, S.; Wayson, R.; Fleming, G.; Naiman, A. D.; Lele, S. K.

    2010-02-01

    The global commercial aircraft fleet in 2006 flew more than 31 million flights, burned nearly 190 million metric tons of fuel, and covered 38 billion kilometers. This activity emitted substantial amounts of fossil-fuel combustion products within the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere that affect atmospheric composition and climate. The emissions products, such as carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, sulfur compounds, and particulate matter, are not emitted uniformly over the Earth, so understanding the temporal and spatial distributions is an important component for modeling aviation climate impacts. Here, we analyze global commercial aircraft emission data for 2004 and 2006. Data, provided by the Volpe National Transportation Systems Center, were computed using the Federal Aviation Administration's Aviation Environmental Design Tool. For both years, analysis of flight data shows 93 percent of fuel was burned in the Northern Hemisphere, 69 percent between 30 N and 60 N latitudes; 77 (75) percent was burned above 7 km in 2004 (2006). This activity led to 177 (162) Tg of carbon from CO2 globally in 2004 (2006), with half being emitted over three dominant regions: United States, Europe, East Asia. The difference between 2004 and 2006 is a result of fewer flights in 2006 and the methodology used to compute fuel burn and emissions from those flights. We also show that despite receiving only a few percent of global emissions, the Arctic receives a concentration of emissions of the same order of magnitude as the global average. The following is a summary of this data which illustrates the global and regional aviation emissions footprints for 2004 and 2006, and provides temporal and spatial distribution statistics of several emissions constituents. Finally, we show that 87 (85) percent of all flights in 2004 (2006) are short-haul missions, yet those flights are responsible for only 38 (39) percent of total emissions.

  3. Aviation in the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kayten, Gerald G.

    1974-01-01

    Makes predications concerning future aerospace technology in the areas of supersonic transportation, aircraft design, airfreight, military aviation, hypersonic aircraft and in the much distant future sub-orbital, rocket propelled transports. (BR)

  4. Training in General Aviation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Frank G.

    1975-01-01

    Describes the vital role training plays in the general aviation industry and describes the Cessna International Training Academy and urges more training programs to spur the growth of the industry. (BR)

  5. Improved weather information and aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hallahan, K.; Zdanys, V.

    1973-01-01

    The major impacts of weather forecasts on aviation are reviewed. Topics discussed include: (1) present and projected structure of American aviation, (2) weather problems considered particularly important for aviation, (3) projected needs for improved weather information by aviators, (4) safety and economics, and (5) future studies utilizing satellite meteorology.

  6. [Progress in synthesis technologies and application of aviation biofuels].

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaoying; Liu, Xiang; Zhao, Xuebing; Yang, Ming; Liu, Dehua

    2013-03-01

    Development of aviation biofuels has attracted great attention worldwide because that the shortage of fossil resources has become more and more serious. In the present paper, the development background, synthesis technologies, current application status and existing problems of aviation biofuels were reviewed. Several preparation routes of aviation biofuels were described, including Fischer-Tropsch process, catalytic hydrogenation and catalytic cracking of bio-oil. The status of flight tests and commercial operation were also introduced. Finally the problems for development and application of aviation biofuels were stated, and some accommodation were proposed.

  7. Knock-Limited Performance of Triptane and Xylidines Blended with 28-R Aviation Fuel at High Compression Ratios and Maximum-Economy Spark Setting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Held, Louis F.; Pritchard, Ernest I.

    1946-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to evaluate the possibilities of utilizing the high-performance characteristics of triptane and xylidines blended with 28-R fuel in order to increase fuel economy by the use of high compression ratios and maximum-economy spark setting. Full-scale single-cylinder knock tests were run with 20 deg B.T.C. and maximum-economy spark settings at compression ratios of 6.9, 8.0, and 10.0, and with two inlet-air temperatures. The fuels tested consisted of triptane, four triptane and one xylidines blend with 28-R, and 28-R fuel alone. Indicated specific fuel consumption at lean mixtures was decreased approximately 17 percent at a compression ratio of 10.0 and maximum-economy spark setting, as compared to that obtained with a compression ratio of 6.9 and normal spark setting. When compression ratio was increased from 6.9 to 10.0 at an inlet-air temperature of 150 F, normal spark setting, and a fuel-air ratio of 0.065, 55-percent triptane was required with 28-R fuel to maintain the knock-limited brake power level obtained with 28-R fuel at a compression ratio of 6.9. Brake specific fuel consumption was decreased 17.5 percent at a compression ratio of 10.0 relative to that obtained at a compression ratio of 6.9. Approximately similar results were noted at an inlet-air temperature of 250 F. For concentrations up through at least 20 percent, triptane can be more efficiently used at normal than at maximum-economy spark setting to maintain a constant knock-limited power output over the range of compression ratios tested.

  8. Alternative fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grobman, J. S.; Butze, H. F.; Friedman, R.; Antoine, A. C.; Reynolds, T. W.

    1977-01-01

    Potential problems related to the use of alternative aviation turbine fuels are discussed and both ongoing and required research into these fuels is described. This discussion is limited to aviation turbine fuels composed of liquid hydrocarbons. The advantages and disadvantages of the various solutions to the problems are summarized. The first solution is to continue to develop the necessary technology at the refinery to produce specification jet fuels regardless of the crude source. The second solution is to minimize energy consumption at the refinery and keep fuel costs down by relaxing specifications.

  9. The UNO Aviation Monograph Series: Aviation Security: An Annotated Bibliography of Responses to the Gore Commission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carrico, John S.; Schaaf, Michaela M.

    1998-01-01

    This monograph is a companion to UNOAI Monograph 96-2, "The Image of Airport Security: An Annotated Bibliography," compiled in June 1996. The White House Commission on Aviation Safety and Security, headed by Vice President Al Gore, was formed as a result of the TWA Flight 800 crash in August 1996. The Commission's final report included 31 recommendations addressed toward aviation security. The recommendations were cause for security issues to be revisited in the media and by the aviation industry. These developments necessitated the need for an updated bibliography to review the resulting literature. Many of the articles were written in response to the recommendations made by the Gore Commission. "Aviation Security: An Annotated Bibliography of Responses to the Gore Commission" is the result of this need.

  10. Mid-21st century chemical forcing of climate by the civil aviation sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unger, Nadine; Zhao, Yupu; Dang, Hongyan

    2013-02-01

    Abstract Strong growth in the civil <span class="hlt">aviation</span> sector will accelerate in the future. Here, we confront the future net chemical (ozone, methane, sulfate, nitrate, black carbon, and water vapor) global climate impact of <span class="hlt">aviation</span> at 2050 for three novel plausible scenarios constructed at the Volpe National Transportation Center using the U.S. Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Administration (FAA) <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Environmental Design Tool (AEDT). The <span class="hlt">aviation</span> net chemical climate impact is cooling in all cases and increases from -10 ± 4 mW m-2 in the contemporary climate up to -69 ± 21 mW m-2 by 2050. Future improvements in <span class="hlt">fuel</span> efficiency provide the opportunity to reduce <span class="hlt">aviation</span>'s net chemical climate impact by ~50% relative to a baseline scenario of unconstrained growth. On the 20 year time horizon, the cooling net <span class="hlt">aviation</span> chemical climate impact masks the <span class="hlt">aviation</span> CO2 global warming by up to 50-100% in the contemporary and future atmospheres.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1985ane..book.....N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1985ane..book.....N"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Aviation</span> noise effects</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Newman, J. S.; Beattie, K. R.</p> <p>1985-03-01</p> <p>This report summarizes the effects of <span class="hlt">aviation</span> noise in many areas, ranging from human annoyance to impact on real estate values. It also synthesizes the findings of literature on several topics. Included in the literature were many original studies carried out under FAA and other Federal funding over the past two decades. Efforts have been made to present the critical findings and conclusions of pertinent research, providing, when possible, a bottom line conclusion, criterion or perspective. Issues related to <span class="hlt">aviation</span> noise are highlighted, and current policy is presented. Specific topic addressed include: annoyance; Hearing and hearing loss; noise metrics; human response to noise; speech interference; sleep interference; non-auditory health effects of noise; effects of noise on wild and domesticated animals; low frequency acoustical energy; impulsive noise; time of day weightings; noise contours; land use compatibility; and real estate values. This document is designed for a variety of users, from the individual completely unfamiliar with <span class="hlt">aviation</span> noise to experts in the field.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19750040935&hterms=aviation+technology&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Daviation%2Btechnology','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19750040935&hterms=aviation+technology&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Daviation%2Btechnology"><span id="translatedtitle">NASA general <span class="hlt">aviation</span> technology programs</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Winblade, R. L.</p> <p>1975-01-01</p> <p>This paper describes the status of the current NASA programs that are aimed at providing new technology for aircraft designs that will improve both safety and utility while reducing the environmental impact of general <span class="hlt">aviation</span> to acceptable levels. Safety related areas that are discussed include the full scale crash test program and the stall/spin research effort. Among the programs addressing increased utility and performance, advanced airfoil developments and engine cooling drag reduction are discussed. Noise and emission reduction is a subject that is receiving significant emphasis within the NASA programs. Also included is a description of the current status of the hydrogen injection concept as a means of both lowering emissions and increasing <span class="hlt">fuel</span> economy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED390647.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED390647.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Administration Curriculum Guide for <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Magnet Schools Programs.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Strickler, Mervin K., Jr.</p> <p></p> <p>The Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Administration (FAA) and its predecessor organizations, Civil Aeronautics Agency (CAA) and the Civil Aeronautics Administration (CAA) have pioneered the use of <span class="hlt">aviation</span> education in working with schools and colleges of the nation to attain their objectives. This publication includes: a brief history of the role of <span class="hlt">aviation</span> in…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19760004911','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19760004911"><span id="translatedtitle">Human factors in general <span class="hlt">aviation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1975-01-01</p> <p>The relation of the pilot to the aircraft in general <span class="hlt">aviation</span> is considered. The human component is analyzed, along with general <span class="hlt">aviation</span> facilities. The man-machine interface, and the man-environment interface are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=aviation+AND+technology&pg=7&id=EJ205465','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=aviation+AND+technology&pg=7&id=EJ205465"><span id="translatedtitle">Teachers' Guide For <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Education.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Aviation/Space, 1979</p> <p>1979-01-01</p> <p>This teacher's guide outlines the objectives, instructional procedures, student activities, and expected outcomes of an instructional unit on careers in <span class="hlt">aviation</span>, designed for fifth and sixth grade students. It emphasizes aerospace activities and job opportunities in <span class="hlt">aviation</span>. (GA)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10123155','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10123155"><span id="translatedtitle">Wear mechanism and wear prevention in coal-<span class="hlt">fueled</span> diesel engines. <span class="hlt">Final</span> report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Schwalb, J.A.; Ryan, T.W.</p> <p>1991-10-01</p> <p>Coal <span class="hlt">fueled</span> diesel engines present unique wear problems in the piston ring/cylinder liner area because of their tendency to contaminate the lube-oil with high concentrations of highly abrasive particles. This program involved a series of bench-scale wear tests and engine tests designed to investigate various aspects of the ring/liner wear problem and to make specific recommendations to engine manufacturers as to how to alleviate these problems. The program was organized into tasks, designed to accomplish the following objectives: (1) define the predominant wear mechanisms causing accelerated wear in the ring/liner area; (2) investigate the effectiveness of traditional approaches to wear prevention to prevent wear in coal-<span class="hlt">fueled</span> engines; (3) further refine information on the most promising approaches to wear prevention; (4) present detailed information and recommendations to engine manufacturers on the most promising approach to wear prevention; (5) present a <span class="hlt">final</span> report covering the entire program; (6)complete engine tests with a coal-derived liquid <span class="hlt">fuel</span>, and investigate the effects of the <span class="hlt">fuel</span> on engine wear and emissions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=flight+AND+orientation&id=ED159071','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=flight+AND+orientation&id=ED159071"><span id="translatedtitle">Aerospace - <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Education.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Martin, Arthur I.; Jones, K. K.</p> <p></p> <p>This document outlines the aerospace-<span class="hlt">aviation</span> education program of the State of Texas. In this publication the course structures have been revised to fit the quarter system format of secondary schools in Texas. The four courses outlined here have been designed for students who will be consumers of aerospace products, spinoffs, and services or who…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19860002271','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19860002271"><span id="translatedtitle">General <span class="hlt">aviation</span>'s meteorological requirements</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Newton, D.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>Communication of weather theory and information about weather service products to pilots in an accurate and comprehensible manner is essential to flying safety in general. Probably no one needs weather knowledge more than the people who fly through it. The specific subject of this overview is General <span class="hlt">Aviation</span>'s Meteorological Requirements.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=general+AND+aviation&pg=5&id=EJ123265','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=general+AND+aviation&pg=5&id=EJ123265"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Aviation</span> in Social Studies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Journal of Aerospace Education, 1974</p> <p>1974-01-01</p> <p>Describes an interdisciplinary unit approach for teaching social science concepts using <span class="hlt">aviation</span> as a vehicle to create interest and provide a meaningful context for grades K through 8. The general objectives and understandings for each grade level are described and some sample activities listed. (BR)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=karp&pg=3&id=ED459321','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=karp&pg=3&id=ED459321"><span id="translatedtitle">Collegiate <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Review, 2001.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Carney, Thomas Q., Ed.</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>This issue contains these 12 papers: "Exploring the Viability of an Organizational Readiness Assessment for Participatory Management Programs in a Passenger Airline Carrier" (Al Bellamy); "Teaching the Pilots of the New Millennium: Adult Cooperative Education in <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Education" (Joseph F. Clark, III); "The Transfer of Flight Training…</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_14 --> <div id="page_15" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="281"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Aircraft+AND+Avionics&pg=2&id=EJ266271','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Aircraft+AND+Avionics&pg=2&id=EJ266271"><span id="translatedtitle">General <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Manpower Study.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Feller, Richard</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>Highlights a study examining manpower supply/demand in general <span class="hlt">aviation</span>. Eight job categories were examined: pilots, flight instructors, engineers, machinists/toolers, and A&P, airframe, and avionics technicians. Findings among others indicate that shortages in indicated job categories exist because personnel are recruited by other industries. (JN)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19730024132','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19730024132"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Forecasting in ICAO</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Mcmahon, J.</p> <p>1972-01-01</p> <p>Opinions or plans of qualified experts in the field are used for forecasting future requirements for air navigational facilities and services of international civil <span class="hlt">aviation</span>. ICAO periodically collects information from Stators and operates on anticipated future operations, consolidates this information, and forecasts the future level of activity at different airports.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930083025','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930083025"><span id="translatedtitle">Politics of <span class="hlt">aviation</span> fields</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Vivent, Jacques</p> <p>1922-01-01</p> <p>In short, the "politics of <span class="hlt">aviation</span>" lies in a few propositions: the need of having as large a number of fields as possible and of sufficient area; the utilization of the larger part of the existing military fields; the selection of uncultivated or unproductive fields, whenever technical conditions permit; ability to disregard (save in exceptional cases) objections of an agricultural nature.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED439267.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED439267.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Collegiate <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Review, 1999.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Carney, Thomas Q., Ed.; Luedtke, Jacqueline R., Ed.; Johnson, Jeffrey A., Ed.</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>This document, published annually, contains six papers devoted to <span class="hlt">aviation</span> education. "Enhancing Global Competitiveness: Benchmarking Airline Operational Performance in Highly Regulated Environments" (Brent D. Bowen, Dean Headley, Karisa D. Kane, Rebecca K. Lutte) outlines a model to help policymakers and others evaluate the effects of airline…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED425297.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED425297.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Collegiate <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Review.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Lehrer, Henry R., Ed.</p> <p></p> <p>This document contains five research papers devoted to <span class="hlt">aviation</span> education and training. The first paper, "An Examination of the U.S. Airline Policy Regarding Child Restraint Systems" (Larry Carstenson, Donald Sluti, and Jacqueline Luedtke), examines communication of airline policy from airline management to airline personnel to the traveling…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2683453','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2683453"><span id="translatedtitle">The actual development of European <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Safety Requirements in <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Medicine: Prospects of Future EASA Requirements</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Siedenburg, J</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Common Rules for <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Safety had been developed under the aegis of the Joint <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Authorities in the 1990ies. In 2002 the Basic Regulation 1592/2002 was the founding document of a new entity, the European <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Safety Agency. Areas of activity were Certification and Maintenance of aircraft. On 18 March the new Basic Regulation 216/2008, repealing the original Basic Regulation was published and applicable from 08 April on. The included Essential Requirements extended the competencies of EASA inter alia to Pilot Licensing and Flight Operations. The future aeromedical requirements will be included as Annex II in another Implementing Regulation on Personnel Licensing. The detailed provisions will be published as guidance material. The proposals for these provisions have been published on 05 June 2008 as NPA 2008- 17c. After public consultation, processing of comments and <span class="hlt">final</span> adoption the new proposals may be applicable form the second half of 2009 on. A transition period of four year will apply. Whereas the provisions are based on Joint Awiation Requirement - Flight Crew Licensing (JAR-FCL) 3, a new Light Aircraft Pilot Licence (LAPL) project and the details of the associated medical certification regarding general practitioners will be something new in <span class="hlt">aviation</span> medicine. This paper consists of 6 sections. The introduction outlines the idea of international <span class="hlt">aviation</span> safety. The second section describes the development of the Joint <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Authorities (JAA), the first step to common rules for <span class="hlt">aviation</span> safety in Europe. The third section encompasses a major change as next step: the foundation of the European <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Safety Agency (EASA) and the development of its rules. In the following section provides an outline of the new medical requirements. Section five emphasizes the new concept of a Leisure Pilot Licence. The last section gives an outlook on ongoing rulemaking activities and the opportunities of the public to participate in them. PMID:19561781</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1172983','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1172983"><span id="translatedtitle">Phase 1A <span class="hlt">Final</span> Report for the AREVA Team Enhanced Accident Tolerant <span class="hlt">Fuels</span> Concepts</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Morrell, Mike E.</p> <p>2015-03-19</p> <p>In response to the Department of Energy (DOE) funded initiative to develop and deploy lead <span class="hlt">fuel</span> assemblies (LFAs) of Enhanced Accident Tolerant <span class="hlt">Fuel</span> (EATF) into a US reactor within 10 years, AREVA put together a team to develop promising technologies for improved <span class="hlt">fuel</span> performance during off normal operations. This team consisted of the University of Florida (UF) and the University of Wisconsin (UW), Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), Duke Energy and Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA). This team brought broad experience and expertise to bear on EATF development. AREVA has been designing; manufacturing and testing nuclear <span class="hlt">fuel</span> for over 50 years and is one of the 3 large international companies supplying <span class="hlt">fuel</span> to the nuclear industry. The university and National Laboratory team members brought expertise in nuclear <span class="hlt">fuel</span> concepts and materials development. Duke and TVA brought practical utility operating experience. This report documents the results from the initial “discovery phase” where the team explored options for EATF concepts that provide enhanced accident tolerance for both Design Basis (DB) and Beyond Design Basis Events (BDB). The main driver for the concepts under development were that they could be implemented in a 10 year time frame and be economically viable and acceptable to the nuclear <span class="hlt">fuel</span> marketplace. The economics of <span class="hlt">fuel</span> design make this DOE funded project very important to the nuclear industry. Even incremental changes to an existing <span class="hlt">fuel</span> design can cost in the range of $100M to implement through to LFAs. If this money is invested evenly over 10 years then it can take the <span class="hlt">fuel</span> vendor several decades after the start of the project to recover their initial investment and reach a breakeven point on the initial investment. Step or radical changes to a <span class="hlt">fuel</span> assembly design can cost upwards of $500M and will take even longer for the <span class="hlt">fuel</span> vendor to recover their investment. With the projected lifetimes of the current generation of nuclear power</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=esler&id=ED408490','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=esler&id=ED408490"><span id="translatedtitle">Collegiate <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Review. September 1994.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Barker, Ballard M., Ed.</p> <p></p> <p>This document contains four papers on <span class="hlt">aviation</span> education. The first paper, "Why Aren't We Teaching Aeronautical Decision Making?" (Richard J. Adams), reviews 15 years of <span class="hlt">aviation</span> research into the causes of human performance errors in <span class="hlt">aviation</span> and provides guidelines for designing the next generation of aeronautical decision-making materials.…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=lussier&id=ED408492','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=lussier&id=ED408492"><span id="translatedtitle">Collegiate <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Review. September 1996.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Barker, Ballard M., Ed.</p> <p></p> <p>This document contains three papers on <span class="hlt">aviation</span> education. "Academic Integrity in Higher Education: Is Collegiate <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Education at Risk?" (Jeffrey A. Johnson) discusses academic integrity and legal issues in higher education and argues that academic integrity needs to be an integral part of collegiate <span class="hlt">aviation</span> education if students expect to…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED072923.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED072923.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Education Services and Resources.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Federal Aviation Administration (DOT), Washington, DC. Office of General Aviation.</p> <p></p> <p>A list of sources of information and material relating to <span class="hlt">aviation</span> education is presented in this pamphlet issued in May, 1972. Following a brief description of the mission of the Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Administration (FAA), reference materials mostly appropriate for school use are incorporated under the headings: <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Education Workshops, Careers…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=general+AND+aviation&id=ED026568','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=general+AND+aviation&id=ED026568"><span id="translatedtitle">General <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Pilot Education Program.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Cole, Warren L.</p> <p></p> <p>General <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Pilot Education (GAPE) was a safety program designed to improve the aeronautical education of the general <span class="hlt">aviation</span> pilot in anticipation that the national aircraft accident rate might be improved. GAPE PROGRAM attempted to reach the average general <span class="hlt">aviation</span> pilot with specific and factual information regarding the pitfalls of his…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=meteorology&pg=7&id=EJ123264','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=meteorology&pg=7&id=EJ123264"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Aviation</span>--An Individualized Approach</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Seeds, Fred F.</p> <p>1974-01-01</p> <p>Describes an individualized <span class="hlt">aviation</span> course for high school seniors. The course, broken down into Learner Education Guides with students progressing at their own learning rates, consists of the history of <span class="hlt">aviation</span>, career opportunities, the space program, basic aeronautics, navigation, meteorology, Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Administration regulations and…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/934855','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/934855"><span id="translatedtitle">Spent <span class="hlt">fuel</span> sabotage test program, characterization of aerosol dispersal : interim <span class="hlt">final</span> report.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Gregson, Michael Warren; Brockmann, John E.; Loiseau, Olivier; Klennert, Lindsay A.; Nolte, Oliver; Molecke, Martin Alan; Autrusson, Bruno A.; Koch, Wolfgang; Pretzsch, Gunter Guido; Brucher, Wenzel; Steyskal, Michele D.</p> <p>2008-03-01</p> <p>This multinational, multi-phase spent <span class="hlt">fuel</span> sabotage test program is quantifying the aerosol particles produced when the products of a high energy density device (HEDD) interact with and explosively particulate test rodlets that contain pellets of either surrogate materials or actual spent <span class="hlt">fuel</span>. This program provides source-term data that are relevant to plausible sabotage scenarios in relation to spent <span class="hlt">fuel</span> transport and storage casks and associated risk assessments. We present details and significant results obtained from this program from 2001 through 2007. Measured aerosol results include: respirable fractions produced; amounts, nuclide content, and produced particle size distributions and morphology; measurements of volatile fission product species enhanced sorption--enrichment factors onto respirable particles; and, status on determination of the spent <span class="hlt">fuel</span> ratio, SFR, needed for scaling studies. Emphasis is provided on recent Phase 3 tests using depleted uranium oxide pellets plus non-radioactive fission product dopants in surrogate spent <span class="hlt">fuel</span> test rodlets, plus the latest surrogate cerium oxide results and aerosol laboratory supporting calibration work. The DUO{sub 2}, CeO{sub 2}, plus fission product dopant aerosol particle results are compared with available historical data. We also provide a status review on continuing preparations for the <span class="hlt">final</span> Phase 4 in this program, tests using individual short rodlets containing actual spent <span class="hlt">fuel</span> from U.S. PWR reactors, with both high- and lower-burnup <span class="hlt">fuel</span>. The source-term data, aerosol results, and program design have been tailored to support and guide follow-on computer modeling of aerosol dispersal hazards and radiological consequence assessments. This spent <span class="hlt">fuel</span> sabotage, aerosol test program was performed primarily at Sandia National Laboratories, with support provided by both the U.S. Department of Energy and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. This program has significant input from, and is cooperatively</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140005559','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140005559"><span id="translatedtitle">Environmentally Responsible <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> (ERA) Project - N+2 Advanced Vehicle Concepts Study and Conceptual Design of Subscale Test Vehicle (STV) <span class="hlt">Final</span> Report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Bonet, John T.; Schellenger, Harvey G.; Rawdon, Blaine K.; Elmer, Kevin R.; Wakayama, Sean R.; Brown, Derrell L.; Guo, Yueping</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>NASA has set demanding goals for technology developments to meet national needs to improve <span class="hlt">fuel</span> efficiency concurrent with improving the environment to enable air transportation growth. A figure shows NASA's subsonic transport system metrics. The results of Boeing ERA N+2 Advanced Vehicle Concept Study show that the Blended Wing Body (BWB) vehicle, with ultra high bypass propulsion systems have the potential to meet the combined NASA ERA N+2 goals. This study had 3 main activities. 1) The development of an advanced vehicle concepts that can meet the NASA system level metrics. 2) Identification of key enabling technologies and the development of technology roadmaps and maturation plans. 3) The development of a subscale test vehicle that can demonstrate and mature the key enabling technologies needed to meet the NASA system level metrics. Technology maturation plans are presented and include key performance parameters and technical performance measures. The plans describe the risks that will be reduced with technology development and the expected progression of technical maturity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-09-16/pdf/2011-23805.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-09-16/pdf/2011-23805.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">76 FR 57635 - Restrictions on Operators Employing Former Flight Standards Service <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Safety Inspectors...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-09-16</p> <p>... Flight Standards Service <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Safety Inspectors'' (76 FR 52231). In that <span class="hlt">final</span> rule the FAA.... SUMMARY: The FAA is correcting a <span class="hlt">final</span> rule published on August 22, 2011 (76 FR 52231). In that <span class="hlt">final</span> rule...-7] RIN 2120-AJ36 Restrictions on Operators Employing Former Flight Standards Service <span class="hlt">Aviation</span>...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10194763','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10194763"><span id="translatedtitle">Full-Length High-Temperature Severe <span class="hlt">Fuel</span> Damage Test No. 5: <span class="hlt">Final</span> safety analysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lanning, D.D.; Lombardo, N.J.; Panisko, F.E.</p> <p>1993-09-01</p> <p>This report presents the <span class="hlt">final</span> safety analysis for the preparation, conduct, and post-test discharge operation for the Full-Length High Temperature Experiment-5 (FLHT-5) to be conducted in the L-24 position of the National Research Universal (NRU) Reactor at Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories (CRNL), Ontario, Canada. The test is sponsored by an international group organized by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The test is designed and conducted by staff from Pacific Northwest Laboratory with CRNL staff support. The test will study the consequences of loss-of-coolant and the progression of severe <span class="hlt">fuel</span> damage.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED247118.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED247118.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Guidelines for Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Administration Regional <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Education Coordinators and <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Education Facilitators.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Strickler, Mervin K., Jr.</p> <p></p> <p>This publication is designed to provide both policy guidance and examples of how to work with various constituencies in planning and carrying out appropriate Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Administration (FAA) <span class="hlt">aviation</span> education activities. Information is provided on the history of aerospace/<span class="hlt">aviation</span> education, FAA educational materials, aerospace/aviation…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20060046466','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20060046466"><span id="translatedtitle">Corporate Social Responsibility in <span class="hlt">Aviation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Phillips, Edwin D.</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>The dialog within <span class="hlt">aviation</span> management education regarding ethics is incomplete without a discussion of corporate social responsibility (CSR). CSR research requires discussion involving: (a) the current emphasis on CSR in business in general and <span class="hlt">aviation</span> specifically; (b) business and educational theory that provide a basis for <span class="hlt">aviation</span> companies to engage in socially responsible actions; (c) techniques used by <span class="hlt">aviation</span> and aerospace companies to fulfill this responsibility; and (d) a glimpse of teaching approaches used in university <span class="hlt">aviation</span> management classes. The summary of this research suggests educators explain CSR theory and practice to students in industry and collegiate <span class="hlt">aviation</span> management programs. Doing so extends the discussion of ethical behavior and matches the current high level of interest and activity within the <span class="hlt">aviation</span> industry toward CSR.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20040191356','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20040191356"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Particle Emissions Workshop</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Wey, Chowen C. (Editor)</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Particle Emissions Workshop was held on November 18 19, 2003, in Cleveland, Ohio. It was sponsored by the National Aeronautic and Space Administration (NASA) under the Vehicle Systems Program (VSP) and the Ultra- Efficient Engine Technology (UEET) Project. The objectives were to build a sound foundation for a comprehensive particulate research roadmap and to provide a forum for discussion among U.S. stakeholders and researchers. Presentations included perspectives from the Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Administration, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, NASA, and United States airports. There were five interactive technical sessions: sampling methodology, measurement methodology, particle modeling, database, inventory and test venue, and air quality. Each group presented technical issues which generated excellent discussion. The five session leads collaborated with their members to present summaries and conclusions to each content area.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1029124','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1029124"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Final</span> Technical Report: Effects of Impurities on <span class="hlt">Fuel</span> Cell Performance and Durability</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>James G. Goodwin, Jr.; Hector Colon-Mercado; Kitiya Hongsirikarn; and Jack Z. Zhang</p> <p>2011-11-11</p> <p> accessible for hydrogen activation. Of the impurities studied, CO, NH3, perchloroethylene (also known as tetrachloroethylene), tetrahydrofuran, diborane, and metal cations had significant negative effects on the components in a <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cell. While CO has no effect on the Nafion, it significantly poisons the Pt catalyst by adsorbing and blocking hydrogen activation. The effect can be reversed with time once the flow of CO is stopped. NH3 has no effect on the Pt catalyst at <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cell conditions; it poisons the proton sites on Nafion (by forming NH4+ cations), decreasing drastically the proton conductivity of Nafion. This poisoning can slowly be reversed once the flow of NH3 is stopped. Perchloroethylene has a major effect on <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cell performance. Since it has little/no effect on Nafion conductivity, its poisoning effect is on the Pt catalyst. However, this effect takes place primarily for the Pt catalyst at the cathode, since the presence of oxygen is very important for this poisoning effect. Tetrahydrofuran was shown not to impact Nafion conductivity; however, it does affect <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cell performance. Therefore, its primary effect is on the Pt catalyst. The effect of THF on <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cell performance is reversible. Diborane also can significant affect <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cell performance. This effect is reversible once diborane is removed from the inlet streams. H2O2 is not an impurity usually present in the hydrogen or oxygen streams to a <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cell. However, it is generated during <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cell operation. The presence of Fe cations in the Nafion due to system corrosion and/or arising from MEA production act to catalyze the severe degradation of the Nafion by H2O2. <span class="hlt">Finally</span>, the presence of metal cation impurities (Na+, Ca 2+, Fe3+) in Nafion from MEA preparation or from corrosion significantly impacts its proton conductivity due to replacement of proton sites. This effect is not reversible. Hydrocarbons, such as ethylene, might be expected to affect Pt or Nafion but do not at a typical <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cell</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_15 --> <div id="page_16" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="301"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/113869','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/113869"><span id="translatedtitle">Multi-<span class="hlt">fuel</span> reformers for <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cells used in transportation: Assessment of hydrogen storage technologies. Phase 2: <span class="hlt">Final</span> report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p></p> <p>1995-05-01</p> <p>During Phase 1 of this program, the authors evaluated all known hydrogen storage technologies (including those that are now practiced and those that are development) in the context of <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cell vehicles. They determined that among the development technologies, carbon sorbents could most benefit from closer scrutiny. During Phase 2 of this program, they tested ten different carbon sorbents at various practical temperatures and pressures, and developed the concept of the usable Capacity Ratio, which is the ratio of the mass of hydrogen that can be released from a carbon-filled tank to the mass of hydrogen that can be released from an empty tank. The authors also commissioned the design, fabrication, and NGV2 (Natural Gas Vehicle) testing of an aluminum-lined, carbon-composite, full-wrapped pressure vessel to store hydrogen at 78 K and 3,000 psi. They constructed a facility to pressure cycle the tank at 78 K and to temperature cycle the tank at 3,000 psi, tested one such tank, and submitted it for a burst test. <span class="hlt">Finally</span>, they devised a means by which cryogenic compressed hydrogen gas tanks can be filled and discharged using standard hardware--that is, without using filters, valves, or pressure regulators that must operate at both low temperature and high pressure. This report describes test methods and test results of carbon sorbents and the design of tanks for cold storage. 7 refs., 91 figs., 10 tabs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19810017495','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19810017495"><span id="translatedtitle">NASA's Role in Aeronautics: A Workshop. Volume 4: General <span class="hlt">aviation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1981-01-01</p> <p>A substantially improved flow of new technology is imperative if the general <span class="hlt">aviation</span> industry is to maintain a strong world position. Although NASA is the most eminently suited entity available to carry out the necessary research and technology development effort because of its facilities, expertise, and endorsement by the aircraft industry, less than 3% of its aeronautical R&T budget is devoted to general <span class="hlt">aviation</span> aeronautics. It is recommended that (1) a technology program, particularly one that focuses on improving <span class="hlt">fuel</span> efficienty and safety, be aggressively pursued by NASA; (2) NASA be assigned the role of leading basic research technology effort in general <span class="hlt">aviation</span> up through technology demonstration; (3) a strategic plan be developed by NASA, in cooperation with the industry, and implemented in time for the 1982 budget cycle; and (4) a NASA R&T budget be allocated for general <span class="hlt">aviation</span> adequate to support the proposed plan.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930084635','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930084635"><span id="translatedtitle">Carburetion in <span class="hlt">aviation</span> engines</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>POINCARE</p> <p>1923-01-01</p> <p>This report tries to solve the problem of supplying the engine cylinders with a mixture of <span class="hlt">fuel</span> and air in the right ratio to obtain the greatest power from the engine with the least consumption of <span class="hlt">fuel</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/883490','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/883490"><span id="translatedtitle">Novel catalysts for hydrogen <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cell applications:<span class="hlt">Final</span> report (FY03-FY05).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Thornberg, Steven Michael; Coker, Eric Nicholas; Jarek, Russell L.; Steen, William Arthur</p> <p>2005-12-01</p> <p> qualitatively as well as the ETEK material for the ORR, a non-trivial achievement. A <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cell test showed that Pt/C outperformed the ETEK material by an average of 50% for a 300 hour test. Increasing surface area decreases the amount of Pt needed in a <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cell, which translates into cost savings. Furthermore, the increased performance realized in the <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cell test might ultimately mean less Pt is needed in a <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cell; this again translates into cost savings. <span class="hlt">Finally</span>, enhanced long-term stability is a key driver within the <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cell community as improvements in this area must be realized before <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cells find their way into the marketplace; these Pt/C materials hold great promise of enhanced stability over time. An external laser desorption ion source was successfully installed on the existing Fourier transform ion-cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) mass spectrometer. However, operation of this laser ablation source has only generated metal atom ions, no clusters have been found to date. It is believed that this is due to the design of the pulsed-nozzle/laser vaporization chamber. The <span class="hlt">final</span> experimental configuration and design of the two source housings are described.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19770009059','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19770009059"><span id="translatedtitle">NASA <span class="hlt">aviation</span> safety reporting system</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1976-01-01</p> <p>During the second quarter of the <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Safety Reporting System (ASRS) operation, 1,497 reports were received from pilots, controllers, and others in the national <span class="hlt">aviation</span> system. Details of the administration and results of the program to date are presented. Examples of alert bulletins disseminated to the <span class="hlt">aviation</span> community are presented together with responses to those bulletins. Several reports received by ASRS are also presented to illustrate the diversity of topics covered by reports to the system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120014267','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120014267"><span id="translatedtitle">The Future of Green <span class="hlt">Aviation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Edwards, Thomas</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Dr. Edwards'presentation provides an overview of <span class="hlt">aviation</span>'s economic impact in the U.S. including <span class="hlt">aviation</span>'s impact on environment and energy. The presentation discusses NASA's contributions to the advancement of commercial aircraft design highlighting the technology drivers and recent technology advancements for addressing community noise, energy efficiency and emissions. The presentation concludes with a preview of some of NASA's integrated systems solutions, such as novel aircraft concepts and advancements in propulsion that will enable the future of more environmentally compatible <span class="hlt">aviation</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5160258','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5160258"><span id="translatedtitle">Investigation of stainless steel clad <span class="hlt">fuel</span> rod failures and <span class="hlt">fuel</span> performance in the Connecticut Yankee Reactor. <span class="hlt">Final</span> report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Pasupathi, V.; Klingensmith, R. W.</p> <p>1981-11-01</p> <p>Significant levels of <span class="hlt">fuel</span> rod failures were observed in the batch 8 <span class="hlt">fuel</span> assemblies of the Connecticut Yankee reactor. Failure of 304 stainless steel cladding in a PWR environment was not expected. Therefore a detailed poolside and hot cell examination program was conducted to determine the cause of failure and identify differences between batch 8 <span class="hlt">fuel</span> and previous batches which had operated without failures. Hot cell work conducted consisted of detailed nondestructive and destructive examination of <span class="hlt">fuel</span> rods from batches 7 and 8. The results indicate that the batch 8 failure mechanism was stress corrosion cracking initiating on the clad outer surface. The sources of cladding stresses are believed to be (a) <span class="hlt">fuel</span> pellet chips wedged in the cladding gap, (b) swelling of highly nondensifying batch 8 <span class="hlt">fuel</span> and (c) potentially harmful effects of a power change event that occurred near the end of the second cycle of irradiation for batch 8.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19970003122','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19970003122"><span id="translatedtitle">Entrepreneurship within General <span class="hlt">Aviation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Ullmann, Brian M.</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>Many modern economic theories place great importance upon entrepreneurship in the economy. Some see the entrepreneur as the individual who bears risk of operating a business in the face of uncertainty about future conditions and who is rewarded through profits and losses. The 20th century economist Joseph Schumpter saw the entrepreneur as the medium by which advancing technology is incorporated into society as businesses seek competitive advantages through more efficient product development processes. Due to the importance that capitalistic systems place upon entrepreneurship, it has become a well studied subject with many texts to discuss how entrepreneurs can succeed in modern society. Many entrepreneuring and business management courses go so far as to discuss the characteristic phases and prominent challenges that fledgling companies face in their efforts to bring a new product into a competitive market. However, even with all of these aids, start-up companies fail at an enormous rate. Indeed, the odds of shepherding a new company through the travails of becoming a well established company (as measured by the ability to reach Initial Public Offering (IPO)) have been estimated to be six in 1,000,000. Each niche industry has characteristic challenges which act as barriers to entry for new products into that industry. Thus, the applicability of broad generalizations is subject to limitations within niche markets. This paper will discuss entrepreneurship as it relates to general <span class="hlt">aviation</span>. The goals of this paper will be to: introduce general <span class="hlt">aviation</span>; discuss the details of marrying entrepreneurship with general <span class="hlt">aviation</span>; and present a sample business plan which would characterize a possible entrepreneurial venture.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19760007001','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19760007001"><span id="translatedtitle">General <span class="hlt">aviation</span> technology assessment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Jacobson, I. D.</p> <p>1975-01-01</p> <p>The existing problem areas in general <span class="hlt">aviation</span> were investigated in order to identify those which can benefit from technological payoffs. The emphasis was placed on acceptance by the pilot/passenger in areas such as performance, safety, handling qualities, ride quality, etc. Inputs were obtained from three sectors: industry; government; and user, although slanted toward the user group. The results should only be considered preliminary due to the small sample sizes of the data. Trends are evident however and a general methodology for allocating effort in future programs is proposed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20010060385','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20010060385"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Safety Simulation Model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Houser, Scott; Yackovetsky, Robert (Technical Monitor)</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Safety Simulation Model is a software tool that enables users to configure a terrain, a flight path, and an aircraft and simulate the aircraft's flight along the path. The simulation monitors the aircraft's proximity to terrain obstructions, and reports when the aircraft violates accepted minimum distances from an obstruction. This model design facilitates future enhancements to address other flight safety issues, particularly air and runway traffic scenarios. This report shows the user how to build a simulation scenario and run it. It also explains the model's output.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19780016189','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19780016189"><span id="translatedtitle">General <span class="hlt">aviation</span> avionics equipment maintenance</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Parker, C. D.; Tommerdahl, J. B.</p> <p>1978-01-01</p> <p>Maintenance of general <span class="hlt">aviation</span> avionics equipment was investigated with emphasis on single engine and light twin engine general <span class="hlt">aviation</span> aircraft. Factors considered include the regulatory agencies, avionics manufacturers, avionics repair stations, the statistical character of the general <span class="hlt">aviation</span> community, and owners and operators. The maintenance, environment, and performance, repair costs, and reliability of avionics were defined. It is concluded that a significant economic stratification is reflected in the maintenance problems encountered, that careful attention to installations and use practices can have a very positive impact on maintenance problems, and that new technologies and a general growth in general <span class="hlt">aviation</span> will impact maintenance.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19950005050','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19950005050"><span id="translatedtitle">General <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Task Force report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>General <span class="hlt">aviation</span> is officially defined as all <span class="hlt">aviation</span> except scheduled airlines and the military. It is the only air transportation to many communities throughout the world. In order to reverse the recent decline in general <span class="hlt">aviation</span> aircraft produced in the United States, the Task Force recommends that NASA provide the expertise and facilities such as wind tunnels and computer codes for aircraft design. General <span class="hlt">aviation</span> manufacturers are receptive to NASA's innovations and technological leadership and are expected to be effective users of NASA-generated technologies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940020615','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940020615"><span id="translatedtitle">US general <span class="hlt">aviation</span>: The ingredients for a renaissance. A vision and technology strategy for US industry, NASA, FAA, universities</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Holmes, Bruce</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>General <span class="hlt">aviation</span> today is a vital component in the nation's air transportation system. It is threatened for survival but has enormous potential for expansion in utility and use. This potential for expansion is <span class="hlt">fueled</span> by new satellite navigation and communication systems, small computers, flat panel displays, and advanced aerodynamics, materials and manufacturing methods, and propulsion technologies which create opportunities for new levels of environmental and economic acceptability. Expanded general <span class="hlt">aviation</span> utility and use could have a large impact on the nation's jobs, commerce, industry, airspace capacity, trade balance, and quality of life. This paper presents, in viewgraph form, a general overview of U.S. general <span class="hlt">aviation</span>. Topics covered include general <span class="hlt">aviation</span> shipment and billings; airport and general <span class="hlt">aviation</span> infrastructure; cockpit, airplane, and airspace technologies; market demand; air traffic operations and <span class="hlt">aviation</span> accidents; <span class="hlt">fuel</span> efficiency comparisons; and general <span class="hlt">aviation</span> goals and strategy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhST..167a4059F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhST..167a4059F"><span id="translatedtitle">Dust survey following the <span class="hlt">final</span> shutdown of TEXTOR: metal particles and <span class="hlt">fuel</span> retention</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fortuna-Zaleśna, E.; Weckmann, A.; Grzonka, J.; Rubel, M.; Esser, H. G.; Freisinger, M.; Kreter, A.; Sergienko, G.; Ström, P.</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>The work presents results of a broad TEXTOR dust survey in terms of its composition, structure, distribution and <span class="hlt">fuel</span> content. The dust particles were collected after <span class="hlt">final</span> shutdown of TEXTOR in December 2013. <span class="hlt">Fuel</span> retention, as determined by thermal desorption, varied significantly, even by two orders of magnitude, dependent on the dust location in the machine. Dust structure was examined by means of scanning electron microscopy combined with energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, focused ion beam and scanning transmission electron microscopy. Several categories of dust have been identified. Carbon-based stratified and granular deposits were dominating, but the emphasis in studies was on metal dust. They were found in the form of small particles, small spheres, flakes and splashes which formed ‘comet’-like structures, clearly indicating directional effects in the impact on surfaces of plasma-facing components. Nickel-rich alloys from the Inconel liner and iron-based ones from various diagnostic holders were the main components of metal-containing dust, but also molybdenum and tungsten debris were detected. Their origin is discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19810007459','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19810007459"><span id="translatedtitle">A feasibility study for advanced technology integration for general <span class="hlt">aviation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Kohlman, D. L.; Matsuyama, G. T.; Hawley, K. E.; Meredith, P. T.</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>An investigation was conducted to identify candidate technologies and specific developments which offer greatest promise for improving safety, <span class="hlt">fuel</span> efficiency, performance, and utility of general <span class="hlt">aviation</span> airplanes. Interviews were conducted with general <span class="hlt">aviation</span> airframe and systems manufacturers and NASA research centers. The following technologies were evaluated for use in airplane design tradeoff studies conducted during the study: avionics, aerodynamics, configurations, structures, flight controls, and propulsion. Based on industry interviews and design tradeoff studies, several recommendations were made for further high payoff research. The most attractive technologies for use by the general <span class="hlt">aviation</span> industry appear to be advanced engines, composite materials, natural laminar flow airfoils, and advanced integrated avionics systems. The integration of these technologies in airplane design can yield significant increases in speeds, ranges, and payloads over present aircraft with 40 percent to 50 percent reductions in <span class="hlt">fuel</span> used.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20030001006','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20030001006"><span id="translatedtitle">Some <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Growth Events</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Spearman, M. Leroy</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>The growth of <span class="hlt">aviation</span> since the first flight of a heavier-than-air powered manned vehicle in 1903 has been somewhat remarkable. Some of the events that have influenced this growth are reviewed in this paper. This review will include some events prior to World War I; the influence of the war itself; the events during the post-war years including the establishment of aeronautical research laboratories; and the influence of World War II which, among other things, introduced new technologies that included rocket and jet propulsion and supersonic aerodynamics. The subsequent era of aeronautical research and the attendant growth in <span class="hlt">aviation</span> over the past half century will be reviewed from the view point of the author who, since 1944, has been involved in the NACA/NASA aeronautical research effort at what is now the Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia. The review will discuss some of the research programs related to the development of some experimental aircraft, the Century series of fighter aircraft, multi-mission aircraft, advanced military aircraft and missiles, advanced civil aircraft, supersonic transports, spacecraft and others.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20060046507','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20060046507"><span id="translatedtitle">General <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Data Framework</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Blount, Elaine M.; Chung, Victoria I.</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>The Flight Research Services Directorate at the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) provides development and operations services associated with three general <span class="hlt">aviation</span> (GA) aircraft used for research experiments. The GA aircraft includes a Cessna 206X Stationair, a Lancair Colombia 300X, and a Cirrus SR22X. Since 2004, the GA Data Framework software was designed and implemented to gather data from a varying set of hardware and software sources as well as enable transfer of the data to other computers or devices. The key requirements for the GA Data Framework software include platform independence, the ability to reuse the framework for different projects without changing the framework code, graphics display capabilities, and the ability to vary the interfaces and their performance. Data received from the various devices is stored in shared memory. This paper concentrates on the object oriented software design patterns within the General <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Data Framework, and how they enable the construction of project specific software without changing the base classes. The issues of platform independence and multi-threading which enable interfaces to run at different frame rates are also discussed in this paper.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20040139158','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20040139158"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Communications Emulation Testbed</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Sheehe, Charles; Mulkerin, Tom</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Aviation</span> related applications that rely upon datalink for information exchange are increasingly being developed and deployed. The increase in the quantity of applications and associated data communications will expose problems and issues to resolve. NASA s Glenn Research Center has prepared to study the communications issues that will arise as datalink applications are employed within the National Airspace System (NAS) by developing an <span class="hlt">aviation</span> communications emulation testbed. The Testbed is evolving and currently provides the hardware and software needed to study the communications impact of Air Traffic Control (ATC) and surveillance applications in a densely populated environment. The communications load associated with up to 160 aircraft transmitting and receiving ATC and surveillance data can be generated in realtime in a sequence similar to what would occur in the NAS. The ATC applications that can be studied are the Aeronautical Telecommunications Network s (ATN) Context Management (CM) and Controller Pilot Data Link Communications (CPDLC). The Surveillance applications are Automatic Dependent Surveillance - Broadcast (ADS-B) and Traffic Information Services - Broadcast (TIS-B).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10178059','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10178059"><span id="translatedtitle">Multi-<span class="hlt">fuel</span> reformers for <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cells used in transportation: Assessment of hydrogen storage technologies. Phase 1, <span class="hlt">Final</span> report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Not Available</p> <p>1994-03-01</p> <p>This report documents a portion of the work performed Multi-<span class="hlt">fuel</span> Reformers for <span class="hlt">Fuel</span> Cells Used in Transportation. One objective for development is to develop advanced <span class="hlt">fuel</span> processing systems to reform methanol, ethanol, natural gas, and other hydrocarbons into hydrogen for use in transportation <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cell systems, while a second objective is to develop better systems for on-board hydrogen storage. This report examines techniques and technology available for storage of pure hydrogen on board a vehicle as pure hydrogen of hydrides. The report focuses separately on near- and far-term technologies, with particular emphasis on the former. Development of lighter, more compact near-term storage systems is recommended to enhance competitiveness and simplify <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cell design. The far-term storage technologies require substantial applied research in order to become serious contenders.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23844612','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23844612"><span id="translatedtitle">Global civil <span class="hlt">aviation</span> black carbon emissions.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Stettler, Marc E J; Boies, Adam M; Petzold, Andreas; Barrett, Steven R H</p> <p>2013-09-17</p> <p>Aircraft black carbon (BC) emissions contribute to climate forcing, but few estimates of BC emitted by aircraft at cruise exist. For the majority of aircraft engines the only BC-related measurement available is smoke number (SN)-a filter based optical method designed to measure near-ground plume visibility, not mass. While the first order approximation (FOA3) technique has been developed to estimate BC mass emissions normalized by <span class="hlt">fuel</span> burn [EI(BC)] from SN, it is shown that it underestimates EI(BC) by >90% in 35% of directly measured cases (R(2) = -0.10). As there are no plans to measure BC emissions from all existing certified engines-which will be in service for several decades-it is necessary to estimate EI(BC) for existing aircraft on the ground and at cruise. An alternative method, called FOX, that is independent of the SN is developed to estimate BC emissions. Estimates of EI(BC) at ground level are significantly improved (R(2) = 0.68), whereas estimates at cruise are within 30% of measurements. Implementing this approach for global civil <span class="hlt">aviation</span> estimated aircraft BC emissions are revised upward by a factor of ~3. Direct radiative forcing (RF) due to <span class="hlt">aviation</span> BC emissions is estimated to be ~9.5 mW/m(2), equivalent to ~1/3 of the current RF due to <span class="hlt">aviation</span> CO2 emissions.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_16 --> <div id="page_17" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="321"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20080031112','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20080031112"><span id="translatedtitle">The General <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Propulsion (GAP) Program</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>The General <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Propulsion (GAP) Program Turbine Engine Element focused on the development of an advanced small turbofan engine. Goals were good <span class="hlt">fuel</span> consumption and thrust-to-weight ratio, and very low production cost. The resulting FJX-2 turbofan engine showed the potential to meet all of these goals. The development of the engine was carried through to proof of concept testing of a complete engine system. The proof of concept engine was ground tested at sea level and in altitude test chambers. A turboprop derivative was also sea-level tested.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1044602','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1044602"><span id="translatedtitle">Texas Hydrogen Highway <span class="hlt">Fuel</span> Cell Hybrid Bus and <span class="hlt">Fueling</span> Infrastructure Technology Showcase - <span class="hlt">Final</span> Scientific/Technical Report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Hitchcock, David</p> <p>2012-06-29</p> <p>The Texas Hydrogen Highway project has showcased a hydrogen <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cell transit bus and hydrogen <span class="hlt">fueling</span> infrastructure that was designed and built through previous support from various public and private sector entities. The aim of this project has been to increase awareness among transit agencies and other public entities on these transportation technologies, and to place such technologies into commercial applications, such as a public transit agency. The initial project concept developed in 2004 was to show that a skid-mounted, fully-integrated, factory-built and tested hydrogen <span class="hlt">fueling</span> station could be used to simplify the design, and lower the cost of <span class="hlt">fueling</span> infrastructure for <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cell vehicles. The approach was to design, engineer, build, and test the integrated <span class="hlt">fueling</span> station at the factory then install it at a site that offered educational and technical resources and provide an opportunity to showcase both the <span class="hlt">fueling</span> station and advanced hydrogen vehicles. The two primary technology components include: Hydrogen <span class="hlt">Fueling</span> Station: The hydrogen <span class="hlt">fueling</span> infrastructure was designed and built by Gas Technology Institute primarily through a funding grant from the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality. It includes hydrogen production, clean-up, compression, storage, and dispensing. The station consists of a steam methane reformer, gas clean-up system, gas compressor and 48 kilograms of hydrogen storage capacity for dispensing at 5000 psig. The station is skid-mounted for easy installation and can be relocated if needed. It includes a dispenser that is designed to provide temperaturecompensated fills using a control algorithm. The total station daily capacity is approximately 50 kilograms. <span class="hlt">Fuel</span> Cell Bus: The transit passenger bus built by Ebus, a company located in Downey, CA, was commissioned and acquired by GTI prior to this project. It is a <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cell plug-in hybrid electric vehicle which is ADA compliant, has air conditioning sufficient for Texas operations</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-02-09/pdf/2010-2710.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-02-09/pdf/2010-2710.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">75 FR 6433 - Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Administration</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-02-09</p> <p>... Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Administration Notice of Availability of a Draft Environmental Assessment and Public...: Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Availability of a Draft Environmental... Chicago, Illinois. SUMMARY: The Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Administration (FAA) proposes to fund, construct,...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-07-09/pdf/2013-16464.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-07-09/pdf/2013-16464.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">78 FR 41183 - Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Administration</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-07-09</p> <p>... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Administration Meeting: RTCA Program Management Committee AGENCY: Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span>.... Paige Williams, Management Analyst, NextGen, Business Operations Group, Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span>...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-12-20/pdf/2011-32500.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-12-20/pdf/2011-32500.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">76 FR 78966 - Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Administration</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-12-20</p> <p>... Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Administration Approval of Noise Compatibility Program for Kona International Airport at Keahole, Keahole, North Kona, HI AGENCY: Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Administration, DOT. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Administration (FAA) announces its findings on the noise compatibility...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-10-23/pdf/2012-26034.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-10-23/pdf/2012-26034.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">77 FR 64837 - Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Administration</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-10-23</p> <p>... Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Administration Fourth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 227, Standards of Navigation Performance AGENCY: Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Administration (FAA), U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION... 15, 2012. Kathy Hitt, Management Analyst, Business Operations Group, Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span>...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=general+AND+aviation&pg=2&id=EJ123279','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=general+AND+aviation&pg=2&id=EJ123279"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Weather Flys on PBS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Harrison, Robert P.</p> <p>1974-01-01</p> <p>Describes a television program aimed at pilots, flight students, and general <span class="hlt">aviation</span> interests which presents a two part format. The first part focuses on the latest available weather information both nationally and locally, while the second part is designed to educate and stimulate interest in general <span class="hlt">aviation</span>. (BR)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED118732.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED118732.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Aerospace/<span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Science Occupations.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of Occupational Education.</p> <p></p> <p>The guide was developed to provide secondary students the opportunity to study <span class="hlt">aviation</span> and aerospace education from the conceptual and career approach coupled with general education specifically related to science. Unit plans were prepared to motivate, develop skills, and offer counseling to the students of <span class="hlt">aviation</span> science and occupational…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=aviation+AND+technology&pg=7&id=EJ239311','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=aviation+AND+technology&pg=7&id=EJ239311"><span id="translatedtitle">Portraying Careers Awareness in <span class="hlt">Aviation</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Buckingham, Roy A.; Amato, Vincent</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>Discusses the purpose of the half-day program at Indiana State University which provides some notion of careers available in the <span class="hlt">aviation</span> industry focusing on the professional pilot career. It utilizes the simulators and <span class="hlt">aviation</span> teaching materials within the Aerospace Department's inventory to help orient college-bound high school students to…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20000074058','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20000074058"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Weather Information Requirements Study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Keel, Byron M.; Stancil, Charles E.; Eckert, Clifford A.; Brown, Susan M.; Gimmestad, Gary G.; Richards, Mark A.; Schaffner, Philip R. (Technical Monitor)</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Safety Program (AvSP) has as its goal an improvement in <span class="hlt">aviation</span> safety by a factor of 5 over the next 10 years and a factor of 10 over the next 20 years. Since weather has a big impact on <span class="hlt">aviation</span> safety and is associated with 30% of all <span class="hlt">aviation</span> accidents, Weather Accident Prevention (WxAP) is a major element under this program. The <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Weather Information (AWIN) Distribution and Presentation project is one of three projects under this element. This report contains the findings of a study conducted by the Georgia Tech Research Institute (GTRI) under the Enhanced Weather Products effort, which is a task under AWIN. The study examines current <span class="hlt">aviation</span> weather products and there application. The study goes on to identify deficiencies in the current system and to define requirements for <span class="hlt">aviation</span> weather products that would lead to an increase in safety. The study also provides an overview the current set of sensors applied to the collection of <span class="hlt">aviation</span> weather information. New, modified, or fused sensor systems are identified which could be applied in improving the current set of weather products and in addressing the deficiencies defined in the report. In addition, the study addresses and recommends possible sensors for inclusion in an electronic pilot reporting (EPIREP) system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880000600&hterms=wheel+loader&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dwheel%2Bloader','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880000600&hterms=wheel+loader&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dwheel%2Bloader"><span id="translatedtitle">General-<span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Control Loader</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Baltrus, Daniel W.; Albang, Leroy F.; Hallinger, John A.; Burge, W. Wayne</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>Artificial-feel system designed for general-<span class="hlt">aviation</span> flight simulators. New system developed to replace directly lateral and longitudinal controls in general-<span class="hlt">aviation</span> cockpit for use in flight-simulation research. Using peaucellier's cell to convert linear motion to rotary motion, control-loading system provides realistic control-force feedback to cockpit wheel and column controls.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=126469&keyword=Aviation&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=79416622&CFTOKEN=36476904','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=126469&keyword=Aviation&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=79416622&CFTOKEN=36476904"><span id="translatedtitle">POLLUTION PREVENTION OPPORTUNITY ASSESSMENT - U.S. COAST GUARD <span class="hlt">AVIATION</span> TRAINING CENTER - MOBILE, AL</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>An assessment of pollution prevention opportunities at the U.S. Coast Guard <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Training Center in Mobile, AL, identified waste reduction opportunities in five major processing areas: flight simulator operation, aircraft maintenance, aircraft <span class="hlt">fueling</span>, aircraft washing, and...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/172115','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/172115"><span id="translatedtitle">Simulated coal-gas <span class="hlt">fueled</span> carbonate <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cell power plant system verification. <span class="hlt">Final</span> report, September 1990--June 1995</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p></p> <p>1995-03-01</p> <p>This report summarizes work performed under U.S. Department of Energy, Morgantown Energy Technology Center (DOE/METC) Contract DE-AC-90MC27168 for September 1990 through March 1995. Energy Research Corporation (ERC), with support from DOE, EPRI, and utilities, has been developing a carbonate <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cell technology. ERC`s design is a unique direct <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cell (DFC) which does not need an external <span class="hlt">fuel</span> reformer. An alliance was formed with a representative group of utilities and, with their input, a commercial entry product was chosen. The first 2 MW demonstration unit was planned and construction begun at Santa Clara, CA. A conceptual design of a 10OMW-Class dual <span class="hlt">fuel</span> power plant was developed; economics of natural gas versus coal gas use were analyzed. A facility was set up to manufacture 2 MW/yr of carbonate <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cell stacks. A 100kW-Class subscale power plant was built and several stacks were tested. This power plant has achieved an efficiency of {approximately}50% (LHV) from pipeline natural gas to direct current electricity conversion. Over 6,000 hours of operation including 5,000 cumulative hours of stack operation were demonstrated. One stack was operated on natural gas at 130 kW, which is the highest carbonate <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cell power produced to date, at 74% <span class="hlt">fuel</span> utilization, with excellent performance distribution across the stack. In parallel, carbonate <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cell performance has been improved, component materials have been proven stable with lifetimes projected to 40,000 hours. Matrix strength, electrolyte distribution, and cell decay rate have been improved. Major progress has been achieved in lowering stack cost.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1154737','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1154737"><span id="translatedtitle">Freeze-casting as a Novel Manufacturing Process for Fast Reactor <span class="hlt">Fuels</span>. <span class="hlt">Final</span> Report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Wegst, Ulrike G.K.; Allen, Todd; Sridharan, Kumar</p> <p>2014-04-07</p> <p>Advanced burner reactors are designed to reduce the amount of long-lived radioactive isotopes that need to be disposed of as waste. The input feedstock for creating advanced <span class="hlt">fuel</span> forms comes from either recycle of used light water reactor <span class="hlt">fuel</span> or recycle of <span class="hlt">fuel</span> from a fast burner reactor. <span class="hlt">Fuel</span> for burner reactors requires novel <span class="hlt">fuel</span> types based on new materials and designs that can achieve higher performance requirements (higher burn up, higher power, and greater margins to <span class="hlt">fuel</span> melting) then yet achieved. One promising strategy to improved <span class="hlt">fuel</span> performance is the manufacture of metal or ceramic scaffolds which are designed to allow for a well-defined placement of the <span class="hlt">fuel</span> into the host, and this in a manner that permits greater control than that possible in the production of typical CERMET <span class="hlt">fuels</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5929101','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5929101"><span id="translatedtitle">Aircraft wing <span class="hlt">fuel</span> tank environmental simulator tests for evaluation of antimisting <span class="hlt">fuels</span>. <span class="hlt">Final</span> report, September 1982-August 1984</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>McConnell, P.M.; Tolle, F.F.; Mehta, H.K.</p> <p>1984-10-01</p> <p>The low-temperature performance of antimisting kerosene (AMK) in airframe <span class="hlt">fuel</span> systems and in certain <span class="hlt">fuel</span> system components was studied and compared to Jet A <span class="hlt">fuel</span>. Water vapor ingested into <span class="hlt">fuel</span> tanks during simulation of repeated descents through clouds and rain had little effect on AMK. AMK retained antimisting properties during exposure to severe environmental flight simulations. Jet-pump and boost-pump operation had no discernible effect on AMK flammability. Jet-pump performance with AMK was adversely affected. Main <span class="hlt">fuel</span> boost pumps required up to 18% more power with AMK that with Jet A, and suction-feed performance was lower with ambient and -20/sup 0/C, but better than Jet A and -40/sup 0/C. Boost-pump performance was not affected by gel formations produced at low temperatures by the vapor-removal return flow shearing of AMK. Aerodynamic heating and cooling of AMK in the <span class="hlt">fuel</span> tank was similar to Jet A. A high-pressure pump and needle valve used to degrade the AMK was inadequate, resulting in filter bypass at low temperatures.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1072074','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1072074"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Final</span> Report: Materials and Modules for Low Cost, High Performance <span class="hlt">Fuel</span> Cell Humidifiers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Johnson, William B</p> <p>2012-12-31</p> <p> remain gas impermeable during 20,000 relative humidity (RH) cycles, unlike the closest competitive options that fail very rapidly. It does suffer from a loss of performance with time at temperature because of inherent properties of the PFSA polymer, but this degradation is manageable through relatively simple system design changes. The <span class="hlt">final</span> membrane of this program has been produced on manufacturing level equipment in a roll to roll form in the scale of hundreds of square meters. The process is readily scalable to automotive level volumes to allow production of a low-cost membrane required for this application. A full scale automotive air-to-air humidifier module has been designed, tested and built. The <span class="hlt">final</span> module meets the design specifications required for automotive <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cell use, and exceeds all the DOE 2017 targets for a cathode humidification module as determined in independent testing at Ford Motor Company. It has a small volume, less than 5 liters; a high water transfer rate, significantly greater than 5 g/s at the DOE specified conditions; acceptably low pressure drop; and is projected to maintain these properties over 5000 hours. Additionally, high volume cost projections suggest that the module can be produced for less than $100 per unit in a scale of 500,000 units per year.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20050196673','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20050196673"><span id="translatedtitle">Safer <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Materials Tested</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Palaszewski, Bryan A.</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>A series of thermally stable polymer samples were tested. These materials are called low heat release materials and are designed for aircraft interior decorative materials. The materials are designed to give off a minimum amount of noxious gases when heated, which increases the possibility that people can escape from a burning aircraft. New cabin materials have suitably low heat release so that fire does not spread, toxic chemicals are not given off, and the fire-emergency escape time for crew and passengers is lengthened. These low heat-release materials have a variety of advantages and applications: interiors for ground-based facilities, interiors of space vehicles, and many commercial fire-protection environments. A microscale combustion calorimeter at the Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Administration's (FAA) Technical Center tested NASA Langley Research Center materials samples. The calorimeter is shown. A sharp, quantitative, and reproducible heat-release-rate peak is obtained in the microscale heat-release-rate test. The newly tested NASA materials significantly reduced the heat release capacity and total heat release. The thermal stability and flammability behavior of the samples was very good. The new materials demonstrated a factor of 4 reduction in total heat release over ULTEM (a currently used material). This information is provided in the following barchart. In other tests, the materials showed greater than a factor 9 reduction in heat-release capacity over ULTEM. The newly tested materials were developed for low dielectric constant, low color, and good solubility. A scale up of the material samples is needed to determine the repeatability of the performance in larger samples. Larger panels composed of the best candidate materials will be tested in a larger scale FAA Technical Center fire facility. The NASA Glenn Research Center, Langley (Jeff Hinkley), and the FAA Technical Center (Richard Lyon) cooperatively tested these materials for the Accident Mitigation</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10178303','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10178303"><span id="translatedtitle">Ash cloud <span class="hlt">aviation</span> advisories</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Sullivan, T.J.; Ellis, J.S.; Schalk, W.W.; Nasstrom, J.S.</p> <p>1992-06-25</p> <p>During the recent (12--22 June 1991) Mount Pinatubo volcano eruptions, the US Air Force Global Weather Central (AFGWC) requested assistance of the US Department of Energy`s Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) in creating volcanic ash cloud <span class="hlt">aviation</span> advisories for the region of the Philippine Islands. Through application of its three-dimensional material transport and diffusion models using AFGWC meteorological analysis and forecast wind fields ARAC developed extensive analysis and 12-hourly forecast ash cloud position advisories extending to 48 hours for a period of five days. The advisories consisted of ``relative`` ash cloud concentrations in ten layers (surface-5,000 feet, 5,000--10,000 feet and every 10,000 feet to 90,000 feet). The ash was represented as a log-normal size distribution of 10--200 {mu}m diameter solid particles. Size-dependent ``ashfall`` was simulated over time as the eruption clouds dispersed. Except for an internal experimental attempt to model one of the Mount Redoubt, Alaska, eruptions (12/89), ARAC had no prior experience in modeling volcanic eruption ash hazards. For the cataclysmic eruption of 15--16 June, the complex three-dimensional atmospheric structure of the region produced dramatically divergent ash cloud patterns. The large eruptions (> 7--10 km) produced ash plume clouds with strong westward transport over the South China Sea, Southeast Asia, India and beyond. The low-level eruptions (< 7 km) and quasi-steady-state venting produced a plume which generally dispersed to the north and east throughout the support period. Modeling the sequence of eruptions presented a unique challenge. Although the initial approach proved viable, further refinement is necessary and possible. A distinct need exists to quantify eruptions consistently such that ``relative`` ash concentrations relate to specific <span class="hlt">aviation</span> hazard categories.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1012554','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1012554"><span id="translatedtitle">Powder Metallurgy of Uranium Alloy <span class="hlt">Fuels</span> for TRU-Burning Reactors <span class="hlt">Final</span> Technical Report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>McDeavitt, Sean M</p> <p>2011-04-29</p> <p>Overview Fast reactors were evaluated to enable the transmutation of transuranic isotopes generated by nuclear energy systems. The motivation for this was that TRU isotopes have high radiotoxicity and relatively long half-lives, making them unattractive for disposal in a long-term geologic repository. Fast reactors provide an efficient means to utilize the energy content of the TRUs while destroying them. An enabling technology that requires research and development is the fabrication metallic <span class="hlt">fuel</span> containing TRU isotopes using powder metallurgy methods. This project focused upon developing a powder metallurgical fabrication method to produce U-Zr-transuranic (TRU) alloys at relatively low processing temperatures (500ºC to 600ºC) using either hot extrusion or alpha-phase sintering for charecterization. Researchers quantified the fundamental aspects of both processing methods using surrogate metals to simulate the TRU elements. The process produced novel solutions to some of the issues relating to metallic <span class="hlt">fuels</span>, such as <span class="hlt">fuel</span>-cladding chemical interactions, <span class="hlt">fuel</span> swelling, volatility losses during casting, and casting mold material losses. Workscope There were two primary tasks associated with this project: 1. Hot working fabrication using mechanical alloying and extrusion • Design, fabricate, and assemble extrusion equipment • Extrusion database on DU metal • Extrusion database on U-10Zr alloys • Extrusion database on U-20xx-10Zr alloys • Evaluation and testing of tube sheath metals 2. Low-temperature sintering of U alloys • Design, fabricate, and assemble equipment • Sintering database on DU metal • Sintering database on U-10Zr alloys • Liquid assisted phase sintering on U-20xx-10Zr alloys Appendices Outline Appendix A contains a <span class="hlt">Fuel</span> Cycle Research & Development (FCR&D) poster and contact presentation where TAMU made primary contributions. Appendix B contains MSNE theses and <span class="hlt">final</span> defense presentations by David Garnetti and Grant Helmreich</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5556577','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5556577"><span id="translatedtitle">Decision-maker's guide to wood <span class="hlt">fuel</span> for small industrial energy users. <span class="hlt">Final</span> report. [Includes glossary</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Levi, M. P.; O'Grady, M. J.</p> <p>1980-02-01</p> <p>The technology and economics of various wood energy systems available to the small industrial and commercial energy user are considered. This book is designed to help a plant manager, engineer, or others in a decision-making role to become more familiar with wood <span class="hlt">fuel</span> systems and make informed decisions about switching to wood as a <span class="hlt">fuel</span>. The following subjects are discussed: wood combustion, pelletized wood, <span class="hlt">fuel</span> storage, <span class="hlt">fuel</span> handling and preparation, combustion equipment, retrofitting fossil-<span class="hlt">fueled</span> boilers, cogeneration, pollution abatement, and economic considerations of wood <span class="hlt">fuel</span> use. (MHR)</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_17 --> <div id="page_18" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="341"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10136824','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10136824"><span id="translatedtitle">Dimensional, microstructural and compositional stability of metal <span class="hlt">fuels</span>. <span class="hlt">Final</span> performance report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Solomon, A.A.; Dayananda, M.A.</p> <p>1993-03-15</p> <p>The projects undertaken were to address two areas of concern for metal-<span class="hlt">fueled</span> fast reactors: metallurgical compatibility of <span class="hlt">fuel</span> and its fission products with the stainless steel cladding, and effects of porosity development in the <span class="hlt">fuel</span> on <span class="hlt">fuel</span>/cladding interactions and on sodium penetration in <span class="hlt">fuel</span>. The following studies are reported on extensively in appendices: hot isostatic pressing of U-10Zr by coupled boundary diffusion/power law creep cavitation, liquid Na intrusion into porous U-10Zr <span class="hlt">fuel</span> alloy by differential capillarity, interdiffusion between U-Zr <span class="hlt">fuel</span> and selected Fe-Ni-Cr alloys, interdiffusion between U-Zr <span class="hlt">fuel</span> vs selected cladding steels, and interdiffusion of Ce in Fe-base alloys with Ni or Cr.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3zF7BfJtBtA','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3zF7BfJtBtA"><span id="translatedtitle">Solving <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Challenges</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.nasa.gov/multimedia/videogallery/index.html">NASA Video Gallery</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>This video highlights the challenges NASA aeronautics researchers are tackling to reduce aircraft noise, emissions, <span class="hlt">fuel</span> consumption, and the innovative ways they're helping to debut NextGen, a rev...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19790005879','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19790005879"><span id="translatedtitle">NASA <span class="hlt">aviation</span> safety reporting system</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1978-01-01</p> <p>A sample of reports relating to operations during winter weather is presented. Several reports involving problems of judgment and decisionmaking have been selected from the numerous reports representative of this area. Problems related to aeronautical charts are discussed in a number of reports. An analytic study of reports involving potential conflicts in the immediate vicinity of uncontrolled airports was performed; the results are discussed in this report. It was found that in three-fourths of 127 such conflicts, neither pilot, or only one of the pilots, was communicating position and intentions on the appropriate frequency. The importance of providing aural transfer of information, as a backup to the visual see and avoid mode of information transfer is discussed. It was also found that a large fraction of pilots involved in potential conflicts on <span class="hlt">final</span> approach had executed straight-in approaches, rather than the recommended traffic pattern entries, prior to the conflicts. A selection of alert bulletins and responses to them by various segments of the <span class="hlt">aviation</span> community is presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120002710','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120002710"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Fuel</span> Burn Estimation Using Real Track Data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Chatterji, Gano B.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>A procedure for estimating <span class="hlt">fuel</span> burned based on actual flight track data, and drag and <span class="hlt">fuel</span>-flow models is described. The procedure consists of estimating aircraft and wind states, lift, drag and thrust. <span class="hlt">Fuel</span>-flow for jet aircraft is determined in terms of thrust, true airspeed and altitude as prescribed by the Base of Aircraft Data <span class="hlt">fuel</span>-flow model. This paper provides a theoretical foundation for computing <span class="hlt">fuel</span>-flow with most of the information derived from actual flight data. The procedure does not require an explicit model of thrust and calibrated airspeed/Mach profile which are typically needed for trajectory synthesis. To validate the <span class="hlt">fuel</span> computation method, flight test data provided by the Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Administration were processed. Results from this method show that <span class="hlt">fuel</span> consumed can be estimated within 1% of the actual <span class="hlt">fuel</span> consumed in the flight test. Next, <span class="hlt">fuel</span> consumption was estimated with simplified lift and thrust models. Results show negligible difference with respect to the full model without simplifications. An iterative takeoff weight estimation procedure is described for estimating <span class="hlt">fuel</span> consumption, when takeoff weight is unavailable, and for establishing <span class="hlt">fuel</span> consumption uncertainty bounds. <span class="hlt">Finally</span>, the suitability of using radar-based position information for <span class="hlt">fuel</span> estimation is examined. It is shown that <span class="hlt">fuel</span> usage could be estimated within 5.4% of the actual value using positions reported in the Airline Situation Display to Industry data with simplified models and iterative takeoff weight computation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6151586','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6151586"><span id="translatedtitle">Vegetable oils as an on the farm diesel <span class="hlt">fuel</span> substitute: the North Carolina situation. <span class="hlt">Final</span> report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Harwood, H.J.</p> <p>1981-06-01</p> <p>The state-of-the-art of using vegetable oil as a diesel <span class="hlt">fuel</span> alternative is reviewed. Particular emphasis has been placed on using vegetable oil in farm vehicles as an emergency <span class="hlt">fuel</span> which may be produced on-farm. The following are reviewed: the mechanical feasibility, on-farm <span class="hlt">fuel</span> production, and economic analysis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110012013','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110012013"><span id="translatedtitle">Experimental and Modeling Studies of the Combustion Characteristics of Conventional and Alternative Jet <span class="hlt">Fuels</span>. <span class="hlt">Final</span> Report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Meeks, Ellen; Naik, Chitral V.; Puduppakkam, Karthik V.; Modak, Abhijit; Egolfopoulos, Fokion N.; Tsotsis, Theo; Westbrook, Charles K.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>The objectives of this project have been to develop a comprehensive set of fundamental data regarding the combustion behavior of jet <span class="hlt">fuels</span> and appropriately associated model <span class="hlt">fuels</span>. Based on the fundamental study results, an auxiliary objective was to identify differentiating characteristics of molecular <span class="hlt">fuel</span> components that can be used to explain different <span class="hlt">fuel</span> behavior and that may ultimately be used in the planning and design of optimal <span class="hlt">fuel</span>-production processes. The <span class="hlt">fuels</span> studied in this project were Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) <span class="hlt">fuels</span> and biomass-derived jet <span class="hlt">fuels</span> that meet certain specifications of currently used jet propulsion applications. Prior to this project, there were no systematic experimental flame data available for such <span class="hlt">fuels</span>. One of the key goals has been to generate such data, and to use this data in developing and verifying effective kinetic models. The models have then been reduced through automated means to enable multidimensional simulation of the combustion characteristics of such <span class="hlt">fuels</span> in real combustors. Such reliable kinetic models, validated against fundamental data derived from laminar flames using idealized flow models, are key to the development and design of optimal combustors and <span class="hlt">fuels</span>. The models provide direct information about the relative contribution of different molecular constituents to the <span class="hlt">fuel</span> performance and can be used to assess both combustion and emissions characteristics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1130465','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1130465"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Fuel</span> Cell-Powered Lift Truck Fleet Deployment Projects <span class="hlt">Final</span> Technical Report May 2014</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Klingler, James J</p> <p>2014-05-06</p> <p>The overall objectives of this project were to evaluate the performance, operability and safety of fork lift trucks powered by <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cells in large distribution centers. This was accomplished by replacing the batteries in over 350 lift trucks with <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cells at five distribution centers operated by GENCO. The annual cost savings of lift trucks powered by <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cell power units was between $2,400 and $5,300 per truck compared to battery powered lift trucks, excluding DOE contributions. The greatest savings were in <span class="hlt">fueling</span> labor costs where a <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cell powered lift truck could be <span class="hlt">fueled</span> in a few minutes per day compared to over an hour for battery powered lift trucks which required removal and replacement of batteries. Lift truck operators where generally very satisfied with the performance of the <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cell power units, primarily because there was no reduction in power over the duration of a shift as experienced with battery powered lift trucks. The operators also appreciated the fast and easy <span class="hlt">fueling</span> compared to the effort and potential risk of injury associated with switching heavy batteries in and out of lift trucks. There were no safety issues with the <span class="hlt">fueling</span> or operation of the <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cells. Although maintenance costs for the <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cells were higher than for batteries, these costs are expected to decrease significantly in the next generation of <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cells, making them even more cost effective.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19770017132','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19770017132"><span id="translatedtitle">NASA <span class="hlt">aviation</span> safety reporting system</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1977-01-01</p> <p>During the third quarter of operation of the <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Safety Reporting System (ASRS), 1429 reports concerning <span class="hlt">aviation</span> safety were received from pilots, air traffic controllers, and others in the national <span class="hlt">aviation</span> system. Details of the administration and results of the program are discussed. The design and construction of the ASRS data base are briefly presented. Altitude deviations and potential aircraft conflicts associated with misunderstood clearances were studied and the results are discussed. Summary data regarding alert bulletins, examples of alert bulletins and responses to them, and a sample of deidentified ASRS reports are provided.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19770021116','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19770021116"><span id="translatedtitle">Agricultural <span class="hlt">aviation</span> user requirement priorities</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Kaplan, R. L.; Meeland, T.; Peterson, J. E.</p> <p>1977-01-01</p> <p>The results are given of a research project pertaining to the development of agricultural <span class="hlt">aviation</span> user requirement priorities. The raw data utilized in the project was obtained from the National Agricultural <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Association. A specially configured poll, developed by the Actuarial Research Corporation was used to solicit responses from NAAA members and others. The primary product of the poll is the specification of seriousness as determined by the respondents for some selected agricultural <span class="hlt">aviation</span> problem areas identified and defined during the course of an intensive analysis by the Actuarial Research Corporation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20010081950','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20010081950"><span id="translatedtitle">AWE: <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Weather Data Visualization</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Spirkovska, Lilly; Lodha, Suresh K.</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>The two official sources for <span class="hlt">aviation</span> weather reports both require the pilot to mentally visualize the provided information. In contrast, our system, <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Weather Environment (AWE) presents <span class="hlt">aviation</span> specific weather available to pilots in an easy to visualize form. We start with a computer-generated textual briefing for a specific area. We map this briefing onto a grid specific to the pilot's route that includes only information relevant to his flight route that includes only information relevant to his flight as defined by route, altitude, true airspeed, and proposed departure time. By modifying various parameters, the pilot can use AWE as a planning tool as well as a weather briefing tool.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1053951','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1053951"><span id="translatedtitle">Crude Glycerol as Cost-Effective <span class="hlt">Fuel</span> for Combined Heat and Power to Replace Fossil <span class="hlt">Fuels</span>, <span class="hlt">Final</span> Technical Report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Roberts, William L</p> <p>2012-10-31</p> <p>The primary objectives of this work can be summed into two major categories. Firstly, the fundamentals of the combustion of glycerol (in both a refined and unrefined form) were to be investigated, with emphasis of the development of a system capable of reliably and repeatedly combusting glycerol as well as an analysis of the emissions produced during glycerol combustion. Focus was placed on quantifying common emissions in comparison to more traditional <span class="hlt">fuels</span> and this work showed that the burner developed was able to completely combust glycerol within a relatively wide range of operating conditions. Additionally, focus was placed on examining specific emissions in more detail, namely interesting NOx emissions observed in initial trials, acrolein and other volatile organic emissions, and particulate and ash emissions. This work showed that the combustion of crude glycerol could result in significantly reduced NOx emissions as a function of the high <span class="hlt">fuel</span> bound oxygen content within the glycerol <span class="hlt">fuel</span>. It also showed that when burned properly, the combustion of crude glycerol did not result in excessive emissions of acrolein or any other VOC compared to the combustion from more traditional <span class="hlt">fuels</span>. Lastly however, this work has shown that in any practical application in which glycerol is being burned, it will be necessary to explore ash mitigation techniques due to the very high particulate matter concentrations produced during glycerol combustion. These emissions are comparable to unfiltered coal combustion and are directly tied to the biodiesel production method. The second focus of this work was directed to developing a commercialization strategy for the use of glycerol as a <span class="hlt">fuel</span> replacement. This strategy has identified a 30 month plan for the scaling up of the laboratory scale burner into a pre-pilot scale system. Additionally, financing options were explored and an assessment was made of the economics of replacing a traditional <span class="hlt">fuel</span> (namely natural gas) with crude</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-12-02/pdf/2013-28720.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-12-02/pdf/2013-28720.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">78 FR 72141 - <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Rulemaking Advisory Committee; Meeting</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-12-02</p> <p>... Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Administration <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Rulemaking Advisory Committee; Meeting AGENCY: Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Rulemaking Advisory Committee (ARAC) meeting. SUMMARY: The... December 12, 2013. ADDRESSES: The meeting will take place at the Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Administration,...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-09-30/pdf/2010-24538.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-09-30/pdf/2010-24538.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">75 FR 60493 - <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Rulemaking Advisory Committee; Renewal</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-09-30</p> <p>... Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Administration <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Rulemaking Advisory Committee; Renewal AGENCY: Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span>... Regulations, the FAA gives notice it has renewed the <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Rulemaking Advisory Committee (ARAC) for a 2..., Executive Director, <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Rulemaking Advisory Committee. BILLING CODE 4910-13-P...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-06-06/pdf/2013-13335.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-06-06/pdf/2013-13335.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">78 FR 34139 - <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Rulemaking Advisory Committee; Meeting</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-06-06</p> <p>... Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Administration <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Rulemaking Advisory Committee; Meeting AGENCY: Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Rulemaking Advisory Committee (ARAC) meeting. SUMMARY: The... 13, 2013. ADDRESSES: The meeting will take place at the Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Administration,...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/938433','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/938433"><span id="translatedtitle">Reactor Physics and Criticality Benchmark Evaluations for Advanced Nuclear <span class="hlt">Fuel</span> - <span class="hlt">Final</span> Technical Report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>William Anderson; James Tulenko; Bradley Rearden; Gary Harms</p> <p>2008-09-11</p> <p>The nuclear industry interest in advanced <span class="hlt">fuel</span> and reactor design often drives towards <span class="hlt">fuel</span> with uranium enrichments greater than 5 wt% 235U. Unfortunately, little data exists, in the form of reactor physics and criticality benchmarks, for uranium enrichments ranging between 5 and 10 wt% 235U. The primary purpose of this project is to provide benchmarks for <span class="hlt">fuel</span> similar to what may be required for advanced light water reactors (LWRs). These experiments will ultimately provide additional information for application to the criticality-safety bases for commercial <span class="hlt">fuel</span> facilities handling greater than 5 wt% 235U <span class="hlt">fuel</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5659238','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5659238"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Fuel</span> models to predict fire behavior in untreated conifer slash. Forest Service research note (<span class="hlt">final</span>)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Salazar, L.A.; Bevins, C.D.</p> <p>1984-11-01</p> <p>Fire behavior in untreated slash of nine conifer species was simulated for 10 successive years after logging. Two aging factors that affect fire behavior--<span class="hlt">fuel</span> bed compaction and foliage retention--were modeled by least squares regression techniques. On the basis of spread rate and flame length for a set of weather observations, standard Northern Forest Fire Laboratory <span class="hlt">fuel</span> models were chosen to predict fire behavior for aging slash of each species at three initial <span class="hlt">fuel</span> loadings. Differences in the standard <span class="hlt">fuel</span> model sequences best representing aging process among species were most influenced by foliage surface-area-to-volume ratio, and such differences increased as initial <span class="hlt">fuel</span> load increased.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6910422','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6910422"><span id="translatedtitle">Biomass <span class="hlt">Fuel</span> Characterization : Testing and Evaluating the Combustion Characteristics of Selected Biomass <span class="hlt">Fuels</span> : <span class="hlt">Final</span> Report May 1, 1988-July, 1989.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Bushnell, Dwight J.; Haluzok, Charles; Dadkhah-Nikoo, Abbas</p> <p>1990-04-01</p> <p>Results show that two very important measures of combustion efficiency (gas temperature and carbon dioxide based efficiency) varied by only 5.2 and 5.4 percent respectively. This indicates that all nine different wood <span class="hlt">fuel</span> pellet types behave very similarly under the prescribed range of operating parameters. The overall mean efficiency for all tests was 82.1 percent and the overall mean temperature was 1420 1{degree}F. Particulate (fly ash) ad combustible (in fly ash) data should the greatest variability. There was evidence of a relationship between maximum values for both particulate and combustible and the percentages of ash and chlorine in the pellet <span class="hlt">fuel</span>. The greater the percentage of ash and chlorine (salt), the greater was the fly ash problem, also, combustion efficiency was decreased by combustible losses (unburned hydrocarbons) in the fly ash. Carbon monoxide and Oxides of Nitrogen showed the next greatest variability, but neither had data values greater than 215.0 parts per million (215.0 ppm is a very small quantity, i.e. 1 ppm = .001 grams/liter = 6.2E-5 1bm/ft{sup 3}). Visual evidence indicates that pellets <span class="hlt">fuels</span> produced from salt laden material are corrosive, produce the largest quantities of ash, and form the only slag or clinker formations of all nine <span class="hlt">fuels</span>. The corrosion is directly attributable to salt content (or more specifically, chloride ions and compounds formed during combustion). 45 refs., 23 figs., 19 tabs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/908342','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/908342"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Final</span> Technical Report: Residential <span class="hlt">Fuel</span> Cell Demonstration by the Delaware County Electric Cooperative, Inc.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Mark Hilson Schneider</p> <p>2007-06-06</p> <p>This demonstration project contributes to the knowledge base in the area of <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cells in stationary applications, propane <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cells, edge-of-grid applications for <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cells, and energy storage in combination with <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cells. The project demonstrated that it is technically feasible to meet the whole-house electrical energy needs of a typical upstate New York residence with a 5-kW <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cell in combination with in-home energy storage without any major modifications to the residence or modifications to the consumption patterns of the residents of the home. The use of a <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cell at constant output power through a 120-Volt inverter leads to system performance issues including: • relatively poor power quality as quantified by the IEEE-defined short term flicker parameter • relatively low overall system efficiency Each of these issues is discussed in detail in the text of this report. The <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cell performed well over the 1-year demonstration period in terms of availability and efficiency of conversion from chemical energy (propane) to electrical energy at the <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cell output terminals. Another strength of <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cell performance in the demonstration was the low requirements for maintenance and repair on the <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cell. The project uncovered a new and important installation consideration for propane <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cells. Alcohol added to new propane storage tanks is preferentially absorbed on the surface of some <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cell reformer desulfurization filters. The experience on this project indicates that special attention must be paid to the volume and composition of propane tank additives. Size, composition, and replacement schedules for the de-sulfurization filter bed should be adjusted to account for propane tank additives to avoid sulfur poisoning of <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cell stacks. Despite good overall technical performance of the <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cell and the whole energy system, the demonstration showed that such a system is not economically feasible as compared to other commercially available</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5540713','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5540713"><span id="translatedtitle">Feasibility study of utilization of degummed soybean oil as a substitute for diesel <span class="hlt">fuel</span>. Biomass alternative <span class="hlt">fuels</span> program. <span class="hlt">Final</span> report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Not Available</p> <p>1981-11-01</p> <p>The purpose of this project was to determine the economic and technological feasibility of producing a diesel oil substitute or extender from soybean oil. Existing technology was reviewed, to determine the minimum modification necessary for production of an acceptable <span class="hlt">fuel</span> product. The information developed indicated that the degummed soybean oil produced by existing processing plants is theoretically suitable for use as a diesel <span class="hlt">fuel</span> extender. This situation is very favorable to early commercialization of degummed soybean oil as a diesel <span class="hlt">fuel</span> extender during the 1980's. Moreover, a large energy gain is realized when the soybean oil is utilized as <span class="hlt">fuel</span>. Its heat of combustion is reported as 16,920 Btu per pound, or 130,000 Btu per gallon. Production of soybean oil consumes between 3000 and 5000 Btu per pound or 23,000 and 39,000 Btu per gallon. A resource availability study disclosed that the southeastern region of the United States produces approximately 260 million bushels of soybeans per year. In the same general area, fourteen extraction plants are operating, with a combined annual capacity of approximately 200 million bushels. Thus, regional production is sufficient to support the extraction capacity. Using an average figure of 1.5 gallons of oil per bushel of soybeans gives annual regional oil production of approximately 300 million gallons. An engine test plan was developed and implemented in this project. Data provide a preliminary indication that the blend containing one-third degummed soybean oil and two-thirds No. 2 diesel oil performed satisfactorily. Long term operation on the 50-50 blend is questionable. Detailed data and observations appear in the body of the report. The study also presents detailed engineering, financial, marketing, management and implementation plans for production of the proposed <span class="hlt">fuel</span> blend, as well as a complete analysis of impacts. 4 references, 55 figures, 56 tables.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010ACP....10.6391W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010ACP....10.6391W"><span id="translatedtitle">Analysis of emission data from global commercial <span class="hlt">aviation</span>: 2004 and 2006</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wilkerson, J. T.; Jacobson, M. Z.; Malwitz, A.; Balasubramanian, S.; Wayson, R.; Fleming, G.; Naiman, A. D.; Lele, S. K.</p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>The global commercial aircraft fleet in 2006 flew 31.26 million flights, burned 188.20 million metric tons of <span class="hlt">fuel</span>, and covered 38.68 billion kilometers. This activity emitted substantial amounts of fossil-<span class="hlt">fuel</span> combustion products within the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere that affect atmospheric composition and climate. The emissions products, such as carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, sulfur compounds, and particulate matter, are not emitted uniformly over the Earth, so understanding the temporal and spatial distributions is important for modeling <span class="hlt">aviation</span>'s climate impacts. Global commercial aircraft emission data for 2004 and 2006, provided by the Volpe National Transportation Systems Center, were computed using the Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Administration's <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Environmental Design Tool (AEDT). Continuous improvement in methodologies, including changes in AEDT's horizontal track methodologies, and an increase in availability of data make some differences between the 2004 and 2006 inventories incomparable. Furthermore, the 2004 inventory contained a significant over-count due to an imperfect data merge and daylight savings error. As a result, the 2006 emissions inventory is considered more representative of actual flight activity. Here, we analyze both 2004 and 2006 emissions, focusing on the latter, and provide corrected totals for 2004. Analysis of 2006 flight data shows that 92.5% of <span class="hlt">fuel</span> was burned in the Northern Hemisphere, 69.0% between 30N and 60N latitudes, and 74.6% was burned above 7 km. This activity led to 162.25 Tg of carbon from CO2 emitted globally in 2006, more than half over three regions: the United States (25.5%), Europe (14.6), and East Asia (11.1). Despite receiving less than one percent of global emissions, the Arctic receives a uniformly dispersed concentration of emissions with 95.2% released at altitude where they have longer residence time than surface emissions. <span class="hlt">Finally</span>, 85.2% of all flights by number in 2006</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_18 --> <div id="page_19" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="361"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6234018','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6234018"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Fuel</span>-conservation evaluation of US Army helicopters. Part 6. Performance calculator evaluation. <span class="hlt">Final</span> report for period ending January 1981</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Dominick, F.; Lockwood, R.A.</p> <p>1986-07-01</p> <p>The US Army <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Engineering Flight Activity conducted an evaluation of Flight Management Calculator for the UH-1H. The calculator was a Hewlett-Packard HP-41CV. The performance calculator was evaluated for flight planning and in-flight use during 14 mission flights simulating operational conditions. The calculator was much easier to use in-flight than the operator's manual data. The calculator program needs improvement in the areas of pre-flight planning and execution speed. The mission flights demonstrated a 19% <span class="hlt">fuel</span> saving using optimum over normal flight profiles in warm temperatures (15/sup 0/C above standard). Savings would be greater at colder temperatures because of increasing compressibility effects. Acceptable accuracy for individual aircraft under operational conditions may require a regressive analog model in which individual aircraft data are used to update the program. The performance data base for the UH-1H was expanded with level flight and hover data to thrust coefficients and Mach numbers to the practical limits of aircraft operation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=SSC-2007-00060&hterms=kiln&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dkiln','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=SSC-2007-00060&hterms=kiln&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dkiln"><span id="translatedtitle">PRCC <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Students</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne's Jeff Hansell, right, explains functions of a space shuttle main engine to Pearl River Community College <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Maintenance Technology Program students. Christopher Bryon, left, of Bay St. Louis, Ret Tolar of Kiln, Dan Holston of Baxterville and Billy Zugg of Long Beach took a recent tour of the SSME Processing Facility and the E-1 Test Complex at Stennis Space Center in South Mississippi. The students attend class adjacent to the Stennis International Airport tarmac in Kiln, where they get hands-on experience. PRCC's program prepares students to be responsible for the inspection, repair and maintenance of technologically advanced aircraft. A contractor to NASA, Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne in Canoga Park, Calif., manufactures the space shuttle main engine and its high-pressure turbo pumps. SSC was established in the 1960s to test the huge engines for the Saturn V moon rockets. Now 40 years later, the center tests every main engine for the space shuttle, and is America's largest rocket engine test complex. SSC will soon begin testing the rocket engines that will power spacecraft carrying Americans back to the moon and on to Mars.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930091330','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930091330"><span id="translatedtitle">Friction of <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Engines</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Sparrow, S W; Thorne, M A</p> <p>1928-01-01</p> <p>The first portion of this report discusses measurements of friction made in the altitude laboratory of the Bureau of Standards between 1920 and 1926 under research authorization of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics. These are discussed with reference to the influence of speed, barometric pressure, jacket-water temperature, and throttle opening upon the friction of <span class="hlt">aviation</span> engines. The second section of the report deals with measurements of the friction of a group of pistons differing from each other in a single respect, such as length, clearance, area of thrust face, location of thrust face, etc. Results obtained with each type of piston are discussed and attention is directed particularly to the fact that the friction chargeable to piston rings depends upon piston design as well as upon ring design. This is attributed to the effect of the rings upon the thickness and distribution of the oil film which in turn affects the friction of the piston to an extent which depends upon its design.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Yfr6WDFN7d0','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Yfr6WDFN7d0"><span id="translatedtitle">Accelerating to New <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Horizons</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.nasa.gov/multimedia/videogallery/index.html">NASA Video Gallery</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>NASA has a 10-year plan to accelerate <span class="hlt">aviation</span> research that includes the design, build and flight of a series of piloted X-planes -- experimental aircraft -- which will test advanced technologies ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED388252.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED388252.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">A Hypermedia Information System for <span class="hlt">Aviation</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Hartzell, Karin M.</p> <p></p> <p>The Hypermedia Information System (HIS) is being developed under the auspices of the Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Administration (FAA) Office of <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Medicine's (AAM) Human Factors in <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Maintenance (HFAM) research program. The goal of the hypermedia project is to create new tools and methods for <span class="hlt">aviation</span>-related information storage and retrieval.…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Aviation&pg=3&id=EJ634233','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Aviation&pg=3&id=EJ634233"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Aviation</span>. Career Focus, Volume 3, No. 4.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Reese, Susan</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>This special section on <span class="hlt">aviation</span> careers describes the programs of Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University, the Metro Tech <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Career Campus in Oklahoma City, the <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Technology Center at Vincennes University in Indianapolis, and the Miami-Dade Community College's Eig-Watson School of <span class="hlt">Aviation</span>. (JOW)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10422','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10422"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Final</span> Report - Spent Nuclear <span class="hlt">Fuel</span> Retrieval System Manipulator System Cold Validation Testing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>D.R. Jackson; G.R. Kiebel</p> <p>1999-08-24</p> <p>Manipulator system cold validation testing (CVT) was performed in support of the <span class="hlt">Fuel</span> Retrieval System (FRS) Sub-Project, a subtask of the Spent Nuclear <span class="hlt">Fuel</span> Project at the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. The FRS will be used to retrieve and repackage K-Basin Spent Nuclear <span class="hlt">Fuel</span> (SNF) currently stored in old K-Plant storage basins. The FRS is required to retrieve full <span class="hlt">fuel</span> canisters from the basin; clean the <span class="hlt">fuel</span> elements inside the canister to remove excessive uranium corrosion products (or sludge); remove the contents from the canisters; and sort the resulting debris, scrap, and <span class="hlt">fuel</span> for repackaging. The <span class="hlt">fuel</span> elements and scrap will be collected in <span class="hlt">fuel</span> storage and scrap baskets in preparation for loading into a multi canister overpack (MCO), while the debris is loaded into a debris bin and disposed of as solid waste. The FRS is composed of three major subsystems. The Manipulator Subsystem provides remote handling of <span class="hlt">fuel</span>, scrap, and debris; the In-Pool Equipment subsystem performs cleaning of <span class="hlt">fuel</span> and provides a work surface for handling materials; and the Remote Viewing Subsystem provides for remote viewing of the work area by operators. There are two complete and identical FRS systems, one to be installed in the K-West basin and one to be installed in the K-East basin. Another partial system will be installed in a cold test facility to provide for operator training.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10178009','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10178009"><span id="translatedtitle">Economic feasibility analysis of distributed electric power generation based upon the natural gas-fired <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cell. <span class="hlt">Final</span> report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Not Available</p> <p>1994-03-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">final</span> report provides a summary of results of the Cost of Ownership Model and the circumstances under which a distributed <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cell is economically viable. The analysis is based on a series of micro computer models estimate the capital and operations cost of a <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cell central utility plant configuration. Using a survey of thermal and electrical demand profiles, the study defines a series of energy user classes. The energy user class demand requirements are entered into the central utility plant model to define the required size the <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cell capacity and all supporting equipment. The central plant model includes provisions that enables the analyst to select optional plant features that are most appropriate to a <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cell application, and that are cost effective. The model permits the choice of system features that would be suitable for a large condominium complex or a residential institution such as a hotel, boarding school or prison. Other applications are also practical; however, such applications have a higher relative demand for thermal energy, a characteristic that is well-suited to a <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cell application with its free source of hot water or steam. The analysis combines the capital and operation from the preceding models into a Cost of Ownership Model to compute the plant capital and operating costs as a function of capacity and principal features and compares these estimates to the estimated operating cost of the same central plant configuration without a <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cell.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17855219','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17855219"><span id="translatedtitle">The engineering options for mitigating the climate impacts of <span class="hlt">aviation</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Williams, Victoria</p> <p>2007-12-15</p> <p><span class="hlt">Aviation</span> is a growing contributor to climate change, with unique impacts due to the altitude of emissions. If existing traffic growth rates continue, radical engineering solutions will be required to prevent <span class="hlt">aviation</span> becoming one of the dominant contributors to climate change. This paper reviews the engineering options for mitigating the climate impacts of <span class="hlt">aviation</span> using aircraft and airspace technologies. These options include not only improvements in <span class="hlt">fuel</span> efficiency, which would reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, but also measures to reduce non-CO2 impacts including the formation of persistent contrails. Integrated solutions to optimize environmental performance will require changes to airframes, engines, avionics, air traffic control systems and airspace design. While market-based measures, such as offset schemes and emissions trading, receive growing attention, this paper sets out the crucial role of engineering in the challenge to develop a 'green air traffic system'.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17855219','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17855219"><span id="translatedtitle">The engineering options for mitigating the climate impacts of <span class="hlt">aviation</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Williams, Victoria</p> <p>2007-12-15</p> <p><span class="hlt">Aviation</span> is a growing contributor to climate change, with unique impacts due to the altitude of emissions. If existing traffic growth rates continue, radical engineering solutions will be required to prevent <span class="hlt">aviation</span> becoming one of the dominant contributors to climate change. This paper reviews the engineering options for mitigating the climate impacts of <span class="hlt">aviation</span> using aircraft and airspace technologies. These options include not only improvements in <span class="hlt">fuel</span> efficiency, which would reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, but also measures to reduce non-CO2 impacts including the formation of persistent contrails. Integrated solutions to optimize environmental performance will require changes to airframes, engines, avionics, air traffic control systems and airspace design. While market-based measures, such as offset schemes and emissions trading, receive growing attention, this paper sets out the crucial role of engineering in the challenge to develop a 'green air traffic system'. PMID:17855219</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70017724','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70017724"><span id="translatedtitle">Volcanic hazards and <span class="hlt">aviation</span> safety</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Casadevall, Thomas J.; Thompson, Theodore B.; Ewert, John W.; ,</p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>An aeronautical chart was developed to determine the relative proximity of volcanoes or ash clouds to the airports and flight corridors that may be affected by volcanic debris. The map aims to inform and increase awareness about the close spatial relationship between volcanoes and <span class="hlt">aviation</span> operations. It shows the locations of the active volcanoes together with selected aeronautical navigation aids and great-circle routes. The map mitigates the threat that volcanic hazards pose to aircraft and improves <span class="hlt">aviation</span> safety.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20010027423','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20010027423"><span id="translatedtitle">General <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Aircraft Reliability Study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Pettit, Duane; Turnbull, Andrew; Roelant, Henk A. (Technical Monitor)</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>This reliability study was performed in order to provide the <span class="hlt">aviation</span> community with an estimate of Complex General <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> (GA) Aircraft System reliability. To successfully improve the safety and reliability for the next generation of GA aircraft, a study of current GA aircraft attributes was prudent. This was accomplished by benchmarking the reliability of operational Complex GA Aircraft Systems. Specifically, Complex GA Aircraft System reliability was estimated using data obtained from the logbooks of a random sample of the Complex GA Aircraft population.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-09-29/pdf/2010-24367.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-09-29/pdf/2010-24367.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">75 FR 60163 - The Future of <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Advisory Committee (FAAC) <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Safety Subcommittee; Notice of Meeting</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-09-29</p> <p>... Office of the Secretary of Transportation The Future of <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Advisory Committee (FAAC) <span class="hlt">Aviation</span>... of Transportation. ACTION: The Future of <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Advisory Committee (FAAC): <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Safety... Transportation, announces a meeting of the FAAC <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Safety Subcommittee, which will be held October 19,...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-07-30/pdf/2010-18722.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-07-30/pdf/2010-18722.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">75 FR 44998 - The Future of <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Advisory Committee (FAAC) <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Safety Subcommittee; Notice of Meeting</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-07-30</p> <p>... Office of the Secretary of Transportation The Future of <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Advisory Committee (FAAC) <span class="hlt">Aviation</span>... of Transportation. ACTION: The Future of <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Advisory Committee (FAAC): <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Safety... Transportation, announces a meeting of the FAAC <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Safety Subcommittee, which will be held August 24,...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-09-17/pdf/2010-23205.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-09-17/pdf/2010-23205.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">75 FR 57103 - The Future of <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Advisory Committee (FAAC) <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Safety Subcommittee; Notice of Meeting</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-09-17</p> <p>... Office of the Secretary of Transportation The Future of <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Advisory Committee (FAAC) <span class="hlt">Aviation</span>... of Transportation. ACTION: The Future of <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Advisory Committee (FAAC): <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Safety... Transportation, announces a meeting of the FAAC <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Safety Subcommittee, which will be held September...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-02-02/pdf/2010-2134.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-02-02/pdf/2010-2134.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">75 FR 5234 - Procedures for Reimbursement of General <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Operators and Service Providers in the...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-02-02</p> <p>...This <span class="hlt">final</span> rule removes a DOT rule, Procedures for Reimbursement of General <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Operators and Service Providers in the Washington, DC Area, 14 CFR Part 331. This rule is being removed because all reimbursements under the program have been made and all program activities completed. The rule established procedures to reimburse eligible fixed-based general <span class="hlt">aviation</span> operators and providers of......</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-08-05/pdf/2010-19073.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-08-05/pdf/2010-19073.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">75 FR 47176 - Special Conditions: Dassault <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Model Falcon 7X; Enhanced Flight Visibility System (EFVS)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-08-05</p> <p>...; Enhanced Flight Visibility System (EFVS) AGENCY: Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: <span class="hlt">Final</span>... Dassault <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Model Falcon 7X airplanes. This airplane will have an advanced, enhanced flight...-numeric and symbolic flight information. However, the term has also commonly refers to systems...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/83028','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/83028"><span id="translatedtitle">European <span class="hlt">Fuel</span> Cells R&D Review. <span class="hlt">Final</span> report, Purchase Order No. 062014</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Michael, P.D.; Maguire, J.</p> <p>1994-09-01</p> <p>Aim of the Review is to present a statement on the status of <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cell development in Europe, addressing the research, development and demonstration (RD&D) and commercialization activities being undertaken, identifying key European organizations active in development and commercialization of <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cells and detailing their future plans. This document describes the RD&D activities in Europe on alkaline, phosphoric acid, polymer electrolyte, direct methanol, solid oxide, and molten carbonate <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cell types. It describes the European Commission`s activities, its role in the European development of <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cells, and its interaction with the national programs. It then presents a country-by-country breakdown. For each country, an overview is given, presented by <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cell type. Scandinavian countries are covered in less detail. American organizations active in Europe, either in supplying <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cell components, or in collaboration, are identified. Applications include transportation and cogeneration.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6919063','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6919063"><span id="translatedtitle">Synthetic and alternate <span class="hlt">fuels</span> characterization. <span class="hlt">Final</span> report, 31 August 1981-31 January 1988</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Griest, W.H.; Guerin, M.R.; Smith, L.H.; Witschi, H.P.; Higgins, C.E.</p> <p>1988-02-01</p> <p>Diesel <span class="hlt">fuels</span> derived from petroleum and synthetic sources were compared chemically and toxicologically to address the issue of whether a changeover of mobility <span class="hlt">fuels</span> from natural to synthetic sources might be accompanied by greater or different toxicological hazards to military personnel. Diesel <span class="hlt">fuels</span> derived from petroleum, shale oil, tar sands, and tar sands/petroleum coprocessing were compared for major organic composition, 4-6 ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon dermal tumorigens, major organic compounds in their inhalable volatiles, mouse dermal tumorigenicity and promoting activity. The data base was expanded by a similar comparison of petroleum- and coal-derived <span class="hlt">fuels</span> for the U.S. Department of Energy (USDOE). The results suggest that highly refined and finished mobility <span class="hlt">fuels</span> from synthetic or alternate sources will not pose a significantly greater toxicological hazard than current petroleum-based <span class="hlt">fuels</span>. Toxicological differences are likely to be subtle.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6895491','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6895491"><span id="translatedtitle">Synthetic and alternate <span class="hlt">fuels</span> characterization: <span class="hlt">Final</span> report (August 31, 1988-January 31, 1988)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Griest, W.H.; Guerin, M.R.; Smith, L.H.; Witschi, H.P.; Higgins, C.E.; Tomkins, B.A.; Ho, C.-h.; Ilgner, R.H.</p> <p>1988-08-01</p> <p>Diesel <span class="hlt">fuels</span> derived from petroleum and synthetic sources were compared chemically and toxicologically to address the issue of whether a changeover of mobility <span class="hlt">fuels</span> from natural to synthetic sources might be accompanied by greater or different toxicological hazards to military personnel. Diesel <span class="hlt">fuels</span> derived from petroleum, shale oil, tar sands, and tar sands/petroleum coprocessing were compared for major organic compounds in their polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon dermal tumorigens, major organic compounds in their inhalable volatiles, mouse dermal tumorigenicity and promoting activity. The database was expanded by a similar comparison of petroleum- and coal-drived <span class="hlt">fuels</span> for the US Department of Energy (USDOE). The results suggest that highly refined and finished mobility <span class="hlt">fuels</span> from synthetic or alternate sources will not pose a significantly greater toxicological hazard than current petroleum- based <span class="hlt">fuels</span>. Toxicological differences are likely to be subtle. 52 refs., 20 figs., 16 tabs.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_19 --> <div id="page_20" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="381"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10105958','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10105958"><span id="translatedtitle">The evaluation of the use of metal alloy <span class="hlt">fuels</span> in pressurized water reactors. <span class="hlt">Final</span> report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lancaster, D.</p> <p>1992-10-26</p> <p>The use of metal alloy <span class="hlt">fuels</span> in a PWR was investigated. It was found that it would be feasible and competitive to design PWRs with metal alloy <span class="hlt">fuels</span> but that there seemed to be no significant benefits. The new technology would carry with it added economic uncertainty and since no large benefits were found it was determined that metal alloy <span class="hlt">fuels</span> are not recommended. Initially, a benefit was found for metal alloy <span class="hlt">fuels</span> but when the oxide core was equally optimized the benefit faded. On review of the optimization of the current generation of ``advanced reactors,`` it became clear that reactor design optimization has been under emphasized. Current ``advanced reactors`` are severely constrained. The AP-600 required the use of a <span class="hlt">fuel</span> design from the 1970`s. In order to find the best metal alloy <span class="hlt">fuel</span> design, core optimization became a central effort. This work is ongoing.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ACP....16.7317C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ACP....16.7317C"><span id="translatedtitle">Simulated 2050 <span class="hlt">aviation</span> radiative forcing from contrails and aerosols</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chen, Chih-Chieh; Gettelman, Andrew</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>The radiative forcing from <span class="hlt">aviation</span>-induced cloudiness is investigated by using the Community Atmosphere Model Version 5 (CAM5) in the present (2006) and the future (through 2050). Global flight distance is projected to increase by a factor of 4 between 2006 and 2050. However, simulated contrail cirrus radiative forcing in 2050 can reach 87 mW m-2, an increase by a factor of 7 from 2006, and thus does not scale linearly with <span class="hlt">fuel</span> emission mass. This is due to non-uniform regional increase in air traffic and different sensitivities for contrail radiative forcing in different regions. CAM5 simulations indicate that negative radiative forcing induced by the indirect effect of <span class="hlt">aviation</span> sulfate aerosols on liquid clouds in 2050 can be as large as -160 mW m-2, an increase by a factor of 4 from 2006. As a result, the net 2050 radiative forcing of contrail cirrus and <span class="hlt">aviation</span> aerosols may have a cooling effect on the planet. <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> sulfate aerosols emitted at cruise altitude can be transported down to the lower troposphere, increasing the aerosol concentration, thus increasing the cloud drop number concentration and persistence of low-level clouds. <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> black carbon aerosols produce a negligible net forcing globally in 2006 and 2050 in this model study. Uncertainties in the methodology and the modeling are significant and discussed in detail. Nevertheless, the projected percentage increase in contrail radiative forcing is important for future <span class="hlt">aviation</span> impacts. In addition, the role of <span class="hlt">aviation</span> aerosols in the cloud nucleation processes can greatly influence on the simulated radiative forcing from aircraft-induced cloudiness and even change its sign. Future research to confirm these results is necessary.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/650247','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/650247"><span id="translatedtitle">Investigation of low-cost LNG vehicle <span class="hlt">fuel</span> tank concepts. <span class="hlt">Final</span> report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>O`Brien, J.E.; Siahpush, A.</p> <p>1998-02-01</p> <p>The objective of this study was to investigate development of a low-cost liquid natural gas (LNG) vehicle <span class="hlt">fuel</span> storage tank with low <span class="hlt">fuel</span> boil-off, low tank pressure, and high safety margin. One of the largest contributors to the cost of converting a vehicle to LNG is the cost of the LNG <span class="hlt">fuel</span> tank. To minimize heat leak from the surroundings into the low-temperature <span class="hlt">fuel</span>, these tanks are designed as cryogenic dewars with double walls separated by an evacuated insulation space containing multi-layer insulation. The cost of these <span class="hlt">fuel</span> tanks is driven by this double-walled construction, both in terms of materials and labor. The primary focus of the analysis was to try to devise a <span class="hlt">fuel</span> tank concept that would allow for the elimination of the double-wall requirement. Results of this study have validated the benefit of vacuum/MLI insulation for LNG <span class="hlt">fuel</span> tanks and the difficulty in identifying viable alternatives. The thickness of a non-vacuum insulation layer would have to be unreasonably large to achieve an acceptable non-venting hold time. Reasonable hold times could be achieved by using an auxiliary tank to accept boil-off vapor from a non-vacuum insulated primary tank, if the vapor in the auxiliary tank can be stored at high pressure. The primary focus of the analysis was to try to devise a <span class="hlt">fuel</span> tank concept that allowed for the elimination of the double-wall requirement. Thermodynamic relations were developed for analyzing the <span class="hlt">fuel</span> tank transient response to heat transfer, venting of vapor, and out-flow of either vapor or liquid. One of the major costs associated with conversion of a vehicle to LNG <span class="hlt">fuel</span> is the cost of the LNG <span class="hlt">fuel</span> tank. The cost of these tanks is driven by the cryogenic nature of the <span class="hlt">fuel</span> and by the fundamental design requirements of long non-venting hold times and low storage pressure.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/468566','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/468566"><span id="translatedtitle">Alternative <span class="hlt">fuels</span> for vehicles fleet demonstration program <span class="hlt">final</span> report. Volume 1: Summary</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p></p> <p>1997-03-01</p> <p>The Alternative <span class="hlt">Fuels</span> for Vehicles Fleet Demonstration Program (AFV-FDP) was a multiyear effort to collect technical data for use in determining the costs and benefits of alternative-<span class="hlt">fuel</span> vehicles in typical applications in New York State. During 3 years of collecting data, 7.3 million miles of driving were accumulated, 1,003 chassis-dynamometer emissions tests were performed, 862,000 gallons of conventional <span class="hlt">fuel</span> were saved, and unique information was developed about garage safety recommendations, vehicle performance, and other topics. Findings are organized by vehicle and <span class="hlt">fuel</span> type. For light-duty compressed natural gas (CNG) vehicles, technology has evolved rapidly and closed-loop, electronically-controlled <span class="hlt">fuel</span> systems provide performance and emissions advantages over open-loop, mechanical systems. The best CNG technology produces consistently low tailpipe emissions versus gasoline, and can eliminate evaporative emissions. Reduced driving range remains the largest physical drawback. <span class="hlt">Fuel</span> cost is low ($/Btu) but capital costs are high, indicating that economics are best with vehicles that are used intensively. Propane produces impacts similar to CNG and is less expensive to implement, but <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cost is higher than gasoline and safety codes limit use in urban areas. Light-duty methanol/ethanol vehicles provide performance and emissions benefits over gasoline with little impact on capital costs, but <span class="hlt">fuel</span> costs are high. Heavy-duty CNG engines are evolving rapidly and provide large reductions in emissions versus diesel. Capital costs are high for CNG buses and <span class="hlt">fuel</span> efficiency is reduced, but the <span class="hlt">fuel</span> is less expensive and overall operating costs are about equal to those of diesel buses. Methanol buses provide performance and emissions benefits versus diesel, but <span class="hlt">fuel</span> costs are high. Other emerging technologies were also evaluated, including electric vehicles, hybrid-electric vehicles, and <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cells.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10117208','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10117208"><span id="translatedtitle">Improved electrolytes for <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cells. <span class="hlt">Final</span> report, June 16, 1988--June 15, 1990</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Gard, G.L.; Roe, D.K.</p> <p>1991-06-01</p> <p>Present day <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cells based upon hydrogen and oxygen have limited performance due to the use of phosphoric acid as an electrolyte. Improved performance is desirable in electrolyte conductivity, electrolyte management, oxygen solubility, and the kinetics of the reduction of oxygen. Attention has turned to fluorosulfonic acids as additives or substitute electrolytes to improve <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cell performance. The purpose of this project is to synthesize and electrochemically evaluate new fluorosulfonic acids as superior alternatives to phosphoric acid in <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cells. (VC)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/9316','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/9316"><span id="translatedtitle">ALTERNATIVE <span class="hlt">FUELS</span> AND CHEMICALS FROM SYNTHESIS GAS. <span class="hlt">FINAL</span> QUARTERLY STATUS REPORT</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p></p> <p>1999-04-01</p> <p>The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon <span class="hlt">fuels</span> and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative <span class="hlt">Fuels</span> Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative <span class="hlt">Fuels</span> from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/9060','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/9060"><span id="translatedtitle">ALTERNATIVE <span class="hlt">FUELS</span> AND CHEMICALS FROM SYNTHESIS GAS. <span class="hlt">FINAL</span> QUARTERLY STATUS REPORT NO. 10</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p></p> <p>1998-11-01</p> <p>The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon <span class="hlt">fuels</span> and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative <span class="hlt">Fuels</span> Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative <span class="hlt">Fuels</span> from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1244618','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1244618"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Final</span> Report: Contractor Readiness Assessment (CRA) for TREAT <span class="hlt">Fuel</span> Movement and Control Rod Drives Isolation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Rowsell, David Leon</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>This report documents the Contractor Readiness Assessment (CRA) for TREAT <span class="hlt">Fuel</span> Movement and Control Rod Drives Isolation. The review followed the approved Plan of Action (POA) and Implementation Plan (IP) using the identified core requirements. The activity was limited scope focusing on the control rod drives functional isolation and <span class="hlt">fuel</span> element movement. The purpose of this review is to ensure the facility's readiness to move <span class="hlt">fuel</span> elements thus supporting inspection and functionally isolate the control rod drives to maintain the required shutdown margin.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1048643','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1048643"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Final</span> Report - Effects of Impurities on <span class="hlt">Fuel</span> Cell Performance and Durability</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Trent Molter</p> <p>2012-08-18</p> <p>This program is focused on the experimental determination of the effects of key hydrogen side impurities on the performance of PEM <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cells. Experimental data has been leveraged to create mathematical models that predict the performance of PEM <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cells that are exposed to specific impurity streams. These models are validated through laboratory experimentation and utilized to develop novel technologies for mitigating the effects of contamination on <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cell performance. Results are publicly disseminated through papers, conference presentations, and other means.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6308573','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6308573"><span id="translatedtitle">Assessment of precision gamma scanning for inspecting LWR <span class="hlt">fuel</span> rods. <span class="hlt">Final</span> report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Phillips, J.R.; Barnes, B.K.; Barnes, M.L.; Hamlin, D.K.; Medina-Ortega, E.G.</p> <p>1981-07-01</p> <p>Reconstruction of the radial two-dimensional distributions of fission products using projections obtained by nondestructive gamma scanning was evaluated. The filtered backprojection algorithm provided the best reconstruction for simulated gamma-ray sources, as well as for actual irradiated <span class="hlt">fuel</span> material. Both a low-burnup (11.5 GWd/tU) light-water reactor <span class="hlt">fuel</span> rod and a high-burnup (179.1 GWd/tU) fast breeder reactor <span class="hlt">fuel</span> rod were examined using this technique.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6265263','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6265263"><span id="translatedtitle">Combustion characteristics of dry coal-powder-<span class="hlt">fueled</span> adiabatic diesel engine: <span class="hlt">Final</span> report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kakwani, R.M.; Kamo, R.</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>This report describes the progress and findings of a research program aimed at investigating the combustion characteristics of dry coal powder <span class="hlt">fueled</span> diesel engine. During this program, significant achievements were made in overcoming many problems facing the coal-powder-<span class="hlt">fueled</span> engine. The Thermal Ignition Combustion System (TICS) concept was used to enhance the combustion of coal powder <span class="hlt">fuel</span>. The major coal-<span class="hlt">fueled</span> engine test results and accomplishments are as follows: design, fabrication and engine testing of improved coal feed system for fumigation of coal powder to the intake air; design, fabrication and engine testing of the TICS chamber made from a superalloy material (Hastelloy X); design, fabrication and engine testing of wear resistant chrome oxide ceramic coated piston rings and cylinder liner; lubrication system was improved to separate coal particles from the contaminated lubricating oil; control of the ignition timing of fumigated coal powder by utilizing exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and variable TICS chamber temperature; coal-<span class="hlt">fueled</span> engine testing was conducted in two configurations: dual <span class="hlt">fuel</span> (with diesel pilot) and 100% coal-<span class="hlt">fueled</span> engine without diesel pilot or heated intake air; cold starting of the 100% coal-powder-<span class="hlt">fueled</span> engine with a glow plug; and coal-<span class="hlt">fueled</span>-engine was operated from 800 to 1800 rpm speed and idle to full load engine conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5429241','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5429241"><span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of <span class="hlt">fuel</span>-cell technology for Coast Guard applications. <span class="hlt">Final</span> report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Barrett, T.J.</p> <p>1988-10-01</p> <p>Recent proposals and the literature show promise of <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cells being commercially available in the next decade. We searched the literature to determine the current state of <span class="hlt">fuel</span>-cell technology, to determine if <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cells can be used by the U.S. Coast Guard, and to make proposals for possible research and development efforts by the Coast Guard. Alkaline and phosphoric acid <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cell technologies are now technically capable of full scale commercial production. Molten-carbonate and solid-oxide <span class="hlt">fuel</span>-cell technologies should be commercially produced within the next decade. Phosphoric Acid <span class="hlt">Fuel</span> Cell (PAFC) technology is the most promising for Coast Guard use. However, there is no operational need for <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cells at present and high capital costs and low-energy prices make them economically noncompetitive. We suggest three areas of R D to prepare for changes in operational needs or energy economics. They are: operation of a 200-kW PAFC cogeneration plant to gain <span class="hlt">fuel</span>-cell experience; development of low-maintenance/high availability PAFC system for remote power; and development of <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cells for or aircraft propulsion in case there is a strategic crisis in petroleum-distillate supplies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/527935','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/527935"><span id="translatedtitle">Alternative <span class="hlt">fuels</span> for vehicles fleet demonstration program. <span class="hlt">Final</span> report, volume 2: Appendices</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p></p> <p>1997-06-01</p> <p>The Alternative <span class="hlt">Fuels</span> for Vehicles Fleet Demonstration Program (AFV-FDP) was a multiyear effort to collect technical data for use in determining the costs and benefits of alternative-<span class="hlt">fuel</span> vehicles (AFVs) in typical applications in New York State. This report, Volume 2, includes 13 appendices to Volume 1 that expand upon issues raised therein. Volume 1 provides: (1) Information about the purpose and scope of the AFV-FDP; (2) A summary of AFV-FDP findings organized on the basis of vehicle type and <span class="hlt">fuel</span> type; (3) A short review of the status of AFV technology development, including examples of companies in the State that are active in developing AFVs and AFV components; and (4) A brief overview of the status of AFV deployment in the State. Volume 3 provides expanded reporting of AFV-FDP technical details, including the complete texts of the brochure Garage Guidelines for Alternative <span class="hlt">Fuels</span> and the technical report Fleet Experience Survey Report, plus an extensive glossary of AFV terminology. The appendices cover a wide range of issues including: emissions regulations in New York State; production and health effects of ozone; vehicle emissions and control systems; emissions from heavy-duty engines; reformulated gasoline; greenhouse gases; production and characteristics of alternative <span class="hlt">fuels</span>; the Energy Policy Act of 1992; the Clean <span class="hlt">Fuel</span> Fleet Program; garage design guidelines for alternative <span class="hlt">fuels</span>; surveys of fleet managers using alternative <span class="hlt">fuels</span>; taxes on conventional and alternative <span class="hlt">fuels</span>; and zero-emission vehicle technology.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1030618','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1030618"><span id="translatedtitle">Supply Chain Based Solution to Prevent <span class="hlt">Fuel</span> Tax Evasion: Proof of Concept <span class="hlt">Final</span> Report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Capps, Gary J; Lascurain, Mary Beth; Franzese, Oscar; Earl, Dennis Duncan; West, David L; McIntyre, Timothy J; Chin, Shih-Miao; Hwang, Ho-Ling; Connatser, Raynella M; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur; Moore, Sheila A</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>The goal of this research was to provide a proof-of-concept (POC) system for preventing non-taxable (non-highway diesel use) or low-taxable (jet <span class="hlt">fuel</span>) petrochemical products from being blended with taxable <span class="hlt">fuel</span> products and preventing taxable <span class="hlt">fuel</span> products from cross-jurisdiction evasion. The research worked to fill the need to validate the legitimacy of individual loads, offloads, and movements by integrating and validating, on a near-real-time basis, information from global positioning system (GPS), valve sensors, level sensors, and <span class="hlt">fuel</span>-marker sensors.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5278017','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5278017"><span id="translatedtitle">Coal-liquid <span class="hlt">fuel</span>/diesel engine operating compatibility. <span class="hlt">Final</span> report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Hoffman, J.G.; Martin, F.W.</p> <p>1983-09-01</p> <p>This work is intended to assess the possibilities of using coal-derived liquids (CDL) represented by a specific type (SRC II) and shale-derived distillate <span class="hlt">fuel</span> in blends of petroleum-derived <span class="hlt">fuels</span> in medium-speed, high-output, heavy-duty diesel engines. Conclusions are as follows: (1) Blends of solvent refined coal and diesel <span class="hlt">fuel</span> may be handled safely by experienced diesel engine mechanics. (2) A serious corrosion problem was found in the <span class="hlt">fuel</span> pump parts when operating with solvent refined coal blended with petroleum. It is expected that a metallurgy change can overcome this problem. (3) Proper selection of materials for the <span class="hlt">fuel</span> system is required to permit handling coal-derived liquid <span class="hlt">fuels</span>. (4) A medium speed, high horsepower, 4-cycle diesel engine can be operated on blends of solvent refined coal and petroleum without serious consequences save the <span class="hlt">fuel</span> system corrosion previously mentioned. This is based on a single, short durability test. (5) As represented by the product evaluated, 100% shale-derived distillate <span class="hlt">fuel</span> may be used in a medium speed, high horsepower, 4-cycle diesel engine without significant consequences. (6) The shale product evaluated may be blended with petroleum distillate or petroleum residual materials and used as a <span class="hlt">fuel</span> for medium speed, high horsepower, 4-cycle diesel engines. 7 references, 24 figures, 20 tables.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/607513','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/607513"><span id="translatedtitle">The production of <span class="hlt">fuels</span> and chemicals from food processing wastes & cellulosics. <span class="hlt">Final</span> research report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Dale, M.C.; Okos, M.; Burgos, N.</p> <p>1997-06-15</p> <p>High strength food wastes of about 15-20 billion pounds solids are produced annually by US food producers. Low strength food wastes of 5-10 billion pounds/yr. are produced. Estimates of the various components of these waste streams are shown in Table 1. Waste paper/lignocellulosic crops could produce 2 to 5 billion gallons of ethanol per year or other valuable chemicals. Current oil imports cost the US about $60 billion dollars/yr. in out-going balance of trade costs. Many organic chemicals that are currently derived from petroleum can be produced through fermentation processes. Petroleum based processes have been preferred over biotechnology processes because they were typically cheaper, easier, and more efficient. The technologies developed during the course of this project are designed to allow fermentation based chemicals and <span class="hlt">fuels</span> to compete favorably with petroleum based chemicals. Our goals in this project have been to: (1) develop continuous fermentation processes as compared to batch operations; (2) combine separation of the product with the fermentation, thus accomplishing the twin goals of achieving a purified product from a fermentation broth and speeding the conversion of substrate to product in the fermentation broth; (3) utilize food or cellulosic waste streams which pose a current cost or disposal problem as compared to high cost grains or sugar substrates; (4) develop low energy recovery methods for fermentation products; and <span class="hlt">finally</span> (5) demonstrate successful lab scale technologies on a pilot/production scale and try to commercialize the processes. The scale of the wastes force consideration of {open_quotes}bulk commodity{close_quotes} type products if a high fraction of the wastes are to be utilized.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5845166','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5845166"><span id="translatedtitle">Production of liquid <span class="hlt">fuels</span> and chemicals by microalgae. <span class="hlt">Final</span> subcontract report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Weissman, J.C.; Goebel, R.P.</p> <p>1985-03-01</p> <p>An overall objective of the project was to conceptually determine if simple open pond systems have application for the production of <span class="hlt">fuels</span> from microalgae. To demonstrate the overall objective, work concentrated on showing the potential microalgal yields that are possible from an open pond system on a sustained basis. Furthermore, problems associated with this experimental system were documented and reported so that future endeavors shall benefit. <span class="hlt">Finally</span>, operational costs were documented to permit preliminary economic analysis of the system. The major conclusions of this project can be summarized as follows: (1) Using two wildtype species in northern California a yearly average productivity of 15 gm/m/sup 2//day, or 24 tons/acre/yr can be obtained in water with TDS = 4 to 8 ppt. (2) This can probably be increased to 20 to 25 gm/m/sup 2//day or 32 to 40 tons/acre/y in southern California. (3) Productivity can probably be further increased by using competitive strains screened for low respiration rates, tolerances to high levels of dissolved oxygen, broad temperature optima, and resistance to photoinhibition. (4) In systems with randomized, turbulent mixing, productivity is independent of channel velocity at least for productivities up to 25 to 30 gm/m/sup 2//day and velocities from 1 to 30 cm/sec. (5) Storage product induction requires one to three days of growth in batch mode under n-depleted conditions. (6) Critical cost centers include CO/sub 2/ input, harvesting and system capital cost. (7) Media recycling, necessary for water conservation, has no adverse effects, at least in the short term for strains which do not excrete organics, and when the harvesting method is at least moderately effective for all algal forms which may be present. 8 refs., 28 figs., 56 tabs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150023047','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150023047"><span id="translatedtitle">Development of Advanced Low Emission Injectors and High-Bandwidth <span class="hlt">Fuel</span> Flow Modulation Valves</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Mansour, Adel</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Parker Hannifin Corporation developed the 3-Zone <span class="hlt">fuel</span> nozzle for NASA's Environmentally Responsible <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Program to meet NASAs target of 75 LTO NOx reduction from CAEP6 regulation. The nozzle concept was envisioned as a drop-in replacement for currently used <span class="hlt">fuel</span> nozzle stem, and is built up from laminates to provide energetic mixing suitable for lean direct injection mode at high combustor pressure. A high frequency <span class="hlt">fuel</span> valve was also developed to provide <span class="hlt">fuel</span> modulation for the pilot injector. <span class="hlt">Final</span> testing result shows the LTO NOx level falling just shy of NASAs goal at 31.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10102203','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10102203"><span id="translatedtitle">Diesel <span class="hlt">fuel</span> component contribution to engine emissions and performance. <span class="hlt">Final</span> report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Erwin, J.; Ryan, T.W. III; Moulton, D.S.</p> <p>1994-11-01</p> <p>Contemporary diesel <span class="hlt">fuel</span> is a blend of several refinery streams chosen to meet specifications. The need to increase yield of transportation <span class="hlt">fuel</span> from crude oil has resulted in converting increased proportions of residual oil to lighter products. This conversion is accomplished by thermal, catalytic, and hydrocracking of high molecular weight materials rich in aromatic compounds. The current efforts to reformulate California diesel <span class="hlt">fuel</span> for reduced emissions from existing engines is an example of another driving force affecting refining practice: regulations designed to reduce exhaust emissions. Although derived from petroleum crude oil, reformulated diesel <span class="hlt">fuel</span> is an alternative to current specification-grade diesel <span class="hlt">fuel</span>, and this alternative presents opportunities and questions to be resolved by <span class="hlt">fuel</span> and engine research. Various concerned parties have argued that regulations for <span class="hlt">fuel</span> reformulation have not been based on an adequate data base. Despite numerous studies, much ambiguity remains about the relationship of exhaust parameters to <span class="hlt">fuel</span> composition, particularly for diesel <span class="hlt">fuel</span>. In an effort to gather pertinent data, the automobile industry and the oil refiners have joined forces in the Air Quality Improvement Research Program (AUTO/OIL) to address this question for gasoline. The objective of that work is to define the relationship between gasoline composition and the magnitude and composition of the exhaust emissions. The results of the AUTO/OEL program will also be used, along with other data bases, to define the EPA {open_quotes}complex model{close_quotes} for reformulated gasolines. Valuable insights have been gained for compression ignition engines in the Coordinating Research Council`s VE-1 program, but no program similar to AUTO/OIL has been started for diesel <span class="hlt">fuel</span> reformulation. A more detailed understanding of the <span class="hlt">fuel</span>/performance relationship is a readily apparent need.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title14-vol4/pdf/CFR-2010-title14-vol4-sec331-19.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title14-vol4/pdf/CFR-2010-title14-vol4-sec331-19.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">14 CFR 331.19 - Who is the <span class="hlt">final</span> decision maker on eligibility for, and amounts of reimbursement?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>... SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (<span class="hlt">AVIATION</span> PROCEEDINGS) PROCEDURAL REGULATIONS PROCEDURES FOR REIMBURSEMENT OF GENERAL <span class="hlt">AVIATION</span> OPERATORS AND SERVICE PROVIDERS IN THE WASHINGTON, DC AREA General Provisions... Secretary of <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> and International Affairs will make a <span class="hlt">final</span> determination of your eligibility and...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_20 --> <div id="page_21" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="401"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title40-vol33/pdf/CFR-2014-title40-vol33-sec1065-701.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title40-vol33/pdf/CFR-2014-title40-vol33-sec1065-701.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">40 CFR 1065.701 - General requirements for test <span class="hlt">fuels</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>... procedures for measuring gasoline parameters in 40 CFR 80.46. (e) Two-stroke <span class="hlt">fuel</span>/oil mixing. For two-stroke... <span class="hlt">Fuels</span> <span class="hlt">Fuel</span> category Subcategory Reference procedure 1 Diesel Light distillate and light blends with... <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> <span class="hlt">fuel</span> <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> gasoline ASTM D910 Gas turbine ASTM D1655 Jet B wide cut ASTM D6615 Gas turbine...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/775878','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/775878"><span id="translatedtitle">Alternative <span class="hlt">Fuel</span> Transit Buses: DART's (Dallas Area Rapid Transit) LNG Bus Fleet <span class="hlt">Final</span> Results</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Chandler, K.; Norton, P.; Clark, N.</p> <p>2000-11-07</p> <p>In 1998, Dallas Area Rapid Transit, a public transit agency in Dallas, Texas, began operating a large fleet of heavy-duty buses powered by liquefied natural gas. As part of a $16 million commitment to alternative <span class="hlt">fuels</span>, DART operates 139 LNG buses serviced by two new LNG <span class="hlt">fueling</span> stations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/231343','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/231343"><span id="translatedtitle">[<span class="hlt">Fuel</span> substitution of vehicles by natural gas: Summaries of four <span class="hlt">final</span> technical reports</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p></p> <p>1996-05-01</p> <p>This report contains summary information on three meetings and highlights of a fourth meeting held by the Society of Automotive Engineers on natural gas <span class="hlt">fueled</span> vehicles. The meetings covered the following: Natural gas engine and vehicle technology; Safety aspects of alternately <span class="hlt">fueled</span> vehicles; Catalysts and emission control--Meeting the legislative standards; and LNG--Strengthening the links.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/187124','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/187124"><span id="translatedtitle">Study of the feasibility and desirability of using motor <span class="hlt">fuel</span> dyes and markers. <span class="hlt">Final</span> report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p></p> <p>1993-08-27</p> <p>This study includes a review of experience with the use of dyes and markers, an assessment of the benefits and costs associated with implementing a nationwide standard of motor <span class="hlt">fuel</span> dyes and markers, and an evaluation of alternative means to achieve similar benefits in consumer fraud prevention and motor <span class="hlt">fuel</span> tax enforcement.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10105406','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10105406"><span id="translatedtitle">Characterization and supply of coal based <span class="hlt">fuels</span>. Volume 1, <span class="hlt">Final</span> report and appendix A (Topical report)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Not Available</p> <p>1992-06-01</p> <p>Studies and data applicable for <span class="hlt">fuel</span> markets and coal resource assessments were reviewed and evaluated to provide both guidelines and specifications for premium quality coal-based <span class="hlt">fuels</span>. The <span class="hlt">fuels</span> supplied under this contract were provided for testing of advanced combustors being developed under Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) sponsorship for use in the residential, commercial and light industrial (RCLI) market sectors. The requirements of the combustor development contractors were surveyed and periodically updated to satisfy the evolving needs based on design and test experience. Available coals were screened and candidate coals were selected for further detailed characterization and preparation for delivery. A team of participants was assembled to provide <span class="hlt">fuels</span> in both coal-water <span class="hlt">fuel</span> (CWF) and dry ultrafine coal (DUC) forms. Information about major US coal fields was correlated with market needs analysis. Coal fields with major reserves of low sulfur coal that could be potentially amenable to premium coal-based <span class="hlt">fuels</span> specifications were identified. The <span class="hlt">fuels</span> requirements were focused in terms of market, equipment and resource constraints. With this basis, the coals selected for developmental testing satisfy the most stringent <span class="hlt">fuel</span> requirements and utilize available current deep-cleaning capabilities.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=130083&keyword=cells+AND+fuel&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=78927169&CFTOKEN=74303773','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=130083&keyword=cells+AND+fuel&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=78927169&CFTOKEN=74303773"><span id="translatedtitle">DEMONSTRATION OF <span class="hlt">FUEL</span> CELLS TO RECOVER ENERGY FROM LANDFILL GAS - PHASE I <span class="hlt">FINAL</span> REPORT: CONCEPTUAL STUDY</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The report discusses results of a conceptual design, cost, and evaluation study of energy recovery from landfill gas using a commercial phosphoric acid <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cell power plant. The conceptual design of the <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cell energy recovery system is described, and its economic and environm...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhDT.......219H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhDT.......219H"><span id="translatedtitle">Cyber threats within civil <span class="hlt">aviation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Heitner, Kerri A.</p> <p></p> <p>Existing security policies in civil <span class="hlt">aviation</span> do not adequately protect against evolving cyber threats. Cybersecurity has been recognized as a top priority among some <span class="hlt">aviation</span> industry leaders. Heightened concerns regarding cyber threats and vulnerabilities surround components utilized in compliance with the Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Administration's (FAA) Next Generation Air Transportation (NextGen) implementation. Automated Dependent Surveillance-B (ADS-B) and Electronic Flight Bags (EFB) have both been exploited through the research of experienced computer security professionals. Civil <span class="hlt">aviation</span> is essential to international infrastructure and if its critical assets were compromised, it could pose a great risk to public safety and financial infrastructure. The purpose of this research was to raise awareness of aircraft system vulnerabilities in order to provoke change among current national and international cybersecurity policies, procedures and standards. Although the education of cyber threats is increasing in the <span class="hlt">aviation</span> industry, there is not enough urgency when creating cybersecurity policies. This project intended to answer the following questions: What are the cyber threats to ADS-B of an aircraft in-flight? What are the cyber threats to EFB? What is the <span class="hlt">aviation</span> industry's response to the issue of cybersecurity and in-flight safety? ADS-B remains unencrypted while the FAA's mandate to implement this system is rapidly approaching. The cyber threat of both portable and non-portable EFB's have received increased publicity, however, airlines are not responding quick enough (if at all) to create policies for the use of these devices. Collectively, the <span class="hlt">aviation</span> industry is not being proactive enough to protect its aircraft or airport network systems. That is not to say there are not leaders in cybersecurity advancement. These proactive organizations must set the standard for the future to better protect society and it's most reliable form of transportation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=aviation&pg=5&id=EJ585074','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=aviation&pg=5&id=EJ585074"><span id="translatedtitle">General <span class="hlt">Aviation</span>: A Stepping Stone to a World Career in <span class="hlt">Aviation</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Hulley, Bruce J.</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>A survey of 27 countries identified private pilot flight-hour requirements, pilot training costs, youth <span class="hlt">aviation</span> programs, and career information about <span class="hlt">aviation</span> occupations. The information can be used to motivate young people to enter <span class="hlt">aviation</span> careers. (JOW)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=aviation+AND+technology&pg=2&id=ED279823','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=aviation+AND+technology&pg=2&id=ED279823"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Maintenance Technology. General. G101 <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Mathematics and Physics. Instructor Material.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Oklahoma State Board of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.</p> <p></p> <p>These instructor materials for an <span class="hlt">aviation</span> maintenance technology course contain three instructional modules covering safety, <span class="hlt">aviation</span> mathematics, and <span class="hlt">aviation</span> physics. Each module may contain an introduction and module objective, specific objectives, an instructor's module implementation guide, technical information supplements, transparency…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/824074','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/824074"><span id="translatedtitle">In-Situ Electrolyte Replenishment for Long <span class="hlt">Fuel</span> Cell Life. Phase II <span class="hlt">Final</span> Report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Johnsen, R.</p> <p>2001-01-31</p> <p>The carbonate <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cell has many advantages over conventional methods of producing electricity. It converts hydrocarbon <span class="hlt">fuels</span> directly into electricity with a high efficiency (>70% in a co-generation plant configuration) and consequently releases less carbon dioxide greenhouse gases (>30% less compared to a combined cycle gas turbine plant). Its adaptability to meet the customers' specific power requirements is ideally suited for distributed power generation. The advantages of distributed power generation include site flexibility, <span class="hlt">fuel</span> source flexibility, less capital investment risk and elimination of transmission and distribution investments. The <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cell becomes economically competitive if its life exceeds 40,000h. The current predicted lifetime of the central cells of a stack is 44,000h, based on electrolyte inventory considerations. Methods of extending <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cell life even further are being sought to enhance its commercial competitiveness.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/958075','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/958075"><span id="translatedtitle">Silicon Based Solid Oxide <span class="hlt">Fuel</span> Cell Chip for Portable Consumer Electronics -- <span class="hlt">Final</span> Technical Report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Alan Ludwiszewski</p> <p>2009-06-29</p> <p>LSI’s <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cell uses efficient Solid Oxide <span class="hlt">Fuel</span> Cell (“SOFC”) technology, is manufactured using Micro Electrical Mechanical System (“MEMS”) fabrication methods, and runs on high energy <span class="hlt">fuels</span>, such as butane and ethanol. The company’s <span class="hlt">Fuel</span> Cell on a Chip™ technology enables a form-factor battery replacement for portable electronic devices that has the potential to provide an order-of-magnitude run-time improvement over current batteries. Further, the technology is clean and environmentally-friendly. This Department of Energy funded project focused on accelerating the commercialization and market introduction of this technology through improvements in <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cell chip power output, lifetime, and manufacturability.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20225840','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20225840"><span id="translatedtitle">Flying into the future: <span class="hlt">aviation</span> emissions scenarios to 2050.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Owen, Bethan; Lee, David S; Lim, Ling</p> <p>2010-04-01</p> <p>This study describes the methodology and results for calculating future global <span class="hlt">aviation</span> emissions of carbon dioxide and oxides of nitrogen from air traffic under four of the IPCC/SRES (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change/Special Report on Emissions Scenarios) marker scenarios: A1B, A2, B1, and B2. In addition, a mitigation scenario has been calculated for the B1 scenario, requiring rapid and significant technology development and transition. A global model of aircraft movements and emissions (FAST) was used to calculate <span class="hlt">fuel</span> use and emissions to 2050 with a further outlook to 2100. The <span class="hlt">aviation</span> emission scenarios presented are designed to interpret the SRES and have been developed to aid in the quantification of the climate change impacts of <span class="hlt">aviation</span>. Demand projections are made for each scenario, determined by SRES economic growth factors and the SRES storylines. Technology trends are examined in detail and developed for each scenario providing plausible projections for <span class="hlt">fuel</span> efficiency and emissions control technology appropriate to the individual SRES storylines. The technology trends that are applied are calculated from bottom-up inventory calculations and industry technology trends and targets. Future emissions of carbon dioxide are projected to grow between 2000 and 2050 by a factor in the range of 2.0 and 3.6 depending on the scenario. Emissions of oxides of nitrogen associated with <span class="hlt">aviation</span> over the same period are projected to grow by between a factor of 1.2 and 2.7. PMID:20225840</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20225840','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20225840"><span id="translatedtitle">Flying into the future: <span class="hlt">aviation</span> emissions scenarios to 2050.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Owen, Bethan; Lee, David S; Lim, Ling</p> <p>2010-04-01</p> <p>This study describes the methodology and results for calculating future global <span class="hlt">aviation</span> emissions of carbon dioxide and oxides of nitrogen from air traffic under four of the IPCC/SRES (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change/Special Report on Emissions Scenarios) marker scenarios: A1B, A2, B1, and B2. In addition, a mitigation scenario has been calculated for the B1 scenario, requiring rapid and significant technology development and transition. A global model of aircraft movements and emissions (FAST) was used to calculate <span class="hlt">fuel</span> use and emissions to 2050 with a further outlook to 2100. The <span class="hlt">aviation</span> emission scenarios presented are designed to interpret the SRES and have been developed to aid in the quantification of the climate change impacts of <span class="hlt">aviation</span>. Demand projections are made for each scenario, determined by SRES economic growth factors and the SRES storylines. Technology trends are examined in detail and developed for each scenario providing plausible projections for <span class="hlt">fuel</span> efficiency and emissions control technology appropriate to the individual SRES storylines. The technology trends that are applied are calculated from bottom-up inventory calculations and industry technology trends and targets. Future emissions of carbon dioxide are projected to grow between 2000 and 2050 by a factor in the range of 2.0 and 3.6 depending on the scenario. Emissions of oxides of nitrogen associated with <span class="hlt">aviation</span> over the same period are projected to grow by between a factor of 1.2 and 2.7.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10177624','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10177624"><span id="translatedtitle">Effects of coal-derived trace species on performance of molten carbonate <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cells. <span class="hlt">Final</span> report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Not Available</p> <p>1992-05-01</p> <p>The Carbonate <span class="hlt">Fuel</span> Cell is a very promising option for highly efficient generation of electricity from many <span class="hlt">fuels</span>. If coal-gas is to be used, the interactions of coal-derived impurities on various <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cell components need to be understood. Thus the effects on Carbonate <span class="hlt">Fuel</span> Cell performance due to ten different coal-derived contaminants viz., NH{sub 3}, H{sub 2}S, HC{ell}, H{sub 2}Se, AsH{sub 3}, Zn, Pb, Cd, Sn, and Hg, have been studied at Energy Research Corporation. Both experimental and theoretical evaluations were performed, which have led to mechanistic insights and initial estimation of qualitative tolerance levels for each species individually and in combination with other species. The focus of this study was to investigate possible coal-gas contaminant effects on the anode side of the Carbonate <span class="hlt">Fuel</span> Cell, using both out-of-cell thermogravimetric analysis by isothermal TGA, and <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cell testing in bench-scale cells. Separate experiments detailing performance decay in these cells with high levels of ammonia contamination (1 vol %) and with trace levels of Cd, Hg, and Sn, have indicated that, on the whole, these elements do not affect carbonate <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cell performance. However, some performance decay may result when a number of the other six species are present, singly or simultaneously, as contaminants in <span class="hlt">fuel</span> gas. In all cases, tolerance levels have been estimated for each of the 10 species and preliminary models have been developed for six of them. At this stage the models are limited to isothermal, benchscale (300 cm{sup 2} size) single cells. The information obtained is expected to assist in the development of coal-gas cleanup systems, while the contaminant performance effects data will provide useful basic information for modeling <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cell endurance in conjunction with integrated gasifier/<span class="hlt">fuel</span>-cell systems (IGFC).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.A44C..07W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.A44C..07W"><span id="translatedtitle">Will Climate Change Increase Transatlantic <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Turbulence?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Williams, P. D.; Joshi, M. M.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Atmospheric turbulence causes most weather-related aircraft incidents. Commercial aircraft encounter moderate-or-greater turbulence tens of thousands of times each year world-wide, injuring probably hundreds of passengers (occasionally fatally), costing airlines tens of millions of dollars, and causing structural damage to planes. Clear-air turbulence is especially difficult to avoid, because it cannot be seen by pilots or detected by satellites or on-board radar. Clear-air turbulence is linked to atmospheric storm tracks and jet streams, which are projected to be strengthened by anthropogenic climate change. However, the response of clear-air turbulence to climate change has not previously been studied. Here we show using computer simulations that clear-air turbulence changes significantly within the transatlantic flight corridor when the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is doubled. At cruise altitudes within 50-75°N and 10-60°W in winter, most clear-air turbulence measures show a 10-40% increase in the median strength of turbulence and a 40-170% increase in the frequency of occurrence of moderate-or-greater turbulence. Our results suggest that climate change will lead to bumpier transatlantic flights by the middle of this century. Journey times may lengthen and <span class="hlt">fuel</span> consumption and emissions may increase. <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> is partly responsible for changing the climate, but our findings show for the first time how climate change could affect <span class="hlt">aviation</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.1724W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.1724W"><span id="translatedtitle">Will climate change increase transatlantic <span class="hlt">aviation</span> turbulence?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Williams, Paul; Joshi, Manoj</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>Atmospheric turbulence causes most weather-related aircraft incidents. Commercial aircraft encounter moderate-or-greater turbulence tens of thousands of times each year world-wide, injuring probably hundreds of passengers (occasionally fatally), costing airlines tens of millions of dollars, and causing structural damage to planes. Clear-air turbulence is especially difficult to avoid, because it cannot be seen by pilots or detected by satellites or on-board radar. Clear-air turbulence is linked to atmospheric jet streams, which are projected to be strengthened by anthropogenic climate change. However, the response of clear-air turbulence to climate change has not previously been studied. Here we show using computer simulations that clear-air turbulence changes significantly within the transatlantic flight corridor when the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is doubled. At cruise altitudes within 50-75°N and 10-60°W in winter, most clear-air turbulence measures show a 10-40% increase in the median strength of turbulence and a 40-170% increase in the frequency of occurrence of moderate-or-greater turbulence. Our results suggest that climate change will lead to bumpier transatlantic flights by the middle of this century. Journey times may lengthen and <span class="hlt">fuel</span> consumption and emissions may increase. <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> is partly responsible for changing the climate, but our findings show for the first time how climate change could affect <span class="hlt">aviation</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19990100640','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19990100640"><span id="translatedtitle">The Typical General <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Aircraft</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Turnbull, Andrew</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>The reliability of General <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> aircraft is unknown. In order to "assist the development of future GA reliability and safety requirements", a reliability study needs to be performed. Before any studies on General <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> aircraft reliability begins, a definition of a typical aircraft that encompasses most of the general <span class="hlt">aviation</span> characteristics needs to be defined. In this report, not only is the typical general <span class="hlt">aviation</span> aircraft defined for the purpose of the follow-on reliability study, but it is also separated, or "sifted" into several different categories where individual analysis can be performed on the reasonably independent systems. In this study, the typical General <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> aircraft is a four-place, single engine piston, all aluminum fixed-wing certified aircraft with a fixed tricycle landing gear and a cable operated flight control system. The system breakdown of a GA aircraft "sifts" the aircraft systems and components into five categories: Powerplant, Airframe, Aircraft Control Systems, Cockpit Instrumentation Systems, and the Electrical Systems. This breakdown was performed along the lines of a failure of the system. Any component that caused a system to fail was considered a part of that system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5350426','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5350426"><span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of Exxon Donor Solvent (EDS) coal-derived liquid as utility diesel <span class="hlt">fuel</span>. <span class="hlt">Final</span> report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Heater, W.R.; Froh, T.W.; Ariga, S.; Baker, Q.A.; Piispanen, W.; Webb, P.; Trayser, D.; Keane, W.J.</p> <p>1983-10-01</p> <p>The program consisted of three phases: (I) characterization of the physical and chemical properties of EDS, (II) evaluation of EDS in a laboratory medium-speed diesel engine, and (III) evaluation of EDS in a low-speed diesel engine operating at a utility. The characteristics of high aromatic content and low cetane number that were found during Phase I made it unlikely that EDS could be used as a direct substitute for diesel <span class="hlt">fuel</span> without engine modification to provide ignition assistance. Phase II was conducted on a 12-cylinder General Electric Company 7FDL diesel engine. Blends of up to 30% EDS and 70% 0.2 diesel <span class="hlt">fuel</span> (DF-2) were successfully consumed. Dual <span class="hlt">fuel</span> tests were also conducted on a single cylinder by injecting EDS through the existing engine <span class="hlt">fuel</span> oil system and injecting DF-2 through an auxiliary nozzle as an ignition source. Acceptable operation was achieved using 5 to 10% pilot oil heat input. Phase III was conducted on a 16-cylinder Cooper-Bessemer LSV-16-GDT diesel engine at an EUC plant in Easton, Maryland. Blends of up to 66.7% EDS and 33.3% DF-2 were successfully consumed. Dual <span class="hlt">fuel</span> tests were also conducted on a single cylinder by injecting EDS through the existing <span class="hlt">fuel</span> oil system and using a natural-gas-<span class="hlt">fueled</span> precombustion chamber as an ignition source. Acceptable operation was achieved using 3 to 6% pilot gas heat input. The program confirmed that it is feasible to consume significant proportions of EDS in a diesel engine, but more development is needed before EDS can be considered a viable alternative liquid <span class="hlt">fuel</span> for diesel engines, and an industrial hygiene program is needed to assure safe handling of the <span class="hlt">fuel</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/899650','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/899650"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Final</span> Technical Report, Oct 2004 - Nov. 2006, High Performance Flexible Reversible Solid Oxide <span class="hlt">Fuel</span> Cell</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Guan, Jie; Minh, Nguyen</p> <p>2007-02-21</p> <p>This report summarizes the work performed for the program entitled “High Performance Flexible Reversible Solid Oxide <span class="hlt">Fuel</span> Cell” under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC36-04GO14351 for the U. S. Department of Energy. The overall objective of this project is to demonstrate a single modular stack that generates electricity from a variety of <span class="hlt">fuels</span> (hydrogen and other <span class="hlt">fuels</span> such as biomass, distributed natural gas, etc.) and when operated in the reverse mode, produces hydrogen from steam. This project has evaluated and selected baseline cell materials, developed a set of materials for oxygen and hydrogen electrodes, and optimized electrode microstructures for reversible solid oxide <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cells (RSOFCs); and demonstrated the feasibility and operation of a RSOFC multi-cell stack. A 10-cell reversible SOFC stack was operated over 1000 hours alternating between <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cell (with hydrogen and methane as <span class="hlt">fuel</span>) and steam electrolysis modes. The stack ran very successfully with high power density of 480 mW/cm2 at 0.7V and 80% <span class="hlt">fuel</span> utilization in <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cell mode and >6 SLPM hydrogen production in steam electrolysis mode using about 1.1 kW electrical power. The hydrogen generation is equivalent to a specific capability of 2.59 Nm3/m2 with electrical energy demand of 3 kWh/Nm3. The performance stability in electrolysis mode was improved vastly during the program with a degradation rate reduction from 8000 to 200 mohm-cm2/1000 hrs. This was accomplished by increasing the activity and improving microstructure of the oxygen electrode. Both cost estimate and technology assessment were conducted. Besides the flexibility running under both <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cell mode and electrolysis mode, the reversible SOFC system has the potentials for low cost and high efficient hydrogen production through steam electrolysis. The cost for hydrogen production at large scale was estimated at ~$2.7/kg H2, comparing favorably with other electrolysis techology.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6546429','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6546429"><span id="translatedtitle">Status and future opportunities for conversion of synthesis gas to liquid energy <span class="hlt">fuels</span>: <span class="hlt">Final</span> report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Mills, G. . Center for Catalytic Science and Technology)</p> <p>1993-05-01</p> <p>The manufacture of liquid energy <span class="hlt">fuels</span> from syngas (a mixture of H[sub 2] and CO, usually containing CO[sub 2]) is of growing importance and enormous potential because: (1) Abundant US supplies of coal, gas, and biomass can be used to provide the needed syngas. (2) The liquid <span class="hlt">fuels</span> produced, oxygenates or hydrocarbons, can help lessen environmental pollution. Indeed, oxygenates are required to a significant extent by the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990. (3) Such liquid synfuels make possible high engine efficiencies because they have high octane or cetane ratings. (4) There is new, significantly improved technology for converting syngas to liquid <span class="hlt">fuels</span> and promising opportunities for further improvements. This is the subject of this report. The purpose of this report is to provide an account and evaluative assessment of advances in the technology for producing liquid energy <span class="hlt">fuels</span> from syngas and to suggest opportunities for future research deemed promising for practical processes. Much of the improved technology for selective synthesis of desired <span class="hlt">fuels</span> from syngas has resulted from advances in catalytic chemistry. However, novel process engineering has been particularly important recently, utilizing known catalysts in new configurations to create new catalytic processes. This report is an update of the 1988 study Catalysts for <span class="hlt">Fuels</span> from Syngas: New Directions for Research (Mills 1988), which is included as Appendix A. Technology for manufacture of syngas is not part of this study. The manufacture of liquid synfuels is capital intensive. Thus, in evaluating advances in <span class="hlt">fuels</span> technology, focus is on the potential for improved economics, particularly on lowering plant investment costs. A second important criteria is the potential for environmental benefits. The discussion is concerned with two types of hydrocarbon <span class="hlt">fuels</span> and three types of oxygenate <span class="hlt">fuels</span> that can be synthesized from syngas. Seven alternative reaction pathways are involved.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_21 --> <div id="page_22" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="421"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10155519','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10155519"><span id="translatedtitle">Status and future opportunities for conversion of synthesis gas to liquid energy <span class="hlt">fuels</span>: <span class="hlt">Final</span> report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Mills, G</p> <p>1993-05-01</p> <p>The manufacture of liquid energy <span class="hlt">fuels</span> from syngas (a mixture of H{sub 2} and CO, usually containing CO{sub 2}) is of growing importance and enormous potential because: (1) Abundant US supplies of coal, gas, and biomass can be used to provide the needed syngas. (2) The liquid <span class="hlt">fuels</span> produced, oxygenates or hydrocarbons, can help lessen environmental pollution. Indeed, oxygenates are required to a significant extent by the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990. (3) Such liquid synfuels make possible high engine efficiencies because they have high octane or cetane ratings. (4) There is new, significantly improved technology for converting syngas to liquid <span class="hlt">fuels</span> and promising opportunities for further improvements. This is the subject of this report. The purpose of this report is to provide an account and evaluative assessment of advances in the technology for producing liquid energy <span class="hlt">fuels</span> from syngas and to suggest opportunities for future research deemed promising for practical processes. Much of the improved technology for selective synthesis of desired <span class="hlt">fuels</span> from syngas has resulted from advances in catalytic chemistry. However, novel process engineering has been particularly important recently, utilizing known catalysts in new configurations to create new catalytic processes. This report is an update of the 1988 study Catalysts for <span class="hlt">Fuels</span> from Syngas: New Directions for Research (Mills 1988), which is included as Appendix A. Technology for manufacture of syngas is not part of this study. The manufacture of liquid synfuels is capital intensive. Thus, in evaluating advances in <span class="hlt">fuels</span> technology, focus is on the potential for improved economics, particularly on lowering plant investment costs. A second important criteria is the potential for environmental benefits. The discussion is concerned with two types of hydrocarbon <span class="hlt">fuels</span> and three types of oxygenate <span class="hlt">fuels</span> that can be synthesized from syngas. Seven alternative reaction pathways are involved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6448251','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6448251"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Fuel</span>-efficient sewage sludge incineration. <span class="hlt">Final</span> report, May 1987-September 1989</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Walsh, M.J.; Pincince, A.B.; Niessen, W.R.</p> <p>1990-08-01</p> <p>A study was performed to evaluate the status of incineration with low <span class="hlt">fuel</span> use as a sludge disposal technology. The energy requirements, life-cycle costs, operation and maintenance requirements, and process capabilities of four sludge incineration facilities were evaluated. These facilities used a range of sludge thickening, conditioning, dewatering, and incineration technologies. The results provided realistic cost and energy requirements for a <span class="hlt">fuel</span>-efficient sludge incineration facility and highlighted operational, managerial, and design features that contributed to the <span class="hlt">fuel</span> efficiency of the incineration process. The information provides a basis for evaluating both the applicability of sludge incineration in future facilities and the cost and energy efficiency of existing incineration facilities.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5414853','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5414853"><span id="translatedtitle">Characterization of diesel emissions as a function of <span class="hlt">fuel</span> variables. <span class="hlt">Final</span> report September 1979-March 1981</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Bykowski, B.B.</p> <p>1981-04-01</p> <p>Several properties of a refinery 'straight-run kerosene', which had a narrow boiling range approximating the middle of a No. 1 diesel <span class="hlt">fuel</span>, were altered to study their effects on regulated and unregulated exhaust emissions. Eleven <span class="hlt">fuel</span> blends, representing changes in nitrogen content, aromatic level, boiling point distribution, olefin content, and cetane number, were evaluated in a 1975 Mercedes-Benz 240D. Statistical analysis, including regression, was performed using selected <span class="hlt">fuel</span> properties as independent variables. Higher aromatic levels were generally associated with increased emissions, while increased olefin levels were generally associated with decreased emissions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5696179','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5696179"><span id="translatedtitle">Engineering evaluation of plant oils as diesel <span class="hlt">fuel</span>. <span class="hlt">Final</span> report. Vol. I</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Engler, C.R.; Johnson, L.A.; Lepori, W.A.; Yarbrough, C.M.</p> <p>1983-09-13</p> <p>This project includes evaluations of cottonseed oils and sunflower oil ethyl esters in both direct injection and precombustion chamber design diesel engines. It is one part of a major research program at Texas A and M University to study the technical feasibility of using plant oils or animal fats as alternative diesel <span class="hlt">fuels</span>. Goals for the overall program are to define physical and chemical characteristics and optimum processing methods required for high quality alternative diesel <span class="hlt">fuels</span> from plant or animal oils and to investigate effects of engine design on alternative <span class="hlt">fuel</span> performance. This report describes work done under the current contract which includes evaluations of cottonseed oils and sunflower oil interesterified with ethanol as alternative diesel <span class="hlt">fuels</span>. 15 figures, 18 tables.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10143703','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10143703"><span id="translatedtitle">Cyclone reburn using coal-water <span class="hlt">fuel</span>: Pilot-scale development and testing. <span class="hlt">Final</span> report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Eckhart, C.F.; DeVault, R.F.</p> <p>1991-10-01</p> <p>There is an ongoing effort to develop retrofit technologies capable of converting oil- and/or gas-fired boilers to coal combustion. The objective of this project is to demonstrate the technical feasibility of an improved portion of a previously developed retrofit system designed for the purpose of converting oil/gas boilers. This improvement would almost entirely eliminate the use of premium <span class="hlt">fuels</span>, thereby significantly increasing the economical attractiveness of the system. Specifically, the goals in this program were to replace natural gas as a reburning <span class="hlt">fuel</span> with coal-water <span class="hlt">fuel</span> (CWF). The advantages of such a system include: (1) increased return on investment (ROI) for conversions; (2) nearly complete elimination of premium oil or gas <span class="hlt">fuel</span>; (3) a more integrated approach to the conversion of oil- or gas-designed boilers to CWF.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/834091','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/834091"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Fuel</span> Cell/Battery Powered Bus System. <span class="hlt">Final</span> Report for period August 1987 - December 31, 1997</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Wimmer, R.</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>Today, <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cell systems are getting much attention from the automotive industry as a future replacement for the internal combustion engine (ICE). Every US automobile manufacturer and most foreign firms have major programs underway to develop <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cell engines for transportation. The objective of this program was to investigate the feasibility of using <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cells as an alternative to the ICE. Three such vehicles (30-foot buses) were introduced beginning in 1994. Extensive development and operational testing of <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cell systems as a vehicle power source has been accomplished under this program. The development activity investigated total systems configuration and effectiveness for vehicle operations. Operational testing included vehicle performance testing, road operations, and extensive dynamometer emissions testing.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5039686','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5039686"><span id="translatedtitle">Actinide partitioning-transmutation program <span class="hlt">final</span> report. IV. Miscellaneous aspects. [Transport; <span class="hlt">fuel</span> fabrication; decay; policy; economics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Alexander, C.W.; Croff, A.G.</p> <p>1980-09-01</p> <p>This report discusses seven aspects of actinide partitioning-transmutation (P-T) which are important in any complete evaluation of this waste treatment option but which do not fall within other major topical areas concerning P-T. The so-called miscellaneous aspects considered are (1) the conceptual design of a shipping cask for highly neutron-active fresh and spent P-T <span class="hlt">fuels</span>, (2) the possible impacts of P-T on mixed-oxide <span class="hlt">fuel</span> fabrication, (3) alternatives for handling the existing and to-be-produced spent <span class="hlt">fuel</span> and/or wastes until implementation of P-T, (4) the decay and dose characteristics of P-T and standard reactor <span class="hlt">fuels</span>, (5) the implications of P-T on currently existing nuclear policy in the United States, (6) the summary costs of P-T, and (7) methods for comparing the risks, costs, and benefits of P-T.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19760026757','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19760026757"><span id="translatedtitle">NASA <span class="hlt">aviation</span> safety reporting system</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Billings, C. E.; Lauber, J. K.; Funkhouser, H.; Lyman, E. G.; Huff, E. M.</p> <p>1976-01-01</p> <p>The origins and development of the NASA <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Safety Reporting System (ASRS) are briefly reviewed. The results of the first quarter's activity are summarized and discussed. Examples are given of bulletins describing potential air safety hazards, and the disposition of these bulletins. During the first quarter of operation, the ASRS received 1464 reports; 1407 provided data relevant to air safety. All reports are being processed for entry into the ASRS data base. During the reporting period, 130 alert bulletins describing possible problems in the <span class="hlt">aviation</span> system were generated and disseminated. Responses were received from FAA and others regarding 108 of the alert bulletins. Action was being taken with respect to 70 of the 108 responses received. Further studies are planned of a number of areas, including human factors problems related to automation of the ground and airborne portions of the national <span class="hlt">aviation</span> system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/674644','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/674644"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Fuel</span> cell power systems for remote applications. Phase 1 <span class="hlt">final</span> report and business plan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p></p> <p>1998-02-01</p> <p>The goal of the <span class="hlt">Fuel</span> Cell Power Systems for Remote Applications project is to commercialize a 0.1--5 kW integrated <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cell power system (FCPS). The project targets high value niche markets, including natural gas and oil pipelines, off-grid homes, yachts, telecommunication stations and recreational vehicles. Phase 1 includes the market research, technical and financial analysis of the <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cell power system, technical and financial requirements to establish manufacturing capability, the business plan, and teaming arrangements. Phase 1 also includes project planning, scope of work, and budgets for Phases 2--4. The project is a cooperative effort of Teledyne Brown Engineering--Energy Systems, Schatz Energy Research Center, Hydrogen Burner Technology, and the City of Palm Desert. Phases 2 through 4 are designed to utilize the results of Phase 1, to further the commercial potential of the <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cell power system. Phase 2 focuses on research and development of the reformer and <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cell and is divided into three related, but potentially separate tasks. Budgets and timelines for Phase 2 can be found in section 4 of this report. Phase 2 includes: Task A--Develop a reformate tolerant <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cell stack and 5 kW reformer; Task B--Assemble and deliver a <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cell that operates on pure hydrogen to the University of Alaska or another site in Alaska; Task C--Provide support and training to the University of Alaska in the setting up and operating a <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cell test lab. The Phase 1 research examined the market for power systems for off-grid homes, yachts, telecommunication stations and recreational vehicles. Also included in this report are summaries of the previously conducted market reports that examined power needs for remote locations along natural gas and oil pipelines. A list of highlights from the research can be found in the executive summary of the business plan.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5079389','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5079389"><span id="translatedtitle">Low NO/sub x/ Heavy <span class="hlt">Fuel</span> Combustor Concept Program. Phase I. <span class="hlt">Final</span> report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Cutrone, M B</p> <p>1981-10-01</p> <p>Six combustor concepts were designed, fabricated, and underwent a series of combustion tests with the objective of evaluating and developing a combustor capable of meeting US New Source Performance Standards (NSPS), dry, for high-nitrogen liquid <span class="hlt">fuels</span>. Three rich/lean and three lean/lean two-stage combustors were tested with ERBS distillate, petroleum residual, and SRC-II coal derived liquid (CDL) <span class="hlt">fuels</span> with <span class="hlt">fuel</span>-bound nitrogen contents of 0.0054, 0.23, and 0.87 weight percent, respectively. A lean/lean concept was demonstrated with ultralow NO/sub x/ emissions, dry, of 5 gm NO/sub x/kg <span class="hlt">fuel</span> on ERBS, and NO/sub x/ emissions meeting the NSPS NO/sub x/ standard on residual <span class="hlt">fuel</span>. This combustor concept met operational goals for pressure drop, smoke, exhaust pattern factor, and combustion efficiency. A rich/lean concept was identified and developed which demonstrated NO/sub x/ emissions approaching the NSPS standards, dry, for all liquid <span class="hlt">fuels</span> including the 0.87 weight percent nitrogen SRC-II coal-derived liquid. Exhaust pattern factor and pressure drop met or approached goals. Smoke emissions were higher than the program goal. However, a significant improvement was made with only a minor modification of the <span class="hlt">fuel</span> injector/air swirler system, and further development should result in meeting smoke goals for all <span class="hlt">fuels</span>. Liner metal temperatures were higher than allowable for commercial application. Conceptual designs for further development of these two rich/lean and lean/lean concepts have been completed which address smoke and metal temperature concerns, and are available for the next phase of this NASA-sponsored, DOE-funded program. Tests of a rich/lean concept, and a catalytic combustor concept using low- and intermediate-Btu simulated coal-derived gases will be completed during the ongoing Phase IA extension of this program.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10142265','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10142265"><span id="translatedtitle">Coal-<span class="hlt">fueled</span> diesel technology development. <span class="hlt">Final</span> report, March 3, 1988--January 31, 1994</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p></p> <p>1994-01-31</p> <p>Since 1979, the US Department of Energy has been sponsoring Research and Development programs to use coal as a <span class="hlt">fuel</span> for diesel engines. In 1984, under the partial sponsorship of the Burlington Northern and Norfolk Southern Railroads, GE completed a 30-month study on the economic viability of a coal-<span class="hlt">fueled</span> locomotive. In response to a GE proposal to continue researching the economic and technical feasibility of a coal-<span class="hlt">fueled</span> diesel engine for locomotives, DOE awarded a contract to GE Corporate Research and Development for a three-year program that began in March 1985 and was completed in 1988. That program was divided into two parts: an Economic Assessment Study and a Technical Feasibility Study. The Economic Assessment Study evaluated the benefits to be derived from development of a coal-<span class="hlt">fueled</span> diesel engine. Seven areas and their economic impact on the use of coal-<span class="hlt">fueled</span> diesels were examined; impact on railroad infrastructure, expected maintenance cost, environmental considerations, impact of higher capital costs, railroad training and crew costs, beneficiated coal costs for viable economics, and future cost of money. The Technical Feasibility Study used laboratory- and bench-scale experiments to investigate the combustion of coal. The major accomplishments of this study were the development of injection hardware for coal water slurry (CWS) <span class="hlt">fuel</span>, successful testing of CWS <span class="hlt">fuel</span> in a full-size, single-cylinder, medium-speed diesel engine, evaluation of full-scale engine wear rates with metal and ceramic components, and the characterization of gaseous and particulate emissions. Full combustion of CWS <span class="hlt">fuel</span> was accomplished at full and part load with reasonable manifold conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/561197','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/561197"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Final</span> report spent nuclear <span class="hlt">fuel</span> retrieval system primary cleaning development testing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Ketner, G.L.; Meeuwsen, P.V.</p> <p>1997-09-01</p> <p>Developmental testing of the primary cleaning station for spent nuclear <span class="hlt">fuel</span> (SNF) and canisters is reported. A primary clean machine will be used to remove the gross sludge from canisters and <span class="hlt">fuel</span> while maintaining water quality in the downstream process area. To facilitate SNF separation from canisters and minimize the impact to water quality, all canisters will be subjected to mechanical agitation and flushing with the Primary Clean Station. The Primary Clean Station consists of an outer containment box with an internally mounted, perforated wash basket. A single canister containing up to 14 <span class="hlt">fuel</span> assemblies will be loaded into the wash basket, the confinement box lid closed, and the wash basket rotated for a fixed cycle time. During this cycle, basin water will be flushed through the wash basket and containment box to remove and entrain the sludge and carry it out of the box. Primary cleaning tests were performed to provide information concerning the removal of sludge from the <span class="hlt">fuel</span> assemblies while in the basin canisters. The testing was also used to determine if additional <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cleaning is required outside of the <span class="hlt">fuel</span> canisters. Hydraulic performance and water demand requirements of the cleaning station were also evaluated. Thirty tests are reported in this document. Tests demonstrated that sludge can be dislodged and suspended sufficiently to remove it from the canister. Examination of <span class="hlt">fuel</span> elements after cleaning suggested that more than 95% of the exposed <span class="hlt">fuel</span> surfaces were cleaned so that no visual evidence of remained. As a result of testing, recommendations are made for the cleaning cycle. 3 refs., 16 figs., 4 tabs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5755206','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5755206"><span id="translatedtitle">Fire-resistant <span class="hlt">fuel</span> program analysis and program management documentation. <span class="hlt">Final</span> report, December 1985-January 1986</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Dye, C.A.</p> <p>1986-01-31</p> <p>There was an urgent need to transition management of the Fire Resistant <span class="hlt">Fuel</span> (FRF) Program from the Materials <span class="hlt">Fuels</span> and Lubricants Laboratory (MFLL) to the Logistics Support Directorate (LSD). It is recommended that the LSD develop program management documentation (PMD) that supports a Milestone I review as soon as possible to include the following: System Concept Paper, Concept Formulation Package and a Test Evaluation Master Plan. This report describes programmatic analyses and subsequent programmatic recommendations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6181893','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6181893"><span id="translatedtitle">LWR <span class="hlt">fuel</span>-cycle costs as a function of burnup. <span class="hlt">Final</span> report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Franks, W.; Goldstein, L.; Joseph, L.; Nikmohammadian, N.</p> <p>1984-11-01</p> <p>Utilities may be able to decrease <span class="hlt">fuel</span>-cycle costs as much as 5% in PWRs and 6% in BWRs by increasing discharge burnup to optimum practical limits. With one exception, this analysis of 12- and 18-month <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cycles indicated a potential for still further cost reductions at higher burnup rates than those considered (39 GWd/MtU for BWRs and 55 GWd/MtU for PWRs).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1169006','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1169006"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Final</span> Report - Durable Catalysts for <span class="hlt">Fuel</span> Cell Protection during Transient Conditions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Atanasoski, Radoslav; van der Vliet, Dennis; Cullen, David; Atanasoska, Ljiljana</p> <p>2015-01-26</p> <p>The objective of this project was to develop catalysts that will enable proton exchange membranes (PEM) <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cell systems to weather the damaging conditions in the <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cell at voltages beyond the thermodynamic stability of water during the transient periods of start-up/shut-down and <span class="hlt">fuel</span> starvation. Such catalysts are required to make it possible for the <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cell to satisfy the 2015 DOE targets for performance and durability. The project addressed a key issue of importance for successful transition of PEM <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cell technology from development to pre-commercial phase. This issue is the failure of the catalyst and the other thermodynamically unstable membrane electrode assembly (MEA) components during start-up/shut-down and local <span class="hlt">fuel</span> starvation at the anode, commonly referred to as transient conditions. During these periods the electrodes can reach potentials higher than the usual 1.23V upper limit during normal operation. The most logical way to minimize the damage from such transient events is to minimize the potential seen by the electrodes. At lower positive potentials, increased stability of the catalysts themselves and reduced degradation of the other MEA components is expected.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1113754','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1113754"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Final</span> Technical Report for Alternative <span class="hlt">Fuel</span> Source Study-An Energy Efficient and Environmentally Friendly Approach</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Zee, Ralph; Schindler, Anton; Duke, Steve; Burch, Thom; Bransby, David; Stafford, Don</p> <p>2010-08-31</p> <p>The objective of this project is to conduct research to determine the feasibility of using alternate <span class="hlt">fuel</span> sources for the production of cement. Successful completion of this project will also be beneficial to other commercial processes that are highly energy intensive. During this report period, we have completed all the subtasks in the preliminary survey. Literature searches focused on the types of alternative <span class="hlt">fuels</span> currently used in the cement industry around the world. Information was obtained on the effects of particular alternative <span class="hlt">fuels</span> on the clinker/cement product and on cement plant emissions. Federal regulations involving use of waste <span class="hlt">fuels</span> were examined. Information was also obtained about the trace elements likely to be found in alternative <span class="hlt">fuels</span>, coal, and raw feeds, as well as the effects of various trace elements introduced into system at the feed or <span class="hlt">fuel</span> stage on the kiln process, the clinker/cement product, and concrete made from the cement. The experimental part of this project involves the feasibility of a variety of alternative materials mainly commercial wastes to substitute for coal in an industrial cement kiln in Lafarge NA and validation of the experimental results with energy conversion consideration.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10187837','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10187837"><span id="translatedtitle">Engineering study: 105KE to 105KW Basin <span class="hlt">fuel</span> and sludge transfer. <span class="hlt">Final</span> report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Gant, R.G.</p> <p>1994-09-20</p> <p>In the last five years, there have been three periods at the 105KE <span class="hlt">fuel</span> storage basin (KE Basin) where the reported drawdown test rates were in excess of 25 gph. Drawdown rates in excess of this amount have been used during past operations as the primary indicators of leaks in the basin. The latest leak occurred in March, 1993. The reported water loss from the KE Basin was estimated at 25 gph. This engineering study was performed to identify and recommend the most feasible and practical method of transferring canisters of irradiated <span class="hlt">fuel</span> and basin sludge from the KE Basin to the 105KW <span class="hlt">fuel</span> storage basin (KW Basin). Six alternatives were identified during the performance of this study as possible methods for transferring the <span class="hlt">fuel</span> and sludge from the KE Basin to the KW Basin. These methods were then assessed with regard to operations, safety, radiation exposure, packaging, environmental concerns, waste management, cost, and schedule; and the most feasible and practical methods of transfer were identified. The methods examined in detail in this study were based on shipment without cooling water except where noted: Transfer by rail using the previously used transfer system and water cooling; Transfer by rail using the previously used transfer system (without water cooling); Transfer by truck using the K Area <span class="hlt">fuel</span> transfer cask (K Area cask); Transfer by truck using a DOE shipping cask; Transfer by truck using a commercial shipping cask; and Transfer by truck using a new <span class="hlt">fuel</span> shipping cask.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/674637','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/674637"><span id="translatedtitle">Liquid natural gas as a transportation <span class="hlt">fuel</span> in the heavy trucking industry. <span class="hlt">Final</span> technical report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Sutton, W.H.</p> <p>1997-06-30</p> <p>This report encompasses the second year of a proposed three year project with emphasis focused on fundamental research issues in Use of Liquid Natural Gas as a Transportation <span class="hlt">Fuel</span> in the Heavy Trucking Industry. These issues may be categorized as (1) direct diesel replacement with LNG <span class="hlt">fuel</span>, and (2) long term storage/utilization of LNG vent gases produced by tank storage and <span class="hlt">fueling</span>/handling operation. The results of this work are expected to enhance utilization of LNG as a transportation <span class="hlt">fuel</span>. The paper discusses the following topics: (A) <span class="hlt">Fueling</span> Delivery to the Engine, Engine Considerations, and Emissions: (1) Atomization and/or vaporization of LNG for direct injection diesel-type natural gas engines; (2) Fundamentals of direct replacement of diesel <span class="hlt">fuel</span> by LNG in simulated combustion; (3) Distribution of nitric oxide and emissions formation from natural gas injection; and (B) Short and long term storage: (1) Modification by partial direct conversion of natural gas composition for improved storage characteristics; (2) LNG vent gas adsorption and recovery using activate carbon and modified adsorbents; (3) LNG storage at moderate conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/769549','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/769549"><span id="translatedtitle">Savannah River Site Spent Nuclear <span class="hlt">Fuel</span> Management <span class="hlt">Final</span> Environmental Impact Statement</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>N /A</p> <p>2000-04-14</p> <p>The proposed DOE action considered in this environmental impact statement (EIS) is to implement appropriate processes for the safe and efficient management of spent nuclear <span class="hlt">fuel</span> and targets at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in Aiken County, South Carolina, including placing these materials in forms suitable for ultimate disposition. Options to treat, package, and store this material are discussed. The material included in this EIS consists of approximately 68 metric tons heavy metal (MTHM) of spent nuclear <span class="hlt">fuel</span> 20 MTHM of aluminum-based spent nuclear <span class="hlt">fuel</span> at SRS, as much as 28 MTHM of aluminum-clad spent nuclear <span class="hlt">fuel</span> from foreign and domestic research reactors to be shipped to SRS through 2035, and 20 MTHM of stainless-steel or zirconium-clad spent nuclear <span class="hlt">fuel</span> and some Americium/Curium Targets stored at SRS. Alternatives considered in this EIS encompass a range of new packaging, new processing, and conventional processing technologies, as well as the No Action Alternative. A preferred alternative is identified in which DOE would prepare about 97% by volume (about 60% by mass) of the aluminum-based <span class="hlt">fuel</span> for disposition using a melt and dilute treatment process. The remaining 3% by volume (about 40% by mass) would be managed using chemical separation. Impacts are assessed primarily in the areas of water resources, air resources, public and worker health, waste management, socioeconomic, and cumulative impacts.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5258957','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5258957"><span id="translatedtitle">Feasibility study: <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cell cogeneration in a water pollution control facility. <span class="hlt">Final</span> report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Not Available</p> <p>1980-02-01</p> <p>A conceptual design study was conducted to investigate the technical and economic feasibility of a cogeneration <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cell power plant operating in a large water pollution control facility. The <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cell power plant would use methane-rich digester gas from the water pollution control facility as a <span class="hlt">fuel</span> feedstock to provide electrical and thermal energy. Several design configurations were evaluated. These configurations were comprised of combinations of options for locating the <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cell power plant at the site, electrically connecting it with the water pollution control facility, using the rejected power plant heat, supplying <span class="hlt">fuel</span> to the power plant, and for ownership and operation. A configuration was selected which met institutional/regulatory constraints and provided a net cost savings to the industry and the electric utility. This volume of the report contains the appendices: (A) abbreviations and definitions, glossary; (B) 4.5 MWe utility demonstrator power plant study information; (C) rejected heat utilization; (D) availability; (E) conceptual design specifications; (F) details of the economic analysis; (G) detailed description of the selected configuration; and (H) <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cell power plant penetration analysis. (WHK)</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_22 --> <div id="page_23" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="441"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10184761','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10184761"><span id="translatedtitle">Potential impacts on air quality of the use of ethanol as an alternative <span class="hlt">fuel</span>. <span class="hlt">Final</span> report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Gaffney, J.S.; Marley, N.A.</p> <p>1994-09-01</p> <p>The use of ethanol/gasoline mixtures in motor vehicles has been proposed as an alternative <span class="hlt">fuel</span> strategy that might improve air quality while minimizing US dependence on foreign oil. New enzymatic production methodologies are being explored to develop ethanol as a viable, economic <span class="hlt">fuel</span>. In an attempt to reduce urban carbon monoxide (CO) and ozone levels, a number of cities are currently mandating the use of ethanol/gasoline blends. However, it is not at all clear that these blended <span class="hlt">fuels</span> will help to abate urban pollution. In fact, the use of these <span class="hlt">fuels</span> may lead to increased levels of other air pollutants, specifically aldehydes and peroxyacyl nitrates. Although these pollutants are not currently regulated, their potential health and environmental impacts must be considered when assessing the impacts of alternative <span class="hlt">fuels</span> on air quality. Indeed, formaldehyde has been identified as an important air pollutant that is currently being considered for control strategies by the State of California. This report focuses on measurements taken in Albuquerque, New Mexico during the summer of 1993 and the winter of 1994 as an initial attempt to evaluate the air quality effects of ethanol/gasoline mixtures. The results of this study have direct implications for the use of such <span class="hlt">fuel</span> mixtures as a means to reduce CO emissions and ozone in a number of major cities and to bring these urban centers into compliance with the Clean Air Act.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1156842','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1156842"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Final</span> report on accident tolerant <span class="hlt">fuel</span> performance analysis of APMT-Steel Clad/UO₂ <span class="hlt">fuel</span> and APMT-Steel Clad/UN-U₃Si₅ <span class="hlt">fuel</span> concepts</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Unal, Cetin; Galloway, Jack D.</p> <p>2014-09-12</p> <p>In FY2014 our group completed and documented analysis of new Accident Tolerant <span class="hlt">Fuel</span> (ATF) concepts using BISON. We have modeled the viability of moving from Zircaloy to stainless steel cladding in traditional light water reactors (LWRs). We have explored the reactivity penalty of this change using the MCNP-based burnup code Monteburns, while attempting to minimize this penalty by increasing the <span class="hlt">fuel</span> pellet radius and decreasing the cladding thickness. <span class="hlt">Fuel</span> performance simulations using BISON have also been performed to quantify changes to structural integrity resulting from thinner stainless steel claddings. We account for thermal and irradiation creep, fission gas swelling, thermal swelling and <span class="hlt">fuel</span> relocation in the models for both Zircaloy and stainless steel claddings. Additional models that account for the lower oxidation stainless steel APMT are also invoked where available. Irradiation data for HT9 is used as a fallback in the absence of appropriate models. In this study the isotopic vectors within each natural element are varied to assess potential reactivity gains if advanced enrichment capabilities were levied towards cladding technologies. Recommendations on cladding thicknesses for a robust cladding as well as the constitutive components of a less penalizing composition are provided. In the first section (section 1-3), we present results accepted for publication in the 2014 TOPFUEL conference regarding the APMT/UO₂ ATF concept (J. Galloway & C. Unal, Accident Tolerant and Neutronically Favorable LWR Cladding, Proceedings of WRFPM 2014, Sendai, Japan, Paper No.1000050). Next we discuss our preliminary findings from the thermo-mechanical analysis of UN-U₃Si₅ <span class="hlt">fuel</span> with APMT clad. In this analysis we used models developed from limited data that need to be updated when the irradiation data from ATF-1 test is available. Initial results indicate a swelling rate less than 1.5% is needed to prevent excessive clad stress.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19790013897','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19790013897"><span id="translatedtitle">General <span class="hlt">aviation</span> IFR operational problems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Bolz, E. H.; Eisele, J. E.</p> <p>1979-01-01</p> <p>Operational problems of general <span class="hlt">aviation</span> IFR operators (particularly single pilot operators) were studied. Several statistical bases were assembled and utilized to identify the more serious problems and to demonstrate their magnitude. These bases include official activity projections, historical accident data and delay data, among others. The GA operating environment and cockpit environment were analyzed in detail. Solutions proposed for each of the problem areas identified are based on direct consideration of currently planned enhancements to the ATC system, and on a realistic assessment of the present and future limitations of general <span class="hlt">aviation</span> avionics. A coordinated set of research program is suggested which would provide the developments necessary to implement the proposed solutions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20080034650&hterms=productivity+concept&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dproductivity%2Bconcept','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20080034650&hterms=productivity+concept&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dproductivity%2Bconcept"><span id="translatedtitle">Distributed <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Concepts and Technologies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Moore, Mark D.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Aviation</span> has experienced one hundred years of evolution, resulting in the current air transportation system dominated by commercial airliners in a hub and spoke infrastructure. While the first fifty years involved disruptive technologies that required frequent vehicle adaptation, the second fifty years produced a stable evolutionary optimization of decreasing costs with increasing safety. This optimization has resulted in traits favoring a centralized service model with high vehicle productivity and cost efficiency. However, it may also have resulted in a system that is not sufficiently robust to withstand significant system disturbances. <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> is currently facing rapid change from issues such as environmental damage, terrorism threat, congestion and capacity limitations, and cost of energy. Currently, these issues are leading to a loss of service for weaker spoke markets. These catalysts and a lack of robustness could result in a loss of service for much larger portions of the <span class="hlt">aviation</span> market. The impact of other competing transportation services may be equally important as casual factors of change. Highway system forecasts indicate a dramatic slow down as congestion reaches a point of non-linearly increasing delay. In the next twenty-five years, there is the potential for <span class="hlt">aviation</span> to transform itself into a more robust, scalable, adaptive, secure, safe, affordable, convenient, efficient and environmentally friendly system. To achieve these characteristics, the new system will likely be based on a distributed model that enables more direct services. Short range travel is already demonstrating itself to be inefficient with a centralized model, providing opportunities for emergent distributed services through air-taxi models. Technologies from the on-demand revolution in computers and communications are now available as major drivers for <span class="hlt">aviation</span> on-demand adaptation. Other technologies such as electric propulsion are currently transforming the automobile</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999aga..book.....P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999aga..book.....P"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Aviation</span> and the Global Atmosphere</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Penner, Joyce E.; Lister, David; Griggs, David J.; Dokken, David J.; McFarland, Mack</p> <p>1999-06-01</p> <p>This Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Special Report is the most comprehensive assessment available on the effects of <span class="hlt">aviation</span> on the global atmosphere. The report considers all the gases and particles emitted by aircraft that modify the chemical properties of the atmosphere, leading to changes in radiative properties and climate change, and modification of the ozone layer, leading to changes in ultraviolet radiation reaching the Earth. This volume provides accurate, unbiased, policy-relevant information and is designed to serve the <span class="hlt">aviation</span> industry and the expert and policymaking communities.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19820014394','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19820014394"><span id="translatedtitle">Advanced general <span class="hlt">aviation</span> engine/airframe integration study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Zmroczek, L. A.</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>A comparison of the in-airframe performance and efficiency of the advanced engine concepts is presented. The results indicate that the proposed advanced engines can significantly improve the performance and economy of general <span class="hlt">aviation</span> airplanes. The engine found to be most promising is the highly advanced version of a rotary combustion (Wankel) engine. The low weight and <span class="hlt">fuel</span> consumption of this engine, as well as its small size, make it suited for aircraft use.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19810013522','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19810013522"><span id="translatedtitle">Quiet Clean General <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Turbofan (QCGAT) technology study, volume 1</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1975-01-01</p> <p>The preliminary design of an engine which satisfies the requirements of a quiet, clean, general <span class="hlt">aviation</span> turbofan (QCGAT) engine is described. Also an experimental program to demonstrate performance is suggested. The T700 QCGAT engine preliminary design indicates that it will radiate noise at the same level as an aircraft without engine noise, have exhaust emissions within the EPA 1981 Standards, have lower <span class="hlt">fuel</span> consumption than is available in comparable size engines, and have sufficient life for five years between overhauls.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6340062','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6340062"><span id="translatedtitle">General <span class="hlt">aviation</span> activity and avionics survey. Annual summary report, CY 1985</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Not Available</p> <p>1987-03-01</p> <p>This report presents the results and a description of the 1985 General <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Activity and Avionics Survey. The survey was conducted during 1986 by the FAA to obtain information on the activity and avionics of the United States registered general <span class="hlt">aviation</span> aircraft fleet, the dominant component of civil <span class="hlt">aviation</span> in the U.S. The survey was based on a statistically selected sample of about 10.3 percent of the general <span class="hlt">aviation</span> fleet. A responses rate of 63.7 percent was obtained. Survey results based upon response but are expanded upward to represent the total population. Survey results revealed that during 1985 an estimated 34.1 million hours of flying time were logged and 88.7 million operations were performed by the 210,654 active general <span class="hlt">aviation</span> aircraft in the U.S. fleet. The mean annual flight time per aircraft was 158.2 hours. The active aircraft represented about 77.9 percent of the registered general <span class="hlt">aviation</span> fleet. The report contains breakdowns of these and other statistics by manufacturer/model group, aircraft, state and region of based aircraft, and primary use. Also included are <span class="hlt">fuel</span> consumption, lifetime airframe hours, avionics, engine hours, and miles flown estimates, as well as tables for detailed analysis of the avionics capabilities of the general <span class="hlt">aviation</span> fleet. New to the report this year are estimates of the number of landings, IFR hours flown, and the cost and grade of <span class="hlt">fuel</span> consumed by the GA fleet.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19800020816','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19800020816"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Fuels</span> research: Combustion effects overview</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Haggard, J. B., Jr.</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>The effects of broadened property <span class="hlt">fuels</span> on gas turbine combustors were assessed. Those physical and chemical properties of <span class="hlt">fuels</span> that affect <span class="hlt">aviation</span> gas turbine combustion were isolated and identified. Combustion sensitivity to variations in particular <span class="hlt">fuel</span> properties were determined. Advanced combustion concepts and subcomponents that could lessen the effect of using broadened property <span class="hlt">fuels</span> were also identified.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19820025471','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19820025471"><span id="translatedtitle">Impact of Advanced Propeller Technology on Aircraft/Mission Characteristics of Several General <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Aircraft</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Keiter, I. D.</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>Studies of several General <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> aircraft indicated that the application of advanced technologies to General <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> propellers can reduce <span class="hlt">fuel</span> consumption in future aircraft by a significant amount. Propeller blade weight reductions achieved through the use of composites, propeller efficiency and noise improvements achieved through the use of advanced concepts and improved propeller analytical design methods result in aircraft with lower operating cost, acquisition cost and gross weight.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20080000860','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20080000860"><span id="translatedtitle">Potential Carbon Negative Commercial <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> through Land Management</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hendricks, Robert C.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Brazilian terra preta soil and char-enhanced soil agricultural systems have demonstrated both enhanced plant biomass and crop yield and functions as a carbon sink. Similar carbon sinking has been demonstrated for both glycophyte and halophyte plants and plant roots. Within the assumption of 3.7 t-C/ha/yr soils and plant root carbon sinking, it is possible to provide carbon neutral U.S. commercial <span class="hlt">aviation</span> using about 8.5% of U.S. arable lands. The total airline CO2 release would be offset by carbon credits for properly managed soils and plant rooting, becoming carbon neutral for carbon sequestered synjet processing. If these lands were also used to produce biomass <span class="hlt">fuel</span> crops such as soybeans at an increased yield of 60 bu/acre (225gal/ha), they would provide over 3.15 10(exp 9) gallons biodiesel <span class="hlt">fuel</span>. If all this <span class="hlt">fuel</span> were refined into biojet it would provide a 16% biojet-84% synjet blend. This allows the U.S. <span class="hlt">aviation</span> industry to become carbon negative (carbon negative commercial <span class="hlt">aviation</span> through carbon credits). Arid land recovery could yield even greater benefits.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10125187','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10125187"><span id="translatedtitle">Novel injector techniques for coal-<span class="hlt">fueled</span> diesel engines. <span class="hlt">Final</span> report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Badgley, P.R.</p> <p>1992-09-01</p> <p>This report, entitled ``Novel Injector Techniques for Coal-<span class="hlt">Fueled</span> Diesel Engines,`` describes the progress and findings of a research program aimed at development of a dry coal powder <span class="hlt">fuel</span> injector in conjunction with the Thermal Ignition Combustion System (TICS) concept to achieve autoignition of dry powdered coal in a single-cylinder high speed diesel engine. The basic program consisted of concept selection, analysis and design, bench testing and single cylinder engine testing. The coal injector concept which was selected was a one moving part dry-coal-powder injector utilizing air blast injection. Adiabatics has had previous experience running high speed diesel engines on both direct injected directed coal-water-slurry (CWS) <span class="hlt">fuel</span> and also with dry coal powder aspirated into the intake air. The Thermal Ignition Combustion System successfully ignited these <span class="hlt">fuels</span> at all speeds and loads without requiring auxiliary ignition energy such as pilot diesel <span class="hlt">fuel</span>, heated intake air or glow or spark plugs. Based upon this prior experience, it was shown that the highest efficiency and fastest combustion was with the dry coal, but that the use of aspiration of coal resulted in excessive coal migration into the engine lubrication system. Based upon a desire of DOE to utilize a more modern test engine, the previous naturally-aspirated Caterpillar model 1Y73 single cylinder engine was replaced with a turbocharged (by use of shop air compressor and back pressure control valve) single cylinder version of the Cummins model 855 engine.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10170519','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10170519"><span id="translatedtitle">Oxygen electrode reaction in molten carbonate <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cells. <span class="hlt">Final</span> report, September 15, 1987--September 14, 1990</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Appleby, A.J.; White, R.E.</p> <p>1992-07-07</p> <p>Molten carbonate <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cell system is a leading candidate for the utility power generation because of its high efficiency for <span class="hlt">fuel</span> to AC power conversion, capability for an internal reforming, and a very low environmental impact. However, the performance of the molten carbonate <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cell is limited by the oxygen reduction reaction and the cell life time is limited by the stability of the cathode material. An elucidation of oxygen reduction reaction in molten alkali carbonate is essential because overpotential losses in the molten carbonate <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cell are considerably greater at the oxygen cathode than at the <span class="hlt">fuel</span> anode. Oxygen reduction on a fully-immersed gold electrode in a lithium carbonate melt was investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry to determine electrode kinetic and mass transfer parameters. The dependences of electrode kinetic and mass transfer parameters on gas composition and temperature were examined to determine the reaction orders and the activation energies. The results showed that oxygen reduction in a pure lithium carbonate melt occurs via the peroxide mechanism. A mass transfer parameter, D{sub O}{sup 1/2}C{sub O}, estimated by the cyclic voltammetry concurred with that calculated by the EIS technique. The temperature dependence of the exchange current density and the product D{sub O}{sup 1/2}C{sub O} were examined and the apparent activation energies were determined to be about 122 and 175 kJ/ mol, respectively.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10176957','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10176957"><span id="translatedtitle">Data collection plan for Phase 2 Alternative <span class="hlt">Fuels</span> Bus Data Collection Program. <span class="hlt">Final</span> report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Krenelka, T</p> <p>1993-07-01</p> <p>This document constitutes the plan for collecting and reporting data associated with a special set of transit bus demonstrations to be conducted under the Urban Bus Program of the Alternative Motor <span class="hlt">Fuels</span> Act (AMFA) of 1988. This program, called the Phase 2 Bus Data Collection Program, serves as an adjunct to the Phase I Bus Data Collection Program, collecting detailed data on just a few buses to augment and enhance the Phase 1 data in fulfilling the urban bus requirements of AMFA. Demonstrations will be conducted at a few transit system locations throughout the US and will use alternative <span class="hlt">fuels</span> and associated technologies to reduce undesirable transit bus exhaust emissions. Several organizations will be involved in the data collection; NREL will manage the program, analyze and store vehicle data, and make these data available through the Alternative <span class="hlt">Fuels</span> Data Center. This information will enable transit agencies, equipment manufacturers, <span class="hlt">fuel</span> suppliers, and government policy makers to make informed decisions about buying and using alternative <span class="hlt">fuels</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1169585','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1169585"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Final</span> Report - Subfreezing Start/Stop Protocol for an Advanced Metallic Open Flowfield <span class="hlt">Fuel</span> Cell Stack</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Conti, Amedeo</p> <p>2010-09-28</p> <p>For <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cells to be commercially viable as powerplants in automotive applications, the ability to survive and start reliably in cold climates (as low as -40C) is a must. Since <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cells are water-based energy systems, this requirement is a significant technical challenge. Water transport studies are imperative for achieving DOE targets for <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cell startup time from subfreezing conditions. Stack components must be selected that endure thermal and humidity cycling over the operating range, and operating strategies must be devised that enable the <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cell to start, i.e. generate power and heat up sufficiently before ice extinguishes the galvanic reactions, and afford evacuation of a sufficient amount of water, using a limited amount of auxiliary power, at shutdown. The objective of the CIRRUS program was to advance the state of the art in <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cell operability under subfreezing conditions, consistent with requirements for applications involving such conditions (e.g. automotive, forklifts, backup power systems, and APUs) and DOE targets, specifically to: • Demonstrate repeatable achievement of 50% rated power in less than 30 seconds from a -20C start condition, using less than 5 MJ auxiliary energy over the complete start/stop cycle. • Demonstrate unassisted start capability from an initial temperature of -40C.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/541804','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/541804"><span id="translatedtitle">Investigation of the mechanism in Rijke pulse combustors with tangential air and <span class="hlt">fuel</span> injection. <span class="hlt">Final</span> report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Zinn, B.T.; Jagoda, J.I.; Daniel, B.R.; Bai, T.</p> <p>1993-03-01</p> <p>To study the mechanisms that control the operation of this combustor, an experimental setup is developed with access for detailed optical measurements. Propane is employed as <span class="hlt">fuel</span> because the absence of liquid drops and combustion generated particulates in the combustion region significantly simplifies the optical diagnostics. The experimental techniques utilized include acoustic pressure measurements, space and time resolved radiation measurements, steady temperature measurements, exhaust flow chemical analysis, high speed video and intensified images of the reacting flow field by a computer based CCD camera imaging system. Flow visualization by the imaging system and the results from radiation intensity distribution measurements suggest that the periodic combustion processes caused by periodic vortex shedding and impingement provide the energy required to sustain the pressure oscillations. High radiation intensity occurs during a relatively short period of time and is in phase with the pressure oscillations, indicating that Rayleigh`s criterion is satisfied. Periodic variations of the air and <span class="hlt">fuel</span> flow rates and, consequently, the air/<span class="hlt">fuel</span> ratio of the reacting mixture inside the combustor appear to be another mechanism that contributes to the occurrence of periodic combustion and heat release processes. The presence of this mechanism has been uncovered by acoustic pressure measurements that revealed the presence of traveling pressure waves inside the air and <span class="hlt">fuel</span> feed lines. These traveling waves produce periodic <span class="hlt">fuel</span> and air feed rates which, in turn, result in periodic combustion and heat release processes within the combustor.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5446164','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5446164"><span id="translatedtitle">Feasibility study: <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cell cogeneration in a water pollution control facility. <span class="hlt">Final</span> report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Not Available</p> <p>1980-02-01</p> <p>A conceptual design study was conducted to investigate the technical and economic feasibility of a cogeneration <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cell power plant operating in a large water pollution control facility. In this particular application, the <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cell power plant would use methane-rich digester gas from the water pollution control facility as a <span class="hlt">fuel</span> feedstock to provide electrical and thermal energy. Several design configurations were evaluated. These configurations were comprised of combinations of options for locating the <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cell power plant at the site, electrically connecting it with the water pollution control facility, using the rejected power plant heat, supplying <span class="hlt">fuel</span> to the power plant, and for ownership and operation. A configuration was selected which met institutional/regulatory constraints and provided a net cost savings to the industry and the electric utility. The displacement of oil and coal resulting from the Bergen County Utilities Authority application was determined. A demonstration program based on the selected configuration was prepared to describe the scope of work, organization, schedules, and costs from preliminary design through actual tests and operation. The potential market for nationwide application of the concept was projected, along with the equivalent oil displacement resulting from estimated commercial application.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1008341','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1008341"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Final</span> Technical Report for the Martin County Hydrogen <span class="hlt">Fuel</span> Cell Development Project</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Eshraghi, Ray</p> <p>2011-03-09</p> <p>In September 2008, the U.S. Department of Energy and Martin County Economic Development Corporation entered into an agreement to further the advancement of a microtubular PEM <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cell developed by Microcell Corporation. The overall focus of this project was on research and development related to high volume manufacturing of <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cells and cost reduction in the <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cell manufacturing process. The extrusion process used for the microfiber <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cells in this project is inherently a low cost, high volume, high speed manufacturing process. In order to take advantage of the capabilities that the extrusion process provides, all subsequent manufacturing processes must be enhanced to meet the extrusion line’s speed and output. Significant research and development was completed on these subsequent processes to ensure that power output and performance were not negatively impacted by the higher speeds, design changes and process improvements developed in this project. All tasks were successfully completed resulting in cost reductions, performance improvements and process enhancements in the areas of speed and quality. These results support the Department of Energy’s goal of <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cell commercialization.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-07-07/pdf/2011-17038.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-07-07/pdf/2011-17038.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">76 FR 39884 - <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Security Advisory Committee</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-07-07</p> <p>... SECURITY <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Security Advisory Committee AGENCY: Transportation Security Administration, DHS. ACTION... Security Administration (TSA) announces the re-establishment of the <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Security Advisory Committee...-governmental organizations (NGOs) and stakeholder representatives concerning potential risks to...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-02-27/pdf/2013-04578.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-02-27/pdf/2013-04578.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">78 FR 13395 - Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Administration</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-02-27</p> <p>... of October 23, 2012 (77 FR 64836) would require placement of fill on submerged lands jointly managed... Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Administration Notice of Availability of Draft Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act (ANILCA) Section 810 Subsistence Evaluation. AGENCY: Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Administration...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_23 --> <div id="page_24" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="461"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-01-14/pdf/2011-818.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-01-14/pdf/2011-818.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">76 FR 2745 - Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Administration</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-01-14</p> <p>... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Administration Eighty-Fourth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 159: Global Positioning System (GPS) AGENCY: Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of RTCA Special...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6A4mjrxht8Y','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6A4mjrxht8Y"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Safety Analyst Flies with Blue Angels</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.nasa.gov/multimedia/videogallery/index.html">NASA Video Gallery</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Abegael "Abby" Jakey has <span class="hlt">aviation</span> in her blood, taking her first flight at six months old in a Globe Swift. Now a contractor with Booz Allen Hamilton, Inc. working for NASA's <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Safety Report...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19800020799','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19800020799"><span id="translatedtitle">Aircraft Research and Technology for Future <span class="hlt">Fuels</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>The potential characteristics of future <span class="hlt">aviation</span> turbine <span class="hlt">fuels</span> and the property effects of these <span class="hlt">fuels</span> on propulsion system components are examined. The topics that are discussed include jet <span class="hlt">fuel</span> supply and demand trends, the effects of refining variables on <span class="hlt">fuel</span> properties, shekle oil processing, the characteristics of broadened property <span class="hlt">fuels</span>, the effects of <span class="hlt">fuel</span> property variations on combustor and <span class="hlt">fuel</span> system performance, and combuster and <span class="hlt">fuel</span> system technology for broadened property <span class="hlt">fuels</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1184606','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1184606"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Fuel</span> Fabrication Capability WBS 01.02.01.05 - HIP Bonding Experiments <span class="hlt">Final</span> Report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Dickerson, Patricia O'Donnell; Summa, Deborah Ann; Liu, Cheng; Tucker, Laura Arias; Chen, Ching-Fong; Aikin, Beverly; Aragon, Daniel Adrian; Beard, Timothy Vance; Montalvo, Joel Dwayne; Pena, Maria Isela; Dombrowski, David E.</p> <p>2015-06-10</p> <p>The goals of this project were to demonstrate reliable, reproducible solid state bonding of aluminum 6061 alloy plates together to encapsulate DU-10 wt% Mo surrogate <span class="hlt">fuel</span> foils. This was done as part of the CONVERT <span class="hlt">Fuel</span> Fabrication Capability effort in Process Baseline Development . Bonding was done using Hot Isotatic Pressing (HIP) of evacuated stainless steel cans (a.k.a HIP cans) containing <span class="hlt">fuel</span> plate components and strongbacks. Gross macroscopic measurements of HIP cans prior to HIP and after HIP were used as part of this demonstration, and were used to determine the accuracy of a finitie element model of the HIP bonding process. The quality of the bonding was measured by controlled miniature bulge testing for Al-Al, Al-Zr, and Zr-DU bonds. A special objective was to determine if the HIP process consistently produces good quality bonding and to determine the best characterization techniques for technology transfer.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/674640','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/674640"><span id="translatedtitle">Phase 1 feasibility study of an integrated hydrogen PEM <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cell system. <span class="hlt">Final</span> report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Luczak, F.</p> <p>1998-03-01</p> <p>Evaluated in the report is the use of hydrogen <span class="hlt">fueled</span> proton exchange membrane (PEM) <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cells for devices requiring less than 15 kW. Metal hydrides were specifically analyzed as a method of storing hydrogen. There is a business and technical part to the study that were developed with feedback from each other. The business potential of a small PEM product is reviewed by examining the markets, projected sales, and required investment. The major technical and cost hurdles to a product are also reviewed including: the membrane and electrode assembly (M and EA), water transport plate (WTP), and the metal hydrides. It was concluded that the best potential stationary market for hydrogen PEM <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cell less than 15 kW is for backup power use in telecommunications applications.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/29101','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/29101"><span id="translatedtitle">Updated <span class="hlt">fuel</span> consumption estimates for benefit-cost analysis of transportation alternatives. <span class="hlt">Final</span> report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Saad, F.; McFarland, W.F.</p> <p>1994-08-01</p> <p>Extensive research has been completed on the <span class="hlt">fuel</span> efficiency of different types of vehicles, but this information is either out-of-date or scattered in many sources and available in different formats. In this research study, the ARFCOM computer program was used to develop an improved <span class="hlt">fuel</span> consumption data set representing typical vehicles currently operating on highways in the U.S.A. Using this data set updated statistical equations for the MicroBENCOST computer program were developed. These new equations were used in the MicroBENCOST computer program with example problems to demonstrate the use of the data set.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=drones+OR+uav+OR+unmanned+AND+aerial+AND+vehicles&id=EJ726746','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=drones+OR+uav+OR+unmanned+AND+aerial+AND+vehicles&id=EJ726746"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Insights: Unmanned Aerial Vehicles</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Deal, Walter F., III</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Aviation</span> as people know it today is a mature but very young technology as time goes. Considering that the 100th anniversary of flight was celebrated just a few years ago in 2003, millions of people fly from city to city or from nation to nation and across the oceans and around the world effortlessly and economically. Additionally, they have space…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=flight+AND+orientation&id=ED319943','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=flight+AND+orientation&id=ED319943"><span id="translatedtitle">College Level <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Curriculum Development.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Mattson, Betty J.</p> <p></p> <p>This document describes a college-level curriculum for airplane pilots that is expected to be available at Muskegon (Michigan) College of Business and Technology in fall 1990. The curriculum offers associate or bachelor degree, college credit for earned flight ratings, private license, transfer credit for other <span class="hlt">aviation</span> college programs, the…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19820007152','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19820007152"><span id="translatedtitle">NASA <span class="hlt">aviation</span> safety reporting system</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1981-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Aviation</span> safety reports that relate to loss of control in flight, problems that occur as a result of similar sounding alphanumerics, and pilot incapacitation are presented. Problems related to the go around maneuver in air carrier operations, and bulletins (and FAA responses to them) that pertain to air traffic control systems and procedures are included.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=COCKPIT&pg=2&id=ED408488','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=COCKPIT&pg=2&id=ED408488"><span id="translatedtitle">Collegiate <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Review. September 1992.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>McCoy, C. Elaine, Ed.</p> <p></p> <p>This document contains five papers on <span class="hlt">aviation</span> education. "Training Considerations for Expert Pilot Decision Making" (Richard J. Adams, Ronald John Lofaro) is a report on research identifying the differences between expert and novice decision makers from a cognitive information processing perspective and correlating the development of expert pilot…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19800009747','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19800009747"><span id="translatedtitle">NASA <span class="hlt">aviation</span> safety reporting system</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1979-01-01</p> <p>The human factors frequency considered a cause of or contributor to hazardous events onboard air carriers are examined with emphasis on distractions. Safety reports that have been analyzed, processed, and entered into the <span class="hlt">aviation</span> safety reporting system data base are discussed. A sampling of alert bulletins and responses to them is also presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-03-08/pdf/2013-05452.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-03-08/pdf/2013-05452.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">78 FR 14912 - International <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Safety Assessment (IASA) Program Change</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-03-08</p> <p>... Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Administration 14 CFR Part 129 International <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Safety Assessment (IASA) Program Change AGENCY: Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Policy statement. SUMMARY: This statement describes a policy change to the FAA's International <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Safety Assessment (IASA)...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-07-23/pdf/2012-15908.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-07-23/pdf/2012-15908.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">77 FR 43137 - <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Environmental and Energy Policy Statement</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-07-23</p> <p>... Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Administration <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Environmental and Energy Policy Statement AGENCY: Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Policy Statement. SUMMARY: This is a statement affirming the FAA's environmental and energy policy for U.S. civil <span class="hlt">aviation</span>. This policy statement outlines...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-09-14/pdf/2012-22713.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-09-14/pdf/2012-22713.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">77 FR 56909 - <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Rulemaking Advisory Committee (ARAC); Renewal</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-09-14</p> <p>... Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Administration <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Rulemaking Advisory Committee (ARAC); Renewal AGENCY: Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Renewal. SUMMARY: The FAA announces the charter renewal of the <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Rulemaking Advisory Committee (ARAC), a Federal Advisory Committee that works...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED338878.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED338878.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Pilot Training I and <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Technician I: Task Analyses. Semester I. Field Review Copy.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Upchurch, Richard</p> <p></p> <p>This guide for <span class="hlt">aviation</span> pilot and <span class="hlt">aviation</span> technician training begins with a course description, resource information, and a course outline. Tasks/competencies are categorized into 10 concept/duty areas: understanding <span class="hlt">aviation</span> career opportunities; comprehending the history of <span class="hlt">aviation</span>; understanding classes, categories, and types of aircraft;…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19740005613','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19740005613"><span id="translatedtitle">Q-FANSTM for general <span class="hlt">aviation</span> aircraft</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Worobel, R.; Mayo, M. G.</p> <p>1973-01-01</p> <p>Continued growth of general <span class="hlt">aviation</span> over the next 10 to 15 years is dependent on continuing improvement in aircraft safety, utility, performance and cost. Moreover, these advanced aircraft will need to conform to expected government regulations controlling propulsion system emissions and noise levels. An attractive compact low noise propulsor concept, the Q-FANTM when matched to piston, rotary combustion, or gas turbine engines opens up the exciting prospect of new, cleaner airframe designs for the next generation of general <span class="hlt">aviation</span> aircraft which will provide these improvements and meet the expected noise and pollution restriction of the 1980 time period. New Q-FAN methodology which was derived to predict Q-FAN noise, weight and cost is presented. Based on this methodology Q-FAN propulsion system performance, weight, noise, and cost trends are discussed. Then the impact of this propulsion system type on the complete aircraft is investigated for several representative aircraft size categories. <span class="hlt">Finally</span>, example conceptual designs for Q-FAN/engine integration and aircraft installations are presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=general+AND+aviation&pg=4&id=EJ281754','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=general+AND+aviation&pg=4&id=EJ281754"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Aviation</span> and Space Education. Why? What? How?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Matson, Merridee L.</p> <p>1983-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Aviation</span> and space (aerospace education) is the study of <span class="hlt">aviation</span> and space and its impact on society. Discusses the nature and scope of <span class="hlt">aviation</span> and space education in general and basic education. Also considers typical programs and scope at the elementary, secondary, and higher educational levels. (JN)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED111625.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED111625.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Civil <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> and Facilities. Aerospace Education II.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Callaway, R. O.; Elmer, James D.</p> <p></p> <p>This is a revised textbook for use in the Air Force ROTC training program. The main theme of the book is concerned with the kinds of civil <span class="hlt">aviation</span> facilities and many intricacies involved in their use. The first chapter traces the development of civil <span class="hlt">aviation</span> and the formation of organizations to control <span class="hlt">aviation</span> systems. The second chapter…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=aviation+AND+technology&pg=2&id=ED279822','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=aviation+AND+technology&pg=2&id=ED279822"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Maintenance Technology. General. Curriculum Implementation Guide.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Moore, John, Jr.; And Others</p> <p></p> <p>This curriculum implementation guide is a scope and sequence for the general section of a course in <span class="hlt">aviation</span> maintenance technology. The course materials were prepared through a cooperative effort of airframe and powerplant mechanics, general <span class="hlt">aviation</span> industry representatives, Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Administration representatives, and vocational…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title14-vol2/pdf/CFR-2011-title14-vol2-part65-appFederal.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title14-vol2/pdf/CFR-2011-title14-vol2-part65-appFederal.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">14 CFR Special Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span>... - 2</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false 2 Federal Special Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Regulation No. 100 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL <span class="hlt">AVIATION</span> ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS Special Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Regulation...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_24 --> <div id="page_25" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="481"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title14-vol3/pdf/CFR-2011-title14-vol3-part121-appFederal.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title14-vol3/pdf/CFR-2011-title14-vol3-part121-appFederal.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">14 CFR Special Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span>... - 2</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false 2 Federal Special Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Regulation No. 50 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL <span class="hlt">AVIATION</span> ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Special Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Regulation No....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title14-vol3/pdf/CFR-2012-title14-vol3-part121-appFederal.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title14-vol3/pdf/CFR-2012-title14-vol3-part121-appFederal.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">14 CFR Special Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span>... - 2</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false 2 Federal Special Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Regulation No. 50 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL <span class="hlt">AVIATION</span> ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Special Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Regulation No....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title14-vol2/pdf/CFR-2012-title14-vol2-part65-appFederal.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title14-vol2/pdf/CFR-2012-title14-vol2-part65-appFederal.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">14 CFR Special Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span>... - 2</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false 2 Federal Special Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Regulation No. 100 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL <span class="hlt">AVIATION</span> ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS Special Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Regulation...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title14-vol2/pdf/CFR-2013-title14-vol2-part63-appFederal.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title14-vol2/pdf/CFR-2013-title14-vol2-part63-appFederal.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">14 CFR Special Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span>... - 2</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false 2 Federal Special Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Regulation No. 100 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL <span class="hlt">AVIATION</span> ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Regulation No. 100-2 Editorial Note: For the text of SFAR No. 100-2, see part 61 of...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title14-vol2/pdf/CFR-2014-title14-vol2-part65-appFederal.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title14-vol2/pdf/CFR-2014-title14-vol2-part65-appFederal.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">14 CFR Special Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span>... - 2</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false 2 Federal Special Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Regulation No. 100 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL <span class="hlt">AVIATION</span> ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Regulation No. 100-2 Editorial Note: For the text of SFAR No. 100-2, see part 61 of...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title14-vol2/pdf/CFR-2011-title14-vol2-part63-appFederal.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title14-vol2/pdf/CFR-2011-title14-vol2-part63-appFederal.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">14 CFR Special Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span>... - 2</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false 2 Federal Special Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Regulation No. 100 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL <span class="hlt">AVIATION</span> ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS OTHER THAN PILOTS Special Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Regulation...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title14-vol3/pdf/CFR-2010-title14-vol3-part121-appFederal.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title14-vol3/pdf/CFR-2010-title14-vol3-part121-appFederal.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">14 CFR Special Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span>... - 2</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false 2 Federal Special Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Regulation No. 50 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL <span class="hlt">AVIATION</span> ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Special Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Regulation No....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title14-vol2/pdf/CFR-2010-title14-vol2-part65-appFederal.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title14-vol2/pdf/CFR-2010-title14-vol2-part65-appFederal.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">14 CFR Special Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span>... - 1</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false 1 Federal Special Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Regulation No. 100 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL <span class="hlt">AVIATION</span> ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS Special Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Regulation...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title14-vol2/pdf/CFR-2012-title14-vol2-part63-appFederal.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title14-vol2/pdf/CFR-2012-title14-vol2-part63-appFederal.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">14 CFR Special Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span>... - 2</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false 2 Federal Special Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Regulation No. 100 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL <span class="hlt">AVIATION</span> ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS OTHER THAN PILOTS Special Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Regulation...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title14-vol3/pdf/CFR-2014-title14-vol3-part121-appFederal.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title14-vol3/pdf/CFR-2014-title14-vol3-part121-appFederal.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">14 CFR Special Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span>... - 2</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false 2 Federal Special Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Regulation No. 50 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL <span class="hlt">AVIATION</span> ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Special Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Regulation No....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-03-17/pdf/2010-5538.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-03-17/pdf/2010-5538.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">75 FR 12809 - Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Administration</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-03-17</p> <p>... Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Administration Notice of Intent To Rule on Request To Release Airport Property at the Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport, DFW Airport, Texas AGENCY: Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Administration (FAA... provisions of Section 125 of the Wendell H. Ford <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Investment Reform Act for the 21st Century (AIR...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title14-vol3/pdf/CFR-2012-title14-vol3-part135-appFederal.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title14-vol3/pdf/CFR-2012-title14-vol3-part135-appFederal.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">14 CFR Special Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span>... - 2</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false 2 Federal Special Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Regulation No. 50 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL <span class="hlt">AVIATION</span> ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Regulation No. 50-2 Editorial Note: For the text of SFAR No. 50-2, see part 91 of...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title14-vol3/pdf/CFR-2013-title14-vol3-part121-appFederal.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title14-vol3/pdf/CFR-2013-title14-vol3-part121-appFederal.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">14 CFR Special Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span>... - 2</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false 2 Federal Special Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Regulation No. 50 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL <span class="hlt">AVIATION</span> ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Special Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Regulation No....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title14-vol2/pdf/CFR-2010-title14-vol2-part63-appFederal.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title14-vol2/pdf/CFR-2010-title14-vol2-part63-appFederal.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">14 CFR Special Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span>... - 1</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false 1 Federal Special Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Regulation No. 100 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL <span class="hlt">AVIATION</span> ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS OTHER THAN PILOTS Special Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Regulation...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title14-vol3/pdf/CFR-2013-title14-vol3-part135-appFederal.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title14-vol3/pdf/CFR-2013-title14-vol3-part135-appFederal.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">14 CFR Special Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span>... - 2</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false 2 Federal Special Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Regulation No. 50 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL <span class="hlt">AVIATION</span> ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Regulation No. 50-2 Editorial Note: For the text of SFAR No. 50-2, see part 91 of...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title14-vol3/pdf/CFR-2011-title14-vol3-part135-appFederal.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title14-vol3/pdf/CFR-2011-title14-vol3-part135-appFederal.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">14 CFR Special Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span>... - 2</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false 2 Federal Special Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Regulation No. 50 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL <span class="hlt">AVIATION</span> ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Regulation No. 50-2 Editorial Note: For the text of SFAR No. 50-2, see part 91 of...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title14-vol3/pdf/CFR-2014-title14-vol3-part135-appFederal.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title14-vol3/pdf/CFR-2014-title14-vol3-part135-appFederal.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">14 CFR Special Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span>... - 2</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false 2 Federal Special Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Regulation No. 50 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL <span class="hlt">AVIATION</span> ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Regulation No. 50-2 Editorial Note: For the text of SFAR No. 50-2, see part 91 of...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title14-vol3/pdf/CFR-2010-title14-vol3-part135-appFederal.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title14-vol3/pdf/CFR-2010-title14-vol3-part135-appFederal.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">14 CFR Special Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span>... - 2</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false 2 Federal Special Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Regulation No. 50 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL <span class="hlt">AVIATION</span> ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Regulation No. 50-2 Editorial Note: For the text of SFAR No. 50-2, see part 91 of...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-05-01/pdf/2013-10287.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-05-01/pdf/2013-10287.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">78 FR 25524 - Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Administration</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-05-01</p> <p>... TRANSPORTATION Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Administration Notice of Request To Release Airport Property AGENCY: Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Intent to Rule on Request to Release Airport Property..., Airports Compliance Specialist, Federal <span class="hlt">Aviation</span> Administration, Airports Division, ACE- 610C, 901...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1114138','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1114138"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Final</span> Report: Si and Na-SG Powder Hydrogen <span class="hlt">Fuel</span> Cells</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Melack, John</p> <p>2013-07-15</p> <p>The primary project objective is to develop and demonstrate a controllable hydrogen generation system based on sodium silicide powder for portable <span class="hlt">fuel</span> cell applications. This includes the development and demonstration of all balance of plant and reaction control components, which encompass water feeding, thermal management, and reaction site maximization. The appropriate manufacturing methods to readily scale production of sodium silicide will also be investigated.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_25 --> <center> <div class="footer-extlink text-muted"><small>Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. 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