American Psychiatric Association. Avoidant personality disorder. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: DSM-5 . 5th ed. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing. 2013;672-675. Blais MA, Smallwood ...
Eikenaes, Ingeborg; Hummelen, Benjamin; Abrahamsen, Gun; Andrea, Helene; Wilberg, Theresa
Avoidant personality disorder (APD) and social phobia (SP) are closely related, such that they are suggested to represent different severity levels of one social anxiety disorder. This cross-sectional study aimed to compare patients with APD to patients with SP, with particular focus on personality dysfunction. Ninety-one adult patients were examined by diagnostic interviews and self-report measures, including the Index of Self-Esteem and the Severity Indices of Personality Problems. Patients were categorized in three groups; SP without APD (n = 20), APD without SP (n = 15), and APD with SP (n = 56). Compared to patients with SP without APD, patients with APD reported more symptom disorders, psychosocial problems, criteria of personality disorders, and personality dysfunction regarding self-esteem, identity and relational problems. These results indicate that APD involves more severe and broader areas of personality dysfunction than SP, supporting the conceptualization of APD as a personality disorder as proposed for DSM-5.
Wright, Aidan G C; Pincus, Aaron L; Lenzenweger, Mark F
Avoidant personality disorder (AVPD), like other personality disorders, has historically been construed as a highly stable disorder. However, results from a number of longitudinal studies have found that the symptoms of AVPD demonstrate marked change over time. Little is known about which other psychological systems are related to this change. Although cross-sectional research suggests a strong relationship between AVPD and personality traits, no work has examined the relationship of their change trajectories. The current study sought to establish the longitudinal relationship between AVPD and basic personality traits using parallel process growth curve modeling. Parallel process growth curve modeling was applied to the trajectories of AVPD and basic personality traits from the Longitudinal Study of Personality Disorders (Lenzenweger, M. F., 2006, The longitudinal study of personality disorders: History, design considerations, and initial findings. Journal of Personality Disorders, 20, 645-670. doi:10.1521/pedi.2006.20.6.645), a naturalistic, prospective, multiwave, longitudinal study of personality disorder, temperament, and normal personality. The focus of these analyses is on the relationship between the rates of change in both AVPD symptoms and basic personality traits. AVPD symptom trajectories demonstrated significant negative relationships with the trajectories of interpersonal dominance and affiliation, and a significant positive relationship to rates of change in neuroticism. These results provide some of the first compelling evidence that trajectories of change in PD symptoms and personality traits are linked. These results have important implications for the ways in which temporal stability is conceptualized in AVPD specifically, and PD in general.
Lampe, Lisa; Sunderland, Matthew
Avoidant personality disorder (AvPD) is regarded as a severe variant of social phobia (SP), consistent with a dimensional model. However, these conclusions are largely drawn from studies based on individuals with SP, with or without comorbid AvPD. The present study hypothesized that there are qualitative differences between AvPD and SP that are undermined by limiting research to participants with SP. The authors sought to test this hypothesis by comparing three groups-SP only, AvPD only, and SP+AvPD-using data extracted from an epidemiological sample of 10,641 adults aged 18 years and over. Screening questions were used in the epidemiological survey to identify ICD-10 personality disorders; from this the author developed a proxy measure for DSM-IV AvPD. Axis I diagnoses, including DSM-IV SP, were identified using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). In this sample, the majority of those with AvPD did not also have SP: The authors found 116 persons with AvPD only, 196 with SP only, and 69 with SP+AvPD. There was little difference between any of the groups on sex, marital status, employment, education, or impairment variables. The SP+AvPD group reported more distress and comorbidity than the SP only and AvPD only groups, which did not differentiate from each other. More feared social situations were endorsed in the SP only group compared to the AvPD only group. Although the finding of few differences between SP only and AvPD only groups among the variables measured in this epidemiological survey fails to provide support for the hypothesis of qualitative differences, the finding that the AvPD only group appears more similar to the SP only group than to the SP+AvPD group also fails to provide support for the alternative continuity hypothesis. The greater distress and additional comorbidity with depression associated with SP+AvPD may be due to the additional symptom load of a second disorder rather than simply representing a more severe variant of
Chapman, Alexander L.; Specht, Matthew W.; Cellucci, Tony
The theory that borderline personality disorder (BPD) is associated with experiential avoidance, and that experiential avoidance mediates the association between BPD and deliberate, nonsuicidal self-harm was examined. Female inmate participants (N = 105) were given structured diagnostic assessments of BPD, as well as several measures of…
Torvik, Fartein Ask; Welander-Vatn, Audun; Ystrom, Eivind; Knudsen, Gun Peggy; Czajkowski, Nikolai; Kendler, Kenneth S; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted
Social anxiety disorder (SAD) and avoidant personality disorder (AvPD) are frequently co-occurring psychiatric disorders with symptomatology related to fear of social situations. It is uncertain to what degree the 2 disorders reflect the same genetic and environmental risk factors. The current study addresses the stability and co-occurrence of SAD and AvPD, the factor structure of the diagnostic criteria, and genetic and environmental factors underlying the disorders at 2 time points. SAD and AvPD were assessed in 1,761 young adult female twins at baseline and 1,471 of these approximately 10 years later. Biometric models were fitted to dimensional representations of SAD and AvPD. SAD and AvPD were moderately and approximately equally stable from young to middle adulthood, with increasing co-occurrence driven by environmental factors. At the first wave, approximately 1 in 3 individuals with AvPD had SAD, increasing to 1 in 2 at follow-up. The diagnostic criteria for SAD and AvPD had a two-factor structure with low cross-loadings. The relationship between SAD and AvPD was best accounted for by a model with separate, although highly correlated (r = .76), and highly heritable (.66 and .71) risk factors for each disorder. Their genetic and environmental components correlated .84 and .59, respectively. The finding of partially distinct risk factors indicates qualitative differences in the etiology of SAD and AvPD. Genetic factors represented the strongest time-invariant influences, whereas environmental factors were most important at the specific points in time.
Torvik, Fartein Ask; Welander-Vatn, Audun; Ystrom, Eivind; Knudsen, Gun Peggy; Czajkowski, Nikolai; Kendler, Kenneth S.; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted
Social anxiety disorder (SAD) and avoidant personality disorder (AvPD) are frequently co-occurring psychiatric disorders with symptomatology related to fear of social situations. It is uncertain to what degree the two disorders reflect the same genetic and environmental risk factors. The current study addresses the stability and co-occurrence of SAD and AvPD, the factor structure of the diagnostic criteria, and genetic and environmental factors underlying the disorders at two time points. SAD and AvPD were assessed in 1,761 young adult female twins at baseline and 1,471 of these approximately 10 years later. Biometric models were fitted to dimensional representations of SAD and AvPD. SAD and AvPD were moderately and approximately equally stable from young to middle adulthood, with increasing co-occurrence driven by environmental factors. At the first wave, approximately one in three individuals with AvPD had SAD, increasing to one in two at follow-up. The diagnostic criteria for SAD and AvPD had a two-factor structure with low cross-loadings. The relationship between SAD and AvPD was best accounted for by a model with separate, although highly correlated (r = .76), and highly heritable (.66 and .71) risk factors for each disorder. Their genetic and environmental components correlated .84 and .59, respectively. The finding of partially distinct risk factors indicates qualitative differences in the etiology of SAD and AvPD. Genetic factors represented the strongest time-invariant influences, whereas environmental factors were most important at the specific points in time. PMID:26569037
Avoidant personality disorder is a separable schizophrenia-spectrum personality disorder even when controlling for the presence of paranoid and schizotypal personality disorders The UCLA family study.
Fogelson, D L; Nuechterlein, K H; Asarnow, R A; Payne, D L; Subotnik, K L; Jacobson, K C; Neale, M C; Kendler, K S
It is unresolved whether avoidant personality disorder (APD) is an independent schizophrenia (Sz)-spectrum personality disorder (PD). Some studies find APD and social anxiety symptoms (Sxs) to be separable dimensions of psychopathology in relatives (Rels) of schizophrenics while other studies find avoidant Sxs to be correlated with schizotypal and paranoid Sxs. Rates of APD among first-degree Rels of Sz probands, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) probands, and community control (CC) probands were examined. Further analyses examined rates when controlling for the presence of schizotypal (SPD) and paranoid (PPD) personality disorders, differences in APD Sxs between relative groups, and whether APD in Rels of Szs reflects a near miss for another Sz-spectrum PD. Three hundred sixty-two first-degree Rels of Sz probands, 201 relatives of ADHD probands, and 245 Rels of CC probands were interviewed for the presence of DSM-III-R Axis I and II disorders. Diagnoses, integrating family history, interview information, and medical records, were determined. APD occurred more frequently in Rels of Sz probands compared to CC probands (p<0.001) and also when controlling for SPD and PPD (p<0.005). Two Sxs of APD were most characteristic of the Rels of Sz probands: "avoids social or occupational activities..." and "exaggerates the potential difficulties..." 65% of the Rels of Sz probands who had diagnoses of APD were more than one criterion short of a DSM-III-R diagnosis of either SPD or PPD. This indicates that APD is a separate Sz-spectrum disorder, and not merely a sub-clinical form of SPD or PPD.
Grilo, Carlos M.; Sanislow, Charles A.; Gunderson, John G.; Pagano, Maria E.; Yen, Shirley; Zanarini, Mary C.; Shea, Tracie M.; Skodol, Andrew E.; Stout, Robert L.; Morey, Leslie C.; McGlashan, Thomas H.
The authors examined the stability of schizotypal (STPD), borderline (BPD), avoidant (AVPD) and obsessive-compulsive (OCPD) personality disorders (PDs) over 2 years of prospective multiwave follow-up. Six hundred thirty-three participants recruited at 4 collaborating sites who met criteria for 1 or more of the 4 PDs or for major depressive…
The concept of earned security is important and has significant implications for psychotherapy. Understanding how individuals with insecure attachment styles can develop secure attachment styles through reparative relationships, such as the therapeutic relationship, can assist psychotherapists in helping patients to overcome the effects of early negative life experiences. Personality disorders are commonly associated with negative experiences, such as abuse, neglect, and other empathic failures. These disorders are particularly difficult to treat because of their pervasive nature and the resultant defense mechanisms that often thwart psychotherapy. However, an understanding of the role that attachment can play in the etiology, symptomatology, and treatment of psychopathology can greatly enhance the therapeutic process. This case report describes the long-term psychodynamic psychotherapy of a woman with a history of childhood trauma, avoidant attachment style, and avoidant personality disorder. Through the therapeutic relationship, she developed a secure attachment, and her symptoms remitted, and her life drastically improved.
Fiore, Donatella; Dimaggio, Giancarlo; Nicoló, Giuseppe; Semerari, Antonio; Carcione, Antonino
Metacognitive interpersonal therapy (MIT) for personality disorders is aimed at both improving metacognition--the ability to understand mental statesand modulating problematic interpersonal representations while building new and adaptive ones. Attention to the therapeutic relationship is basic in MIT. Clinicians recognize any dysfunctional relationships with patients and work to achieve attunement to make the latter aware of their problematic interpersonal patterns. The authors illustrate here the case of a man suffering from obsessive-compulsive and avoidant personality disorders with dependent traits. He underwent combined individual and group therapies to (a) modulate his perfectionism, (b) prevent shifts towards avoiding responsibilities to protect himself from feared negative judgments, and (c) help him acknowledge suppressed desires. We show how treatment focused on the various dysfunctional personality aspects.
Dimaggio, Giancarlo; D'Urzo, Maddalena; Pasinetti, Manuela; Salvatore, Giampaolo; Lysaker, Paul H; Catania, Dario; Popolo, Raffaele
Many patients with substance abuse problems present with co-occurrent cluster C personality disorders. Focusing on both disorders disrupts the maintenance mechanisms and the vicious cycle between the 2 conditions; however, treatment teams often neglect this issue. In this work, we describe the features of metacognitive interpersonal therapy as applied to a man with avoidant and depressive personality disorders and heroin, cocaine, and alcohol abuse. Psychotherapy proceeded through the following steps: (a) conducting drug therapy to deal with symptoms of abstinence from heroin; (b) forming a therapeutic bond to overcome the patient's severe emotional withdrawal; (c) fostering basic metacognitive capacities such as awareness of emotions and their triggers; (d) sharing formulations of maladaptive interpersonal schemas and descriptions of the associated states of mind; (e) conveying an understanding of the link between interpersonal events (recent ones and traumatic memories) and substance abuse; (f) facilitating the acquisition of critical distance from maladaptive schemas; and (g) promoting the use of adaptive coping skills instead of resorting to substance abuse. Implications for generalizing these procedures to the treatment of other patients with co-occurrent personality disorders and substance abuse are described.
Johansen, Merete Selsbakk; Normann-Eide, Eivind; Normann-Eide, Tone; Wilberg, Theresa
Knowledge of emotional dysfunction in patients with avoidant personality disorder (APD) is much needed. The present study examined affect consciousness (AC) in patients with APD compared to borderline personality disorder (BPD). AC, defined as capacity to perceive, reflect on, tolerate, and express emotional experiences, is assumed to be central to structure-building in personality. The study tested the hypotheses that patients with APD have lower general AC and lower AC for pleasant affects compared to BPD. Fifty-nine patients, 26 with APD and 33 with BPD were rated on several aspects of AC using the specialized AC interview. The structured interview SCID-II was applied for diagnostic evaluations. The APD group had significantly lower levels of global AC and conceptual expressivity compared to the BPD group. Among 11 specific affects the APD group had significantly lower AC for interest and contempt. Emotional dysfunction is an important feature of APD and the findings indicate that psychotherapies for APD patients should focus on emotional experiences, aiming to improve emotional awareness, tolerance, and expressivity. The notion of a general avoidance of positive emotions in APD needs further exploration, including a possible dysfunction in the evolutionary based neuro-affective Seeking system.
Beeney, Joseph E; Stepp, Stephanie D; Hallquist, Michael N; Scott, Lori N; Wright, Aidan G C; Ellison, William D; Nolf, Kimberly A; Pilkonis, Paul A
Theory and research point to the role of attachment difficulties in borderline personality disorder (BPD). Attachment insecurity is believed to lead to chronic problems in social relationships, attributable, in part, to impairments in social cognition, which comprise maladaptive mental representations of self, others, and self in relation to others. However, few studies have attempted to identify social-cognitive mechanisms that link attachment insecurity to BPD and to assess whether such mechanisms are specific to the disorder. For the present study, empirically derived indices of mentalization, self-other boundaries, and identity diffusion were tested as mediators between attachment style and personality disorder symptoms. In a cross-sectional structural equation model, mentalization and self-other boundaries mediated the relationship between attachment anxiety and BPD. Mentalization partially mediated the relationship between attachment anxiety and antisocial personality disorder (PD) symptoms, and self-other boundaries mediated the relationship between attachment anxiety.
Schizoid personality disorder Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff Schizoid personality disorder is an uncommon condition in which people avoid ... range of emotional expression. If you have schizoid personality disorder, you may be seen as a loner ...
Leising, Daniel; Sporberg, Doreen; Rehbein, Diana
We present a behavior observation study of interpersonal behavior in 96 female subjects, who had been screened for the presence of dependent, avoidant, narcissistic and histrionic personality disorder features. Each subject took part in three short role-plays, taken from assertiveness training. Afterwards, both the subject and her role-play partner judged, how assertive the subject had been. Although observation time was very short, dependent and avoidant subjects could be easily identified from their overly submissive behavior in the role-plays. Histrionic and narcissistic subjects did not show distinctive interpersonal behavior. Contrary to a common belief, higher scores on some personality disorder (PD) scales were positively related to cross-situational variability of behavior. Results are discussed with regard to their implications for clinical diagnostics, therapy and the methodology of personality disorder research in general.
Strauss, Jennifer L.; Hayes, Adele M.; Johnson, Sheri L.; Newman, Cory F.; Brown, Gregory K.; Barber, Jaques P.; Lawrenceau, Jean-Philippe; Beck, Aaron T.
Participants were 30 adult outpatients diagnosed with avoidant personality disorder or obsessive-compulsive personality disorder who enrolled in an open trial of cognitive therapy for personality disorders. Treatment consisted of up to 52 weekly sessions. Symptom evaluations were conducted at intake, at Sessions 17 and 34, and at the last…
Johansen, Merete Selsbakk; Normann-Eide, Tone; Egeland, Jens
Personality disorders (PDs) are highly prevalent in patients receiving psychiatric services, and are associated with significant personal and social costs. Over the past two decades, an increasing number of treatment studies have documented the effectiveness of treatment for patients with PDs, especially when it comes to reduction of symptom distress, risk taking behavior, self-harm, or suicide attempts. However, less is known about the more complex aims of improving the personality structure itself, such as identity- and interpersonal disturbances. Emotional dysfunction is closely associated with PD pathology. The present study investigated changes in affect consciousness (AC) in patients with avoidant or borderline PD, and how these changes were associated with clinical status after 3 years of follow-up. The study included 52 individuals; 79 percent were females, and mean age was 30 years. The evaluations included the Affect Consciousness Interview, Symptom Checklist-90-R, Circumplex of Interpersonal Problems, the Index of Self-Esteem, and three domains (Identity Integration, Relational Capacities, and Self-Control) of the Severity Indices of Personality Problems (SIPP-118). There was a significant increase in the Global AC and AC scores for most of the specific affects from baseline to follow-up. As the present study did not include a control group, it cannot be concluded that changes in AC are effects of psychotherapy, and the possibility of age-related maturation processes cannot be excluded. The change in Global AC contributed significantly to explained variance in the follow-up levels of Circumplex of Interpersonal Problems, and the two SIPP-118 domains Relational Capacities and Identity Integration. Improved AC was not associated with change in the Self-Control domain or the Global Severity Index of Symptom Checklist-90-R. The results suggest that AC may be altered for patients with borderline and avoidant PDs, and this is the first study to report that
Sharp, Carla; Kalpakci, Allison; Mellick, William; Venta, Amanda; Temple, Jeff R
At least two leading developmental models of borderline personality disorder (BPD) emphasize the role of accurate reflection and understanding of internal states as significant to the development of BPD features (Fonagy, Int J Psycho-Anal 72:639-656, 1991; Linehan, Cognitive-behavioral treatment of borderline personality disorder, 1993). The current study used the construct of experiential avoidance (EA) to operationalize avoidance of internal states and sought to examine (1) the concurrent relations between EA and borderline features in a large and diverse community sample; and (2) the prospective relation between EA and borderline features over a 1-year follow-up, controlling for baseline levels of borderline features. N = 881 adolescents recruited from public schools in a large metropolitan area participated in baseline assessments and N = 730 completed follow-up assessments. Two main findings were reported. First, EA was associated with borderline features, depressive, and anxiety symptoms at the bivariate level, but when all variables were considered together, depression and anxiety no longer remained significantly associated with borderline features, suggesting that the relations among these symptom clusters may be accounted for by EA as a cross-cutting underlying psychological process. Second, EA predicted levels of borderline symptoms at 1-year follow-up, controlling for baseline levels of borderline symptoms, and symptoms of anxiety and depression. Results are interpreted against the background of developmental theories of borderline personality disorder.
Personality disorders are a group of mental illnesses. They involve long-term patterns of thoughts and behaviors ... serious problems with relationships and work. People with personality disorders have trouble dealing with everyday stresses and ...
Gratz, Kim L; Tull, Matthew T; Matusiewicz, Alexis M; Breetz, Alisa A; Lejuez, C W
Despite a robust association between borderline personality disorder (BPD) and emotion dysregulation, evidence of within-BPD group differences in emotion regulation (ER) difficulties highlights the need to examine factors that increase the risk for ER difficulties within BPD. One factor that warrants consideration is co-occurring avoidant personality disorder (AVPD), the presence of which is associated with worse outcomes in and outside of BPD and theorized to interfere with adaptive ER. Thus, this study examined if co-occurring AVPD among women with BPD is associated with heightened ER difficulties (assessed across self-report, behavioral, and physiological domains). Participants included 39 women with BPD (13 with co-occurring AVPD) and 18 women without BPD. Although results revealed no significant differences in overall self-reported ER difficulties (or the specific dimensions involving emotional clarity and the control of behaviors when distressed) between BPD participants with and without AVPD (with both groups reporting greater ER difficulties than non-BPD participants), other ER difficulties were found to be heightened among BPD participants with AVPD. Specifically, BPD participants with (vs. without) AVPD reported greater difficulties accessing effective ER strategies, evidenced less willingness to experience distress on a laboratory stressor, and exhibited a greater decrease in high frequency heart rate variability in response to this stressor (indicative of poor ER capacity). Findings add to the literature on ER difficulties in BPD, suggesting that co-occurring AVPD within BPD may be associated with a lower capacity for regulating distress and greater difficulties accessing effective ER strategies, potentially leading to greater efforts to avoid emotional distress.
Iverson, Katherine M.; Follette, Victoria M.; Pistorello, Jacqueline; Fruzzetti, Alan E.
Objective This study investigated three domains of emotional functioning—emotion dysregulation, distress tolerance and experiential avoidance—in young adult outpatients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) symptoms. Method Participants were 40 young adult outpatients at a university counseling center who reported current suicidal ideation and met diagnostic criteria for BPD or experienced subthreshold BPD symptoms (i.e., met diagnostic criteria for 3 or 4 symptoms). Participants completed three self-report measures of emotional functioning—experiential avoidance (AAQ-II), emotion dysregulation (DERS), and distress tolerance (DTS)—and a behavioral measure of distress tolerance (PASAT-C) in addition to self-report measures of depression and BPD symptom severity. Results Partial correlations demonstrated that both emotion dysregulation and experiential avoidance were significantly associated with BPD symptom severity after accounting for depression. However, neither the self-report or behavioral measures of distress tolerance were related to BPD symptom severity. A regression analysis with emotion dysregulation and experiential avoidance as independent variables revealed that only experiential avoidance was significantly associated with BPD symptom severity after controlling for depression symptoms. Conclusion The current findings suggest that experiential avoidance may be a central process in BPD symptom severity. Future research directions are discussed. PMID:22452755
Wilberg, T; Urnes, O; Friis, S; Pedersen, G; Karterud, S
A self-report measure of the Five-Factor Model (FFM) of personality, NEO-PI-R, was administered to a sample of patients with borderline (BPD, N = 29) or avoidant PD (AVPD, N = 34), admitted to a day treatment program, to investigate the NEO-PI-R profiles of the disorders, and the ability of NEO-PI-R to discriminate between the two disorders. The diagnoses were assessed according to the LEAD standard. AVPD was associated with high levels of Neuroticism and Agreeableness, and low levels of Extraversion and Conscientiousness. BPD was associated with high levels of Neuroticism and low levels of Agreeableness, Extraversion, and Conscientiousness. Eighty-eight percent of the AVPD group had high scores on Neuroticism and low scores on Extraversion, whereas 65% of the BPD group were high on Neuroticism and low on Agreeableness. The Extraversion and Agreeableness scales of NEO-PI-R discriminated between patients with BPD and those with AVPD. Patients with BPD scored significantly higher on the Angry Hostility and Impulsiveness subscales of Neuroticism and significantly lower on three Extraversion subscales, three Agreeableness subscales, and one Conscientiousness subscale. At the DSM-IV criterion level, there were more significant relationships between the subscales of NEO-PI-R and the AVPD criteria than with the BPD criteria. The findings suggest that the FFM has good discriminating ability regarding BPD and AVPD. However, there may be a closer conceptual relationship between the FFM and AVPD than between the FFM and BPD.
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Triebwasser, Joseph; Chemerinski, Eran; Roussos, Panos; Siever, Larry J
Schizoid personality disorder (ScPD) is one of the "odd cluster" or "cluster A" personality disorders in DSM-IV. In the present article, the authors review information pertaining to the psychometric characteristics of ScPD as gleaned from a search of relevant publications as well as from databases of personality disorder study groups. Comparatively little evidence exists for the validity and reliability of ScPD as a separate, multifaceted personality disorder. Some authors, moreover, have contended that the group of patients termed "schizoid" actually fall into two distinct groups--an "affect constricted" group, who might better be subsumed within schizotypal personality disorder, and a "seclusive" group, who might better be subsumed within avoidant personality disorder. The research-based justification for retaining ScPD as an independent diagnosis is sufficiently sparse for it to seem reasonable to remove ScPD from the list of personality disorders in DSM-V, and instead to invite clinicians to code for schizoid traits using a dimensional model.
Sanislow, Charles A; Little, Todd D; Ansell, Emily B; Grilo, Carlos M; Daversa, Maria; Markowitz, John C; Pinto, Anthony; Shea, M Tracie; Yen, Shirley; Skodol, Andrew E; Morey, Leslie C; Gunderson, John G; Zanarini, Mary C; McGlashan, Thomas H
Evaluation of the validity of personality disorder (PD) diagnostic constructs is important for the impending revision of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Prior factor analytic studies have tested these constructs in cross-sectional studies, and models have been replicated longitudinally, but no study has tested a constrained longitudinal model. The authors examined 4 PDs in the Collaborative Longitudinal Personality Disorders study (schizotypal, borderline, avoidant, and obsessive-compulsive) over 7 time points (baseline, 6 months, 1 year, 2 years, 4 years, 6 years, and 10 years). Data for 2-, 4-, 6- and 10-year assessments were obtained in semistructured interviews by raters blind to prior PD diagnoses at each assessment. The latent structure of the 4 constructs was differentiated during the initial time points but became less differentiated over time as the mean levels of the constructs dropped and stability increased. Obsessive-compulsive PD became more correlated with schizotypal and borderline PD than with avoidant PD. The higher correlation among the constructs in later years may reflect greater shared base of pathology for chronic personality disorders.
Schizotypal personality disorder Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff People with schizotypal personality disorder are often described as odd or eccentric ... in social situations, as the person with schizotypal personality disorder responds inappropriately to social cues and holds ...
Sociopathic personality; Sociopathy; Personality disorder - antisocial ... are often seen in the development of antisocial personality. Some doctors believe that psychopathic personality (psychopathy) is ...
Personality disorder - histrionic; Attention seeking - histrionic personality disorder ... Causes of histrionic personality disorder are unknown. Genes and early childhood events may be responsible. It is diagnosed more often in women than ...
Personality disorder - paranoid; PPD ... American Psychiatric Association. Paranoid personality disorder. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of ental Disorders . 5th ed. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing. 2013:649-652. Blais MA, ...
Bowles, David P; Armitage, Chris J; Drabble, Jennifer; Meyer, Björn
An experimental study investigated self-esteem and other-esteem responses to either fully supportive or less supportive interpersonal feedback in college students with avoidant and borderline personality disorder features (APD and BPD respectively). Disturbances in self-esteem and in evaluations of others are central to definitions of both APD and BPD, but the extent to which such interpersonal appraisals are responsive to contextual features, such as evaluative feedback from others, is not yet clear. In theory, we would expect that individuals with pronounced PD features would show more inflexible and more negative self-evaluations and others- evaluations than those without PD features. In this study with 169 undergraduates, APD but not BPD features were associated with other-contingent state self-esteem and other-esteem. A significant interaction indicated that highly avoidant respondents felt particularly negatively about themselves and their close others in situations that conveyed subtle criticism but not in situations signalling unequivocal support. This suggests that their self-esteem and other-esteem, rather than being rigidly negative, are instead highly contingent upon interpersonal feedback. Such context contingency has implications for the trait-like description of diagnostic characteristics within current taxonomies and is in line with contemporary dynamic models of personality structure and process.
Martín Murcia, Francisco M; Cangas, Adolfo J; Pozo, Eugenia M; Martínez Sánchez, Margarita; López Pérez, Manuel
Personality disorders in eating disorder patients. A follow-up study was designed to analyze the relation between personality disorders (PD) and the course of eating disorders (ED) in 34 patients who required treatment over 4 years and half. 91% of the clinical sample met the criteria for PD at the initial assessment and 36% at the end of treatment, with a significant reduction in MCMI-II scores at follow-up. The outcome of the ED was significantly related to the PD outcome. There was a higher rate of improvement of PD in the bulimic group (61%) than in anorexic group (34%). The patients who presented schizoid and avoidant personality disorders were the most resistant and they adhered less to treatment. The prevalence of PD in the clinical sample and its relation to the course of ED from a person-centered model is discussed.
American Psychiatric Association. Narcissistic personality disorder. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders . 5th ed. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing. 2013;669-672. Blais MA, Smallwood P, Groves ...
American Psychiatric Association. Borderline personality disorder. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders . 5th ed. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing. 2013:663-666. Blais MA, Smallwood P, Groves ...
American Psychiatric Association. Dependent personality disorder. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: DSM-5 . 5th ed. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing. 2013;675-678. Blais MA, Smallwood ...
American Psychiatric Association. Schizotypal personality disorder. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: DSM-5 . 5th ed. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing. 2013;655-659. Blais MA, Smallwood ...
American Psychiatric Association. Schizoid personality disorder. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders . 5th ed. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing. 2013:652-655. Blais MA, Smallwood P, Groves ...
Sinha, Preeti; Sharan, Pratap
Personality disorders (PDs) arise from core psychopathology of interpersonal relationships and understanding of self and others. The distorted representations of self and others, as well as unhealthy relationships that characterize persons with various PDs, indicate the possibility that persons with PDs have insecure attachment. Insecure…
An investigation of the validity of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition avoidant personality disorder construct as a prototype category and the psychometric properties of the diagnostic criteria.
Hummelen, Benjamin; Wilberg, Theresa; Pedersen, Geir; Karterud, Sigmund
This study investigated several aspects of the validity of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition avoidant personality disorder (APD) construct, with emphasis on the psychometric properties of the diagnostic criteria and the prototype nature of the construct. A sample of 1,058 patients from the Norwegian Network of Psychotherapeutic Day Hospitals was examined by means of exploratory factor analysis, correlation, and diagnostic efficiency statistics, chi(2) analysis, and frequency distribution. The results indicated that APD is a 1-dimensional construct with good internal consistency. The criteria had acceptable diagnostic efficiency; criterion 3 performed poorest. Number of APD criteria showed no distinct threshold between No-APD and patients with APD. Sixty-two different combinations of any 4 APD criteria occurred. It can be concluded that the prototype model fitted the data well and that the APD diagnostic criteria perform well in the current classification system. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition hierarchy of criteria was not supported.
Harrison, Amy; Treasure, Janet; Smillie, Luke D
It has been proposed that approach and avoidance processes may be critically involved in the development and maintenance of eating disorders (EDs), including anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN). The Behavioural Inhibition System and Behavioural Activation System Scales (BIS/BAS) and Appetitive Motivation Scale (AMS) questionnaires were administered to 286 participants: 91 healthy controls (HCs), 121 participants with a current ED, either AN (restrictive and binge purge subtypes), or BN and 74 participants recovered from an ED. Individuals with EDs had higher levels of sensitivity to punishment and lower levels of reward reactivity than controls. Individuals in recovery from an ED scored the same as those in the acute group, with the exception of BAS fun seeking, for which they scored significantly higher than those with restricting AN. Discriminant analysis revealed that HCs were maximally separated from those in the acute and recovered ED groups along a dimension reflecting high punishment sensitivity and low reward sensitivity. Classification analysis demonstrated that ED and HC group membership was predicted from reward and punishment sensitivity measures; however recovered participants tended to be misclassified as ED. This study suggests high punishment sensitivity and low reward reactivity/sensitivity might form a personality cluster associated with the risk of developing an ED.
Five aspects of the diagnosis and treatment of multiple personality disorder (MPD) were examined. The following five conclusions were made: the contemporary diagnostic criteria are vague and overinclusive; the recent alleged increase in prevalence of the disorder is almost certainly artefactual; legal proceedings involving MPD patients raise disturbing questions about personal responsibility; there is little literature support for the theory that MPD results from childhood trauma; and many of the techniques used to diagnose and treat the condition reinforce its symptoms. A careful revision of diagnostic criteria for the disorder is recommended.
Lammers, C-H; Vater, A; Roepke, S
Narcissism is a multifaceted term which encompasses traits of normal personality as well as a specific personality disorder. While much research has been concerned with narcissism as a trait there are only few empirical studies available on narcissistic personality disorder (NPS). The current diagnostic of NPS according to DSM-IV-TR focuses on grandiose type narcissism whereas vulnerable narcissism, which has been described by clinicians and researchers has not yet been recognised. Psychotherapy of narcissistic patients through different psychotherapeutic schools focuses mainly on processes in the therapeutic relationship, the analysis and change of grandiose and vulnerable schemas, emotion regulation techniques and correction of narcissistic behavior in favor of prosocial interactions.
Chemerinski, Eran; Triebwasser, Joseph; Roussos, Panos; Siever, Larry J
Early phenomenological descriptions of schizophrenia have acknowledged the existence of milder schizophrenia spectrum disorders characterized by the presence of attenuated symptoms typically present in chronic schizophrenia. The investigation of the schizophrenia spectrum disorders offers an opportunity to elucidate the pathophysiological mechanisms giving rise to schizophrenia. Differences and similarities between subjects with schizotypal personality disorder (SPD), the prototypical schizophrenia personality disorder, and chronic schizophrenia have been investigated with genetic, neurochemical, imaging, and pharmacological techniques. Patients with SPD and the more severely ill patients with chronic schizophrenia share cognitive, social, and attentional deficits hypothesized to result from common neurodevelopmentally based cortical temporal and prefrontal pathology. However, these deficits are milder in SPD patients due to their capacity to recruit other related brain regions to compensate for dysfunctional areas. Individuals with SPD are also less vulnerable to psychosis due to the presence of protective factors mitigating subcortical DA hyperactivity. Given the documented close relationship to other schizophrenic disorders, SPD will be included in the psychosis section of DSM-5 as a schizophrenia spectrum disorder as well as in the personality disorder section.
Triebwasser, Joseph; Chemerinski, Eran; Roussos, Panos; Siever, Larry J
Paranoid personality disorder (PPD) is currently included in DSM-IV's "odd cluster" or "cluster A." In the present article, the authors review available information pertaining to the psychometric properties of PPD, as derived from the relevant literature and from databases of personality disorder study groups. There is comparatively little published evidence for the reliability and validity of PPD, and researchers by and large have tended not to study the disorder, either because of investigators' difficulty recruiting individuals with PPD into research studies, or (as seems more likely) because the trait-paranoia from which many psychiatric patients suffer has seemed better explained by other DSM-IV disorders on Axis I and/or Axis II than by PPD. Given the scant empirical evidence on PPD, it seems reasonable to remove it as an independent diagnosis from the next edition of DSM, and instead to encourage clinicians to code trait-paranoia using a dimensional approach.
Repo-Tiihonen, Eila; Hallikainen, Tero
Antisocial personality disorder (ASP), especially psychopathy as its extreme form, has provoked fear and excitement over thousands of years. Ruthless violence involved in the disorder has inspired scientists, too.The abundance of research results concerning epidemiology, physiology, neuroanatomy, heritability, and treatment interventions has made ASP one of the best documented disorders in psychiatry. Numerous interventions have been tested, but there is no current treatment algorithm. Biological and sociological parameters indicate the importance of early targeted interventions among the high risk children. Otherwise, as adults they cause the greatest harm. The use of medications or psychotherapy for adults needs careful consideration.
Salama, A A
This paper presents a description of Multiple Personality Disorder--its development, etiology, and presentation. The paper stresses the criteria for diagnosis that can help professionals to identify individuals at an early stage. An overview of treatment approaches and indications for hospitalization, length of treatment, and goals are also explained.
Sipos, V; Schweiger, U
Characteristics of a borderline personality disorder include emotional instability and a self-threatening lack of impulsive control. As a result, interpersonal relationships are rendered difficult. The central elements of treatment are psychoeducation, self-management, improved stress tolerance and awareness, emotion managment and training in social competence.
This selective review of the relationship between panic disorder/agoraphobia and DSM-III personality disorders points to a preponderance of dependent, avoidant, and histrionic features and reveals a certain degree of covariation between severity of Axis I disorder and personality functioning. However, the link between panic/agoraphobia and Axis II disorders does not appear to be specific because (1) general features such as neuroticism, stress, dysphoric mood, and interpersonal sensitivity, rather than duration and severity of panic attacks and phobias, emerge as unique predictors or determinants of personality disorder; and (2) similar personality profiles are obtained in a heterogenous population of psychiatric outpatients or patients with social phobia, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and major depression.
... Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Eating Disorders Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder ... Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Eating Disorders Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder ...
... Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Eating Disorders Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder ... Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Eating Disorders Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder ...
... Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Eating Disorders Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder ... Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Eating Disorders Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder ...
Murray, J B
Research on multiple personality disorder (MPD) has burgeoned, and large-scale investigations indicate that a typical MPD patient is a woman, a victim of childhood abuse (especially sexual abuse), a person whose symptoms meet criteria for other psychiatric disorders, and a person who would employ many psychological defenses. Treatment approaches have frequently included hypnotherapy, which requires skill and caution.
Vincent, Ken R.
Attempts to define interrelationship of personality disorders. Discusses relationships between and among three major groupings of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Suggests that passive aggressive, avoidant, and borderline personality disorders serve as bridges between these groupings. Discusses placement within groupings with…
The author outlines his concept of reflective function or mentalization, which is defined as the capacity to think about mental states in oneself and in others. He presents evidence to suggest that the capacity for reflective awareness in a child's caregiver increases the likelihood of the child's secure attachment, which in turn facilitates the development of mentalization in the child. He proposes that a secure attachment relationship offers the child a chance to explore the mind of the caregiver, and in this way to learn about minds; he formulates this model of the birth of the psychological self as a variation on the Cartesian cogito: "My caregiver thinks of me as thinking and therefore I exist as a thinker." This model is then applied to provide insight into some personality-disordered individuals who were victims of childhood abuse. The author proposes (1) that individuals who experience early trauma may defensively inhibit their capacity to mentalize to avoid having to think about their caregiver's wish to harm them; and (2) that some characteristics of severe borderline personality disorder may be rooted in developmental pathology associated with this inhibition. He offers evidence for and some qualifications of this model, and argues that the therapeutic effect of psychoanalysis depends on its capacity to activate patients' ability to evolve an awareness of mental states and thus find meaning in their own and other people's behavior.
Korner, Anthony; Gerull, Friederike; Stevenson, Janine; Meares, Russell
This article investigates the pattern of temperament for patients with borderline personality disorder and the impact of psychotherapeutic treatment on temperamental variables. A cohort of patients treated in the Westmead Borderline Personality Disorder Psychotherapy research project completed the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire. All patients had a diagnosis of borderline personality disorder according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Revised Third Edition, criteria. This group scored highly on novelty-seeking and harm avoidance scales and moderately on reward dependence. There was a significant reduction in harm avoidance after 12 months of psychotherapy with a further reduction after 2 years in therapy. Although at variance with Cloninger's original prediction of low harm avoidance in histrionic and borderline patients, results are consistent with other studies in this patient group. The paradox of "self-harmers" scoring highly on harm avoidance may be explained by recognition of the intensity of "psychic pain" in this group. Self-harming behaviors may frequently be motivated by avoidance of a "greater harm" in terms of the inner psychic reality for these patients. Reduction in harm avoidance with psychotherapy could suggest an impact of treatment on temperament or may indicate that the harm avoidance construct is influenced by state variables such as mood.
American Psychiatric Association. Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: DSM-5 . 5th ed. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing. 2013;678-682. Blais MA, Smallwood ...
O'Dwyer, J M; Friedman, T
A case of multiple personality disorder is described as a coping mechanism protecting the patient from the abuse to which she was subjected throughout her life. The multiple personalities became more prominent following the birth of a severely handicapped child.
Mellos, Eleftherios; Liappas, Ioannis; Paparrigopoulos, Thomas
There is high comorbidity of alcohol dependence with mood, anxiety, substance abuse and personality disorders. Personality disorders, in particular, are considered to be an important contributing and/or predisposing factor in the pathogenesis, clinical course and treatment outcome of alcohol dependence. According to clinical and epidemiological studies, the prevalence of personality disorders in alcoholism ranges from as low as 22-40% to as high as 58-78%. The literature has focused primarily on antisocial and borderline personality disorders; however, almost the whole spectrum of personality disorders can be encountered in alcohol dependence, such as the dependent, avoidant, paranoid and others. A number of factors, such as sampling methods, diagnostic criteria used or assessment procedures applied, may explain this wide variation. The quest of a distinct 'alcoholic personality' dates from the first half of the 20th century but failed to reveal consistent and strong substantiation. However, renewed efforts provided evidence for the importance of impulsivity/ disinhibition and neuroticism/negative affectivity in the development of alcohol dependence; the role of other personality traits such as extraversion/sociability is still unclear. These findings led to a number of typologies, some of the most popular and influential being those of Cloninger, Babor, and Lesch.
Imagery rescripting is a powerful technique that can be successfully applied in the treatment of personality disorders. For personality disorders, imagery rescripting is not used to address intrusive images but to change the implicational meaning of schemas and childhood experiences that underlie the patient's problems. Various mechanisms that may…
Chanen, Andrew M; Thompson, Katherine N
Summary Accurate diagnosis is fundamental to effective management of borderline personality disorder, but many patients remain undetected. The first-line management for borderline personality disorder is psychosocial treatment, not drugs. There are major prescribing hazards including polypharmacy, overdose and misuse. Drug treatment might be warranted for patients who have a co-occurring mental disorder such as major depression. If a drug is prescribed for borderline personality disorder, it should only be as an adjunct to psychosocial treatment. There should be clear and collaborative goals that are regularly reviewed with the patient. Use single drugs prescribed in limited quantities for a limited time. Stop drugs that are ineffective. PMID:27340322
The term ‘Borderline Personality Disorder’ (BPD) refers to a psychiatric syndrome that is characterized by emotion dysregulation, impulsivity, risk-taking behavior, irritability, feelings of emptiness, self-injury and fear of abandonment, as well as unstable interpersonal relationships. BPD is not only common in psychiatric populations but also more prevalent in the general community than previously thought, and thus represents an important public health issue. In contrast to most psychiatric disorders, some symptoms associated with BPD may improve over time, even without therapy, though impaired social functioning and interpersonal disturbances in close relationships often persist. Another counterintuitive and insufficiently resolved question is why depressive symptoms and risk-taking behaviors can occur simultaneously in the same individual. Moreover, there is an ongoing debate about the nosological position of BPD, which impacts on research regarding sex differences in clinical presentation and patterns of comorbidity. In this review, it is argued that many features of BPD may be conceptualized within an evolutionary framework, namely behavioral ecology. According to Life History Theory, BPD reflects a pathological extreme or distortion of a behavioral ‘strategy’ which unconsciously aims at immediate exploitation of resources, both interpersonal and material, based on predictions shaped by early developmental experiences. Such a view is consistent with standard medical conceptualizations of BPD, but goes beyond classic ‘deficit’-oriented models, which may have profound implications for therapeutic approaches. PMID:26929090
Waddell, Kathleen J.
While hyperactivity in children has been alternately viewed as a form of minimal brain dysfunction, as a behavior disorder, or as an attention deficit disorder, recent findings on hyperactive adolescents and adults suggest that hyperactivity can be better understood as a personality disorder. Striking similarities appear when characteristics of…
... to make you feel angry or defeated Key personal information, including traumatic events in your past and ... symptoms affect your life, including school, work and personal relationships? How do you feel — and act — when ...
... you have noticed, and for how long Key personal information, including traumatic events in your past and ... are these symptoms affecting your life, including your personal relationships and work? How often during the course ...
... of uneasiness. At other times, it develops into panic attacks and phobias. Identifying the Signs Anxiety disorders vary ... specific situations, in which case they are called panic attacks. A panic attack is an abrupt episode of ...
Berle, David; Starcevic, Vladan; Hannan, Anthony; Milicevic, Denise; Lamplugh, Claire; Fenech, Pauline
There remains a lack of consensus regarding the possibility that especially high levels of panic-related cognitions characterise panic disorder with agoraphobia. We administered the Anxiety Sensitivity Index, the Agoraphobic Cognitions Questionnaire and the Anxious Thoughts and Tendencies Scale as well as measures of agoraphobic avoidance to patients diagnosed with panic disorder with agoraphobia (n=75) and without agoraphobia (n=26). Patients with panic disorder with agoraphobia did not score significantly higher on any of the cognitive variables than did panic disorder patients without agoraphobia. However, most of the cognitive variables showed small to moderate-strength correlations with self-report measures of agoraphobic avoidance. Our findings suggest that anxiety sensitivity, catastrophising of the consequences of panic and a general anxiety-prone cognitive style, although to some extent associated with agoraphobic avoidance, do not discriminate panic disorder with agoraphobia from panic disorder without agoraphobia.
Rodgers, Rachel F; Melioli, Tiffany; Laconi, Stéphanie; Bui, Eric; Chabrol, Henri
Internet addiction is an increasing concern among young adults. Self-presentational theory posits that the Internet offers a context in which individuals are able to control their image. Little is known about body image and eating concerns among pathological Internet users. The aim of this study was to explore the association between Internet addiction symptoms, body image esteem, body image avoidance, and disordered eating. A sample of 392 French young adults (68 percent women) completed an online questionnaire assessing time spent online, Internet addiction symptoms, disordered eating, and body image avoidance. Fourteen men (11 percent) and 26 women (9.7 percent) reported Internet addiction. Body image avoidance was associated with Internet addiction symptoms among both genders. Controlling for body-mass index, Internet addiction symptoms, and body image avoidance were both significant predictors of disordered eating among women. These findings support the self-presentational theory of Internet addiction and suggest that body image avoidance is an important factor.
The clinical distinctions between histrionic personality disorder and somatization disorder have frequently been blurred. In this study, 60 women with somatization disorder were found to have histrionic personality disorder. A DSM-III diagnosis of histrionic personality disorder did not significantly help to improve the diagnosis of somatization disorder. A diagnosis of histrionic personality disorder should stimulate a search for better-validated Axis I diagnoses.
Habimana, E; Massé, L
Personality disorders are frequently associated with socially unacceptable behaviours that might not be always considered deviant. On the other hand, envy has been linked with various forms of maladjustment such as interpersonal conflicts, low self-esteem, depression, anxiety, aggressiveness, and even criminal behaviour such as vandalism and even murder. According to the DSM-IV, none of the personality disorders, except the narcissistic personality, is formally associated with envy. Nevertheless, this "deadly sin" is so omnipresent in human relationships that it cannot be restricted only to the narcissistic personalities. Most scholars recognise that people would deny that they envy someone else since envy is socially considered as highly undesirable; verbal reports are expected to be biased. To circumvent this difficulty, a projective questionnaire is proposed. We constructed two questionnaires: a direct version (DV) and an indirect version (IV). The sample consisted of 786 students from high school and university. Results suggest that the indirect version provides a more accurate assessment of envy.
Horowitz, M J
The author uses a configurational analysis method for case formulation and to establish links between individualized formulation and treatment techniques. A prototype of formulation for the histrionic personality disorder is presented, using theories for formulation about states of mind, defensive control processes, and person schemas. A phase-oriented prototype of a treatment plan is linked to these levels of formulation. The result can provide a guideline for clinicians and a teaching document for trainees.
Westermeyer, Joseph; Yoon, Gihyun; Amundson, Carla; Warwick, Marion; Kuskowski, Michael A
The goal of this epidemiological study was to investigate lifetime history and odds ratios of personality disorders in adopted and non-adopted adults using a nationally representative sample. Data, drawn from the National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC), were compared in adopted (n=378) versus non-adopted (n=42,503) adults to estimate the odds of seven personality disorders using logistic regression analyses. The seven personality disorders were histrionic, antisocial, avoidant, paranoid, schizoid, obsessive-compulsive, and dependent personality disorder. Adoptees had a 1.81-fold increase in the odds of any personality disorder compared with non-adoptees. Adoptees had increased odds of histrionic, antisocial, avoidant, paranoid, schizoid, and obsessive-compulsive personality disorder compared with non-adoptees. Two risk factors associated with lifetime history of a personality disorder in adoptees compared to non-adoptees were (1) being in the age cohort 18-29 years (but no difference in the age 30-44 cohort), using the age 45 or older cohort as the reference and (2) having 12 years of education (but no difference in higher education groups), using the 0-11 years of education as the reference. These findings support the higher rates of personality disorders among adoptees compared to non-adoptees.
Disney, Krystle L; Weinstein, Yana; Oltmanns, Thomas F
Divorce is associated with a multitude of outcomes related to health and well-being. Data from a representative community sample (N = 1,241) of St. Louis residents (ages 55-64) were used to examine associations between personality pathology and divorce in late midlife. Symptoms of the 10 DSM-IV personality disorders were assessed with the Structured Interview for DSM-IV Personality and the Multisource Assessment of Personality Pathology (both self and informant versions). Multiple regression analyses showed Paranoid and Histrionic personality disorder symptoms to be consistently and positively associated with number of divorces across all three sources of personality assessment. Conversely, Avoidant personality disorder symptoms were negatively associated with number of divorces. The present paper provides new information about the relationship between divorce and personality pathology at a developmental stage that is understudied in both domains.
Larsson, J O; Hellzén, M
The aim of this study was to describe patterns of personality disorders (PDs) in women with chronic eating disorders (EDs). An index group of nineteen women who have had EDs for an average of 8.5 years was compared with a control group of same-aged women from the general population. At the time of the study the index group received treatment at a tertiary treatment center in Stockholm. The PDs were assessed using the DSM-IV part of the DSM-IV and ICD-10 Personality Questionnaire (DIP-Q). In the index group, eighteen of nineteen fulfilled the criteria for one or more PD. The number of PD diagnoses for each women ranged from zero (n = 1) to eight (n = 2) with a median of three. Among the controls, only one woman fulfilled the criteria for one or more PD. The most prevalent disorders in the index group were Borderline, Avoidant, and Obsessive-Compulsive. The index group had significantly higher DIP-Q dimensional scores than the controls in the Paranoid, Schizoid, Schizotypal, Borderline, Histrionic, Avoidant, and Dependent scales. Although the assessment of PD symptoms was limited to self-reports, the high prevalence of PD diagnoses and PD symptoms most probably reflects the severe psychiatric impairments in patients suffering from chronic ED.
Fujii, Y; Suzuki, K; Sato, T; Murakami, Y; Takahashi, T
The aim of this study was to determine whether the features of multiple personality disorder (MPD) in Japan are similar to those in North America, although a wide disparity exists in the prevalence of MPD between the two areas. In order to describe the features of MPD in Japan, we obtained clinical data from MPD case reports, including two of our own cases, published in Japanese academic journals and compared it with the data from other countries. The cases in Japan differed significantly from those in North America in the mean number of personalities and prevalence of sexual and/or physical abuse.
Rademaker, Arthur R; Kleber, Rolf J; Geuze, Elbert; Vermetten, Eric
To account for individual differences in vulnerability for stress-related disorders, studies have examined the relationship between hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis functioning and personality. The present study examined the relationship between the free fraction of cortisol in saliva after awakening and personality as measured with Cloninger's Temperament and Character Inventory [Cloninger, C.R., Przybeck, T.R., Svrakic, D.M., Wetzel, R.D., 1994. The Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI): A Guide to its Development and Use. Washington University, Center for Psychobiology of Personality, St. Louis, MO] in 107 healthy male soldiers. Harm avoidance explained 9% of variance in cortisol levels after awakening (AUCG), and harm avoidance and self-directedness predicted 10% of variance in mean cortisol increase. The cortisol awakening response (CAR) was lower in participants with low scores on harm avoidance, and mean cortisol increase after awakening was higher in soldiers high on self-directedness and harm avoidance. These results show that the CAR is related to personality and that it can be used to examine individual differences in HPA (re)activity.
Cale, Ellison M; Lilienfeld, Scott O
Little is known about the etiology of histrionic personality disorder (HPD) or its relation to other personality disorders. In this study, we examined whether HPD is etiologically related to psychopathy and more specifically whether HPD and antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) are sex-typed alternative manifestations of psychopathy. In addition, based on Newman's (1987) response modulation hypothesis of psychopathy, we examined the associations between psychopathic, HPD, and ASPD features and performance on laboratory measures of passive avoidance errors and interference effects. Seventy-five live theater actors completed self-report questionnaires and two laboratory measures of response modulation, and peers completed questionnaires concerning the participants' personality disorder features. The results provided weak and inconsistent support for the hypotheses that HPD is a female-typed variant of psychopathy and that ASPD is a male-typed variant of psychopathy. Contrary to previous findings, scores on response modulation tasks were not significantly related to psychopathy, or to either HPD or ASPD. The limitations of this study and possibilities for future research in this area are outlined.
Stein, Dan J
Several psychiatric disorders, including borderline personality disorder (BPD), are characterized by emotional dysregulation and impulse dyscontrol. More specifically, symptoms in patients with BPD often occur within the context of disruptions in attachment and related distortions in cognitive-affective processing of the self and others. From a neurocircuitry perspective, findings include prefrontal hypoactivity, amygdala hyperreactivity, and alterations in prefrontal-limbic interaction. Molecular pathways relevant to these circuits include the serotonergic, noradrenergic, and dopaminergic systems, and there is some evidence that pharmacotherapy with agents that act on these systems may be useful. Given the disruptions in attachment and schemas of the self and others in BPD, establishing a therapeutic alliance is crucial while psychotherapy remains the cornerstone of an integrated approach to management.
Narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) is a trait-based disorder that can be understood as a pathological amplification of narcissistic traits. While temperamental vulnerability and psychological adversity are risk factors for NPD, sociocultural factors are also important. This review hypothesizes that increases in narcissistic traits and cultural narcissism could be associated with changes in the prevalence of NPD. These shifts seem to be a relatively recent phenomenon, driven by social changes associated with modernity. While the main treatment for NPD remains psychotherapy, that form of treatment is itself a product of modernity and individualism. The hypothesis is presented that psychological treatment, unless modified to address the specific problems associated with NPD, could run the risk of supporting narcissism.
Griffiths, Dorothy E.
Every family practice includes people who are difficult to manage. Persons with a borderline personality disorder can be the most difficult of all. They will trust no one, and consequently few, if any, others will be able to tolerate their profoundly difficult interpersonal communication style. These patients will present to their family physician more and more often with a variety of somatic and emotional symptoms. They will demand, either verbally or silently, that these symptoms be relieved immediately. This increasing demand for immediate response may eventually cause the physician to reject the patient. An understanding of this condition and how it develops in infancy may enable the physician to help the patient. A family physician who can set appropriate limits to the patient's demands may slowly convince the patient that he can trust and not be hurt. PMID:21248944
Lilienfeld, S O; Van Valkenburg, C; Larntz, K; Akiskal, H S
The authors examined the association of antisocial personality disorder, somatization disorder, and histrionic personality disorder, both within individuals and within families, in 250 patients. All three disorders overlapped considerably within individuals; the strongest relationship was between antisocial personality and histrionic personality. A high prevalence of antisocial personality was reported in the families of patients with somatization disorder but not in the families of patients with histrionic personality. The authors suggest that histrionic individuals develop antisocial personality if they are male and somatization disorder if female; moreover, all three conditions may represent alternative manifestations or different stages of the same underlying diathesis.
Ogloff, James R P
Psychopathy has traditionally been characterised as a disorder primarily of personality (particularly affective deficits) and, to a lesser extent, behaviour. Although often used interchangeably, the diagnostic constructs of psychopathy, antisocial personality disorder, and dissocial personality disorder are distinct. In this article, the relevant historical and contemporary literature concerning psychopathy is briefly reviewed. The diagnostic criteria for psychopathy, antisocial personality disorder, and dissocial personality disorder are compared. Consideration is given to the assessment, prevalence, and implications of psychopathy for violence risk and treatment efficacy. The DSM-IV-TR criteria for antisocial personality disorder, in particular, are largely behaviourally based. The ICD criteria for dissocial personality disorder, while paying more attention to affective deficits, also do not represent the broad personality and behavioural components of psychopathy. Since 1980, a great deal of research on these disorders has been conducted, using the Hare Psychopathy Checklist, Revised (PCL-R). The PCL-R assesses both personality (interpersonal and affective) and behavioural (lifestyle and antisocial) deficits. As such, the research and clinical implications of psychopathy, as operationalised by the PCL-R, cannot be readily extrapolated to the diagnoses of antisocial personality disorder and dissocial personality disorder. As currently construed, the diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder grossly over-identifies people, particularly those with offence histories, as meeting the criteria for the diagnosis. For example, research shows that between 50% and 80% of prisoners meet the criteria for a diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder, yet only approximately 15% of prisoners would be expected to be psychopathic, as assessed by the PCL-R. As such, the characteristics and research findings drawn from the psychopathy research may not be relevant for those
Grant, Jon E; Flynn, Meredith; Odlaug, Brian L; Schreiber, Liana R N
This study sought to examine personality disorders and their related clinical variables in a sample of gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender (GLBT) individuals with substance use disorders. Study participants were 145 GLBT patients who were admitted to a residential dual diagnosis chemical dependency treatment program. A total of 136 (93.8%) had at least one personality disorder. The most common personality disorders were borderline (n = 93; 64.1%), obsessive-compulsive (n = 82; 56.6%), and avoidant (n = 71; 49.0%) personality disorders. Preliminary data suggest that there is a high prevalence of personality disorders in the GLBT population undergoing chemical dependency treatment.
Sansone, R A; Chu, J W; Wiederman, M W; Lam, C
According to the empirical literature, there are high rates of borderline personality disorder (BPD) among individuals with formal diagnoses of eating disorders, and high rates of eating disorders among individuals with BPD. In this study, we examined relationships between three eating disorder symptoms (i.e., binge eating, starving oneself, abusing laxatives) and borderline personality symptomatology according to two self-report measures (the borderline personality scale of the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire-4 and the Self- Harm Inventory) in a sample of psychiatric inpatients (N=126) and in a sample of internal medicine outpatients (N=419). Each individual eating disorder item, as well as a composite score of all three items, demonstrated statistically significant correlations with both measures of borderline personality symptomatology in both samples. In addition, endorsement of all three symptoms was invariably associated with borderline personality symptomatology on both measures. Specific eating disorder symptoms, alone, may predict for borderline personality symptomatology.
ALTUNSOY, Neslihan; ŞAHİNER, Şafak Yalçın; CİNGİ KÜLÜK, Merve; OKAY, Tuncer; ULUSOY KAYMAK, Semra; AYDEMİR, Çiğdem; GÖKA, Erol
Introduction Although substance abuse is an important clinical problem in schizophrenic patients, very little evidence explains why these patients use drugs and alcohol. This study therefore aimed to examine whether premorbid personality disorders affect substance abuse. Methods The sample included 40 male schizophrenic patients with and 40 male schizophrenic patients without substance use disorder comorbidity who had applied to Ankara Numune Research and Training Hospital. Each participant and a family member were interviewed in a structured clinical interview that addressed premorbid personality disorders. Results Altogether, 32 patients (80%) in the group with comorbidity and 28 (70%) in the group without comorbidity had a premorbid personality disorder. Antisocial (35% vs. 0%; p<.001) and borderline (37.5% vs. 5%; p=.001) personality disorders were more often detected in the group with comorbidity, while avoidant (10% vs. 35%; p=.014) and obsessive–compulsive (0% vs. 15%; p=.026) personality disorders were less frequently found in this group. Comparing the group with comorbidity with premorbid personality types, schizophrenic patients with premorbid antisocial personality disorder were more frequently unemployed and hospitalized as well as had an earlier onset age of schizophrenia (p=.034, p=.038 and p=.035, respectively). Schizophrenic patients with premorbid borderline personality disorder had a significantly earlier onset age of substance use (19±5; p=.028). Conclusion Schizophrenic patients with substance use comorbidity variously differ from those without comorbidity and some of these differences may be associated with premorbid personality disorders. PMID:28360728
Henriques-Calado, Joana; Duarte-Silva, Maria Eugénia; Campos, Rui C; Junqueira, Diana; Sacoto, Carlota; Keong, Ana Marta
Relationships between Axis II personality disorders and Sidney Blatt constructs of dependency and self-criticism were explored in a late adulthood women sample. The sample consisted of 102 women (M = 72.07 years of age, SD = 7.04) who were administered two measures, the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire-4+ and the Depressive Experiences Questionnaire. The histrionic, dependent, and obsessive-compulsive personality disorder scales are shown to be significant predictors of dependency, and the narcissistic, borderline, and avoidant scales are significant predictors of self-criticism. The application of a dimensional interpersonal approach to psychopathology is discussed.
Chartonas, Dimitrios; Kyratsous, Michalis; Dracass, Sarah; Lee, Tennyson; Bhui, Kamaldeep
Aims and method In 1988, Lewis and Appleby demonstrated that psychiatrists hold negative attitudes towards patients with personality disorder. We assessed the attitudes of psychiatry trainees towards patients with borderline personality disorder and depression, expecting an improvement. 166 trainees were block randomised to receive one of four case vignettes that varied by diagnosis and ethnic group. We used Lewis and Appleby's original questionnaire and the Attitudes to Personality Disorder Questionnaire (APDQ). Results We received 76 responses. Lewis and Appleby's questionnaire showed more negative attitudes towards personality disorder than depression, with no significant patient ethnic group effects, and the APDQ also showed a (weak) trend towards more negative attitudes to personality disorder. In subgroup analysis, only in the White British patient group were there significantly more negative attitudes to personality disorder. Factor analysis showed significantly less sense of purpose when working with personality disorder. Clinical implications The perceived greater lack of purpose in working with personality disorder should be the target of clinical training and intervention. Targeted interventions that include training in managing personality disorder, supervision and practice in non-specialist, general psychiatry settings are important. PMID:28184311
Sturrock, Bonnie A.; Francis, Andrew; Carr, Steven
The aim of this study was to test the Linehan (1993) proposal regarding associations between invalidating childhood environments, distress tolerance (e.g., avoidance of affect), and borderline personality disorder (BPD) symptoms. The sample consisted of 141 non-clinical participants (51 men, 89 women, one gender unknown), ranging in age from 18 to…
Gongora, Vanesa C; van der Staak, Cees P F; Derksen, Jan J L
This study investigates the coping styles of bulimic patients with personality disorders (PDs) and the effects of the level of depression on the relations between PDs and coping. The sample consisted of 75 Argentinean bulimic outpatients engaged in treatment. Patients completed the SCID II (Structural Interview for DSM IV-Personality Disorders), COPE (Coping Inventory), and the SCL-90-R (Symptom Checklist-90-Revised). No differences in the coping styles of bulimic patients with or without a PD were found. However, when three specific PDs were considered-Avoidant, Obsessive-Compulsive, or Borderline PDs-clear differences in the coping styles of the bulimics were found. However, the differences disappeared when depression was controlled. Regarding the severity of the three specific PDs, coping styles were only found to be associated with the Avoidant PD. Depression showed to affect the relations between coping styles and two specific PDs-Avoidant and Borderline PDs-in bulimic patients.
Huang, Jingyi; He, Wei; Chen, Wanzhen; Yu, Wenjun; Chen, Wei; Shen, Mowei; Wang, Wei
Normal personality traits, as measured by the Zuckerman-Kuhlman Personality Questionnaire (ZKPQ), predicted some personality disorders in a sample of healthy volunteers. Whether these predictions could be more pronounced in patients with personality disorders remains unknown. We administered the ZKPQ and the Parker Personality Measure (PERM), which describes the functioning styles of personality disorder, in 134 patients with a range of personality disorders and in 268 age-, gender- and education level-matched healthy volunteers. Cluster A patients scored lowest on Sociability, cluster B highest on Impulsive Sensation Seeking and Aggression-Hostility, cluster C1 (Avoidant and Dependent types) highest on Neuroticism-Anxiety, and cluster C2 (Obsessive-Compulsive type) highest on Activity. Most of the predictors were consistent across both the healthy and patient groups. The variances that accounted for predicting most PERM styles by the ZKPQ traits in the patient group were higher than those in the healthy group. Our results showed that the ZKPQ traits could specifically predict the PERM styles in both healthy subjects and personality-disorder patients. This result was more pronounced in the latter group. The most powerful predictions were obtained for Antisocial, Dependent, Borderline and Avoidant styles, and the weakest for the Schizotypal and Schizoid styles in the patient group.
Labott, S M; Leavitt, F; Braun, B G; Sachs, R G
The increase in reported cases of Multiple Personality Disorder underscores a great need to differentiate clearly this from other psychiatric disorders and from simulation of Multiple Personality Disorder. Two sets of Rorschach signs have been advanced as clinical markers by their developers, namely Barach and also Wagner, Allison, and Wagner. As the Wagner signs are prevalent in much of the research on Rorschach responses in Multiple Personality Disorder, the purpose of the present study was to evaluate these signs using Wagner's administration and the resulting Rorschach protocols of 16 Multiple Personality Disorder patients and 16 psychiatric controls. Analysis indicated that this system was deficient in correctly classifying these 32 protocols. A new marker, the Splitting Response, emerged, however, which was more useful. This response, in combination with at least one Dissociative response, produced an accuracy rate of 94%. These new criteria may be useful aids in the detection of Multiple Personality Disorder from Rorschach protocols. Replication is urged.
Weisberg, J N; Vaillancourt, P D
It has long been recognized that there is a relationship between certain personality types and personality disorders (PD) and chronic nonmalignant pain (CP). The relationship, however, is far from understood and the physiological and psychological mechanisms that underlie it are unclear. Those who treat chronic pain face many challenges when dealing with individuals who have personality disorders and they often become frustrated when interacting with these patients. Patients with certain traits and personality disorders may continue to worry and ruminate about their symptoms long after the tissue pathology has resolved. Other individuals may overly rely on the clinician and assume a passive role in their treatment, thereby decreasing the likelihood for a positive outcome. Moreover, patients with personality disorders may be demanding (eg, borderline), self-absorbed (eg, narcissistic), or substance seeking (eg, antisocial, borderline). In an attempt to improve management of such patients, pain specialists have attempted to better understand the complex relationship between personality and chronic pain. In this article, we will review the predominant historical and current theories of pain and personality, discuss aspects of the gate-control theory of pain that may relate to personality, and discuss the diathesis-stress model of personality disorders in pain. Last, we will review studies of personality and personality disorders in chronic pain and their treatment implications. We conclude that, based on the underlying neurochemistry, there may be a direct or indirect link between PD and CP, but further prospective research, both on the biological and psychological relationship, should be conducted.
Huang, Xiting; Ling, Hui; Yang, Bingjun; Dou, Gang
Four thousand eight hundred and eleven students were sampled from 26 universities in 21 cities of China and evaluated using the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire-4+(PDQ-4+). Results showed that male students obtained significantly higher scores than female students on paranoid, schizotypal, antisocial, narcissistic, passive-aggressive, and depressive personality disorder scales, and lower scores on the borderline scale. Students from rural areas scored higher than those from urban areas on the schizoid, schizotypal, narcissistic, avoidant, compulsive-obsessive, passive-aggressive, and depressive personality disorder scales, and lower on the paranoid and dependent scales. Singleton students obtained significantly higher scores than nonsingletons on paranoid, antisocial and dependent scales, and lower on schizoid, avoidant, compulsive-obsessive, passive-aggressive, depressive scales. Students from single-parent families scored significantly higher on the schizotypal scales; and students from foster families scored significantly higher on the antisocial, passive-aggressive, and depressive scales. Students from poor families scored significantly higher than those from average or wealthy families on schizoid, schizotyal, antisocial, borderline, narcissistic, avoidant, obsessive-compulsive, passive-aggressive, and depressive personality disorders. The results suggest that low family income, low social status, and parental style contribute to the development of personality disorders.
Levallius, Johanna; Rydén, Göran; Norring, Claes
Patients with borderline personality disorder have a characteristic and extreme personality associated with psychopathology. The aim was to investigate personality change in relation to suicidality following treatment. 21 patients were assessed before and after psychotherapy on personality (NEO PI-R) and suicidality (SUAS). At follow-up, Neuroticism and Conscientiousness normalized along with six lower-order facets; Depression, Impulsiveness, Competence, Achievement Striving, Self-Discipline and Deliberation. Thirteen patients showed a positive personality development paralleled by a lesser degree of suicidality.
Ramos, Vera; Canta, Guilherme; de Castro, Filipa; Leal, Isabel
The relation between attachment and personality features is an important field to explore in adolescent borderline personality disorder (BPD), and previous research has shown that personality features may be conceptualized within latent internalizing and externalizing dimensions. This cross-sectional study used a structural equation model to examine the association between the BPD participants' perception of attachment and personality features, mediated by the underlying internalizing/externalizing personality dimensions. Data were analyzed for 60 adolescents, ages 15 to 18 years, diagnosed with BPD who completed attachment and personality self-report measures. The authors' results showed a good fit of the model, suggesting a significant association between attachment and the internalizing/externalizing dimensions, which simultaneously congregate and influence personality traits. The perception of attachment anxiety was positively related to the internalizing dimension and at the same time negatively related to the externalizing dimension. However, the perception of attachment avoidance was not related to internalizing or externalizing personality dimensions.
We tried to identify clues related to personality disorders - especially related to borderline personality--in parents of high-conflict divorce. We compared n = 34 high-conflict clients of psychological counselling to n = 45 clients not related to high-conflict divorce. Parents of high-conflict divorce did not show significantly more hints related to personality disorder. Parents who live separated scored higher than parents living together. Extreme-group-analyses over all clients revealed in 20% definitely evidence of personality disorders or very low resiliency. Psychological counselling in the realm of Child care units also addresses clients who rate themselves as seriously impaired or non-resilient.
Mavissakalian, M; Hamann, M S
One hundred eighty-seven patients meeting DSM-III criteria for panic disorder (n = 26) or agoraphobia with panic (n = 161) were assessed with the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire (PDQ), a self-rating scale designed to assess Axis II personality disorders and traits. Results replicated our earlier findings of a preponderance of dependent, avoidant, and histrionic features and the finding that patients exhibiting a greater number of personality traits were also significantly more symptomatic. Patients with the diagnosis of panic disorder did not differ on any personality disorder variables from patients with the diagnosis of agoraphobia with panic. Furthermore, none of the specific symptom dimensions, i.e., panic, anxiety, or agoraphobia, was selected as a unique predictor of any personality variables in the regression analyses. Rather, the most important correlates of personality disorder in these patients consisted of general factors such as dysphoric mood, social phobia, or interpersonal sensitivity, and Eysenck's neuroticism dimension. The results are discussed in light of recent findings suggesting a nonspecific link between panic disorder or agoraphobia and personality disorder.
Salavera, Carlos; Tricás, José M; Lucha, Orosia
The homeless drop out of treatment relatively frequently. Also, prevalence rates of personality disorders are much higher in the homeless group than in the general population. We hypothesize that when both variables coexist — homelessness and personality disorders — the possibility of treatment drop out grows. The aim of this study was to analyze the hypotheses, that is, to study how the existence of personality disorders affects the evolution of and permanence in treatment. One sample of homeless people in a therapeutic community (N = 89) was studied. The structured clinical interview for the diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM-IV-TR) was administered and participants were asked to complete the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-II (MCMI-II). Cluster B personality disorders (antisocial, borderline, and narcissistic) avoided permanence in the treatment process while cluster C disorders, as dependent, favored adhesion to the treatment and improved the prognosis. Knowledge of these personality characteristics should be used to advocate for better services to support homeless people and prevent their dropping out before completing treatment. PMID:23569378
Beck, Aaron T.
Personality disorders and their syndromal disorders may be considered in terms of their distal, phylogenetic origins, and their structures and functions. From an evolutionary standpoint, the syndromal disorders such as anxiety and depression may be viewed as preprogrammed reactions to a perceived threat or a perceived depletion of the individual's…
Hirschfeld, R M
The separation of persistent depression into meaningful and useful subcategories, including major depression, dysthymia, recurrent brief depression, and depressive personality disorder, is the subject of much debate. Depressions can be grouped on the basis of their type and severity of symptoms, aetiology, clinical course, or their association with other psychiatric illnesses. Several investigators have conducted epidemiologic and family studies to evaluate the prevalence of depressive disorders, their diagnostic stability over time, and the amount of overlap among the disorders. Although progress has been made toward a better understanding of the different disorders, insufficient evidence exists to support the hypothesis that these disorders are separate and distinct from one another. However, preliminary data suggest that depressive personality disorder is separate from the other disorders. Additionally, several questions have been raised, particularly the extent to which differentiation between the depressive disorders, specifically major depression and dysthymia, has an impact on treatment decisions.
Ogłodek, Ewa; Araszkiewicz, Aleksander
For many years, the borderline personality disorders have mainly been researched in terms of psychoanalytical theories, such as theories on relations with the object. Nowadays, there are three kinds of concepts that are distinguishable. The first ones are those which are group models, serving attempts to made characteristic sets of qualities, represented by individuals suffering from the borderline personality disorders, more precise. The remaining concepts are models of conflict and deficit, which explain complicated mechanisms of interactions of social, psychological and biological factors, and therefore, contribute to better understanding of the genesis of the symptoms of this disorder. Upon the basis of the attempts made so far in the field of describing the borderline personality disorders, one may indicate certain criteria, representative for the entire group of individuals with this diagnosis, regardless of the assumptions applicable to the genesis of the disorder and its symptoms, even though the population of the infirm suffering from the borderline personality disorders is not internally homogenous. The interest of psychologists, attempting to describe the borderline personality disorders, is focused upon certain sets of qualities, presented as the examples of descriptive models. Among the researchers, working on the issues of the borderline personality disorders in this manner, there are: Gunderson, Kernberg, Kohut, Winnicot, Guntrip, Fairbaim, Adler and Buie.
Although the relationship between dreaming and psychopathology has been studied quite extensively, research on dreaming in patients with personality disorders has been very scarce. In patients with borderline personality disorder, negatively toned dreams and heightened nightmare frequency have been found-characteristics not determined by co-morbid depression or posttraumatic stress disorder. The review includes suggestions for future studies as the existing results clearly indicate that this line of research is most interesting. Lastly, clinical recommendations especially regarding the treatment of the often found co-morbid nightmare disorder will be given.
Mueser, Kim T.; Crocker, Anne G.; Frisman, Linda B.; Drake, Robert E.; Covell, Nancy H.; Essock, Susan M.
Conduct disorder (CD) and antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) are established risk factors for substance use disorders in both the general population and among persons with schizophrenia and other severe mental illnesses. Among clients with substance use disorders in the general population, CD and ASPD are associated with more severe problems and criminal justice involvement, but little research has examined their correlates in clients with dual disorders. To address this question, we compared the demographic, substance abuse, clinical, homelessness, sexual risk, and criminal justice characteristics of 178 dual disorder clients living in 2 urban areas between 4 groups: No CD/ASPD, CD Only, Adult ASPD Only, and Full ASPD. Clients in the Adult ASPD Only group tended to have the most severe drug abuse severity, the most extensive homelessness, and the most lifetime sexual partners, followed by the Full ASPD group, compared with the other 2 groups. However, clients with Full ASPD had the most criminal justice involvement, especially with respect to violent charges and convictions. The results suggest that a late-onset ASPD subtype may develop in clients with severe mental illness secondary to substance abuse, but that much criminal behavior in clients with dual disorders may be due to the early onset of the full ASPD syndrome in this population and not the effects of substance use disorders. PMID:16574783
Mueser, Kim T; Crocker, Anne G; Frisman, Linda B; Drake, Robert E; Covell, Nancy H; Essock, Susan M
Conduct disorder (CD) and antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) are established risk factors for substance use disorders in both the general population and among persons with schizophrenia and other severe mental illnesses. Among clients with substance use disorders in the general population, CD and ASPD are associated with more severe problems and criminal justice involvement, but little research has examined their correlates in clients with dual disorders. To address this question, we compared the demographic, substance abuse, clinical, homelessness, sexual risk, and criminal justice characteristics of 178 dual disorder clients living in 2 urban areas between 4 groups: No CD/ASPD, CD Only, Adult ASPD Only, and Full ASPD. Clients in the Adult ASPD Only group tended to have the most severe drug abuse severity, the most extensive homelessness, and the most lifetime sexual partners, followed by the Full ASPD group, compared with the other 2 groups. However, clients with Full ASPD had the most criminal justice involvement, especially with respect to violent charges and convictions. The results suggest that a late-onset ASPD subtype may develop in clients with severe mental illness secondary to substance abuse, but that much criminal behavior in clients with dual disorders may be due to the early onset of the full ASPD syndrome in this population and not the effects of substance use disorders.
Esterberg, Michelle L; Goulding, Sandra M; Walker, Elaine F
Cluster A personality disorders (PD), including schizotypal personality disorder (SPD), paranoid personality disorder (PPD), and schizoid PD, are marked by odd and eccentric behaviors, and are grouped together because of common patterns in symptomatology as well as shared genetic and environmental risk factors. The DSM-IV-TR describes personality disorders as representing stable and enduring patterns of maladaptive traits, and much of what is understood about Cluster A personality disorders in particular stems from research with adult populations. Less in known about these disorders in children and adolescents, and controversy remains regarding diagnosis of personality disorders in general in youth. The current paper reviews the available research on Cluster A personality disorders in childhood and adolescence; specifically, we discuss differentiating between the three disorders and distinguishing them from other syndromes, measuring Cluster A disorders in youth, and the nature and course of these disorders throughout childhood and adolescence. We also present recent longitudinal data from a sample of adolescents diagnosed with Cluster A personality disorders from our research laboratory, and suggest directions for future research in this important but understudied area.
Approximately 10% of the unselected population are affected with personality disorders, among the patients of psychiatrists and family doctors the quota goes up to 40%. Personality disorders comprise deeply ingrained and enduring behaviour patterns, manifesting themselves as inflexible responses to a broad range of personal and social situations. They are stable and lead frequently to subjective distress and/or to impaired social functioning. The division in subgroups is made on the reason of typical patterns of experience and behaviour, but overlapping between different subtypes is frequent. People with personality disorders often come into conflicts with their environment because of their maladaptive behaviour which lead to crises and need of intervention. Psychopharmaca can be given in such situations, but substances with an addictive potential like benzodiazepines should not be prescribed for a longer period. The long-term psychotherapy of personality disordered persons requires an individual planing after a careful analysis of the behaviour pattern and should focus on concretely defined and reachable aims. Personality disordered persons belong to the most difficult patients, their long-term treatment demands appropriate therapeutic skills. In the primary care family doctors therapy and support is important but several basic rules should be followed.
Amianto, Federico; Ercole, Roberta; Marzola, Enrica; Abbate Daga, Giovanni; Fassino, Secondo
The present study explores how parents' personality clusters relate to their eating disordered daughters' personality and psychopathology. Mothers and fathers were tested with the Temperament Character Inventory. Their daughters were assessed with the following: Temperament and Character Inventory, Eating Disorder Inventory-2, Symptom Checklist-90, Parental Bonding Instrument, Attachment Style Questionnaire, and Family Assessment Device. Daughters' personality traits and psychopathology scores were compared between clusters. Daughters' features were related to those of their parents. Explosive/adventurous mothers were found to relate to their daughters' borderline personality profile and more severe interoceptive awareness. Mothers' immaturity was correlated to their daughters' higher character immaturity, inadequacy, and depressive feelings. Fathers who were explosive/methodic correlated with their daughters' character immaturity, severe eating, and general psychopathology. Fathers' character immaturity only marginally related to their daughters' specific features. Both parents' temperament clusters and mothers' character clusters related to patients' personality and eating psychopathology. The cluster approach to personality-related dynamics of families with an individual affected by an eating disorder expands the knowledge on the relationship between parents' characteristics and daughters' illness, suggesting complex and unique relationships correlating parents' personality traits to their daughters' disorder.
clinical personality disorders, namely psychopathy , malignant narcissism, and borderline personality organization, can increase the likelihood of...ratings indicated that three personality disorders, psychopathy , malignant narcissism, and borderline personality organization, were associated with...certain clinical personality disorders and unreliable and unsafe behavior in the workplace, disorders such as psychopathy and malignant narcissism
Coid, Jeremy; Ullrich, Simone
Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) with co-morbid anxiety disorder may be a variant of ASPD with different etiology and treatment requirements. We investigated diagnostic co-morbidity, ASPD criteria, and anxiety/affective symptoms of ASPD/anxiety disorder. Weighted analyses were carried out using survey data from a representative British household sample. ASPD/anxiety disorder demonstrated differing patterns of antisocial criteria, co-morbidity with clinical syndromes, psychotic symptoms, and other personality disorders compared to ASPD alone. ASPD criteria demonstrated specific associations with CIS-R scores of anxiety and affective symptoms. Findings suggest ASPD/anxiety disorder is a variant of ASPD, determined by symptoms of anxiety. Although co-morbid anxiety and affective symptoms are the same as in anxiety disorder alone, associations with psychotic symptoms require further investigation.
Bergvall, A H; Nilsson, T; Hansen, S
Personality deviations and deficits in cognitive executive function are common among forensic populations. The present study on incarcerated offenders explored whether there are links between the two domains. Personality was assessed using the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). Neuropsychological performance, including visual working memory, attentional set-shifting and planning, were tested with the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB). Subjects with personality disorders scored high on harm avoidance, and low on self-directedness and cooperativeness. Personality disordered offenders did not differ from the comparison groups (offenders without personality disorder, and non-criminal controls) with regard to CANTAB measures of visual working memory (delayed matching to sample, spatial working memory) and planning (Stockings of Cambridge), but they made a larger number of errors on the attentional set-shifting task. Dimensional analysis of the personality and neuropsychological variables revealed significant associations between self-directedness and cooperativeness on the one hand, and attentional set-shifting on the other. Intellectually disabled, non-criminal individuals (marginal mental retardation) who performed poorly on attentional set-shifting also scored low on self-directedness and cooperativeness. The results indicate that poor development of certain personality traits may be associated with deficits in neuropsychological functioning.
Bienvenu, O Joseph; Stein, Murray B; Samuels, Jack F; Onyike, Chiadi U; Eaton, William W; Nestadt, Gerald
Determining how personality disorder traits and panic disorder and/or agoraphobia relate longitudinally is an important step in developing a comprehensive understanding of the etiology of panic/agoraphobia. In 1981, a probabilistic sample of adult (> or =18 years old) residents of east Baltimore were assessed for Axis I symptoms and disorders using the Diagnostic Interview Schedule (DIS); psychiatrists reevaluated a subsample of these participants and made Axis I diagnoses, as well as ratings of individual Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Third Edition personality disorder traits. Of the participants psychiatrists examined in 1981, 432 were assessed again in 1993 to 1996 using the DIS. Excluding participants who had baseline panic attacks or panic-like spells from the risk groups, baseline timidity (avoidant, dependent, and related traits) predicted first-onset DIS panic disorder or agoraphobia over the follow-up period. These results suggest that avoidant and dependent personality traits are predisposing factors, or at least markers of risk, for panic disorder and agoraphobia-not simply epiphenomena.
Zimmerman, Mark; Morgan, Theresa A
It is clinically important to recognize both bipolar disorder and borderline personality disorder (BPD) in patients seeking treatment for depression, and it is important to distinguish between the two. Research considering whether BPD should be considered part of a bipolar spectrum reaches differing conclusions. We reviewed the most studied question on the relationship between BPD and bipolar disorder: their diagnostic concordance. Across studies, approximately 10% of patients with BPD had bipolar I disorder and another 10% had bipolar II disorder. Likewise, approximately 20% of bipolar II patients were diagnosed with BPD, though only 10% of bipolar I patients were diagnosed with BPD. While the comorbidity rates are substantial, each disorder is nontheless diagnosed in the absence of the other in the vast majority of cases (80% to 90%). In studies examining personality disorders broadly, other personality disorders were more commonly diagnosed in bipolar patients than was BPD. Likewise, the converse is also true: other axis I disorders such as major depression, substance abuse, and post-traumatic stress disorder are also more commonly diagnosed in patients with BPD than is bipolar disorder. These findings challenge the notion that BPD is part of the bipolar spectrum.
Venta, Amanda; Sharp, Carla; Hart, John
The current study aimed to examine the relation between experiential avoidance and anxiety disorders, as well as the usefulness of the Avoidance and Fusion Questionnaire for Youth (AFQ-Y; Greco, Lambert, & Baer, 2008) in detecting anxiety disorder in a sample of adolescent inpatients. First, the relation between experiential avoidance and anxiety…
Ruggero, Camilo J.; Zimmerman, Mark; Chelminski, Iwona; Young, Diane
Recent reports suggest bipolar disorder is not only under-diagnosed but may at times be over-diagnosed. Little is known about factors that increase the odds of such mistakes. The present work explores whether symptoms of borderline personality disorder increase the odds of a bipolar misdiagnosis. Psychiatric outpatients (N = 610) presenting for treatment were administered the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID) and the Structured Interview for DSM-IV Personality for DSM-IV axis II disorders (SIDP-IV), as well as a questionnaire asking if they had ever been diagnosed with bipolar disorder by a mental health care professional. Eighty-two patients who reported having been previously diagnosed with bipolar disorder but who did not have it according to the SCID were compared to 528 patients who had never been diagnosed with bipolar disorder. Patients with borderline personality disorder had significantly greater odds of a previous bipolar misdiagnosis, but no specific borderline criteria was unique in predicting this outcome. Patients with borderline personality disorder, regardless of how they meet criteria, may be at increased risk of being misdiagnosed with bipolar disorder. PMID:19889426
Stübner, S; Völkl, G; Soyka, M
Recently the concept of dissociative identity disorder (formerly known as multiple personality disorder) has attracted increasing public and scientific interest. However, it is rarely diagnosed in the clinical setting. the reported case of a 47-year-old woman with a history of child abuse demonstrates the problems of differential diagnosis. A number of psychopathologic symptoms pointed to a multiple personality disorder, but in the follow-up psychotic symptoms such as delusions, possible hallucinations and bizarre behavior clearly emerged. The differential diagnosis of dissociative identity disorder includes paranoid schizophrenia, as in the case described, borderline personality disorder, hysteria, simulation and the false memory syndrome. Finally, social and cultural factors have to be considered.
Advises child psychiatrists to use personality disorder diagnoses sparingly; to be aware of the constraints on adaptability of normal variations of temperament; and to positively diagnose those rare pathological impairments of personality brought about by minimal cerebral dysfunction, schizoid traits, and traits of excessive shyness. (RH)
Josephs, Lawrence; Sanders, Avihay; Gorman, Bernard S
This study reflects an assessment of the relationship between change in defensive functioning and change in the therapeutic interaction during an eight-year treatment episode of an older personality disordered woman. The patient, Ms. Q, possessed schizoid, avoidant, and depressive personality disorders as well as major depression as assessed by the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III (MCMI-III). At the end of the treatment episode, Ms. Q still possessed an avoidant personality disorder and significant depressive personality traits but no longer possessed clinically significant schizoid traits or major depression. Ms. Q made significant positive change in her adaptive defensive functioning as assessed by the Defense Mechanism Rating Scale (DMRS). Through time-series analysis it was discovered that positive change in adaptive defenses was predicted by increases in a specific type of therapeutic interaction as assessed by the Psychotherapy Q Sort (PQS). In this therapeutic interaction the therapist in a didactic and advice-giving manner highlighted the patient's role in a problem in a clear and coherent way that could be perceived as tactless. Time-series analysis revealed a reciprocal relationship in which positive changes in adaptive defenses predicted further increases in that particular quality of therapeutic interaction.
Bhar, Sunil S; Brown, Gregory K; Beck, Aaron T
This study examined the factor structure of the Borderline Personality Disorder subscale of the Personality Beliefs Questionnaire (PBQ-BPD; Butler, Brown, Beck, & Grisham, 2002), and the relationships between the emergent factors and psychopathology. The sample comprised 184 patients diagnosed with borderline personality disorder (BPD). Exploratory factor analysis yielded three factors relating respectively to dependency, distrust, and the belief that one should act preemptively to avoid threat. Although the three factors were significantly associated with depression, only dependency and distrust significantly correlated with hopelessness. Distrust was the sole factor that correlated significantly with suicide ideation. These findings support the dimensional structure of the PBQ-BPD. Given its multidimensional structure, the scale can be used as a measure of belief profiles associated with BPD and as an aid to conceptualizing beliefs underlying a range of psychopathology associated with patients with BPD.
The first disposition described as having an influence on mood date back to ancient Greece. The current modeling of personality disorders is organized essentially in a category-specific logic (DSMIV, CIM-10) and dimensional logic ("big five", Eysenck model, Cloninger model, etc.). The heterogeneity of these evaluation tools affects the readability of the studies concerning the effects of comorbidity on depressive disorders. The frequency of the coexistence of personality disorders/depression (≥50%) which is associated with the severity of the depressive episodes, with pejorative evolutionary prognosis and resistance in treatments, appears to justify a reorganization of classifications in the future DSM-V.
Eaton, Nicholas R; Rodriguez-Seijas, Craig; Krueger, Robert F; Campbell, W Keith; Grant, Bridget F; Hasin, Deborah S
Narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) shows high rates of comorbidity with mood, anxiety, substance use, and other personality disorders. Previous bivariate comorbidity investigations have left NPD multivariate comorbidity patterns poorly understood. Structural psychopathology research suggests that two transdiagnostic factors, internalizing (with distress and fear subfactors) and externalizing, account for comorbidity among common mental disorders. NPD has rarely been evaluated within this framework, with studies producing equivocal results. We investigated how NPD related to other mental disorders in the internalizing-externalizing model using diagnoses from a nationally representative sample (N = 34,653). NPD was best conceptualized as a distress disorder. NPD variance accounted for by transdiagnostic factors was modest, suggesting its variance is largely unique in the context of other common mental disorders. Results clarify NPD multivariate comorbidity, suggest avenues for classification and clinical endeavors, and highlight the need to understand vulnerable and grandiose narcissism subtypes' comorbidity patterns and structural relations.
An increasing prevalence of borderline personality disorder (BPD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) diagnoses among women illustrates problems and limitations of the medical model system. Article explores overlapping relationship between BPD and PTSD and critiques how both are viewed within the mental health community. Previous research is…
Atmaca, Murad; Karakoc, Tevfik; Mermi, Osman; Gurkan Gurok, M; Yildirim, Hanefi
In neuroimaging on borderline personality disorder, prior studies focused on the hippocampus and amygdala, as mentioned above. However, no study investigated whether there were neurochemical changes in the patients with borderline personality disorder. Therefore, in the present study, we aimed to investigate neurochemical change of patients diagnosed with borderline disorder and hypothesized that neurochemicals would change in the hippocampus region of these patients. Seventeen patients and the same number of healthy control subjects were analyzed by using a 1.5 Tesla GE Signa Imaging System. N-acetylaspartate (NAA), choline compounds (CHO), and creatine (CRE) values of hippocampal region were measured. The mean NAA/CRE ratio in the hippocampus region was significantly reduced in the patients with borderline personality disorder compared to that of healthy control subjects, In addition, NAA/CHO ratio of the patients with borderline personality disorder was also significantly reduced when compared to that of healthy subjects. There was no difference in the ratio of CHO/CRE. In summary, we present evidence for reduced NAA in the patients with borderline personality disorder.
Gentile, Julie P.; Correll, Terry L.
The high prevalence of comorbid bipolar and borderline personality disorders and some diagnostic criteria similar to both conditions present both diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. This article delineates certain symptoms which, by careful history taking, may be attributed more closely to one of these two disorders. Making the correct primary diagnosis along with comorbid psychiatric conditions and choosing the appropriate type of psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy are critical steps to a patient's recovery. In this article, we will use a case example to illustrate some of the challenges the psychiatrist may face in diagnosing and treating borderline personality disorder. In addition, we will explore treatment strategies, including various types of therapy modalities and medication classes, which may prove effective in stabilizing or reducing a broad range of symptomotology associated with borderline personality disorder. PMID:20508805
Scott, Lori N; Kim, Yookyung; Nolf, Kimberly A; Hallquist, Michael N; Wright, Aidan G C; Stepp, Stephanie D; Morse, Jennifer Q; Pilkonis, Paul A
Emotional dysregulation and impaired attachment are seen by many clinical researchers as central aspects of borderline personality disorder (BPD). Alternatively, these constructs may represent general impairments in personality that are nonspecific to BPD. Using multitraitmultimethod models, the authors examined the strength of associations among preoccupied attachment, difficulties with emotion regulation, BPD features, and features of two other personality disorders (i.e., antisocial and avoidant) in a combined psychiatric outpatient and community sample of adults. Results suggested that preoccupied attachment and difficulties with emotion regulation shared strong positive associations with each other and with each of the selected personality disorders. However, preoccupied attachment and emotional dysregulation were more strongly related to BPD features than to features of other personality disorders. Findings suggest that although impairments in relational and emotional domains may underlie personality pathology in general, preoccupied attachment and emotional dysregulation also have specificity for understanding core difficulties in those with BPD.
A borderline personality disorder is associated with highly impulsive acts that cannot be controlled by cognitive inhibition. In a psychopathic/antisocial personality disorder emotional inhibition of hostile acts is lacking. The patient has a high proclivity for risk-seeking, and is incapable of responding appropriately to punishment. In both disorders, the result is (auto)aggressive behavior. The family doctor must refer such patients to a specialist, when there is an acute danger of self-harm or when a grave functional limitation in the areas of work or interpersonal relationship has persisted over a long period of time.
Mahmood, Senik T; Tripodi, Stephen J; Vaughn, Michael G; Bender, Kimberly A; Schwartz, Rachel D
The present study sought to better understand the influence of personality disorders and impulsivity on women's ability to adapt to incarceration. We analyzed the influence of personality disorders as screened with the structured clinical interview for personality disorders, and impulsivity as assessed with the Barratt impulsivity scale on depression and anxiety, sleeping problems, and feeling afraid of being attacked in prison among a large sample of women incarcerated in a Virginia prison. Results from regression models indicated that schizotypal, borderline, avoidant and dependent personality disorders and cognitive impulsivity were significant predictors of symptoms of anxiety and depression net of demographic covariates. Women possessing a diagnosis of paranoid personality disorder were at increased odds of having difficulty sleeping in prison and borderline, dependent, and paranoid personality disorder were at increased odds of experiencing fear in prison. Women who had been in prison before were significantly less likely to experience these problems. Implications of study findings for policies and practices involving women offenders are discussed.
... personality disorders. 4.127 Section 4.127 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS... and personality disorders. Mental retardation and personality disorders are not diseases or injuries... superimposed upon mental retardation or a personality disorder may be service-connected. (Authority: 38...
... personality disorders. 4.127 Section 4.127 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS... and personality disorders. Mental retardation and personality disorders are not diseases or injuries... superimposed upon mental retardation or a personality disorder may be service-connected. (Authority: 38...
... personality disorders. 4.127 Section 4.127 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS... and personality disorders. Mental retardation and personality disorders are not diseases or injuries... superimposed upon mental retardation or a personality disorder may be service-connected. (Authority: 38...
Krug, Isabel; Bulik, Cynthia M; Vall-Llovera, Olga Nebot; Granero, Roser; Agüera, Zaida; Villarejo, Cynthia; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando
The goals of the study were to compare anger expressions in individuals with eating disorders and healthy controls, and to explore the relation among eating disorder symptoms, comorbid psychopathology, personality traits, and impulsive behaviours. Participants comprised 135 eating disorder patients consecutively admitted to our unit and 103 healthy controls. Assessment measures included the Eating Disorders Inventory 2 (EDI-2), Bulimic Investigatory Test Edinburgh (BITE), Symptom Checklist-Revised (SCL-90-R), Social Avoidance Distress Scale (SAD), Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised (TCI-R), State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory 2 (STAXI-2), and other clinical and psychopathological indices. In the control group also the General Health Questionnaire-28 (GHQ-28) was also used. Women with eating disorders obtained significantly higher mean scores than controls on all STAXI-2 scales except for Anger Control. When various purging methods were assessed independently, the frequency of laxative use was associated with anger suppression. Eating disorder symptoms and specific personality traits were positively associated with different forms of anger expression. Finally, patients with higher scores on anger suppression were more likely to report self-harming behaviors. Eating disorder patients may have inadequate anger expression and deficits in coping with anger and frustration. Furthermore, different purging methods may be related to different facets of anger.
Lauer, J; Black, D W; Keen, P
We report data from a comparison of 14 subjects with multiple personality disorder (MPD) and 13 subjects with borderline personality disorder (BPD). There were few significant differences between the groups. The authors discuss the concept of MPD as an epiphenomenon of BPD, and argue their fundamental similarity.
Samuel, Douglas B; Widiger, Thomas A
A dimensional perspective on personality disorder hypothesizes that the current diagnostic categories represent maladaptive variants of general personality traits. However, a fundamental foundation of this viewpoint is that dimensional models can adequately account for the pathology currently described by these categories. While most of the personality disorders have well established links to dimensional models that buttress this hypothesis, obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) has obtained only inconsistent support. The current study administered multiple measures of 1) conscientiousness-related personality traits, 2) DSM-IV OCPD, and 3) specific components of OCPD (e.g., compulsivity and perfectionism) to a sample of 536 undergraduates who were oversampled for elevated OCPD scores. Six existing measures of conscientiousness-related personality traits converged strongly with each other supporting their assessment of a common trait. These measures of conscientiousness correlated highly with scales assessing specific components of OCPD, but obtained variable relationships with measures of DSM-IV OCPD. More specifically, there were differences within the conscientiousness instruments such that those designed to assess general personality functioning had small to medium relationships with OCPD, but those assessing more maladaptive variants obtained large effect sizes. These findings support the view that OCPD does represent a maladaptive variant of normal-range conscientiousness.
Zvolensky, Michael J.; Jenkins, Elizabeth F.; Johnson, Kirsten A.; Goodwin, Renee D.
Introduction There is a paucity of empirical information pertaining to the association between personality disorders and cigarette smoking. The present study examined whether, and to what degree, personality disorders are associated with cigarette smoking; investigated the specificity of any observed smoking-personality disorder association; and the role of mood/anxiety disorders, substance use, and nicotine dependence in those relations. Methods Data were drawn from the National Epidemiologic Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC), a nationally representative sample of 43,083 adults in the United States. Results Results indicated a substantial percentage of those with personality disorders are nicotine dependent. Interestingly, the association between dependent, avoidant, histrionic, schizoid and paranoid personality disorders as well as former dependent smoking was partially explained by co-occurring mood/anxiety disorders, and adjusting for such clinical conditions appeared to generally attenuate the strength of many other associations. Finally, the association between personality disorders and smoking appears to differ by specific personality disorder, with some of the strongest relations being evident for antisocial personality disorder. Discussion These novel empirical findings are discussed in relation to the relevance of cigarette smoking among those with personality disorders. PMID:21168156
Coolidge, Frederick L; Estey, Alisa J; Segal, Daniel L; Marle, Peter D
Relationships among alexithymia, personality disorders, and higher-order psychopathological and interpersonal dimensions were examined in 199 college students and a close relative of each. Alexithymia, the difficulty to express and identify emotions, was measured by the Observer Alexithymia Scale (OAS; [Haviland, M. G., Warren, W. L., & Riggs, M. L. (2000). An observer scale to measure alexithymia. Psychosomatics, 41, 385-392]), which was completed by each student's relative. Each student completed three self-report measures: the Coolidge Axis II Inventory (CATI; [Coolidge, F. L. (2000). Coolidge Axis II Inventory: Manual. Colorado Springs, CO: Author.), the Five Dimensional Personality Test (5DPT; [van Kampen, D. (2009). Personality and psychopathology: A theory-based revision of Eysenck's PEN model. Clinical Practice and Epidemiology in Mental Health, 5, 9-21]), and the Horney-Coolidge Tridimensional Inventory (HCTI; [Coolidge, F. L. (1998). Horney-Coolidge Tridimensional Inventory: Manual. Colorado Springs, CO: Author]). Results indicated that higher levels of alexithymia are associated with personality disorders and their traits, such as schizoid, avoidant, and paranoid. With regard to the issue of the similarity and difference between alexithymia and schizoid personality disorder, there was sufficient evidence across all of the measures to suggest that they are not synonymous entities. Finally, alexithymic traits were associated with concurrent depressive traits even in a non-clinical sample.
Pincus, Aaron L; Lukowitsky, Mark R
We review the literature on pathological narcissism and narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) and describe a significant criterion problem related to four inconsistencies in phenotypic descriptions and taxonomic models across clinical theory, research, and practice; psychiatric diagnosis; and social/personality psychology. This impedes scientific synthesis, weakens narcissism's nomological net, and contributes to a discrepancy between low prevalence rates of NPD and higher rates of practitioner-diagnosed pathological narcissism, along with an enormous clinical literature on narcissistic disturbances. Criterion issues must be resolved, including clarification of the nature of normal and pathological narcissism, incorporation of the two broad phenotypic themes of narcissistic grandiosity and narcissistic vulnerability into revised diagnostic criteria and assessment instruments, elimination of references to overt and covert narcissism that reify these modes of expression as distinct narcissistic types, and determination of the appropriate structure for pathological narcissism. Implications for the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders and the science of personality disorders are presented.
Spinetto, Marcela; Larregina, Luciana; Benvenuto, Cecilia
In examining predictors of Posttraumatic Stress Disorders, researchers have focused on trauma intensity, symptoms severity, personality disorders and devoted less attention to other variables. This descriptive study examine how personality disorders, intensity of trauma and demographic variables (previous trauma and vulnerability) are related to the likelihood of experiencing a trauma, and to the severity of posttraumatic symptoms in a sample of 50 patients reporting a wide range of trauma.
Novais, Filipa; Araújo, Andreia; Godinho, Paula
Histrionic Personality Disorder is one of the most ambiguous diagnostic categories in psychiatry. Hysteria is a classical term that includes a wide variety of psychopathological states. Ancient Egyptians and Greeks blamed a displaced womb, for many women's afflictions. Several researchers from the 18th and 19th centuries studied this theme, namely, Charcot who defined hysteria as a "neurosis" with an organic basis and Sigmund Freud who redefined "neurosis" as a re-experience of past psychological trauma. Histrionic personality disorder (HPD) made its first official appearance in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders II (DSM-II) and since the DSM-III, HPD is the only disorder that kept the term derived from the old concept of hysteria. The subject of hysteria has reflected positions about health, religion and relationships between the sexes in the last 4000 years, and the discussion is likely to continue.
Novais, Filipa; Araújo, Andreia; Godinho, Paula
Histrionic Personality Disorder is one of the most ambiguous diagnostic categories in psychiatry. Hysteria is a classical term that includes a wide variety of psychopathological states. Ancient Egyptians and Greeks blamed a displaced womb, for many women’s afflictions. Several researchers from the 18th and 19th centuries studied this theme, namely, Charcot who defined hysteria as a “neurosis” with an organic basis and Sigmund Freud who redefined “neurosis” as a re-experience of past psychological trauma. Histrionic personality disorder (HPD) made its first official appearance in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders II (DSM-II) and since the DSM-III, HPD is the only disorder that kept the term derived from the old concept of hysteria. The subject of hysteria has reflected positions about health, religion and relationships between the sexes in the last 4000 years, and the discussion is likely to continue. PMID:26441812
Quilty, Lena Catherine; Sellbom, Martin; Tackett, Jennifer Lee; Bagby, Robert Michael
The purpose of the current investigation was to examine the personality predictors of bipolar disorder symptoms, conceptualized as one-dimensional (bipolarity) or two-dimensional (mania and depression). A psychiatric sample (N=370; 45% women; mean age 39.50 years) completed the Revised NEO Personality Inventory and the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory -2. A model in which bipolar symptoms were represented as a single dimension provided a good fit to the data. This dimension was predicted by Neuroticism and (negative) Agreeableness. A model in which bipolar symptoms were represented as two separate dimensions of mania and depression also provided a good fit to the data. Depression was associated with Neuroticism and (negative) Extraversion, whereas mania was associated with Neuroticism, Extraversion and (negative) Agreeableness. Symptoms of bipolar disorder can be usefully understood in terms of two dimensions of mania and depression, which have distinct personality correlates.
Hellwig, Sabine; Dykierek, Petra; Hellwig, Bernhard; Zwernemann, Stefan; Meyer, Philipp T
A common condition in Alzheimer's disease (AD) is unawareness of deficits. Different concepts try to elucidate the nature of this symptom. An essential question relates to the interaction of organic and psychogenic factors. Here we present a patient who displayed her cognitive deficits as attention-seeking behaviour. There was a history of histrionic personality disorder according to ICD-10 criteria. Unexpectedly, the final diagnosis after extensive diagnostic work-up was AD. The unusual coincidence of AD and a histrionic personality disorder hampered the clinical process of diagnosing dementia. We discuss unawareness as a complex concept incorporating neuroanatomical, psychiatric, and psychosocial aspects.
Ayre, Karyn; Owen, Gareth S.; Moran, Paul
The use of the Mental Capacity Act 2005 in assessing decision-making capacity in patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) is inconsistent. We believe this may stem from persisting confusion regarding the nosological status of personality disorder and also a failure to recognise the fact that emotional dysregulation and characteristic psychodynamic abnormalities may cause substantial difficulties in using and weighing information. Clearer consensus on these issues is required in order to provide consistent patient care and reduce uncertainty for clinicians in what are often emergency and high-stakes clinical scenarios. PMID:28184315
Fernández-Montalvo, J; Lorea, I
The aim of this paper was to review the current knowledge about the comorbidity between cocaine dependence and personality disorders. Results concerning a specific profile of cocaine patients are not conclusive. The prevalence rate of personality disorders in cocaine dependents is very heterogeneous (with a mean of 66% of cases), and a great variability is observed between all the studies carried out. There is a tendency for a higher proportion of cocaine dependents to be found within the cluster B category (mainly antisocial and borderline). Lastly, implications of this kind of study for future research and clinical practice are commented upon.
Skodol, Andrew E; Bender, Donna S; Morey, Leslie C
The criteria for personality disorders in Section II of DSM-5 have not changed from those in DSM-IV. Therefore, the diagnosis of Section II narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) will perpetuate all of the well-enumerated shortcomings associated with the diagnosis since DSM-III. In this article, we will briefly review problems associated with Section II NPD and then discuss the evolution of a new model of personality disorder and the place in the model of pathological narcissism and NPD. The new model was intended to be the official approach to the diagnosis of personality pathology in DSM-5, but was ultimately placed as an alternative in Section III for further study. The new model is a categorical-dimensional hybrid based on the assessment of core elements of personality functioning and of pathological personality traits. The specific criteria for NPD were intended to rectify some of the shortcomings of the DSM-IV representation by acknowledging both grandiose and vulnerable aspects, overt and covert presentations, and the dimensionality of narcissism. In addition, criteria were assigned and diagnostic thresholds set based on empirical data. The Section III representation of narcissistic phenomena using dimensions of self and interpersonal functioning and relevant traits offers a significant improvement over Section II NPD.
Mavissakalian, M; Hamann, M S; Jones, B
Forty-three patients with primary obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) completed the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire (PDQ), a self-rating scale designed to assess axis II personality disorders (PD) from DSM-III. Results showed that 53% of the patients received at least one PD diagnosis. The most frequent diagnoses were avoidant (30%), histrionic (26%), dependent (19%), and schizotypal (16%). Consideration of the personality traits irrespective of diagnostic category showed that in addition to avoidant and dependent personality characteristics, the sample had strong passive aggressive and compulsive tendencies and substantial histrionic, paranoid, and schizotypal traits. Patients exhibiting a greater number of personality traits were also significantly more symptomatic. However, anxiety, phobic, and obsessive-compulsive symptoms were not selected as unique predictors of any personality variables in the regression analyses. Rather, the most important correlate of PD in these patients consisted of dysphoric mood as assessed by the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and, to a lesser degree, younger age or shorter duration of illness. These findings do not support a specific link between OCD and PD in general and compulsive PD in particular.
Tyrka, Audrey R.; Wyche, Margaret C.; Kelly, Megan M.; Price, Lawrence H.; Carpenter, Linda L
The present study examines the effects of different types of childhood maltreatment on personality disorder symptoms in a sample of adults with no Axis I psychopathology. Participants reporting a history of moderate to severe maltreatment on the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (n=70) were grouped by type of abuse and compared to a non-abused group (n=35) with regard to the number of personality disorder symptoms endorsed. Physical/sexual abuse and emotional abuse/neglect each were associated with elevated symptoms of all three personality disorder clusters. Elevated symptoms of several specific personality disorders were also seen, including paranoid, borderline, avoidant, dependent, obsessive-compulsive, and depressive personality disorder. There were no significant differences between the maltreatment groups. These findings indicate that emotional abuse/neglect and physical/sexual abuse are risk factors for a broad array of personality outcomes in a non-clinical sample. PMID:19162332
Biskin, Robert S
Borderline personality disorder (BPD) has historically been seen as a lifelong, highly disabling disorder. Research during the past 2 decades has challenged this assumption. This paper reviews the course of BPD throughout life, including childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. BPD can be accurately identified in adolescence, and the course of the disorder, in adolescence and adulthood, is generally similar, with reductions in symptoms over time. Functional recovery is less consistent, and further research on factors or treatments that may improve the long-term functional outcome of patients with BPD is warranted. PMID:26175388
Kent, Brendon W; Weinstein, Zachary A; Passarelli, Vincent; Chen, Yue; Siever, Larry J
Schizotypal personality disorder is a personality disorder in the schizophrenia spectrum, sharing genetic and neurobiologic characteristics with schizophrenia. Visual contrast detection, found to be abnormal in chronic schizophrenia, was investigated in schizotypal personality disorder (SPD). Since dopamine in the retina enhances visual contrast detection and SPD patients have relatively reduced dopaminergic activity in the brain compared to schizophrenia patients, it was hypothesized that SPD patients would have decreased to normal contrast sensitivity. Twenty-one subjects with DSM-IV diagnosed SPD, 18 healthy controls, and 12 subjects with a personality disorder unrelated to schizophrenia (OPD) were evaluated for contrast detection using a sinusoidal grating presented at varying temporal frequencies. Subjects also were evaluated neuropsychologically using several standardized neurocognitive tests. A significant effect of subject group was found on the contrast detection threshold (p<0.01) with a significant difference between the SPD group and the healthy control group but not between the OPD group and the healthy control group. The SPD group had higher contrast detection thresholds at all temporal frequencies tested. Correlations were found between contrast detection and performance on the Trail-Making, N-Back, and CPT tasks in SPD patients. These results, based upon a paradigm reflecting dopamine activity in the early visual system, highlight the differences as well as similarities between SPD and schizophrenia with regard to the dopamine system in schizophrenia spectrum (Siever and Davis, 2004).
Lindsley, Hope L.
Presents two case examples illustrating nature and etiology of multiple personality disorder in two clients and describing their entry into counseling and progress through treatment. Compares and contrasts cases in areas of diagnosis, symptoms, history, and treatment. Suggests that mental health counselors combine firmness with flexibility in…
Widiger, Thomas A.; Livesley, W. John; Clark, Lee Anna
Psychological assessment research concerns how to describe psychological dysfunction in ways that are both valid and useful. Recent advances in assessment research hold the promise of facilitating significant improvements in description and diagnosis. One such contribution is in the classification of personality disorder symptomatology. The…
Brewerton, T D; Hand, L D; Bishop, E R
The Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire (TPQ) was developed to measure a variety of personality variants on three biosocial dimensions, harm avoidance (HA), novelty seeking (NS), and reward dependence (RD), which are thought to be related to serotonin (5-HT), dopamine (DA), and norepinephrine (NE) function, respectively. Patients with eating disorders have been reported to have abnormalities in all of these systems, as well as personality variants described by these dimensions. We therefore administered the TPQ to 147 patients with DSM-III-R defined eating disorders (110 bulimia nervosa [BN], 27 with anorexia nervosa [AN], and 10 with BN+AN) and compared their scores to those of 350 female controls. When significant, post hoc Bonferroni t tests were performed using alpha = 0.05. All subtypes of eating disorder patients scored significantly higher on HA than controls (p < or = .0001, analysis of variance. Only patients with BN (+/- AN) had significantly higher degrees of NS (p < or = .0001), particularly on the impulsiveness subscale (NS2), although this may, in part, be due to age. No significant differences in total RD were found, although BN patients scored lower on RD3 (attachment vs. detachment) and higher on RD4 (dependence vs. independence) than controls. In addition, AN patients had significantly higher RD2 (persistence vs. irresoluteness) subscale scores. These data support a theory of 5-HT dysregulation in both types of eating disorders and suggest that further research be done on the role of DA and NE in BN.
Knorr, Alexander G; Willacker, Lina; Hermsdörfer, Joachim; Glasauer, Stefan; Krüger, Melanie
In everyday situations, pedestrians deploy successful strategies to avoid collisions with other persons crossing their paths. In this study, 2 experiments were conducted to investigate to what extent personal or situational characteristics affect role attribution and contribution to successful collision avoidance in human locomotion. Pairs of subjects walked at their natural speed from a start to a goal point. Walking paths were defined in such a way that subjects would collide halfway on their trajectory, if they did not actively avoid colliding by speed or path adjustments. In the first experiment, we investigated whether crossing order, path, and speed adjustments correlate with subject-specific parameters, such as gender, height, and personality traits. It is interesting that individuals' collision avoidance behavior was not correlated with any of these factors. In the second experiment, initial walking speed and heading were used to predict the crossing order. It was found that these 2 parameters are sufficient to estimate future role attribution with 95% confidence already 2.5 m before the crossing; that is, even before any collision avoidance behavior is initiated. In sum, this suggests that collision avoidance strategies in human locomotion are based on situational rather than on personal characteristics. These situational characteristics result in role attributions, which are highly predictable within and across pairs of pedestrians, whereby the role-dependent contribution of the pedestrian giving way is of greater relevance for successful collision avoidance. (PsycINFO Database Record
Noorbakhsh, Simasadat; Zeinodini, Zahra; Khanjani, Zeynab; Poorsharifi, Hamid; Rajezi Esfahani, Sepideh
Background: Individuals with certain personality disorders, especially the antisocial and borderline personality disorders, are more prone to substance use disorders. Objectives: Regarding the importance of substance use disorders, this study aimed to explore the association between personality disorders and types of used drugs (narcotics and stimulants) in Iranian male substance users. Patients and Methods: The current study was a correlation study. We evaluated 285 male substance users and excluded 25 according to exclusion criteria. A total of 130 narcotic users and 130 stimulant users were recruited randomly in several phases from January 2013 to October 2013. All participants were referred to Substance Dependency Treatment Clinics in Tehran, Iran. Data collection process was accomplished by means of clinical interview based on DSM-V criteria for substance use disorders, Iranian version of addiction severity index (ASI), and Millon clinical multi-axial inventory-III (MCMI-III). Data were analyzed by SPSS 21 using Pearson correlation coefficient and regression, the. Results: There was a significant correlation between stimulant use and histrionic personality disorder (P < 0.001) and antisocial and narcissistic personality disorders (P < 0.05). In addition, correlation between avoidant, histrionic, and narcissistic personality disorders (P < 0.05) and depressed, antisocial, and borderline personality disorders (P < 0.001) with narcotics consumption were significant. In clusters, there was a significant correlation between cluster B personality disorders, and narcotic and stimulants consumption (P < 0.001). In addition, this association was explored between cluster C personality disorder and narcotics (P < 0.001). Conclusions: The results of this study in terms of personality disorders and types of used drugs were in accordance with the previous studies results. It is necessary to design appropriate treatment plans for medical treatment of those with personality
Bateman, Anthony; Fonagy, Peter
Mentalization is the process by which we implicitly and explicitly interpret the actions of ourselves and others as meaningful based on intentional mental states (e.g., desires, needs, feelings, beliefs, and reasons). This process is disrupted in individuals with comorbid antisocial (ASPD) and borderline personality disorder (BPD), who tend to misinterpret others' motives. Antisocial characteristics stabilize mentalizing by rigidifying relationships within prementalistic ways of functioning. However, loss of flexibility makes the person vulnerable to sudden collapse when the schematic representation is challenged. This exposes feelings of humiliation, which can only be avoided by violence and control of the other person. The common path to violence is via a momentary inhibition of the capacity for mentalization. In this article, the authors outline their current understanding of mentalizing and its relation to antisocial characteristics and violence. This is illustrated by a clinical account of mentalization-based treatment adapted for antisocial personality disorder. Treatment combines group and individual therapy. The focus is on helping patients maintain mentalizing about their own mental states when their personal integrity is challenged. A patient with ASPD does not have mental pain associated with another's state of mind; thus, to generate conflict in ASPD by thinking about the victim will typically be ineffective in inducing behavior change.
Background The aims of this study were to assess the prevalence of a comorbid Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) diagnosis in Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD), and its impact on the clinical presentation of BPD in adolescents, and to determine which type of impulsivity specifically characterizes adolescents with BPD-ADHD. Methods ADHD diagnoses were sought in a sample of 85 DSM-IV BPD adolescents drawn from the EURNET BPD. Axis-I and -II disorders were determined with the K-SADS-PL and the SIDP-IV, respectively. Impulsivity was assessed with the BIS-11. Results 11% (N = 9) of BPD participants had a current ADHD diagnosis. BPD-ADHD adolescents showed higher prevalence of Disruptive disorders (Chi2 = 9.09, p = 0.01) and a non-significant trend for a higher prevalence of other cluster B personality disorders (Chi2 = 2.70, p = 0.08). Regression analyses revealed a significant association between Attentional/Cognitive impulsivity scores and ADHD (Wald Z = 6.69; p = 0.01; Exp(B) = 2.02, CI 95% 1.19-3.45). Conclusions Comorbid ADHD influences the clinical presentation of adolescents with BPD and is associated with higher rates of disruptive disorders, with a trend towards a greater likelihood of cluster B personality disorders and with higher levels of impulsivity, especially of the attentional/cognitive type. A subgroup of BPD patients may exhibit developmentally driven impairments of the inhibitory system persisting since childhood. Specific interventions should be recommended for this subsample of BPD adolescents. PMID:21961882
Black, Donald W
Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) is characterized by a pattern of socially irresponsible, exploitative, and guiltless behaviour. ASPD is associated with co-occurring mental health and addictive disorders and medical comorbidity. Rates of natural and unnatural death (suicide, homicide, and accidents) are excessive. ASPD is a predictor of poor treatment response. ASPD begins early in life, usually by age 8 years. Diagnosed as conduct disorder in childhood, the diagnosis converts to ASPD at age 18 if antisocial behaviours have persisted. While chronic and lifelong for most people with ASPD, the disorder tends to improve with advancing age. Earlier onset is associated with a poorer prognosis. Other moderating factors include marriage, employment, early incarceration (or adjudication during childhood), and degree of socialization. PMID:26175389
Glenn, Andrea L; Johnson, Alexandria K; Raine, Adrian
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM 5) classification of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) describes individuals who engage in repetitive irresponsible, delinquent, and criminal behavior. The diagnosis is highly controversial, with many researchers and clinicians arguing that the category is too heterogeneous, overinclusive, and demonstrates considerable overlap with other disorders. This review focuses on recent studies that have improved our understanding of the characteristics of individuals who fit the ASPD definition by exploring how subtypes differ and how comorbid conditions influence the presentation of ASPD. In addition, we discuss research on the etiology of ASPD that has identified genetic and environmental factors that may contribute to the development and persistence of antisocial behavior, and brain imaging research that has improved our understanding of the relationships between ASPD and other psychopathology. Finally, we discuss promising preliminary research on treatment for this disorder.
Black, Donald W
Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) is characterized by a pattern of socially irresponsible, exploitative, and guiltless behaviour. ASPD is associated with co-occurring mental health and addictive disorders and medical comorbidity. Rates of natural and unnatural death (suicide, homicide, and accidents) are excessive. ASPD is a predictor of poor treatment response. ASPD begins early in life, usually by age 8 years. Diagnosed as conduct disorder in childhood, the diagnosis converts to ASPD at age 18 if antisocial behaviours have persisted. While chronic and lifelong for most people with ASPD, the disorder tends to improve with advancing age. Earlier onset is associated with a poorer prognosis. Other moderating factors include marriage, employment, early incarceration (or adjudication during childhood), and degree of socialization.
Narcissistic traits and narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) present specific diagnostic challenges. While they are often readily and straightforwardly identified, their presentation in some patients and the reasons for which such patients seek treatment may conceal significant narcissistic pathology. Recently, several empirical studies have confirmed that the phenotypic range of people with NPD includes individuals with insecure, shy, and hypersensitive traits with prominent internalized narcissistic features and functioning. Other studies have confirmed that internal emotional distress, interpersonal vulnerability, fear, pain, anxiety, a sense of inadequacy, and depressivity can also co-occur with narcissistic personality functioning. This paper focuses on integrating these findings into the diagnostic evaluation and initial negotiation of treatment for NPD. In patients with narcissistic traits or NPD, it is important to give attention to the two sides of character functioning, which include both self-serving and self-enhancing manifestations as well as hypersensitivity, fluctuations in self-esteem, and internal pain and fragility. This article highlights some of these seemingly incompatible clinical presentations of narcissistic traits and NPD, especially as they co-occur with depressivity and perfectionism, and it discusses implications for building a treatment alliance with a patient with such a predominant disorder of character functioning. The article also discusses the importance of retaining the NPD diagnosis as a separate type of personality disorder, with this range of features, in the upcoming fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DMS-5).
Dörr Zengers, O
Different studies have questioned the capacity of the categorical diagnostics to establish a clear distinction between the existence or not of a determined personality disorder. The dimensional perspective would approach more to reality, in the measure that it tries to measure the different intensity degrees in which these disorders are present in the patients. But its application is very laborious and besides, presupposes that those categories whose nuances it pretends to measure really exist. The foresaid leads us to appeal to phenomenological perspective, which seems to be more adequate for the study of complex realities, as it is the case of the personality and its disorders. The essential features of the phenomenological method in the sense of Husserl are described, as well as his contribution to the study of personality disorders. This can be summarized in three fundamental points: the ideal types, introduced in psychiatry by Karl Jaspers, the existential types, by Ludwig Binswanger, and the dialectic typologies and polarities, by Wolfgang Blankenburg and the undersigned. This author defines and develops each one of these concepts, aiming to show their advantages with respect to the categorical and dimensional systems.
Bajraktarov, Stojan; Gudeva-Nikovska, Dance; Manuševa, Nensi; Arsova, Slavica
BACKGROUND: The depressive disorder is one of the most frequent mental disorders, which is often associated with severe dysfunctionality. Personality traits are considered as important factors for the occurrence of depressive disorder. AIM: To determine the specificity of personality dimensions as predictive factors of depressive disorder. METHODS: This research was conducted at the University Psychiatric Clinic Skopje as a “case-control” study. TCI-R (temperament and character inventory – revised) was used as the main research instrument. RESULTS: There are specific personality traits expressed through high scores of Harm Avoidance and low scores of Self –Directedness traits as predictive factors related to an incidence of the depressive disorder. CONCLUSION: The results of this study show that certain personal traits, and more specific HA and SD, are with a specific predictability of the depressive disorder. PMID:28293316
di Giacomo, Ester; Aspesi, Flora; Fotiadou, Maria; Arntz, Arnoud; Aguglia, Eugenio; Barone, Lavinia; Bellino, Silvio; Carpiniello, Bernardo; Colmegna, Fabrizia; Lazzari, Marina; Lorettu, Liliana; Pinna, Federica; Sicaro, Aldo; Signorelli, Maria Salvina; Clerici, Massimo
Borderline Personality (BPD) and Bipolar (BP) disorders stimulate an academic debate between their distinction and the inclusion of Borderline in the Bipolar spectrum. Opponents to this inclusion attribute the important differences and possible diagnostic incomprehension to overlapping symptoms. We tested 248 Borderline and 113 Bipolar patients, consecutively admitted to the Psychiatric Unit, through DSM-IV Axis I and II Disorders (SCID-I/II), Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D), Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A), Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) and Borderline Personality Disorder Severity Index-IV (BPDSI-IV). All the tests statistically discriminated the disorders (p < 0.0001). Overlapping symptoms resulted significantly different (impulsivity = 5.32 in BPD vs 1.55 in BP, p < 0.0001; emotional instability = 7.11 in BPD vs 0.55 in BP, p < 0.0001) and the range of their scores gives the opportunity for an even more precise discrimination. Distinctive traits (e.g. irritability or sexual arousal) are also discussed in order to try to qualify the core of these disorders to a higher degree. Comorbidity proves to be extremely small (3.6%). However, Borderline patients with manic features offer a privileged point of view for a deeper analysis. This allows for the possibility of a more precise examination of the nature and load of each symptom. Borderline Personality and Bipolar Disorders can be distinguished with high precision using common and time-sparing tests. The importance of discriminating these clinical features may benefit from this evidence.
Park, Subin; Hong, Jin Pyo; Lee, Hochang B; Samuels, Jack; Bienvenu, O Joseph; Chung, Hye Yoon; Eaton, William W; Costa, Paul T; Nestadt, Gerald
Based on the Baltimore Epidemiologic Catchment Area (ECA) follow-up survey, we examined relationships between dimensions of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) personality disorders and both subjective and objective memory functioning in a community population. Our study subjects consisted of 736 individuals from the ECA follow-up study of the original Baltimore ECA cohort, conducted between 1993 and 1996 and available for assessment in the Hopkins Epidemiology Study of Personality Disorders from 1997 to 1999. Subjects were assessed for DSM-IV personality disorders using a semi-structured instrument, the International Personality Disorder Examination, and were asked about a subjective appraisal of memory. Verbal memory function, including immediate recall, delayed recall, and recognition, were also evaluated. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to determine associations between personality dimensions of DSM-IV Axis II traits and subjective and objective memory functioning. Scores on schizoid and schizotypal personality dimensions were associated with subjective and objective memory dysfunction, both with and without adjustment for Axis I disorders. Borderline, antisocial, avoidant, and dependent personality disorder scores were associated with subjective memory impairment only, both with and without adjustment for Axis I disorders. This study suggests that subjective feelings of memory impairment and/or objective memory dysfunction are associated with specific personality disorder dimensions.
Growing evidence supporting the effectiveness of Collaborative/Therapeutic Assessment (C/TA) has led clinicians and researchers to apply C/TA to a variety of clinical populations and treatment settings. This case example presents a C/TA inpatient adaptation illustrated with narcissistic personality disorder. After a brief overview of salient concepts, I provide a detailed account of the clinical interview, test interpretation paired with diagnostic considerations specific to narcissism, planned intervention, and discussion of assessment results. Throughout the case study, I attempt to demonstrate defining features of C/TA, inpatient adaptations, and clinical techniques that encourage meaningful engagement with a "hard to reach" personality.
Meybodi, Azadeh Mazaheri; Hajebi, Ahmad; Jolfaei, Atefeh Ghanbari
Background: Co-morbid psychiatric disorders affect prognosis, psychosocial adjustment and post-surgery satisfaction in patients with gender identity disorder. In this paper, we assessed the frequency of personality disorders in Iranian GID patients. Methods: Seventy- three patients requesting sex reassignment surgery (SRS) were recruited for this crosssectional study. Of the participants, 57.5% were biologically male and 42.5% were biologically female. They were assessed through the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory II (MCMI- II). Results: The frequency of personality disorders was 81.4%. The most frequent personality disorder was narcissistic personality disorder (57.1%) and the least was borderline personality disorder. The average number of diagnoses was 3.00 per patient. Conclusion: The findings of this study revealed that the prevalence of personality disorders was higher among the participants, and the most frequent personality disorder was narcissistic personality disorder (57.1%), and borderline personality disorder was less common among the studied patients. PMID:25664291
The aim of this paper is to explore the links between the attachment-theory derived concept of disorganized attachment, and the psychiatric diagnosis of Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD). Disorganized attachment can be understood in terms of an approach-avoidance dilemma for infants for whom stressed or traumatized/traumatizing caregivers are simultaneously a source of threat and a secure base. Interpersonal relationships in BPD including those with care givers is similarly seen in terms of approach-avoidance dilemmas, which manifests themselves in disturbed transference/countertransference interactions between therapists and BPD sufferers. Possible ways of handling these phenomena are suggested, based on notion of 'meta-cognitive monitoring', in the hope of re-instating meaning and more stable self-structures, in these patients' lives.
Botti, Nadja Cristiane Lappann; Carneiro, Ana Luíza Marques; Almeida, Camila Souza; Pereira, Cíntia Braga Silva
The study describes the experience of building educational software in the area of mental health. The software was developed to enable the nursing student identify personality disorders. In this process, we applied the pedagogical framework of Vygotsky and the theoretical framework of the diagnostic criteria defined by DSM-IV. From these references were identified personality disorders characters in stories and / or children's movies. The software development bank was built with multimedia graphics data, sound and explanatory. The software developed like educational game like questions with increasing levels of difficulty. The software was developed with Microsoft Office PowerPoint 2007. It is believed in the validity of this strategy for teaching-learning to the area of mental health nursing.
Peter, Mathell; Schuurmans, Hanneke; Vingerhoets, Ad J J M; Smeets, Guus; Verkoeijen, Peter; Arntz, Arnoud
The present study investigated emotional intelligence (EI) in borderline personality disorder (BPD). It was hypothesized that patients with BPD (n = 61) compared with patients with other personality disorders (PDs; n = 69) and nonpatients (n = 248) would show higher scores on the ability to perceive emotions and impairments in the ability to regulate emotions. EI was assessed with the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (Mayer, Salovey, and Caruso [New York: MHS, 2002]). As compared with the PD group and the nonpatient group, the patients with BPD displayed the anticipated deficits in their ability to understand, whereas no differences emerged with respect to their ability to perceive, use, and regulate emotions. In addition, a negative relationship was found between the severity of BPD and total EI score. However, this relationship disappeared when intelligence quotient was partialled out. These results suggest that BPD is associated with emotion understanding deficits, whereas temporary severity of BPD is associated with emotion regulation deficits.
The diagnosis of narcissistic personality disorder in the DSM-IV has been criticized foremost for its limitations in capturing the range and complexity of narcissistic pathology. The attention to the narcissistic individual's external, symptomatic, or social interpersonal patterns--at the expense of his or her internal complexity and individual suffering--has also added to the diagnosis' low clinical utility and limited guidance for treatment. Recent studies and reviews have pointed to the need for change in the diagnostic approach to and formulation of narcissism. This review focuses specifically on studies of features that add to the identification, understanding, and treatment of patients with pathological narcissistic functioning and narcissistic personality disorder. They have been integrated into a regulatory model that includes the functions and fluctuations of internal control, self-esteem, perfectionism with accompanying self-criticism, shame, and empathic ability and functioning.
Weinstein, Lissa; Perez-Rodriguez, M Mercedes; Siever, Larry
While attachment has been a fruitful and critical concept in understanding enduring individual templates for interpersonal relationships, it does not have a well-understood relationship to personality disorders, where impairment of interpersonal functioning is paramount. Despite the recognition that attachment disturbances do not simply reflect nonoptimal caretaking environments, the relationship of underlying temperamental factors to these environmental insults has not been fully explored. In this paper we provide an alternate model for the role of neurobiological temperamental factors, including brain circuitry and neuropeptide modulation, in mediating social cognition and the internalization and maintenance of attachment patterns. The implications of these altered attachment patterns on personality disorders and their neurobiological and environmental roots for psychoanalytically based treatment models designed to ameliorate difficulties in interpersonal functioning through the medium of increased access to mature forms of mentalization is discussed.
Boggs, Christina D.; Morey, Leslie C.; Skodol, Andrew E.; Shea, M. Tracie; Sanislow, Charles A.; Grilo, Carlos M.; McGlashan, Thomas H.; Zanarini, Mary C.; Gunderson, John G.
The aim of the present study was to investigate the possibility of sex bias in the diagnostic criteria for borderline, schizotypal, avoidant, and obsessive-compulsive personality disorders. A clinical sample of 668 individuals was evaluated for personality disorder criteria using a semistructured interview, and areas of functional impairment were…
Vender, Simone; Callegari, Camilla; Poloni, Nicola
The borderline personality disorders are very frequent in modern society because of cultural and social reasons. The authors analyze the disturbed mental processes (impulsiveness and memory) because they represent risk factors for the treatment of diseases. On the base of experience of consultation-liaison psychiatry, the authors show some guidelines in the medical practice (primary care and general hospital) in order to overcome the troubles of the treatment.
Corr, Philip J; McNaughton, Neil
Many personality theories link specific traits to the sensitivities of the neural systems that control approach and avoidance. But there is no consensus on the nature of these systems. Here we combine recent advances in economics and neuroscience to provide a more solid foundation for a neuroscience of approach/avoidance personality. We propose a two-stage integration of valuation (loss/gain) sensitivities with motivational (approach/avoidance/conflict) sensitivities. Our key conclusions are: (1) that valuation of appetitive and aversive events (e.g. gain and loss as studied by behavioural economists) is an independent perceptual input stage--with the economic phenomenon of loss aversion resulting from greater negative valuation sensitivity compared to positive valuation sensitivity; (2) that valuation of an appetitive stimulus then interacts with a contingency of presentation or omission to generate a motivational 'attractor' or 'repulsor', respectively (vice versa for an aversive stimulus); (3) the resultant behavioural tendencies to approach or avoid have distinct sensitivities to those of the valuation systems; (4) while attractors and repulsors can reinforce new responses they also, more usually, elicit innate or previously conditioned responses and so the perception/valuation-motivation/action complex is best characterised as acting as a 'reinforcer' not a 'reinforcement'; and (5) approach-avoidance conflict must be viewed as activating a third motivation system that is distinct from the basic approach and avoidance systems. We provide examples of methods of assessing each of the constructs within approach-avoidance theories and of linking these constructs to personality measures. We sketch a preliminary five-element reinforcer sensitivity theory (RST-5) as a first step in the integration of existing specific approach-avoidance theories into a coherent neuroscience of personality.
Elliot, Andrew J; Thrash, Todd M; Murayama, Kou
We conducted 2 longitudinal meditational studies to test an integrative model of goals, stress and coping, and well-being. Study 1 documented avoidance personal goals as an antecedent of life stressors and life stressors as a partial mediator of the relation between avoidance goals and longitudinal change in subjective well-being (SWB). Study 2 fully replicated Study 1 and likewise validated avoidance goals as an antecedent of avoidance coping and avoidance coping as a partial mediator of the relation between avoidance goals and longitudinal change in SWB. It also showed that avoidance coping partially mediates the link between avoidance goals and life stressors and validated a sequential meditational model involving both avoidance coping and life stressors. The aforementioned results held when controlling for social desirability, basic traits, and general motivational dispositions. The findings are discussed with regard to the integration of various strands of research on self-regulation.
Ross, Colin A; Ferrell, Lynn; Schroeder, Elizabeth
The literature indicates that, among individuals with borderline personality disorder, pathological dissociation correlates with a wide range of impairments and difficulties in psychological function. It also predicts a poorer response to dialectical behavior therapy for borderline personality disorder. We hypothesized that (a) dissociative identity disorder commonly co-occurs with borderline personality disorder and vice versa, and (b) individuals who meet criteria for both disorders have more comorbidity and trauma than individuals who meet criteria for only 1 disorder. We interviewed a sample of inpatients in a hospital trauma program using 3 measures of dissociation. The most symptomatic group was those participants who met criteria for both borderline personality disorder and dissociative identity disorder on the Dissociative Disorders Interview Schedule, followed by those who met criteria for dissociative identity disorder only, then those with borderline personality disorder only, and finally those with neither disorder. Greater attention should be paid to the relationship between borderline personality disorder and dissociative identity disorder.
Hengartner, Michael P; von Wyl, Agnes; Tanis, Thachell; Halmi, Winter; Galynker, Igor; Cohen, Lisa J
This is the first study to link attachment to both severity of total DSM-IV personality disorder (PD) traits and domains of general personality dysfunction, using a sample of 72 inpatients from New York City. We assessed a measure of global PD severity and the core domains of personality functioning using the severity indices of personality problems (SIPP-118). Attachment was measured with the experience in close relationships-revised (ECR-R) and the relationship style questionnaire (RSQ). Global PD severity correlated most strongly with attachment anxiety (r = 0.65). Regression of the SIPP-118 domains on attachment produced models that accounted for a substantial proportion of variance in those scales (R(2) ranging from 28.2 to 54.2%). SIPP-118 relational capacities were the strongest predictor of ECR-R avoidance (β = -0.88) and anxiety (β = -0.58), as well as RSQ secure (β = 0.53) and fearful (β = -0.65). In conclusion, insecure attachment strongly related to the severity of global PD traits and specifically to relational capacities, which are a higher-order domain of general personality dysfunction. These findings provide further evidence that interpersonal problems are at the core of PDs and that attachment could constitute an important mediator of the social dysfunction in persons with personality pathology.
Disney, Krystle L
Dependent personality disorder (DPD) has evolved from an abstract idea rooted in a historic and psychoanalytic context to a codified diagnosis in the DSM-IV-TR. This comprehensive review paper chronicles the evolution of DPD through each version of the DSM. Major topics relevant to the disorder are also investigated, including gender and cultural considerations, stability and manifestations of DPD across different developmental stages, comorbidity issues, and others. The purpose of this review is to provide a broad yet comprehensive examination of the complex angles of maladaptive dependency and to identify essential next steps in furthering our knowledge of this disorder. The paper concludes with a discussion of shortcomings in the body of research relevant to DPD, along with specific suggestions for improvement in this field of study.
Ripoll, Luis H; Zaki, Jamil; Perez-Rodriguez, Maria Mercedes; Snyder, Rebekah; Strike, Kathryn Sloan; Boussi, Ayelet; Bartz, Jennifer A; Ochsner, Kevin N; Siever, Larry J; New, Antonia S
Interpersonal dysfunction contributes to significant disability in the schizophrenia spectrum. Schizotypal Personality Disorder (SPD) is a schizophrenia-related personality demonstrating social cognitive impairment in the absence of frank psychosis. Past research indicates that cognitive dysfunction or schizotypy may account for social cognitive dysfunction in this population. We tested SPD subjects and healthy controls on the Empathic Accuracy (EA) paradigm and the Reading of the Mind in the Eyes Test (RMET), assessing the impact of EA on social support. We also explored whether EA differences could be explained by intelligence, working memory, trait empathy, or attachment avoidance. SPD subjects did not differ from controls in RMET, but demonstrated lower EA during negative valence videos, associated with lower social support. Dynamic, multimodal EA paradigms may be more effective at capturing interpersonal dysfunction than static image tasks such as RMET. Schizotypal severity, trait empathy, and cognitive dysfunction did not account for empathic dysfunction in SPD, although attachment avoidance is related to empathic differences. Empathic dysfunction for negative affect contributes to decreased social support in the schizophrenia spectrum. Future research may shed further light on potential links between attachment avoidance, empathic dysfunction, and social support.
Dimaggio, Giancarlo; Attinà, Giovanna
Treating narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) successfully is possible but requires a thorough understanding of the pathology and appropriate clinical procedures. Perfectionism is one prominent feature often associated with narcissistic difficulties. Metacognitive Interpersonal Therapy (MIT) for NPD adopts manualized step-by-step procedures aimed at progressively dismantling narcissistic processes by first stimulating an autobiographical mode of thinking and then improving access to inner states and awareness of dysfunctional patterns. Finally, adaptive patterns of thinking, feeling, and acting are promoted, together with a sense of autonomy and agency and a reduction of perfectionistic regulatory strategies. Throughout, there needs to be constant attention to regulation of the therapy relationship to avoid ruptures and maximize cooperation. We describe here a successful case of MIT applied to a man in his early 20's with narcissism, perfectionism, and significant co-occurrence of Axis I and Axis II disorders.
Giovanni, Abbate-Daga; Carla, Gramaglia; Enrica, Marzola; Federico, Amianto; Maria, Zuccolin; Secondo, Fassino
This study aimed to evaluate comorbidity for MD in a large ED sample and both personality and anger as clinical characteristics of patients with ED and MD. We assessed 838 ED patients with psychiatric evaluations and psychometric questionnaires: Temperament and Character Inventory, Eating Disorder Inventory-2, Beck Depression Inventory, and State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory. 19.5% of ED patients were found to suffer from comorbid MD and 48.7% reported clinically significant depressive symptomatology: patients with Anorexia Binge-Purging and Bulimia Nervosa were more likely to be diagnosed with MD. Irritable mood was found in the 73% of patients with MD. High Harm Avoidance (HA) and low Self-Directedness (SD) predicted MD independently of severity of the ED symptomatology, several clinical variables, and ED diagnosis. Assessing both personality and depressive symptoms could be useful to provide effective treatments. Longitudinal studies are needed to investigate the pathogenetic role of HA and SD for ED and MD. PMID:21977317
South, Susan C; Jarnecke, Amber M
Structural equation modeling (SEM) is a family of related statistical techniques that lend themselves to understanding the complex relationships among variables that differ among individuals in the population. SEM techniques have become increasingly popular in the study of personality disorders (PDs) and maladaptive personality traits. The current article takes a critical look at the ways in which SEM techniques have been used in the study of PDs, PD symptoms, and pathological personality traits. By far the most common use of SEM in the study of PDs has been to examine the latent structure of these constructs, with an overwhelming bulk of the evidence in favor of a dimensional, as opposed to categorical, conceptualization. Other common uses of SEM in this area are factor models that examine the joint multivariate space of PDs, maladaptive personality traits, and psychopathology. Relatively underused, however, are observed or latent variable path models. We review the strengths and weaknesses of the work done to date, focusing on ways that these SEM studies have been either theoretically and/or statistically sound. Finally, we offer suggestions for future research examining PDs with SEM techniques. (PsycINFO Database Record
Coleman, Daniel; Lawrence, Ryan; Parekh, Amrita; Galfalvy, Hanga; Blasco-Fontecilla, Hilario; Brent, David A; Mann, J John; Baca-Garcia, Enrique; Oquendo, Maria A
The relationship of Narcissistic Personality Disorder (NPD) to suicidal behavior is understudied. The modest body of existing research suggests that NPD is protective against low-lethality suicide attempts, but is associated with high lethality attempts. Mood-disordered patients (N = 657) received structured interviews including Axis I and II diagnosis and standardized clinical measures. Following chi-square and t-tests, a logistical regression model was constructed to identify predictors of suicide attempt. While there was no bivariate relationship of NPD on suicide attempt, in the logistic regression patients with NPD were 2.4 times less likely to make a suicide attempt (OR = 0.41; 95% CI = 0.19 - 0.88; p < 0.05), compared with non-NPD patients and controlling for possible confounding variables. NPD was not associated with attempt lethality. NPD patients were more likely to be male, to have a substance use disorder, and to have high aggression and hostility scores. Limitations include that the sample consists of only mood-disordered patients, a modest sample size of NPD, and the data are cross-sectional. The multivariate protective effect of NPD on suicide attempt is consistent with most previous research. The lower impulsivity of NPD patients and less severe personality pathology relative to other personality disorders may contribute to this effect. No relationship of NPD to attempt lethality was found, contradicting other research, but perhaps reflecting differences between study samples. Future studies should oversample NPD patients and include suicide death as an outcome. Clinical implications include discussion of individualized suicide risk assessment with NPD patients.
Barnow, Sven; Herpertz, Sabine C; Spitzer, Carsten; Stopsack, Malte; Preuss, Ulrich W; Grabe, Hans J; Kessler, Christoph; Freyberger, Harald J
This study examined correlations of borderline personality disorder (BPD) symptoms with scales from Cloninger's psychobiological model taking gender and psychiatric comorbidity into consideration. Inpatients with BPD (n = 202) were compared to several control groups including psychiatrically healthy persons (n = 327), subjects with affective disorders (n = 46), alcohol use disorders (n = 47), cluster C personality disorders (n = 23) and antisocial personality disorder (n = 25). The results indicate that only males with BPD presented an 'explosive' temperament suggested by Cloninger, with simultaneously high levels of novelty seeking and harm avoidance. In contrast, women with BPD were characterized by high levels of harm avoidance, but not novelty seeking. Regarding temperament and character dimensions our analyses suggest that patients with BPD could be characterized, in particular, by a combination of high harm avoidance and very low self-directedness. The specific temperament configuration of BPD postulated by Cloninger's psychobiological model could only partially be supported. The results provide support for the importance of controlling for gender effects when investigating the applicability of dimensional models with respect to personality disorders.
Davids, Eugen; Gastpar, Markus
To evaluate the association between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and the diagnosis of borderline personality disorder (BPD) in adulthood, a systematic review of published follow-up data, mainly from observational studies was done. Electronic databases Medline, PsychInfo and PSYNDEXplus were searched from their earliest entries. All studies suggested significant relationships between ADHD and BPD. From a phenomenological point of view there seem to exist some similarities between these two disorders: deficits in affect regulation and impulse control, substance abuse, low self esteem and disturbed interpersonal relationship are common in both conditions. From a neuropsychological point of view dissociation in BPD might be regarded as a special form of behavioral inhibition and sustained attention comparable to ADHD. Possible therapeutic strategies of comorbid ADHD and BPD are discussed.
Zimmerman, Mark; Martinez, Jennifer; Young, Diane; Chelminski, Iwona; Morgan, Theresa A; Dalrymple, Kristy
Both bipolar disorder and borderline personality disorder are associated with elevated rates of attempted suicide; however, no studies have examined whether there is an independent, additive risk for suicide attempts in patients diagnosed with both disorders. In the present study from the Rhode Island Methods to Improve Diagnostic Assessment and Services (MIDAS) project, 3,465 psychiatric outpatients were interviewed with semistructured interviews. Compared to the bipolar patients without borderline personality disorder, the patients diagnosed with both bipolar and borderline personality disorder were significantly more likely to have made a prior suicide attempt. The patients with borderline personality disorder and bipolar disorder were nonsignificantly more likely than the borderline patients without bipolar disorder to have made a prior suicide attempt. Bipolar disorder and borderline personality disorder were each associated with an increased rate of suicide attempts. The co-occurrence of these disorders conferred an additive risk, although the influence of borderline personality disorder was greater than that of bipolar disorder.
College students may be misdiagnosed as personality disordered when in fact their problems are better explained by their upbringing. Growing up with a personality disordered parent may cause them to initially present with what appear to be personality disordered traits due to issues such as not learning adequate coping skills. Accurate diagnosis…
Berenbaum, Howard; Thompson, Renee J; Milanek, Melissa E; Boden, M Tyler; Bredemeier, Keith
Two studies examined the relation between psychological trauma and schizotypal symptoms. In Study 1, in which 1,510 adults completed telephone interviews, both childhood maltreatment and the experience of an injury or life-threatening event were significantly associated with schizotypal symptoms. In Study 2, in which 303 adults (oversampled for having elevated levels of schizotypal symptoms) completed extensive in-person assessments, both childhood maltreatment and meeting posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) Criterion A were significantly associated with schizotypal symptoms. The links between schizotypal symptoms and at least some forms of psychological trauma could not be fully accounted for by shared variance with antisocial and borderline personality disorders, absorption/dissociation, PTSD symptom severity, family history of psychotic disorder, or signs of neurodevelopmental disturbance (as indexed by minor physical anomalies and inconsistent hand use). Schizotypal symptoms were more strongly associated with childhood maltreatment among men than among women, whereas schizotypal symptoms were more strongly associated with PTSD Criterion A among women than among men. Finally, among men, the association between childhood maltreatment and schizotypal symptoms was moderated by signs of neurodevelopmental disturbance.
Aaronson, Cindy J; Bender, Donna S; Skodol, Andrew E; Gunderson, John G
The intense, unstable interpersonal relationships characteristic of patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) are thought to represent insecure attachment. The Reciprocal Attachment Questionnaire was used to compare the attachment styles of patients with BPD to the styles of patients with a contrasting personality disorder, obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD). The results showed that patients with BPD were more likely to exhibit angry withdrawal and compulsive care-seeking attachment patterns. Patients with BPD also scored higher on the dimensions of lack of availability of the attachment figure, feared loss of the attachment figure, lack of use of the attachment figure, and separation protest. The findings may be relevant for understanding the core interpersonal psychopathology of BPD and for managing therapeutic relationships with these patients.
The aim of the present study was to investigate whether or not the avoidant attachment style indicates job adaptation of people with High Functional Autistic Spectrum Disorders (HFASD). HFASD are groups of developmental disorders characterized by impairment of social interaction and normal level of intelligence. Twenty-two people with HFASD…
Walters, Glenn D; Knight, Raymond A
The purpose of this study was to test whether prior conduct disorder increased deviance in persons diagnosed with antisocial personality disorder. One hundred and three male inmates satisfying adult antisocial and conduct disorder criteria for antisocial personality disorder achieved significantly higher scores on self-report measures of criminal thinking and antisocial attitudes than 137 male inmates satisfying only the adult criteria for antisocial personality disorder and 87 male nonantisocial inmates. Inmates satisfying adult antisocial and conduct disorder criteria for antisocial personality disorder were also more likely to receive disciplinary infractions for misconduct than inmates in the other two conditions. The theoretical, diagnostic, and practical implications of these results are discussed.
Kazuko, Tamura; Inoue, Kako
This study investigated some discriminative features of Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) with both clinical and normal samples using a self-report questionnaire. This questionnaire was administered to 116 clinical outpatients (diagnoses: thirty two BPD; twenty four schizophrenia; twenty six depression; twenty nine neurosis; and five other mental disorders) and to 216 college students as a normal sample. Factor analysis produced six factors: emptiness; hallucination and egorrhea; distortional body image and acts of self-inflicted injury; impulsive acting-out; loss of emotional control; and grandiose omnipotence. Distortional body image and acts of self-inflicted injury discriminated BPD the most from the other samples. No significant differences were seen between the BPD and Schizophrenia samples in terms of the hallucination or egorrhea subscales. An intense loss of emotional control, particularly control of negative emotions such as rage, was apparent in the clinical samples, which was not evident in the normal sample.
Genetic epidemiologic studies indicate that all ten personality disorders (PDs) classified on the DSM-IV axis II are modestly to moderately heritable. Shared environmental and nonadditive genetic factors are of minor or no importance. No sex differences have been identified. Multivariate studies suggest that the extensive comorbidity between the PDs can be explained by three common genetic and environmental risk factors. The genetic factors do not reflect the DSM-IV cluster structure, but rather: i) broad vulnerability to PD pathology or negative emotionality; ii) high impulsivity/low agreeableness; and iii) introversion. Common genetic and environmental liability factors contribute to comorbidity between pairs or clusters of axis I and axis II disorders. Molecular genetic studies of PDs, mostly candidate gene association studies, indicate that genes linked to neurotransmitter pathways, especially in the serotonergic and dopaminergic systems, are involved. Future studies, using newer methods like genome-wide association, might take advantage of the use of endophenotypes. PMID:20373672
Nestadt, G; Romanoski, A J; Chahal, R; Merchant, A; Folstein, M F; Gruenberg, E M; McHugh, P R
In conjunction with the Epidemiological Catchment Area (ECA) survey conducted in Baltimore, MD, a two-stage probability sample of community subjects was developed with a full psychiatric examination employing DSM-III criteria. This report details the observations on those subjects diagnosed with the DSM-III diagnosis Histrionic Personality Disorder. The results indicate that this condition can be diagnosed reliably and that it is a valid construct. It has a prevalence of 2.1% in a general population. Males and females are equally affected, suggesting that prior reports of an increased prevalence in females was an expression of ascertainment bias found in hospital-based studies. The diagnosis is associated with clear evidence of disturbance in the emotional, behavioural, and social realms. Individuals with this disorder tend to use health care facilities more frequently than others.
Genetic epidemiologic studies indicate that all ten personality disorders (PDs) classified on the DSM-IV axis II are modestly to moderately heritable. Shared environmental and nonadditive genetic factors are of minor or no importance. No sex differences have been identified, Multivariate studies suggest that the extensive comorbidity between the PDs can be explained by three common genetic and environmental risk factors. The genetic factors do not reflect the DSM-IV cluster structure, but rather: i) broad vulnerability to PD pathology or negative emotionality; ii) high impulsivity/low agreeableness; and iii) introversion. Common genetic and environmental liability factors contribute to comorbidity between pairs or clusters of axis I and axis II disorders. Molecular genetic studies of PDs, mostly candidate gene association studies, indicate that genes linked to neurotransmitter pathways, especially in the serotonergic and dopaminergic systems, are involved. Future studies, using newer methods like genome-wide association, might take advantage of the use of endophenotypes.
Goodman, Marianne; Patel, Uday; Oakes, Allison; Matho, Andrea; Triebwasser, Joseph
Due to the higher diagnostic prevalence of borderline personality disorder (BPD) in females, there exists a dearth of literature on the manifestations of BPD in men and minimal information on male developmental trajectories to the disorder. To identify precursors of BPD in males, surveys were administered to parents about their BPD male offspring and non-BPD male siblings. Questions covered aspects of probands' lives from infancy to late adolescence. BPD offspring were identified through self-reported clinical diagnoses and standardized diagnostic criteria embedded within the survey. A total of 263 male offspring (97 meeting strict criteria for BPD and 166 non-BPD siblings) were studied. The authors found that parents describe the early emergence of a constellation of symptoms in their BPD sons that include separation anxiety starting in infancy, body image concerns in childhood, and impulsivity, emptiness, and odd thinking in adolescence. This trajectory differs from the developmental course found in females diagnosed with BPD.
Biskin, Robert S.
Objectives: Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is frequently encountered in both adult and youth populations. There is a robust literature supporting psychotherapy for adults with BPD, but the literature supporting its use for BPD in youth is more limited. Methods: A literature review was conducted using the keywords “borderline personality disorders” and “adolescence.” Relevant articles were reviewed for inclusion. Results: Several specialized treatments have been studied with mixed results. Dialectical behaviour therapy has no randomized controlled trials in adolescents, emotion regulation training has not demonstrated superiority of treatment as usual, and cognitive analytic therapy has demonstrated more rapid recovery but little difference at follow-up. Mentalization-based treatment has one study supporting its use in self-harming adolescents. Pharmacotherapy has no evidence supporting its use in this population. Conclusions: Structured therapy may be the most important therapeutic component in this population. PMID:23970912
Martínez, María Pilar; Sánchez, Ana Isabel; Miró, Elena; Medina, Ana; Lami, María José
This study examined the relationship between several cognitive-affective factors of the fear-avoidance model of pain, the big five model of personality, and functional impairment in fibromyalgia (FM). Seventy-four FM patients completed the NEO Five-Factor Inventory, the Pain Catastrophizing Scale, the Pain Anxiety Symptoms Scale-20, the Pain Vigilance and Awareness Questionnaire, and the Impairment and Functioning Inventory. Results indicated that the cognitive-affective factors of pain are differentially associated with personality traits. Neuroticism and conscientiousness were significant predictors of pain catastrophizing, and neuroticism, openness, and agreeableness were significant predictors of pain anxiety. Personality traits did not contribute significantly to vigilance to pain. The effect of neuroticism upon pain anxiety was mediated by pain catastrophizing, and neuroticism showed a trend to moderate the relationship between impairment and pain anxiety. Results support the fear-avoidance model of pain. Implications of the findings for the understanding and management of FM are discussed.
Rosell, Daniel R; Futterman, Shira E; McMaster, Antonia; Siever, Larry J
The study of schizotypal personality disorder (SPD) is important clinically, as it is understudied, challenging to treat, often under-recognized or misdiagnosed, and associated with significant functional impairment. SPD also represents an intermediate schizophrenia-spectrum phenotype, and therefore, can provide a better understanding of the genetics, pathogenesis, and treatment of related psychotic illnesses. In this review we discuss recent findings of SPD related to epidemiology and functional impairment, heritability and genetics, working memory and cognitive impairments, social-affective disturbances, and neurobiology. Additionally, we examine the challenges associated with treating patients with SPD, as well as clinical recommendations. Finally, we address future directions and areas in need of further exploration.
Scott, Lori N; Levy, Kenneth N; Pincus, Aaron L
Previous studies have demonstrated that insecure attachment patterns and a trait disposition toward negative affect and impulsivity are both associated with borderline personality disorder (BPD) features. According to attachment theory, insecure attachment patterns impart greater risk for the maladaptive personality traits underlying BPD. Hence, insecure attachment might be indirectly related to BPD through its association with these traits. The current cross-sectional study used structural equation modeling to compare two competing models of the relationship between adult attachment patterns, trait negative affect and impulsivity, and BPD features in a large nonclinical sample of young adults: (M1) attachment anxiety and avoidance are positively related to trait negative affect and impulsivity, which in turn, are directly associated with BPD features; and (M2) trait negative affect and impulsivity are positively related to attachment anxiety and avoidance, which in turn, are directly associated with BPD features. Consistent with attachment theory, M1 provided a better fit to the data than M2. However, only attachment anxiety, and not attachment avoidance, was significantly associated with negative affect and impulsivity. The results favored a model in which the relationship between adult attachment anxiety and BPD features is fully mediated by trait negative affect and impulsivity.
Norris, Anne E.; Aroian, Karen J.
This study investigates whether the avoidance symptom criterion required for a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 1994) diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is overly conservative. Arab immigrant women (N = 453), many of whom reported experiencing multiple traumatic events, completed the Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale in Arabic as part of a face to face interview. Analyses indicated all but one avoidance symptom was reported less frequently than reexperiencing and arousal symptoms. However, those who fully met reexperiencing, avoidance, and arousal symptom criteria had worse symptom severity and functioning than those who fully met reexperiencing and arousal symptom criteria, but only partially met avoidance symptom criterion. Study findings support importance of the PTSD avoidance symptom criterion. PMID:18956451
Baldwin, L C
Until recently, few cases of multiple personality disorder were diagnosed in children. Today, the number of cases is increasing at an alarming rate and appears to be most closely associated with repeated sexual and physical abuse. This paper focuses on reports of childhood multiple personality disorder in the literature, the etiology of this disorder, family dynamics, the differences between childhood and adult multiple personality disorder, credibility problems in children, reasons for failure to diagnose multiple personality disorder in children, treatment, and signs and symptoms to look for in the clinical setting.
De Bolle, Marleen; De Clercq, Barbara; Pham-Scottez, Alexandra; Mels, Saskia; Rolland, Jean-Pierre; Guelfi, Julien Daniel; Braet, Caroline; De Fruyt, Filip
Personality pathology is examined in 100 female in-patients diagnosed with eating disorders. The Eating Disorder Inventory-II and the NEO-PI-R were self-administered and personality pathology was assessed using a structured interview. Clinicians additionally evaluated patients' global functioning. The results indicated sizeable personality disorder comorbidity, and two dimensions of personality pathology, for example, an internalizing and an externalizing factor, could be identified. Patients' global functioning was primarily associated with dimensions of personality pathology, but not with eating disorder symptoms. Assessment and therapeutic interventions should focus on this co-occurring pathology in order to improve patients' functioning.
Ritter, Kathrin; Vater, Aline; Rüsch, Nicolas; Schröder-Abé, Michela; Schütz, Astrid; Fydrich, Thomas; Lammers, Claas-Hinrich; Roepke, Stefan
Shame has been described as a central emotion in narcissistic personality disorder (NPD). However, there is a dearth of empirical data on shame in NPD. Patients with NPD (N=28), non-clinical controls (N=34) and individuals with borderline personality disorder (BPD, N=31) completed self-report measures of state shame, shame-proneness, and guilt-proneness. Furthermore, the Implicit Association Test (IAT) was included as a measure of implicit shame, assessing implicit shame-self associations relative to anxiety-self associations. Participants with NPD reported higher levels of explicit shame than non-clinical controls, but lower levels than patients with BPD. Levels of guilt-proneness did not differ among the three study groups. The implicit shame-self associations (relative to anxiety-self associations) were significantly stronger among patients with NPD compared to nonclinical controls and BPD patients. Our findings indicate that shame is a prominent feature of NPD. Implications for diagnosis and treatment are discussed.
Zakiei, Ali; Farnia, Vahid; Khkian, Zinab; Shakeri, Jalal; Golshani, Sanobar
Background The goal of the present study was to determine the relationships between attachment styles and resiliency in obsessive-compulsive personality disorder. Methods A random sample of 260 subjects was obtained from the population of undergraduate students of the Nour Branch of Islamic Azad University, which is located in Mazandaran, and these subjects were enrolled in this descriptive and correlational study. The collected data included the subjects' responses to an adult attachment style questionnaire, resilience scale, and obsessive-compulsive personality disorder questionnaire. The data were analyzed with Pearson correlation coefficient indices and multiple regressions. Results The results of the data analysis showed a positive correlation (relationship) between ambivalent/avoidant attachment styles and obsessive-compulsive personality disorder and a negative correlation between resilience and obsessive-compulsive personality disorder. Furthermore, these results demonstrated that attachment style and resiliency can predict obsessive-compulsive personality disorder. In addition, no significant relationships were found between the demographic variables (convertibles) and obsessive-compulsive personality disorder. Conclusion These results suggested that attachment style and resiliency contribute to the development of obsessive-compulsive personality disorder. PMID:28197331
Farmer, Richard F; Nash, Heather M; Dance, Darci
This study examined mood and mood variation in relation to varying forms and degrees of personality disorder (PD) pathology. Mood experiences of 98 psychotropic medication-free individuals were repeatedly assessed over a 4-day period. Persons with PDs (n = 57) generally displayed neutral to moderately positive moods; however, overall mood valence was less positive when compared to those without PDs (n = 41). Mood ratings demonstrated moderate covariations with anxious-fearful (A-F) PD traits but little or no association with erratic-emotional-dramatic (E-D) and odd-eccentric (O-E) PD traits once common variance among PD dimensions was removed. For PD diagnostic categories, the presence of avoidant and/or depressive PDs was most strongly associated with negative mood. When dimensional scores based on specific PD trait features were considered, avoidant, depressive, borderline, passive-aggressive, obsessive-compulsive, dependent, paranoid, and schizoid PD traits demonstrated the most reliable associations with negative mood. Apart from borderline PD features, traits associated with other E-D cluster PDs displayed little or no associations with mood quality. Consistent with previous research, mood variability emerged as an internally consistent and stable individual difference variable. Mood variability, however, was not generally associated with PD diagnostic categories or traits. Implications of this study's findings are considered in relation to the conceptual modeling of PDs.
Hallquist, Michael N.; Lenzenweger, Mark F.
Although previous reports have documented mean-level declines in personality disorder (PD) symptoms over time, little is known about whether personality pathology sometimes emerges among nonsymptomatic adults, or whether rates of change differ qualitatively among symptomatic persons. Our study sought to characterize heterogeneity in the longitudinal course of PD symptoms with the goal of testing for and describing latent trajectories. Participants were 250 young adults selected into two groups using a PD screening measure: those who met diagnostic criteria for a DSM-III-R PD (PPD, n = 129), and those with few PD symptoms (NoPD, n = 121). PD symptoms were assessed three times over a four-year study using semistructured interviews. Total PD symptom counts and symptoms of each DSM-III-R PD were analyzed using growth mixture modeling. In the NoPD group, latent trajectories were characterized by stable, minor symptoms; the rapid or gradual remission of subclinical symptoms; or the emergence of symptoms of Avoidant, Obsessive-Compulsive, or Paranoid PD. In the PPD group, three latent trajectories were evident: rapid symptom remission, slow symptom decline, or a relative absence of symptoms. Rapid remission of PD symptoms was associated with fewer comorbid disorders, lower negative emotionality, and greater positive emotionality and constraint, whereas emergent personality dysfunction was associated with comorbid PD symptoms and lower positive emotionality. In most cases, symptom change for one PD was associated with concomitant changes in other PDs, depressive symptoms, and anxiety. These results indicate that the longitudinal course of PD symptoms is heterogeneous, with distinct trajectories evident for both symptomatic and nonsymptomatic individuals. The prognosis of PD symptoms may be informed by an assessment of personality and comorbid psychopathology. PMID:23231459
Steenkamp, Maria M; Suvak, Michael K; Dickstein, Benjamin D; Shea, M Tracie; Litz, Brett T
Few studies have investigated emotional functioning in obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD). To explore the nature and extent of emotion difficulties in OCPD, the authors examined four domains of self-reported emotional functioning--negative affectivity, anger, emotion regulation, and emotion expressivity--in women with OCPD and compared them to a borderline personality disorder (BPD) group and a healthy control group. Data were collected as part of a larger psychophysiological experimental study on emotion regulation and personality. Compared to healthy controls, participants with OCPD reported significantly higher levels of negative affectivity, trait anger, emotional intensity, and emotion regulation difficulties. Emotion regulation difficulties included lack of emotional clarity, nonacceptance of emotional responses, and limited access to effective emotion regulation strategies. Participants with OCPD scored similarly to participants with BPD on only one variable, namely, problems engaging in goal-directed behavior when upset. Results suggest that OCPD may be characterized by notable difficulties in several emotional domains.
Bowers, K S
The first part of this paper examines the concept of dissociation in the context of hypnosis. In particular, the neodissociative and social psychological models of hypnosis are compared. It is argued that the social psychological model, in describing hypnotic enactments as purposeful, does not adequately distinguish between behavior that is enacted "on purpose" and behavior that serves or achieves a purpose. 2 recent dissertations (Hughes, 1988; Miller, 1986) from the University of Waterloo are summarized, each of which supports the neodissociative view that hypnotic behavior can be purposeful (in the sense that the suggested state of affairs is achieved) and nonvolitional (in the sense that the suggested state of affairs is not achieved by high level executive initiative and ongoing effort). The second part of the paper employs a neodissociative view of hypnosis to help understand the current epidemic of multiple personality disorder (MPD). In particular, it is argued that many symptoms of MPD are implicitly suggested effects--particularly prone to occur in persons who have a lifelong tendency to use dissociative type defenses. The present author believes that this account is easier to sustain conceptually and empirically than the current view, which states that a secondary (tertiary, etc.) personality accounts for the striking phenomenological discontinuities experienced by MPD patients.
Miller, Joshua D; Campbell, W Keith; Pilkonis, Paul A; Morse, Jennifer Q
This study examined the degree of correspondence between two assessments for narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) in a mixed clinical and community sample--one using a self-report measure (Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire-4) and the other using clinical judgments derived from an assessment based on the longitudinal, expert, all data (LEAD) methodology. NPD scores demonstrated moderate convergence for the total scores but weak convergence for the individual criteria. The authors also examined the correlates created by each set of NPD scores using Cloninger's Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). The NPD scores demonstrated areas of convergence (e.g., Cooperativeness, Self-directedness) and divergence (i.e., Harm Avoidance, Novelty Seeking) with these personality scores. These divergences may be due to the wording of certain items on the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire-4 NPD scale, which may require rewriting if it is to provide an assessment that is more highly convergent with the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders NPD construct.
Strunz, Sandra; Westphal, Linda; Ritter, Kathrin; Heuser, Isabella; Dziobek, Isabel; Roepke, Stefan
Differentiating autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) without accompanying intellectual impairment from personality disorders is often challenging. Identifying personality traits and personality pathology specific to ASD might facilitate diagnostic procedure. We recruited a sample of 59 adults with ASD without accompanying intellectual impairment, 62…
Rothuber, Helfried; Mitterauer, Bernhard
In this case report we refer to the big challenge of making a diagnosis in a deliberate malingering in the field of mental disorders. We specifically describe the difficulty regarding the differentiation between a conversion disorder and malingering of a serial delinquent. For such a person avoiding criminal persecution is one of the most frequent reason to deceitfully simulate a mental illness. In this field, symptoms of conversion disorders exceed the average; furthermore, a great number of organic-neurological illnesses may appear to be very similar to a conversion disorder or in many cases a neurological disorder can actually be detected in the course of a somatic examination. A further obstacle for the differential diagnosis can be seen in the difficulty to discern it from factitious disorders. However, it is quite possible to discern the deliberate malingering of a mental disorder from a conversion disorder by means of the diligent diagnosis of a competent and experienced doctor/assessor who specialises.
Jhingan, H P; Aggarwal, N; Saxena, S; Gupta, D K
A case progressing from symptoms of conversion disorder to dissociative disorder and then to multiple personality disorder as per DSM-III-R criteria is being reported. The clinical implications are discussed.
Mavissakalian, M R; Hamann, M S; Abou Haidar, S; de Groot, C M
In an earlier report, we stated that personality profiles of patients with panic disorder/agoraphobia (n = 187) and obsessive-compulsive disorder ([ODC] n = 51) were similar, albeit more pronounced in OCD, suggesting that the link between panic disorder/agoraphobia and DSM-III personality disorders (PDs) or traits may be nonspecific. The present report extends the comparative study of DSM-III PDs/traits, as assessed by the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire (PDQ), by adding a third diagnostic group of 39 patients with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). The personality assessment of panic disorder/agoraphobia and GAD patients yielded virtually identical results on the PDQ and Eysenck Personality Inventory (EPI). Because GAD lacks the prominent panic, phobic, and obsessive-compulsive symptoms of other anxiety disorders, the present findings provide strong support for a nonspecific link between panic disorder/agoraphobia and DSM-III PDs/traits and for the presence of common personality characteristics in anxiety disorders.
Suvak, Michael K.; Litz, Brett T.; Sloan, Denise M.; Zanarini, Mary C.; Barrett, Lisa Feldman; Hofmann, Stefan G.
This study examined the affective dysregulation component of borderline personality disorder (BPD) from an emotional granularity perspective, which refers to the specificity in which one represents emotions. Forty-six female participants meeting criteria for BPD and 51 female control participants without BPD and Axis I pathology completed tasks that assessed the degree to which participants incorporated information about valence (pleasant–unpleasant) and arousal (calm–activated) in their semantic/conceptual representations of emotions and in using labels to represent emotional reactions. As hypothesized, participants with BPD emphasized valence more and arousal less than control participants did when using emotion terms to label their emotional reactions. Implications and future research directions are discussed. PMID:21171723
Building a therapeutic alliance with a patient with pathological narcissism or narcissistic personality disorder is a challenging process. A combined alliance building and diagnostic strategy is outlined that promotes patients' motivation and active engagement in identifying their own problems. The main focus is on identifying grandiosity, self-regulatory patterns, and behavioral fluctuations in their social and interpersonal contexts while engaging the patient in meaningful clarifications and collaborative inquiry. A definition of grandiosity as a diagnostic characterological trait is suggested, one that captures self-criticism, inferiority, and fragility in addition to superiority, assertiveness, perfectionism, high ideals, and self-enhancing and self-serving interpersonal behavior. These reformulations serve to expand the spectrum of grandiosity-promoting strivings and activities, capture their fluctuations, and help clinicians attend to narcissistic individuals' internal experiences and motivation as well as to their external presentation and interpersonal self-enhancing, self-serving, controlling, and aggressive behavior. A case example illustrates this process.
Ripoll, Luis H
The best available evidence for psychopharmacologic treatment of borderline personality disorder (BPD) is outlined here. BPD is defined by disturbances in identity and interpersonal functioning, and patients report potential medication treatment targets such as impulsivity, aggression, transient psychotic and dissociative symptoms, and refractory affective instability Few randomized controlled trials of psychopharmacological treatments for BPD have been published recently, although multiple reviews have converged on the effectiveness of specific anticonvulsants, atypical antipsychotic agents, and omega-3 fatty acid supplementation. Stronger evidence exists for medication providing significant improvements in impulsive aggression than in affective or other interpersonal symptoms. Future research strategies will focus on the potential role of neuropeptide agents and medications with greater specificity for 2A serotonin receptors, as well as optimizing concomitant implementation of evidence-based psychotherapy and psychopharmacology, in order to improve BPD patients' overall functioning.
Morey, Leslie C; Hopwood, Christopher J
Stability is thought to be one of the major distinguishing features between personality disorders (PDs) and other forms of psychopathology. The development of more reliable PD assessments and the implementation of four major longitudinal studies on PD stability have provided critical data with which to evaluate the stability of PD features. Results from these and other studies reveal significant complexity in the interpretation of PD stability because of several issues that can impact stability estimates. Such estimates will vary as a function of the type of constructs being assessed, the type of stability being considered, the modality and reliability of the assessments being used, and the impacts of sampling. In this article, longitudinal research on PD stability is reviewed in the context of these issues. It is concluded that no single answer can be given to the question, "How stable are PDs?" and that future research and classification need to consider carefully and account for the complexity of this question.
Personality disorders have significant, but often unrealized, public health importance. The present review summarizes the published work on personality disorders in the Indian population or by Indian researchers residing in the country. Researchers who have worked on assessment methodology in India have demonstrated that clinical diagnosis has a low reliability when compared with semi-structured interviews; and have attempted to increase the feasibility of the standardized use of International Personality Disorder Examination, a semi-structured interview developed by the World Health Organization (WHO). Studies on epidemiology demonstrate that none of the general population studies have employed standardized interviews, and hence, they grossly underestimate the prevalence of personality disorders in the community. The clinical epidemiology studies have employed questionnaires and interviews developed in the West, mostly without local adaptations, with discrepant results. However, these studies show that personality disorders are common in the clinical population and that rates vary across sub populations. While, there are a few reports attesting the theoretical importance of the role of culture in the formation and expression of personality disorders, empirical literature from India in this area is scanty. Similarly, there are few reports on the treatment of personality disorders, while, important areas such as service delivery, etiology, and validity of personality disorders, are unaddressed. The study of personality disorder in India is maturing, with researchers showing increased familiarity with the methodological nuances of this complex area of research. PMID:21836687
Cheng, Hui Green; Huang, Yueqin; Liu, Zhaorui; Liu, Baohua
The aim of the study is to examine the association linking parenting and personality disorder controlling for parental personality disorder, and whether this association is moderated by parental PD. Data were from community-dwelling high school students aged 18 and above and their parents living in Beijing, China. A total of 181 cases and 2,605 controls were included in this study. Personality disorder in students was assessed via a two-stage approach, Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire as a screening tool and International Personality Disorder Examination as the diagnostic tool. Information about parenting was collected from students using Egna Minnen av. Betraffande Uppfostran. Negative parenting styles, e.g. rejective or over-protective parenting, were found to be associated with the occurrence of personality disorder. Conflictive parenting styles were also found to be associated with personality disorder. Generally stronger associations were found for students with parental personality disorder as compared to students without parental personality disorder. Findings from this study support the role of parenting in the occurrence of PD, especially for children with family history of personality disorder.
Samuel, Douglas B; Carroll, Kathleen M; Rounsaville, Bruce J; Ball, Samuel A
Although the current diagnostic manual conceptualizes personality disorders (PDs) as categorical entities, an alternative perspective is that PDs represent maladaptive extreme versions of the same traits that describe normal personality. Existing evidence indicates that normal personality traits, such as those assessed by the five-factor model (FFM), share a common structure and obtain reasonably predictable correlations with the PDs. However, very little research has investigated whether PDs are more extreme than normal personality traits. Utilizing item-response theory analyses, the authors of the current study extend previous research to demonstrate that the diagnostic criterion for borderline personality disorder and FFM neuroticism could be fit along a single latent dimension. Furthermore, the authors' findings indicate that the borderline criteria assessed the shared latent trait at a level that was more extreme (d = 1.11) than FFM neuroticism. This finding provides further evidence for dimensional understanding of personality pathology and suggests that a trait model in DSM-5 should span normal and abnormal personality functioning, but focus on the extremes of these common traits.
Fotheringham, J B; Thompson, F
A case is presented of an individual with Down's syndrome and multiple personality disorder. No such cases were found in a review of the literature. Three other individuals with Down's syndrome are also discussed whose symptoms range from experiencing imaginary friends to experiencing borderline multiple personality disorder. In all these cases the imaginary friends became more evident and resistive of diversion as the levels of stress increased. We speculate that experiencing imaginary friends progresses to experiencing multiple personality disorder in some individuals as personal stress increases. These cases also indicate that limited cognitive development does not preclude individuals from presenting with imaginary friends or multiple personality disorder.
Pec, Ondrej; Bob, Petr; Raboch, Jiri
Background Dissociation likely plays a key role in schizophrenia and borderline personality disorder (BPD), although empirical studies that compare specific manifestations of these symptoms in schizophrenia and BPD are rare. In this context, the purpose of this study was to compare the occurrence of dissociative and other psychopathological symptoms in these disorders, and to assess the possible influence of antipsychotic medication on the dissociative symptoms. Methods We assessed 31 patients with schizophrenia and 36 patients with BPD. Dissociative symptoms were measured by the Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES), symptoms related to stress and traumatic experiences were assessed using the Trauma Symptom Checklist-40 (TSC-40), and other psychopathological symptoms were measured with the Health of the Nation Outcome Scales (HoNOS). We also assessed actual daily doses of antipsychotic medication in chlorpromazine equivalents in all participants. Results The results show that symptoms of traumatic stress measured by the TSC-40 had significantly higher scores in the BPD group. The data also show that dissociative symptoms (DES) were significantly correlated with symptoms of traumatic stress (TSC-40) and with symptoms assessed by the HoNOS. Remarkably significant correlations were found between levels of antipsychotic medication and the DES and between antipsychotic medication and the depersonalization/derealization component of the DES in BPD patients. Conclusion The results support an important role of dissociative processes in schizophrenia and BPD and suggest a significant relationship between manifestations of dissociative symptoms in BPD and antipsychotic medication. PMID:24672239
Pec, Ondrej; Bob, Petr; Raboch, Jiri
Background Splitting describes fragmentation of conscious experience that may occur in various psychiatric disorders. A purpose of this study is to examine relationships between psychological process of splitting and disturbed cognitive and affective functions in schizophrenia and borderline personality disorder (BPD). Methods In the clinical study, we have assessed 30 patients with schizophrenia and 35 patients with BPD. The symptoms of splitting were measured using self-reported Splitting Index (SI). As a measure of semantic memory disorganization we have used verbal fluency test. Other psychopathological symptoms were assessed using Health of the Nation Outcome Scale (HoNOS). Results Main results show that SI is significantly higher in BPD group than in schizophrenia, and on the other hand, verbal fluency is significantly lower in schizophrenia group. Psychopathological symptoms measured by HoNOS are significantly higher in the BPD group than in schizophrenia. Significant relationship was found between verbal fluency and the SI “factor of others” (Spearman r = −0.52, p<0.01) in schizophrenia patients. Conclusions Processes of splitting are different in schizophrenia and BPD. In BPD patients splitting results to mental instability, whereas in schizophrenia the mental fragmentation leads to splitting of associations observed as lower scores of verbal fluency, which in principle is in agreement with Bleuler’s historical concept of splitting in schizophrenia. PMID:24603990
Carcione, Antonino; Nicolò, Giuseppe; Pedone, Roberto; Popolo, Raffaele; Conti, Laura; Fiore, Donatella; Procacci, Michele; Semerari, Antonio; Dimaggio, Giancarlo
Individuals with personality disorders (PDs) have difficulties in modulating mental states and in coping with interpersonal problems according to a mentalistic formulation of the problem. In this article we analyzed the first 16 psychotherapy sessions of 14 PD patients in order to explore whether their abilities to master distress and interpersonal problems were actually impaired and how they changed during the early therapy phase. We used the Mastery Section of the Metacognition Assessment Scale, which assesses the use of mentalistic knowledge to solve problems and promote adaptation. We explored the hypotheses that a) PD patients had problems in using their mentalistic knowledge to master distress and solve social problems; b) the impairments were partially stable and only a minimal improvement could be observed during the analyzed period; c) patients' mastery preferences differed from one another; d) at the beginning of treatment the more effective strategies were those involving minimal knowledge about mental states. Results seemed to support the hypotheses; the patients examined had significant difficulties in mastery abilities, and these difficulties persisted after 16 sessions. Moreover, the attitudes towards problem-solving were not homogenous across the patients. Lastly, we discuss implications for assessment and treatment of metacognitive disorders in psychotherapy.
Conrad, Rupert; Schilling, Guntram; Bausch, Christiane; Nadstawek, Joachim; Wartenberg, Hans Christian; Wegener, Ingo; Geiser, Franziska; Imbierowicz, Katrin; Liedtke, Reinhard
In his psychobiological model of personality, Cloninger developed a novel approach concerning the relationships between psychopathological syndromes and personality. We investigated 207 chronic pain patients (CPPs) and compared them to 105 pain-free control subjects. Participants were assessed using the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI), the Structured-Clinical-Interview-II, the Beck Depression Inventory and the Spielberger Anxiety Inventory. The CPPs scored higher on the depression and state anxiety scales and 41% fulfilled the criteria of having at least one personality disorder (PD). We used a covariance analysis to control for depression and state anxiety and found that the CPPs scored higher on the Harm Avoidance Temperament Dimension and lower on the Self-Directedness and Cooperativeness Character Dimensions. In CPPs, the symptom counts of all PD subtypes were significantly related to low Self-Directedness and, to a lesser degree, low Cooperativeness. The PD symptoms in Cluster A were related to low Reward Dependence, those in Cluster B were related to high Novelty Seeking and the PD symptoms in Cluster C were related to high Harm Avoidance. In multiple hierarchical regression analyses, controlling for age, gender, depression and state anxiety, TCI scales predicted on average 23% in PD symptom counts. The Self-Directedness and Cooperativeness personality traits appeared to be significant predictors in determining the presence or absence of a PD by correctly classifying 75.8% of CPPs. The TCI provides further insight into the mechanisms underlying the development of chronic pain. This useful diagnostic instrument helps to economically and validly facilitate the identification of core PD features.
Brand, Bethany L; Lanius, Ruth A
Emotion dysregulation is a core feature of chronic complex dissociative disorders (DD), as it is for borderline personality disorder (BPD). Chronic complex DD include dissociative identity disorder (DID) and the most common form of dissociative disorder not otherwise specified (DDNOS, type 1), now known as Other Specified Dissociative Disorders (OSDD, type 1). BPD is a common comorbid disorder with DD, although preliminary research indicates the disorders have some distinguishing features as well as considerable overlap. This article focuses on the epidemiology, clinical presentation, psychological profile, treatment, and neurobiology of chronic complex DD with emphasis placed on the role of emotion dysregulation in each of these areas. Trauma experts conceptualize borderline symptoms as often being trauma based, as are chronic complex DD. We review the preliminary research that compares DD to BPD in the hopes that this will stimulate additional comparative research.
Sass, H; Jünemann, K
Following the introduction to the history of the concepts of abnormal personality, with regard to the schizoid and schizotypal forms, we present their systematic assessment in the modern classification systems.Both, the schizoid and schizotypal forms, are usually considered as schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. Biological and clinical data indicate relations to other axis-I disorders as well. However there are few systematic and strictly controlled studies on the psychotherapeutic and pharmacological treatment of schizotypal and schizoid personality disorders. Basic theoretic assumptions concerning both treatment concepts - for personality disorders in general, and especially in schizoid and schizotypal personality disorder - are given. Finally the role of neuroleptics and antidepressants for schizophrenia-spectrum disorders is discussed. New possibilities may emerge from the use of the recently developed atypical drugs, but further research in randomised studies is needed. Current prospective studies on early detected schizophrenia-spectrum disorders will broaden our knowledge about prevention and therapy.
Modestin, J; Matutat, B; Würmle, O
Both attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and conduct disorder (CD) were explored as possible antecedents of opioid dependence and personality disorder. One hundred adult opioid-dependent, treatment-seeking male inpatients were explored; an extended clinical semistructured interview to collect sociodemographic, drug use related, and clinical data and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV personality disorders SCID-II were carried out. Four groups of patients, namely ADHD alone (4 patients), ADHD + CD (7 patients), CD alone (47 patients) and no ADHD/no CD (42 patients) were identified and compared with each other. The results indicate that ADHD alone does not predispose to the development of opioid dependence in male inpatients. Childhood ADHD may nevertheless be found more frequently in male opioid addicts due to its comorbidity with CD, which was identified in more than half of our sample. Patients with ADHD history seemed to go through the drug abuse career earlier and to develop more frequently histrionic and obsessive-compulsive personality disorder. Over half of the CD patients developed borderline and/or antisocial personality disorder; both ADHD and CD predispose significantly to the PD development. Early substance use preventive measures are necessary in children and adolescents suffering from CD and from ADHD comorbid with CD.
Leiner, Amy S.; Kearns, Megan C.; Jackson, Joan L.; Astin, Millie C.; Rothbaum, Barbara O.
Objective: This study investigated the impact of avoidant coping on treatment outcome in rape-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Method: Adult women with rape-related PTSD (N = 62) received 9 sessions of prolonged exposure (PE) or eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR). The mean age for the sample was 34.7 years, and race…
Armstrong, J G
Recent advances in the understanding of multiple personality disorder provide the groundwork for its creative reconciliation with psychoanalysis. This paper uses psychoanalytic, modern developmental, and psychological assessment perspectives to conceptualize multiple personality disorder as a developmentally protective response to chronic childhood trauma. Implications of this theory for clinical work with these patients are discussed.
Nelson-Gray, Rosemery O.; Lootens, Christopher M.; Mitchell, John T.; Robertson, Christopher D.; Hundt, Natalie E.; Kimbrel, Nathan A.
Personality disorders are complex and highly challenging to treatment providers; yet, for clients with these problems, there exist very few treatment options that have been supported by research. Given the lack of empirically-supported therapies for personality disorders, it can be difficult to make treatment decisions for this population. The…
Sansone, Randy A.; Wiederman, Michael W.; Sansone, Lori A.
Reviews possible links between obesity and borderline-personality disorder and discusses treatment approaches for those individuals demonstrating such comorbidity. Approaches include modification of current techniques for obesity treatment and incorporation of psychodynamic counseling specific to borderline-personality disorder. (Author/GCP)
Malow, Robert M.; And Others
Examined extent to which personality disorders and associated symptom criteria were found among 117 cocaine- and opioid-dependent men in drug dependence treatment unit. Drug groups were distinguished by higher rates of antisocial and borderline symptomatology rather than by features associated with other personality disorders. Different…
Kasen, Stephanie; Cohen, Patricia; Chen, Henian; Johnson, Jeffrey G.; Crawford, Thomas N.
Background: Schools are key social contexts for shaping development and behavior in youths; yet, little is known of their influence on adolescent personality disturbance. Method: A community-based sample of 592 adolescents was assessed for family and school experiences, Axis I psychiatric disorders, and Axis II personality disorder (PD) symptoms,…
Perry, J Christopher; Presniak, Michelle D; Olson, Trevor R
Numerous authors have theorized that defense mechanisms play a role in personality disorders. We reviewed theoretical writings and empirical studies about defenses in schizotypal, borderline, antisocial, and narcissistic personality disorders, developing hypotheses about these differential relationships. We then examined these hypotheses using dynamic interview data rated for defenses in a study of participants (n = 107) diagnosed with these four personality disorder types. Overall, the prevalence of immature defenses was substantial, and all four disorders fit within the broad borderline personality organization construct. Defenses predicted the most variance in borderline and the least variance in schizotypal personality disorder, suggesting that dynamic factors played the largest role in borderline and the least in schizotypal personality. Central to borderline personality were strong associations with major image-distorting defenses, primarily splitting of self and other's images, and the hysterical level defenses, dissociation and repression. Narcissistic and antisocial personality disorders shared minor image-distorting defenses, such as omnipotence or devaluation, while narcissistic also used splitting of self-images and antisocial used disavowal defenses like denial. Overall, differential relationships between specific defenses and personality disorder types were largely consistent with the literature, and consistent with the importance that the treatment literature ascribes to working with defenses.
Mela, Mansfield; Audu, Moses; Tesfaye, Markos; Gurmu, Samson
High rates of psychotic disorder among special populations of homicide offenders, females, youth and the mentally disordered, have received much investigation. Personality disorder, especially antisocial personality disorder, augments the relative risk ratio of violence, especially in combination with substance use disorder. Few studies of these correlates of violence and especially homicide have been reported in low- and medium-income countries (LMIC). Using the structured clinical interview for DSM diagnosis (SCID), personality disorders were identified in a cross sectional study involving 546 homicide offenders in Jimma prison, Ethiopia. Predictors of personality disorder were determined using multivariate analysis of various demographic and clinical variables, for example, age, psychiatric history and substance use. Out of the 316 offenders who completed the SCID, only 16% fulfilled DSM IV criteria for personality disorder. The rationale for killing, self-defence, anger and revenge (52% of offenders), planning involved in offending (50%) and reasonably high level of relationship functioning (57% married) were different from most data from the high-income countries. Diagnostically relevant cultural factors in LMIC, not in play in high-income countries, may explain the differences in personality disorders similar to other mental disorders and the underlying mediators of homicide.
Cohen, Lisa J; Ardalan, Firouz; Tanis, Thachell; Halmi, Winter; Galynker, Igor; Von Wyl, Agnes; Hengartner, Michael P
This paper tests the hypothesis that the association between childhood maltreatment and adult personality dysfunction is at least partially attributable to insecure attachment, that is that attachment style mediates the relationship between childhood maltreatment and adult personality dysfunction. Associations between childhood trauma, as measured by the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), anxious and avoidant attachment in romantic relationships, as measured by the Experiences in Close Relationships-Revised (ECR-R), and five personality domains, as measured by the Severity Indices of Personality Problems (SIPP-118), were examined in a sample of 72 psychiatric inpatients. The SIPP-118 domains included relational capacities, identity integration, self-control, responsibility, and social concordance. The direct effect of childhood trauma on all SIPP-118 domains was not significant after controlling for the indirect effect of attachment. In regression modeling, a significant indirect effect of childhood trauma via adult attachment style was found for SIPP-118 relational capacities, identity integration, self-control, and social concordance. Specifically, anxious attachment was a significant mediator of the effect of childhood trauma on self-control, identity integration, and relational domains. These results suggest that childhood trauma impacts a broad range of personality domains and does so in large part through the pathway of anxious romantic attachment style.
What is left of Freud's hysteria in modern diagnostics is the histrionic personality. Psychological and somatic functional disorders, such as dissociative and somatoform disorders are freed from the label of being hysterical, but even the histrionic personality disorder does not enjoy professional agreement as far as diagnostics and therapy are concerned. This disorder is characterized by dramatization, suggestibility, superficial changing affects, impressionist cognitive style, preoccupation with outward appearance, seductive behavior and the wish to take centre stage, a compensatory attitude resulting from important childhood relationships. A comorbidity with narcissistic and antisocial personality exists and also with ADHS.
Pacella, Maria L; Irish, Leah; Ostrowski, Sarah A; Sledjeski, Eve; Ciesla, Jeffrey A; Fallon, William; Spoonster, Eileen; Delahanty, Douglas L
Peritraumatic dissociation consistently predicts posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Avoidant coping may serve as a mechanism through which peritraumatic dissociation contributes to PTSD symptoms. Path analysis was used to examine whether avoidant coping assessed 6 weeks following a motor vehicle accident mediated the relationship between in-hospital peritraumatic dissociation and 6-month (n = 193) and 12-month (n = 167) chronic PTSD symptoms. Results revealed that, after controlling for age, gender, depression, and 6-week PTSD symptoms, avoidant coping remained a partial mediator between peritraumatic dissociation and chronic PTSD symptoms 6- and 12-months postaccident. Post-hoc multigroup analyses suggested that at 6-months posttrauma, the mediation was significant in women, but not in men. Gender-specific results were not significant at 12-months posttrauma. Interventions targeted at reducing avoidant coping in high dissociators may aid in reducing PTSD symptoms.
Weissman, Ruth S; Becker, Anne E; Bulik, Cynthia M; Frank, Guido K W; Klump, Kelly L; Steiger, Howard; Strober, Michael; Thomas, Jennifer; Waller, Glenn; Walsh, B Timothy
Inspired by an article on 50 terms that, in the interest of clarity in scientific reasoning and communication in psychology, psychiatry, and allied fields, "should be avoided or at most be used sparingly and only with explicit caveats,"(1) we propose a list of terms to avoid or think twice about before using when writing for the International Journal of Eating Disorders (IJED). Drawing upon our experience as reviewers or editors for the IJED, we generated an abridged list of such terms. For each term, we explain why it made our list and what alternatives we recommend. We hope that our list will contribute to improved clarity in scientific thinking about eating disorders, and that it will stimulate discussion of terms that may need to be reconsidered in our field's vocabulary to ensure the use of language that is respectful and sensitive to individuals who experience an eating disorder.
Harden, Cynthia L; Jovine, Luydmilla; Burgut, Fadime T; Carey, Bridget T; Nikolov, Blagovest G; Ferrando, Stephen J
We sought to determine the type of personality disorder cluster associated with patients with nonepileptic psychogenic seizures (NES) compared with that of patients with epileptic seizures (ES). Consecutive adult patients admitted for video/EEG monitoring found to have NES were compared with a simultaneously admitted patient with confirmed epilepsy. Personality was assessed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR Axis II Personality Disorders. Personality disorders were then divided into personality clusters described in the DSM-IV-TR: A = paranoid, schizotypal, schizoid; B = borderline, histrionic, antisocial, narcissistic; or C = avoidant, dependent, obsessive-compulsive. Thirteen of 16 patients with NES and 12 of 16 patients with ES met criteria for personality disorders. Patients with NES were more likely to meet criteria for a personality disorder in Cluster A or B, compared with patients with ES, who were more likely to have Cluster C personality disorders (chi(2) test, P=0.007). We propose that the personality traits of patients with NES contribute to the development of nonepileptic psychogenic seizures. However, the large proportion of patients with ES with Cluster C personality disorders was unexpected, and further, for the patients with epilepsy, the direction of the association of their personality traits with the development of epilepsy is unknown.
Grover, Kelly E.; Carpenter, Linda L.; Price, Lawrence H.; Gagne, Gerard G.; Mello, Andrea F.; Mello, Marcelo F.; Tyrka, Audrey R.
This study assessed personality disorder symptomatology in a community sample of healthy adults without diagnosable DSM-IV-TR Axis I psychiatric disorders who reported a history of childhood abuse. Twenty-eight subjects with a history of moderate to severe physical, sexual, and/or emotional abuse according to the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire were compared to 33 subjects without an abuse history on symptoms of personality disorders. Subjects in the Abuse group were more likely to report subclinical symptoms of paranoid, narcissistic, borderline, antisocial, obsessive compulsive, passive-aggressive, and depressive personality disorders. These findings link reports of childhood abuse with symptoms of personality disorders in the absence of Axis I psychiatric disorders in a community sample of healthy adults. PMID:17685839
Kopp, D; Spitzer, C; Kuwert, P; Barnow, S; Orlob, S; Lüth, H; Freyberger, H J; Dudeck, M
Previous studies indicate high prevalence rates of mental disorders and trauma among prisoners. Based on a sample of 102 male German prisoners, the comorbidity and childhood trauma experiences in 72 criminals with antisocial personality disorder were investigated. Furthermore, associations of antisocial personality disorder and early traumatic experiences with the age at first conviction and the lifetime months of imprisonment were examined. Subjects had high rates of comorbid lifetime and current disorders as well as childhood trauma experiences. Physical abuse in childhood and adolescence was identified as a predictor for lifetime months of imprisonment, antisocial personality disorder was found to be a predictor for the age at first conviction. Our findings confirm the hypothesis of prisoners with antisocial personality disorder being a severely traumatized population with serious mental disorders. Traumatic childhood experiences and antisocial personality disorder are associated with criminality variables. This has important implications on preventive treatments as well as on how prison services are addressing these problems.
Bandelow, Borwin; Schmahl, Christian; Falkai, Peter; Wedekind, Dirk
The neurobiology of borderline personality disorder (BPD) remains unclear. Dysfunctions of several neurobiological systems, including serotoninergic, dopaminergic, and other neurotransmitter systems, have been discussed. Here we present a theory that alterations in the sensitivity of opioid receptors or the availability of endogenous opioids constitute part of the underlying pathophysiology of BPD. The alarming symptoms and self-destructive behaviors of the affected patients may be explained by uncontrollable and unconscious attempts to stimulate their endogenous opioid system (EOS) and the dopaminergic reward system, regardless of the possible harmful consequences. Neurobiological findings that support this hypothesis are reviewed: Frantic efforts to avoid abandonment, frequent and risky sexual contacts, and attention-seeking behavior may be explained by attempts to make use of the rewarding effects of human attachment mediated by the EOS. Anhedonia and feelings of emptiness may be an expression of reduced activity of the EOS. Patients with BPD tend to abuse substances that target mu-opioid receptors. Self-injury, food restriction, aggressive behavior, and sensation seeking may be interpreted as desperate attempts to artificially set the body to survival mode in order to mobilize the last reserves of the EOS. BPD-associated symptoms, such as substance abuse, anorexia, self-injury, depersonalization, and sexual overstimulation, can be treated successfully with opioid receptor antagonists. An understanding of the neurobiology of BPD may help in developing new treatments for patients with this severe disorder.
Salvatore, Giampaolo; Nicolò, Giuseppe; Dimaggio, Giancarlo
In the opinion of many experts, the self is made up of numerous different, independent facets interacting with each other in an ongoing inner dialogue. The meaning of events depends on the form this dialogue takes. The hypothesis we discuss in this article is that patients suffering from paranoid personality disorder (PPD) present impoverished dialogical relationship patterns. By this we mean that: a) The characters operating on their mental stage are few and repetitive. The character identified as self is insufficient-inadequate or diffident-mistrusting-hostile. The characters embodied by other persons are hostile, humiliating, and threatening. b) The inner dialogue the characters set up is stereotyped and always has the same outcome--the inadequate part of self feels under attack by a hostile other. This pattern has an influence on patients' behaviour and the course of psychotherapy. Our discussion of this hypothesis will be based on an analysis of extracts from diaries written by a patient with PPD during therapy. We shall give a number of strategies as to how a therapist may avoid patient drop-outs and provide effective treatment.
Kantojärvi, Liisa; Miettunen, Jouko; Veijola, Juha; Läksy, Kristian; Karvonen, Juha T; Ekelund, Jesper; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Lichtermann, Dirk; Joukamaa, Matti
The objective of this study was to describe the temperament dimension profiles assessed by the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) among young adults with the DSM-III-R personality disorder (PD). Our hypothesis was that PD clusters and separate PDs can be distinguished from one another by their specific temperament profiles. As a part of the 31-year follow-up survey of the prospective Northern Finland 1966 Birth Cohort, the cohort members living in the city of Oulu at the age of 31 years (n=1609) were invited to participate in a two-phase field study. The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R for PDs (SCID-II) was used as diagnostic instrument. The final study sample consisted of the 1311 subjects who had completed the Hopkins Symptom Check List-25 questionnaire for screening and had given a written informed consent. Of the 321 SCID interviewed subjects, 74 met the criteria for at least one PD and had completed the TCI. The mean TCI scores of subjects with PD and control subjects without PD (n=910) were compared. Low Novelty Seeking, high Harm Avoidance and low Reward Dependence characterized cluster A and C PDs. Subjects with a cluster B PD did not differ from controls, except for Novelty Seeking, which was high. The temperament dimensions could not distinguish different PDs very well, with the only exception of persons with obsessive-compulsive PD. PD clusters were associated with different profiles of temperament, lending some support for Cloninger's typology.
Cayn, Delphine; Pham-Scottez, Alexandra
Comorbidity with a borderline personality disorder is far from rare in patients suffering from eating disorders. Clinically, this presents as chronic instability in many areas: interpersonal relationships, self-image, emotions, mood and acting out. Treatment is mainly based on a containing and reassuring therapeutic framework. A care plan may be put in place that incorporates reducing impulsive harmful, eating and self-harming behaviours. Dialectical behaviour therapy is intended in particular to prevent suicide risk in borderline personality disorder patients.
Yen, Shirley; Gagnon, Kerry; Spirito, Anthony
The diagnosis of borderline personality disorder (BPD) in adolescents has been controversial. Thus, few studies have examined BPD in suicidal adolescents, even though it is strongly associated with suicidal behaviours in adults. This study examines differences between suicidal adolescents with (n = 47) and without (n = 72) BPD on history and characteristics of suicidal behaviour, Axis I co-morbidity, affect regulation and aggression. Assessments were completed with both adolescents and parents, and consensus ratings based on best available data were analysed. BPD participants were more likely to have a history of suicide attempts and to have been admitted because of a suicide attempt (vs. suicidal ideation). There were no significant differences in self-injurious behaviours or degree of suicidal ideation. BPD participants also had more psychiatric co-morbidity and higher aggression scores but no significant differences in affective dysregulation compared with suicidal adolescents without BPD. Diagnostic stability over 6 months was modest. Our results demonstrate that, compared with other acutely suicidal adolescents, the clinical profile of BPD participants is unique and suggests an increased risk for suicidal behaviours. This extends upon other studies that support the construct validity of BPD during adolescence and suggests that BPD should be considered in suicide risk assessment for adolescents.
Semerari, Antonio; Carcione, Antonino; Dimaggio, Giancarlo; Nicoló, Giuseppe; Pedone, Roberto; Procacci, Michele
Many authors consider that patients suffering from Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) are hampered in their ability to metarepresent, which is the correct ascribing of states of mind to oneself and to others and the reflecting thereon. Although the ability to mentalize is generally described as being uniform, various authors pinpoint problems which appear to be of a diverse psychological nature. Some describe difficulties in identifying emotions or a shortfall in their regulation, others identify a lack of integration between representations of self and those of others, and yet others focus on the failure to distinguish between fantasy and reality. In the present research all sessions during the first year of therapy of four patients suffering from BPD were tape-recorded and transcribed, and then analyzed using the Metacognition Assessment Scale (MAS), which is designed for the evaluation of the ability to metarepresent in clinical reports. The results support the hypothesis that there is a metarepresentation impairment in BPD but that it is more selective than was thought until now. In particular, such patients maintain their ability to identify internal states, whereas they are impaired in the integration of representations of self and others and in the differentiation between fantasy and reality.
Stankiewicz, Sylwia; Golczyńska, Maria
Dissociative identity disorder (DID) could also be referred to as multiple personality disorder (MPD). Due to rare occurrence and difficulty in its' identification it is infrequently diagnosed in Poland. The indicated disorder has been portrayed by the authors throughout the historical context, referring to initial 18th century's references concerning dissociation. A typical dissociatively disordered person has been characterized along with his individual personality categories such as: original personality, altered personality, host and personality fragment. Moreover various diagnosis criterions of DID have been introduced. DID has also been differentiated with other disorders: PTSD (post-traumatic stress disorder) and BPD (borderline personality disorder). A hypothesis has been set up, stating that DID is directly correlated with the trauma experienced during childhood, while PTSD is linked with traumatic lived-through events in the later period of ones' life. The most contemporary and frequently used research tools for DID have been indicated: dissociative experience scale (DES) and somatoform dissociation questionnaire (SDQ-20). Based upon the known literature, the authors have presented treatment methods such as hypnotherapy and recorded therapy sessions. It is the view of the authors that the switching in dissociative identity disorder is of adaptive character (it occurrs depending upon adaptive needs).
Linden, M; Vilain, M
"Minimal cerebral dysfunctions" are isolated impairments of basic mental functions, which are elements of complex functions like speech. The best described are cognitive dysfunctions such as reading and writing problems, dyscalculia, attention deficits, but also motor dysfunctions such as problems with articulation, hyperactivity or impulsivity. Personality disorders can be characterized by isolated emotional dysfunctions in relation to emotional adequacy, intensity and responsivity. For example, paranoid personality disorders can be characterized by continuous and inadequate distrust, as a disorder of emotional adequacy. Schizoid personality disorders can be characterized by low expressive emotionality, as a disorder of effect intensity, or dissocial personality disorders can be characterized by emotional non-responsivity. Minimal emotional dysfunctions cause interactional misunderstandings because of the psychology of "first impression formation". Studies have shown that in 100 ms persons build up complex and lasting emotional judgements about other persons. Therefore, minimal emotional dysfunctions result in interactional problems and adjustment disorders and in corresponding cognitive schemata.From the concept of minimal emotional dysfunctions specific psychotherapeutic interventions in respect to the patient-therapist relationship, the diagnostic process, the clarification of emotions and reality testing, and especially an understanding of personality disorders as impairment and "selection, optimization, and compensation" as a way of coping can be derived.
Asnaani, Anu; Rinck, Mike; Becker, Eni; Hofmann, Stefan G
Cognitive bias modification has recently been discussed as a possible intervention for mental disorders. A specific form of this novel treatment approach is approach-avoidance modification. In order to examine the efficacy of approach-avoidance modification for positive stimuli associated with social anxiety, we recruited 43 individuals with social anxiety disorder and randomly assigned them to a training (implicit training to approach smiling faces) or a control (equal approach and avoidance of smiling faces) condition in three sessions over the course of a one-week period. Dependent measures included clinician ratings, self-report measures of social anxiety, and overt behavior during behavioral approach tasks. No group differences in any of the outcome measures were observed after training. In addition, while individuals in the training group showed increased approach tendency in one of the sessions, this effect was inconsistent across the three sessions and did not result in long-term changes in implicit approach tendencies between the groups over the course of the entire study. These results suggest that approach-avoidance modification might result in short-lasting effects on implicit approach tendencies towards feared positive stimuli, but this modification may not result in meaningful behavioral change or symptom reduction in individuals with social anxiety disorder.
Asnaani, Anu; Rinck, Mike; Becker, Eni; Hofmann, Stefan G.
Cognitive bias modification has recently been discussed as a possible intervention for mental disorders. A specific form of this novel treatment approach is approach-avoidance modification. In order to examine the efficacy of approach-avoidance modification for positive stimuli associated with social anxiety, we recruited 43 individuals with social anxiety disorder and randomly assigned them to a training (implicit training to approach smiling faces) or a control (equal approach and avoidance of smiling faces) condition in three sessions over the course of a one-week period. Dependent measures included clinician ratings, self-report measures of social anxiety, and overt behavior during behavioral approach tasks. No group differences in any of the outcome measures were observed after training. In addition, while individuals in the training group showed increased approach tendency in one of the sessions, this effect was inconsistent across the three sessions and did not result in long-term changes in implicit approach tendencies between the groups over the course of the entire study. These results suggest that approach-avoidance modification might result in short-lasting effects on implicit approach tendencies towards feared positive stimuli, but this modification may not result in meaningful behavioral change or symptom reduction in individuals with social anxiety disorder. PMID:24659832
Chen, Ching-Yen; Lin, Sheng-Hsuan; Li, Peng; Huang, Wei-Lieh; Lin, Yu-Hsuan
To determine whether physicians with harm avoidance (HA) personality traits were more prone to developing increased anxiety and depression during the medical internship. A prospective longitudinal study of 74 medical interns was carried out using repeated measures of symptoms of anxiety and depression with the Beck Anxiety and Depression Inventories (BAI and BDI) before, at the 3rd, 6th, and 12th months during the internship, and 2 weeks after the internship was completed. Baseline personality was assessed by the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire with 3 dimensions: novelty-seeking, HA, and reward dependence (RD). Levels of both depression and anxiety increased (6.4 and 3.4 on scores for BDI and BAI, respectively) during the internship and returned to baseline 2 weeks after it ended. HA scores were significantly correlated with depression and anxiety (0.3 scores on both the BDI and the BAI) and the scores for RD were significantly correlated with anxiety but not with depression. The interaction of HA and point in internship showed no significant differences. Internship plays a major role in the increase in depression and anxiety. A HA personality was also associated with the development of both depression and anxiety.
Soldz, S; Budman, S; Demby, A; Merry, J
In an attempt to compare different methods for assessing personality disorder, this study compared the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-II (MCMI-II; Millon, 1987), a self-report questionnaire, and the Personality Disorder Examination (PDE; Loranger, 1988), a semistructured clinical interview. Subjects (N = 97) were mental health outpatients of a health maintenance organization in New England. The instruments were compared in terms of the presence of personality disorder, the number of diagnoses assigned to a patient, and agreement in specific diagnoses and in cluster assignment. Agreement between the two instruments was low; the two instruments exhibited greater agreement in predicting the absence of diagnoses than their presence. Agreement was best for the borderline and avoidant diagnoses. Correlations between scales exhibited somewhat better agreement than was evident for diagnoses. Analyses at the cluster level resulted in moderate correlations between the instruments. Very high intracluster correlations were found for the MCMI-II, but not for the PDE.
Imparting bad news to a cancer patient is considered an arduous task, but it seems to be facilitated by the use of the empathic approach. Indeed, doctors who are trained to adhere to a cancer patient informing protocol argue that the hardest step to take is the empathic approach. The usual questions asked are: To tell the diagnosis or not? How much information should we give? Should the patient know or has the right not to know? Is it possible to determine who should say, what, when, and how. The aim of this article was to describe the avoidant character or type of personality, so that any physician can make a diagnosis and tailor the information strategy to the patient's needs. As method of research was used the qualitative method through groups with doctors and nurses, while research within groups lasted for 5 years. The degree of informing the avoidant personality in the range "minimal - small - medium - large - very large" is : The degree of denial varies between "small" and "medium", while the degree of informing varies between "medium" and "small" in order to reach "large" later. Informing the family: The patient reacts to a common approach with the family as he is concerned about inflicting a blow to his image.
Pena-Garijo, Josep; Edo Villamón, Silvia; Ruipérez, M. Ángeles
Objective. The purpose of this paper is to provide evidence for the relationship between personality disorders (PDs), obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), and other anxiety disorders different from OCD (non-OCD) symptomatology. Method. The sample consisted of a group of 122 individuals divided into three groups (41 OCD; 40 non-OCD, and 41 controls) matched by sex, age, and educational level. All the individuals answered the IPDE questionnaire and were evaluated by means of the SCID-I and SCID-II interviews. Results. Patients with OCD and non-OCD present a higher presence of PD. There was an increase in cluster C diagnoses in both groups, with no statistically significant differences between them. Conclusions. Presenting anxiety disorder seems to cause a specific vulnerability for PD. Most of the PDs that were presented belonged to cluster C. Obsessive Compulsive Personality Disorder (OCPD) is the most common among OCD. However, it does not occur more frequently among OCD patients than among other anxious patients, which does not confirm the continuum between obsessive personality and OCD. Implications for categorical and dimensional diagnoses are discussed. PMID:24453917
Lentz, Vanessa; Robinson, Jennifer; Bolton, James M
Schizotypal personality disorder (SPD) is a serious and relatively common psychiatric disorder, yet remains understudied among the personality disorders. The current study examines the psychiatric correlates of SPD in a representative epidemiologic sample, utilizing data from the National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (N = 34,653). Multiple logistic regression compared people with SPD to the general population across a broad range of childhood adversities, comorbid psychiatric disorders, and suicidal behavior. SPD was strongly associated with many adverse childhood experiences. After adjusting for confounding factors, SPD was independently associated with major depression and several anxiety disorders, including post-traumatic stress disorder. Interestingly, SPD was more strongly associated with borderline and narcissistic personality disorders than cluster A personality disorders. Individuals with SPD were also more likely to attempt suicide. As a whole, these results suggest that individuals with SPD experience significant morbidity and may be at increased risk of mortality.
Ruiz, Martín; Vairo, María Carolina
In the last decade, literature concerning gender and borderline personality disorder has aroused much controversy and little lightness. Recently, borderline personality disorder has been characterized as the "bad girl" of the psychiatric terms; this implies a bigger use of this diagnose in women and a biased gender in the identification of this disorder. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders states that borderline personality disorder is mostly diagnosed in women (75%). The essential question to discuss is whether the larger prevalence in women is due to a biased sample or a biased diagnoses or it reflects a sociocultural and biological difference between men and women. The aim of this paper is to analyze some issues about the difference 3:1 women and men in this disorder.
Newman, Michelle G.; Llera, Sandra J.
An important emphasis of the literature on generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) has been to achieve a greater understanding of the function of emotion (e.g., avoidance, dysregulation) in the etiology and maintenance of this disorder. The purpose of the following paper is to propose a new way of conceptualizing emotional sequelae in GAD by detailing the Contrast Avoidance Model of Worry. In presenting this model, we review theory and data that led to our current position, which is that individuals with GAD are more sensitive to feeling emotionally vulnerable to unexpected negative events, and that worry (the key pathological feature of GAD) is employed to prolong and maintain a negative emotional state thereby avoiding an unexpected negative emotional shift, or contrast experience. We also discuss implications for treatment given the presence of a new target for emotional exposure techniques. Finally, we establish the Contrast Avoidance Model within the framework of extant theories and models of pathogenic processes of GAD. PMID:21334285
Newman, Michelle G; Llera, Sandra J
An important emphasis of the literature on generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) has been to achieve a greater understanding of the function of emotion (e.g., avoidance, dysregulation) in the etiology and maintenance of this disorder. The purpose of the following paper is to propose a new way of conceptualizing emotional sequelae in GAD by detailing the Contrast Avoidance Model of Worry. In presenting this model, we review theory and data that led to our current position, which is that individuals with GAD are more sensitive to feeling emotionally vulnerable to unexpected negative events, and that worry (the key pathological feature of GAD) is employed to prolong and maintain a negative emotional state thereby avoiding an unexpected negative emotional shift, or contrast experience. We also discuss implications for treatment given the presence of a new target for emotional exposure techniques. Finally, we establish the Contrast Avoidance Model within the framework of extant theories and models of pathogenic processes of GAD.
Pamies Aubalat, Lidia; Quiles Marcos, Yolanda
The first aim of this study was to analyse the relationship between coping styles and strategies in Spanish adolescents of both genders, with high and low eating disorder risk. Secondly, this study aims to examine the relation of coping styles and coping strategies with eating disorder risk. The sample comprised 2142 adolescents (1.130 girls and 1.012 boys), mean age 13,96 years (SD= 1.34). They completed the Adolescent Coping Scale (ACS) and the Eating Attitude Test (EAT-40). The results showed high use of intropunitive avoidance coping in both female and male adolescents with high EAT-40 scores. The regression analysis indicated that, in both girls and boys, the intropunitive avoidance and the tension reduction coping strategy explained a high percentage of variance of eating disorder risk. The results of this study have implications for the prevention of these behaviours in adolescents, because people with a high risk of developing an eating disorder present a maladaptive coping style before the onset of the eating disorder.
Zaheer, Juveria; Links, Paul S; Liu, Eleanor
This article examines the association between suicidal behavior and personality disorders. It updates the review of epidemiological evidence for the association between suicidal behavior and suicide in individuals who have a personality disorder diagnosis, particularly in borderline personality disorder (BPD). The second part of the article presents new empirical evidence that characterizes suicidal behavior in patients who have BPD, specifically examining patient characteristics that differentiate patients who have BPD with a history of high versus low lethality suicide attempts. Finally, the article discusses the approach to a patient who has BPD and presents to the emergency department because of an increased risk of suicide.
Fandiño, Julia N; Benchimol, Alexander K; Fandiño, Leila N; Barroso, Fernando L; Coutinho, Walmir F; Appolinário, José C
Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome (WKS) and disordered eating behavior have been reported separately after bariatric surgery. We report a patient who following a bariatric operation developed WKS associated with a disturbed eating behavior without vomiting. This morbidly obese man developed an intense fear of gaining weight in the postoperative period and engaged in an extreme form of "food avoidance behavior". 2 months postoperatively after severe weight loss, he was hospitalized with disorientation and an amnesic syndrome. He was discharged 2 months later with stable weight and regular eating habits. Despite this, at the last follow-up visit 2 years postoperatively, he still had a residual partial amnesic syndrome. The surgical team must be aware of peculiar forms of pathological eating that may appear after bariatric surgery; the emergence of an eating avoidance disorder may be associated with the development of WKS.
Ball, S A; Tennen, H; Poling, J C; Kranzler, H R; Rounsaville, B J
The authors evaluated the relationship between P. T. Costa and R. R. McCrae's (1992) NEO 5-factor model, C. R. Cloninger's (1993) 7-factor Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI), and the American Psychiatric Association's (1994) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed., personality disorders in 370 inpatient and outpatient alcohol, cocaine, and opiate abusers. NEO Neuroticism was associated with many disorders, and different patterns for Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, and Extraversion emerged for the different disorders. Several TCI scales were associated with different personality disorders, although not as strongly as the NEO dimensions. Results did not support most predictions made for the TCI. Normal personality dimensions contributed significantly to the prediction of personality disorder severity above and beyond substance abuse and depression symptoms.
Dubovsky, Amelia N; Kiefer, Meghan M
Borderline personality disorder is estimated to be present in approximately 6% of outpatient primary care settings. However, the time and energy spent on this population can greatly exceed what primary care doctors are able to spend. This article gives an overview of borderline personality disorder, including the clinical characteristics, epidemiology, and comorbidities, as well as pharmacologic and most important behavioral management. It is our hope that, with improved understanding of the disorder and skills for managing this population, caring for patients with the disorder can be more satisfying and less taxing for both primary care doctors and their patients.
Dixon-Gordon, Katherine L.; Whalen, Diana J.; Layden, Brianne K.; Chapman, Alexander L.
Personality disorders have been associated with a wide swath of adverse health outcomes and correspondingly high costs to healthcare systems. To date, however, there has not been a systematic review of the literature on health conditions among individuals with personality disorders. The primary aim of this article is to review research documenting the associations between personality disorders and health conditions. A systematic review of the literature revealed 78 unique empirical English-language peer-reviewed articles examining the association of personality disorders and health outcomes over the past 15 years. Specifically, we reviewed research examining the association of personality disorders with sleep disturbance, obesity, pain conditions, and other chronic health conditions. In addition, we evaluated research on candidate mechanisms underlying health problems in personality disorders and potential treatments for such disorders. Results underscore numerous deleterious health outcomes associated with PD features and PD diagnoses, and suggest potential biological and behavioural factors that may account for these relations. Guidelines for future research in this area are discussed. PMID:26456998
Gregory, Robert J
Recovery from borderline personality disorder involves identification and resolution of two core conflicts. Recovery is a long-term process, however, and entails sequential stages that patients must work through. Each stage has unique challenges and pitfalls that must be overcome in order to avoid traumatic reenactment. It is possible for some patients and their therapists to successfully negotiate the stages, even if pathology is on the severe end of the spectrum.
Bovin, Michelle J.; Wolf, Erika J.; Resick, Patricia A.
This study evaluated how change in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms was associated with residualized change in comorbid personality disorder (PD) features and vice versa over the course of 5–10 years. The sample was comprised of 79 female rape survivors who met criteria for PTSD and who were a part of a larger study examining the effects of trauma-focused therapy. PTSD was assessed with the fourth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) version of the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale [CAPS-IV (1)] and PD features were assessed with the DSM-IV dimensional PD scales on the Schedule for Non-adaptive and Adaptive Personality [SNAP (2)]. PTSD symptom severity and PD features were assessed at baseline and between 5 and 10 years after completing treatment. Multiple regression analyses revealed that PTSD symptom change was related to residualized change in PD severity for paranoid, schizotypal, antisocial, borderline, avoidant, and dependent PD (βs ranged from −0.23 to −0.33; all ps < 0.05). In addition, for borderline and antisocial PDs, longitudinal stability of the PD was attenuated among those with greater PTSD symptom improvement (i.e., the relationship between these PDs over time was altered as a function of PTSD symptom change; βs ranged from −0.27 to −0.29; all ps < 0.05). Similarly, change in severity of paranoid, schizotypal, antisocial, avoidant, and obsessive–compulsive (OC) PD was associated with residualized change in PTSD symptoms (βs ranged from −0.32 to −0.41; all ps < 0.05), and the longitudinal stability of PTSD was attenuated as a product of change in OC PD (β = −0.27; p < 0.02). These findings suggest that these two sets of disorders may impact one another substantially, altering the course of even chronic, characterological conditions. This carries important clinical implications for the treatment of both PTSD and PDs. PMID:28210229
Bastiaens, Tim; Smits, Dirk; De Hert, Marc; Vanwalleghem, Dominique; Claes, Laurence
The Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5; Krueger et al., 2012) is a dimensional self-report questionnaire designed to measure personality pathology according to the criterion B of the DSM-5 Section III personality model. In the current issue of DSM, this dimensional Section III personality model co-exists with the Section II categorical personality model derived from DSM-IV-TR. Therefore, investigation of the inter-relatedness of both models across populations and languages is warranted. In this study, we first examined the factor structure and reliability of the PID-5 in a Flemish community sample (N=509) by means of exploratory structural equation modeling and alpha coefficients. Next, we investigated the predictive ability of section III personality traits in relation to section II personality disorders through correlations and stepwise regression analyses. Results revealed a five factor solution for the PID-5, with adequate reliability of the facet scales. The variance in Section II personality disorders could be predicted by their theoretically comprising Section III personality traits, but additional Section III personality traits augmented this prediction. Based on current results, we discuss the Section II personality disorder conceptualization and the Section III personality disorder operationalization.
This paper analyzes the major historical milestones in the study of normal and abnormal personality, from antiquity up until the 20th century. Special attention is paid to the interaction between dimensional and typological approaches, which was a major issue during the preparation of DSM-5. Theories of personality started with the humoral theory of Greek medicine. Pinel, and later Esquirol and Prichard, are credited with the first descriptions of abnormal personalities in textbooks of psychiatry. Between the late 19th and early 20th centuries, elaborate systems of normal and abnormal personality, associating to some degree types and dimensions, were devised by a succession of European psychologists, such as Ribot, Heymans, and Lazursky. Emil Kraepelin and Kurt Schneider proposed classifications of abnormal personality types. In parallel, psychoanalysts stressed the role of early life experiences. Towards the mid-20th century, statistical methods were applied to the scientific validation of personality dimensions with pioneers such as Cattell, anticipating the five-factor model.
Gutknecht, Lise; Jacob, Christian; Strobel, Alexander; Kriegebaum, Claudia; Müller, Johannes; Zeng, Yong; Markert, Christoph; Escher, Andrea; Wendland, Jens; Reif, Andreas; Mössner, Rainald; Gross, Cornelius; Brocke, Burkhard; Lesch, Klaus-Peter
Variation in the tryptophan hydroxylase-2 gene (TPH2) coding for the rate-limiting enzyme of serotonin (5-HT) synthesis in the brain modulates responses of limbic circuits to emotional stimuli and has been linked to a spectrum of clinical populations characterized by emotional dysregulation. Here, we tested a set of common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in and downstream of the transcriptional control region of TPH2 for association with personality traits and with risk for personality disorders in two cohorts comprising of 336 healthy individuals and 420 patients with personality disorders. Personality dimensions were assessed by the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire (TPQ) and the revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R). Personality disorders were diagnosed with the Structured Clinical Interview of DSM-IV and were allocated to clusters A, B, and C. Individual SNP and haplotype analyses revealed significant differences in genotype frequencies between controls and cluster B as well as cluster C patients, respectively. In both patient groups, we observed overrepresentation of T allele carriers of a functional polymorphism in the upstream regulatory region of TPH2 (SNP G-703T, rs4570625) which was previously shown to bias responsiveness of the amygdala, a structure critically involved in emotionality. Furthermore, significant effects of TPH2 variants on anxiety-related traits defined primarily by the TPQ Harm Avoidance were found in healthy individuals. The results link potentially functional TPH2 variants to personality traits related to emotional instability as well as to cluster B and cluster C personality disorders. These findings implicate alterations of 5-HT synthesis in emotion regulation and confirm TPH2 as a susceptibility and/or modifier gene of affective spectrum disorders.
Matthies, Swantje; Philipsen, Alexandra
Children suffering from attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may remit until adulthood. But, more than 60-80% have persisting ADHD symptoms. ADHD as an early manifesting neurodevelopmental disorder is considered a major risk factor for the development of comorbid psychiatric disorders in later life. Particularly, personality disorders are oftentimes observed in adult patients suffering from ADHD. If ADHD and personality disorders share common etiological mechanisms and/or if ADHD as a severely impairing condition influences psychological functioning and learning and leads to unfavorable learning histories is unclear. The development of inflexible and dysfunctional beliefs on the basis of real and perceived impairments or otherness due to the core symptoms of ADHD is intuitively plausible. Such beliefs are a known cause for the development of personality disorders. But, why some personality disorders are more frequently found in ADHD patients as for example antisocial and borderline personality disorder remains subject of debate. Because of the high prevalence of ADHD and the high impact of personality disorders on daily functioning, it is important to take them into account when treating patients with ADHD. Research on the developmental trajectories leading to personality disorders in adult ADHD patients might open the door for targeted interventions to prevent impairing comorbid clinical pictures.
Shuman, Nicole K.; Krug, Isabel; Maxwell, Millie; Pinheiro, Andrea Poyastro; Brewerton, Timothy; Thornton, Laura M.; Berrettini, Wade H.; Brandt, Harry; Crawford, Steven; Crow, Scott; Fichter, Manfred M.; Halmi, Katherine A.; Johnson, Craig; Kaplan, Allan S.; Keel, Pamela; LaVia, Maria; Mitchell, James; Rotondo, Alessandro; Strober, Michael; Woodside, D. Blake; Kaye, Walter H.; Bulik, Cynthia M.
We assessed the relation between season of birth and eating disorder symptoms and personality characteristics in a sample of 880 women with eating disorders and 580 controls from two Price Foundation Studies. Eating disorder symptoms were assessed using Structured Interview of Anorexic and Bulimic Disorders and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV. Personality traits were assessed using the Temperament and Character Inventory and the Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale. Date of birth was obtained from a sociodemographic questionnaire. No significant differences were observed 1) in season of birth across eating disorder subtypes and controls; nor 2) for any clinical or personality variables and season of birth. We found no evidence of season of birth variation in eating disorders symptoms or personality traits. Contributing to previous conflicting findings, the present results do not support a season of birth hypothesis for eating disorders. PMID:21150253
Shuman, N K; Krug, I; Maxwell, M; Pinheiro, A Poyastro; Brewerton, T; Thornton, L M; Berrettini, W H; Brandt, H; Crawford, S; Crow, S; Fichter, M M; Halmi, K A; Johnson, C; Kaplan, A S; Keel, P; Lavia, M; Mitchell, J; Rotondo, A; Strober, M; Woodside, D Blake; Kaye, W H; Bulik, C M
We assessed the relation between season of birth and eating disorder symptoms and personality characteristics in a sample of 880 women with eating disorders and 580 controls from two Price Foundation Studies. Eating disorder symptoms were assessed using the Structured Interview of Anorexic and Bulimic Disorders and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV. Personality traits were assessed using the Temperament and Character Inventory and the Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale. Date of birth was obtained from a sociodemographic questionnaire. No significant differences were observed 1) in season of birth across eating disorder subtypes and controls; nor 2) for any clinical or personality variables and season of birth. We found no evidence of season of birth variation in eating disorders symptoms or personality traits. Contributing to previous conflicting findings, the present results do not support a season of birth hypothesis for eating disorders.
Stoffers, Jutta; Völlm, Birgit A; Rücker, Gerta; Timmer, Antje; Huband, Nick; Lieb, Klaus
Background Drugs are widely used in borderline personality disorder (BPD) treatment, chosen because of properties known from other psychiatric disorders (“off-label use”), mostly targeting affective or impulsive symptom clusters. Objectives To assess the effects of drug treatment in BPD patients. Search methods We searched bibliographic databases according to the Cochrane Developmental, Psychosocial and Learning Problems Group strategy up to September 2009, reference lists of articles, and contacted researchers in the field. Selection criteria Randomised studies comparing drug versus placebo, or drug versus drug(s) in BPD patients. Outcomes included total BPD severity, distinct BPD symptom facets according to DSM-IV criteria, associated psychopathology not specific to BPD, attrition and adverse effects. Data collection and analysis Two authors selected trials, assessed quality and extracted data, independently. Main results Twenty-eight trials involving a total of 1742 trial participants were included. First-generation antipsychotics (flupenthixol decanoate, haloperidol, thiothixene); second-generation antipsychotics (aripirazole, olanzapine, ziprasidone), mood stabilisers (carbamazepine, valproate semisodium, lamotrigine, topiramate), antidepressants (amitriptyline, fluoxetine, fluvoxamine, phenelzine sulfate, mianserin), and dietary supplementation (omega-3 fatty acid) were tested. First-generation antipsychotics were subject to older trials, whereas recent studies focussed on second-generation antipsychotics and mood stabilisers. Data were sparse for individual comparisons, indicating marginal effects for first-generation antipsychotics and antidepressants. The findings were suggestive in supporting the use of second-generation antipsychotics, mood stabilisers, and omega-3 fatty acids, but require replication, since most effect estimates were based on single studies. The long-term use of these drugs has not been assessed. Adverse event data were scarce
Jiménez Morón, D; Chinchilla Moreno, A
From those patients who were admitted to the psychiatric in-patient unit of the Hospital Ramón y Cajal of Madrid across a period of eight years, those who received a diagnosis of personality disorder according to the axis II of DSM-III or DSM-III-R were selected. We analyzed the patterns of comorbidity between axis I and II, length of the admission, the percentage of readmissions and general variables as age and sex. 17.35% of the patients admitted for the first time and 27.03% of those readmitted received a clinical diagnosis of personality disorder. The most frequent disorders were: unspecified, histrionic, obsessive-compulsive and dependent. In the 93.81% of the patients admitted for the first time, comorbidity with axis I disorders was found. Cluster A personality disorders were most frequently associated to schizophrenia and delusional disorder, cluster B diagnoses with dystimia and alcohol-related problems and cluster C disorders with depression, dystimia and OCD. The cluster A was the one that presented more frequently without axis I comorbidity (14.28%). Cluster B disorders were associated with a shorter length of the admission but, as the unspecified personality disorder, were readmitted more frequently. We discuss the results and compare them with those obtained by other authors.
Gibbon, Simon; Duggan, Conor; Stoffers, Jutta; Huband, Nick; Völlm, Birgit A; Ferriter, Michael; Lieb, Klaus
Background Antisocial personality disorder (AsPD) is associated with a wide range of disturbance including persistent rule-breaking, criminality, substance use, unemployment, homelessness and relationship difficulties. Objectives To evaluate the potential beneficial and adverse effects of psychological interventions for people with AsPD. Search methods Our search included CENTRAL Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, ASSIA, BIOSIS and COPAC. Selection criteria Prospective, controlled trials in which participants with AsPD were randomly allocated to a psychological intervention and a control condition (either treatment as usual, waiting list or no treatment). Data collection and analysis Three authors independently selected studies. Two authors independently extracted data. We calculated mean differences, with odds ratios for dichotomous data. Main results Eleven studies involving 471 participants with AsPD met the inclusion criteria, although data were available from only five studies involving 276 participants with AsPD. Only two studies focused solely on an AsPD sample. Eleven different psychological interventions were examined. Only two studies reported on reconviction, and only one on aggression. Compared to the control condition, cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) plus standard maintenance was superior for outpatients with cocaine dependence in one study, but CBT plus treatment as usual was not superior for male outpatients with recent verbal/physical violence in another. Contingency management plus standard maintenance was superior for drug misuse for outpatients with cocaine dependence in one study but not in another, possibly because of differences in the behavioural intervention. However, contingency management was superior in social functioning and counselling session attendance in the latter. A multi-component intervention utilising motivational interviewing principles, the ‘Driving Whilst Intoxicated program’, plus
Braamhorst, Wouter; Lobbestael, Jill; Emons, Wilco H M; Arntz, Arnoud; Witteman, Cilia L M; Bekker, Marrie H J
This study investigated sex bias in the classification of borderline and narcissistic personality disorders. A sample of psychologists in training for a post-master degree (N = 180) read brief case histories (male or female version) and made DSM classification. To differentiate sex bias due to sex stereotyping or to base rate variation, we used different case histories, respectively: (1) non-ambiguous case histories with enough criteria of either borderline or narcissistic personality disorder to meet the threshold for classification, and (2) an ambiguous case with subthreshold features of both borderline and narcissistic personality disorder. Results showed significant differences due to sex of the patient in the ambiguous condition. Thus, when the diagnosis is not straightforward, as in the case of mixed subthreshold features, sex bias is present and is influenced by base-rate variation. These findings emphasize the need for caution in classifying personality disorders, especially borderline or narcissistic traits.
Chowdhury, A.N.; Brahma, A.
Personality disorder cases exhibit varieties of abnormal sexual behaviours. The present case is exemplifying how the perception of semen loss is associated with repeated deliberate self-harm attempts. PMID:21206798
Anselmi, Nino; Mirigliani, Alessia
Personality disorders, especially borderline and antisocial, are pre-eminent in a penitentiary. Under detention, among 100 patients valuated, 75% have a personality disorder; the 55% of these is diagnosed with borderline personality, while the 20% have a diagnosis of antisocial personality. Borderline disorder is often unnoticed instead of antisocial that is emphasized by self-inflicted wounding and behavioural disorders. The most frequent self-damaging behaviours are, first of all, slashes, then ingestion of foreign bodies and finally burnings and using sharp objects. Environment associated with narrowness, overcrowding, low drugs effects, heighten self-inflicted wounding. Psychiatrists, psychologists and prison guards must consider this manipulative, recriminating, self-therapeutic behavioural way aimed just by obtaining benefits.
Kosson, David S; Blackburn, Ronald; Byrnes, Katherine A; Park, Sohee; Logan, Caroline; Donnelly, John P
In 2 studies, we examined the reliability and validity of an interpersonal measure of schizoid personality disorder (SZPD) based on nonverbal behaviors and interpersonal interactions occurring during interviews. A total of 556 male jail inmates in the United States participated in Study 1; 175 mentally disordered offenders in maximum security hospitals in the United Kingdom participated in Study 2. Across both samples, scores on the Interpersonal Measure of Schizoid Personality Disorder (IM-SZ) exhibited adequate reliability and patterns of correlations with other measures consistent with expectations. The scale displayed patterns of relatively specific correlations with interview and self-report measures of SZPD. In addition, the IM-SZ correlated in an expected manner with features of psychopathy and antisocial personality and with independent ratings of interpersonal behavior. We address implications for assessment of personality disorder.
Lynam, Donald R; Vachon, David D
This paper evaluates the proposal for antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-fifth edition (DSM-5). Some aspects of the proposal are appealing: personality disorders will be assessed using trait criteria, and these criteria are similar to trait descriptions of DSM-IV ASPD. Other aspects of the proposal are less appealing. First, the DSM-5 will depend on a newly constructed personality trait system rather than relying on a well validated, widely studied one. Second, the trait profile of ASPD is incomplete; although this profile reflects the traits included in DSM-IV, it maps poorly onto the full personality profile of ASPD. Third, the DSM Workgroup missed an opportunity to finally unify ASPD and psychopathy; history and research suggest that these disorders have diverged mistakenly. Fourth, the newly proposed criteria of impairments in self- and interpersonal functioning are of questionable derivation and utility.
DeShong, Hilary L; Kurtz, John E
Impulsivity is a shared criterion for the diagnosis of antisocial and borderline personality disorders, and this link may account for the high comorbidity rates between the two disorders. The current study aimed to differentiate between borderline and antisocial personality disorders using the four factors of impulsivity identified by Whiteside and Lynam (2001). Five hundred thirty-six undergraduate participants completed the personality assessment inventory (PAI; Morey, 1991) to assess borderline and antisocial personality features and the NEO personality inventory, third edition (NEO-PI-3; McCrae & Costa, 2010) to assess the four factors of impulsivity. Results indicate that negative urgency and lack of perseverance were significantly and uniquely related to borderline features, while sensation seeking and lack of premeditation were significantly and uniquely related to antisocial features. The implications of these results for improved differential diagnosis are discussed.
Lönnqvist, Jan-Erik; Verkasalo, Markku; Wichardt, Philipp C; Walkowitz, Gari
The authors examined the proposal that personality disorder categories may denote particular detrimental combinations of personality dimensions. A multiround economic exchange game (ten round trust game), conducted with university students pre-selected on basis of their personalities (N = 164), provided a framework within which to investigate inability to repair ruptured cooperation. This behavior, thought to be characteristic of patients diagnosed with DSM-IV borderline personality disorder, was predicted only by the combination of high Neuroticism and low Agreeableness. Our results highlight an advantage of the categorical approach, category labels being a much more economic means of description than the delineation of interactions between dimensions.
Saugstad, Letten F
The present mismatch between what our brain needs, and the modern diet neglects our marine heritage. Last century, the priority in nutrition and food production was to achieve a high protein diet and somatic growth and function. The dietary content of omega-3 (N-3) required by the brain was neglected although evidence for the essentiality of certain fatty acids was published in 1929 and specifically re-affirmed for omega 3 in the brain in the 1970s. Cognitive decline with age and neurodegenerative disorder with dementia are now rising. This review describes signs of N-3 deficit in Alzheimer and Parkinson Disease, where maximum change involves the primary sites: olfactory cortex and the hippocampus. The olfactory agnosia observed in schizophrenia supports an N-3 deficit as does a reduction of key ologodendrocyte- and myelin-related genes in this disorder and affective disorder, where a rise in dementia accords with a deficit of N-3 also in this disorder. N-3 normalizes cerebral excitability at all levels. That the two disorders are localized at the extremes of excitability, is supported by their opposing treatments: convulsant neuroleptics and anti-epileptic antidepressants. An adequate N-3 diet will probably prevent most psychotic episodes and prove that neurodegenerative disorder with dementia is also to a large extent not only preventable but avoidable.
Saugstad, Letten F
The present mismatch between what our brain needs, and the modern diet neglects our marine heritage. Last century, the priority in nutrition and food production was to achieve a high protein diet and somatic growth and function. The dietary content of omega-3 (N-3) required by the brain was neglected although evidence for the essentiality of certain fatty acids was published in 1929 and specifically re-affirmed for omega 3 in the brain in the 1970s. Cognitive decline with age and neurodegenerative disorder with dementia are now rising. This review describes signs of N-3 deficit in Alzheimer and Parkinson Disease, where maximum change involves the primary sites: olfactory cortex and the hippocampus. The olfactory agnosia observed in schizophrenia supports an N-3 deficit as does a reduction of key ologodendrocyte- and myelin-related genes in this disorder and affective disorder, where a rise in dementia accords with a deficit of N-3 also in this disorder. N-3 normalizes cerebral excitability at all levels. That the two disorders are localized at the extremes of excitability, is supported by their opposing treatments: convulsant neuroleptics and anti-epileptic anti-depressants. An adequate N-3 diet will probably prevent most psychotic episodes and prove that neurodegenerative disorder with dementia is also to a large extent not only preventable but avoidable.
Chalker, Samantha A.; Carmel, Adam; Atkins, David C.; Landes, Sara J.; Kerbrat, Amanda H.; Comtois, Katherine Anne
Few studies have examined effects of challenging behaviors of clients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) on psychotherapy outcomes. Dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) is an evidence-based treatment designed to treat chronic suicidality, self-directed violence (SDV), and emotion dysregulation, while targeting challenging behaviors. DBT has been shown to be effective with clients with BPD. We evaluated whether therapist reported challenging behaviors, such as high volume phone contacts or violating the therapist’s limits, during DBT would be associated with dropping out of DBT, severity and frequency of SDV, emotion regulation deficits, and client’s and therapist’s satisfaction of treatment. The current study examined challenging behaviors reported by therapists in a sample of 63 psychiatrically disabled outpatient DBT clients diagnosed with BPD (73% women, average age 37 years). More frequent phone contacts were associated with a decrease in dropout and psychological symptoms, and an increase in client and therapist satisfaction. More avoidance/disengagement behavior was associated with more than twice the risk of SDV and a decrease in therapist satisfaction. Findings suggest that the phone coaching might serve to maximize client satisfaction and reduce the likelihood of dropout. PMID:26496225
Nicolò, Giuseppe; Semerari, Antonio; Lysaker, Paul H; Dimaggio, Giancarlo; Conti, Laura; D'Angerio, Stefania; Procacci, Michele; Popolo, Raffaele; Carcione, Antonino
Impairment in the ability to recognize and make sense of emotions has been hypothesized to be present in a sub-sample of people suffering from personality disorder (PD). In particular it is possible that difficulty recognizing and expressing feelings, or alexithymia, is related to many of the symptoms and problems in making sense of social interactions which are hallmarks of PD. In this study we measured levels of alexithymia with the Toronto Alexithymia Scale-20 and explored its correlations with the overall presence of PD and different PD diagnoses, symptoms, and interpersonal difficulties. Results were largely consistent with the hypothesis. Higher levels of alexithymia were related to high levels of global psychopathology and with dysfunctional representation of interpersonal relations. A sub-sample of patients, mostly suffering from avoidant, dependent, passive-aggressive and depressive PD, had alexithymic features and, in particular reported difficulties describing their feelings to others. A patient with cluster B PD featured no alexithymia. Implications of this study for future research and treatment are discussed.
Lyddon, William J.; Sherry, Alissa
Using K. Bartholomew's (1990) 4-dimensional model of adult attachment as an organizational framework, 10 developmental personality styles are differentiated regarding their unique attachment experiences, working models of self and other, and feedforward beliefs. Implications of an attachment theory framework for counseling clients with problematic…
Weinberg, Anna; Klonsky, E. David; Hajcak, Greg
Recent research suggests that emotional dysfunction in psychiatric disorders can be reflected in autonomic abnormalities. The present study examines sympathetic and parasympathetic autonomic nervous system activity in individuals with Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) before, during, and following a social stressor task. Data were obtained…
Aziz, Saman SH.; Ali, Sirwan K.
Background and objectives: Personality disorders are enduring, persistent and pervasive disorders of inner experience and behavior that cause distress or significant impairment in social functioning. They have strong relationship to offending and violence; our aim in the study was to determine the prevalence rate of each specific types of…
Dalton, Thomas W.
Multiple personality disorder (MPD) is now recognized as a valid diagnostic category. Occurrence may be higher than previously suspected. While physiological testing of MPD has shown significant differences between the various personalities of individuals in terms of galvanic skin response, electroencephalogram recordings, electrodermal response…
La Via, M C; Brewerton, T D
A case history is presented of an 18-year-old male with dissociative disorder and polysubstance abuse. The patient was observed to switch between three personalities, and the personality changes were often associated with symptoms of cataplexy. Both dissociative episodes and cataplexy are associated with strong affective stimuli. Similar reports in the literature are briefly reviewed.
Martin, A. Lynne; Piazza, Nick J.
Tests Cermak's diagnostic criteria for codependency against diagnostic criteria for odd, erratic, or fearful personality types. Results, based on 207 female clients, do not support a separate diagnosis of codependency. The presenting complaint of codependency may indicate a variety of other underlying personality disorders or a situationally…
This study investigated the specific emotional lexicons in narratives created by persons diagnosed with antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) to test the hypothesis that individuals with ASPD exhibit deficiencies in emotional language. Study participants consisted of 60 prison inmates with ASPD, 40 prison inmates without ASPD, and 60 men without…
Genest, Andrée-Anne; Mathieu, Cynthia
Past research has established that personality disorders and attachment disorders are important risk factors for the perpetration of violent acts in a context of an intimate relationship. Very few studies have been conducted linking personality and attachment disorders to violent behaviors outside of the domestic violence context. This paper proposes to address this gap by reviewing the literature and linking these important concepts to general violence. This will allow a better understanding of the dynamics of violence and possibly open the door to new research and interventions taking into account both attachment and personality disorders as prodromic factors.
Semerari, Antonio; Colle, Livia; Pellecchia, Giovanni; Carcione, Antonino; Conti, Laura; Fiore, Donatella; Moroni, Fabio; Nicolò, Giuseppe; Procacci, Michele; Pedone, Roberto
The capacity of understanding mental states is a complex function which involves several components. Single components can be selectively impaired in specific clinical populations. It has been suggested that impairments in mindreading are central for borderline personality disorder (BPD). However, empirical findings are inconsistent, and it is debatable whether BPD presents a specific profile of mindreading impairments. The aim of this study is to compare BPD and other PDs in mindreading. Seventy-two patients with BPD and 125 patients with other PD diagnoses were assessed using the Metacognition Assessment Interview. BPD showed difficulties in two mindreading functions, differentiation and integration, even when the severity of psychopathology was controlled. These results suggest a specific mindreading impairment in BPD and a strong relationship between these impairments and the severity of psychopathology.
Crego, Cristina; Sleep, Chelsea E; Widiger, Thomas A
Proposed for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition (DSM-5) was a five-domain, 25-dimensional trait model that would have constituted a significant part of the diagnostic criteria for each personality disorder. A primary concern with respect to the proposal was that clinicians might find such an approach to be unacceptable. This study provides results from three independent data collections that compared clinicians' clinical utility ratings for each iteration of the DSM-5 dimensional trait assignments, along with an alternative list of traits derived from the Five Factor Form (FFF). The clinicians considered the final trait assignments that were posted for the avoidant, narcissistic, obsessive-compulsive, and schizoid personality disorders to be significantly less acceptable than the original assignments. They also considered the FFF trait assignments to be preferable to the DSM-5 final postings with respect to the avoidant, narcissistic, obsessive-compulsive, dependent, and histrionic personality disorders. The implications of these results for future editions of the diagnostic manual are discussed.
Bloks, Hans; Hoek, Hans Wijbrand; Callewaert, Ineke; van Furth, Eric
A longitudinal prospective design with four assessments was used to examine the stability of personality traits and their relation to recovery in patients with restrictive anorexia nervosa (N=35), bingeing/purging anorexia nervosa (N=37), bulimia nervosa (N=47), and eating disorder not otherwise specified (N=27). Recovery is associated with changes in personality traits in the direction of healthy control women. Recovered patients still show higher harm avoidance and higher persistence than healthy control women. These temperament factors seem to be a vulnerability factor for developing an eating disorder. Novelty seeking seems to define the type of eating disorder one is prone to develop. The character dimensions contribute the most to recovery. High self-directedness contributes to a favorable prognosis of bulimic symptomatology, whereas high cooperativeness contributes to an unfavorable prognosis in patients with anorexia nervosa.
Lange, Julia; Schöttke, Henning
Using latent class analysis the Personality Disorder Screening (PDS) classifies patients into 4 groups: personality disordered (PD) patients (PDS+), healthy patients (PDS -) and 2 hybrid classes with exaggerated personality styles (histrionic/dependent and avoidant/obsessive-compulsive). The present study investigated if the PDS groups differ concerning sociodemographic and clinical variables, psychological distress and treatment outcome. We analyzed the PDS response patterns of 555 outpatients. PDS+ group membership is associated with typical PD characteristics, chronic depression and a high level of general psychological distress. Patients of both hybrid classes are found to show average psychological distress. The treatment was effective for all patients. Membership in the histrionic/dependent hybrid class is associated with early drop out from outpatient therapy.
Richter, Jörg; Brändström, Sven
Personality disorders (PDs) criteria are still in development. Cloninger's biosocial theory of personality contributed to this discussion. The aim of the study was to explore the relationships between extreme expressions on temperament and an immature character according to Cloninger's assumptions. Eight hundred healthy volunteers and 200 psychiatric inpatients were consecutively recruited each from Sweden and Germany, and were asked to complete the Temperament and Character Inventory, which measures 4 temperament and 3 character dimensions. Patients differed from controls on temperament and character dimensions. The combination of low and very low character scores with extreme scores in either novelty seeking, harm avoidance, or reward dependence was found more often among patients with PD compared with patients without PD and controls; this is more pronounced with an increasing number of extreme temperament scores. The Temperament and Character Inventory represents a useful tool in the diagnostic process of personality disorders.
Barrachina, Judith; Pascual, Juan C; Ferrer, Marc; Soler, Joaquim; Rufat, M Jesús; Andión, Oscar; Tiana, Thais; Martín-Blanco, Ana; Casas, Miquel; Pérez, Víctor
Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a severe psychiatric disorder that has a high clinical heterogeneity and frequent co-occurrence with other personality disorders (PDs). Although several studies have been performed to assess axis II comorbidity in BPD, more research is needed to clarify associated factors. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of co-occurrent axis II disorders in a large sample of patients with BPD and to investigate the influence of sex, age, and severity on this comorbidity. Data were collected from 484 patients with BPD through 2 semistructured interviews. We analyzed the frequency of axis II comorbidity and assessed differences regarding sex, age, and severity of BPD. About 74% of patients with BPD had at least 1 co-occurrent axis II disorder. The most common were paranoid, passive-aggressive, avoidant, and dependent PDs. Significant sex differences were found. Women presented more comorbidity with dependent PD, whereas men showed higher rates of comorbidity with antisocial PD. We also observed a significant positive correlation between age and the number of co-occurrent axis II disorders in women with BPD. Another finding was the positive correlation between BPD severity and the number of co-occurrent axis II disorders. These findings suggest that comorbidity with other axis II disorders and sex, age, and severity should be taken into account when developing treatment strategies and determining the prognosis of BPD.
This paper analyzes the major historical milestones in the study of normal and abnormal personality, from antiquity up until the 20th century. Special attention is paid to the interaction between dimensional and typological approaches, which was a major issue during the preparation of DSM-5. Theories of personality started with the humoral theory of Greek medicine. Pinel, and later Esquirol and Prichard, are credited with the first descriptions of abnormal personalities in textbooks of psychiatry. Between the late 19th and early 20th centuries, elaborate systems of normal and abnormal personality, associating to some degree types and dimensions, were devised by a succession of European psychologists, such as Ribot, Heymans, and Lazursky. Emil Kraepelin and Kurt Schneider proposed classifications of abnormal personality types. In parallel, psychoanalysts stressed the role of early life experiences. Towards the mid-20th century, statistical methods were applied to the scientific validation of personality dimensions with pioneers such as Cattell, anticipating the five-factor model. PMID:24174889
Elkins, R. Meredith; Gallo, Kaitlin P.; Pincus, Donna B.; Comer, Jonathan S.
Background Research supports the efficacy of intensive cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for the treatment of adolescent panic disorder with or without agoraphobia (PDA). However, little is known about the conditions under which intensive treatment is most effective. The current investigation examined the moderating roles of baseline fear and avoidance in the intensive treatment of adolescent PDA. Methods Adolescents with PDA (ages 11–17; N = 54) were randomized to either an intensive CBT treatment (n = 37) or a waitlist control condition (n = 17). PDA diagnosis, symptom severity, and number of feared and avoided situations were assessed at baseline and 6-week post-treatment/post-waitlist. Hierarchical regression analyses examined the relative contributions of treatment condition, number of baseline feared or avoided situations, and their interactions in the prediction of post-treatment/waitlist PDA symptoms. Results The main effect of intensive CBT on post-treatment PDA symptoms was not uniform across participants, with larger treatment effects found among participants with lower, relative to higher, baseline levels of fear and avoidance. Conclusions Findings help clarify which adolescents suffering with PDA may benefit most from an intensive treatment format. PMID:26929742
Enter, Dorien; Terburg, David; Harrewijn, Anita; Spinhoven, Philip; Roelofs, Karin
Gaze avoidance is one of the most characteristic and persistent social features in people with Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD). It signals social submissiveness and hampers adequate social interactions. Patients with SAD typically show reduced testosterone levels, a hormone that facilitates socially dominant gaze behavior. Therefore we tested as a proof of principle whether single dose testosterone administration can reduce gaze avoidance in SAD. In a double-blind, within-subject design, 18 medication-free female participants with SAD and 19 female healthy control participants received a single dose of 0.5mg testosterone and a matched placebo, at two separate days. On each day, their spontaneous gaze behavior was recorded using eye-tracking, while they looked at angry, happy, and neutral facial expressions. Testosterone enhanced the percentage of first fixations to the eye-region in participants with SAD compared to healthy controls. In addition, SAD patients' initial gaze avoidance in the placebo condition was associated with more severe social anxiety symptoms and this relation was no longer present after testosterone administration. These findings indicate that single dose testosterone administration can alleviate gaze avoidance in SAD. They support theories on the dominance enhancing effects of testosterone and extend those by showing that effects are particularly strong in individuals featured by socially submissive behavior. The finding that this core characteristic of SAD can be directly influenced by single dose testosterone administration calls for future inquiry into the clinical utility of testosterone in the treatment of SAD.
Washburn, Jason J.; Romero, Erin Gregory; Welty, Leah J.; Abram, Karen M.; Teplin, Linda A.; McClelland, Gary M.; Paskar, Leah D.
Antisocial personality disorder (APD) is a serious public and mental health concern. Understanding how well conduct disorder (CD) and other mental disorders predict the development of APD among youths involved in the juvenile justice system is critical for prevention. The authors used a stratified random sample of 1,112 detained youths to examine…
Sansone, Lori A.
According to clinical experience, the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, and authorities in the field, patients with borderline personality disorder tend to be hyper-reactive to environmental stimuli. In addition to the preceding clinical impressions and experiences, the majority of empirical studies in this area have concluded that patients with borderline personality disorder are indeed hyper-responsive to experimental environmental stimuli, whether the stimuli are negative, positive, or even neutral or ambiguous. While two empirical studies did not find hyper-responsiveness, both were undertaken in inpatients with borderline personality disorder, and the potential for emotional blunting from psychotropic medications may have been a potential confound. These findings have several clinical implications in both mental health and primary care settings. PMID:20941347
Zlodre, J; Yiend, J; Burns, T
Competence to consent to treatment has not previously been examined in a personality disorder cohort without comorbid mental disorder. We examined competence and coercion in 174 individuals diagnosed with severe personality disorder using two validated tools (the MacArthur Competence Assessment Tool for Treatment and the MacArthur Coercion Assessment Scale – Short Form). Competence was not categorically impaired, but there were variations within the sample on dimensional competence measures. Further, there were significant negative correlations between experienced coercion and competence. Higher coercion scores were associated with two components of competence: lower understanding and reasoning. Patients who consented to treatment had higher scores on competence measures and experienced less coercion. These findings suggest that therapeutic approaches that decrease experienced coercion and increase competence may increase the engagement of individuals diagnosed with severe personality disorders in treatment. PMID:27284235
Miller, Joshua D.; Lynam, Donald R.
Assessment of the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (4th Ed.; "DSM-IV") personality disorders (PDs) using five-factor model (FFM) prototypes and counts has shown substantial promise, with a few exceptions. Miller, Reynolds, and Pilkonis suggested that the expert-generated FFM dependent prototype might be misspecified in…
Fassino, Secondo; Amianto, Federico; Gastaldi, Filippo; Abbate-Daga, Giovanni; Brambilla, Francesca; Leombruni, Paolo
Family environment is a pathogenic factor of borderline personality disorder (BPD). However, the personality traits of patients with BPD and their parents have never been assessed using the same instrument and then examined for relationships. In the present study, we explored the temperament and character traits of BPD patients and their parents to investigate possible interactions. In total, 56 patients with BPD and their parents were evaluated with the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) and compared with 53 control families. Discriminant and correlation analyses indicated that subjects with BPD displayed higher levels of novelty seeking, harm avoidance, and self-transcendence and lower levels of self-directedness than control subjects. Their fathers displayed higher levels of novelty seeking and lower levels of persistence and self-directedness, and their mothers displayed lower levels of self-directedness compared with levels in control parents. In BPD families, temperament and character traits displayed high levels of discriminatory power. Novelty seeking in offspring with borderline personality disorder was significantly correlated with their mothers' novelty seeking and their fathers' self-transcendence. Self-directedness in borderline offspring was significantly correlated with both their mothers' and fathers' novelty seeking, and their self-transcendence was significantly correlated with their mothers' novelty seeking and harm avoidance. The different correlational pattern for borderline and control families is discussed. Characteristic personality patterns were found in BPD offspring and in both parents. The relationship between personality traits of borderline offspring and those of their parents may be related to both genetic transmission and family dynamics. Ramifications for treatment are discussed.
Scaruffi, Elisabetta; Gambineri, Alessandra; Cattaneo, Stefania; Turra, Jenni; Vettor, Roberto; Mioni, Roberto
Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most prevalent endocrine disorder among fertile women. Studies show reduced quality of life, anxiety, depression, body dissatisfaction, eating disorder, and sexual dysfunction, but the etiology of these disturbs remains still debated. The aim of our study is to verify whether this hyperandrogenic syndrome characterizes a strong psycho(patho)logical personality. Method: Sixty PCOS subjects (mean age 25.8 ± 4.7 years) were evaluated by anthropometric, metabolic, hormonal, clinical, and psychological parameters. After the certainty of the diagnosis of PCOS, the Rorschach test, according to Exner’s comprehensive system (CS) and the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III (MCMI-III) were administered to each patient. The control group, on which the comparison was carried out, was composed by 40 healthy and aged compared women who were exclusively administered the Rorschach test according to CS. Results: MCMI-III evidenced axis II DSM-IV personality disorders [4.1% schizoid, depressive, sadistic, negativistic (passive–aggressive), and masochistic, 6.1% avoiding, 12.2% dependent, 20.4% histrionic, 16.3% narcissistic, 2.0% obsessive–compulsive], and axis I DSM-IV psychiatric disorders: 10.2% anxiety, 2.0% somatoform disorder and bipolar disorder, 16.3% major depressive disorder. Finally, we found 44.9% delusional disorder and 4.1% thought disorder. Rorschach test’s results show 53.1% reduced coping abilities and social skills, 55.1% depression, 30.6% perceptual distortion and cognitive slippage, 24.5% constantly alert and worry, 8.1% at risk for suicide, and finally about 50% of our patients had chronic stress. Conclusion: PCOS women have relevant personality and psychiatric disorders, when compared with normal subjects. PMID:25429283
Khlebnikova, N N; Krupina, N A; Kushnareva, E Yu; Orlova, I N
Using rat model of experimental anxiety-depressive disorder caused by postnatal administration of methionyl-2(S)-cyanopyrrolidine, an inhibitor of dipeptidyl peptidase IV, we compared conditioned active avoidance response and memory retention in males and females. In experimental males and females, conditioning was impaired in comparison with the control. In experimental groups, females were worse learners than males, while in control groups, females were better learners than males. Memory retention in experimental animals did not differ from that in controls 24 h after learning. Two months after learning, control females demonstrated better retention than control males.
Wakefield, Jerome C
The DSM's general criteria for personality disorder (PD) attempt to define PD versus nondisordered personality conditions. If dimensionalization of PD occurs in the DSM-V (perhaps, it is suggested, with PD diagnosis moved to Axis I and overall personality assessment in Axis II, thus separating diagnosis from case formulation), general criteria likely will still be needed to prevent massive false positives. In this article, one of the general criteria, the cultural deviance requirement (CDR), is examined from the perspective of the evolution-based harmful-dysfunction analysis of disorder. The CDR is often assumed to express value relativity of harm in diagnosis, but cultural values are a designed feature of human social functioning that influence personality formation. The CDR is thus argued to be an indicator of whether an individual's personality organization is due to an evolutionary dysfunction. Value relativity and evolutionary analysis thus converge.
Tully, Phillip J; Selkow, Terina
Several international guidelines recommend routine depression screening in cardiac disease populations. No previous study has determined the prevalence and comorbidities of personality disorders in patients presenting for psychiatric treatment after these screening initiatives. In the first stage 404 heart failure (HF) patients were routinely screened and 73 underwent structured interview when either of the following criteria were met: (a) Patient Health Questionnaire ≥10; (b) Generalized Anxiety Disorder Questionnaire ≥7); (c) Response to one item panic-screener. Or (d) Suicidality. Patients with personality disorders were compared to the positive-screen patients on psychiatric comorbidities. The most common personality disorders were avoidant (8.2%), borderline (6.8%) and obsessive compulsive (4.1%), other personality disorders were prevalent in less than <3% of patients. Personality disorder patients had significantly greater risk of major depression (risk ratio (RR) 1.2; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2-13.3), generalized anxiety disorder (RR 3.2; 95% CI 1.0-10.0), social phobia (RR 3.8; 95% CI 1.3-11.5) and alcohol abuse/dependence (RR 3.2; 95% 1.0-9.5). The findings that HF patients with personality disorders presented with complex psychiatric comorbidity suggest that pathways facilitating the integration of psychiatric services into cardiology settings are warranted when routine depression screening is in place.
Welander-Vatn, A.; Ystrom, E.; Tambs, K.; Neale, MC.; Kendler, KS.; Reichborn-Kjennerud, T.; Knudsen, GP.
Background There is substantial comorbidity between personality disorders (PDs) and anxiety disorders (ADs). Sharing of familial risk factors possibly explains the co-occurrence, but direct causal relationships between the disorders may also exist. Methods 2801 persons from 1391 twin pairs from the Norwegian Institute of Public Health Twin Panel were assessed for all DSM-IV PDs and ADs. Bivariate Poisson-regression analyses were performed to assess whether PDs predicted ADs at three different levels: All PDs combined, PDs combined within DSM-IV-clusters and each individual PD separately. Next, bivariate co-twin control analyses were executed within monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twin pairs. A similar analytic strategy was employed in multivariate models including PDs as independent variables. Results PDs predicted ADs at all levels of analysis in bivariate regression models. Bivariate co-twin control analyses demonstrated an increased risk of ADs in all PDs combined, all PD-clusters and in schizotypal, paranoid, borderline, antisocial, avoidant and dependent PD. In the multivariate regression model, all PD-clusters and schizotypal, borderline, avoidant and obsessive-compulsive PD predicted ADs. Only borderline and avoidant PD predicted ADs in the multivariate co-twin control analysis. Limitations Over-adjustment may explain the results from the multivariate analyses. The cross-sectional study design hampers causal inference. Conclusions Comorbidity between ADs and PDs can be largely accounted for by shared familial risk factors. However, the results are also consistent with a direct causal relationship partly explaining the co-occurrence. Our results indicate specific environmental factors for comorbidity of ADs and borderline and avoidant PDs that are not shared with other PDs. PMID:26544619
Kashdan, Todd B.; Morina, Nexhmedin; Priebe, Stefan
Few studies have been conducted on psychological disorders other than post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in war survivors. The aim of this study was to examine PTSD, social anxiety disorder (SAD), and major depressive disorder (MDD) and their associations with distress and quality of life in 174 Albanian civilian survivors of the Kosovo war. This included testing of conceptual models suggesting that experiential avoidance might influence associations between anxiety and mood disorders with psychological functioning. Each of the three psychiatric disorders was associated with greater experiential avoidance and psychological distress, and lower quality of life. Being a refugee was associated with a higher likelihood of having SAD and MDD. We found evidence for experiential avoidance as a partial mediator of the respective effects of SAD and PTSD on quality of life; experiential avoidance did not mediate the effects of disorders on global distress. We also found support for a moderation model showing that only war survivors without SAD and low experiential avoidance reported elevated quality of life; people with either SAD or excessive reliance on experiential avoidance reported compromised, low quality of life. This is the third independent study, each using a different methodology, to find empirical support for this moderation model (Kashdan & Breen, 2008; Kashdan & Steger, 2006). Overall, we provided initial evidence for the importance of addressing PTSD, SAD, MDD, and experiential avoidance in primarily civilian war survivors. PMID:18676121
Pixley, J. H.; Huse, David A.; Das Sarma, S.
We numerically study the effect of short-ranged potential disorder on massless noninteracting three-dimensional Dirac and Weyl fermions, with a focus on the question of the proposed (and extensively theoretically studied) quantum critical point separating semimetal and diffusive-metal phases. We determine the properties of the eigenstates of the disordered Dirac Hamiltonian (H ) and exactly calculate the density of states (DOS) near zero energy, using a combination of Lanczos on H2 and the kernel polynomial method on H . We establish the existence of two distinct types of low-energy eigenstates contributing to the disordered density of states in the weak-disorder semimetal regime. These are (i) typical eigenstates that are well described by linearly dispersing perturbatively dressed Dirac states and (ii) nonperturbative rare eigenstates that are weakly dispersive and quasilocalized in the real-space regions with the largest (and rarest) local random potential. Using twisted boundary conditions, we are able to systematically find and study these two (essentially independent) types of eigenstates. We find that the Dirac states contribute low-energy peaks in the finite-size DOS that arise from the clean eigenstates which shift and broaden in the presence of disorder. On the other hand, we establish that the rare quasilocalized eigenstates contribute a nonzero background DOS which is only weakly energy dependent near zero energy and is exponentially small at weak disorder. We also find that the expected semimetal to diffusive-metal quantum critical point is converted to an avoided quantum criticality that is "rounded out" by nonperturbative effects, with no signs of any singular behavior in the DOS at the energy of the clean Dirac point. However, the crossover effects of the avoided (or hidden) criticality manifest themselves in a so-called quantum critical fan region away from the Dirac energy. We discuss the implications of our results for disordered Dirac and Weyl
Oltmanns, Thomas F.; Balsis, Steve
Lifespan perspectives have played a crucial role in shaping our understanding of many forms of psychopathology. Unfortunately, little attention has been given to personality disorders in middle adulthood and later life. Several issues are responsible for this deficiency, including difficulty applying the diagnostic criteria for personality disorders to older people and challenges in identifying appropriate samples of older participants. The goal of this review is to explore the benefits of considering older adults in the study of personality disorders. Later life offers a unique opportunity for investigators to consider links between personality pathology and consequential outcomes in people’s lives. Many domains are relevant, including health, longevity, social adjustment, marital relationships, and the experience of major life events. We review each domain and consider ways in which the study of middle-aged and older adults challenges researchers to evaluate how personality disorders in general are defined and measured. PMID:21219195
Petrosini, Laura; Cutuli, Debora; Picerni, Eleonora; Laricchiuta, Daniela
The variance in the range of personality trait expression appears to be linked to structural variance in specific brain regions. In evidencing associations between personality factors and neurobiological measures, it seems evident that the cerebellum has not been up to now thought as having a key role in personality. This paper will review the most recent structural and functional neuroimaging literature that engages the cerebellum in personality traits, as novelty seeking and harm avoidance, and it will discuss the findings in the context of contemporary theories of affective and cognitive cerebellar function. By using region of interest (ROI)- and voxel-based approaches, we recently evidenced that the cerebellar volumes correlate positively with novelty seeking scores and negatively with harm avoidance scores. Subjects who search for new situations as a novelty seeker does (and a harm avoiding does not do) show a different engagement of their cerebellar circuitries in order to rapidly adapt to changing environments. The emerging model of cerebellar functionality may explain how the cerebellar abilities in planning, controlling, and putting into action the behavior are associated to normal or abnormal personality constructs. In this framework, it is worth reporting that increased cerebellar volumes are even associated with high scores in alexithymia, construct of personality characterized by impairment in cognitive, emotional, and affective processing. On such a basis, it seems necessary to go over the traditional cortico-centric view of personality constructs and to address the function of the cerebellar system in sustaining aspects of motivational network that characterizes the different temperamental traits.
Yun, Rebecca J; Stern, Barry L; Lenzenweger, Mark F; Tiersky, Lana A
The current Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) diagnostic system for Axis II disorders continues to be characterized by considerable heterogeneity and poor discriminant validity. Such problems impede accurate personality disorder (PD) diagnosis. As a result, alternative assessment tools are often used in conjunction with the DSM. One popular framework is the object relational model developed by Kernberg and his colleagues (J. F. Clarkin, M. F. Lenzenweger, F. Yeomans, K. N. Levy, & O. F. Kernberg, 2007, An object relations model of borderline pathology, Journal of Personality Disorders, Vol. 21, pp. 474-499; O. F. Kernberg, 1984, Severe Personality Disorders, New Haven, CT: Yale University Press; O. F. Kernberg & E. Caligor, 2005, A psychoanalytic theory of personality disorders, in M. F. Lenzenweger & J. F. Clarkin, Eds., Major Theories of Personality Disorder, New York, NY: Guilford Press). Drawing on this model and empirical studies thereof, the current study attempted to clarify Kernberg's (1984) PD taxonomy and identify subtypes within a sample with varying levels of personality pathology using finite mixture modeling. Subjects (N = 141) were recruited to represent a wide range of pathology. The finite mixture modeling results indicated that 3 components were harbored within the variables analyzed. Group 1 was characterized by low levels of antisocial, paranoid, and aggressive features, and Group 2 was characterized by elevated paranoid features. Group 3 revealed the highest levels across the 3 variables. The validity of the obtained solution was then evaluated by reference to a variety of external measures that supported the validity of the identified grouping structure. Findings generally appear congruent with previous research, which argued that a PD taxonomy based on paranoid, aggressive, and antisocial features is a viable supplement to current diagnostic systems. Our study suggests that Kernberg's object relational model offers a
Goëb, J-L; Azcona, B; Troussier, F; Malka, J; Giniès, J-L; Duverger, P
We underline the clinical importance of a specific eating disorder in 3 to 10 years old children, when the majority of the works about the prepubertal eating disorders focus either on the period just preceding adolescence (often between 10 and 13 years), or on the second half of the first year of the baby. Within the eating disorders described in the literature, we compare the clinical presentation of most of these 3 to 10 years old children with the food avoidance emotional disorder described during adolescence. These problems of eating behaviour (various selective eating with or without provoked vomiting) are ignored for a long time in these young children because of quite a satisfactory growth, but these children are often seen in emergency rooms because of a brutally complete eating refusal. Therapeutic consultations allow these children to express their fears about diseases, poisoning and death, for themselves or for their close relations, in particular the mother, without endangering their body. The early recognition and care of these difficulties of conciliation between the body and the thoughts impose a narrow collaboration between paediatric and psychiatric staffs.
Pietrefesa, Ashley S.; Coles, Meredith E.
Cognitive-behavioral conceptualizations of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) have predominantly viewed compulsions as being motivated by harm avoidance. However, sensations of things being incomplete or not "just right" may also underlie compulsions in OCD. Preliminary research suggests that distinguishing between harm avoidance and…
Levin, Michael E.; Lillis, Jason; Seeley, John; Hayes, Steven C.; Pistorello, Jacqueline; Biglan, Anthony
Objective: This study explored the relationship of experiential avoidance (eg, the tendency to avoid, suppress, or otherwise control internal experiences even when doing so causes behavioral harm) to alcohol use disorders and alcohol-related problems. Participants: Cross-sectional data were collected from 240 undergraduate college students in…
Freiheit, Stacy R.; And Others
The utility of Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory personality disorder scales was studied with 217 male adolescent psychiatric inpatients. Analyses of variance found patterns consistent with research on adult samples in spite of differences in factor structure. These similarities suggest that adolescent assessment may provide information…
Koelen, Jurrijn A; Eurelings-Bontekoe, Liesbeth H M; Kempke, Stefan
Patients with somatoform disorder (SFD) are characterized by the presence of chronic physical complaints that are not fully explained by a general medical condition or another mental disorder. Insecure attachment patterns are common in this patient group, which are often associated with interpersonal difficulties. In the present study, the mediational role of two types of alexithymia and negative affectivity (NA) was examined in the association between attachment styles and interpersonal problems in a group of 120 patients with SFD. Patients were requested to fill out several self-report questionnaires for the assessment of attachment strategies, alexithymia, NA, and interpersonal problems. Cognitive alexithymia (i.e., the inability to identify and verbalize emotions) mediated the relationship between avoidant attachment patterns and interpersonal problems, even after controlling for NA. Preliminary findings also suggested that NA acted as a moderator of the mediator cognitive alexithymia. These results have important implications for clinical practice, as this study clearly shows that interpersonal problems do not automatically follow from insecure attachment strategies, but are contingent upon alexithymic features. It is recommended to target alexithymic features in patients with SFD, particularly in the context of negative emotions. Therefore, cognitive alexithymia may be an important therapeutic focus, specifically in the treatment of avoidant ptients with SFD.
Levallius, Johanna; Roberts, Brent W; Clinton, David; Norring, Claes
Many treatments for eating disorders (ED) have demonstrated success. However, not all patients respond the same to interventions nor achieve full recovery, and obvious candidates like ED diagnosis and symptoms have generally failed to explain this variability. The current study investigated the predictive utility of personality for outcome in ED treatment. One hundred and thirty adult patients with bulimia nervosa or eating disorder not otherwise specified enrolled in an intensive multimodal treatment for 16 weeks. Personality was assessed with the NEO Personality Inventory Revised (NEO PI-R). Outcome was defined as recovered versus still ill and also as symptom score at termination with the Eating Disorder Inventory-2 (EDI-2). Personality significantly predicted both recovery (70% of patients) and symptom improvement. Patients who recovered reported significantly higher levels of Extraversion at baseline than the still ill, and Assertiveness emerged as the personality trait best predicting variance in outcome. This study indicates that personality might hold promise as predictor of recovery after treatment for ED. Future research might investigate if adding interventions to address personality features improves outcome for ED patients.
Clark, Allison A; Owens, Gina P
U.S. veterans of Iraq and/or Afghanistan (N = 116) completed an Internet survey with questions related to attachment style in intimate relationships, personality factors, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Participants completed the PTSD Checklist-Military, Experiences in Close Relationships Scale-Short Form, and the International Personality Item Pool Big Five Short Form Questionnaire. Most participants were male and Caucasian. Hierarchical linear regression analysis results indicated that emotional stability (β = -.46, p < .001) and attachment avoidance (β = .20, p < .05) were associated with PTSD symptom severity (adjusted R(2) = .63). An interaction between conscientiousness and attachment anxiety was found (β = -.26, p < .001; ΔR(2) = .06), with secure attachment moderating the relationship between conscientiousness and PTSD symptom severity. Results of this study indicate that emotional stability, conscientiousness, and secure relationship attachment styles (low attachment anxiety and avoidance) are important for postcombat mental health.
Schindler, Andreas; Sack, Peter-Michael
Studies exploring attachment patterns in samples of patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) report a combination of preoccupied and fearful-avoidant patterns. This has been interpreted as reflecting the approach-avoidance dilemma of BPD. Comorbid substance use disorders (SUD) have not been considered in these studies, despite the high proportions of SUD among BPD patients and despite the more avoidant attachment in SUD samples. This cross-sectional, naturalistic study explores attachment patterns in a sample of comorbid (BPD and SUD) patients, comparing them to two samples of patients with either SUD or BPD only. Within-group comparisons replicated findings of both preoccupied and fearful-avoidant attachment in BPD and comorbid groups. But between-group comparisons showed that comorbid patients were significantly less preoccupied (p = 0.018) and more dismissing-avoidant (p = 0.030). Although both groups were similar in several psychiatric measures, attachment patterns of the comorbid group were more similar to substance abusers than to borderline patients.
Boisseau, Christina L; Thompson-Brenner, Heather; Eddy, Kamryn T; Satir, Dana A
Impulsivity among individuals with eating disorders (EDs) is associated with severe comorbidities and poor treatment outcome. However, research investigating the construct of impulsivity in EDs is limited. The objectives of the present study were to characterize multiple dimensions of impulsivity in adolescents with EDs; determine if differences in impulsivity were associated with ED diagnosis and/or broader personality traits; and explore the relationship between impulsivity and etiologically significant variables. Experienced clinicians from a practice-research network provided data on ED symptoms, impulsive characteristics, personality pathology, The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders comorbidity, and family and developmental history for 120 adolescent patients with EDs. Three distinct types of impulsivity were identified: general, acting out, and aggressive/destructive. The impulsivity types showed specific relationships to ED diagnosis, broader personality factors, individual histories of adverse (traumatic) events, and family histories of externalizing disorders, supporting the importance of taking, assessing, and addressing impulsivity in ED research and treatment.
Rubino, I A; Greco, E; Zanna, V; Pezzarossa, B
Microgenetic styles of regulation of subjects with (n = 46) and without (n = 44) psychometric evidence of personality disorders were assessed by means of the Serial Color-Word Test. The disordered group were characterized by the primary Dissociative pattern and by very low values of the initial strategy called ITa. Subjects with psychometric evidence of Histrionic (n = 21) and Obsessive-Compulsive (n = 21) Personality Disorders were then compared. Histrionic personality corresponded most often to a primary Stabilized style, with a progressive slight increase of dissociation over time (Cv type). The compulsive trait was instead associated with high primary cumulation (and moderately elevated dissociation), concomitantly with secondary dissociative patterns (CDr and Dv/CDv). These results seem to encourage further clinical research with the Serial Color-Word Test.
Stickley, T; Nickeas, R
Dissociative identity disorder is a rare diagnosis, although people currently with a diagnosis of psychosis may in fact be experiencing what is associated with the disorder. This article is co-authored by a nurse and a person who has lived with alters (multiple personalities) for nearly all of her life. Because of the rarity of the diagnosis, there is much misunderstanding and ignorance among lay people and mental health professionals. This article therefore clarifies historical and contemporary issues surrounding this particular mental health problem both through examining the literature and through narrative of the person's experience. Special attention is given to the reality of coping with the difficulties that dissociative identity disorder create.
Abbate-Daga, Giovanni; Gramaglia, Carla; Amianto, Federico; Marzola, Enrica; Fassino, Secondo
The aim of this study is assessing interactions between attachment style and personality in predicting body dissatisfaction (BD). A total of 586 outpatients with eating disorders (EDs) were recruited: 101 with anorexia nervosa, restricting type; 52 with anorexia nervosa, binge-eating/purging type; 184 with bulimia nervosa, purging type; and 249 with an eating disorder not otherwise specified. Participants completed Temperament and Character Inventory, Body Shape Questionnaire, Beck Depression Inventory, and Attachment Style Questionnaire. An insecure attachment was found in all EDs, as well as in eating disorder not otherwise specified. In all diagnostic groups, need for approval, as measured by the Attachment Style Questionnaire and depressive symptomatology, was found to be the best predictor of BD. Personality traits are weaker predictors of BD. This study supports the hypothesis that attachment insecurity is directly correlated with BD, core element in predicting and perpetuating EDs, independently of personality. Implications for treatment are discussed.
Widiger, Thomas A.; Simonsen, Erik; Krueger, Robert; Livesley, W. John; Verheul, Roel
The American Psychiatric Association is sponsoring a series of international conferences to set a research agenda for the development of the next edition of the diagnostic manual. The first conference in this series, “Dimensional Models of Personality Disorder: Etiology, Pathology, Phenomenology, & Treatment,” was devoted to reviewing the existing research and setting a future research agenda that would be most effective in leading the field toward a dimensional classification of personality disorder. The purpose of this article, authored by the Steering Committee of this conference, was to provide a summary of the conference papers and their recommendations for research. Covered herein are the reviews and recommendations concerning alternative dimensional models of personality disorder, behavioral genetics and gene mapping, neurobiological mechanisms, childhood antecedents, cross–cultural issues, Axes I and II continuity, coverage and cutoff points for diagnosis, and clinical utility. PMID:16175740
This article describes a conceptual framework for describing borderline personality disorder (BPD) based on empirical studies of the phenotypic structure and genetic architecture of personality. The proposed phenotype has 2 components: (1) a description of core self and interpersonal pathology-the defining features of personality disorder-as these features are expressed in the disorder; and (2) a set of traits based on the anxious-dependent or emotional dysregulation factor of the four-factor model of PD. Four kinds of traits are described: emotional (anxiousness, emotional reactivity, emotional intensity, and pessimistic-anhedonia), interpersonal (submissiveness, insecure attachment, social apprehensiveness, and need for approval), cognitive (cognitive dysregulation), and self-harm (behaviors and ideas). Formulation of the phenotype was guided by the conceptualization of personality as a system of interrelated sub-systems. The psychopathology associated with BPD involves most components of the system. The trait structure of the disorder is assumed to reflect the genetic architecture of personality and individual traits are assumed to be based on adaptive mechanisms. It is suggested that borderline traits are organized around the trait of anxiousness and that an important feature of BPD is dysregulation of the threat management system leading to pervasive fearfulness and unstable emotions. The interpersonal traits are assumed to be heritable characteristics that evolved to deal with interpersonal threats that arose as a result of social living. The potential for unstable and conflicted interpersonal relationships that is inherent to the disorder is assumed to result from the interplay between the adaptive structure of personality and psychosocial adversity. The etiology of the disorder is discussed in terms of biological and environmental factors associated with each component of the phenotype.
Hetzel-Riggin, Melanie D; Meads, Christina L
Research suggests the existence of distinct avoidant coping mechanisms after trauma: peritraumatic dissociation, secondary alexithymia, and experiential avoidance. Within the Emotional Processing Model (Foa and Kozak, Psychol Bull. 99:20-35, 1986), research suggests that each of these avoidant coping mechanisms comes into play at a different phase of traumatic stress development. The present study sought to confirm if these three avoidant coping mechanisms are different constructs and how they relate to each other and the experience of trauma, peritraumatic distress, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). A total of 227 participants with a trauma history completed measures on trauma experience, peritraumatic distress, peritraumatic dissociation, secondary alexithymia, experiential avoidance, and PTSD. Structural equation modeling confirmed that peritraumatic dissociation, secondary alexithymia, and experiential avoidance influence different phases of the development of traumatic stress problems. These results also confirm that the Emotional Process Model provides a good context for understanding the interrelationships among the avoidant coping mechanisms.
Background Hypnotic susceptibility is one of the stable characteristics of individuals, but not closely related to the personality traits such as those measured by the five-factor model in the general population. Whether it is related to the personality disorder functioning styles remains unanswered. Methods In 77 patients with personality disorders and 154 healthy volunteers, we administered the Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale: Form C (SHSSC) and the Parker Personality Measure (PERM) tests. Results Patients with personality disorders showed higher passing rates on SHSSC Dream and Posthypnotic Amnesia items. No significant correlation was found in healthy volunteers. In the patients however, SHSSC Taste hallucination (β = 0.26) and Anosmia to Ammonia (β = -0.23) were significantly correlated with the PERM Borderline style; SHSSC Posthypnotic Amnesia was correlated with the PERM Schizoid style (β = 0.25) but negatively the PERM Narcissistic style (β = -0.23). Conclusions Our results provide limited evidence that could help to understand the abnormal cognitions in personality disorders, such as their hallucination and memory distortions. PMID:21801440
Goldberg, R L; Mann, L S; Wise, T N; Segall, E A
This study explores the contribution of parental qualities to the borderline personality disorder. The Parental Bonding Inventory is used to compare four parental qualities (caring mother, caring father, overprotective father, and overprotective mother) across three groups (borderline personality disorders, assorted psychiatric controls and normal controls). The major finding was that the borderline patients perceived their parents to be significantly less caring and more overprotective than both the psychiatric control or nonclinical control groups. This study was verified previous reports that patients diagnosed with an affective illness (in either the borderline group or psychiatric control group) reported no significant differences on the inventory. Pinpointing parental characteristics which antecede mental disorders may be an important first step in devising primary preventive interventions for adult disorders.
Levy, Kenneth N; Beeney, Joseph E; Temes, Christina M
This article reviews the recent literature on attachment and attachment-related constructs in borderline personality disorder, with attention given to how recent findings in this area may inform understanding of the mechanisms underlying the etiology, maintenance, and treatment of the disorder. Most findings on this topic have stemmed from three major areas of research, each of which is reviewed in this article: 1) developmental psychopathology studies; 2) experimental psychopathology studies, particularly those using a neuroscience approach; and 3) treatment studies that have examined variables relevant to attachment. Overall, these findings suggest that attachment and related constructs may factor greatly into the underlying psychopathology of borderline personality disorder and may significantly impact the process and outcome of psychotherapy for the disorder. These findings are discussed as they relate to existing theories and ongoing debates in the field, and the implications for future research and clinical practice are highlighted.
Raines, J M; Raines, L C; Singer, M
It has been proposed that Bram Stoker's novel Dracula can best be understood as a dramatic, hyperbolic, and fantastic expression of themes consistent with contemporary psychoanalytic conceptions of borderline personality disorder organization. Such an understanding may, in turn, shed further light on the nature of the intrapsychic world and experiences of borderline patients. Excerpts from the novel can be used to support the conceptualization of recent contributions to object relations theory and the understanding of borderline personality organization. It is uncanny how consistent Dracula's characteristics are to the generally seen complaints of patients suffering from this disorder.
Bastiaansen, Leen; De Fruyt, Filip; Rossi, Gina; Schotte, Christiaan; Hofmans, Joeri
As it stands now, the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.; DSM-5; American Psychiatric Association, in press) will maintain the categorical model and criteria distinguishing the 10 personality disorders (PDs) described in the fourth edition of the manual (DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 1994). An alternative diagnostic proposal based on two criteria, being impaired personality functioning and the presence of maladaptive traits, will be referred to a special section for further research and clinical evaluation. Two issues pertaining to this alternative diagnostic approach need further clarification. First, more insight is required in the specific nature of personality dysfunction, its underlying structure, and optimal operationalization. Second, confusion still exists about how personality dysfunction and traits are interconnected and how they both contribute to the PD diagnosis. The current study addresses both issues empirically in a sample of 159 psychiatric patients by (a) investigating the structure of personality functioning as assessed by the Severity Indices of Personality Problems (SIPP-118), and (b) determining the incremental validity of the resulting dysfunction factors vis-à-vis trait domains (measured by the NEO Personality Inventory-Revised [NEO-PI-R]) in explaining DSM-IV PD variance. Trait and dysfunction dimensions were strongly correlated but showed significant, though limited, incremental validity above each other. Implications for the conceptualization of personality pathology are discussed.
Spaans, Marleen; Barendregt, Marko; Haan, Bernadette; Nijman, Henk; de Beurs, Edwin
The present study empirically investigates whether personality disorders and psychopathic traits in criminal suspects are reasons for diminished criminal responsibility or enforced treatment in high security hospitals. Recently, the tenability of the claim that individuals with personality disorders and psychopathy can be held fully responsible for crimes has been questioned on theoretical bases. According to some interpretations, these disorders are due to cognitive, biological and developmental deficits that diminish the individual's accountability. The current article presents two studies among suspects of serious crimes under forensic evaluation in a Dutch forensic psychiatric observation clinic. The first study examined how experts weigh personality disorders in their conclusions as far as the degree of criminal responsibility and the need for enforced forensic psychiatric treatment are concerned (n=843). The second study investigated associations between PCL-R scores and experts' responsibility and treatment advisements (n=108). The results suggest that in Dutch forensic practice, the presence of a personality disorder decreased responsibility and led to an advice for enforced forensic treatment. Experts also take characteristics of psychopathy concerning impulsivity and (ir)responsibility into consideration when judging criminal accountability. Furthermore, they deem affective deficiencies sufficiently important to indicate suspects' threat to society or dangerousness and warrant a need for forensic treatment.
Zachar, P; Krueger, R F; Kendler, K S
As the revision process leading to DSM-5 began, the domain of personality disorder embodied the highest aspirations for major change. After an initial prototype-based proposal failed to gain acceptance, the Personality and Personality Disorders Work Group (P&PDWG) developed a hybrid model containing categorical and dimensional components. A clash of perspectives both within the P&PDWG and between the P&PDWG and DSM-5 oversight committees led to the rejection of this proposal from the main body of DSM-5. Major issues included conflicting ways of conceptualizing validation, differences of opinion from personality disorder experts outside the P&PDWG, divergent concepts of the magnitude of evidence needed to support substantial changes, and the disagreements about clinical utility of the hybrid model. Despite these setbacks, the 'Alternative DSM-5 Model of Personality Disorder' is presented in Section III of the DSM-5. Further research should clarify its performance relative to the DSM-IV criteria reprinted in the main DSM-5 text.
Rao, K. Nagaraja; Kulkarni, Ranganath R.; Begum, Shamshad
Background: Attempted suicide is a common clinical problem in a general hospital setting. It has a serious clinical and socio-economical impact too. Aims: To study the psychosocial, psychiatric, and personality profile of the first suicide attempters in a general hospital. Settings and Design: Cross-sectional, hospital-based, descriptive study. Materials and Methods: All the consecutive cases of first suicide attempt (n=100) treated in a general hospital were studied to know the clinical profile. Variables related to socio-demographic characteristics, family background, suicide characteristics, psychiatric morbidity, and comorbidity were analyzed. Risk-Rescue rating was applied to know the medical seriousness of the suicide attempt. Presumptive stressful life event scale was utilized to calculate life events score. Structured clinical interview (MINI Plus) and semi-structured clinical interview (IPDE) were used for axis-I and axis-II (personality) diagnoses. The results were analyzed using appropriate statistical measures. Results: Family history of psychiatric illnesses (31%) and suicide (11%) were noted. Insecticides and pesticides were the most common agents (71%) employed to attempt suicide. Interpersonal difficulties (46%) were the most frequent stressor. Overall medical seriousness of the suicide attempt was of moderate lethality. 93% of the suicide attempters had at least one axis-I and/or axis-II psychiatric disorder. Most common diagnostic categories were mood disorders, adjustment disorders, and substance-related disorders, with axis-I disorders (89%), personality disorders (52%), and comorbidity of psychiatric disorders (51.6%). Conclusion: Individuals who made first suicide attempt were young adults, had lower educational achievement; overall seriousness of the suicide attempt was of moderate lethality, high prevalence of psychiatric morbidity, personality disorders, and comorbidity, and had sought medical help from general practitioners. PMID:23833346
Reis, B E
The author suggests a developmental psychoanalytic frame from which to understand the clinical phenomenology of multiple personality disorder (MPD). Annihilation anxiety and fears of nonbeing are understood as central; they are seen as resulting from actual early traumatic impingements at key developmental periods. Alter "personalities" are conceptualized as functional delusional processes that serve to maintain self-cohesion. The alters are brought about through the subject's lack of capacity for illusion. Some therapeutic implications regarding a psychoanalytic stance are discussed.
Ginsberg, Michael L
Children with ADHD can achieve academic and personal success in adulthood. In this article the author shares personal perspectives on his own struggles with ADHD as a child and shares insights, tips, and anecdotes from his own life. These insights, when viewed in light of the scientific literature regarding ADHD, offer new directions for research into the management of the disorder in children and adolescents.
In-Albon, Tina; Schneider, Silvia
Cognitive biases are of interest in understanding the development of anxiety disorders. They also play a significant role during psychotherapy, where cognitive biases are modified in order to break the vicious cycle responsible for maintaining anxiety disorders. In a previous study, the vigilance-avoidance pattern was shown in children with…
... § 1000.462 When must a Tribe/Consortium regulate its employees or subcontractors to avoid a personal conflict of interest? A Tribe/Consortium must maintain written standards of conduct to govern officers... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false When must a Tribe/Consortium regulate its employees...
... § 1000.462 When must a Tribe/Consortium regulate its employees or subcontractors to avoid a personal conflict of interest? A Tribe/Consortium must maintain written standards of conduct to govern officers... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false When must a Tribe/Consortium regulate its employees...
... § 1000.462 When must a Tribe/Consortium regulate its employees or subcontractors to avoid a personal conflict of interest? A Tribe/Consortium must maintain written standards of conduct to govern officers... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false When must a Tribe/Consortium regulate its employees...
... § 1000.462 When must a Tribe/Consortium regulate its employees or subcontractors to avoid a personal conflict of interest? A Tribe/Consortium must maintain written standards of conduct to govern officers... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false When must a Tribe/Consortium regulate its employees...
... § 1000.462 When must a Tribe/Consortium regulate its employees or subcontractors to avoid a personal conflict of interest? A Tribe/Consortium must maintain written standards of conduct to govern officers... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When must a Tribe/Consortium regulate its employees...
Jones, Meredith; Westen, Drew
The present study examined the application of the Antisocial Personality Disorder (APD) diagnosis to adolescents and investigated the possibility of subtypes of APD adolescents. As part of a broader study of adolescent personality in clinically-referred patients, experienced clinicians provided personality data on a randomly selected patient in their care using the SWAP-II-A personality pathology instrument. Three hundred thirteen adolescents met adult DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for APD. To characterize adolescents with the disorder, we aggregated the data to identify the items most descriptive and distinctive of APD adolescents relative to other teenagers in the sample (N = 950). Q-factor analysis identified five personality subtypes: psychopathic-like, socially withdrawn, impulsive-histrionic, emotionally dysregulated, and attentionally dysregulated. The five subtypes differed in predictable ways on a set of external criteria related to global adaptive functioning, childhood family environment, and family history of psychiatric illness. Both the APD diagnosis and the empirically derived APD subtypes provided incremental validity over and above the DSM-IV disruptive behavior disorders in predicting global adaptive functioning, number of arrests, early-onset severe externalizing pathology, and quality of peer relationships. Although preliminary, these results provide support for the use of both APD and personality-based subtyping systems in adolescents.
Fernández-Montalvo, Javier; Landa, Natalia; López-Goñi, José J; Lorea, Iñaki
In this paper, the most frequent personality disorders (PDs) related to alcoholism are described. 105 participants took part in the study (50 consecutively recruited treatment-seeking alcoholics and 55 subjects from the general population). All subjects were assessed with the IPDE and the MCMI-II. According to the results in the IPDE, 22% of alcoholics, versus 7.27% of the normal sample, showed at least one PD. The most prevalent PDs were the Avoidance personality disorder (10%), followed by the Non-specified (8%) and Borderline (6%). When the MCMI-II was used a significantly higher prevalence of PDs was observed (52% in alcoholics and 18.1% in the normal sample), without coincidence in the kind of PDs diagnosed. This lack of consistency is probably related to the assessment tools, mainly the IPDE, which is more accurate and conservative than self-report inventories, which present a tendency for over-diagnosis.
Thomsen, Marianne S; Ruocco, Anthony C; Carcone, Dean; Mathiesen, Birgit B; Simonsen, Erik
The present study evaluates the severity of neurocognitive deficits and assesses their relations with self-reported childhood trauma and dimensions of personality psychopathology in 45 outpatients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) matched to 56 non-psychiatric controls. Participants completed a comprehensive battery of neurocognitive tests, a retrospective questionnaire on early life trauma and a dimensional measure of personality psychopathology. Patients with BPD primarily showed deficits in verbal comprehension, sustained visual attention, working memory and processing speed. Comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and an elevated childhood history of physical trauma were each accompanied by more severe neurocognitive deficits. There were no statistically significant associations between neurocognitive function and dimensions of personality psychopathology. These results suggest that patients with BPD display deficits mainly in higher-order thinking abilities that may be exacerbated by PTSD and substantial early life trauma. Potential relationships between neurocognitive deficits and dimensions of personality psychopathology in BPD need further examination.
Henriques-Calado, Joana; Duarte-Silva, Maria Eugénia; Keong, Ana Marta; Sacoto, Carlota; Junqueira, Diana
The relationships between Axis II personality disorders (DSM-IV) and the Five-Factor Model (FFM) were explored in older women. The sample consists of 90 participants (M = 72.29 years, SD = 7.10) who were administered the NEO-Five-Factor Inventory and the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire. The highest prevalence of A and C clusters and obsessive-compulsive personality disorder was observed. Also, elevated neuroticism and decreased agreeableness and openness appear as valuable traits in the description of psychopathology. The study of maladaptive personality functioning within an aging population can be described with the same traits that underlie normal personality functioning, extending the range of psychopathology to a dimensional approach.
Jensen, Hans Henrik; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Lotz, Martin
The Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory (MCMI) has become an important and commonly used instrument to assess personality functioning. Several studies report significant changes on MCMI personality disorder scales after psychological treatment. The aim of the study was to investigate whether pre-post-treatment changes in 39-session psychodynamic group psychotherapy as measured with the MCMI reflect real personality change or primarily reflect symptomatic state changes. Pre-post-treatment design included 236 psychotherapy outpatients. Personality changes were measured on the MCMI-II and symptomatic state changes on the Symptom Check List 90-R (SCL-90-R). The MCMI Schizoid, Avoidant, Self-defeating, and severe personality disorder scales revealed substantial changes, which could be predicted from changes on SCL-90-R global symptomatology (GSI) and on the SCL-90-R Depression scale. The MCMI Dependent personality score was the only MCMI personality scale showing significant change when the SCL-90-R Depression change score was included as a covariate. Splitting patients into those with and without personality disorders did not change the results. Observed changes on MCMI-II personality disorder scales in short-term psychotherapy reflect change in symptomatic state. The MCMI-II Base Rate cut-off points probably include too many patients, justifying the introduction of new scoring procedures in the MCMI-III.
Lee, Benjamin Y; Hogan, Daniel J; Ursine, Susonne; Yanamandra, Krishne; Bocchini, Joseph A
This is a description of some unknown skin disorders found by a physician inmate in a concentration camp, 1958 to 1962. After prolonged semistarvation and ultraheavy physical labor, skin lesions developed among the inmates including cutaneous pigmentation overlying bony prominence, buccal membrane pigmentation, palmoplantar keratoderma with fissures, palmar crease clefts, nail layering, intra-nail hemorrhage, and so on. These lesions responded dramatically to nutrition therapy, including dietary improvement, yeast administration, or thiamin injection. Thiamin deficiency was confirmed to be one of major etiologic factors, whereas the deficiency of niacin or riboflavin also played a part. In the pediatric case with palmar crease clefts, both thiamin and niacin were dramatically effective. No laboratory data could be provided.
Cooper, S A; Collacott, R A
The case of a 20-year-old woman with a histrionic personality disorder is described. She claims to have a mild learning disability, and indeed, is receiving special college education for people with learning disabilities and has a specialist learning disability social worker, despite being of above average intelligence. Aetiologically, her persona is viewed as a psychological defence, rather than a deliberate attempt at deception. A process of 'institutionalization' appears to have occurred and compounded the problems with further regression. Psychiatrists and professionals in allied disciplines should not accept that a person has a learning disability purely because that person tells you that he or she has one.
Prasko, Jan; Grambal, Ales; Kasalova, Petra; Kamardova, Dana; Ociskova, Marie; Holubova, Michaela; Vrbova, Kristyna; Sigmundova, Zuzana; Latalova, Klara; Slepecky, Milos; Zatkova, Marta
Objective The central goal of the study was to analyze the impact of dissociation on the treatment effectiveness in patients with anxiety/neurotic spectrum and depressive disorders with or without comorbid personality disorders. Methods The research sample consisted of inpatients who were hospitalized in the psychiatric department and met the ICD-10 criteria for diagnosis of depressive disorder, panic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, mixed anxiety–depressive disorder, agoraphobia, social phobia, obsessive compulsive disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, adjustment disorders, dissociative/conversion disorders, somatoform disorder, or other anxiety/neurotic spectrum disorder. The participants completed these measures at the start and end of the therapeutic program – Beck Depression Inventory, Beck Anxiety Inventory, a subjective version of Clinical Global Impression-Severity, Sheehan Patient-Related Anxiety Scale, and Dissociative Experience Scale. Results A total of 840 patients with anxiety or depressive spectrum disorders, who were resistant to pharmacological treatment on an outpatient basis and were referred for hospitalization for the 6-week complex therapeutic program, were enrolled in this study. Of them, 606 were statistically analyzed. Data from the remaining 234 (27.86%) patients were not used because of various reasons (103 prematurely finished the program, 131 did not fill in most of the questionnaires). The patients’ mean ratings on all measurements were significantly reduced during the treatment. Also, 67.5% reached at least minimal improvement (42.4% showed moderate and more improvement, 35.3% of the patients reached remission). The patients without comorbid personality disorder improved more significantly in the reduction of depressive symptoms than those with comorbid personality disorder. However, there were no significant differences in change in anxiety levels and severity of the mental issues between the patients with and without
Black, Donald W; Simsek-Duran, Fatma; Blum, Nancee; McCormick, Brett; Allen, Jeff
Systems Training for Emotional Predictability and Problem Solving (STEPPS) is a group treatment for persons with borderline personality disorder (BPD). We describe results from two data sets on outcome in persons who participated in STEPPS with BPD alone or BPD plus antisocial personality disorder (ASPD). In Study 1, we examined the effect of comorbid ASPD on outcome in 65 persons with BPD who participated in a randomized controlled trial at an academic medical centre. In Study 2, we examined the effect of comorbid ASPD on outcome in 64 offenders with BPD who participated in STEPPS in correctional settings. All subjects were assessed for the presence of BPD and ASPD. In Study 1, subjects with ASPD experienced greater improvement in BPD symptoms, impulsiveness and global symptoms. In Study 2, offenders with ASPD experienced greater improvement in positive and negative behaviours and positive affectivity. We conclude that persons with BPD plus ASPD benefit from STEPPS in community and correctional settings. The findings suggest that persons with BPD plus ASPD show greater improvement in some domains than persons with BPD only. People with ASPD should not be automatically excluded from participation in the program. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Gessaroli, Erica; Santelli, Erica; di Pellegrino, Giuseppe; Frassinetti, Francesca
People appropriately adjust the distance between themselves and others during social interaction, and they may feel discomfort and move away when another person intrudes on their personal space. In the present study, we investigated personal space in children with persistent difficulties in the domain of social behavior, such as children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), and in children with typical development (TD). The stop-distance paradigm was used to derive estimates of interpersonal distance, before and after a brief interaction with an unfamiliar adult confederate. The results showed that ASD children felt comfortable at a greater distance compared to TD children. Moreover, personal space shrunk after interaction with the confederate in TD children, but it failed to do so in ASD children. These findings reveal that autism deeply affects the regulation of personal space, influencing both its size and flexibility. PMID:24086410
Baltaxe, Christiane A. M.; And Others
This study compared high functioning adolescents and young adults with autism (n=8) or schizotypal personality disorder (n=9) in use of social language referencing. Both groups had similar rates, types, and patterns of cohesive reference errors, though subjects with schizotypal disorder used cohesive ties of reference more often and more correctly…
Zeilinger, E. L.; Nader, I. W.; Brehmer-Rinderer, B.; Koller, I.; Weber, G.
Background: Assessment of psychiatric disorders in persons with an intellectual developmental disorder (IDD) can be performed with a variety of greatly differing instruments. This makes the choice of an instrument best suited for the intended purpose challenging. In this study, we developed a comprehensive set of characteristics for the evaluation…
Alcorn, Joseph L; Gowin, Joshua L; Green, Charles E; Swann, Alan C; Moeller, F Gerard; Lane, Scott D
Aggression, impulsivity, and psychopathic traits are prominent in both antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) and substance use disorders (SUD), but have rarely been examined collectively. The authors' results show that all three variables were elevated in adults with comorbid ASPD/SUD, relative to SUD-only and control subjects.
Maghsoodloo, Safa; Ghodousi, Arash; Karimzadeh, Taghi
Background: Commission of crime and hostility and their forensic consequences in a patient with schizophrenia can worsen the patient's condition and disturb his family, society, and even the psychiatrist. Based on previous research, patients with schizophrenia are at a higher risk for crime. It is not clear whether this is due to the nature of schizophrenia, comorbidity of antisocial personality disorder, or the history of conduct disorder in childhood. In this study, we investigated this hypothesis. Materials and Methods: In this case-control study, 30 criminal and 30 non-criminal patients with schizophrenia, who had been referred by the court to the Forensic Medicine Center of Isfahan, were evaluated for antisocial personality disorder, history of conduct disorder, and psychopathy checklist-revise (PCL-R) score. Results: Frequency distribution of antisocial personality disorder (73.3%), history of conduct disorder in childhood (86.7%), and score of PCL-R ≥25 (indicating high probability of hostility) in patients (40%) were significantly higher in criminal patients than in non-criminals (10%, 30% and 0%, respectively; P < 0.001). Conclusions: More prevalence of antisocial personality disorder, history of conduct disorder, and high score of PCL-R (≥25) in criminal schizophrenic patients may indicate that in order to control the hostility and for prevention of crime, besides treating acute symptoms of psychosis, patients might receive treatment and rehabilitation for comorbidities too. PMID:23626636
Nagy, Joan; Szatmari, Peter
The literature on the diagnostic validity of schizotypal personality disorders (SPD) in childhood is reviewed, and the results of a chart review of 20 SPD children meeting Diagnostic and Statistical Manual III criteria are presented suggesting that SPD in childhood exists and warrants study. (Author/CB)
A female outdoor educator who had recovered from anorexia nervosa reflects on the boundaries between her personal and professional identity as she anticipates taking on a research role in adventure-therapy programs. Gender issues in outdoor education are discussed in relation to women's body image and eating disorders. (SV)
Sansone, Randy A.; Gage, Mark D.; Wiederman, Michael W.
Clients (N=32) who were involuntarily hospitalized in a psychiatric facility were assessed for borderline personality disorder (BPD) using an interview and two self-report questionnaires. The majority (53.1%) met criteria for BPD on all three measures, 18.8% on two measures, and 18.8% on only one measure. Implications of these findings are…
Daoust, Anne-Marie; Lusignan, Felix-Antoine; Braun, Claude M. J.; Mottron, Laurent; Godbout, Roger
Dream questionnaires were completed by 28 young adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) participants. Seventy-nine typically developed individual served as the control group. In a subset of 17 persons with ASD and 11 controls matched for verbal IQ, dream narratives were obtained following REM sleep awakenings in a sleep laboratory.…
Hopper, Melissa T.
This research paper provides information that would be useful to practicing counselors and counselors in training. It reviews the relevant research pertaining to the relationship between attachment status and personality disorders. It also critiques methodological issues, including major assessment instruments and frequently used research designs.…
Stewart, Jean L.; Martinez, Velma A.
Summarizes factors which make delivery of human services extremely difficult in Micronesia, noting problems of geographic distance and isolation and cultural and linguistic diversity. Presents a plan for providing services to persons with communication disorders using a speech-language pathologist and an audiologist with doctorates to supervise…
Bandelow, Borwin; Schmahl, Christian; Falkai, Peter; Wedekind, Dirk
The neurobiology of borderline personality disorder (BPD) remains unclear. Dysfunctions of several neurobiological systems, including serotoninergic, dopaminergic, and other neurotransmitter systems, have been discussed. Here we present a theory that alterations in the sensitivity of opioid receptors or the availability of endogenous opioids…
Brodsky, Beth S.; Groves, Shelly A.; Oquendo, Maria A.; Mann, J. John; Stanley, Barbara
Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is often characterized by multiple low lethality suicide attempts triggered by seemingly minor incidents, and less commonly by high lethality attempts that are attributed to impulsiveness or comorbid major depression. The relationships among life events, impulsiveness, and type of suicidal behavior has hardly…
Hopwood, Christopher J.; Zanarini, Mary C.
Objective: Decisions about the composition of personality assessment in the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (5th ed.; DSM-V) will be heavily influenced by the clinical utility of candidate constructs. In this study, we addressed 1 aspect of clinical utility by testing the incremental validity of 5-factor model (FFM)…
Bornovalova, Marina A.; Hicks, Brian M.; Patrick, Christopher J.; Iacono, William G.; McGue, Matt
Although large epidemiological data sets can inform research on the etiology and development of borderline personality disorder (BPD), they rarely include BPD measures. In some cases, however, proxy measures can be constructed using instruments already in these data sets. In this study, the authors developed and validated a self-report measure of…
Bhebhe, Siziwe; Fuller, Mark
An inpatient service for women with borderline personality disorder adapted a therapeutic approach developed for use with outpatients. Mentalisation-based therapy helps clients to understand the meaning of their own behaviour and that of others, and allows positive risk-taking. It has led to real improvements in clients' progress towards more independent life.
Widiger, Thomas A.; Trull, Timothy J.
Responds to the comments by H. N. Garb (2007) and A. M. Ruscio (2007) on the current authors' original article "Plate tectonics in the classification of personality disorder: Shifting to a dimensional model" (2007). Unable to respond to all of Garb's and Ruscio's concerns given space limitations, the current authors attempt to respond to key…
Daffern, Michael; Howells, Kevin
It has been suggested that psychological interventions for personality disorders should focus on improving adaptive expression of the functional needs expressed through problematic behaviors such as aggression. The measurement of function is a necessary condition for devising a function-based treatment approach. Two studies that employ a method…
Kelley, Ronald L.; Kodman, Frank
Offers perspective of Multiple Personality Disorder (MPD) phenomenon based on current clinical experience. Asserts that the Jmind is polypsychic with multitude of psychological systems and processes existing in conjunction with one another, that MPD individuals have fragmented or dissociated ego states due to stress on unity of sense of self, and…
Gudjonsson, Gisli H.; Wells, June; Young, Susan
Objective: The main objective of this article is to investigate the type of personality disorders and clinical syndromes (CSs) that were best related to ADHD symptoms among prisoners. Method: The authors screened for childhood and adult ADHD symptoms and administered the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III (MCMI-III) to 196 serving prisoners.…
Coccanari De Fornari, Maria Antonietta; Piccione, Michele; Giampà, Alessio
In the general reflection inherent categorical and dimensional diagnosis and the opportunity to put neurotic and psychotic personality in the various chapters of the discipline, a never-ending discussion on the similarities and differences between clinical pictures classified in separate entries (think of the comings and goings from one cluster to another between schizoid and avoidant personality disorder). Other cogent discussion focused on the nosographical criteria, targeted to a modified classification that takes into account dimensional rather than descriptive criteria. About personality disorders think of the debate on their degree of severity, as assessed by criteria such dissimilar from various authors, as to be very different in this sense a ranking according to the variables considered (eg, classifications by Kernberg and Millon). As an established tradition that a contribution to psychological studies derives also from the literary and artistic forms in general, we propose, through the interpretation of literary cases, the dimensional affinity between schizoid and narcissistic disorders. The dimensions taken into account are those of affectivity and intersubjectivity, impaired in both disorders.
Aymamí, N.; Jiménez-Murcia, S.; Granero, R.; Ramos-Quiroga, J. A.; Fernández-Aranda, F.; Claes, L.; Sauvaget, A.; Grall-Bronnec, M.; Gómez-Peña, M.; Savvidou, L. G.; Fagundo, A. B.; del Pino-Gutierrez, A.; Moragas, L.; Casas, M.; Penelo, E.; Menchón, J. M.
Objectives. (1) To assess the current presence of ADHD symptoms among patients seeking treatment for gambling disorder; (2) to explore clinical and sociodemographic differences between patients who score high and low on the measure of ADHD symptoms; (3) to analyze whether the presence of ADHD symptoms is associated with more severe psychopathology and with specific personality traits; (4) to analyze the mediating role of ADHD symptoms in the relationship between novelty seeking and gambling severity. Method. A total of 354 consecutive patients were administered an extensive battery assessing gambling behavior, psychopathology, and personality traits. Results. Male and female gamblers did not differ significantly in their mean scores on the ADHD measure. However, younger participants aged 18–35 scored higher. Higher ADHD scores were also associated with greater severity of gambling disorder and more general psychopathology. Regarding personality traits, high persistence and self-directedness were negatively related to ADHD scores, while in women alone a positive correlation was found between ADHD scores and scores on harm avoidance and self-transcendence. Conclusion. The presence of ADHD symptoms in both male and female gambling disorder patients may act as an indicator of the severity of gambling, general psychopathology, and dysfunctional personality traits. PMID:26229967
Vierck, Esther; Joyce, Peter R
A majority of bipolar patients (BD) show functional difficulties even in remission. In recent years cognitive functions and personality characteristics have been associated with occupational and psychosocial outcomes, but findings are not consistent. We assessed personality and cognitive functioning through a range of tests in BD and control participants. Three cognitive domains-verbal memory, facial-executive, and spatial memory-were extracted by principal component analysis. These factors and selected personality dimensions were included in hierarchical regression analysis to predict psychosocial functioning and the use of self-management strategies while controlling for mood status. The best determinants of good psychosocial functioning were good verbal memory and high self-directedness. The use of self-management techniques was associated with a low level of harm-avoidance. Our findings indicate that strategies to improve memory and self-directedness may be useful for increasing functioning in individuals with bipolar disorder.
Saito, Shinnosuke; Kobayashi, Toshiyuki; Kato, Satoshi
The recent increase in cases of depression with a narcissistic tendency, especially among young individuals, has been pointed out. When the narcissistic tendency is conspicuous, patients may be treated for a personality disorder or pervasive developmental disorder, and not for a mood disorder. A case is described of a man in his late twenties who developed depression due to his failure in research work and job hunting, and, after a time, due to the break off of his engagement with his fiancée, manifested with narcissistic symptoms including an exaggerated opinion of himself, a sense of entitlement, interpersonal exploitation, lack of empathy, strong feelings of envy, and an extrapunitive tendency. He was regarded at the start of treatment as having narcissistic personality disorder. However, persevering treatment, mainly with supportive psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy including antidepressants (high dose of maprotiline combined with low dose of mirtazapine), sodium valprote and aripiprazole, finally improved not only his depressive symptoms, but also the symptoms regarded as a deriving from a personality disorder. He presented fierce anger and aggression regarded as a mixed state, and showed the rapid improvement in his depressive state after hospitalization, which we considered to show potential bipolarity. We diagnosed the patient with narcissistic depression, emphasizing the aspect which suggested a mood disorder, such as the episodic presence of narcissistic symptoms as long as a depressive state resided, his circular, recursive discourse, and his potential bipolarity. To accurately evaluate the aspect of mood disorders which patients appearing to show personality disorders have, it is considered useful to grasp a patient's condition from the viewpoint of a personality structure and viable dynamics. From a therapeutic standpoint, we suggest the importance of simple but persevering psychotherapy and a sufficient quantity of antidepressant medication for
Cheron, Daniel M; Ehrenreich, Jill T; Pincus, Donna B
This investigation seeks to establish the psychometric properties of an adapted measure of experiential avoidance (EA) in the parenting context by assessing its relation to other parenting constructs and psychosocial correlates of child anxiety in a clinical sample. Participants were 154 children (90 female, 64 male) diagnosed with anxiety disorders and their parents (148 mothers, 119 fathers). The newly developed Parental Acceptance and Action Questionnaire (PAAQ) was administered to parents along with self-report measures of adult experiential avoidance, parental psychopathology, affective expression, and parental control behaviors. A subsample of participants, n = 35, were re-administered the PAAQ to assess temporal stability. Factor analysis of the PAAQ yielded a two-factor solution with factors labeled Inaction and Unwillingness. Temporal stability of the PAAQ was found to be moderate, r = .68-.74. Internal consistency was fair across subscales of the PAAQ, alpha = .64-.65. Correlational analysis of the PAAQ and parent-report measures support the criterion validity of the PAAQ, suggesting that the PAAQ correlates with parent-report measures of parental locus of control, affective expression, and controlling parental behaviors as well as child psychopathology symptoms. Finally, the clinical applicability of the PAAQ is indicated by the PAAQ's ability to predict a significant amount of variance in parent- and clinician-rated levels of child anxiety and related psychopathology.
Leehr, Elisabeth J.; Schag, Kathrin; Brinkmann, Amelie; Ehlis, Ann-Christine; Fallgatter, Andreas J.; Zipfel, Stephan; Giel, Katrin E.; Dresler, Thomas
Objective Food stimuli are omnipresent and naturally primary reinforcing stimuli. One explanation for the intake of high amounts of food in binge eating disorder (BED) is a deviant valuation process. Valuation of food stimuli is supposed to influence approach or avoidance behaviour towards food. Focusing on self-reported and indirect (facial electromyography) valuation process, motivational aspects in the processing of food stimuli were investigated. Methods We compared an overweight sample with BED (BED+) with an overweight sample without BED (BED-) and with normal weight controls (NWC) regarding their self-reported and indirect (via facial electromyography) valuation of food versus non-food stimuli. Results Regarding the self-reported valuation, the BED+ sample showed a significantly stronger food-bias compared to the BED- sample, as food stimuli were rated as significantly more positive than the non-food stimuli in the BED+ sample. This self-reported valuation pattern could not be displayed in the indirect valuation. Food stimuli evoked negative indirect valuation in all groups. The BED+ sample showed the plainest approach-avoidance conflict marked by a diverging self-reported (positive) and indirect (negative) valuation of food stimuli. Conclusions BED+ showed a deviant self-reported valuation of food as compared to BED-. The valuation process of the BED+ sample seems to be characterized by a motivational ambivalence. This ambivalence should be subject of further studies and may be of potential use for therapeutic interventions. PMID:27045169
McGurk, Susan R; Mueser, Kim T; Mischel, Rebecca; Adams, Rebecca; Harvey, Philip D; McClure, Margaret M; Look, Amy E; Leung, Winnie W; Siever, Larry J
Impaired vocational functioning is a hallmark of schizophrenia, but limited research has evaluated the relationships between work and schizophrenia-spectrum personality disorders, including schizotypal (SPD) and paranoid personality disorder (PPD). This study compared employment history and job characteristics of 174 individuals drawn from the community or clinic, based on four personality disorder groups: SPD Only, PPD Only, SPD+PPD, and No SPD or PPD. Symptoms and cognitive functioning were also assessed. Both PPD and/or SPD were associated with lower rates of current employment, and a history of having worked at less cognitively complex jobs than people without these disorders. Participants with PPD were less likely to have a history of competitive work for one year, whereas those with SPD tended to have worked at jobs involving lower levels of social contact, compared with those without these disorders. When the effects of symptoms and cognitive functioning were statistically controlled, PPD remained a significant predictor of work history, and SPD remained a significant predictor of social contact on the job. The findings suggest that impaired vocational functioning is an important characteristic of SPD and PPD.
Skokou, Maria; Gourzis, Philippos
Personality disorders in the premorbid period of schizophrenia and particularly in relation to age of onset and sex, seem to be a rather under-researched area. In the present study, 88 patients with paranoid schizophrenia were examined, regarding demographic characteristics and premorbid personality disorder traits, in order to investigate for differences in the premorbid period of the disease, in relation to age of onset and sex. Age cutoff points were set at <30 years and ≥35 years of age for young and late onset groups, respectively. The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-Patient Edition for Axis I disorders (SCID-P) was used prospectively for diagnoses. Premorbid personality disorder traits were retrospectively assessed by using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-Patient Edition for Axis II disorders (SCID-II). Comparisons were performed by applying the two-tailed Wilcoxon rank-sum and the χ(2) statistical tests. Young onset patients were characterized by significantly higher proportion of urban birth, single status, more avoidant premorbid personality disorder traits, and less passive-aggressive premorbid personality disorder traits, than late onset counterparts. Differences were more prominently shown in men. Earlier age of onset seems to be associated to increased social inhibition and worse psychosocial adaptation in the premorbid period of paranoid schizophrenia.
Zanarini, Mary C.; Weingeroff, Jolie L.; Frankenburg, Frances R.
This study assessed the defensive functioning of 290 criteria-defined borderline patients and compared it to that of 72 patients with other forms of axis II psychopathology. The Defense Style Questionnaire, a self-report measure with demonstrated criterion validity and internal consistency, was administered to 362 axis II inpatients diagnosed using semistructured interviews of proven reliability. Borderline patients had significantly higher scores than axis II comparison subjects on three of the four defense styles assessed by the DSQ: self-sacrificing, maladaptive action, and image-distorting defenses. They also had significantly higher scores than axis II comparison subjects on eight of the 19 defense mechanisms studied. More specifically, borderline patients had significantly higher scores on one neurotic-level defense (undoing), four immature defenses (acting out, emotional hypochondriasis, passive aggression, and projection), and two image- distorting/borderline defenses (projective identification and splitting). In contrast, axis II comparison subjects had a significantly higher score than borderline patients on one mature defense (suppression). When all significant defenses were considered together, three were found to be significant predictors of a borderline diagnosis: acting out, emotional hypochondriasis, and undoing. This model has both good sensitivity (.95) and positive predictive power (.86). Taken together, the results of this study suggest that the defensive profile of borderline patients is distinct from that of patients with other forms of axis II pathology. They also suggest that the defensive triad of acting out, emotional hypochondriasis, and undoing may serve as a useful clinical marker for the borderline diagnosis, particularly in settings where the base rate of the disorder is high. PMID:19379090
Bahlmann, M; Preuss, U W; Soyka, M
Personality disorders, and particularly antisocial personality disorder (ASPD), frequently co-occur with alcohol dependence. ASPD is considered to be an important cofactor in the pathogenesis and clinical course of alcohol dependence. The chronological relationship between the onset of symptoms of ASPD and alcohol-dependence characteristics has not yet been studied in great detail and the role of ASPD in classification schemes of alcohol dependence as suggested by Cloninger and Schuckit has yet to be determined. We studied 55 alcohol-dependent patients to assess the prevalence and age at manifestation of ASPD, conduct disorder characteristics as well as alcohol dependence by employing the Semi-Structured Assessment for the Genetics of Alcoholism and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R. Results indicate that the onset of ASPD characteristics precede that of alcohol dependence by some 4 years. This finding suggests that in patients with ASPD, alcohol dependence might be a secondary syndrome as suggested by previous research.
Ullrich, Simone; Coid, Jeremy
There have been criticisms that the criteria for antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) are over-dependent on criminal behavior. This study aimed to identify unrelated criteria of social and behavioral problems and instability, and to investigate their associations in a representative household sample of adults in the UK. Approximately one third of adults with ASPD did not fulfill any of the criteria for instability. They were less aggressive and involved in illegal activities but expressed less remorse for their behaviors. Instability in ASPD was mediated primarily through comorbid anxiety disorders and borderline personality disorder. The concept of Secondary Psychopathy, which has not generally been applied to ASPD, demonstrated many similarities to the unstable subtype.
Amini, Mehdi; Pourshahbaz, Abbas; Mohammadkhani, Parvaneh; Khodaie Ardakani, Mohammad Reza; Lotfi, Mozhgan
Background: Fundamental problems with Personality Disorders (PD) diagnostic system in the previous version of DSM, led to the revision of DSM. Therefore, a multidimensional system has been proposed for diagnosis of personality disorder features in DSM-5. In the dimensional approach of DSM-5, personality disorders diagnosis is based on levels of personality functioning (Criteria A) and personality trait domains (Criteria B). Objectives: The purpose of this study was firstly, to examine the DSM-5 levels of personality functioning in antisocial and borderline personality disorders, and second, to explore which levels of personality functioning in patients with antisocial and borderline personality disorders can better predicted severity than others. Patients and Methods: This study had a cross sectional design. The participants consisted of 252 individuals with antisocial (n = 122) and borderline personality disorders (n = 130). They were recruited from Tehran prisoners, and clinical psychology and psychiatry centers of Razi and Taleghani Hospitals, Tehran, Iran. The sample was selected based on judgmental sampling. The SCID-II-PQ, SCID-II and DSM-5 levels of personality functioning were used to diagnose and assess personality disorders. The data were analyzed by correlation and multiple regression analysis. All statistical analyses were performed using the SPSS 16 software. Results: Firstly, it was found that DSM-5 levels of personality functioning have a strong correlation with antisocial and borderline personality symptoms, specially intimacy and self-directedness (P < 0.001). Secondly, the findings showed that identity, intimacy and self-directedness significantly predicted antisocial personality disorder severity (P < 0.0001). The results showed that intimacy and empathy were good predictors of borderline personality disorder severity, as well (P < 0.0001). Conclusions: Overall, our findings showed that levels of personality functioning are a significant
Sánchez Guarnido, A J; Herruzo Cabrera, F J; Pino Osuna, M J
The current scientific evidence suggests that certain dimensions of the personality and self-concept act as risk factors of eating disorder (ED). However, there is little investigation that explores the different elements involved in both groups of variables together and in an exhaustive way. Our aim is to be able to discriminate between individuals diagnosed with ED and controls free of symptoms according to these personality traits and selfconcept. To accomplish our objective, the Inventory of Eating Disorders 2 (EDI-2), Inventory of Personality NEO Revised (NEO-PI-R) and Self-Concept Form-5 (AF-5) were administered to a sample composed of 69 cases of ED and 89 controls, and an analysis of logistic regression was carried out. The pattern obtained could correctly classify 96.2% of the people diagnosed with ED and, consistent with the previous research, it should work in the same way to detect people at risk of developing ED in the future.
Wright, Aidan G.C.; Hopwood, Christopher J.; Simms, Leonard J.
In this naturalistic study we adopt the lens of interpersonal theory to examine between-and within-person differences in dynamic processes of daily affect and interpersonal behaviors among individuals (N = 101) previously diagnosed with personality disorders who completed daily diaries over the course of 100 days. Dispositional ratings of interpersonal problems and measures of daily stress were used as predictors of daily shifts in interpersonal behavior and affect in multilevel models. Results indicate that ~40%–50% of the variance in interpersonal behavior and affect is due to daily fluctuations, which are modestly related to dispositional measures of interpersonal problems but strongly related to daily stress. The findings support conceptions of personality disorders as a dynamic form of psychopathology involving the individuals interacting with and regulating in response to the contextual features of their environment. PMID:26200849
Tromp, Noor B; Koot, Hans M
The present study aimed to elucidate dimensions of normal and abnormal personality underlying DSM-IV personality disorder (PD) symptoms in 168 adolescents referred to mental health services. Dimensions derived from the Big Five of normal personality and from Livesley's (2006) conceptualization of personality pathology were regressed on interview-based DSM-IV PD symptom counts. When examined independently, both models demonstrated significant levels of predictive power at the higher order level. However, when added to the higher order Big Five dimensions, Livesley's higher and lower order dimensions afforded a supplementary contribution to the understanding of dysfunctional characteristics of adolescent PDs. In addition, they contributed to a better differentiation between adolescent PDs. The present findings suggest that adolescent PDs are more than extreme, maladaptive variants of higher order normal personality traits. Adolescent PDs seem to encompass characteristics that may be more completely covered by dimensions of abnormal personality. Developmental issues and implications of the findings are discussed.
Ramos, Vera; Canta, Guilherme; de Castro, Filipa; Leal, Isabel
Research suggests that borderline personality disorder (BPD) can be diagnosed in adolescents and is marked by considerable heterogeneity. This study aimed to identify personality features characterizing adolescents with BPD and possible meaningful patterns of heterogeneity that could lead to personality subgroups. The authors analyzed data on 60 adolescents, ages 15 to 18 years, who met DSM criteria for a BPD diagnosis. The authors used latent class analysis (LCA) to identify subgroups based on the personality pattern scales from the Millon Adolescent Clinical Inventory (MACI). LCA indicated that the best-fitting solution was a two-class model, identifying two discrete subgroups of BPD adolescents that were described as internalizing and externalizing. The subgroups were then compared on clinical and sociodemographic variables, measures of personality dimensions, DSM BPD criteria, and perception of attachment styles. Adolescents with a BPD diagnosis constitute a heterogeneous group and vary meaningfully on personality features that can have clinical implications for treatment.
Tromp, Noor B; Koot, Hans M
The aim of the present study was to relate and compare two approaches to personality pathology in adolescents. Dimensions of personality pathology, assessed by the Dimensional Assessment of Personality Pathology-Basic Questionnaire for Adolescents (DAPP-BQ-A; Tromp & Koot, 2008), were related to DSM-IV personality disorder (PD) symptoms in 168 adolescents referred for mental health services. Correlational analyses revealed that the DAPP-BQ-A higher- and lower-order dimensions were related to PD symptoms in predictable ways. Regression analyses showed that for all but three PDs (Schizoid, Schizotypal, and Passive-Aggressive), lower-order dimensions accounted for unique variance, after controlling for gender, age, and co-occurring PD symptoms. It is concluded that dimensional assessment may provide valuable information on adolescent personality pathology, and facilitate the study of developmental antecedents of adult personality pathology.
Bolinskey, P Kevin; Smith, Elizabeth A; Schuder, Kelly M; Cooper-Bolinskey, Dianna; Myers, Kevin R; Hudak, Daniel V; James, Alison V; Hunter, Helen K; Novi, Jonathan H; Guidi, Janice P; Gonzalez, Yelena; McTiernan, Erin F; Arnold, Kaitlin M; Iati, Carina A; Gottesman, Irving I
Earlier (Bolinskey et al., 2015), we reported that psychometrically identified schizotypes displayed greater symptom levels and higher incidences of schizophrenia spectrum (schizotypal, schizoid, paranoid, and avoidant) personality disorders (PDs). In this study, 49 schizotypes and 39 matched controls participated in follow-up assessments after two years. Participants were previously identified as schizotypes or controls based on scores on the Chapman Psychosis Proneness Scales (CPPS), and were interviewed at baseline and follow-up with the Personality Disorder Interview for DSM-IV (PDI-IV). At follow-up, schizotypes displayed significantly higher symptom levels compared to controls, with medium to large effects, and appeared to meet criteria for diagnosis of each PD more often than controls, although significant differences were only observed for paranoid PD. Overall, schizotypes were more likely to have met criteria for a diagnosis at either baseline or follow-up. Finally, we observed a widening disparity over time between schizotypes and controls in avoidant and schizoid PDs. These results suggest that schizophrenia spectrum PDs, as well as subthreshold symptoms of these disorders, can represent a greater liability for schizophrenia in individuals identified as at-risk on the basis of psychometric means only. Furthermore, these findings demonstrate that such differences persist, and in some cases increase, over time.
Kyratsous, Michalis; Sanati, Abdi
Miranda Fricker's concept of epistemic injustice has been quite a novel idea in epistemology. It brings something new to the fields of epistemology and ethics. Fricker draws our attention to a distinctive species of injustice, the epistemic injustice, in which someone is specifically wronged in his capacity as a knower. There has been a significant amount of work done in epistemic injustice, both in race and gender studies. The application of the concept in the context of mental health is less explored. Here, we aim to apply the concept of epistemic injustice in attributing responsibility to patients with borderline personality disorder. Attributing responsibility involves holding someone accountable for his presumed wrongdoings, making judgments on whether the agent has control on his action, on whether is aware of its consequences. It is generally agreed that in order to be morally responsible for an action the person should be worthy of praise or blame for it. Following Aristotle, we focus on epistemic condition in attribution of responsibility. We will discuss the role of epistemic injustice in assessment of epistemic condition of responsibility. We will show that we can misinterpret the agent's intentions because of the presence of systematic prejudices. We will focus on patients suffering from borderline personality disorder. We provide a case vignette to show a tendency in the professionals in holding these patients responsible for their action when it can be argued otherwise. We argue that prejudice against the patient with borderline personality disorder where the person is seen as manipulative plays a significant role in the process of epistemic injustice. The suggested manipulative nature of patients with borderline personality disorder leads to professionals to ascribe agency and knowledge where it is not due.
Pearse, Laura J; Dibben, Claire; Ziauddeen, Hisham; Denman, Chess; McKenna, Peter J
Patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) report psychotic symptoms, but it has been questioned whether they are intrinsic to BPD. Thirty patients meeting Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV), criteria for BPD were drawn from a specialist personality disorder service. Exclusion criteria included a preexisting clinical diagnosis of nonaffective psychotic disorder. Participants underwent structured psychiatric interview using the Present State Examination (PSE), lifetime version. Approximately 60% of the patients reported psychotic symptoms unrelated to drugs or affective disorder. Auditory hallucinations were the most common symptom (50%), which were persistent in the majority of cases. A fifth of the patients reported delusions, half of whom (three patients) also met DSM-IV criteria for schizophrenia, who were previously undiagnosed. The form of auditory hallucinations was similar to that in schizophrenia; the content was predominantly negative and critical. Persistent auditory hallucinations are intrinsic symptoms of BPD. This may inform current diagnostic criteria and have implications for approaches to treatment, both pharmacological and psychological. The presence of delusions may indicate a comorbid axis I disorder.
Torgersen, Svenn; Myers, John; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted; Røysamb, Espen; Kubarych, Thomas S.; Kendler, Kenneth S.
Whereas the heritability of common personality traits has been firmly established, the results of the few published studies on personality disorders (PDs) are highly divergent, with some studies finding high heredity and others very low. A problem with assessing personality disorders by means of interview is errors connected with interviewer bias. A way to overcome the problem is to use self-report questionnaires in addition to interviews. This study used both interview and questionnaire for assessing DSM-IV Cluster B personality disorders: antisocial personality disorder (APD), borderline (BPD), narcissistic (NPD), and histrionic (HPD). We assessed close to 2,800 twins from the Norwegian Institute of Public Health Twin Panel using a self-report questionnaire and, a few years later, the Structured Interview for DSM-IV Personality (SIDP-IV). Items from the self-report questionnaire that best predicted the PDs captured by the interview were then selected. Measurement models combining questionnaire and interview information were applied and were fitted using Mx. Whereas the heritability of Cluster B PDs assessed by interview was around .30, and around .40–.50 when assessed by self-report questionnaire, the heritability of the convergent latent factor, including information from both interview and self-report questionnaire was .69 for APD, .67 for BPD, .71 for NPD, and .63 for HPD. As is usually found for personality, the effect of shared-in families (familial) environment was zero. In conclusion, when both interview and self-report questionnaire are taken into account, the heritability of Cluster B PD appears to be in the upper range of previous findings for mental disorders. PMID:23281671
Ünver, Buket; Öner, Özgür; Yurtbaşı, Pınar
Schizotypal personality disorder is characterized by social and interpersonal deficits marked by discomfort with, and reduced capacity for, close relationships as well as by cognitive or perceptual distortions and eccentricities of behavior. Inappropriate or constricted affect, reduced capacity for relationships, lack of close friends and reduced capacity for social life are the symptoms that overlap both schizotypal personality disorder and autism spectrum disorders. The making of differential diagnosis may be difficult since several symptoms are similar between these disorders. In this study, we discussed the differential diagnosis issues on the basis of an adolescent case. Odd appearance, magical thoughts, reference thoughts suggests Schizotypal Personality Disorder whereas lack of eye contact at 2 years old, a preference to be isolated and play alone and referral to a child psychiatrist at 4 years old suggest Autism Spectrum Disorders. Based on the results of psychological assessment, Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R) profile is compatible with autistic children's profiles. Based on Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire, the patient's anxiety, lack of close friends, constricted affect symptoms which take place in the category of interpersonal schizotypy seems to overlap with lack of communication of Autism Spectrum Disorders. This case report indicates that, separation of autism and schizophrenia, a very important historical breakthrough in autism research, may be blurred in cases with less typical clinical pictures representing autistic and schizophrenic "spectrum" diagnosis.
Yen, Shirley; Pagano, Maria E.; Shea, Tracie M.; Grilo, Carlos M.; Gunderson, John G.; Skodol, Andrew E.; McGlashan, Thomas H.; Sanislow, Charles A.; Bender, Donna S.
Few studies have examined the relationship between life events, suicide attempts, and personality disorders (PDs), in spite of the strong associations between PDs and suicidal behavior, and the poor coping strategies often exhibited by these individuals. The authors examined whether participants with PDs who attempted suicide during the first 3…
Pérez Benítez, Carlos I.; Yen, Shirley; Shea, M. Tracie; Edelen, Maria O.; Markowitz, John C.; McGlashan, Thomas H.; Ansell, Emily B.; Grilo, Carlos M.; Skodol, Andrew E.; Gunderson, John G.; Morey, Leslie C.
The study’s aims are to explore ethnic differences in rates of adverse childhood experiences and lifetime traumatic events and in rates of psychiatric disorders for patients exposed to similar traumas. Rates of these events and rates of major depressive disorder, posttraumatic stress, substance use, and borderline personality disorders were compared among 506 non-Hispanic Whites (N-HW), 108 Latina(o)s, and 94 African Americans (AA) participating in the Collaborative Longitudinal Personality Disorder Study. We found that Whites reported higher rates of neglect than African Americans and Latina(o)s, higher rates of verbal/emotional abuse than African Americans, and higher rates of accidents and injuries/feared serious injury than Latina(o)s. African Americans had higher rates of seeing someone injured/killed than Whites. No significant interaction was observed between adverse events and ethnicity for mental disorders. PMID:20455250
Hebebrand, J; Henninghausen, K; Nau, S; Himmelmann, G W; Schulz, E; Schäfer, H; Remschmidt, H
This study explored the hypothesis that body weight is reduced in male children and adolescents with schizoid personality disorder or Asperger's disorder. The body weights of 33 consecutively admitted male subjects with one of these disorders were retrospectively assessed with percentiles for the body mass index (BMI). The mean percentile (+/- SD) for the BMI was 31.6 +/- 27.6 and differed significantly from the expected value of 50 (P<0.001). Ten subjects had a BMI of < or = 10th age percentile. Post hoc comparisons revealed that BMI percentiles were (a) reduced to a similar extent in patients with schizoid personality disorder and Asperger's disorder and (b) reduced to a greater extent in patients with abnormal eating behaviour. During childhood and adolescence both diagnoses are associated with an increased risk of being underweight. Population-based BMI percentiles are useful for detecting associations between specific psychopathological syndromes and body weight.
Marlowe, D B; Kirby, K C; Festinger, D S; Husband, S D; Platt, J J
Studies have revealed a significant adverse impact of comorbid personality disorders on treatment tenure and outcome in a variety of psychiatric and substance abuse populations. We investigated whether this negative relationship also exists among 137 urban, poor, cocaine abusers in behaviorally oriented treatment. Axis II diagnoses were generated categorically using the SCID-II as well as dimensionally using numbers of SCID-II symptoms within diagnostic categories. Contrary to expectations, there were no significant differences between subjects with and without various categorical personality disorders on any outcome measures. Categorical Axis II diagnoses were also minimally correlated with drug use severity, depression, and anxiety at intake, indicating that these were not potential coveriates of outcome. However, dimensional analyses of personality symptoms generated from the SCID-II accounted for substantial proportions of variance in treatment outcomes. Implications of these data for Axis II assessment and drug treatment planning are discussed.
Sarkar, Sharmila; Patra, Paramita; Mridha, Kakali; Ghosh, Sudip Kumar; Mukhopadhyay, Asish; Thakurta, Rajarshi Guha
Background: In many patients, emotional stress may exacerbate acne. Psychological problems such as social phobias, low self-esteem, or depression may also occur as a result of acne. The presence of acne may have some negative effect on the quality of life, self-esteem, and mood of the affected patients. While some studies have been undertaken about anxiety, depression, and personality patterns in patients with acne, only a few studies have been done to identify specific personality disorders in patients with acne. Furthermore, there is a dearth of data regarding the effect of personality disorder on the psychological states of the patients which prompted us to undertake the present study. Methodology: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study, undertaken in a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital in Eastern India. Consecutive patients suffering from severe (Grade 3 and 4) acne, attending the Dermatology Outpatient Department, aged above 18 years were included to the study. Results: A total of 65 patients were evaluated with a mean age of 26 years. Personality disorder was present in 29.2% of patients. The diagnosed personality disorders were obsessive compulsive personality disorder (n = 9, 13.8%), anxious (avoidant) personality disorder (n = 6, 9.2%), and borderline personality disorder (n = 2, 3%), mixed personality disorder (n = 2, 3%). All patients with personality disorder had some psychiatric comorbidity. Patients having personality disorder had higher number of anxiety and depressive disorders which were also statistically significant. Conclusion: The present study highlights that personality disorders and other psychiatric comorbidities are common in the setting of severe acne. PMID:28196993
Zimmerman, Mark; Gazarian, Doug
The relationship between bipolar disorder and borderline personality disorder has generated intense interest. Similar to patients with bipolar disorder, patients with borderline personality disorder are frequently hospitalized, are chronically unemployed, abuse substances, attempt and commit suicide. However, one significant difference between the two disorders is that patients with borderline personality disorder are often viewed negatively by mental health professionals. In the present paper we examined whether this negative bias against borderline personality disorder might be reflected in the level of research funding on the disorder. We searched the National Institute of Health (NIH) Research Portfolio Online Portfolio Reporting Tool (RePORT) for the past 25 years and compared the number of grants funded and the total amount of funding for borderline personality disorder and bipolar disorder. The yearly mean number of grants receiving funding was significantly higher for bipolar disorder than for borderline personality disorder. Results were the same when focusing on newly funded grants. For every year since 1990 more grants were funded for bipolar disorder than borderline personality disorder. Summed across all 25 years, the level of funding for bipolar disorder was more than 10 times greater than the level of funding for borderline personality disorder ($622 million vs. $55 million). These findings suggest that the level of NIH research funding for borderline personality disorder is not commensurate with the level of psychosocial morbidity, mortality, and health expenditures associated with the disorder.
Markowitz, John C.; Petkova, Eva; Biyanova, Tatyana; Ding, Ke; Suh, EJ; Neria, Yuval
Background Axis I comorbidity complicates diagnosing Axis II personality disorders (PDs). PDs might influence Axis I outcome. No research has examined psychotherapy effects on PDs of treating Axis I comorbidity. Secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial examined PD diagnostic stability after brief psychotherapy of chronic posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Methods Patients with chronic PTSD were randomly assigned to 14 weeks of Prolonged Exposure, Interpersonal Psychotherapy, or Relaxation Therapy. Assessments included SCID-P and SCID-II at baseline, week 14, and for treatment responders (≥30% Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale improvement, defined a priori) at week 26 follow-up. We hypothesized patients whose PTSD improved would retain fewer baseline PD diagnoses posttreatment, particularly with personality traits PTSD mimics: e.g., paranoid and avoidant. Results Forty-seven (47%) of 99 SCID-II patients evaluated at baseline received a SCID-II diagnosis: paranoid (28%), obsessive-compulsive (27%), and avoidant (23%) PDs were most prevalent. Among 78 patients who repeated SCID-II evaluations posttreatment, 45% (N=35) had baseline PD diagnoses, which 43% (N=15/35) lost at week 14. Three (7%) patients without baseline PDs acquired diagnoses at week 14; ten others shifted diagnoses. Treatment modality and PTSD response were unrelated to PD improvement. Of treatment responders re-evaluated at follow-up (N=44), 56% with any baseline Axis II diagnosis had none at week 26. Discussion This first evaluation of Axis I psychotherapy effects on personality disorder stability found that acutely treating a chronic state decreased apparent trait – across most PDs observed. These exploratory findings suggest personality diagnoses may have limited prognostic meaning in treating chronic PTSD. PMID:26439430
Quemada, J I; Sánchez-Cubillo, I; Muñoz-Céspedes, J M
The historical review of "psychiatric personality disorders" reveals the lack of convergence of those disorders with the organic personality disorder (OPD). Only the psychopathy concept has been used as a psychopathological phenotype for one of the groups of OPD, the so-called "pseudopsychopaths". These patients have been described from the beginning of the XXth century under the heading of "frontal lobe syndrome". It was only with the development of the psychiatric nosologies, towards the middle of the XXth century, that the term "organic personality disorder" started to be used. The accumulation of knowledge about the different prefrontal areas and the development of neuropsychological models that try to explain social behavior have opened new ways of understanding this syndrome. The orbitofrontal cortex has been identified as one of the key structures in behavioral and emotional regulation. Recognition of emotions in voices and faces, empathy, appreciation of humor, tasks that show "theory of mind" are some of the dimensions included in the examination of the non-cognitive functions of the prefrontal cortex
Lindberg, Nina; Tani, Pekka; Stenberg, Jan-Henry; Appelberg, Björn; Porkka-Heiskanen, Tarja; Virkkunen, Matti
Neurological soft signs (NSS) are characterized by abnormalities in motor, sensory, and integrative functions. NSS have been regarded as a result of neurodevelopmental dysfunction, and as evidence of a central nervous system defect, resulting in considerable sociopsychological dysfunction. During the last decade there has been growing evidence of brain dysfunction in severe aggressive behavior. As a symptom, aggression overlaps a number of psychiatric disorders, but it is commonly associated with antisocial personality disorder. The aim of the present study was to examine NSS in an adult criminal population using the scale by Rossi et al. . Subjects comprised 14 homicidal men with antisocial personality disorder recruited from a forensic psychiatric examination. Ten age- and gender-matched healthy volunteers as well as eight patients with schizophrenia, but no history of physical aggression, served as controls. The NSS scores of antisocial offenders were significantly increased compared with those of the healthy controls, whereas no significant differences were observed between the scores of offenders and those of patients with schizophrenia. It can be speculated that NSS indicate a nonspecific vulnerability factor in several psychiatric syndromes, which are further influenced by a variety of genetic and environmental components. One of these syndromes may be antisocial personality disorder with severe aggression.
Ahmed, Anthony Olufemi; Green, Bradley Andrew; Buckley, Peter Francis; McFarland, Megan Elizabeth
There remains debate about whether personality disorders (PDs) are better conceptualized as categorical, reflecting discontinuity from normal personality; or dimensional, existing on a continuum of severity with normal personality traits. Evidence suggests that most PDs are dimensional but there is a lack of consensus about the structure of Cluster A disorders. Taxometric methods are adaptable to investigating the taxonic status of psychiatric disorders. The current study investigated the latent structure of paranoid and schizoid PDs in an epidemiological sample (N=43,093) drawn from the National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) using taxometric analyses. The current study used taxometric methods to analyze three indicators of paranoid PD - mistrust, resentment, and functional disturbance - and three indicators of schizoid PD - emotional detachment, social withdrawal, and functional disturbance - derived factor analytically. Overall, taxometrics supported a dimensional rather than taxonic structure for paranoid and schizoid PDs through examination of taxometric graphs and comparative curve fit indices. Dimensional models of paranoid and schizoid PDs better predicted social functioning, role-emotional, and mental health scales in the survey than categorical models. Evidence from the current study supports recent efforts to represent paranoid and schizoid PDs as well as other PDs along broad personality dimensions.
Pace, Cecilia Serena; Guiducci, Valentina; Cavanna, Donatella
This study aims at examining the attachment states of mind in 50 female outpatients with eating disorders compared with 50 matched control participants using the Adult Attachment Interview. Moreover, the differences in attachment states of mind among eating-disordered women with and without borderline personality disorders' diagnosis were explored. The results showed an over-representation of insecure-dismissing and unresolved states of mind in clinical group compared to controls. Patients with both diagnosis showed higher scores on involving anger and unresolved loss compared with those with only eating disorder. Implications for further research and clinical practice are discussed.
Williams, Meris; Haverkamp, Beth E
This qualitative study sought to explore and understand eating disorder (ED) therapists' perceptions of whether and how their personal ED histories had professional ethical relevance. Analysis of multiple interviews with 11 therapist-participants indicated that they perceived their personal ED histories as having substantial ethical relevance in their day-to-day practice with ED clients. The major categories of ethics experiences that emerged were: boundaries, therapist wellness, helpfulness of personal ED history, and openness regarding therapists' personal ED histories. The findings have practical utility for the education, training, and continuing education of ED-historied practitioners.
Korzekwa, Marilyn I; Dell, Paul F; Links, Paul S; Thabane, Lehana; Fougere, Philip
The objective of the present study was to assess in detail the whole spectrum of normal and pathological dissociative experiences and dissociative disorder (DD) diagnoses in borderline personality disorder (BPD) as diagnosed with the Revised Diagnostic Interview for Borderlines. Dissociation was measured comprehensively in 21 BPD outpatients using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Dissociative Disorders-Revised, the Multidimensional Inventory of Dissociation (MID), the Dissociative Experiences Scale pathological taxon analysis, and the Somatoform Dissociation Questionnaire. The frequencies of DDs in this BPD sample were as follows: 24% no DD, 29% mild DD (dissociative amnesia and depersonalization disorder), 24% DD Not Otherwise Specified (DDNOS), and 24% dissociative identity disorder. With regard to the dissociative experiences endorsed, almost all patients reported identity confusion, unexplained mood changes, and depersonalization. Even those BPD patients with mild DD reported derealization, depersonalization, and dissociative amnesia. BPD patients with DDNOS reported frequent depersonalization, frequent amnesia, and notable experiences of identity alteration. BPD patients with dissociative identity disorder endorsed severe dissociative symptoms in all categories. Analysis of the MID pathological dissociation items revealed that 32% of the items were endorsed at a clinically significant level of frequency by more than 50% of our BPD patients. In conclusion, the frequencies of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.) DDs in these patients with BPD were surprisingly high. Likewise, the "average" BPD patient endorsed a wide variety of recurrent pathological dissociative symptoms.
Taylor, Jeanette; Iacono, William G.
This study tested differences in personality traits measured by the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (MPQ) in a community sample of adolescents with definite or probable conduct disorder (CD) diagnoses that did not progress to a diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) by early adulthood (n=43), those with definite or probable…
Pittig, Andre; Alpers, Georg W; Niles, Andrea N; Craske, Michelle G
Recent studies on reward-based decision-making in the presence of anxiety-related stimuli demonstrated that approach-avoidance conflicts can be assessed under controlled laboratory conditions. However, the clinical relevance of these decision conflicts has not been demonstrated. To this end, the present study investigated avoidant decisions in treatment-seeking individuals with social anxiety disorder (SAD). In a gambling task, advantageous choices to maximize gains were associated with task-irrelevant angry faces and disadvantageous choices with happy faces. The clinical relevance of avoidant decisions for in vivo anxiety in a social stress situation (public speaking) were examined (n = 44). In a subsample (n = 20), the predictive value for a reduction of avoidance following behavioral therapy was also evaluated. Results indicated a close link between more frequent avoidant decisions and elevated in vivo anxiety. Moreover, individuals who showed a deficit in the goal-directed adjustment of their decisions also showed higher and sustained distress during the social stressor and reported less decrease of avoidance following treatment. The findings highlight the importance of an avoidant decision-making style for the experience of acute distress and the maintenance of avoidance in SAD. Assessing avoidant decision-making may help to predict the response to behavioral treatments.
Laporte, Lise; Paris, Joel; Guttman, Herta; Russell, Jennifer
The aim of this study was to document and compare adverse childhood experiences, and personality profiles in women with borderline personality disorder (BPD) and their sisters, and to determine how these factors impact current psychopathology. Fifty-six patients with BPD and their sisters were compared on measures assessing psychopathology, personality traits, and childhood adversities. Most sisters showed little evidence of psychopathology. Both groups reported dysfunctional parent-child relationships and a high prevalence of childhood trauma. Subjects with BPD reported experiencing more emotional abuse and intrafamilial sexual abuse, but more similarities than differences between probands and sisters were found. In multilevel analyses, personality traits of affective instability and impulsivity predicted DIB-R scores and SCL-90-R scores, above and beyond trauma. There were few relationships between childhood adversities and other measures of psychopathology. Sensitivity to adverse experiences, as reflected in the development of psychopathology, appears to be influenced by personality trait profiles.
Muller, R J
It is shown here that what Karen Horney called the resignation solution to the problem of basic anxiety leads to psychopathology very similar to DSM-III-R's borderline personality disorder (BPD). Both the "resigned person" and the borderline personality show instability of self-image, social relationships, and mood, and live out the associated deficits with similar styles. While not specifically using the term "splitting", Horney showed how alternating expansive and self-effacing trends can coexist in the resigned person, and how these oscillations in self-other-world constitution influence the resigned person's behavior in a way similar to borderline splitting. Horney's descriptive and psychodynamic analysis of the resignation phenomenon elaborates and gives additional credibility to DSM-III-R's BPD as a diagnostic category.
Korzekwa, Marilyn I; Dell, Paul F; Pain, Clare
Dissociation occurs in about two thirds of people with borderline personality disorder (BPD) but is still not well understood by clinicians. In the past decade, however, research has used new measures of dissociation that provide some of the detail that clinicians need to understand and treat the dissociative symptoms of patients with BPD. In particular, this review examines BPD's comorbidity with the dissociative disorders, the neurobiology of dissociation in BPD, the role of trauma and disorganized attachment in the etiology of dissociation in BPD, and the clinical assessment and treatment of dissociation in BPD.
The material presented in this paper suggests that before mental health practitioners ask of society the resources to treat those thousands of patients diagnosed with MPD in the past few years, a critical attempt should be made to evaluate the efficacy of the type of treatment currently recommended for the condition. Proponents of the disorder claim its treatment is cost-effective, but this article's analysis indicates that it is simply premature to make claims about the treatability or prognosis of multiple personality disorder.
Reuter, Martin; Kuepper, Yvonne; Hennig, Juergen
In a genetic association study the role of the -703 G/T (rs4570625) polymorphism, located in the promoter region of the tryptophan hydroxylase 2 gene (TPH2), in personality traits was investigated in a sample of 404 healthy Caucasian subjects. A significant association between harm avoidance (HA), a trait related to anxiety, and the -703 G/T polymorphism was detected supporting the findings by Gutknecht and colleagues.
Fossati, Andrea; Somma, Antonella; Borroni, Serena; Maffei, Cesare; Markon, Kristian E; Krueger, Robert F
To evaluate the associations between Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition (DSM-5) Alternative Model of Personality Disorder traits and domains and categorically diagnosed narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) and borderline personality disorder (BPD), respectively, 238 inpatient and outpatient participants who were consecutively admitted to the Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy Unit of San Raffaele Hospital in Milan, Italy, were administered the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5) and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II Personality Disorders (SCID-II). Based on SCID-II, the participants were assigned to the following groups: a) NPD (n = 49), b) BPD (n = 32), c) any other PD (n = 91), and d) no PD (n = 63). Emotional lability, separation insecurity, depressivity, impulsivity, risk taking, and hostility were significantly associated with BPD diagnosis. Attention seeking significantly discriminated participants who received an SCID-II categorical NPD diagnosis. Separation insecurity, impulsivity, distractibility, and perceptual dysregulation were the DSM-5 traits that significantly discriminated BPD participants. Domain-level analyses confirmed and extended trait-level findings.
McClellan, Jon M.; And Others
This study of 95 youths previously diagnosed with psychotic disorders found that at follow-up, 24 had a diagnosis of schizophrenia, 9 with psychotic mood disorders, 5 with personality disorders, and 1 with schizo-affective disorder. The study confirmed findings regarding early onset schizophrenia and psychotic mood disorders and emphasized the…
Joyce, Peter R; Mulder, Roger T; Luty, Suzanne E; McKenzie, Janice M; Sullivan, Patrick F; Cloninger, Robert C
Among 183 depressed patients participating in a randomized long-term treatment trial of fluoxetine and nortriptyline, 30 patients had borderline personality disorder (BPD), 53 had other personality disorders (OPD), and 100 had no personality disorders (NPD). The borderline depressed patients had earlier age of onset of their depressions, more chronic depressions, more alcohol and cannabis comorbidity, and were more likely to have histories of suicide attempts and of self-mutilation. On self-report, patients with BPD and OPD reported more phobic symptoms, greater interpersonal sensitivity, and more paranoid ideation. Uniquely, BPD patients were more angry than OPD patients. BPD patients had high novelty seeking, high harm avoidance, low self-directedness, and low cooperativeness. Depressed patients with BPD did poorly in the short term if treated with nortriptyline rather than fluoxetine. After 6 months, those with BPD had a favorable outcome in regard to depressive symptoms, social adjustment, and even improvement in the character measure of self-directedness. Those with the poorest outcome were those with OPD.
Frisman, Linda K; Mueser, Kim T; Covell, Nancy H; Lin, Hsiu-Ju; Crocker, Anne; Drake, Robert E; Essock, Susan M
We conducted secondary analyses of data from a randomized trial testing the effectiveness of Assertive Community Treatment (ACT) in delivery of integrated dual disorder treatment (IDDT) to explore the impact of IDDT delivered through ACT teams compared with standard clinical case management for dually-disordered persons with and without antisocial personality disorder (ASPD). This analysis included 36 individuals with ASPD and 88 individuals without ASPD. Participants with ASPD assigned to ACT showed a significantly greater reduction in alcohol use and were less likely to go to jail than those in standard clinical case management, whereas participants without ASPD did not differ between the 2 case management approaches. There were no significant differences for other substance use or criminal justice outcomes. This study provides preliminary evidence that persons with co-occurring serious mental illness, substance use disorders, and ASPD may benefit from delivery of IDDT through ACT teams.
Blagov, Pavel S; Westen, Drew
After the introduction of histrionic personality disorder (HPD), nosologists struggled to reduce its overlap with borderline personality disorder and other PDs. We studied the coherence of HPD in adults and adolescents as part of 2 larger studies. Clinicians described a random patient with personality pathology using rigorous psychometrics, including the SWAP-II (a Q-sort that captures personality and its pathology in adults) in study 1 and the SWAP-II-A (the adolescent version) in study 2. Using DSM-IV-based measures, we identified patients who met HPD criteria with varying degrees of diagnostic confidence. Central tendencies in the SWAP-II and SWAP-II-A profiles revealed that both the most descriptive and most distinctive features of the patients included some features of HPD but also many features of borderline personality disorder. Q-factor analyses of the SWAP data yielded 3 types of patients in each of the 2 samples. The HPD diagnosis may not be sufficiently coherent or valid.
Johnson, Sally C; Elbogen, Eric B
Personality disorders have a complex relationship with the law that in many ways reflects their complexity within the clinical and research communities. This paper addresses expert testimony about personality disorders, outlines how personality disorders are assessed in forensic cases, and describes how personality disorders are viewed in different legal contexts. Reasons are identified why personality disorders are not generally accepted as significant mental illness within the legal system, including high incidence of personality dysfunction in criminal populations, frequent comorbidity of personality disorders making it difficult to determine direct causation, and difficulty determining where on a continuum personality traits should be defined as illness (or not). In summary, the legal system, to a significant degree, mirrors the clinical conception of personality disorders as not severe mental diseases or defects, not likely to change, and most often, under volitional control.
Johnson, Sally C.; Elbogen, Eric B.
Personality disorders have a complex relationship with the law that in many ways reflects their complexity within the clinical and research communities. This paper addresses expert testimony about personality disorders, outlines how personality disorders are assessed in forensic cases, and describes how personality disorders are viewed in different legal contexts. Reasons are identified why personality disorders are not generally accepted as significant mental illness within the legal system, including high incidence of personality dysfunction in criminal populations, frequent comorbidity of personality disorders making it difficult to determine direct causation, and difficulty determining where on a continuum personality traits should be defined as illness (or not). In summary, the legal system, to a significant degree, mirrors the clinical conception of personality disorders as not severe mental diseases or defects, not likely to change, and most often, under volitional control. PMID:24174894
Pesic, Danilo; Peljto, Amir; Lukic, Biljana; Milovanovic, Maja; Svetozarevic, Snezana; Lecic Tosevski, Dusica
An increasing number of findings confirm the significance of cerebellum in affecting regulation and early learning. Most consistent findings refer to association of congenital vermis anomalies with deficits in nonmotor functions of cerebellum. In this paper we presented a young woman who was treated since sixteen years of age for polysubstance abuse, affective instability, and self-harming who was later diagnosed with borderline personality disorder. Since the neurological and neuropsychological reports pointed to signs of cerebellar dysfunction and dysexecutive syndrome, we performed magnetic resonance imaging of brain which demonstrated partially developed vermis and rhombencephalosynapsis. These findings match the description of cerebellar cognitive affective syndrome and show an overlap with clinical manifestations of borderline personality disorder.
Psychotherapy with patients who were diagnosed with a personality disorder bears a strong resemblance to intercultural communication. I suggest conceptualizing the situation of a patient with a personality disorder as being similar to that of an overseas traveller. Like the traveller, the patient faces the task of getting along in a social environment that does not share many of his or her ingrained values regarding 'appropriate' interpersonal behaviour. In order to reduce the potential for misunderstandings and interpersonal problems, the patient would benefit from (a) learning about the culturally accepted rules of interacting and (b) partly adopting those rules. Borrowing from training manuals for intercultural communication, I suggest a number of therapeutic principles that specifically address the discrepancies between the patient's habits and internalized values, and the cultural conventions that govern the social environment in which the patient lives.
Hill, Andreas; Habermann, Niels; Berner, Wolfgang; Briken, Peer
Controversies exist about the diagnostic validity of sexual sadism and its relation to sadistic personality disorder in sex offenders. The aim of this study was to investigate which diagnostic, developmental, and criminal characteristics differentiate sexual sadistic from non-sadistic sexual homicide perpetrators. Psychiatric court reports on 166 men who had committed a sexual homicide were evaluated regarding psychiatric, sexual and criminal history. Sixty-one offenders (36.7%) with sexual sadism (SeSd) were compared with 105 (63.3%) offenders without this diagnosis (NSeSd). Besides the sexual sadistic symptoms, there were seven factors that discriminated best between the two groups (sexual masochism, sadistic personality disorder, isolation in childhood, multiple sexual homicide, previous rape, previous tendencies for similar behavior, and long duration of the homicidal act). Sexual sadism is connected with circumscribed other characteristics and has to be considered in risk assessment and treatment of sex offenders.
Gamache, Dominick; Diguer, Louis
While treatment of personality disorders in general is often described as difficult and filled with many obstacles, knowledge is still limited regarding the specific treatment challenges for DSM's Cluster A individuals. The purpose of this paper is to explore these challenges, as illustrated by the case study of a schizoid patient who underwent psychodynamic therapy for over a year. Deep and unconscious interpersonal fears that complicated treatment, and how these fears had to be taken into account in therapeutic interventions, will be explored. Strong countertransference reactions, especially those evoked by long silences and constant management of optimal therapeutic distance, will also be discussed. This paper also proposes some reflections on the limitations of DSM's conceptualization of the schizoid personality disorder, and how a dynamic understanding of relational fears and ambivalence in these patients may be crucial to treatment.
Coons, P M
The diagnostic validity of multiple personality disorder (MPD) and its association to trauma have been questioned because corroboration of child abuse in studies of patients with MPD is scant. The purpose of this study was to determine on a retrospective basis whether external corroboration of child abuse could be found in a group of patients with MPD and dissociative disorder not otherwise specified. A group of child and adolescent psychiatric inpatients and outpatients was chosen because of the extensive number of collateral records collected on them in a tertiary care setting. This group was also chosen because of the intense interest paid by child protective services and courts to child abuse during the past 15 years. This retrospective chart review confirmed child abuse in eight of nine patients with MPD and in all 12 cases of dissociative disorder not otherwise specified. This study provides further evidence of the association of severe dissociative disorders with trauma, particularly child abuse. Future studies should be prospective and blinded to avoid the possibility of investigator bias, and should include a control group for comparison of base rate of child abuse.
Twenge, Jean M; Miller, Joshua D; Campbell, W Keith
Comments on the original article by Paris (see record 2012-18549-001) regarding narcissistic personality disorder. The current authors agree with Paris that modern life is making people more narcissistic. In fact, the authors demonstrate with this commentary, the case for increasing narcissism is even stronger than presented in his article. An explain that expressing individualism and lack of social support play key roles in this increase. However, the current authors question the idea that therapy is building narcissism.
Modestin, J; Ebner, G
The case of a young female patient is described who presented symptoms of transsexualism; surgical intervention was considered. Admitted to the hospital after having become depressed and suicidal, a thorough examination and observation revealed the presence of multiple personality disorder (MPD). Even though transsexualism and MPD represent two different conditions, there are many similarities between them. The possibility of MPD should be considered in every case of transsexualism.
Scott, Lori N; Wright, Aidan G C; Beeney, Joseph E; Lazarus, Sophie A; Pilkonis, Paul A; Stepp, Stephanie D
Theoretical and empirical work suggests that aggression in those with borderline personality disorder (BPD) occurs primarily in the context of emotional reactivity, especially anger and shame, in response to perceived rejection. Using intensive repeated measures, we examined a within-person process model in which perceived rejection predicts increases in aggressive urges and behaviors via increases in negative affect (indirect effect) and in which BPD symptoms exacerbate this process (moderated mediation). Participants were 117 emerging adult women (ages 18-24) with recent histories of aggressive behavior who were recruited from a community-based longitudinal study of at-risk youth. Personality disorder symptoms were assessed by semistructured clinical interview, and aggressive urges, threats, and behaviors were measured in daily life during a 3-week ecological momentary assessment protocol. Multilevel path models revealed that within-person increases in perceived rejection predicted increases in negative affect, especially in women with greater BPD symptoms. In turn, increases in negative affect predicted increased likelihood of aggressive urges or behaviors. Further analysis revealed that BPD symptoms predicted greater anger and shame reactivity to perceived rejection, but not to criticism or insult. Additionally, only anger was associated with increases in aggression after controlling for other negative emotions. Whereas BPD symptoms exacerbated the link between perceived rejection and aggression via increases in negative affect (particularly anger), this process was attenuated in women with greater antisocial personality disorder symptoms. These findings suggest that anger reactivity to perceived rejection is one unique pathway, distinct from antisocial personality disorder, by which BPD symptoms increase risk for aggression. (PsycINFO Database Record
Glenn, Catherine R.; Klonsky, E. David
Objective: Although the DSM-IV suggests that dysfunctional personality patterns can be traced back to adolescence, there is continued debate about whether borderline personality disorder (BPD) can be reliably and validly diagnosed before age 18. The current study examined the reliability and validity of BPD in a large sample of adolescent psychiatric patients. Method: BPD and Axis I disorders were assessed with validated structured interviews and a series of clinical, emotion, and personality correlates were assessed with validated self-report questionnaires. Results: Consistent with previous studies in adolescent clinical samples, approximately 30% of patients in the current sample met criteria for BPD. The nine BPD criteria demonstrated good internal consistency, equivalent to rates reported in adult samples. In addition, BPD was related to greater clinical severity and impairment as indexed by strong associations with all major Axis I disorders, as well as with dimensional measures of depression, anxiety, difficulties with emotion regulation, and impulsiveness. Notably, reliability and validity remained satisfactory even when analyses were limited to younger adolescents between the ages of 12 and 14. Conclusions: Overall, findings suggest that BPD can be reliably and validly diagnosed in adolescents as young as 12–14 years old. PMID:23970909
Dieckmann, E; Behary, W
In this article, we review the history of the construct of narcissism and the diagnostic criteria for narcissistic personality disorder. We then discuss some etiological models of narcissism and introduce the model of Jeffrey Young, who developed Schema Therapy (ST) as an alternative to standard cognitive therapy for patients with personality disorders. ST differs from standard cognitive therapies in important respects, including limited reparenting, a focus on the patient's basic needs, and emotional activating techniques in addition to cognitive and behavioral ones. We then discuss Young's theory of basic needs, early maladaptive schemas, and schema modes. According to ST theory, narcissists are traumatized in the schema domain having to do with attachment needs. They are prone to vulnerable emotions in response to narcissistic injuries, although they often do not show these emotions directly. Instead, they use maladaptive coping strategies, resulting in emotional states, known as "schema modes". This includes the Self-Aggrandizer mode and Detached Self-Soother mode, in which a superior, arrogant self-presentation and addictive or compulsive behavior serve a self-regulatory function. These concepts are illustrated by case examples of patients with Narcissistic Personality Disorder.
This research examined the personality trait and personality disorder correlates of creative potential, as assessed by a divergent thinking (DT) test. Over 4,000 adult managers attending an assessment center completed a battery of tests including a "bright side," normal personality trait measures (NEO Personality Inventory-Revised, or…
Chen, Nigel Teik Ming; Thomas, Laurenn Maree; Clarke, Patrick Joseph Fraser; Hickie, Ian Bernard; Guastella, Adam John
Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is a debilitating mental illness which is thought to be maintained in part by the aberrant attentional processing of socially relevant information. Critically however, research has not assessed whether such aberrant attentional processing occurs during social-evaluative contexts characteristically feared in SAD. The current study presents a novel approach for the assessment of the visuocognitive biases operating in SAD during a social-evaluative stressor. For this task, clinically socially anxious participants and controls were required to give a brief impromptu speech in front of a pre-recorded audience who intermittently displayed socially positive or threatening gestures. Participant gaze at the audience display was recorded throughout the speech. Socially anxious participants exhibited a significantly longer visual scanpath, relative to controls. In addition, socially anxious participants spent relatively longer time fixating at the non-social regions in between and around the confederates. The findings of the present study suggest that SAD is associated with hyperscanning and the attentional avoidance of social stimuli.
Araujo, Jaciana Marlova Gonçalves; dos Passos, Miguel Bezerra; Molina, Mariane Lopez; da Silva, Ricardo Azevedo; Souza, Luciano Dias de Mattos
The aim of this study was to determine the differences in personality traits between individuals with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) and Bipolar Disorder (BD) during a depressive episode, when it can be hard to differentiate them. Data on personality traits (NEO-FFI), mental disorders (Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview Plus) and socioeconomic variables were collected from 245 respondents who were in a depressive episode. Individuals with MDD (183) and BD (62) diagnosis were compared concerning personality traits, clinical aspects and socioeconomic variables through bivariate analyses (chi-square and ANOVA) and multivariate analysis (logistic regression). There were no differences in the prevalence of the disorders between socioeconomic and clinical variables. As for the personality traits, only the difference in Agreeableness was statistically significant. Considering the control of suicide risk, gender and anxiety comorbidity in the multivariate analysis, the only variable that remained associated was Agreeableness, with an increase in MDD cases. The brief version of the NEO inventories (NEO-FFI) does not allow for the analysis of personality facets. During a depressive episode, high levels of Agreeableness can indicate that MDD is a more likely diagnosis than BD.
Smillie, Luke D.; Zhao, Kun; Barford, Kate A.
Personality traits - i.e., broad descriptions of regularities in behaviour and experience - can be parsimoniously organised in terms of five trait 'domains' . This is demonstrated by Neuman's  observation of the overlap between these 'Big Five' domains and traits derived from Panksepp's Affective Neuroscience framework . This overlap reflects the fact that the Big Five - which can be recovered from factor analyses of questionnaires designed to measure other trait systems [2,10] - represent the major dimensions of covariation among all personality traits .
Jansson, Irene; Hesse, Morten; Fridell, Mats
Personality disorders are associated with dysfunction in a variety of areas. Recent longitudinal research has shown that personality disorders are also predictive of problems later in life, as well as of poor response to treatment of depression and anxiety. This study assessed whether personality disorder features were associated with psychiatric symptoms in a cohort of women treated for substance abuse in Sweden. Patients were diagnosed with personality disorders using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID-II) personality questionnaire and SCID-II interview, and were then administered a self-report questionnaire designed to measure symptoms of psychiatric illness, the Symptoms Checklist-90 (SCL-90), during and five years after treatment. Concurrently, features of all personality disorders, except histrionic, were associated with SCL-90 score. At five-year follow-up, most personality disorders remained associated with SCL-90 score, with the exception of paranoid and schizoid personality disorder. After controlling for baseline score on the SCL-90, conduct disorder, borderline personality disorder, and narcissistic personality disorder remained significantly associated with symptoms at follow-up. After controlling for abstinence and baseline score, only borderline personality disorder features remained associated with SCL-90 score at follow-up. Patients with personality disorders should be monitored after treatment for psychiatric symptoms.
Berghuis, Han; Kamphuis, Jan H; Verheul, Roel
This study examined the associations of specific personality traits and general personality dysfunction in relation to the presence and severity of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed. [DSM-IV]; American Psychiatric Association, 1994) personality disorders in a Dutch clinical sample. Two widely used measures of specific personality traits were selected, the Revised NEO Personality Inventory as a measure of normal personality traits, and the Dimensional Assessment of Personality Pathology-Basic Questionnaire as a measure of pathological traits. In addition, 2 promising measures of personality dysfunction were selected, the General Assessment of Personality Disorder and the Severity Indices of Personality Problems. Theoretically predicted associations were found between the measures, and all measures predicted the presence and severity of DSM-IV personality disorders. The combination of general personality dysfunction models and personality traits models provided incremental information about the presence and severity of personality disorders, suggesting that an integrative approach of multiple perspectives might serve comprehensive assessment of personality disorders.
Kienast, T; Roediger, E; Kensche, M; Foerster, J; Daig, I; Heinz, A
A large number of studies have shown that various psychotherapeutic methods have a positive effect on the course of addiction and personality disorders when they are treated separately. Co-morbid occurrence of both disorders is common but a chronologically separated treatment often leads to renewed occurrence of the symptoms of the initially treated disorder. Failures of abstinence motivation, severe drug craving and the activation of dysfunctional behavior patterns frequently lead to renewed consumption of addictive substances and thus endanger the further course of treatment. So far, evidence of effectiveness exists only for dialectic behavior therapy and dual focus schema therapy. This article summarizes the current state of knowledge and introduces both methods by highlighting the core therapeutic strategies.
Hooley, Jill M; Wilson-Murphy, Molly
Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is characterized by tumultuous, unstable personal relationships, difficulty being alone, and an inability to self-soothe. This may explain why patients with BPD tend to develop strong attachments to transitional objects such as stuffed animals. Research in hospital settings has linked the use of transitional objects to the presence of BPD. Using a nonclinical community sample (N = 80) we explored the link between attachments to transitional objects and various aspects of personality pathology, as well as to childhood trauma, and parental rearing styles. People who reported intense current attachments to transitional objects were significantly more likely to meet criteria for a BPD diagnosis than those who did not; they also reported more childhood trauma, rated their early caregivers as less supportive, and had more attachment problems as adults. Heavy emotional reliance on transitional objects in adulthood may be an indicator of underlying pathology, particularly BPD.
Because multiple personality disorder (MPD) is more frequently diagnosed today than in the past, it is likely that more multiples will plead insanity. The courts are in a state of disarray as to how best to respond to these pleas. This article considers multiples' responsibility on three interpretations of the status of their alters: that they are different people; that they are different personalities; or that they are parts of one complex, deeply divided personality. On all three theories multiples are nonresponsible. Nevertheless, three rare circumstances exist under which multiples should be found guilty. The article concludes by indicating the kinds of issues psychiatry might explore to further assist the law in its analysis of the criminal responsibility of multiples.
Huprich, Steven K; Sanford, Keith; Smith, Marinell
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Depressive Personality Disorder Inventory (DPDI; Huprich, Margrett, Barthelemy, & Fine, 1996). The DPDI was found to have strong internal consistency in both an undergraduate and a veteran, psychiatric outpatient population. The DPDI had significant, positive correlations with other measures of depressive personality, supporting its convergent validity. These relationships remained even after controlling for state-like depression, suggesting that the DPDI has incremental validity. The DPDI also significantly predicted scores on measures of interpersonal loss, even after controlling for state-like depression, suggesting that the DPDI has good construct validity. In support of discriminant validity, the DPDI was more correlated with another measure of depressive personality than it was with measures of other personality disorders. Finally, the DPDI had strong diagnostic efficiency statistics: (a) Sensitivity = .82, (b) Specificity = .80, (c) Positive Predictive Power = .75, (d) Negative Predictive Power = .86, and (e) Overall Diagnostic Power = .81. It appears that the DPDI has good psychometric properties.
Basoglu, Cengiz; Oner, Ozgur; Ates, Alpay; Algul, Ayhan; Bez, Yasin; Cetin, Mesut; Herken, Hasan; Erdal, Mehmet Emin; Munir, Kerim M
Objective The molecular genetic of personality disorders has been investigated in several studies; however, the association of antisocial behaviours with synaptosomal-associated protein 25 (SNAP25) gene polymorphisms has not. This association is of interest as SNAP25 gene polymorphism has been associated with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and personality. Methods We compared the distribution of DdeI and MnlI polymorphisms in 91 young male offenders and in 38 sex-matched healthy control subjects. We also investigated the association of SNAP25 gene polymorphisms with severity of psychopathy and with temperament traits: novelty seeking, harm avoidance, and reward dependence. Results The MnlI T/T and DdeI T/T genotypes were more frequently present in male subjects with antisocial personality disorder (APD) than in sex-matched healthy control subjects. The association was stronger when the frequency of both DdeI and MnlI T/T were taken into account. In the APD group, the genotype was not significantly associated with the Psychopathy Checklist–Revised scores, measuring the severity of psychopathy. However, the APD subjects with the MnlI T/T genotype had higher novelty seeking scores; whereas, subjects with the DdeI T/T genotype had lower reward dependence scores. Again, the association between genotype and novelty seeking was stronger when both DdeI and MnlI genotypes were taken into account. Conclusion DdeI and MnlI T/T genotypes may be a risk factor for antisocial behaviours. The association of the SNAP25 DdeI T/T and MnlI T/T genotypes with lower reward dependence and higher novelty seeking suggested that SNAP25 genotype might influence other personality disorders, as well. PMID:21756448
Crawford, Thomas N; Shaver, Phillip R; Cohen, Patricia; Pilkonis, Paul A; Gillath, Omri; Kasen, Stephanie
Anxious and avoidant attachment were assessed in the Children in the Community (CIC) Study during adolescence and adulthood using self-report scales developed for this prospective study. The convergent and discriminant validity of the new CIC attachment scales were evaluated and their stability was assessed across a 17-year interval. Attachment scales predicted DSM-IV personality disorders in theoretically coherent and clinically meaningful ways, especially when supplemented with a separate measure of interpersonal aggression. Cluster B and C personality disorder symptoms were associated with elevated anxious attachment. Avoidant attachment was positively associated with Cluster A symptoms and inversely associated with Cluster B and C symptoms. Interpersonal aggression was higher in Cluster B symptoms and lower in Cluster C symptoms, thus differentiating between these symptom clusters.
Konok, Veronika; Kosztolányi, András; Rainer, Wohlfarth; Mutschler, Bettina; Halsband, Ulrike; Miklósi, Ádám
Previous research has suggested that owners' attitude to their family dogs may contribute to a variety of behaviour problems in the dog, and authors assume that dogs with separation-related disorder (SRD) attach differently to the owner than typical dogs do. Our previous research suggested that these dogs may have an insecure attachment style. In the present study we have investigated whether owners' attachment style, personality traits and the personality of the dog influence the occurrence of SRD in the dog. In an internet-based survey 1508 (1185 German and 323 Hungarian) dog-owners filled in five questionnaires: Demographic questions, Separation Behaviour Questionnaire (to determine SRD), Human and Dog Big Five Inventory and Adult Attachment Scale. We found that with owners' higher score on attachment avoidance the occurrence of SRD in the dog increases. Dogs scoring higher on the neuroticism scale were more prone to develop SRD. Our results suggest that owners' attachment avoidance may facilitate the development of SRD in dogs. We assume that avoidant owners are less responsive to the dog's needs and do not provide a secure base for the dog when needed. As a result dogs form an insecure attachment and may develop SRD. However, there may be alternative explanations of our findings that we also discuss.
Pelissolo, Antoine; Moukheiber, Albert; Mallet, Luc
Even though obsessive-compulsive disorders (OCD) and anxiety disorders (AD) have been separated in the taxonomy adopted by the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, many issues remain concerning the physiopathological similarities and differences between those categories. Our objective was therefore to explore and compare their personality and emotional features, with the assumption that the distinction of two independent spectrums should imply the existence of two partially distinct temperamental profiles. We used the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI-R) and the Positive and Negative Emotionality (PNE) scale to compare two groups of patients with OCD (n=227) or AD (n=827). The latter group included patients with social anxiety disorder, panic disorder, agoraphobia, and generalized anxiety disorder. Most temperament, character and emotionality measures showed no significant differences between both groups. In the personality measures results, only the self-directedness score (TCI-R) was significantly lower in OCD patients but this difference was not significant when the comparison was adjusted for the depressive scale score and age. Only lower PNE positive affects scores were obtained in OCD patients in the adjusted comparisons. These findings suggest that OCD and AD are not really distinguishable from the point of view of associated personality traits.
Black, Donald W; Coryell, William H; Crowe, Raymond R; Shaw, Martha; McCormick, Brett; Allen, Jeff
This study investigates the presence of personality disorders, impulsiveness, and novelty seeking in probands with DSM-IV pathological gambling (PG), controls, and their respective first-degree relatives using a blind family study methodology. Ninety-three probands with DSM-IV PG, 91 controls, and their 395 first-degree relatives were evaluated for the presence of personality disorder with the Structured Interview for DSM-IV Personality. Impulsiveness was assessed with the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS). Novelty seeking was evaluated using questions from Cloninger's Temperament and Character Inventory. Results were analyzed using logistic regression by the method of generalized estimating equations to account for within family correlations. PG probands had a significantly higher prevalence of personality disorders than controls (41 vs. 7 %, OR = 9.0, P < 0.001), along with higher levels of impulsiveness and novelty seeking. PG probands with a personality disorder had more severe gambling symptoms; earlier age at PG onset; more suicide attempts; greater psychiatric comorbidity; and a greater family history of psychiatric illness than PG probands without a personality disorder. PG relatives had a significantly higher prevalence of personality disorder than relatives of controls (24 vs. 9%, OR = 3.2, P < 0.001) and higher levels of impulsiveness. Risk for PG in relatives is associated with the presence of personality disorder and increases along with rising BIS Non-Planning and Total scale scores. Personality disorders, impulsiveness, and novelty seeking are common in people with PG and their first-degree relatives. The presence of a personality disorder appears to be a marker of PG severity and earlier age of onset. Risk for PG in relatives is associated with the presence of personality disorder and trait impulsiveness. These findings suggest that personality disorder and impulsiveness may contribute to a familial diathesis for PG.
Pfaltz, Monique C; Michael, Tanja; Meyer, Andrea H; Wilhelm, Frank H
Panic attacks are frequently perceived as life threatening. Panic disorder (PD) patients may therefore experience symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The authors explored this in 28 healthy controls, 17 PTSD patients, and 24 PD patients with agoraphobia who completed electronic diaries 36 times during 1 week. Patient groups frequently reported dissociation as well as thoughts, memories, and reliving of their trauma or panic attacks. PTSD patients reported more trauma/panic attack thoughts (incidence rate ratio [IRR] = 2.9) and memories (IRR = 2.8) than PD patients. Patient groups relived their trauma or panic attacks equally frequently, and reported comparable bodily reactions and distress associated with trauma or panic attack memories. Clinical groups avoided trauma or panic attack reminders more often than healthy controls (avoidance of trauma- or panic attack-related thoughts (IRR = 8.0); avoidance of things associated with the trauma or panic attack (IRR = 40.7). PD patients avoided trauma or panic attack reminders less often than PTSD patients (avoidance of trauma- or panic attack-related thoughts [IRR = 2.5]; avoidance of things associated with the trauma or panic attack [IRR = 4.1]), yet these differences were nonsignificant when controlling for functional impairment. In conclusion, trauma-like symptoms are common in PD with agoraphobia and panic attacks may be processed similarly as trauma in PTSD.
Exploring the interface of neurobehaviorally linked personality dimensions and personality organization in borderline personality disorder: the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire and Inventory of Personality Organization.
Lenzenweger, Mark F; McClough, Joel F; Clarkin, John F; Kernberg, Otto F
Advances in our understanding of complex psychopathology will likely benefit from approaches to mind, brain, and behavior that seek to (a) specify those general neurobehavioral processes underpinning pathology and (b) bridge to other process-based models of psychopathology at different levels of analysis. Well-defined neurobehavioral processes (e.g., positive emotionality, negative emotionality, nonaffective constraint, fear, affiliation) and their phenotypic indicators are firmly rooted in neural substrates (Depue & Lenzenweger, 2005). Furthermore, long-studied psychodynamic psychological processes, such as identity diffusion, primitive psychological defensive functioning, and reality-testing dimensions, are important to understanding personality pathology (Kernberg & Caligor, 2005). Both theoretical perspectives view the cardinal processes involved in the determination of personality disorders (PDs) as relevant across existing PD diagnostic entities. The authors examined relationships between psychometric indicators of these two sets of processes, the neurobehavioral and the psychodynamic, in a well-characterized sample of individuals with borderline personality disorder (BPD; N = 92). In bridging these two levels of analysis, the authors found that the alienation, aggression, and absorption constructs represent important linkages to the psychodynamic processes, especially primitive psychological defenses and reality-testing impairments. These results are discussed in terms of their potential for joining these two domains of analysis--a neurobehaviorally informed view of personality and the psychodynamic--in efforts to (a) foster a process-oriented approach, (b) resolve heterogeneity, and (c) facilitate identification of endophenotypes in BPD. The heuristic value of this approach for understanding other forms of psychopathology is also discussed.
Morey, Leslie C; Stagner, Brian H
Narcissistic personality disorder and related concepts have a complex history and have been subject to extensive theoretical discourse but relatively little empirical research. An initial proposal for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fifth Edition (DSM-5) that suggested eliminating this disorder as a discrete personality disorder type met with considerable controversy that ultimately led to its reinstatement in subsequent proposals. Nonetheless, the DSM-5 proposal for personality disorders as a whole would involve a significantly different formulation of narcissistic personality from that described in DSM-IV-one that places a greater emphasis on shared deficits among all personality disorders that tap elements thought to fall on the narcissistic spectrum, such as deficits in empathic capacity. This article describes this revised formulation, and presents a case study that illustrates the similarities and differences in the DSM-IV and proposed DSM-5 portrayal of narcissistic issues and related clinical problems over the course of a particular treatment.
Winer, E Samuel; Salem, Taban
Cognitive theories of depression and anxiety have traditionally emphasized the role of attentional biases in the processing of negative information. The dot-probe task has been widely used to study this phenomenon. Recent findings suggest that biased processing of positive information might also be an important aspect of developing psychopathological symptoms. However, despite some evidence suggesting persons with symptoms of depression and anxiety may avoid positive information, many dot-probe studies have produced null findings. The present review used conventional and novel meta-analytic methods to evaluate dot-probe attentional biases away from positive information and, for comparison, toward negative information, in depressed and anxious individuals. Results indicated that avoidance of positive information is a real effect exhibiting substantial evidential value among persons experiencing psychopathology, with individuals evidencing primary symptoms of depression clearly demonstrating this effect. Different theoretical explanations for these findings are evaluated, including those positing threat-processing structures, even-handedness, self-regulation, and reward devaluation, with the novel theory of reward devaluation emphasized and expanded. These novel findings and theory suggest that avoidance of prospective reward helps to explain the cause and sustainability of depressed states. Suggestions for future research and methodological advances are discussed.
Elliot, Andrew J; Sedikides, Constantine; Murayama, Kou; Tanaka, Ayumi; Thrash, Todd M; Mapes, Rachel R
The authors examined avoidance personal goals as concurrent (Study 1) and longitudinal (Study 2) predictors of multiple aspects of well-being in the United States and Japan. In both studies, participants adopted more avoidance personal goals in Japan relative to the United States. Both studies also demonstrated that avoidance personal goals were significant negative predictors of the most relevant aspects of well-being in each culture. Specifically, avoidance personal goals were negative predictors of intrapersonal and eudaimonic well-being in the United States and were negative predictors of interpersonal and eudaimonic well-being in Japan. The findings clarify and extend puzzling findings from prior empirical work in this area, and raise provocative possibilities about the nature of avoidance goal pursuit.
Rienzi, B M; Scrams, D J
To assess similarity between gender-role stereotypes and the personality disorder prototypes, university students (31 women and 13 men) were asked to assign gender to six descriptions of DSM-III--R personality disorders. Significant agreement was found in gender assignment for five of the six descriptions. Descriptions of the paranoid, antisocial, and compulsive personality disorders were viewed as male, and descriptions of the dependent and histrionic personality disorders were viewed as female. The description of schizoid personality disorder was not significantly gender-typed.
Kerr, Ian B; Finlayson-Short, Laura; McCutcheon, Louise K; Beard, Hilary; Chanen, Andrew M
Some concept of self has been used by many, although not all, researchers and clinicians as an 'organising construct' for borderline personality disorder (BPD). There is considerable variation in this usage and how clearly researchers have defined the self. Given this diversity, and that 'self' is often used interchangeably with parallel concepts (e.g., psyche, brain-mind, 'person') or with features of self (e.g., self-awareness, identity), unqualified use of the term is problematic. This is further complicated by the heterogeneity and 'comorbidity' of BPD and the limitations of syndromally based psychiatric nosology. Still, BPD remains in current classification systems and can be reliably diagnosed. A considerable body of research on self and BPD has accrued, including a recent profusion and confluence of neuroscientific and sociopsychological findings. These have generated supporting evidence for a supra-ordinate, functionally constituted entity of the self ranging over multiple, interacting levels from an unconscious, 'core' self, through to a reflective, phenotypic, 'idiographic' and relational self constituted by interpersonal and sociocultural experience. Important insights have been generated regarding emotional and social-cognitive dysregulation, disorder of self-awareness, relationality, identity, and coherence and continuity of the self. Many of these are shared by various trauma-related, dissociative disorders. A construct of the self could be useful as an explanatory principle in BPD, which could be construed as a 'self-state' (and relational) disorder, as opposed to a less severe disorder of aspects of the self (e.g., mood or memory). We offer a tentative description of 'Self' in this context, noting that any such construct will require a clear definition and to be evaluable.
Bardeen, Joseph R.; Tull, Matthew T.; Stevens, Erin N.; Gratz, Kim L.
Anxiety sensitivity (AS) and the tendency to avoid emotions have both been identified as vulnerability factors for the development and maintenance of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Furthermore, both cross-sectional and prospective research have provided evidence that emotional avoidance and AS interact to predict anxiety symptoms, such that AS may only be associated with anxiety-related pathology among those who exhibit a tendency to avoid their emotions. The purpose of the present study was to determine if this moderator model extends to PTSD within a sample of substance dependent patients. Specifically, this study examined if AS is associated with PTSD only among individuals with high (vs. low) levels of negative emotional avoidance. As predicted, results of a logistic regression analysis revealed a significant interaction between negative emotional avoidance and AS in predicting PTSD status. Follow-up analyses revealed a significant positive association between AS and PTSD status for participants high in negative emotional avoidance; however, AS was not associated with PTSD for those low in negative emotional avoidance. This finding remained even when relevant covariates were included in the model. Results confirm hypotheses and are consistent with the extant anxiety-risk literature. PMID:27617195
Grant, Bridget F; Hasin, Deborah S; Stinson, Frederick S; Dawson, Deborah A; Patricia Chou, S; June Ruan, W; Huang, Boji
The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and co-occurrence of DSM-IV personality disorders (PDs) among individuals with current DSM-IV mood and anxiety disorders in the US population and among individuals who sought treatment for such mood or anxiety disorders. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with 43,093 individuals, 18 years and older, in the National Institute on alcohol abuse and alcoholism's 2001-2002 National epidemiologic survey on alcohol and related conditions (NESARC). Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated to determine the prevalence and associations between current DSM-IV axis I and axis II disorders. Associations between mood, anxiety and PDs were all positive and statistically significant. Avoidant and dependent PDs were more strongly related to mood and anxiety disorders than other PDs. Associations between obsessive-compulsive PD and mood and anxiety disorders were significant, but much weaker. Paranoid and schizoid PDs were most strongly related to dysthymia, mania, panic disorder with agoraphobia, social phobia and generalized anxiety disorder, while histrionic and antisocial PDs were most strongly related to mania and panic disorder with agoraphobia. Results of this study highlight the need for further research on overlapping symptomatology, factors giving rise to the associations and the treatment implications of these disorders when comorbid.
Blais, M A; Hilsenroth, M J; Fowler, J C
Rorschach assessment data have long been rationally linked to the psychiatric condition of hysteria. This study represents the first empirical attempt to explore the associations among select Rorschach variables, the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed. [DSM-IV]; American Psychiatric Association, 1994) Histrionic Personality Disorder (HPD) criteria, and two self-report measures of hysteria. We correlated four Rorschach variables with total symptom scores for DSM-IV Cluster B Personality Disorders (Borderline, Antisocial, Narcissistic, and Histrionic). We found two Rorschach variables, FC + CF + C and T (Exner, 1993), to be significantly and meaningfully correlated with both the DSM-IV HPD total score (number of criteria) and the individual HPD criteria. Although not significantly associated with the HPD total score, Denial (DEN; Lerner & Lerner, 1980) was associated with one individual HPD criterion. Furthermore, DEN was significantly correlated with the MMPI-2 Hysteria (Hy) scale. The results are reviewed in terms of their clinical utility and the insights they offer into the psychological characteristics of the DSM-IV HPD.
Hall, Sara Elizabeth Kay; Geher, Glenn
The authors compared behavioral and personality characteristics of children with reactive attachment disorder (RAD) with non-RAD children. Participants included parents of children with RAD (n = 21), parents of non-RAD children (n = 21), and some of the children (n = 20). The parents completed questionnaires regarding behavioral and personality characteristics of their children. Parents were also given the option of asking their children to participate in the study by completing self-report measures. Several significant findings were obtained. Children with RAD scored lower on empathy but higher on self-monitoring than non-RAD children. These differences were especially pronounced based on parent ratings and suggest that children with RAD may systematically report their personality traits in overly positive ways. Their scores also indicated considerably more behavioral problems than scores of the control children. Previous research has been generally qualitative in nature. The current research represents some of the first quantitative, empirical work documenting specific behaviors associated with the diagnosis of RAD. The findings of this study have implications for better understanding and dealing with reactive attachment disorder.
Marmer, S S; Fink, D
This article has made a number of points that assert what is today a minority position within the fields of MPD/DID and BPD. We hope our views will stimulate attempts by others to rethink their positions and test our assertions, so that issues surrounding these two disorders can be sharpened. For the sake of the clarity of future work, we summarize in outline form the essence of our viewpoint. 1. BPD and MPD/DID have similar appearing symptoms, such as identity problems, unstable affect modulation, self-destructive behaviors, chaotic impulse control, and troubled interpersonal relationships, but they have decisive differences in underlying dynamics, process, and structure. 2. DSM tends to blur these two disorders by its emphasis on phenomenology over inner structure, thus fostering misleading conclusions when DSM criteria are used to test for comorbidity or overlap between BPD and MPD/DID. 3. BPD and MPD/DID are both described dynamically as using the defense of splitting, but we contend that the splitting in each disorder is fundamentally different from the splitting in the other. BPD uses a polarization form of splitting, whereas MPD/DID uses ego splitting or identity division. 4. Both disorders partake in the process of dissociation, but the quality of dissociation in BPD is a "low-tech" spaced out type, whereas that of MPD/DID is a "high-tech" waking dream. 5. BPD structure is also "low tech," with polarization of self, object, and relationship. MPD/DID structure is "high tech," with heavily symbolic, highly nuanced variations of self, object, and relationship. 6. Although both conditions have etiologic elements of trauma, BPD has a larger degree of developmental deficiency, with a failure to complete the task of entering a repression hierarchy of defenses. MPD/DID, by use of primary process-linked symbolic dissociation, is able to continue development to the repression hierarchy, although at a profound cost of simultaneous suspension of reality testing. BPD
Walter, Marc; Gunderson, John G.; Zanarini, Mary C.; Sanislow, Charles A.; Grilo, Carlos M.; McGlashan, Thomas H.; Morey, Leslie C.; Yen, Shirley; Stout, Robert L.; Skodol, Andrew E.
Aims The purpose of the study was to examine whether patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) have a higher rate of new onsets of substance use disorders (SUD) than do patients with other personality disorders (OPD). Design This study uses data from the Collaborative Longitudinal Personality Disorder Study (CLPS), a prospective naturalistic study with reliable repeated measures over 7 years of follow-up. Setting Multiple clinical sites in four northeastern US cities. Participants 175 patients with BPD and 396 patients with OPD (mean age 32.5 years), were assessed at baseline and at 6, 12, 24, 36, 48, 60, 72, and 84 months. Measurements The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders and the Diagnostic Interview for DSM-IV Personality Disorders were used at baseline, the Follow-Along Version of the DIPD-IV and the Longitudinal Interval Follow-Up Evaluation at the follow-up evaluations. Kaplan-Meier analyses were calculated to generate the time to new onsets. Findings BPD patients showed a shorter time to new onsets of SUD. Thirteen percent of BPD patients developed a new alcohol use disorder, and 11% developed a new drug use disorder, as compared to rates of 6% and 4% respectively for OPD. Non-remitted BPD and remitted BPD patients did not differ significantly in rates of new onsets of SUD. Conclusions BPD patients have a high vulnerability for new onsets of SUDs even when their psychopathology improves. These findings indicate some shared etiological factors between BPD and SUD and underscore the clinical significance of treating SUD when it co-occurs in BPD patients. PMID:19133893
Poythress, Norman G; Edens, John F; Skeem, Jennifer L; Lilienfeld, Scott O; Douglas, Kevin S; Frick, Paul J; Patrick, Christopher J; Epstein, Monica; Wang, Tao
The question of whether antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) and psychopathy are largely similar or fundamentally different constructs remains unresolved. In the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 1994), many of the personality features of psychopathy are cast as associated features of ASPD, although the DSM-IV offers no guidance as to how, or the extent to which, these features relate to ASPD. In a sample of 691 offenders who met DSM-IV criteria for ASPD, we used model-based clustering to identify subgroups of individuals with relatively homogeneous profiles on measures of associated features (psychopathic personality traits) and other constructs with potential etiological significance for subtypes of ASPD. Two emergent groups displayed profiles that conformed broadly to theoretical descriptions of primary psychopathy and Karpman's (1941) variant of secondary psychopathy. As expected, a third group (nonpsychopathic ASPD) lacked substantial associated features. A fourth group exhibited elevated psychopathic features as well as a highly fearful temperament, a profile not clearly predicted by extant models. Planned comparisons revealed theoretically informative differences between primary and secondary groups in multiple domains, including self-report measures, passive avoidance learning, clinical ratings, and official records. Our results inform ongoing debates about the overlap between psychopathy and ASPD and raise questions about the wisdom of placing most individuals who habitually violate social norms and laws into a single diagnostic category.
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition appears likely to eliminate the diagnosis of narcissistic personality disorder. There are significant problems with the discriminant validity of the current narcissistic personality disorder critiera set; furthermore, the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition's narrow focus on "grandiosity" probably contributes to the wide disparity between low narcissistic personality disorder prevalence rates in epidemiological studies and high rates of narcissistic personality disorder in clinical practice. Nevertheless, the best course of action may be to refine the narcissistic personality disorder criteria, followed by careful field testing and a search for biomarkers, rather than wholesale elimination of the narcissistic personality disorder category. The construct of "malignant narcissism" is also worthy of more intense empirical investigation.
Majer, John M; Payne, Jason C; Jason, Leonard A
A comparative analysis of recovery resources (abstinence social support, abstinence self-efficacy) was conducted among two groups exiting inpatient treatment for substance use disorders: persons with psychiatric comorbid substance use disorders and persons with substance use disorders. Both groups reported comparable levels of abstinence social support, but this resource was not significantly related to substance use among persons with psychiatric comorbid substance use disorders. Although abstinence self-efficacy was significantly related to substance use, persons with psychiatric comorbid substance use disorders reported significantly lower levels of abstinence self-efficacy than persons with substance use disorders. Findings suggest that persons with psychiatric comorbid substance use disorders exit alcohol/drug treatment with lower levels of abstinence self-efficacy compared to their substance use disorder peers.
Melca, Isabela A; Yücel, Murat; Mendlowicz, Mauro V; de Oliveira-Souza, Ricardo; Fontenelle, Leonardo F
We assessed correlates of obsessive-compulsive (OCPD), schizotypal (SPD) and borderline (BPD) personality disorders in 110 obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) patients. We found OCD patients with OCPD (20.9%) to exhibit higher rates of hoarding and bipolar disorders, increased severity of hoarding and symmetry, lower prevalence of unacceptable thoughts involving sex and religion and less non-planning impulsivity. Conversely, OCD patients with SPD (13.6%) displayed more frequently bipolar disorder, increased severity of depression and OCD neutralization, greater prevalence of "low-order" behaviors (i.e., touching), lower low-planning impulsivity and greater "behavioral" compulsivity. Finally, in exploratory analyses, OCD patients with BPD (21.8%) exhibited lower education, higher rates of several comorbid psychiatric disorders, greater frequency of compulsions involving interpersonal domains (e.g. reassurance seeking), increased severity of depression, anxiety and OCD dimensions other than symmetry and hoarding, more motor and non-planning impulsivity, and greater "cognitive" compulsivity. These findings highlight the importance of assessing personality disorders in OCD samples.
Kendler, K S; Aggen, S H; Gillespie, Nathan; Neale, M C; Knudsen, G P; Krueger, R F; Czajkowski, Nikolai; Ystrom, Eivind; Reichborn-Kjennerud, T
Recent work has suggested a high level of congruence between normative personality, most typically represented by the "big five" factors, and abnormal personality traits. In 2,293 Norwegian adult twins ascertained from a population-based registry, the authors evaluated the degree of sharing of genetic and environmental influences on normative personality, assessed by the Big Five Inventory (BFI), and personality disorder traits (PDTs), assessed by the Personality Inventory for DSM-5-Norwegian Brief Form (PID-5-NBF). For four of the five BFI dimensions, the strongest genetic correlation was observed with the expected PID-5-NBF dimension (e.g., neuroticism with negative affectivity [+], conscientiousness with disinhibition [-]). However, neuroticism, conscientiousness, and agreeableness had substantial genetic correlations with other PID-5-NBF dimensions (e.g., neuroticism with compulsivity [+], agreeableness with detachment [-]). Openness had no substantial genetic correlations with any PID-5-NBF dimension. The proportion of genetic risk factors shared in aggregate between the BFI traits and the PID-5-NBF dimensions was quite high for conscientiousness and neuroticism, relatively robust for extraversion and agreeableness, but quite low for openness. Of the six PID-5-NBF dimensions, three (negative affectivity, detachment, and disinhibition) shared, in aggregate, most of their genetic risk factors with normative personality traits. Genetic factors underlying psychoticism, antagonism, and compulsivity were shared to a lesser extent, suggesting that they are influenced by etiological factors not well indexed by the BFI.
Grosjean, Bernadette; Tsai, Guochuan E.
Studies of the neurobehavioural components of borderline personality disorder (BPD) have shown that symptoms and behaviours of BPD are partly associated with disruptions in basic neurocognitive processes, in particular, in the executive neurocognition and memory systems. A growing body of data indicates that the glutamatergic system, in particular, the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) subtype receptor, plays a major role in neuronal plasticity, cognition and memory and may underlie the pathophysiology of multiple psychiatric disorders. In this paper, we review the literature regarding BPD and its cognitive deficits and the current data on glutamatergic and NMDA neurotransmission. We propose that multiple cognitive dysfunctions and symptoms presented by BPD patients, like dissociation, psychosis and impaired nociception, may result from the dysregulation of the NMDA neurotransmission. This impairment may be the result of a combination of biological vulnerability and environmental influences mediated by the NMDA neurotransmission. PMID:17353939
Herr, Nathaniel R; Hammen, Constance; Brennan, Patricia A
Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is characterized by severe disruption of interpersonal relationships, yet very little research has examined the relationship between maternal BPD and offspring psychosocial functioning. The present study examined 815 mothers and their 15-year-old children from a community-based sample to determine (1) if there is an association between mothers' BPD symptoms and the interpersonal functioning, attachment cognitions, and depressive symptoms of their offspring, and (2) if the association of maternal BPD and youth outcomes is independent of maternal and youth depression. Measures of youth psychosocial functioning included self, mother, interviewer rated, and teacher reports. Results indicated that there was a significant association between maternal BPD symptoms and youth outcomes, and that this association remained even after controlling for maternal lifetime history of major depression, maternal history of dysthymic disorder, and youth depressive symptoms. This study provides some of the first empirical evidence for a link between mother's BPD symptoms and youth psychosocial outcomes.
Loranger, A W; Tulis, E H
The lifetime expectancy (morbid risk) of alcoholism was determined in the parents and siblings of 83 women with DSM-III borderline personality disorder and compared with that in the parents and siblings of 100 women with DSM-III schizophrenia and 100 women with DSM-III bipolar disorder. The relatives of the borderline probands had two to three times more alcoholism than the relatives of the bipolar and schizophrenic probands. The condition was most common in the fathers of the borderline probands, almost one third of whom were either alcoholics or heavy drinkers. When the three groups of probands were subdivided according to whether they, themselves, had occasionally abused alcohol, there were no longer any significant differences in alcoholism among their relatives.
Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a common psychiatric disorder associated with severe functional impairment, high rates of suicide and comorbid psychiatric illness, intensive use of treatment, and high costs to society. The etiology and pathogenesis of BPD are still uncertain, although an interaction between biological and psychosocial factors has been proposed to explain how the condition develops. Attachment disturbances represent one of the developmental risk factors that have been most consistently found to be associated with BPD, with a number of studies reporting a significant strong association between insecure attachment and BPD, notwithstanding the variety of measures and attachment types employed in these studies. In this article, the author first reviews clinical descriptions and research findings concerning the association between attachment disturbances and BPD and then discusses how attachment theory may help clinicians who work with patients with BPD better understand the psychopathology of the illness and plan treatment.
The development of cognitive models and treatments for borderline personality disorder over the last two decades has been remarkable. This article presents the main ideas of the models developed by Aaron T. Beck and Arthur Freeman, Jeffrey Young and Marsha Linehan. These theories have generated psychotherapies that have proven their efficacy in controlled empirical studies in a difficult to treat population. The models of Beck Freeman and Young are based on the concept of schema. Linehan's dialectical behavior therapy is based on a biosocial transactional conception of the disorder. All these models emphasize the importance of negative experiences in early development. The article presents the structure of these treatments and describes their specific interventions.
Hasler, Gregor; Hopwood, Christopher J; Jacob, Gitta A; Brändle, Laura S; Schulte-Vels, Thomas
Patient-reported outcome (PRO) refers to measures that emphasize the subjective view of patients about their health-related conditions and behaviors. Typically, PROs include self-report questionnaires and clinical interviews. Defining PROs for borderline personality disorder (BPD) is particularly challenging given the disorder's high symptomatic heterogeneity, high comorbidity with other psychiatric conditions, highly fluctuating symptoms, weak correlations between symptoms and functional outcomes, and lack of valid and reliable experimental measures to complement self-report data. Here, we provide an overview of currently used BPD outcome measures and discuss them from clinical, psychometric, experimental, and patient perspectives. In addition, we review the most promising leads to improve BPD PROs, including the DSM-5 Section III, the Recovery Approach, Ecological Momentary Assessments, and novel experimental measures of social functioning that are associated with functional and social outcomes.
Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) is a complex disorder that creates a diagnostic, ethical, and treatment dilemma for mental health professionals. Psychosocial, biological, and cultural influences play a role in the development of ASPD. People with ASPD often had harsh early childhoods that impaired their ability to trust in adulthood. Research supports intriguing biological links, but it remains unclear if biological differences are the cause or the effect of ASPD. Individualism, patriarchy, and widespread media violence create the cultural context for the development of ASPD. ASPD is difficult to clinically diagnose and treat, and there is controversy concerning whether ASPD is a psychiatric or a legal-ethical problem. However, the management of ASPD often falls to mental health services. This article addresses treatment and primary prevention of ASPD in a way that is relevant to mental health practice.
This study investigated the specific emotional lexicons in narratives created by persons diagnosed with antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) to test the hypothesis that individuals with ASPD exhibit deficiencies in emotional language. Study participants consisted of 60 prison inmates with ASPD, 40 prison inmates without ASPD, and 60 men without antisocial tendencies who described situations involving love, hate and anxiety depicted by photographs. The lexical choices made in the narratives were analyzed, and a comparison of the three groups revealed differences between the emotional narratives of inmates with ASPD, inmates without ASPD, and the control group. Although the narratives of the individuals with ASPD included more words describing emotions and higher levels of emotional intensity, the valence of these words was inappropriate. The linguistic characteristics of these narratives were associated with high levels of psychopathy and low emotional reactivity.
López Durán, Ana; Becoña Iglesias, Elisardo
The aim of the present study is to determine patterns and personality disorder in subjects under cocaine dependence treatment using MCMI-II, and their relationship with sociodemographic variables and consumption characteristics. We assess 102 subjects under cocaine dependence treatment in Drug Abuse Centers in Galicia (Spain). The results indicate that the most prevalent basic scales of personality are the passive-aggressive, antisocial, narcisism and histrionic. Borderline and paranoid scales are the most prevalent with regard to the pathological personality scales. These results coincide with other international and national studies. We conclude pointing out the necessity to carry out studies with wider cocaine dependence samples in treatment, and the specific inclusion criteria should be established in the study. We also indicate the importance of carrying out a previous assessment of all demanding treatment subjects to design the objectives of the mentioned treatment.
Introduction In this study, we aimed to develop two reliable and valid assessment instruments for investigating the level of difficulties mental health workers experience while working with patients with personality disorders and the attitudes they develop tt the patients. Methods The research was carried out based on the general screening model. The study sample consisted of 332 mental health workers in several mental health clinics of Turkey, with a certain amount of experience in working with personality disorders, who were selected with a random assignment method. In order to collect data, the Personal Information Questionnaire, Difficulty of Working with Personality Disorders Scale (PD-DWS), and Attitudes Towards Patients with Personality Disorders Scale (PD-APS), which are being examined for reliability and validity, were applied. To determine construct validity, the Adjective Check List, Maslach Burnout Inventory, and State and Trait Anxiety Inventory were used. Explanatory factor analysis was used for investigating the structural validity, and Cronbach alpha, Spearman-Brown, Guttman Split-Half reliability analyses were utilized to examine the reliability. Also, item reliability and validity computations were carried out by investigating the corrected item-total correlations and discriminative indexes of the items in the scales. Results For the PD-DWS KMO test, the value was .946; also, a significant difference was found for the Bartlett sphericity test (p<.001). The computed test-retest coefficient reliability was .702; the Cronbach alpha value of the total test score was .952. For PD-APS KMO, the value was .925; a significant difference was found in Bartlett sphericity test (p<.001); the computed reliability coefficient based on continuity was .806; and the Cronbach alpha value of the total test score was .913. Analyses on both scales were based on total scores. Conclusion It was found that PD-DWS and PD-APS have good psychometric properties, measuring the
Oude Elberink, A M L; Oudijn, M S; Kwa, V I H; Van, H L
A 47-year-old woman, who was believed to be suffering from histrionic personality disorder with regression and conversion, was finally diagnosed with a frontal meningioma. Patients with meningiomas can present with a variety of psychiatric symptoms, sometimes even before neurological symptoms occur. The diagnosis is often delayed because the symptoms are misleading and it is difficult to modify a psychiatric diagnosis once this has been made. Discussion focuses on the characteristic signs of a meningioma, the reasons for delays in diagnosis and the indications for brain-imaging on psychiatric patients.
Dickey, Chandlee C; McCarley, Robert W; Voglmaier, Martina M; Niznikiewicz, Margaret A; Seidman, Larry J; Frumin, Melissa; Toner, Sarah; Demeo, Susan; Shenton, Martha E
The fusiform gyrus is important for face and object recognition, is abnormal in schizophrenia, but has not been studied in schizotypal personality disorder (SPD). Thin-slice MR images showed no differences, either in right, left or total fusiform gyri volumes, between subjects with SPD (N=21) and normal controls (N=19). However, there was a correlation between severity of illusions and magical thinking suffered by the SPD subjects and smaller right fusiform gyrus volumes. This suggests that future studies may be useful in determining the functional competence of this gyrus in SPD.
Bell, C C
Despite the criticism that psychoanalytic models are not applicable to social phenomena, knowledge of the dynamics of narcissistic development aids in understanding a particular kind of racist individual. Specifically, racist attitudes may be indicative of a narcissistic personality disorder or of a regression to primitive narcissistic functioning secondary to environmental forces. The differentiation between the narcissistic racist, the stress-induced racist, and the socially misinformed racist is discussed utilizing clinical paradigms discovered in psychotherapy. Life experiences and religion are discussed as possible aids in the transformation of primary narcissism into secondary narcissism.
Allen, D M; Farmer, R G
Current, ongoing interactions between adults exhibiting borderline personality disorder (BPD) traits and their families of origin may influence and maintain self-destructive behavior. Family interactions in such patients are often characterized by coexisting extremes of overinvolvement and underinvolvement by parental figures. Such parental behavior may trigger preexisting role relationship schemata in vulnerable individuals. Negative family reactions to new behavior patterns may make change difficult. A model for how present-day interpersonal patterns lead to self-destructive behavior, based on clinical observations, is proposed and case examples are presented.
In-Albon, Tina; Kossowsky, Joe; Schneider, Silvia
The "vigilance-avoidance" attention pattern is found in anxious adults, who initially gaze more at threatening pictures than nonanxious adults (vigilance), but subsequently gaze less at them than nonanxious adults (avoidance). The present research, using eye tracking methodology, tested whether anxious children show the same pattern. Children with…
Wygant, Dustin B; Sellbom, Martin; Sleep, Chelsea E; Wall, Tina D; Applegate, Kathryn C; Krueger, Robert F; Patrick, Christopher J
For decades, it has been known that the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) diagnosis of Antisocial Personality Disorder (ASPD) is a nonadequate operationalization of psychopathy (Crego & Widiger, 2015). The DSM-5 alternative model of personality disorders provides an opportunity to rectify some of these long held concerns. The current study compared the Section III alternative model's trait-based conception of ASPD with the categorical model from the main diagnostic codes section of DSM-5 in terms of associations with differing models of psychopathy. We also evaluated the validity of the trait-based conception more broadly in relation to measures of antisocial tendencies as well as psychopathy. Participants were 200 male inmates who were administered a battery of self-report and interview-based researcher rating measures of relevant constructs. Analyses showed that Section III ASPD outperformed Section II ASPD in predicting scores on Hare's (2003) Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R; r = .88 vs. .59). Additionally, aggregate scores for Section III ASPD performed well in capturing variance in differing ASPD and psychopathy measures. Finally, we found that the Section III ASPD impairment criteria added incrementally to the Section III ASPD traits in predicting PCL-R psychopathy and SCID-II ASPD. (PsycINFO Database Record
Drury, Pamela; Calhoun, Patrick S.; Boggs, Christina; Araujo, Gustavo; Dennis, Michelle F.; Beckham, Jean C.
The present study describes Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) profiles for women with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Four groups of women were sampled: single Axis I diagnosis of PTSD; PTSD and major depressive disorder (MDD); PTSD, MDD, at least one other Axis I disorder; and controls with no Axis I disorder. Higher comorbidity rates were associated with higher mean profile elevations and broader range of endorsed symptoms. The group with the highest rate of comorbidity produced profiles most similar to previously published reports of patients with PTSD. This is in contrast to women with a single diagnosis of PTSD, who produced relative mean elevations only on subscales measuring distress caused by trauma and physiological symptoms of depression. Thus, published profiles may be more reflective of PTSD with comorbidity than a single diagnosis of PTSD. PMID:21437198
Payer, Doris E.; Park, Min Tae M.; Kish, Stephen J.; Kolla, Nathan J.; Lerch, Jason P.; Boileau, Isabelle; Chakravarty, M. M.
Personality disorder symptomatology (PD-Sx) can result in personal distress and impaired interpersonal functioning, even in the absence of a clinical diagnosis, and is frequently comorbid with psychiatric disorders such as substance use, mood, and anxiety disorders; however, they often remain untreated, and are not taken into account in clinical studies. To investigate brain morphological correlates of PD-Sx, we measured subcortical volume and shape, and cortical thickness/surface area, based on structural magnetic resonance images. We investigated 37 subjects who reported PD-Sx exceeding DSM-IV Axis-II screening thresholds, and 35 age, sex, and smoking status-matched control subjects. Subjects reporting PD-Sx were then grouped into symptom-based clusters: N = 20 into Cluster B (reporting Antisocial, Borderline, Histrionic, or Narcissistic PD-Sx) and N = 28 into Cluster C (reporting Obsessive–Compulsive, Avoidant, or Dependent PD-Sx); N = 11 subjects reported PD-Sx from both clusters, and none reported Cluster A (Paranoid, Schizoid, or Schizotypal) PD-Sx. Compared to control, Cluster C PD-Sx was associated with greater striatal surface area localized to the caudate tail, smaller ventral striatum volumes, and greater cortical thickness in right prefrontal cortex. Both Cluster B and C PD-Sx groups also showed trends toward greater posterior caudate volumes and orbitofrontal surface area anomalies, but these findings did not survive correction for multiple comparisons. The results point to morphological abnormalities that could contribute to Cluster C PD-Sx. In addition, the observations parallel those in substance use disorders, pointing to the importance of considering PD-Sx when interpreting findings in often-comorbid psychiatric disorders. PMID:26379535
Payer, Doris E; Park, Min Tae M; Kish, Stephen J; Kolla, Nathan J; Lerch, Jason P; Boileau, Isabelle; Chakravarty, M M
Personality disorder symptomatology (PD-Sx) can result in personal distress and impaired interpersonal functioning, even in the absence of a clinical diagnosis, and is frequently comorbid with psychiatric disorders such as substance use, mood, and anxiety disorders; however, they often remain untreated, and are not taken into account in clinical studies. To investigate brain morphological correlates of PD-Sx, we measured subcortical volume and shape, and cortical thickness/surface area, based on structural magnetic resonance images. We investigated 37 subjects who reported PD-Sx exceeding DSM-IV Axis-II screening thresholds, and 35 age, sex, and smoking status-matched control subjects. Subjects reporting PD-Sx were then grouped into symptom-based clusters: N = 20 into Cluster B (reporting Antisocial, Borderline, Histrionic, or Narcissistic PD-Sx) and N = 28 into Cluster C (reporting Obsessive-Compulsive, Avoidant, or Dependent PD-Sx); N = 11 subjects reported PD-Sx from both clusters, and none reported Cluster A (Paranoid, Schizoid, or Schizotypal) PD-Sx. Compared to control, Cluster C PD-Sx was associated with greater striatal surface area localized to the caudate tail, smaller ventral striatum volumes, and greater cortical thickness in right prefrontal cortex. Both Cluster B and C PD-Sx groups also showed trends toward greater posterior caudate volumes and orbitofrontal surface area anomalies, but these findings did not survive correction for multiple comparisons. The results point to morphological abnormalities that could contribute to Cluster C PD-Sx. In addition, the observations parallel those in substance use disorders, pointing to the importance of considering PD-Sx when interpreting findings in often-comorbid psychiatric disorders.
Brown, M; Oldenhof, E; Allen, J S; Dowling, N A
The primary aims of this study were to examine the prevalence of personality disorders in problem gamblers, to explore the relationship between personality disorders and problem gambling severity, and to explore the degree to which the psychological symptoms highlighted in the biosocial developmental model of borderline personality disorder (impulsivity, distress tolerance, substance use, PTSD symptoms, psychological distress and work/social adjustment) are associated with problem gambling. A secondary aim was to explore the strength of the relationships between these symptoms and problem gambling severity in problem gamblers with and without personality disorder pathology. Participants were 168 consecutively admitted problem gamblers seeking treatment from a specialist outpatient gambling service in Australia. The prevalence of personality disorders using the self-report version of the Iowa Personality Disorders Screen was 43.3 %. Cluster B personality disorders, but not Cluster A or C personality disorders, were associated with problem gambling severity. All psychological symptoms, except alcohol and drug use, were significantly higher among participants with personality disorder pathology compared to those without. Finally, psychological distress, and work and social adjustment were significantly associated with problem gambling severity for problem gamblers with personality disorder pathology, while impulsivity, psychological distress, and work and social adjustment were significantly associated with problem gambling severity for those without personality disorder pathology. High rates of comorbid personality disorders, particularly Cluster B disorders, necessitate routine screening in gambling treatment services. More complex psychological profiles may complicate treatment for problem gamblers with comorbid personality disorders. Future research should examine the applicability of the biosocial developmental model to problem gambling in community studies.
Gift, Thomas E; Reimherr, Frederick W; Marchant, Barrie K; Steans, Tammy A; Wender, Paul H
Personality disorders (PDs) are commonly found in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and are associated with increased ADHD symptoms and psychosocial impairment. To assess the impact of PDs or personality traits on retention rates in ADHD trials and whether treating ADHD affects the expression of PD, data were analyzed from 2 methylphenidate trials. Assessment of PDs and personality traits included using the Wisconsin Personality Disorders Inventory IV and the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition Personality Disorders. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms were evaluated using the Wender-Reimherr Adult Attention Deficit Disorder Scale. Major findings were that subjects with cluster A, cluster B, passive-aggressive, or more than 1 PD showed more attrition. Subjects dropping out also had more schizoid and narcissistic traits. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms (p < 0.001) and all personality traits (range, p = 0.03 to p = 0.001) improved, but there was almost no correlation between changes on these 2 measures. Conversely, of 11 Wisconsin Personality Disorders Inventory IV items that improved most, 8 resembled ADHD or oppositional defiant disorder symptoms.
Mirza, Khadija; Mwimba, Gracia; Pritchett, Rachel; Davidson, Claire
A systematic review of reactive attachment disorder (RAD)/disinhibited social engagement disorder (DSED) in adolescence highlighted that young people with the disorder had indiscriminate friendliness with difficulties in establishing and maintaining stable relationships. Most reported experiences of rejection. We were struck by similarities between the above and features of emergence of personality disorders (EPD). This feasibility study aimed to determine best ways of recruiting and retaining vulnerable young people and the proportion of participants with RAD/DSED who might have emerging borderline personality disorder (EBPD). Participants were referred to the study by their treating clinicians from local mental health teams. Results showed strong association between RAD/DSED and EBPD. Participant characteristics showed high levels of out of home placements, early termination of school careers, suicide attempts, quasipsychotic symptoms, and multiagency involvements. They experienced the project as an opportunity to talk about relationships and reported that they would like more of this in usual clinical contacts. They all agreed to be contacted for future studies. Previous studies have shown that early detection and treatment of emergent personality traits can alter trajectory. Future research will continue to explore these trajectories, explore detection of vulnerability factors, and evaluate interventions.
Mwimba, Gracia; Pritchett, Rachel; Davidson, Claire
A systematic review of reactive attachment disorder (RAD)/disinhibited social engagement disorder (DSED) in adolescence highlighted that young people with the disorder had indiscriminate friendliness with difficulties in establishing and maintaining stable relationships. Most reported experiences of rejection. We were struck by similarities between the above and features of emergence of personality disorders (EPD). This feasibility study aimed to determine best ways of recruiting and retaining vulnerable young people and the proportion of participants with RAD/DSED who might have emerging borderline personality disorder (EBPD). Participants were referred to the study by their treating clinicians from local mental health teams. Results showed strong association between RAD/DSED and EBPD. Participant characteristics showed high levels of out of home placements, early termination of school careers, suicide attempts, quasipsychotic symptoms, and multiagency involvements. They experienced the project as an opportunity to talk about relationships and reported that they would like more of this in usual clinical contacts. They all agreed to be contacted for future studies. Previous studies have shown that early detection and treatment of emergent personality traits can alter trajectory. Future research will continue to explore these trajectories, explore detection of vulnerability factors, and evaluate interventions. PMID:27366788
Papageorgiou, Eleni; Hardiess, Gregor; Ackermann, Hermann; Wiethoelter, Horst; Dietz, Klaus; Mallot, Hanspeter A; Schiefer, Ulrich
The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of homonymous visual field defects (HVFDs) on collision avoidance of dynamic obstacles at an intersection under virtual reality (VR) conditions. Overall performance was quantitatively assessed as the number of collisions at a virtual intersection at two difficulty levels. HVFDs were assessed by binocular semi-automated kinetic perimetry within the 90° visual field, stimulus III4e and the area of sparing within the affected hemifield (A-SPAR in deg(2)) was calculated. The effect of A-SPAR, age, gender, side of brain lesion, time since brain lesion and presence of macular sparing on the number of collisions, as well as performance over time were investigated. Thirty patients (10 female, 20 male, age range: 19-71 years) with HVFDs due to unilateral vascular brain lesions and 30 group-age-matched subjects with normal visual fields were examined. The mean number of collisions was higher for patients and in the more difficult level they experienced more collisions with vehicles approaching from the blind side than the seeing side. Lower A-SPAR and increasing age were associated with decreasing performance. However, in agreement with previous studies, wide variability in performance among patients with identical visual field defects was observed and performance of some patients was similar to that of normal subjects. Both patients and healthy subjects displayed equal improvement of performance over time in the more difficult level. In conclusion, our results suggest that visual-field related parameters per se are inadequate in predicting successful collision avoidance. Individualized approaches which also consider compensatory strategies by means of eye and head movements should be introduced.
Tietz, A; Zietlow, A-L; Reck, C
Hardly any research has examined the link between postpartum anxiety disorder and maternal bonding. This study examined if postpartum anxiety disorder and maternal bonding are related in the postpartum period. Thereby, subclinical depressive symptoms and specific aspects of an anxious symptomatology were also taken into consideration. The German sample of N = 78 mother-infant dyads is composed of n = 30 mothers with postpartum anxiety disorders but without major or minor depression according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV (DSM-IV) and n = 48 healthy mothers. Subjects were interviewed with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Disorders at an average infant age of M = 4.1 months. Moreover, mothers filled out the Postpartum Bonding Questionnaire-16. The Anxiety Cognitions Questionnaire, the Body Sensations Questionnaire and the Mobility Inventory were chosen to assess different aspects of anxious symptomatology. To control for concurrent subclinical depressive symptoms, we used the German Edinburgh-Postnatal-Depression Scale. Mothers with postpartum anxiety disorder reported significantly lower bonding than healthy mothers. However, in a linear regression analysis, concurrent subclinical depressive symptoms and avoidance of anxiety-related situations in company explained 27 % of the overall variance in maternal bonding. The perceived lower bonding of mothers with anxiety disorder could be due to aspects of a concurrent subclinical depressive symptomatology. This notion emphasizes the need to target even mild depressive symptoms in the treatment of postpartum anxiety disorders. The outcomes also underline that the severity of anxious symptomatology, reflected by avoidance behaviour in company, puts the mother-infant bond at risk.
Cooke, David J
This paper introduces the Special Section on personality disorder and violence. The first paper evaluates the impact of removing the Psychopathy Checklist (PCL-R) as a mandatory element of a major approach to the assessment of violence risk-the HCR-20. The second paper considers violence to self as well as violence to others; it examines the influence of dysfunctional personality traits in a sample of female offenders. The third paper provides a systematic framework for risk formulation, discussing how to bridge the gap between nomothetic research and the individual case. This paper concludes by arguing that there is a need to shift perspective from asking "what?" dysfunctional traits are relevant to future violence to "why?" are particular traits relevant. The "why?" question is particularly germane in the forensic arena where expert testimony must endeavor to provide a causal explanation of risk processes at the level of the individual.