Science.gov

Sample records for avoiding undue influence

  1. MISCONCEPTIONS ABOUT COERCION AND UNDUE INFLUENCE: REFLECTIONS ON THE VIEWS OF IRB MEMBERS

    PubMed Central

    LARGENT, EMILY; GRADY, CHRISTINE; MILLER, FRANKLIN G.; WERTHEIMER, ALAN

    2016-01-01

    Payment to recruit research subjects is a common practice but raises ethical concerns relating to the potential for coercion or undue influence. We conducted the first national study of IRB members and human subjects protection professionals to explore attitudes as to whether and why payment of research participants constitutes coercion or undue influence. Upon critical evaluation of the cogency of ethical concerns regarding payment, as reflected in our survey results, we found expansive or inconsistent views about coercion and undue influence that may interfere with valuable research. In particular, respondents appear to believe that coercion and undue influence lie on a continuum; by contrast, we argue that they are wholly distinct: whereas undue influence is a cognitive distortion relating to assessment of risks and benefits, coercion is a threat of harm. Because payment is an offer, rather than a threat, payment is never coercive. PMID:22493972

  2. Gender bias and judicial decisions of undue influence in testamentary challenges.

    PubMed

    Recupero, Patricia R; Christopher, Paul P; Strong, David R; Price, Marilyn; Harms, Samara E

    2015-03-01

    Allegations of undue influence constitute a common basis for contests of wills. Legal research from the 1990s suggests that gender bias factors significantly into judicial decision-making regarding alleged undue influence and testamentary intent. In this study, we sought to assess whether this bias is present today and to identify any factors that may be associated with it. Probate judges from several jurisdictions in the United States were asked to consider two hypothetical case vignettes drawn from actual published decisions. In our study, the gender of the testator played only a minor role in how judges weighed factors in the decision-making process and, overall, did not significantly influence opinions regarding the presence of undue influence. The specifics of the case and the gender of the judge emerged as the most consistent and robust potential influences on decision-making. Our results suggest that probate rulings involving undue influence are likely to represent a complex interaction of factors involving the testator's and judge's genders and the specifics of individual cases. The implications of these findings are discussed.

  3. [Contexts and patterns of undue use benzodiazepine among women].

    PubMed

    Souza, Ana Rosa Lins de; Opaleye, Emérita Sátiro; Noto, Ana Regina

    2013-04-01

    The undue use of benzodiazepines particularly among women has raised concern in the public health area. This qualitative study aimed at understanding the beliefs and values associated with undue use of benzodiazepines among women. Thirty-three participants (aged between 18 and 60) with a history of undue use of benzodiazepines in the past year were selected intentionally using specific criteria. The interviews were fully transcribed and subjected to content analysis using NVivo software. The majority of respondents reported use for longer than the recommended duration (median 7 years) and they purchased the drug with a medical prescription. Reasons for use most given were to deal with anxiety, to improve sleep and to "flee from problems." Even those who acknowledged the possibility of being addicted were not motivated to stop taking the drug. Medical supervision did not necessarily seem to influence the perception of risk of undue use of benzodiazepines and it appears as a factor favoring the maintenance of prolonged use.

  4. 15 CFR 12.2 - Undue proliferation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Undue proliferation. 12.2 Section 12.2... proliferation. (a) Information as to possible undue proliferation. Any person or group, including a State or... possible existence of undue proliferation. Such communications should be in writing and include...

  5. 15 CFR 12.2 - Undue proliferation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Undue proliferation. 12.2 Section 12.2... proliferation. (a) Information as to possible undue proliferation. Any person or group, including a State or... possible existence of undue proliferation. Such communications should be in writing and include...

  6. 15 CFR 12.2 - Undue proliferation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Undue proliferation. 12.2 Section 12.2... proliferation. (a) Information as to possible undue proliferation. Any person or group, including a State or... possible existence of undue proliferation. Such communications should be in writing and include...

  7. 15 CFR 12.2 - Undue proliferation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Undue proliferation. 12.2 Section 12.2... proliferation. (a) Information as to possible undue proliferation. Any person or group, including a State or... possible existence of undue proliferation. Such communications should be in writing and include...

  8. 15 CFR 12.2 - Undue proliferation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Undue proliferation. 12.2 Section 12.2... proliferation. (a) Information as to possible undue proliferation. Any person or group, including a State or... possible existence of undue proliferation. Such communications should be in writing and include...

  9. The influence of object identity on obstacle avoidance reaching behaviour.

    PubMed

    de Haan, A M; Van der Stigchel, S; Nijnens, C M; Dijkerman, H C

    2014-07-01

    When reaching for target objects, we hardly ever collide with other objects located in our working environment. Behavioural studies have demonstrated that the introduction of non-target objects into the workspace alters both spatial and temporal parameters of reaching trajectories. Previous studies have shown the influence of spatial object features (e.g. size and position) on obstacle avoidance movements. However, obstacle identity may also play a role in the preparation of avoidance responses as this allows prediction of possible negative consequences of collision based on recognition of the obstacle. In this study we test this hypothesis by asking participants to reach towards a target as quickly as possible, in the presence of an empty or full glass of water placed about half way between the target and the starting position, at 8 cm either left or right of the virtual midline. While the spatial features of full and empty glasses of water are the same, the consequences of collision are clearly different. Indeed, when there was a high chance of collision, reaching trajectories veered away more from filled than from empty glasses. This shows that the identity of potential obstacles, which allows for estimating the predicted consequences of collision, is taken into account during obstacle avoidance.

  10. 37 CFR 10.68 - Avoiding influence by others than the client.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Avoiding influence by others than the client. 10.68 Section 10.68 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND... Patent and Trademark Office Code of Professional Responsibility § 10.68 Avoiding influence by others...

  11. 24 CFR 583.305 - Term of commitment; repayment of grants; prevention of undue benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... grants; prevention of undue benefits. 583.305 Section 583.305 Housing and Urban Development Regulations... PROGRAM Program Requirements § 583.305 Term of commitment; repayment of grants; prevention of undue... (42 U.S.C. 11383(b)(1), 11383(b)(3)). (b) Repayment of grant and prevention of undue benefits....

  12. 24 CFR 583.305 - Term of commitment; repayment of grants; prevention of undue benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... grants; prevention of undue benefits. 583.305 Section 583.305 Housing and Urban Development Regulations... PROGRAM Program Requirements § 583.305 Term of commitment; repayment of grants; prevention of undue... (42 U.S.C. 11383(b)(1), 11383(b)(3)). (b) Repayment of grant and prevention of undue benefits....

  13. Is all motivation good for learning? Dissociable influences of approach and avoidance motivation in declarative memory.

    PubMed

    Murty, Vishnu P; LaBar, Kevin S; Hamilton, Derek A; Adcock, R Alison

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of approach versus avoidance motivation on declarative learning. Human participants navigated a virtual reality version of the Morris water task, a classic spatial memory paradigm, adapted to permit the experimental manipulation of motivation during learning. During this task, participants were instructed to navigate to correct platforms while avoiding incorrect platforms. To manipulate motivational states participants were either rewarded for navigating to correct locations (approach) or punished for navigating to incorrect platforms (avoidance). Participants' skin conductance levels (SCLs) were recorded during navigation to investigate the role of physiological arousal in motivated learning. Behavioral results revealed that, overall, approach motivation enhanced and avoidance motivation impaired memory performance compared to nonmotivated spatial learning. This advantage was evident across several performance indices, including accuracy, learning rate, path length, and proximity to platform locations during probe trials. SCL analysis revealed three key findings. First, within subjects, arousal interacted with approach motivation, such that high arousal on a given trial was associated with performance deficits. In addition, across subjects, high arousal negated or reversed the benefits of approach motivation. Finally, low-performing, highly aroused participants showed SCL responses similar to those of avoidance-motivation participants, suggesting that for these individuals, opportunities for reward may evoke states of learning similar to those typically evoked by threats of punishment. These results provide a novel characterization of how approach and avoidance motivation influence declarative memory and indicate a critical and selective role for arousal in determining how reinforcement influences goal-oriented learning.

  14. Is all motivation good for learning? Dissociable influences of approach and avoidance motivation in declarative memory

    PubMed Central

    Murty, Vishnu P.; LaBar, Kevin S.; Hamilton, Derek A.; Adcock, R. Alison

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of approach versus avoidance motivation on declarative learning. Human participants navigated a virtual reality version of the Morris water task, a classic spatial memory paradigm, adapted to permit the experimental manipulation of motivation during learning. During this task, participants were instructed to navigate to correct platforms while avoiding incorrect platforms. To manipulate motivational states participants were either rewarded for navigating to correct locations (approach) or punished for navigating to incorrect platforms (avoidance). Participants’ skin conductance levels (SCLs) were recorded during navigation to investigate the role of physiological arousal in motivated learning. Behavioral results revealed that, overall, approach motivation enhanced and avoidance motivation impaired memory performance compared to nonmotivated spatial learning. This advantage was evident across several performance indices, including accuracy, learning rate, path length, and proximity to platform locations during probe trials. SCL analysis revealed three key findings. First, within subjects, arousal interacted with approach motivation, such that high arousal on a given trial was associated with performance deficits. In addition, across subjects, high arousal negated or reversed the benefits of approach motivation. Finally, low-performing, highly aroused participants showed SCL responses similar to those of avoidance–motivation participants, suggesting that for these individuals, opportunities for reward may evoke states of learning similar to those typically evoked by threats of punishment. These results provide a novel characterization of how approach and avoidance motivation influence declarative memory and indicate a critical and selective role for arousal in determining how reinforcement influences goal-oriented learning. PMID:22021253

  15. How avoidant attachment influences subjective well-being: an investigation about the age and gender differences.

    PubMed

    Li, Tianyuan; Fung, Helene H

    2014-01-01

    Intimate relationship is a significant factor that influences older adults' subjective well-being. Avoidant attachment reflects a basic working model regarding interpersonal relationships. The current study aims to test how age and gender moderate the effect of avoidant attachment to spouse on subjective well-being. Fifty-six married couples aged from 20 to 79 years in Hong Kong were recruited for the study. Their avoidant attachment to spouse and subjective well-being were measured by questionnaires. In general, avoidant attachment to spouse was found to undermine subjective well-being. More importantly, age significantly moderated the negative association between avoidant attachment and subjective well-being, but the direction of the moderating effect was opposite for husbands and wives. Compared with their younger counterparts, the detrimental effect of avoidant attachment on subjective well-being was weaker for older wives but stronger for older husbands. The results suggest that marital relationship may play different roles in different life stages for the two genders. In later adulthood, males may become more dependent on the marital relationship to maintain subjective well-being, whereas females can be relatively independent.

  16. The influence of approach and avoidance behavior on visual selective attention.

    PubMed

    Memmert, Daniel; Cañal-Bruland, Rouwen

    2009-10-01

    Recent findings indicate that enactment of approach behavior broadens the focus of perceptual attention. The aim of the present study was to examine how approach and avoidance behavior influence visual selective attention. To achieve this, the authors combined approach and avoidance manipulations with a visual precueing task (local vs. global cues preceding either local or global targets). The authors hypothesized that participants with an enactment of approach behavior would show faster attentional orienting with compatible cue-target-relations than in incompatible trials. The results support that enactment of approach behavior leads to faster attentional orienting in compatible trials compared with incompatible trials. Although participants showed significant attentional learning effects across blocks, learning was not enhanced by approach and avoidance manipulations.

  17. Procedural justice and the hedonic principle: how approach versus avoidance motivation influences the psychology of voice.

    PubMed

    van Prooijen, Jan-Willem; Karremans, Johan C; van Beest, Ilja

    2006-10-01

    The authors investigate the relation between the hedonic principle (people's motivations to approach pleasure and to avoid pain) and procedural justice. They explore whether approach or avoidance motivation increases the effect that people feel they were treated more fairly following procedures that do versus do not allow them an opportunity to voice their opinion. Experiments 1 and 2 reveal that these procedures influence procedural justice judgments more strongly when people conduct approach motor action (arm flexion) than when they conduct avoidance motor action (arm extension). Experiment 3 indicates that individual-difference measures of participants' approach motivations predicted procedural justice judgments following voice versus no-voice procedures. The authors conclude that people's motivational orientations stimulate their fairness-based reactions to voice procedures.

  18. Avoidance tests in site-specific risk assessment--influence of soil properties on the avoidance response of Collembola and earthworms.

    PubMed

    Natal-da-Luz, Tiago; Römbke, Jörg; Sousa, José Paulo

    2008-05-01

    The ability of organisms to avoid contaminated soils can act as an indicator of toxic potential in a particular soil. Based on the escape response of earthworms and Collembola, avoidance tests with these soil organisms have great potential as early screening tools in site-specific assessment. These tests are becoming more common in soil ecotoxicology, because they are ecologically relevant and have a shorter duration time compared with standardized soil toxicity tests. The avoidance response of soil invertebrates, however, can be influenced by the soil properties (e.g., organic matter content and texture) that affect behavior of the test species in the exposure matrix. Such an influence could mask a possible effect of the contaminant. Therefore, the effects of soil properties on performance of test species in the exposure media should be considered during risk assessment of contaminated soils. Avoidance tests with earthworms (Eisenia andrei) and springtails (Folsomia candida) were performed to identify the influence of both organic matter content and texture on the avoidance response of representative soil organisms. Distinct artificial soils were prepared by modifying quantities of the standard artificial soil components described by the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development to achieve different organic matter and texture classes. Several combinations of each factor were tested. Results showed that both properties influenced the avoidance response of organisms, which avoided soils with low organic matter content and fine texture. Springtails were less sensitive to changes in these soil constituents compared with earthworms, indicating springtails can be used for site-specific assessments of contaminated soils with a wider range of respective soil properties.

  19. Food avoidance in children. The influence of maternal feeding practices and behaviours.

    PubMed

    Powell, Faye C; Farrow, Claire V; Meyer, Caroline

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the contribution of a broad range of maternal feeding practices in predicting parental reports of food avoidance eating behaviours in young children, after controlling for child temperament, and maternal dietary restraint which have previously been associated with feeding problems. One hundred and four mothers of children aged between 3 and 6 years completed self report measures of their child's eating behaviour and temperament, maternal dietary restraint and child feeding practices. Maternal reports of food avoidance eating behaviours were associated with an emotional child temperament, high levels of maternal feeding control, using food for behaviour regulation and low encouragement of a balanced and varied food intake. Maternal feeding practices, predominantly pressure to eat, significantly predicted food avoidance eating behaviours after controlling for child emotionality and maternal dietary restraint. The significant contribution of maternal feeding practices, which are potentially modifiable behaviours, suggests that the feeding interactions of parents and their children should be targeted for intervention and the prevention of feeding difficulties during early childhood. Future research should continue to explore how a broader range of feeding practices, particular those that may be more adaptive, might influence child eating behaviour.

  20. Amygdaloid and non-amygdaloid fear both influence avoidance of risky foraging in hungry rats.

    PubMed

    Kim, Earnest; Kim, Eun Joo; Yeh, Regina; Shin, Minkyung; Bobman, Jake; Krasne, Franklin B; Kim, Jeansok J

    2014-09-07

    Considerable evidence seems to show that emotional and reflex reactions to feared situations are mediated by the amygdala. It might therefore seem plausible to expect that amygdala-coded fear should also influence decisions when animals make choices about instrumental actions. However, there is not good evidence of this. In particular, it appears, though the literature is conflicted, that once learning is complete, the amygdala may often not be involved in instrumental avoidance behaviours. It is therefore of interest that we have found in rats living for extended periods in a semi-naturalistic 'closed economy', where they were given random shocks in regions that had to be entered to obtain food, choices about feeding behaviour were in fact influenced by amygdala-coded fear, in spite of the null effect of amygdalar lesions on fear of dangerous location per se. We suggest that avoidance of highly motivated voluntary behaviour does depend in part on fear signals originating in the amygdala. Such signalling may be one role of well-known projections from amygdala to cortico-striate circuitry.

  1. Refocusing the Undue Burden Test: Inconsistent Interpretations Pose a Substantial Obstacle to Constitutional Legislation.

    PubMed

    Rosenthal, David L

    2016-01-01

    Decades after Roe, debate over abortion remains as contentious as ever. States continue to pass regulations burdening the abortion right, but lack clear guidance on how to evaluate such regulations using the undue burden test. This Article chronicles Supreme Court jurisprudence on abortion and examines how the current circuit split surrounding FDA-protocol legislation fits within the larger framework. Finally, this Article applies the proper version of the undue burden test to FDA-protocol legislation, which resolves the circuit split and provides lower courts with a clear means of analyzing abortion issues moving forward.

  2. 18 CFR 1308.24 - Undue delay in Contracting Officer's decision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Undue delay in Contracting Officer's decision. 1308.24 Section 1308.24 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE..., the Contractor may request the Chairman to direct the Contracting Officer to issue a decision within...

  3. 18 CFR 1308.24 - Undue delay in Contracting Officer's decision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Undue delay in Contracting Officer's decision. 1308.24 Section 1308.24 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE..., the Contractor may request the Chairman to direct the Contracting Officer to issue a decision within...

  4. 18 CFR 1308.24 - Undue delay in Contracting Officer's decision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Undue delay in Contracting Officer's decision. 1308.24 Section 1308.24 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE..., the Contractor may request the Chairman to direct the Contracting Officer to issue a decision within...

  5. The effectiveness of health systems in influencing avoidable mortality: a study in Valencia, Spain, 1975-90.

    PubMed Central

    Albert, X; Bayo, A; Alfonso, J L; Cortina, P; Corella, D

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To measure variations in the Holland and Charlton classifications of avoidable death causes and to estimate the effect of the Spanish national health system on avoidable mortality. DESIGN: Mortality in the Valencian Community was assessed between 1975 and 1990. The classifications of Holland and Charlton, used to assess avoidable causes of death, were compared. Holland's classification was then used to divide avoidable mortality into two groups--medical care indicators (MCI), which show the effectiveness of health care, and national health policy indicators (NHPI), which show the status of primary prevention. Comparisons were made with rates, group rates, and population rates. Trends and indices were also studied. SETTING: Valencia, Spain, 1975-90. RESULTS: During the study period, avoidable morality (only assessed by MCI) fell 63%, whereas the remainder of the mortality (non-MCI causes, that is all the non-avoidable causes together with the NHPI group) fell by 17%. If it is assumed that the mortality due to non-MCI causes indicates the overall effect of the environmental, social, nutritional, and genetic influences, then the difference between this and the MCI group would take us nearer the actual effect of the intervention of the health system. CONCLUSIONS: It is concluded that in this community, the health system has been responsible for approximately 47% of the total reduction in mortality from avoidable causes in the period studied. PMID:8935465

  6. 43 CFR 3809.415 - How do I prevent unnecessary or undue degradation while conducting operations on public lands?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... degradation while conducting operations on public lands? 3809.415 Section 3809.415 Public Lands: Interior... Conducted Under Plans of Operations § 3809.415 How do I prevent unnecessary or undue degradation while conducting operations on public lands? You prevent unnecessary or undue degradation while...

  7. [Opposite Semax influence on conditioning and functional disturbances of avoidance responses in rats].

    PubMed

    2013-01-01

    Semax effects on formation of active avoidance reaction in rats in different experimental models have been studied. It was shown that intraperitoneal Semax administration at a dose of 0.05 mg/kg accelerated acquisition of one-way active avoidance response when rats were trained to avoid electric foot-shock by jumping on the shelf. When rats were trained in shuttle-box the peptide increased the electroshock threshold value required to provocation of rat moving in experimental box and delayed acquisition of two-way active avoidance response. At the same time Semax stimulated avoidance response restoration in shuttle-box after functional disturbances induced by acute modification of cause-effect and spatial relationships in experimental environment. Data obtained support nootropic properties of Semax.

  8. Maternal Modeling and the Acquisition of Fear and Avoidance in Toddlers: Influence of Stimulus Preparedness and Child Temperament

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dubi, Kathrin; Rapee, Ronald M.; Emerton, Jane L.; Schniering, Carolyn A.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of maternal modeling on the acquisition of fear and avoidance towards fear-relevant and fear-irrelevant, novel stimuli in a sample of 71 toddlers. Children were shown a rubber snake or spider (fear-relevant objects) and a rubber mushroom or flower (fear-irrelevant objects), which were…

  9. Context preexposure influences the effectiveness of feedback stimuli in avoidance learning.

    PubMed

    Callen, Edward J

    2004-04-30

    According to the effective reinforcement theory of avoidance learning, there is a positive relationship between the level of context fear and the effectiveness of feedback stimuli. The present research used different preexposure treatments to manipulate context fear and to evaluate the effects of feedback stimuli in two-way avoidance learning. Rat subjects received nonreinforced preexposure either to the nonvisual context cues (avoidance apparatus with the houselights extinguished), to the visual context cues (avoidance apparatus with the houselights on but with a Plexiglas floor covering the grids), or to a neutral box. During subsequent avoidance training conditioned stimulus termination was delayed for 5s after an instrumental response and either a flashing light or darkness was presented as a feedback stimulus. Without preexposure, darkness produced better avoidance performance than did the flashing light. Preexposure to the visual context cues decreased the effectiveness of darkness as a feedback stimulus. However, preexposure to either the visual or to the nonvisual context cues facilitated avoidance performance when a flashing light was used as a feedback stimulus. The results suggest that the effects of a feedback stimulus may be dependent upon the amount and source of context fear.

  10. Influence of person- and situation-specific characteristics on collision avoidance behavior in human locomotion.

    PubMed

    Knorr, Alexander G; Willacker, Lina; Hermsdörfer, Joachim; Glasauer, Stefan; Krüger, Melanie

    2016-09-01

    In everyday situations, pedestrians deploy successful strategies to avoid collisions with other persons crossing their paths. In this study, 2 experiments were conducted to investigate to what extent personal or situational characteristics affect role attribution and contribution to successful collision avoidance in human locomotion. Pairs of subjects walked at their natural speed from a start to a goal point. Walking paths were defined in such a way that subjects would collide halfway on their trajectory, if they did not actively avoid colliding by speed or path adjustments. In the first experiment, we investigated whether crossing order, path, and speed adjustments correlate with subject-specific parameters, such as gender, height, and personality traits. It is interesting that individuals' collision avoidance behavior was not correlated with any of these factors. In the second experiment, initial walking speed and heading were used to predict the crossing order. It was found that these 2 parameters are sufficient to estimate future role attribution with 95% confidence already 2.5 m before the crossing; that is, even before any collision avoidance behavior is initiated. In sum, this suggests that collision avoidance strategies in human locomotion are based on situational rather than on personal characteristics. These situational characteristics result in role attributions, which are highly predictable within and across pairs of pedestrians, whereby the role-dependent contribution of the pedestrian giving way is of greater relevance for successful collision avoidance. (PsycINFO Database Record

  11. Influence of social factors on avoidable mortality: a hospital-based case-control study.

    PubMed Central

    Bautista, Daniel; Alfonso, José Luis; Corella, Dolores; Saiz, Carmen

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The effect of socioeconomic factors on avoidable mortality at an individual level is not well known, since most studies showing this association are based on aggregate data. The purpose of this study was to determine socioeconomic differences between those patients who die of avoidable causes and those who do not die. METHODS: A matched case-control study was carried out regarding in-hospital avoidable mortality (Holland's medical care indicators) that occurred in a university hospital serving a Spanish-Mediterranean population during a 30-month period. RESULTS: We studied 82 cases of death from avoidable causes and 300 controls matched on medical care indicators and age. The variables that showed a statistically significant association with in-hospital avoidable mortality were number of diagnoses (the greater the number, the higher the risk), length of stay (patients staying seven or more days presented a lower risk), and education. Those patients with low and middle educational levels showed a greater risk of avoidable mortality (adjusted odds ratio=3.57 and 2.82, respectively) than those patients with higher levels of education. CONCLUSIONS: Consistent with the findings of studies based on aggregate data, our case-control analyses indicated that among several socioeconomic variables studied, educational level was significantly associated with the risk of in-hospital avoidable mortality, regardless of age and medical care indicators. Patients with low levels of education (<6 years of schooling) were at highest risk for in-hospital avoidable mortality, followed by those with middle levels of education (7-10 years of schooling). PMID:15736332

  12. Americans with Disability Act: financial aspects of reasonable accommodations and undue hardship.

    PubMed

    Collins, Sandra K; Matthews, Eric P

    2012-01-01

    The Americans with Disability Act (ADA) is a significant piece of discrimination legislation that merits ongoing managerial exploration. This civil rights legislature indicates that employers are expected to provide reasonable accommodations to employees with reported disabilities. The statute also indicates that employers can refuse to offer a reasonable accommodation if doing so creates an undue hardship on the organization. However, health care managers should exercise extreme caution when using undue hardship as a defense against providing reasonable accommodations to employees with disabilities. This point should be duly noted by health care managers given that studies indicate that lawsuits alleging disability discrimination are on the rise. This is unfortunate given the costs of reasonable accommodations are typically miniscule.

  13. Inbreeding Avoidance Influences the Viability of Reintroduced Populations of African Wild Dogs (Lycaon pictus)

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Penny A.; Miller, Philip S.; Gunther, Micaela Szykman; Somers, Michael J.; Wildt, David E.; Maldonado, Jesús E.

    2012-01-01

    The conservation of many fragmented and small populations of endangered African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) relies on understanding the natural processes affecting genetic diversity, demographics, and future viability. We used extensive behavioural, life-history, and genetic data from reintroduced African wild dogs in South Africa to (1) test for inbreeding avoidance via mate selection and (2) model the potential consequences of avoidance on population persistence. Results suggested that wild dogs avoided mating with kin. Inbreeding was rare in natal packs, after reproductive vacancies, and between sibling cohorts (observed on 0.8%, 12.5%, and 3.8% of occasions, respectively). Only one of the six (16.7%) breeding pairs confirmed as third-order (or closer) kin consisted of animals that were familiar with each other, while no other paired individuals had any prior association. Computer-simulated populations allowed to experience inbreeding had only a 1.6% probability of extinction within 100 years, whereas all populations avoiding incestuous matings became extinct due to the absence of unrelated mates. Populations that avoided mating with first-order relatives became extinct after 63 years compared with persistence of 37 and 19 years for those also prevented from second-order and third-order matings, respectively. Although stronger inbreeding avoidance maintains significantly more genetic variation, our results demonstrate the potentially severe demographic impacts of reduced numbers of suitable mates on the future viability of small, isolated wild dog populations. The rapid rate of population decline suggests that extinction may occur before inbreeding depression is observed. PMID:22615933

  14. Inbreeding avoidance influences the viability of reintroduced populations of African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus).

    PubMed

    Becker, Penny A; Miller, Philip S; Gunther, Micaela Szykman; Somers, Michael J; Wildt, David E; Maldonado, Jesús E

    2012-01-01

    The conservation of many fragmented and small populations of endangered African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) relies on understanding the natural processes affecting genetic diversity, demographics, and future viability. We used extensive behavioural, life-history, and genetic data from reintroduced African wild dogs in South Africa to (1) test for inbreeding avoidance via mate selection and (2) model the potential consequences of avoidance on population persistence. Results suggested that wild dogs avoided mating with kin. Inbreeding was rare in natal packs, after reproductive vacancies, and between sibling cohorts (observed on 0.8%, 12.5%, and 3.8% of occasions, respectively). Only one of the six (16.7%) breeding pairs confirmed as third-order (or closer) kin consisted of animals that were familiar with each other, while no other paired individuals had any prior association. Computer-simulated populations allowed to experience inbreeding had only a 1.6% probability of extinction within 100 years, whereas all populations avoiding incestuous matings became extinct due to the absence of unrelated mates. Populations that avoided mating with first-order relatives became extinct after 63 years compared with persistence of 37 and 19 years for those also prevented from second-order and third-order matings, respectively. Although stronger inbreeding avoidance maintains significantly more genetic variation, our results demonstrate the potentially severe demographic impacts of reduced numbers of suitable mates on the future viability of small, isolated wild dog populations. The rapid rate of population decline suggests that extinction may occur before inbreeding depression is observed.

  15. The Influence of Depression on Cognitive Control: Disambiguating Approach and Avoidance Tendencies

    PubMed Central

    Huang, He; Movellan, Javier; Paulus, Martin P.; Harlé, Katia M.

    2015-01-01

    Dysfunctions of approach and avoidance motivation play an important role in depression, which in turn may affect cognitive control, i.e., the ability to regulate thoughts and action to achieve internal goals. We use a novel experimental paradigm, i.e. a computer simulated driving-task, to study the impact of depression on cognitive control by measuring approach and avoidance actions in continuous time. In this task, 39 subjects with minimal to severe depression symptoms were instructed to use a joystick to move a virtual car as quickly as possible to a target point without crossing a stop-sign or crashing into a wall. We recorded their continuous actions on a joystick and found that depression 1) leads to further stopping distance to task target; and 2) increases the magnitude of late deceleration (avoidance) but not early acceleration (approach), which was only observed in the stop-sign condition. Taken together, these results are consistent with the hypothesis that depressed individuals have greater avoidance motivation near stopping target, but are minimally affected by approach motivation. PMID:26605795

  16. Is All Motivation Good for Learning? Dissociable Influences of Approach and Avoidance Motivation in Declarative Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murty, Vishnu P.; LaBar, Kevin S.; Hamilton, Derek A.; Adcock, R. Alison

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of approach versus avoidance motivation on declarative learning. Human participants navigated a virtual reality version of the Morris water task, a classic spatial memory paradigm, adapted to permit the experimental manipulation of motivation during learning. During this task, participants were instructed…

  17. [The influence of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate on the extinction of passive avoidance in aggressive and submissive mice].

    PubMed

    Dubrovina, N I; Tomilenko, R A; Obut, T A

    2006-01-01

    The effects of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) on the extinction of passive avoidance was studied on C57Bl/6J mice with aggressive and submissive behavioral stereotypes. Administered in a single dose 30 mg/kg one day or one hour before training, DHEAS selectively blocked the extinction of the conditioned habit in submissive mice, thus favoring its retrieval. The probable mechanism of this phenomenon can be related to a decrease in the level of inhibiting control in the GABAergic system.

  18. Governance regime and location influence avoided deforestation success of protected areas in the Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Nolte, Christoph; Agrawal, Arun; Silvius, Kirsten M; Soares-Filho, Britaldo S

    2013-03-26

    Protected areas in tropical countries are managed under different governance regimes, the relative effectiveness of which in avoiding deforestation has been the subject of recent debates. Participants in these debates answer appeals for more strict protection with the argument that sustainable use areas and indigenous lands can balance deforestation pressures by leveraging local support to create and enforce protective regulations. Which protection strategy is more effective can also depend on (i) the level of deforestation pressures to which an area is exposed and (ii) the intensity of government enforcement. We examine this relationship empirically, using data from 292 protected areas in the Brazilian Amazon. We show that, for any given level of deforestation pressure, strictly protected areas consistently avoided more deforestation than sustainable use areas. Indigenous lands were particularly effective at avoiding deforestation in locations with high deforestation pressure. Findings were stable across two time periods featuring major shifts in the intensity of government enforcement. We also observed shifting trends in the location of protected areas, documenting that between 2000 and 2005 strictly protected areas were more likely to be established in high-pressure locations than in sustainable use areas and indigenous lands. Our findings confirm that all protection regimes helped reduce deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon.

  19. Governance regime and location influence avoided deforestation success of protected areas in the Brazilian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Nolte, Christoph; Agrawal, Arun; Silvius, Kirsten M.; Soares-Filho, Britaldo S.

    2013-01-01

    Protected areas in tropical countries are managed under different governance regimes, the relative effectiveness of which in avoiding deforestation has been the subject of recent debates. Participants in these debates answer appeals for more strict protection with the argument that sustainable use areas and indigenous lands can balance deforestation pressures by leveraging local support to create and enforce protective regulations. Which protection strategy is more effective can also depend on (i) the level of deforestation pressures to which an area is exposed and (ii) the intensity of government enforcement. We examine this relationship empirically, using data from 292 protected areas in the Brazilian Amazon. We show that, for any given level of deforestation pressure, strictly protected areas consistently avoided more deforestation than sustainable use areas. Indigenous lands were particularly effective at avoiding deforestation in locations with high deforestation pressure. Findings were stable across two time periods featuring major shifts in the intensity of government enforcement. We also observed shifting trends in the location of protected areas, documenting that between 2000 and 2005 strictly protected areas were more likely to be established in high-pressure locations than in sustainable use areas and indigenous lands. Our findings confirm that all protection regimes helped reduce deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon. PMID:23479648

  20. Prior exposure influences the behavioural avoidance by an intertidal gastropod, Bembicium auratum, of acidified waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amaral, Valter; Cabral, Henrique N.; Bishop, Melanie J.

    2014-01-01

    Phenotypic plasticity may be critical to the maintenance of viable populations under future environmental change. Here we examined the role of behavioural avoidance of sub-optimal conditions in enabling the intertidal gastropod, Bembicium auratum, to persist in mangrove forests affected by the low pH runoff from acid sulphate soils (ASS). Behaviourally, the gastropod may be able to avoid periods of particularly high acidity by using pneumatophores and/or mangrove trunks to vertically migrate above the water line or by retreating into its shell. We hypothesised that (1) B. auratum would display greater and more rapid vertical migration out of acidified than reference estuarine waters, and (2) responses would be more pronounced in gastropods collected from acidified than reference sites. Gastropods from acidified sites showed significantly higher activity in and more rapid migration out of acidified waters of pH 6.2-7.0, than reference waters or waters of pH < 5.0. Gastropods from reference locations showed a significantly weaker response to acidified water than those from acidified waters, and which did not significantly differ from their response to reference water. At extremely low pHs, <5.0, a higher proportion of both acidified and reference gastropods retreated into their shell than at higher pHs. Both the migration of gastropods out of acidified waters and retraction into their shells serves to reduce exposure time to acidified waters and may reduce the impact of this stressor on their populations. The stronger response to acidification of gastropods from populations previously exposed to this stressor suggests that the response may be learned, inherited or induced over multiple exposures. Our study adds to growing evidence that estuarine organisms may exhibit considerable physiological and behaviour adaptive capacity to acidification. The potential for such adaptive capacity should be incorporated into studies seeking to forecast impacts to marine organisms

  1. Color in Context: Psychological Context Moderates the Influence of Red on Approach- and Avoidance-Motivated Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Meier, Brian P.; D’Agostino, Paul R.; Elliot, Andrew J.; Maier, Markus A.; Wilkowski, Benjamin M.

    2012-01-01

    Background A basic premise of the recently proffered color-in-context model is that the influence of color on psychological functioning varies as a function of the psychological context in which color is perceived. Some research has examined the appetitive and aversive implications of viewing the color red in romance- and achievement-relevant contexts, respectively, but in all existing empirical work approach and avoidance behavior has been studied in separate tasks and separate experiments. Research is needed to directly test whether red influences the same behavior differently depending entirely on psychological context. Methodology/Principal Findings The present experiment was designed to put this premise to direct test in romance- and achievement-relevant contexts within the same experimental paradigm involving walking behavior. Our results revealed that exposure to red (but not blue) indeed has differential implications for walking behavior as a function of the context in which the color is perceived. Red increased the speed with which participants walked to an ostensible interview about dating (a romance-relevant context), but decreased the speed with which they walked to an ostensible interview about intelligence (an achievement-relevant context). Conclusions/Significance These results are the first direct evidence that the influence of red on psychological functioning in humans varies by psychological context. Our findings contribute to both the literature on color psychology and the broader, emerging literature on the influence of context on basic psychological processes. PMID:22808136

  2. Attracting pollinators and avoiding herbivores: insects influence plant traits within and across years.

    PubMed

    Buchanan, Amanda Lynn; Underwood, Nora

    2013-10-01

    Perennial plants interact with herbivores and pollinators across multiple growing seasons, and thus may respond to herbivores and pollinators both within and across years. Joint effects of herbivores and pollinators influence plant traits, but while some of the potential interactions among herbivory, pollination, plant size, and plant reproductive traits have been well studied, others are poorly understood. This is particularly true for perennial plants where effects of herbivores and pollinators may manifest across years. Here, we describe two experiments addressing the reciprocal interactions of plant traits with herbivore damage and pollination across 2 years using the perennial plant Chamerion angustifolium. We measured (1) plant responses to manipulation of damage and pollination in the year of treatment and the subsequent season, (2) damage and pollination responses to manipulation of plant size and flowering traits in the year of treatment, and (3) plant-mediated indirect interactions between herbivores and pollinators. We found that plant traits had little effect on damage and pollination, but damage and pollination affected plant traits in both the treatment year and the subsequent year. We found evidence of indirect effects between leaf herbivores and pollinators in both directions; indirect effects of pollinators on leaf herbivores have not been previously demonstrated. Our results indicate that pollen receipt results in shorter plants with fewer stems but does not change flower number, while leaf herbivory results in taller plants with fewer flowers. Together, herbivory and pollination may contribute to intermediate plant height and plants with fewer stems and flowers in our system.

  3. Collision error avoidance: influence of proportion congruency and sensorimotor memory on open-loop grasp control.

    PubMed

    Brydges, Ryan; Dubrowski, Adam

    2009-10-01

    Grasping behaviour involves the integration of current and historical knowledge about an object, a process that can be influenced by sensory uncertainty. In the present study, participants simultaneously interacted with a visual cue and a haptic cue before reaching to grasp a target object. The visual cue was either congruent (equal in size to haptic cue and target) or incongruent (larger than haptic cue and target). To enhance sensory uncertainty, we manipulated the proportion of congruent trials to be either 80 or 20%. We compared grasp kinematics and forces between congruent and incongruent trials and between the 20 and 80% proportion congruency groups. We also studied the effects of trial history by comparing the performance of congruent and incongruent trials preceded by either the same or opposite trial type. Proportion congruency did not affect temporal kinematics but did affect maximum grip aperture (MGA) as the 80% proportion congruency group used a greater MGA, regardless of trial type. For grasping forces, an interaction effect showed that the 20% proportion congruency group used a greater peak load force on congruent trials. Incongruent trials that followed congruent trials had decreased movement time, increased MGA and increased grasping forces, relative to those that followed incongruent trials. We interpret the data to suggest that the grasp control system integrates multisensory information using flexible, yet specific criteria regarding task constraints. The prevention of collision error (i.e., an inadequate MGA when contacting the target) may be one guiding principle in the control process.

  4. 50 CFR 14.33 - Permits to import or export wildlife at nondesignated port to alleviate undue economic hardship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Permits to import or export wildlife at nondesignated port to alleviate undue economic hardship. 14.33 Section 14.33 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TAKING, POSSESSION, TRANSPORTATION,...

  5. 50 CFR 14.33 - Permits to import or export wildlife at nondesignated port to alleviate undue economic hardship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Permits to import or export wildlife at nondesignated port to alleviate undue economic hardship. 14.33 Section 14.33 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TAKING, POSSESSION, TRANSPORTATION,...

  6. 50 CFR 14.33 - Permits to import or export wildlife at nondesignated port to alleviate undue economic hardship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Permits to import or export wildlife at nondesignated port to alleviate undue economic hardship. 14.33 Section 14.33 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TAKING, POSSESSION, TRANSPORTATION,...

  7. 50 CFR 14.33 - Permits to import or export wildlife at nondesignated port to alleviate undue economic hardship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Permits to import or export wildlife at nondesignated port to alleviate undue economic hardship. 14.33 Section 14.33 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TAKING, POSSESSION, TRANSPORTATION,...

  8. 50 CFR 14.33 - Permits to import or export wildlife at nondesignated port to alleviate undue economic hardship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Permits to import or export wildlife at nondesignated port to alleviate undue economic hardship. 14.33 Section 14.33 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TAKING, POSSESSION, TRANSPORTATION,...

  9. Further Investigation of the Association between Anxiety Sensitivity and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Examining the Influence of Emotional Avoidance

    PubMed Central

    Bardeen, Joseph R.; Tull, Matthew T.; Stevens, Erin N.; Gratz, Kim L.

    2015-01-01

    Anxiety sensitivity (AS) and the tendency to avoid emotions have both been identified as vulnerability factors for the development and maintenance of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Furthermore, both cross-sectional and prospective research have provided evidence that emotional avoidance and AS interact to predict anxiety symptoms, such that AS may only be associated with anxiety-related pathology among those who exhibit a tendency to avoid their emotions. The purpose of the present study was to determine if this moderator model extends to PTSD within a sample of substance dependent patients. Specifically, this study examined if AS is associated with PTSD only among individuals with high (vs. low) levels of negative emotional avoidance. As predicted, results of a logistic regression analysis revealed a significant interaction between negative emotional avoidance and AS in predicting PTSD status. Follow-up analyses revealed a significant positive association between AS and PTSD status for participants high in negative emotional avoidance; however, AS was not associated with PTSD for those low in negative emotional avoidance. This finding remained even when relevant covariates were included in the model. Results confirm hypotheses and are consistent with the extant anxiety-risk literature. PMID:27617195

  10. Improving ecological risk assessment in the Mediterranean area: selection of reference soils and evaluating the influence of soil properties on avoidance and reproduction of two oligochaete species.

    PubMed

    Chelinho, Sónia; Domene, Xavier; Campana, Paolo; Natal-da-Luz, Tiago; Scheffczyk, Adam; Römbke, Jörg; Andrés, Pilar; Sousa, José Paulo

    2011-05-01

    A current challenge in soil ecotoxicology is the use of natural soils as test substrates to increase ecological relevance of data. Despite the existence of six natural reference soils (the Euro-soils), some parallel projects showed that these soils do not accurately represent the diversity of European soils. Particularly, Mediterranean soils are not properly represented. To fill this gap, 12 natural soils from the Mediterranean regions of Alentejo, Portugal; Cataluña, Spain; and Liguria, Italy, were selected and used in reproduction and avoidance tests to evaluate the soil habitat function for earthworms (Eisenia andrei) and enchytraeids (Enchytraeus crypticus). Predictive models on the influence of soil properties on the responses of these organisms were developed using generalized linear models. Results indicate that the selected soils can impact reproduction and avoidance behavior of both Oligochaete species. Reproduction of enchytraeids was affected by different soil properties, but the test validity criteria were fulfilled. The avoidance response of enchytraeids was highly variable, but significant effects of texture and pH were found. Earthworms were more sensitive to soil properties. They did not reproduce successfully in three of the 10 soils, and a positive influence of moisture, fine sand, pH, and organic matter and a negative influence of clay were found. Moreover, they strongly avoided soils with extreme textures. Despite these limitations, most of the selected soils are suitable substrates for ecotoxicological evaluations.

  11. Hispanics' SAT Scores: The Influences of Level of Parental Education, Performance-Avoidance Goals, and Knowledge about Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hannon, Brenda

    2015-01-01

    This study uncovers which learning (epistemic belief of learning), socioeconomic background (level of parental education, family income) or social-personality factors (performance-avoidance goals, test anxiety) mitigate the ethnic gap in SAT (Scholastic Assessment Test) scores. Measures assessing achievement motivation, test anxiety, socioeconomic…

  12. Emergent patterns of risk for psychopathology: The influence of infant avoidance and maternal caregiving on trajectories of social reticence.

    PubMed

    Degnan, Kathryn A; Hane, Amie Ashley; Henderson, Heather A; Walker, Olga L; Ghera, Melissa M; Fox, Nathan A

    2015-11-01

    The current study investigated the influential role of infant avoidance on links between maternal caregiving behavior and trajectories at risk for psychopathology. A sample of 153 children, selected for temperamental reactivity to novelty, was followed from infancy through early childhood. At 9 months, infant avoidance of fear-eliciting stimuli in the laboratory and maternal sensitivity at home were assessed. At 36 months, maternal gentle discipline was assessed at home. Children were repeatedly observed in the lab with an unfamiliar peer across early childhood. A latent class growth analysis yielded three longitudinal risk trajectories of social reticence behavior: a high-stable trajectory, a high-decreasing trajectory, and a low-increasing trajectory. For infants displaying greater avoidance, 9-month maternal sensitivity and 36-month maternal gentle discipline were both positively associated with membership in the high-stable social reticence trajectory, compared to the high-decreasing social reticence trajectory. For infants displaying lower avoidance, maternal sensitivity was positively associated with membership in the high-decreasing social reticence trajectory, compared to the low-increasing trajectory. Maternal sensitivity was positively associated with the high-stable social reticence trajectory when maternal gentle discipline was lower. These results illustrate the complex interplay of infant and maternal behavior in early childhood trajectories at risk for emerging psychopathology.

  13. Shade Avoidance

    PubMed Central

    Casal, Jorge J.

    2012-01-01

    The presence of neighboring vegetation modifies the light environment experienced by plants, generating signals that are perceived by phytochromes and cryptochromes. These signals cause large changes in plant body form and function, including enhanced growth of the hypocotyl and petioles, a more erect position of the leaves and early flowering in Arabidopsis thaliana. Collectively, these so-called shade-avoidance responses tend to reduce the degree of current or future shade by neighbors. Shade light signals increase the abundance of PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR 4 (PIF4) and PIF5 proteins, promote the synthesis and redirection of auxin, favor the degradation of DELLA proteins and increase the expression of auxin, gibberellins and brassinosteroid-promoted genes, among other events downstream the photoreceptors. Selectively disrupting these events by genetic or pharmacological approaches affects shade-avoidance responses with an intensity that depends on the developmental context and the environment. Shade-avoidance responses provide a model to investigate the signaling networks used by plants to take advantage of the cues provided by the environment to adjust to the challenges imposed by the environment itself. PMID:22582029

  14. The influence of dopaminergic system in medial prefrontal cortex on ketamine-induced amnesia in passive avoidance task in mice.

    PubMed

    Farahmandfar, Maryam; Bakhtazad, Atefeh; Akbarabadi, Ardeshir; Zarrindast, Mohammad-Reza

    2016-06-15

    Dopaminergic modulations of glutamate receptors are essential for the prefrontal cortical (PFC) behavioral and cognitive functions. In order to understand the effect of dopamine/glutamate interactions on learning and memory, we investigated the effects of intra medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) injections of dopaminergic agents on ketamine-induced amnesia by using a one-trial passive avoidance task in mice. Pre-training administration of ketamine (5, 10 and 15mg/kg, i.p.) dose-dependently decreased the memory acquisition of a one-trial passive avoidance task. Pre-training intra-mPFC administration of SKF 38393, D1 receptor agonist and quinpirol D2 receptor agonist, alone did not affect memory acquisition. However, amnesia induced by pre-training ketamine (15mg/kg) significantly decreased by pretreatment of SKF 38393 (2 and 4µg/mouse) and quinpirol (0.3, 1 and 3µg/mouse). Pre-training administration of SCH 23390, D1 receptor antagonist (0.75 and 1μg/mouse, intra-mPFC), and sulpiride D2 receptor antagonist (3μg/mouse, intra-mPFC) impaired memory acquisition. In addition, co-pretreatment of different doses of SCH 23390 and sulpiride with lower dose of ketamine (5mg/kg), which did not induce amnesia by itself, caused inhibition of memory formation. It may be concluded that dopaminergic system of medial prefrontal cortex is involved in the ketamine-induced impairment of memory acquisition.

  15. A rear-end collision risk assessment model based on drivers' collision avoidance process under influences of cell phone use and gender-A driving simulator based study.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaomeng; Yan, Xuedong; Wu, Jiawei; Radwan, Essam; Zhang, Yuting

    2016-12-01

    Driver's collision avoidance performance has a direct link to the collision risk and crash severity. Previous studies demonstrated that the distracted driving, such as using a cell phone while driving, disrupted the driver's performance on road. This study aimed to investigate the manner and extent to which cell phone use and driver's gender affected driving performance and collision risk in a rear-end collision avoidance process. Forty-two licensed drivers completed the driving simulation experiment in three phone use conditions: no phone use, hands-free, and hand-held, in which the drivers drove in a car-following situation with potential rear-end collision risks caused by the leading vehicle's sudden deceleration. Based on the experiment data, a rear-end collision risk assessment model was developed to assess the influence of cell phone use and driver's gender. The cell phone use and driver's gender were found to be significant factors that affected the braking performances in the rear-end collision avoidance process, including the brake reaction time, the deceleration adjusting time and the maximum deceleration rate. The minimum headway distance between the leading vehicle and the simulator during the rear-end collision avoidance process was the final output variable, which could be used to measure the rear-end collision risk and judge whether a collision occurred. The results showed that although cell phone use drivers took some compensatory behaviors in the collision avoidance process to reduce the mental workload, the collision risk in cell phone use conditions was still higher than that without the phone use. More importantly, the results proved that the hands-free condition did not eliminate the safety problem associated with distracted driving because it impaired the driving performance in the same way as much as the use of hand-held phones. In addition, the gender effect indicated that although female drivers had longer reaction time than male drivers in

  16. Conspicuity of target lights: The influence of flash rate and brightness. [collision avoidance - visual discrimination/pilot performance, aircraft lights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connors, M. M.

    1975-01-01

    The stimulus characteristics of lights that might aid a pilot to see and avoid, by alerting him to a potential threat were studied. The relative conspicuity of foveally equated, point-source, steady and flashing lights of several brightnesses, seen against a star background was examined. From the subject's viewpoint, these target lights could appear anywhere within a large (40 deg horizontal by 35 deg vertical) field of view. The lights appeared at random time intervals while the subject was periodically distracted by a simulated cockpit task. The results indicate that correct target detection increases and reaction time decreases with increased target intensity. Steady lights are missed more frequently and acquired more slowly than flashing lights, but no significant differences are found among the wide range of flash rates employed. The intensity of the light has a greater effect on both detection and reaction time to steady lights than to flashing lights. These results are compared with results of other researchers who used targets which appeared at fixed locations. The longest reaction times were recorded to lights which appeared either at the extremes or at the very center of the visual field.

  17. Human Capital: Results of the Survey Regarding Undue Influence on Army Component Members to Join Non-Federal Entities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Subsection 3-210 permits endorsement for fundraising and membership drives for the Combined Federal Campaign; emergency and disaster appeals...when fundraising among their 1 own members for the benefit of their members. The exceptions are authorized by Executive order or the Code of... fundraising or membership drive. Subsections 3-209 and 3-210 are considered general orders and are applicable to all military members without further

  18. 29 CFR 1605.2 - Reasonable accommodation without undue hardship as required by section 701(j) of title VII of the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... BECAUSE OF RELIGION § 1605.2 Reasonable accommodation without undue hardship as required by section 701(j... address other obligations under title VII not to discriminate on grounds of religion, nor other provisions... intended to provide guidance for statutes which require accommodation on bases other than religion such...

  19. Differences between left- and right-handers in approach/avoidance motivation: influence of consistency of handedness measures.

    PubMed

    Hardie, Scott M; Wright, Lynn

    2014-01-01

    Hand preference is often viewed as a troublesome variable in psychological research, with left-handers routinely excluded from studies. Contrary to this, a body of evidence has shown hand preference to be a useful variable when examining human behavior. A recent review argues that the most effective way of using handedness as a variable, is a comparison between individuals who use their dominant hand for virtually all manual activities (consistent handers) versus those who use their other hand for at least one activity (inconsistent handers). The authors contend that researchers should only focus on degree of handedness rather than direction of preference (left versus right). However, we argue that the field suffers from a number of methodological and empirical issues. These include a lack of consensus in choice of cut-off point to divide consistent and inconsistent categories and importantly a paucity of data from left-handers. Consequentially, researchers predominantly compare inconsistent versus consistent right-handers, largely linked to memory, cognition and language. Other research on response style and personality measures shows robust direction of handedness effects. The present study examines both strength and direction of handedness on self-reported behavioral inhibition system (BIS) and behavioral activation system (BAS) scores, using evidence from a large (N = 689) dataset including more than 200 left-handers. There were degree of handedness effects on BIS and BAS-Fun Seeking, but effects are largely driven by differences between consistent left-handers and other groups. Choice of cut-off point substantively influenced results, and suggests that unless a suitable sample of left-handers is included, researchers clarify that their degree of handedness effects are applicable only to right-handers. We concur that strength of hand preference is an important variable but caution that differences related to consistency may not be identical in right and left-handers.

  20. Differences between left- and right-handers in approach/avoidance motivation: influence of consistency of handedness measures

    PubMed Central

    Hardie, Scott M.; Wright, Lynn

    2014-01-01

    Hand preference is often viewed as a troublesome variable in psychological research, with left-handers routinely excluded from studies. Contrary to this, a body of evidence has shown hand preference to be a useful variable when examining human behavior. A recent review argues that the most effective way of using handedness as a variable, is a comparison between individuals who use their dominant hand for virtually all manual activities (consistent handers) versus those who use their other hand for at least one activity (inconsistent handers). The authors contend that researchers should only focus on degree of handedness rather than direction of preference (left versus right). However, we argue that the field suffers from a number of methodological and empirical issues. These include a lack of consensus in choice of cut-off point to divide consistent and inconsistent categories and importantly a paucity of data from left-handers. Consequentially, researchers predominantly compare inconsistent versus consistent right-handers, largely linked to memory, cognition and language. Other research on response style and personality measures shows robust direction of handedness effects. The present study examines both strength and direction of handedness on self-reported behavioral inhibition system (BIS) and behavioral activation system (BAS) scores, using evidence from a large (N = 689) dataset including more than 200 left-handers. There were degree of handedness effects on BIS and BAS-Fun Seeking, but effects are largely driven by differences between consistent left-handers and other groups. Choice of cut-off point substantively influenced results, and suggests that unless a suitable sample of left-handers is included, researchers clarify that their degree of handedness effects are applicable only to right-handers. We concur that strength of hand preference is an important variable but caution that differences related to consistency may not be identical in right and left

  1. Teachers Avoiding Learners' Avoidance: Is It Possible?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tadayyon, Maedeh; Zarrinabadi, Nourollah; Ketabi, Saeed

    2016-01-01

    Dealing with learners who prefer to take the back seat and avoid classroom participation can be every teacher's nightmare. This lack of participation may cause teacher frustration, and possibly the only way to reduce this lack of participation is to access the concept of avoidance strategy. Avoidance strategy is the abandonment of a classroom task…

  2. The Yin and Yang of support from significant others: Influence of general social support and partner support of avoidance in the context of treatment for social anxiety disorder.

    PubMed

    Rapee, Ronald M; Peters, Lorna; Carpenter, Leigh; Gaston, Jonathan E

    2015-06-01

    Support from social networks is generally considered to protect against mental disorder but in some circumstances support for negative behaviours (such as avoidance) may be counterproductive. Given the critical interplay between social anxiety disorder and social interactions, it is surprising that the relationship of support from significant others to this disorder has received so little attention. The current study evaluated the reciprocal relationships between perceived social support and perceived partner support for avoidance behaviours (avoidance support) among a sample of 131 participants with social anxiety disorder who were assessed three times within the context of a treatment outcome study. A new measure of partner support for avoidance behaviours was developed, called the Avoidance Support Measure, and showed adequate internal consistency and construct validity. Correlations at baseline showed significant negative relationships between perceived social support and social anxiety and significant positive relationships between avoidance support and social anxiety. Path analysis showed that perceived social support at Times 1 and 2 negatively predicted future social anxiety at Times 2 and 3. On the other hand, only a single predictive relationship involving avoidance support was significant and showed that social anxiety at Time 1 positively predicted avoidance support at Time 2. These early results point to the different ways that support from significant others might relate to social anxiety and suggest that further work in this area may be fruitful.

  3. A danger foreseen is a danger avoided: how chemical cues of different tadpoles influence parental decisions of a Neotropical poison frog.

    PubMed

    Schulte, Lisa M; Lötters, Stefan

    2014-03-01

    The protection of offspring against predators and competitors is especially important in organisms using spatially separated breeding resources, impeding the offspring's chances to escape. One example of such isolated reproductive resources are phytotelmata (small water bodies in plant axils), exploited by the Neotropical poison frog Ranitomeya variabilis (Dendrobatidae) for both clutch and tadpole deposition. Because poison frog tadpoles are often cannibalistic, parents tend to avoid deposition with conspecifics. Previous studies have shown that this avoidance is based on chemical cues produced by conspecific tadpoles. Further, cues produced by phylogenetically less-related tadpoles (Bufonidae) were avoided for clutch but not tadpole depositions. We analyzed how the different responses to tadpole cues are triggered. We tested the reactions of parental R. variabilis to tadpole cues of species differing in two aspects: whether or not they are dendrobatids, and whether or not they reproduce in phytotelmata. We found that for clutch deposition, tadpole cues were always avoided, i.e., all tadpoles were treated by the frogs as if they pose a danger to the eggs. However, responses varied for tadpole depositions: while dendrobatid larvae living in phytotelmata were avoided, those breeding in streams were not. Non-poison frog tadpoles were ignored when associated with habitat other than phytotelmata, but they were preferred when living in phytotelmata. This suggests that both phylogeny and tadpole habitat are important triggers for the decisions made by R. variabilis. Only tadpoles using the same breeding resources are considered as relevant for the frog's own larvae (i.e., as a potential danger or food resource), while further decisions are related to evolutionary relationship.

  4. Avoiding the Flu

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Flu Avoiding the Flu Past Issues / Fall 2009 Table of Contents Children ... help avoid getting and passing on the flu. Influenza (Seasonal) The flu is a contagious respiratory illness ...

  5. Avoiding health information.

    PubMed

    Barbour, Joshua B; Rintamaki, Lance S; Ramsey, Jason A; Brashers, Dale E

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated why and how individuals avoid health information to support the development of models of uncertainty and information management and offer insights for those dealing with the information and uncertainty inherent to health and illness. Participants from student (n = 507) and community (n = 418) samples reported that they avoided health information to (a) maintain hope or deniability, (b) resist overexposure, (c) accept limits of action, (d) manage flawed information, (e) maintain boundaries, and (f) continue with life/activities. They also reported strategies for avoiding information, including removing or ignoring stimuli (e.g., avoiding people who might provide health advice) and controlling conversations (e.g., withholding information, changing the subject). Results suggest a link between previous experience with serious illness and health information avoidance. Building on uncertainty management theory, this study demonstrated that health information avoidance is situational, relatively common, not necessarily unhealthy, and may be used to accomplish multiple communication goals.

  6. Influence of Municipal Abattoir Conditions and Animal-related Factors on Avoidance-related Behaviour, Bleeding Times at Slaughter and the Quality of Lamb Meat

    PubMed Central

    Njisane, Yonela Z.; Muchenje, Voster

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of municipal abattoir conditions and animal factors on avoidance-related behaviour (AB) of sheep at slaughter, bleeding times (BT) and mutton quality. The behaviour of 66 castrates and 19 ewes of different age categories was observed at three stages of slaughter. Higher behaviour scores indicated higher levels of AB. Time intervals between the start of blood flow and the time the flow changed from a constant stream into drips were recorded as BT. Thirty two meat samples were obtained to measure quality variables. These were colour (L*, a* and b*), pH24, temperature, cooking loss (CL) and tenderness. Correlations were determined between BT and meat quality variables. Animal behaviour at slaughter differed with breed, gender and age group. Avoidance behaviour was higher in the Dorper breed than in both the Merino breed and their crosses. It was also higher in younger (<10 months) lambs than in older sheep. Castrates were more aggressive or in panic than ewes. Castrates had longer (72.6±0.53 s) BT than the ewes (63.6±2.82 s). Ewes had higher CL (39.8±1.04%) values than castrates (35.1±0.95%). Meat from castrates was tougher (32.6±1.95 N) than the meat from ewes (24.3±1.16 N). There were no significant correlations obtained between BT and meat quality variables. It can therefore be concluded that abattoir conditions, breed, age and gender had an effect on AB at slaughter. Gender had an effect on BT and mutton quality. PMID:25049733

  7. Influence of Municipal Abattoir Conditions and Animal-related Factors on Avoidance-related Behaviour, Bleeding Times at Slaughter and the Quality of Lamb Meat.

    PubMed

    Njisane, Yonela Z; Muchenje, Voster

    2013-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of municipal abattoir conditions and animal factors on avoidance-related behaviour (AB) of sheep at slaughter, bleeding times (BT) and mutton quality. The behaviour of 66 castrates and 19 ewes of different age categories was observed at three stages of slaughter. Higher behaviour scores indicated higher levels of AB. Time intervals between the start of blood flow and the time the flow changed from a constant stream into drips were recorded as BT. Thirty two meat samples were obtained to measure quality variables. These were colour (L*, a* and b*), pH24, temperature, cooking loss (CL) and tenderness. Correlations were determined between BT and meat quality variables. Animal behaviour at slaughter differed with breed, gender and age group. Avoidance behaviour was higher in the Dorper breed than in both the Merino breed and their crosses. It was also higher in younger (<10 months) lambs than in older sheep. Castrates were more aggressive or in panic than ewes. Castrates had longer (72.6±0.53 s) BT than the ewes (63.6±2.82 s). Ewes had higher CL (39.8±1.04%) values than castrates (35.1±0.95%). Meat from castrates was tougher (32.6±1.95 N) than the meat from ewes (24.3±1.16 N). There were no significant correlations obtained between BT and meat quality variables. It can therefore be concluded that abattoir conditions, breed, age and gender had an effect on AB at slaughter. Gender had an effect on BT and mutton quality.

  8. Influence of morphine- or apomorphine-induced sensitization on histamine state-dependent learning in the step-down passive avoidance test.

    PubMed

    Zarrindast, Mohammad-Reza; Khalilzadeh, Azita; Malekmohammadi, Nazanin; Fazli-Tabaei, Soheila

    2006-07-15

    Effects of morphine- or apomorphine-induced sensitization on histamine state-dependent memory of passive avoidance task were examined in mice. Pre-training intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration of histamine (20 microg/mouse) decreased the learning of a one-trial passive avoidance task. Pre-test administration of histamine (10 and 20 microg/mouse) reversed amnesia induced by pre-training of histamine, with maximum response at 20 microg/mouse. Pre-training histamine-induced amnesia was also reversed in morphine- or apomorphine-sensitized mice that had previously received once daily injections of morphine (20 and 30 mg/kg) or apomorphine (0.5 and 1 mg/kg) for 3 days. The reversion of histamine-induced amnesia in morphine-sensitized mice was decreased by once daily administration of naloxone (0.5 and 1 mg/kg), SCH 23390 (0.05 and 0.1 mg/kg) or sulpiride (25, 50 and 100 mg/kg) prior to injection of morphine (30 mg/kg/day, 3 days). Furthermore, once daily administration of sulpiride (50 and 100 mg/kg) but not SCH 23390 (0.01, 0.05 and 0.1 mg/kg) prior to apomorphine (1 mg/kg, for 3 days) decreased the reversion of pre-training histamine-induced amnesia by apomorphine. The results suggest that apomorphine or morphine sensitization affects the impairment of memory induced by histamine and thus it is postulated that opioid and dopamine receptors may play an important role in this effect.

  9. Avoiding Cancer Risk Information

    PubMed Central

    Emanuel, Amber S.; Kiviniemi, Marc T.; Howell, Jennifer L.; Hay, Jennifer L.; Waters, Erika A.; Orom, Heather; Shepperd, James A.

    2015-01-01

    RATIONALE Perceived risk for health problems such as cancer is a central construct in many models of health decision making and a target for behavior change interventions. However, some portion of the population actively avoids cancer risk information. The prevalence of, explanations for, and consequences of such avoidance are not well understood. OBJECTIVE We examined the prevalence and demographic and psychosocial correlates of cancer risk information avoidance preference in a nationally representative sample. We also examined whether avoidance of cancer risk information corresponds with avoidance of cancer screening. RESULTS Based on our representative sample, 39% of the population indicated that they agreed or strongly agreed that they would “rather not know [their] chance of getting cancer.” This preference was stronger among older participants, female participants, and participants with lower levels of education. Preferring to avoid cancer risk information was stronger among participants who agreed with the beliefs that everything causes cancer, that there’s not much one can do to prevent cancer, and that there are too many recommendations to follow. Finally, the preference to avoid cancer risk information was associated with lower levels of screening for colon cancer. CONCLUSION These findings suggest that cancer risk information avoidance is a multi-determined phenomenon that is associated with demographic characteristics and psychosocial individual differences and also relates to engagement in cancer screening. PMID:26560410

  10. Influence of intracerebroventricular administration of histaminergic drugs on morphine state-dependent memory in the step-down passive avoidance test.

    PubMed

    Zarrindast, Mohammad R; Khalilzadeh, Azita; Rezayat, S Mehdi; Sahebgharani, Mousa; Djahanguiri, Bijan

    2005-05-01

    The effects of histaminergic drugs on morphine state-dependent memory of a passive avoidance task were examined in mice. Pre-training administration of morphine (5 mg/kg) led to state-dependent learning with impaired memory recall on the test day which was reversed by pre-test administration of the same dose of the opioid. The pre-test intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration of the H(1) blocker (pyrilamine) prevented the restoration of memory by morphine. The H(2) blocker (ranitidine) was ineffective in this regard and the H(3) blocker (clobenpropit) potentiated the effect of morphine on memory recall. The pre-test i.c.v. administration of histamine alone (5, 10, and 20 microg/mouse) not only mimicked the effect of pre-test morphine treatment, but also increased this action of the opioid. The effect of histamine on memory recall was not changed by the pre-test administration of mu-opioid receptor antagonist, naloxone. In conclusion, the improvement of memory recall by morphine treatment, on the test day, seems to be, at least in part, through the release of histamine followed by the stimulation of H(1) receptors. Histamine by itself, when administered on the test day, mimicked morphine-induced memory improvement by a mechanism independent of the mu-opioid receptors.

  11. Avoiding Computer Viruses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, Joyce; And Others

    1989-01-01

    The threat of computer sabotage is a real concern to business teachers and others responsible for academic computer facilities. Teachers can minimize the possibility. Eight suggestions for avoiding computer viruses are given. (JOW)

  12. Avoidant personality disorder

    MedlinePlus

    American Psychiatric Association. Avoidant personality disorder. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: DSM-5 . 5th ed. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing. 2013;672-675. Blais MA, Smallwood ...

  13. Avoiding verisimilitude when modelling ecological responses to climate change: the influence of weather conditions on trapping efficiency in European badgers (Meles meles).

    PubMed

    Noonan, Michael J; Rahman, M Abidur; Newman, Chris; Buesching, Christina D; Macdonald, David W

    2015-10-01

    The signal for climate change effects can be abstruse; consequently, interpretations of evidence must avoid verisimilitude, or else misattribution of causality could compromise policy decisions. Examining climatic effects on wild animal population dynamics requires ability to trap, observe or photograph and to recapture study individuals consistently. In this regard, we use 19 years of data (1994-2012), detailing the life histories on 1179 individual European badgers over 3288 (re-) trapping events, to test whether trapping efficiency was associated with season, weather variables (both contemporaneous and time lagged), body-condition index (BCI) and trapping efficiency (TE). PCA factor loadings demonstrated that TE was affected significantly by temperature and precipitation, as well as time lags in these variables. From multi-model inference, BCI was the principal driver of TE, where badgers in good condition were less likely to be trapped. Our analyses exposed that this was enacted mechanistically via weather variables driving BCI, affecting TE. Notably, the very conditions that militated for poor trapping success have been associated with actual survival and population abundance benefits in badgers. Using these findings to parameterize simulations, projecting best-/worst-case scenario weather conditions and BCI resulted in 8.6% ± 4.9 SD difference in seasonal TE, leading to a potential 55.0% population abundance under-estimation under the worst-case scenario; 38.6% over-estimation under the best case. Interestingly, simulations revealed that while any single trapping session might prove misrepresentative of the true population abundance, due to weather effects, prolonging capture-mark-recapture studies under sub-optimal conditions decreased the accuracy of population estimates significantly. We also use these projection scenarios to explore how weather could impact government-led trapping of badgers in the UK, in relation to TB management. We conclude that

  14. Operational Collision Avoidance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guit, Bill

    2015-01-01

    This presentation will describe the early days of the EOS Aqua and Aura operational collision avoidance process. It will highlight EOS debris avoidance maneuvers, EOS high interest event statistic and A-Train systematic conjunctions and conclude with future challenges. This is related to earlier e-DAA (tracking number 21692) that an abstract was submitted to a different conference. Eric Moyer, ESMO Deputy Project Manager has reviewed and approved this presentation on May 6, 2015

  15. Reactive Collision Avoidance Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scharf, Daniel; Acikmese, Behcet; Ploen, Scott; Hadaegh, Fred

    2010-01-01

    The reactive collision avoidance (RCA) algorithm allows a spacecraft to find a fuel-optimal trajectory for avoiding an arbitrary number of colliding spacecraft in real time while accounting for acceleration limits. In addition to spacecraft, the technology can be used for vehicles that can accelerate in any direction, such as helicopters and submersibles. In contrast to existing, passive algorithms that simultaneously design trajectories for a cluster of vehicles working to achieve a common goal, RCA is implemented onboard spacecraft only when an imminent collision is detected, and then plans a collision avoidance maneuver for only that host vehicle, thus preventing a collision in an off-nominal situation for which passive algorithms cannot. An example scenario for such a situation might be when a spacecraft in the cluster is approaching another one, but enters safe mode and begins to drift. Functionally, the RCA detects colliding spacecraft, plans an evasion trajectory by solving the Evasion Trajectory Problem (ETP), and then recovers after the collision is avoided. A direct optimization approach was used to develop the algorithm so it can run in real time. In this innovation, a parameterized class of avoidance trajectories is specified, and then the optimal trajectory is found by searching over the parameters. The class of trajectories is selected as bang-off-bang as motivated by optimal control theory. That is, an avoiding spacecraft first applies full acceleration in a constant direction, then coasts, and finally applies full acceleration to stop. The parameter optimization problem can be solved offline and stored as a look-up table of values. Using a look-up table allows the algorithm to run in real time. Given a colliding spacecraft, the properties of the collision geometry serve as indices of the look-up table that gives the optimal trajectory. For multiple colliding spacecraft, the set of trajectories that avoid all spacecraft is rapidly searched on

  16. Vigour in active avoidance.

    PubMed

    Nord, Camilla L; Prabhu, Gita; Nolte, Tobias; Fonagy, Peter; Dolan, Ray; Moutoussis, Michael

    2017-12-01

    It would be maladaptive to learn about catastrophes by trial and error alone. Investment in planning and effort are necessary. Devoting too many resources to averting disaster, however, can impair quality of life, as in anxiety and paranoia. Here, we developed a novel task to explore how people adjust effort expenditure (vigor) so as to avoid negative consequences. Our novel paradigm is immersive, enabling us to measure vigor in the context of (simulated) disaster. We found that participants (N = 118) exerted effort to avoid disaster-associated states, adjusting their effort expenditure according to the baseline probability of catastrophe, in agreement with theoretical predictions. Furthermore, negative subjective emotional states were associated both with threat level and with increasing vigor in the face of disaster. We describe for the first time effort expenditure in the context of irreversible losses, with important implications for disorders marked by excessive avoidance.

  17. Psychological Treatments to Avoid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomason, Timothy C.

    2010-01-01

    Certain psychological treatments should be avoided, and a list of such treatments would provide valuable guidance for counselors, as well as potential clients. It is well established that some therapies are potentially dangerous, and some fringe therapies are highly unlikely to help clients beyond a placebo effect. This article provides an…

  18. Plants to Avoid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Knowledge of poisonous plants is extremely important for home owners, gardeners, farmers, hunters, hikers, and the rest of the general public. Among the most important plants to avoid in the Delta Region are poison ivy, bull nettle, eastern black nightshade, Queen Ann’s lace, jimsonweed, and trumpe...

  19. Avoiding Death by Vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barroso, A.; Ferreira, P. M.; Ivanov, I.; Santos, R.; Silva, João P.

    2013-07-01

    The two-Higgs doublet model (2HDM) can have two electroweak breaking, CP-conserving, minima. The possibility arises that the minimum which corresponds to the known elementary particle spectrum is metastable, a possibility we call the "panic vacuum". We present analytical bounds on the parameters of the softly broken Peccei-Quinn 2HDM which are necessary and sufficient conditions to avoid this possibility. We also show that, for this particular model, the current LHC data already tell us that we are necessarily in the global minimum of the theory, regardless of any cosmological considerations about the lifetime of the false vacua.

  20. Landing Hazard Avoidance Display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abernathy, Michael Franklin (Inventor); Hirsh, Robert L. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Landing hazard avoidance displays can provide rapidly understood visual indications of where it is safe to land a vehicle and where it is unsafe to land a vehicle. Color coded maps can indicate zones in two dimensions relative to the vehicles position where it is safe to land. The map can be simply green (safe) and red (unsafe) areas with an indication of scale or can be a color coding of another map such as a surface map. The color coding can be determined in real time based on topological measurements and safety criteria to thereby adapt to dynamic, unknown, or partially known environments.

  1. Predicting attention and avoidance: when do avoiders attend?

    PubMed

    Klein, Rupert; Knäuper, Bärbel

    2009-09-01

    Three avoidance measures, the Miller Behavioural Style Scale (MBSS), Index of Self-Regulation of Emotion (ISE) and Mainz Coping Inventory (MCI), were compared in their ability to predict attention and avoidance of threats in the emotional Stroop task. It was also examined if the avoidance mechanism of individuals who would normally avoid threat-indicating words becomes disrupted under conditions of dopamine reduction. Results show that only the ISE predicted attention/avoidance of threat-indicating words. In addition, the avoidance mechanism, as measured by the ISE and MCI, was not activated when regular smokers abstained from smoking.

  2. Procedural Variation in Behavioral Avoidance Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernstein, Douglas A.; Nietzel, Michael T.

    1973-01-01

    The data on approach to snakes provides srong support for the contention that the behavorial avoidance test is not immune to bias introduced by the operation of situational variables that have usually been allowed to vary in uncontrolled fashion in psychotherapy analogue research. Behavior of test subjects can be influenced not only in terms of…

  3. Avoiding dangerous climate change

    SciTech Connect

    Hans Joachim Schellnhuber; Wolfgang Cramer; Nebojsa Nakicenovic; Tom Wigley; Gary Yohe

    2006-02-15

    In 2005 the UK Government hosted the Avoiding Dangerous Climate Change conference to take an in-depth look at the scientific issues associated with climate change. This volume presents the most recent findings from the leading international scientists that attended the conference. The topics addressed include critical thresholds and key vulnerabilities of the climate system, impacts on human and natural systems, socioeconomic costs and benefits of emissions pathways, and technological options for meeting different stabilisation levels of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Contents are: Foreword from Prime Minister Tony Blair; Introduction from Rajendra Pachauri, Chairman of the IPCC; followed by 41 papers arranged in seven sections entitled: Key Vulnerabilities of the Climate System and Critical Thresholds; General Perspectives on Dangerous Impacts; Key Vulnerabilities for Ecosystems and Biodiversity; Socio-Economic Effects; Regional Perspectives; Emission Pathways; and Technological Options. Four papers have been abstracted separately for the Coal Abstracts database.

  4. Measuring Experiential Avoidance in Adults: The Avoidance and Fusion Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmalz, Jonathan E.; Murrell, Amy R.

    2010-01-01

    To date, general levels of experiential avoidance are primarily measured by the Acceptance and Action Questionnaire-II (AAQ-II), but it includes items of questionable comprehensibility. The Avoidance and Fusion Questionnaire for Youth (AFQ-Y), previously validated as a measure of experiential avoidance with children and adolescents, was…

  5. "Watch out!": Effects of instructed threat and avoidance on human free-operant approach-avoidance behavior.

    PubMed

    Schlund, Michael W; Treacher, Kay; Preston, Oli; Magee, Sandy K; Richman, David M; Brewer, Adam T; Cameron, Gemma; Dymond, Simon

    2017-01-01

    Approach-avoidance paradigms create a competition between appetitive and aversive contingencies and are widely used in nonhuman research on anxiety. Here, we examined how instructions about threat and avoidance impact control by competing contingencies over human approach-avoidance behavior. Additionally, Experiment 1 examined the effects of threat magnitude (money loss amount) and avoidance cost (fixed ratio requirements), whereas Experiment 2 examined the effects of threat information (available, unavailable and inaccurate) on approach-avoidance. During the task, approach responding was modeled by reinforcing responding with money on a FR schedule. By performing an observing response, participants produced an escalating "threat meter". Instructions stated that the threat meter levels displayed the current probability of losing money, when in fact loss only occurred when the level reached the maximum. Instructions also stated pressing an avoidance button lowered the threat level. Overall, instructions produced cycles of approach and avoidance responding with transitions from approach to avoidance when threat was high and transitions back to approach after avoidance reduced threat. Experiment 1 revealed increasing avoidance cost, but not threat magnitude, shifted approach-avoidance transitions to higher threat levels and increased anxiety ratings, but did not influence the frequency of approach-avoidance cycles. Experiment 2 revealed when threat level information was available or absent earnings were high, but earnings decreased when inaccurate threat information was incompatible with contingencies. Our findings build on prior nonhuman and human approach-avoidance research by highlighting how instructed threat and avoidance can impact human AA behavior and self-reported anxiety.

  6. Collision avoidance timing analysis of DSRC-based vehicles.

    PubMed

    Tang, Antony; Yip, Alice

    2010-01-01

    Dedicated short-range communication (DSRC) has been used in prototyped vehicles to test vehicle-to-vehicle communication for collision avoidance. However, there is little study on how collision avoidance software should behave to best mitigate accident collisions. In this paper, we analyse the timing of events and how they influence software-based collision avoidance strategies. We have found that the warning strategies for collision avoidance are constrained by the timing of events such as DSRC communication latency, detection range, road condition, driver reaction and deceleration rate. With these events, we define two collision avoidance timings: critical time to avoid collision and preferred time to avoid collision, and they dictate the design of software-based collision avoidance systems.

  7. Avoiding Infection After Ear Piercing

    MedlinePlus

    ... Text Size Email Print Share Avoiding Infection After Ear Piercing Page Content Article Body What is the best way to avoid infection after ear piercing? Ears may be pierced for cosmetic reasons ...

  8. CAT altitude avoidance system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gary, B. L. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    A method and apparatus are provided for indicating the altitude of the tropopause or of an inversion layer wherein clear air turbulence (CAT) may occur, and the likely severity of any such CAT, includes directing a passive microwave radiometer on the aircraft at different angles with respect to the horizon. The microwave radiation measured at a frequency of about 55 GHz represents the temperature of the air at an ""average'' range of about 3 kilometers, so that the sine of the angle of the radiometer times 3 kilometers equals the approximate altitude of the air whose temperature is measured. A plot of altitude (with respect to the aircraft) versus temperature of the air at that altitude, can indicate when an inversion layer is present and can indicate the altitude of the tropopause or of such an inversion layer. The plot can also indicate the severity of any CAT in an inversion layer. If CAT has been detected in the general area, then the aircraft can be flown at an altitude to avoid the tropopause or inversion layer.

  9. Toward a Model of Influence in Persuasive Discussions: Negotiating Quality, Authority, Privilege, and Access within a Student-Led Argument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engle, Randi A.; Langer-Osuna, Jennifer M.; McKinney de Royston, Maxine

    2014-01-01

    It is commonly observed that during classroom or group discussions some students have greater influence than may be justified by the normative quality of those students' contributions. We propose a 5-component theoretical framework in order to explain how undue influence unfolds. We build on literatures on persuasion, argumentation, discourse, and…

  10. Collision avoidance sensor skin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The objective was to totally eliminate the possibility of a robot (or any mechanism for that matter) inducing a collision in space operations. We were particularly concerned that human beings were safe under all circumstances. This was apparently accomplished, and it is shown that GSFC has a system that is ready for space qualification and flight. However, it soon became apparent that much more could be accomplished with this technology. Payloads could be made invulnerable to collision avoidance and the blind spots behind them eliminated. This could be accomplished by a simple, non-imaging set of 'Capaciflector' sensors on each payload. It also is evident that this system could be used to align and dock the system with a wide margin of safety. Throughout, lighting problems could be ignored, and unexpected events and modeling errors taken in stride. At the same time, computational requirements would be reduced. This can be done in a simple, rugged, reliable manner that will not disturb the form factor of space systems. It will be practical for space applications. The lab experiments indicate we are well on the way to accomplishing this. Still, the research trail goes deeper. It now appears that the sensors can be extended to end effectors to provide precontact information and make robot docking (or any docking connection) very smooth, with minimal loads impacted back into the mating structures. This type of ability would be a major step forward in basic control techniques in space. There are, however, baseline and restructuring issues to be tackled. The payloads must get power and signals to them from the robot or from the astronaut servicing tool. This requires a standard electromechanical interface. Any of several could be used. The GSFC prototype shown in this presentation is a good one. Sensors with their attendant electronics must be added to the payloads, end effectors, and robot arms and integrated into the system.

  11. MEST- avoid next extinction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Dayong

    2012-11-01

    Asteroid 2011 AG5 will impact on Earth in 2040. (See Donald K. Yoemans, ``Asteroid 2011 AG5 - A Reality Check,'' NASA-JPL, 2012) In 2011, The author say: the dark hole will take the dark comet to impact our solar system in 20 years, and give a systemic model between the sun and its companion-dark hole to explain why were there periodicity mass extinction on earth. (see Dayong Cao, BAPS.2011.CAL.C1.7, BAPS.2011.DFD.LA.24, BAPS.2012.APR.K1.78 and BAPS.2011.APR.K1.17) The dark Asteroid 2011 AG5 (as a dark comet) is made of the dark matter which has a space-time (as frequence-amplitude square) center- a different systemic model from solar systemic model. It can asborb the space-time and wave. So it is ``dark.'' When many dark matters hit on our earth, they can break our atom structure and our genetic code to trigger the Mass Extinction. In our experiments, consciousness can change the systematic model and code by a life-informational technology. So it can change the output signals of the solar cell. (see Dayong Cao, BAPS.2011.MAR.C1.286 and BAPS.2012.MAR.P33.14) So we will develop the genetic code of lives to evolution and sublimation, will use the dark matter to change the systemic model between dark hole and sun and will avoid next extinction.

  12. Rape avoidance behavior among Slovak women.

    PubMed

    Prokop, Pavol

    2013-05-28

    Rape has been a recurrent adaptive problem for many species, including humans. Rape is costly to women in terms of disease transmission, partner abandonment, and unwanted pregnancy (among other costs). Therefore, behavioral strategies which allow women to avoid coercive men may have been favored by selection. In line with this evolutionary reasoning, the current research documented that physically stronger women and those in a committed romantic relationship reported more rape avoidance behavior. In addition, virgin women tended to perform more rape avoidance behavior compared with their non-virgin counterparts. Women with high conception risk perceived themselves as physically stronger, which may protect them against a potential rapist. Fear of unwanted pregnancy from rape decreased as age increased, reflecting higher fertility among younger participants. However, older women reported more rape avoidance behavior, which contradicts evolutionary predictions. The results provide some support for evolutionary hypotheses of rape avoidance behavior which suggest that woman's perception of rape is influenced by parental investment and perceived physical condition.

  13. Avoidance of hydrolyzed casein by mice

    PubMed Central

    Field, Kristin L.; Kimball, Bruce A.; Mennella, Julie A.; Beauchamp, Gary K.; Bachmanov, Alexander A.

    2008-01-01

    When casein, a milk protein, is hydrolyzed, it renders human foods that contain it (e.g., hypoallergenic infant formula, cheeses) distasteful to many people. This rejection of hydrolyzed casein (HC)-containing foods has recently been found to also occur in a non-human species (deer, Odocoileus spp.). Identifying other animals that avoid HC would facilitate understanding how and why HC-containing food is often rejected. This study determined whether HC-containing food is avoided by Mus musculus and whether consumption patterns were sensitive to testing conditions, specifically food form (powder, pellet or dough) and food access (ad libitum or 1.5 h/day following 6 h of food deprivation). Diets were offered in two-choice tests that paired an HC-containing food with an intact casein-containing alternative at seven protein concentrations (0%–50% w/w). Five experimental groups were tested under different combinations of food form and food access. Three groups (ad lib/powder, ad lib/pellet, and 1.5 h/pellet) avoided the HC diet starting at the 30% protein level. At the 40% and 50% protein levels, all groups showed strong avoidance of HC. Although testing conditions influenced total caloric intake and body weight gain, avoidance of HC at the highest concentrations was robust to the manipulations in experimental conditions. Our study suggests that mice may be a useful model for understanding the mechanisms of HC rejection. PMID:17900635

  14. Stimulus conflict triggers behavioral avoidance.

    PubMed

    Dignath, David; Eder, Andreas B

    2015-12-01

    According to a recent extension of the conflict-monitoring theory, conflict between two competing response tendencies is registered as an aversive event and triggers a motivation to avoid the source of conflict. In the present study, we tested this assumption. Over five experiments, we examined whether conflict is associated with an avoidance motivation and whether stimulus conflict or response conflict triggers an avoidance tendency. Participants first performed a color Stroop task. In a subsequent motivation test, participants responded to Stroop stimuli with approach- and avoidance-related lever movements. These results showed that Stroop-conflict stimuli increased the frequency of avoidance responses in a free-choice motivation test, and also increased the speed of avoidance relative to approach responses in a forced-choice test. High and low proportions of response conflict in the Stroop task had no effect on avoidance in the motivation test. Avoidance of conflict was, however, obtained even with new conflict stimuli that had not been presented before in a Stroop task, and when the Stroop task was replaced with an unrelated filler task. Taken together, these results suggest that stimulus conflict is sufficient to trigger avoidance.

  15. Chemical avoidance responses of fishes.

    PubMed

    Tierney, Keith B

    2016-05-01

    The hydrosphere is a repository for all of our waste and mistakes, be they sewage, garbage, process-affected waters, runoff, and gases. For fish living in environments receiving undesirable inputs, moving away seems an obvious way to avoid harm. While this should occur, there are numerous examples where it will not. The inability to avoid harmful environments may lead to sensory impairments that in turn limit the ability to avoid other dangers or locate benefits. For avoidance to occur, the danger must first be perceived, which may not happen if the fish is 'blinded' in some capacity. Second, the danger must be recognized for what it is, which may also not happen if the fish is cognitively confused or impaired. Third, it is possible that the fish may not be able to leave the area, or worse, learns to prefer a toxic environment. Concerning generating regulations around avoidance, there are two possibilities: that an avoidance threshold be used to set guidelines for effluent release with the intention of driving fishes away; the second is to set a contaminant concentration that would not affect the avoidance or attraction responses to other cues. With the complexities of the modern world in which we release diverse pollutants, from light to municipal effluents full of 1000s of chemicals, to the diversity present in ecosystems, it is impossible to have avoidance data on every stimulus-species combination. Nevertheless, we may be able to use existing avoidance response data to predict the likelihood of avoidance of untested stimuli. Where we cannot, this review includes a framework that can be used to direct new research. This review is intended to collate existing avoidance response data, provide a framework for making decisions in the absence of data, and suggest studies that would facilitate the prediction of risk to fish health in environments receiving intentional and unintentional human-based chemical inputs.

  16. Avoiding negative outcomes: tracking the mechanisms of avoidance learning in humans during fear conditioning.

    PubMed

    Delgado, Mauricio R; Jou, Rita L; Ledoux, Joseph E; Phelps, Elizabeth A

    2009-01-01

    Previous research across species has shown that the amygdala is critical for learning about aversive outcomes, while the striatum is involved in reward-related processing. Less is known, however, about the role of the amygdala and the striatum in learning how to exert control over emotions and avoid negative outcomes. One potential mechanism for active avoidance of stressful situations is postulated to involve amygdala-striatal interactions. The goal of this study was to investigate the physiological and neural correlates underlying avoidance learning in humans. Specifically, we used a classical conditioning paradigm where three different conditioned stimuli (CS) were presented. One stimulus predicted the delivery of a shock upon stimulus offset (CS+), while another predicted no negative consequences (CS-). A third conditioned cue also predicted delivery of a shock, but participants were instructed that upon seeing this stimulus, they could avoid the shock if they chose the correct action (AV+). After successful learning, participants could then easily terminate the shock during subsequent stimulus presentations (AV-). Physiological responses (as measured by skin conductance responses) confirmed a main effect of conditioning, particularly showing higher arousal responses during pre (AV+) compared to post (AV-) learning of an avoidance response. Consistent with animal models, amygdala-striatal interactions were observed to underlie the acquisition of an avoidance response. These results support a mechanism of active coping with conditioned fear that allows for the control over emotional responses such as fears that can become maladaptive and influence our decision-making.

  17. Postcopulatory inbreeding avoidance in guppies.

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, J L; Evans, J P

    2014-12-01

    In many species, the negative fitness effects of inbreeding have facilitated the evolution of a wide range of inbreeding avoidance mechanisms. Although avoidance mechanisms operating prior to mating are well documented, evidence for postcopulatory mechanisms of inbreeding avoidance remain scarce. Here, we examine the potential for paternity biases to favour unrelated males when their sperm compete for fertilizations though postcopulatory inbreeding avoidance mechanisms in the guppy, Poecilia reticulata. To test this possibility, we used a series of artificial inseminations to deliver an equal number of sperm from a related (either full sibling or half sibling) and unrelated male to a female while statistically controlling for differences in sperm quality between rival ejaculates. In this way, we were able to focus exclusively on postcopulatory mechanisms of inbreeding avoidance and account for differences in sperm competitiveness between rival males. Under these carefully controlled conditions, we report a significant bias in paternity towards unrelated males, although this effect was only apparent when the related male was a full sibling. We also show that sperm competition generally favours males with highly viable sperm and thus that some variance in sperm competitiveness can be attributed to difference in sperm quality. Our findings for postcopulatory inbreeding avoidance are consistent with prior work on guppies, revealing that sperm competition success declines linearly with the level of relatedness, but also that such effects are only apparent at relatedness levels of full siblings or higher. These findings reveal that postcopulatory processes alone can facilitate inbreeding avoidance.

  18. Vertical jumping and signaled avoidance

    PubMed Central

    Cándido, Antonio; Maldonado, Antonio; Vila, Jaime

    1988-01-01

    This paper reports an experiment intended to demonstrate that the vertical jumping response can be learned using a signaled-avoidance technique. A photoelectric cell system was used to record the response. Twenty female rats, divided equally into two groups, were exposed to intertrial intervals of either 15 or 40 s. Subjects had to achieve three successive criteria of acquisition: 3, 5, and 10 consecutive avoidance responses. Results showed that both groups learned the avoidance response, requiring increasingly larger numbers of trials as the acquisition criteria increased. No significant effect of intertrial interval was observed. PMID:16812559

  19. How to avoid exercise injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000859.htm How to avoid exercise injuries To use the sharing features on this ... injury and stay safe during exercise. What Causes Exercise Injuries? Some of the most common causes of ...

  20. Vision-based obstacle avoidance

    DOEpatents

    Galbraith, John

    2006-07-18

    A method for allowing a robot to avoid objects along a programmed path: first, a field of view for an electronic imager of the robot is established along a path where the electronic imager obtains the object location information within the field of view; second, a population coded control signal is then derived from the object location information and is transmitted to the robot; finally, the robot then responds to the control signal and avoids the detected object.

  1. Airborne Collision Avoidance System X

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    avoidance system on behalf of the Federal Aviation Adminis- tration (FAA). The current Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance System II (TCAS II...which are used on board an aircraft. The tables provide a cost for each action—no alert , a traffic advisory alerting pilots about nearby aircraft, or a...suitabil- ity than does TCAS II; studies show that ACAS X reduces mid-air collision risk by 59% and unnecessary disruptive alerts by 25% when

  2. Predator Avoidance in Extremophile Fish

    PubMed Central

    Bierbach, David; Schulte, Matthias; Herrmann, Nina; Zimmer, Claudia; Arias-Rodriguez, Lenin; Indy, Jeane Rimber; Riesch, Rüdiger; Plath, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Extreme habitats are often characterized by reduced predation pressures, thus representing refuges for the inhabiting species. The present study was designed to investigate predator avoidance of extremophile populations of Poecilia mexicana and P. sulphuraria that either live in hydrogen sulfide-rich (sulfidic) springs or cave habitats, both of which are known to have impoverished piscine predator regimes. Focal fishes that inhabited sulfidic springs showed slightly weaker avoidance reactions when presented with several naturally occurring predatory cichlids, but strongest differences to populations from non-sulfidic habitats were found in a decreased shoaling tendency with non-predatory swordtail (Xiphophorus hellerii) females. When comparing avoidance reactions between P. mexicana from a sulfidic cave (Cueva del Azufre) and the adjacent sulfidic surface creek (El Azufre), we found only slight differences in predator avoidance, but surface fish reacted much more strongly to the non-predatory cichlid Vieja bifasciata. Our third experiment was designed to disentangle learned from innate effects of predator recognition. We compared laboratory-reared (i.e., predator-naïve) and wild-caught (i.e., predator-experienced) individuals of P. mexicana from a non-sulfidic river and found no differences in their reaction towards the presented predators. Overall, our results indicate (1) that predator avoidance is still functional in extremophile Poecilia spp. and (2) that predator recognition and avoidance reactions have a strong genetic basis. PMID:25371337

  3. Avoidance of strobe lights by zooplankton

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hamel, Martin J.; Richards, Nathan S.; Brown, Michael L.; Chipps, Steven R.

    2010-01-01

    Underwater strobe lights can influence the behavior and distribution of fishes and are increasingly used as a technique to divert fish away from water intake structures on dams. However, few studies examine how strobe lights may affect organisms other than targeted species. To gain insight on strobe lighting effects on nontarget invertebrates, we investigated whether underwater strobe lights influence zooplankton distributions and abundance in Lake Oahe, South Dakota. Zooplankton were collected using vertical tows at 3 discrete distances from an underwater strobe light to quantify the influence of light intensity on zooplankton density. Samples were collected from 3 different depth ranges (0–10 m, 10–20 m and 20–30 m) at <1 m, 15 m and ⩾100 m distance intervals away from the strobe light. Copepods represented 67.2% and Daphnia spp. represented 23.3% of all zooplankton sampled from 17 August to 15 September 2004. Night time zooplankton densities significantly decreased in surface waters when strobe lights were activated. Copepods exhibited the greatest avoidance patterns, while Daphnia avoidance varied throughout sampling depths. These results indicate that zooplankton display negative phototaxic behavior to strobe lights and that researchers must be cognizant of potential effects to the ecosystem such as altering predator–prey interactions or affecting zooplankton distribution and growth.

  4. Avoiding DWI Among Bar-room Drinkers: Strategies and Predictors

    PubMed Central

    Caudill, Barry D.; Rogers, John W.; Howard, Jan; Frissell, Kevin C.; Harding, Wayne M.

    2010-01-01

    We examined the prevalence and predictors of 11strategies to avoid driving when feeling intoxicated among 561 bar-room patrons in two medium-sized Maryland communities. Logistic regression analyses identified demographic, behavioral, and attitudinal predictors of avoidance strategies and interactions among predictors. Overall, 89% reported one or more DWI avoidance actions in the past year, and 38% reported driving intoxicated during that time. Average frequencies of avoidance behavior and intoxicated driving increased significantly as drinking level increased. However, the higher the drinking level, the smaller the ratio of avoidance actions to DWI experiences, highlighting the vulnerability of heavy drinkers who had driven intoxicated. Using a sober driver or one who allegedly drank less than the respondent were the most popular and frequent strategies, but paying for a cab, walking, and using a bus or free cab were relatively unpopular. Higher drinking levels predicted significantly higher odds of using avoidance approaches, as did intoxicated driving. Confidence in driving safely when intoxicated was positively related to drinking level and intoxicated driving, but it tended to predict lower odds of avoidance actions. Similarly, marital status, age, gender, and location influenced the odds of avoidance behaviors. Interventions should be strategically tailored to exploit or counter drinker predilections among avoidance options. PMID:22879742

  5. Automatic Collision Avoidance Technology (ACAT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swihart, Donald E.; Skoog, Mark A.

    2007-01-01

    This document represents two views of the Automatic Collision Avoidance Technology (ACAT). One viewgraph presentation reviews the development and system design of Automatic Collision Avoidance Technology (ACAT). Two types of ACAT exist: Automatic Ground Collision Avoidance (AGCAS) and Automatic Air Collision Avoidance (AACAS). The AGCAS Uses Digital Terrain Elevation Data (DTED) for mapping functions, and uses Navigation data to place aircraft on map. It then scans DTED in front of and around aircraft and uses future aircraft trajectory (5g) to provide automatic flyup maneuver when required. The AACAS uses data link to determine position and closing rate. It contains several canned maneuvers to avoid collision. Automatic maneuvers can occur at last instant and both aircraft maneuver when using data link. The system can use sensor in place of data link. The second viewgraph presentation reviews the development of a flight test and an evaluation of the test. A review of the operation and comparison of the AGCAS and a pilot's performance are given. The same review is given for the AACAS is given.

  6. Approach/avoidance in dreams.

    PubMed

    Malcolm-Smith, Susan; Koopowitz, Sheri; Pantelis, Eleni; Solms, Mark

    2012-03-01

    The influential threat simulation theory (TST) asserts that dreaming yields adaptive advantage by providing a virtual environment in which threat-avoidance may be safely rehearsed. We have previously found the incidence of biologically threatening dreams to be around 20%, with successful threat avoidance occurring in approximately one-fifth of such dreams. TST asserts that threat avoidance is over-represented relative to other possible dream contents. To begin assessing this issue, we contrasted the incidence of 'avoidance' dreams with that of their opposite: 'approach' dreams. Because TST states that the threat-avoidance function is only fully activated in ecologically valid (biologically threatening) contexts, we also performed this contrast for populations living in both high- and low-threat environments. We find that 'approach' dreams are significantly more prevalent across both contexts. We suggest these results are more consistent with the view that dreaming is generated by reward-seeking systems than by fear-conditioning systems, although reward-seeking is clearly not the only factor determining the content of dreams.

  7. Motive to Avoid Success, Locus of Control, and Reinforcement Avoidance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katovsky, Walter

    Subjects were four groups of 12 college women, high or low in motive to avoid success (MAS) and locus of control (LC), were reinforced for response A on a fixed partial reinforcement schedule on three concept learning tasks, one task consisting of combined reward and punishment, another of reward only, and one of punishment only. Response B was…

  8. Food Avoidance Diets for Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Scott, Jeffrey F; Hammond, Margaret I; Nedorost, Susan T

    2015-10-01

    Food allergy is relatively common in both children and adults, and its prevalence is increasing. Early exposure of food allergens onto skin with an impaired epidermal barrier predisposes to sensitization and prevents the development of oral tolerance. While immediate-type food allergies are well described, less is known about delayed-type food allergies manifesting as dermatitis. This is due, in part, to limitations with current diagnostic testing for delayed-type food allergy, including atopy patch testing. We conducted a systematic review of food avoidance diets in delayed-type food allergies manifesting as dermatitis. While beneficial in some clinical circumstances, avoidance diets should be used with caution in infants and children, as growth impairment and developmental delay may result. Ultimately, dermatitis is highly multifactorial and avoidance diets may not improve symptoms of delayed-type food allergy until combined with other targeted therapies, including restoring balance in the skin microbiome and re-establishing proper skin barrier function.

  9. A problem of collision avoidance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vincent, T. L.; Cliff, E. M.; Grantham, W. J.; Peng, W. Y.

    1972-01-01

    Collision avoidance between two vehicles of constant speed with limited turning radii, moving in a horizontal plane is investigated. Collision avoidance is viewed as a game by assuming that the operator of one vehicle has perfect knowledge of the state of the other, whereas the operator of the second vehicle is unaware of any impending danger. The situation envisioned is that of an encounter between a commercial aircraft and a small light aircraft. This worse case situation is examined to determine the conditions under which the commercial aircraft should execute a collision avoidance maneuver. Three different zones of vulnerability are defined and the boundaries, or barriers, between these zones are determined for a typical aircraft encounter. A discussion of the methods used to obtain the results as well as some of the salient features associated with the resultant barriers is included.

  10. Urban water restrictions: Attitudes and avoidance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, Bethany; Burton, Michael; Crase, Lin

    2011-12-01

    In most urban cities across Australia, water restrictions remain the dominant policy mechanism to restrict urban water consumption. The extensive adoption of water restrictions as a means to limit demand, over several years, means that Australian urban water prices have consistently not reflected the opportunity cost of water. Given the generally strong political support for water restrictions and the likelihood that they will persist for some time, there is value in understanding households' attitudes in this context. More specifically, identifying the welfare gains associated with avoiding urban water restrictions entirely would be a nontrivial contribution to our knowledge and offer insights into the benefits of alternative policy responses. This paper describes the results from a contingent valuation study that investigates consumers' willingness to pay to avoid urban water restrictions. Importantly, the research also investigates the influence of cognitive and exogenous dimensions on the utility gain associated with avoiding water restrictions. The results provide insights into the impact of the current policy mechanism on economic welfare.

  11. Avoiding unfavourable outcomes in liposuction

    PubMed Central

    Khanna, Atul; Filobbos, George

    2013-01-01

    The origin of liposuction can be traced to an adverse event by Dujarrier in 1921 when he used a uterine curette to remove fat from the knees of a ballerina ending in an amputation secondary to damage of the femoral artery. The history of liposuction since then has been one of avoiding complications and optimising outcome. After this adverse event, liposuction was abandoned until the 1960's when Schrudde revived the practice using small stab incisions and sharp curettage with the secondary suction to aspirate the freed tissue. This technique was associated with a high incidence of complications especially seroma and skin necrosis. Illouz then replaced the curette with a blunt cannula connected to vacuum pump thus avoiding the complications of a sharp curette. Despite the presence of various techniques for liposuction, suction assisted liposuction (SAL) is still the standard technique of liposuction. This article aims to discuss literature regarding the various aspects of liposuction (SAL) and to highlight the salient points in the literature and in the senior author's experience in order to avoid unfavourable outcomes in liposuction. A literature review on avoiding complication is in liposuction including some of the seminal papers on liposuction. Liposuction is generally a safe procedure with reproducible outcome. Just like any surgical procedure it should be treated with the utmost care. Illouz published 10 commandments for liposuction in 1989 and we review these commandments to demonstrate how liposuction has evolved. PMID:24501475

  12. Strategies of locomotor collision avoidance.

    PubMed

    Basili, Patrizia; Sağlam, Murat; Kruse, Thibault; Huber, Markus; Kirsch, Alexandra; Glasauer, Stefan

    2013-03-01

    Collision avoidance during locomotion can be achieved by a variety of strategies. While in some situations only a single trajectory will successfully avoid impact, in many cases several different strategies are possible. Locomotor experiments in the presence of static boundary conditions have suggested that the choice of an appropriate trajectory is based on a maximum-smoothness strategy. Here we analyzed locomotor trajectories of subjects avoiding collision with another human crossing their path orthogonally. In such a case, changing walking direction while keeping speed or keeping walking direction while changing speed would be two extremes of solving the problem. Our participants clearly favored changing their walking speed while keeping the path on a straight line between start and goal. To interpret this result, we calculated the costs of the chosen trajectories in terms of a smoothness-maximization criterion and simulated the trajectories with a computational model. Data analysis together with model simulation showed that the experimentally chosen trajectory to avoid collision with a moving human is not the optimally smooth solution. However, even though the trajectory is not globally smooth, it was still locally smooth. Modeling further confirmed that, in presence of the moving human, there is always a trajectory that would be smoother but would deviate from the straight line. We therefore conclude that the maximum smoothness strategy previously suggested for static environments no longer holds for locomotor path planning and execution in dynamically changing environments such as the one tested here.

  13. Biochar aging reduces earthworm avoidance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biochar, a black carbon substance produced by the pyrolysis of organic feedstocks, has been used in many soil improvement strategies ranging from nutrient addition to sequestration of C. Simple toxicity studies and laboratory preference/avoidance assays are recommended but results rarely reported. ...

  14. Rapid jamming avoidance in biosonar.

    PubMed

    Gillam, Erin H; Ulanovsky, Nachum; McCracken, Gary F

    2007-03-07

    The sonar systems of bats and dolphins are in many ways superior to man-made sonar and radar systems, and considerable effort has been devoted to understanding the signal-processing strategies underlying these capabilities. A major feature determining the efficiency of sonar systems is the sensitivity to noise and jamming signals. Previous studies indicated that echolocating bats may adjust their signal structure to avoid jamming ('jamming avoidance response'; JAR). However, these studies relied on behavioural correlations and not controlled experiments. Here, we provide the first experimental evidence for JAR in bats. We presented bats (Tadarida brasiliensis) with 'playback stimuli' consisting of recorded echolocation calls at one of six frequencies. The bats exhibited a JAR by shifting their call frequency away from the presented playback frequency. When the approaching bats were challenged by an abrupt change in the playback stimulus, they responded by shifting their call frequencies upwards, away from the playback. Interestingly, even bats initially calling below the playback's frequency shifted their frequencies upwards, 'jumping' over the playback frequency. These spectral shifts in the bats' calls occurred often within less than 200 ms, in the first echolocation call emitted after the stimulus switch-suggesting that rapid jamming avoidance is important for the bat.

  15. Rapid jamming avoidance in biosonar

    PubMed Central

    Gillam, Erin H; Ulanovsky, Nachum; McCracken, Gary F

    2006-01-01

    The sonar systems of bats and dolphins are in many ways superior to man-made sonar and radar systems, and considerable effort has been devoted to understanding the signal-processing strategies underlying these capabilities. A major feature determining the efficiency of sonar systems is the sensitivity to noise and jamming signals. Previous studies indicated that echolocating bats may adjust their signal structure to avoid jamming (‘jamming avoidance response’; JAR). However, these studies relied on behavioural correlations and not controlled experiments. Here, we provide the first experimental evidence for JAR in bats. We presented bats (Tadarida brasiliensis) with ‘playback stimuli’ consisting of recorded echolocation calls at one of six frequencies. The bats exhibited a JAR by shifting their call frequency away from the presented playback frequency. When the approaching bats were challenged by an abrupt change in the playback stimulus, they responded by shifting their call frequencies upwards, away from the playback. Interestingly, even bats initially calling below the playback's frequency shifted their frequencies upwards, ‘jumping’ over the playback frequency. These spectral shifts in the bats' calls occurred often within less than 200 ms, in the first echolocation call emitted after the stimulus switch—suggesting that rapid jamming avoidance is important for the bat. PMID:17254989

  16. The Color Red Supports Avoidance Reactions to Unhealthy Food.

    PubMed

    Rohr, Michaela; Kamm, Friederike; Koenigstorfer, Joerg; Groeppel-Klein, Andrea; Wentura, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Empirical evidence suggests that the color red acts like an implicit avoidance cue in food contexts. Thus specific colors seem to guide the implicit evaluation of food items. We built upon this research by investigating the implicit meaning of color (red vs. green) in an approach-avoidance task with healthy and unhealthy food items. Thus, we examined the joint evaluative effects of color and food: Participants had to categorize food items by approach-avoidance reactions, according to their healthfulness. Items were surrounded by task-irrelevant red or green circles. We found that the implicit meaning of the traffic light colors influenced participants' reactions to the food items. The color red (compared to green) facilitated automatic avoidance reactions to unhealthy foods. By contrast, approach behavior toward healthy food items was not moderated by color. Our findings suggest that traffic light colors can act as implicit cues that guide automatic behavioral reactions to food.

  17. Honey bees selectively avoid difficult choices.

    PubMed

    Perry, Clint J; Barron, Andrew B

    2013-11-19

    Human decision-making strategies are strongly influenced by an awareness of certainty or uncertainty (a form of metacognition) to increase the chances of making a right choice. Humans seek more information and defer choosing when they realize they have insufficient information to make an accurate decision, but whether animals are aware of uncertainty is currently highly contentious. To explore this issue, we examined how honey bees (Apis mellifera) responded to a visual discrimination task that varied in difficulty between trials. Free-flying bees were rewarded for a correct choice, punished for an incorrect choice, or could avoid choosing by exiting the trial (opting out). Bees opted out more often on difficult trials, and opting out improved their proportion of successful trials. Bees could also transfer the concept of opting out to a novel task. Our data show that bees selectively avoid difficult tasks they lack the information to solve. This finding has been considered as evidence that nonhuman animals can assess the certainty of a predicted outcome, and bees' performance was comparable to that of primates in a similar paradigm. We discuss whether these behavioral results prove bees react to uncertainty or whether associative mechanisms can explain such findings. To better frame metacognition as an issue for neurobiological investigation, we propose a neurobiological hypothesis of uncertainty monitoring based on the known circuitry of the honey bee brain.

  18. Obstacle-avoiding navigation system

    DOEpatents

    Borenstein, Johann; Koren, Yoram; Levine, Simon P.

    1991-01-01

    A system for guiding an autonomous or semi-autonomous vehicle through a field of operation having obstacles thereon to be avoided employs a memory for containing data which defines an array of grid cells which correspond to respective subfields in the field of operation of the vehicle. Each grid cell in the memory contains a value which is indicative of the likelihood, or probability, that an obstacle is present in the respectively associated subfield. The values in the grid cells are incremented individually in response to each scan of the subfields, and precomputation and use of a look-up table avoids complex trigonometric functions. A further array of grid cells is fixed with respect to the vehicle form a conceptual active window which overlies the incremented grid cells. Thus, when the cells in the active window overly grid cell having values which are indicative of the presence of obstacles, the value therein is used as a multiplier of the precomputed vectorial values. The resulting plurality of vectorial values are summed vectorially in one embodiment of the invention to produce a virtual composite repulsive vector which is then summed vectorially with a target-directed vector for producing a resultant vector for guiding the vehicle. In an alternative embodiment, a plurality of vectors surrounding the vehicle are computed, each having a value corresponding to obstacle density. In such an embodiment, target location information is used to select between alternative directions of travel having low associated obstacle densities.

  19. Adaptive Avoidance of Reef Noise

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, Stephen D.; Radford, Andrew N.; Tickle, Edward J.; Meekan, Mark G.; Jeffs, Andrew G.

    2011-01-01

    Auditory information is widely used throughout the animal kingdom in both terrestrial and aquatic environments. Some marine species are dependent on reefs for adult survival and reproduction, and are known to use reef noise to guide orientation towards suitable habitat. Many others that forage in food-rich inshore waters would, however, benefit from avoiding the high density of predators resident on reefs, but nothing is known about whether acoustic cues are used in this context. By analysing a sample of nearly 700,000 crustaceans, caught during experimental playbacks in light traps in the Great Barrier Reef lagoon, we demonstrate an auditory capability in a broad suite of previously neglected taxa, and provide the first evidence in any marine organisms that reef noise can act as a deterrent. In contrast to the larvae of species that require reef habitat for future success, which showed an attraction to broadcasted reef noise, taxa with a pelagic or nocturnally emergent lifestyle actively avoided it. Our results suggest that a far greater range of invertebrate taxa than previously thought can respond to acoustic cues, emphasising yet further the potential negative impact of globally increasing levels of underwater anthropogenic noise. PMID:21326604

  20. Adaptive avoidance of reef noise.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Stephen D; Radford, Andrew N; Tickle, Edward J; Meekan, Mark G; Jeffs, Andrew G

    2011-02-04

    Auditory information is widely used throughout the animal kingdom in both terrestrial and aquatic environments. Some marine species are dependent on reefs for adult survival and reproduction, and are known to use reef noise to guide orientation towards suitable habitat. Many others that forage in food-rich inshore waters would, however, benefit from avoiding the high density of predators resident on reefs, but nothing is known about whether acoustic cues are used in this context. By analysing a sample of nearly 700,000 crustaceans, caught during experimental playbacks in light traps in the Great Barrier Reef lagoon, we demonstrate an auditory capability in a broad suite of previously neglected taxa, and provide the first evidence in any marine organisms that reef noise can act as a deterrent. In contrast to the larvae of species that require reef habitat for future success, which showed an attraction to broadcasted reef noise, taxa with a pelagic or nocturnally emergent lifestyle actively avoided it. Our results suggest that a far greater range of invertebrate taxa than previously thought can respond to acoustic cues, emphasising yet further the potential negative impact of globally increasing levels of underwater anthropogenic noise.

  1. Threshold-avoiding proteomics pipeline.

    PubMed

    Suits, Frank; Hoekman, Berend; Rosenling, Therese; Bischoff, Rainer; Horvatovich, Peter

    2011-10-15

    We present a new proteomics analysis pipeline focused on maximizing the dynamic range of detected molecules in liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) data and accurately quantifying low-abundance peaks to identify those with biological relevance. Although there has been much work to improve the quality of data derived from LC-MS instruments, the goal of this study was to extend the dynamic range of analyzed compounds by making full use of the information available within each data set and across multiple related chromatograms in an experiment. Our aim was to distinguish low-abundance signal peaks from noise by noting their coherent behavior across multiple data sets, and central to this is the need to delay the culling of noise peaks until the final peak-matching stage of the pipeline, when peaks from a single sample appear in the context of all others. The application of thresholds that might discard signal peaks early is thereby avoided, hence the name TAPP: threshold-avoiding proteomics pipeline. TAPP focuses on quantitative low-level processing of raw LC-MS data and includes novel preprocessing, peak detection, time alignment, and cluster-based matching. We demonstrate the performance of TAPP on biologically relevant sample data consisting of porcine cerebrospinal fluid spiked over a wide range of concentrations with horse heart cytochrome c.

  2. Indigenous Knowledge in the Science Curriculum: Avoiding Neo-Colonialism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Ann

    2008-01-01

    Science education in Papua New Guinea has been influenced by neo-colonial practices that have significantly contributed to the silencing of the Papua New Guinea voice. This silencing has led to the production of science curriculum documents that are irrelevant to the students for whom they are written. To avoid being caught up in neo-colonial…

  3. [Hypersynchronous EEG activity and conditioned avoidance reflexes in rats].

    PubMed

    Frenzel, C; Kästner, I; Müller, M

    1978-01-01

    The influence of dimethylsulfolane on active avoidance conditioning with simultaneous registration of EEG was investigated. Dimethylsulfolane, which shows some pharmacological properties of pentylenetetrazole causes a decrease of the amount of conditioned reactions. There was no strong correlation between the impairment of learning ability and the number of EEG spindle discharges after dimethylsulfolane.

  4. The avoidable costs of population.

    PubMed

    Sadie, J L

    1987-07-01

    The social and economic consequences of current demographic trends in South Africa are analyzed using the concept of avoidable costs. The author presents projections of the population up to the year 2000 organized under four major categories: executive and managerial; professional; semi-skilled; and the unskilled, peasants, underemployed, and very poor. Comparisons are made with projections for the same four categories for Canada to show the problems faced by South Africa, in that relatively small growth in the first two classes is contrasted to massive growth in the other, and particularly the least privileged, classes. Consideration is given to the implications for the provision of schools and for the labor force. The author concludes that "if a problem is to be tackled at its roots it is to the control of human numbers that our attention is to be directed."

  5. Bone tumor mimics: avoiding misdiagnosis.

    PubMed

    Gould, C Frank; Ly, Justin Q; Lattin, Grant E; Beall, Douglas P; Sutcliffe, Joseph B

    2007-01-01

    Whether discovered incidentally or as part of a focused diagnostic evaluation, the finding of a benign osseous lesion that has radiologic features resembling a bone tumor is not uncommon. Some of the more common benign and nonneoplastic entities that can sometimes be confused with tumors are the following: cortical desmoid, Brodie abscess, synovial herniation pit, pseudocyst, enostosis, intraosseous ganglion cyst, fibrous dysplasia, stress fracture, avulsion fracture (healing stage), bone infarct, myositis ossificans, brown tumor, and subchondral cyst. Accurate diagnosis and management of these lesions require a basic understanding of their epidemiology, clinical presentations, anatomic distributions, imaging features, differential considerations, and therapeutic options. This in-depth review of 13 potential bone tumor mimics will assist the radiologist in correctly identifying these benign lesions and in avoiding misdiagnosis and related morbidity. This review will also aid the radiologist in making appropriate recommendations to the referring physician for management or further imaging.

  6. Autonomous hazard detection and avoidance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pien, Homer

    1992-01-01

    During GFY 91, Draper Laboratory was awarded a task by NASA-JSC under contract number NAS9-18426 to study and evaluate the potential for achieving safe autonomous landings on Mars using an on-board autonomous hazard detection and avoidance (AHDA) system. This report describes the results of that study. The AHDA task had four objectives: to demonstrate, via a closed-loop simulation, the ability to autonomously select safe landing sites and the ability to maneuver to the selected site; to identify key issues in the development of AHDA systems; to produce strawman designs for AHDA sensors and algorithms; and to perform initial trade studies leading to better understanding of the effect of sensor/terrain/viewing parameters on AHDA algorithm performance. This report summarizes the progress made during the first year, with primary emphasis on describing the tools developed for simulating a closed-loop AHDA landing. Some cursory performance evaluation results are also presented.

  7. ACAT Ground Collision Avoidance Flight Tests Over

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center has concluded flight tests of an Automatic Ground Collision Avoidance System (Auto GCAS) under the joint U.S. Air Force/NASA F-16D Automatic Collision Avoidance...

  8. Approach, avoidance, and affect: a meta-analysis of approach-avoidance tendencies in manual reaction time tasks.

    PubMed

    Phaf, R Hans; Mohr, Sören E; Rotteveel, Mark; Wicherts, Jelte M

    2014-01-01

    Approach action tendencies toward positive stimuli and avoidance tendencies from negative stimuli are widely seen to foster survival. Many studies have shown that approach and avoidance arm movements are facilitated by positive and negative affect, respectively. There is considerable debate whether positively and negatively valenced stimuli prime approach and avoidance movements directly (i.e., immediate, unintentional, implicit, automatic, and stimulus-based), or indirectly (i.e., after conscious or non-conscious interpretation of the situation). The direction and size of these effects were often found to depend on the instructions referring to the stimulus object or the self, and on explicit vs. implicit stimulus evaluation. We present a meta-analysis of 29 studies included for their use of strongly positive and negative stimuli, with 81 effect sizes derived solely from the means and standard deviations (combined N = 1538), to examine the automaticity of the link between affective information processing and approach and avoidance, and to test whether it depends on instruction, type of approach-avoidance task, and stimulus type. Results show a significant small to medium-sized effect after correction for publication bias. The strongest arguments for an indirect link between affect and approach-avoidance were the absence of evidence for an effect with implicit evaluation, and the opposite directions of the effect with self and object-related interpretations. The link appears to be influenced by conscious or non-conscious intentions to deal with affective stimuli.

  9. Approach, avoidance, and affect: a meta-analysis of approach-avoidance tendencies in manual reaction time tasks

    PubMed Central

    Phaf, R. Hans; Mohr, Sören E.; Rotteveel, Mark; Wicherts, Jelte M.

    2014-01-01

    Approach action tendencies toward positive stimuli and avoidance tendencies from negative stimuli are widely seen to foster survival. Many studies have shown that approach and avoidance arm movements are facilitated by positive and negative affect, respectively. There is considerable debate whether positively and negatively valenced stimuli prime approach and avoidance movements directly (i.e., immediate, unintentional, implicit, automatic, and stimulus-based), or indirectly (i.e., after conscious or non-conscious interpretation of the situation). The direction and size of these effects were often found to depend on the instructions referring to the stimulus object or the self, and on explicit vs. implicit stimulus evaluation. We present a meta-analysis of 29 studies included for their use of strongly positive and negative stimuli, with 81 effect sizes derived solely from the means and standard deviations (combined N = 1538), to examine the automaticity of the link between affective information processing and approach and avoidance, and to test whether it depends on instruction, type of approach-avoidance task, and stimulus type. Results show a significant small to medium-sized effect after correction for publication bias. The strongest arguments for an indirect link between affect and approach-avoidance were the absence of evidence for an effect with implicit evaluation, and the opposite directions of the effect with self and object-related interpretations. The link appears to be influenced by conscious or non-conscious intentions to deal with affective stimuli. PMID:24847292

  10. Obstacle avoidance sonar for submarines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dugas, Albert C.; Webman, Kenneth M.

    2002-05-01

    The Advanced Mine Detection Sonar (AMDS) system was designed to operate in poor environments with high biological and/or shallow-water boundary conditions. It provides increased capability for active detection of volume, close-tethered, and bottom mines, as well as submarine and surface target active/passive detection for ASW and collision avoidance. It also provides bottom topography mapping capability for precise submarine navigation in uncharted littoral waters. It accomplishes this by using advanced processing techniques with extremely narrow beamwidths. The receive array consists of 36 modules arranged in a 15-ft-diameter semicircle at the bottom of the submarine sonar dome to form a chin-mounted array. Each module consists of 40 piezoelectric rubber elements. The modules provide the necessary signal conditioning to the element data prior to signal transmission (uplink) through the hull. The elements are amplified, filtered, converted to digital signals by an A/D converter, and multiplexed prior to uplink to the inboard receiver. Each module also has a downlink over which it receives synchronization and mode/gain control. Uplink and downlink transmission is done using fiberoptic telemetry. AMDS was installed on the USS Asheville. The high-frequency chin array for Virginia class submarines is based on the Asheville design.

  11. Avoidance of aluminum by rainbow trout

    SciTech Connect

    Exley, C.

    2000-04-01

    Aluminum is the principal toxicant in fish in acid waters. The ability to avoid Al, particularly at low concentrations, would confer a considerable ecological advantage, but previous research into avoidance of Al has produced mixed results. The author used a cylindrical perspex tank, 150 cm in length, to study avoidance of Al by rainbow trout fry. The fish avoided Al, and their response was dependent on pH. Avoidance that was demonstrated at pHs of 5.00, 5.50, 5.50, and 5.75 was abolished at a pH of 6.00. Fry avoided very low Al concentrations being sensitive to [Al] > 1.00 {micro}mol L{sup {minus}1} at a pH of 5.00. This unequivocal demonstration of avoidance by rainbow trout fry of Al may have important implications for the ecology of indigenous fish populations in surface waters impacted by acidic deposition.

  12. Collision avoidance between two walkers: role-dependent strategies.

    PubMed

    Olivier, Anne-Hélène; Marin, Antoine; Crétual, Armel; Berthoz, Alain; Pettré, Julien

    2013-09-01

    This paper studies strategies for collision avoidance between two persons walking along crossing trajectories. It has been previously demonstrated that walkers are able to anticipate the risk of future collision and to react accordingly. The avoidance task has been described as a mutual control of the future distance of closest approach, MPD (i.e., Mininum Predicted Distance). In this paper, we studied the role of each walker in the task of controlling MPD. A specific question was: does the walker giving way (2nd at the crossing) and the one passing first set similar and coordinated strategies? To answer this question, we inspected the effect of motion adaptations on the future distance of closest approach. This analysis is relevant in the case of collision avoidance because subtle anticipatory behaviors or large last moment adaptations can finally yield the same result upon the final crossing distance. Results showed that collision avoidance is performed collaboratively and the crossing order impacts both the contribution and the strategies used: the participant giving way contributes more than the one passing first to avoid the collision. Both walkers reorient their path but the participant giving way also adapts his speed. Future work is planned to investigate the influence of crossing angle and TTC on adaptations as well as new types of interactions, such as intercepting or meeting tasks.

  13. Neural Correlates of Attentional Flexibility during Approach and Avoidance Motivation.

    PubMed

    Calcott, Rebecca D; Berkman, Elliot T

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic, momentary approach or avoidance motivational states have downstream effects on eventual goal success and overall well being, but there is still uncertainty about how those states affect the proximal neurocognitive processes (e.g., attention) that mediate the longer-term effects. Attentional flexibility, or the ability to switch between different attentional foci, is one such neurocognitive process that influences outcomes in the long run. The present study examined how approach and avoidance motivational states affect the neural processes involved in attentional flexibility using fMRI with the aim of determining whether flexibility operates via different neural mechanisms under these different states. Attentional flexibility was operationalized as subjects' ability to switch between global and local stimulus features. In addition to subjects' motivational state, the task context was manipulated by varying the ratio of global to local trials in a block in light of recent findings about the moderating role of context on motivation-related differences in attentional flexibility. The neural processes involved in attentional flexibility differ under approach versus avoidance states. First, differences in the preparatory activity in key brain regions suggested that subjects' preparedness to switch was influenced by motivational state (anterior insula) and the interaction between motivation and context (superior temporal gyrus, inferior parietal lobule). Additionally, we observed motivation-related differences the anterior cingulate cortex during switching. These results provide initial evidence that motivation-induced behavioral changes may arise via different mechanisms in approach versus avoidance motivational states.

  14. Who Avoids Cancer Information? Examining a Psychological Process Leading to Cancer Information Avoidance.

    PubMed

    Chae, Jiyoung

    2016-07-01

    Although cancer information avoidance (CIA) is detrimental to public health, predictors of CIA have not been fully investigated. Based on uncertainty management theory, this study viewed CIA as a response to uncertainty related to the distress associated with cancer information and illustrated the psychological process leading to CIA. Given the current information context, it was hypothesized that cancer information overload (CIO), accompanied by confusion and stress about cancer information, causes CIA. As trait anxiety is a strong predictor of CIO, it was also hypothesized that trait anxiety has an indirect effect on CIA through CIO. Study 1 tested this relationship in a U.S. sample (N = 384); the results showed that CIO was positively associated with CIA and that trait anxiety indirectly influenced CIA through CIO. Whereas Study 1 tested the relationship with cross-sectional data in the general cancer context, Study 2 replicated Study 1 with 3-wave longitudinal data in the context of a specific cancer (i.e., stomach cancer) in South Korea (N = 1,130 at Wave 1, 813 at Wave 2, and 582 at Wave 3). Trait anxiety at Wave 1 predicted CIO at Wave 2, which in turn increased CIA at Wave 3, suggesting that some people are inherently inclined to avoid cancer information due to their trait anxiety, which results in confusion about cancer information.

  15. Generalization of socially transmitted and instructed avoidance

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, Gemma; Schlund, Michael W.; Dymond, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Excessive avoidance behavior, in which an instrumental action prevents an upcoming aversive event, is a defining feature of anxiety disorders. Left unchecked, both fear and avoidance of potentially threatening stimuli may generalize to perceptually related stimuli and situations. The behavioral consequences of generalization mean that aversive learning experiences with specific threats may lead to the inference that classes of related stimuli are threatening, potentially dangerous, and need to be avoided, despite differences in physical form. Little is known however about avoidance generalization in humans and the learning pathways by which it may be transmitted. In the present study, we compared two pathways to avoidance—instructions and social observation—on subsequent generalization of avoidance behavior, fear expectancy and physiological arousal. Participants first learned that one cue was a danger cue (conditioned stimulus, CS+) and another was a safety cue (CS−). Groups were then either instructed that a simple avoidance response in the presence of the CS+ cancelled upcoming shock (instructed-learning group) or observed a short movie showing a demonstrator performing the avoidance response to prevent shock (observational-learning group). During generalization testing, danger and safety cues were presented along with generalization stimuli that parametrically varied in perceptual similarity to the CS+. Reinstatement of fear and avoidance was also tested. Findings demonstrate, for the first time, generalization of socially transmitted and instructed avoidance: both groups showed comparable generalization gradients in fear expectancy, avoidance behavior and arousal. Return of fear was evident, suggesting that generalized avoidance remains persistent following extinction testing. The utility of the present paradigm for research on avoidance generalization is discussed. PMID:26150773

  16. Detection And Avoidance Of Obstacles By Helicopters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, Victor H. L.; Sridhar, Banavar

    1992-01-01

    Report discusses problems relevant to control subsystems enabling helicopters on nap-of-the-Earth flight paths to detect and avoid obstacles automatically. Indicates similarities between this and obstacle-avoidance problem of industrial mobile robots. Two approaches extend two-dimensional obstacle-avoidance concept to three dimensions. First involves direct search of three-dimensional range-map data for indications of openings between obstacles. Second involves compression of data into two-dimensional map for path search.

  17. Flight Tests Validate Collision-Avoidance System

    NASA Video Gallery

    Flights tests of a smartphone-assisted automatic ground collision avoidance system at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center consistently commanded evasive maneuvers when it sensed that the unmanned ...

  18. Integration of Weather Avoidance and Traffic Separation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Consiglio, Maria C.; Chamberlain, James P.; Wilson, Sara R.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a dynamic convective weather avoidance concept that compensates for weather motion uncertainties; the integration of this weather avoidance concept into a prototype 4-D trajectory-based Airborne Separation Assurance System (ASAS) application; and test results from a batch (non-piloted) simulation of the integrated application with high traffic densities and a dynamic convective weather model. The weather model can simulate a number of pseudo-random hazardous weather patterns, such as slow- or fast-moving cells and opening or closing weather gaps, and also allows for modeling of onboard weather radar limitations in range and azimuth. The weather avoidance concept employs nested "core" and "avoid" polygons around convective weather cells, and the simulations assess the effectiveness of various avoid polygon sizes in the presence of different weather patterns, using traffic scenarios representing approximately two times the current traffic density in en-route airspace. Results from the simulation experiment show that the weather avoidance concept is effective over a wide range of weather patterns and cell speeds. Avoid polygons that are only 2-3 miles larger than their core polygons are sufficient to account for weather uncertainties in almost all cases, and traffic separation performance does not appear to degrade with the addition of weather polygon avoidance. Additional "lessons learned" from the batch simulation study are discussed in the paper, along with insights for improving the weather avoidance concept. Introduction

  19. The Developmental Dynamics of Task-Avoidant Behavior and Math Performance in Kindergarten and Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirvonen, Riikka; Tolvanen, Asko; Aunola, Kaisa; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2012-01-01

    Besides cognitive factors, children's learning at school may be influenced by more dynamic phenomena, such as motivation and achievement-related task-avoidant behavior. The present study examined the developmental dynamics of task-avoidant behavior and math performance from kindergarten to Grade 4. A total of 225 children were tested for their…

  20. Obstacle avoidance for redundant robots using configuration control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seraji, Homayoun (Inventor); Colbaugh, Richard D. (Inventor); Glass, Kristin L. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A redundant robot control scheme is provided for avoiding obstacles in a workspace during the motion of an end effector along a preselected trajectory by stopping motion of the critical point on the robot closest to the obstacle when the distance between is reduced to a predetermined sphere of influence surrounding the obstacle. Algorithms are provided for conveniently determining the critical point and critical distance.

  1. The Influence of Approach and Avoidance Goals on Conceptual Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Marcus Lee; Sinatra, Gale M.

    2014-01-01

    Recently, conceptual change research has been experiencing a warming trend (G. M. Sinatra, 2005) whereby motivational and affective factors are being explored in the conceptual change process. The purpose of this study is to explore the 2 × 2 framework of achievement goal theory in relation to students' conceptual change learning for a specific…

  2. Continuing food-avoidance diets after negative food challenges.

    PubMed

    Eigenmann, Philippe A; Caubet, Jean-Christoph; Zamora, Samuel A

    2006-12-01

    Negative food challenges for follow-up in patients previously diagnosed with food allergy should logically be followed by a normal diet. However, all patients do not reintroduce the food. The aims of the study were to define the proportion of negative food challenge not followed by a normal diet, and to identify possible reasons for not reintroducing the food. Patients with a negative food challenge were sent a questionnaire by mail. Items in the questionnaire included the symptoms at diagnosis, the duration of the diet, the fear of an accidental reaction during the avoidance diet and how it influenced the social life. Patients were also asked if the food was reintroduced after the negative food challenge, and if not, for which reasons. In 25.4% of the questionnaires (18/71) respondents reported that the food was not reintroduced. Patients with a previous diagnosis of peanut allergy tended to reintroduce the food less frequently than patients allergic to other foods. Girls were found to significantly less frequently reintroduce the food than boys. However, neither the severity of the initial reaction, the anxiety of an accidental reaction during the avoidance diet, nor a prolonged avoidance diet did influence the decision to reintroduce the food. Among other reasons listed, fears of persistence of allergies, with recurrent pruritus or non-specific skin rashes after eating the food, were reported in 12.7% of the total number of questionnaires. Patients who reintroduced the food reported that their social life generally improved. One quarter of previously allergic patients continue a food avoidance diet despite a negative challenge. We suggest reassessing food consumption in all patients after a negative food challenge, and in those still avoiding the specific food to consider a repeated challenge test.

  3. How Do Speakers Avoid Ambiguous Linguistic Expressions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferreira, V.S.; Slevc, L.R.; Rogers, E.S.

    2005-01-01

    Three experiments assessed how speakers avoid linguistically and nonlinguistically ambiguous expressions. Speakers described target objects (a flying mammal, bat) in contexts including foil objects that caused linguistic (a baseball bat) and nonlinguistic (a larger flying mammal) ambiguity. Speakers sometimes avoided linguistic-ambiguity, and they…

  4. Recommendations for Sense and Avoid Policy Compliance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Since unmanned aircraft do not have a human on board, they need to have a sense and avoid capability that provides an "equivalent level of safety" (ELOS) to manned aircraft. The question then becomes - is sense and avoid ELOS for unmanned aircraft adequate to satisfy the requirements of 14 CFR 91.113? Access 5 has proposed a definition of sense and avoid, but the question remains as to whether any sense and avoid system can comply with 14 CFR 91.113 as currently written. The Access 5 definition of sense and avoid ELOS allows for the development of a sense and avoid system for unmanned aircraft that would comply with 14 CFR 91.113. Compliance is based on sensing and avoiding other traffic at an equivalent level of safety for collision avoidance, as manned aircraft. No changes to Part 91 are necessary, with the possible exception of changing "see" to "sense," or obtaining an interpretation from the FAA General Counsel that "sense" is equivalent to "see."

  5. Population properties affect inbreeding avoidance in moose.

    PubMed

    Herfindal, Ivar; Haanes, Hallvard; Røed, Knut H; Solberg, Erling J; Markussen, Stine S; Heim, Morten; Sæther, Bernt-Erik

    2014-12-01

    Mechanisms reducing inbreeding are thought to have evolved owing to fitness costs of breeding with close relatives. In small and isolated populations, or populations with skewed age- or sex distributions, mate choice becomes limited, and inbreeding avoidance mechanisms ineffective. We used a unique individual-based dataset on moose from a small island in Norway to assess whether inbreeding avoidance was related to population structure and size, expecting inbreeding avoidance to be greater in years with larger populations and even adult sex ratios. The probability that a potential mating event was realized was negatively related to the inbreeding coefficient of the potential offspring, with a stronger relationship in years with a higher proportion or number of males in the population. Thus, adult sex ratio and population size affect the degree of inbreeding avoidance. Consequently, conservation managers should aim for sex ratios that facilitate inbreeding avoidance, especially in small and isolated populations.

  6. Living with food allergy: allergen avoidance.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jennifer S; Sicherer, Scott H

    2011-04-01

    The primary treatment of food allergy is to avoid the culprit foods. This is a complex undertaking that requires education about reading the labels of manufactured products, understanding how to avoid cross-contact with allergens during food preparation, and communicating effectively with persons who are providing allergen-safe meals including relatives and restaurant personnel. Successful avoidance also requires a knowledge of nuances such as appropriate cleaning practices, an understanding of the risks of ingestion compared to skin contact or inhalation, that exposure could occur through unanticipated means such as through sharing utensils or passionate kissing, and that food may be a component of substances that are not ingested such as cosmetics, bath products, vaccines and medications. The authors review the necessary tools of avoidance that physicians and medical practitioners can use to guide their patients through the complexities of food avoidance.

  7. Higher threat avoidance costs reduce avoidance behaviour which in turn promotes fear extinction in humans.

    PubMed

    Rattel, Julina A; Miedl, Stephan F; Blechert, Jens; Wilhelm, Frank H

    2016-12-15

    Theoretical models specifying the underlying mechanisms of the development and maintenance of anxiety and related disorders state that fear responses acquired through classical Pavlovian conditioning are maintained by repeated avoidance behaviour; thus, it is assumed that avoidance prevents fear extinction. The present study investigated behavioural avoidance decisions as a function of avoidance costs in a naturalistic fear conditioning paradigm. Ecologically valid avoidance costs - manipulated between participant groups - were represented via time-delays during a detour in a gamified computer task. After differential acquisitions of shock-expectancy to a predictive conditioned stimulus (CS+), participants underwent extinction where they could either take a risky shortcut, while anticipating shock signaled by the CS+, or choose a costly avoidance option (lengthy detour); thus, they were faced with an approach-avoidance conflict. Groups with higher avoidance costs (longer detours) showed lower proportions of avoiders. Avoiders gave heightened shock-expectancy ratings post-extinction, demonstrating 'protecting from extinction', i.e. failure to extinguish. Moreover, there was an indirect effect of avoidance costs on protection from extinction through avoidance behaviour. No moderating role of trait-anxiety was found. Theoretical implications of avoidance behaviour are discussed, considering the involvement of instrumental learning in the maintenance of fear responses.

  8. When Is Topic Avoidance Unsatisfying? Examining Moderators of the Association between Avoidance and Dissatisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caughlin, John P.; Afifi, Tamara D.

    2004-01-01

    Despite theoretical arguments that avoiding certain topics can be functional, there is consistent evidence that avoiding topics tends to be associated with dissatisfying relationships. This disparity between theory and empirical findings suggests a need to understand better the connection between topic avoidance and relational dissatisfaction. The…

  9. Avoid the Consequences of High Blood Pressure

    MedlinePlus

    ... Aneurysm More Avoid the Consequences of High Blood Pressure Infographic Updated:Oct 31,2016 View a downloadable version of this infographic High Blood Pressure • Home • Get the Facts About HBP • Know Your ...

  10. Sulfa Allergy: Which Medications Should I Avoid?

    MedlinePlus

    ... sulfa allergy. Do I need to avoid certain medications? Answers from James T C Li, M.D., ... drugs: Sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (Septra, Bactrim) Erythromycin-sulfisoxazole Other medications that may cause a reaction Other types of ...

  11. When Should a Mother Avoid Breastfeeding?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Address What's this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Breastfeeding Information for Families Breastfeeding Hotline The HHS Office ... Tweet Share Compartir When should a mother avoid breastfeeding? Health professionals agree that human milk provides the ...

  12. Active Collision Avoidance for Planetary Landers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rickman, Doug; Hannan, Mike; Srinivasan, Karthik

    2014-01-01

    Present day robotic missions to other planets require precise, a priori knowledge of the terrain to pre-determine a landing spot that is safe. Landing sites can be miles from the mission objective, or, mission objectives may be tailored to suit landing sites. Future robotic exploration missions should be capable of autonomously identifying a safe landing target within a specified target area selected by mission requirements. Such autonomous landing sites must (1) 'see' the surface, (2) identify a target, and (3) land the vehicle. Recent advances in radar technology have resulted in small, lightweight, low power radars that are used for collision avoidance and cruise control systems in automobiles. Such radar systems can be adapted for use as active hazard avoidance systems for planetary landers. The focus of this CIF proposal is to leverage earlier work on collision avoidance systems for MSFC's Mighty Eagle lander and evaluate the use of automotive radar systems for collision avoidance in planetary landers.

  13. The challenges for scientists in avoiding plagiarism.

    PubMed

    Fisher, E R; Partin, K M

    2014-01-01

    Although it might seem to be a simple task for scientists to avoid plagiarism and thereby an allegation of research misconduct, assessment of trainees in the Responsible Conduct of Research and recent findings from the National Science Foundation Office of Inspector General regarding plagiarism suggests otherwise. Our experiences at a land-grant academic institution in assisting researchers in avoiding plagiarism are described. We provide evidence from a university-wide multi-disciplinary course that understanding how to avoid plagiarism in scientific writing is more difficult than it might appear, and that a failure to learn the rules of appropriate citation may cause dire consequences. We suggest that new strategies to provide training in avoiding plagiarism are required.

  14. The vigilance-avoidance model of avoidant recognition: An ERP study under threat priming.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Jing; Chen, Xu; Ma, Jianling; Yang, Qingqing; Liu, Ying

    2016-12-30

    Our study examined attachment-related electrophysiological differences in recognition using event-related potentials (ERPs) measured during a study-test paradigm after threat priming. We identified ERP correlates of recognition by comparing the ERPs of attachment-related positive and negative images between avoidant and secure attachment orientations. Our results revealed that the distribution of early old/new effects was broader in avoidant individuals than in secure individuals, and an early parietal old/new effect was observed in avoidant individuals, which reflected their implicit memory. The late old/new effect was found only in secure individuals when evoked by negative pictures, and was not observed in avoidant individuals. The results suggest that avoidant individuals adopt the "vigilance-avoidance" dual-process model to recognize both positive and negative attachment-related stimuli and carry out preferential familiarity matching at the automatic level and avoidant retrieval at the controlled-processing level.

  15. Singularity avoidance and time in quantum gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Kreienbuehl, Andreas

    2009-06-15

    We consider the quantization of a Friedmann-Robertson-Walker universe. We derive a reduced square root Hamiltonian by choosing the scale factor as time variable and quantize the theory using Pauli matrices a la Dirac. From the resulting spinor equation we show that there is no semiclassical wave packet that avoids the big bang singularity. Our work raises the question concerning the relationship between the choice of time and singularity avoidance.

  16. Beyond negligence: avoidability and medical injury compensation.

    PubMed

    Kachalia, Allen B; Mello, Michelle M; Brennan, Troyen A; Studdert, David M

    2008-01-01

    Disenchantment with the tort system and negligence standard in the United States is fueling interest in alternate compensation systems for medical injury. One possibility is experimentation with administrative "health courts," through which specialized adjudicators would utilize neutral experts to render compensability determinations. Compensation would be based not on negligence, but rather on a broader avoidable medical injury (avoidability) standard. Although considerable interest in health courts exists, stakeholders frequently express uncertainty about the meaning and operation of an avoidability standard. Three nations-Sweden, Denmark, and New Zealand-have long operated administrative schemes. We conducted interviews with administrators and stakeholders in these systems. Our goal was to garner lessons on how to operate a health court, and specifically, how to develop and apply alternate compensation criteria such as avoidability. This article reports our findings on the origins and operations of the systems, the evolution of their compensation criteria, and how these criteria are actually applied. We found that all three systems had their primary genesis in ensuring compensation for the injured, as opposed to sanctioning providers. All have abandoned the negligence standard. The Nordic systems use an avoidability standard, principally defined as injury that would not occur in the hands of the best practitioner. Their experience demonstrates that this definition is feasible to apply. New Zealand's recent move to a no-fault system sheds light on the benefits and drawbacks of a variety of compensation standards. Key lessons for successfully applying an alternate standard, such as avoidability, include a strict adherence to national precedent, the use of neutral and experienced experts, and a block on routine transfer of information from compensation investigations to disciplinary authorities. Importantly, all three nations are harnessing their systems' power to

  17. Avoidance of Phycomyces in a controlled environment.

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, P W; Matus, I J; Berg, H C

    1987-01-01

    The sporangiophore of the fungus Phycomyces bends away from nearby objects without ever touching them. It has been thought that these objects act as aerodynamic obstacles that damp random winds, thereby generating asymmetric distributions of a growth-promoting gas emitted by the growth zone. In the interest of testing this hypothesis, we studied avoidance in an environmental chamber in which convection was suppressed by a shallow thermal gradient. We also controlled pressure, temperature, and relative humidity of the air, electrostatic charge, and ambient light. A protocol was established that yielded avoidance rates constant from sporangiophore to sporangiophore to within +/- 10%. We found that avoidance occurred at normal rates in the complete absence of random winds. The rates were smaller at 100% than at lower values of relative humidity, but not by much. Remarkably, at a distance as great as 0.5 mm, avoidance from a 30-micron diam glass fiber (aligned parallel to the sporangiophore) was about the same as that from a planar glass sheet. However, the rate for the fiber fell more rapidly with distance. The rate for the sheet remained nearly constant out to approximately 4 mm. We conclude that avoidance depends either on adsorption by the barrier of a growth-inhibiting substance or emission by the barrier of a growth-promoting substance; it cannot occur by passive reflection. Models that can explain these effects are analyzed in the Appendix. PMID:3567313

  18. Harm avoidance and disability in old age.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Robert S; Buchman, Aron S; Arnold, Steven E; Shah, Raj C; Tang, Yuxiao; Bennett, David A

    2006-01-01

    The relation of personality to disability in old age is not well understood. The authors examined the relation of harm avoidance, a trait indicating a tendency to worry, fear uncertainty, be shy, and tire easily, to disability in a group of 474 older persons without dementia. Participants completed the 35-item Harm Avoidance scale. Disability was assessed with the Rosow-Breslau scale, a self-report measure of physical mobility. Performance-based tests of lower limb functions were also administered from which composite measures of gait, balance, and strength were derived. In a logistic regression model controlled for age, sex, education, and lower limb function, persons with high levels of harm avoidance were nearly three times as likely to report mobility limitations as persons with low levels, and these effects largely reflected fatigability and fear of uncertainty. The association of harm avoidance with disability was not explained or modified by frailty, physical activity, depressive symptoms, neuroticism, extraversion, or cognition. The results suggest that harm avoidance is associated with disability in old age.

  19. Ten Mistakes To Avoid When Injecting Botulinum Toxin.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Rodriguez, R; Martin-Gorgojo, A

    2015-01-01

    Injection of botulinum toxin is currently the most common cosmetic procedure in the United States, and in recent years it has become-together with dermal fillers-the mainstay of therapy for the prevention and treatment of facial aging. However, in some cases the treatment may lead to a somewhat unnatural appearance, usually caused by loss of facial expression or other telltale signs. In the present article, we review the 10 mistakes that should be avoided when injecting botulinum toxin. We also reflect on how treatment with botulinum toxin influences us through our facial expressions, both in terms of how we feel and what others perceive.

  20. Is Avoiding an Aversive Outcome Rewarding? Neural Substrates of Avoidance Learning in the Human Brain

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hackjin; Shimojo, Shinsuke

    2006-01-01

    Avoidance learning poses a challenge for reinforcement-based theories of instrumental conditioning, because once an aversive outcome is successfully avoided an individual may no longer experience extrinsic reinforcement for their behavior. One possible account for this is to propose that avoiding an aversive outcome is in itself a reward, and thus avoidance behavior is positively reinforced on each trial when the aversive outcome is successfully avoided. In the present study we aimed to test this possibility by determining whether avoidance of an aversive outcome recruits the same neural circuitry as that elicited by a reward itself. We scanned 16 human participants with functional MRI while they performed an instrumental choice task, in which on each trial they chose from one of two actions in order to either win money or else avoid losing money. Neural activity in a region previously implicated in encoding stimulus reward value, the medial orbitofrontal cortex, was found to increase, not only following receipt of reward, but also following successful avoidance of an aversive outcome. This neural signal may itself act as an intrinsic reward, thereby serving to reinforce actions during instrumental avoidance. PMID:16802856

  1. Is avoiding an aversive outcome rewarding? Neural substrates of avoidance learning in the human brain.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hackjin; Shimojo, Shinsuke; O'Doherty, John P

    2006-07-01

    Avoidance learning poses a challenge for reinforcement-based theories of instrumental conditioning, because once an aversive outcome is successfully avoided an individual may no longer experience extrinsic reinforcement for their behavior. One possible account for this is to propose that avoiding an aversive outcome is in itself a reward, and thus avoidance behavior is positively reinforced on each trial when the aversive outcome is successfully avoided. In the present study we aimed to test this possibility by determining whether avoidance of an aversive outcome recruits the same neural circuitry as that elicited by a reward itself. We scanned 16 human participants with functional MRI while they performed an instrumental choice task, in which on each trial they chose from one of two actions in order to either win money or else avoid losing money. Neural activity in a region previously implicated in encoding stimulus reward value, the medial orbitofrontal cortex, was found to increase, not only following receipt of reward, but also following successful avoidance of an aversive outcome. This neural signal may itself act as an intrinsic reward, thereby serving to reinforce actions during instrumental avoidance.

  2. Chloroplast avoidance movement reduces photodamage in plants.

    PubMed

    Kasahara, Masahiro; Kagawa, Takatoshi; Oikawa, Kazusato; Suetsugu, Noriyuki; Miyao, Mitsue; Wada, Masamitsu

    When plants are exposed to light levels higher than those required for photosynthesis, reactive oxygen species are generated in the chloroplasts and cause photodamage. This can occur even under natural growth conditions. To mitigate photodamage, plants have developed several protective mechanisms. One is chloroplast avoidance movement, in which chloroplasts move from the cell surface to the side walls of cells under high light conditions, although experimental support is still awaited. Here, using different classes of mutant defective in chloroplast avoidance movement, we show that these mutants are more susceptible to damage in high light than wild-type plants. Damage of the photosynthetic apparatus and subsequent bleaching of leaf colour and necrosis occur faster under high light conditions in the mutants than in wild-type plants. We conclude that chloroplast avoidance movement actually decreases the amount of light absorption by chloroplasts, and might therefore be important to the survival of plants under natural growth conditions.

  3. Learning processes underlying avoidance of negative outcomes.

    PubMed

    Andreatta, Marta; Michelmann, Sebastian; Pauli, Paul; Hewig, Johannes

    2017-04-01

    Successful avoidance of a threatening event may negatively reinforce the behavior due to activation of brain structures involved in reward processing. Here, we further investigated the learning-related properties of avoidance using feedback-related negativity (FRN). The FRN is modulated by violations of an intended outcome (prediction error, PE), that is, the bigger the difference between intended and actual outcome, the larger the FRN amplitude is. Twenty-eight participants underwent an operant conditioning paradigm, in which a behavior (button press) allowed them to avoid a painful electric shock. During two learning blocks, participants could avoid an electric shock in 80% of the trials by pressing one button (avoidance button), or by not pressing another button (punishment button). After learning, participants underwent two test blocks, which were identical to the learning ones except that no shocks were delivered. Participants pressed the avoidance button more often than the punishment button. Importantly, response frequency increased throughout the learning blocks but it did not decrease during the test blocks, indicating impaired extinction and/or habit formation. In line with a PE account, FRN amplitude to negative feedback after correct responses (i.e., unexpected punishment) was significantly larger than to positive feedback (i.e., expected omission of punishment), and it increased throughout the blocks. Highly anxious individuals showed equal FRN amplitudes to negative and positive feedback, suggesting impaired discrimination. These results confirm the role of negative reinforcement in motivating behavior and learning, and reveal important differences between high and low anxious individuals in the processing of prediction errors.

  4. Disgust as an adaptive system for disease avoidance behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Curtis, Valerie; de Barra, Mícheál; Aunger, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Disgust is an evolved psychological system for protecting organisms from infection through disease avoidant behaviour. This ‘behavioural immune system’, present in a diverse array of species, exhibits universal features that orchestrate hygienic behaviour in response to cues of risk of contact with pathogens. However, disgust is also a dynamic adaptive system. Individuals show variation in pathogen avoidance associated with psychological traits like having a neurotic personality, as well as a consequence of being in certain physiological states such as pregnancy or infancy. Three specialized learning mechanisms modify the disgust response: the Garcia effect, evaluative conditioning and the law of contagion. Hygiene behaviour is influenced at the group level through social learning heuristics such as ‘copy the frequent’. Finally, group hygiene is extended symbolically to cultural rules about purity and pollution, which create social separations and are enforced as manners. Cooperative hygiene endeavours such as sanitation also reduce pathogen prevalence. Our model allows us to integrate perspectives from psychology, ecology and cultural evolution with those of epidemiology and anthropology. Understanding the nature of disease avoidance psychology at all levels of human organization can inform the design of programmes to improve public health. PMID:21199843

  5. Principles of obstacle avoidance with a transfemoral prosthetic limb.

    PubMed

    van Keeken, Helco G; Vrieling, Aline H; Hof, At L; Postema, Klaas; Otten, Bert

    2012-10-01

    In this study, conditions that enable a prosthetic knee flexion strategy in transfemoral amputee subjects during obstacle avoidance were investigated. This study explored the hip torque principle and the static ground principle as object avoidance strategies. A prosthetic limb simulator device was used to study the influence of applied hip torques and static ground friction on the prosthetic foot trajectory. Inverse dynamics were used to calculate the energy produced by the hip joint. A two-dimensional forward dynamics model was used to investigate the relation between obstacle-foot distance and the necessary hip torques utilized during obstacle avoidance. The study showed that a prosthetic knee flexion strategy was facilitated by the use of ground friction and by larger active hip torques. This strategy required more energy produced by the hip compared to a knee extension strategy. We conclude that when an amputee maintains enough distance between the distal tip of the foot and the obstacle during stance, he or she produces sufficiently high, yet feasible, hip torques and uses static ground friction, the amputee satisfies the conditions for enable stepping over an obstacle using a knee flexion strategy.

  6. Reproductive efficiency and shade avoidance plasticity under simulated competition.

    PubMed

    Fazlioglu, Fatih; Al-Namazi, Ali; Bonser, Stephen P

    2016-07-01

    Plant strategy and life-history theories make different predictions about reproductive efficiency under competition. While strategy theory suggests under intense competition iteroparous perennial plants delay reproduction and semelparous annuals reproduce quickly, life-history theory predicts both annual and perennial plants increase resource allocation to reproduction under intense competition. We tested (1) how simulated competition influences reproductive efficiency and competitive ability (CA) of different plant life histories and growth forms; (2) whether life history or growth form is associated with CA; (3) whether shade avoidance plasticity is connected to reproductive efficiency under simulated competition. We examined plastic responses of 11 herbaceous species representing different life histories and growth forms to simulated competition (spectral shade). We found that both annual and perennial plants invested more to reproduction under simulated competition in accordance with life-history theory predictions. There was no significant difference between competitive abilities of different life histories, but across growth forms, erect species expressed greater CA (in terms of leaf number) than other growth forms. We also found that shade avoidance plasticity can increase the reproductive efficiency by capitalizing on the early life resource acquisition and conversion of these resources into reproduction. Therefore, we suggest that a reassessment of the interpretation of shade avoidance plasticity is necessary by revealing its role in reproduction, not only in competition of plants.

  7. Integrated Collision Avoidance System for Air Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Ching-Fang (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Collision with ground/water/terrain and midair obstacles is one of the common causes of severe aircraft accidents. The various data from the coremicro AHRS/INS/GPS Integration Unit, terrain data base, and object detection sensors are processed to produce collision warning audio/visual messages and collision detection and avoidance of terrain and obstacles through generation of guidance commands in a closed-loop system. The vision sensors provide more information for the Integrated System, such as, terrain recognition and ranging of terrain and obstacles, which plays an important role to the improvement of the Integrated Collision Avoidance System.

  8. Autonomous Landing and Hazard Avoidance Technology (ALHAT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Epp, Chirold

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the work towards technology that will result in an autonomous landing on the lunar surface, that will avoid the hazards of lunar landing. In October 2005, the Exploration Systems Mission Directorate at NASA Headquarters assigned the development of new technologies to support the return to the moon. One of these was Autonomous Precision Landing and Hazard Detection and Avoidance Technology now known as ALHAT ALHAT is a lunar descent and landing GNC technology development project led by Johnson Space Center (JSC) with team members from Langley Research Center (LaRC), Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), Draper Laboratories (CSDL) and the Applied Physics Laboratory (APL)

  9. Telerobotics with whole arm collision avoidance

    SciTech Connect

    Wilhelmsen, K.; Strenn, S.

    1993-09-01

    The complexity of teleorbotic operations in a cluttered environment is exacerbated by the need to present collision information to the operator in an understandable fashion. In addition to preventing movements which will cause collisions, a system providing some form of virtual force reflection (VFR) is desirable. With this goal in mind, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has installed a kinematically master/slave system and developed a whole arm collision avoidance system which interacts directly with the telerobotic controller. LLNL has also provided a structure to allow for automated upgrades of workcell models and provide collision avoidance even in a dynamically changing workcell.

  10. Stress Generation, Avoidance Coping, and Depressive Symptoms: A 10-Year Model

    PubMed Central

    Holahan, Charles J.; Moos, Rudolf H.; Holahan, Carole K.; Brennan, Penny L.; Schutte, Kathleen K.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined (a) the role of avoidance coping in prospectively generating both chronic and acute life stressors and (b) the stress-generating role of avoidance coping as a prospective link to future depressive symptoms. Participants were 1,211 late-middle-aged individuals (500 women and 711 men) assessed 3 times over a 10-year period. As predicted, baseline avoidance coping was prospectively associated with both more chronic and more acute life stressors 4 years later. Furthermore, as predicted, these intervening life stressors linked baseline avoidance coping and depressive symptoms 10 years later, controlling for the influence of initial depressive symptoms. These findings broaden knowledge about the stress-generation process and elucidate a key mechanism through which avoidance coping is linked to depressive symptoms. PMID:16173853

  11. Development of a Measure of Experiential Avoidance: The Multidimensional Experiential Avoidance Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gamez, Wakiza; Chmielewski, Michael; Kotov, Roman; Ruggero, Camilo; Watson, David

    2011-01-01

    Experiential avoidance (EA) has been conceptualized as the tendency to avoid negative internal experiences and is an important concept in numerous conceptualizations of psychopathology as well as theories of psychotherapy. Existing measures of EA have either been narrowly defined or demonstrated unsatisfactory internal consistency and/or evidence…

  12. Flight Test Evaluation of AVOID II. (Avionic Observation of Intruder Danger) Collision Avoidance System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-10-13

    31 General Operation Tests ........................................ 31 Altitude Boundary and Altit~ude Discrimination ...Summary ............................... 57 Altitude Zone Discrimination .................................... 61 AVOID I - AVOID II COMPI.TIBILITY...Figure 16. Commad Display Logic. - 33 - NADC-76141 -60 4 ALTITUDE BOUNDARIES AND ALTITUDE DISCRIMINATION TESTS The main objective of these encounters

  13. Pathological Demand Avoidance: Exploring the Behavioural Profile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Nions, Elizabeth; Viding, Essi; Greven, Corina U; Ronald, Angelica; Happé, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    "Pathological Demand Avoidance" is a term increasingly used by practitioners in the United Kingdom. It was coined to describe a profile of obsessive resistance to everyday demands and requests, with a tendency to resort to "socially manipulative" behaviour, including outrageous or embarrassing acts. Pathological demand…

  14. 47 CFR 74.604 - Interference avoidance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Stations § 74.604 Interference avoidance. (a) (b) Where two or more licensees are assigned a common channel..., including time sharing arrangements, to assure an equitable distribution of available frequencies. (c) For those interference disputes brought to the Commission for resolution, TV broadcast auxiliary...

  15. Perspectives in avoidance-preference bioassays

    SciTech Connect

    Steele, C.W.; Taylor, D.H.; Strickler-Shaw, S.

    1996-12-31

    Although behavioral endpoints are used in hazard assessment, establishment of water quality criteria and assessment of a contaminant`s hazard to aquatic life rely primarily on standard acute and chronic toxicity tests. Sublethal effects of pollutants should, however, be of major concern because more organisms experience sublethal rather than acutely or chronically lethal exposures of contaminants. The avoidance-preference approach to behavioral bioassays is very useful in screening pollutants for which the mechanisms of perception or response are largely unknown. The underlying philosophy of these studies is that an animal which perceives a chemical can be attracted or repulsed by it. No response is frequently assumed to indicate lack of perception. All three responses have broad ecological implications. The authors discuss the conditions required for performing avoidance-preference bioassays, as well as their sensitivities, advantages, and limitations. In this regard, a comparative approach is used in examining the results of avoidance-preference bioassays with zebrafish in two different apparatuses. Finally, they compare the results of avoidance-preference studies with other measures of the behavioral toxicity of lead to tadpoles.

  16. Social Work Education and Avoidable Ignorance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gambrill, Eileen

    2014-01-01

    The quality of professional education affects the quality of services offered to clients. Examples of avoidable ignorance that dilute the quality of education social workers receive are suggested, indicating that we have not been honest and energetic brokers of knowledge and ignorance. Related reasons are suggested, including a reluctance to take…

  17. Disgust as a Disease-Avoidance Mechanism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oaten, Megan; Stevenson, Richard J.; Case, Trevor I.

    2009-01-01

    Many researchers have claimed that the emotion of disgust functions to protect us from disease. Although there have been several discussions of this hypothesis, none have yet reviewed the evidence in its entirety. The authors derive 14 hypotheses from a disease-avoidance account and evaluate the evidence for each, drawing upon research on pathogen…

  18. Teaching Preschool Children to Avoid Poison Hazards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dancho, Kelly A.; Thompson, Rachel H.; Rhoades, Melissa M.

    2008-01-01

    We evaluated the effectiveness of group safety training and in situ feedback and response interruption to teach preschool children to avoid consuming potentially hazardous substances. Three children ingested ambiguous substances during a baited baseline assessment condition and continued to ingest these substances following group safety training.…

  19. Freeze tolerance and avoidance in plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cold acclimation is a multigenic, quantitative trait that involves biochemical and structural changes that effect the physiology of a plant. Mechanisms associated with freeze tolerance or freeze avoidance develop and are lost on an annual cycle. When conducting studies to characterize and determin...

  20. Specific Language Impairment at Adolescence: Avoiding Complexity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuller, Laurice; Henry, Celia; Sizaret, Eva; Barthez, Marie-Anne

    2012-01-01

    This study explores complex language in adolescents with specific language impairment (SLI) with the aim of finding out how aspects of language characteristic of typical syntactic development after childhood fare and, in particular, whether there is evidence that individuals with SLI avoid using structures whose syntactic derivation involves…

  1. Pathogen evolution under host avoidance plasticity.

    PubMed

    McLeod, David V; Day, Troy

    2015-09-07

    Host resistance consists of defences that limit pathogen burden, and can be classified as either adaptations targeting recovery from infection or those focused upon infection avoidance. Conventional theory treats avoidance as a fixed strategy which does not vary from one interaction to the next. However, there is increasing empirical evidence that many avoidance strategies are triggered by external stimuli, and thus should be treated as phenotypically plastic responses. Here, we consider the implications of avoidance plasticity for host-pathogen coevolution. We uncover a number of predictions challenging current theory. First, in the absence of pathogen trade-offs, plasticity can restrain pathogen evolution; moreover, the pathogen exploits conditions in which the host would otherwise invest less in resistance, causing resistance escalation. Second, when transmission trades off with pathogen-induced mortality, plasticity encourages avirulence, resulting in a superior fitness outcome for both host and pathogen. Third, plasticity ensures the sterilizing effect of pathogens has consequences for pathogen evolution. When pathogens castrate hosts, selection forces them to minimize mortality virulence; moreover, when transmission trades off with sterility alone, resistance plasticity is sufficient to prevent pathogens from evolving to fully castrate.

  2. Doppler micro sense and avoid radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorwara, Ashok; Molchanov, Pavlo; Asmolova, Olga

    2015-10-01

    There is a need for small Sense and Avoid (SAA) systems for small and micro Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) to avoid collisions with obstacles and other aircraft. The proposed SAA systems will give drones the ability to "see" close up and give them the agility to maneuver through tight areas. Doppler radar is proposed for use in this sense and avoid system because in contrast to optical or infrared (IR) systems Doppler can work in more harsh conditions such as at dusk, and in rain and snow. And in contrast to ultrasound based systems, Doppler can better sense small sized obstacles such as wires and it can provide a sensing range from a few inches to several miles. An SAA systems comprised of Doppler radar modules and an array of directional antennas that are distributed around the perimeter of the drone can cover the entire sky. These modules are designed so that they can provide the direction to the obstacle and simultaneously generate an alarm signal if the obstacle enters within the SAA system's adjustable "Protection Border". The alarm signal alerts the drone's autopilot to automatically initiate an avoidance maneuver. A series of Doppler radar modules with different ranges, angles of view and transmitting power have been designed for drones of different sizes and applications. The proposed Doppler radar micro SAA system has simple circuitry, works from a 5 volt source and has low power consumption. It is light weight, inexpensive and it can be used for a variety of small unmanned aircraft.

  3. Organising European technical documentation to avoid duplication.

    PubMed

    Donawa, Maria

    2006-04-01

    The development of comprehensive accurate and well-organised technical documentation that demonstrates compliance with regulatory requirements is a resource-intensive, but critically important activity for medical device manufacturers. This article discusses guidance documents and method of organising technical documentation that may help avoid costly and time-consuming duplication.

  4. The Advocacy or Avoidance of Only Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falbo, Toni

    A brief review of the psychological literature on the characteristics of only children is presented in order to determine if the one-child family should be avoided or advocated. The relevant literature is found to be limited in quantity and conceptualization of the only child. Previous literature is divided into three types of study: those with…

  5. Learn to Avoid or Overcome Leadership Obstacles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Auria, John

    2015-01-01

    Leadership is increasingly recognized as an important factor in moving schools forward, yet we have been relatively random in how we prepare and support them. Four obstacles often block or diminish their effectiveness. Avoiding or overcoming each of these requires an underlying set of skills and knowledge that we believe can be learned and…

  6. An Examination of Avoided Costs in Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan

    2005-01-07

    The Utah Wind Working Group (UWWG) believes there are currently opportunities to encourage wind power development in the state by seeking changes to the avoided cost tariff paid to qualifying facilities (QFs). These opportunities have arisen as a result of a recent renegotiation of Pacificorp's Schedule 37 tariff for wind QFs under 3 MW, as well as an ongoing examination of Pacificorp's Schedule 38 tariff for wind QFs larger than 3 MW. It is expected that decisions made regarding Schedule 38 will also impact Schedule 37. Through the Laboratory Technical Assistance Program (Lab TAP), the UWWG has requested (through the Utah Energy Office) that LBNL provide technical assistance in determining whether an alternative method of calculating avoided costs that has been officially adopted in Idaho would lead to higher QF payments in Utah, and to discuss the pros and cons of this method relative to the methodology recently adopted under Schedule 37 in Utah. To accomplish this scope of work, I begin by summarizing the current method of calculating avoided costs in Utah (per Schedule 37) and Idaho (the ''surrogate avoided resource'' or SAR method). I then compare the two methods both qualitatively and quantitatively. Next I present Pacificorp's four main objections to the use of the SAR method, and discuss the reasonableness of each objection. Finally, I conclude with a few other potential considerations that might add value to wind QFs in Utah.

  7. Avoiding Mathematics Trauma: Alternative Teaching Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ufuktepe, Unal; Ozel, Claire Thomas

    Children in primary education often encounter mathematics having picked up a general fear of mathematics from the society around them. This results in lack of confidence, avoidance of non-standard thought processes, weakness in problem solving strategies, and other negative consequences. This study offers an alternative approach: presenting…

  8. Affordable MMW aircraft collision avoidance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almsted, Larry D.; Becker, Robert C.; Zelenka, Richard E.

    1997-06-01

    Collision avoidance is of concern to all aircraft, requiring the detection and identification of hazardous terrain or obstacles in sufficient time for clearance maneuvers. The collision avoidance requirement is even more demanding for helicopters, as their unique capabilities result in extensive operations at low-altitude, near to terrain and other hazardous obstacles. TO augment the pilot's visual collision avoidance abilities, some aircraft are equipped with 'enhanced-vision' systems or terrain collision warning systems. Enhanced-vision systems are typically very large and costly systems that are not very covert and are also difficult to install in a helicopter. The display is typically raw images from infrared or radar sensors, and can require a high degree of pilot interpretation and attention. Terrain collision warning system that rely on stored terrain maps are often of low resolution and accuracy and do not represent hazards to the aircraft placed after map sampling. Such hazards could include aircraft parked on runway, man- made towers or buildings and hills. In this paper, a low cost dual-function scanning pencil-beam, millimeter-wave radar forward sensor is used to determine whether an aircraft's flight path is clear of obstructions. Due to the limited space and weight budget in helicopters, the system is a dual function system that is substituted in place of the existing radar altimeter. The system combines a 35 GHz forward looking obstacle avoidance radar and a 4.3 GHz radar altimeter. The forward looking 35 GHz 3D radar's returns are used to construct a terrain and obstruction database surrounding an aircraft, which is presented to the pilot as a synthetic perspective display. The 35 GHz forward looking radar and the associated display was evaluated in a joint NASA Honeywell flight test program in 1996. The tests were conducted on a NASA/Army test helicopter. The test program clearly demonstrated the systems potential usefulness for collision avoidance.

  9. [Avoidance of patient-prosthesis mismatch].

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Y; Hashimoto, K

    2006-04-01

    To minimize the incidence of patient-prosthesis mismatch (PPM), we have routinely adopted aortic root enlargement to avoid PPM for patients with small aortic annulus. The aim of this study was to review our strategy of avoiding PPM. The Carpentier-Edwards Perimount (CEP) valves were implanted in 53 patients who were mostly aged over 65 and the St. Jude Medical (SJM) mechanical valves were used in 128 patients aged under 65. A standard 21-mm SJM valve was used in only 3 patients and no 19-mm valves were employed. However, 19-mm CEP valves were used in 12 patients with a small body surface area (1.43 +/- 0.14 m2). Of these, 26 patients (14.4%) who had a small aortic annulus and 24 patients aged under 65 underwent aortic root enlargement. No patient receiving an SJM valve had an projected indexed effective orifice area (EOAI) < or = 0.85 cm2/m2 because of performing aortic valve replacement (AVR) with annular enlargement and only 2 (3.8%) out of 53 patients receiving CEP valves developed PPM. Consequently, the prevalence of PPM was 1.1% in this series. The prevalence of PPM was low in patients over 65 years old with a relatively small body size who received bioprosthetic valves. A pericardial bioprosthesis was considered to be an appropriate valve in older population with regard to avoiding PPM. In patients under 65 years old with a small annulus, the first choice for avoiding PPM is aortic annular enlargement, which may be avoided by high performance mechanical valves with larger EOA.

  10. Interrelationships Among Three Avoidant Coping Styles and Their Relationship to Trauma, Peritraumatic Distress, and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.

    PubMed

    Hetzel-Riggin, Melanie D; Meads, Christina L

    2016-02-01

    Research suggests the existence of distinct avoidant coping mechanisms after trauma: peritraumatic dissociation, secondary alexithymia, and experiential avoidance. Within the Emotional Processing Model (Foa and Kozak, Psychol Bull. 99:20-35, 1986), research suggests that each of these avoidant coping mechanisms comes into play at a different phase of traumatic stress development. The present study sought to confirm if these three avoidant coping mechanisms are different constructs and how they relate to each other and the experience of trauma, peritraumatic distress, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). A total of 227 participants with a trauma history completed measures on trauma experience, peritraumatic distress, peritraumatic dissociation, secondary alexithymia, experiential avoidance, and PTSD. Structural equation modeling confirmed that peritraumatic dissociation, secondary alexithymia, and experiential avoidance influence different phases of the development of traumatic stress problems. These results also confirm that the Emotional Process Model provides a good context for understanding the interrelationships among the avoidant coping mechanisms.

  11. Pediatric fear-avoidance model of chronic pain: Foundation, application and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Asmundson, Gordon JG; Noel, Melanie; Petter, Mark; Parkerson, Holly A

    2012-01-01

    The fear-avoidance model of chronic musculoskeletal pain has become an increasingly popular conceptualization of the processes and mechanisms through which acute pain can become chronic. Despite rapidly growing interest and research regarding the influence of fear-avoidance constructs on pain-related disability in children and adolescents, there have been no amendments to the model to account for unique aspects of pediatric chronic pain. A comprehensive understanding of the role of fear-avoidance in pediatric chronic pain necessitates understanding of both child/adolescent and parent factors implicated in its development and maintenance. The primary purpose of the present article is to propose an empirically-based pediatric fear-avoidance model of chronic pain that accounts for both child/adolescent and parent factors as well as their potential interactive effects. To accomplish this goal, the present article will define important fear-avoidance constructs, provide a summary of the general fear-avoidance model and review the growing empirical literature regarding the role of fear-avoidance constructs in pediatric chronic pain. Assessment and treatment options for children with chronic pain will also be described in the context of the proposed pediatric fear-avoidance model of chronic pain. Finally, avenues for future investigation will be proposed. PMID:23248813

  12. GEO Collision Avoidance using a Service Vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duncan, M.; Concha, M.

    2013-09-01

    Space Situational Awareness (SSA) is defined as the knowledge and characterization of all aspects of space. SSA is now a fundamental and critical component of space operations. The increased dependence on our space assets has in turn lead to a greater need for accurate, near real-time knowledge of all space activities. Key areas of SSA include improved tracking of small objects, determining the intent of maneuvering spacecraft, identifying all potential high risk conjunction events, and leveraging non-traditional sensors in support of the SSA mission. As the size of the space object population grows, the number of collision avoidance maneuvers grows. Moreover, as the SSA mission evolves to near real-time assessment and analysis, the need for new, more sophisticated collision avoidance methods are required. This paper demonstrates the utility of using a service vehicle to perform collision avoidance maneuver for GEO satellites. We present the planning and execution details required to successfully execute a maneuver; given the traditional conjunction analysis timelines. Various operational constraints and scenarios are considered as part of the demonstration. Development of the collision avoidance strategy is created using SpaceNav's collision risk management tool suite. This study aims to determine the agility required of any proposed servicing capability to provide collision avoidance within traditional conjunction analysis and collision avoidance operations timelines. Key trades and analysis items are given to be: 1. How do we fuse the spacecraft state data with the tracking data collected from the proximity sensor that resides on the servicing spacecraft? 2. How do we deal with the possibility that the collision threat for the event may change as the time to close approach is reduced? 3. Perform trade space of maneuver/thrust time versus achievable change in the spacecraft's orbit. 4. Perform trade space of proximity of service vehicle to spacecraft versus time

  13. Converging evidence of social avoidant behavior in schizophrenia from two approach-avoidance tasks.

    PubMed

    de la Asuncion, Javier; Docx, Lise; Sabbe, Bernard; Morrens, Manuel; de Bruijn, Ellen R A

    2015-10-01

    Many people with schizophrenia suffer from social impairments characterized by active social avoidance, which is related to social phobia common in schizophrenia, while motivational impairments can also result in passive social withdrawal. Although social avoidance is frequently reported in this population, this is the first study to directly compare approach-avoidance tendencies in schizophrenia patients (N = 37) and healthy controls (N = 29). Participants performed two tasks: a computerized approach-avoidance task (AAT) to assess response tendencies toward images of happy and angry faces with direct or averted gaze and a one-to-one personal space test (PST) to gauge more naturalistic approach-avoidance behaviors toward a real person bearing a neutral expression. The AAT results showed that both groups showed faster avoidance responses to angry faces and faster approach responses to happy faces with a direct gaze. Happy faces with averted gaze, however, resulted in faster avoidance responses in the patient group only. On the PST, the patients approached the experimenter less than healthy controls did. This measure of interpersonal distance was positively related to positive symptom severity. Delusions of reference and increased sensitivity to social rejection may explain the patients' avoidance tendencies in response to pictures of happy faces with averted gaze and in the presence of an actual person. The current findings demonstrate the importance of others adopting positive and unambiguous attitudes when interacting with schizophrenia patients to minimize behavioral avoidance patterns, which is particularly relevant for relatives and clinicians whose interactions with the patients are crucial to facilitating treatment and promoting healthy social relationships.

  14. The Feasibility of Avoiding Future Climate Impacts: Results from the AVOID Programmes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowe, J. A.; Warren, R.; Arnell, N.; Buckle, S.

    2014-12-01

    The AVOID programme and its successor, AVOID2, have focused on answering three core questions: how do we characterise potentially dangerous climate change and impacts, which emissions pathways can avoid at least some of these impacts, and how feasible are the future reductions needed to significantly deviate from a business-as-usual future emissions pathway. The first AVOID project succeeded in providing the UK Government with evidence to inform its position on climate change. A key part of the work involved developing a range of global emissions pathways and estimating and understanding the corresponding global impacts. This made use of a combination of complex general circulation models, simple climate models, pattern-scaling and state-of-the art impacts models. The results characterise the range of avoidable impacts across the globe in several key sectors including river and coastal flooding, cooling and heating energy demand, crop productivity and aspects of biodiversity. The avoided impacts between a scenario compatible with a 4ºC global warming and one with a 2ºC global warming were found to be highly sector dependent and avoided fractions typically ranged between 20% and 70%. A further key aspect was characterising the magnitude of the uncertainty involved, which is found to be very large in some impact sectors although the avoided fraction appears a more robust metric. The AVOID2 programme began in 2014 and will provide results in the run up to the Paris CoP in 2015. This includes new post-IPCC 5th assessment evidence to inform the long-term climate goal, a more comprehensive assessment of the uncertainty ranges of feasible emission pathways compatible with the long-term goal and enhanced estimates of global impacts using the latest generation of impact models and scenarios.

  15. Contribution of Social and Information-Processing Factors to Eye-Gaze Avoidance in Fragile X Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Melissa M.; Abbeduto, Leonard; Schroeder, Susan; Serlin, Ronald

    2007-01-01

    The influence of social and information-processing demands on eye-gaze avoidance in individuals with fragile X syndrome, Down syndrome, or typical development were examined by manipulating those demands in a structured-language task. Participants with fragile X syndrome exhibited more gaze avoidance than did those in the comparison groups, but no…

  16. UV impacts avoided by the Montreal Protocol.

    PubMed

    Newman, Paul A; McKenzie, Richard

    2011-07-01

    Temporal and geographical variabilities in the future "world expected" UV environment are compared with the "world avoided", which would have occurred without the Montreal Protocol on Substances That Deplete the Ozone Layer and its subsequent amendments and adjustments. Based on calculations of clear-sky UV irradiances, the effects of the Montreal Protocol have been hugely beneficial to avoid the health risks, such as skin cancer, which are associated with high UV, while there is only a small increase in health risks, such as vitamin D deficiency, that are associated with low UV. However, interactions with climate change may lead to changes in cloud and albedo, and possibly behavioural changes that could also be important.

  17. UV Impacts Avoided by the Montreal Protocol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, Paul; McKenzie, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Temporal and geographical variabilities in the future "World Expected" UV environment are compared with the "World Avoided", which would have occurred without the Montreal Protocol on protection of the ozone layer and its subsequent amendments and adjustments. Based on calculations of clear-sky UV irradiances, the effects of the Montreal Protocol have been hugely beneficial to avoid the health risks, such as skin cancer, which are associated with high UV, while there is only a small increase in health risks, such as vitamin D deficiency, that are associated with low UV. However, interactions with climate change may lead to changes in cloud and albedo, and possibly behavioural changes which could also be important.

  18. How to avoid deferred-compensation troubles.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Todd I

    2005-06-01

    Executive compensation packages have long included stock options and deferred compensation plans in order to compete for talent. Last year, Congress passed a law in response to the Enron debacle, in which executives were perceived to be protecting their deferred compensation at the expense of employees, creditors, and investors. The new law is designed to protect companies and their shareholders from being raided by the very executives that guided the company to financial ruin. Physicians who are part owners of medical practices need to know about the changes in the law regarding deferred compensation and how to avoid costly tax penalties. This article discusses how the changes affect medical practices as well as steps physician-owned clinics can take to avoid the risk of penalty, such as freezing deferred compensation and creating a new deferred compensation plan.

  19. Threat detection system for intersection collision avoidance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jocoy, Edward H.; Pierowicz, John A.

    1998-01-01

    Calspan SRL Corporation is currently developing an on- vehicle threat detection system for intersection collision avoidance (ICA) as part of its ICA program with the National Highway Transportation Safety Administration. Crash scenarios were previously defined and an on-board radar sensor was designed. This paper describes recent efforts that include the development of a simulation of a multitarget tracker and collision avoidance algorithm used to predict system performance in a variety of target configurations in the various ICA crash scenarios. In addition, a current headway radar was mounted on the Calspan Instrumented Vehicle and in-traffic data were recorded for two limited crash scenarios. Warning functions were developed through the simulation and applied to the recorded data.

  20. Avoiding the money saving rate increase

    SciTech Connect

    Streiter, S.H.

    1982-06-24

    This is the last in a series of three articles discussing problems for utilities that arise in connection with inflation-swollen capital-investment costs. The first dealt with the problem of front-end loading of charges on capital projects and proposed a way of appreciating new plant at the rate of inflation and earning on the appreciated rate base in later years. The second examined methods of arranging the financing of new plant projects to avoid the incurrence of losses in their early years if the rate base is trended as recommended. This article addresses the question of how to avoid the necessity of a rate increase when placing into service new capital equipment whose purpose was to save ratepayers money. The outcome should be a new regulation on accounting. 2 tables.

  1. Avoidance as expectancy in rats: sex and strain differences in acquisition

    PubMed Central

    Avcu, Pelin; Jiao, Xilu; Myers, Catherine E.; Beck, Kevin D.; Pang, Kevin C. H.; Servatius, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    Avoidance is a core feature of anxiety disorders and factors which increase avoidance expression or its resistance represent a source of vulnerability for anxiety disorders. Outbred female Sprague Dawley (SD) rats and inbred male and female Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats expressing behaviorally inhibited (BI) temperament learn avoidance faster than male SD rats. The training protocol used in these studies had a longstanding interpretive flaw: a lever-press had two outcomes, termination of the warning signal (WS) and prevention of foot shock. To disambiguate between these two explanations, we conducted an experiment in which: (a) a lever-press terminated the WS and prevented shock, and (b) a lever-press only prevented shock, but did not influence the duration of the WS. Thus, a 2 × 2 × 2 (Strain × Sex × Training) design was employed to assess the degree to which the response contingency of the WS termination influenced acquisition. Male and female SD and WKY rats were matched on acoustic startle reactivity within strain and sex and randomly assigned to the training procedures. In addition, we assessed whether the degree of avoidance acquisition affected estrus cycling in female rats. Consistent with earlier work, avoidance performance of female rats was generally superior to males and WKY rats were superior to SD rats. Moreover, female SD and male WKY rats were roughly equivalent. Female sex and BI temperament were confirmed as vulnerability factors in faster acquisition of avoidance behavior. Avoidance acquisition disrupted estrus cycling with female WKY rats recovering faster than female SD rats. Although termination of the WS appears to be reinforcing, male and female WKY rats still achieved a high degree (greater than 80% asymptotic performance) of avoidance in the absence of the WS termination contingency. Such disambiguation will facilitate determination of the neurobiological basis for avoidance learning and its extinction. PMID:25339874

  2. Airborne Collision Detection and Avoidance for Small UAS Sense and Avoid Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahawneh, Laith Rasmi

    The increasing demand to integrate unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) into the national airspace is motivated by the rapid growth of the UAS industry, especially small UAS weighing less than 55 pounds. Their use however has been limited by the Federal Aviation Administration regulations due to collision risk they pose, safety and regulatory concerns. Therefore, before civil aviation authorities can approve routine UAS flight operations, UAS must be equipped with sense-and-avoid technology comparable to the see-and-avoid requirements for manned aircraft. The sense-and-avoid problem includes several important aspects including regulatory and system-level requirements, design specifications and performance standards, intruder detecting and tracking, collision risk assessment, and finally path planning and collision avoidance. In this dissertation, our primary focus is on developing an collision detection, risk assessment and avoidance framework that is computationally affordable and suitable to run on-board small UAS. To begin with, we address the minimum sensing range for the sense-and-avoid (SAA) system. We present an approximate close form analytical solution to compute the minimum sensing range to safely avoid an imminent collision. The approach is then demonstrated using a radar sensor prototype that achieves the required minimum sensing range. In the area of collision risk assessment and collision prediction, we present two approaches to estimate the collision risk of an encounter scenario. The first is a deterministic approach similar to those been developed for Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance (TCAS) in manned aviation. We extend the approach to account for uncertainties of state estimates by deriving an analytic expression to propagate the error variance using Taylor series approximation. To address unanticipated intruders maneuvers, we propose an innovative probabilistic approach to quantify likely intruder trajectories and estimate the probability of

  3. Shaping avoidance behavior in restrained monkeys.

    PubMed

    Lockard, J S

    1969-07-01

    Lever-pulling avoidance behavior of 24 monkeys was actively shaped with a manual shock-control box and a closed-circuit TV system. A negative reinforcement procedure was used wherein a periodically occurring body shock was postponed each time the subject moved toward the lever. All subjects were trainable with this method, two-thirds of them in fewer than five, 1- to 2-hr sessions. Negative reinforcement was more effective than a punishment procedure.

  4. ALHAT: Autonomous Landing and Hazard Avoidance Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, Edward A.; Carson, John M., III

    2015-01-01

    The ALHAT project was chartered by NASA HQ in 2006 to develop and mature to TRL 6 an autonomous lunar landing GN&C and sensing system for crewed, cargo, and robotic planetary landing vehicles. The multi-center ALHAT team was tasked with providing a system capable of identifying and avoiding surface hazards in real time to enable safe precision landing to within tens of meters of a designated planetary landing site under any lighting conditions.

  5. Prevention and avoidance of congenital malformations.

    PubMed

    Nevin, N C

    1988-06-15

    Many congenital abnormalities do not have either a Mendelian pattern of inheritance or an identifiable chromosome abnormality and are described as 'multifactorial' as it is assumed they are determined by several genes, each with added effects and modified to a greater or lesser extent by environmental factors. They include spina bifida and anencephaly, cleft lip or cleft palate or both, congenital heart defect and congenital dislocation of the hip, and they constitute a major community health problem. Developments in genetics, biochemistry and cytogenetics have presented new approaches to the prevention and avoidance of congenital abnormalities. The approaches available for the avoidance of congenital malformations include the avoidance of harmful environmental factors, the screening of the newborn and early treatment, genetic counselling and antenatal monitoring with selective termination. The prevention of neural-tube defects in 'high risk' mothers can be achieved by periconceptional vitamin supplementation. In Northern Ireland, of 438 fully supplemented women, only 4 (0.98%) infants or fetuses among 407 infants and fetuses examined had a neural-tube defect, whereas of 356 unsupplemented women, 16 (4.7%) infants or fetuses among 337 infants or fetuses examined had a neural-tube defect.

  6. Traffic jam driving with NMV avoidance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milanés, Vicente; Alonso, Luciano; Villagrá, Jorge; Godoy, Jorge; de Pedro, Teresa; Oria, Juan P.

    2012-08-01

    In recent years, the development of advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) - mainly based on lidar and cameras - has considerably improved the safety of driving in urban environments. These systems provide warning signals for the driver in the case that any unexpected traffic circumstance is detected. The next step is to develop systems capable not only of warning the driver but also of taking over control of the car to avoid a potential collision. In the present communication, a system capable of autonomously avoiding collisions in traffic jam situations is presented. First, a perception system was developed for urban situations—in which not only vehicles have to be considered, but also pedestrians and other non-motor-vehicles (NMV). It comprises a differential global positioning system (DGPS) and wireless communication for vehicle detection, and an ultrasound sensor for NMV detection. Then, the vehicle's actuators - brake and throttle pedals - were modified to permit autonomous control. Finally, a fuzzy logic controller was implemented capable of analyzing the information provided by the perception system and of sending control commands to the vehicle's actuators so as to avoid accidents. The feasibility of the integrated system was tested by mounting it in a commercial vehicle, with the results being encouraging.

  7. Knowing and Avoiding Plagiarism During Scientific Writing

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, P Mohan; Priya, N Swapna; Musalaiah, SVVS; Nagasree, M

    2014-01-01

    Plagiarism has become more common in both dental and medical communities. Most of the writers do not know that plagiarism is a serious problem. Plagiarism can range from simple dishonesty (minor copy paste/any discrepancy) to a more serious problem (major discrepancy/duplication of manuscript) when the authors do cut-copy-paste from the original source without giving adequate credit to the main source. When we search databases like PubMed/MedLine there is a lot of information regarding plagiarism. However, it is still a current topic of interest to all the researchers to know how to avoid plagiarism. It's time to every young researcher to know ethical guidelines while writing any scientific publications. By using one's own ideas, we can write the paper completely without looking at the original source. Specific words from the source can be added by using quotations and citing them which can help in not only supporting your work and amplifying ideas but also avoids plagiarism. It is compulsory to all the authors, reviewers and editors of all the scientific journals to know about the plagiarism and how to avoid it by following ethical guidelines and use of plagiarism detection software while scientific writing. PMID:25364588

  8. Acute carbon dioxide avoidance in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Hallem, Elissa A.; Sternberg, Paul W.

    2008-01-01

    Carbon dioxide is produced as a by-product of cellular respiration by all aerobic organisms and thus serves for many animals as an important indicator of food, mates, and predators. However, whether free-living terrestrial nematodes such as Caenorhabditis elegans respond to CO2 was unclear. We have demonstrated that adult C. elegans display an acute avoidance response upon exposure to CO2 that is characterized by the cessation of forward movement and the rapid initiation of backward movement. This response is mediated by a cGMP signaling pathway that includes the cGMP-gated heteromeric channel TAX-2/TAX-4. CO2 avoidance is modulated by multiple signaling molecules, including the neuropeptide Y receptor NPR-1 and the calcineurin subunits TAX-6 and CNB-1. Nutritional status also modulates CO2 responsiveness via the insulin and TGFβ signaling pathways. CO2 response is mediated by a neural circuit that includes the BAG neurons, a pair of sensory neurons of previously unknown function. TAX-2/TAX-4 function in the BAG neurons to mediate acute CO2 avoidance. Our results demonstrate that C. elegans senses and responds to CO2 using multiple signaling pathways and a neural network that includes the BAG neurons and that this response is modulated by the physiological state of the worm. PMID:18524955

  9. Avoiding unseen obstacles: Subcortical vision is not sufficient to maintain normal obstacle avoidance behaviour during reaching.

    PubMed

    Ross, Alasdair I; Schenk, Thomas; Billino, Jutta; Macleod, Mary J; Hesse, Constanze

    2016-10-03

    Previous research found that a patient with cortical blindness (homonymous hemianopia) was able to successfully avoid an obstacle placed in his blind field, despite reporting no conscious awareness of it [Striemer, C. L., Chapman, C. S., & Goodale, M. A., 2009, PNAS, 106(37), 15996-16001]. This finding led to the suggestion that dorsal stream areas, that are assumed to mediate obstacle avoidance behaviour, may obtain their visual input primarily from subcortical pathways. Hence, it was suggested that normal obstacle avoidance behaviour can proceed without input from the primary visual cortex. Here we tried to replicate this finding in a group of patients (N = 6) that suffered from highly circumscribed lesions in the occipital lobe (including V1) that spared the subcortical structures that have been associated with action-blindsight. We also tested if obstacle avoidance behaviour differs depending on whether obstacles are placed only in the blind field or in both the blind and intact visual field of the patients simultaneously. As expected, all patients successfully avoided obstacles placed in their intact visual field. However, none of them showed reliable avoidance behaviour - as indicated by adjustments in the hand trajectory in response to obstacle position - for obstacles placed in their blind visual field. The effects were not dependent on whether one or two obstacles were present. These findings suggest that behaviour in complex visuomotor tasks relies on visual input from occipital areas.

  10. Spatial interactions between sympatric carnivores: asymmetric avoidance of an intraguild predator

    PubMed Central

    Grassel, Shaun M; Rachlow, Janet L; Williams, Christopher J

    2015-01-01

    Interactions between intraguild species that act as both competitors and predator–prey can be especially complex. We studied patterns of space use by the black-footed ferret (Mustela nigripes), a prairie dog (Cynomys spp.) specialist, and the American badger (Taxidea taxus), a larger generalist carnivore that competes for prairie dogs and is known to kill ferrets. We expected that ferrets would spatially avoid badgers because of the risk of predation, that these patterns of avoidance might differ between sexes and age classes, and that the availability of food and space might influence these relationships. We used location data from 60 ferrets and 15 badgers to model the influence of extrinsic factors (prairie dog density and colony size) and intrinsic factors (sex, age) on patterns of space use by ferrets in relation to space use by different sex and age categories of badgers. We documented asymmetric patterns of avoidance of badgers by ferrets based on the sex of both species. Female ferrets avoided adult female badgers, but not male badgers, and male ferrets exhibited less avoidance than female ferrets. Additionally, avoidance decreased with increasing densities of prairie dogs. We suggest that intersexual differences in space use by badgers create varying distributions of predation risk that are perceived by the smaller carnivore (ferrets) and that females respond more sensitively than males to that risk. This work advances understanding about how competing species coexist and suggests that including information on both intrinsic and extrinsic factors might improve our understanding of behavioral interactions between sympatric species. PMID:26306165

  11. Lunar Landing Trajectory Design for Onboard Hazard Detection and Avoidance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paschall, Steve; Brady, Tye; Sostaric, Ron

    2009-01-01

    The Autonomous Landing and Hazard Avoidance Technology (ALHAT) Project is developing the software and hardware technology needed to support a safe and precise landing for the next generation of lunar missions. ALHAT provides this capability through terrain-relative navigation measurements to enhance global-scale precision, an onboard hazard detection system to select safe landing locations, and an Autonomous Guidance, Navigation, and Control (AGNC) capability to process these measurements and safely direct the vehicle to a landing location. This paper focuses on the key trajectory design issues relevant to providing an onboard Hazard Detection and Avoidance (HDA) capability for the lander. Hazard detection can be accomplished by the crew visually scanning the terrain through a window, a sensor system imaging the terrain, or some combination of both. For ALHAT, this hazard detection activity is provided by a sensor system, which either augments the crew s perception or entirely replaces the crew in the case of a robotic landing. Detecting hazards influences the trajectory design by requiring the proper perspective, range to the landing site, and sufficient time to view the terrain. Following this, the trajectory design must provide additional time to process this information and make a decision about where to safely land. During the final part of the HDA process, the trajectory design must provide sufficient margin to enable a hazard avoidance maneuver. In order to demonstrate the effects of these constraints on the landing trajectory, a tradespace of trajectory designs was created for the initial ALHAT Design Analysis Cycle (ALDAC-1) and each case evaluated with these HDA constraints active. The ALHAT analysis process, described in this paper, narrows down this tradespace and subsequently better defines the trajectory design needed to support onboard HDA. Future ALDACs will enhance this trajectory design by balancing these issues and others in an overall system

  12. Harm avoidance, self-harm, psychic pain, and the borderline personality: life in a "haunted house".

    PubMed

    Korner, Anthony; Gerull, Friederike; Stevenson, Janine; Meares, Russell

    2007-01-01

    This article investigates the pattern of temperament for patients with borderline personality disorder and the impact of psychotherapeutic treatment on temperamental variables. A cohort of patients treated in the Westmead Borderline Personality Disorder Psychotherapy research project completed the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire. All patients had a diagnosis of borderline personality disorder according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Revised Third Edition, criteria. This group scored highly on novelty-seeking and harm avoidance scales and moderately on reward dependence. There was a significant reduction in harm avoidance after 12 months of psychotherapy with a further reduction after 2 years in therapy. Although at variance with Cloninger's original prediction of low harm avoidance in histrionic and borderline patients, results are consistent with other studies in this patient group. The paradox of "self-harmers" scoring highly on harm avoidance may be explained by recognition of the intensity of "psychic pain" in this group. Self-harming behaviors may frequently be motivated by avoidance of a "greater harm" in terms of the inner psychic reality for these patients. Reduction in harm avoidance with psychotherapy could suggest an impact of treatment on temperament or may indicate that the harm avoidance construct is influenced by state variables such as mood.

  13. Approach/Avoidance Orientations Affect Self-Construal and Identification with In-group

    PubMed Central

    Nussinson, Ravit; Häfner, Michael; Seibt, Beate; Strack, Fritz; Trope, Yaacov

    2011-01-01

    Approach and avoidance are two basic motivational orientations. Their activation influences cognitive and perceptive processes: Previous work suggests that an approach orientation instigates a focus on larger units as compared to avoidance. Study 1 confirms this assumption using a paradigm that more directly taps a person’s tendency to represent objects as belonging to small or large units than prior studies. It was further predicted that the self should also be represented as belonging to larger units, and hence be more interdependent under approach than under avoidance. Study 2 supports this prediction. As a consequence of this focus on belonging to larger units, it was finally predicted that approach results in a stronger identification with one’s in-group than avoidance. Studies 3 and 4 support that prediction. PMID:22844229

  14. Precision Landing and Hazard Avoidance Doman

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, Edward A.; Carson, John M., III

    2016-01-01

    The Precision Landing and Hazard Avoidance (PL&HA) domain addresses the development, integration, testing, and spaceflight infusion of sensing, processing, and GN&C functions critical to the success and safety of future human and robotic exploration missions. PL&HA sensors also have applications to other mission events, such as rendezvous and docking. Autonomous PL&HA builds upon the core GN&C capabilities developed to enable soft, controlled landings on the Moon, Mars, and other solar system bodies. Through the addition of a Terrain Relative Navigation (TRN) function, precision landing within tens of meters of a map-based target is possible. The addition of a 3-D terrain mapping lidar sensor improves the probability of a safe landing via autonomous, real-time Hazard Detection and Avoidance (HDA). PL&HA significantly improves the probability of mission success and enhances access to sites of scientific interest located in challenging terrain. PL&HA can also utilize external navigation aids, such as navigation satellites and surface beacons. Advanced Lidar Sensors High precision ranging, velocimetry, and 3-D terrain mapping Terrain Relative Navigation (TRN) TRN compares onboard reconnaissance data with real-time terrain imaging data to update the S/C position estimate Hazard Detection and Avoidance (HDA) Generates a high-resolution, 3-D terrain map in real-time during the approach trajectory to identify safe landing targets Inertial Navigation During Terminal Descent High precision surface relative sensors enable accurate inertial navigation during terminal descent and a tightly controlled touchdown within meters of the selected safe landing target.

  15. Avoidance learning: a review of theoretical models and recent developments

    PubMed Central

    Krypotos, Angelos-Miltiadis; Effting, Marieke; Kindt, Merel; Beckers, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Avoidance is a key characteristic of adaptive and maladaptive fear. Here, we review past and contemporary theories of avoidance learning. Based on the theories, experimental findings and clinical observations reviewed, we distill key principles of how adaptive and maladaptive avoidance behavior is acquired and maintained. We highlight clinical implications of avoidance learning theories and describe intervention strategies that could reduce maladaptive avoidance and prevent its return. We end with a brief overview of recent developments and avenues for further research. PMID:26257618

  16. Avoiding harm in peritoneal dialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Bender, Filitsa H

    2012-05-01

    This review is focused on minimizing complications and avoiding harm in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. Issues related to planning for PD are covered first, with emphasis on PD versus hemodialysis outcomes. Catheter types and insertion techniques are described next, including relevant recommendations by the International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis. A brief review of both noninfectious and infectious complications follows, with emphasis on cardiovascular and metabolic complications. Finally, recommendations for preventing PD-related infections are provided. In conclusion, with proper catheter insertion technique, good training, and attention to detail during the tenure in PD, excellent outcomes can be obtained in a well-informed motivated patient.

  17. Avoiding plagiarism: guidance for nursing students.

    PubMed

    Price, Bob

    The pressures of study, diversity of source materials, past assumptions relating to good writing practice, ambiguous writing guidance on best practice and students' insecurity about their reasoning ability, can lead to plagiarism. With the use of source checking software, there is an increased chance that plagiarised work will be identified and investigated, and penalties given. In extreme cases, plagiarised work may be reported to the Nursing and Midwifery Council and professional as well as academic penalties may apply. This article provides information on how students can avoid plagiarism when preparing their coursework for submission.

  18. Debate: Albumin administration should not be avoided

    PubMed Central

    Allison, Simon P; Lobo, Dileep N

    2000-01-01

    The recent Cochrane report on albumin administration is analysed and criticised on the grounds of clinical methodology, content and interpretation. Although it is naïve and illogical to treat hypoalbuminaemia with albumin infusions, a more balanced view on the use of albumin for resuscitation in acute hypovolaemia is necessary. Once the acute phase of critical illness is past, interstitial volume is often expanded causing oedema, with a low plasma volume. We argue for the use of salt-poor albumin solutions in this situation and conclude that, on current evidence, the assertion that albumin should be avoided in all situations is irrational and untenable. PMID:11211855

  19. Identifying and Avoiding Bias in Research

    PubMed Central

    Pannucci, Christopher J.; Wilkins, Edwin G.

    2010-01-01

    This narrative review provides an overview on the topic of bias as part of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery's series of articles on evidence-based medicine. Bias can occur in the planning, data collection, analysis, and publication phases of research. Understanding research bias allows readers to critically and independently review the scientific literature and avoid treatments which are suboptimal or potentially harmful. A thorough understanding of bias and how it affects study results is essential for the practice of evidence-based medicine. PMID:20679844

  20. Avoiding Lawsuits for Wage and Hour Violations.

    PubMed

    Silberman, Cherie L

    2016-01-01

    Due to the highly technical language in the wage and hour laws and regulations, employers often find that they have unknowingly violated the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA). This can occur because employers have improperly classified an employee as exempt or because employers do not realize that certain time should be paid in full. Improperly classifying employees as exempt or failing to compensate nonexempt employees for all time worked can lead to costly lawsuits, audits, or enforcement actions by the Wage and Hour Division of the Department of Labor. This article discusses the most common FLSA exemptions and provides best practices to avoid liability under the FLSA.

  1. Collision Avoidance for Airport Traffic Concept Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Denise R.; Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Otero, Sharon D.; Barker, Glover D.

    2009-01-01

    An initial Collision Avoidance for Airport Traffic (CAAT) concept for the Terminal Maneuvering Area (TMA) was evaluated in a simulation study at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Langley Research Center. CAAT is being designed to enhance surface situation awareness and provide cockpit alerts of potential conflicts during runway, taxi, and low altitude air-to-air operations. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the initial concept for an aircraft-based method of conflict detection and resolution (CD&R) in the TMA focusing on conflict detection algorithms and alerting display concepts. This paper gives an overview of the CD&R concept, simulation study, and test results.

  2. Collision Avoidance for Airport Traffic Simulation Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Denise R.; Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Shelton, Kevin J.; Bailey, Randall E.; Otero, Sharon D.; Barker, Glover D.

    2010-01-01

    A Collision Avoidance for Airport Traffic (CAAT) concept for the airport Terminal Maneuvering Area (TMA) was evaluated in a simulation study at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Langley Research Center. CAAT is being designed to enhance surface situation awareness and provide cockpit alerts of potential conflicts during runway, taxi, and low altitude air-to-air operations. The purpose of the study was to evaluate pilot reaction to conflict events in the TMA near the airport, different alert timings for various scenarios, alerting display concepts, and directive alerting concepts. This paper gives an overview of the conflict detection and resolution (CD&R) concept, simulation study, and test results

  3. Folk beliefs about genetic variation predict avoidance of biracial individuals

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Sonia K.; Plaks, Jason E.; Remedios, Jessica D.

    2015-01-01

    People give widely varying estimates for the amount of genetic overlap that exists between humans. While some laypeople believe that humans are highly genetically similar to one another, others believe that humans share very little genetic overlap. These studies examine how beliefs about genetic overlap affect neural and evaluative reactions to racially-ambiguous and biracial targets. In Study 1, we found that lower genetic overlap estimates predicted a stronger neural avoidance response to biracial compared to monoracial targets. In Study 2, we found that lower genetic overlap estimates predicted longer response times to classify biracial (vs. monoracial) faces into racial categories. In Study 3, we manipulated genetic overlap beliefs and found that participants in the low overlap condition explicitly rated biracial targets more negatively than those in the high overlap condition. Taken together, these data suggest that genetic overlap beliefs influence perceivers’ processing fluency and evaluation of biracial and racially-ambiguous individuals. PMID:25904875

  4. Epidemic spreading on random surfer networks with infected avoidance strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Yun; Ding, Li; Huang, Yun-Han; Guan, Zhi-Hong

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, we study epidemic spreading on random surfer networks with infected avoidance (IA) strategy. In particular, we consider that susceptible individuals’ moving direction angles are affected by the current location information received from infected individuals through a directed information network. The model is mainly analyzed by discrete-time numerical simulations. The results indicate that the IA strategy can restrain epidemic spreading effectively. However, when long-distance jumps of individuals exist, the IA strategy’s effectiveness on restraining epidemic spreading is heavily reduced. Finally, it is found that the influence of the noises from information transferring process on epidemic spreading is indistinctive. Project supported in part by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61403284, 61272114, 61673303, and 61672112) and the Marine Renewable Energy Special Fund Project of the State Oceanic Administration of China (Grant No. GHME2013JS01).

  5. Bleeding Avoidance Strategies: Consensus and Controversy

    PubMed Central

    Dauerman, Harold L.; Rao, Sunil V.; Resnic, Frederic S.; Applegate, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    Bleeding complications after coronary intervention are associated with prolonged hospitalization, increased hospital costs, patient dissatisfaction, morbidity and one year mortality. Bleeding Avoidance Strategies represent a term incorporating multiple modalities that aim to reduce bleeding and vascular complications after cardiovascular catheterization. Recent improvements in the rates of bleeding complications after invasive cardiovascular procedures suggests that the clinical community has successfully embraced specific strategies and improved patient care in this area. There remains controversy regarding the efficacy, safety and/or practicality of 3 key bleeding avoidance strategies for cardiac catheterization and coronary intervention: procedural (radial artery approach, safezone arteriotomy), pharmacologic (multiple agents) and technological (vascular closure devices) approaches to improved access. In this article, we address areas of consensus with respect to selected modalities in order to define the role of each strategy in current practice. Furthermore, we focus on areas of controversy for selected modalities in order to define key areas warranting cautious clinical approaches and the need for future randomized clinical trials in this area. PMID:21700085

  6. Bleeding avoidance strategies. Consensus and controversy.

    PubMed

    Dauerman, Harold L; Rao, Sunil V; Resnic, Frederic S; Applegate, Robert J

    2011-06-28

    Bleeding complications after coronary intervention are associated with prolonged hospitalization, increased hospital costs, patient dissatisfaction, morbidity, and 1-year mortality. Bleeding avoidance strategies is a term incorporating multiple modalities that aim to reduce bleeding and vascular complications after cardiovascular catheterization. Recent improvements in the rates of bleeding complications after invasive cardiovascular procedures suggest that the clinical community has successfully embraced specific strategies and improved patient care in this area. There remains controversy regarding the efficacy, safety, and/or practicality of 3 key bleeding avoidance strategies for cardiac catheterization and coronary intervention: procedural (radial artery approach, safezone arteriotomy), pharmacological (multiple agents), and technological (vascular closure devices) approaches to improved access. In this paper, we address areas of consensus with respect to selected modalities in order to define the role of each strategy in current practice. Furthermore, we focus on areas of controversy for selected modalities in order to define key areas warranting cautious clinical approaches and the need for future randomized clinical trials in this area.

  7. Underactuated spacecraft formation reconfiguration with collision avoidance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xu; Yan, Ye; Zhou, Yang

    2017-02-01

    Underactuated collision-free controllers are proposed in this paper for multiple spacecraft formation reconfiguration in circular orbits with the loss of either the radial or in-track thrust. A nonlinear dynamical model of underactuated formation flying is introduced, which is then linearized about circular orbits for controllability and feasibility analyses on underactuated formation reconfiguration. By using the inherent dynamics coupling of system states, reduced-order sliding mode controllers are then designed for either case to indirectly stabilize the system trajectories to the desired formations. In consideration of the collision-avoidance requirement, the artificial potential function method is then employed to design novel underactuated collision-avoidance maneuvers. Rigorous proof substantiates the capabilities of such maneuvers in preventing collisions even in the absence of radial or in-track thrust. Furthermore, a Lyapunov-based analysis ensures the asymptotic stability of the overall closed-loop system. Numerical simulations are performed in a J2-perturbed environment to verify the validity of the proposed underactuated control schemes for collision-free reconfiguration.

  8. Avoiding humiliations in the clinical encounter

    PubMed Central

    Malterud, Kirsti; Hollnagel, Hanne

    2007-01-01

    Objectives To explore potentials for avoiding humiliations in clinical encounters, especially those that are unintended and unrecognized by the doctor. Furthermore, to examine theoretical foundations of degrading behaviour and identify some concepts that can be used to understand such behaviour in the cultural context of medicine. Finally, these concepts are used to build a model for the clinician in order to prevent humiliation of the patient. Theoretical frame of reference Empirical studies document experiences of humiliation among patients when they see their doctor. Philosophical and sociological analysis can be used to explain the dynamics of unintended degrading behaviour between human beings. Skjervheim, Vetlesen, and Bauman have identified the role of objectivism, distantiation, and indifference in the dynamics of evil acts, pointing to the rules of the cultural system, rather than accusing the individual of bad behaviour. Examining the professional role of the doctor, parallel traits embedded in the medical culture are demonstrated. According to Vetlesen, emotional awareness is necessary for moral perception, which again is necessary for moral performance. Conclusion A better balance between emotions and rationality is needed to avoid humiliations in the clinical encounter. The Awareness Model is presented as a strategy for clinical practice and education, emphasizing the role of the doctor's own emotions. Potentials and pitfalls are discussed. PMID:17497482

  9. Lobeline produces conditioned taste avoidance in rats.

    PubMed

    Harrod, S B; Dwoskin, L P; Bardo, M T

    2004-05-01

    Previous results indicate that pretreatment with lobeline attenuates methamphetamine (METH) self-administration in rats, but not by acting as a substitute reinforcer. Given these findings, it has been suggested that lobeline may serve as a useful pharmacotherapy for psychostimulant abuse. However, because lobeline produces emesis and nausea in humans, the present study examined whether lobeline has direct effects on taste avoidance behavior in rats within the same dose range shown previously to decrease METH self-administration. Two experiments utilized a Pavlovian conditioning procedure to determine if lobeline produces conditioned taste avoidance (CTA) in rats. In Experiments 1 and 2, rats consumed either novel milk or salt solutions, respectively, and within 10 min, were injected with lobeline (0.3-3.0 mg/kg) or METH (0.3-3.0 mg/kg). A single-bottle test conducted 48 h after flavor-drug pairings indicated that the dose of lobeline that reduced METH self-administration in a previous study (i.e., 3.0 mg/kg) also produced reliable CTA for milk and salt solution. These findings suggest a need to develop lobeline analogs that reduce METH self-administration, but do not produce CTA following the consumption of a novel solution.

  10. Radar sensors for intersection collision avoidance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jocoy, Edward H.; Phoel, Wayne G.

    1997-02-01

    On-vehicle sensors for collision avoidance and intelligent cruise control are receiving considerably attention as part of Intelligent Transportation Systems. Most of these sensors are radars and `look' in the direction of the vehicle's headway, that is, in the direction ahead of the vehicle. Calspan SRL Corporation is investigating the use of on- vehicle radar for Intersection Collision Avoidance (ICA). Four crash scenarios are considered and the goal is to design, develop and install a collision warning system in a test vehicle, and conduct both test track and in-traffic experiments. Current efforts include simulations to examine ICA geometry-dependent design parameters and the design of an on-vehicle radar and tracker for threat detection. This paper discusses some of the simulation and radar design efforts. In addition, an available headway radar was modified to scan the wide angles (+/- 90 degree(s)) associated with ICA scenarios. Preliminary proof-of-principal tests are underway as a risk reduction effort. Some initial target detection results are presented.

  11. Moving Toward and Away From the World: Social Approach and Avoidance Trajectories in Anxious Solitary Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gazelle, Heidi; Rudolph, Karen D.

    2004-01-01

    This investigation tested the person-by-environment hypothesis that the joint influence of behavioral vulnerability (anxious solitude) and interpersonal adversity (peer exclusion) predicts heightened social avoidance and depression over time. The study assessed 519 fifth and sixth graders 3 times during 1 year. Teachers reported social behavior…

  12. Colostomy closure: how to avoid complications

    PubMed Central

    Levitt, Marc A.; Lawal, Taiwo A.; Peña, Alberto

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Colostomy is an operation frequently performed in pediatric surgery. Despite its benefits, it can produce significant morbidity. In a previous publication we presented our experience with the errors and complications that occurred during cases of colostomy creation. We now have focused in the morbidity related to the colostomy closure. The technical details that might have contributed to the minimal morbidity we experienced are described. Methods The medical records of 649 patients who underwent colostomy closure over a 28-year period were retrospectively reviewed looking for complications following these procedures. Our perioperative protocol for colostomy closure consisted in: clear fluids by mouth and repeated proximal stoma irrigations 24 h prior to the operation. Administration of IV antibiotics during anesthesia induction and continued for 48 h. Meticulous surgical technique that included: packing of the proximal stoma, plastic drape to immobilize the surgical field, careful hemostasis, emphasis in avoiding contamination, cleaning the edge of the stomas to allow a good 2-layer, end-to-end anastomosis with separated long-term absorbable sutures, generous irrigation of the peritoneal cavity and subsequent layers with saline solution, closure by layers to avoid dead space, and avoidance of hematomas. No drains and no nasogastric tubes were used. Oral fluids were started the day after surgery and patients were discharged 48–72 h after the operation. Results The original diagnoses of the patients were: anorectal malformation (583), Hirschsprung’s disease (53), and others (13). 10 patients (1.5%) had complications: 6 had intestinal obstruction (5 due to small bowel adhesions, 1 had temporary delay of the function of the anastomosis due to a severe size discrepancy between proximal and distal stoma with a distal microcolon) and 4 incisional hernias. There were no anastomotic dehiscences or wound infection. There was no bleeding, no anastomotic

  13. Geriatric gynecology: promoting health and avoiding harm.

    PubMed

    Miller, Karen L; Baraldi, Carole A

    2012-11-01

    Age increases vulnerability, commonly accompanied by greater reliance on others and susceptibility to maltreatment. Physiologic processes become less resilient; the potential for harm from medical care increases. Awareness of frailty, functional, social, and potential maltreatment issues enables early referrals to help the patient maintain her independence. Health issues that may impede both gynecologic care and self-sufficiency include sensory deficits, physical disability, and cognitive impairment. Speaking slowly and providing contextual information enhance patient comprehension. Cancer screening depends on life expectancy. Osteoporosis treatment requires managing fall risk. Gynecologic symptoms more likely have multiple contributing factors than one etiology. Incontinence is a particularly complex issue, but invariably includes bladder diary assessment and pelvic floor muscle training. Function and frailty measures best predict perioperative morbidity. Communication with the patient, her family, other providers, and health care organizations is an important frontier in avoiding errors and adverse outcomes.

  14. Communication-avoiding symmetric-indefinite factorization

    SciTech Connect

    Ballard, Grey Malone; Becker, Dulcenia; Demmel, James; Dongarra, Jack; Druinsky, Alex; Peled, Inon; Schwartz, Oded; Toledo, Sivan; Yamazaki, Ichitaro

    2014-11-13

    We describe and analyze a novel symmetric triangular factorization algorithm. The algorithm is essentially a block version of Aasen's triangular tridiagonalization. It factors a dense symmetric matrix A as the product A=PLTLTPT where P is a permutation matrix, L is lower triangular, and T is block tridiagonal and banded. The algorithm is the first symmetric-indefinite communication-avoiding factorization: it performs an asymptotically optimal amount of communication in a two-level memory hierarchy for almost any cache-line size. Adaptations of the algorithm to parallel computers are likely to be communication efficient as well; one such adaptation has been recently published. As a result, the current paper describes the algorithm, proves that it is numerically stable, and proves that it is communication optimal.

  15. Mars rover local navigation and hazard avoidance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, B. H.; Gennery, D. B.; Mishkin, A. H.

    1989-01-01

    A Mars rover sample return mission has been proposed for the late 1990's. Due to the long speed-of-light delays between earth and Mars, some autonomy on the rover is highly desirable. JPL has been conducting research in two possible modes of rover operation, Computer-Aided Remote Driving and Semiautonomous Navigation. A recently-completed research program used a half-scale testbed vehicle to explore several of the concepts in semiautonomous navigation. A new, full-scale vehicle with all computational and power resources on-board will be used in the coming year to demonstrate relatively fast semiautonomous navigation. The computational and power requirements for Mars rover local navigation and hazard avoidance are discussed.

  16. Unstable avoided crossing in coupled spinor condensates.

    PubMed

    Bernier, Nathan R; Dalla Torre, Emanuele G; Demler, Eugene

    2014-08-08

    We consider the dynamics of a Bose-Einstein condensate with two internal states, coupled through a coherent drive. We focus on a specific quench protocol, in which the sign of the coupling field is suddenly changed. At a mean-field level, the system is transferred from a minimum to a maximum of the coupling energy and can remain dynamically stable, in spite of the development of negative-frequency modes. In the presence of a nonzero detuning between the two states, the "charge" and "spin" modes couple, giving rise to an unstable avoided crossing. This phenomenon is generic to systems with two dispersing modes away from equilibrium and constitutes an example of class-I(o) nonequilibrium pattern formation in quantum systems.

  17. Communication-avoiding symmetric-indefinite factorization

    DOE PAGES

    Ballard, Grey Malone; Becker, Dulcenia; Demmel, James; ...

    2014-11-13

    We describe and analyze a novel symmetric triangular factorization algorithm. The algorithm is essentially a block version of Aasen's triangular tridiagonalization. It factors a dense symmetric matrix A as the product A=PLTLTPT where P is a permutation matrix, L is lower triangular, and T is block tridiagonal and banded. The algorithm is the first symmetric-indefinite communication-avoiding factorization: it performs an asymptotically optimal amount of communication in a two-level memory hierarchy for almost any cache-line size. Adaptations of the algorithm to parallel computers are likely to be communication efficient as well; one such adaptation has been recently published. As a result,more » the current paper describes the algorithm, proves that it is numerically stable, and proves that it is communication optimal.« less

  18. Avoiding potholes on the information highway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagano, Ralph V.

    1996-03-01

    This paper addresses the underlying legal issues that must be considered prior to engaging in the development of multimedia and Internet applications. The often overlooked topics presented in this paper will show the audience, both developers and end users alike, what is required to help pave the information highway. Topics that are covered are: who owns the software, the developer or the party that commissioned the work; whether the current intellectual property laws create a gap in protection of multimedia software; what are the rights and obligations of the software developer and the commissioner; what is one's exposure to liability and how it can be minimized; and, whether one can be held legally responsible for merely selling multimedia software. Multimedia law is a burgeoning area, and in many ways, our laws have not kept pace with technology. Therefore, those involved with developing multimedia applications must be extremely careful to protect their rights, and to avoid liability.

  19. Avoiding potential problems when selling accounts receivable.

    PubMed

    Ayers, D H; Kincaid, T J

    1996-05-01

    Accounts receivable financing is a potential tool for managing a provider organization's working capital needs. But before entering into a financing agreement, organizations need to consider and take steps to avoid serious problems that can arise from participation in an accounts receivable financing program. For example, the purchaser may cease purchasing the receivables, leaving the organization without funding needed for operations. Or, the financing program may be inordinately complex and unnecessarily costly to the organization. Sometimes the organization itself may fail to comply with the terms of the agreement under which the accounts receivable were sold, thus necessitating that restitution be made to the purchaser or provoking charges of fraud. These potential problems should be addressed as early as possible--before an organization enters into an accounts receivable financing program--in order to minimize time, effort, and expanse and maximize the benefits of the financing agreement.

  20. Avoiding sexual harassment liability in veterinary practices.

    PubMed

    Lacroix, C A; Wilson, J F

    1996-05-15

    Harassment based on gender violates the rule of workplace equality established by Title VII of the Civil Rights Act and enforced by the EEOC. In 1986, the US Supreme Court, in Meritor Savings Bank v Vinson, established the criteria that must be met for a claim of hostile environment sexual harassment to be considered valid. Plaintiffs must show that they were subjected to conduct based on their gender, that it was unwelcome, and that it was severe and pervasive enough to alter their condition of employment, resulting in an abusive working environment. There have been few sexual harassment cases involving veterinary professionals, and it is our goal to help keep the number of filed actions to a minimum. The most effective way to avoid hostile environment sexual harassment claims is to confront the issue openly and to adopt a sexual harassment policy for the practice. When it comes to sexual harassment, an ounce of prevention is unquestionably worth a pound of cure.

  1. Environment - avoiding destructive remediation at DOE sites.

    SciTech Connect

    Whicker, F. W.; MacDonell, M. M.; Hinton, T. G.; Pinder, J. E., III; Habegger, L. J.; Environmental Assessment; usdoe

    2004-03-12

    Public perceptions and regulatory agreements have forced the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to spend tens of billions of dollars for environmental cleanup of relatively low levels of contamination of soil and water within the nuclear weapons complex. Much of this costly remediation has caused significant ecological damage, but has not resulted in corresponding reductions in public health risks. This Policy Forum offers a potential remedy involving continued federal control of the larger DOE lands and cleanup criteria based on long-term protection of ecosystems and public health, rather than criteria based on the protection of hypothetical future site residents. Recent DOE policy to avoid unnecessary environmental damage using a risk-based strategy is briefly described.

  2. [UNESCO's bioethical norms to avoid eugenic practices].

    PubMed

    Cruz-Coke, R

    2000-06-01

    The author, member of the UNESCO Bioethics Committee, participated in the preparation of the Universal Declaration about Human Genome and Human Rights, in 1997. The aim of this work is to analyze the initial articles of such Declaration, defining the bioethical principles that defend human dignity, freedom and rights, against the madness of the present biotechnological revolution. The development of genetics for the benefit of mankind will be guaranteed if these principles are honored. Genetic discrimination, reductionism and determinism, are identified by the author as perversions that, if used by biotechnologists, can lead to the rebirth of eugenism and racism, that were condemned by the Code of Nuremberg, in 1947. Investigators must assume their responsibility, respecting the principles of human dignity, the real freedom of research and solidarity among people. This attitude will avoid the use of genetics for purposes other than the welfare of mankind.

  3. NASA satellite helps airliners avoid ozone concentrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Results from a test to determine the effectiveness of satellite data for helping airlines avoid heavy concentrations of ozone are reported. Information from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer, aboard the Nimbus-7 was transmitted, for use in meteorological forecast activities. The results show: (1) Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer profile of total ozone in the atmosphere accurately represents upper air patterns and can be used to locate meteorological activity; (2) route forecasting of highly concentrated ozone is feasible; (3) five research aircraft flights were flown in jet stream regions located by the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer to determine winds, temperatures, and air composition. It is shown that the jet stream is coincides with the area of highest total ozone gradient, and low total ozone amounts are found where tropospheric air has been carried along above the tropopause on the anticyclonic side of the subtropical jet stream.

  4. Experiential Avoidance and Technological Addictions in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    García-Oliva, Carlos; Piqueras, José A.

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims This study focuses on the use of popular information and communication technologies (ICTs) by adolescents: the Internet, mobile phones, and video games. The relationship of ICT use and experiential avoidance (EA), a construct that has emerged as underlying and transdiagnostic to a wide variety of psychological problems, including behavioral addictions, is examined. EA refers to a self-regulatory strategy involving efforts to control or escape from negative stimuli such as thoughts, feelings, or sensations that generate strong distress. This strategy, which may be adaptive in the short term, is problematic if it becomes an inflexible pattern. Thus, the aim of this study was to explore whether EA patterns were associated with addictive or problematic use of ICT in adolescents. Methods A total of 317 students of the Spanish southeast between 12 and 18 years old were recruited to complete a questionnaire that included questions about general use of each ICTs, an experiential avoidance questionnaire, a brief inventory of the Big Five personality traits, and specific questionnaires on problematic use of the Internet, mobile phones, and video games. Results Correlation analysis and linear regression showed that EA largely explained results regarding the addictive use of the Internet, mobile phones, and video games, but not in the same way. As regards gender, boys showed a more problematic use of video games than girls. Concerning personality factors, conscientiousness was related to all addictive behaviors. Discussion and conclusions We conclude that EA is an important construct that should be considered in future models that attempt to explain addictive behaviors. PMID:27363463

  5. Avoiding Braess' Paradox Through Collective Intelligence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolpert , David H.; Tumer, Kagan

    1999-01-01

    In an Ideal Shortest Path Algorithm (ISPA), at each moment each router in a network sends all of its traffic down the path that will incur the lowest cost to that traffic. In the limit of an infinitesimally small amount of traffic for a particular router, its routing that traffic via an ISPA is optimal, as far as cost incurred by that traffic is concerned. We demonstrate though that in many cases, due to the side-effects of one router's actions on another routers performance, having routers use ISPA's is suboptimal as far as global aggregate cost is concerned, even when only used to route infinitesimally small amounts of traffic. As a particular example of this we present an instance of Braess' paradox for ISPA'S, in which adding new links to a network decreases overall throughput. We also demonstrate that load-balancing, in which the routing decisions are made to optimize the global cost incurred by all traffic currently being routed, is suboptimal as far as global cost averaged across time is concerned. This is also due to "side-effects", in this case of current routing decision on future traffic. The theory of COllective INtelligence (COIN) is concerned precisely with the issue of avoiding such deleterious side-effects. We present key concepts from that theory and use them to derive an idealized algorithm whose performance is better than that of the ISPA, even in the infinitesimal limit. We present experiments verifying this, and also showing that a machine-learning-based version of this COIN algorithm in which costs are only imprecisely estimated (a version potentially applicable in the real world) also outperforms the ISPA, despite having access to less information than does the ISPA. In particular, this COIN algorithm avoids Braess' paradox.

  6. Experiential Avoidance and Technological Addictions in Adolescents.

    PubMed

    García-Oliva, Carlos; Piqueras, José A

    2016-06-01

    Background and aims This study focuses on the use of popular information and communication technologies (ICTs) by adolescents: the Internet, mobile phones, and video games. The relationship of ICT use and experiential avoidance (EA), a construct that has emerged as underlying and transdiagnostic to a wide variety of psychological problems, including behavioral addictions, is examined. EA refers to a self-regulatory strategy involving efforts to control or escape from negative stimuli such as thoughts, feelings, or sensations that generate strong distress. This strategy, which may be adaptive in the short term, is problematic if it becomes an inflexible pattern. Thus, the aim of this study was to explore whether EA patterns were associated with addictive or problematic use of ICT in adolescents. Methods A total of 317 students of the Spanish southeast between 12 and 18 years old were recruited to complete a questionnaire that included questions about general use of each ICTs, an experiential avoidance questionnaire, a brief inventory of the Big Five personality traits, and specific questionnaires on problematic use of the Internet, mobile phones, and video games. Results Correlation analysis and linear regression showed that EA largely explained results regarding the addictive use of the Internet, mobile phones, and video games, but not in the same way. As regards gender, boys showed a more problematic use of video games than girls. Concerning personality factors, conscientiousness was related to all addictive behaviors. Discussion and conclusions We conclude that EA is an important construct that should be considered in future models that attempt to explain addictive behaviors.

  7. Sun avoidance in the yellow baboons (Papio cynocephalus cynocephalus) of Ruaha National Park, Tanzania. Variations with season, behavior and weather

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pochron, Sharon T.

    Do free-ranging baboons avoid traveling towards the sun? Sun avoidance, in addition to resource and predator locations, may influence troop movement and non-random use of the home range. This paper investigates how sun avoidance, as measured by facial exposure to sunlight, influences directional choices. It hypothesizes that baboons should avoid the sun in the hot, dry season and show indifference to it in the cool, lush season. This paper also hypothesizes that baboons employ sun-avoidance behaviors more while they forage or travel to resting sites than when they travel to foraging sites or engage in active social behaviors; lastly this paper hypothesizes that sun altitude, temperature, humidity, and cloud cover influence sun-avoidance behavior. Using focal-animal techniques on 21 males from free-ranging baboon troops, I collected locational data, accurate to within 1.6 m, over 15 months. I calculated the difference between baboon bearings and the sun's azimuth in angular degrees. Both linear and circular statistics indicate that baboons put significantly (P<0.01) more than 90° between their bearing and the sun's azimuth under certain conditions. Contrary to hypotheses based on the detrimental effects of insolation, baboons in the cool, lush season avoid the sun, while baboons in the hot, dry season do not. In the lush season, the extent to which baboons avoid the sun does not depend on their other behaviors. Dry-season baboons demonstrate stronger sun avoidance while resting than when engaged in other behaviors. Finally, in the dry season, temperature drives sun avoidance; humidity drives it in the lush season.

  8. Sun avoidance in the yellow baboons (Papio cynocephalus cynocephalus) of Ruaha National Park, Tanzania. Variations with season, behavior and weather.

    PubMed

    Pochron, S T

    2000-09-01

    Do free-ranging baboons avoid traveling towards the sun? Sun avoidance, in addition to resource and predator locations, may influence troop movement and non-random use of the home range. This paper investigates how sun avoidance, as measured by facial exposure to sunlight, influences directional choices. It hypothesizes that baboons should avoid the sun in the hot, dry season and show indifference to it in the cool, lush season. This paper also hypothesizes that baboons employ sun-avoidance behaviors more while they forage or travel to resting sites than when they travel to foraging sites or engage in active social behaviors; lastly this paper hypothesizes that sun altitude, temperature, humidity, and cloud cover influence sun-avoidance behavior. Using focal-animal techniques on 21 males from free-ranging baboon troops, I collected locational data, accurate to within 1.6 m, over 15 months. I calculated the difference between baboon bearings and the sun's azimuth in angular degrees. Both linear and circular statistics indicate that baboons put significantly (P<0.01) more than 90 degrees between their bearing and the sun's azimuth under certain conditions. Contrary to hypotheses based on the detrimental effects of insolation, baboons in the cool, lush season avoid the sun, while baboons in the hot, dry season do not. In the lush season, the extent to which baboons avoid the sun does not depend on their other behaviors. Dry-season baboons demonstrate stronger sun avoidance while resting than when engaged in other behaviors. Finally, in the dry season, temperature drives sun avoidance; humidity drives it in the lush season.

  9. Real-Time Collision Avoidance for Dexterous 7-DOF Arms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bon, Bruce; Seraji, Homayoun

    1996-01-01

    A new approach to real-time collison avoidance for dexterous 7-DOF arms and supportive simulation and experimental results are presented. The collision avoidance problem is formulated and solved as a force control problem.

  10. [What type of avoidance for peanut allergic children?].

    PubMed

    Feuillet-Dassonval, C; Agne, P-S-A; Rancé, F; Bidat, E

    2006-09-01

    We analyzed, from the literature, the balance benefit/risk of a strict avoidance of peanut in children with peanut allergy. The benefits of a strict avoidance diet seem limited: reactions to the low doses and to the peanut oil refined are rare and most often slight. It is not proven that a strict avoidance facilitates the cure of allergy. On the other hand, strict avoidance could induce a worsening of allergy, with deterioration of quality of life, creation of food neophobia. In case of cure of allergy, it is difficult to normalize the diet after a strict avoidance. Outside of the rare sensitive patients to a very low dose of peanut, for which a strict avoidance is counseled, the report benefits risk is in favor of the prescription of adapted avoidance to the eliciting dose. For the majority of the peanut allergic children, it seems to us that the avoidance can and must be limited to the non hidden peanut.

  11. Place avoidance learning and memory in a jumping spider.

    PubMed

    Peckmezian, Tina; Taylor, Phillip W

    2017-03-01

    Using a conditioned passive place avoidance paradigm, we investigated the relative importance of three experimental parameters on learning and memory in a salticid, Servaea incana. Spiders encountered an aversive electric shock stimulus paired with one side of a two-sided arena. Our three parameters were the ecological relevance of the visual stimulus, the time interval between trials and the time interval before test. We paired electric shock with either a black or white visual stimulus, as prior studies in our laboratory have demonstrated that S. incana prefer dark 'safe' regions to light ones. We additionally evaluated the influence of two temporal features (time interval between trials and time interval before test) on learning and memory. Spiders exposed to the shock stimulus learned to associate shock with the visual background cue, but the extent to which they did so was dependent on which visual stimulus was present and the time interval between trials. Spiders trained with a long interval between trials (24 h) maintained performance throughout training, whereas spiders trained with a short interval (10 min) maintained performance only when the safe side was black. When the safe side was white, performance worsened steadily over time. There was no difference between spiders tested after a short (10 min) or long (24 h) interval before test. These results suggest that the ecological relevance of the stimuli used and the duration of the interval between trials can influence learning and memory in jumping spiders.

  12. Avoidance-based human Pavlovian-to-instrumental transfer.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Andrea H; Niznikiewicz, Michael A; Delamater, Andrew R; Delgado, Mauricio R

    2013-12-01

    The Pavlovian-to-instrumental transfer (PIT) paradigm probes the influence of Pavlovian cues over instrumentally learned behavior. The paradigm has been used extensively to probe basic cognitive and motivational processes in studies of animal learning. More recently, PIT and its underlying neural basis have been extended to investigations in humans. These initial neuroimaging studies of PIT have focused on the influence of appetitively conditioned stimuli on instrumental responses maintained by positive reinforcement, and highlight the involvement of the striatum. In the current study, we sought to understand the neural correlates of PIT in an aversive Pavlovian learning situation when instrumental responding was maintained through negative reinforcement. Participants exhibited specific PIT, wherein selective increases in instrumental responding to conditioned stimuli occurred when the stimulus signaled a specific aversive outcome whose omission negatively reinforced the instrumental response. Additionally, a general PIT effect was observed such that when a stimulus was associated with a different aversive outcome than was used to negatively reinforce instrumental behavior, the presence of that stimulus caused a non-selective increase in overall instrumental responding. Both specific and general PIT behavioral effects correlated with increased activation in corticostriatal circuitry, particularly in the striatum, a region involved in cognitive and motivational processes. These results suggest that avoidance-based PIT utilizes a similar neural mechanism to that seen with PIT in an appetitive context, which has implications for understanding mechanisms of drug-seeking behavior during addiction and relapse.

  13. Modification of CO2 avoidance behaviour in Drosophila by inhibitory odorants.

    PubMed

    Turner, Stephanie Lynn; Ray, Anandasankar

    2009-09-10

    The fruitfly Drosophila melanogaster exhibits a robust and innate olfactory-based avoidance behaviour to CO(2), a component of odour emitted from stressed flies. Specialized neurons in the antenna and a dedicated neuronal circuit in the higher olfactory system mediate CO(2) detection and avoidance. However, fruitflies need to overcome this avoidance response in some environments that contain CO(2) such as ripening fruits and fermenting yeast, which are essential food sources. Very little is known about the molecular and neuronal basis of this unique, context-dependent modification of innate olfactory avoidance behaviour. Here we identify a new class of odorants present in food that directly inhibit CO(2)-sensitive neurons in the antenna. Using an in vivo expression system we establish that the odorants act on the Gr21a/Gr63a CO(2) receptor. The presence of these odorants significantly and specifically reduces CO(2)-mediated avoidance behaviour, as well as avoidance mediated by 'Drosophila stress odour'. We propose a model in which behavioural avoidance to CO(2) is directly influenced by inhibitory interactions of the novel odours with CO(2) receptors. Furthermore, we observe differences in the temporal dynamics of inhibition: the effect of one of these odorants lasts several minutes beyond the initial exposure. Notably, animals that have been briefly pre-exposed to this odorant do not respond to the CO(2) avoidance cue even after the odorant is no longer present. We also show that related odorants are effective inhibitors of the CO(2) response in Culex mosquitoes that transmit West Nile fever and filariasis. Our findings have broader implications in highlighting the important role of inhibitory odorants in olfactory coding, and in their potential to disrupt CO(2)-mediated host-seeking behaviour in disease-carrying insects like mosquitoes.

  14. The role of negative reinforcement eating expectancies in the relation between experiential avoidance and disinhibition

    PubMed Central

    Schaumberg, Katherine; Schumacher, Leah M.; Rosenbaum, Diane L.; Kase, Colleen A.; Piers, Amani D.; Lowe, Michael R.; Forman, Evan M.; Butryn, Meghan L.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Eating-related disinhibition (i.e. a tendency to overeat in response to various stimuli) is associated with weight gain and poorer long-term weight loss success. Theoretically, experiential avoidance (i.e., the desire or attempts to avoid uncomfortable internal experiences), may predispose individuals to developing negative reinforcement eating expectancies (i.e., the belief that eating will help to mitigate distress), which in turn promote disinhibition. Such relationships are consistent with an acquired preparedness model, which posits that dispositions influence learning and subsequent behavior. Drawing from this framework, the current study represents the first investigation of relations between negative reinforcement eating expectancies, experiential avoidance (both general and food-specific) and disinhibited eating. In particular, the mediating role of negative reinforcement eating expectancies in the relation between experiential avoidance and disinhibited eating was examined. Method Participants (N = 107) were overweight and obese individuals presenting for behavioral weight loss treatment who completed measures of general and food-related experiential avoidance, negative reinforcement eating expectancies, and disinhibition. Results Experiential avoidance and negative reinforcement eating expectancies significantly related to disinhibition. Furthermore, the relation between experiential avoidance and disinhibition was mediated by negative reinforcement eating expectancies. Discussion The current study supports an acquired preparedness model for disinhibition, such that the relation between experiential avoidance and disinhibition is accounted for by expectations that eating will alleviate distress. Findings highlight the potential role of eating expectancies in models accounting for obesity risk, and identify negative reinforcement eating expectancies as a potential treatment target for reducing disinhibition. PMID:26854594

  15. Landslide disaster avoidance: learning from Leyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, T. R.

    2006-12-01

    On 17 February 2006 a gigantic rockslide triggered a debris avalanche that overran the barangay Guinsaugon, St. Bernard in Southern Leyte Province, Philippines, burying 154 victims, with 990 missing including 246 school children. Even with satellite imagery, GIS-based landslide susceptibility modelling and real-time meteorological and seismic data analysis, scientific prediction of every potentially fatal landslide is not possible in most parts of the world. This is particular the case in steep, unstable, densely-populated country in which heavy rain is common. So how can further events of this type be prevented from turning into disasters? A number of precursory phenomena were noted by local inhabitants at Guinsaugon: a crack around the slope that failed was noticed in May 2005; coconut trees near the northern foot of the landslide scarp began to lean increasingly in the down-slope direction in December 2005; a slope around the northern edge of the 17 February 2006 landslide scarp failed on December 17, 2005; in the 9 days prior to the rockslide, 640 mm of rain fell; 450 mm in a 3-day period. Such phenomena are commonly reported by local inhabitants before large landslides (e.g. Elm, Mayunmarca, and many others). In many cases, therefore, it is in principle possible for local people to avoid the consequences of the landslide if they know enough to act appropriately in response to the precursory phenomena. For this possibility to be realized, appropriate information must be provided to and assimilated by the local population. Useful ways of achieving this include pamphlets, video, TV and radio programs and visits from civil defence personnel. The information must be properly presented; scientific language will be ineffective. A communication pyramid, leading from government agencies to local leaders, can facilitate the rapid availability of the information to all potentially susceptible communities. If science can determine those areas not vulnerable to landslide

  16. Adaptive limit margin detection and limit avoidance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yavrucuk, Ilkay

    This thesis concerns the development of methods, algorithms, and control laws for the development of an adaptive flight envelope protection system to be used for both manned and unmanned aircraft. The proposed method lifts the requirement for detailed a priori information of aircraft dynamics by enabling adaptation to system uncertainty. The system can be used for limits that can be either measured or related to selected measurable quantities. Specifically, an adaptive technique for predicting limit margins and calculating the corresponding allowable control or controller command margins of an aircraft is described in an effort to enable true carefree maneuvering. This new approach utilizes adaptive neural network based loops for the approximation of required aircraft dynamics. For limits that reach their maximum value in steady state, a constructed estimator model is used to predict the maneuvering quasi-steady response behavior---the so called dynamic trim---of the limit parameters and the corresponding control or command margins. Linearly Parameterized Neural Networks as well as Single Hidden Layer Neural Networks are used for on-line adaptation. The approach does not require any off-line training of the neural networks, instead all learning is achieved during flight. Lyapunov based weight update laws are derived. The method is extended for multi-channelled control limiting for aircraft subject to multiple limits, and for automatic control and command limiting for UAV's. Simulation evaluations of the method using a linear helicopter model and a nonlinear Generalized Tiltrotor Simulation (GTRSIM) model are presented. Limit avoidance methods are integrated and tested through the implementation of an artificial pilot model and an active-stick controller model for tactile cueing in the tiltrotor simulation, GTRSIM. Load factor, angle-of-attack, and torque limits are considered as examples. Similarly, the method is applied to the Georgia Tech's Yamaha R-Max (GTMax

  17. "Don't stand so close to me": an attachment perspective of disengagement and avoidance in marriage.

    PubMed

    Barry, Robin A; Lawrence, Erika

    2013-06-01

    Theory and research support a link between disengaging or avoidant communication and global marital distress; however, questions remain regarding individual differences and situational influences associated with partners' tendency to disengage. Guided by an attachment framework, this study addressed two aims. The first aim was to replicate and extend previous research that has found mixed support for a link between higher attachment avoidance and more disengaging or avoidant behaviors during conflict interactions. To accomplish this aim, the authors examined two moderators of this link. The second aim was to clarify the relation between avoidant attachment and disengaging behaviors across two relationship contexts central to both the attachment and marital literatures-couples' conflictual and supportive interactions. In addressing these aims the authors proposed two hypotheses: first, spouses with higher attachment avoidance would be more disengaged during interactions in which their partners evidenced greater negative affect; second, spouses with higher attachment avoidance would be more disengaged during conflict interactions that they perceived as more destructive. Couples were assessed annually over 5 years. Aims were addressed both cross-sectionally and longitudinally and via questionnaire and behavioral observation data. During both conflictual and supportive interactions, wives' negative affect predicted husbands' disengagement when husbands were higher on avoidant attachment. Longitudinally, the link between husbands' perceptions of their couple conflict as destructive and husbands' conflict avoidance was stronger for husbands who were higher on attachment avoidance. Theoretical and clinical implications are discussed.

  18. 34 CFR 75.611 - Avoidance of flood hazards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Avoidance of flood hazards. 75.611 Section 75.611... by a Grantee? Construction § 75.611 Avoidance of flood hazards. In planning the construction, a...) Evaluate flood hazards in connection with the construction; and (b) As far as practicable, avoid...

  19. 34 CFR 75.611 - Avoidance of flood hazards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Avoidance of flood hazards. 75.611 Section 75.611... by a Grantee? Construction § 75.611 Avoidance of flood hazards. In planning the construction, a...) Evaluate flood hazards in connection with the construction; and (b) As far as practicable, avoid...

  20. 34 CFR 75.611 - Avoidance of flood hazards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Avoidance of flood hazards. 75.611 Section 75.611... by a Grantee? Construction § 75.611 Avoidance of flood hazards. In planning the construction, a...) Evaluate flood hazards in connection with the construction; and (b) As far as practicable, avoid...

  1. 34 CFR 75.611 - Avoidance of flood hazards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Avoidance of flood hazards. 75.611 Section 75.611... by a Grantee? Construction § 75.611 Avoidance of flood hazards. In planning the construction, a...) Evaluate flood hazards in connection with the construction; and (b) As far as practicable, avoid...

  2. 34 CFR 75.611 - Avoidance of flood hazards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Avoidance of flood hazards. 75.611 Section 75.611... by a Grantee? Construction § 75.611 Avoidance of flood hazards. In planning the construction, a...) Evaluate flood hazards in connection with the construction; and (b) As far as practicable, avoid...

  3. 14 CFR 417.231 - Collision avoidance analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH SAFETY Flight Safety Analysis § 417.231 Collision avoidance analysis. (a) General. A flight safety analysis must include a collision avoidance analysis that... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Collision avoidance analysis....

  4. 14 CFR 417.231 - Collision avoidance analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH SAFETY Flight Safety Analysis § 417.231 Collision avoidance analysis. (a) General. A flight safety analysis must include a collision avoidance analysis that... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Collision avoidance analysis....

  5. 14 CFR 417.231 - Collision avoidance analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH SAFETY Flight Safety Analysis § 417.231 Collision avoidance analysis. (a) General. A flight safety analysis must include a collision avoidance analysis that... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Collision avoidance analysis....

  6. 14 CFR 417.231 - Collision avoidance analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH SAFETY Flight Safety Analysis § 417.231 Collision avoidance analysis. (a) General. A flight safety analysis must include a collision avoidance analysis that... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Collision avoidance analysis....

  7. 14 CFR 417.231 - Collision avoidance analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH SAFETY Flight Safety Analysis § 417.231 Collision avoidance analysis. (a) General. A flight safety analysis must include a collision avoidance analysis that... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Collision avoidance analysis....

  8. A Contemporary Behavior Analysis of Anxiety and Avoidance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dymond, Simon; Roche, Bryan

    2009-01-01

    Despite the central status of avoidance in explaining the etiology and maintenance of anxiety disorders, surprisingly little behavioral research has been conducted on human avoidance. In the present paper, first we provide a brief review of the empirical literature on avoidance. Next, we describe the implications of research on derived relational…

  9. 47 CFR 51.609 - Determination of avoided retail costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Determination of avoided retail costs. 51.609... (CONTINUED) INTERCONNECTION Resale § 51.609 Determination of avoided retail costs. (a) Except as provided in § 51.611, the amount of avoided retail costs shall be determined on the basis of a cost study...

  10. 50 CFR 600.510 - Gear avoidance and disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Gear avoidance and disposal. 600.510... Gear avoidance and disposal. (a) Vessel and gear avoidance. (1) FFV's arriving on fishing grounds where fishing vessels are already fishing or have set their gear for that purpose must ascertain the...

  11. 50 CFR 600.510 - Gear avoidance and disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Gear avoidance and disposal. 600.510... Gear avoidance and disposal. (a) Vessel and gear avoidance. (1) FFV's arriving on fishing grounds where fishing vessels are already fishing or have set their gear for that purpose must ascertain the...

  12. 50 CFR 600.510 - Gear avoidance and disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Gear avoidance and disposal. 600.510... Gear avoidance and disposal. (a) Vessel and gear avoidance. (1) FFV's arriving on fishing grounds where fishing vessels are already fishing or have set their gear for that purpose must ascertain the...

  13. 14 CFR 129.18 - Collision avoidance system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Collision avoidance system. 129.18 Section... § 129.18 Collision avoidance system. Effective January 1, 2005, any airplane you, as a foreign air...) A collision avoidance system equivalent to TSO C-119b (version 7.0), or a later version, capable...

  14. 14 CFR 129.18 - Collision avoidance system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Collision avoidance system. 129.18 Section... § 129.18 Collision avoidance system. Effective January 1, 2005, any airplane you, as a foreign air...) A collision avoidance system equivalent to TSO C-119b (version 7.0), or a later version, capable...

  15. 14 CFR 121.356 - Collision avoidance system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Collision avoidance system. 121.356 Section... Collision avoidance system. Effective January 1, 2005, any airplane you operate under this part must be equipped and operated according to the following table: Collision Avoidance Systems If you operate...

  16. 14 CFR 121.356 - Collision avoidance system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Collision avoidance system. 121.356 Section... Collision avoidance system. Effective January 1, 2005, any airplane you operate under this part must be equipped and operated according to the following table: Collision Avoidance Systems If you operate...

  17. 14 CFR 129.18 - Collision avoidance system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Collision avoidance system. 129.18 Section... § 129.18 Collision avoidance system. Effective January 1, 2005, any airplane you, as a foreign air...) A collision avoidance system equivalent to TSO C-119b (version 7.0), or a later version, capable...

  18. 14 CFR 121.356 - Collision avoidance system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Collision avoidance system. 121.356 Section... Collision avoidance system. Effective January 1, 2005, any airplane you operate under this part must be equipped and operated according to the following table: Collision Avoidance Systems If you operate...

  19. 14 CFR 129.18 - Collision avoidance system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Collision avoidance system. 129.18 Section... § 129.18 Collision avoidance system. Effective January 1, 2005, any airplane you, as a foreign air...) A collision avoidance system equivalent to TSO C-119b (version 7.0), or a later version, capable...

  20. 14 CFR 121.356 - Collision avoidance system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Collision avoidance system. 121.356 Section... Collision avoidance system. Effective January 1, 2005, any airplane you operate under this part must be equipped and operated according to the following table: Collision Avoidance Systems If you operate...

  1. Neuroimaging the temporal dynamics of human avoidance to sustained threat.

    PubMed

    Schlund, Michael W; Hudgins, Caleb D; Magee, Sandy; Dymond, Simon

    2013-11-15

    Many forms of human psychopathology are characterized by sustained negative emotional responses to threat and chronic behavioral avoidance, implicating avoidance as a potential transdiagnostic factor. Evidence from both nonhuman neurophysiological and human neuroimaging studies suggests a distributed frontal-limbic-striatal brain network supports avoidance. However, our understanding of the temporal dynamics of the network to sustained threat that prompts sustained avoidance is limited. To address this issue, 17 adults were given extensive training on a modified free-operant avoidance task in which button pressing avoided money loss during a sustained threat period. Subsequently, subjects underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while completing the avoidance task. In our regions of interest, we observed phasic, rather than sustained, activation during sustained threat in dorsolateral and inferior frontal regions, anterior and dorsal cingulate, ventral striatum and regions associated with emotion, including the amygdala, insula, substantia nigra and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis complex. Moreover, trait levels of experiential avoidance were negatively correlated with insula, hippocampal and amygdala activation. These findings suggest knowledge that one can consistently avoid aversive outcomes is not associated with decreased threat-related responses and that individuals with greater experiential avoidance exhibit reduced reactivity to initial threat. Implications for understanding brain mechanisms supporting human avoidance and psychological theories of avoidance are discussed.

  2. An expert system for wind shear avoidance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stengel, Robert F.; Stratton, D. Alexander

    1990-01-01

    A study of intelligent guidance and control concepts for protecting against the adverse effects of wind shear during aircraft takeoffs and landings is being conducted, with current emphasis on developing an expert system for wind shear avoidance. Principal objectives are to develop methods for assessing the likelihood of wind shear encounter (based on real-time information in the cockpit), for deciding what flight path to pursue (e.g., takeoff abort, landing go-around, or normal climbout or glide slope), and for using the aircraft's full potential for combating wind shear. This study requires the definition of both deterministic and statistical techniques for fusing internal and external information , for making go/no-go decisions, and for generating commands to the manually controlled flight. The program has begun with the development of the WindShear Safety Advisor, an expert system for pilot aiding that is based on the FAA Windshear Training Aid; a two-volume manual that presents an overview , pilot guide, training program, and substantiating data provides guidelines for this initial development. The WindShear Safety Advisor expert system currently contains over 200 rules and is coded in the LISP programming language.

  3. Avoided valence transition in a plutonium superconductor

    PubMed Central

    Ramshaw, B. J.; Shekhter, Arkady; McDonald, Ross D.; Betts, Jon B.; Mitchell, J. N.; Tobash, P. H.; Mielke, C. H.; Bauer, E. D.; Migliori, Albert

    2015-01-01

    The d and f electrons in correlated metals are often neither fully localized around their host nuclei nor fully itinerant. This localized/itinerant duality underlies the correlated electronic states of the high-Tc cuprate superconductors and the heavy-fermion intermetallics and is nowhere more apparent than in the 5f valence electrons of plutonium. Here, we report the full set of symmetry-resolved elastic moduli of PuCoGa5—the highest Tc superconductor of the heavy fermions (Tc = 18.5 K)—and find that the bulk modulus softens anomalously over a wide range in temperature above Tc. The elastic symmetry channel in which this softening occurs is characteristic of a valence instability—therefore, we identify the elastic softening with fluctuations of the plutonium 5f mixed-valence state. These valence fluctuations disappear when the superconducting gap opens at Tc, suggesting that electrons near the Fermi surface play an essential role in the mixed-valence physics of this system and that PuCoGa5 avoids a valence transition by entering the superconducting state. The lack of magnetism in PuCoGa5 has made it difficult to reconcile with most other heavy-fermion superconductors, where superconductivity is generally believed to be mediated by magnetic fluctuations. Our observations suggest that valence fluctuations play a critical role in the unusually high Tc of PuCoGa5. PMID:25737548

  4. Avoided valence transition in a plutonium superconductor.

    PubMed

    Ramshaw, B J; Shekhter, Arkady; McDonald, Ross D; Betts, Jon B; Mitchell, J N; Tobash, P H; Mielke, C H; Bauer, E D; Migliori, Albert

    2015-03-17

    The d and f electrons in correlated metals are often neither fully localized around their host nuclei nor fully itinerant. This localized/itinerant duality underlies the correlated electronic states of the high-Tc cuprate superconductors and the heavy-fermion intermetallics and is nowhere more apparent than in the 5f valence electrons of plutonium. Here, we report the full set of symmetry-resolved elastic moduli of PuCoGa5--the highest Tc superconductor of the heavy fermions (Tc = 18.5 K)--and find that the bulk modulus softens anomalously over a wide range in temperature above Tc. The elastic symmetry channel in which this softening occurs is characteristic of a valence instability--therefore, we identify the elastic softening with fluctuations of the plutonium 5f mixed-valence state. These valence fluctuations disappear when the superconducting gap opens at Tc, suggesting that electrons near the Fermi surface play an essential role in the mixed-valence physics of this system and that PuCoGa5 avoids a valence transition by entering the superconducting state. The lack of magnetism in PuCoGa5 has made it difficult to reconcile with most other heavy-fermion superconductors, where superconductivity is generally believed to be mediated by magnetic fluctuations. Our observations suggest that valence fluctuations play a critical role in the unusually high Tc of PuCoGa5.

  5. Whole arm obstacle avoidance for teleoperated robots

    SciTech Connect

    Feddema, J.T.; Novak, J.L.

    1993-10-01

    This paper describes a collision avoidance system using Whole Arm Proximity (WHAP) sensors on a PUMA 560 robot arm. The capacitance-based sensors generate electric fields which can completely encompass the robot arm and detect obstacles as they approach from any direction. The directional obstacle information gathered by the WHAP sensors together with the sensor geometry and robot configuration is used to scale the commanded joint velocities of the robot. A linearized relationship between the WHAP sensor reading and the distance from the obstacle allows direct transformation of perturbations in VHAP readings to perturbations in joint velocities. The VHAP reading is used to directly reduce the component of the command input velocity along the normal axis of the sensor, allowing graceful reductions in speed as the arm approaches the obstacle. By scaling only the component of the velocity vector in the,direction of the nearest obstacles, the control system restricts motion in the direction of obstacles while permitting unconstrained motion in other directions.

  6. Approach and avoidance motivation in eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Amy; Treasure, Janet; Smillie, Luke D

    2011-08-15

    It has been proposed that approach and avoidance processes may be critically involved in the development and maintenance of eating disorders (EDs), including anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN). The Behavioural Inhibition System and Behavioural Activation System Scales (BIS/BAS) and Appetitive Motivation Scale (AMS) questionnaires were administered to 286 participants: 91 healthy controls (HCs), 121 participants with a current ED, either AN (restrictive and binge purge subtypes), or BN and 74 participants recovered from an ED. Individuals with EDs had higher levels of sensitivity to punishment and lower levels of reward reactivity than controls. Individuals in recovery from an ED scored the same as those in the acute group, with the exception of BAS fun seeking, for which they scored significantly higher than those with restricting AN. Discriminant analysis revealed that HCs were maximally separated from those in the acute and recovered ED groups along a dimension reflecting high punishment sensitivity and low reward sensitivity. Classification analysis demonstrated that ED and HC group membership was predicted from reward and punishment sensitivity measures; however recovered participants tended to be misclassified as ED. This study suggests high punishment sensitivity and low reward reactivity/sensitivity might form a personality cluster associated with the risk of developing an ED.

  7. Cooperative organic mine avoidance path planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCubbin, Christopher B.; Piatko, Christine D.; Peterson, Adam V.; Donnald, Creighton R.; Cohen, David

    2005-06-01

    The JHU/APL Path Planning team has developed path planning techniques to look for paths that balance the utility and risk associated with different routes through a minefield. Extending on previous years' efforts, we investigated real-world Naval mine avoidance requirements and developed a tactical decision aid (TDA) that satisfies those requirements. APL has developed new mine path planning techniques using graph based and genetic algorithms which quickly produce near-minimum risk paths for complicated fitness functions incorporating risk, path length, ship kinematics, and naval doctrine. The TDA user interface, a Java Swing application that obtains data via Corba interfaces to path planning databases, allows the operator to explore a fusion of historic and in situ mine field data, control the path planner, and display the planning results. To provide a context for the minefield data, the user interface also renders data from the Digital Nautical Chart database, a database created by the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency containing charts of the world's ports and coastal regions. This TDA has been developed in conjunction with the COMID (Cooperative Organic Mine Defense) system. This paper presents a description of the algorithms, architecture, and application produced.

  8. The amygdala: securing pleasure and avoiding pain

    PubMed Central

    Fernando, Anushka B. P.; Murray, Jennifer E.; Milton, Amy L.

    2013-01-01

    The amygdala has traditionally been associated with fear, mediating the impact of negative emotions on memory. However, this view does not fully encapsulate the function of the amygdala, nor the impact that processing in this structure has on the motivational limbic corticostriatal circuitry of which it is an important structure. Here we discuss the interactions between different amygdala nuclei with cortical and striatal regions involved in motivation; interconnections and parallel circuitries that have become increasingly understood in recent years. We review the evidence that the amygdala stores memories that allow initially motivationally neutral stimuli to become associated through pavlovian conditioning with motivationally relevant outcomes which, importantly, can be either appetitive (e.g. food) or aversive (e.g. electric shock). We also consider how different psychological processes supported by the amygdala such as conditioned reinforcement and punishment, conditioned motivation and suppression, and conditioned approach and avoidance behavior, are not only psychologically but also neurobiologically dissociable, being mediated by distinct yet overlapping neural circuits within the limbic corticostriatal circuitry. Clearly the role of the amygdala goes beyond encoding aversive stimuli to also encode the appetitive, requiring an appreciation of the amygdala's mediation of both appetitive and fearful behavior through diverse psychological processes. PMID:24367307

  9. Avoiding conflicts over Africa's water resources.

    PubMed

    Ashton, Peter J

    2002-05-01

    Some 85% of Africa's water resources are comprised of large river basins that are shared between several countries. High rates of population growth accompanied by continued increases in the demand for water have resulted in several countries passing the point where the scarcity of water supplies effectively limits further development. Present population trends and patterns of water use suggest that more African countries will exceed the limits of their economically usable, land-based water resources before 2025. Normally, water allocation and distribution priorities within a country are aligned with national development objectives. While this may achieve national "water security" objectives, greater emphasis needs to be placed on regional efforts to ensure that the available water resources are used to derive sustainable long-term benefits for the peoples of Africa as a whole. Ideally, each country's water-resource management strategy needs to be aligned with that of its neighbors if peace and prosperity are to be maintained and conflict is to be avoided in the region.

  10. SAMPEX science pointing with velocity avoidance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frakes, Joseph P.; Henretty, Debra A.; Flatley, Thomas W.; Markley, F. L.; San, Josephine K.; Lightsey, E. G.

    The Solar, Anomalous, and Magnetospheric Particle Explorer (SAMPEX) science pointing mode is presented with the additional constraint of velocity avoidance. This constraint has been added in light of the orbital debris and micrometeoroid fluxes that have been revealed by the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) recovered in January 1990. These fluxes are 50-100 times higher than the flux tables that were used in the September 1988 proposal to NASA for the SAMPEX mission. The SAMPEX Heavey Ion Large Telescope (HILT) sensor includes a flow-through isobutane proportional counter that is susceptible to penetration by orbital debris and micrometeoroids. Thus, keeping the HILT sensor pointed away from the velocity vector, the direction of maximum flux, will compensate for the higher than expected fluxes. Using an orbital debris model and a micrometeoroid model developed at the Johnson Space Center (JSC), and a SAMPEX dynamic simulator developed by the Guidance and Control Branch at the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), an 'optimal' minimum ram angle (the angle between the HILT boresight and the velocity vector) of 90 degrees has been determined. It is optimal in the sense of minimizing the science pointing performance degradation while providing approximately an 89 percent chance of survival for the HILT sensor over a three year period.

  11. Nanospray 'taxation' and how to avoid it.

    PubMed

    Chernushevich, I V; Bahr, U; Karas, M

    2004-01-01

    In mass spectrometric analysis with nanospray ionization, some analytes were found to appear in spectra with a delay of tens of minutes, while a few others could not be detected at all. The effect was found to be related to cation-exchange chromatography with negative charge on the glass surface, and with the most affected peptide or protein ions having strong localization of positive charge in blocks of two or more adjacent basic amino acid residues (e.g. melittin). The 'affinity' to the glass surface was studied with a peptide mixture and bovine serum albumin (BSA) tryptic digest solutions at sub-micromolar concentration. About 20% fewer tryptic peptides could be identified from spectra recorded with a glass nanospray capillary compared to those acquired with either conventional 1 microL/min electrospray or a quartz nanospray capillary. Protein identification studies are not likely to be seriously affected by this loss, but other protein applications, such as investigations of mutations or post-translational modifications, may suffer due to reduced sequence coverage. Ways to avoid losses of useful ions are discussed.

  12. Laying hens learn to avoid feathers.

    PubMed

    Harlander-Matauschek, A; Wassermann, F; Zentek, J; Bessei, W

    2008-09-01

    Previous work demonstrated an association between feather pecking and feather eating in laying hens. This raised the question if digestive feedback affects feather eating or feather pecking in laying hens. We hypothesized that feathers enriched with sugar form a positive feedback and feathers enriched with quinine sulfate form a negative feedback. Forty-eight laying hens were kept in individual cages and fed a pelleted diet ad libitum. Twenty-four birds were offered feathers on a daily basis; 12 of these birds were offered feathers soaked in 4% quinine sulfate solution (Q), and the other 12 were offered feathers soaked in 4% sucrose solution (S). The other 24 birds were kept as a control (C) without access to feathers. After a 10-d feather feeding period, 3 groups of 4 S and 4 C birds each and 3 groups of 4 Q and 4 C birds each were assembled. Feather-pecking behavior was recorded over a period of 8 d. The number of Q feathers eaten was significantly lower than the number of S feathers. Birds that were offered Q feathers in the feather feeding phase showed significantly less severe feather pecking than S and C birds. The results clearly show that Q as an unpalatable substance was the signal the animal used to avoid damaging the feather cover in laying hens.

  13. Aerial vehicles collision avoidance using monocular vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balashov, Oleg; Muraviev, Vadim; Strotov, Valery

    2016-10-01

    In this paper image-based collision avoidance algorithm that provides detection of nearby aircraft and distance estimation is presented. The approach requires a vision system with a single moving camera and additional information about carrier's speed and orientation from onboard sensors. The main idea is to create a multi-step approach based on a preliminary detection, regions of interest (ROI) selection, contour segmentation, object matching and localization. The proposed algorithm is able to detect small targets but unlike many other approaches is designed to work with large-scale objects as well. To localize aerial vehicle position the system of equations relating object coordinates in space and observed image is solved. The system solution gives the current position and speed of the detected object in space. Using this information distance and time to collision can be estimated. Experimental research on real video sequences and modeled data is performed. Video database contained different types of aerial vehicles: aircrafts, helicopters, and UAVs. The presented algorithm is able to detect aerial vehicles from several kilometers under regular daylight conditions.

  14. Allergen avoidance approaches in food allergy management.

    PubMed

    Koletzko, Sibylle; Koletzko, Berthold

    2009-01-01

    Dietary elimination of causative food ingredients, usually food proteins, is the basis of treating food hypersensitivity. Proper diagnostic assessment is essential to avoid burdening children with unnecessary dietary restrictions with potential adverse effects. Diagnosis requires a detailed history, allergen elimination, and re-challenge with suspected foods. Complete elimination of causative food components depends on professional counseling and training of the patient and family, and transparent labeling of food products. Elimination diets carry the risk of inducing insufficient supplies of critical nutrients with adverse effects on health and wellbeing, particularly in children with exclusion of foods that provide a major part of dietary supply and patients with multiple food allergies. Infants and young children with cow's milk allergy, who have not been fully breastfed, require milk substitutes based on extensively hydrolyzed protein or amino acids. Elimination diets must be supervised and monitored to a similar degree as drug treatments, and the need for continued dietary elimination should be reviewed on a regular basis and re-challenges considered.

  15. Velocity of chloroplast avoidance movement is fluence rate dependent.

    PubMed

    Kagawa, Takatoshi; Wada, Masamitsu

    2004-06-01

    In Arabidopsis leaves, chloroplast movement is fluence rate dependent. At optimal, lower light fluences, chloroplasts accumulate at the cell surface to maximize photosynthetic potential. Under high fluence rates, chloroplasts avoid incident light to escape photodamage. In this paper, we examine the phenomenon of chloroplast avoidance movement in greater detail and demonstrate a proportional relationship between fluence rate and the velocity of chloroplast avoidance. In addition we show that the amount of light-activated phototropin2, the photoreceptor for the avoidance response, likely plays a role in this phenomenon, as heterozygous mutant plants show a reduced avoidance velocity compared to that of homozygous wild type plants.

  16. Infection-avoidance behaviour in humans and other animals.

    PubMed

    Curtis, Valerie A

    2014-10-01

    Compared with living free, the parasitic way of life has many attractions. Parasites create problems for all animals. Potential hosts can respond by learning to live with parasites (tolerance), actively fighting them (resistance), or they can avoid becoming infected in the first place (avoidance). I propose here a new classification of avoidance behaviour according to the epidemiology of infection risk, where animals must avoid (i) conspecifics, (ii) parasites and their vectors, (iii) parasite-rich environments, and (iv) niche infestation. I further explore how the disgust adaptive system, which coordinates avoidance behaviour, may form a continuum with the immune system through the sharing of signalling pathways, sites of action, and evolutionary history.

  17. Faecal avoidance and selective foraging: do wild mice have the luxury to avoid faeces?

    PubMed

    Walsh, Patrick T; McCreless, Erin; Pedersen, Amy B

    2013-09-01

    Host-parasite interactions are a key determinant of the population dynamics of wild animals, and behaviours that reduce parasite transmission and infection may be important for improving host fitness. While antiparasite behaviours have been demonstrated in laboratory animals and domesticated ungulates, whether these behaviours operate in the wild is poorly understood. Therefore, examining antiparasite behaviours in natural populations is crucial for understanding their ecological significance. In this study, we examined whether two wild rodents (white-footed mice, Peromyscus leucopus, and deer mice, Peromyscus maniculatus), selectively foraged away from conspecific faeces or avoided faeces altogether, and whether faecal gastrointestinal parasite status affected their behaviour. We also tested whether wild mice, when nesting, avoided using material that had previously been used by healthy or parasite-infected conspecifics. Our results, in contrast to laboratory mouse studies, suggest that wild mice do not demonstrate faecal avoidance, selective foraging or selective use of nesting material; they preferred being near faeces and did not differentiate between faeces from parasitized and uninfected conspecifics. Behavioural avoidance to reduce parasite infection may still represent an important strategy; however, mice in our study population appeared to favour the opportunity to feed and nest over the risks of coming into contact with faecal-transmitted parasites. Furthermore, the presence of conspecific faeces may actually provide a positive cue of a good foraging or nesting location. Ultimately, balancing the trade-off of performing antiparasite behaviours to reduce infection with missing an important feeding or nesting opportunity may be very different for animals in the wild facing complex and stochastic environments.

  18. Avoidance response of the estuarine amphipod Eohaustorius estuarius to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-contaminated, field-collected sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Kravitz, M.J. . Office of Water); Lamberson, J.O.; Ferraro, S.P.; Swartz, R.C.; Boese, B.L.; Specht, D.T. )

    1999-06-01

    Amphipods (Eohaustorius estuarius) were placed in two-chamber containers with different combinations of three contaminated sediments and a control sediment, and their distribution was determined after 2 or 3 d. Amphipods avoided the sediment with the highest PAH contamination and one of two sediments with moderate PAH concentrations. In the moderately contaminated sediment avoided by amphipods, the (avoidance) response was more sensitive than mortality as a biological indicator of unacceptable sediment contamination. The avoidance response in this case likely represents an early indication of potential mortality from sediment exposure. Population levels of amphipods in moderately to heavily PAH-contaminated sediments may be influenced by a combination of avoidance behavior and toxicity/lethality.

  19. Body checking and avoidance in ethnically diverse female college students.

    PubMed

    White, Emily K; Warren, Cortney S

    2013-09-01

    Although body checking and avoidance behaviors are common in women with eating disorders, minimal research has examined the nature or correlates of these behaviors in ethnically diverse female college students without eating disorders. Self-identified European American (n=268), Asian American (n=163), Latina (n=146), and African American (n=73) women completed self-report measures of body checking and avoidance, thin-ideal internalization, eating pathology, and clinical impairment. Results indicated that European and Asian American women reported significantly more body checking and avoidance than African American and Latina women. Generally, correlates of body checking and avoidance were consistent across ethnic groups: Regression analyses indicated that type of ethnicity predicted body checking and avoidance; and ethnicity, body checking, and body avoidance predicted eating pathology and clinical impairment. These associations suggest that body checking and avoidance are not benign behaviors in diverse nonclinical women.

  20. AVOID BECOMING A VICTIM OF COUNTERFEIT ITEMS

    SciTech Connect

    WARRINER RD

    2011-07-13

    In today's globalized economy, we cannot live without imported products. Most people do not realize how thin the safety net of regulation and inspection really is. Less than three percent of imported products receive any form of government inspection prior to sale. Avoid flea markets, street vendors and deep discount stores. The sellers of counterfeit wares know where to market their products. They look for individuals who are hungry for a brand name item but do not want to pay a brand name price for it. The internet provides anonymity to the sellers of counterfeit products. Unlike Europe, U.S. law does not hold internet-marketing organizations, responsible for the quality of the products sold on their websites. These organizations will remove an individual vendor when a sufficient number of complaints are lodged, but they will not take responsibility for the counterfeit products you may have purchased. EBay has a number of counterfeit product guides to help you avoid being a victim of the sellers of these products. Ten percent of all medications taken worldwide are counterfeit. If you do buy medications on-line, be sure that the National Association of Boards of Pharmacy Verified Internet Pharmacy Practice Sites (VIPPS) recommends the pharmacy you choose to use. Inspect all medication purchases and report any change in color, shape, imprinting or odor to your pharmacist. If you take generic medications these attributes may change from one manufacturer to another. Your pharmacist should inform you of any changes when you refill your prescription. If they do not, get clarification prior to taking the medication. Please note that the Federal Drug Administration (FDA) does not regulate supplements. The FDA only steps in when a specific supplement proves to cause physical harm or contains a regulated ingredient. Due to counterfeiting, Underwriters Laboratories (UL) changed their label design three times since 1996. The new gold label should be attached to the cord or

  1. Avoiding unfavorable results in postburn contracture hand

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharya, Sameek

    2013-01-01

    Deformities of the hands are a fairly common sequel of burn especially in the developing world. This is because of high incidence of burns, limited access to standard treatment and rehabilitation. The best outcome of a burnt hand is when deformities are prevented from developing. A good functional result is possible when due consideration is paid to hands during resuscitation, excisional surgery, reconstructive surgery and physiotherapy. The post-burns deformities of hand develop due direct thermal damage or secondary to intrinsic minus position due to oedema or vascular insufficiency. During the acute phase the concerns are, maintenance circulation minimize oedema prevent unphysiological positioning and wound closure with autogenous tissue as soon as possible. The rehabilitation program during the acute phase starts from day one and goes on till the hand has healed and has regained full range of motion. Full blown hand contractures are challenging to correct and become more difficult as time passes. Long-standing cases often land up with attenuation of extensor apparatus leading to swan neck and boutonniere deformity, muscle shortening and bony ankylosis. The major and most common pitfall after contracture release is relapse. The treatment protocol of contracture is solely directed towards countering this tendency. This article aims to guide a surgeon in obtaining optimal hand function and avoid pit falls at different stages of management of hand burns. The reasons of an unfavourable outcome of a burnt hand are possible lack of optimal care in the acute phase, while planning and performing reconstructive procedure and during aftercare and rehabilitation. PMID:24501479

  2. Collision avoidance in computer optimized treatment planning.

    PubMed

    Humm, J L

    1994-07-01

    Of major concern in fully automated computerized treatment delivery is the possibility of gantry/couch or gantry/patient collisions. In this work, software has been developed to detect collisions between gantry and couch or patient for both transaxial and noncoplanar treatment fields during the treatment planning process. The code uses the gantry angles, turntable angles, and position of the couch surface relative to the isocenter supplied by the planner for the prescribed radiation fields. In addition, the maximum patient anterior-posterior and lateral separations are entered in order to model the patient outline by a conservative cylindrical ellipse. By accessing a database containing the precise mechanical dimensions of the therapy equipment, 3D analytical geometry is used to test for collisions between gantry/patient and gantry/couch for each treatment field. When collisions are detected, the software inspects the use of an extended distance treatment, by recalculating and testing for collisions, with the couch at a greater distance from the collimator along the direction of the central axis. If a collision is avoided at extended distance, the lateral, longitudinal, and vertical motions of the couch are recorded for entry into the treatment plan, or else a warning message is printed, together with the nearest permissible collision-free gantry angle. Upon inspection, the planner can either elect to use the calculated closest permissible gantry angle or reject the plan. The software verifies that each proposed treatment field is safe, but also that the transition between fields is collision-free. This requires that the sequence of the treatment fields be ordered, preferably into a sequence which minimizes the delivery time compatible with patient safety.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. Green light induces shade avoidance symptoms.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tingting; Maruhnich, Stefanie A; Folta, Kevin M

    2011-11-01

    Light quality and quantity affect plant adaptation to changing light conditions. Certain wavelengths in the visible and near-visible spectrum are known to have discrete effects on plant growth and development, and the effects of red, far-red, blue, and ultraviolet light have been well described. In this report, an effect of green light on Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) rosette architecture is demonstrated using a narrow-bandwidth light-emitting diode-based lighting system. When green light was added to a background of constant red and blue light, plants exhibited elongation of petioles and upward leaf reorientation, symptoms consistent with those observed in a shaded light environment. The same green light-induced phenotypes were also observed in phytochrome (phy) and cryptochrome (cry) mutant backgrounds. To explore the molecular mechanism underlying the green light-induced response, the accumulation of shade-induced transcripts was measured in response to enriched green light environments. Transcripts that have been demonstrated to increase in abundance under far-red-induced shade avoidance conditions either decrease or exhibit no change when green light is added. However, normal far-red light-associated transcript accumulation patterns are observed in cryptochrome mutants grown with supplemental green light, indicating that the green-absorbing form of cryptochrome is the photoreceptor active in limiting the green light induction of shade-associated transcripts. These results indicate that shade symptoms can be induced by the addition of green light and that cryptochrome receptors and an unknown light sensor participate in acclimation to the enriched green environment.

  4. Geoengineering to Avoid Overshoot: An Uncertainty Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, K.

    2009-04-01

    Geoengineering (or climate engineering) using stratospheric sulfur injections (Crutzen, 2006) has been called for research in case of an urgent need for stopping global warming when other mitigation efforts were exhausted. Although there are a number of concerns over this idea (e.g. Robock, 2008), it is still useful to consider geoengineering as a possible method to limit warming caused by overshoot. Overshoot is a feature accompanied by low stabilizations scenarios aiming for a stringent target (Rao et al., 2008) in which total radiative forcing temporarily exceeds the target before reaching there. Scenarios achieving a 50% emission reduction by 2050 produces overshoot. Overshoot could cause sustained warming for decades due to the inertia of the climate system. If stratospheric sulfur injections were to be used as a "last resort" to avoid overshoot, what would be the suitable start-year and injection profile of such an intervention? Wigley (2006) examined climate response to combined mitigation/geoengineering scenarios with the intent to avert overshoot. Wigley's analysis demonstrated a basic potential of such a combined mitigation/geoengineering approach to avoid temperature overshoot - however it considered only simplistic sulfur injection profiles (all started in 2010), just one mitigation scenario, and did not examine the sensitivity of the climate response to any underlying uncertainties. This study builds upon Wigley's premise of the combined mitigation/geoengineering approach and brings associated uncertainty into the analysis. First, this study addresses the question as to how much geoengineering intervention would be needed to avoid overshoot by considering associated uncertainty? Then, would a geoengineering intervention of such a magnitude including uncertainty be permissible in considering all the other side effects? This study begins from the supposition that geoengineering could be employed to cap warming at 2.0°C since preindustrial. A few

  5. Assessment of avoidance behaviors in mouse models of muscle pain

    PubMed Central

    Pratt, Dane; Fuchs, Perry N.; Sluka, Kathleen A.

    2014-01-01

    Pain encompasses both a sensory as well as an affective dimension and these are differentially processed in the cortex. Animal models typically use reflexive behaviors to test nociceptive responses; these are thought to reflect the sensory dimension of pain. While several behavioral tests are available for examining the affective dimension of pain it is unclear if these are appropriate in animal models of muscle pain. We therefore tested the utility of existing paradigms as well as new avoidance paradigms in animal models of muscle pain in mice. Specifically we used an escape-avoidance test to noxious mechanical stimuli, a learned avoidance test to noxious mechanical stimuli, and avoidance of physical activity. We used three animal models of muscle pain: carrageenan-induced inflammation, non-inflammatory muscle pain, and exercise-enhanced pain. In the carrageenan model of inflammation mice developed escape-avoidance behaviors to mechanical stimuli, learned avoidance to mechanical stimulation and avoidance of physical activity – these models are associated with unilateral hyperalgesia. When both muscles were inflamed, escape-avoidance behaviors did not develop suggesting equivalent bilateral pain-behaviors cannot be tested with an escape-avoidance test. In the non-inflammatory muscle pain model mice did not show significant changes in escape-avoidance behaviors or learned avoidance, but did avoid physical activity. In the exercise-enhanced pain model, there were no changes in escape avoidance, learned avoidance of noxious or physical activity In conclusion, we developed several testing protocols that assess supraspinal processing of pain-behaviors in models of muscle pain and that are most sensitive in animals with unilateral hyperalgesia. PMID:23747349

  6. [Participation of thalamic nuclei in the elaboration of conditioned avoidance reflexes of rats. IV. Lesions of the nucleus reuniens].

    PubMed

    Flämig, R; Klingberg, F

    1978-01-01

    The elaboration of conditioned avoidance reflexes in a Y-maze and in the jumping test was scarcely influenced by lesion of the n. reuniens of the thalamus in hooded rats. The increase of intertrialreactions in the jumping test after such lesions in contrast to the control group indicates changes in the regulation of motivational processes. After additional lesion of the n. rhomboideus neither the conditioned avoidance nor the unconditioned escape reaction were elaborated in the jumping test.

  7. Adolescents' approach-avoidance behaviour in the context of pain.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Emma; Keogh, Edmund; Eccleston, Christopher

    2016-02-01

    Adolescents who experience pain often face competing goals and have to choose whether to approach (confront) or avoid pain. This study investigates the decisions adolescents make when their pain conflicts with a valued goal. Adolescents between the ages of 15 and 18 years (N = 170) completed questionnaires on general and pain-specific anxiety, courage, and dispositional avoidance. Adolescents were presented with 16 vignettes (8 high pain intensity, 8 low pain intensity), which described pain conflicting with a goal (eg, doing well at school, seeing friends). Adolescents rated goals for importance and reported how likely they would be to approach or avoid each pain. Adolescents were more likely to avoid and were more fearful of high pain intensity than low pain intensity vignettes. Pain anxiety predicted higher levels of avoidance for both pain intensities. General anxiety was not a significant predictor of avoidance for either pain intensity. Goal importance promoted approach of goals, but only when pain was described as intense. However, pain anxiety predicted avoidance beyond the importance of goals for high pain intensity vignettes. In addition, we compared approach-avoidance of adolescents with and without chronic pain; analyses revealed no differences in approach-avoidance behaviour. We also found that behavioural endurance was predictive of approach and dispositional avoidance predicted higher avoidance, but courage was not predictive of behaviour in this task. We adopt a motivational perspective when interpreting the findings and consider whether the fear-avoidance model should be extended to include the function of avoidance or approach in the pursuit of a desired goal.

  8. A path modeling approach to understanding family conflict: reciprocal patterns of parent coercion and adolescent avoidance.

    PubMed

    Saxbe, Darby E; Ramos, Michelle R; Timmons, Adele C; Rodriguez, Aubrey R; Margolin, Gayla

    2014-06-01

    Conflict between parents and adolescents involves reciprocal exchanges in which family members influence and shape each other's behavior. This study uses multilevel path analysis to examine interrelations in observed behavior during 15-min conflict discussions conducted by 103 family triads, looking specifically at parent coercive and youth avoidant behaviors. We also explore the moderating roles of parents' past aggressive family conflict behavior on parents' responses to youth behavior. Discussions were coded in 3-min segments. Analyses used time-lagged codes so that a family member's behavior in 1 segment predicted another family member's behavior in the following segment. The fully saturated cross-lagged model tested all possible paths (parents' behavior predicting parents' and youths' subsequent behavior, and vice versa). Parents' coercive behavior was associated with more avoidant youth behavior in the following segment when controlling for youths' prior avoidant behavior. The opposite direction of effects also emerged: Mothers became more coercive when youth were more avoidant in a prior segment. Fathers' coercive behavior was not associated with youths' prior behavior and, with both parents in the same model, father and youth behavior were no longer associated; however, fathers' coercive behavior predicted more mother coercive behavior in the following segment. Mothers who had behaved more aggressively during family conflict over 2 waves of data collection became more coercive when youths were more avoidant, although parents' history of aggressive family conflict behavior did not moderate father-to-youth or youth-to-parent paths.

  9. Distrust As a Disease Avoidance Strategy: Individual Differences in Disgust Sensitivity Regulate Generalized Social Trust

    PubMed Central

    Aarøe, Lene; Osmundsen, Mathias; Petersen, Michael Bang

    2016-01-01

    Throughout human evolutionary history, cooperative contact with others has been fundamental for human survival. At the same time, social contact has been a source of threats. In this article, we focus on one particular viable threat, communicable disease, and investigate how motivations to avoid pathogens influence people's propensity to interact and cooperate with others, as measured by individual differences in generalized social trust. While extant studies on pathogen avoidance have argued that such motivations should prompt people to avoid interactions with outgroups specifically, we argue that these motivations should prompt people to avoid others more broadly. Empirically, we utilize two convenience samples and a large nationally representative sample of US citizens to demonstrate the existence of a robust and replicable effect of individual differences in pathogen disgust sensitivity on generalized social trust. We furthermore compare the effects of pathogen disgust sensitivity on generalized social trust and outgroup prejudice and explore whether generalized social trust to some extent constitutes a pathway between pathogen avoidance motivations and prejudice. PMID:27516744

  10. The Best Age for Pregnancy and Undue Pressures

    PubMed Central

    Bellieni, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    In western countries we assist at the paradox that fertility is socially discouraged by a mindset that depicts fertility as a resource to exploit as late as possible. So, couples have high expectative about the advantages of delayed parenthood, but they are scarcely informed about its risks. Scientific data suggests to anticipate the first pregnancy, but social pressures impose to wait, though delayed childbearing can provoke sterility and a greater gap between generations. The best age to become parents should be autonomously decided by a couple, under the condition of being a free informed choice and not a social imposition, but currently this is not guaranteed to western women and men. PMID:28101110

  11. Undue Lead Absorption and Lead Poisoning in Children: An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin-Fu, J. S.

    The toxic effects of lead, a useful metal ubiquitous in the human environment, have long been known. The occupational hazards of lead poisoning were well established by the early 19th century, but plumbism in children caused by paint ingestion was not reported until the turn of the century. Even in 1924, the child was said to live in a "lead…

  12. Undue Certainty: Where Howard Zinn's "A People's History" Falls Short

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wineburg, Sam

    2013-01-01

    Howard Zinn's "A People's History" of the United States has few peers among contemporary historical works. With more than 2 million copies in print, "A People's History" is more than a book. It is a cultural icon. While most historians aim to examine the full historical record, Zinn picks and chooses from it. Writing persuasively, he hides the…

  13. Undue reliance on I2 in assessing heterogeneity may mislead

    PubMed Central

    Rücker, Gerta; Schwarzer, Guido; Carpenter, James R; Schumacher, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Background The heterogeneity statistic I2, interpreted as the percentage of variability due to heterogeneity between studies rather than sampling error, depends on precision, that is, the size of the studies included. Methods Based on a real meta-analysis, we simulate artificially 'inflating' the sample size under the random effects model. For a given inflation factor M = 1, 2, 3,... and for each trial i, we create a M-inflated trial by drawing a treatment effect estimate from the random effects model, using si2/M as within-trial sampling variance. Results As precision increases, while estimates of the heterogeneity variance τ2 remain unchanged on average, estimates of I2 increase rapidly to nearly 100%. A similar phenomenon is apparent in a sample of 157 meta-analyses. Conclusion When deciding whether or not to pool treatment estimates in a meta-analysis, the yard-stick should be the clinical relevance of any heterogeneity present. τ2, rather than I2, is the appropriate measure for this purpose. PMID:19036172

  14. Prey aggregation is an effective olfactory predator avoidance strategy.

    PubMed

    Johannesen, Asa; Dunn, Alison M; Morrell, Lesley J

    2014-01-01

    Predator-prey interactions have a major effect on species abundance and diversity, and aggregation is a well-known anti-predator behaviour. For immobile prey, the effectiveness of aggregation depends on two conditions: (a) the inability of the predator to consume all prey in a group and (b) detection of a single large group not being proportionally easier than that of several small groups. How prey aggregation influences predation rates when visual cues are restricted, such as in turbid water, has not been thoroughly investigated. We carried out foraging (predation) experiments using a fish predator and (dead) chironomid larvae as prey in both laboratory and field settings. In the laboratory, a reduction in visual cue availability (in turbid water) led to a delay in the location of aggregated prey compared to when visual cues were available. Aggregated prey suffered high mortality once discovered, leading to better survival of dispersed prey in the longer term. We attribute this to the inability of the dead prey to take evasive action. In the field (where prey were placed in feeding stations that allowed transmission of olfactory but not visual cues), aggregated (large groups) and semi-dispersed prey survived for longer than dispersed prey-including long term survival. Together, our results indicate that similar to systems where predators hunt using vision, aggregation is an effective anti-predator behaviour for prey avoiding olfactory predators.

  15. Image Degradation in Microscopic Images: Avoidance, Artifacts, and Solutions.

    PubMed

    Roels, Joris; Aelterman, Jan; De Vylder, Jonas; Lippens, Saskia; Luong, Hiêp Q; Guérin, Christopher J; Philips, Wilfried

    2016-01-01

    The goal of modern microscopy is to acquire high-quality image based data sets. A typical microscopy workflow is set up in order to address a specific biological question and involves different steps. The first step is to precisely define the biological question, in order to properly come to an experimental design for sample preparation and image acquisition. A better object representation allows biological users to draw more reliable scientific conclusions. Image restoration can manipulate the acquired data in an effort to reduce the impact of artifacts (spurious results) due to physical and technical limitations, resulting in a better representation of the object of interest. However, precise usage of these algorithms is necessary so as to avoid further artifacts that might influence the data analysis and bias the conclusions. It is essential to understand image acquisition, and how it introduces artifacts and degradations in the acquired data, so that their effects on subsequent analysis can be minimized. This paper provides an overview of the fundamental artifacts and degradations that affect many micrographs. We describe why artifacts appear, in what sense they impact overall image quality, and how to mitigate them by first improving the acquisition parameters and then applying proper image restoration techniques.

  16. Generalisation of fear and avoidance along a semantic continuum.

    PubMed

    Boyle, Sean; Roche, Bryan; Dymond, Simon; Hermans, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    Directly conditioned fear and avoidance readily generalises to dissimilar but conceptually related stimuli. Here, for the first time, we examined the conceptual/semantic generalisation of both fear and avoidance using real words (synonyms). Participants were first exposed to a differential fear conditioning procedure in which one word (e.g., "broth"; CS+) was followed with brief electric shock [unconditioned stimulus (US)] and another was not (e.g., "assist"; CS-). Next, an instrumental conditioning phase taught avoidance in the presence the CS+ but not the CS-. During generalisation testing, synonyms of the CS+ (e.g., "soup"; GCS+) and CS- (e.g., "help"; GCS-) were presented in the absence of shock. Conditioned fear and avoidance, measured via skin conductance responses, behavioural avoidance and US expectancy ratings, generalised to the semantically related, but not to the semantically unrelated, synonyms. Findings have implications for how natural language categories and concepts mediate the expansion of fear and avoidance repertoires in clinical contexts.

  17. Excise Tax Avoidance: The Case of State Cigarette Taxes

    PubMed Central

    DeCicca, Philip; Kenkel, Donald; Liu, Feng

    2013-01-01

    We conduct an applied welfare economics analysis of cigarette tax avoidance. We develop an extension of the standard formula for the optimal Pigouvian corrective tax to incorporate the possibility that consumers avoid the tax by making purchases in nearby lower-tax jurisdictions. To provide a key parameter for our formula, we estimate a structural endogenous switching regression model of border-crossing and cigarette prices. In illustrative calculations, we find that for many states, after taking into account tax avoidance the optimal tax is at least 20 percent smaller than the standard Pigouvian tax that simply internalizes external costs. Our empirical estimate that tax avoidance strongly responds to the price differential is the main reason for this result. We also use our results to examine the benefits of replacing avoidable state excise taxes with a harder-to-avoid federal excise tax on cigarettes. PMID:24140760

  18. Anxiety sensitivity moderates behavioral avoidance in anxious youth.

    PubMed

    Lebowitz, Eli R; Shic, Frederick; Campbell, Daniel; Basile, Krista; Silverman, Wendy K

    2015-11-01

    Individuals who are high in anxiety sensitivity (AS) are motivated to avoid sensations of anxiety. Consequently, AS is hypothesized to contribute to overall avoidance of any feared stimuli. No studies have yet examined whether fear of a stimulus is a stronger predictor of behavioral avoidance in individuals who are high in AS compared to individuals who are low in AS. We examined whether AS moderates the association between fear of spiders and behavioral avoidance of spider stimuli in 50 clinically anxious youth. Fear of spiders significantly predicted avoidance of spider stimuli in youth high in AS but not in youth low in AS. These results provide support for the role of AS in avoidant behavior and help to explain the link between AS and the anxiety disorders. The results have implications for exposure-based anxiety treatments and highlight the importance of increasing anxious patients' ability to tolerate sensations of anxiety.

  19. Consumer responses to advertising on the Internet: the effect of individual difference on ambivalence and avoidance.

    PubMed

    Jin, Chang Hyun; Villegas, Jorge

    2007-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand the effect that individual characteristics have on consumer advertising processing under high- and low-interactivity circumstances on the Web. Tests on the relationship between individual differences and advertising responses form the basis of this empirical study on the Web. The results indicated that consumers have a higher tendency to avoid or experience ambivalence about Internet advertisements under low-interactivity circumstances, and attitudinal ambivalence lead to avoidance when responding to advertisements on the Internet. Personality variables are the main factors in consumer decision-making behaviors and Internet characteristics, such as levels of interactivity, can greatly influence the effectiveness of advertising in online environments. Advertising credibility could influence people's consumer attitudes, beliefs, or behaviors over time on the Web.

  20. A Mobile Robot Sonar System with Obstacle Avoidance.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-03-01

    vehicle, robot, obstacle avoidance, sonar sensing 102 17. SECURITY CLASSWIFCATION 1S. SECURITY CLASINFICATION I& SECURITY CLASSIFICATION 20. UMITATION...WITH OBSTACLE - AVOIDANCE __ by __ Patrick Gerard Byrne March 1994 Thesis Advisor: Yutaka Kanayama Approved for public release; distribution is...SEOLY(Lae anO r Iff TDT, Master’s Thesis _____________ 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE L FUMNING NUMBR A Mobile Robot Sonar System With Obstacle Avoidance (U

  1. Effects of optimism on creativity under approach and avoidance motivation

    PubMed Central

    Icekson, Tamar; Roskes, Marieke; Moran, Simone

    2014-01-01

    Focusing on avoiding failure or negative outcomes (avoidance motivation) can undermine creativity, due to cognitive (e.g., threat appraisals), affective (e.g., anxiety), and volitional processes (e.g., low intrinsic motivation). This can be problematic for people who are avoidance motivated by nature and in situations in which threats or potential losses are salient. Here, we review the relation between avoidance motivation and creativity, and the processes underlying this relation. We highlight the role of optimism as a potential remedy for the creativity undermining effects of avoidance motivation, due to its impact on the underlying processes. Optimism, expecting to succeed in achieving success or avoiding failure, may reduce negative effects of avoidance motivation, as it eases threat appraisals, anxiety, and disengagement—barriers playing a key role in undermining creativity. People experience these barriers more under avoidance than under approach motivation, and beneficial effects of optimism should therefore be more pronounced under avoidance than approach motivation. Moreover, due to their eagerness, approach motivated people may even be more prone to unrealistic over-optimism and its negative consequences. PMID:24616690

  2. Exponents of intrachain correlation for self-avoiding walks and knotted self-avoiding polygons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uehara, Erica; Deguchi, Tetsuo

    2013-08-01

    We show numerically that critical exponents for two-point intrachain correlation of an infinite chain characterize those of finite chains in self-avoiding walk (SAW) and self-avoiding polygon (SAP) under a topological constraint. We evaluate short-distance exponents θ(i, j) through the probability distribution functions of the distance between the ith and jth vertices of N-step SAW (or SAP with a knot) for all pairs (1 ⩽ i, j ⩽ N). We construct the contour plot of θ(i, j), and express it as a function of i and j. We suggest that it has quite a simple structure. Here exponents θ(i, j) generalize des Cloizeaux’s three critical exponents for short-distance intrachain correlation of SAW, and we show the crossover among them. We also evaluate the diffusion coefficient of knotted SAP for a few knot types, which can be calculated with the probability distribution functions of the distance between two nodes.

  3. Tornadic storm avoidance behavior in breeding songbirds.

    PubMed

    Streby, Henry M; Kramer, Gunnar R; Peterson, Sean M; Lehman, Justin A; Buehler, David A; Andersen, David E

    2015-01-05

    Migration is a common behavior used by animals of many taxa to occupy different habitats during different periods. Migrant birds are categorized as either facultative (i.e., those that are forced to migrate by some proximal cue, often weather) or obligate (i.e., those that migrate on a regular cycle). During migration, obligate migrants can curtail or delay flights in response to inclement weather or until favorable winds prevail, and they can temporarily reorient or reverse direction when ecological or meteorological obstacles are encountered. However, it is not known whether obligate migrants undertake facultative migrations and make large-scale movements in response to proximal cues outside of their regular migration periods. Here, we present the first documentation of obligate long-distance migrant birds undertaking a facultative migration, wherein breeding golden-winged warblers (Vermivora chrysoptera) carrying light-level geolocators performed a >1,500 km 5-day circumvention of a severe tornadic storm. The birds evacuated their breeding territories >24 hr before the arrival of the storm and atmospheric variation associated with it. The probable cue, radiating >1,000 km from tornadic storms, perceived by birds and influencing bird behavior and movements, is infrasound (i.e., sound below the range of human hearing). With the predicted increase in severity and frequency of similar storms as anthropogenic climate change progresses, understanding large-scale behavioral responses of animals to such events will be an important objective of future research.

  4. Rapid avoidance acquisition in Wistar-Kyoto rats.

    PubMed

    Servatius, R J; Jiao, X; Beck, K D; Pang, K C H; Minor, T R

    2008-10-10

    The relationship between trait stress-sensitivity, avoidance acquisition and perseveration of avoidance was examined using male Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) and Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Behavior in an open field was measured prior to escape/avoidance (E/A) acquisition and extinction. E/A was assessed in a discrete trial lever-press protocol. The signal-shock interval was 60s with subsequent shocks delivered every 3s until a lever-press occurred. A 3-min flashing light safety signal was delivered contingent upon a lever-press (or failure to respond in 5 min). WKY rats displayed phenotypic low open field activity, but were clearly superior to SD rats in E/A performance. As avoidance responses were acquired and reached asymptotic performance, SD rats exhibited "warm up", that is, SD rats rarely made avoidance responses on the initial trial of a session, even though later trials were consistently accompanied with avoidance responses. In contrast, WKY rats did not show the "warm up" pattern and avoided on nearly all trials of a session including the initial trial. In addition to the superior acquisition of E/A, WKY rats demonstrated several other avoidance features that were different from SD rats. Although the rates of nonreinforced intertrial responses (ITRs) were relatively low and selective to the early safety period, WKY displayed more ITRs than SD rats. With removal of the shocks extinction was delayed in WKY rats, likely reflecting their nearly perfect avoidance performance. Even after extensive extinction, first trial avoidance and ITRs were evident in WKY rats. Thus, WKY rats have a unique combination of trait behavioral inhibition (low open field activity and stress sensitivity) and superior avoidance acquisition and response perseveration making this strain a good model to understand anxiety disorders.

  5. Quantum walks with tuneable self-avoidance in one dimension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camilleri, Elizabeth; Rohde, Peter P.; Twamley, Jason

    2014-04-01

    Quantum walks exhibit many unique characteristics compared to classical random walks. In the classical setting, self-avoiding random walks have been studied as a variation on the usual classical random walk. Here the walker has memory of its previous locations and preferentially avoids stepping back to locations where it has previously resided. Classical self-avoiding random walks have found numerous algorithmic applications, most notably in the modelling of protein folding. We consider the analogous problem in the quantum setting - a quantum walk in one dimension with tunable levels of self-avoidance. We complement a quantum walk with a memory register that records where the walker has previously resided. The walker is then able to avoid returning back to previously visited sites or apply more general memory conditioned operations to control the walk. We characterise this walk by examining the variance of the walker's distribution against time, the standard metric for quantifying how quantum or classical a walk is. We parameterise the strength of the memory recording and the strength of the memory back-action on the walker, and investigate their effect on the dynamics of the walk. We find that by manipulating these parameters, which dictate the degree of self-avoidance, the walk can be made to reproduce ideal quantum or classical random walk statistics, or a plethora of more elaborate diffusive phenomena. In some parameter regimes we observe a close correspondence between classical self-avoiding random walks and the quantum self-avoiding walk.

  6. 16 CFR 300.6 - Labels to be avoided.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Labels to be avoided. 300.6 Section 300.6 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE WOOL PRODUCTS LABELING ACT OF 1939 Labeling § 300.6 Labels to be avoided. Stamps,...

  7. 28 CFR 552.23 - Confrontation avoidance procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Confrontation avoidance procedures. 552... MANAGEMENT CUSTODY Use of Force and Application of Restraints on Inmates § 552.23 Confrontation avoidance... information about the inmate and the immediate situation. Based on their assessment of that information,...

  8. 5 CFR 950.109 - Avoidance of conflict of interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Avoidance of conflict of interest. 950.109 Section 950.109 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE... PRIVATE VOLUNTARY ORGANIZATIONS General Provisions § 950.109 Avoidance of conflict of interest....

  9. Client Articulated Avoidance Goals in the Therapy Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliot, Andrew J.; Church, Marcy A.

    2002-01-01

    This research investigated the relationship between clients' pursuit of avoidance (relative to approach) therapy goals and change in subjective well-being (SWB) from the beginning to the end of therapy. Results indicated that clients with more avoidance therapy goals evidenced a smaller increase in SWB over the course of therapy than those with…

  10. Steering Clear: Avoidance in the Production of Idioms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irujo, Suzanne

    A study of advanced English learners' use or avoidance of English idioms is described. The investigation looked at whether the subjects would attempt to use English idioms in a translation task containing idioms, or would instead use non-idiomatic synonyms or paraphrase. It also looked at which idioms are used and which are avoided: those that are…

  11. Educational Demands to Reduce Avoidance of Vocational Education in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alsa'aideh, Monim

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to identify the educational demands to reduce students' avoidance of vocational education in Jordan. Results of a previous study addressing reasons for avoidance of vocational education, distributed these reasons into personal, social, economic, educational and vocational domains. Focus-groups method was used to identify the…

  12. Passive Avoidance Is Linked to Impaired Fear Extinction in Humans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornwell, Brian R.; Overstreet, Cassie; Krimsky, Marissa; Grillon, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Conventional wisdom dictates we must face our fears to conquer them. This idea is embodied in exposure-based treatments for anxiety disorders, where the intent of exposure is to reverse a history of avoidant behavior that is thought to fuel a patient's irrational fears. We tested in humans the relationship between fear and avoidance by combining…

  13. Experiential Avoidance and Problem Behavior: A Mediational Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kingston, Jessica; Clarke, Sue; Remington, Bob

    2010-01-01

    Despite their formal dissimilarity, problem behaviors (e.g., substance misuse, binge eating, self-harm) may share a common function. According to Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT), this shared function is "Experiential Avoidance," the process of avoiding, escaping or otherwise altering unwanted private events (e.g., thoughts, feelings,…

  14. Teacher Distress and the Role of Experiential Avoidance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinds, Erika; Jones, Laura Backen; Gau, Jeffrey M.; Forrester, Kathleen K.; Biglan, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Teachers' psychological well-being is important for teachers and students, but teaching is highly stressful, particularly in special education. We examined the role of experiential avoidance (EA) in the well-being of 529 middle and elementary school teachers. EA involves the tendency to avoid thoughts, feelings, and other internal experiences,…

  15. 47 CFR 74.803 - Frequency selection to avoid interference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SERVICES EXPERIMENTAL RADIO, AUXILIARY, SPECIAL BROADCAST AND OTHER PROGRAM DISTRIBUTIONAL SERVICES Low Power Auxiliary Stations § 74.803 Frequency selection to avoid interference. (a) Where two or more low... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Frequency selection to avoid interference....

  16. Safety Signals as Instrumental Reinforcers during Free-Operant Avoidance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernando, Anushka B. P.; Urcelay, Gonzalo P.; Mar, Adam C.; Dickinson, Anthony; Robbins, Trevor W.

    2014-01-01

    Safety signals provide "relief" through predicting the absence of an aversive event. At issue is whether these signals also act as instrumental reinforcers. Four experiments were conducted using a free-operant lever-press avoidance paradigm in which each press avoided shock and was followed by the presentation of a 5-sec auditory safety…

  17. Geographic variation in potentially avoidable hospitalizations in France.

    PubMed

    Mercier, Gregoire; Georgescu, Vera; Bousquet, Jean

    2015-05-01

    Potentially avoidable hospitalizations are studied as an indirect measure of access to primary care. Understanding the determinants of these hospitalizations can help improve the quality, efficiency, and equity of health care delivery. Few studies have tackled the issue of potentially avoidable hospitalizations in France, and none has done so at the national level. We assessed disparities in potentially avoidable hospitalizations in France in 2012 and analyzed their determinants. The standardized rate of potentially avoidable hospitalizations ranged from 0.1 to 44.4 cases per 1,000 inhabitants, at the ZIP code level. Increased potentially avoidable hospitalizations were associated with higher mortality, lower density of acute care beds and ambulatory care nurses, lower median income, and lower education levels. This study unveils considerable variation in the rate of potentially avoidable hospitalizations in spite of France's mandatory, publicly funded health insurance system. In addition to epidemiological and sociodemographic factors, this study suggests that primary care organization plays a role in geographic disparities in potentially avoidable hospitalizations that might be addressed by increasing the number of nurses and enhancing team work in primary care. Policy makers should consider measuring potentially avoidable hospitalizations in France as an indicator of primary care organization.

  18. 14 CFR 125.224 - Collision avoidance system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Collision avoidance system. 125.224 Section... Requirements § 125.224 Collision avoidance system. Effective January 1, 2005, any airplane you operate under this part 125 must be equipped and operated according to the following table: Collision...

  19. 14 CFR 125.224 - Collision avoidance system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Collision avoidance system. 125.224 Section... Requirements § 125.224 Collision avoidance system. Effective January 1, 2005, any airplane you operate under this part 125 must be equipped and operated according to the following table: Collision...

  20. 14 CFR 125.224 - Collision avoidance system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Collision avoidance system. 125.224 Section... Requirements § 125.224 Collision avoidance system. Effective January 1, 2005, any airplane you operate under this part 125 must be equipped and operated according to the following table: Collision...

  1. 14 CFR 125.224 - Collision avoidance system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Collision avoidance system. 125.224 Section... Requirements § 125.224 Collision avoidance system. Effective January 1, 2005, any airplane you operate under this part 125 must be equipped and operated according to the following table: Collision...

  2. Verbal Avoidance and Dissatisfaction in Intimate Conflict Situations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afifi, Tamara D.; McManus, Tara; Steuber, Keli; Coho, Amanda

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to more closely examine the association between avoidance and satisfaction during a potentially conflict-inducing conversation with one's dating partner. The results suggest that the way people respond to their own and their partner's conflict avoidance depends upon whether they are male or female. The perception of…

  3. 29 CFR 1912.4 - Avoidance of duplication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Avoidance of duplication. 1912.4 Section 1912.4 Labor... (CONTINUED) ADVISORY COMMITTEES ON STANDARDS Organizational Matters § 1912.4 Avoidance of duplication. No... advisory committee established under section 7(b) of the Act....

  4. 49 CFR 1152.32 - Calculation of avoidable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... application will be used based on its geographical location. The railroad's total estimated system variable... to the branch on an actual expense basis. The avoidable costs of providing freight service on a... avoidable costs of providing freight service on a branch shall be just and reasonable, and shall not...

  5. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor agonists trigger avoidance of novel food in rats.

    PubMed

    Mahiout, Selma; Pohjanvirta, Raimo

    2016-12-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that mediates the toxicity of dioxins, but also plays important physiological roles, which are only beginning to unfold. Previous studies have surprisingly unveiled that low doses of the potent AHR agonist TCDD induce a strong and persistent avoidance of novel food items in rats. Here, we further examined the involvement of the AHR in the avoidance response in Sprague-Dawley rats with three established AHR agonists: 6-formylindolo(3,2-b)carbazole (FICZ), β-naphthoflavone (BNF) and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP); with a novel selective AHR modulator (C2); and with an activator of another nuclear receptor, CAR: 2,4,6-tryphenyldioxane-1,3 (TPD). As sensitive indices of AHR or CAR activity, we used Cyp1a1 and Cyp2b1 gene expression, as they are, respectively, the drug-metabolizing enzymes specifically regulated by them. We further attempted to address the roles played by enhanced neophobia and conditioned taste aversion (CTA) in the avoidance behaviour. All AHR agonists triggered practically total avoidance of novel chocolate, but the durations varied. Likewise, acutely subtoxic doses of C2, differing by 25-fold, all elicited a similar outcome. In contrast, TPD did not influence chocolate consumption at all. If rats were initially accustomed to chocolate for 6h after single FICZ or BNF exposure, avoidance was still clearly present two weeks later when chocolate was offered again. Hence, the avoidance response appears to specifically involve the AHR instead of being triggered by induction of intestinal or hepatic nuclear receptor signalling in general. It is also shared by both endogenous and exogenous AHR activators. Moreover, this behavioural change in rats seems to contain elements of both CTA and enhanced neophobia, but further clarification of this is still required.

  6. Assessment of avoidance behaviour by earthworms (Lumbricus rubellus and Octolasion cyaneum) in linear pollution gradients.

    PubMed

    Lowe, Christopher N; Butt, Kevin R; Cheynier, Kevin Yves-Marie

    2016-02-01

    Avoidance behaviour by earthworms is recognised as a valuable endpoint in soil quality assessment and has resulted in the development of a standardised test (ISO 17512-1, 2008) providing epigeic earthworms with a choice between test and control soils. This study sought to develop and evaluate an avoidance test utilising soil-dwelling earthworms in linear pollution gradients with Visible Implant Elastomer (VIE) tags used to identify individual organisms. Sequential experiments were established in laboratory-based mesocosms (0.6m×0.13m×0.1m) that determined the relative sensitivities (in terms of associated avoidance behaviour) of Octolasion cyaneum and Lumbricus rubellus at varying levels of polluted soil and also assessed the influence of introduction point on recorded movement within gradients. In an initial gradient (0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, 100% polluted soil), both species exhibited a clear avoidance response with all surviving earthworms retrieved (after 7 days) from the unpolluted soil. In a less polluted gradient (0%, 6.25%, 12.5%, 18.75%, 25%) L. rubellus were retrieved throughout the gradient while O. cyaneum were located within the 0% and 6.25% divisions, suggesting a species-specific response to polluted soil. Results also showed that the use of a linear pollution gradient system has the potential to assess earthworm avoidance behaviour and could provide a more ecologically relevant alternative to the ISO 17512: 2008 avoidance test. However, further work is required to establish the effectiveness of this procedure, specifically in initial chemical screening and assessment of single contaminant bioavailability, where uptake of pollutants by earthworms could be measured and directly related to the point of introduction and retrieval.

  7. Optimizing Sampling Design to Deal with Mist-Net Avoidance in Amazonian Birds and Bats

    PubMed Central

    Marques, João Tiago; Ramos Pereira, Maria J.; Marques, Tiago A.; Santos, Carlos David; Santana, Joana; Beja, Pedro; Palmeirim, Jorge M.

    2013-01-01

    Mist netting is a widely used technique to sample bird and bat assemblages. However, captures often decline with time because animals learn and avoid the locations of nets. This avoidance or net shyness can substantially decrease sampling efficiency. We quantified the day-to-day decline in captures of Amazonian birds and bats with mist nets set at the same location for four consecutive days. We also evaluated how net avoidance influences the efficiency of surveys under different logistic scenarios using re-sampling techniques. Net avoidance caused substantial declines in bird and bat captures, although more accentuated in the latter. Most of the decline occurred between the first and second days of netting: 28% in birds and 47% in bats. Captures of commoner species were more affected. The numbers of species detected also declined. Moving nets daily to minimize the avoidance effect increased captures by 30% in birds and 70% in bats. However, moving the location of nets may cause a reduction in netting time and captures. When moving the nets caused the loss of one netting day it was no longer advantageous to move the nets frequently. In bird surveys that could even decrease the number of individuals captured and species detected. Net avoidance can greatly affect sampling efficiency but adjustments in survey design can minimize this. Whenever nets can be moved without losing netting time and the objective is to capture many individuals, they should be moved daily. If the main objective is to survey species present then nets should still be moved for bats, but not for birds. However, if relocating nets causes a significant loss of netting time, moving them to reduce effects of shyness will not improve sampling efficiency in either group. Overall, our findings can improve the design of mist netting sampling strategies in other tropical areas. PMID:24058579

  8. Locomotor avoidance behaviours during a visually guided task involving an approaching object.

    PubMed

    Cinelli, Michael E; Patla, Aftab E

    2008-11-01

    Collision avoidance behaviours in situations where a collision may occur and one's planned movement is restricted, reveals that one's response is not as simple as a visual input producing some motor output. In this study, the participants (N=6) walked along a 9.5m path towards an air-filled human doll (180 degrees from their travel path) that would approach them on some trials. A spatial constraint (i.e. doorframe) was placed along the path and the participants had to determine if they could pass through the constraint prior to avoiding a collision or not. The constraint was set-up so that it was either at the theoretical collision point or 1.5m before or after the theoretical collision point. This study aimed to determine: (1) how the presence of a spatial constraint affects one's ability to perceive when to avoid a collision with an approaching object; (2) if the individuals use action parameters (i.e. velocity modifications, change in heading, etc.) in a consistent manner independent of the spatial constraint location and object's approach velocity; (3) if a consistent safety zone exists independent of the object's approach velocity. The results showed that the placement of the spatial constraint, but not the velocity of the object had a significant effect on the initiation of a change in heading. Participants used two-stage avoidance behaviour; change heading and then adjust walking velocity. The initial avoidance behaviour was initiated when the object was at a constant distance away (i.e. 3.73 m). Overall, it appears as though collision avoidance with approaching objects has cognitive as well as perceptual influences.

  9. Optimizing sampling design to deal with mist-net avoidance in Amazonian birds and bats.

    PubMed

    Marques, João Tiago; Ramos Pereira, Maria J; Marques, Tiago A; Santos, Carlos David; Santana, Joana; Beja, Pedro; Palmeirim, Jorge M

    2013-01-01

    Mist netting is a widely used technique to sample bird and bat assemblages. However, captures often decline with time because animals learn and avoid the locations of nets. This avoidance or net shyness can substantially decrease sampling efficiency. We quantified the day-to-day decline in captures of Amazonian birds and bats with mist nets set at the same location for four consecutive days. We also evaluated how net avoidance influences the efficiency of surveys under different logistic scenarios using re-sampling techniques. Net avoidance caused substantial declines in bird and bat captures, although more accentuated in the latter. Most of the decline occurred between the first and second days of netting: 28% in birds and 47% in bats. Captures of commoner species were more affected. The numbers of species detected also declined. Moving nets daily to minimize the avoidance effect increased captures by 30% in birds and 70% in bats. However, moving the location of nets may cause a reduction in netting time and captures. When moving the nets caused the loss of one netting day it was no longer advantageous to move the nets frequently. In bird surveys that could even decrease the number of individuals captured and species detected. Net avoidance can greatly affect sampling efficiency but adjustments in survey design can minimize this. Whenever nets can be moved without losing netting time and the objective is to capture many individuals, they should be moved daily. If the main objective is to survey species present then nets should still be moved for bats, but not for birds. However, if relocating nets causes a significant loss of netting time, moving them to reduce effects of shyness will not improve sampling efficiency in either group. Overall, our findings can improve the design of mist netting sampling strategies in other tropical areas.

  10. The pineal complex in Roman high avoidance and Roman low avoidance rats.

    PubMed

    Seidel, A; Sousa Neto, J A; Huesgen, A; Vollrath, L; Manz, B; Gentsch, C; Lichtsteiner, M

    1990-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that the pineal gland of Roman high avoidance (RHA/Verh) rats is larger than that of Roman low avoidance rats (RLA/Verh). In the present study measurement of enzyme activities (serotonin-N-acetyl-transferase, hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase) revealed that pineals of RHA/Verh rats are twice as active in melatonin production than pineals of RLA/Verh rats. Indoleamine content was also higher in RHA/Verh rats, whereas noradrenaline content was the same in both lines. When values were expressed per mg protein, these differences disappeared except for N-acetyl-serotonin and noradrenaline which were higher or lower in RHA/Verh rats, respectively. Both lines had higher serum levels of melatonin during the dark phase than during the light phase. However, RHA/Verh rats had increased serum levels as compared to RLA/Verh rats during both day and night. Morphometric analysis of the deep and superficial part of the pineal complex revealed, that the volumes of both parts are enlarged in RHA/Verh rats. Electron microscopic studies of pineals collected during day- and nighttime showed higher numbers of synaptic ribbons per unit area in pineals of RHA/Verh rats. In pineals collected during June synaptic ribbons displayed a day/night rhythm in RHA/Verh rats only, whereas in glands of both lines collected during November no daily changes were found. These results show that closely related but divergently selected rat lines may differ in pineal ultrastructure and pineal function.

  11. Time Out from Sex or Romance: Sexually Experienced Adolescents' Decisions to Purposefully Avoid Sexual Activity or Romantic Relationships.

    PubMed

    Byers, E Sandra; O'Sullivan, Lucia F; Brotto, Lori A

    2016-05-01

    Researchers have given significant attention to abstinence among adolescents, but far less is known about purposeful avoidance of sexual activity (and relationship involvement). Typically, it is assumed that, once adolescents have initiated sexual activity, they will thereafter engage in sexual activity if given the opportunity. However, it is unclear whether that is true as some research indicates that many adolescents engage in sexual activity intermittently. Sexually experienced adolescents may purposefully avoid engaging in sexual activity for a period of time and, if so, this has implications for understanding their sexual decision-making. We used a mixed methods approach to investigate sexually experienced adolescents' decisions to purposefully avoid further sexual activity and/or romantic relationships with a focus on how common these decisions are and factors influencing them. Participants were 411 (56 % female) adolescents (16-21 years old) who completed an on-line survey that assessed reasons for each type of avoidance, religiosity, sexual esteem, sexual distress, sexual coercion, and dysfunctional sexual beliefs. Overall, 27 % of participants had engaged in sexual avoidance and 47 % had engaged in romantic avoidance. Significantly more female than male adolescents reported sexual and romantic avoidance. Adolescents' reasons for sexual avoidance included: lack of sexual pleasure or enjoyment, relationship reasons, negative emotions, values, fear of negative outcomes, negative physical experience, and other priorities. Reasons for romantic avoidance included: effects of previous relationship, not interested in commitment, wrong time, other priorities, negative emotions, no one was good enough, and sexual concerns. Logistical regressions were used to assess associations between age, religiosity, sexual esteem, sexual distress, experience of sexual coercion, and dysfunctional sexual beliefs and having engaged in romantic and/or sexual avoidance. The

  12. Use of behavioral avoidance testing in natural resource damage assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lipton, J.; Little, E.E.; Marr, J.C.A.; DeLonay, A.J.; Bengston, David A.; Henshel, Diane S.

    1996-01-01

    Natural Resource Damage Assessment (NRDA) provisions established under federal and state statutes enable natural resource trustees to recover compensation from responsible parties to restore injured natural resources. Behavioral avoidance testing with fish has been used in NRDAs to determine injuries to natural resources and to establish restoration thresholds. In this manuscript we evaluate the use of avoidance testing to NRDA. Specifically, we discuss potential “acceptance criteria” to evaluate the applicability and relevance of avoidance testing. These acceptance criteria include: (1) regulatory relevance, (2) reproducibility of testing, (3) ecological significance, (4) quality assurance/quality control, and (5) relevance to restoration. We discuss each of these criteria with respect to avoidance testing. Overall, we conclude that avoidance testing can be an appropriate, defensible, and desirable aspect of an NRDA.

  13. Internet addiction symptoms, disordered eating, and body image avoidance.

    PubMed

    Rodgers, Rachel F; Melioli, Tiffany; Laconi, Stéphanie; Bui, Eric; Chabrol, Henri

    2013-01-01

    Internet addiction is an increasing concern among young adults. Self-presentational theory posits that the Internet offers a context in which individuals are able to control their image. Little is known about body image and eating concerns among pathological Internet users. The aim of this study was to explore the association between Internet addiction symptoms, body image esteem, body image avoidance, and disordered eating. A sample of 392 French young adults (68 percent women) completed an online questionnaire assessing time spent online, Internet addiction symptoms, disordered eating, and body image avoidance. Fourteen men (11 percent) and 26 women (9.7 percent) reported Internet addiction. Body image avoidance was associated with Internet addiction symptoms among both genders. Controlling for body-mass index, Internet addiction symptoms, and body image avoidance were both significant predictors of disordered eating among women. These findings support the self-presentational theory of Internet addiction and suggest that body image avoidance is an important factor.

  14. Vine tendrils use contact chemoreception to avoid conspecific leaves.

    PubMed

    Fukano, Yuya

    2017-03-15

    Movement and growth habit of climbing plants have attracted attention since the time of Charles Darwin; however, there are no reports on whether plants can choose suitable hosts or avoid unsuitable ones based on chemoreception. Here, I show that the tendrils of Cayratia japonica (Vitaceae) appear to avoid conspecific leaves using contact chemoreception for oxalates, which are highly concentrated in C. japonica leaves. The coiling experiments show that C. japonica has a flexible plastic response to avoid coiling around conspecific leaves. The coiling response is negatively correlated with the oxalate content in the contacted leaves. Experiments using laboratory chemicals indicate that the tendrils avoid oxalate-coated plastic sticks. These results indicate that the tendrils of C. japonica avoid coiling around a conspecific leaf based on contact chemoreception for oxalate compounds. The tendrils of climbing plants may function as a chemoreceptor system to detect the chemical cues of a contacted plant.

  15. How do walkers avoid a mobile robot crossing their way?

    PubMed

    Vassallo, Christian; Olivier, Anne-Hélène; Souères, Philippe; Crétual, Armel; Stasse, Olivier; Pettré, Julien

    2017-01-01

    Robots and Humans have to share the same environment more and more often. In the aim of steering robots in a safe and convenient manner among humans it is required to understand how humans interact with them. This work focuses on collision avoidance between a human and a robot during locomotion. Having in mind previous results on human obstacle avoidance, as well as the description of the main principles which guide collision avoidance strategies, we observe how humans adapt a goal-directed locomotion task when they have to interfere with a mobile robot. Our results show differences in the strategy set by humans to avoid a robot in comparison with avoiding another human. Humans prefer to give the way to the robot even when they are likely to pass first at the beginning of the interaction.

  16. Disgust as a motivator of avoidance of spiders.

    PubMed

    Woody, Sheila R; McLean, Carmen; Klassen, Tammy

    2005-01-01

    Individuals with small animal phobias show elevated general disgust sensitivity, and spider phobics often endorse both fear and disgust in response to a spider. Some researchers have argued that the link between disgust and fear of small animals is spurious. On the other hand, disgust may play a functional role, as might any negative emotion that is strongly stimulus-bound, in which escape or avoidance is negatively reinforced. It is therefore important to clarify whether disgust has a functional or epiphenomenal role in avoidance of feared stimuli. The present study examined the degree to which disgust motivates avoidance of spider-related stimuli using a series of behavioral avoidance tests comparing a harmless tarantula, a pen that had come in contact with the spider, and a clean pen. Peak disgust was a stronger predictor than anxiety of avoidance of both the spider and the "contaminated" pen.

  17. Neural substrates of approach-avoidance conflict decision-making

    PubMed Central

    Aupperle, Robin L.; Melrose, Andrew J.; Francisco, Alex; Paulus, Martin P.; Stein, Murray B.

    2014-01-01

    Animal approach-avoidance conflict paradigms have been used extensively to operationalize anxiety, quantify the effects of anxiolytic agents, and probe the neural basis of fear and anxiety. Results from human neuroimaging studies support that a frontal-striatal-amygdala neural circuitry is important for approach-avoidance learning. However, the neural basis of decision-making is much less clear in this context. Thus, we combined a recently developed human approach-avoidance paradigm with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to identify neural substrates underlying approach-avoidance conflict decision-making. Fifteen healthy adults completed the approach-avoidance conflict (AAC) paradigm during fMRI. Analyses of variance were used to compare conflict to non-conflict (avoid-threat and approach-reward) conditions and to compare level of reward points offered during the decision phase. Trial-by-trial amplitude modulation analyses were used to delineate brain areas underlying decision-making in the context of approach/avoidance behavior. Conflict trials as compared to the non-conflict trials elicited greater activation within bilateral anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), anterior insula, and caudate, as well as right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Right caudate and lateral PFC activation was modulated by level of reward offered. Individuals who showed greater caudate activation exhibited less approach behavior. On a trial-by-trial basis, greater right lateral PFC activation related to less approach behavior. Taken together, results suggest that the degree of activation within prefrontal-striatal-insula circuitry determines the degree of approach versus avoidance decision-making. Moreover, the degree of caudate and lateral PFC activation is related to individual differences in approach-avoidance decision-making. Therefore, the AAC paradigm is ideally suited to probe anxiety-related processing differences during approach-avoidance decision-making. PMID:25224633

  18. The Impact of Childhood Emotional Abuse and Experiential Avoidance on Maladaptive Problem Solving and Intimate Partner Violence

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Kathryn M.; Higgins, Lorrin

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the joint influences of experiential avoidance and social problem solving on the link between childhood emotional abuse (CEA) and intimate partner violence (IPV). Experiential avoidance following CEA may interfere with a person’s ability to effectively problem solve in social situations, increasing risk for conflict and interpersonal violence. As part of a larger study, 232 women recruited from the community completed measures assessing childhood emotional, physical, and sexual abuse, experiential avoidance, maladaptive social problem solving, and IPV perpetration and victimization. Final trimmed models indicated that CEA was indirectly associated with IPV victimization and perpetration via experiential avoidance and Negative Problem Orientation (NPO) and Impulsivity/Carelessness Style (ICS) social problem solving strategies. Though CEA was related to an Avoidance Style (AS) social problem solving strategy, this strategy was not significantly associated with IPV victimization or perpetration. Experiential avoidance had both a direct and indirect effect, via NPO and ICS social problem solving, on IPV victimization and perpetration. Findings suggest that CEA may lead some women to avoid unwanted internal experiences, which may adversely impact their ability to effectively problem solve in social situations and increase IPV risk. PMID:25893570

  19. The impact of childhood emotional abuse and experiential avoidance on maladaptive problem solving and intimate partner violence.

    PubMed

    Bell, Kathryn M; Higgins, Lorrin

    2015-04-16

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the joint influences of experiential avoidance and social problem solving on the link between childhood emotional abuse (CEA) and intimate partner violence (IPV). Experiential avoidance following CEA may interfere with a person's ability to effectively problem solve in social situations, increasing risk for conflict and interpersonal violence. As part of a larger study, 232 women recruited from the community completed measures assessing childhood emotional, physical, and sexual abuse, experiential avoidance, maladaptive social problem solving, and IPV perpetration and victimization. Final trimmed models indicated that CEA was indirectly associated with IPV victimization and perpetration via experiential avoidance and Negative Problem Orientation (NPO) and Impulsivity/Carelessness Style (ICS) social problem solving strategies. Though CEA was related to an Avoidance Style (AS) social problem solving strategy, this strategy was not significantly associated with IPV victimization or perpetration. Experiential avoidance had both a direct and indirect effect, via NPO and ICS social problem solving, on IPV victimization and perpetration. Findings suggest that CEA may lead some women to avoid unwanted internal experiences, which may adversely impact their ability to effectively problem solve in social situations and increase IPV risk.

  20. Reduction in Memory Specificity Following an Approach/Avoidance Scrambled Sentences Task Relates to Cognitive Avoidant Coping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Debeer, Elise; Raes, Filip; Williams, J. Mark G.; Hermans, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    "Overgeneral autobiographical memory" (OGM) refers to the tendency to retrieve less specific personal memories. According to the functional avoidance hypothesis, OGM might act as a cognitive strategy to avoid emotionally distressing details of negative memories. In the present study, we investigated the effect of an experimentally…

  1. Avoidance of physical activity is a sensitive indicator of illness.

    PubMed

    Skinner, Gregory W; Mitchell, Duncan; Harden, Lois M

    2009-03-02

    Although fever and sickness behavior are common responses to infection, it has been proposed that the sickness behaviors associated with infection, in particular lethargy and fatigue, may be more valuable clinical markers of illness and recovery in patients, than is body temperature alone. Measuring abdominal temperature, food intake and wheel running we therefore determined the dose thresholds and sensitivities of these responses to lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to receive one of three LPS doses (10, 50, 250 microg/kg), or saline, subcutaneously. Administration of LPS induced a dose-dependent increase in abdominal temperature and decrease in wheel running, food intake and body mass. Regression analysis revealed that decreased running was the most-sensitive of the sickness responses to LPS administration, with a regression slope of -41%/log microg, compared to the slopes for food intake (-30%/log microg, F(1,2)=244, P=0.004) and body mass (-2.2%/log microg, F(1,5)=7491, P<0.0001). To determine the likelihood that exercise training influenced the sickness responses we measured in our dose-response study we performed a second experiment in which we investigated whether fever and anorexia induced by LPS administration would present differently depending on whether rats had been exercising or sedentary. Six weeks of wheel running had no effect on the magnitude of fever and anorexia induced by LPS administration. Avoidance of physical activity therefore appears to be a more-sensitive indicator of a host's reaction to LPS than is anorexia and fever.

  2. Single dose testosterone administration alleviates gaze avoidance in women with Social Anxiety Disorder.

    PubMed

    Enter, Dorien; Terburg, David; Harrewijn, Anita; Spinhoven, Philip; Roelofs, Karin

    2016-01-01

    Gaze avoidance is one of the most characteristic and persistent social features in people with Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD). It signals social submissiveness and hampers adequate social interactions. Patients with SAD typically show reduced testosterone levels, a hormone that facilitates socially dominant gaze behavior. Therefore we tested as a proof of principle whether single dose testosterone administration can reduce gaze avoidance in SAD. In a double-blind, within-subject design, 18 medication-free female participants with SAD and 19 female healthy control participants received a single dose of 0.5mg testosterone and a matched placebo, at two separate days. On each day, their spontaneous gaze behavior was recorded using eye-tracking, while they looked at angry, happy, and neutral facial expressions. Testosterone enhanced the percentage of first fixations to the eye-region in participants with SAD compared to healthy controls. In addition, SAD patients' initial gaze avoidance in the placebo condition was associated with more severe social anxiety symptoms and this relation was no longer present after testosterone administration. These findings indicate that single dose testosterone administration can alleviate gaze avoidance in SAD. They support theories on the dominance enhancing effects of testosterone and extend those by showing that effects are particularly strong in individuals featured by socially submissive behavior. The finding that this core characteristic of SAD can be directly influenced by single dose testosterone administration calls for future inquiry into the clinical utility of testosterone in the treatment of SAD.

  3. Hardiness, avoidance coping, and alcohol consumption in war veterans: A moderated-mediation study.

    PubMed

    Bartone, Paul T; Johnsen, Bjorn H; Eid, Jarle; Hystad, Sigurd W; Laberg, Jon C

    2016-11-24

    Military personnel often engage in excessive alcohol use after returning from deployments. Thus far, research has paid scant attention to personality factors that may increase or diminish the risk for increased alcohol consumption in this population. The present study explores how psychological hardiness, avoidance coping, and stress exposure may interact to influence alcohol consumption patterns in soldiers following deployment. U.S. Army National Guard soldiers (N = 357) were surveyed shortly after returning from combat operations in Afghanistan. Conditional process analysis was used to test for mediation and moderation effects. Mediation effects were further tested in a replication sample of Norwegian Army soldiers (N = 230) deployed to Kosovo. Findings show that hardiness is a significant (negative) predictor of increased alcohol use and that this relation is mediated by avoidance coping. Further, this effect was moderated by combat stress exposure in the U.S. sample, such that the mediation is stronger for those with greater exposure (moderated-mediation). Avoidance coping also mediated the effects of hardiness on alcohol consumption in the Norwegian sample. These findings suggest that avoidance coping and hardiness may be fruitful areas for interventions aimed at reducing risky drinking in high-stress groups like the military.

  4. The importance of self-regulatory and goal-conflicting processes in the avoidance of drunk driving among Greek young drivers.

    PubMed

    Liourta, Elissavet; van Empelen, Pepijn

    2008-05-01

    The present study examined self-regulatory and goal-conflicting processes in the avoidance of drunk driving among Greek young drivers. A total of 361 university students in Greece completed a questionnaire, using a retrospective cross-sectional survey design. One-third reported to have driven under the influence of alcohol. Although prior intentions were clearly related to actual avoidance of drunk driving, one out of five respondents had not complied with their intention. An examination of post-intentional correlates of avoidance of drunk driving among positive intenders showed that avoidance of drunk driving was positively related to alcohol limitation plans and alcohol limitation self-efficacy, whereas negative relations were found for goal conflict and behavioural willingness. The present study suggests that people should not only be motivated but also be equipped with self-regulatory strategies aiming at the avoidance of drinking. Finally, goal commitment should be enhanced by increasing the salience of the avoidance goal.

  5. On the role of subsecond dopamine release in conditioned avoidance

    PubMed Central

    Oleson, Erik B.; Cheer, Joseph F.

    2013-01-01

    Using shock avoidance procedures to study conditioned behavioral responses has a rich history within the field of experimental psychology. Such experiments led to the formulation of the general concept of negative reinforcement and specific theories attempting to explain escape and avoidance behavior, or why animals choose to either terminate or prevent the presentation of an aversive event. For example, the two-factor theory of avoidance holds that cues preceding an aversive event begin to evoke conditioned fear responses, and these conditioned fear responses reinforce the instrumental avoidance response. Current neuroscientific advances are providing new perspectives into this historical literature. Due to its well-established role in reinforcement processes and behavioral control, the mesolimbic dopamine system presented itself as a logical starting point in the search for neural correlates of avoidance and escape behavior. We recently demonstrated that phasic dopamine release events are inhibited by stimuli associated with aversive events but increased by stimuli preceding the successful avoidance of the aversive event. The latter observation is inconsistent with the second component of the two-factor theory of avoidance and; therefore, led us propose a new theoretical explanation of conditioned avoidance: (1) fear is initially conditioned to the warning signal and dopamine computes this fear association as a decrease in release, (2) the warning signal, now capable of producing a negative emotional state, suppresses dopamine release and behavior, (3) over repeated trials the warning signal becomes associated with safety rather than fear; dopaminergic neurons already compute safety as an increase in release and begin to encode the warning signal as the earliest predictor of safety (4) the warning signal now promotes conditioned avoidance via dopaminergic modulation of the brain's incentive-motivational circuitry. PMID:23759871

  6. Avoided-level-crossing statistics in open chaotic billiards.

    PubMed

    Poli, Charles; Dietz, Barbara; Legrand, Olivier; Mortessagne, Fabrice; Richter, Achim

    2009-09-01

    We investigate a two-level model with a large number of open decay channels in order to describe avoided level crossing statistics in open chaotic billiards. This model allows us to describe the fundamental changes in the probability distribution of the avoided level crossings compared with the closed case. Explicit expressions are derived for systems with preserved and broken time-reversal symmetry. We find that the decay process induces a modification at small spacings of the probability distribution of the avoided level crossings due to an attraction of the resonances. The theoretical predictions are in complete agreement with the recent experimental results of Dietz [Phys. Rev. E 73, 035201 (2006)].

  7. The Role of Allergen Exposure and Avoidance in Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Baxi, Sachin N.; Phipatanakul, Wanda

    2010-01-01

    Allergy testing and avoidance of allergens plays an important role in asthma control. Increased allergen exposure, in genetically susceptible individuals, can lead to allergic sensitization. Continued allergen exposure can increase the risk of asthma and other allergic diseases. In a patient with persistent asthma, identification of indoor and outdoor allergens and subsequent avoidance can improve symptoms. Often times, a patient will have multiple allergies and the avoidance plan should target all positive allergens. Several studies have shown that successful allergen remediation includes a comprehensive approach including education, cleaning, physical barriers and maintaining these practices. PMID:20568555

  8. Systems and Techniques for Identifying and Avoiding Ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansman, R. John

    1995-01-01

    In-flight icing is one of the most difficult aviation weather hazards facing general aviation. Because most aircraft in the general aviation category are not certified for flight into known icing conditions, techniques for identifying and avoiding in-flight ice are important to maintain safety while increasing the utility and dispatch capability which is part of the AGATE vision. This report summarizes a brief study effort which: (1) Reviewed current ice identification, forecasting, and avoidance techniques; (2) Assessed feasibility of improved forecasting and ice avoidance procedures; and (3) Identified key issues for the development of improved capability with regard to in-flight icing.

  9. Geoengineering to Avoid Overshoot: An Analysis of Uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Katsumasa; Cho, Cheolhung; Krey, Volker; Patt, Anthony; Rafaj, Peter; Rao-Skirbekk, Shilpa; Wagner, Fabian

    2010-05-01

    ., 2009) is employed to calculate climate responses including associated uncertainty and to estimate geoengineering profiles to cap the warming at 2°C since preindustrial. The inversion setup for the model ACC2 is used to estimate the uncertain parameters (e.g. climate sensitivity) against associated historical observations (e.g. global-mean surface air temperature). Our preliminary results show that under climate and scenario uncertainties, a geoengineering intervention to avoid an overshoot would be with medium intensity in the latter half of this century (≈ 1 Mt. Pinatubo eruption every 4 years in terms of stratospheric sulfur injections). The start year of geoengineering intervention does not significantly influence the long-term geoengineering profile. However, a geoengineering intervention of the medium intensity could bring about substantial environmental side effects such as the destruction of stratospheric ozone. Our results point to the necessity to pursue persistently mainstream mitigation efforts. 2) Pollution Abatement and Geoengineering The second study examines the potential of geoengineering combined with air clean policy. A drastic air pollution abatement might result in an abrupt warming because it would suddenly remove the tropospheric aerosols which partly offset the background global warming (e.g. Andreae et al, 2005, Raddatz and Tanaka, 2010). This study investigates the magnitude of unrealized warming under a range of policy assumptions and associated uncertainties. Then the profile of geoengineering is estimated to suppress the warming that would be accompanied by clean air policy. This study is the first attempt to explore uncertainty in the warming caused by clean air policy - Kloster et al. (2009), which assess regional changes in climate and hydrological cycle, has not however included associated uncertainties in the analysis. A variety of policy assumptions will be devised to represent various degrees of air pollution abatement. These

  10. Avoidance maneuevers selected while viewing cockpit traffic displays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, J. D.; Ellis, S. R.; Lee, E.

    1982-01-01

    Ten airline pilots rates the collision danger of air traffic presented on cockpit displays of traffic information while they monitored simulated departures from Denver. They selected avoidance maneuvers when necessary for separation. Most evasive maneuvers were turns rather than vertical maneuvers. Evasive maneuvers chosen for encounters with low or moderate collision danger were generally toward the intruding aircraft. This tendency lessened as the perceived threat level increased. In the highest threst situations pilots turned toward the intruder only at chance levels. Intruders coming from positions in front of the pilot's own ship were more frequently avoided by turns toward than when intruders approached laterally or from behind. Some of the implications of the pilots' turning-toward tendencies are discussed with respect to automatic collision avoidance systems and coordination of avoidance maneuvers of conflicting aircraft.

  11. Does the Organized Sexual Murderer Better Delay and Avoid Detection?

    PubMed

    Beauregard, Eric; Martineau, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    According to the organized-disorganized model, organized sexual murderers adopt specific behaviors during the commission of their crimes that contribute to avoiding police detection. The current study examines the effect of sexual murderers' organized behaviors on their ability to both delay and/or avoid police detection. Using a combination of negative binomial and logistic regression analyses on a sample of 350 sexual murder cases, findings showed that although both measures of delaying and avoiding detection are positively correlated, different behavioral patterns were observed. For instance, offenders who moved the victim's body were more likely to avoid detection but the victim's body was likely to be recovered faster. Moreover, victim characteristics have an impact on both measures; however, this effect disappears for the measure of delaying detection once the organized behaviors are introduced. Implications of the findings are discussed.

  12. 31 CFR 800.104 - Transactions or devices for avoidance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (Continued) OFFICE OF INVESTMENT SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY REGULATIONS PERTAINING TO MERGERS, ACQUISITIONS, AND TAKEOVERS BY FOREIGN PERSONS General § 800.104 Transactions or devices for avoidance....

  13. Speak Up: Help Avoid Mistakes in Your Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... other medical facilities that are accredited by The Joint Commission must follow a procedure that helps surgeons avoid these mistakes. (Facilities that are accredited by The Joint Commission are listed on The Joint Commission’s Quality Check ...

  14. The brief experiential avoidance questionnaire: development and initial validation.

    PubMed

    Gámez, Wakiza; Chmielewski, Michael; Kotov, Roman; Ruggero, Camilo; Suzuki, Nadia; Watson, David

    2014-03-01

    The 62-item Multidimensional Experiential Avoidance Questionnaire (MEAQ) was recently developed to assess a broad range of experiential avoidance (EA) content. However, practical clinical and research considerations made a briefer measure of EA desirable. Using items from the original 62-item MEAQ, a 15-item scale was created that tapped content from each of the MEAQ's six dimensions. Items were selected on the basis of their performance in 3 samples: undergraduates (n = 363), psychiatric outpatients (n = 265), and community adults (n = 215). These items were then evaluated using 2 additional samples (314 undergraduates and 201 psychiatric outpatients) and cross-validated in 2 new, independent samples (283 undergraduates and 295 community adults). The resulting measure (Brief Experiential Avoidance Questionnaire; BEAQ) demonstrated good internal consistency. It also exhibited strong convergence with respect to each of the MEAQ's 6 dimensions. The BEAQ demonstrated expected associations with measures of avoidance, psychopathology, and quality of life and was distinguishable from negative affectivity and neuroticism.

  15. 16 CFR 301.28 - Labels to be avoided.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.28 Labels to be avoided. Labels which are insecurely or inconspicuously attached, or which in the course of offering the fur product for sale,...

  16. 16 CFR 301.28 - Labels to be avoided.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.28 Labels to be avoided. Labels which are insecurely or inconspicuously attached, or which in the course of offering the fur product for sale,...

  17. 16 CFR 301.28 - Labels to be avoided.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.28 Labels to be avoided. Labels which are insecurely or inconspicuously attached, or which in the course of offering the fur product for sale,...

  18. 16 CFR 301.28 - Labels to be avoided.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.28 Labels to be avoided. Labels which are insecurely or inconspicuously attached, or which in the course of offering the fur product for sale,...

  19. 16 CFR 301.28 - Labels to be avoided.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.28 Labels to be avoided. Labels which are insecurely or inconspicuously attached, or which in the course of offering the fur product for sale,...

  20. Effects of Stimulation Intensity on Sociopathic Avoidance Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chesno, Frank A.; Kilmann, Peter R.

    1975-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to propose an alternative explanation of defective sociopathic avoidance conditioning based on the model of sensory reinforcement (Duffy, 1962) and the principle of optimal stimulation (Leuba, 1955). (Author)

  1. Summary of avoidable cancers in the Nordic countries.

    PubMed

    Olsen, J H; Andersen, A; Dreyer, L; Pukkala, E; Tryggvadottir, L; Gerhardsson de Verdier, M; Winther, J F

    1997-01-01

    An overview is given of the most important known causes of cancer in the five Nordic countries and the resulting number of cancers that are potentially avoidable. The main causes include active and passive smoking, alcohol consumption, exposure to asbestos and other occupational carcinogens, solar and ionizing radiation, obesity, human papillomavirus infection in the female genital tract and infection with Helicobacter pylori. The organs most commonly affected are those of the respiratory system, the upper digestive tract and stomach, skin, the lower urinary tract and the uterine cervix. Annually, more than 18,000 cancers in men and 11,000 in women in the Nordic populations could be avoided by eliminating exposure to known carcinogens which is equivalent to 33% and 20% of all cancers arising in men and women, respectively, around the year 2000. Smoking habits account for a little more than half of these avoidable cases. Estimates of avoidable cancers are given for each Nordic country, separately.

  2. How You Can Help Your Child Avoid & Address Bullying

    MedlinePlus

    ... How You Can Help Your Child Avoid & Address Bullying Page Content Article Body Whether on the school ... other ways. Getting that response usually makes the bullying behavior continue. Your child should try to keep ...

  3. 20 CFR 606.24 - Application for avoidance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... THE FEDERAL UNEMPLOYMENT TAX ACT; ADVANCES UNDER TITLE XII OF THE SOCIAL SECURITY ACT Relief From Tax... State law changes, effective for the taxable year for which the avoidance is requested, which...

  4. NONCONSCIOUS EFFECTS OF POWER ON BASIC APPROACH AND AVOIDANCE TENDENCIES

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Pamela K.; Bargh, John A.

    2008-01-01

    According to the approach/inhibition theory of power (Keltner, Gruenfeld, & Anderson, 2003), having power should be associated with the approach system, and lacking power with the avoidance system. However, to this point research has focused solely on whether power leads to more action, particularly approach-related action, or not. In three experiments, we extend this research by exploring the direct, unintentional relation between power and both approach and avoidance tendencies. Priming high power led to greater relative BAS strength than priming low power, but did not affect the BIS (Exp. 1). High-power priming also facilitated both simple and complex approach behavior, but did not affect avoidance behavior (Exp. 2−3). These effects of power occurred even in power-irrelevant situations. They also cannot be explained by priming of general positive versus negative constructs, nor by changes in positive, negative, approach-related, or avoidance-related affect. PMID:18568085

  5. Multiple-spacecraft reconfigurations through collision avoidance, bouncing, and stalemate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Y.; Mesbahi, M.; Hadaegh, F. Y.

    2004-01-01

    We consider constrained multiple-spacecraft reconfigurations outside of a gravity well in deep space. As opposed to the single-spacecraft scenario, such reconfigurations involve collision avoidance constraints that can be formalized and embedded in a nonconvex.

  6. Pregnant Women Should Avoid Zika-Hit Texas Town: CDC

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_162573.html Pregnant Women Should Avoid Zika-Hit Texas Town: CDC Advisory follows reports of ... border with Mexico, because five cases of local Zika infection have been reported there, U.S. health officials ...

  7. The Use of Arbitration to Avoid Litigation Under ERISA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donaldson, Richard P.

    1975-01-01

    In this symposium report it is suggested that arbitration can be used to avoid litigation of ERISA pension and welfare benefit claims if the negotiated plan or related collective bargaining agreement provides for arbitration or benefit disputes. (Author/LBH)

  8. 28 CFR 552.23 - Confrontation avoidance procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... MANAGEMENT CUSTODY Use of Force and Application of Restraints on Inmates § 552.23 Confrontation avoidance... knowledge they have gained about the inmate and the incident, determine if use of force is necessary....

  9. Avoid Counterfeit Pesticide Products for Dogs and Cats

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA is aware of counterfeit pet pesticides designed to look like legitimately registered pesticide products. The information on this page is intended to help consumers avoid unregistered pet products.

  10. Food allergy: is strict avoidance the only answer?

    PubMed

    Allen, C W; Campbell, D E; Kemp, A S

    2009-08-01

    It is an immunological paradigm that avoidance of food allergen may reduce the risk or prevent immunological reactions and conversely that a greater exposure increases the magnitude of the immune response. Consequently, food allergen avoidance has been recommended to reduce the risk of sensitization in infants and to prevent clinical reactions in children with positive skin prick tests (SPT). In the latter setting, it is hoped that avoidance may either promote or at least not retard the development of tolerance. Animal studies, however, have demonstrated that tolerance to food allergens may be induced by either large (high zone tolerance) or small (low zone tolerance) doses, whereas doses in between may actually stimulate immune responses. In this review, we discuss whether strict allergen avoidance is always the most appropriate strategy for preventing or managing IgE-mediated food allergy.

  11. Reactive Collision Avoidance of UAVs withStereovision Sensing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-17

    Instead, a minimum effort guidance ( MEG ) approach minimizes the control effort for the entire trajectory along with avoiding collisions for multiple...targets [17]. A collision cone approach [41] is used to detect potential collisions by considering a threat boundary around the obstacle in MEG guidance...It has been demonstrated that MEG is more suitable than PN [17]. However, collision avoidance problems do not have minimum effort requirements and

  12. Collision Avoidance Functional Requirements for Step 1. Revision 6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    This Functional Requirements Document (FRD) describes the flow of requirements from the high level operational objectives down to the functional requirements specific to cooperative collision avoidance for high altitude, long endurance unmanned aircraft systems. These are further decomposed into performance and safety guidelines that are backed up by analysis or references to various documents or research findings. The FRD should be considered when establishing future policies, procedures, and standards pertaining to cooperative collision avoidance.

  13. Managed care contracting and payment reform: avoiding a showdown.

    PubMed

    Nugent, Michael E

    2010-07-01

    Health reform promises to fundamentally change what and how CMS and commercial payers reimburse providers. Providers need to transition from their traditionally adversarial, transactions-based payer relationships to ones that optimize purchaser and patient value for the dollar. To avoid negotiation table showdowns and to prepare for reform, commercial payers and providers should take three actions: Recognize the dead ends with their historical relationships. Formulate their road map to value-based contracting. Avoid operational pot-holes along the way.

  14. Avoiding Another Hollow Force: Optimizing the Joint Force Despite Sequestration

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-01

    Acquisition Reform Act. Congressional effort to improve the way major weapon systems are acquired and to avoid further cost overruns on such...Congress passed the Weapon Systems Acquisition Reform Act (WSARA) in an effort to improve the way major weapon systems are acquired and to avoid...While these key allies add strength to the western alliance, they also add potential fiscal burdens for the United States. With dozens of formal

  15. Incorporation of Tropical Cyclone Avoidance Into Automated Ship Scheduling

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    TROPICAL CYCLONE AVOIDANCE INTO AUTOMATED SHIP SCHEDULING by Stephen W. Lantz June 2014 Thesis Advisor: Walter DeGrange Co-Advisor: Eva...COVERED Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE INCORPORATION OF TROPICAL CYCLONE AVOIDANCE INTO AUTOMATED SHIP SCHEDULING 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6... cyclones (TCs) frequently disrupt these plans, requiring diversions and inefficient steaming speeds. We evaluate the impact of adding anticipated TC

  16. Safety signals as instrumental reinforcers during free-operant avoidance

    PubMed Central

    Urcelay, Gonzalo P.; Mar, Adam C.; Dickinson, Anthony; Robbins, Trevor W.

    2014-01-01

    Safety signals provide “relief” through predicting the absence of an aversive event. At issue is whether these signals also act as instrumental reinforcers. Four experiments were conducted using a free-operant lever-press avoidance paradigm in which each press avoided shock and was followed by the presentation of a 5-sec auditory safety signal. When given a choice between two levers in Experiment 1, both avoiding shock, rats preferentially responded on the lever that produced the safety signal as feedback, even when footshock was omitted. Following avoidance training with a single lever in Experiment 2, removal of the signal led to a decrease in avoidance responses and an increase in responses during the safety period normally denoted by the signal. These behavioral changes demonstrate the dual conditioned reinforcing and fear inhibiting properties of the safety signal. The associative processes that support the reinforcing properties of a safety signal were tested using a novel revaluation procedure. Prior experience of systemic morphine during safety signal presentations resulted in an increased rate of avoidance responses to produce the safety signal during a drug-free extinction test, a finding not seen with d-amphetamine in Experiment 3. Morphine revaluation of the safety signal was repeated in Experiment 4 followed by a drug-free extinction test in which responses did not produce the signal for the first 10 min of the session. Instrumental avoidance in the absence of the signal was shown to be insensitive to prior signal revaluation, suggesting that the signal reinforces free-operant avoidance behavior through a habit-like mechanism. PMID:25135197

  17. The contribution of an avoidance response to contralateral neglect.

    PubMed

    Kodsi, Matthew H; Heilman, Kenneth M

    2002-06-11

    Displacement of line bisection to the right of midline in a patient with a right hemisphere lesion has been attributed to either contralesional attentional or intentional hemispatial neglect. However, it has been suggested that patients with hemispheric lesions might also have an avoidance response, and the ipsilesional eye and hand deviation attributed to neglect might, at least in part, be related to this response. The authors report a patient with a net contralateral neglect produced by the combination of intention and avoidance factors.

  18. Impact of Tactical and Strategic Weather Avoidance on Separation Assurance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Refai, Mohamad S.; Windhorst, Robert

    2011-01-01

    The ability to keep flights away from weather hazards while maintaining aircraft-to-aircraft separation is critically important. The Advanced Airspace Concept is an automation concept that implements a ground-based strategic conflict resolution algorithm for management of aircraft separation. The impact of dynamic and uncertain weather avoidance on this concept is investigated. A strategic weather rerouting system is integrated with the Advanced Airspace Concept, which also provides a tactical weather avoidance algorithm, in a fast time simulation of the Air Transportation System. Strategic weather rerouting is used to plan routes around weather in the 20 minute to two-hour time horizon. To address forecast uncertainty, flight routes are revised at 15 minute intervals. Tactical weather avoidance is used for short term trajectory adjustments (30 minute planning horizon) that are updated every minute to address any weather conflicts (instances where aircraft are predicted to pass through weather cells) that are left unresolved by strategic weather rerouting. The fast time simulation is used to assess the impact of tactical weather avoidance on the performance of automated conflict resolution as well as the impact of strategic weather rerouting on both conflict resolution and tactical weather avoidance. The results demonstrate that both tactical weather avoidance and strategic weather rerouting increase the algorithm complexity required to find aircraft conflict resolutions. Results also demonstrate that tactical weather avoidance is prone to higher airborne delay than strategic weather rerouting. Adding strategic weather rerouting to tactical weather avoidance reduces total airborne delays for the reported scenario by 18% and reduces the number of remaining weather violations by 13%. Finally, two features are identified that have proven important for strategic weather rerouting to realize these benefits; namely, the ability to revise reroutes and the use of maneuvers

  19. Avoidance of selenium-treated food by mallards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heinz, G.H.; Sanderson, C.J.

    1990-01-01

    Adult, male mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) were given a choice between a control diet and a diet containing 5, 10 or 20 ppm selenium as selenomethionine dissolved in water and mixed into the diet. At 10 and 20 ppm, selenium-treated diets were avoided. Avoidance appeared to be caused by a conditioned response, probably to illness caused by the selenium and not to an aversion to the taste of the selenium.

  20. Use of the Atmospheric Electric Field for Terrain Avoidance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-04-01

    realistic enough to yield results applicable in the real world? And if the po- tential gradients are found to be as predicted b,,r Poisson’s equation...electric field is believed to be realistic "since the application of the atmospheric electric field for stabilization or terrain avoidance will be...phenomena) that causes the fluctuations in atmospheric potential (or potential gradient) that makes terrain avoidance or any other application of the

  1. Avoidance strategies in an exceptional child during unsuccessful reading performances.

    PubMed

    Damico, Jack S; Nelson, Ryan L; Damico, Holly; Abendroth, Kathleen; Scott, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    Employing an interactional analysis and focusing on the complexity of meaning making, this study investigates the uses of several types of avoidance strategies generated by a language-disordered boy who is struggling with literacy. The results suggest that these avoidance strategies may function as compensatory adaptations that assist him in overcoming his literacy limitations so that he can still sustain effective social action even within contexts where his literacy difficulties are highlighted. There are both theoretical and practical implications for these findings.

  2. Language use and stereotyping: the role of approach and avoidance motivation goals.

    PubMed

    Gil de Montes, Lorena; Ortiz, Garbiñe; Valencia, José F; Larrañaga, Maider; Agirrezabal, Arrate

    2012-11-01

    The use of more abstract language to describe expected behaviors as opposed to unexpected behaviors has traditionally been considered a way of stereotype maintenance. This tendency is known as linguistic expectancy bias. Two experiments examined the influence of approach and avoidance motivational orientations on the production of this linguistic expectancy bias. It was predicted that approach strategic orientation is likely to describe expectancy consistent behaviors at a higher level of linguistic abstraction than expectancy inconsistent behaviors. In contrast, avoidance strategic orientation is likely to describe both expectancy consistent behaviors and expectancy inconsistent behaviors at a lower level of linguistic abstraction, thus facilitating the disappearance of linguistic expectancy bias. Two experiments confirmed these expectations, using strategic orientation manipulations based either on communication goals or on motor action, and measuring linguistic abstraction either on forced-choice answer format or on free descriptions. Implications for the generalisation of linguistic expectancy bias are discussed.

  3. Correlates of intrusive memories and avoidance of memories of the Holocaust.

    PubMed

    Letzter-Pouw, Sonia; Werner, Perla

    2005-01-01

    Although intrusive memories and avoidance of memories are psychological phenomena frequently reported by Holocaust survivors, their correlates have not been systematically researched. The present cross-sectional study examined socio-demographic and health characteristics of elderly Holocaust survivors, as well as the survivors' experiences during the Holocaust. In addition, present distress related to the Holocaust and fear of dying were examined. Results showed that survivors frequently suffered from intrusive memories, but not often from avoidance of memories of the Holocaust. Intrusive memories were strongly associated with present distress from the Holocaust, as well as with self-perceived bad health and fear of dying. These findings suggest that intrusive memories influence survivors' perceptions of life and change the way in which they deal with aging.

  4. A laboratory assay to assess avoidance of contaminated sediments by the freshwater oligochaete lumbriculus variegatus

    PubMed

    West; Ankley

    1998-07-01

    Responses of benthic organisms to contaminated sediments in the laboratory historically have been assessed as survival, growth, and reproduction. However, these responses do not include behavioral aspects of organisms, which also can influence species distribution and abundance in benthic communities. This study documents avoidance behavior of the freshwater oligochaete Lumbriculus variegatus to contaminated sediments in the laboratory, utilizing a chamber specifically built to facilitate the measurement of this response. A number of field-collected sediments from sites with known contamination, several of which exhibited little or no toxicity in standard tests examining growth and/or survival, were evaluated. The oligochaetes exhibited marked avoidance to many of the sediments, indicating the potential utility of this assay in identifying effects of contaminated sediments on benthic community structure.

  5. Global and local obstacle avoidance technique for an autonomous vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gray, Keith W.; Saunders, Kevin S.

    1999-07-01

    The Center for Self-Organizing and Intelligent Systems (CSOIS) is engaged in developing autonomous ground vehicles. A significant problem for such vehicles is obstacle detection and avoidance. After studying various methods of detection, a scanning laser system was chosen that can detect objects at a distance of up to thirty feet while traveling between five and ten miles per hour. Once an object is detected, the vehicle must avoid it. The project employs a mission-level path planner that predetermines the path of a vehicle. One avoidance scheme is to inform the path planner of the obstacle and then let it re-plan the path. This is the global approach to the problem, which allows the use of existing software for maneuvering the vehicle. However, replanning is time consuming and lacks knowledge of the entire obstacle. An alternative approach is to use local avoidance, whereby a vehicle determines how to get by an obstacle without help from the path planner. This approach offers faster response without requiring the computing resource of the path planner. The disadvantage is that during local avoidance the vehicle ignores the global map of known obstacles and does not know to turn control back to the path planner if mission efficiency is adversely affected. This paper will describe a method for combining the current global path planner with a local obstacle avoidance technique to efficiently complete required tasks in a partially unknown environment.

  6. Chloroplasts can move in any direction to avoid strong light.

    PubMed

    Tsuboi, Hidenori; Wada, Masamitsu

    2011-01-01

    Chloroplasts migrate in response to different light intensities. Under weak light, chloroplasts gather at an illuminated area to maximize light absorption and photosynthesis rates (the accumulation response). In contrast, chloroplasts escape from strong light to avoid photodamage (the avoidance response). Photoreceptors involved in these phenomena have been identified in Arabidopsis thaliana and Adiantum capillus-veneris. Chloroplast behavior has been studied in detail during the accumulation response, but not for the avoidance response. Hence, we analyzed the chloroplast avoidance response in detail using dark-adapted Adiantum capillus-veneris gametophyte cells and partial cell irradiation with a microbeam of blue light. Chloroplasts escaped from an irradiated spot. Both duration of this response and the distance of the migrated chloroplasts were proportional to the total fluence irradiated. The speed of movement during the avoidance response was dependent on the fluence rate, but the speed of the accumulation response towards the microbeam from cell periphery was constant irrespective of fluence rate. When a chloroplast was only partially irradiated with a strong microbeam, it moved away towards the non-irradiated region within a few minutes. During this avoidance response two additional microbeam irradiations were applied to different locus of the same chloroplast. Under these conditions the chloroplast changed the moving direction after a lag time of a few minutes without rolling. Taken together, these findings indicate that chloroplasts can move in any direction and never have an intrinsic polarity. Similar phenomenon was observed in chloroplasts of Arabidopsis thaliana palisade cells.

  7. Introducing the Date and Acquaintance Rape Avoidance Scale.

    PubMed

    Resendez, Josephine R; Hughes, Jamie S

    2016-01-01

    We present the Date and Acquaintance Rape Avoidance Scale (DARAS). The DARAS is a measure of a woman's behaviors used to avoid date and acquaintance rape. Three factor structures were possible. The DARAS may have measured several factors related to alcohol and drug use, self-defense, and date behaviors; 2 factors related to behaviors to avoid acquaintance versus date rape; or a single factor that represented general vigilance. The data revealed a highly reliable, 63 item single factor that was correlated with stranger rape avoidance, rejection of rape myths, hostile sexist beliefs about men, and benevolent sexist beliefs about women. The creation of the DARAS adds to the growing body of research on rape avoidance. The DARAS is key to understanding the behaviors women employ to avoid date rape. Rather than placing the responsibility for rape on the victim, the DARAS was developed as a theoretical and applied tool that can be used to improve theory and construct rape education and prevention programs.

  8. Slow maturation of planning in obstacle avoidance in humans

    PubMed Central

    Corporaal, Sharissa H. A.; Duysens, Jacques; Bruijn, Sjoerd M.

    2015-01-01

    Complex gait (e.g., obstacle avoidance) requires a higher cognitive load than simple steady-state gait, which is a more automated movement. The higher levels of the central nervous system, responsible for adjusting motor plans to complex gait, develop throughout childhood into adulthood. Therefore, we hypothesize that gait strategies in complex gait are likely to mature until adulthood as well. However, little is known about the maturation of complex gait from childhood into adolescence and adulthood. To address this issue, we investigated obstacle avoidance in forty-four 8- to 18-yr-old participants who walked at preferred speed along a 6-m walkway on which a planar obstacle (150% of step length, 1 m wide) was projected. Participants avoided the obstacle by stepping over this projection, while lower body kinematics were recorded. Results showed that step length and speed adjustments during successful obstacle avoidance were similar across all ages, even though younger children modified step width to a greater extent. Additionally, the younger children used larger maximal toe elevations and take-off distances than older children. Moreover, during unsuccessful trials, younger children deployed exaggerated take-off distances, which resulted in obstacle contact upon the consecutive heel strike. These results indicate that obstacle avoidance is not fully matured in younger children, and that the inability to plan precise foot placements is an important factor contributing to failures in obstacle avoidance. PMID:26561604

  9. Radar-based collision avoidance for unmanned surface vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuang, Jia-yuan; Zhang, Lei; Zhao, Shi-qi; Cao, Jian; Wang, Bo; Sun, Han-bing

    2016-12-01

    Unmanned surface vehicles (USVs) have become a focus of research because of their extensive applications. To ensure safety and reliability and to perform complex tasks autonomously, USVs are required to possess accurate perception of the environment and effective collision avoidance capabilities. To achieve these, investigation into realtime marine radar target detection and autonomous collision avoidance technologies is required, aiming at solving the problems of noise jamming, uneven brightness, target loss, and blind areas in marine radar images. These technologies should also satisfy the requirements of real-time and reliability related to high navigation speeds of USVs. Therefore, this study developed an embedded collision avoidance system based on the marine radar, investigated a highly real-time target detection method which contains adaptive smoothing algorithm and robust segmentation algorithm, developed a stable and reliable dynamic local environment model to ensure the safety of USV navigation, and constructed a collision avoidance algorithm based on velocity obstacle (V-obstacle) which adjusts the USV's heading and speed in real-time. Sea trials results in multi-obstacle avoidance firstly demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed avoidance system, and then verify its great adaptability and relative stability when a USV sailing in a real and complex marine environment. The obtained results will improve the intelligent level of USV and guarantee the safety of USV independent sailing.

  10. Performance of humans in concurrent avoidance/positive-reinforcement schedules.

    PubMed

    Ruddle, H V; Bradshaw, C M; Szabadi, E; Foster, T M

    1982-07-01

    Performance maintained under concurrent schedules consisting of a variable-interval avoidance component and a variable-interval positive-reinforcement component was studied in three human subjects using points exchangeable for money as the reinforcer. The rate of responding in the avoidance component increased, and the rate of responding in the positive-reinforcement component declined, as a function of the frequency of point-losses avoided in the avoidance component. The performance of all three subjects conformed to equations proposed by Herrnstein to describe behavior in concurrent schedules. The logarithms of the ratios of the response rates in the two components, and the logarithms of the ratios of the times spent in the two components, were linearly related to the logarithms of the ratios of the frequency of loss avoidance in the avoidance component to the frequency of reinforcement in the positive-reinforcement component. When a changeover delay of 5.0 sec was imposed, the slopes of the linear functions were close to 1.0 in the case of two subjects, whereas the third subject exhibited significant undermatching. For two subjects the changeover delay was then reduced to 2.0 sec; in both cases the slopes of the linear functions were lower than under the 5.0-sec condition. One subject participated in a third phase, in which no changeover delay was imposed; there was a further reduction in the slopes of the linear functions.

  11. Sensor-Based Collision Avoidance: Theory and Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seraji, Homayoun; Steele, Robert; Ivlev, Robert

    1996-01-01

    A new on-line control strategy for sensor-based collision avoidance of manipulators and supporting experimental results are presented in this article. This control strategy is based on nullification of virtual forces applied to the end-effector by a hypothetical spring-plus-damper attached to the object's surface. In the proposed approach, the real-time arm control software continuously monitors the object distance measured by the arm-mounted proximity sensors. When this distance is less than a preset threshold, the collision avoidance control action is initiated to inhibit motion toward the object and thus prevent collision. This is accomplished by employing an outer feedback loop to perturb the end-effector nominal motion trajectory in real-time based on the sensory data. The perturbation is generated by a proportional-plus-integral (PI) collision avoidance controller acting on the difference between the sensed distance and the preset threshold. This approach is computationally very fast, requires minimal modification to the existing manipulator positioning system, and provides the manipulator with an on-line collision avoidance capability to react autonomously and intelligently. A dexterous RRC robotic arm is instrumented with infrared proximity sensors and is operated under the proposed collision avoidance strategy. Experimental results are presented to demonstrate end-effector collision avoidance both with an approaching object and while reaching inside a constricted opening.

  12. Hybrid Long-Range Collision Avoidance for Crowd Simulation.

    PubMed

    Golas, Abhinav; Narain, Rahul; Curtis, Sean; Lin, Ming C

    2014-07-01

    Local collision avoidance algorithms in crowd simulation often ignore agents beyond a neighborhood of a certain size. This cutoff can result in sharp changes in trajectory when large groups of agents enter or exit these neighborhoods. In this work, we exploit the insight that exact collision avoidance is not necessary between agents at such large distances, and propose a novel algorithm for extending existing collision avoidance algorithms to perform approximate, long-range collision avoidance. Our formulation performs long-range collision avoidance for distant agent groups to efficiently compute trajectories that are smoother than those obtained with state-of-the-art techniques and at faster rates. Comparison to real-world data demonstrates that crowds simulated with our algorithm exhibit an improved speed sensitivity to density similar to human crowds. Another issue often sidestepped in existing work is that discrete and continuum collision avoidance algorithms have different regions of applicability. For example, low-density crowds cannot be modeled as a continuum, while high-density crowds can be expensive to model using discrete methods. We formulate a hybrid technique for crowd simulation which can accurately and efficiently simulate crowds at any density with seamless transitions between continuum and discrete representations. Our approach blends results from continuum and discrete algorithms, based on local density and velocity variance. In addition to being robust across a variety of group scenarios, it is also highly efficient, running at interactive rates for thousands of agents on portable systems.

  13. Hybrid Long-Range Collision Avoidance for Crowd Simulation.

    PubMed

    Golas, Abhinav; Narain, Rahul; Curtis, Sean; Lin, Ming C

    2013-09-26

    Local collision avoidance algorithms in crowd simulation often ignore agents beyond a neighborhood of a certain size. This cutoff can result in sharp changes in trajectory when large groups of agents enter or exit these neighborhoods. In this work, we exploit the insight that exact collision avoidance is not necessary between agents at such large distances, and propose a novel algorithm for extending existing collision avoidance algorithms to perform approximate, long-range collision avoidance. Our formulation performs long-range collision avoidance for distant agent groups to efficiently compute trajectories that are smoother than those obtained with state-of-the-art techniques and at faster rates. Another issue often sidestepped in existing work is that discrete and continuum collision avoidance algorithms have different regions of applicability. For example, low-density crowds cannot be modeled as a continuum, while high-density crowds can be expensive to model using discrete methods. We formulate a hybrid technique for crowd simulation which can accurately and efficiently simulate crowds at any density with seamless transitions between continuum and discrete representations. Our approach blends results from continuum and discrete algorithms, based on local density and velocity variance. In addition to being robust across a variety of group scenarios, it is also highly efficient, running at interactive rates for thousands of agents on portable systems.

  14. Antecedents of approach-avoidance goals in sport.

    PubMed

    Morris, Rebecca L; Kavussanu, Maria

    2008-03-01

    We investigated antecedents of mastery-approach, mastery-avoidance, performance-approach, and performance-avoidance goals in sport. University athletes (n = 230) aged 18-25 years (mean 20.3 years, s = 1.5) completed measures of approach-avoidance goals, perceived parental motivational climate, perceived team motivational climate, perceived competence, and demographics. Multiple regression analyses revealed that mastery-approach goals were positively predicted by perceived competence, mastery team climate, learning/enjoyment parental climate, and gender, with males being higher on these goals than females. Mastery-avoidance goals were predicted positively by learning/enjoyment parental climate and negatively by gender, with females being higher on these goals than males. Performance-approach goals were positively predicted by perceived competence, performance team climate, and gender, with males being higher on these goals than females. Finally, performance-avoidance goals were predicted positively by worry-conducive parental climate. These findings suggest that a mastery or performance climate is related to whether athletes adopt a mastery or performance goal, whereas the perception of competence is associated with whether athletes adopt approach-focused goals. Gender should be considered in future examinations of the approach-avoidance achievement goals in sport.

  15. Visual motion speed determines a behavioral switch from forward flight to expansion avoidance in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Reiser, Michael B; Dickinson, Michael H

    2013-02-15

    As an animal translates through the world, its eyes will experience a radiating pattern of optic flow in which there is a focus of expansion directly in front and a focus of contraction behind. For flying fruit flies, recent experiments indicate that flies actively steer away from patterns of expansion. Whereas such a reflex makes sense for avoiding obstacles, it presents a paradox of sorts because an insect could not navigate stably through a visual scene unless it tolerated flight towards a focus of expansion during episodes of forward translation. One possible solution to this paradox is that a fly's behavior might change such that it steers away from strong expansion, but actively steers towards weak expansion. In this study, we use a tethered flight arena to investigate the influence of stimulus strength on the magnitude and direction of turning responses to visual expansion in flies. These experiments indicate that the expansion-avoidance behavior is speed dependent. At slower speeds of expansion, flies exhibit an attraction to the focus of expansion, whereas the behavior transforms to expansion avoidance at higher speeds. Open-loop experiments indicate that this inversion of the expansion-avoidance response depends on whether or not the head is fixed to the thorax. The inversion of the expansion-avoidance response with stimulus strength has a clear manifestation under closed-loop conditions. Flies will actively orient towards a focus of expansion at low temporal frequency but steer away from it at high temporal frequency. The change in the response with temporal frequency does not require motion stimuli directly in front or behind the fly. Animals in which the stimulus was presented within 120 deg sectors on each side consistently steered towards expansion at low temporal frequency and steered towards contraction at high temporal frequency. A simple model based on an array of Hassenstein-Reichardt type elementary movement detectors suggests that the

  16. Avoidance perseveration during extinction training in Wistar-Kyoto rats: an interaction of innate vulnerability and stressor intensity.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Xilu; Pang, Kevin C H; Beck, Kevin D; Minor, Thomas R; Servatius, Richard J

    2011-08-01

    Given that avoidance is a core feature of anxiety disorders, Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats may be a good model of anxiety vulnerability for their hypersensitivity to stress and trait behavioral inhibition. Here, we examined the influence of strain and shock intensity on avoidance acquisition and extinction. Accordingly, we trained WKY and Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats in lever-press avoidance using either 1.0-mA or 2.0-mA foot-shock. After extinction, neuronal activation was visualized by c-Fos for overall activity and parvalbumin immunoreactivity for gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) neuron in brain areas linked to anxiety (medial prefrontal cortex and amygdala). Consistent with earlier work, WKY rats acquired lever-press avoidance faster and to a greater extent than SD rats. However, the intensity of foot shock did not differentially affect acquisition. Although there were no differences during extinction in SD rats, avoidance responses of WKY rats trained with the higher foot shock perseverated during extinction compared to those WKY rats trained with lower foot shock intensity or SD rats. WKY rats trained with 2.0-mA shock exhibited less GABAergic activation in the basolateral amygdala after extinction. These findings suggest that inhibitory modulation in amygdala is important to ensure successful extinction learning. Deficits in avoidance extinction secondary to lower GABAergic activation in baslolateral amygdala may contribute to anxiety vulnerability in this animal model of inhibited temperament.

  17. Java Architecture for Detect and Avoid Extensibility and Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santiago, Confesor; Mueller, Eric Richard; Johnson, Marcus A.; Abramson, Michael; Snow, James William

    2015-01-01

    Unmanned aircraft will equip with a detect-and-avoid (DAA) system that enables them to comply with the requirement to "see and avoid" other aircraft, an important layer in the overall set of procedural, strategic and tactical separation methods designed to prevent mid-air collisions. This paper describes a capability called Java Architecture for Detect and Avoid Extensibility and Modeling (JADEM), developed to prototype and help evaluate various DAA technological requirements by providing a flexible and extensible software platform that models all major detect-and-avoid functions. Figure 1 illustrates JADEM's architecture. The surveillance module can be actual equipment on the unmanned aircraft or simulators that model the process by which sensors on-board detect other aircraft and provide track data to the traffic display. The track evaluation function evaluates each detected aircraft and decides whether to provide an alert to the pilot and its severity. Guidance is a combination of intruder track information, alerting, and avoidance/advisory algorithms behind the tools shown on the traffic display to aid the pilot in determining a maneuver to avoid a loss of well clear. All these functions are designed with a common interface and configurable implementation, which is critical in exploring DAA requirements. To date, JADEM has been utilized in three computer simulations of the National Airspace System, three pilot-in-the-loop experiments using a total of 37 professional UAS pilots, and two flight tests using NASA's Predator-B unmanned aircraft, named Ikhana. The data collected has directly informed the quantitative separation standard for "well clear", safety case, requirements development, and the operational environment for the DAA minimum operational performance standards. This work was performed by the Separation Assurance/Sense and Avoid Interoperability team under NASA's UAS Integration in the NAS project.

  18. Temperament Traits and Chronic Pain: The Association of Harm Avoidance and Pain-Related Anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Knaster, Peter; Estlander, Ann-Mari; Karlsson, Hasse; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kalso, Eija

    2012-01-01

    Objective Anxiety symptoms are common in chronic pain patients. High levels of anxiety are associated with increased pain experience and disability. Proneness to anxiety has a large interindividual variation. The aim of the study was to determine whether the anxiety-related temperament trait Harm Avoidance (HA), is associated with pain-related anxiety. Methods One hundred chronic pain patients in a multidisciplinary pain clinic participated in the study. The patients were assessed using the HA scale of the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) of Cloninger and Pain Anxiety Symptoms Scale-20 (PASS-20). Both the HA total score and the four subscales of HA were analyzed. Current pain intensity was measured using the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) was used to control for the influence of depression on the personality measurement. Results The HA total score was associated with PASS-20, but the association became non-significant after controlling for depression. The HA4 Fatigability subscale was associated with the PASS scales. Depression did not influence this association. Pain intensity was not correlated with HA or the PASS scales. However, the association between HA4 Fatigability and PASS was influenced by pain intensity. Higher pain intensity was associated with stronger association between the scales. Conclusion Harm Avoidance, representing temperament and trait-related anxiety, has relevance in pain-related anxiety. Assessing personality and temperament may deepen the clinician's understanding of the pain experience and behavior in chronic pain patients. PMID:23133510

  19. Roosevelt elk density and social segregation: Foraging behavior and females avoiding larger groups of males

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weckerly, F.; McFarland, K.; Ricca, M.; Meyer, K.

    2004-01-01

    Intersexual social segregation at small spatial scales is prevalent in ruminants that are sexually dimorphic in body size. Explaining social segregation, however, from hypotheses of how intersexual size differences affects the foraging process of males and females has had mixed results. We studied whether body size influences on forage behavior, intersexual social incompatibility or both might influence social segregation in a population of Roosevelt elk (Cervus elaphus roosevelt) that declined 40% over 5 y. Most males and females in the population occurred in the same forage patches, meadows, but occupied different parts of meadows and most groups were overwhelming comprised of one sex. The extent of segregation varied slightly with changing elk density. Cropping rate, our surrogate of forage ingestion, of males in mixed-sex groups differed from males in male-only groups at high, but not low, elk density. In a prior study of intersexual social interactions it was shown that females avoided groups containing ???6 males. Therefore, we predicted that females should avoid parts of meadows where groups of males ???6 were prevalent. Across the 5 y of study this prediction held because ???5% of all females were found in parts of meadows where median aggregation sizes of males were ???6. Social segregation was coupled to body size influences on forage ingestion at high density and social incompatibility was coupled to social segregation regardless of elk density.

  20. Proposed modification to avoidance test with Eisenia fetida to assess metal toxicity in agricultural soils affected by mining activities.

    PubMed

    Delgadillo, Víctor; Verdejo, José; Mondaca, Pedro; Verdugo, Gabriela; Gaete, Hernán; Hodson, Mark E; Neaman, Alexander

    2017-06-01

    Use of avoidance tests is a quick and cost-effective method of assessing contaminants in soils. One option for assessing earthworm avoidance behavior is a two-section test, which consists of earthworms being given the choice to move between a test soil and a control substrate. For ecological relevance, tested soils should be field-contaminated soils. For practical reasons, artificial soils are commonly used as the control substrate. Interpretation of the test results compromised when the test soil and the artificial substrate differ in their physico-chemical properties other than just contaminants. In this study we identified the physico-chemical properties that influence avoidance response and evaluated the usefulness of adjusting these in the control substrate in order to isolate metal-driven avoidance of field soils by earthworms. A standardized two-section avoidance test with Eisenia fetida was performed on 52 uncontaminated and contaminated (Cu >155mgkg(-1), As >19mgkg(-1)) agricultural soils from the Aconcagua River basin and the Puchuncaví Valley in Chile. Regression analysis indicated that the avoidance response was determined by soil organic matter (OM), electrical conductivity (EC) and total soil Cu. Organic matter content of the artificial substrate was altered by peat additions and EC by NaCl so that these properties matched those of the field soils. The resultant EC80 for avoidance (indicative of soils of "limited habitat") was 433mg Cu kg(-1) (339 - 528mgkg(-1) 95% confidence intervals). The earthworm avoidance test can be used to assess metal toxicity in field-contaminated soils by adjusting physico-chemical properties (OM and EC) of the artificial control substrate in order to mimic those of the field-collected soil.

  1. Attention Bias of Avoidant Individuals to Attachment Emotion Pictures

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ying; Ding, Yi; Lu, Luluzi; Chen, Xu

    2017-01-01

    How attachment style affects emotion processing is tightly connected with individuals’ attention bias. This experiment explored avoidant individuals’ attentional engagement and attentional disengagement using a cue-target paradigm in fMRI. The experimental group consisted of 17 avoidant participants, while the control group consisted of 16 secure participants; these were identified by the Experiences in Close Relationships inventory and the Relationship Questionnaire. Each reacted to pictures of positive parent-child attachment, negative parent-child attachment, positive romantic attachment, negative romantic attachment, and neutral non-attachment. Behaviorally, avoidant individuals were slower than secure individuals in responding to emotions and their attentional disengagement effect for negative parent-child emotions was stronger than positive ones. fMRI results showed that avoidant compared to secure individuals activated more strongly in the right superior temporal gyrus, middle occipital gyrus, and the left medial frontal gyrus, middle occipital gyrus, supplementary motor area, and cingulate gyrus. They also showed stronger activation in disengaging from positive than negative emotions in the bilateral fusiform and middle occipital gyri. In conclusion, avoidant individuals could detect emotions as effective as secure individuals in attentioal engaging stages. They can disengage from positive emotions with effective cognitive resources and were harder to get rid of negative emotions with insufficient resource. PMID:28128347

  2. Successive positive contrast in one-way avoidance learning.

    PubMed

    Cándido, Antonio; Maldonado, Antonio; Rodríguez, Alicia; Morales, Alberto

    2002-04-01

    The main finding of these experiments was a positive contrast effect in one-way avoidance learning. Experiment 1 showed that increasing safety time during one-way avoidance training led to improved performance, surpassing that of a control group that had received the high reward (safe time) from the beginning of training. Experiment 2 showed that a similar positive contrast effect occurred when the time spent in the danger compartment before the onset of the warning signal was shortened. These results suggest that time spent in a safe context acts as a reinforcer of the avoidance response; however, its incentive value depends not only on its duration, but also on the length of the time spent in the danger compartment before the onset of the signal. Overall, results also suggest that the avoidance response is a mixture of flight (motivated by fear) and approach (to a safe place) behaviour. The specific weight of the flight or approach component may be a function of the time and the amount of activation of each emotional state (fear or relief) due to opponent homeostatic compensatory processes that occur in the danger and safe compartments during one-way avoidance learning.

  3. All weather collision avoidance for unmanned aircraft systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contarino, Mark

    2010-04-01

    For decades, military and other national security agencies have been denied unfettered access to the National Air Space (NAS) because their unmanned aircraft lack a highly reliable and effective collision avoidance capability. The controlling agency, the Federal Aviation Administration, justifiably demands "no harm" to the safety of the NAS. To overcome the constraints imposed on Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) use of the NAS, a new, complex, conformable collision avoidance system has been developed - one that will be effective in all flyable weather conditions, overcoming the shortfalls of other sensing systems, including radar, lidar, acoustic, EO/IR, etc., while meeting form factor and cost criteria suitable for Tier II UAS operations. The system also targets Tier I as an ultimate goal, understanding the operational limitations of the smallest UASs may require modification of the design that is suitable for Tier II and higher. The All Weather Sense and Avoid System (AWSAS) takes into account the FAA's plan to incorporate ADS-B (out) for all aircraft by 2020, and it is intended to make collision avoidance capability available for UAS entry into the NAS as early as 2013. When approved, UASs can fly mission or training flights in the NAS free of the constraints presently in place. Upon implementation this system will achieve collision avoidance capability for UASs deployed for national security purposes and will allow expansion of UAS usage for commercial or other civil purposes.

  4. The mnemonic mover: nostalgia regulates avoidance and approach motivation.

    PubMed

    Stephan, Elena; Wildschut, Tim; Sedikides, Constantine; Zhou, Xinyue; He, Wuming; Routledge, Clay; Cheung, Wing-Yee; Vingerhoets, Ad J J M

    2014-06-01

    In light of its role in maintaining psychological equanimity, we proposed that nostalgia--a self-relevant, social, and predominantly positive emotion--regulates avoidance and approach motivation. We advanced a model in which (a) avoidance motivation triggers nostalgia and (b) nostalgia, in turn, increases approach motivation. As a result, nostalgia counteracts the negative impact of avoidance motivation on approach motivation. Five methodologically diverse studies supported this regulatory model. Study 1 used a cross-sectional design and showed that avoidance motivation was positively associated with nostalgia. Nostalgia, in turn, was positively associated with approach motivation. In Study 2, an experimental induction of avoidance motivation increased nostalgia. Nostalgia then predicted increased approach motivation. Studies 3-5 tested the causal effect of nostalgia on approach motivation and behavior. These studies demonstrated that experimental nostalgia inductions strengthened approach motivation (Study 3) and approach behavior as manifested in reduced seating distance (Study 4) and increased helping (Study 5). The findings shed light on nostalgia's role in regulating the human motivation system.

  5. A new collision avoidance model for pedestrian dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qian-Ling; Chen, Yao; Dong, Hai-Rong; Zhou, Min; Ning, Bin

    2015-03-01

    The pedestrians can only avoid collisions passively under the action of forces during simulations using the social force model, which may lead to unnatural behaviors. This paper proposes an optimization-based model for the avoidance of collisions, where the social repulsive force is removed in favor of a search for the quickest path to destination in the pedestrian’s vision field. In this way, the behaviors of pedestrians are governed by changing their desired walking direction and desired speed. By combining the critical factors of pedestrian movement, such as positions of the exit and obstacles and velocities of the neighbors, the choice of desired velocity has been rendered to a discrete optimization problem. Therefore, it is the self-driven force that leads pedestrians to a free path rather than the repulsive force, which means the pedestrians can actively avoid collisions. The new model is verified by comparing with the fundamental diagram and actual data. The simulation results of individual avoidance trajectories and crowd avoidance behaviors demonstrate the reasonability of the proposed model. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61233001 and 61322307) and the Fundamental Research Funds for Central Universities of China (Grant No. 2013JBZ007).

  6. Sun avoidance strategies at the Large Millimeter Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souccar, Kamal; Smith, David R.; Schloerb, F. Peter; Wallace, Gary

    2016-07-01

    The Large Millimeter Telescope observatory is extending its night time operation to the day time. A sun avoidance strategy was therefore implemented in the control system in real-time to avoid excessive heating and damage to the secondary mirror and the prime focus. The LMT uses an "on-the-fly" trajectory generator that receives as input the target location of the telescope and in turn outputs a commanded position to the servo system. The sun avoidance strategy is also implemented "on-the-fly" where it intercepts the input to the trajectory generator and alters that input to avoid the sun. Two sun avoidance strategies were explored. The first strategy uses a potential field approach where the sun is represented as a high-potential obstacle in the telescope's workspace and the target location is represented as a low-potential goal. The potential field is repeatedly calculated as the sun and the telescope move and the telescope follows the induced force by this field. The second strategy is based on path planning using visibility graphs where the sun is represented as a polygonal obstacle and the telescope follows the shortest path from its actual position to the target location via the vertices of the sun's polygon. The visibility graph approach was chosen as the favorable strategy due to the efficiency of its algorithm and the simplicity of its computation.

  7. Disease avoidance as a functional basis for stigmatization

    PubMed Central

    Oaten, Megan; Stevenson, Richard J.; Case, Trevor I.

    2011-01-01

    Stigmatization is characterized by chronic social and physical avoidance of a person(s) by other people. Infectious disease may produce an apparently similar form of isolation—disease avoidance—but on symptom remission this often abates. We propose that many forms of stigmatization reflect the activation of this disease-avoidance system, which is prone to respond to visible signs and labels that connote disease, irrespective of their accuracy. A model of this system is presented, which includes an emotional component, whereby visible disease cues directly activate disgust and contamination, motivating avoidance, and a cognitive component, whereby disease labels bring to mind disease cues, indirectly activating disgust and contamination. The unique predictions of this model are then examined, notably that people who are stigmatized evoke disgust and are contaminating. That animals too show avoidance of diseased conspecifics, and that disease-related stigma targets are avoided in most cultures, also supports this evolutionary account. The more general implications of this approach are then examined, notably how it can be used to good (e.g. improving hygiene) or bad (e.g. racial vilification) ends, by yoking particular labels with cues that connote disease and disgust. This broadening of the model allows for stigmatization of groups with little apparent connection to disease. PMID:22042920

  8. Experimental characterization of collision avoidance in pedestrian dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parisi, Daniel R.; Negri, Pablo A.; Bruno, Luciana

    2016-08-01

    In the present paper, the avoidance behavior of pedestrians was characterized by controlled experiments. Several conflict situations were studied considering different flow rates and group sizes in crossing and head-on configurations. Pedestrians were recorded from above, and individual two-dimensional trajectories of their displacement were recovered after image processing. Lateral swaying amplitude and step lengths were measured for free pedestrians, obtaining similar values to the ones reported in the literature. Minimum avoidance distances were computed in two-pedestrian experiments. In the case of one pedestrian dodging an arrested one, the avoidance distance did not depend on the relative orientation of the still pedestrian with respect to the direction of motion of the first. When both pedestrians were moving, the avoidance distance in a perpendicular encounter was longer than the one obtained during a head-on approach. It was found that the mean curvature of the trajectories was linearly anticorrelated with the mean speed. Furthermore, two common avoidance maneuvers, stopping and steering, were defined from the analysis of the acceleration and curvature in single trajectories. Interestingly, it was more probable to observe steering events than stopping ones, also the probability of simultaneous steering and stopping occurrences was negligible. The results obtained in this paper can be used to validate and calibrate pedestrian dynamics models.

  9. Animal models of social avoidance and social fear.

    PubMed

    Toth, Iulia; Neumann, Inga D

    2013-10-01

    Social fear and avoidance of social situations represent the main behavioral symptoms of social anxiety disorder (SAD), a highly prevalent anxiety disorder that is poorly elucidated and has rather unsatisfactory therapeutic options. Therefore, animal models are needed to study the underlying etiology and pathophysiology of SAD and to verify the efficacy of possible novel treatment approaches. In this review, we describe and discuss the most important paradigms that have been shown to induce social avoidance and fear in rodents, including foot shock exposure, restraint stress, social isolation, social instability, social defeat, conditioned defeat, social defeat/overcrowding, chronic subordinate colony housing, chronic mild stress, maternal separation and social fear conditioning. We also describe some of the behavioral paradigms used to assess social avoidance and fear in rodents, including the social interaction test, the social preference-avoidance test, the social approach-avoidance test, the three-chambered social approach test, the partition test and the modified Y-maze test. We focus on the behavioral alterations these paradigms induce, especially on social interaction, general anxiety and depressive-like behavior given that SAD is strongly comorbid with anxiety and affective disorders.

  10. Experimental characterization of collision avoidance in pedestrian dynamics.

    PubMed

    Parisi, Daniel R; Negri, Pablo A; Bruno, Luciana

    2016-08-01

    In the present paper, the avoidance behavior of pedestrians was characterized by controlled experiments. Several conflict situations were studied considering different flow rates and group sizes in crossing and head-on configurations. Pedestrians were recorded from above, and individual two-dimensional trajectories of their displacement were recovered after image processing. Lateral swaying amplitude and step lengths were measured for free pedestrians, obtaining similar values to the ones reported in the literature. Minimum avoidance distances were computed in two-pedestrian experiments. In the case of one pedestrian dodging an arrested one, the avoidance distance did not depend on the relative orientation of the still pedestrian with respect to the direction of motion of the first. When both pedestrians were moving, the avoidance distance in a perpendicular encounter was longer than the one obtained during a head-on approach. It was found that the mean curvature of the trajectories was linearly anticorrelated with the mean speed. Furthermore, two common avoidance maneuvers, stopping and steering, were defined from the analysis of the acceleration and curvature in single trajectories. Interestingly, it was more probable to observe steering events than stopping ones, also the probability of simultaneous steering and stopping occurrences was negligible. The results obtained in this paper can be used to validate and calibrate pedestrian dynamics models.

  11. What happens after inbreeding avoidance? Inbreeding by rejected relatives and the inclusive fitness benefit of inbreeding avoidance.

    PubMed

    Duthie, A Bradley; Reid, Jane M

    2015-01-01

    Avoiding inbreeding, and therefore avoiding inbreeding depression in offspring fitness, is widely assumed to be adaptive in systems with biparental reproduction. However, inbreeding can also confer an inclusive fitness benefit stemming from increased relatedness between parents and inbred offspring. Whether or not inbreeding or avoiding inbreeding is adaptive therefore depends on a balance between inbreeding depression and increased parent-offspring relatedness. Existing models of biparental inbreeding predict threshold values of inbreeding depression above which males and females should avoid inbreeding, and predict sexual conflict over inbreeding because these thresholds diverge. However, these models implicitly assume that if a focal individual avoids inbreeding, then both it and its rejected relative will subsequently outbreed. We show that relaxing this assumption of reciprocal outbreeding, and the assumption that focal individuals are themselves outbred, can substantially alter the predicted thresholds for inbreeding avoidance for focal males. Specifically, the magnitude of inbreeding depression below which inbreeding increases a focal male's inclusive fitness increases with increasing depression in the offspring of a focal female and her alternative mate, and it decreases with increasing relatedness between a focal male and a focal female's alternative mate, thereby altering the predicted zone of sexual conflict. Furthermore, a focal male's inclusive fitness gain from avoiding inbreeding is reduced by indirect opportunity costs if his rejected relative breeds with another relative of his. By demonstrating that variation in relatedness and inbreeding can affect intra- and inter-sexual conflict over inbreeding, our models lead to novel predictions for family dynamics. Specifically, parent-offspring conflict over inbreeding might depend on the alternative mates of rejected relatives, and male-male competition over inbreeding might lead to mixed inbreeding

  12. What Happens after Inbreeding Avoidance? Inbreeding by Rejected Relatives and the Inclusive Fitness Benefit of Inbreeding Avoidance

    PubMed Central

    Duthie, A. Bradley; Reid, Jane M.

    2015-01-01

    Avoiding inbreeding, and therefore avoiding inbreeding depression in offspring fitness, is widely assumed to be adaptive in systems with biparental reproduction. However, inbreeding can also confer an inclusive fitness benefit stemming from increased relatedness between parents and inbred offspring. Whether or not inbreeding or avoiding inbreeding is adaptive therefore depends on a balance between inbreeding depression and increased parent-offspring relatedness. Existing models of biparental inbreeding predict threshold values of inbreeding depression above which males and females should avoid inbreeding, and predict sexual conflict over inbreeding because these thresholds diverge. However, these models implicitly assume that if a focal individual avoids inbreeding, then both it and its rejected relative will subsequently outbreed. We show that relaxing this assumption of reciprocal outbreeding, and the assumption that focal individuals are themselves outbred, can substantially alter the predicted thresholds for inbreeding avoidance for focal males. Specifically, the magnitude of inbreeding depression below which inbreeding increases a focal male’s inclusive fitness increases with increasing depression in the offspring of a focal female and her alternative mate, and it decreases with increasing relatedness between a focal male and a focal female’s alternative mate, thereby altering the predicted zone of sexual conflict. Furthermore, a focal male’s inclusive fitness gain from avoiding inbreeding is reduced by indirect opportunity costs if his rejected relative breeds with another relative of his. By demonstrating that variation in relatedness and inbreeding can affect intra- and inter-sexual conflict over inbreeding, our models lead to novel predictions for family dynamics. Specifically, parent-offspring conflict over inbreeding might depend on the alternative mates of rejected relatives, and male-male competition over inbreeding might lead to mixed inbreeding

  13. Sampling out: regulatory avoidance and the Total Coliform Rule.

    PubMed

    Bennear, Lori S; Jessoe, Katrina K; Olmstead, Sheila M

    2009-07-15

    This paper investigates strategic noncompliance with the Total Coliform Rule (TCR) under the U.S. Safe Drinking Water Act. The structure of the TCR provides incentives for some piped drinking water systems to avoid violations by taking additional water quality samples. We estimate the prevalence of this behavior and its potential impact on violations using monthly data for more than 500 Massachusetts water systems, 1993-2003. We find evidence that strategic oversampling is occurring. Water systems most likely to avoid violations by oversampling are most likely to oversample. A significant number of additional violations would have occurred if systems had adhered to legal sampling requirements, rather than oversampling. Our analysis of potential impacts of regulatory avoidance under the current rule suggests that alternative policies for monitoring bacteria in drinking water should be considered.

  14. YUCCA auxin biosynthetic genes are required for Arabidopsis shade avoidance.

    PubMed

    Müller-Moulé, Patricia; Nozue, Kazunari; Pytlak, Melissa L; Palmer, Christine M; Covington, Michael F; Wallace, Andreah D; Harmer, Stacey L; Maloof, Julin N

    2016-01-01

    Plants respond to neighbor shade by increasing stem and petiole elongation. Shade, sensed by phytochrome photoreceptors, causes stabilization of PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR proteins and subsequent induction of YUCCA auxin biosynthetic genes. To investigate the role of YUCCA genes in phytochrome-mediated elongation, we examined auxin signaling kinetics after an end-of-day far-red (EOD-FR) light treatment, and found that an auxin responsive reporter is rapidly induced within 2 hours of far-red exposure. YUCCA2, 5, 8, and 9 are all induced with similar kinetics suggesting that they could act redundantly to control shade-mediated elongation. To test this hypothesis we constructed a yucca2, 5, 8, 9 quadruple mutant and found that the hypocotyl and petiole EOD-FR and shade avoidance responses are completely disrupted. This work shows that YUCCA auxin biosynthetic genes are essential for detectable shade avoidance and that YUCCA genes are important for petiole shade avoidance.

  15. Cognitive factors in panic disorder, agoraphobic avoidance and agoraphobia.

    PubMed

    Berle, David; Starcevic, Vladan; Hannan, Anthony; Milicevic, Denise; Lamplugh, Claire; Fenech, Pauline

    2008-02-01

    There remains a lack of consensus regarding the possibility that especially high levels of panic-related cognitions characterise panic disorder with agoraphobia. We administered the Anxiety Sensitivity Index, the Agoraphobic Cognitions Questionnaire and the Anxious Thoughts and Tendencies Scale as well as measures of agoraphobic avoidance to patients diagnosed with panic disorder with agoraphobia (n=75) and without agoraphobia (n=26). Patients with panic disorder with agoraphobia did not score significantly higher on any of the cognitive variables than did panic disorder patients without agoraphobia. However, most of the cognitive variables showed small to moderate-strength correlations with self-report measures of agoraphobic avoidance. Our findings suggest that anxiety sensitivity, catastrophising of the consequences of panic and a general anxiety-prone cognitive style, although to some extent associated with agoraphobic avoidance, do not discriminate panic disorder with agoraphobia from panic disorder without agoraphobia.

  16. A neuro-collision avoidance strategy for robot manipulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Onema, Joel P.; Maclaunchlan, Robert A.

    1992-01-01

    The area of collision avoidance and path planning in robotics has received much attention in the research community. Our study centers on a combination of an artificial neural network paradigm with a motion planning strategy that insures safe motion of the Articulated Two-Link Arm with Scissor Hand System relative to an object. Whenever an obstacle is encountered, the arm attempts to slide along the obstacle surface, thereby avoiding collision by means of the local tangent strategy and its artificial neural network implementation. This combination compensates the inverse kinematics of a robot manipulator. Simulation results indicate that a neuro-collision avoidance strategy can be achieved by means of a learning local tangent method.

  17. Avoiding loopholes with hybrid Bell-Leggett-Garg inequalities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dressel, Justin; Korotkov, Alexander N.

    2014-01-01

    By combining the postulates of macrorealism with Bell locality, we derive a qualitatively different hybrid inequality that avoids two loopholes that commonly appear in Leggett-Garg and Bell inequalities. First, locally invasive measurements can be used, which avoids the "clumsiness" Leggett-Garg inequality loophole. Second, a single experimental ensemble with fixed analyzer settings is sampled, which avoids the "disjoint sampling" Bell inequality loophole. The derived hybrid inequality has the same form as the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt Bell inequality; however, its quantum violation intriguingly requires weak measurements. A realistic explanation of an observed violation requires either the failure of Bell locality or a preparation conspiracy of finely tuned and nonlocally correlated noise. Modern superconducting and optical systems are poised to implement this test.

  18. Avoiding or restricting defectors in public goods games?

    PubMed Central

    Han, The Anh; Pereira, Luís Moniz; Lenaerts, Tom

    2015-01-01

    When creating a public good, strategies or mechanisms are required to handle defectors. We first show mathematically and numerically that prior agreements with posterior compensations provide a strategic solution that leads to substantial levels of cooperation in the context of public goods games, results that are corroborated by available experimental data. Notwithstanding this success, one cannot, as with other approaches, fully exclude the presence of defectors, raising the question of how they can be dealt with to avoid the demise of the common good. We show that both avoiding creation of the common good, whenever full agreement is not reached, and limiting the benefit that disagreeing defectors can acquire, using costly restriction mechanisms, are relevant choices. Nonetheless, restriction mechanisms are found the more favourable, especially in larger group interactions. Given decreasing restriction costs, introducing restraining measures to cope with public goods free-riding issues is the ultimate advantageous solution for all participants, rather than avoiding its creation. PMID:25540240

  19. Contamination sensitivity and the development of disease-avoidant behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Siegal, Michael; Fadda, Roberta; Overton, Paul G.

    2011-01-01

    Owing to their developing cognitive abilities and their limited knowledge about the biological basis of illness, children often have less expertise at disease avoidance than adults. However, affective reactions to contaminants through the acquisition of disgust and the social and cultural transmissions of knowledge about contamination and contagion provide impetus for children to learn effective disease-avoidant behaviours early in their development. In this article, we review the ontogenetic development of knowledge about contamination and contagion with particular attention to the role of socialization and culture. Together with their emerging cognitive abilities and affective reactions to contaminants, informal and formal cultural learning shape children's knowledge about disease. Through this process, the perceptual cues of contamination are linked to threats of disease outcomes and can act as determinants of disease-avoidant behaviours. PMID:22042919

  20. Incautiously Optimistic: Positively-Valenced Cognitive Avoidance in Adult ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Knouse, Laura E.; Mitchell, John T.

    2015-01-01

    Clinicians who conduct cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) targeting attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adulthood have noted that their patients sometimes verbalize overly positive automatic thoughts and set overly optimistic goals. These cognitions are frequently related to failure to engage in compensatory behavioral strategies emphasized in CBT. In this paper, we offer a functional analysis of this problematic pattern, positively-valenced cognitive avoidance, and suggest methods for addressing it within CBT for adult ADHD. We propose that maladaptive positive cognitions function to relieve aversive emotions in the short-term and are therefore negatively reinforced but that, in the long-term, they are associated with decreased likelihood of active coping and increased patterns of behavioral avoidance. Drawing on techniques from Behavioral Activation (BA), we offer a case example to illustrate these concepts and describe step-by-step methods for clinicians to help patients recognize avoidant patterns and engage in more active coping. PMID:25908901

  1. YUCCA auxin biosynthetic genes are required for Arabidopsis shade avoidance

    PubMed Central

    Müller-Moulé, Patricia; Nozue, Kazunari; Pytlak, Melissa L.; Palmer, Christine M.; Covington, Michael F.; Wallace, Andreah D.; Harmer, Stacey L.

    2016-01-01

    Plants respond to neighbor shade by increasing stem and petiole elongation. Shade, sensed by phytochrome photoreceptors, causes stabilization of PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR proteins and subsequent induction of YUCCA auxin biosynthetic genes. To investigate the role of YUCCA genes in phytochrome-mediated elongation, we examined auxin signaling kinetics after an end-of-day far-red (EOD-FR) light treatment, and found that an auxin responsive reporter is rapidly induced within 2 hours of far-red exposure. YUCCA2, 5, 8, and 9 are all induced with similar kinetics suggesting that they could act redundantly to control shade-mediated elongation. To test this hypothesis we constructed a yucca2, 5, 8, 9 quadruple mutant and found that the hypocotyl and petiole EOD-FR and shade avoidance responses are completely disrupted. This work shows that YUCCA auxin biosynthetic genes are essential for detectable shade avoidance and that YUCCA genes are important for petiole shade avoidance. PMID:27761349

  2. Tracking improves performance of biological collision avoidance models.

    PubMed

    Pant, Vivek; Higgins, Charles M

    2012-07-01

    Collision avoidance models derived from the study of insect brains do not perform universally well in practical collision scenarios, although the insects themselves may perform well in similar situations. In this article, we present a detailed simulation analysis of two well-known collision avoidance models and illustrate their limitations. In doing so, we present a novel continuous-time implementation of a neuronally based collision avoidance model. We then show that visual tracking can improve performance of these models by allowing an relative computation of the distance between the obstacle and the observer. We compare the results of simulations of the two models with and without tracking to show how tracking improves the ability of the model to detect an imminent collision. We present an implementation of one of these models processing imagery from a camera to show how it performs in real-world scenarios. These results suggest that insects may track looming objects with their gaze.

  3. Cooperative Exploration and Networking While Preserving Collision Avoidance.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jonghoek

    2016-08-05

    Monitoring of large complex environments, such as underwater environments, is an important task in surveillance. An information (sensor) network can be built to achieve the task. To build an information network in an unknown workspace, we use multiple robots deploying information nodes. While robots build the network, they localize themselves as well as deployed nodes in the global coordinate system. Our multirobot networking strategy is as follows: each robot iteratively visits a frontier, which borders an unsensed area, until all areas are explored. As multiple robots explore the workspace, a robot must avoid colliding with another robot as well as with an obstacle. Hence, we introduce collision avoidance control laws and integrate the control laws with our cooperative networking strategy. Using MATLAB simulations, we verify the scalability and effectiveness of both our networking strategy and the collision avoidance control laws.

  4. Coordinated Dynamic Behaviors for Multirobot Systems With Collision Avoidance.

    PubMed

    Sabattini, Lorenzo; Secchi, Cristian; Fantuzzi, Cesare

    2016-08-16

    In this paper, we propose a novel methodology for achieving complex dynamic behaviors in multirobot systems. In particular, we consider a multirobot system partitioned into two subgroups: 1) dependent and 2) independent robots. Independent robots are utilized as a control input, and their motion is controlled in such a way that the dependent robots solve a tracking problem, that is following arbitrarily defined setpoint trajectories, in a coordinated manner. The control strategy proposed in this paper explicitly addresses the collision avoidance problem, utilizing a null space-based behavioral approach: this leads to combining, in a non conflicting manner, the tracking control law with a collision avoidance strategy. The combination of these control actions allows the robots to execute their task in a safe way. Avoidance of collisions is formally proven in this paper, and the proposed methodology is validated by means of simulations and experiments on real robots.

  5. Avoiding or restricting defectors in public goods games?

    PubMed

    Han, The Anh; Pereira, Luís Moniz; Lenaerts, Tom

    2015-02-06

    When creating a public good, strategies or mechanisms are required to handle defectors. We first show mathematically and numerically that prior agreements with posterior compensations provide a strategic solution that leads to substantial levels of cooperation in the context of public goods games, results that are corroborated by available experimental data. Notwithstanding this success, one cannot, as with other approaches, fully exclude the presence of defectors, raising the question of how they can be dealt with to avoid the demise of the common good. We show that both avoiding creation of the common good, whenever full agreement is not reached, and limiting the benefit that disagreeing defectors can acquire, using costly restriction mechanisms, are relevant choices. Nonetheless, restriction mechanisms are found the more favourable, especially in larger group interactions. Given decreasing restriction costs, introducing restraining measures to cope with public goods free-riding issues is the ultimate advantageous solution for all participants, rather than avoiding its creation.

  6. Modeling and Simulation of an UAS Collision Avoidance Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliveros, Edgardo V.; Murray, A. Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a Modeling and Simulation of an Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) Collision Avoidance System, capable of representing different types of scenarios for UAS collision avoidance. Commercial and military piloted aircraft currently utilize various systems for collision avoidance such as Traffic Alert and Collision A voidance System (TCAS), Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B), Radar and ElectroOptical and Infrared Sensors (EO-IR). The integration of information from these systems is done by the pilot in the aircraft to determine the best course of action. In order to operate optimally in the National Airspace System (NAS) UAS have to work in a similar or equivalent manner to a piloted aircraft by applying the principle of "detect-see and avoid" (DSA) to other air traffic. Hence, we have taken these existing sensor technologies into consideration in order to meet the challenge of researching the modeling and simulation of an approximated DSA system. A Schematic Model for a UAS Collision Avoidance System (CAS) has been developed ina closed loop block diagram for that purpose. We have found that the most suitable software to carry out this task is the Satellite Tool Kit (STK) from Analytical Graphics Inc. (AGI). We have used the Aircraft Mission Modeler (AMM) for modeling and simulation of a scenario where a UAS is placed on a possible collision path with an initial intruder and then with a second intruder, but is able to avoid them by executing a right tum maneuver and then climbing. Radars have also been modeled with specific characteristics for the UAS and both intruders. The software provides analytical, graphical user interfaces and data controlling tools which allow the operator to simulate different conditions. Extensive simulations have been carried out which returned excellent results.

  7. Tadpoles balance foraging and predator avoidance: Effects of predation, pond drying, and hunger

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bridges, C.M.

    2002-01-01

    Organisms are predicted to make trade-offs when foraging and predator avoidance behaviors present conflicting demands. Balancing conflicting demands is important to larval amphibians because adult fitness can be strongly influenced by size at metamorphosis and duration of the larval period. Larvae in temporary ponds must maximize growth within a short time period to achieve metamorphosis before ponds dry, while simultaneously avoiding predators. To determine whether tadpoles trade off between conflicting demands, I examined tadpole (Pseudacris triseriata) activity and microhabitat use in the presence of red-spotted newts (Notopthalmus viridescens) under varying conditions of pond drying and hunger. Tadpoles significantly decreased activity and increased refuge use when predators were present. The proportion of active time tadpoles spent feeding was significantly greater in predator treatments, suggesting tadpoles adaptively balance the conflicting demands of foraging and predator avoidance without making apparent trade-offs. Tadpoles responded to simulated drying conditions by accelerating development. Pond drying did not modify microhabitat use or activity in the presence of predators, suggesting tadpoles perceived predation and hunger as greater immediate threats than desiccation, and did not take more risks.

  8. When herbivores eat predators: predatory insects effectively avoid incidental ingestion by mammalian herbivores.

    PubMed

    Ben-Ari, Matan; Inbar, Moshe

    2013-01-01

    The direct trophic links between mammalian herbivores and plant-dwelling insects have been practically ignored. Insects are ubiquitous on plants consumed by mammalian herbivores and are thus likely to face the danger of being incidentally ingested by a grazing mammal. A few studies have shown that some herbivorous hemipterans are able to avoid this peril by dropping to the ground upon detecting the heat and humidity on the mammal's breath. We hypothesized that if this risk affects the entire plant-dwelling insect community, other insects that share this habitat are expected to develop similar escape mechanisms. We assessed the ability of three species (adults and larvae) of coccinellid beetles, important aphid predators, to avoid incidental ingestion. Both larvae and adults were able to avoid incidental ingestion effectively by goats by dropping to the ground, demonstrating the importance of this behavior in grazed habitats. Remarkably, all adult beetles escaped by dropping off the plant and none used their functional wings to fly away. In controlled laboratory experiments, we found that human breath caused 60-80% of the beetles to drop. The most important component of mammalian herbivore breath in inducing adult beetles and larvae to drop was the combination of heat and humidity. The fact that the mechanism of dropping in response to mammalian breath developed in distinct insect orders and disparate life stages accentuates the importance of the direct influence of mammalian herbivores on plant-dwelling insects. This direct interaction should be given its due place when discussing trophic interactions.

  9. Testing the disgust conditioning theory of food-avoidance in adolescents with recent onset anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Hildebrandt, Tom; Grotzinger, Andrew; Reddan, Marianne; Greif, Rebecca; Levy, Ifat; Goodman, Wayne; Schiller, Daniela

    2015-08-01

    Anorexia nervosa is characterized by chronic food avoidance that is resistant to change. Disgust conditioning offers one potential unexplored mechanism for explaining this behavioral disturbance because of its specific role in facilitating food avoidance in adaptive situations. A food based reversal learning paradigm was used to study response flexibility in 14 adolescent females with restricting subtype anorexia nervosa (AN-R) and 15 healthy control (HC) participants. Expectancy ratings were coded as a behavioral measure of flexibility and electromyography recordings from the levator labii (disgust), zygomaticus major (pleasure), and corrugator (general negative affect) provided psychophysiological measures of emotion. Response inflexibility was higher for participants with AN-R, as evidenced by lower extinction and updated expectancy ratings during reversal. EMG responses to food stimuli were predictive of both extinction and new learning. Among AN-R patients, disgust specific responses to food were associated with impaired extinction, as were elevated pleasure responses to the cued absence of food. Disgust conditioning appears to influence food learning in acutely ill patients with AN-R and may be maintained by counter-regulatory acquisition of a pleasure response to food avoidance and an aversive response to food presence. Developing strategies to target disgust may improve existing interventions for patients with AN.

  10. Repeated administration of histamine improves memory retrieval of inhibitory avoidance by lithium in mice.

    PubMed

    Zarrindast, Mohammad Reza; Parsaei, Leila; Ahmadi, Shamseddin

    2008-01-01

    The influence of repeated administration of histamine on lithium-induced state dependency has been investigated. A single-trial step-down inhibitory avoidance task was used to assess memory in adult male NMRI mice. Intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of lithium (10 mg/kg), immediately after training (post-training), impaired inhibitory avoidance memory on the test day. Pre-test administration of lithium reversed amnesia induced by the drug given after training, with the maximum response at a dose of 10 mg/kg. Repeated intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration of histamine (20 microg/mouse) for 3 consecutive days followed by 5 days of no drug treatment improved memory retrieval of inhibitory avoidance by a pre-test lower dose (5 mg/kg i.p.) of lithium. In contrast, 3 days of i.c.v. injections of both the histamine H1 receptor antagonist pyrilamine (40 microg/mouse) and the histamine H2 receptor antagonist ranitidine (6.25 and 12.5 microg/mouse) prevented the improving effect of pre-test lithium (10 mg/kg i.p.) on memory retrieval. The results suggest that the repeated administration of histaminergic agents may induce a sensitization which affects the memory impairment induced by lithium.

  11. Attachment Avoidance Is Significantly Related to Attentional Preference for Infant Faces: Evidence from Eye Movement Data

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Yuncheng; Cheng, Gang; Zhang, Dajun; Ta, Na; Xia, Mu; Ding, Fangyuan

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To determine the influence of adult attachment orientations on infant preference. Methods: We adopted eye-tracking technology to monitor childless college women’s eye movements when looking at pairs of faces, including one adult face (man or woman) and one infant face, with three different expressions (happy, sadness, and neutral). The participants (N = 150; 84% Han ethnicity) were aged 18–29 years (M = 19.22, SD = 1.72). A random intercepts multilevel linear regression analysis was used to assess the unique contribution of attachment avoidance, determined using the Experiences in Close Relationships scale, to preference for infant faces. Results: Women with higher attachment avoidance showed less infant preference, as shown by less sustained overt attentional bias to the infant face than the adult face based on fixation time and count. Conclusion: Adult attachment might be related to infant preference according to eye movement indices. Women with higher attachment avoidance may lack attentional preference for infant faces. The findings may aid the treatment and remediation of the interactions between children and mothers with insecure attachment. PMID:28184210

  12. When Herbivores Eat Predators: Predatory Insects Effectively Avoid Incidental Ingestion by Mammalian Herbivores

    PubMed Central

    Ben-Ari, Matan; Inbar, Moshe

    2013-01-01

    The direct trophic links between mammalian herbivores and plant-dwelling insects have been practically ignored. Insects are ubiquitous on plants consumed by mammalian herbivores and are thus likely to face the danger of being incidentally ingested by a grazing mammal. A few studies have shown that some herbivorous hemipterans are able to avoid this peril by dropping to the ground upon detecting the heat and humidity on the mammal's breath. We hypothesized that if this risk affects the entire plant-dwelling insect community, other insects that share this habitat are expected to develop similar escape mechanisms. We assessed the ability of three species (adults and larvae) of coccinellid beetles, important aphid predators, to avoid incidental ingestion. Both larvae and adults were able to avoid incidental ingestion effectively by goats by dropping to the ground, demonstrating the importance of this behavior in grazed habitats. Remarkably, all adult beetles escaped by dropping off the plant and none used their functional wings to fly away. In controlled laboratory experiments, we found that human breath caused 60–80% of the beetles to drop. The most important component of mammalian herbivore breath in inducing adult beetles and larvae to drop was the combination of heat and humidity. The fact that the mechanism of dropping in response to mammalian breath developed in distinct insect orders and disparate life stages accentuates the importance of the direct influence of mammalian herbivores on plant-dwelling insects. This direct interaction should be given its due place when discussing trophic interactions. PMID:23424674

  13. Hesitant avoidance while walking: an error of social behavior generated by mutual interaction.

    PubMed

    Honma, Motoyasu; Koyama, Shinichi; Kawamura, Mitsuru

    2015-01-01

    Altering physical actions when responding to changing environmental demands is important but not always effectively performed. This ineffectiveness, which is an error of social behavior generated by mutual interactions, is not well understood. This study investigated mechanisms of a hesitant behavior that occurs in people walking toward each other, causing people to move in the same direction when attempting to avoid a collision. Using a motion capture device affixed to 17 pairs, we first confirmed the hesitant behavior by a difference between the experimental task, which involved an indeterminate situation to assess the actions of another individual, and the control task, which involved a predetermined avoiding direction, in a real-time situation involving two people. We next investigated the effect of three external factors: long distance until an event, synchronized walking cycle, and different foot relations in dyads on the hesitant behavior. A dramatic increase in freezing and near-collision behavior occurred in dyads for which the avoiding direction was not predetermined. The behavior related with the combination of long distance until an event, synchronized walking cycle, and different foot relations in dyads. We found that the hesitant behavior is influenced by an interpersonal relationship under enough distance to predict other movement. The hesitant behavior has possibly emerged as an undesired by-product of joint action. These results contribute to our understanding of the mechanisms of adaptive control of perception-action coupling in mutual interaction.

  14. Error analysis in a stereo vision-based pedestrian detection sensor for collision avoidance applications.

    PubMed

    Llorca, David F; Sotelo, Miguel A; Parra, Ignacio; Ocaña, Manuel; Bergasa, Luis M

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an analytical study of the depth estimation error of a stereo vision-based pedestrian detection sensor for automotive applications such as pedestrian collision avoidance and/or mitigation. The sensor comprises two synchronized and calibrated low-cost cameras. Pedestrians are detected by combining a 3D clustering method with Support Vector Machine-based (SVM) classification. The influence of the sensor parameters in the stereo quantization errors is analyzed in detail providing a point of reference for choosing the sensor setup according to the application requirements. The sensor is then validated in real experiments. Collision avoidance maneuvers by steering are carried out by manual driving. A real time kinematic differential global positioning system (RTK-DGPS) is used to provide ground truth data corresponding to both the pedestrian and the host vehicle locations. The performed field test provided encouraging results and proved the validity of the proposed sensor for being used in the automotive sector towards applications such as autonomous pedestrian collision avoidance.

  15. Peculiar Scaling of Self-Avoiding Walk Contacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baiesi, Marco; Orlandini, Enzo; Stella, Attilio L.

    2001-08-01

    The nearest neighbor contacts between the two halves of an N-site lattice self-avoiding walk offer an unusual example of scaling random geometry: for N-->∞ they are strictly finite in number but their radius of gyration Rc is power law distributed ~R-τc, where τ>1 is a novel exponent characterizing universal behavior. A continuum of diverging length scales is associated with the Rc distribution. A possibly superuniversal τ = 2 is also expected for the contacts of a self-avoiding or random walk with a confining wall.

  16. Sense and avoid radar for micro/nano robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molchanov, Pavlo A.; Asmolova, Olha

    2014-10-01

    Revolutionary new fly eye radar sensor technologies based on an array of directional antennas is eliminating the need for a mechanical scanning antenna or complicated phase processor. Proposed sense and avoid radar based on fly eye radar technology can be very small, provides continuous surveillance of entire sky (360 degree by azimuth and elevation) and can be applied for separate or swarm of micro/nano UAS or UGS. Monopulse technology increases bearing accuracy several folds and radar can be multi-functional, multi-frequency. Fly eye micro-radars are inexpensive, can be expendable. Prototype of sense and avoid radar with two directional antennas has been designed and bench tested.

  17. Clear air turbulence avoidance using an airborne microwave radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gary, B. L.

    1984-01-01

    The avoidance of Clear Air Turbulence (CAT) is theoretically possible by selecting flight levels that are a safe distance from the tropopause and inversion layers. These favored sites for CAT generation can be located by an 'airborne microwave radiometer' (AMR) passive sensor system that measures altitude temperature profiles. A flight evaluation of the AMR sensor shows that most CAT could be avoided by following sensor-based advisories. Some limitations still exist for any hypothetical use of the sensor. The principal need is to augment the sensor's 'where' advisories to include useful 'when' forecasts.

  18. Food avoidance in athletes: FODMAP foods on the list.

    PubMed

    Lis, Dana; Ahuja, Kiran D K; Stellingwerff, Trent; Kitic, Cecilia M; Fell, James

    2016-09-01

    We surveyed 910 athletes to assess behaviours towards self-selected food/ingredient avoidance to minimize gastrointestinal distress. Fifty-five percent eliminated at least 1 high fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polyols (FODMAP) food/category, with up to 82.6% reporting symptom improvement. In athletes indicating that high FODMAP foods trigger gastrointestinal symptoms, lactose (86.5%) was most frequently eliminated, followed by galactooligosaccharides (23.9%), fructose (23.0%), fructans (6.2%), and polyols (5.4%). Athletes avoid predominantly lactose and to a lesser extent other high FODMAP foods to reduce gastrointestinal distress.

  19. The relationship of approach/avoidance motivation and asymmetric frontal cortical activity: A review of studies manipulating frontal asymmetry.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Nicholas J; Hortensius, Ruud; Schutter, Dennis J L G; Harmon-Jones, Eddie

    2017-03-10

    The balance between activity in the left and right frontal cortex, commonly referred to as asymmetric frontal cortical activity, has served as a proxy for an organism's motivational direction (i.e., approach vs. avoidance). Many studies have examined the influence of the manipulation of motivational direction on asymmetrical frontal cortical activity and found results consistent with the idea that greater relative left (right) frontal cortical activity is associated with approach (avoidance) motivation. We critically review literature employing physical (versus psychological) manipulations of frontal asymmetry using a variety of methodologies including neurofeedback training, muscular contractions, and non-invasive brain stimulation. These reviewed methods allow us to make stronger causal inferences regarding the role of asymmetric frontal cortical activity in approach and avoidance motivation.

  20. Banded mongooses avoid inbreeding when mating with members of the same natal group.

    PubMed

    Sanderson, Jennifer L; Wang, Jinliang; Vitikainen, Emma I K; Cant, Michael A; Nichols, Hazel J

    2015-07-01

    Inbreeding and inbreeding avoidance are key factors in the evolution of animal societies, influencing dispersal and reproductive strategies which can affect relatedness structure and helping behaviours. In cooperative breeding systems, individuals typically avoid inbreeding through reproductive restraint and/or dispersing to breed outside their natal group. However, where groups contain multiple potential mates of varying relatedness, strategies of kin recognition and mate choice may be favoured. Here, we investigate male mate choice and female control of paternity in the banded mongoose (Mungos mungo), a cooperatively breeding mammal where both sexes are often philopatric and mating between relatives is known to occur. We find evidence suggestive of inbreeding depression in banded mongooses, indicating a benefit to avoiding breeding with relatives. Successfully breeding pairs were less related than expected under random mating, which appeared to be driven by both male choice and female control of paternity. Male banded mongooses actively guard females to gain access to mating opportunities, and this guarding behaviour is preferentially directed towards less closely related females. Guard-female relatedness did not affect the guard's probability of gaining reproductive success. However, where mate-guards are unsuccessful, they lose paternity to males that are less related to the females than themselves. Together, our results suggest that both sexes of banded mongoose use kin discrimination to avoid inbreeding. Although this strategy appears to be rare among cooperative breeders, it may be more prominent in species where relatedness to potential mates is variable, and/or where opportunities for dispersal and mating outside of the group are limited.

  1. Pb-induced avoidance-like chloroplast movements in fronds of Lemna trisulca L.

    PubMed

    Samardakiewicz, Sławomir; Krzeszowiec-Jeleń, Weronika; Bednarski, Waldemar; Jankowski, Artur; Suski, Szymon; Gabryś, Halina; Woźny, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Lead ions are particularly dangerous to the photosynthetic apparatus, but little is known about the effects of trace metals, including Pb, on regulation of chloroplast redistribution. In this study a new effect of lead on chloroplast distribution patterns and movements was demonstrated in mesophyll cells of a small-sized aquatic angiosperm Lemna trisulca L. (star duckweed). An analysis of confocal microscopy images of L. trisulca fronds treated with lead (15 μM Pb2+, 24 h) in darkness or in weak white light revealed an enhanced accumulation of chloroplasts in the profile position along the anticlinal cell walls, in comparison to untreated plants. The rearrangement of chloroplasts in their response to lead ions in darkness was similar to the avoidance response of chloroplasts in plants treated with strong white light. Transmission electron microscopy X-ray microanalysis showed that intracellular chloroplast arrangement was independent of the location of Pb deposits, suggesting that lead causes redistribution of chloroplasts, which looks like a light-induced avoidance response, but is not a real avoidance response to the metal. Furthermore, a similar redistribution of chloroplasts in L. trisulca cells in darkness was observed also under the influence of exogenously applied hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). In addition, we detected an enhanced accumulation of endogenous H2O2 after treatment of plants with lead. Interestingly, H2O2-specific scavenger catalase partly abolished the Pb-induced chloroplast response. These results suggest that H2O2 can be involved in the avoidance-like movement of chloroplasts induced by lead. Analysis of photometric measurements revealed also strong inhibition (but not complete) of blue-light-induced chloroplast movements by lead. This inhibition may result from disturbances in the actin cytoskeleton, as we observed fragmentation and disappearance of actin filaments around chloroplasts. Results of this study show that the mechanisms of the toxic

  2. Pb-Induced Avoidance-Like Chloroplast Movements in Fronds of Lemna trisulca L.

    PubMed Central

    Samardakiewicz, Sławomir; Krzeszowiec-Jeleń, Weronika; Bednarski, Waldemar; Jankowski, Artur; Suski, Szymon; Gabryś, Halina; Woźny, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Lead ions are particularly dangerous to the photosynthetic apparatus, but little is known about the effects of trace metals, including Pb, on regulation of chloroplast redistribution. In this study a new effect of lead on chloroplast distribution patterns and movements was demonstrated in mesophyll cells of a small-sized aquatic angiosperm Lemna trisulca L. (star duckweed). An analysis of confocal microscopy images of L. trisulca fronds treated with lead (15 μM Pb2+, 24 h) in darkness or in weak white light revealed an enhanced accumulation of chloroplasts in the profile position along the anticlinal cell walls, in comparison to untreated plants. The rearrangement of chloroplasts in their response to lead ions in darkness was similar to the avoidance response of chloroplasts in plants treated with strong white light. Transmission electron microscopy X-ray microanalysis showed that intracellular chloroplast arrangement was independent of the location of Pb deposits, suggesting that lead causes redistribution of chloroplasts, which looks like a light-induced avoidance response, but is not a real avoidance response to the metal. Furthermore, a similar redistribution of chloroplasts in L. trisulca cells in darkness was observed also under the influence of exogenously applied hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). In addition, we detected an enhanced accumulation of endogenous H2O2 after treatment of plants with lead. Interestingly, H2O2-specific scavenger catalase partly abolished the Pb-induced chloroplast response. These results suggest that H2O2 can be involved in the avoidance-like movement of chloroplasts induced by lead. Analysis of photometric measurements revealed also strong inhibition (but not complete) of blue-light-induced chloroplast movements by lead. This inhibition may result from disturbances in the actin cytoskeleton, as we observed fragmentation and disappearance of actin filaments around chloroplasts. Results of this study show that the mechanisms of the toxic

  3. Defining the Collision Avoidance Region for DAA Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thipphavong, David; Cone, Andrew; Park, Chunki; Lee, Seung Man; Santiago, Confesor

    2016-01-01

    Unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) will be required to equip with a detect-­-and-­-avoid (DAA) system in order to satisfy the federal aviation regulations to maintain well clear of other aircraft, some of which may be equipped with a Traffic Collision Avoidance System (TCAS) to mitigate the possibility of mid-­-air collisions. As such, the minimum operational performance standards (MOPS) for UAS DAA systems are being designed with TCAS interoperability in mind by a group of industry, government, and academic institutions named RTCA Special Committee-228 (SC-228). This document will discuss the development of the spatial-­-temporal volume known as the collision avoidance region in which the DAA system is not allowed to provide vertical guidance to maintain or regain DAA well clear that could conflict with resolution advisories (RAs) issued by the intruder aircraft's TCAS system. Three collision avoidance region definition candidates were developed based on the existing TCAS RA and DAA alerting definitions. They were evaluated against each other in terms of their interoperability with TCAS RAs and DAA alerts in an unmitigated factorial encounter analysis of 1.3 million simulated pairs.

  4. Secondary Physical Education Avoidance and Gender: Problems and Antidotes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Thomas; Poirier, Yves

    2012-01-01

    Our goal was to locate and evaluate the barriers that impact and cause females to avoid secondary elective physical education courses. We sought to find answers to stop the further decline of female enrolment in secondary physical education by looking into curricula, program and instructional variables. Anecdotal evidence informed this study which…

  5. Crawling-Onset Age Predicts Visual Cliff Avoidance in Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, John E.; Rader, Nancy

    1981-01-01

    Two experiments tested the effects of crawling-onset age, amount of crawling experience, and testing age on avoidance of the deep side of a visual cliff apparatus by human infants. Crawling-onset age disciminated between infants because crawling during the tactile phase interferes with later visual control of locomotion. (Author/RD)

  6. 16 CFR 801.90 - Transactions or devices for avoidance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Transactions or devices for avoidance. 801.90 Section 801.90 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION RULES, REGULATIONS, STATEMENTS AND INTERPRETATIONS UNDER THE HART-SCOTT-RODINO ANTITRUST IMPROVEMENTS ACT OF 1976 COVERAGE RULES §...

  7. 16 CFR 801.90 - Transactions or devices for avoidance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Transactions or devices for avoidance. 801.90 Section 801.90 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION RULES, REGULATIONS, STATEMENTS AND INTERPRETATIONS UNDER THE HART-SCOTT-RODINO ANTITRUST IMPROVEMENTS ACT OF 1976 COVERAGE RULES §...

  8. 16 CFR 801.90 - Transactions or devices for avoidance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Transactions or devices for avoidance. 801.90 Section 801.90 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION RULES, REGULATIONS, STATEMENTS AND INTERPRETATIONS UNDER THE HART-SCOTT-RODINO ANTITRUST IMPROVEMENTS ACT OF 1976 COVERAGE RULES §...

  9. 16 CFR 801.90 - Transactions or devices for avoidance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Transactions or devices for avoidance. 801.90 Section 801.90 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION RULES, REGULATIONS, STATEMENTS AND INTERPRETATIONS UNDER THE HART-SCOTT-RODINO ANTITRUST IMPROVEMENTS ACT OF 1976 COVERAGE RULES §...

  10. 16 CFR 801.90 - Transactions or devices for avoidance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Transactions or devices for avoidance. 801.90 Section 801.90 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION RULES, REGULATIONS, STATEMENTS AND INTERPRETATIONS UNDER THE HART-SCOTT-RODINO ANTITRUST IMPROVEMENTS ACT OF 1976 COVERAGE RULES §...

  11. 42 CFR 495.208 - Avoiding duplicate payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Avoiding duplicate payment. 495.208 Section 495.208 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION STANDARDS FOR THE ELECTRONIC HEALTH RECORD TECHNOLOGY...

  12. 14 CFR 121.356 - Collision avoidance system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... maximum certificated takeoff weight (1) An appropriate class of Mode S transponder that meets Technical... meets TSO C-119b (version 7.0), or takeoff weight a later version. (ii) TCAS II that meets TSO C-119a... that meets TSO C-119b (version 7.0), or a later version.(iii) A collision avoidance system...

  13. 14 CFR 129.18 - Collision avoidance system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...) Turbine-powered airplane of more than 33,000 pounds maximum certificated takeoff weight (1) An appropriate... of the followign approved units;(i) TCAS II that meets TSO C-119b (version 7.0), or takeoff weight a...) A collision avoidance system equivalent to TSO C-119b (version 7.0), or a later version, capable...

  14. Implicit Approach-Avoidance Associations for Craved Food Cues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemps, Eva; Tiggemann, Marika; Martin, Rachel; Elliott, Mecia

    2013-01-01

    Implicit approach associations are well documented for substances such as alcohol, tobacco, and illicit drugs. This study reports two experiments designed to establish and modify such associations specifically in the food craving domain. Experiment 1 used a pictorial implicit association task to examine approach-avoidance associations with…

  15. Avoiding School Management Conflicts and Crisis through Formal Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nwogbaga, David M. E.; Nwankwo, Oliver U.; Onwa, Doris O.

    2015-01-01

    This paper examined how conflicts and crisis can be avoided through formal communication. It was necessitated by the observation that most of the conflicts and crisis which tend to mar school management today are functions of the inconsistencies arising from "grapevines, rumours, and gossips" generated through informal communication…

  16. Emotional Avoidance and Panicogenic Responding to a Biological Challenge Procedure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karekla, Maria; Forsyth, John P.; Kelly, Megan M.

    2004-01-01

    Healthy undergraduates high (n = 27) and low (n = 27) in experiential avoidance underwent twelve 20 s inhalations of 20% carbon dioxide-enriched air, while physiological (e.g., skin conductance, heart rate, EMG, and end-tidal CO[subscript 2]) and subjective (e.g., subjective units of distress, evaluative ratings, number and severity of panic…

  17. How Teachers Can Avoid Being Sued: Law and American Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Jim

    This paper explores what teachers can do to avoid potential lawsuits. Section 1 describes different types of laws for public and private schools. Section 2 discusses tort liability. Section 3 presents legal principles that apply to educators (in loco parents, intentional torts, strict liability, negligence, foreseeability, assigned duties,…

  18. Enuresis Control through Fading, Escape, and Avoidance Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Gordon D.

    1979-01-01

    A twin signal device that provides both escape and avoidance conditioning in enuresis control was documented with case studies of two enuretic children (eight and nine years old). In addition, a technique of fading as an adjunct to the process was utilized with one subject. (Author/SBH)

  19. Binge Eating and Weight Control: The Role of Experiential Avoidance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lillis, Jason; Hayes, Steven C.; Levin, Michael E.

    2011-01-01

    Two thirds of the adults in the United States are overweight or obese. Binge eating is a barrier to treatment adherence and sustained weight loss, and can be seen as a form of experiential avoidance. The current study analyzed the impact of binge eating on weight reduction in a previously published study of a 1-day acceptance and commitment…

  20. Measuring Avoidance and Inflexibility in Weight Related Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lillis, Jason; Hayes, Steven C.

    2008-01-01

    There is growing evidence that experiential avoidance and psychological inflexibility plays a role in a variety of clinical presentations, including health problems. The present study presents preliminary data on a new measure of these processes in relation to difficult weight-related thoughts, feelings, and actions: The Acceptance and Action…

  1. Games Universities Play: And How Donors Can Avoid Them

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wooster, Martin Morse

    2011-01-01

    What responsibilities do universities have to donors, many of whom are alumni? Presumably, one responsibility is to respect their wishes when they provide gifts with specific purposes. Yet Martin Morse Wooster shows in this report that universities often neglect the wishes of contributors. "Games Universities Play: And How Donors Can Avoid Them"…

  2. Changes for Avoiding Burnout in Teachers and Advisers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagy, Mary Lou

    2006-01-01

    All advisers have many concerns and stresses that are unique to their situation. Even though they love their jobs, burnout can creep up without announcing its arrival. Possible signs of burnout may include irritability with students, avoiding responsibility, working harder and getting less done, feeling discouraged and indifferent, showing…

  3. Frequently Asked Questions: IDEA Early Childhood--Disclosure Avoidance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for IDEA Early Childhood Data Systems (DaSy), 2014

    2014-01-01

    This 2014 document is an adaptation of the 2012 release of "Frequently Asked Questions--Disclosure Avoidance" intended for K-12 audiences. Presented here in the form of responses to frequently asked questions (FAQs) are suggestions intended to provide guidance to IDEA Part C early intervention and Part B 619 preschool special education…

  4. Packet Drop Avoidance for High-speed network transmission protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, Guojun

    2004-05-01

    As network bandwidth continues to grow and longer paths are used to exchange large scientific data between storage systems and GRID computation, it has become increasingly obvious that there is a need to deploy a packet drop avoidance mechanism into network transmission protocols. Current end-to-end congestion avoidance mechanisms used in Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) have worked well on low bandwidth delay product networks, but with newer high-bandwidth delay networks they have shown to be inefficient and prone to unstable. This is largely due to increased network bandwidth coupled with changes in internet traffic patterns. These changes come from a variety of new network applications that are being developed to take advantage of the increased network bandwidth. This paper will examine the end-to-end congestion avoidance mechanism and perform a step-by-step analysis of its theory. In addition we will propose an alternative approach developed as part of a new network transmission protocol. Our alternative protocol uses a packet drop avoidance (PDA) mechanism built on top of the maximum burst size (MBS) theory combined with a real-time available bandwidth algorithm.

  5. Evaluation of Prophylactic Alveolar Trephination: To Avoid Pain.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-06-22

    The purpose of this paper was to evaluate the general use of trephination for avoidance of post-treatment endodontic pain. Also to determine if its...more frequent use would allow more rapid completion of endodontic treatment. Two hundred and twenty-five teeth were filled after one or two

  6. 14 CFR 437.65 - Collision avoidance analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Collision avoidance analysis. 437.65 Section 437.65 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING EXPERIMENTAL PERMITS Safety Requirements § 437.65 Collision...

  7. 14 CFR 437.65 - Collision avoidance analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Collision avoidance analysis. 437.65 Section 437.65 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING EXPERIMENTAL PERMITS Safety Requirements § 437.65 Collision...

  8. 14 CFR 437.65 - Collision avoidance analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Collision avoidance analysis. 437.65 Section 437.65 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING EXPERIMENTAL PERMITS Safety Requirements § 437.65 Collision...

  9. 14 CFR 437.65 - Collision avoidance analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Collision avoidance analysis. 437.65 Section 437.65 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING EXPERIMENTAL PERMITS Safety Requirements § 437.65 Collision...

  10. 14 CFR 437.65 - Collision avoidance analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Collision avoidance analysis. 437.65 Section 437.65 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING EXPERIMENTAL PERMITS Safety Requirements § 437.65 Collision...

  11. 47 CFR 51.609 - Determination of avoided retail costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... (customer services) (§§ 32.6611, 32.6613, 32.6621, 32.6622, and 32.6623 of this chapter); (2) Include, as... Section 51.609 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES... reasonably can be avoided when an incumbent LEC provides a telecommunications service for resale at...

  12. Listening for avoidance: narrative form and defensiveness in adolescent memories.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Kristin L; Bein, Edward; Huemer, Julia; Ryst, Erika; Steiner, Hans

    2009-12-01

    We describe a linguistic clue to speakers' states of mind that has utility for psychotherapists and counselors, and summarize the theoretical and empirical support for using this clue in clinical practice. Specifically, we posit that the degree to which people relate stressful episodes from their lives as a chronological sequence of events is negatively associated with the extent to which they self-protectively avoid experiencing negative affect. We review relevant discussions and findings from linguistics and psychology, and then present a new study that replicates previous research. In this study of the relationship between defensive avoidance and the narrative structure of stressful memories in non-clinical adolescents, 168 high school students spoke for 10 min into a tape recorder about "your most stressful life event." Transcribed interviews were analyzed for narrative immersion, the extent to which the past is retold in chronological order, using a method adopted from Labov and Waletzky. A negative association was found between narrative immersion and avoidance (as operationalized by scores on the Marlowe Crowne Social Desirability Scale). Listening for narrative immersion in the speech of clients discussing past stressful times may therefore represent a useful tool in exploring defensive avoidance of stressful episodic memories.

  13. Airborne Collision Avoidance Systems and Air Traffic Management Safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooker, Peter

    2005-01-01

    A new ICAO Policy on Airborne Collision Avoidance Systems is needed, which recognizes it to be an integrated part of the air traffic management system's safety defences; and that should be fully included in hazard analyses for the total system's design safety targets.

  14. Maternal Adjustment Following Preterm Birth: Contributions of Experiential Avoidance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greco, Laurie A.; Heffner, Michelle; Poe, Susannah; Ritchie, Susan; Polak, Mark; Lynch, Susan K.

    2005-01-01

    The birth of a preterm infant has been linked with parental distress and adjustment difficulties, yet little is known about the psychosocial factors contributing to this association. Using a cross-sectional design, we therefore examined maternal adjustment following preterm birth, with an emphasis on the potential role of experiential avoidance.…

  15. Information Seeking and Avoidance Behavior in School Library Distance Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Du, Yunfei

    2010-01-01

    Library science students in school librarianship were surveyed to determine their information seeking and avoidance behaviors in Web-based online environments. Two coping styles were identified among students. Barriers to student online collaboration, such as individual preferences, concerns on efficiency, and lack of mutual trust, were observed.…

  16. Kin encounter rate and inbreeding avoidance in canids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Geffen, Eli; Kam, Michael; Hefner, Reuven; Hersteinsson, Pall; Angerbjorn, Anders; Dalen, Love; Fuglei, Eva; Noren, Karin; Adams, Jennifer R.; Vicetich, John; Meier, Thomas J.; Mech, L.D.; VonHoldt, Bridgett M.; Stahler, Daniel R.; Wayne, Robert K.

    2011-01-01

    Mating with close kin can lead to inbreeding depression through the expression of recessive deleterious alleles and loss of heterozygosity. Mate selection may be affected by kin encounter rate, and inbreeding avoidance may not be uniform but associated with age and social system. Specifically, selection for kin recognition and inbreeding avoidance may be more developed in species that live in family groups or breed cooperatively. To test this hypothesis, we compared kin encounter rate and the proportion of related breeding pairs in noninbred and highly inbred canid populations. The chance of randomly encountering a full sib ranged between 1–8% and 20–22% in noninbred and inbred canid populations, respectively. We show that regardless of encounter rate, outside natal groups mates were selected independent of relatedness. Within natal groups, there was a significant avoidance of mating with a relative. Lack of discrimination against mating with close relatives outside packs suggests that the rate of inbreeding in canids is related to the proximity of close relatives, which could explain the high degree of inbreeding depression observed in some populations. The idea that kin encounter rate and social organization can explain the lack of inbreeding avoidance in some species is intriguing and may have implications for the management of populations at risk.

  17. Kin encounter rate and inbreeding avoidance in canids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Geffen, E.; Kam, M.; Hefner, R.; Hersteinsson, P.; Angerbjorn, A.; Dalen, L.; Fuglei, E.; Noren, K.; Adams, J.R.; Vucetich, J.; Meier, T.J.; Mech, L.D.; Vonholdt, B.M.; Stahler, D.R.; Wayne, R.K.

    2011-01-01

    Mating with close kin can lead to inbreeding depression through the expression of recessive deleterious alleles and loss of heterozygosity. Mate selection may be affected by kin encounter rate, and inbreeding avoidance may not be uniform but associated with age and social system. Specifically, selection for kin recognition and inbreeding avoidance may be more developed in species that live in family groups or breed cooperatively. To test this hypothesis, we compared kin encounter rate and the proportion of related breeding pairs in noninbred and highly inbred canid populations. The chance of randomly encountering a full sib ranged between 1-8% and 20-22% in noninbred and inbred canid populations, respectively. We show that regardless of encounter rate, outside natal groups mates were selected independent of relatedness. Within natal groups, there was a significant avoidance of mating with a relative. Lack of discrimination against mating with close relatives outside packs suggests that the rate of inbreeding in canids is related to the proximity of close relatives, which could explain the high degree of inbreeding depression observed in some populations. The idea that kin encounter rate and social organization can explain the lack of inbreeding avoidance in some species is intriguing and may have implications for the management of populations at risk. ?? 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. School Bullying: Tools for Avoiding Harm and Liability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGrath, Mary Jo

    2006-01-01

    Every hour of every day, students experience bullying and harassment at school by their peers. The immediate and long-term impact on the victims' learning capabilities, emotional health, and self-esteem is staggering. " School Bullying: Tools for Avoiding Harm and Liability" tackles this critical problem with an easy-to-use framework that guides…

  19. The "Eye Avoidance" Hypothesis of Autism Face Processing.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, James W; Sung, Andrew

    2016-05-01

    Although a growing body of research indicates that children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) exhibit selective deficits in their ability to recognize facial identities and expressions, the source of their face impairment is, as yet, undetermined. In this paper, we consider three possible accounts of the autism face deficit: (1) the holistic hypothesis, (2) the local perceptual bias hypothesis and (3) the eye avoidance hypothesis. A review of the literature indicates that contrary to the holistic hypothesis, there is little evidence to suggest that individuals with autism do perceive faces holistically. The local perceptual bias account also fails to explain the selective advantage that ASD individuals demonstrate for objects and their selective disadvantage for faces. The eye avoidance hypothesis provides a plausible explanation of face recognition deficits where individuals with ASD avoid the eye region because it is perceived as socially threatening. Direct eye contact elicits a increased physiological response as indicated by heightened skin conductance and amygdala activity. For individuals with autism, avoiding the eyes is an adaptive strategy, however, this approach interferes with the ability to process facial cues of identity, expressions and intentions, exacerbating the social challenges for persons with ASD.

  20. 47 CFR 15.711 - Interference avoidance mechanisms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... auxiliary service links; private land mobile service/commercial radio service (PLMRS/CMRS) operations... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Interference avoidance mechanisms. 15.711 Section 15.711 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL RADIO FREQUENCY...