Tezel, Huseyin; Atalayin, Cigdem; Kayrak, Gul
The aim of this report is to present the case of an accidentally avulsed maxillary central incisor kept in saline solution from the moment of trauma until its replantation 3 h later in a 13-year-old girl. The avulsed tooth was replanted back into the alveolar socket and splinted with composite resin. Calcium hydroxide intracanal dressing was used to prevent inflammatory root resorption. Radiographic and clinical examinations were performed during 27 months follow-up. During the 15 months follow-up period, the tooth remained in a stable functional position and did not reveal replacement resorption. But mild infraocclusion and root resorption were developed 21 months after replantation. The amount of damage to tooth and supporting structures, emergency treatment and follow-up period play a role in the prognosis of the avulsed tooth. It can be recommended to keep the avulsed tooth in saline solution at least when more appropriate storage media are not on handle immediately.
Tezel, Huseyin; Atalayin, Cigdem; Kayrak, Gul
The aim of this report is to present the case of an accidentally avulsed maxillary central incisor kept in saline solution from the moment of trauma until its replantation 3 h later in a 13-year-old girl. The avulsed tooth was replanted back into the alveolar socket and splinted with composite resin. Calcium hydroxide intracanal dressing was used to prevent inflammatory root resorption. Radiographic and clinical examinations were performed during 27 months follow-up. During the 15 months follow-up period, the tooth remained in a stable functional position and did not reveal replacement resorption. But mild infraocclusion and root resorption were developed 21 months after replantation. The amount of damage to tooth and supporting structures, emergency treatment and follow-up period play a role in the prognosis of the avulsed tooth. It can be recommended to keep the avulsed tooth in saline solution at least when more appropriate storage media are not on handle immediately. PMID:24883032
Orava, S.; Ala-Ketola, L.
34 cases of avulsion fractures are described. Each fracture took place during athletic training or competition. Excepting six sportsmen participating in a general fitness programme, every patient was an active competitive athlete. There were six women and 28 men; their average age was 20.1 years, raised by a few middle-aged "fitness sportsmen". Most avulsion fractures took place in sprinters and hurdlers; next were middle and long distance renner, footballers, fitness joggers, skiers and ice-hockey players. The most usual location of a fracture was the anterior pelvic spines; avulsion fractures were also detected in various parts of lower limbs. There were fewer avulsion fractures in the area of the trunk and upper extremities. Roetgenologically, the diagnosis of an avulsion fracture is generally easy to make. However, the diagnosis is facilitated by knowing the mechanism of the injury, the technique of the athletic event, and some of the training methods. Generally, a fracture heals well, even if it requires both sufficient immobilisation and some delay in resuming physical exertion. PMID:884433
Umbilical cord avulsion (or "cord snapping") is often cited as a risk associated with waterbirth. This article discusses a case study in which a cord avulsed during a waterbirth and uses it as a basis to explore the incidence, etiology, and associated risk factors of umbilical cord avulsion. The diagnosis, clinical presentation, and management of cord avulsion in waterbirth is presented along with a thorough review of the literature and relevant professional standards. This article offers recommendations for clinical practice to minimize the risk of a cord avulsion and highlights the need for additional research and provider education to ensure optimal care of women and newborns. © 2014 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.
Chin, C H; Chew, K C
Lumbosacral nerve root avulsion is a rare clinical entity. Since the first description in 1955, only 35 cases have been reported. It is often associated with pelvic fractures and may be missed in the initial clinical examination as these patients usually present with multiple injuries. We present three such cases with clinical and radiological findings. These patients were involved in road traffic accidents. Two had fractures of the sacroiliac joint with diastasis of the symphysis pubis (Tile type C 1.2) and one had fractures of the public rami (Tile type B 2.1). All three had various degrees of sensory and motor deficit of the lower limbs. Lumbar myelogram shows characteristic pseudomeningoceles in the affected lumboscral region. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging provides an additional non-invasive modality to diagnose this condition.
Jones, H. L.; Hajek, E. A.
Guidelines for identifying ancient avulsion deposits were set forth by Kraus and Wells [Kraus, M.J., Wells, T.M., 1999. Recognizing avulsion deposits in the ancient stratigraphical record. In: Smith, N.D., Rogers, J. (Eds.), Fluvial Sedimentology VI, Special Publication of the International Association of Sedimentologists, vol. 28, pp. 251-268], building on the study by Smith et al. [Smith, N.D., Cross, T.A., Dufficy, J.P., Clough, S.R., 1989. Anatomy of an avulsion. Sedimentology 36, 1-23] of the modern Saskatchewan River system (Cumberland Marshes, central Canada), and serve to characterize avulsion depositional sequences in the ancient Willwood and Fort Union Formations (Paleogene, Bighorn Basin, NW Wyoming, USA). We recognize, however, that the model is not universally applicable to avulsion-dominated successions, specifically systems which lack defining "heterolithic avulsion deposits", set forth by Kraus and Wells [Kraus, M.J., Wells, T.M., 1999. Recognizing avulsion deposits in the ancient stratigraphical record. In: Smith, N.D., Rogers, J. (Eds.), Fluvial Sedimentology VI, Special Publication of the International Association of Sedimentologists, vol. 28, pp. 251-268]. Observations in several fluvial intervals suggest that the avulsion stratigraphy outlined by Kraus and Wells [Kraus, M.J., Wells, T.M., 1999. Recognizing avulsion deposits in the ancient stratigraphical record. In: Smith, N.D., Rogers, J. (Eds.), Fluvial Sedimentology VI, Special Publication of the International Association of Sedimentologists, vol. 28, pp. 251-268] represents one category of avulsion stratigraphy found in the rock record, but does not capture the nature of avulsion deposits everywhere. Based on observations (using measured sections, outcrop photo-panels, and aerial photographs) in the Willwood Formation (Eocene, Wyoming) and Ferris Formation (Cretaceous/Paleogene, Wyoming), we present two end-member categories of avulsion stratigraphy in ancient deposits; stratigraphically
Fay, Kristin; Mannem, Rajeev; Baynes, Keith; Sarin, Dhruv; DuBois, Melissa
Avulsion injuries of the knee are common sequelae of significant trauma given the number of ligamentous and tendinous insertions around the joint. Commonly discussed avulsion fractures of the lateral knee include the Segond fracture of the lateral tibial plateau and the arcuate complex avulsion fracture of the fibular styloid process. A less common avulsion fracture is the iliotibial (IT) band avulsion fracture involving the anterolateral corner of the tibia (Gerdy's tubercle). It is crucial to identify IT band avulsion fractures because of the frequent associated internal derangements of the knee. This case report describes the imaging of an acute IT band avulsion fracture and compares these findings with other lateral knee avulsion fractures.
... weeks on crutches if you have an avulsion fracture around your hip. If the bone fragment and main bone are too far apart to fuse naturally, surgery may be necessary to reunite them. In children, avulsion fractures that involve the growth plates also might require ...
Baginska, Joanna; Wilczynska-Borawska, Magdalena
Almost one fourth of traumatic dental injuries occur at schools or in their surroundings. Prevalence of tooth avulsion varies from 0.5% to 16% of all cases of dental trauma. Children with dental avulsion may seek help from school nurses so they should be able to provide first-aid treatment. However, many studies showed that the general level of…
Krause-Parello, Cheryl A.
Tooth avulsions occur when a tooth is displaced from its socket. Tooth avulsions are common dental injuries that may occur before, during, or after school. Therefore, it is essential that school nurses be well prepared to intervene when such a dental emergency arises. It is also imperative that school nurses and school personnel are fully equipped…
Baginska, Joanna; Wilczynska-Borawska, Magdalena
Almost one fourth of traumatic dental injuries occur at schools or in their surroundings. Prevalence of tooth avulsion varies from 0.5% to 16% of all cases of dental trauma. Children with dental avulsion may seek help from school nurses so they should be able to provide first-aid treatment. However, many studies showed that the general level of…
Karuppiah, S V; Knox, D
Radio-ulnar Fracture dislocation of the elbow is a high-energy trauma which can be associated with significant ligamentous injury in adults. We report an unusual triad of injury in a patient with avulsion injury of the triceps. This injury can be thought of as a variant of "terrible triad" with dislocation of radio-ulnar joint, radial head fracture, and medial collateral ligament injury with avulsion of the triceps. Elbow has to be stabilized with early repair of the ligaments for a successful outcome.
Karuppiah, S. V.; Knox, D.
Radio-ulnar Fracture dislocation of the elbow is a high-energy trauma which can be associated with significant ligamentous injury in adults. We report an unusual triad of injury in a patient with avulsion injury of the triceps. This injury can be thought of as a variant of “terrible triad” with dislocation of radio-ulnar joint, radial head fracture, and medial collateral ligament injury with avulsion of the triceps. Elbow has to be stabilized with early repair of the ligaments for a successful outcome. PMID:24876982
Edmonds, D. A.; Hajek, E. A.; Downton, N.; Bryk, A.
River avulsions help distribute sediment across the floodplain, and the frequency and flow path selected by each avulsion determines flooding and sedimentation patterns. However, rivers avulse infrequently, making it difficult to quantify flow-path behavior and test hypotheses posed by experimental and numerical studies. We used Google Earth Engine to create a novel data set of 55 avulsions that occurred from A.D. 1984 to 2014 in the Andean and Himalayan foreland basins. On each avulsion we measure hop length (the displacement of the avulsion across the floodplain orthogonal to the parent channel) and avulsion length (the length of the parent channel reach). Without controlling for external factors, such as climate or geology, we find that both hop length and avulsion length scale with parent channel-belt width. Avulsion channels tend to hop 2.5 channel-belt widths away from their parent channel and avulsion length is 13.4 parent channel-belt widths. We use these data to test between end-member scenarios where flow paths are randomly selected or steered by floodplain topography. Observed avulsions are inconsistent with flow-path predictions derived from a directed random walk model, and a scaling analysis of alluvial ridge size shows that hop lengths are set by alluvial ridge widths. These results suggest that avulsion flow-path selection in the Andean and Himalayan basins is driven by alluvial ridge topography, which promotes evenly spaced (or compensational) channel sand bodies over decadal time scales. These data and results are important for understanding controls on avulsion flow-path selection and how avulsion processes are represented in the stratigraphic record of foreland basins.
Lui, T H
Achilles tendon ruptures occur commonly in the midsubstance of the tendon, usually 2-6 cm proximal to the insertion to the calcaneus. Ruptures near its insertion into the calcaneus are less common and mostly found in hyperpronators with a heel spur (Haglund's deformity). Avulsion of the bony insertion of the Achilles tendon at the calcaneus is infrequent and is diagnosed by radiography. Open reduction and internal fixation is indicated to achieve bone to bone healing and restoration of the function and continuity of the triceps surae mechanism. Screw fixation is not effective to resist the pull out tension of the triceps surae. Moreover, the prominent screw head may cause skin impingement. More secure fixation method is necessary in order to allow early functional rehabilitation. We describe a technique to fix the avulsed fragment of Achilles tendon insertion with 2 suture anchors. This can neutralize the pull of the triceps surae and early post-operative rehabilitation programme is allowed.
Ganti, Vamsi; Chadwick, Austin; Hassenruck-Gudipati, Hima; Lamb, Michael
River deltas are highly dynamic, often fan-shaped depositional systems that form when rivers drain into a standing body of water. They host over a half billion people worldwide and are currently under threat of drowning and destruction by relative sea-level rise, subsidence, and anthropogenic interference. Many river deltas develop planform fan shapes through avulsions, whereby major river channel shifts occur via "channel jumping" about a persistent spatial node, thus determining their fundamental length scale. Emerging theories suggest that the size of deltas is set by backwater hydrodynamics; however, these ideas are difficult to test on natural deltas, which evolve on centennial to millennial timescales. Here, using physical experiments coupled with observations of the dynamics of modern deltaic evolution, we show that deltas grow through successive deposition of lobes that maintain a constant size that scales with backwater hydrodynamics. The preferential avulsion node in our experiments is a consequence of multiple river floods and Froude-subcritical flows that produce persistent nonuniform flows and a peak in net channel deposition within the backwater zone of the coastal river. Moreover, because the backwater hydrodynamics are controlled by the downstream boundary condition of constant sea level, the backwater-mediated avulsion sites translate seaward in step with shoreline progradation. In contrast, experimental deltas without multiple floods produce flows with uniform velocities and delta lobes that lack a characteristic size. Results have broad applications to sustainable management of deltas and for decoding their stratigraphic record on Earth and Mars.
Stout, J. C.; Grove, J. R.; Rutherfurd, I.; Marren, P.
The avulsion or abandonment of a river channel in favor of a new course on the floodplain is integral to the development and maintenance of anabranching planforms. Avulsions tend to occur on rivers where the rate of vertical aggradation outpaces lateral migration. In fine cohesive floodplain sediments, avulsions evolve through five stages dependent on the amount of flow and sediment being captured by the new channel. There is limited data available to allow the prediction of autogenic and allogenic controls on: the time over which an avulsion is active; its likely location; the frequency of occurrence; and the length of the interavulsion period. The delivery of wood to the river channel is an autogenic process which has received much attention over the last three decades. Surprisingly it has not previously been considered in anabranch avulsions, apart from where log-jams entirely block channels. The presence of large woody debris in the channel acts as a roughness element, trapping, and impeding the movement of sediments and deflecting flow onto the floodplain. We hypothesize that the delivery rates of wood to the channel, and its subsequent configuration (i.e. dimension, amount, volume, spatial arrangement and blockage ratio), alters flow and sediment routing through the channel. These changes directly influence the stages of avulsion development. To test this conceptual model we have used eleven floodplain cores to reconstruct the timing of a Holocene avulsion. The morphology of the channel in each evolutionary stage was used to estimate the relative role of wood as a roughness element. This was done by coupling a mass balance wood delivery model, run in a Monte Carlo simulation, to the geomorphic processes of each evolutionary stage of the avulsion. Our results allow us to quantify the importance of in-channel wood during each stage of the avulsion. These data highlight that there are critical points in the evolution of anabranching channels when large wood
Leiser, Yoav; Shilo, Dekel; Wolff, Amir; Rachmiel, Adi
The present report describes the planning and surgery as well as pitfalls and management of a patient with a near total mandibular avulsion injury that was rehabilitated using three-dimensional (3D) laser printing of a titanium lower jaw. Laser-sintering involves zapping layers of powdered metal to recreate a 3D implantable skeletal defect. The process involves using either mirror imaging of the unaffected side or using archival image database of healthy individuals. A 25-year-old man presented with a gunshot injury that left him with a near total avulsed mandible. The patient received state-of-the-art treatment using a laser 3D printed mandible which was connected to the muscles of mastication for functionality. The inner side of the titanium jaw was filled with the patient's comminuted fractured bones in addition to harvested iliac crest bone graft that was covered with the patient's remaining periosteal tissue. The implantation of a near total mandible using 3D laser printing is a fast and predictable process that in selected patients can result in aesthetically as well as functionally excellent results. The authors believe that the future of craniofacial reconstruction will employ these methods for facial bony reconstruction.
Cruceru, Adelina Maria; Paun, Sorin; Negoi, Ruxandra Irina; Beuran, Mircea
Introduction. The objective of this case report is to illustrate a severe perineal impalement injury, associated with anorectal avulsion and hemorrhagic shock. Results. A 32-year-old male patient was referred to our hospital for an impalement perineal trauma, associated with complex pelvic fracture and massive perineal soft tissue destruction and anorectal avulsion. On arrival, the systolic blood pressure was 85 mm Hg and the hemoglobin was 7.1 g/dL. The patient was transported to the operating room, and perineal lavage, hemostasis, and repacking were performed. After 12 hours in the Intensive Care Unit, the abdominal ultrasonography revealed free peritoneal fluid. We decided emergency laparotomy, and massive hemoperitoneum due to intraperitoneal rupture of pelvic hematoma was confirmed. Pelvic packing controlled the ongoing diffuse bleeding. After 48 hours, the relaparotomy with packs removal and loop sigmoid colostomy was performed. The postoperative course was progressive favorable, with discharge after 70 days and colostomy closure after four months, with no long-term complications. Conclusions. Severe perineal injuries are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Their management in high volume centers, with experience in colorectal and trauma surgery, allocating significant human and material resources, decreases the early mortality and long-term complications, offering the best quality of life for patients. PMID:27891285
Tanimoto, Ryuta; Cleary, Ryan C; Bagley, Demetrius H; Hubosky, Scott G
Flexible and semirigid ureteroscopy (URS) are widely performed for the treatment of upper tract calculi and tumors. Ureteral avulsion is a rare, but devastating complication of endoscopic stone removal having multiple possible etiologies. Awareness and avoidance of this rare complication depend on identifying responsible mechanisms. This study examines the situations in which ureteral avulsion occurs as described anonymously in the Manufacturer and User facility Device Experience (MAUDE) database. The MAUDE database was systematically reviewed to account for all reported complications of flexible and semirigid URS. Keywords "ureteroscopy, injury, death, malfunction and other" were entered in the database and medical device reports were reviewed to capture any cases resulting in ureteral avulsion. Attention was paid to the type of ureteroscope involved and the mechanism for avulsion. A total of 104 entries were found detailing the reported complications of flexible and semirigid URS. Ureteral avulsion was clearly noted in six reports with flexible (2) and semirigid ureteroscopes (4). Potential mechanisms included locked deflection of a flexible ureteroscope (1), bunching of the distal bending rubber in a flexible ureteroscope (1), scabbard avulsion (3), and stone basketing (1). Although the incidence of ureteral avulsion cannot truly be determined from this study, some potentially novel mechanisms for this rare complication are observed. This may target future educational efforts to maximize awareness and avoidance of this complication.
Al-Asfour, Adel; Andersson, Lars; Al-Jame, Quomasha
School teachers can play an important role in improving the prognosis of avulsed permanent teeth of school children after they are informed about the immediate and proper dental first aid steps to be taken at the time of an accident. The aims of this study were: (i) to assess the knowledge level of emergency measures for tooth avulsion in Kuwaiti intermediate school teachers and (ii) to determine if a short lecture about tooth avulsion and replantation could improve teachers' knowledge on this topic. Eighty-five teachers at two intermediate schools (children 10-14 years old) in Kuwait were interviewed using a questionnaire about their first-aid knowledge with particular focus on the following five categories: General knowledge of teeth and avulsion, replantation of primary and permanent teeth, how to clean an avulsed tooth before replantation, extra-oral time and storage methods and media for an avulsed tooth. For each category, a score ranging from 0-3 was possible. An informative 30-min lecture about tooth avulsion and replantation was presented to a group of 43 teachers. After the lecture, the knowledge level of the teachers was re-tested using the same method. Descriptive statistics was used to describe and analyze the data. Improvement in teacher knowledge to an adequate (score of 2) or complete (score of 3) level was observed after the lecture in all five categories. The general knowledge of tooth avulsion and replantation improved from 39% to 97% and knowledge of avulsed permanent and primary teeth from 8% to 71%. Knowledge of how to clean an avulsed tooth improved from 5% to 93%. The knowledge level on the importance of extra-alveolar time before replantation increased from 1% to 74% and knowledge of a suitable storage medium for the avulsed tooth improved from 4% to 86%. Many avulsed permanent teeth in school children can be saved by replantation if school teachers learn what to do when a tooth is avulsed. A lecture followed by discussion proved to be an
Pattillo Garnham, Alejandro; Guzmán Rojas, Rodrigo; Shek, Ka Lai; Dietz, Hans Peter
Levator avulsion is a common consequence of vaginal childbirth. It is associated with symptomatic female pelvic organ prolapse and is also a predictor of recurrence after surgical correction. Skills and hardware necessary for diagnosis by imaging are, however, not universally available. Diagnosis of avulsion may benefit from an elevated index of suspicion. The aim of this study was to examine the predictive value of the International Continence Society Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantification (ICS POP-Q) for the diagnosis of levator avulsion by tomographic 4D translabial ultrasound. This is a retrospective analysis of data obtained in a tertiary urogynaecological unit. Subjects underwent a standardised interview, POP-Q examination and 4D translabial pelvic floor ultrasound. Avulsion of the puborectalis muscle was diagnosed by tomographic ultrasound imaging. We tested components of the ICS POP-Q associated with symptomatic prolapse and other known predictors of avulsion, including previous prolapse repair and forceps delivery with uni- and multivariate logistic regression. A risk score was constructed for clinical use. The ICS POP-Q components Ba, C, gh and pb were all significantly associated with avulsion on multivariate analysis, along with previous prolapse repair and forceps delivery. A score was assigned for each of these variables and patients were classified as low, moderate or high risk according to total score. The odds of finding an avulsion on ultrasound in patients in the "high risk" group were 12.8 times higher than in the "low risk" group. Levator avulsion is associated with ICS POP-Q measures. Together with simple clinical data, it is possible to predict the risk of avulsion using a scoring system. This may be useful in clinical practice by modifying the index of suspicion for the condition.
Caglar, Esber; Tanboga, Ilknur; Süsal, Seckin
The present case report describes the reimplantation of avulsed teeth with the treatment of Emdogain. Case was avulsed right maxillary permanent central and lateral incisor in a 9-year-old girl suffering from a traumatic injury. After pretreatment of avulsed teeth, Emdogain was applied to the root surface and into the extraction socket with subsequent replantation of the tooth. Evaluation parameters included horizontal and vertical percussion sound and periapical radiographs. At 1-2-6-12-month follow-up period, the clinical and radiographic appearance of the teeth showed resolution of mobility and no signs of replacement resorbption.
Ganti, Vamsi; Chadwick, Austin J.; Hassenruck-Gudipati, Hima J.; Lamb, Michael P.
River deltas grow in large part through repeated cycles of lobe construction and channel avulsion. Understanding avulsion cycles is important for coastal restoration and ecology, land management, and flood hazard mitigation. Emerging theories suggest that river avulsions on lowland deltas are controlled by backwater hydrodynamics; however, our knowledge of backwater-controlled avulsion cycles is limited. Here we present results from an experimental delta that evolved under persistent backwater hydrodynamics achieved through variable flood discharges, shallow bed slopes, and subcritical flows. The experimental avulsion cycles consisted of an initial phase of avulsion setup, an avulsion trigger, selection of a new flow path, and abandonment of the parent channel. Avulsions were triggered during the largest floods (78% of avulsions) after the channel was filled by a fraction (0.3 ± 0.13) of its characteristic flow depth at the avulsion site, which occurred in the upstream part of the backwater zone. The new flow path following avulsion was consistently one of the shortest paths to the shoreline, and channel abandonment occurred through temporal decline in water flow and sediment delivery to the parent channel. Experimental synthetic stratigraphy indicates that bed thicknesses were maximum at the avulsion sites, consistent with our morphologic measurements of avulsion setup and the idea that there is a record of avulsion locations and thresholds in sedimentary rocks. Finally, we discuss the implications of our findings within the context of sustainable management of deltas, their stratigraphic record, and predicting avulsions on deltas.
Miernik, A; Halscheid, C; Frankenschmidt, A
A 72-year-old woman sustained a ureteric avulsion following circulatory collapse at home. Urosonographic imaging revealed hydronephrosis at the left kidney, and abdominal emergency computed tomography showed some fluid around it. Left retrograde pyelography proved ureteral disruption at the level of the ureteropelvic junction (UPJ). Immediate open surgery was performed to restore ureteropelvic continuity. Correct and early diagnosis of UPJ transsection is difficult under emergency service conditions and lack of symptoms. With the rapid increase in the aging population, the presence of degenerative exostoses will increase, and its exclusive pathomechanism and pattern of injury might be seen more frequently in emergency care. Trauma specialists should be aware of this pathology. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Kostka, Eckehard; Meissner, Simon; Finke, Christian H; Mandirola, Manlio; Preissner, Saskia
Background: Avulsion of permanent front teeth is a rare accident, mostly affecting children between seven and nine years of age. Replanted and splinted, these teeth often develop inflammation, severe resorption or ankylosis affecting alveolar bone development and have to be extracted sooner or later. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate different therapy concepts to create a structured concept for the treatment of avulsions. Results: Based on existing therapy concepts, a concept for different initial conditions (dry time, age, growth, tooth, hard and soft tissues) was developed and is presented here. Conclusion: A great deal of research has been performed during recent years and guidelines for the management of avulsions have been published. With the help of this literature it is possible to identify the best treatment procedure for each tooth. Clinical Relevance: The prognosis of avulsed teeth can be improved by considering evidence-based therapy concepts. Resorption, ankylosis and tooth loss could be minimized. PMID:25352922
Mizera, R; Harcuba, R; Kratochvíl, J
Proximal hamstring avulsion is an uncommon muscle injury with a lack of consensus on indications and the timing and technique of surgery. Poor clinical symptoms and difficulties in the diagnostic process can lead to a false diagnosis. The authors present three cases of proximal hamstring avulsion, two complete and one partial ruptures of the biceps femoris muscle. MRI and ultrasound scans were used for optimal treatment alignment. Acute surgery reconstruction (< 4 weeks) was done in two patients. Re-attachment of the full thickness ruptures was performed to the original place and secured by suture anchors, the partial rupture was fixed by a simple suture. Two patients were free of any symptoms at 6 months after surgery, the last one had pain in the subgluteal area and a mild deficit in hamstring strength. Two interesting systematic reviews published on the treatment of proximal hamstring avulsion are discussed in the final part of the paper. Key words: hamstring, rupture, avulsion.
Treatment outside the dental office: Replant immediately after gentle washing if practical. If replantation is not practical, store the tooth in the best medium available. Storage media in order of preference are Hank's Balanced Salt Solution (HBSS), milk, saline, and saliva (buccal vestibule). Water is the least desirable storage medium. Treatment in the office: Emergency visit; Place tooth in HBSS while exam is conducted and history is taken. Prepare socket for gentle repositioning of the tooth. Prepare the root. Extraoral dry time < 20 minutes: Closed apex--replant immediately after gentle washing. Open apex--soak in 1 mg doxycycline in 20 mg saline for 5 minutes. Extraoral dry time 20 to 60 minutes: Soak in HBSS for 30 minutes and replant. Extraoral dry time > 60 minutes: soak in citric acid, 2% stannous fluoride, and doxycycline and replant. Endodontics can be done extraorally. Semirigid splint for 7 to 10 days. (If alveolar fracture is present, rigid splint for 4 to 8 weeks). Suture soft-tissue lacerations, particularly in the cervical area. Administer systemic antibiotics (penicillin V potassium if possible) Chlorhexidine rinses and stringent oral hygiene while the splint is in place (7 to 10 days). Analgesics as required. Second visit after 7 to 10 days: Endodontic treatment: Tooth with open apex and extraoral dry time of < 60 minutes: No endodontic treatment initially. Recall every 3 to 4 weeks to examine for evidence of pathosis. If pathosis is noted, disinfect the pulp space and start apexification procedure. Tooth with open apex and extraoral dry time > 60 minutes: If endodontics was not completed in the emergency visit, start endodontics and follow apexification procedure. Tooth with closed apex: Endodontics should be initiated after 7 to 10 days. Careful chemomechanical instrumentation under strict asepsis. Splint removed at end of visit. Obturation visit: If endodontics was initiated 7 to 10 days after the avulsion, obturation can take place after
Bège, Thierry; Ménard, Jérémie; Tremblay, Jaelle; Denis, Ronald; Arnoux, Pierre-Jean; Petit, Yvan
Mesenteric avulsion, corresponding to a tearing of intestine's root, generally results from high deceleration in road accidents. The biomechanical analysis of bowel and mesenteric injuries is a major challenge for injury prevention, particularly because seat belt restraint may paradoxically increase their risk of occurrence. The aim of this study was to identify the biomechanical behavior of mesentery and small bowel (MSB) tissue samples under dynamical loading conditions. A dedicated test bench was designed in order to perform tensile tests on fresh MSB porcine specimens, with quasi-static (1 mm/s) and dynamic (100 mm/s) loading conditions. The mechanical behavior of MSB specimens was investigated and compared to isolated mesenteric and isolated small bowel specimens. The results show a high sensitivity of MSB stiffness (1.0 ± 0.2 and 1.3 ± 0.3 N/mm at 1 and 100 mm/s, p = 0.001) and ultimate force (22 ± 5 and 35 ± 8 N at 1 and 100 mm/s, p = 0.001) to the loading rate but not for the displacement at failure. This leads to postulate on a failure criteria based on strain level regardless of the strain rate. These experimental results could be further used to develop refined finite element models and to further investigate on injury mechanisms associated to seat belt restraints, as well as to evaluate and improve protective devices.
Huh, Jeannie; Easley, Mark E; Nunley, James A
An Achilles sleeve avulsion occurs when the tendon ruptures distally from its calcaneal insertion as a continuous "sleeve." This relatively rare injury pattern may not be appreciated until the time of surgery and can be challenging to treat because, unlike a midsubstance rupture, insufficient tendon remains on the calcaneus to allow for end-to-end repair, and unlike a tuberosity avulsion fracture, any bony element avulsed with the tendon is inadequate for internal fixation. This study aimed to highlight the characteristics of Achilles sleeve avulsions and present the outcomes of operative repair using suture anchor fixation. A retrospective analysis was conducted on 11 consecutive Achilles tendon sleeve avulsions (10 males, 1 female; mean age 44 years) that underwent operative repair between 2008 and 2014. Patient demographics, injury presentation, and operative details were reviewed. Postoperative outcomes were collected at a mean follow-up of 38.4 (range, 12-83.5) months, including the American Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Society (AOFAS) Ankle-Hindfoot score, visual analog scale (VAS) for pain, plantarflexion strength, patient satisfaction, and complications. Eight patients (72.7%) had preexisting symptoms of insertional Achilles disease. Ten of 11 (90.9%) injuries were sustained during recreational athletic activity. An Achilles sleeve avulsion was recognized preoperatively in 7 of 11 (64%) cases, where lateral ankle radiographs demonstrated a small radiodensity several centimeters proximal to the calcaneal insertion. Intraoperatively, 90.9% of sleeve avulsions had a concomitant Haglund deformity and macroscopic evidence of insertional tendinopathy. All patients healed after suture anchor repair. The average AOFAS score was 92.8 and VAS score was 0.9. Ten patients (90.9%) were completely satisfied. One complication occurred, consisting of delayed wound healing. Achilles tendon sleeve avulsions predominantly occurred in middle-aged men with preexisting insertional
Heyvaert, Vanessa M. A.; Walstra, Jan
This study demonstrates that avulsions in Upper and Lower Khuzestan (Iran) are the result of interplay between human-induced and natural causes. The importance of human interference during all stages of river avulsion and the long-term consequences for alluvial fan development is proven. Avulsion can be defined as the diversion of flow from an existing channel onto the floodplain (or the fan surface), eventually resulting in a new channel belt (Allen, 1965). It represents the response of a river system to a wide range of autogenic factors, such as river meandering and vertical accretion, and allogenic controls, such as tectonics, climate change and sea-level change (Jones & Schumm, 1999). The framework used in this study is based on concepts introduced by Slingerland & Smith (2004), regarding avulsion style (i.e. through annexation, progradation or incision), and Makaske (2012), regarding the different phases in the process leading to avulsion (i.e. preconditioning, triggering and post-triggering)on megafans. This study primarily focusses on actions that directly affect river hydraulics, such as the construction and maintenance of dams, embankments, irrigation and diversion canals, the destruction of dams, channel modifications, etc. For several avulsion events, style and controlling factors are examined, and the ways by which human activities have interfered with the natural processes are highlighted. All case-studies are based on an integrated analysis of historical, archaeological, geomorphological and geological datasets. References: Allen, J.R.L., 1965. A review of the origin and characteristics of recent alluvial sediments. Sedimentology, 5, 89-91. Jones, L.S. & Schumm, S.A., 1999. Causes of avulsion: an overview, In: Smith, N.D. & Rogers, J. (Eds.), Fluvial Sedimentology VI, Blackwell Science, Oxford, UK, 171-178. Makaske, B., Maathuis, B.H.P., Padovani, C.R., Stolker, C., Mosselman, E. & Jongman, R.H.G., 2012. Upstream and downstream controls of recent
Roki, N; Roka, Y B; Acharya, R
The optic nerve and the globes are resistant to mild to moderate trauma and bilateral avulsion of the eyes is rare with only a few cases reported in the literature. We report two cases of traumatic bilateral eye avulsion. The first case was secondary to a bear bite and was managed successfully, although the eyes were not salvageable whereas the second case which was due to physical assault expired due to associated severe head injury. Traumatic bilateral globe avulsion/loss is a rare complication of trauma. In developing countries like Nepal, poverty, forest encroachment activities, extensive deforestation, frequent domestic disturbances and lack of education are some of the circumstances that increase the probability of such visual injuries. © NEPjOPH.
Savas, Selcuk; Kucukyilmaz, Ebru; Akcay, Merve; Koseoglu, Serhat
This case report presents two cases of delayed replantation of avulsed maxillary central incisors after an extended dry extra-alveolar period. Eight-year-old boy and 10-year-old boy presented with avulsed maxillary central incisors due to trauma occurring 27 and 7 hours earlier, respectively. Treatment guidelines for avulsed mature/immature permanent teeth with prolonged extra-oral time were carried out for the teeth and the extra-oral endodontic treatment was completed. After having been repositioned, the teeth were stabilized for 4 weeks and prophylactic antibiotic was prescribed. Clinical and radiographic controls were done after 18 months for Case I and 12 months for Case II. During the follow-up periods the teeth reported in these cases have remained in a stable, functional position but revealed clinical initial replacement resorption and ankylosis. PMID:25810928
Naik, Monappa; Tripathy, Sujit Kumar; Goyal, Saumitra; Rao, Sarath K
Avulsion fracture of coracoid process with acromioclavicular joint dislocation is extremely rare. We report a case of coracoid avulsion with acromioclavicular disruption in a 24-year-old man who sustained injuries in a road traffic accident. Although acromioclavicular (AC) dislocation was obvious from an initial radiograph, coracoid avulsion was picked up in a CT scan. Open reduction and internal fixations of the coracoid with a 4 mm cannulated screw, an AC joint with two K-wires and an anchor suture, resulted in rapid recovery. The patient had complete range of shoulder movements at the end of 3 months and he resumed his professional activities. After 1 year, he had normal shoulder movement without any functional limitations. PMID:25994429
Naik, Monappa; Tripathy, Sujit Kumar; Goyal, Saumitra; Rao, Sarath K
Avulsion fracture of coracoid process with acromioclavicular joint dislocation is extremely rare. We report a case of coracoid avulsion with acromioclavicular disruption in a 24-year-old man who sustained injuries in a road traffic accident. Although acromioclavicular (AC) dislocation was obvious from an initial radiograph, coracoid avulsion was picked up in a CT scan. Open reduction and internal fixations of the coracoid with a 4 mm cannulated screw, an AC joint with two K-wires and an anchor suture, resulted in rapid recovery. The patient had complete range of shoulder movements at the end of 3 months and he resumed his professional activities. After 1 year, he had normal shoulder movement without any functional limitations. 2015 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.
Casabianca, L.; Rousseau, R.; Loriaut, P.; Massein, A.; Mirouse, G.; Gerometta, A.; Khiami, F.
Avulsion fracture of the iliac crest is an uncommon pathology. It usually occurs in teenagers during sport activities, more common in boys. We report a case of 16-year-old male competitive sprinter, who had an avulsion of a part of the iliac crest and the anterior-superior iliac spine during a competition. The traumatism occurred during the period of acceleration phase out of the blocks which corresponds to the maximum traction phase on the tendons. Then a total loss of function of the lower limb appears forcing him to stop the run. X-ray and CT scan confirmed the rare diagnosis of avulsion of the quasitotality of the iliac crest apophysis, corresponding to Salter 2 fracture. We performed an open reduction and internal fixation with two screws, allowing a return to sport after 3 months and his personal best record in the 100 meters at the 6th postoperative month. PMID:26421205
Petrovic, Bojan; Marković, Dejan; Peric, Tamara; Blagojevic, Duska
The aim of this study was to examine factors associated with avulsion injury and to specify the association between these factors and the treatment, as well as the outcomes of avulsed permanent incisors in children. The sample consisted of 51 children with 62 avulsed permanent incisors, whose injuries had been managed in the period 1998-2006. The study was prospective, recording the history of the accident, concomitant injuries, age, gender, apical maturity of the root, replantation rate, storage media, extra-alveolar duration, endodontic treatment, compliance and recall appointments response. Factors were analysed in relation to postoperative outcomes, classified as functional healing (FH), infection-related (inflammatory) resorption (IRR) and replacement resorption (RR). The average age of patients was 10.7 years (range 7-19). In 16/51 patients, tooth avulsion was caused by a road traffic accident. Avulsion was accompanied by concomitant injuries in all cases. Thirty of 62 avulsed teeth were not replanted and 32 incisors were replanted after dry storage. Time until replantation ranged between 15 min and 9 h (median 60 min). The observation period ranged from 1 to 6 years (median 2 years). FH was observed in 5/32, IRR in 20/32 and RR in 7/32 incisors. Ten teeth were extracted during 5-years of observation. Immature incisors exhibited significantly more complications compared with mature teeth (P = 0.04). Storage media and extra-alveolar duration did not significantly affect the survival of replanted teeth (P = 0.253, P = 0.350). Teeth in which endodontic treatment was in temporary phase exhibited significantly more complications in comparison with teeth with completed endodontic treatment (P = 0.0l6). The combination of delayed replantation and unphysiological storage is followed by low survival. Incisors with open apices exhibited lower survival compared with incisors with closed apices. Replanted incisors that required prolonged treatment with calcium hydroxide
Winther, Annika Kloster Norland; Øhlenschlæger, Tommy F
Golf is a sport with much repetitive actions often causing overuse injuries. We report a case of a left side avulsion fracture of the anterior serratus at the insertion on costa 4-6. A professionel golfer experienced sudden onset of pain of the chest during a golfswing. Clinically the patient had winging of the scapula and pain at the lateral side of costa 4-6. Ultrasonography showed an avulsion fracture of costa 5 at the insertion of the anterior serratus. The patient was referred to scapula-stabilising rehabilitation and fully recovered.
van Veelen, G A; Schweitzer, K J; van Delft, K; Kluivers, K B; Weemhoff, M; van der Vaart, C H
To evaluate the interobserver reliability of diagnosing levator avulsions between observers from different centers using tomographic ultrasound imaging (TUI) in women after their first delivery. Transperineal ultrasound volume datasets of 40 women 6 months after their first delivery were analyzed by five observers from four different centers. Levator avulsions were diagnosed using TUI and datasets were assessed as optimal or suboptimal image quality and optimal or suboptimal pelvic floor contraction. Cohen's kappa was used to evaluate the interobserver reliability of diagnosing levator avulsions for the total group, the group with optimal and suboptimal image quality, and the group with optimal and suboptimal pelvic floor contraction. Consensus on the presence or absence of avulsions was scored according to the number of observers who diagnosed an avulsion (0 = consensus on the absence of avulsion, 1-4 = avulsion diagnosed by 1 to 4 observers, 5 = consensus on the presence of avulsion). For the total group, the interobserver reliability varied widely, with kappa values ranging from -0.07 to 0.72. Analyzes in the subgroups showed comparable results. Of the women who potentially have an avulsion (avulsion diagnosed by at least one observer), consensus on the presence of an avulsion was reached in 0.0 to 20.0 %. Of the women who potentially have no avulsion (no avulsion diagnosed by at least one observer), consensus on the absence of an avulsion was reached in 46.7 to 85.7 %. Diagnosing levator avulsions using TUI in women 6 months after their first delivery is strongly observer-dependent and therefore not generalizable.
Ajike, S O; Oladigbolu, K K; Ogbeifun, J O; Samaila, E; Omisakin, O O; Ajike, B A
Blunt trauma to the globe may cause rupture or avulsion of the globe with its attendant consequences. Traumatic avulsion of the globe and optic nerve are rare because of the protection offered by the bony socket and the resistance of the globe due to its pressure and the thickness of the nerve tissues. However, there are a few documented cases of avulsion of the globe and optic nerve in the literature. We report a case of traumatic avulsion of the left globe in a 38-year-old female Nigerian. Primary enucleation of the avulsed globe with insertion of orbital prosthesis was done.
Esser, Stephan; Jantz, David; Hurdle, Mark F.; Taylor, Walter
Objective To present a case of ultrasonic diagnosis and nonoperative management of a complete proximal rectus femoris avulsion in a National Collegiate Athletic Association Division 1 soccer goalkeeper. Background While delivering a goal kick, a previously uninjured 24-year-old collegiate soccer goalkeeper had the sudden onset of right anterior thigh pain. He underwent rehabilitation with rapid resolution of his presenting pain but frequent intermittent recurrence of anterior thigh pain. After he was provided a definitive diagnosis with musculoskeletal ultrasound, he underwent an extended period of rehabilitation and eventually experienced complete recovery without recurrence. Differential Diagnosis Rectus femoris avulsion, rectus femoris strain or partial tear, inguinal hernia, or acetabular labral tear. Treatment Operative and nonoperative options were discussed. In view of the player's recovery, nonoperative options were pursued with a good result. Uniqueness Complete proximal rectus femoris avulsions are rare. Our case contributes to the debate on whether elite-level kicking and running athletes can return to full on-field performance without surgery. Conclusions Complete proximal rectus femoris avulsions can be treated effectively using nonoperative measures with good preservation of function even in the elite-level athlete. In addition, musculoskeletal ultrasound is an excellent tool for on-site evaluation and may help guide prognosis and management. PMID:25978099
Haider, Ali S; Watson, Ian T; Sulhan, Suraj; Arrey, Eliel N; Khan, Umair; Nguyen, Phu; Layton, Kennith F
Cervical nerve root avulsion is a well-documented result of motor vehicle collision (MVC), especially when occurring at high velocities. These avulsions are commonly traction injuries of nerve roots that may be accompanied by a tear in the meninges through the vertebral foramina with associated collections of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), thereby resulting in a pseudomeningocele. We present a case of a 19-year-old male who experienced an MVC and was brought to the emergency department (ED) with right arm paralysis and other injuries. A neurological examination demonstrated intact sensation but 0/5 muscle strength in the right upper extremity. A magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the spinal cord demonstrated massive epidural hematomas extending the length of the cervical spine caudally from C2. An MRI of the right brachial plexus showed C3-C7 anterior horn cell edema and associated traumatic nerve root avulsion with pseudomeningoceles on the right from C5-C8. The development of spinal cord hematoma with these injuries has rarely been documented in the literature and the multiple level avulsion described here with extensive hematoma is a rare clinical presentation. A literature review was conducted to determine the diagnostic requirements, treatment strategies, and complications of such an injury. Our patient received conservative treatment of the right brachial plexus injury and was transferred to an inpatient rehabilitation facility 13 days later. PMID:28352498
Johns, Dexton Antony; Shivashankar, Vasundara Yayathi; Maroli, Ramesh Kumar; Vidyanath, Surendran
The avulsion of anterior teeth of young children is a tragic occurrence and often presents an unparalleled challenge for the dentist. Reimplantation is the state-of-the-art treatment but may incur several complications, particularly with inappropriate posttraumatic management. In this article we report the emergency and rehabilitation treatment of an avulsed maxillary anterior tooth by using platelet-rich fibrin. The osteoconductive and osteoinductive properties of platelet-rich fibrin were used to stimulate pulpal and periodontal regeneration. During follow-up, no clinical signs and symptoms were present. After the initial 6 months, no further bone loss and attachment loss were observed. The tooth remained functional and was aesthetically acceptable. When a tooth is avulsed, attachment damage and pulp necrosis occur. Viable periodontal ligament cells are often left on most of the root surface. If the periodontal ligament that is left attached to the root surface does not dry out, the consequences of tooth avulsion are usually minimal. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Dietz, Hans Peter; Garnham, Alejandro Pattillo; Rojas, Rodrigo Guzmán
Levator avulsion is a risk factor for female pelvic organ prolapse (POP) and recurrence after POP surgery. Imaging diagnosis requires the observation of an abnormal muscle insertion on tomographic ultrasound imaging (TUI). This study was designed to compare the diagnostic performance of the qualitative diagnosis (visual qualitative assessment) to measurement of the distance between muscle insertion and urethra [levator-urethra gap; (LUG)]. This was a retrospective analysis of data obtained in a tertiary urogynecological unit. All patients presented with symptoms of pelvic floor dysfunction and underwent 4D translabial pelvic floor ultrasound (US), supine, and after voiding. Avulsion was defined qualitatively as abnormal muscle insertion and quantitatively as LUG ≥25 mm on at least three consecutive central axial plane slices, with one examiner using both methods. We examined the correlation between both methods and validated them against clinical prolapse, significant organ descent on US, and hiatal ballooning. Between January and July 2013, 233 patients were seen, of whom 202 had complete volume data sets. The qualitative method diagnosed avulsion in 22 % and the quantitative method in 24.3 %. Agreement was good, with a kappa of 0.79 (0.70-0.87). Avulsion diagnosed by either method was associated with clinical and sonographic prolapse and hiatal ballooning, with odds ratios nonsignificantly higher for the quantitative method. Qualitative analysis of slices on TUI and a method using LUG measurement show good agreement for the diagnosis of avulsion. The LUG method is at least equally as valid in its capacity to predict significant prolapse on clinical examination and US, as well as ballooning of the levator hiatus.
Dietz, Hans Peter; Bernardo, Maria Jose; Kirby, Adrienne; Shek, Ka Lai
Puborectalis avulsion is a likely etiological factor for female pelvic organ prolapse (FPOP). We performed a study to establish minimal sonographic criteria for the diagnosis of avulsion. We analysed datasets of 764 women seen at a urogynecological service. Offline analysis of ultrasound datasets was performed blinded to patient data. Tomographic ultrasound imaging (TUI) was used to diagnose avulsion of the puborectalis muscle. Logistic regression modelling of TUI data showed that complete avulsion is best diagnosed by requiring the three central tomographic slices to be abnormal. This finding was obtained in 30% of patients and was associated with symptoms and signs of FPOP (P<0.001). Lesser degrees of trauma ('partial avulsion') were not associated with symptoms or signs of pelvic floor dysfunction. Complete avulsion of the puborectalis muscle is best diagnosed on TUI by requiring all three central slices to be abnormal. Partial trauma seems of limited clinical relevance.
Alabi, Sulyman Biodun; Aremu, Shuaib Kayode; Abdulkadir, A Y; Legbo, J N; Akande, Halima J
A 6-year-old girl who claimed to have fallen while playing with metal rod that resulted in palatal avulsion injuries was presented. Neither of the parents was around when the incidence happened. She was brought to the hospital because of pain, bleeding from the mouth, drooling of saliva mixed with blood and inability to feed or phonate appropriately. Examinations of the oral cavity revealed a triangular area of avulsion in the posterior aspect of the hard palate extending to the soft palate. She had examination under anaesthesia and wound repaired with 3-0 vicryl interrupted sutures after thorough wound debridement. She did well and was discharged from the clinic. PMID:22605851
Paxinos, Odysseas; Karavasili, Alexandra; Manolarakis, Manolis; Paxinos, Thrasivoulos; Papavasiliou, Athanasios
We report the case of a 16-year-old elite gymnast who presented with recurring pain in the left shoulder after training. The athlete recalled an injury to the shoulder 2 years ago. Clinically a localized tenderness to the anterior shoulder and loss of strength and range of motion was noted. Imaging investigation suggested a neglected lesser tuberosity avulsion. The athlete was treated with open excision of the deformed tuberosity and direct repair of the subscapularis to the humeral head. Following a careful postoperative rehabilitation protocol the athlete was able to return to unrestricted gymnastics after 6 months. After surgery the athlete followed a intense rehabilitation program that allowed him to return to sports at 6 months. At 5-years follow-up, the athlete was asymptomatic and competing at an international level. Avulsion fractures of the lesser tuberosity are extremely rare injuries with significant shoulder disability if left untreated. Anatomic repair can yield excellent results, even in neglected cases.
Sheroan, Marianne Mills; Roberts, Michael W
Treatment of permanent tooth avulsions in an adolescent poses significant difficulties for the dental clinician. This case report gives details about the treatment of a complex dentoalveolar trauma involving multiple avulsions of primary molars, permanent incisors, permanent molars, and premolar toothbuds. Immediate treatment of the injury and short-term esthetic replacement of the dentition is described. A brief review of current research relative to the treatment of permanent tooth avulsions is provided. Copyright Blackwell Munksgaard, 2004.
van Delft, K; Sultan, A H; Thakar, R; Schwertner-Tiepelmann, N; Kluivers, K
To establish the relationship between postpartum levator ani muscle (LAM) avulsion and signs and/or symptoms of pelvic floor dysfunction (PFD). Observational longitudinal cohort study. District General University Hospital, UK. Primigravida at 36 weeks' gestation and 3 months postpartum. Pelvic floor muscle strength (PFMS) and pelvic organ prolapse were assessed clinically using validated methods. Transperineal ultrasound was performed to identify LAM avulsion and measure hiatus dimensions. Validated questionnaires evaluated sexual function, urinary and faecal incontinence. PFD signs and symptoms related to LAM avulsion. Two hundred and sixty nine primigravida without LAM avulsion participated and 71% (n = 191) returned postpartum. LAM avulsion was found in 21% of vaginal deliveries (n = 30, 95%CI 15.1-28.4%). Women with minor and major avulsion had worse PFMS (P < 0.038) and more anterior compartment prolapse (maximum stage 2; P < 0.024). Antenatal hiatus antero-posterior diameter on ultrasound was significantly smaller in women sustaining avulsion (P = 0.011). Postnatal measurements were significantly increased following avulsion. Women with major avulsion were less sexually active at both antenatal and postnatal periods (P < 0.030). These women had more postnatal urinary incontinence and symptoms such as reduced vaginal sensation and 'too loose vagina'. No postnatal differences were found for faecal incontinence, prolapse symptoms or quality of life. The correlation of differences in variables was only slight-fair with avulsion severity. Twenty one percent of women sustain LAM avulsion during their first vaginal delivery with significant impact on signs and symptoms of PFD. As avulsion has been described as the missing link in the development of prolapse; longer term follow-up is vital. © 2014 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.
Mariani, Pier Paolo; Iannella, Germano; Cerullo, Guglielmo; Giacobbe, Marco
A rare case of acute avulsion of both posterior meniscal roots concomitant with an acute anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tear in a professional soccer player is described. While avulsion of the lateral meniscal root has been extensively reported in association with ACL injuries, medial root avulsion has never been reported in association with acute ACL. A review of the video documentation of the match accident revealed the exact mechanism of injury was a forceful external rotation of the standing limb.
D-AiBB 265 MANAGEMENT OF HARD TISSUE AVULSIVE WOUNDS AND / MANAGEMENT OF OROFACIAL FRACTURESLU) BATTELLE COLUMBUS DIV ON C R HASSLER 30 APR 85 DAMD17...AVULSIVE WOUNDS AND MANAGEMENT OF OROFACIAL FRACTURES Annual Report April 30, 1985 nSupported by U.S. ARMY MEDICAL RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT COMMAND Fort...775A825 AA 044 11. TITLE (Include Security Clasification) (U) Management of Hard Tissue Avulsive Wounds and Management of Orofacial Fractures 12
O'Neill, Barry J; Sweeney, Laura A; Moroney, Paul J; Mulhall, Kevin J
Antiphospholipid syndrome and systemic erythematosus have been associated with metatarsal stress fractures. Stress fractures of the Lisfranc joint complex are uncommon injuries but have been reported to occur most frequently in ballet dancers. We present a case of an avulsion fracture of the Lisfranc joint complex that occurred spontaneously. We have reviewed the association between systemic conditions and metatarsal fractures and proposed a series of hypothetical pathological events that may have contributed to this unusual injury.
Soubra, Balsam Noueiri; Debs, Nahla Nassif
Dental trauma is a major problem in oral health in childhood especially if the result is a tooth avulsion. Subsequently, an appropriate management is essential to preserve the avulsed tooth. The goal of this study is to evaluate the knowledge of children concerning dental trauma and to highlight the importance of audio and visual methods in educating viewers in the management of such accident. Three hundred and forty four children, aged between 8 and 11 years old, participated in this study. Half of them answered a questionnaire about the management of a tooth avulsion. Then, they watch an educational movie played by a speaker. Three months later, they answer the same questionnaire. The remaining 172 children are divided into two equal groups A and B. Group A watches the movie, and group B listens to the story and answers the same questionnaire. One more time, both groups watch the film and listen to its verbal interpretation, then both answer the same questionnaire again. The answers are analyzed. Before watching the movie, 4 of 172 children answer correctly the question related to the conservation of the avulsed tooth. Three months after watching the movie, the correct answers increase to 52. For the second part of the study, after audiovisual information, the full score in group A increases from 20 to 58, and in group B from 49 to 67. The study highlights the importance of audiovisual method in transmitting an educational message and improving the knowledge of a large 'target audience'. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Matoković, Damir; Šimić-Klarić, Andrea; Rajić, Marijana Tomić; Crnković, Helena Tesari; Jurinić, Mislav; Jovanović, Savo
Tibial tuberosity fractures are rare in childhood, most frequently due to excessive quadriceps muscle contraction. On performing long jump, a 15-year-old boy sustained tibial tuberosity avulsion fracture type II according to Watson-Jones. The patient was treated operatively with fragment repositioning and screw fixation. Ten months after the injury and rehabilitation, he resumed his sports activities with full range knee motion.
Kumar, Nishikant; Yadav, Chandrashekhar; Kumar, Ashok
Complications involving the extensor mechanism after TKA are potentially disastrous. We are reporting a case of patellar tendon rupture from tibial tuberosity following total knee arthroplasty. We managed it by direct repair with fiberwire using Krackow suture technique without augmentation. Our long term result has been very encouraging. Our method is a safe and better method of management of patellar tendon avulsion following TKA when it happens without any tissue loss. PMID:25632362
Cavadas, Pedro C; Thione, Alessandro; Rubí, Carlos
To report a series of 6 radiocarpal avulsion amputations in 5 patients. We replanted 6 radiocarpal amputations in 5 patients with proximal musculotendinous and nerve avulsion between 2005 and 2013 and reviewed them retrospectively. All 5 patients were men, age range from 21 to 32 years. Functional results were evaluated through total active motion (TAM) of the fingers, 2-point discrimination, monofilament test, grip strength, and Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand questionnaire. Follow-up was 4 to 10 years. All replanted parts survived without systemic complications. No infections or major wound complications occurred despite the preservation of presumably avascular tendons. The functional results of the right side in patient 1 who suffered bilateral amputations, were very modest, with only 360° of TAM (about 30% of the TAM of a normal hand) and weak grip after 5 secondary surgical procedures including 2 free functional gracilis transfers. This was the only hand in which the tendons were not reinserted primarily. The other hands achieved TAM between 590 and 820°, which corresponds roughly to 50% to 70% of the normal TAM of a healthy hand, and mean of 10-kg grip force. Radiocarpal amputation with proximal musculotendinous avulsion is an infrequent pattern of injury in which replantation with tendon reinsertion can yield functional results comparable with those reported for sharp wrist-level amputations. Therapeutic IV. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Dharmani, Umesh; Jadhav, Ganesh Ranganath; Kamal, Charan; Rajput, Akhil; Dua, Ankur
In traumatic dental injury, concomitant occurrence of avulsion and intrusive luxation is exceptional. This is because the vectors of forces responsible for both avulsive and intrusive injuries are in different directions. The present case report reviews the management of a rare combination of avulsion in right maxillary lateral incisor (tooth #12) and intrusive luxation in right maxillary central incisor (tooth #11) in a 22-year-old Asian male. Clinical and radiographic evaluation was done at 12-month follow-up. Various treatment modalities and complications associated with both avulsion and intrusion are also discussed in the paper. PMID:25506151
Wilson, Thomas J.; Spinner, Robert J.; Mohan, Rohith; Gibbs, Christopher M.; Krych, Aaron J.
Background: Muscle bellies of the hamstring muscles are intimately associated with the sciatic nerve, putting the sciatic nerve at risk of injury associated with proximal hamstring avulsion. There are few data informing the magnitude of this risk, identifying risk factors for neurologic injury, or determining neurologic outcomes in patients with distal sciatic symptoms after surgery. Purpose: To characterize the frequency and nature of sciatic nerve injury and distal sciatic nerve–related symptoms after proximal hamstring avulsion and to characterize the influence of surgery on these symptoms. Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: This was a retrospective review of patients with proximal partial or complete hamstring avulsion. The outcome of interest was neurologic symptoms referable to the sciatic nerve distribution below the knee. Neurologic symptoms in operative patients were compared pre- and postoperatively. Results: The cohort consisted of 162 patients: 67 (41.4%) operative and 95 (58.6%) nonoperative. Sciatic nerve–related symptoms were present in 22 operative and 23 nonoperative patients, for a total of 45 (27.8%) patients (8 [4.9%] motor deficits, 11 [6.8%] sensory deficits, and 36 [22.2%] with neuropathic pain). Among the operative cohort, 3 of 3 (100.0%) patients showed improvement in their motor deficit postoperatively, 3 of 4 (75.0%) patients’ sensory symptoms improved, and 17 of 19 (89.5%) patients had improvement in pain. A new or worsening deficit occurred in 5 (7.5%) patients postoperatively (2 [3.1%] motor deficits, 1 [1.5%] sensory deficit, and 3 [4.5%] with new pain). Predictors of operative intervention included lower age (odds ratio [OR], 0.952; 95% CI, 0.921-0.982; P = .001) and complete avulsion (OR, 10.292; 95% CI, 2.526-72.232; P < .001). Presence of neurologic deficit was not predictive. Conclusion: Sciatic nerve–related symptoms after proximal hamstring avulsion are underrecognized. Currently, neurologic
Wilson, Thomas J; Spinner, Robert J; Mohan, Rohith; Gibbs, Christopher M; Krych, Aaron J
Muscle bellies of the hamstring muscles are intimately associated with the sciatic nerve, putting the sciatic nerve at risk of injury associated with proximal hamstring avulsion. There are few data informing the magnitude of this risk, identifying risk factors for neurologic injury, or determining neurologic outcomes in patients with distal sciatic symptoms after surgery. To characterize the frequency and nature of sciatic nerve injury and distal sciatic nerve-related symptoms after proximal hamstring avulsion and to characterize the influence of surgery on these symptoms. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. This was a retrospective review of patients with proximal partial or complete hamstring avulsion. The outcome of interest was neurologic symptoms referable to the sciatic nerve distribution below the knee. Neurologic symptoms in operative patients were compared pre- and postoperatively. The cohort consisted of 162 patients: 67 (41.4%) operative and 95 (58.6%) nonoperative. Sciatic nerve-related symptoms were present in 22 operative and 23 nonoperative patients, for a total of 45 (27.8%) patients (8 [4.9%] motor deficits, 11 [6.8%] sensory deficits, and 36 [22.2%] with neuropathic pain). Among the operative cohort, 3 of 3 (100.0%) patients showed improvement in their motor deficit postoperatively, 3 of 4 (75.0%) patients' sensory symptoms improved, and 17 of 19 (89.5%) patients had improvement in pain. A new or worsening deficit occurred in 5 (7.5%) patients postoperatively (2 [3.1%] motor deficits, 1 [1.5%] sensory deficit, and 3 [4.5%] with new pain). Predictors of operative intervention included lower age (odds ratio [OR], 0.952; 95% CI, 0.921-0.982; P = .001) and complete avulsion (OR, 10.292; 95% CI, 2.526-72.232; P < .001). Presence of neurologic deficit was not predictive. Sciatic nerve-related symptoms after proximal hamstring avulsion are underrecognized. Currently, neurologic symptoms are not considered when determining whether to pursue operative
Poi, Wilson Roberto; Sonoda, Celso Koogi; Martins, Christine Men; Melo, Moriel Evangelista; Pellizzer, Eduardo Pizza; de Mendonça, Marcos Rogério; Panzarini, Sônia Regina
Dental avulsion is the most severe type of traumatic tooth injuries because it causes damage to several structures and results in the complete displacement of the tooth from its socket in the alveolar bone. The ideal situation is to replant an exarticulated tooth immediately after avulsion because the extraoral time is a determinant factor for treatment success and for a good prognosis. However, it is not always possible. The success of replantation depends on a number of factors that may contribute to accelerate or minimize the occurrence of root resorption or ankylosis, among which is the type and characteristics of the medium used for temporary storage during the time elapsed between avulsion and replantation. Maintaining the tooth in an adequate wet medium that can preserve, as longer as possible, the vitality of the periodontal ligament cells that remain on root surface is the key to success of replantation. Recent research has led to the development of storage media that produce conditions that closely resemble the original socket environment, with adequate osmolality (cell pressure), pH, nutritional metabolites and glucose, and thus create the best possible conditions for storage. Although these storage media can now be purchased in the form of retail products, the most common scenario is that such a product will not be readily available at the moment of the accident This paper reviews the literature on the different storage media that have been investigated for avulsed teeth based on full-length papers retrieved from PubMed/Medline, Lilacs, BBO and SciELO electronic databases using the key words 'storage medium', 'transportation medium', 'avulsion', 'tooth avulsion', 'replantation', 'tooth replantation', 'milk' and 'propolis'. After application of inclusion and exclusion criteria, 39 papers were selected and critically reviewed with respect to the characteristics, efficacy and ease of access of the storage medium. The review of the literature showed that a
Avulsive injuries to the ear are not common and are variable in presentation. This article describes a case of subtotal auricular avulsion treated utilizing a pocket. Other techniques used for these types of injuries are reviewed.
Winkler, A R; Barnes, J C; Ogden, J A
A case of chronic, progressive avulsion of the anterior superior iliac spine leading to the formation of a long, attenuated spur of bone in an 18-year-old black male break dancer is described. The mechanism of formation appeared to be repetitive avulsion from break dancing.
Qazi, Samir Riaz; Nasir, Khawaja Shehryar
In avulsion, teeth are bodily displaced out of the bony socket. Boys, aged 7-9 years, are most prone to avulsion of maxillary central incisors. Tooth avulsion should ideally be treated with immediate replantation. Because of the urgency in treatment, personnel dealing with this injury should have knowledge about the first-aid treatment. This study was conducted to assess the first-aid knowledge about tooth avulsion among dentists, doctors, students, school teachers and the general public in Lahore, Pakistan. Data were collected using a form with one open-ended question about the first-aid treatment of traumatic avulsion. Immediate replantation of the avulsed tooth was suggested by 10.1% of 377 respondents. Among dentists, 45.8% suggested immediate replantation, with the rest suggesting transport of the tooth to a dentist for replantation. Among all other groups (non-dentists) immediate replantation was suggested by 4.6% and transport to a dentist by 3.3%. Non-dentists in Pakistan, including doctors, have insufficient knowledge about the immediate treatment of tooth avulsion. Dentists, in comparison, have significantly more knowledge, but may need training in selection of the appropriate treatment option and handling and care of the avulsed tooth.
Monasterio, Marisol; Longsworth, Kathleen A; Viegas, Steven
Triceps avulsion injuries are not very common injuries. These authors describe an orthosis and protocol they utilized to successfully treat a client following a triceps avulsion injury. - Victoria Priganc, PhD., OTR, CHT, CLT, Practice Forum Editor. Copyright © 2014 Hanley & Belfus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Puricelli, Michael D; Newberry, Christopher Ian; Gov-Ari, Eliav
Nasoenteric tubes provide short-term nutrition support to patients unable to take an adequate oral diet. Bridling systems may be used to secure tubes to guard against displacement. We present the first case of an avulsed magnet from a bridling system to raise awareness of this potential complication. The primary methods of securing a nasogastric tube are reviewed, and comparative assessment of the 3 main systems is presented. Diagnosis and management of nasal foreign bodies relevant to this case are reviewed and prevention/safety considerations discussed.
de Haas, Tjalling; Densmore, Alex; Stoffel, Markus; Ballesteros-Cánovas, Juan; Suwa, Hiroshi; Imaizumi, Fumitoshi; Wasklewicz, Thad
Debris flows are water-laden masses of soil and fragmented rock that rush down mountainsides and spill out onto valley floors and alluvial fans, where they can devastate people and property. Expansion of human population into mountainous regions and the effects of global warming have increased the hazardous effects of debris flows over the last decades. Debris-flow channel avulsions (channel shifts) are critical to debris-flow fan evolution and hazard mitigation, because avulsions distribute debris flows and associated hazards through space and time. However, both the long-term evolution of debris-flow fans and their avulsion process are poorly understood. We aim to unravel the spatio-temporal patterns of debris-flow fan evolution and their avulsion mechanisms and tendency. Here we present a combined analysis of laboratory experiments; field data (repeat topographic analyses and dendrogeomorphological and lichenometrical reconstructions from debris-flow fans in Japan, USA, Switserland and France) and numerical modelling, identifying the main drivers of avulsion on debris-flow fans and their associated spatio-temporal evolution. We show that there are two main processes driving avulsions on debris-flow fans operating at two distinct timescales. (1) Channel plugs locally block channels forcing subsequent flows to avulse and follow alternative flow paths. The frequent but stochastic nature of channel-plug formation leads to a partly unpredictable avulsion and spatial depositional patterns on timescales of a few events. (2) Nevertheless, over timescales of tens of events the average locus of debris-flow deposition is observed to gradually shift towards the topographically lower parts of a fan, highlighting the importance of topographic compensation in the avulsion process on debris-flow fans. We further show that the magnitude-frequency distribution of the debris flows feeding a fan strongly affects the spatio-temporal patterns of deposition. Our results have strong
Naito, Kiyohito; Homma, Yasuhiro; Morita, Mamoru; Mogami, Atsuhiko; Obayashi, Osamu
Rupture of the triceps tendon is a rare condition. We report a case of triceps tendon rupture with avulsion fracture of the olecranon with discussion about pathogenesis from the viewpoint of healing of the olecranon ossification nucleus. An 18-year-old man presented with avulsion fracture of the olecranon and triceps tendon rupture. Operative treatment was conducted with good results. Rupture of the triceps tendon is a rare injury comprising approximately 2% of all tendon injuries, and avulsion at insertion into the olecranon is the most common site of rupture. This injury is most likely to happen in young people as sports-related trauma. Among young people who have insufficient healing of the olecranon ossification nucleus, avulsion fracture of the olecranon may occur due to strong contraction force of the triceps tendon. Our clinical evidence may suggest that avulsion fracture of the olecranon is related in olecranon ossification center healing. Most triceps tendon ruptures are accompanied by avulsion fracture of the olecranon, and it is important to suspect this injury when radiographs show a small fleck of bone avulsed from the olecranon.
Sears, Erika Davis; Chung, Kevin C
Recent studies presenting functional outcomes after replantation of finger avulsion injuries have challenged the historical practice of performing revision amputation for all complete finger avulsion injuries. The aim of this study is to conduct a systematic review of the English literature of replantation of finger avulsion injuries to provide best evidence of survival rates and functional outcomes. A Medline literature search yielded 1,398 studies, using key words "traumatic amputation" or "replantation", with limitation to humans and finger injuries. Inclusion criteria required that studies meet the following requirements: (1) primary data are presented; (2) the study includes at least 5 cases with either complete or incomplete finger avulsion injuries at or distal to the metacarpophalangeal joint; (3) the study presents survival rates, total active arc of motion (TAM), or static 2-point discrimination (2PD) data; (4) data for incomplete and complete avulsions are reported separately; (5) patients are treated with microvascular revascularization or replantation. Survival rates, TAM, and 2PD data were recorded and a weighted mean of each was calculated. Thirty-two studies met the inclusion criteria. Of these 32 studies, all reported survival outcomes, 13 studies reported TAM (metacarpophalangeal, proximal interphalangeal, and distal interphalangeal), and 9 studies reported sensibility. The mean survival rate for complete finger and thumb avulsions having replantation was 66% (n = 442). The mean TAM of complete finger avulsions after successful replantation was 174° (n = 75), with a large number of patients in the included studies having arthrodesis of the distal interphalangeal joint. The mean 2PD in patients after replantation was 10 mm (n = 32). We found that functional outcomes of sensibility and range of motion after replantation of finger avulsion injuries are better than what is historically cited in the literature. The results of this systematic review
Tosun, Ozgur; Koralp, Muhabbet D; Tosun, Aliye; Celebi, Levent; Bulakbaşi, Nail
Fractures of the transverse processes in the lumbar vertebrae occur as the result of major forces such as direct blunt trauma, violent lateral flexion-extension forces, avulsion of the psoas muscle, or Malgaigne fractures of the pelvis. Dancers make repeated and forceful hyperextension and flexions of the spine, which may cause fractures of the transverse processes of the lumbar vertebrae. Repeated trauma of muscles in dancers may cause avulsion fractures and myositis ossificans. Herein, we report MRI and CT findings of an avulsion from the right transverse process of the L2 and L3 vertebrae in a 16-year-old professional teenage dancer, who responded to conservative treatment.
Reitz, M. D.; Steckler, M. S.; Paola, C.; Goodbred, S. L.; Petter, A. L.; Pickering, J.; Williams, L. A.
In Bangladesh, the set of active rivers of the Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta overlie a landscape that is being continually modified by tectonics. The response of rivers to a surface being altered by tectonic tilting or other causes of spatially variable subsidence is generally understood to be a preferred path direction toward regions of higher subsidence. Quantifying the magnitude of the effect of variable subsidence on the timescale and path direction of channel avulsion remains, however, an open question. Recent experimental work has suggested an equilibrium-slope explanation for the timescale and conditions for avulsion, which provides a way forward on understanding how varied subsidence conditions would affect the avulsion process. Here we adapt this model for avulsion to the context of variable subsidence, developing a new framework to quantify its effect on channel avulsions. We find that variable subsidence results in two effects: differing timescales between avulsions on different parts of the delta, and differing frequencies of avulsion to these locations. Regions of higher subsidence both draw avulsions more frequently, and result in longer channel residence times in these locations. We also describe the effect of incision or aggradation due to sea level changes within this framework: incisional events lengthen avulsion timescales everywhere on the delta, while periods of sea-level rise drive the timescales back toward their minimum values. Finally, we apply this theory to the Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta, where we use a map of regional variable subsidence that we derived from GPS and published stratigraphic data, to predict the variation in avulsion timescale and frequency for the Brahmaputra River due to this variable subsidence. We make estimates for two different tectonic history interpretations, and for the cases with or without the estimated incision from the most recent sea-level fall. Comparison between our predictions and our stratigraphy
Mortati, Rafael Borghi; Borghi Mortati, Lucas; Silva Teixeira, Matheus; Itiro Takano, Marcelo; Armelin Borger, Richard
Avulsion fractures of the apophysis of the iliac crest have rare incidence and are little known. In this article, we report the case of an 11-year-old female patient who presented this injury after indirect trauma. From careful radiographic analysis, an avulsion fracture of the iliac crest was identified. It was decided to use nonsurgical treatment comprising analgesia and load restriction. This case report emphasizes the importance of suspecting avulsion fractures in cases of low-energy trauma, and also guides the treatment, so as to prevent functional deficit and deformities. PMID:26229818
D-A134 143 MANAGEMENT OF HARD TISSUE AVULSIVE WOUNDS AND i/I MANAGEMENT OF OROFACIAL FRACTURES(U) BATTELLE COLUMBUS LABS OH L G MCCOV El AL- AUG 88...TISSUE AVULSIVE WOUNDS AND MANAGEMENT OF OROFACIAL FRACTURES . 4 •ANNUAL REPORT Larry G. McCoy and Craig R. Hasuler .9 A August 1980 ". Supported by U.S...10 28 006 REPORT NUMBER 6 MANAGEMENT OF HARD TISSUE AVULSIVE WOUNDS AND MANAGEMENT OF OROFACIAL FRACTURES -4., ANNUAL REPORT Larry G. McCoy and Craig R
Lam, Justin Chak Yiu; Lee, Ka Lok Ryan; Griffith, James F
Brachialis periosteal avulsion injury is an uncommon injury occurring in young children. The injury may be misinterpreted or overlooked because of misleading or subtle radiological findings. A case of 7-year-old child with post-traumatic elbow pain and subtle findings on elbow radiography is presented. The injury was initially misinterpreted as an avulsion fracture of the medial epicondyle. Following radiological review, a diagnosis of brachialis periosteal avulsion injury was made. The radiographic and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of this injury are presented to stress the value of comparing the radiographic findings with previous imaging and to increase awareness of this uncommon injury.
Sonnery-Cottet, Bertrand; Barbosa, Nuno Camelo; Tuteja, Sanesh; Gardon, Roland; Daggett, Matt; Monnot, Damien; Kajetanek, Charles; Thaunat, Mathieu
Background: Rectus femoris injuries are common among athletes, especially in kicking sports such as soccer; however, proximal rectus femoris avulsions in athletes are a relatively rare entity. Purpose/Hypothesis: The purpose of this study was to describe and report the results of an original technique of surgical excision of the proximal tendon remnant followed by a muscular suture repair. Our hypothesis was that this technique limits the risk of recurrence in high-level athletes and allows for rapid recovery without loss of quadriceps strength. Study Design: Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: Our retrospective series included 5 players aged 31.8 ± 3.9 years with acute proximal rectus femoris avulsion injuries who underwent a surgical resection of the proximal tendon between March 2012 and June 2014. Four of these players had recurrent rectus femoris injuries in the 9 months before surgery, while 1 player had surgery after a first injury. Mean follow-up was 18.2 ± 12.6 months, and minimum follow-up was 9 months. We analyzed the age, sex distribution, physical examination outcomes, type and mechanism of injury, diagnosis, treatment and complications during surgery, postoperative follow-up, and time to return to play. The Lower Extremity Functional Scale (LEFS) and Marx scores were obtained at 3-month follow-up, and isokinetic tests were performed before return to sports. A telephone interview was completed to determine the presence of recurrence at an average follow-up of 18.2 months. Results: At 3-month follow-up, all patients had Marx activity scores of 16 and LEFS scores of 80. Return to the previous level of play occurred at a mean of 15.8 ± 2.6 weeks after surgery, and none of the athletes suffered a recurrence. Isokinetic test results were comparable between both sides. Conclusion: The surgical treatment of proximal rectus femoris avulsions, consisting of resection of the tendinous part of the muscle, is a reliable and safe technique allowing a
Avulsion fractures of the pelvic and proximal femoral apophyseal centres are not uncommonly seen in adolescent athletes engaged in vigorous sports. They are the result of strong or uncoordinated muscular traction, and are the equivalents of muscle or tendon pulls in mature athletes. They are particularly seen in athletics, soccer, rugby, ice hockey and break dance. They involve the anterior third of the iliac crest, the anterior iliac spines, the tuber ischiadicum, the symphysis pubis and the trochanter minor. The radiographic and clinical diagnosis, symptoms and signs, treatment and prognosis are well described in the orthopaedic literature and this literature is evaluated here. The fractures are easily and almost exclusively treated conservatively, and will only in a few cases result in a lasting functional disability.
Øregaard, JS; Lang, CL; Venzo, A
Injuries to the nose can be severe from both a functional and cosmetic perspective. After suffering a dog bite to the central part of the face, an 18-year old woman underwent replantation of the avulsed tissue with the help of microsurgical arterial anastomosis. A venous anastomosis was impossible and venous congestion was treated with leech therapy. Subsequent skin necrosis occurred after a few days and the replantation was revised, revealing healthy tissue immediately below. The defect was covered with a full-thickness skin graft. At follow-up review eight months later, the functional and cosmetic result was satisfactory. To our knowledge, this is one of few cases where an injury of this severity healed with a cosmetically acceptable result. PMID:26673050
Hunstad, Joseph P; Kortesis, Bill G; Knotts, Christopher D
When choosing a thigh lift operation, the surgeon also chooses which complications he/she will be managing, and the most dreaded after conventional thigh lifting are those of lymphatic origin such as lymphocele or lymphedema. The authors describe avulsion thighplasty, a technique that spares lymphatics by using aggressive liposuction beneath the planned resection area, and thus minimizes lymphatic complications. The technique is outlined and complications are detailed over a 6-year period with long-term follow-up. The risk of major complications is found to be low and the procedure is found to be safe. Patients must be counseled that the risk of minor complications, such as small wound dehiscence or need for a later scar revision, is substantial. Therapeutic, IV.
Arango, Dillon; Tiedeken, Nathan C.; Ayzenberg, Mark; Raphael, James
Perilunate dislocations are a devastating injury to the carpus that carry a guarded long-term prognosis. Mayfield type 4 perilunate dislocations are rare, high-energy injuries that carry a risk for avascular necrosis (AVN) of the lunate. When AVN ensues and the carpus collapses, primary treatment with a proximal row carpectomy or arthrodesis has been advocated. This case reports a successful clinical result and revascularization of an extruded lunate with open reduction and internal fixation. This type 4, Gustilo grade 1 open perilunate dislocation exhibited complete avulsion of all lunate ligamentous attachments. Management included open reduction and internal fixation as well as carpal tunnel release through a combined dorsal and volar approach. Despite concerns for lunate AVN due to complete disruption of lunate vascularity, a 10-month postoperative clinical and radiographic examination demonstrated no pain with activities of daily living as well as a revascularized lunate. PMID:24876511
Hsu, Sanford P C; Shih, Yang-Hsin; Huang, Ming-Chao; Chuang, Tien-Yow; Huang, Wen-Cheng; Wu, Hsiu-Mei; Lin, Pei-Hsin; Lee, Liang-Shong; Cheng, Henrich
To obtain easier access to avulsed roots in the intradural space for patients suffering cervical root avulsion, the authors of this study developed a novel repair method. This involves using nerve grafts to bridge corresponding segments of the spinal cord and the trunk or cord level of the plexus, respectively, in two surgical stages. All eight patients admitted to this study received pre- and post-operative workups of electrophysiological evaluations and muscle power grading through Medical Research Council (MRC) scores. The degrees of impairment were also graded according to a modified version of Dumitru's and Wilbourn's scale (mild = 1; moderate = 2; severe = 3). The preoperative versus post-operative differences in the severity of the injuries and in the grading of the target muscle power were calculated according to the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. The preoperative degree of the severity of the injuries, as measured by electromyography (EMG), was 3.00 +/- 0.00 (mean +/- S.D.). The post-operative result was 2.125 +/- 0.641. Significant change took place after repair (P = 0.0313). Moreover, although little improvement was observed in the triceps, brachioradialis (BR), extensor carpi radialis (ECR), flexor digitorum profundus (FDP) and intrinsic hand muscles, the MRC grading showed significant yet not prominent motor recovery in the deltoid and biceps brachii (both P = 0.0313). We were impressed that the initial significant statistical results of differences in pre- and post-operative severity of the injuries and muscle power grading, demonstrated that regeneration does occur with this repair strategy.
Kordzadeh, A; Melchionda, V; Rhodes, K M; Fletcher, E O; Panayiotopolous, Y P
The aim of this study is to establish the biomechanics, presentation and diagnosis of mesenteric avulsions following blunt abdominal trauma and reach a consensus on their overall management. A systematic review of literature in MedLine, Embase, Scopus and CINHAL in English language from 1951 to November 2014 was performed. A total of 20 reported cases were identified. Variables including patient's demographics, signs and symptoms, mechanism of injury, investigative modality, management, length of stay, follow-up and outcomes were reviewed and analyzed. The median age of the cohort was 28.5 years (range 10-58 years), with a male-to-female ratio of 3:1. The commonest mechanism of injury was road traffic accident due to seat belt restraint (n = 12, 60 %). The commonest presentation was diffuse abdominal tenderness (n = 10, 45 %) followed by ecchymosis/bruising (n = 9, 40 %). Computed tomography (CT) remained the investigative modality of choice (n = 9, 45 %). All cases had an emergency exploratory laparotomy (n = 18, 90 %) within the initial 24 h and the median length of stay was 19 days (range 4-90 days). The overall mortality was 15 % (n = 3). Mesenteric avulsion is rare and has a complex and vague presentation. Due to its potential mortality and morbidity, emergency physicians should keep a high index of suspicion in individuals with blunt abdominal trauma from any mechanism of injury.
Hsu, Chia-Yu; Wu, Chu-Ming; Lin, Shih-Wei; Cheng, Kui-Lin
We report here a rare case of anterior superior iliac spine avulsion fracture that presented initially as meralgia paraesthetica. A 14-year-old male sprinter presented with anterior superior iliac spine avulsion fracture, which was not observed on initial plain radiograph of the hip, but was diagnosed by ultrasound. Both clinical presentations and electrophysiological studies indicated meralgia paraesthetica. The lateral femoral cutaneous nerve of the thigh was probably compressed by an inguinal haematoma resulting from sartorius muscle strain, which was detected on musculoskeletal ultrasound. Computed tomography of the pelvis confirmed anterior superior iliac spine avulsion fracture. Meralgia paraesthetica in adolescents can be due to anterior superior iliac spine avulsion fracture. Sonography is a valuable tool for screening for muscular haematoma and occult fractures, which may allow clinicians to diagnose the nature of the muscle injury, and thus guide the most appropriate therapeutic strategy.
Uysal, Hilmi; Demir, Sibel Ozbudak; Oktay, Fügen; Selcuk, Barin; Akyüz, Müfit
A total of 73 patients with obstetric brachial plexus palsy and extremity shortness were evaluated clinically, electrophysiologically, and with cervical magnetic resonance imaging. Patients were separated into groups according to age and the level of lesion. The differences of the length of the humerus, ulna, radius, and the second and fifth metacarpal bones were significant between the involved and uninvolved extremities. The difference in shortness increased in relation to the age of the groups and stabilized to approximately 10% in the groups aged 4 to 8 years and 8+ years. A significant relationship was observed between bone length differences and lesion levels. Differences in bone lengths were statistically significant in patients with avulsion in the group aged 8+ years. Extremity shortness appears to be related to avulsion and the level of lesion. The effect of avulsion on extremity shortness gradually increases with age. Finally, root avulsion can be an important factor in extremity shortness of obstetric brachial plexus palsy patients.
Olatosi, O O; Iwuala, S O; Isiekwe, G I; Oredugba, F A; Adenaike, A S; Oluwo, A O
Tooth avulsion has been known to be the most severe of all dental injuries. The immediate action taken at the accident site will determine the prognosis of the tooth. Replantation of an avulsed tooth is the treatment of choice. To assess the knowledge and attitude of primary and secondary (Basic educational) school teachers on the emergency management of avulsed permanent incisors. Twenty public and private basic educational schools were randomly selected from Lagos State. Descriptive cross-sectional study. A 23 item self administered questionnaire was distributed to teachers to determine their knowledge and attitude on the emergency management of avulsed permanent incisors. Data was analysed using SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences), Version 21.0. The responses obtained were tabulated and expressed as frequency distributions and then computed in percentages. Chi-square was used to test the association between knowledge of the schools teachers regarding the emergency management of avulsed permanent incisors and their socio-demographic variables. Multivariate analysis was used to adjust for confounding variables. The level of significance was set at P ≤0.05. A total of 320 teachers answered the questionnaires. Most of the teachers were female (63.1%). Only (30.9%) had received first aid training which included emergency management of dental trauma. Forty- two percent (134) didn't know that an avulsed permanent tooth could be replanted. Twenty teachers (44.4%) would clean an avulsed tooth with toothbrush and toothpaste. A greater proportion of the respondents 130 (40.6%) would transport an avulsed tooth using a clean white handkerchief. The overall knowledge of the school teachers was poor (84%).There was a statistically significant association between the knowledge of the school teachers and the inclusion of emergency management of dental trauma in the first aid training of the teachers P=0.05. Predictors of teachers' level of knowledge of emergency
e Albuquerque, Rodrigo Pires; Giordano, Vincenzo; Carvalho, Antônio Carlos Pires; Puell, Thiago; e Albuquerque, Maria Isabel Pires; do Amaral, Ney Pecegueiro
Simultaneous bilateral avulsion fracture of the tibial tuberosity in teenagers is a rare lesion. We describe the first case in the literature, in a teenage girl who sustained a fall while jumping during a volleyball match. No predisposing factors were iden tified. The lesions were treated with open surgical reduction and internal fixation. The aim of the present study was to present a case of simultaneous bilateral avulsion fracture of the tibial tuberosity in a teenage girl and the therapy used. PMID:27042651
IS Khinda, Vineet; Kaur, Gurpreet; Kallar, Shiminder; Khurana, Heena
Replantation is being widely accepted as an effective treatment option for an avulsed tooth. However, the long-term fate of replanted teeth is unpredictable; it is dependent on various factors, such as the time interval between avulsion and replantation, extra-alveolar storage period (dry storage or storage media), the vitality status of pulp or periodontal tissues and the type and period of splinting. The appropriate use of storage media is an important clinical factor affecting the postoperative prognosis of avulsed teeth following replantation. Hank’s balanced salt solution and pasteurized milk are considered to be the most appropriate and clinically recommended storage media for avulsed teeth. The present review discusses the various available storage media for avulsed teeth and their potential maintenance of the vitality of periodontal ligament cells. A brief overview of the effect of clinical factors, such as the storage time, pH, and the osmolar-ity of storage media on their efficacy is included. How to cite this article Khinda VIS, Kaur G, Brar GS, Kallar S, Khurana H. Clinical and Practical Implications of Storage Media used for Tooth Avulsion. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2017; 10(2): 158-165. PMID:28890616
Chu, Z.; Ganti, V.; Lamb, M. P.
The Huanghe River is known for high suspended sediment concentration and resultant heavy sedimentation and frequent channel-shifting among major rivers in the world. This plain coastal river is the main contributor of terrestrial sediment to the Bohai Sea and the Yellow Sea. Since 1855, there have been 11 major avulsions (versus 4 avulsions on the Mississippi River during the Holocene) on the lower reach with an recurrence interval of ~10 years, developing individual lobes that build up the modern Huanghe River delta. We summarize the main features of riverbed evolution on the delta with a database of measured data. The observed avulsions on the delta often occurred along a persistent spatial node, whose distance from the shoreline scales with the computed backwater length. In order to explain the avulsion locations on the delta, and meanwhile to test the viewpoint of river backwater controls on avulsion locations on deltas, we simulate the long profile evolution of the riverbed on the delta considering river discharge, river plume spreading, land subsidence and sea level rise, with a 1D fluvial morphodynamic model. The main results from the numerical simulations provide insights into how the long profile of the river on the delta evolves at the time scales of flood events and avulsions.
Li, Qiang; Wu, Dianxiu; Li, Rui; Zhu, Xiaojuan; Cui, Shusen
Valproic acid has been shown to exert neuroprotective effects and promote neurite outgrowth in several peripheral nerve injury models. However, whether valproic acid can exert its beneficial effect on neurons after brachial plexus avulsion injury is currently unknown. In this study, brachial plexus root avulsion models, established in Wistar rats, were administered daily with valproic acid dissolved in drinking water (300 mg/kg) or normal water. On days 1, 2, 3, 7, 14 and 28 after avulsion injury, tissues of the C5–T1 spinal cord segments of the avulsion injured side were harvested to investigate the expression of Bcl-2, c-Jun and growth associated protein 43 by real-time PCR and western blot assay. Results showed that valproic acid significantly increased the expression of Bcl-2 and growth associated protein 43, and reduced the c-Jun expression after brachial plexus avulsion. Our findings indicate that valproic acid can protect neurons in the spinal cord and enhance neuronal regeneration following brachial plexus root avulsion. PMID:25206605
Mori, Graziela Garrido; Turcio, Karina Helga Leal; Borro, Vivian Patrícia Baraldi; Mariusso, Angela Maria
Tooth avulsion is common in children, and emergency management in these cases is critical. This management can be made, not only by a dentist but by people who are present where the accident occurs. Consequently, knowledge of tooth avulsion is fundamental for school professionals working with children. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the knowledge of tooth avulsion of school professionals from Adamantina, São Paulo, Brazil. For that purpose a questionnaire, including questions regarding emergency procedures for tooth avulsion, was answered by 117 teachers. The results demonstrated that 75.2% of school professionals knew the importance of emergency management and 60.6% would look for a dentist for treatment of the cases; 18.8% would reimplant the tooth and 7.6% would keep it in milk. This study showed the lack of knowledge of teachers on tooth avulsion; educational campaigns are necessary to improve the emergency management of tooth avulsion.
Hamilton, Paul B.; Strom, Kyle B.; Hoyal, David C. J. D.
Submarine fans, like other distributive systems, are built by repeated avulsion cycles. However, relative to deltas and alluvial fans, much less is known about avulsions in subaqueous settings. In this study, we ran a set of subaqueous fan experiments to investigate the mechanics associated with autogenic avulsion cycles of self-formed channels and lobe deposits on steep slopes. The experiments used saline density currents with crushed plastic to emulate sustained turbidity currents and bed load transport. We collected detailed hydraulic and bathymetric measurements and made use of a 1-D laterally expanding density current model to better understand different aspects of the avulsion cycle. Our results reveal three major components of the avulsion cycles: (1) distributary channel incision, extension, and stagnation; (2) mouth bar aggradation and hydraulic jump initiation; and (3) hydraulic jump sedimentation and upstream retreat. Interestingly, in all but one experiment, the avulsion cycles led to fans that remained perched above the basin slope break. Experimental data and hydraulic theory were used to unravel actual mechanics associated with cycles. We found that channels stopped extending into the basin due to a decay in sediment transport capacity relative to sediment supply and that the reduction in capacity was primarily an outcome of expansion-driven velocity reduction; dilution played a secondary role. Once channel extension ceased, mouth bar deposits aggraded to a thickness approximately equal to the critical step height needed to create a choked flow condition. The choke then initiated a hydraulic jump on the upstream side of the bar. Once formed, the jump detained a majority of the incoming sediment and forced the channel-to-lobe transition upstream, filling the channel with steep backset bedding and capping the entire channel with a mounded lobate deposit. These intrinsic processes repeated through multiple avulsion cycles to build the fan.
Porr, Jason; Lucaciu, Calin; Birkett, Sarah
Objective To assess a causal relationship between physical activity or boney surgical intervention and the occurrence of avulsion fracture in the pelvis. Secondarily to assess the average age at which avulsion fracture occurs in cases associated with physical activity or boney surgery. Method A literature search was performed on a variety of databases using text words and MeSH terms. Results were limited to English language. Cases involving trauma or pathological disease were excluded. Causation Criteria scores were calculated for each paper to establish a link between the suspected mechanism of injury and avulsion fracture. Results 48 papers were retrieved encompassing 66 cases of avulsion fracture. 88% of cases were associated with physical activity while 12% were associated with a history of surgery. Average age in the physical activity cases was 16.8(range 13–43) and 56.4(range 31–74) in the surgery related cases. Causation Criteria scores were definite in 76% of activity related cases and probable in 60% of boney surgery related cases. Conclusions Avulsion fractures of the pelvis represent a highly prevalent pathology among the adolescent athletic population. A population of skeletally mature patients with history of boney surgical intervention are also at risk. PMID:22131561
Ye, Zhou; Zhan, Bei-lei; Zhan, Yun-zhong; Qian, Jun
To investigate the therapeutic effectes of vacuum sealing drainage (VSD) technique and reattachment of avulsed skin in treating avulsion injuries of limbs. A retrospective analysis was done on 25 patients suffering from avulsion injuries of limbs, who were treated with vacuum sealing drainage and reattachment of the avulsed skin. Among the patients, 19 patients were male and 6 patients were female, ranging in age from 21 years to 57 years, with an average of 41 years. After debridement, the patients got reattachment of skin graft with subdermal vascular network or split-thickness skin graft, and the wound surface was covered with polyvinyl sponge. VSD was removed after 7 to 14 days. The color, survival rate and sensory function of the skin were observed after operation. All the wounds infection was controlled with VSD. The skin survival rate was more than 96% in 16 cases, more than 90% in 7 cases, and skin edge of 2 cases had little necrosis but rehabilitated after dress-changing. The reattached skins had almost normal skin color, soft and abrasion resistant, satisfactory sensory function, and no compression ulcer was observed after 4 weeks. VSD combined with graft with subdermal vascular network or split-thickness skin graft helps to promote wound drainage, reattachment of skin, and decrease infection. It is an effective method in treating avulsion injuries of limbs.
Griffin, Aileen; Jones, Gillian; Hunter, Lindsay
Appropriate immediate management of an avulsed permanent incisor is critical because a delay in replantation significantly reduces the long-term prognosis of the tooth. This study was designed to examine the knowledge and attitudes of teachers with regard to the emergency management of avulsed permanent incisors. A total of 198 teachers in 15 schools in Balbriggan, Co. Dublin, or within a 15km radius of the town, were invited to take part in the study. Data were collected by use of a self-administered questionnaire, which had been employed in a previously published study. A total of 139 teachers returned the questionnaire, a response rate of 70.2%. While almost all (96.4%) of these teachers stated that they supervised children during sports or lunch break, the majority neither possessed a recognised first aid qualification (80.6%) nor had received advice on the management of an avulsed permanent incisor (74.8%). Perhaps unsurprisingly, the majority of respondents (81.3%) stated that they would not be prepared to replant a tooth avulsed by a child in their care. Reassuringly, however, 45.3% of respondents chose milk as an appropriate transport medium for the tooth. A total of 131 respondents (94.2%) expressed a desire for further information and advice. The majority of teachers possessed inadequate knowledge of emergency treatment of tooth avulsion. It is the authors' view that teachers and other individuals who supervise children in schools would benefit from instruction in dental first aid.
Haragushiku, Gisele Aihara; Faria, Maria Isabel Anastacio; da Silva, Silvio Rocha Correia; Gonzaga, Carla Castiglia; Baratto-Filho, Flares
The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the knowledge and attitudes toward dental avulsion of public and private elementary schoolteachers. the study was performed by applying a questionnaire in a sample composed of 95 elementary schoolteachers (46 from public schools and 49 from private schools). The questionnaire comprised 9 questions and was pretested before final implementation. Thirty-nine percent of private schoolteachers and 15% of public schoolteachers witnessed at least 1 case of dental avulsion at the school (P=.009). Ninety-two percent and 62% of private and public schoolteachers, respectively, admitted the possibility of an avulsioned tooth to be reimplanted (P<.001). Both responses were statistically different when school type (public or private) was considered. Only 27% of private schoolteachers and 11% of public schoolteachers knew the procedures to be taken in cases of avulsed teeth, and more than 95% of all teachers did not feel capable of executing tooth reimplantation. The study showed no statistical difference between private and public schoolteachers' knowledge. Teachers and other professionals involved in children's care and supervision must be correctly and well informed about dental avulsion, its consequences and the correct procedures to be performed in such cases.
Moradi Majd, Nima; Darvish, Alireza; Adel, Mamak
Introduction. Tooth avulsion in the young permanent dentition is a frequent finding, and its prognosis depends on the treatment of the avulsed tooth before replantation, the extra-alveolar time, the storage medium, and the patient's general health. The present report describes management of an immature avulsed lower central incisor 90 minutes after the accident. Methods. A right lower central incisor of a 7-year-old girl was avulsed, and it was soaked in a glass of milk. 90 minutes after avulsion, replantation was performed, and the tooth was splinted; but after two weeks the replanted tooth's pulp was necrotic. Thus, endodontic treatment was performed and root canal was filled using a calcium hydroxide and iodoform paste (Metapex). Three months later, the intracanal medication was washed out and the canal was sealed using an apical plug of calcium enriched mixture (CEM) cement. Results. 20 months after replantation the tooth was completely asymptomatic, with physiologic mobility. Also, continued root formation including an apical segment beyond the artificial apical plug was observed. Conclusion. Creation of an appropriate apical barrier following the disinfection of root canal system promoted continued root-end growth in a replanted immature permanent tooth. PMID:24900928
Chang, Rei-Yeuh; Chen, Chien-Chang; Hsu, Wei-Pang; Hsiao, Pei-Ching; Tsai, Han-Lin; Hsiao, Ping-Gune; Wu, Jiann-Der; Guo, How-Ran
Abstract Background: Avulsion of the aortic valve commissure as a cause of acute aortic valve regurgitation is mostly due to trauma, infective endocarditis, or ascending aortic dissection. Nontraumatic avulsion of the aortic valve commissure is very rare. We reviewed the literature and analyzed potential risk factors of nontraumatic avulsion. Case presentation: An 80-year-old male with hypertension was seen in the emergency department with acute onset dyspnea. Echocardiogram revealed left ventricular hypertrophy with adequate systolic function, prolapse of the noncoronary cusp, and incomplete coaptation of the right coronary and noncoronary cusps with severe aortic valve regurgitation. Surgery revealed an avulsion between the left coronary and noncoronary cusps. Histopathology examination of the aortic valve showed myxoid degeneration, fibrosis, and calcification. Examination of the ascending aorta revealed myxoid degeneration and fragmentation of elastic fibers. Aortic valve replacement was performed, and the patient was alive and well 4 years after surgery. A review of the literature showed that more than three-fourths of the similar cases occurred in males, and about half in patients with hypertension and those 60 years of age or older. Conclusions: In the case of acute aortic regurgitation without a history of trauma, infection, or valvotomy, when 2 prolapsed aortic cusps are observed by echocardiography in the absence of an intimal tear of the ascending aorta, an avulsion of the aortic commissure should be suspected, especially in males with hypertension who are 60 years of age or older. PMID:27749570
Chadwick, A. J.; Lamb, M. P.; Ganti, V.; Hassenruck-Gudipati, H. J.
River deltas earn their name from a characteristic planform-triangular shape, but in reality demonstrate a wide range of morphologies. The sinuosity of delta shorelines, i.e. shoreline rugosity, is particularly variable worldwide even among deltas where waves and tides are not dominant processes. We hypothesize that river-dominated deltas built through construction of depositional lobes develop a characteristic shoreline rugosity that is determined by long-term patterns in avulsion location, avulsion timing, and channel migration, all of which can be strongly influenced by backwater hydrodynamics. Scaling arguments predict that shoreline rugosity should increase linearly with avulsion timescale, inversely with avulsion lengthscale, and inversely with channel lateral migration rate. We present results from two scaled flume experiments that confirm this hypothesis, and furthermore illustrate the importance of backwater hydrodynamics in controlling the dominant rates and scales in a growing delta. Under the case of variable discharge floods that maintain a dynamic backwater zone, avulsions occur at a fixed distance from the shoreline, resulting in the construction of lobes of constant size even during shoreline progradation. In addition, erosion caused by drawdown hydrodynamics during floods eliminates alternating bars, which slows lateral migration of the channel and allows for more elongate delta lobes. Based on these results, and a compilation of modern river-dominated deltas, we propose a new dimensionless phase space for the occurrence backwater-mediated deltas with rugose shorelines.
E Albuquerque, Rodrigo Pires; da Palma, Idemar Monteiro; Cobra, Hugo; de Paula Mozella, Alan; Vaques, Victor
Avulsion fractures of the posterior cruciate ligament in unusual locations are rare injuries. We report the first case in the literature of an avulsion fracture of the posterior cruciate ligament associated with distal injury to the patellar ligament. The aim of this study was to present a novel case, the therapy used and the clinical follow-up.
Resnick, J M; Carrasco, C H; Edeiken, J; Yasko, A W; Ro, J Y; Ayala, A G
Patients who have sustained an avulsion fracture and present clinically during the healing phase of the injury may manifest a mass that clinically and radiographically mimics a malignant neoplasm. A 15-year-old male soccer goalkeeper presented with a large ossified mass in the soft tissues overlying the right hip 6 months after experiencing a popping sensation in his hip joint during a game. Although an osteosarcoma was suspected clinically and radiographically, a Tru-Cut needle biopsy of the lesion revealed reactive bone formation. Correlation of the clinical, radiographic, and pathologic findings indicated an avulsion fracture of the anterior inferior iliac spine with abundant reactive ossification in the soft tissues. The healing phase of an avulsion fracture may clinically and radiographically be mistaken for neoplasia. In such cases, a Tru-Cut needle biopsy may reveal the reactive nature of the process.
Hayashi, Shinya; Nishiyama, Takayuki; Fujishiro, Takaaki; Kanzaki, Noriyuki; Kurosaka, Masahiro
We present a rare case of avulsion-fracture of the anterior superior iliac spine with meralgia paresthetica in a 16-year-old male basketball player. He had sensory disturbance affecting his left lateral thigh 10 days after the injury. Tinel's sign was elicited on percussing the avulsed bony fragment of the anterior superior iliac spine. He underwent open reduction and internal fixation. The lateral femoral cutaneous nerve was noted to be entrapped by one third of the avulsed bony fragment. That fragment was removed, and the remaining portion was reduced and fixed with 2 screws. At week 6, the patient had returned to basketball playing without pain. At week 8, sensory distribution in the left lateral thigh had returned to normal.
Sahin, Sermet; Saygun, N Işil; Kaya, Yavuz; Ozdemir, Atilla
Dental avulsion is a common and complex injury which affects multiple oral tissues. In this case report, a 9-year-old girl patient with two traumatically avulsed maxillary central incisors with loss of periodontal tissue was presented. Treatment guidelines for avulsed permanent teeth with open apex were carried out. Bilateral laterally sliding flap procedure was performed, to repair loss of gingival soft tissue. Conventional immobilization was carried out for 6 weeks. Five months follow-up of the patient in whom replantation was performed resulted in positive sensitivity test, no symptoms of infection, pain or any discomfort and good periodontal wound healing. In conclusion, this report presents successful replantation and periodontal treatment of a patient with complex dentoalveolar injury.
Li, Heng; Wong, Connie; Li, Wen; Ruven, Carolin; He, Liumin; Wu, Xiaoli; Lang, Bradley T.; Silver, Jerry; Wu, Wutian
Following root avulsion, spinal nerves are physically disconnected from the spinal cord. Severe motoneuron death and inefficient axon regeneration often result in devastating motor dysfunction. Newly formed axons need to extend through inhibitory scar tissue at the CNS-PNS transitional zone before entering into a pro-regenerative peripheral nerve trajectory. CSPGs are dominant suppressors in scar tissue and exert inhibition via neuronal receptors including PTPσ. Previously, a small peptide memetic of the PTPσ wedge region named ISP (Intracellular Sigma Peptide) was generated, and its capabilities to target PTPσ and relieve CSPG inhibition were validated. Here, we demonstrate that after ventral root avulsion and immediate re-implantation, modulation of PTPσ by systemic delivery of ISP remarkably enhanced regeneration. ISP treatment reduced motoneuron death, increased the number of axons regenerating across scar tissue, rebuilt healthy neuromuscular junctions and enhanced motor functional recovery. Our study shows that modulation of PTPσ is a potential therapeutic strategy for root avulsion. PMID:26464223
Wingert, Nathaniel C; Beck, John D; Harter, G Dean
In addition to neurologic injuries such as peripheral nerve palsy, axillary vessel injury should be recognized as a possible complication of reverse total shoulder arthroplasty. Limb lengthening associated with Grammont-type reverse total shoulder arthroplasty places tension across the brachial plexus and axillary vessels and may contribute to observed injuries. The Grammont-type reverse total shoulder arthroplasty prosthesis reverses the shoulder ball and socket, shifts the shoulder center of rotation distal and medial, and lengthens the arm. This alteration of native anatomy converts shearing to compressive glenohumeral joint forces while augmenting and tensioning the deltoid lever arm. Joint stability is enhanced; shoulder elevation is enabled in the rotator cuff–deficient shoulder. Arm lengthening associated with reverse total shoulder arthroplasty places a longitudinal strain on the brachial plexus and axillary vessels. Peripheral nerve palsies and other neurologic complications of reverse total shoulder arthroplasty have been documented. The authors describe a patient with rotator cuff tear arthropathy and a history of radioulnar synostosis who underwent reverse total shoulder arthroplasty complicated by intraoperative injury to the axillary artery and postoperative radial, ulnar, and musculocutaneous nerve palsies. Following a seemingly unremarkable placement of reverse shoulder components, brisk arterial bleeding was encountered while approximating the incised subscapularis tendon in preparation for wound closure. Further exploration revealed an avulsive-type injury of the axillary artery. After an unsuccessful attempt at primary repair, a synthetic arterial bypass graft was placed. Reperfusion of the right upper extremity was achieved and has been maintained to date. Postoperative clinical examination and electromyographic studies confirmed ongoing radial, ulnar, and musculocutaneous neuropathies.
Bischoff, R; Buechler, U; De Roche, R; Jupiter, J
We report 100 cases in which a tension-band technique was used to secure fixation of avulsion fractures within the digits. Included are 51 bony mallet fractures that were subluxed or irreducible, 38 displaced bony gamekeeper's fractures of the thumb, 8 fractures of the lateral phalangeal base, and 3 avulsion fractures that involved the base of the dorsal aspect of the middle phalanx. We evaluated results on the basis of clinical and x-ray film criteria. Excellent or satisfactory results were found in all 38 bony gamekeeper's injuries. All but one gamekeeper's fracture healed; the one nonunion was asymptomatic. All eight patients with lateral avulsion fractures had an excellent or satisfactory result on clinical examination. Seven of the eight had an excellent result on x-ray film evaluation; the one malnuion was asymptomatic. Two of the three fractures with dorsal avulsions of the base of the middle phalanx had a satisfactory result on clinical and x-ray film examination; the one poor result was due to the severity of the comminution of the fracture. However, 21 of the 51 bony mallet injuries had a poor result both clinically and radiographically. We noted numerous postoperative complications including dorsal skin breakdown, superficial and deep infection, and secondary displacement of the fragment. Tension-band fixation is an excellent method for treating various avulsion fractures of the hand such as bony gamekeeper's thumb, lateral avlusion injuries, and dorsal avulsions of the middle phalanx. However, the treatment of bony mallet fingers with tension band fixation is less predictable and should be used with caution.
Longo, Daniele L; Fumes, Ana C; Küchler, Erika C; Paula-Silva, Francisco W G; Filho, Paulo Nelson; Silva, Léa A B
Tooth avulsion consists of the complete displacement of a tooth from the alveolar socket. When immediate replantation is not possible, the avulsed tooth should be kept in a storage medium capable of maintaining the viability of periodontal ligament (PDL) cells on the root surface. However, there is no consensus on the best storage medium able to prevent sequels such as ankylosis and tooth resorption. The aim of this study was to perform a systematic review to evaluate the in vivo effectiveness of different storage media for avulsed teeth. Two reviewers performed a database search for studies published between January 1950 and December 2015 which were indexed in the PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and Bireme databases. An additional manual search was performed. Studies with animal models that evaluated tooth avulsion, storage media and replantation were included. After full-text analysis of the potentially relevant studies, the selected studies were included in the systematic review. The database search found 157 distinct studies evaluating avulsed teeth storage media. However, only six studies met the selection criteria and were included in the review. There was a high variability in the study estimates for the parameters analyzed. When assessing the quality and level of evidence of each study, one study was rated as having a very low level of evidence, four studies had low levels of evidence, and one had a moderate level of evidence. As a result of data heterogeneity and limitations of the studies, there was insufficient evidence to determine the most effective storage medium for avulsed teeth. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Kumar, Suryakant; Sajjanar, Arunkumar B; Athulkar, Milind; Sajjanar, Jayashree; Shewale, Akhilesh; Wasnik, Milind; Dhongde, Pali; Moon, Ankita
Tooth avulsion is a frequently reported traumatic injury amongst young children and whenever it occurs, the parents or teachers of those children often seek the help of Medical Practitioners to provide the first line of treatment. Therefore, the general physician's knowledge regarding the same is an important issue to be taken into consideration. To assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of general medical practitioners of Nagpur city of Central India regarding emergency management of avulsed tooth and highlight the importance of avulsed tooth education in schools and medical colleges in order to increase the knowledge of the same among teachers, parents and general physicians. A cross-sectional survey was carried out amongst 1045 medical doctors after a comprehensive search made in Google database using the keywords "Medical", "doctors" "Nagpur". Data regarding the emergency management of avulsed tooth was collected using a self administered close ended questionnaire. A total of 1045 medical practitioners (718 males, 327 females) voluntarily participated in this survey. It was observed that 56.8% of the medical practitioners had no prior knowledge of management of an avulsed tooth. A 81.6% of practitioners were unaware of transport medium for an avulsed tooth whereas, more than half practitioners (64.7%) were naive about an ideal time for replantation of an avulsed tooth. A little more than one third of the practitioners (26.5%) were unacquainted about the method of holding an avulsed tooth. Regardless of the level of education, the general medical practitioners of Nagpur lack most of the knowledge required for the emergency management of an avulsed teeth. Keeping the in mind the present scenario, it was recommended that education regarding avulsed tooth should be incorporated in school and medical curriculum to increase awareness among parents, teachers and medical practitioners. Also, it is the responsibility of the dentist to make the society aware of this
Shobeiri, S Abbas; Chimpiri, A Rao; Allen, Ariel; Nihira, Mikio A; Quiroz, Lieschen H
The puborectalis muscle is an important muscle for the maintenance of fecal continence. We present a novel surgical technique for repair of symptomatic avulsed puborectalis muscle. This woman presented with dyspareunia and fecal incontinence since the vaginal birth of her child 2 years before. The diagnosis of an avulsed right puborectalis was made by physical examination and confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging and three-dimensional ultrasonography. Fascia lata was harvested from the patient's thigh and used to reconstitute the missing portion of the puborectalis muscle. At 12 months postoperatively, the patient was continent of stool and relieved of dyspareunia. The patient's dyspareunia and fecal incontinence were alleviated by restoring normal anatomy.
Karasu, Hakan Alpay; Uyanik, Lokman Onur; Koçyiğit, Ismail Doruk
Maxillofacial trauma is the main cause of emergency admittance to dental clinics. Mental retardation and epileptic status are important factors in an increase in the risk of dental injuries. Tooth avulsion, which is the total displacement of a tooth out of its socket, is an infrequently observed entity. Maxillary central incisors are the most commonly affected teeth. The case of a patient with severe dental injury resulting from an epileptic attack is presented. He had several teeth avulsed and displacement of a tooth into the soft tissue of the chin.
Servant, C. T.; Jones, C. B.
A case is reported of an adolescent sprinter who was chronically disabled by pain after non-operative management for an acute hamstring injury. He had sustained an avulsion fracture of the ischial apophysis with displacement of 2.5 cm. Avulsion fractures of the ischial apophysis with displacement of 2 cm or more are unusual, but they frequently result in a symptomatic non-union, and early diagnosis, open reduction, and internal fixation is to be encouraged. PMID:9773178
Moore, M.P.; Stauber, E.; Thomas, N.J.
Avulsion of the brachial plexus was documented in a Great Horned Owl (Bubo virginianus). A fractured scapula was also present. Cause of these injuries was not known but was thought to be due to trauma. Differentiation of musculoskeletal injury from peripheral nerve damage can be difficult in raptors. Use of electromyography and motor nerve conduction velocity was helpful in demonstrating peripheral nerve involvement. A brachial plexus avulsion was suspected on the basis of clinical signs, presence of electromyographic abnormalities in all muscles supplied by the nerves of the brachial plexus and absence of median-ulnar motor nerve conduction velocities.
Loo, Tee Jing; Gurunathan, Deepa; Somasundaram, Sujatha
Dental avulsion is defined as the complete displacement of tooth out of socket along with severed periodontal ligament with or without fracture of the alveolar bone. Reimplantation of the avulsed tooth is considered as a best treatment modality due to its biological and psychological advantages. The viability of periodontal ligament cell on the root surface determines the prognosis of reimplanted tooth. The knowledge of parents regarding important steps to be taken immediately after dental avulsion is considered crucial for success of the treatment. The study was conducted to evaluate the knowledge and attitude of parents in Chennai with regard to avulsed permanent tooth of their children and their emergency management using a questionnaire. The study included 529 parents who accompanied their children, aged between 6 years and 12 years, to the Department of Pedodontics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals. Chi-square test was done to evaluate the association between the results and the genders, educational level, and geographical status of the respondents. The study revealed even though 90.7% of parents knew that saving an avulsed permanent tooth is important, but almost one third of the population thought ice water was the best media to transport an avulsed teeth. There is an imperative need for educating the parents regarding management of avulsed tooth for which 87.9% showed interest.
Cho, S Y
To identify the major causes and types of dental luxation and avulsion injuries, and their associated factors in primary school children in Hong Kong. Case series. School dental clinic, New Territories, Hong Kong. The dental records of children with a history of dental luxation and/or avulsion injury between November 2005 and October 2012 were reviewed. Objective clinical and radiographical findings at the time of injury and at follow-up examinations were recorded using a standardised form. Data analysis was carried out using the Chi squared test and multinomial logistic regression. A total of 220 children with 355 teeth of dental luxation or avulsion injury were recorded. Their age ranged from 6 to 14 years and the female-to-male ratio was 1:1.8. The peak occurrence was at the age of 9 years. Subluxation was the most common type of injury, followed by concussion. Maxillary central incisors were the most commonly affected teeth. The predominant cause was fall and most injuries occurred at school. Incisor relationship was registered in 199 cases: most of them were Class I. Comparison of the incisor relationship in study children and the general Chinese population in another study revealed a higher proportion of Class II and fewer Class III occlusions in the trauma group (P<0.0001). Most dental luxation and avulsion injuries in Hong Kong primary school children are caused by fall. Boys are more commonly affected than girls, and a Class II incisor relationship is a significant risk factor.
Lin, Brian Wai
Distal fingertip pad dermal avulsion injuries can be challenging for emergency physicians. A common occurrence with these injuries is difficult-to-control bleeding. The nature of these wounds is such that conventional primary closure to achieve hemostasis is not feasible. Often, direct pressure, even for prolonged periods, will not adequately control the bleeding. Currently recommended techniques are inadequate to control bleeding, and commercially available hemostatic products may be more costly and not widely available. To present a simple method to achieve permanent hemostasis of these injuries using a tourniquet and tissue adhesive glue. A tourniquet is placed around the proximal digit, and the digit is exsanguinated and elevated to achieve short-term hemostasis. Several layers of commercially available tissue adhesive glue are applied sequentially over the avulsed region of the digit and allowed to dry. The tourniquet is then removed. A clean, bloodless dressing is created over the avulsed fingertip. This technique provides a rapid, simple, and likely safe means to control bleeding from a fingertip dermal avulsion injury. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Schjøtt, M; Andreasen, J O
Emdogain has been shown in clinical and experimental studies to promote regeneration of all periodontal tissues: cementum with anchoring fibres, a functional, periodontal ligament and alveolar bone in connection with treatment of marginal periodontitis. The intention of this study was to analyse whether this regenerative capacity upon the periodontal ligament also worked in a trauma situation where a significant number of PDL cells have been eliminated because of unphysiologic storage or actual damage during avulsion or replantation. Furthermore if ankylosis sites already established because of earlier replantation after avulsion could be surgical removed and application of Emdogain could revert the ankylosis stage to a normal PDL situation. The first treatment situation was tested in seven patients with a total of 16 avulsed teeth with varying time of extra oral storage. The teeth were extra-orally endodontically treated and the root and socket covered with Emdogain before replantation. All teeth demonstrated subsequent ankylosis, primarily diagnosed by a percussion test. The second treatment situation where an ankylosis was already established constituted of seven patients with a total of 11 teeth because of previous replantation after avulsion. These teeth were all extracted, the ankylosis sites removed and the root and socket treated with Emdogain. After 6 months all teeth showed recurrence of ankylosis. It is concluded that Emdogain was not able to prevent or cure ankylosis.
Gaizauskas, Sergejus; Zelvys, Arunas
Indication has led ureteroscopy to be a worldwide technique, with the expected appearance of multiple types of complications. Severe complications are possible including ureteral perforation or avulsion. Ureteral avulsion has been described as an upper urinary tract injury related to the action of blunt trauma, especially from traffic accidents, being the mechanism of injury, the result of an acute deceleration/acceleration movement. With the advent of endourology, that term is also applied to the extensive degloving injury resulting from a mechanism of stretching of the ureter that eventually breaks at the most weakened site, or ureteral avulsion is referred to as a discontinuation of the full thickness of the ureter. The paper presents a case report and literature review of the two-point or “scabbard” avulsion. The loss of long segment of the upper ureter, when end-to-end anastomosis is not technically feasible, presents a challenge to the urological surgeon. In the era of small calibre ureteroscopes these complications, due to growing incidence of renal stones will become more and more actual. Our message to other urologists is to know such a complication, to know the ways of treatment, and to analyse ureteroscopic signs, when to stop or pay attention. PMID:25610699
Gaizauskas, Andrius; Markevicius, Marius; Gaizauskas, Sergejus; Zelvys, Arunas
Indication has led ureteroscopy to be a worldwide technique, with the expected appearance of multiple types of complications. Severe complications are possible including ureteral perforation or avulsion. Ureteral avulsion has been described as an upper urinary tract injury related to the action of blunt trauma, especially from traffic accidents, being the mechanism of injury, the result of an acute deceleration/acceleration movement. With the advent of endourology, that term is also applied to the extensive degloving injury resulting from a mechanism of stretching of the ureter that eventually breaks at the most weakened site, or ureteral avulsion is referred to as a discontinuation of the full thickness of the ureter. The paper presents a case report and literature review of the two-point or "scabbard" avulsion. The loss of long segment of the upper ureter, when end-to-end anastomosis is not technically feasible, presents a challenge to the urological surgeon. In the era of small calibre ureteroscopes these complications, due to growing incidence of renal stones will become more and more actual. Our message to other urologists is to know such a complication, to know the ways of treatment, and to analyse ureteroscopic signs, when to stop or pay attention.
Limbrick, David D; Behdad, Amir; Derdeyn, Colin P; Custer, Phillip L; Zipfel, Gregory J; Santiago, Paul
Traumatic, nonaneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is common after closed head injury and most often results from ruptured cortical microvessels. Here, the authors present the case of a 60-year-old woman who fell and struck her head, causing traumatic enucleation and avulsion of both the optic nerve and ophthalmic artery. The arterial avulsion caused a Fisher Grade 3 SAH. During her stay in the intensive care unit, hydrocephalus and vasospasm developed, clinical conditions commonly observed after aneurysmal SAH. Epileptiform activity also developed, although this may have been related to concurrent Pantoea agglomerans ventriculitis. It is reasonable to suggest that intracerebral arterial avulsion with profuse arterial bleeding may be more likely than traditional traumatic SAH to result in clinical events similar to that of aneurysmal SAH. Special consideration should be given to the acute care of patients with intracranial arterial avulsions (conservative management vs surgical exploration or endovascular treatment), as well as long-term follow-up for vascular or other neurosurgical complications.
Castilho, Lithiene Ribeiro; Sundefeld, Maria Lucia Marçal Mazza; de Andrade, Dalton Francisco; Panzarini, Sônia Regina; Poi, Wilson Roberto
Dental trauma, particularly tooth avulsion, is a frequent cause of tooth loss in children, adolescents, and young adults. The avulsed tooth should be immediately reimplanted in its alveolus. This procedure can be performed by anyone at the accident site and not only by dental surgeons. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to evaluate the knowledge of sixth graders of the city of Araçatuba, SP, about dental avulsion and tooth reimplantation through a structured and standardized survey. Our sample consisted of 778 students. The data collected was processed using the program EPIINFO 2000. Most students were around 12 years of age and 94.5% related to practice some kind of sports. Results demonstrated that the possibility of tooth reimplantation after dental avulsion is not acknowledged among these students and dental traumatism was associated to caries, toothache, and use of orthodontic appliances. Only 18.9% of the students associated dental traumatism to an impact trauma; 3.6% would store the tooth in milk, and 3.1% believed the tooth could be reimplanted by anyone present at the accident site. In summary, the results show an overall the lack of knowledge about dental traumatism and highlight the need of special programs designed to educate school-aged students about emergency procedures to handle cases of dental traumatisms.
Ralston, David J.; Scherm, Michael J.
OBJECTIVE: To present the case of a high school football player who sustained avulsion of 2 branches of the splenic artery from his spleen as he was tackled and landed on the football. BACKGROUND: A high school football player was tackled and fell onto the football, left side first. He was examined by a certified athletic trainer and an internist. On evaluation, he had a positive Kehr sign, exquisite left upper abdominal quadrant tenderness, and complaint of nausea. He also exhibited signs of the onset of shock, including diaphoresis, a rapid pulse, and hypotension. He was immediately transported by ambulance to the local emergency facility. DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS: Splenic rupture, splenic laceration, splenic artery avulsion, or ruptured viscus. TREATMENT: Emergency surgery was performed, with removal of 2800 mL of blood and ligation of the 2 arterial branches avulsed from the spleen. The patient fully recovered within 6 weeks and was cleared to resume all sports activities. UNIQUENESS: Injury to the spleen in football is a known yet very uncommon injury. Even more unusual is the avulsion of splenic artery branches from the spleen. CONCLUSIONS: It is critical that athletic trainers and team physicians have an understanding of the mechanisms, signs, and symptoms of splenic injury. Because the spleen is a highly vascular organ, severe hemorrhage can be fatal in just minutes if not recognized and appropriately treated.
Aylward, G W; Ohri, R
We present a case in which trauma from a broken glass resulted in complete amputation of the upper lid and severe lacerations to the lower lid but with an intact and functioning globe. The avulsed upper lid was repaired as a composite autograft. The possible management of such an unusual case is discussed.
OROFACIAL FRACTURES(U) BATTELLE COLUMBUS LABS OH C R HASSLER ET AL...8217, ,,, . ’ ’. - . - -,-. . . .. .- . . ."’ " . . . . . . . .. . ,+ + , , ,+. . .+, - , . . . ..+ • , , ,. ,, . • . . . - V.- #/sa REPORT NUMBER 7 VIMAANA WENT OF HARD TISSUE AVULSIMV WOUNDS AND MNAGEMENT OF OROFACIAL FRACTURES . ~ I) ANNUAL REPORT Craig 1. Hassler...authorized documents. -*. o . C,. °. *.. .. . . . REPORT NUMBER 7 MANAGEMENT OF HARD TISSUE AVULSIVE WOUNDS AND MANAGEMENT OF OROFACIAL
Larkin, Zacchary T.; Tooth, Stephen; Ralph, Timothy J.; Duller, Geoff A. T.; McCarthy, Terence; Keen-Zebert, Amanda; Humphries, Marc S.
Avulsion (relocation of a river course to a new position) typically is assumed to occur more frequently in rivers with faster sedimentation rates, yet supporting field data are limited and the influence of sedimentation rate on avulsion style remains unclear. Using analysis of historical aerial photographs, optically stimulated luminescence dating of fluvial sediments, and field observations, we document three avulsions that have occurred in the last 650 years along the lower reaches of the semiarid Tshwane River in northern South Africa. Study of the modern river and abandoned reaches reveals that a downstream decrease in discharge and stream power leads to reduced channel size and declining sediment transport capacity. Bank erosion drives an increase in channel sinuosity, leading to a decline in local channel slope, and to a further decrease in discharge and sediment transport. Local sedimentation rates > 10 mm a- 1 occur within and adjacent to the channel, so over time levees and an alluvial ridge develop. The resulting increase in cross-floodplain gradient primes a reach for avulsion by promoting erosion of a new channel on the floodplain, which enlarges and extends by knickpoint retreat during periods of overbank flow. Ultimately, the new channel diverts the discharge and bedload sediment from the older, topographically higher channel, which is then abandoned. Our findings support the assumption that avulsion frequency and sedimentation rate are positively correlated, and we demonstrate that incisional avulsions can occur in settings with relatively rapid net vertical aggradation. The late Holocene avulsions on the semiarid Tshwane River have been driven by intrinsic (autogenic) processes during meander belt development, but comparison with the avulsion chronology along a river in subhumid South Africa highlights the need for additional investigations into the influence of hydroclimatic setting on the propensity for avulsion.
Gwinner, Clemens; Hoburg, Arnd; Wilde, Sophie; Schatka, Imke; Krapohl, Björn Dirk; Jung, Tobias M.
Background: The posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) avulsion fracture from its tibial insertion is a rare condition. Despite the further technical advent in refixation of avulsion fractures, the reported failure rate of current approaches remains high and the optimal surgical technique has not been elucidated yet. The purpose of the current study is to present an all-inside arthroscopic reconstruction technique for bony tibial avulsion fractures of the PCL and initial clinical outcomes. Methods: Patients underwent a thorough clinical and radiological examination of both knees at 3, 6, 12, 18, and if possible also at 24 months. Clinical evaluation included subjective and objective IKDC 2000, Lysholm score, and KOOS score. Radiographic imaging studies included CT scans for assessment of osseous integration and anatomic reduction of the bony avulsion. In addition to that posterior stress radiographs of both knees using the Telos device (Arthrex, Naples, USA) were conducted to measure posterior tibial translation. Results: A total of four patients (1 female, 3 male; ø 38 (± 18) years), who underwent arthroscopic refixation of a PCL avulsion fracture using the Tight Rope device were enrolled in this study. Mean follow up was 22 [18–24] months. The mean subjective IKDC was 72.6% (± 9.9%). Regarding the objective IKDC three patients accounted for grade A, one patient for grade C. The Lysholm score yielded 82 (± 6.9) points. The KOOS score reached 75% (± 13%; symptoms 76%, pain 81%, function 76%, sports 66%, QoL 64%). All patients showed complete osseous integration and anatomic reduction of the bony avulsion. The mean posterior tibial translation at final follow up was 2.8 [0–7] mm. Conclusions: All-arthroscopic treatment of tibial avulsion fractures of the posterior cruciate ligament provides satisfactory clinical results in a preliminary patient cohort. It is a reproducible technique, which minimizes soft tissue damage and obviates a second surgery for hardware
Bangladesh is a country characterized by numerous natural disasters. These natural hazards occur both on the surface (e.g., flooding due to river avulsions) and within the subsurface (e.g., earthquakes) (see figure), and both types have been related to regional tectonic activity. Bangladesh is also one of the most highly populated countries in the world with a capital city, Dhaka, host to 17 million people. This urban center is located only 40 km south east from the Madhupur Tract, a potentially tectonically hazardous region. In order to determine this region's tectonic hazard potential, recent studies have attempted to detect and identify significant neotectonic signatures of the tract, such as faults, lineaments, and weak zones within the region. Recent earthquake evidence along the Madhupur Fault strongly supports the fact that the area is tectonically unstable and quite vulnerable to further seismicity, placing the fast-growing and densely populated Dhaka city in potential danger (see figure). The Madhupur Tract is in central Bangladesh, and is surrounded by the Jamuna-Brahmaputra river floodplain. Previous research suggests the uplift of the Madhupur Tract may have exerted a significant control on the avulsion history of the Jamuna River. The Jamuna river avulsion history is cyclic, with a periodicity of about 2000 years. Within these cycles, the Jamuna's position has fluctuated from west to east and east to west, repeatedly (Pickering et al. 2013). As this avulsion history is thought to be, at least partly, related to seismicity in the region, future seismicity has the potential to cause future river avulsions and related flooding. The Madhupur Tract is an exposed Quaternary deposit. It is believed that 1885 Bengal earthquake may have been caused by the rupture of the Madhupur blind fault (see figure). However, there is no paleo-seismological evidence, since it is an intra-plate active fault. The principle aim of this research is to identify the location of
Halawany, Hassan Suliman; AlJazairy, Yousra Hussain; Alhussainan, Nawaf Sulaiman; AlMaflehi, Nassr; Jacob, Vimal; Abraham, Nimmi Biju
Studies evaluating dental assistants' knowledge about tooth avulsion and its management are rare. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the level of knowledge about tooth avulsion and its management among dental assistants in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia and to assess its relationship with their educational background. A convenience sampling methodology was employed for sample selection. Over a period of four months starting in February, 2013, 691 pretested 17-item questionnaires were distributed. A total of 498 questionnaires were returned for an overall response rate of 72.1%. Six questions were related to knowledge about permanent tooth avulsion and one question was related to knowledge about primary tooth avulsion. Correct answers to these questions were assigned one point each, and based on this scoring system, an overall knowledge score was calculated. An analysis of covariance was used to test the association between the level of knowledge (total score) and the educational qualifications of the respondents (dental degree and others). A P-value of 0.05 was considered the threshold for statistical significance. The majority of the respondents (n = 387; 77.7%) were non-Saudis (377 were from the Philippines), and 79.1% (n = 306) of the Filipinos had a dental degree. The question about recommendations for an avulsed tooth that is dirty elicited the highest number of correct responses (n = 444; 89.2%), whereas the question about the best storage media elicited the lowest number of correct responses (n = 192; 38.6%). The overall mean score for knowledge about tooth avulsion was 6.27 ± 1.74. The mean knowledge score among the respondents with a dental degree was 6.63 ± 1.37, whereas that among the respondents with other qualifications was 5.71 ± 2.08. The educational qualifications of the surveyed dental assistants were strongly correlated with the level of knowledge about tooth avulsion and its management.
Background Studies evaluating dental assistants’ knowledge about tooth avulsion and its management are rare. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the level of knowledge about tooth avulsion and its management among dental assistants in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia and to assess its relationship with their educational background. Methods A convenience sampling methodology was employed for sample selection. Over a period of four months starting in February, 2013, 691 pretested 17-item questionnaires were distributed. A total of 498 questionnaires were returned for an overall response rate of 72.1%. Six questions were related to knowledge about permanent tooth avulsion and one question was related to knowledge about primary tooth avulsion. Correct answers to these questions were assigned one point each, and based on this scoring system, an overall knowledge score was calculated. An analysis of covariance was used to test the association between the level of knowledge (total score) and the educational qualifications of the respondents (dental degree and others). A P-value of 0.05 was considered the threshold for statistical significance. Results The majority of the respondents (n = 387; 77.7%) were non-Saudis (377 were from the Philippines), and 79.1% (n = 306) of the Filipinos had a dental degree. The question about recommendations for an avulsed tooth that is dirty elicited the highest number of correct responses (n = 444; 89.2%), whereas the question about the best storage media elicited the lowest number of correct responses (n = 192; 38.6%). The overall mean score for knowledge about tooth avulsion was 6.27 ± 1.74. The mean knowledge score among the respondents with a dental degree was 6.63 ± 1.37, whereas that among the respondents with other qualifications was 5.71 ± 2.08. Conclusions The educational qualifications of the surveyed dental assistants were strongly correlated with the level of knowledge about tooth avulsion and its
Baginska, Joanna; Rodakowska, Ewa; Milewski, Robert; Wilczynska-Borawska, Magdalena; Kierklo, Anna
The frequency of dental trauma in schools is secondary only to accidents at home. The aim of this study was to evaluate the knowledge of first aid in the avulsion of permanent teeth presented by Polish school nurses from different areas. A cross-sectional study with the use of a structured self-administrative questionnaire was conducted in 2014 on school nurses working in randomly selected Polish provinces. The instrument consisted of demographic questions, questions referring to nurses' experience and training in dental trauma and questions checking knowledge of first-aid in the avulsion of permanent teeth. The maximum number of points to be scored was eight. Data were analyzed with the Kruskal-Wallis, the Mann-Whitney U and Chi(2) tests with the level of statistical significance at p < 0.05. The final sample consisted of 164 nurses of which 70.1 % had experience with dental injuries and 45.7 % witnessed a tooth avulsion in pupils. 10.4 % nurses participated in training courses concerning tooth avulsion and 67.1 % of them independently broadened their knowledge. The knowledge of the first-aid management of an avulsed tooth was moderate (4.72 ± 1.95 points). 78.1 % of nurses chose a correct definition of the term of 'tooth avulsion'. Only 7.3 % of them were aware that the replantation could be conducted by any witness of an accident. Saline was most often chosen as a proper transport medium for an avulsed tooth (57.9 %), whereas 16.1 % of nurses indicated milk. 13.4 % of evaluated nurses showed readiness to conduct an immediate replantation. Most respondents preferred calling child's parents and advising them to bring the child to a dentist (63.4 %). The main factor influencing nurses' level of knowledge was self-education (p < 0.001). Being a witness to dental trauma (p = 0.0032) and working in schools with sports classes (p = 0.0423) were positive determinants of improved knowledge. Nurses from large agglomerations had significantly lower knowledge (p = 0
Bernal, Carolina; Christophoul, Frédéric; Darrozes, José; Soula, Jean-Claude; Baby, Patrice; Burgos, José
The geomorphological study by means of remote sensing imagery of the Rio Pastaza Megafan (Ecuador and northern Peru) reveals the traces of numerous avulsions. One hundred and eight avulsion sites have been defined. The location of these sites, the available radiocarbon ages as well as historical maps of the seventeenth century, enable us to propose an evolution history of the migration and avulsions of the Rio Pastaza since the Last Glacial Maximum. The first avulsions of the Río Pastaza occurred after the LGM in a zone close to and roughly parallel to the sudandean front, where the developed avulsion gave a distributive pattern to the ancient stream of the Río Pastaza in an area located between the modern Río Morona and Pastaza, where they caused the Rio Pastaza to develop a fan-like distributary pattern. This is interpreted as a response to thrust-related forelimb tilt, progressively shifting eastward the Rio Pastaza and the apex of the megafan. This sequence of events ended with the Great Diversion of the Rio Pastaza towards the modern Rios Corrientes and Tigre. Avulsions occurred in the Tigre-Corrientes Area between 9200 and 8,500 years Cal BP. Afterwards, the Río Pastaza was diverted to its present-day north-south course. This last significant avulsion occurred before AD 1691. In the area located between the modern Río Morona and Pastaza, avulsion frequency—probably overestimated—ranges between 100 and 200 years. In the Ríos Tigre and Corrientes area, avulsion frequency—probably underestimated—ranges from 300 to 400 years. Regional tectonics is likely to have triggered most of the avulsions in the Morona Pastaza area but its influence is restricted to this area. The factors controlling the avulsions in the Tigre-Corrientes area are less clear because the frequently described "hydrologic"-driven avulsion as observed in areas characterized by contrasted hydrologic cycles are inconsistent with the characteristics of the hydrologic cycles of the Rio
Wang, Su-Hsin; Chung, Ming-Pang; Su, Wen-Song; Cheng, Jen-Chan; Shieh, Yi-Shing
This case report describes the continued root formation following replantation and conventional root canal therapy of a traumatically avulsed open-apex tooth with suppurative apical periodontitis. A 7-year-old male patient had an avulsed upper left central incisor (tooth 21) replanted approximately 50 min after traumatic avulsion. A root canal procedure was initiated due to pulp necrosis and periapical abscess detected in the follow-up period. After endodontic treatment with calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)(2)) dressing, a normal root length developed including an apical segment beyond the hard tissue barrier. Regeneration of the root occurred without pathology or ankylosis at 1-year of follow up.
Usui, Akihito; Kawasumi, Yusuke; Hosokai, Yoshiyuki; Saito, Haruo; Igari, Yui; Funayama, Masato
Gallbladder injuries are extremely rare in blunt trauma, with a reported incidence of <2%. We report an autopsy case of fatal hemorrhagic shock due to intra-abdominal bleeding resulting from complete avulsion of the gallbladder associated with liver cirrhosis. Multiplanar images derived from multislice computed tomography (MSCT) performed as part of pre-autopsy screening showed complete avulsion of the gallbladder without any other associated intra-abdominal injuries, facilitating forensic autopsy planning. In this report, we discuss the role of MSCT in cases of fatal intra-abdominal bleeding caused by avulsion of the gallbladder and discuss the mechanism of this injury. PMID:23986858
Moissonnier, Pierre; Carozzo, Claude; Thibaut, Jean-Laurent; Escriou, Catherine; Hidalgo, Antoine; Blot, Stéphane
To evaluate the cervical nerve 8 cross-transfer technique (C8CT) as a part of surgical treatment of caudal brachial plexus avulsion (BPA) in the dog. Case series. Client-owned dogs suspected to have caudal BPA based on neurological examination and electrophysiological testing (n = 3). The distal stump of the surgically transected contralateral C8 ventral branch (donor) was bridged to the proximal stump of the avulsed C8 ventral branch (recipient) and secured with 9-0 polypropylene suture under an operating microscope. A carpal panarthrodesis was performed on the injured limb after C8CT. Surgical exploration confirmed avulsion of nerve roots C7, C8, and T1 in all cases. There was no evidence of an iatrogenic effect on the donor forelimb. Gradual improvement in function of the affected forelimb occurred in all dogs, with eventual recovery of voluntary elbow extension. Reinnervation was evident in EMG recordings 6 months postoperatively in all three dogs. Stimulation of the donor C8 ventral branch led to motor evoked potentials in the avulsed side triceps brachialis and radial carpus extensor muscles. Variable functional outcome was observed in the 3 dogs during clinical evaluation 3-4 years after surgery. Digital abrasion wounds, distal interphalangeal infectious arthritis, and self-mutilation necessitated distal phalanx amputation of digits 3 and 4 in 2 dogs. C8CT provided partial reconnection of the donor C8 ventral branch to the avulsed brachial plexus in the 3 dogs of this series. Reinnervation resulted in active elbow extension and promoted functional recovery in the affected limb. © 2017 The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.
Al-Musawi, Ala; Al-Sane, Mona; Andersson, Lars
The initial response by bystanders to an avulsed tooth is a significant factor that can affect its survival and long-term outcome. This study was to assess the knowledge of emergency management of tooth avulsion in a group of schoolteachers and to compare the effects of three different educational interventions. Baseline knowledge was assessed using a questionnaire developed for this study. The same questionnaire was used to test changes in the knowledge level following each educational intervention. A convenience sample of elementary and intermediate school teachers (n = 87) participated in this study. Teachers were divided into three groups: Group 1 (Lecture only) was given a 30-min lecture on the emergency management of tooth avulsion. Their knowledge was assessed immediately after the lecture. Group 2 (Lecture and App), the same lecture was given, but participants also had access to a smartphone App, Dental Trauma App (Dental Trauma AB, Linköping, Sweden), when assessed on their knowledge after the lecture. Group 3 (App), this group was only given the smartphone App to explore and had access to that when being assessed. All three interventions increased the knowledge of tooth avulsion management. A marked increase in the knowledge, regardless of the type of intervention, was observed in the following areas: handling the tooth on the ground (16-96.8%); holding the tooth while being cleansed (19.1-62.5%); and on the best storage medium (10.1-59.3%). Participants using the App only had a significantly higher mean score than participants receiving the lecture only (group 3; P = 0.019) and participants subjected to both Lecture and App (group 1; P = 0.000). The Dental Trauma App alone is an effective means of providing accessible knowledge to guide laypeople in managing tooth avulsion, and it can be superior to a lecture-based delivery of information. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Hartzog, T. R.; Goodbred, S. L.
The Brahmaputra River, one of the world's largest braided streams, is a major component of commerce, agriculture, and transportation in India and Bangladesh. Hence any significant change in course, morphology, or behavior would be likely to influence the regional culture and economy that relies on this major river system. The history of such changes is recorded in the stratigraphy deposited by the Brahmaputra River during the Holocene. Here we present stratigraphic analysis of sediment samples from the boring of 41 tube wells over a 120 km transect in the upper Bengal Basin of northern Bangladesh. The transect crosses both the modern fluvial valley and an abandoned fluvial valley about 60 km downstream of a major avulsion node. Although the modern Brahmaputra does not transport gravel, gravel strata are common below 20 m with fluvial sand deposits dominating most of the stratigraphy. Furthermore, the stratigraphy preserves very few floodplain mud strata below the modern floodplain mud cap. These preliminary findings will be assessed to determine their importance in defining past channel migration, avulsion frequency, and the reoccupation of abandoned fluvial valleys. Understanding the avulsion and valley reoccupation history of the Brahmaputra River is important to assess the risk involved with developing agriculture, business, and infrastructure on the banks of modern and abandoned channels. Based on the correlation of stratigraphy and digital surface elevation data, we hypothesize that the towns of Jamalpur and Sherpur in northern Bangladesh were once major ports on the Brahmaputra River even though they now lie on the banks of small underfit stream channels. If Jamalpur and Sherpur represent the outer extent of the Brahmaputra River braid-belt before the last major avulsion, these cities and any communities developed in the abandoned braid-belt assume a high risk of devastation if the next major avulsion reoccupies this fluvial valley. It is important to
Feucht, Matthias J; Minzlaff, Philipp; Saier, Tim; Lenich, Andreas; Imhoff, Andreas B; Hinterwimmer, Stefan
Injuries of the meniscus roots have become increasingly recognised as a serious pathology of the knee joint. However, the current available literature focuses primarily on posterior meniscus root tears. In this article, a case with an isolated avulsion of the anterior medial meniscus root is presented, and a new arthroscopic technique to treat this type of injury is described. The anterior horn of the medial meniscus was sutured with a double-looped nonabsorbable suture and reattached to the tibial plateau using a knotless suture anchor. This technique may also be useful to treat avulsion injuries of the anterolateral or posteromedial meniscus root, and symptomatic subluxation of the medial meniscus in case of a variant insertion anatomy with an absent attachment of the anterior horn of the medial meniscus to the tibial plateau. Level of evidence V.
Dinowitz, M; Trumble, T; Hanel, D; Vedder, N B; Gilbert, M
To determine if small avulsion fractures of the thumb ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) with minimal (< or = 2.0 mm) displacement can successfully be treated by cast immobilization, the authors reviewed 9 patients with minimally displaced fractures initially treated by casting. Despite immobilization within an average of 2 days of the initial injury (range, 0-6 days), a minimum of 6 weeks of immobilization in a cast, and adequate rehabilitation, all 9 patients had persistent thumb pain, especially with activities requiring strong pinch. After undergoing open reduction and internal fixation, the patients had relief of thumb pain and pinch strength improved from 36% of the contralateral side to 89% (p < .01). Grip strength increased from 77% to 93% (p < .05), but the ranges of motion of the thumb metacarpophalangeal and interphalangeal joints were not significantly altered. Minimally displaced UCL avulsion fractures frequently have significant rotation that prevents successful fracture healing even with prompt cast immobilization.
Sasi, P. Kiran; Mahapatra, Swagath; Raj Pallapati, Samuel C.; Thomas, Binu P.
Traumatic musculotendinous junction avulsions are rare injuries except in avulsion amputations. They pose a significant challenge to the treating surgeon. We present a 24-year-old male who sustained an open musculotendinous avulsion of the flexor pollicis longus tendon. He was treated with primary tendon transfer using the flexor digitorum superficialis of ring finger, in flexor zone 3. The functional result at 10 months following surgery was excellent. PMID:27019757
Chin, Tan Yew; Kiat, Sim Sze; Faizul, Hizal Ghazali; Wu, Wutian; Abdullah, Jafri Malin
Background The neuroprotective role of minocycline in the treatment of brachial plexus injury is controversial. Objective To study the neuroprotective effect of minocycline via different routes in adult Sprague Dawley rats with brachial plexus injury. Methods The C7 nerve roots of the animals were avulsed via an anterior extravertebral approach. Traction force was used to transect the ventral motor nerve roots at the preganglionic level. Intraperitoneal and intrathecal minocycline (50 mg/kg for the first week and 25 mg/kg for the second week) were administered to promote motor healing. The spinal cord was harvested six weeks after the injury, and structural changes following the avulsion injury and pharmacological intervention were analysed. Results Motor neuron death and microglial proliferation were observed after the administration of minocycline via two different routes (intraperitoneal and intrathecal) following traumatic avulsion injury of the ventral nerve root. The administration of intraperitoneal minocycline reduced the microglia count but increased the motor neuron count. Intrathecal minocycline also reduced the microglial count, with a greater reduction than in the intraperitoneal group, but it decreased the motor neuron count. Conclusions Intraperitoneal minocycline increased motor neuron survival by inhibiting microglial proliferation following traumatic avulsion injury of the nerve root. The inhibitory effect was augmented by the use of intrathecal minocycline, in which the targeted drug delivery method increased the bioavailability of the therapeutic agent. However, motor neuron survival was impaired at a higher concentration of minocycline via the intrathecal route due to the more efficient method of drug delivery. Microglial suppression via minocycline can have both beneficial and damaging effects, with a moderate dose being beneficial as regards motor neuron survival but a higher dose proving neurotoxic due to impairment of the glial response and
Shahi, Niharika; Khan, Suleman Abbas; Sharma, Anshul; Singh, Vartika; Mishra, Ratna Priya; Navit, Pragati; Sharma, Prerna
Introduction Dentoalveolar trauma is a very common and avulsion is the most frequent injury. Treatment of choice following avulsion is immediate reimplantation. However, in cases where this might not be possible the prognosis of reimplanted teeth can be improved by the selection of an appropriate storage media. Prevention of ankylosis and replacement resorption depends more on the potential of storage media to maintain cell viability rather than the extraalveolar time period. Aim To compare and evaluate the efficacy of different storage media in maintaining the viability of Periodontal Ligament (PDL) cells in an avulsed tooth. Materials and Methods A total of 58 freshly extracted human premolar teeth were divided into four experimental groups and two control groups. The positive and negative controls corresponded to 0 minute and an eight hours dry time, respectively. The experimental teeth were stored dry for 30 minutes and then immersed in one of the four media: Hank’s Balanced Salt Solution (HBSS), coconut water, aloe vera and saline for 45 minutes. The teeth were then treated with Collagenase Type II and Dispase for 30 minutes. The number of viable PDL cells were counted with a haemocytometer and analysed. The statistical analysis was done using SPSS version 15.0. The Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and Post-hoc tests (Tukey-HSD) were performed to reveal the statistical significance. The values were represented in number (%) and mean±SD. Results Statistical analysis demonstrated that among the experimental groups maximum percentage of viable cells were seen in HBSS (87.33%) followed by coconut water (79.87%), aloe vera (70.59%) and saline (50.56%). Conclusion Within the parameters of this study, it can be concluded that the HBSS is the most effective storage media in maintaining the viability of PDL cells. However, in Indian scenario where availability of HBSS is questionable, coconut water can be considered as the best natural storage media for an avulsed tooth
Blakytny, C; Surbuts, C; Thomas, A; Hunter, M L
This study was designed to examine the knowledge and attitudes of primary school teachers with regard to the emergency management of avulsed permanent incisors. Data were collected by self-administered questionnaire. The study was conducted in primary schools lying within a 2-mile radius of the University Dental Hospital, Cardiff. Sample and methods. A total of 388 teachers in 31 participating schools were asked to complete a questionnaire, which was subsequently collected by two of the authors (CS and AT). Two hundred and seventy-four teachers returned completed questionnaires, a response rate of 70.6%. One hundred and eighty-one respondents (60.1%) had received no advice about the emergency management of dental avulsion. Of the 133 teachers (48.5%) who possessed a first aid certificate, 39 (29.3%) had been given relevant advice as part of this training. Less than one-third of respondents (85 (31%)) cited an optimum extra-oral time of 30 min or less, with only 43 (15.7%) considering that this should be 10 min or less. However, 125 (45.6%) knew milk to be the best transport medium. Two hundred and four teachers (74.5%) stated that they would not be prepared to replant an avulsed tooth themselves, 133 (80%) basing this decision on lack of expertise and training. Two hundred and sixty-two teachers (95.6%) expressed a desire for further information. The majority of respondents possessed, at best, rudimentary knowledge of the emergency management of dental avulsion. Teachers, and other individuals who supervise children in schools, should receive simple instruction in dental first aid.
Doi, K; Kuwata, N; Muramatsu, K; Hottori, Y; Kawai, S
Recent interest in reconstruction of the upper limb following brachial plexus injuries has focused on the restoration of prehension following complete avulsion of the brachial plexus. The authors use free muscle transfers for reconstruction of the upper limb to resolve the difficult problems in complete avulsion of the brachial plexus. This article describes the authors' updated technique--the double free muscle procedure. Reconstruction of prehension to achieve independent voluntary finger and elbow flexion and extension by the use of double free muscle and multiple nerve transfers following complete avulsion of the brachial plexus (nerve roots C5 to T1) is presented. The procedure involves transferring the first free muscle, neurotized by the spinal accessory nerve for elbow flexion and finger extension, a second free muscle transfer reinnervated by the fifth and sixth intercostal nerves for finger flexion, and neurotization of the triceps brachii via its motor nerve by the third and fourth intercostal motor nerves to extend and stabilize the elbow. Restoration of hand sensibility is obtained via the suturing of sensory rami from the intercostal nerves to the median nerve. Secondary reconstruction, including arthrodesis of the carpometacarpal joint of the thumb and glenohumeral joint, and tenolysis of the transferred muscle and distal tendons, improve the functional outcome. Based on the long-term result, selection of the patient, donor muscle, and donor motor nerve were indicated. Most patients were able to achieve prehensile functions such as holding a can and lifting a heavy box. This double free muscle transfer has provided prehension for patients with complete avulsion of the brachial plexus and has given them new hope to be able to use their otherwise useless limbs.
Background The management of the avulsion of deciduous and permanent teeth in children is well outlined in the guidelines of the International Association of Dental Traumatology and the American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry. However, little information is available about the level of knowledge in the management of dental trauma among undergraduate dental students in Japan. The objective of this study is to explore dental students’ level of educational knowledge in the management of avulsed teeth. Methods A three-part questionnaire was used to gather demographic data and evaluate the knowledge of students at Kyushu Dental University. Results Questionnaire data were collected from 121 (53 first-year, 68 sixth-year) students. Regarding the immediate emergency management of a case in which a 9-year-old girl had fallen down the stairs and lost a maxillary incisor but remained conscious, 55.9% of sixth year students and 28.3% of first-year students suggested the immediate transportation of the tooth to a dentist. The answer selected by the largest number (50.9%) of first-year respondents was “sideline the injured girl and get her to bite on a tissue paper for several hours”. In a case in which a boy had an avulsed tooth after falling down on a road, only 13.2% of first-year students suggested the transportation of the tooth in his mouth to the clinic. Most the largest number of respondents believed that the best way to transport an avulsed tooth to the dental clinic was to “wrap it in dry tissue paper”. Conclusions These results suggest that education in first aid for accidents that occur outside dental clinics or hospitals is insufficient. Japanese dentists and dental educations must immediately improve the utilization of the guidelines for dental trauma and the education of undergraduate students and patients in the management of dental trauma using an integrated approach. PMID:24712491
Fujita, Yuko; Shiono, Yasuhiro; Maki, Kenshi
The management of the avulsion of deciduous and permanent teeth in children is well outlined in the guidelines of the International Association of Dental Traumatology and the American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry. However, little information is available about the level of knowledge in the management of dental trauma among undergraduate dental students in Japan. The objective of this study is to explore dental students' level of educational knowledge in the management of avulsed teeth. A three-part questionnaire was used to gather demographic data and evaluate the knowledge of students at Kyushu Dental University. Questionnaire data were collected from 121 (53 first-year, 68 sixth-year) students. Regarding the immediate emergency management of a case in which a 9-year-old girl had fallen down the stairs and lost a maxillary incisor but remained conscious, 55.9% of sixth year students and 28.3% of first-year students suggested the immediate transportation of the tooth to a dentist. The answer selected by the largest number (50.9%) of first-year respondents was "sideline the injured girl and get her to bite on a tissue paper for several hours". In a case in which a boy had an avulsed tooth after falling down on a road, only 13.2% of first-year students suggested the transportation of the tooth in his mouth to the clinic. Most the largest number of respondents believed that the best way to transport an avulsed tooth to the dental clinic was to "wrap it in dry tissue paper". These results suggest that education in first aid for accidents that occur outside dental clinics or hospitals is insufficient. Japanese dentists and dental educations must immediately improve the utilization of the guidelines for dental trauma and the education of undergraduate students and patients in the management of dental trauma using an integrated approach.
Gidwani, Sam; Bircher, Martin D
INTRODUCTION Injuries to the origin of the hamstring muscles usually occur in athletes and can result in an avulsion fracture of the ischium, an avulsion of the ischial apophysis, or a pure avulsion of the hamstring tendons themselves, depending on the patient' sage. These are rare injuries in the general population and are often initially misdiagnosed as a simple ‘hamstring pull’, leading to the development of chronic pain and disability. PATIENTS AND METHODS We present a retrospective case series of the 12 patients with such injuies who presented or were referred consecutively to the senior author between 1997 and 2006. RESULTS There was a significant delay (5 months to 12 years) in the diagnosis of the injury in 8 of the 12 patients. Five of these 8 patients required more extensive surgery than would otherwise have been required as a result of this delay, but all recovered well. The sporting career of one of the remaining three patients had already been brought to an end by her injury and the subsequent disability, and she elected not to have surgery. Of the four patients who were diagnosed acutely, three required surgery, and all four had an excellent result. CONCLUSIONS Injuries to the hamstring origin are rare and are often initially misdiagnosed as a simple ‘hamstring pull’, leading to the development of chronic pain and disability. Displaced injuries of the ischial apophysis and pure tendon avulsions are probably best treated surgically in the acute setting. As a result of our experience with these patients, we have produced a management algorithm. PMID:17535619
Taljanovic, Mihra S; Nisbet, Jon K; Hunter, Tim B; Cohen, Randy P; Rogers, Lee F
Humeral avulsion of the inferior glenohumeral ligament is a rare injury resulting from hyperabduction and external rotation, and it is most commonly seen with sports-related injuries, including those from volleyball. The anterior band of the inferior glenohumeral ligament is most commonly injured (93%), whereas the posterior band is infrequently injured. The axillary pouch humeral avulsion of the inferior glenohumeral ligament as a result of repetitive microtrauma has not been yet described in the English literature. Humeral avulsions of the inferior glenohumeral ligaments are identifiable in volleyball players without acute injuries, and they have a unique pathologic pattern in these athletes. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Four female college volleyball players with pain in their dominant shoulder and with inferior capsular laxity and/or instability—without a known history of trauma or dislocation of the same shoulder—were referred by an experienced sports medicine orthopaedic surgeon for the magnetic resonance arthrogram procedure of the same shoulder. The imaging findings were retrospectively correlated with the initial interpretation and arthroscopic findings. All 4 patients had an axillary pouch humeral avulsion of the inferior glenohumeral ligament. Three had articular surface partial-thickness rotator cuff tear, and 3 had a labral tear. All were outside hitters or middle blockers who consequently performed multiple hitting maneuvers in practice and games. Repetitive microtrauma from overhead hitting in volleyball generates forces on the inferior capsule of the shoulder joint that may cause inferior capsular laxity and subsequent failure of the humeral side of the axillary pouch portion of the inferior glenohumeral ligament.
Akova, Bedrettin; Okay, Ertan
In this case a seventeen-years-old male soccer player, who sustained an injury while playing football, diagnosed as ischial tuberosity avulsion was reported. Following six-months of a conservative rehabilitation program, the athlete returned to his sports' activities. Six years along he had no complaints and his athletic performance was not deteriorated. In this case report diagnosis, treatment and six-years follow-up results were discussed.
FIELD GROUP SUB-GROUP Bioceramics Prosthetic Materials Avulsive Wounds 6 03 Ceramic Implants Implant Materials Porous Ceramics 02 Biomaterials...ceramics that can successfully serve as a scaffold for bone ingrowth. Later studies at Battelle were aimed at increasing the strength of the bioceramic ...serve as a scaffold for bone ingrowth. Later studies at Battelle were aimed at increasing the strength of the bioceramic , as well as simultaneously
Abdullah, Dalia; Soo, Suet Yeo; Kanagasingam, Shalini
Dental and maxillofacial injuries are one of the areas of concern highlighted in the Malaysian National Oral Health Plan 2011-2020. General dental practitioners (GDPs) have the responsibility of diagnosing and assessing dental trauma and determining the prognosis and outcomes of trauma along with its management. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the knowledge base and preferred methods of general dental practitioners regarding the management of avulsed tooth. A random convenient sampling methodology was employed for sample selection. A pre-tested 11-item questionnaire was validated on the dental officers. The survey was distributed to 182 GDPs attending the annual Malaysian Dental Association conference in January 2010. The data obtained was statistically analyzed using descriptive analysis and logistic regression was employed to predict the probability of achieving high scores. A total of 182 general dental practitioners participated in the study, with the majority being female (n=153, 75%). The place of practice significantly affected the knowledge score. In the group that scored more than 80 points (n=84, 46%), 76% of them worked with government hospitals. Age, work duration and number of traumatised teeth previously treated had no significant effect. The odds ratio for place of practice indicates that respondents who work in government hospitals are 3.6 times more likely to score more than 80 points compared to those who worked in private clinics (OR=3.615, P=0.001). The knowledge level on the management of avulsed tooth among general dental practitioners in Malaysia needs to be improved. Strategies in improvement of the Malaysian dental educational system, continuous dental educational activities and utilisation of guidelines on trauma management should be recommended to increase the knowledge level of avulsed tooth management to ensure good treatment outcomes. Trauma prevention and further education regarding the management of avulsed tooth is an
Martin, Margaret P; Pileggi, Roberta
Both length of extra-alveolar time and type of storage media are significant factors that can affect the long-term prognosis of replanted teeth. Numerous studies have examined various media in an attempt to determine the ideal material for storage of the avulsed tooth. The purpose of this study was to use a Collagenase-Dispase assay to investigate the potential of a new storage media, Propolis, in maintaining viable periodontal ligament (PDL) cells on simulated avulsed teeth. Seventy freshly extracted human teeth were divided into five experimental groups and two control groups. The positive and negative controls corresponded to 0-min and an 8-h dry time, respectively. The experimental teeth were stored dry for 30 min and then immersed in one of the five media (Hank's balanced salt solution (HBSS), milk, saline, Propolis 50%, and Propolis 100% for 45 min). The teeth were then treated with dispase grade II and collagenase for 30 min. The number of viable PDL cells were counted with a hemocytometer and analyzed. Statistical analysis demonstrated that both Propolis groups kept significantly more PDL cells viable compared to either milk, saline, or HBSS. Within the parameters of this study, it appears that Propolis may be a better alternative to HBSS, milk, or saline in terms of maintaining PDL cell viability after avulsion and storage. Copyright Blackwell Munksgaard, 2004.
Sterenborg, E M; van Hooft, M J; Frankenmolen, F W; Weerheijm, K L; Groen, H J
The prognosis of an avulsed permanent incisor depends on a swift and correct emergency treatment. The chance of a favourable prognosis increases if the tooth is replanted as quickly as possible, preferably by the persons first present at the scene of the accident. Usually this person is a layman, therefore the aim of this study is to investigate the knowledge in this respect. To 48 schools and 15 swimming pools in Amsterdam, Arnhem and Nijmegen (the Netherlands), questionnaires were sent. Thirty-six schools and 15 swimming pools responded. Twenty-eight percent of the respondents had previous experience with an avulsion. Ten percent of the respondents would replant the incisor and 90% would store the incisor. Sixty-three percent would treat the tooth correctly. Respondents with previous experience had no more knowledge of the most effective treatment than persons without previous experience. Swimming instructors and physical health instructors knew significantly more about avulsion than teachers in primary schools. Since only 10% of the respondents would replant the incisor and 37% would handle this accident incorrectly, more information seems to be necessary.
El Ashry, Saad R; El Gamal, Tarek A; Platt, Simon R
Chronic ankle instability is a disabling condition, often occurring as a result of traumatic ankle injury. A paucity of published data is available documenting chronic ankle instability in the pediatric population. Much of the data has been confined to the adult population. We present 2 cases of chronic ankle instability, 1 in a 12-year-old and 1 in a 9-year-old patient. Unlike the typical adult etiology, the cause of instability was a dysfunctional lateral ligamentous complex as a consequence of bony avulsion of the tip of the fibula. Both patients had sustained a twisting injury to the ankle. The fractures failed to unite. The nonunion resulted in dysfunction of the anterior talofibular ligament with consequent chronic ankle instability. At the initial clinical assessment, magnetic resonance imaging was requested for both patients. In patient 1 (12 years old), the fracture was fixed with 2 headless screws and was immobilized in a plaster cast for 6 weeks. In patient 2 (9 years old), because of the small size of the avulsed fragment, fixation was not possible. A modified Gould-Broström procedure was undertaken, facilitating repair of the avulsed fragment using anchor sutures. Copyright © 2016 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Maeda, Manabu; Maeda, Nana; Takaoka, Takanori; Tanaka, Yasuhito
In this series, we aimed to describe the sonographic findings of chondral avulsion fractures that develop concomitant with lateral ankle ligament injury in children. We performed stress sonography during a manual anterior drawer stress procedure of the ankle in 9 skeletally immature patients who had recently had a lateral ankle sprain. Echo videos were obtained through the course of treatment, and all videos were reviewed. We elucidated the common features of chondral avulsion fractures of the lateral ankle ligaments in the children. The features of avulsion fractures on conventional sonography included absence of a fracture with hyperechoic spots (sonographic occult fracture type), cortical discontinuity with hyperechoic spots (cortical disruption fracture type), fracture line in the cortical bone (double-line fracture type), and a step-off deformity of the cortical bone with cartilage (displaced fracture type). In contrast, the features of chondral fractures on stress sonography included abnormal motion of the chondral lesions and mobility/fluidity of hyperechoic spots along the chondral fracture site. The presence of hyperechoic spots around the chondral lesion is an important sonographic sign for diagnosing chondral fractures concomitant with ankle lateral ligament injury. Hence, we believe that stress sonography should be considered for the detection of chondral fractures concomitant with radiographically negative ankle lateral ligament injuries in skeletally immature patients with lateral ankle pain and ankle sprains, if hyperechoic spots are present in the cartilage of the distal fibula. © 2017 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.
Kachramanoglou, Carolina; Carlstedt, Thomas; Koltzenburg, Martin; Choi, David
Complete brachial plexus avulsion injury is a severe disabling injury due to traction to the brachial plexus. Brachial plexus reimplantation is an emerging surgical technique for the management of complete brachial plexus avulsion injury. We assessed the functional recovery in 15 patients who underwent brachial plexus reimplantation surgery after complete brachial plexus avulsion injury with clinical examination and electrophysiological testing. We included all patients who underwent brachial plexus reimplantation in our institution between 1997 and 2010. Patients were assessed with detailed motor and sensory clinical examination and motor and sensory electrophysiological tests. We found that patients who had reimplantation surgery demonstrated an improvement in Medical Research Council power in the deltoid, pectoralis, and infraspinatous muscles and global Medical Research Council score. Eight patients achieved at least grade 3 MRC power in at least one muscle group of the arm. Improved reinnervation by electromyelography criteria was found in infraspinatous, biceps, and triceps muscles. There was evidence of ongoing innervation in 3 patients. Sensory testing in affected dermatomes also showed better recovery at C5, C6, and T1 dermatomes. The best recovery was seen in the C5 dermatome. Our results demonstrate a definite but limited improvement in motor and sensory recovery after reimplantation surgery in patients with complete brachial plexus injury. We hypothesize that further improvement may be achieved by using regenerative cell technologies at the time of repair. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Gupta, Ravi; Singh, Jagdeep; Khatri, Kavin; Bither, Nitin
Introduction: The common peroneal nerve (CPN) injuries are the most common among lower limb nerve injuries because of its fixed attachment in the region of the neck of the fibula. The involvement of CPN following varus displacement of the knee is commonly expected to be traction neuropraxia. The spontaneous recovery is usually expected and the not so favorable results of repair have led to a debatable consensus on its surgical management. Closed transaction/laceration of nerve following sports injury is highly uncommon. Case Report: A 27-year-old male sustained closed avulsion fracture of the fibular head with complete foot drop following a hyperadduction injury to the knee. Early operative exploration revealed peroneal nerve laceration which was repaired primarily along with anatomical reduction of the fibular head which yields good results following early repair. Conclusion: This case review emphasizes that severe damage to CPN may occur in spite of closed injuries to the knee. Patients presenting with fibular head avulsion fractures at the knee and CPN injury should be subjected to early intervention with repair or reconstruction of the avulsion injuries and exploration of CPN to achieve good clinical outcome. PMID:27299119
Jeng, S F; Wei, F C
Between 1989 and 1994, 42 patients with circumferential skin avulsion of lower extremities were treated with full-thickness skin graft from defatted avulsed flap. Among them, 39 patients were run over by rubber tires during car accidents; the remaining 3 patients were victims of industrial accidents by roller machines. The full-thickness skin grafts were prepared from the avulsed skin flap in attachment to avoid junctional hypertrophic scarring. They were then secured with multiple skin staples to their anatomical position to improve skin graft take. Initial take of graft averaged 91 percent (ranged from 75 percent to 100 percent). Twelve patients underwent secondary overgrafting after tangential excision of non-viable skin graft. Follow-up averaging 2.6 years revealed stable wounds in most of the patients. Ten patients experienced occasional breakdown of skin graft in the patella and popliteal fossa, which was treated conservatively. Except for five who had deformed contours of the leg due to muscle transfers, the patients were satisfied with the cosmetic appearance of their legs. Compared with conventional methods, this approach provided better appearance and less contracture.
Koren, Lior; Stahl, Shalom; Rovitsky, Alexey; Peled, Eli
Amputation of fingers with tendon avulsion occurs through a traction injury, and most occur through a ring avulsion mechanism. Usually the flexor digitorum profundus is torn out with the amputated finger. Replantation usually is recommended only when the amputation is distal to the flexor digitorum superficialis insertion. Animal bites are relatively common, with a decreasing order of frequency of dogs, cats, and humans. Horse bites are relatively infrequent but are associated with crush injuries and tissue loss when they occur. This article describes a 23-year-old man with amputation of his middle finger at the level of the proximal phalanx after being bitten by a horse. The amputated stump was avulsed with the middle finger flexor digitorum profundus and flexor digitorum superficialis torn from the muscle-tendon junction from approximately the middle of the forearm. The patient had no other injuries, and he was able to move his other 4 fingers with only mild pain. As the amputated digit was not suitable for replantation, the wound was irrigated and debrided. The edges of the phalanx were trimmed, and the edges of the wound were sutured. Tetanus toxoid and rabies vaccine were administered, along with intravenous amoxicillin and clavulanic acid. The patient was discharged from the hospital 2 days later, with no sign of infection of the wound or compartment syndrome of the forearm. This case demonstrates the weakest point in the myotendinous junction and emphasizes the importance of a careful physical examination in patients with a traumatic amputation. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.
Lui, Tun Hing
An avulsion fracture of part of the tibial tuberosity can occur as a result of a tophaceous tuberosity or Osgood-Schlatter disease. We describe an endoscopic technique of debridement, bone fragment resection, and tendon repair. This technique has the potential advantage of fewer wound complications. It is performed through proximal and distal portals on the sides of the patellar tendon. The working space is deep to the tendon. After debridement of the tendon and resection of the bone fragment, the tendon gap is assessed. Endoscopic-assisted side-by-side repair is performed to close the gap if the gap is less than 30% of the width of the tendon. If the gap is more than 30% of the width of the tendon, the proximal stump of the avulsed tendon can be retrieved through the proximal portal. Krackow suture with stay stitches is applied to the proximal stump. The stump is put back and sutured to the tibial insertion through a bone tunnel or suture anchor. This is augmented by side-by-side suturing of the avulsed tendon with the adjacent normal tendon.
Cyr, Marie-Pierre; Kruger, Jennifer; Wong, Vivien; Dumoulin, Chantale; Girard, Isabelle; Morin, Mélanie
Pelvic floor muscles are subject to considerable stretching during vaginal birth. In 13-36% of women, stretching results in avulsion injury whereby the puborectalis muscle disconnects from its insertion points on the pubis bone. Until now, few studies have investigated the effect of this lesion on pelvic floor muscles in the early postpartum period. The primary aim of this study was to compare pelvic floor muscle morphometry and function in primiparous women with and without puborectalis avulsion in the early postpartum period. Our secondary objective was to compare the 2 groups for pelvic floor disorders and impact on quality of life. In all, 52 primiparous women diagnosed with (n = 22) or without (n = 30) puborectalis avulsion injury were assessed at 3 months postpartum. Pelvic floor muscle morphometry was evaluated with 3-/4-dimensional transperineal ultrasound at rest, maximal contraction, and Valsalva maneuver. Different parameters were measured in the midsagittal and axial planes: bladder neck position, levator plate angle, anorectal angle, and levator hiatus dimensions. The dynamometric speculum was used to assess pelvic floor muscle function including: passive properties (passive forces and stiffness) during dynamic stretches, maximal strength, speed of contraction, and endurance. Pelvic floor disorder-related symptoms (eg, urinary incontinence, vaginal and bowel symptoms) and impact on quality of life were evaluated with the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire and the Pelvic Floor Impact Questionnaire-Short Form. Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantification was also assessed. In comparison to women without avulsion, women with avulsion presented an enlarged hiatus area at rest, maximal contraction, and Valsalva maneuver (P ≤ .013) and all other ultrasound parameters were found to be significantly altered during maximal contraction (P ≤ .014). They showed lower passive forces at maximal and 20-mm vaginal apertures as well as lower
Prasanna, Sapna; Giriraju, Anjan; Narayan, Nagesh Lakshmi
Traumatic dental injuries including avulsed tooth is a tragic and ignored problem among school children. As children spend much of their time in schools, school teachers form the group who commonly supervise the physical activity of the children, so awareness about avulsed tooth emergency management among school teachers is an important concept for long-term success and to prevent its future consequences. The purpose of this study was to assess the knowledge and attitude regarding tooth avulsion and dental first aid among primary school teachers in Davangere city. The study was performed by administering a self-designed questionnaire on a sample of 300 primary school teachers. Sixty-eight percent of the school teachers (government, semi-aided and aided schools) admitted the possibility of an avulsed tooth to be replanted and thirty-two percent had no idea on tooth replantation and only twenty-three percent of the teachers knew the procedures taken in cases of avulsed teeth. Seventy-seven percent of all teachers did not feel the possibility of tooth replantation. There is poor knowledge in the management of avulsed teeth among the school teachers of Davangere city. They do not feel capable of replanting an avulsed tooth. As one of the child supervisors, all the school teachers should have the basic knowledge to recognize oral emergencies and regarding conservation of avulsed teeth to prevent its consequences in the child's future.
Lin, Cheng-Ta; Chen, Lee-Wei
To improve the use of thoracodorsal artery perforator flaps in resurfacing ring-avulsed fingers, the relations between the thoracodorsal artery perforators and intercostal nerves were investigated. The surgical refinements, clinical results, and sensory recovery of flaps were presented. Eleven patients with ring-avulsed fingers were reviewed. Separated and conjoint relations were found. Eleven flaps were harvested with 3 refinements. First is the transverse flap design. Second is operating color Doppler sonography to identify the relations. Third is using the conjoint relation to facilitate adequate flap thinning. Four patients had separated relation, and 7 patients had conjoint relation. Only 1 patient showed flap tip necrosis. Two patients with separated relation needed flap debulking. Ten patients acquired protective to normal tactile sensation, and 9 patients gained fair to normal discriminative sensation. The free transverse sensate thoracodorsal artery perforator flaps can be an option in the reconstruction of ring-avulsed fingers.
Diangelis, A J; Andreasen, J O; Ebeleseder, K A; Kenny, D J; Trope, M; Sigurdsson, A; Andersson, L; Bourguignon, C; Flores, M T; Hicks, M l; Lenzi, A R; Malmgren, B; Moule, A J; Pohl, Y; Tsukiboshi, M
Avulsion of permanent teeth is one of the most serious dental injuries, and a prompt and correct emergency management is very important for the prognosis. The International Association of Dental Traumatology (IADT) has developed a consensus statement after a review of the dental literature and group discussions. Experienced researchers and clinicians from various specialties were included in the task group. The guidelines represent the current best evidence and practice based on literature research and professionals' opinion. In cases where the data did not appear conclusive, recommendations were based on the consensus opinion or majority decision of the task group. Finally, the IADT board members were giving their opinion and approval. The primary goal of these guidelines is to delineate an approach for the immediate or urgent care of avulsed permanent teeth. The Hebrew Edition is part of the IADT global effort to provide a worldwide accessibility to these guidelines. This scond part of the guidelines will focus on avulsion of permanent teeth.
Chen, H J; Tu, Y K
Brachial plexus avulsion injury is one of the major complications after traffic, especially motorcycle accidents and machine injuries. Intractable pain and paralysis of the affected limbs are the major neurological deficits. During the past 18 years, we have encountered and treated more than 500 cases with brachial plexus avulsion injuries. Dorsal root entry zone lesions (DREZ) made by thermocoagulation were performed for intractable pain in 60 cases. Forty cases were under regular follow-up for 5-18 years. In early postoperative stage, the pain relief rate was excellent or good in 32 cases (80%). The pain relief rate dropped to 60% in 5 year follow-up period and only 9 cases (50%) had excellent or good result in 10 year follow-up. Reconstructive procedures were performed in almost all patients in the last 10 years. Dorsal root entry zone lesion is an effective procedure for pain control after brachial plexus avulsion injuries.
Jones, Alwyn; Andrews, John; Shoaib, Amer; Lyons, Kath; Ahuja, Sashin; Howes, John; Davies, Paul
A case of L4 spinous process avulsion following a hyperflexion injury treated with surgical excision. To show that single photon emission computerized tomography is essential for the diagnosis and that excision can provide a successful outcome. The avulsion resulted from a forced hyperflexion injury at the L4/5 area, where the interspinous ligament provides a high resistance to flexion. A 29-year-old international rugby football player injured his low back during a match. Plain radiography and magnetic resonance imaging did not reveal the injury. Single photon emission computerized tomography and computerized tomography showed the lesion. Initial conservative therapy failed to control the symptoms, and, therefore, late excision was performed with pain-free return to contact sports at 3 months. Few cases of interspinous process avulsions have been described, and, to our knowledge, this is the first reported case of rugby football player who had a successful outcome with late surgical excision.
DePasse, J Mason; Varner, Kevin; Cosculluela, Pedro; Incavo, Stephen
While uncommon, isolated avulsion fractures of the lesser trochanter occur in children and adolescents prior to the fusion of this apophysis as a result of athletic activities. In the elderly, isolated fractures of the lesser trochanter are rare but can occur as a result of trauma. They have been identified in patients with primary or secondary bone malignancies, which were previously considered pathognomonic for metastatic disease. In the absence of trauma, weakening of the bone due to systemic disorders such as osteoporosis or osteomalacia chronica renal failure may also be responsible. Diagnosis may be difficult with physical examination and radiographs alone. This case report details this rare fracture in 2 patients suffering from debilitating chronic disease. Patient 1 was a 30-year-old woman with an 18-year history of type 1 diabetes mellitus, a 6-year history of end-stage renal disease, hypertension, hypothyroidism, peripheral vascular disease, and a 3-year history of systemic lupus erythematosus with antiphospholipid syndrome treated with warfarin. Patient 2 was a 66-year-old woman with a history of type 2 diabetes mellitus, peripheral neuropathy, obesity, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, gout, hypertension, and chronic neck and low back pain. Both were assessed with magnetic resonance imaging following physical examination, which revealed atraumatic avulsion of the distal iliopsoas tendon from the lesser trochanter. Following retraction of the iliopsoas tendon, the patients were treated with conservative therapy and anti-inflammatory medication. These 2 cases broaden the range of patients for whom spontaneous avulsion of the distal iliopsoas tendon should be considered in the differential diagnosis.
Mori, Graziela Garrido; Nunes, Daniele Clapes; Castilho, Lithiene Ribeiro; de Moraes, Ivaldo Gomes; Poi, Wilson Roberto
The maintenance of the avulsed teeth in appropriate media for preserving the cellular viability has been important for repairing the periodontal ligament and preventing the root resorption after tooth reimplantation. Propolis is a substance capable of preserving cellular viability. This study aimed to analyze the propolis substance as a storage media for maintaining the avulsed teeth, besides to determine the ideal time period for keeping the tooth inside it. Thus, 60 maxillary right central incisors of rats were extracted and divided into five groups. In groups I and II, teeth were kept in propolis for 60 min and 6 h, respectively; in group III, teeth were kept in milk for 6 h; in group IV, teeth were kept dry for 60 min; and in group V, they were immediately reimplanted. All teeth had their root canals filled with calcium hydroxide paste. Following, teeth were reimplanted in their sockets. After 15 and 60 days, animals were killed and the obtained samples were processed in laboratory for microscopic and morphometric analyzing. The results showed that the occurrence of inflammatory resorption, dental ankylosis and the formation of the connective tissue parallel to the root surface were similar among groups. It could be verified a greater occurrence of replacement resorption in group IV when comparing to other groups. In groups I and IV, the presence of periodontal ligament-like connective tissue was substantially smaller than the other groups. Regarding to the cementum amount over the root, it could be observed that this was present in smaller amount in groups I and IV. Group II was similar to groups III and IV. Therefore, according to the results of this study, the use of propolis as a storage media for maintaining avulsed teeth could be highlighted, and the 6-h period was more appropriate than the 60-min period.
The aim of the present in vitro study was to investigate the potential of a storage medium, probiotic yogurt (Bifidibacterium animalis DN 173010) in comparison with Hank's balanced salt solution (HBSS), saline and milk in maintaining viable periodontal ligament (PDL) cells on simulated avulsed teeth. Thirty-six freshly extracted single-rooted human teeth with closed apices were divided into six experimental groups (N=6). The teeth were extracted as atraumatically as possible and washed in sterile saline solution to eliminate residual blood. Following extractions, the coronal 3 mm of PDL tissues were scraped with a #15 scalpel to remove cells that may have been damaged. The positive and negative controls corresponded to 0 minutes and an 8-hour dry time, respectively. After extraction, the positive control teeth were immediately treated with dispase and collagenase. The negative control teeth were bench-dried for 8 h, with no follow-up storage solution time, and then placed in the dispase and collagenase. The number of viable protective least significant difference PDL cells were counted under a light microscope with a hemocytometer at 20× magnification and analyzed. Statistical analysis of the data was accomplished using Nonparametric ANOVA complemented by Kruskal-Wallis Test and Dunn's Multiple Comparisons Test. Positive control was found to be significantly better than the others, there were statistically significant differences between positive control and other test groups (p=0.000). The teeth stored in positive control demonstrated the highest number of viable PDL cells followed in order by probiotic yogurt, HBSS, saline and milk. Bifidibacterium animalis DN 173010 seems to be an alternative for the temporary storage of avulsed teeth, due to high number of viable PDL cells. Probiotics may be suitable transport media for avulsed teeth, but further research is warranted using the commercially available products.
Aim The aim of the present in vitro study was to investigate the potential of a storage medium, probiotic yogurt (Bifidibacterium animalis DN 173010) in comparison with Hank's balanced salt solution (HBSS), saline and milk in maintaining viable periodontal ligament (PDL) cells on simulated avulsed teeth. Materials and methods Thirty-six freshly extracted single-rooted human teeth with closed apices were divided into six experimental groups (N=6). The teeth were extracted as atraumatically as possible and washed in sterile saline solution to eliminate residual blood. Following extractions, the coronal 3 mm of PDL tissues were scraped with a #15 scalpel to remove cells that may have been damaged. The positive and negative controls corresponded to 0 minutes and an 8-hour dry time, respectively. After extraction, the positive control teeth were immediately treated with dispase and collagenase. The negative control teeth were bench-dried for 8 h, with no follow-up storage solution time, and then placed in the dispase and collagenase. The number of viable protective least significant difference PDL cells were counted under a light microscope with a hemocytometer at 20× magnification and analyzed. Statistical analysis of the data was accomplished using Nonparametric ANOVA complemented by Kruskal-Wallis Test and Dunn's Multiple Comparisons Test. Results Positive control was found to be significantly better than the others, there were statistically significant differences between positive control and other test groups (p=0.000). The teeth stored in positive control demonstrated the highest number of viable PDL cells followed in order by probiotic yogurt, HBSS, saline and milk. Conclusion Bifidibacterium animalis DN 173010 seems to be an alternative for the temporary storage of avulsed teeth, due to high number of viable PDL cells. Probiotics may be suitable transport media for avulsed teeth, but further research is warranted using the commercially available products. PMID
Zhu, Wenting; Zhang, Qian; Zhang, Yang; Cen, Lian; Wang, Jun
This study was aimed to investigate whether regeneration of periodontal ligament (PDL) like tissue could be promoted by stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF1) and bone morphogenetic protein-7 (BMP7) induced cell homing in delayed replantation of avulsed teeth. Canine mandibular premolar teeth were first extracted and air-dried for 2 h followed by complete detachment of their PDL tissues. The crown and pulp of the teeth were also removed. Twenty-four roots divided into two groups (n = 12/group) were used for the following in vivo transplantation. The roots of Group A were treated with 17 % EDTA for 24 h to achieve demineralization, and then coated with SDF1 and BMP7 supplemented collagen solution. The roots of Group B were similarly treated except being coated with a pristine collagen solution. The above roots were transplanted in the sockets that formed previously during tooth extraction. At 6 months' post-operation, PDL-like tissue composed of spindle-shaped cells, capillaries and highly organized collagen fibers was observed in the interstitial space between the avulsed root surface and surrounding alveolar bone in Group A. The neo-fibers inserted deeply and perpendicularly into the cementum and adjacent bone. The periodontium-like characteristics of the neo-tissue was confirmed by immunohistochemical staining for collagen I, fibronectin and osteocalcin. A high incidence of PDL re-establishment as 42 % was achieved for samples of Group A. However, no PDL-like tissue was found but root ankylosis and replacement resorption as well as inflammatory resorption was observed in the replanted roots of Group B. It can be confirmed that avulsed teeth could be successfully rescued even in delayed transplantation to avoid dentoalveolar ankylosis or replacement resorption via the current developed cell homing method.
Feng, Guiying; Liu, Jianhua; Zhao, Xiaochen; Wei, Jinglu; Ou, Wencai; Xiao, Shuyi; Hu, Zhiwen; Wei, Hongqin; Liu, Zheng
Objectives Microbubble-enhanced therapeutic ultrasound (MEUS) can block the blood flow in the organs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the hemostatic effect of microbubble-enhanced pulsed, low-intensity ultrasound in a New Zealand White rabbit model of avulsion trauma of the liver. The therapeutic ultrasound (TUS) transducer was operated with the frequency of 1.2 MHz and an acoustic pressure of 3.4 MPa. Microbubble-(MB) enhanced ultrasound (MEUS) (n = 6) was delivered to the distal part of the liver where the avulsion was created. Livers were treated by TUS only (n = 4) or MB only (n = 4) which served as controls. Bleeding rates were measured and contrast enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) was performed to assess the hemostatic effect, and liver hemoperfusion before and after treatment. Generally, bleeding rates decreased more than 10-fold after the treatment with MEUS compared with those of the control group (P<0.05). CEUS showed significant declines in perfusion. The peak intensity value and the area under the curve also decreased after insonation compared with those of the control group (P<0.05). Histological examination showed cloudy and swollen hepatocytes, dilated hepatic sinusoids, perisinusoidal spaces with erythrocyte accumulation in small blood vessels, obvious hemorrhage around portal areas and scattered necrosis in liver tissues within the insonation area of MEUS Group. In addition, necrosis was found in liver tissue 48 h after insonation. We conclude that MEUS might provide an effective hemostatic therapy for serious organ trauma such as liver avulsion injury. PMID:24788757
Frujeri, Maria de Lourdes Vieira; Costa, Edson Dias
Tooth avulsion is the complete displacement of a tooth from its socket due to intentional or non-intentional injuries. Treatment in these cases comprises tooth replantation. This accident is very critical as the success of tooth replantation is directly dependent on several factors, such as extra-alveolar period, storage of the tooth until replantation, type of retention employed, time of endodontic intervention, type of drug prescribed, oral hygiene status as well as general health. This trauma commonly occurs during sports practice, school, and leisure activities. The first measures are critical for the prognosis of the avulsed tooth. Several studies report lack of knowledge of the population, educators, sports professionals, and health professionals in the management of tooth avulsion. This study evaluated the influence of education on different groups of professionals, addressing the knowledge and prevention and emergency management of the avulsed tooth. The study was conducted on five different groups of professionals (elementary school teachers, physical education professionals, bank employees, dental doctors, and pediatricians) from the city of Brasília, DF, Brazil. The professionals attended a lecture and were evaluated by a questionnaire applied twice, before and after the lecture. The results of the 479 returned questionnaires were analyzed. The difference between questionnaires before and after the lecture was statistically analyzed by the Wilcoxon test. There was statistically significant change in the performance of professional groups after information was provided (P < 0.0001). Education is extremely important to favor the knowledge on prevention and emergency management of an avulsed tooth, and may enhance the prognosis of tooth avulsion.
Jorge, Kelly Oliva; Ramos-Jorge, Maria Letícia; de Toledo, Flávia Fonseca; Alves, Laila Caldeira; Paiva, Saul Martins; Zarzar, Patrícia Maria
The aim of the present cross-sectional study was to investigate the knowledge of undergraduate students and teachers at all physical education courses in the city of Belo Horizonte (Brazil) regarding first-aid measures to be taken following tooth avulsion as well as the need for the preventative use of mouth guards. The sample consisted of 442 individuals (Group 1: 53 teachers; Group 2: 389 undergraduate students). Data collection was carried out with the administration of a questionnaire with both objective and subjective questions addressing definitions, first-aid measures in cases of avulsion and tooth replantation, together with an assessment of the use and indication of mouth guards. Data analysis involved descriptive statistics and the chi-square test. The results revealed that 45.1% of the participants in both groups knew what a tooth replantation was. However, 91.6% judged themselves incapable of performing an immediate replantation. Among the overall sample, 45.9% has no knowledge on first-aid measures regarding tooth avulsion; sending the patient with an avulsed tooth to the dentist was the most often cited measure (42.3%). Immediate replantation was cited by 20.6% of the individuals in Group 1 and 5.9% of the individuals in Group 2 (P = 0.009). Regarding the storage medium, 17.1% of the individuals would keep the avulsed tooth in a dry medium. The majority of participants (58.3%) stated that the ideal extra-alveolar time for replantation was more than 360 min. Although 74% of the overall sample stated having knowledge of mouth guards, few reported making use or indicating the use of this piece of equipment. The present study revealed that the majority of teachers and undergraduate students of physical education courses do not have adequate knowledge regarding first-aid measures for tooth avulsion and do not use or indicate the use of mouth guards during sports activities.
Blikslager, A T; Bristol, D G
A 3-month-old foal was examined because of lameness and fracture of the left lateral trochlear ridge of the femur. Arthroscopy of the left femoropatellar joint was elected. After induction of general anesthesia and placement of the foal in dorsal recumbency, it was noticed that the left hind limb was extended at the tibiotarsal joint and flexed at the femorotibial joint. Avulsion fracture at the origin of the peroneus tertius tendon was diagnosed. Fracture fragments were excised. The horse had mild left hind limb lameness at the time of follow-up evaluation 1 year after discharge.
Roka, Yam B; Roka, Narayani; Shrestha, Manzil; Puri, Puspa R; Adhikari, Hari B
The Himalayan black bear (Ursus thibetanus or Selenarctos thibetanus), although an omnivore, is more carnivorous than its American counterpart. It is also more aggressive towards humans and is a threatened species because of the deforestation in the Himalayas. Furthermore, poverty, encroachment of the forest, extensive deforestation, lack of education and living near the forest are factors that increase the probability of such animal injuries. We report the case of a 35-year-old woman who suffered a severe penetrating head injury with scalp and bilateral eye avulsion, which was managed successfully. © 2012 The Authors. EMA © 2012 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.
Hsu, Andrew R; Lareau, Craig R; Anderson, Robert B
Infolding and retraction of an avulsed deltoid complex after ankle fracture can be a source of persistent increased medial clear space, malreduction, and postoperative pain and medial instability. The purpose of this descriptive case series was to analyze the preliminary outcomes of acute superficial deltoid complex avulsion repair during ankle fracture fixation in a cohort of National Football League (NFL) players. We found that there is often complete avulsion of the superficial deltoid complex off the proximal aspect of the medial malleolus during high-energy ankle fractures in athletes. Between 2004 and 2014, the cases of 14 NFL players who underwent ankle fracture fixation with open deltoid complex repair were reviewed. Patients with chronic deltoid ligament injuries or ankle fractures more than 2 months old were excluded. Average age for all patients was 25 years and body mass index 34.4. Player positions included 1 wide receiver, 1 tight end, 1 safety, 1 running back, 1 linebacker, and 9 offensive linemen. Average time from injury to surgery was 7.5 days. Surgical treatment for all patients consisted of ankle arthroscopy and debridement, followed by fibula fixation with plate and screws, syndesmotic fixation with suture-button devices, and open deltoid complex repair with suture anchors. Patient demographics were recorded with position played, time from injury to surgery, games played before and after surgery, ability to return to play, and postoperative complications. Return to play was defined as the ability to successfully participate in at least 1 full regular-season NFL game after surgery. All NFL players were able to return to running and cutting maneuvers by 6 months after surgery. There were no significant differences in playing experience before surgery versus after surgery. Average playing experience before surgery was 3.3 seasons, 39 games played, and 22 games started. Average playing experience after surgery was 1.6 seasons, 16 games played, and
Tomycz, Nestor D; Moossy, John J
Brachial plexus avulsion and limb amputation are often associated with intractable chronic pain. Dorsal root entry zone (DREZ) thermocoagulation is an effective surgical treatment for upper-extremity deafferentation pain. The authors describe the clinical follow-up and imaging in a patient who underwent DREZ thermocoagulation 26 years ago for postamputation phantom limb syndrome with associated brachial plexus avulsion. This patient continues to have successful pain control without phantom limb sensation and has never experienced a recurrence of his left upper-extremity pain syndrome. This report lends credibility to the notion that, among ablative neurosurgical pain operations, DREZ thermocoagulation may provide the greatest durability of pain control.
Yamasaki, Fumiyuki; Akiyama, Yuji; Tsumura, Ryu; Kolakshyapati, Manish; Adhikari, Rupendra Bahadur; Takayasu, Takeshi; Nosaka, Ryo; Kurisu, Kaoru
Traumatic injuries of the abducens nerve as a consequence of facial and/or head trauma occur with or without associated cervical or skull base fracture. This is the first report on unilateral avulsion of the abducens nerve in a 29-year-old man with severe right facial trauma. In addition, he exhibited mild left facial palsy, and moderate left hearing disturbance. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using fast imaging employing steady-state acquisition (FIESTA) revealed avulsion of left sixth cranial nerve. We recommend thin-slice MR examination in patients with abducens palsy after severe facial and/or head trauma. PMID:28664004
Niknejad, Hamid Reza; van Calenbergh, Frank; Demaerel, Philippe; van Loon, Johannes
Injuries to the craniocervical support structures are frequently observed in neurotrauma cases. Stability of this region is of vital importance. Literature has mainly focused on three major ligaments of the craniocervical junction: The tectorial membrane, the transverse ligament, and the alar ligaments. However, the accessory atlantoaxial ligament (ALL) also seems to be involved in craniocervical stability as shown in cadaveric specimens. Still, the biomechanical importance of this structure needs to be determined, especially in trauma settings. Here, we describe a case of isolated traumatic injury to this structure and discuss the clinical outcome. A 64-year-old polytrauma patient with a remarkable avulsion fracture at the site of the insertion of the ALL was admitted to our center. We evaluated the patient both clinical and radiological at admission, after 3 months and after 1 year. We clinically assessed the upper cervical rotational stability using the cervical flexion-rotation test. We observed no rotational instability or any other clinical repercussions at the long-term after an isolated ALL injury. This case shows that isolated traumatic damage to the ALL is possible. Unilateral damage to the ALL probably does not cause rotational instability of the craniocervical junction. In case a similar avulsion fracture is observed, we recommend performing a magnetic resonance imaging of the craniovertebral region to assess for any ligamentous lesions. PMID:27891038
Ozan, Fatih; Polat, Zübeyde Akin; Er, Kürsat; Ozan, Ulkü; Değer, Orhan
Propolis is a multifunctional material used by bees in the construction and maintenance of their hives. Propolis possesses several biologic activities such as anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antioxidant, antifungal, antiviral, and tissue regenerative, among others. The purpose of this study was to determine the ability of propolis to serve as a temporary storage medium for the maintenance of periodontal ligament (PDL) cell viability of avulsed teeth. PDL cells were obtained from healthy third molars and cultured in Dulbecco's Modified Eagles Medium (DMEM). Cultures were subjected to 10% propolis solution, 20% propolis solution, long-shelf life light milk with lower fat content (milk), Hank's Balanced Salt Solution, tap water as the negative control, and DMEM as the positive control. Tissue culture plates were incubated with experimental media at 37 degrees C for 1, 3, 6, 12, or 24 hours. PDL cell viability was assessed by trypan blue exclusion. Statistical analysis of the data was accomplished by using one-way analysis of variance complemented by the Tukey test. The level of significance was 5% (p<0.05). The results showed that 10% propolis was a more effective storage medium than other groups. In conclusion, propolis can be recommended as a suitable transport medium for avulsed teeth.
Vedova, Franco Della; Ibáñez, Maximiliano; Alvarez, Victoria; Lépore, Salvador; Sulzle, Vanina Ojeda; Galan, Hernán; Slullitel, Daniel
Introduction: Bankart lesion is the anterior glenohumeral instability most common associated injury. Tears at glenohumeral ligaments can be intra substance or at humeral insertion, this location may be the cause of instability. Posterior humeral avulsion of the glenohumeral ligament (PHAGL) can be an isolated or associated cause of instability and it is usually related to the posterior glenohumeral instability. The aim of this article is to report the clinical assessment and postoperative outcomes of 6 patients with PHAGL with anterior shoulder instability. Materials and Methods: We evaluated six patients with PHAGL due to anterior glenohumeral instability arthroscopically repaired. All 6 patients developed the lesion after a sports-related trauma. Sixty six per cent of patients had associated intra-articular shoulder pathologies. The diagnosis with MRI arthrogram (with gadolinium) was performed preoperatively in 50% of patients. Postoperative evaluation was made with Rowe, ASES and WOSI scores. Results: All patients returned to their previous sports level. One patient had a recurrence. Postoperative scores results are WOSI: 13.13%, Rowe 83.33 and ASES 95.83. Discussion: Humeral avulsions of glenohumeral ligaments represent 25% of capsulolabral injuries. PHAGL injury was initially described as a cause of posterior instability, but according to two other series, our study shows that this lesion may also cause anterior instability. It is critical to have a high index of suspicion and make a correct arthroscopic examination to diagnose this injury, because arthroscopic repair of PHAGL has good postoperative outcomes.
Shamarao, Supreetha; Jain, Jithesh; Ajagannanavar, Sunil Lingaraj; Haridas, Reshmi; Tikare, Shreyas; Kalappa, Amrutha Ammanichanda
Objectives: Traumatic dento-alveolar injuries are frequent in children and adolescents, affecting teeth, their supporting structures, and adjacent soft tissues. Because school teachers are likely to be in contact with the child soon after injury, it is important to ascertain their knowledge and attitude about this. Aim: The study aimed to assess the knowledge and attitude of school teachers in Coorg with regard to immediate management of avulsed teeth. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among school teachers in Coorg district. A self-administered questionnaire containing 16 questions was given to a sample of 600 school teachers. Results: Descriptive statistics and independent sample t-test were used for analysis. Only 24.7% teachers thought the tooth was important and wanted to search for the avulsed tooth. Regarding the knowledge about replantation of tooth, 25.7% teachers knew that a fallen tooth can be placed back in the socket. Extraoral time for replantation of the tooth that was opted by 44 teachers (30.3%) was ≤30 min. Conclusion: This survey reflected the lack of experience and inadequate knowledge regarding dental trauma management among school teachers in Coorg. The implications of this study are directed toward education of these school teachers who are involved in the supervision of children in schools. PMID:25452927
Hamilton, F A; Hill, F J; Mackie, I C
The prognosis of replanted avulsed permanent incisors depends largely on prompt and appropriate emergency management. The aim of this study was to investigate lay knowledge and attitudes in this respect. Postal questionnaires were sent to all physical education teachers, school nurses and secretaries, attendants in swimming baths and leisure centres and to 220 parents of teenage children in a defined area of North West England. The overall questionnaire response rate was 86.9%. Knowledge of methods of dealing with this problem was generally inadequate in both parents and the other groups. Although 53.6% of respondents claimed to have received first aid training only 3.1% could remember dental injuries being included. There was evidence that dental health education in this field can be effective, since the highest mean knowledge score was found in the 11.5% of respondents who recalled receiving advice from sources such as posters, magazines and newspapers. More than 80% of the respondents stated that they would not want to replant an avulsed incisor themselves, the main reason being lack of knowledge and training. It is suggested that there is a need for potentially effective dental health education in relation to this problem.
Shamarao, Supreetha; Jain, Jithesh; Ajagannanavar, Sunil Lingaraj; Haridas, Reshmi; Tikare, Shreyas; Kalappa, Amrutha Ammanichanda
Traumatic dento-alveolar injuries are frequent in children and adolescents, affecting teeth, their supporting structures, and adjacent soft tissues. Because school teachers are likely to be in contact with the child soon after injury, it is important to ascertain their knowledge and attitude about this. The study aimed to assess the knowledge and attitude of school teachers in Coorg with regard to immediate management of avulsed teeth. This cross-sectional study was conducted among school teachers in Coorg district. A self-administered questionnaire containing 16 questions was given to a sample of 600 school teachers. Descriptive statistics and independent sample t-test were used for analysis. Only 24.7% teachers thought the tooth was important and wanted to search for the avulsed tooth. Regarding the knowledge about replantation of tooth, 25.7% teachers knew that a fallen tooth can be placed back in the socket. Extraoral time for replantation of the tooth that was opted by 44 teachers (30.3%) was ≤30 min. This survey reflected the lack of experience and inadequate knowledge regarding dental trauma management among school teachers in Coorg. The implications of this study are directed toward education of these school teachers who are involved in the supervision of children in schools.
Maslin, Mark; Knutz, Paul C.; Ramsay, Tony
The Late Quaternary Amazon deep-sea fan provides a modern analogue to ancient fan systems containing coarse-grained hydrocarbon reservoirs. Sand lenses deposited within the Amazon Fan, due to abrupt shifts in channel pathways called avulsion events, were drilled as part of ODP Leg 155. The hemipelagic sediment directly on top of the avulsion sands was dated using primarily AMS radio carbon dating. This dating shows that these large sand lobes (˜1 km 3) are triggered by relatively small, millennial scale changes in marine transgression and regression (±5-10 m). Relative sea level also controls the architecture of the Channel-levee distributive systems within the Amazon Fan. For example prior to 22 k calendar years BP there is a tripartite channel system. After 22 ka there is only one active Channel-levee system. Transitions between the multi-channel and single channel configurations are related to variations in the volume of sediment supply resulting in aggradation or erosion of channel floor and levee growth in the canyon-channel transition area. The sensitivity of the Amazon deep-sea Fan sedimentation to relatively small changes in sea level supports one of the central assumptions of the theory of Sequence Stratigraphy. In addition this study demonstrates how traps for hydrocarbons may have been formed in ancient fan systems.
Barros, Marcos Alexandre; Cervone, Gabriel Lopes de Faria; Costa, André Luis Serigatti
Objective To objectively and subjectively evaluate the functional result from before to after surgery among patients with a diagnosis of an isolated avulsion fracture of the posterior cruciate ligament who were treated surgically. Method Five patients were evaluated by means of reviewing the medical files, applying the Lysholm questionnaire, physical examination and radiological examination. For the statistical analysis, a significance level of 0.10 and 95% confidence interval were used. Results According to the Lysholm criteria, all the patients were classified as poor (<64 points) before the operation and evolved to a mean of 96 points six months after the operation. We observed that 100% of the posterior drawer cases became negative, taking values less than 5 mm to be negative. Conclusion Surgical methods with stable fixation for treating avulsion fractures at the tibial insertion of the posterior cruciate ligament produce acceptable functional results from the surgical and radiological points of view, with a significance level of 0.042. PMID:27218073
Miyamura, Satoshi; Ota, Haruka; Okamoto, Michio; Namba, Jiro; Yamamoto, Koji
Avulsion fractures of the calcaneus are relatively uncommon and are seen most frequently in elderly or osteoporotic patients. A surgical method that avoids displacement of the avulsed fragment after fixation has not been developed. We report the cases of 3 patients (a 73-year-old male, an 85-year-old male, and an 81-year-old female) treated by open reduction and internal fixation using titanium wire and cannulated cancellous screws. The posterior approach was used by way of a vertical midline incision. The fracture was fixed with 2 screws, and then a titanium wire was passed through the holes of the cannulated screws. A small incision on the lateral side of planter was added for the exit and return of the wire. The wire knot was bent inside the proximal Achilles tendon bursa in 2 patients and was directed to the plantar side in 1 to avoid irritation. Bony union was achieved without repeat displacement of the fragment in all 3 patients. Normal ankle function was restored, and the patients recovered the activities of daily living almost to the original level. Although an additional plantar incision is required, this surgical technique provides strong internal fixation. Copyright © 2016 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Carlstedt, T; Grane, P; Hallin, R G; Norén, G
Avulsion of nerve roots from the spinal cord is widely regarded as an untreatable injury. However, a series of experiments in animals has shown that, if continuity is restored between spinal cord and ventral roots, axons from spinal motor neurons can regrow into the peripheral nerves with recovery of motor function. These observations were applied in the treatment of a man with avulsion of the 6th cervical (C6) to 1st thoracic roots due to brachial plexus injury. Two ventral roots were implanted into the spinal cord through slits in the pia mater, C6 directly and C7 via sural nerve grafts. Voluntary activity in proximal arm muscles was detected electromyographically after nine months and clinically after one year. After three years the patient had voluntary activity (with some co-contraction) in the deltoid, biceps, and triceps muscles. To determine whether the improvement was due to spontaneous recovery from C5, the C5 root was blocked pharmacologically, and the results indicated that the repaired roots were contributing substantially to motor function. Repair of spinal nerve roots deserves further exploration in management of brachial plexus injury.
Reiner, Matthew M; Sharpe, Jonathan J
While it is well known that ankle sprains are one of the most common injuries in the United States, predictive factors regarding failure of conservative treatment are not well known. There are many biomechanical and epidemiological factors that play a role in recurrence and failure of conservative treatment, but most cases are able to be treated with immobilization and/or rest, ice, elevation, physical therapy, and bracing. We propose that one important risk factor is often overlooked simply due to the fact that a vast majority of these cases resolve without the need for surgery. Accessory ossicles and avulsion fractures of the malleoli or talus may represent a predisposition or marker for ligamentous damage that may lead to the need for lateral ankle ligament repair or reconstruction in the future. We have identified 61 consecutive patients who underwent lateral ankle ligament repair or reconstruction by the primary surgeon from the years 2007 to 2017. Out of those patients who met our inclusion and exclusion criteria, 66% had the presence of osseous pathology consisting of accessory ossicles or avulsion fractures of the medial or lateral malleolus or talus. The proportion of osseous pathology seen with lateral ankle ligament repair or reconstruction was higher than what has been previously reported in both operative and nonoperative settings. This may help identify a risk factor for failure of conservative treatment in patients presenting with acute ankle sprains or ankle instability especially in the active cohort. Level IV: Case series.
Woo, Sung Jong; Jegal, Midum; Park, Min Jong
Background: Disruption of the triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC) foveal insertion can lead to distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ) instability accompanied by ulnar-sided pain, weakness, snapping, and limited forearm rotation. We investigated the clinical outcomes of patients with TFCC foveal tears treated with arthroscopic-assisted repair. Materials and Methods: Twelve patients underwent foveal repair of avulsed TFCC with the assistance of arthroscopy between 2011 and 2013. These patients were followed up for an average of 19 months (range 14–25 months). The avulsed TFCC were reattached to the fovea using a transosseous pull-out suture or a knotless suture anchor. At the final followup, the range of motion, grip strength and DRUJ stability were measured as objective outcomes. Subjective outcomes were assessed using the Visual Analog Scale (VAS) for pain, patient rated wrist evaluation (PRWE), Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand questionnaire (DASH score) and return to work. Results: Based on the DRUJ stress test, 5 patients had normal stability and 7 patients showed mild laxity as compared with the contralateral side. Postoperatively, the mean range of pronation supination increased from 141° to 166°, and the mean VAS score for pain decreased from 5.3 to 1.7 significantly. The PRWE and DASH questionnaires also showed significant functional improvement. All patients were able to return to their jobs. However, two patients complained of persistent pain. Conclusions: Arthroscopically assisted repair of TFCC foveal injury can provide significant pain relief, functional improvement and restoration of DRUJ stability. PMID:27293286
Mannem, Rajeev; DuBois, Melissa; Koeberl, Matthew; Kosempa, Damian; Erickson, Scott
Shoulder dislocations are frequently seen in the general population and can be a cause of instability. Instability can lead to debilitating symptoms and morbidity as a result of progressive damage to the shoulder. Anterior shoulder dislocations are the most frequent type of dislocations and have been studied extensively with MRI. The soft tissue Bankart lesion is the most well-known entity associated with anterior instability; however, additional structural lesions arising from traumatic events have been described in recent literature which also predispose to anterior shoulder instability. One of these lesions, the glenoid avulsion of the glenohumeral ligament (GAGL), involves avulsion of the inferior glenohumeral ligament from the glenoid and involves separation from an intact labrum. In contrast to the Bankart lesion, there has been limited discussion of the GAGL lesion in the literature and very few imaging examples. We report a case of a GAGL diagnosed on MRI and confirmed with arthroscopy. It is discussed in the context of the anatomy of the inferior glenohumeral ligament and the imaging findings.
Badakhsh, Samaneh; Eskandarian, Tahereh; Esmaeilpour, Tahereh
Background: Tooth avulsion is one of the most severe dental traumas which most often occur in children. When immediate replantation is not possible, storage in a proper media may lead to a prolonged survival rate. Aloe Vera is a cactus like plant with green, tapered leaves that are filled with a transparent viscous gel. This medicinal plant has significant anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antibacterial and antifungal effects. The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of different concentrations of Aloe Vera extract compared to DMEM (cell culture medium) and egg white. Methods: The periodontal ligament (PDL) cells were cultured and certain number of cells were treated with Aloe Vera extract (in four different concentrations), egg white and culture media for 1, 3, 6, and 9 hours. Cell viability was determined by using the (3-[4, 5-dimethylthiazolyl-2]-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay. Moreover, One-way ANOVA and post hoc (LSD) test were used for analyzing the study groups. Results: The results indicate that culture media and Aloe Vera extract (10, 30, and 50% concentration) were statistically similar and significantly preserved more PDL cells compared to other experimental storage media. Conclusion: Aloe Vera 10, 30, and 50% may be recommended as a suitable storage media for avulsed teeth. PMID:25031484
Sönmez, D; Dalci, K; Tunç, E Sen
To present a case in which an avulsed permanent maxillary central incisor was replaced by autotransplantation of a primary canine tooth. The present case describes transplantation of a primary canine tooth into the space left by an avulsed permanent maxillary central incisor after a delay of several days. After root canal treatment, the primary canine tooth was extracted and placed into the prepared socket. To provide better adaptation of the donor tooth, the recipient alveolar site was remodeled using surgical burs. Semi-rigid splinting was maintained for 15 days. The crown of the primary canine was reshaped with composite resin and with an interim prosthesis, preventing movement of the lateral incisor tooth into the space of the transplanted canine. After 24-month follow-up the autotransplanted primary canine showed ankylosis but the tooth was in an acceptable state. The use of permanent tooth autotransplantation has been well documented. However a literature search revealed only one case report on the autotransplantation of primary teeth. Long term results of primary tooth autotransplantation are scarce but the procedure in this case report could be considered as a temporary space maintainer for the treatment of a patient with a lost permanent incisor under 10 years of age. Success of primary tooth autotransplantation may be affected by several factors, such as case selection, extra oral time, surgical and endodontic procedures.
Perumal, Colin Jerome; Robson, Martin
Introduction and objective: Traumatic avulsive injuries present complex therapeutic decisions. Radical and repeated debridement of all foreign material, necrotic tissue, bacteria, and deleterious chemicals followed by control of the bacterial bioburden and wound closure has been the gold standard. However, when such injuries occur in the face, the treatment requires modification. Specialized structures, nerves, and a maximum amount of tissue must be preserved. Topical antimicrobials may lead to dessication and further injury to tissue. Therefore, alternative treatments must be considered. Recently, a hydroconductive dressing has been demonstrated to decrease edema by removing excess exudate, to remove debris and necrotic tissue, and to decrease bacteria and deleterious cytokines in wounds. Methods: Regular dressings were done between 1 and 3 days by dedicated personnel, using a hydroconductive dressing. Following an initial conservative debridement and reconstruction while attempting to preserve as much of the normal structure as possible, the wounds were dressed with a hydroconductive dressing. Results: Using only selective conservative debridement following bony reconstruction and repeated hydroconductive dressing changes, this severe injury healed with preservation of the important facial features. No further extensive surgical procedures were required. On discharge, the patient was able to function well with a reasonably good aesthetic result. She was subsequently lost to follow-up. Conclusion: This case report demonstrates that a hydroconductive dressing can be useful for traumatic avulsive injuries. PMID:22848776
Mahendru, Sanjay; Khazanchi, Rakesh Kumar; Brajesh, Vimalendu; Jawed, Akram; Aggarwal, Aditya; Singh, Hardeep; Singh, Sukhdeep; Krishnan, S.
Replantations for major amputations of upper extremity have been widely performed. We report a unique case of successful replantation of scapulothoracic avulsion amputation in a child. In this manuscript, we discuss the various challenges faced during the procedure and chances of neural recovery. PMID:27833298
Al-Zoubi, Nabil A.; Yaghan, Rami J.; Qandeel, Haitham A.; Mazahreh, Tagleb D.
Patient: Female, 53 Final Diagnosis: Spontaneous non-traumatic anterior tibial artery avulsion and tibio-peroneal trunk transection Symptoms: Pain Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Autogenous popliteal-tibioperoneal trunk bypass Specialty: Surgery Objective: Rare disease Background: Popliteal fossa pseudoaneurysms as a result of trauma are not uncommon. However, spontaneous pseudoaneurysms as a result of non-traumatic rupture of posterior tibial artery (PTA), anterior tibial artery (ATA), or tibioperoneal trunk (TPT) artery segment are extremely rare. We report a case of spontaneous popliteal fossa pseudoaneurysm resulting from spontaneous avulsion of the ATA and transection of the TPT. Despite a thorough workup, no underlying associated disease was found. The extreme rarity of this disease presentation prompted us to report this case. Case Report: A 53-year-old female patient presented with a 10-day history of sudden onset of non-traumatic left popliteal fossa pain and swelling. A popliteal fossa pseudoaneurysm was diagnosed by duplex ultrasound examination. Computed tomography angiography (CTA) was performed to confirm the diagnosis and to plan treatment. Surgical exploration revealed avulsion of the ATA and transection of the TPT leading to a pseudoaneurysm. Autogenous popliteal-tibioperoneal trunk bypass was performed with uneventful recovery. Conclusions: A spontaneous popliteal fossa pseudoaneurysm caused by non-traumatic ATA avulsion and complete transection of TPT is extremely rare. Yet, it can be the cause of limb loss if not recognized early and treated promptly. Awareness by the medical community will help reduce the potential morbidity associated with this condition. PMID:28123173
Heydari, Azar; Tahmasbi, Soodeh; Badiee, Mohammadreza; Izadi, SeyedSadra; Mashhadi Abbas, Fatemeh; Mokhtari, Sepideh
Introduction: Tooth avulsion is a real dental emergency. If immediate replantation is not performed, the avulsed tooth may be lost due to inflammatory or replacement resorption. This animal study aimed to evaluate the bone response to the titanium coating of the root surface as an artificial barrier, and prevention of resorption of avulsed teeth. Methods and Materials: This experimental study was conducted on four male dogs. The dogs were randomly divided into two groups for assessment at two and eight weeks. Four teeth were extracted in each animal. The root surfaces of the test group were coated with a titanium layer using the Electron Beam Deposition system. After 24 h, replantation of the teeth was performed. Two animals were sacrificed after two weeks and the remaining dogs were killed after eight weeks. The presence of inflammation, inflammatory resorption, replacement resorption, periodontal regeneration, periapical granuloma and ankylosis were evaluated through histological analyses. Results: Inflammatory root resorption was not present in any tooth except one tooth in the coated group after eight weeks. Replacement resorption was noted just in three of the non-coated teeth after two weeks and two teeth after eight weeks. The McNemar's test revealed that the frequency of replacement resorption in the non-coated group was significantly higher than the coated group (P=0.031). Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, it seems that coating the root surfaces of avulsed teeth with titanium may control the replacement root resorption. PMID:27790261
Shepard, Nathan P; Westrick, Richard B; Owens, Brett D; Johnson, Michael R
Bony avulsion of the pectoralis major muscle is a rare but potentially devastating injury for athletes. Pectoralis major rupture typically occurs in 20 to 39 year-old males. The shoulder region is one of the most frequently injured areas in Judo athletes. The purpose of this case report is to describe diagnosis and treatment following a pectoralis major bony avulsion due to an atypical mechanism of injury in a young Judo athlete. A 19-year-old military cadet and competitive judo athlete reported to a direct-access sports physical therapy clinic 7 weeks after incurring a shoulder injury during a judo match. He complained of shoulder pain and weakness with the inability to perform pushups. He presented with horizontal adduction weakness and visible discontinuity of the pectoralis muscle with resisted adduction. Radiographs demonstrated a bony avulsion of the pectoralis major from its humeral attachment. The patient underwent surgical repair of the lesion the next week and was able to resume most military cadet activities within 5 months post-operation. Bony avulsions are exceptionally rare injuries, and are even more uncommon in athletes under the age of 20. It is important for clinicians to perform a thorough history and physical examination in order to avoid missing this diagnosis. Surgery is likely the best option for a young athletic population; while conservative management may be optimal for the older, inactive population. 4.
Hoeber, Jan; Trolle, Carl; Konig, Niclas; Du, Zhongwei; Gallo, Alessandro; Hermans, Emmanuel; Aldskogius, Hakan; Shortland, Peter; Zhang, Su-Chun; Deumens, Ronald; Kozlova, Elena N.
Dorsal root avulsion results in permanent impairment of sensory functions due to disconnection between the peripheral and central nervous system. Improved strategies are therefore needed to reconnect injured sensory neurons with their spinal cord targets in order to achieve functional repair after brachial and lumbosacral plexus avulsion injuries. Here, we show that sensory functions can be restored in the adult mouse if avulsed sensory fibers are bridged with the spinal cord by human neural progenitor (hNP) transplants. Responses to peripheral mechanical sensory stimulation were significantly improved in transplanted animals. Transganglionic tracing showed host sensory axons only in the spinal cord dorsal horn of treated animals. Immunohistochemical analysis confirmed that sensory fibers had grown through the bridge and showed robust survival and differentiation of the transplants. Section of the repaired dorsal roots distal to the transplant completely abolished the behavioral improvement. This demonstrates that hNP transplants promote recovery of sensorimotor functions after dorsal root avulsion, and that these effects are mediated by spinal ingrowth of host sensory axons. These results provide a rationale for the development of novel stem cell-based strategies for functionally useful bridging of the peripheral and central nervous system. PMID:26053681
Iyer, Sudeep Sreepad; Panigrahi, Antarmayee; Sharma, Shalini
Introduction: Physicians and nurses of emergency department are often the first line of qualified health-care providers attending the patient in person or parent's query over phone reporting immediately following the dental avulsion. Prompt action by them becomes the decisive factor in survival and prognosis of the tooth. Although a few researchers have evaluated knowledge of emergency room physicians, there is scanty of reports concerning nurses who play a climacteric role. Materials and Methods: A 10-item questionnaire regarding clinical situation apropos dental injury and tooth avulsion, inquiring knowledge of physicians and nurses was administered to 150 each of nursing professionals and physicians of the emergency department. Results: With 100% response rate, the data obtained was subjected to statistical analysis. Results showed lack of knowledge and confidence in both groups. About 66.7% (n = 100) nurses and 74.7% (n = 112) considered reimplantation of avulsed tooth. There was overbalanced confusion regarding storage/transport media and handling of avulsed tooth. Conclusion: The findings from the results suggested a definite inadequacy in knowledge, demanding need for appropriate training for delivering treatment with more predictability and better prognosis. PMID:28717331
Hermansen, Lars L; Freund, Knud G
This case report describes a 12-year-old boy, who suffered an injury to the right knee in a skateboard accident. Radiographs and surgery confirmed the extremely rare bifocal avulsion fracture including the distal patellar pole and tibial tuberosity. Open reduction and internal fixation was accomplished, and 4-month follow-up demonstrated a good outcome.
Yuan, Qiuju; Hu, Bing; Chu, Tak-Ho; Su, Huanxing; Zhang, Wenming; So, Kwok-Fai; Lin, Zhixiu; Wu, Wutian
Neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) is induced after axonal injury. The role of induced nNOS in injured neurons is not well established. In the present study, we investigated the co-expression of nNOS with GAP-43 in spinal motoneurons following axonal injury. The role of induced nNOS was discussed and evaluated. In normal rats, spinal motoneurons do not express nNOS or GAP-43. Following spinal root avulsion, expression of nNOS and GAP-43 were induced and colocalized in avulsed motoneurons. Reimplantation of avulsed roots resulted in a remarkable decrease of GAP-43- and nNOS-IR in the soma of the injured motoneurons. A number of GAP-43-IR regenerating motor axons were found in the reimplanted nerve. In contrast, the nNOS-IR was absent in reimplanted nerve. These results suggest that expression of GAP-43 in avulsed motoneurons is related to axonal regeneration whereas nNOS is not.
van Delft, K; Thakar, R; Sultan, A H; Kluivers, K B
It has been suggested that transperineal ultrasound images obtained during maximum pelvic floor muscle contraction improve the diagnosis of levator ani muscle (LAM) avulsion by comparison with those obtained at rest. The objective of this study was to establish, using transperineal tomographic ultrasound imaging (TUI), the correlation between LAM avulsion diagnosed at rest and that on contraction. Primiparous women were examined 3 months postpartum by Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantification (POP-Q) assessment and for LAM avulsion clinically by digital palpation and by transperineal TUI performed at rest and on pelvic floor muscle contraction. LAM avulsion was diagnosed on TUI when the three central slices were abnormal. A comparison was made between LAM avulsion diagnosed at rest and on maximum contraction. Two independent blinded investigators performed the analyses and a third investigator resolved discrepancies. One hundred and ninety primiparae were analyzed providing 380 results for comparison, as right and left LAM were analyzed independently. LAM avulsion was found in 36 (9.5%) images obtained at rest and in 35 (9.2%) on contraction, revealing moderate correlation between the two (ICC, 0.58 (95% CI, 0.51-0.64)). Twenty-two cases of LAM avulsion were identified both at rest and on contraction. One woman had LAM avulsion on palpation, which was seen on TUI as LAM avulsion on contraction, but not at rest. More cases of anterior and posterior compartment prolapse were found in women with LAM avulsion diagnosed on contraction only compared to LAM avulsion observed at rest only (POP-Q assessment point Ba, -1.8 vs -2.5 (P = 0.075) and point Bp, -2.5 vs -2.8 (P = 0.072)). Findings on transperineal TUI performed in women at rest and on contraction correlate reasonably well. However, given the trend towards an association with signs of pelvic floor dysfunction, diagnosis of LAM avulsion on contraction seems to be more reliable. Consistency in technique and
Halát, Gabriel; Negrin, Lukas; Erhart, Jochen; Ristl, Robin; Hajdu, Stefan; Platzer, Patrick
The objective of this retrospective review was to evaluate the functional and esthetic outcomes in patients with non- or minimally (<2 mm), and severely (>2 mm) displaced bony avulsions of the flexor digitorum profundus (FDP) tendon. Between 1996 and 2010, 29 patients with a bony avulsion of the FDP tendon were treated. The displacement magnitude of the avulsed fragment determined, whether conservative or surgical treatment was performed. Persisting functional deficit, radiological findings, remaining disabilities using the Disability of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH) score, as well as treatment-related deformities and complications were evaluated retrospectively and at a mean follow-up of 7 years. In 16 patients, conservative therapy by initial static splinting due to a fragment displacement of <2 mm was conducted. These patients reported no functional impairment at follow-up. In 13 cases, major displacement (>2 mm) of the bony fragment led to an open reconstruction of the avulsion injury either by screw fixation or a Lengemann pull-out wire. In a majority, an extension deficit in the DIP joint and a decrease of tip pinch strength by 25% was present at follow-up. In five patients, peri- or short-term postoperative complications occurred and in five, a nail deformity remained. DASH score revealed satisfying results after both therapeutic approaches. Conservative treatment in non- or minimally displaced avulsions leads to satisfying functional results. Patients receiving surgery after major fragment displacement need to be aware of a possible impaired ROM at the DIP joint. The use of the Lengemann pull-out wire may place patients at an increased complication risk and frequently induces nail deformities. Therapeutic, level IV.
Rhouma, O; McMahon, A D; Welbury, R R
To identify early clinical variables that are most predictive of treatment outcome and to develop a model that will allow prediction of treatment outcomes based on these variables. A dental trauma database was used to randomly identify patients who had received treatment for avulsed teeth between 1998 and 2007. A data extraction form was designed and completed for each tooth. Demographic, diagnostic and treatment information recorded in the patient's records, in addition to radiographs, were viewed retrospectively. The significance and the predictive power for each early clinical variable were assessed using a univariate logistic regression model. Only significant variables (p<0.05) were considered eligible for the prediction model and a c-index was then constructed for their respective predictive power (0.5 = no predictive power, 1.0 = perfect prediction). Of the original sample of 213 patients who had received treatment for avulsed teeth between 1998-2007 only 105 fulfilled the criteria for evaluation. Two models ('At first visit' and 'at initial treatment visits') were produced with a total of five variables that were significant and holding the greatest predictive power (high c-index): patient age (p=0.001, c=0.80); stage of root formation (p=0.001, c=0.76); storage medium (p=0.047, c=0.58); tooth mobility after dressing (p=0.001, c=0.70); and tooth mobility after splinting (p=0.003, c=0.70). These variables underwent multi-variate analysis and the final models had good predictive abilities (c-index of 0.80 and 0.74). These predictive models based on patient age, stage of root formation, storage medium, tooth mobility after dressing and tooth mobility after splinting were shown to have high predictive value and will enable a clinician to estimate the long term prognosis of avulsed and replanted teeth. It will enable planning for further treatment with a realistic view of outcome at an early stage.
Takai, Keisuke; Taniguchi, Makoto
OBJECTIVE Dorsal root entry zone (DREZ) lesioning has been the most effective surgical treatment for the relief of intractable pain due to root avulsion injury, but residual pain and a decrease in pain relief in the follow-up period have been reported in 23%-70% of patients. Based on pain topography in the most recent studies on neuropathic pain, the authors modified the conventional DREZ lesioning procedure to improve clinical outcomes. The presumed rationale for this procedure is to eliminate the spontaneous discharges of neurons in the superficial spinal dorsal horn as well as wide dynamic range neurons in the deep spinal dorsal horn. METHODS Ten patients with avulsion-related pain underwent surgery between 2011 and 2015. The surgical procedure was described and postoperative pain relief was assessed as follows: excellent (residual pain never exceeded 3 on the visual analog scale [VAS] without medication), good (residual pain never exceeded 5 on the VAS with medication), and poor (residual pain was greater than 5 with medication). Specific perioperative complications were assessed. RESULTS The aim of this surgical procedure was to destroy the deeper layers of the posterior horn of spinal gray matter, which was in contrast to the procedures of Nashold and Sindou, which were to destroy the superficial layers. All patients achieved excellent (n = 7, pain relief without medication) or good (n = 3, pain relief with medication) pain relief postoperatively, and the recurrence of pain was not reported in any patients (median 29 months after surgery, range 12-64 months). Nine patients (90%) achieved complete pain relief (a score of 0 or 1 on the VAS) with or without medication. No surgical site complications such as infection or CSF leakage were noted. No motor deficit was observed in any patient. A sensory deficit was observed in 2 patients and disappeared within 1 month in 1 patient. New pain at the adjacent level of DREZ lesioning was observed in 3 patients and
Freitas, Maria Carolina Masiero; de Castilho, Aline Rogéria Freire; Marta, Sara Nader; Francischone, Leda Aparecida; Carrara, Carlos Eduardo; Franzolin, Solange de Oliveira Braga
The prevalence of traumatisms with avulsion of deciduous teeth varies from 7 to 13%, usually involving one tooth only. In this case report, a trauma with multiple losses of deciduous teeth and laceration of soft tissue is described as a consequence of a horse backward kick. After suture of extra-oral tissue wounds and application of anti-tetanic vaccine, the patient was referred to the emergency ambulatory of Sacred Heart University. Treatment procedures included radiographic analysis, removal of bone fragments and of a residual root of the tooth involved, remodeling and suture of intra-oral tissues. The patient was observed periodically and after full recovery, a prosthetic appliance was installed for functional and esthetic rehabilitation.
ABSTRACT Rotator cuff pathology can contribute to shoulder pain and may affect the performance of sport activities, work, and activities of daily living. The partial articular supraspinatus tendon avulsion (PASTA) lesion represents a very common type of rotator cuff pathology seen in rehabilitation. When conservative treatment fails, surgery is generally required. Success of recovery depends on several factors, including: repair techniques, healing process related to timing, rehabilitation programs, and patient compliance with home exercises. To date, most treatment modalities and rehabilitation programs are based on clinical experience rather than scientific evidence. Therefore, the purpose of this clinical commentary is to provide an overview on the PASTA lesion, discuss the common treatment approaches adopted to date and to propose a rehabilitation program based on the available scientific evidence. Level of Evidence 5 PMID:27274431
Bray, D; Cavalli, L; Eze, N; Mills, N; Hartley, B E J
Airway compromise due to paediatric intubation injuries is well documented; however, intubation injuries may also cause severe voice disorders. We report our experience and review the world literature on the voice effects of traumatic paediatric intubation. We report five cases of children referred to Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children who suffered traumatic avulsion of the vocal fold at the time of, or secondary to, endotracheal intubation. All children had significant dysphonia and underwent specialist voice therapy. The mechanisms of injury, risk factors and management of the condition are discussed. Children suffering traumatic intubation require follow up throughout childhood and beyond puberty as their vocal needs and abilities change. At the time of writing, none of the reported patients had yet undergone reconstructive or medialisation surgery. However, regular specialist voice therapy evaluation is recommended for such patients, with consideration of phonosurgical techniques including injection laryngoplasty or thyroplasty.
Doi, K; Sakai, K; Kuwata, N; Ihara, K; Kawai, S
Restoration of finger flexion and extension as well as elbow flexion and extension with a double free-muscle and multiple nerve transfers following complete avulsion of the brachial plexus (nerve roots C5 to T1) is reported. The procedure combines (1) free-muscle transfer with reinnervation by the spinal accessory nerve to achieve elbow flexion and finger extension, (2) free-muscle transfer with reinnervation by the fifth and sixth intercostal nerves to restore finger flexion, (3) third and fourth intercostal motor nerve transfer to the triceps brachi to extend and stabilize the elbow, (4) nerve transfer of the supraclavicular nerve or nerve transfer of the sensory rami of the intercostal nerves to the median nerve to restore hand sensibility, and (5) glenohumeral arthrodesis. Seven of 10 patients recovered elbow function and finger flexion and extension. Five patients reported use of their hand in activities of daily living.
Doi, K; Sakai, K; Kuwata, N; Ihara, K; Kawai, S
Simultaneous reconstruction of elbow and finger function with free muscle and nerve transfers after complete avulsion of the brachial plexus (nerve roots C5 to T1) and its long-term results are presented. The basic procedure combined free or vascular pedicle latissimus dorsi muscle transfer with reinnervation by the spinal accessory nerve to obtain elbow and finger flexion, intercostal nerve transfer of the radial nerve to activate elbow and wrist extensors, and suture of the supraclavicular nerve or intercostal sensory rami to the median nerve to restore hand sensibility. Six patients had some or all of these procedures. Postoperative follow-up ranged from 2 to 5 years. Elbow function was restored completely, and some finger flexion was achieved in all cases, although a dynamic splint was necessary to straighten the digits. Patients have continued to improve in grasp power and finger control. This procedure appears to be promising for the restoration of basic hand function in severely handicapped patients.
Otsuka, Makoto; Hasue, Fumio; Fujiyoshi, Takayuki; Kamiya, Koushirou; Kiuchi, Hitoshi; Ohara, Ken; Yunde, Atsushi; Toki, Yasunori; Tanaka, Tadashi; Nakamura, Junichi
Patellar tendon rupture in children is especially rare. The fact that the area of traumatic rupture has wide variations makes surgical treatment difficult. We present an 11-year-old boy with acute traumatic patellar tendon rupture at the tibial tuberosity attachment without avulsion fracture. Primary end-to-end repair and reinforcement using 1.5 mm stainless steel wires as a surgical strategy were undertaken. Early range of motion began with a functional knee brace and the reinforced stainless wire was removed 3 months after surgery. Knee function at the final follow-up was satisfactory. We suggest that this strategy may provide a useful option for surgical treatment. PMID:28856026
Shah, Rohi; Koris, Jacob; Wazir, Akhlaq; Srinivasan, Shyamsundar S
A 70-year-old man presented to accident and emergency with an isolated anteriorly dislocated shoulder, in the absence of a concomitant fracture. There was no neurovascular deficit at presentation, and the shoulder was reduced under sedation, using the Kocher's technique. Following this, the patient developed signs of hypovolaemic shock. Clinical examination revealed an expanding fullness in the deltopectoral area, with compromise of the limb neurovascular status. CT imaging confirmed an expanding haematoma from the axillary vessels, restricting left lung expansion. Once resuscitated, the patient was transferred to theatre for exploration of the bleeding vessels. Intraoperative findings included an avulsed anterior circumflex humeral artery that was subsequently ligated. Postoperatively, the patient developed axillary, radial, median and ulnar nerve neuropraxia, which improved clinically prior to discharge. The patient was ultimately discharged home after a lengthy inpatient stay. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.
Ha, Yong-Chan; Luminita, Simion; Cho, Se-Hyun; Choi, Jun-Young; Koo, Kyung-Hoi
Femoral vessel injuries after bipolar hemiarthroplasty have not been reported. The current report describes a case of a dual major vessel (superficial femoral artery and vein) injury associated with an avulsion fracture fragment of the lesser trochanter in a 76-year-old woman who had been treated with bipolar hemiarthroplasty because of a femoral neck fracture. The superficial femoral artery was repaired and the defect of the superficial femoral vein was reconstructed with a Gore-Tex graft (WL Gore and Associates Inc, Flagstaff, Ariz). The clinical result was satisfactory and there was no vascular problem at 1-year follow-up. Early diagnosis of this vascular injury prevents serious complications including gangrene of the injured limb.
Yüksel, F; Karacaoğlu, E; Ulkür, E; Güler, M M
A foot avulsion case, with the dismembered body part submerged in sea water for 1 hour, is presented. This report is unique in that it is the first to document the reattachment of a body part that had been submerged in sea water. It was not known how salt-water exposure would affect wound management. Differences in osmolarity and bacterial flora between the sea water and foot tissues have not caused any problems, and the patient has not suffered any vascular or infectious complications after replantation. Neurotization of the plantar surface by the tibial nerve, which was stripped off during amputation and replaced in its original traces, was the most critical part of convalescence. After management of such an interesting case, we conclude that exposure to sea water of the dismembered part should not be a contraindication for replantation surgery.
Mumcuoglu, Tarkan; Durukan, Hakan A; Erdurman, Cuneyt; Hurmeric, Volkan; Gundogan, Fatih C
Partial optic nerve avulsion (ONA) secondary to finger gouging is an uncommon but devastating injury. A 21-year-old man who had an acute vision loss after accidentally getting poked by himself in his right eye when he fell down during jogging is reported. The patient was diagnosed with partial ONA. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed intact optic nerve. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) revealed deep cavity at the inferior-temporal half of the optic disc. Retinal nerve fiber layer thickness was also thin at the inferior quadrant with circumpapillary OCT scan. Visual field test and electrophysiological tests showed functional abnormality compatible with optic nerve lesion. Diagnostic tools for anatomical and functional evaluation may reveal the course of this injury. PMID:20952839
Langer, Phillip R; Selesnick, Harlan
Quadriceps injuries, ranging from simple strains to disabling muscle ruptures, are common athletic injuries. The rectus femoris is the most commonly injure portion of the quadriceps musculature. This article is, to our knowledge, the first report of a proximal rectus femoris avulsion in an elite, Olympic-level 100-meter sprinter, acutely managed with surgical repair. Several key factors must be considered and carefully assessed when determining the appropriate course of management (ie, deciding between operative and nonoperative treatment): amount of distal retraction of the tendon, severity of associated soft-tissue trauma, physical examination, and postoperative goals (eg, return to elite-level competitive sports involving running or kicking vs resuming basic activities of daily living). We believe that these factors in our elite, high-performance athlete dictated an operative course of management.
Chang, Kai-Ting; Lin, Yi-Lo; Lin, Chi-Te; Hong, Chen-Jei; Tsai, May-Jywan; Huang, Wen-Cheng; Shih, Yang-Hsin; Lee, Yi-Yen; Cheng, Henrich; Huang, Ming-Chao
Preganglionic cervical root avulsion (PCRA) affects both the peripheral and central nervous systems and is often associated with neuropathic pain. Unlike peripheral nerve injuries (PNI), central lesions caused by disruption of cervical roots from the spinal cord following PCRA contribute to the generation of neuropathic pain. Leptin is involved in the development of neuropathic pain after PNI by affecting neurons. However, whether leptin is involved in microglial activation leading to neuropathic pain after PCRA is unknown. Preganglionic avulsion of the left 6(th)-8(th) cervical roots was performed in C57B/6J mice and leptin-deficient mice. A leptin antagonist or leptin was administered to C57B/6J mice and leptin-deficient mice after injury, respectively. The expression pattern of spinal and supraspinal microglia was examined by immunofluorescent staining. Von Frey filaments were used to test pain sensitivity. Leptin is essential for the development of neuropathic pain after PCRA. Allodynia was absent in the leptin-deficient mice and the mice administered the leptin antagonist. We also found that leptin deficiency or the administration of its antagonist inhibited the development of microgliosis in the dorsal horn and brainstem. Furthermore, increase in the expression of CD86 and iNOS, and Wallerian degeneration were noted in the spinal cord. The administration of exogenous leptin to leptin-deficient mice reversed these effects. We concluded that leptin is involved in the proliferation and activation of microglia, which in turn enhances the development of neuropathic pain. Blocking the effects of leptin might be a target for the treatment of neuropathic pain after PCRA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Sponsel, William E; Gray, Walt; Groth, Sylvia L; Stern, Amber R; Walker, James D
Ballistic impact studies and supercomputer modeling were performed to elicit the mechanisms of optic nerve rupture that may accompany blunt ocular trauma. Paintball ocular impact responses were studied with abattoir-fresh porcine eyes. Physics-based numerical code CTH was used to produce robust geometric and constitutive models of the eye and orbit, providing a comparative 3-D finite volume model to help determine the mechanisms underlying empirical ballistic observations. Among 59 porcine eye specimens submitted to paintball impact in the 1- to 13-J range, 10 (17%) disengaged completely from the orbital mount. In each instance the paintball penetrated the orbit adjacent to the globe, producing rotation and eventual globe repulsion, dramatically evident on high-speed film images. Supercomputer modeling yielded similar globe-expulsive results when orbital constraints were in place, but not when these were removed. In these models, tangential (grazing) impact sheared the nerve flush with the globe via a strain rate effect within 260 μs, with minimal posterior displacement and just 5° of globe rotation. Midperipheral impact produced compressive globe distortion and posterior displacement, followed by rebound and tractional nerve avulsion 10 mm behind the lamina after 700 μs and 20° of globe rotation. Constitutive modeling studies suggest at least two trajectory-dependent mechanisms for optic nerve rupture with paintball impact on the eye. Tangential glancing blows produce strain-rate rotational avulsion, abscising the optic nerve with minimal internal globe disruption, whereas off-center direct impact produces slower rotational-rebound evulsion, traumatizing the globe and breaching the nerve posteriorly. The latter mechanism would be expected to arise more commonly and would most likely be clinically masked by accompanying intraocular injury.
Gajendran, Varun K; Bishop, Julius A
Terrible triad elbow injuries, consisting of fractures of the radial head and coronoid with ulnohumeral dislocation, are challenging to treat. They require a comprehensive understanding of the complex anatomy of the elbow to effectively treat all of the pathology and create a stable, congruent joint. The authors present a case of a terrible triad injury with avulsion of the triceps and flexor-pronator mass after a low-energy fall in a young patient. Although most terrible triad fracture-dislocations can be successfully treated with coronoid fixation, radial head fixation or replacement, and repair of the lateral collateral ligament complex, this case involved a completely circumferential injury to the elbow. The coronoid and anterior capsule were disrupted anteriorly, the radial head and lateral collateral ligament complex were disrupted laterally, the triceps was disrupted posteriorly, and the flexor-pronator mass was disrupted medially. Although the authors prefer to address most terrible triad injuries through a lateral approach, they suspected a circumferential injury preoperatively and elected to use a single posterior incision to address all of the pathology conveniently. This injury required treatment of all disrupted structures, because the elbow remained unstable until the triceps and flexor-pronator mass avulsions were ultimately repaired. With any elbow fracture-dislocation, surgeons should look for evidence of additional injuries that do not fit the commonly described patterns, because they may necessitate modifications to the treatment plan. Given the relatively common complications of stiffness and instability despite modern surgical techniques, additional injuries may further compromise functional outcomes unless they are addressed properly.
Background During the clinical treatment of the brachial plexus root avulsion (BPRA), reimplantation surgery can not completely repair the motor function of the hand because the axonal growth velocity of the spinal motoneurons (MNs) is too slow to re-innervate the intrinsic hand muscles before muscle atrophy. Here, we investigated whether lithium can enhance the regenerative capacity of the spinal MNs in a rat model of BPRA. Results The avulsion and immediate reimplantation of the C7 and C8 ventral roots were performed and followed with daily intraperitoneal administration of a therapeutic concentrationof LiCl. After a 20 week long-term rehabilitation, the motor function recovery of the injured forepaw was studied by a grasping test. The survival and regeneration of MNs were checked by choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) immunofluorescence and by Fluoro-Gold (FG) retrograde labeling through the median and ulnar nerves of the ventral horn MNs. The number and diameter of the nerve fibers in the median nerve were assessed by toluidine blue staining. Our results showed that lithium plus reimplantation therapy resulted in a significantly higher grasping strength of the digits of the injured forepaw. Lithium plus reimplantation allowed 45.1% ± 8.11% of ChAT-positive MNs to survive the injury and increased the number and diameter of nerve fibers in the median nerve. The number of FG-labeled regenerative MNs was significantly elevated in all of the reimplantation animals. Our present data proved that lithium can enhance the regenerative capacity of spinal MNs. Conclusions These results suggest that immediate administration of lithium could be used to assist reimplantation surgery in repairing BPRA injuries in clinical treatment. PMID:24985061
C5 and C6 root avulsion is generally treated by neurotization of musculocutaneous (M.C.) nerve by spinal accessory (S.A.) or intercostal nerve, and neurotization of supra-scapular nerve by spinal accessory. For the last few years, permanent paralysis of C5 and C6 root has been treated by neurotization of musculocutaneous nerve by one or two fascicles of the ulnar or median nerve, and axillary nerve by a few fascicles of the radial nerve. Eighteen patients with M.C. nerve paralysis were treated by end-to-end suture of one or two fascicles of the ulnar nerve. Patients were followed for 4 years. Neurotization of M.C. nerve by a few fascicles of ulnar or median nerve, and axillary nerve by two fascicles of radial nerve were performed by end-to-end suture. The operative technique is easy and results are good. However, with previous procedures, neurotization of the mentioned nerves usually requires a 6-8 cm nerve graft. With this length of graft, the recovery period is longer than with end-to-end suture. Furthermore, if more than 9 months have passed since the onset of paralysis, especially for axillary nerve, usually good functional results are not obtained. Also, both axillary and radial nerves are the branches of posterior cord, and hence CNS adaptation is more easily attained. Therefore, we recommend the use of this new technique for the treatment of C5 and C6 root avulsion, since the operative time is shorter and procedure is easier for the surgeon. Also recovery period is shorter.
River deltas are highly dynamic, often fan-shaped depositional systems that form when rivers drain into a standing body of water. They host over a half billion people and are currently under threat of drowning and destruction by relative sea-level rise, subsidence, and anthropogenic interference. Deltas often develop planform fan shapes through avulsions, whereby major river channel shifts occur via "channel jumping" about a spatial node, thus determining their fundamental length scale. Emerging theories suggest that the size of delta lobes is set by backwater hydrodynamics; however, these ideas are difficult to test on natural deltas, which evolve on centennial to millennial timescales. In this presentation, I will show results from the first laboratory delta built through successive deposition of lobes that maintain a constant size that scales with backwater hydrodynamics. The characteristic size of deltas emerges because of a preferential avulsion node that remains fixed spatially relative to the prograding shoreline, and is a consequence of multiple river floods that produce persistent morphodynamic river-bed adjustment within the backwater zone. Moreover, river floods cause erosion in the lowermost reaches of the alluvial river near their coastline, which may leave erosional boundaries in the sedimentary record that may appear similar to those previously interpreted to be a result of relative sea-level fall. I will discuss the implications of these findings in the context of sustainability management of deltas, decoding their stratigraphic record, and identifying ancient standing bodies of water on other planets such as Mars. Finally, I will place this delta study in a broader context of recent work that highlights the importance of understanding and quantifying variability in sedimentology and geomorphology.
Lui, Tun Hing
Avulsion fracture of the Achilles tendon is uncommon. Open reduction and internal fixation is indicated for displaced fracture in order to restore the normal function of the Achilles tendon. We present a patient with avulsion fracture of Achilles tendon that was complicated by the development of secondary Haglund's deformity and fibrous adhesion between the Achilles tendon and the calcaneus. He was successful treated by endoscopic calcaneoplasty and endoscopic adhesiolysis. Therapeutic, Level IV: Case report. © 2015 The Author(s).
Pierik, Harm Jan; Stouthamer, Esther; Schuring, Tim; Cohen, Kim
The shifting of river channels (avulsion) has consequences for people living in deltas as it is a key process in the distribution of sediment and water and thus transport and resources. These avulsions have many causes which are either upstream or downstream induced, such as base level rise, flooding events, or levee superelevation. However, a so far unexplored decisive factor in determining avulsion success is the development of sea ingressions and the role of human activities in forming them. The landward expansions of tidal channels significantly reduce the distance to sea for a potential new river course. In this contribution we infer the role of sea ingressions from a historical case study from the first millennium AD of a multiple-staged avulsion in the Rhine-Meuse delta, the Netherlands. This avulsion resulted in a major reorganisation of the river channel network: it was the first avulsion which successfully crossed an extensive peat area that separated the rivers Rhine and Meuse, thereby distributing a major part of the Rhine discharge towards another tidal inlet. This tidal inlet expanded into the peat area and connected to an active crevasse splay. Archaeological evidence surrounding this ingression strongly suggests that its expansion was accelerated by human-induced soil subsidence related to peat land reclamation. This case study demonstrates that an increase in tidal influence in a low gradient delta plain is an important mechanism determining avulsion success. Considering major subsidence and sediment depletion problems that many deltas are nowadays facing, human-induced sea ingressions will presumably become increasingly important for successful avulsions.
Schmierer, Philipp A; Schwarz, Andrea; Bass, Danielle A; Knell, Sebastian Christoph
A 2-year-old, 4.5 kg, neutered male domestic shorthair cat was presented to the emergency service with dyspnoea, anorexia and apathetic behaviour. Thoracic radiographs showed typical signs for a thoracic trauma and a tracheal lesion in the region of the carina, consistent with pseudoairway formation. Computed tomography (CT) was performed in the conscious cat to avoid aggravation of air leakage associated with ventilation. The additional CT findings were consistent with a novel pattern of a traumatic avulsion of the left principal bronchus expanding into the carina and caudal thoracic trachea. Despite the complex avulsion pattern, successful treatment was achieved surgically by performing an end-to-end anastomosis via a fifth right intercostal lateral thoracotomy. The cat was ventilated with a feeding tube and jet ventilation throughout. The cat showed excellent recovery 6 months after surgery. © ISFM and AAFP 2013.
Jain, Anshul; Baliga, Shridhar
The maxillofacial region is one of the most injury-prone areas during road traffic accidents, personal violence, falls and sports. Maxillofacial trauma can lead to breakage or avulsion of upper anterior teeth, which may cause significant aesthetic and functional problems. There are many treatment options available for rehabilitation including removable partial dentures, fixed partial dentures, crown and bridges and implant-supported prostheses. Herein, two cases are presented where implant placement was done for upper anterior teeth, which were traumatized or avulsed following maxillofacial trauma. Both patients demonstrated a history of maxillofacial trauma and had undergone open reduction and internal fixation. The first patient had a severe maxillary alveolar defect treated via autogenous bone grafting and a six-month period was given for proper integration of the bone graft. The second patient was a smoker with very poor oral hygiene and a deep bite. Thus, implant placement was not initially justified.
Vandervliet, Everhard J M; Vanhoenacker, Filip M; Snoeckx, Annemie; Gielen, Jan L; Van Dyck, Pieter; Parizel, Paul M
Acute and chronic sports-related muscle and tendon injuries are not infrequent in youngsters. In particular, the physis is prone to trauma as it constitutes the weakest part of the immature skeleton. The type of sports activity determines the location of the lesion. Most commonly, apophyses of the hip and pelvis are subject to avulsion. The purpose of this paper is to give a short overview of the pathogenesis, location, prevalence and imaging characteristics of acute and chronic avulsion injuries in the immature skeleton, with special emphasis on tennis-related injuries. Tennis-related injuries particularly involve apophyses of the ischial tuberosity, the anterior inferior or superior iliac spine and the iliac crest.
Hill, J David; Lovejoy, John F; Kelly, Robert A
Recurrent posterior glenohumeral instability is uncommon and is often misdiagnosed. Damage to the posterior capsule, posteroinferior glenohumeral ligament, and posterior labrum have all been implicated as sources of traumatic posterior instability. We describe a case of traumatic recurrent posterior instability resulting from a posterior Bankart lesion accompanied by posterior humeral avulsion of the glenohumeral ligaments. The Bankart lesion was repaired using a single arthroscopic suture anchor at the glenoid articular margin. The posterior humeral avulsion of the glenohumeral ligaments was addressed with 3 suture anchors placed at the capsular origin at the posterior humeral head. Using these anchors, the posterior capsule was advanced laterally and superiorly for a secure repair. Arthroscopic anatomic reconstruction of both lesions resulted in an excellent clinical outcome.
Markeson, Daniel B; Mughal, Maleeha; Subramanian, Padmanabhan; Iyer, Srinivasan
Avulsion injuries of the flexor digitorum profundus tendon can be with or without a bony fragment. Types 3, 4, and 5 injuries often have a sizeable bony fragment. In the past, they have been repaired with either a screw, plate, or pull-out wire with a dorsal button, often in combination with a K wire to immobilize the distal interphalangeal joint. We illustrate with 2 cases a simple technique for secure repair of the flexor digitorum profundus avulsions with a bony fragment. In contrast to previously described techniques, our technique involves minimal dissection, has a significantly reduced risk of fracture to the bony fragment, is completely internalized thereby reducing the risk of postoperative infection and allows immediate mobilization.
Andersson, Lars; Andreasen, Jens O; Day, Peter; Heithersay, Geoffrey; Trope, Martin; Diangelis, Anthony J; Kenny, David J; Sigurdsson, Asgeir; Bourguignon, Cecilia; Flores, Marie Therese; Hicks, Morris Lamar; Lenzi, Antonio R; Malmgren, Barbro; Moule, Alex J; Tsukiboshi, Mitsuhiro
Avulsion of permanent teeth is one of the most serious dental injuries, and a prompt and correct emergency management is very important for the prognosis. The International Association of Dental Traumatology (IADT) has developed a consensus statement after a review of the dental literature and group discussions. Experienced researchers and clinicians from various specialties were included in the task group. The guidelines represent the current best evidence and practice based on literature research and professionals' opinion. In cases where the data did not appear conclusive, recommendations were based on the consensus opinion or majority decision of the task group. Finally, the IADT board members were giving their opinion and approval. The primary goal of these guidelines is to delineate an approach for the immediate or urgent care of avulsed permanent teeth. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
Zhou, Yingjie; Liu, Peixi; Rui, Jing; Zhao, Xin; Lao, Jie
Neuropathic pain in patients with total brachial plexus avulsion has always been a sophisticated problem in clinical practice. For further researches on objective diagnosis, alleviation or even cure of neuropathic pain, we need to conclude the basic clinical features including pain intensity, distribution, type and possible risk factors. Thirty cases of patients with total brachial plexus avulsion were included and their baseline information was collected. Pain was evaluated by Present Pain Index using a visual analog scale; Douleur Neuropathique 4 was used for screening neuropathic pain. For more detailed pain description, the Neuropathic Pain Symptoms Inventory questionnaire and a picture showing the exact pain district were both fulfilled by all the eligible participants. The relationship between neuropathic pain and basic information, injury conditions, accompanied conditions and quality of life was tested. All the participants were male in both groups. The neuropathic pain group contained 22 patients (73.33%) with the mean age of 30.18±9.47; while 29.00±7.95 in the other group. Patients with neuropathic pain presented variously in pain degree, location, type and time phase, according to the results of the Neuropathic Pain Symptoms Inventory questionnaire. Nevertheless, most pain distributed on the region of hand. Among several related factors, alcohol abuse may be possible risk factors of neuropathic pain (p=0.03). Quality of life was significantly affected by pain (p<0.01). Neuropathic pain in patients with total brachial avulsion was characterized with heterogeneity in pain distribution, intensity, type and also time phase. Bad life habits might be risk factors associated with neuropathic pain. Neuropathic pain might affect quality of life of the patients with total brachial plexus avulsion remarkably. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Barbizan, Roberta; Castro, Mateus V; Rodrigues, Antônio C; Barraviera, Benedito; Ferreira, Rui S; Oliveira, Alexandre L R
Ventral root avulsion is an experimental model of proximal axonal injury at the central/peripheral nervous system interface that results in paralysis and poor clinical outcome after restorative surgery. Root reimplantation may decrease neuronal degeneration in such cases. We describe the use of a snake venom-derived fibrin sealant during surgical reconnection of avulsed roots at the spinal cord surface. The present work investigates the effects of this fibrin sealant on functional recovery, neuronal survival, synaptic plasticity, and glial reaction in the spinal motoneuron microenvironment after ventral root reimplantation. Female Lewis rats (7 weeks old) were subjected to VRA and root replantation. The animals were divided into two groups: 1) avulsion only and 2) replanted roots with fibrin sealant derived from snake venom. Post-surgical motor performance was evaluated using the CatWalk system twice a week for 12 weeks. The rats were sacrificed 12 weeks after surgery, and their lumbar intumescences were processed for motoneuron counting and immunohistochemistry (GFAP, Iba-1 and synaptophysin antisera). Array based qRT-PCR was used to evaluate gene regulation of several neurotrophic factors and receptors as well as inflammatory related molecules. The results indicated that the root reimplantation with fibrin sealant enhanced motor recovery, preserved the synaptic covering of the motoneurons and improved neuronal survival. The replanted group did not show significant changes in microglial response compared to VRA-only. However, the astroglial reaction was significantly reduced in this group. In conclusion, the present data suggest that the repair of avulsed roots with snake venom fibrin glue at the exact point of detachment results in neuroprotection and preservation of the synaptic network at the microenvironment of the lesioned motoneurons. Also such procedure reduced the astroglial reaction and increased mRNA levels to neurotrophins and anti
Osbahr, Daryl C; Chalmers, Peter N; Frank, Jeremy S; Williams, Riley J; Widmann, Roger F; Green, Daniel W
The young throwing athlete is susceptible to medial elbow injury due to valgus overload. We hypothesized that this injury can occur during the throwing motion with an acute episode of medial elbow pain resulting in an inability to effectively participate in throwing activities. In addition, appropriate treatment of acute, medial epicondyle avulsion fractures in baseball players can result in an asymptomatic elbow with subsequent return to play within a year of injury. A case series of all youth baseball players with medial epicondyle avulsion fractures that occurred while throwing were identified. We studied several variables, including demographics, adherence to USA Baseball youth pitching recommendations, clinical history, radiographic findings, treatment, and outcome. Eight skeletally immature baseball players, who were a mean age of 13 years (range, 11-15 years), presented with medial epicondyle fractures that occurred while throwing. All 8 players experienced sudden pain during throwing, and all 5 players with appropriate age and position qualifications did not conform to the USA Baseball youth pitching recommendations. Anteroposterior radiographs documented average fracture displacement of 5.1 mm (range, 2.5-10 mm). Five of 8 players had 5 mm or less of displacement and were selected for nonoperative treatment. Three of 8 players had more than 5 mm of displacement and underwent open reduction and internal fixation. All players were able to return to play at an average of 7.6 months (range, 4-10 months). Medial epicondyle avulsion fractures can occur with a characteristic acute presentation while throwing in youth baseball players. Prevention may be possible when conforming to established USA Baseball youth pitching recommendations. Once an acute medial epicondyle avulsion fracture occurs, these injuries may be managed using published treatment algorithms, with successful return to play in less than 1 year. Copyright © 2010 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow
Chu, T-H; Wang, L; Guo, A; Chan, V W-K; Wong, C W-M; Wu, W
It is well known that glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) is a potent neurotrophic factor for motoneurons. We have previously shown that it greatly enhanced motoneuron survival and axon regeneration after implantation of peripheral nerve graft following spinal root avulsion. In the current study, we explore whether injection of GDNF promotes axon regeneration in decellularized nerve induced by repeated freeze-thaw cycles. We injected saline or GDNF into the decellularized nerve after root avulsion in adult Sprague-Dawley rats and assessed motoneuron axon regeneration and Schwann cell migration by retrograde labelling and immunohistochemistry. We found that no axons were present in saline-treated acellular nerve whereas Schwann cells migrated into GDNF-treated acellular nerve grafts. We also found that Schwann cells migrated into the nerve grafts as early as 4 days after implantation, coinciding with the first appearance of regenerating axons in the grafts. Application of GDNF outside the graft did not induce Schwann cell infiltration nor axon regeneration into the graft. Application of pleiotrophin, a trophic factor which promotes axon regeneration but not Schwann cell migration, did not promote axon infiltration into acellular nerve graft. We conclude that GDNF induced Schwann cell migration and axon regeneration into the acellular nerve graft. Our findings can be of potential clinical value to develop acellular nerve grafting for use in spinal root avulsion injuries. © 2012 The Authors. Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology © 2012 British Neuropathological Society.
Kuhn, K M; Dao, K D; Shin, A Y
Avulsion fractures of the base of the proximal phalanx associated with collateral ligament instability, excluding the thumb, are relatively rare. While the indications for surgical intervention vary, dorsal approaches have been advocated despite the volar location of the fracture fragment and orientation of the collateral ligaments. Ten patients with 11 avulsion fractures at the base of the proximal phalanx associated with collateral ligament instability were treated with open reduction and internal fixation using a volar A1 pulley approach. Anatomic restoration of the articular surface and collateral ligament stability were obtained in all patients. All fractures healed between 5 and 9 weeks (average, 6 weeks). After an average 19.4-month follow-up period all patients had full range of motion of the metacarpophalangeal joint, collateral ligament stability, and grip strength of at least 90% of the uninjured hand. No perioperative complications occurred. The average DASH score at last follow-up examination was 1.8 (range, 0-6). All patients were satisfied with the outcome of surgery. The volar A1 pulley approach is a direct and effective approach for reduction and fixation of avulsion fractures of the base of the proximal phalanx associated with collateral ligament instability.
Fang, Xin-Yu; Zhang, Wen-Ming; Zhang, Chao-Fan; Wong, Wai-Man; Li, Wen; Wu, Wutian; Lin, Jian-Hua
Brachial plexus injury (BPI) often involves the complete or partial avulsion of one or more of the cervical nerve roots, which leads to permanent paralysis of the innervated muscles. Reimplantation surgery has been attempted as a clinical treatment for brachial plexus root avulsion but has failed to achieve complete functional recovery. Lithium is a mood stabilizer drug that is used to treat bipolar disorder; however, its effects on spinal cord or peripheral nerve injuries have also been reported. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether lithium can improve functional motor recovery after ventral root avulsion and reimplantation in a rat model of BPI. The results showed that systemic treatment with a clinical dose of lithium promoted motor neuron outgrowth and increased the efficiency of motor unit regeneration through enhanced remyelination. An analysis of myelin-associated genes showed that the effects of lithium started during the early phase of remyelination and persisted through the late stage of the process. Efficient remyelination of the regenerated axons in the lithium-treated rats led to an earlier functional recovery. Therefore, we demonstrated that lithium might be a potential clinical treatment for BPI in combination with reimplantation surgery.
Marchiori, Erica Cristina; Santos, Saulo Ellery; Asprino, Luciana; de Moraes, Márcio; Moreira, Roger William Fernandes
This retrospective study aimed to assess the occurrence of dental avulsions in patients with facial trauma over a 9-year period. Data was collected from records of patients attended to at the Division of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery at Piracicaba Dental School-State University of Campinas, Piracicaba (SP), Brazil. Two hundred three patients with 387 avulsed teeth were evaluated, the central incisors being the most common teeth involved (42 % of permanent and 61 % of primary teeth). Thirty-four percent of the cases occurred on weekends, mainly on Saturdays (20 %) and the distribution in relation to the time of year was similar with slight peaks in January. The most prevalent associated dentoalveolar injury was lateral luxation (26 %) and 19 % of the patients presented with an associated facial fracture. The most common sign presented was laceration (23 %), and the main symptoms found were pain (58 %). Associated general trauma was present in 139 patients (68 %), and the most prevalent was the upper limb (41 %). Special emphasis should be given not only to diagnosis and treatment of dental avulsion but for prevention, too. An understanding of the etiology, severity, and distribution of associated traumatic injuries can help for future studies and for an effective prevention of these injuries.
Bernal, Carolina; Christophoul, Frédéric; Darrozes, José; Laraque, Alain; Bourrel, Luc; Soula, Jean-Claude; Guyot, Jean-Loup; Baby, Patrice
Avulsion is the main process at the origin of anastomosing rivers. This study illustrates 3 examples of avulsions resulting from crevasse splays evolving in anastomosed channels along the Rio Pastaza, a tropical humid river sourced in the Ecuadorian Andean Cordillera and flowing into the Amazonian foreland. The Lower Pastaza flows in an alluvial plain, with no tectonic influence and an average monthly rainfall equally distributed throughout the year. Based on the analysis of satellite image recorded over the period 1977-2008, three cases have been studied. The first one began in 1990 with crevassing of natural levees of the right bank of the Pastaza main channel and the formation of a small channel linking up with a pre-existing tributary to this main channel. A splay formed at the confluence beheaded the tributary which became an anabranch of the main river. Downstream, two other avulsions developed from crevasse splays on a low gradient floodplain. In both cases, capture of one of the distributary channels flowing on the splay by a pre-existing drain of the floodplain and consecutive headward erosion arrives to disconnect the other drains and capture their flow into a single-thread channel. As this channel rejoins the Pastaza main channel downstream, this process gives rise to the larger-scale anastomosing system which characterizes the lower reach of the Rio Pastaza.
Introduction Injury of the gallbladder after blunt abdominal trauma is an unusual finding; the reported incidence is less than 2%. Three groups of injuries are described: simple contusion, laceration, and avulsion, the last of which can be partial, complete, or total traumatic cholecystectomy. Case presentation A case of isolated complete avulsion of the gallbladder (near traumatic cholecystectomy) from its hepatic bed in a 46-year-old Caucasian man without any other sign of injury is presented. The avulsion was due to blunt abdominal trauma after a car accident. The rarity of this injury and the stable condition of our patient at the initial presentation warrant a description. The diagnosis was made incidentally after a computed tomography scan, and our patient was treated successfully with ligation of the cystic duct and artery, removal of the gallbladder, coagulation of the bleeding points, and placement of a drain. Conclusions Early diagnosis of such injuries is quite difficult because abdominal signs are poor, non-specific, or even absent. Therefore, a computed tomography scan should be performed when the mechanism of injury is indicated. PMID:21851630
Kenney, M. A.; Mohrig, D.; Hobbs, B. F.; Parker, G.
Land loss in the Mississippi River Delta caused by subsidence and erosion has resulted in habitat loss, interference with human activities, and increased exposure of New Orleans and other settled areas to storm surge risks. Prior to dam and levee building and oil and gas production in the 20th century, the long term rates of land building roughly balanced land loss through subsidence. Now, however, sediment is being deposited at dramatically lower rates in shallow areas in and adjacent to the Delta, with much of the remaining sediment borne by the Mississippi being lost to the deep areas of the Gulf of Mexico. A few projects have been built in order to divert sediment from the river to areas where land can be built, and many more are under consideration as part of State of Louisiana and Federal planning processes. Most are small scale, although there have been some proposals for large engineered avulsions that would divert a significant fraction of the remaining available sediment (W. Kim, et al. 2009, EOS). However, there is debate over whether small or large diversions are the economically optimally and socially most acceptable size of such land building projects. From an economic point of view, the optimal size involves tradeoffs between scale economies in civil work construction, the relationship between depth of diversion and sediment concentration in river water, effects on navigation, and possible diminishing returns to land building at a single location as the edge of built land progresses into deeper waters. Because land building efforts could potentially involve billions of dollars of investment, it is important to gain as much benefit as possible from those expenditures. We present the result of a general analysis of scale economies in land building from engineered avulsions. The analysis addresses the question: how many projects of what size should be built at what time in order to maximize the amount of land built by a particular time? The analysis
Ruiz-Villanueva, V.; Díez-Herrero, A.; Bodoque, J. M.; Fernández-García, P.; Ballesteros, J. A.
In the dynamics and evolution of large river floodplains, alluvial fans and debris cones, avulsion phenomena have been considered very important. However, traditionally, in mountain streams, avulsion phenomena have been underestimated because they are not very frequent, and usually they are restricted to little chute cut-off. Nevertheless, there are mountainous areas where the valley bottom gets wider, and the alluvial filling works like an elongated debris cone. The Cabrera Stream in the Venero Claro reach (Spanish Central System) is one of these special areas. In this case, avulsion phenomena took place triggered by flash floods, and they were usually associated with hyperconcentrated flows, which exceeded the upper level of levees and banks, redefining the sedimentary architecture of the alluvial filling. In this study, an analysis of geomorphologic and sedymentological evolution of the alluvial filling in Venero Claro have been carried out. On this way, cartography made from the 19th Century until ninety ages were compared, and a stereoscopic analysis of aerial photographs and digital ortoimages were applied. Furthermore, the sedimentary filling was studied applying classic sedimentological techniques, such as a description and interpretation of sedimentary structures and facies analysis at field. As a result of the geomorphologic evolution analysis, a straightforward evolution model is proposed. This model enhances the relevant importance of the avulsion phenomena in the geomorphologic configuration of the Cabrera Stream in the Venero Claro reach. From the river pattern point of view, the avulsion phenomena originate capture processes in the main stream and its tributaries. As a result of these processes, the drainage network pattern changes successively from dendritic to sub-parallel. On other hand, from the sedimentologic point of view, the stratigraphy is composed of channel facies (debris flow facies and fluvial-torrential gravelbars) and back
Moran, Kaitlin E.; Nittrouer, Jeffrey A.; Perillo, Mauricio M.; Lorenzo-Trueba, Jorge; Anderson, John B.
The Trinity River system provides a natural laboratory for linking fluvial morphodynamics to stratigraphy produced by sea-level rise, because the sediments occupying the Trinity incised valley are well constrained in terms of timing of deposition and facies distribution. Herein, the Trinity River is modeled for a range of base-level rise rates, avulsion thresholds, and water discharges to explore the effects of backwater-induced in-channel sedimentation on channel avulsion. The findings are compared to observed sediment facies to evaluate the capability of a morphodynamic model to reproduce sediment deposition patterns. Base-level rise produces mobile locations of in-channel sedimentation and deltaic channel avulsions. For scenarios characteristic of early Holocene sea-level rise (4.3 mm yr-1), the Trinity fluvial-deltaic system progrades 13 m yr-1, followed by backstepping of 27 m yr-1. Avulsion is reached at the position of maximum sediment deposition (located 108 km upstream of the outlet) after 3,548 model years, based on sedimentation filling 30% of the channel. Under scenarios of greater base-level rise, avulsion is impeded because the channel fill threshold is never achieved. Accounting for partitioning of bed-material sediment between the channel and floodplain influences the timing and location of avulsion over millennial time scales: the time to avulsion is greatly increased. Sedimentation patterns within the valley, modeled and measured, indicate preference toward sandy bed material, and the rates of deposition are substantiated by previous measurements. Although the results here are specific to the Trinity River, the analysis provides a framework that is adaptable to other lowland fluvial-deltaic systems.
Shaw, J.; McCain, G.
The Atchafalaya River (AR) - the primary distributary of the Mississippi River (MR) - increased the proportion of water it gathered from the MR from 17% in 1910 to 30% in 1950. This increase has been attributed primarily to natural causes such as the steeper slope to the Gulf of Mexico down the AR. Avulsion has always been considered natural and inevitable, facilitating the construction of control structures to regulate discharge partitioning. However, the increase can also be explained by the extensive dredging (1.7 x 107 m3 removed) and subsequent erosion (1.7 x 108 m3) in the AR between 1932 and 1948. We develop a 1-D backwater flow model to resolve bifurcation partitioning between the MR and AR, and apply it to bathymetry data collected by the US Army Corps of Engineers. Models comparing pre-dredging, proposed dredging, and post-dredging channels suggest that dredging can explain 77% of the increased discharge fraction down the AR between 1910 and 1950. These results highlight that channel deepening is more important than relative slopes for determining channel bifurcation partitioning and stability.
Shewring, D J; Thomas, R H
Nineteen patients with collateral ligament avulsion fractures from the metacarpal heads of the fingers were treated during a 6 year period. Seven undisplaced fractures were initially treated conservatively. Four united with full movement. Three required internal fixation for symptomatic non-union and healed without problems. Eleven patients with displaced fractures were treated by primary internal fixation using a single lag screw through a dorsal approach. Seven of these achieved a full range of movement of the injured digit by 3 months. Four patients failed to regain full flexion of the metacarpophalangeal joint. One patient with a displaced and comminuted fracture was treated with internal fixation at 8 weeks when the fragment had consolidated. As with similar fractures from the proximal phalangeal bases, these fractures are prone to non-union when treated conservatively, even when undisplaced. If fixation becomes necessary, the delay of a trial of conservative treatment does not appear to affect the outcome. Internal fixation of displaced fractures allows gentle mobilisation and facilitates union.
Havton, Leif A; Carlstedt, Thomas
This review will discuss recent progress in experimental and translational research related to surgical repair of proximal nerve root injuries, and emerging potential therapies, which may be combined with replantation surgeries to augment functional outcomes after brachial plexus and cauda equina injuries. Progress in experimental studies of root and peripheral nerve injuries has identified potential candidates for adjunctive therapies, which may be combined with surgical replantation of avulsed roots after brachial plexus and cauda equina injuries. We will discuss recent advances related to adjunctive neuroprotective strategies, neurotrophic factor delivery, and emerging cellular treatment strategies after extensive nerve root trauma. We will also provide an update on electrical stimulation to promote regenerative axonal growth and new insights on the recovery of sensory functions after root injury and repair. In the light of recent advances in experimental studies, we envision that future repair of brachial plexus and cauda equina injuries will include spinal cord surgery to restore motor and sensory trajectories and a variety of adjunctive therapies to augment the recovery of neurological function.
Htut, M; Misra, V P; Anand, P; Birch, R; Carlstedt, T
Forty-four patients with severe traction brachial plexus avulsion injuries were studied following surgical repairs. In eight patients, re-implanting avulsed spinal roots directly to the spinal cord was performed with other repairs and motor recovery in the proximal limb was similar to that achieved by conventional nerve grafts and transfers when assessed using the MRC clinical grades, Narakas scores, EMG and Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS). Thirty-four of the 37 patients had co-contractions of agonist and antagonist muscle groups. Spontaneous contractions of limb muscles in synchrony with respiration, the "breathing arm", were noted in 26 of 37 patients: in three patients, the source of the breathing arm was from spinal cord re-connection, providing evidence of regeneration from the CNS to the periphery. Our study shows that re-connection of avulsed spinal roots can produce good motor recovery and provides a clinical model for developing new treatments which may enhance nerve regeneration.
Bouchardet, Fernanda; de Souza Gruppioni Cortes, Maria Ilma; Vilela Bastos, Juliana; Costa de Morais Caldas, Ines Alexandra; Caldas, Morais; Franco, Ademir; Pessoa Vieira, Duarte Nuno
The evaluation of orofacial damage is an emerging branch in the forensic sciences, specifically in forensic odontology and medicine. One of the major limitations during the evaluation of forensic orofacial damages is establishing the consolidation date of acquired lesions. The consolidation date is defined as the moment from which orofacial damages are considered irreversible. To stress the relevance of knowing the consolidation date in children who underwent orofacial trauma, and to enhance forensic expertise on the evaluation of dentomaxillofacial damages. Ninety-six patients, aged between 11 and 31 years old, treated at the dental clinics of the Federal University of Minas Gerais, Brazil, were selected for forensic orofacial evaluation. All the patients presented at least one traumatically avulsed tooth and a temporary partial denture. The mean age for the traumatic avulsion was 10,3 years old. The mean time for the placement of a prosthesis was 2,9 years after the initial consultation. The mean time for the use of prosthesis was 2,2 years. No significant differences were observed regarding orofacial damage outcomes between patients younger or older than 18 years of age. It was observed that patients using temporary removable partial dentures presented a 3,6-fold greater possibility of developing socially significant sequels if compared with patients using temporary fixed partial dentures. Knowing the consolidation date of orofacial damageenables the prediction of the potential development of social sequels in children and adolescents who isaster victim identification (DVI) is an intensive and demanding task involving specialists from various disciplines. The forensic dentist is one of the key persons who underwent traumatic dental avulsion.
Chen, Wei; Luo, Wei; Chen, Zhiqing; Jiang, Yi
INTRODUCTION To investigate the feasibility and clinical efficacy of using a toothed plate and hollow lag screw in the surgical treatment of posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) avulsion fractures of the tibia. METHODS A total of 21 patients were treated with open reduction and internal fixation using a toothed plate and hollow lag screw, through a posteromedial approach using an inverted L-shaped incision. The patients were allowed appropriate functional exercises, including knee flexion and extension, after removal of the plaster at postoperative weeks 3–6. The follow-up period was between six months and two years. RESULTS This was a retrospective study of patients with PCL avulsion fractures of the tibia caused by road traffic accidents (n = 9), sports-related injuries (n = 6), falls (n = 5) and machinery-related injuries (n = 1). 20 patients presented with fresh fractures and one with an old fracture. The patients (13 men, eight women) had a mean age of 41.5 (range 19–72) years. Anatomical reduction of the fracture and satisfactory fixation were achieved in all 21 patients. Bony union was achieved in all patients at 8–12 weeks after surgery. Six months after surgery, knee flexion was 121.9° ± 10.4° and extension was 0°. According to the Lysholm Knee Scoring Scale, 19 patients were rated as ‘excellent’ and two as ‘good’. CONCLUSION The use of a toothed plate and hollow lag screw could be a simple and reliable approach for PCL avulsion fractures of the tibia. Patients achieved good knee function after surgery. PMID:26831316
Larrain, Mario; Rocco, Eduardo Di; Riatti, Patricio; Ferreyra, Facundo; Cianciosi, Juan Sebastián
Introduction: Given the infrequency and lack of consensus in the treatment of children and adolescents with these injuries, we decided to write this report with the aim of present a case of PCL tibial avulsion in a contact athlete teen with open physis and a review of the literature published. Materials and Methods: RF.male, 13 years, rugby, suffers French tackle and fall on knees flexed. 3 months post-trauma consultation with left knee pain, joint fluid and sport limitation. Whidout instability but "not feeling well". The posterior drawer test + + / ++++, gravitational test +. Rx posterior drawer: 8mm difference between the two nenes. MRI: tibial avulsion PCL. We interpreted as symptomatic PCL injury in athletes, surgery (arthroscopy + posterior approach) is decided reintegration of chondral fragment in 1 time P.OP: no load 4 Weeks . plaster wedge extension 6 weeks, then 3 months and passive immobilizer progressive mobility. Results: 0-90 mobility achieving in 8th week. The 3rd month drawer rx 4mm. MRI posterior translation of the 4th month reintegration of LCP with anchor . 6ª month later minimally elongated drawer with stop net. 11th month continuous strengthening recrearional and sports activities. Discussion and Conclusion: Most avulsion of PCL in patients with open physis probably be for greater strength and endurance ligament compared with the phisis and bone at this age. We suspected in patients with vague knee pain, with or without instability, history of trauma and normal Rx a correct examination and MRI to be essential for diagnosis. We beleave that athletes with open physis, because of the risk of joint degeneration, surgery is justified to restore kinematics, prevent osteoarthritis and resume activity prior to the injury.
Ahmed, Shameem; Ifthekar, Syed; Ahmed Khan, R Pathan Rameez; Ranjan, Rahul
Introduction: The management of heel pad avulsion injuries has been challenging because of the precarious blood supply. The difficulties get compounded when it is associated with tendo-achilles rupture and calcaneal fracture. Here, it is a description of a case with the above features managed with a unique technique. Case Report: A 63-year-old woman presented to casualty with injury to right ankle after a road traffic accident. On clinical and radiological examination, there was avulsion of heel pad with calcaneal tuberosity fracture and tendo-achilles rupture. It was managed with debridement of the wound, repair of tendo-achilles, and fixation of calcaneal tuberosity and heel pad. The functional outcome was assessed in terms of the ability of the patient to return to painless barefoot weight bearing. The uniqueness of this method is the combined use of suture material (Ethibond) and stainless steel (cannulated cancellous screws [CCS]), by tying the Ethibond from tendo-achilles to the head of CCS rather than bone. When the CCS were tightened, two things were achieved; one being the reduction of the fracture and the second to bring a good apposition of tendo-achilles with the calcaneum. As this method worked on tension band principle and Ethibond was used instead of stainless steel wire, if no objections, this technique can be called as “soft tension band technique.” Conclusion: This case report illustrates a method of preserving heel pad when it is viable along with definitive treatment of associated soft tissue and bony injuries by a simple technique. This method has described the fixation of open fracture of calcaneal tuberosity with tendo-achilles rupture with heel pad avulsion in one sitting with excellent clinical results. PMID:27299125
Ozbaydar, Mehmet; Elhassan, Bassem; Diller, David; Massimini, Daniel; Higgins, Laurence D; Warner, Jon J P
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the results of arthroscopic capsulolabral repair for traumatic anterior shoulder instability and to compare the outcome in patients who have Bankart lesions versus those with anterior labroligamentous periosteal sleeve avulsion (ALPSA) lesions. This study included 99 patients (93 shoulders), 72 male and 17 female, with a mean age of 32 years, who underwent arthroscopic Bankart repair for traumatic, recurrent anterior shoulder instability, by use of suture anchors. In 67 shoulders (72%) a discrete Bankart lesion was repaired, and in 26 shoulders (28%) an ALPSA lesion was repaired. The 2 groups were analyzed with regard to the number of preoperative dislocations and number of postoperative recurrences. At a mean follow-up of 47 months (range, 24 to 98 months), recurrence of instability was documented in 10 shoulders (10.7%). Of the shoulders, 5 had Bankart lesions (7.4%) and 5 had ALPSA lesions (19.2%) (P = .0501). The mean number of dislocations or subluxations before the index surgery was significantly higher in the ALPSA group (mean, 12.3 [range, 2 to 57]) than in the Bankart group (mean, 4.9 [range, 2 to 24]) (P < .05). However, there were no significant differences in the number of anchors used, incidence of minor glenoid erosion, or incidence of bony Bankart lesions between the groups (P > .05 for all). Patients with ALPSA lesions present with a higher number of recurrent dislocations than those with discrete Bankart lesions. In addition, the failure rate after arthroscopic capsulolabral repair is higher in the ALPSA group than in the Bankart group. Level IV, therapeutic case series.
Wang, Yi; Lu, Liangyu; Lu, Zhe; Xiao, Lei; Kang, Yifan; Wang, Zimin
Objective: To evaluate clinical efficacy of arthroscopic transtendinous repair of partial articular-sided PASTA (partial articular supraspinatus tendon avulsion) injury. Methods: From February 2011 to July 2014, 12 cases of PASTA, aged 29 to 72 years with an average of 52.9 ± 13.3 years, were treated arthoscopically. To repair PASTA, articular-sided rotator cuff tear was explored, injury site was punctured and labeled with PDS absorbable monofilament suture (Ethicon, Somerville, NJ, USA) suture, subacromial bursa was cleaned up with acromioplasty, and integrity of bursa-side rotator cuff was assessed. Then with arthroscope in glenohumeral joint, footprint of the bursa-side supraspinatus tendon was preserved, rivets were introduced into the joint through supraspinatus tendon, joint-side partial tear was sutured, and anatomical reconstruction of the rotator cuff footprint was established. The patients were followed up post-operatively for 12-36 months, average 22 ± 7.3 months. The clinical outcomes were emulated with ASES (American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons) Shoulder Score system and UCLA (University of California at Los Angeles) Shoulder rating scale. Results: The post-operative ASES score was 89.7 ± 5.6, higher than the pre-operative one 49.8 ± 9.8 (t = 12.25, P <0.0001). While UCLA scale increased from the pre-operative 17.3, ± 3.3 to the post-operative 30.4 ± 3.2 points (t = 9.87, P <0.0001), with a satisfaction rate of 11/12 (91.7%). Conclusion: Trans-tendon repair is ideal for PASTA with advantage of maximal preservation of the normal rotator cuff tissue, anatomical reconstruction of the rotator cuff footprint and stable fixation of tendon-bone interface. PMID:25784979
Deutsch, Stephanie Anne; Long, Christopher J; Srinivasan, Arun K; Wood, Joanne N
Sexual abuse of children is prevalent in today's society. In 2012, approximately 686,000 children (9.2 per 1000) in the United States were determined to be victims of substantiated child abuse and neglect, according to national data compiled by child protective service agencies; victimization rates were highest for children younger than 1 year. Nearly 9.3% of maltreated children were victims of sexual abuse, this finding was reported by US Department of Health and Human Services (http://www.acf.hhs.gov/programs/cb/research-data-technology/statistics-research/child-maltreatment). Previous research has shown that as many as 1 in 3 girls and 1 in 7 boys will be sexually abused during childhood (Child Abuse Negl. 2003;27:1205-1222). Although sexual abuse seems to be less common in boys than girls, this may be partly due to underdiagnosis and underreporting of sexual abuse in boys (Arch Dis Child. 2007;92:328-331). Clinicians should therefore consider the possibility of sexual abuse when boys present with genital injuries, because failing to recognize and diagnose sexual abuse can pose an ongoing safety risk to a child. However, an erroneous diagnosis of sexual abuse can have equally hazardous repercussions, including removal of a child from their caregivers or prosecution of an innocent individual. A number of medical conditions can mimic child sexual abuse injuries, including anal fissures, failure of midline fusion, perianal streptococcal dermatitis, and straddle injury (J Pediatr Health Care. 2009;23:283-288 and Acta Paediatr. 2011;100:590-593). The following case involves a 5-week-old male infant who presented to the pediatric emergency department with an avulsion injury to his penis concerning for sexual abuse. He was ultimately diagnosed with a relatively rare anatomic variant of the genitalia and determined to have sustained an accidental injury whose appearance mimicked abuse.
Saoud, Tarek Mohamed A; Mistry, Sonali; Kahler, Bill; Sigurdsson, Asgeir; Lin, Louis M
Traumatic injury to the teeth can cause horizontal root fractures and inflammatory root resorptions (external and internal). Traditionally, traumatized teeth with horizontal root fractures resulting in pulp necrosis and inflammatory root resorptions are treated with conventional root canal therapy. A 15-year-old boy had a history of traumatic injury to mature tooth #8 resulting in horizontal root fracture and pulp necrosis of the coronal fragment. A 7-year-old girl suffered an avulsion injury to immature tooth #9, which developed inflammatory replacement resorption and subsequently root fractured 15 months later. Another 16-year-old boy also suffered a history of traumatic injury to mature tooth #8, resulting in perforating root resorption. All teeth were treated with regenerative endodontic procedures using chemomechanical debridement, calcium hydroxide/triple antibiotic paste dressing, EDTA rinse, induction of periapical bleeding into the canal space, and a coronal mineral trioxide aggregate plug. In the tooth presenting with horizontal root fracture, only the coronal fragment was treated to preserve pulp vitality in the apical fragment for possible pulp tissue regeneration. After regenerative endodontic procedures, clinical signs/symptoms subsided, and inflammatory osteolytic lesions resolved in all traumatized teeth. Two teeth were followed for 19 months and 1 tooth for 5 years. At the last review of the teeth with horizontal root fractures, the first case showed healing by calcified tissue and the second case showed healing by fibrous connective and hard tissue. Tooth with perforating root resorption demonstrated a decrease in size of the resorptive defect. Based on these case reports, regenerative endodontic procedures have the potential to be used to treat traumatized teeth with horizontal root fracture and inflammatory root resorption. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lim, Hyoseob; Han, Dae Hee; Lee, Il Jae
Background Extensive degloving injuries of the extremities usually result in necrosis of the flap, necessitating comprehensive skin grafting. Provided there is a sufficient tool to evaluate flap viability, full-thickness skin can be used from a nonviable avulsed flap. We used a Wood's lamp to determine the viability of avulsed flaps in the operation field after intravenous injection of fluorescein dye. Methods We experienced 13 cases during 16 months. Fifteen minutes after the intravenous injection of fluorescein dye, the avulsed skin flaps were examined and non-fluorescent areas were marked under Wood's lamp illumination. The marked area was defatted for full-thickness skin grafting. The fluorescent areas were sutured directly without tension. The non-fluorescent areas were covered by defatted skin. Several days later, there was soft tissue necrosis within the flap area. We measured necrotic area and revised the flap. Results Among all the cases, necrotic area was 21.3% of the total avulsed area. However, if we exclude three cases, one of a carelessly managed patient and two cases of the flaps were inappropriately applied, good results were obtained, with a necrotic area of only 8.4%. Eight patients needed split-thickness skin grafts, and heel pad reconstruction was performed with free flap. Conclusions A full-thickness skin graft from an avulsed flap is a good method for addressing aesthetic concerns without producing donor site morbidity. Fluorescein dye is a useful, simple, and cost-effective tool for evaluating flap viability. Avulsed flap injuries can be managed well with Wood's lamp illumination and a full-thickness skin graft. PMID:24665420
Senes, Andrea Melo; Sakai, Vivien T; Oliveira, Thais Marchini; Machado, Maria Aparecida A M; Santos, Carlos F; Marzola, Clóvis
Traumatic dental injuries are relatively frequent accidents that typically involve teeth in the maxillary anterior segment. The emergency treatment and the clinical decisions must be efficiently made at the time of injury, and there is a need for long-term follow-up because of the high incidence of complications. The aim of this article was to present the emergency and rehabilitation treatments of a multiple dentoalveolar trauma in the permanent dentition involving different extensions of enamel-dentin crown fracture, pulp exposure, and the avulsion of a canine. The treatment outcomes are reported up to the 4-year follow-up, and the clinical approaches and their rationale are discussed.
Barbizan, Roberta; Seabra Ferreira, Rui
Axonal injuries at the interface between central and peripheral nervous system, such as ventral root avulsion (VRA), induce important degenerative processes, mostly resulting in neuronal and motor function loss. In the present work, we have compared two different fibrin sealants, one derived from human blood and another derived from animal blood and Crotalus durissus terrificus venom, as a promising treatment for this type of injury. Lewis rats were submitted to VRA (L4–L6) and had the avulsed roots reimplanted to the surface of the spinal cord, with the aid of fibrin sealant. The spinal cords were processed to evaluate neuronal survival, synaptic stability, and glial reactivity, 4 and 12 weeks after lesion. Sciatic nerves were processed to investigate Schwann cell activity by p75NTR expression (4 weeks after surgery) and to count myelinated axons and morphometric evaluation (12 weeks after surgery). Walking track test was used to evaluate gait recovery, up to 12 weeks. The results indicate that both fibrin sealants are similarly efficient. However, the snake-derived fibrin glue is a potentially safer alternative for being a biological and biodegradable product which does not contain human blood derivatives. Therefore, the venom glue can be a useful tool for the scientific community due to its advantages and variety of applications. PMID:27642524
Gui, Jing-xiong; Ou, Ju-lun; Wang, Xiao-ping; Zhu, Xiao-hua; Guo, Sheng; Xu, Guo-tai; Deng, Zhi-cheng
To explore the effect of a self-made guiding needle of steel wire in guiding the wire through the tibial tunnel for the treatment of avulsion fractures of tibial posterior cruciate ligament with open reduction and wire fixation. From February 2011 to June 2014, a total of 22 patients with avulsion fractures of tibial posterior cruciate ligament underwent surgical treatments were analyzed, including 14 males and 8 females with an average age of 35.6 years old (ranged, 17 to 63 years old). According to Meyers classification, 9 patients were classified as type II, 13 patients were classified as type III. All the patients underwent open reduction and wire fixation with medial knee "L" shape approach. A wire guiding needle was used to guide the wire through the tibial tunnel during operation. With the assistance of wire guidance needles, wires passed through the tibial tunnel rapidly during the operation in all the 22 patients. All the patients were followed up, X-ray imagings 6 months after operation showed the fractures healed well. The average follow-up time in all patients was 6 months (ranged, 6 to 12 months). The averaged Lysholm knee score in 22 knee was 92.7 +/- 3.4. All patients' posterior drawer test were negative. Self-made wire guiding needle can simplify the operation procedures in which the wires pass through the tibial tunnel, shorten the operation time, reduce the surgical trauma and complications, and be worthy of clinical application.
Omidi-Kashani, Farzad; Mousavi, Seyed Mahdi
Introduction: Lumbar discectomy constitutes the most common and probably easiest spine surgery but it is not without complications. The aim of this work is to report a case with total ureteral avulsion during lumbar discectomy due to careless advancement of the pituitary rongeur. Methods: A 59-year-old male presented with refractory left L5-S1 lumbar disc herniation. During the surgery, left sided total ureteral avulsion occurred. Early postoperative progressive abdominal pain was the main clue for further investigation and diagnostic work-up. Results: Abdominal ultrasonography, intravenous pyelography, and abdominal contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) detected a left ureteral injury. Although the injury was detected early, ureteral repair or renal autotransplantation was not possible and nephrectomy was finally indicated, due to a significant ureteral loss. Discussion: Careful use of discectomy instruments, avoidance of excessive advancement of pituitary rongeurs (more than 3 cm), and thorough knowledge of the relevant anatomy are critical in preventing ureteral injury. PMID:27163085
Isla, Federico; Espinosa, Marcela; Rubio, Belén; Escandell, Alejandra; Gerpe, Marcela; Miglioranza, Karina; Rey, Daniel; Vilas, Federico
The Chubut River flows from the Andes to the Atlantic Ocean, and is interrupted by a single dam built at the middle valley. The lower valley is dominated by the aggradation of an alluvial plain induced by a complex of spits that enclosed the inlet in the last 5000 years. The river has reduced its flow because the blocking of the upper basin by terminal moraines during the Upper Pleistocene. At least the last two marine transgressions have flooded this estuary, and contributed to the aggradation during regressions. The area is of particular interest in regard to irrigation channels practiced since the XIX century. Today, the mean monthly flow is less than 10 m3/s although peaks of 95 m3/s have been recorded in Gaiman in July 2001. The dynamics of the estuary is dominated by waves (wave-dominated estuary) as tidal effects attenuate in less than 5 km. Three vibracores were collected within this floodplain: (a) at Gaiman, an area without any effect of the sea (35 km from the coast); (b) at Trelew, at the former avulsion plain of the river (18 km from the coast); and (c) at Playa Magagna, a saltmarsh located 0.4 km from the beach. At the Gaiman core (1.54 m long) fresh-water epiphytic diatoms dominate (Epithemia sorex, Cocconeis placentula, Ulnaria ulna) suggesting the aggradation of an alluvial plain. The Trelew core (2.19 m long) was collected from a deltaic plain. It was composed by fine sand with organic matter at the base that evolved into silty layers to the top. Several unconformities and laminae with heavy minerals were detected by their geochemical composition analysed by micro X-ray fluorescence (Itrax XRF core scanner). Fine-sand laminated layers were perfectly detected by their high content in S and Cl. On the other hand, mud layers presented lower content in Mg and Al with increments in Ca and V. The core from the marsh area (1.67 m long) was analysed in terms of the diatom evolution in order to detect Holocene sea-level and salinity effects. The sand flats
Heyworth, Benton E.; Bonner, Bryant; Suppan, Catherine A.; Kocher, Mininder S.; Yen, Yi-Meng; Micheli, Lyle J.
Objectives: Apophyseal avulsion fractures of the hip and pelvis occur almost exclusively in the adolescent population, with greater numbers being seen recently as the popularity and intensity of youth sports increases. Limited evidence exists detailing the demographics or distribution of these fractures by injury site. The goal of the current study was to present a comprehensive perspective on 437 of these fractures, including the indications and clinical course of 25 cases that underwent surgical intervention. Methods: All cases of an apophyseal avulsion fracture of the hip or pelvis between the years of 1981-2012 at a tertiary care pediatric center underwent radiographic and chart review, including operative details for that sub-population. Demographic data was analyzed, along with radiographic displacement, healing times, and return to sports for both groups. Results: 413 patients underwent definitive non-operative treatment, 72% of which were male. The mean age was 14.5 years. The anatomic site of injury was well-distributed: AIIS 29%, ASIS 27%, ischial tuberosity 17%, lesser trochanter 15%, and iliac crest 11%. Half of all injuries occurred during one of three different athletic activities (soccer 26%, track 13%, baseball/softball 11%), with a wide range of sports in the overall cohort. In the 287 nonop cases with adequate follow up data to confirm mean radiographic union and time of return to sports (RTS), healing occurred at 2.7 months and RTS at 2.8 months respectively. The mean age of the cohort of 25 patients who ultimately required operative treatment was 15.7 years, with 72% of cases being initially treated with nonoperative measures. The ischial tuberosity was the most common (64%) anatomic site with others including AIIS 16%, iliac crest 16%, and ASIS 4%. Excision of the apophyseal fragment was the intervention pursued for 48% of cases, with the mean time to union of 4.8 months in 11 cases which underwent fixation and had adequate follow up data
Singh, Ajit; Gupta, Sanjeev; Sinha, Rajiv; Carter, Andrew; Thomsen, Kristina J.; Mark, Darren F.; Buylaert, Jan-Pieter; Mason, Philippa J.; Murray, Andrew S.; Jain, Mayank; Paul, Debajyoti
River avulsions are important processes in the spatial evolution of river systems in tectonically active sedimentary basins as they govern large-scale patterns of sediment routing. However, the pattern and timing of avulsions in large river systems are poorly documented and not well understood. Here we document late Quaternary paleo-river channel changes in the Indo-Gangetic basin of northwest India. Using a combination of satellite remote sensing and detailed sediment coring, we analyse the large-scale planform geometry, and detailed sedimentary and stratigraphic nature of a major fluvial sedimentary deposit in the shallow subsurface. This sediment body records aggradation of multiple fluvial channel fills. Satellite remote sensing analysis indicates the trace of the buried channel complex and demonstrates that it exists in region of the Himalayan foreland where no major rivers are currently present. Thus it records the former drainage pathway of a major river, which has since been diverted. We use optically stimulated luminescence dating techniques to develop an age model for the stratigraphic succession and hence constrain the timing of river channel existence and diversion. Provenance analysis based on U-Pb dating of detrital zircons and detrital mica Ar-Ar ages indicate sediment sources in the Higher Himalayan Crystalline and Lesser Himalayan Crystalline Series indicating that this paleo-river channel system formed a major perennial river derived from the main body of the Himalaya. Specifically we are able to fingerprint bedrock sources in the catchment of the present-day Sutlej river indicating that the paleo-fluvial system represents the former course of the Sutlej river prior to a major nodal avulsion to its present day course. Our results indicate that on geologically relatively short time-scales, we observe dramatic along strike shifts in the location of major Himalayan rivers. Our sediment records when combined with high-resolution dating and
This paper demonstrates field relationships between landforms, facies, and high-resolution sequences in avulsion deposits. It defines the building blocks of a prograding avulsion sequence from a high-resolution sequence stratigraphy perspective, proposes concepts in non-marine sequence stratigraphy and flood basin evolution, and defines the continental equivalent to a parasequence. The geomorphic features investigated include a distributary channel and its levee, the Stage I crevasse splay of Smith et al. (Sedimentology, vol. 36 (1989) 1), and the local backswamp. Levees and splays have been poorly studied in the past, and three-dimensional (3D) studies are rare. In this study, stratigraphy is defined from the finest scale upward and facies are mapped in 3D. Genetically related successions are identified by defining a hierarchy of bounding surfaces. The genesis, architecture, geometry, and connectivity of facies are explored in 3D. The approach used here reveals that avulsion deposits are comparable in process, landform, facies, bounding surfaces, and scale to interdistributary bayfill, i.e. delta lobe deposits. Even a simple Stage I splay is a complex landform, composed of several geomorphic components, several facies and many depositional events. As in bayfill, an alluvial ridge forms as the feeder crevasse and its levees advance basinward through their own distributary mouth bar deposits to form a Stage I splay. This produces a shoestring-shaped concentration of disconnected sandbodies that is flanked by wings of heterolithic strata, that join beneath the terminal mouth bar. The proposed results challenge current paradigms. Defining a crevasse splay as a discrete sandbody potentially ignores 70% of the landform's volume. An individual sandbody is likely only a small part of a crevasse splay complex. The thickest sandbody is a terminal, channel associated feature, not a sheet that thins in the direction of propagation. The three stage model of splay evolution
Chan, Jeffrey C Y; Purcell, Elizabeth M; Kelly, John L
The purpose of this study is to describe our technique of central slip repair using the Mitek bone anchor and to evaluate the treatment outcome. Eight digits in eight patients were reconstructed using the bone anchor: three little fingers, two middle fingers, two index fingers and one ring finger. There were two immediate and six delayed repairs (range from one day to eight months). Four patients had pre-operative intensive splinting and physiotherapy to restore passive extension of the proximal interphalangeal joint prior to central slip reconstruction. All patients have made good progress since surgery. No patient requires a second procedure and none of the bone anchors have dislodged or loosened. We conclude that the Mitek bone anchor is a reliable technique to achieve soft tissue to bone fixation in central slip avulsion injuries. We recommend that this technique be considered as a treatment option for patients requiring surgical repair.
The progress of the functional conversion in cases where the 3rd and 4th intercostal nerves were crossed to the musculocutaneous nerve to regain elbow flexion after a total avulsion type of brachial plexus injury was followed up by means of the electromyogram, goniogram and spirogram in 25 patients. The joint position sense was further studied. It was found that in the early stage of reinnervation, spontaneous activity which synchronized with respiration was found in the biceps brachii muscles, but this involuntary element disappeared gradually and followed this the volitional control and endurance improved and became quite satisfactory within several years. It was observed that skin sensation played an important role in judging joint position.
Manoli, Theodora; Jaminet, Patrick; Kraus, Armin; Schaller, Hans-Eberhard; Werdin, Frank; Sinis, Nektarios
Introduction: Auricular reattachment or reconstruction after traumatic ear loss remains a challenge for the plastic reconstructive surgeon. Because of the diverse accident mechanisms, no standard algorithms exist and several modalities have been proposed in the literature. Methods: A case of an innovative ear reconstruction of a partially avulsed ear is presented. The amputated cartilage was reattached after being deepithelized from the anterior skin. A transauricular-retroauricular random pattern flap was then harvested and used for anterior skin coverage. Results: The described technique provided a nice final result without the need of any further operations. Conclusion: In general, a microsurgical replantation should be applied when the circumstances allow. In other cases, especially in partial upper-ear amputations with severe skin contusions, the described technique should be considered as a safe, single-step approach with good final results. PMID:20090861
Manoli, Theodora; Jaminet, Patrick; Kraus, Armin; Schaller, Hans-Eberhard; Werdin, Frank; Sinis, Nektarios
Auricular reattachment or reconstruction after traumatic ear loss remains a challenge for the plastic reconstructive surgeon. Because of the diverse accident mechanisms, no standard algorithms exist and several modalities have been proposed in the literature. A case of an innovative ear reconstruction of a partially avulsed ear is presented. The amputated cartilage was reattached after being deepithelized from the anterior skin. A transauricular-retroauricular random pattern flap was then harvested and used for anterior skin coverage. The described technique provided a nice final result without the need of any further operations. In general, a microsurgical replantation should be applied when the circumstances allow. In other cases, especially in partial upper-ear amputations with severe skin contusions, the described technique should be considered as a safe, single-step approach with good final results.
Sakai, Vivien Thiemy; Moretti, Ana Beatriz Silveira; Oliveira, Thais Marchini; Silva, Thiago Cruvinel; Abdo, Ruy Cesar Camargo; Santos, Carlos Ferreira; Machado, Maria Aparecida Andrade Moreira
This case report outlines the sequel and possible management of a permanent tooth traumatized through the predecessor, a maxillary right primary central incisor that was avulsed and replanted by a dentist 1 h after the trauma in a 3-year-old girl. Three years later, discoloration and fistula were present, so the primary tooth was extracted. The patient did not come to the scheduled follow-ups to perform a clinical and radiographic control of the succeeding permanent incisor, and only returned when she was 10 years old. At that moment, the impaction and dilaceration of the maxillary right permanent central incisor were observed through radiographic examination. The dilacerated permanent tooth was then surgically removed, and an esthetic fixed appliance was constructed with the crown of the extracted tooth. Positive psychological influence of the treatment on this patient was also observed.
Bayramoğlu, Alp; Demiryürek, Deniz; Firat, Ayşegül; Oznur, Ali; Ozsoy, M Hakan
The os supranaviculare is an accessory bone located on the dorsal aspect of the talonavicular joint close to the midpoint. This rare incidental skeletal variant has an estimated prevalence of 1%. It may rarely become symptomatic and should not be confused with cortical avulsion fractures of navicular or talar head. We present the case of a 25-year-old professional basketball player with pain on the dorsum of his right foot after twisting his ankle during a regular season match. Magnetic resonance imaging findings of the player's foot represented a flake of bone on the superior part of the talar head. The differential diagnosis and clinical outcome of this unusual case are briefly discussed.
Athwal, George S; McGill, Robert J; Rispoli, Damian M
The purpose of this study was to determine the area and characteristics of the triceps tendon footprint on the olecranon, with special attention to the medial head insertion. The secondary goal was to report 2 cases of isolated avulsions of the medial head of the triceps tendon treated successfully with arthroscopic repair. Fifteen cadaveric upper extremities were examined to investigate the triceps tendon insertion, and two case reports of an arthroscopic repair technique are described. In 8 specimens (53%) there was a separate insertion of the medial head of the triceps tendon on the olecranon, which was deep to the long and lateral head insertions. The mean area of the medial head insertion was 44 mm(2), and the mean area of the combined long and lateral head insertions was 115 mm(2). In 7 specimens (47%) the long, lateral, and medial heads of the triceps inserted together and had a mean area of 134 mm(2). Although the 3 heads of the triceps inserted together, the medial head tendon fiber orientation was still directed deep to the long and lateral heads. At 2 years' follow-up, both patients described no pain, had better strength, and had improved Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand scores and Mayo Elbow Performance Scores. We have determined the characteristics of the distal triceps tendon footprint and the insertional orientation on the olecranon. For cases with an isolated avulsion of the medial head of the triceps tendon, an arthroscopic repair technique is described. Level IV, anatomic study and therapeutic case series.
Martins, Christine Men; Hamanaka, Elizane Ferreira; Hoshida, Thayse Yumi; Sell, Ana Maria; Hidalgo, Mirian Marubayashi; Silveira, Catarina Soares; Poi, Wilson Roberto
Tooth replantation success depends on the condition of cementum periodontal ligament after tooth avulsion; which is influenced by storage medium. The dragon's blood (Croton lechleri) sap has been suggested as a promising medium because it supports collagen formation and exhibits healing, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of dragon's blood sap as a storage medium for avulsed teeth through evaluation of functional and metabolic cell viability. This in vitro study compared the efficacy of different storage media to maintain the viability of human peripheral blood mononuclear and periodontal ligament cells. A 10% dragon's blood sap was tested while PBS was selected as its control. Ultra pasteurized whole milk was used for comparison as a commonly used storage medium. DMEM and distilled water were the positive and negative controls, respectively. The viability was assessed through trypan blue exclusion test and colorimetric MTT assay after 1, 3, 6, 10 and 24 h of incubation. The dragon's blood sap showed promising results due to its considerable maintenance of cell viability. For trypan blue test, the dragon's blood sap was similar to milk (p<0.05) and both presented the highest viability values. For MTT, the dragon's blood sap showed better results than all storage media, even better than milk (p<0.05). It was concluded that the dragon's blood sap was as effective as milk, the gold standard for storage medium. The experimental sap preserved the membrane of all cells and the functional viability of periodontal ligament cells.
Baisden, T.; Hajek, E. A.; Chamberlin, E.; Toms, L.; Foreman, B.
Comparing ancient channel and floodplain deposits provides insight into long-term channel and floodplain dynamics in alluvial basins. Channel lateral migration and avulsion behavior may be affected by floodplain characteristics, including sediment cohesion, vegetation cover, and floodplain-drainage conditions. Channel-deposit architecture reflects paleo-channel dynamics; for example, channel form, migration, and reworking can be inferred from bar deposits, while multi-storied sand bodies can indicate a complex history of channel avulsion, reoccupation and migration. Furthermore, associated floodplain deposits can be used to reconstruct some aspects of floodplain sedimentation patterns, drainage, and soil development. In order to better understand how channel mobility may be linked to floodplain conditions, we compare the three members of the Paleocene-Eocene Wasatch Formation, which were deposited under broadly similar basin subsidence conditions, and straddle the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) climate-change event. These ancient deposits show varying styles of channel and floodplain deposits. The Atwell Gulch (pre-PETM) and Shire (post-PETM) members of the Wasatch Formation are both mud-stone dominated, with abundant, well-developed paleosol deposits. In contrast, the middle Molina Member is sand-rich and contains more weakly developed paleosols. Using terrestrial lidar scans and high-resolution photo panels of outcrops, along with detailed field measurements, we identify key surfaces (including bar-accretion, and story-bounding surfaces) and facies within channel deposits, and describe floodplain deposits within each member. Concurrent changes in paleo-channel architecture and floodplain deposits observed within the succession suggest that floodplain conditions are important controls on channel mobility in Wasatch rivers.
Hiremath, Hemalatha; Kulkarni, Sadanand; Sharma, Robin; Hiremath, Vishwanath; Motiwala, Tejas
The prognosis of replanted avulsed tooth depends on the existence of viable cells in the periodontal ligament and also on those cells which are able to proliferate on the damaged areas of the root. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the survival of periodontal ligament cells (PDL) when soaked in an autologous biologic rejuvenating media after an extra-oral dry time of 40 min. Thirty teeth were selected with intact crown which were advised for Orthodontic extraction having healthy PDL. They were divided into two experimental and two control groups. The positive and negative controls corresponded to 0-min and 1-h dry time, respectively. The experimental teeth were stored dry for 40 min and then immersed in one of the two media, combination of platelet-rich fibrin and platelet poor plasma (PRF+PPP) and PPP for 45 min. The teeth in each group were treated with dispase II and collagenase for 30 min and later centrifuged for 5 min at 50.17 g. The supernatant was removed with sterile micropipette, the cells labelled with 0.4% trypan blue, and the number of viable PDL cells was counted with a haemocytometer, under a light microscope. anova and Mann-Whitney U-test demonstrated statistically significant differences in the viability of PDL cells among experimental groups. Within the parameters of this study, a combination of platelet-rich fibrin and PPP demonstrated higher number of viable PDL cells and hence could be a good biologic rejuvenating media for avulsed teeth. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Hammouda, Atalla A; El-Khatib, Hamdy A; Al-Hetmi, Talal
The conventional step-advancement flap does not restore fingertip length after avulsion amputation with projecting bone owing to the limited size of the distal triangular flap. To overcome this problem, the extended step advancement flap using the stepladder principle, described in this article, provides an extended distal triangular flap that can be wrapped around the projecting tip of the distal phalanx while avoiding longitudinal volar scarring. The purposes of this study were to present a modification of the original step-advancement technique and to report on results in 6 patients. Between 2007 and 2009, 6 men (mean age, 29 y; range, 18-45 y) presented with a large projecting tip of exposed bone of the distal phalanx after avulsion injury. All 6 had reconstruction using the described technique. After surgery, the finger was immobilized with a splint, followed by rehabilitation. During the follow-up of 9 to 12 months, we clinically assessed flap-site skin quality, scar contractures, and finger mobility. We measured the finger's range of motion with a goniometer. Sensibility was evaluated using the static 2-point discrimination test. The postoperative course was uneventful. All flaps survived completely, except one that had mild marginal necrosis. We observed near-total active range of motion in all patients. The average static 2-point discrimination was 4 mm with a range of 3 to 5 mm. All patients resumed normal daily activities after 8 weeks. The extended step-advancement flap is ideal for closure of challenging fingertip amputation wounds because it maintains length and minimizes scars while providing a well-padded, sensate tip. It is a viable alternative to replantation of the fingertip. Therapeutic IV. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Pickering, J.; Grall, C.; Spiess, V.; Schwenk, T.; Palamenghi, L.; Sincavage, R.; Diamond, M. S.; Goodbred, S. L., Jr.
Holocene sediments of the Brahmaputra-Jamuna River in the upper delta plain of the Bengal basin unconformably overlie latest Pleistocene alluvium. Previously drilled borehole data reveal that the unconformity is marked by a basal gravel unit of early Holocene age with boulders up to 30-cm in diameter atop a compacted but unlithified sand and gravel conglomerate (D50=0.6mm) of latest Pleistocene age. We tie these borehole data to a 2D marine multichannel seismic survey along a 255-km reach of the Brahmaputra-Jamuna River, the first survey to image the lowstand valley from the India-Bangladesh border to the confluence with the Ganges (Padma) River. A prominent reflector is imaged along the length of the survey demarcating the valley base and Holocene-Pleistocene unconformity, sloping from ~40m below water level upstream to ~90m below water level at the downstream confluence. The average slope of this paleosurface is ~3x steeper than that of the modern channel bed, which may be the result of lower base level and propagation of a low-relief knickpoint during the last glacial lowstand. Alternatively or in conjunction, the steeper channel gradient may be due to increased basinward subsidence. In addition, the lowstand reflector is tectonically deformed at multiple locations, defining 4 distinct tectonic domains along the length of the survey. We place these tectonic influences on the stream channel in the context of its avulsion history during the Holocene, with evidence that the most recent avulsion of the Old Brahmaputra into the modern Jamuna course ~200ya was induced by tectonic uplift along the western margin of the Shillong Massif (Meghalaya, India). We further propose locations of the modern river that may be affected by tectonically-induced planform changes.
Wei, Wang; Alimujiang-Abulaiti; Tuerxunjiang-Dadihan; Meihua, Shen; Yafei, Liu; Chunxiao, Yuan; Aihemaitijiang-Yusufu
To evaluate the methods and effectiveness of contralateral C7 nerve root and multiple nerves transfer for the treatment of brachial plexus root avulsion. Between June 2006 and June 2010, 23 patients with brachial plexus root avulsion were treated. There were 20 males and 3 females, aged 17 to 42 years (mean, 27.4 years). The time from injury to operation was 4 to 12 months (mean, 5.9 months). In 16 patients having no associated injury, the first stage procedure of contralateral C7 nerve root transfer and accessory nerve transfer to suprascapular nerve or phrenic nerve transfer to anterior upper trunk was performed, and the second stage procedure of the contralateral C7 nerve root transfer to median nerve and intercostal nerve transfer to axillary nerve was performed. In 4 patients having phrenic nerve and accessory nerve injuries, the first stage procedure of the contralateral C7 nerve root transfer and second stage procedure of the contralateral C7 nerve root transfer to median nerve and musculocutaneous nerve were performed. In 3 patients having hemothorax, pneumothorax, and rib fractures, the first stage procedure of the contralateral C7 nerve root transfer and accessory nerve transfer to suprascapular nerve, and the second stage procedure of the contralateral C7 nerve root transfer to median nerve and musculocutaneous nerve were performed. The British Medical Research Council (MRC) sensory grading (S0-S4) and modified muscle strength grading standard (M0-M5) were used for comprehensive assessment of limb and shoulder abduction, elbow/biceps muscle strength, flexor wrist and finger muscle strength and median nerve sensory recovery. Twenty-three patients were followed up 3-4.5 years (mean, 3.4 years). At abduction was more than 30° in 13 cases, and was more than 60° in 3 cases; in 3 patients having hemothorax, pneumothorax, and rib fractures, the shoulder abduction was more than 30°; and in 4 patients having phrenic nerve and accessory nerve injuries, the
Tsilingaridis, Georgios; Malmgren, Barbro; Skutberg, Caroline; Malmgren, Olle
Tooth avulsion in young growing individuals is an uncommon but very severe dental trauma. The aim of this retrospective case-control study was to evaluate the effect of topical treatment with doxycycline on avulsed permanent teeth compared with treatment with only saline regarding pulp survival and periodontal healing. Sixty-six avulsed teeth in 50 patients (34 boys and 16 girls) between the ages six and 18 years were included in this study. Thirty teeth were soaked in a 0.05 mg ml(-1) doxycycline solution for 5 min, before replantation and 36 teeth in saline solution. Root development was categorized with respect to root formation and development of the apex into three groups, one-half-root formation to full root formation with open apex, full root formation with half-closed apex and full root formation with closed apex. Pulp survival and periodontal healing were assessed as successful when at the end of the observation period no pulp necrosis or ankylosis-related resorption was diagnosed. The mean observation time was 48 months. In the doxycycline group, 27 were diagnosed with pulp necrosis, 15 with ankylosis-related resorption and nine were extracted. In the saline group, 30 were diagnosed with pulp necrosis, 23 with ankylosis-related resorption and 11 were extracted. Regarding pulp survival and periodontal healing, no significant differences were found between the two groups. Teeth with immature root development showed significantly less pulp necrosis (P < 0.05) compared to teeth with full root formation regardless if treated topically with doxycycline or not. No significant differences were found between the two groups regarding age, storage, root development, splinting duration and observation time although the saline group had significantly longer extra-oral time (P < 0.001) than the doxycycline group. This study indicates that avulsed permanent teeth soaked in doxycycline do not show a better treatment outcome regarding pulp survival and
Ratliff, K. M.; Murray, A. B.; Hutton, E. W. H.; Piliouras, A.; Kim, W.
Deltas and their flat, fertile lands have become the most densely populated places on earth, but, partly because of anthropogenic interactions with fluvial, coastal, and wetland processes, their inhabitants are increasingly susceptible to natural disasters. Humans have decreased sediment supply delivered to rivers and ultimately wetlands and the coast, causing accelerating subsidence. The natural course and processes of many rivers have been altered through channelization, artificial levees, and dams, which 'perch' the river above its floodplain. As the rate of relative sea-level rise (RSLR) increases, so will surface aggradation and channel backfilling, resulting in a fluvial system that is more vulnerable to flooding and frequent avulsions. To investigate the effects of increasing RSLR and anthropogenic manipulations on delta morphodynamics, we create new avulsion and floodplain modules to couple with the 3D mode of Sedflux (Hutton and Syvitski, 2008), a stratigraphic basin-filling model. We replace the probabilistic approach of channel avulsion previously used in the model with a module incorporating the steepest-decent methodology used in Jerolmack and Paola (2007), and a floodplain algorithm to deposit sediment on subaerial cells. Model experiments with Sedflux and the new modules address the effects on delta morphodynamics of varying rates of RSLR (affecting base-level), changes in sediment delivery (adjusting the upstream boundary conditions), and restriction of natural fluvial dynamics (inhibiting avulsions). The work presented here is the first step in a more expansive project to develop a new 3D eco-morphodynamic delta model system that will be based on further model couplings, including a vegetation module (that will affect fluvial and floodplain dynamics) and a coastline module (that will re-work the shoreline based on wave-driven alongshore sediment transport). The model system results will be tested and calibrated based on comparisons with
Doi, K; Shigetomi, M; Kaneko, K; Soo-Heong, T; Hiura, Y; Hattori, Y; Kawakami, F
Thirty-one patients with complete avulsion of the brachial plexus underwent reconstruction of elbow extension by intercostal nerve transfer following reconstruction of prehension with either a single or double free-muscle transfer. Long-term results of elbow extension were evaluated in 24 patients. Reinnervation of the triceps muscle took longer than that of the transferred muscle on serial electromyographic examinations, and the eventual strength of the triceps muscle was weak. None attained M5 grade, 2 achieved M4 grade, 4 achieved M3 grade, 8 achieved M2 grade, 5 achieved M1 grade, and another 5 achieved M0 grade. However, despite the weak recovery, 14 patients were able to obtain useful functional recovery of the triceps muscle, enabling it to stabilize the elbow joint against the transferred muscle, which acted as simultaneous elbow flexor and wrist or finger extensor. Elbow stability is imperative in order to obtain voluntary finger function following free-muscle transfer. Should the triceps muscle fail to recover following intercostal nerves neurotization, transferring the reinnervated infraspinatus to the triceps is an optional procedure to provide stabilization of the elbow.
Clarkson, Andrew N.; Talbot, Caroline L.; Wang, Pei-Yu; MacLaughlin, David T.; Donahoe, Patricia K.; McLennan, Ian S.
Müllerian Inhibiting Substance (MIS, Anti-Müllerian hormone) is a gonadal hormone that contributes to the subtle sex-biases in the nervous system. Mature neurons of both sexes also produce MIS, suggesting that MIS may be a paracrine regulator of adult neural networks. We report here that murine hypoglossal motor neurons produce MIS and its receptors, MISRII and bone morphogenetic protein receptor 1A (BMPR1A, ALK3), but differentially transport them, with only MIS being detectable in axons. The production of MIS and its receptors were rapidly down regulated after axonal damage, which is a characteristic of genes involved in mature neuronal function. MIS is a survival factor for embryonic spinal motor neurons, but the rate of cell loss after hypoglossal nerve avulsion was normal in Mis−/− mice and was not attenuated by intraventricular administration of MIS. These observations suggest that MIS may be involved in anterograde rather than autocrine or retrograde regulation of neurons. PMID:21195071
Singh, Ajit; Gupta, Sanjeev; Sinha, Rajiv; Densmore, Alexander; Buylaert, Jan-Pieter; Carter, Andrew; Van-Dijk, Wout M.; Joshi, Suneel; Nayak, Nibedita; Mason, Philippa J.; Kumar, Dewashish; Mondal, Setbandhu; Murray, Andrew; Rai, Shiv P.; Shekhar, Shashank
Channel avulsion during fan development controls distribution and deposition of channel sandbodies and hence alluvial architecture of a fan system. Variable scale spatio-temporal information of fluvial responses to past climate changes is stored in these channel sandbodies. Further these channel sandbodies form fluvial aquifers in alluvial fans and therefore understanding of alluvial architecture and stratigraphy of a fan is crucial for development of groundwater management strategies. In this study we used multiple approaches to map subsurface fluvial aquifer architecture and alluvial stratigraphy, and to estimate sediment provenance using U-Pb dating of detrital zircon grains of Sutlej-Yamuna fan system in northwest India. Satellite imagery based geomorphic mapping shows two large fan system with interfan area. The fan surfaces show presence of major and minor paleochannels. 2D resistivity tomography along several transects across fan surfaces shows distinct layers with contrasting resistivity values. These geo-electric facies corresponds to presence of channel sandbodies beneath surface signature of paleochannels and finer floodplain deposits useful to demarcate lateral extent of subsurface channel sandbodies. A more detailed subsurface stratigraphy using ~50m deep sediment cores and their luminescence ages from across fan surface shows presence of multi-storey sandbodies (MSB) separated by floodplain fines. Within the MSB, individual channel deposits are identified by presence of channel scour surfaces located at coarse sand overlying fine sand layer. Depositional ages of MSB's ranges from ~81 ka (late MIS5) to ~15 ka (MIS2) with major depositional break during MIS3 in parts of the fans. Sediment aggradation rate varies laterally across fan surface as well as vertically down the depth with an average rate of 0.54 mm/year. Fluvial channel persistence for studied time interval (about last 81 ka BP) shows major depositional breaks (and possible incision) at ~41 ka
Latrubesse, E. M.
A fascinating discussion has been recently calling the attention of sedimentologists and geomorphologists regarding to the dominant fluvial styles preserved in the geological record. While some authors postulate that distributary (or distributive) patterns are the most important systems likely to dominate the alluvial rock record (Weissmann et al.2010, among others) others suggest that a variety of fluvial styles are remarkably preserved in the geological record, rejecting the importance of the distributary systems (such as megafans and other like fans coastal systems) (Fielding et al, 2012 among others). However, the Quaternary record of the largest depositional tracks on Earth has been not assessed in a comparative and detailed way. Here I present results from some of the most important Quaternary areas of sedimentation of the world such as the alluvial belts of the largest rivers, the largest megafans and other impressive fluvial dominated wetlands in active tectonic basins. My study is based on field work I carried out in many of the analyzed areas, a literature review and remote sensing products. Specific examples are discussed from several rivers of the Amazon basin, the Parana River, the Mississippi River, among others. Large depositional tracks in forelands, platforms and intracratonic basins such as the Chaco, the Orinoco Llanos, the Bananal and Pantanal basin, the Ucamara depression, and the Indo-Gangetic plain, which contain a variety of complex avulsive systems and megafans, are discussed. A main conclusion is that megafans and similar distributary systems, avulsive systems with a variety of channel patterns and linear fluvial belts of major rivers, have the potential for preservation in the geological record. The scarcity of purely braided systems in large rivers is noticeable and they are mainly constrained to small-medium size channels, short length piedmont courses or related to relatively small alluvial fans. Meandering and anabranching systems are
Chuang, D C; Lai, J B; Cheng, S L; Jain, V; Lin, C H; Chen, H C
Major replantation of a traction avulsion amputation is undertaken with the goal of not only the reestablishment of circulation, but also functional outcome. This type of amputation is characterized by different levels of soft-tissue divisions involving crushing, traction, and avulsion injuries to various structures. Between 1985 and 1998, 27 cases were referred for secondary reconstruction following amputation of the upper extremity involving both arm and forearm. Replantation was performed by at least 12 qualified plastic surgeons using different approaches and management, resulting in different outcomes. Initial replantation management significantly affects the later reconstruction. For comparing studies and prognostic implications, the authors propose a new classification according to the level of injury to muscles and innervated nerves: type I, amputation at or close to the musculotendinous aponeurosis with muscles remaining essentially intact; type II, amputation within the muscle bellies but with the proximal muscles still innervated; type III, amputation involving the motor nerve or neuromuscular junction, thereby causing total loss of muscle function; and type IV, amputation through the joint; i.e., disarticulation of the elbow or shoulder joint. Some patients required further reconstruction for functional restoration after replantation, but some did not. Through this retrospective study based on the proposed classification system, prospective guidelines for the management of different types of traction avulsion amputation are provided, including the value of replantation, length of bone shortening, primary or delayed muscle or nerve repair, necessity of fasciotomy, timing for using free tissue transfer for wound coverage, and the role of functioning free muscle transplantation for late reconstruction. The final functional outcome can also be anticipated prospectively through this classification system.
Wu, Lisa; Wu, Jun; Chang, Huiyi H; Havton, Leif A
Previous studies involving injuries to the nerves of the cauda equina and the conus medullaris have shown that lumbosacral ventral root avulsion in rat models results in denervation and dysfunction of the lower urinary tract, retrograde and progressive cell death of the axotomized motor and parasympathetic neurons, as well as the emergence of neuropathic pain. Root reimplantation has also been shown to ameliorate several of these responses, but experiments thus far have been limited to studying the effects of lesion and reimplantation local to the lumbosacral region. Here, we have expanded the region of investigation after lumbosacral ventral root avulsion and reimplantation to include the thoracolumbar sympathetic region of the spinal cord. Using a retrograde tracer injected into the major pelvic ganglion, we were able to define the levels of the spinal cord that contain sympathetic preganglionic neurons innervating the lower urinary tract. We have conducted studies on the effects of the lumbosacral ventral root avulsion and reimplantation models on the afferent innervation of the dorsal horn and autonomic nuclei at both thoracolumbar and lumbosacral levels through immunohistochemistry for the markers calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and vesicular glutamate transporter 1 (VGLUT1). Surprisingly, our experiments reveal a selective and significant decrease of CGRP-positive innervation in the dorsal horn at thoracolumbar levels that is partially restored with root reimplantation. However, no similar changes were detected at the lumbosacral levels despite the injury and repair targeting efferent neurons, and being performed at the lumbosacral levels. Despite the changes evident in the thoracolumbar dorsal horn, we find no changes in afferent innervation of the autonomic nuclei at either sympathetic or parasympathetic segmental levels by CGRP or VGLUT1. We conclude that even remote, efferent root injuries and repair procedures can have an effect on remote and non
Konstantinos, Stamatiou; Georgios, Ilias; Christos, Chlopsios; Vasilissa, Karanasiou; Nikolaos, Kavouras; Fred, Lebrun; John, Heretis; Frank, Sofras
Introduction Rupture of the diaphragm is almost always due to major trauma. Diaphragmatic injuries are rare (5–7%), usually secondary to blunt, or more rarely to penetrating, thoracic or abdominal trauma. No single investigation provides a reliable diagnosis of diaphragmatic rupture when a patient first arrives at hospital. Almost 33% are suspected on initial chest x-ray, but the percentage is lower in patients who are immediately intubated. Mortality in patients with diaphragmatic rupture following blunt abdominal trauma is generally associated with coexistent vascular and visceral injuries that could be rapidly fatal. It's mandatory that the right diagnosis is reached as soon as possible given that mortality is influenced by the time elapsing between trauma and diagnosis. Case presentation A 35-year-old worker was hit by a heavy object while working in the factory. He was transferred immediately to our emergency room. Chest x-ray showed massive left hemothorax without any additional signs to suggest diaphragmatic injury. It was decided to perform immediate surgical exploration before further radiological examination. During surgery, the right kidney and liver appeared normal, but the left kidney and spleen were not found in their anatomical position. The left hemidiaphragm had a10-cm oblique posterior tear. The left kidney was found lacerated in the left side of the chest, separated completely from its vascular pedicle and ureter, along with the entire spleen which was also separated from its vascular tree. Conclusion The avulsion of both kidney and spleen following abdominal trauma is uncommon and survival depends on prompt diagnosis and treatment. PMID:18076752
Valsky, Dan V; Cohen, Sarah M; Lipschuetz, Michal; Hochner-Celnikier, Drorith; Daum, Hagit; Yagel, Itai; Yagel, Simcha
We evaluated primiparous women with clinically diagnosed third- and fourth-degree and anal sphincter tears, to evaluate the rate of levator ani muscle injury compared to primiparous women without sphincter tears. Primiparous women delivering in our maternity ward with intrapartum diagnoses of third- or fourth-degree anal sphincter tears, repaired by the overlapping technique, were recruited to undergo 3-dimensional transperineal sonography of the pelvic floor anatomy, including the anterior and posterior compartments. Primiparas with uncomplicated vaginal deliveries were recruited as a comparison group. Patient files were examined, and maternal backgrounds and delivery and neonatal details were extracted for all patients. Ninety-four women with tears were recruited to the study group, and 464 women with normal vaginal deliveries constituted the comparison group. The groups differed significantly in the rates of levator ani defects: 38 of 94 women (40.4%) in the study group versus 75 of 464 (16.2%) in the comparison group (P < .001; odds ratio, 3.53; 95% confidence interval, 2.18-5.7). Neonatal head circumference differed significantly between the study and comparison groups: (mean ± SD, 34.5 ± 1.3 cm in the study group versus 33.9 ± 1.3 cm in the comparison group; P= .005), as did birth weight (3322 ± 430 g in the study group versus 3169 ± 458 g in the comparison group; P = .007). The groups did not differ in maternal age, gestational age at delivery, length of second stage of labor, and rates of epidural anesthesia, episiotomy, and vacuum extraction. Third- and fourth-degree intrapartum sphincter tears are associated with levator ani avulsion. Knowledge of complex pelvic floor damage may allow for prompt referral to secondary preventive measures for pelvic floor disorders. © 2016 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.
Kemp, Mark A; Barnes, James R; Thorpe, Paul L; Williams, James L
In this report, we describe the case of an adult male who developed an acute compartment syndrome localized to the anterior compartment of the leg following an ankle sprain. Compartment syndrome in association with ankle sprain is unusual, and has been previously described in association with avulsion of the perforating peroneal artery. Because of the potential for severe morbidity, we feel that it is important to make foot and ankle surgeons aware of this unusual injury. Copyright © 2011 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Dunham, A.; Grall, C.; Mondal, D. R.; Steckler, M. S.; Rajapara, H.; Kumar, B.; Philibosian, B.; Akhter, S. H.; Singhvi, A. K.
Channel migrations and river avulsions in deltaic river systems are mainly driven by differential changes of surface topography, such as the superelevation of channels due to sedimentation. In addition to such autocyclic processes, tectonic events, such as earthquakes, may also lead to avulsions from sudden uplift. The eastern part of the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna Delta (GBMD) is underlain by the blind megathrust of the IndoBurma subduction zone. In this region we investigate a 100 km long sinuous abandoned channel of the Meghna River. Immediately south of the channel, it has been previously shown that the topography is slightly higher than on the rest of the Delta and there is an oxidized Holocene exposure surface. Part of the Titas River flows northward from this area into the abandoned channel belt, opposite of the southward flowing rivers of the delta. We provide results from a detailed investigation of this abandoned channel of the Meghna River using stratigraphic logs of hand-drilled wells, resistivity profiles, sediment analyses and OSL and C14 dating, The OSL ages to be presented constrain the possible date of the event. We employ numerical modeling to evaluate the hypothesis that the co-seismic uplift associated to an earthquake can trigger the channel migration. Our modeling approach aims to estimate the co-seismic uplift associated with potential seismic events using an elastic Coulomb's dislocation model. The geometry fault in our model is estimated using geologic and GPS constraints with standard elastic parameters (Young's modulus = 80 GPa; Poisson's ratio = 0.3). We explored different potential earthquakes geometries that involve the megathrust, a splay fault, or the megathrust terminating in the splay. The magnitude and distribution of co-seismic slip are also varied between a rupture length of 112.5km and 180km along a 225km long fault. We show that any class of models can produce the amount of uplift (1-2 m) necessary for triggering the river
Babaji, Prashant; Melkundi, Mahesh; Devanna, Raghu; Suresh, B. S.; Chaurasia, Vishwajit Rampratap; Gopinath, P. V.
Objectives: Prognosis of the avulsed teeth is mostly affected by extraoral dry period and storage medium used to store teeth before reimplantation. However, ability of storage media can affect cell viability and success of treatment. Various storage media were tried with some success. The present study was undertaken to comparatively evaluate the efficacy of hank's balanced salt solution (HBSS), propolis, Aloe vera, and pomegranate juice (PJ) in preserving the vitality of periodontal ligament (PDL) cells of avulsed teeth. Materials and Methods: Fifty orthodontically extracted sound teeth with healthy PDL were selected for the present study. Selected teeth were randomly divided into study groups (10 in each) and 5 each as positive and negative control groups. All the teeth were immersed immediately after extraction into respective storage media. Data were statistically analyzed using IBM SPSS software for Windows, Version 19.0., IBM Corp., Armonk, NY, USA. Analysis of variance and multiple range were done using Tukey's honestly significant difference with level of significance at 5% (P > 0.05). Results: Propolis (285,000 viable cells with standard deviation 4.11028 and standard error of 1.38097) showed more viable PDL cells followed by HBSS, A. vera, and PJ. Conclusion: Propolis, A. vera, and PJ can be used as an alternative tooth storage media. PMID:28435369
An Heyvaert, Vanessa Mary; Baeteman, Cecile
Geoarchaeological research was performed to reconstruct the floodplain history in the surroundings of two ancient Mesopotamian cities: Tell ed-Dēr and Sippar. The mapping of the floodplain is based on facies analyses of the sedimentary succession of 225 hand-operated boreholes. The archaeological sites Tell ed-Dēr and Sippar are closely linked to a palaeochannelbelt of the Euphrates, located in the western part of the study area. Channel activity started at least in ca 3100 BC/5050 cal BP, until ca 1400-1000 BC/3350-2950 cal BP. The channel belt was part of an avulsion driven multiple Euphrates channel network that gradually became abandoned from the second half of the 2nd millennium BC. A second mapped Euphrates, Tigris or Joint Euphrates -Tigris palaeochannel belt became abandoned well before 3100 BC. Examples of natural processes as well as human interactions triggering avulsion are given. Moreover, textual, archaeological and geological data show clearly that flood-control techniques and the construction of large-scale dikes seemed to be a common practice.
Priya M, Harini; Tambakad, Pavan B; Naidu, Jaya
Numerous publications have reported revascularization of necrotic immature permanent teeth, but the regenerative potential of pulp in mature teeth has rarely been considered. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) meets many requirements of a scaffold for regenerative endodontics. To the best of our knowledge, no clinical study has evaluated PRP for endodontic regeneration in a mature avulsed tooth. The present case evaluated PRP for pulpal regeneration in an avulsed mature incisor (>8 hours extraoral dry time) of an 11-year-old boy after delayed replantation. The canal was disinfected after extraoral access cavity preparation and pulp extirpation. The root apex was enlarged, and the tooth was placed in doxycycline solution for 20 minutes. After tooth replantation and splinting, PRP was injected up to the level of the cementoenamel junction and sealed with glass ionomer cement. The 6-month follow-up revealed evidence of internal and external root resorption with periapical radiolucency and an apparent periodontal ligament space. Access was reopened; slurry of 2 antibiotics (minocycline and metronidazole) was inserted into the canal and sealed. Nine- and 12-month radiographs revealed resolution of periapical radiolucency with no further progression of internal resorption. The tooth showed a positive response to thermal and electric pulp tests. The findings observed in this case warrant further research under controlled conditions to evaluate endodontic and periodontal regeneration in a tooth that would otherwise be expected to have an unfavorable prognosis. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ferrés-Amat, E.; Díaz-Martínez, C.; Herrera-Martínez, S.; Maura-Solivellas, I.; Ferrés-Padró, E.
The purpose of this unique case report is to describe a very unusual dentoalveolar fracture associated with avulsion of the near-complete root. A 3-year-old male patient came for consultation after a dentoalveolar trauma with a “fragment that looks like canine” found in his mouth by his mother. This boy suffered root fracture of the upper primary central right incisor, accompanied by transalveolar and transmuco-gingival avulsion of the tooth root fragment, leaving the crown in its position in the dental arch. Clinical and radiological examinations were performed in order to follow up the case: 15 days, one month, and three months after trauma, the crown had a slight mobility without other clinical or radiological signs. After six months, the upper primary central right incisor's crown was exfoliated. Open bite due to the persistence of the pacifier habit favored the crown retention in the mouth. This case emphasizes the importance of primary diagnosis and follow-up of trauma cases. To the best of our knowledge, this kind of dental injury has not been previously described in the literature nor in the current Dental Trauma guidelines for the management of traumatic dental injuries in the primary dentition. PMID:25793129
Ferrés-Amat, E; Díaz-Martínez, C; Herrera-Martínez, S; Maura-Solivellas, I; Ferrés-Padró, E
The purpose of this unique case report is to describe a very unusual dentoalveolar fracture associated with avulsion of the near-complete root. A 3-year-old male patient came for consultation after a dentoalveolar trauma with a "fragment that looks like canine" found in his mouth by his mother. This boy suffered root fracture of the upper primary central right incisor, accompanied by transalveolar and transmuco-gingival avulsion of the tooth root fragment, leaving the crown in its position in the dental arch. Clinical and radiological examinations were performed in order to follow up the case: 15 days, one month, and three months after trauma, the crown had a slight mobility without other clinical or radiological signs. After six months, the upper primary central right incisor's crown was exfoliated. Open bite due to the persistence of the pacifier habit favored the crown retention in the mouth. This case emphasizes the importance of primary diagnosis and follow-up of trauma cases. To the best of our knowledge, this kind of dental injury has not been previously described in the literature nor in the current Dental Trauma guidelines for the management of traumatic dental injuries in the primary dentition.
Pe-Piper, Georgia; Piper, David J. W.; Wang, Ying; Zhang, Yongzhan; Trottier, Corwin; Ge, Chendong; Yin, Yong
The mineralogy and geochemistry of sands were investigated in the Nandu and Wanquan rivers, Hainan Island, China, to determine the history of avulsion in the lower reaches of the Nandu River. The study also provided the opportunity to assess the utility of geochemical analysis of sands as a provenance tool. Much of the heavy mineral fraction in the rivers consists of subangular Fe-Ti oxide and Fe-(hydr)oxide minerals, and less stable minerals such as amphibole, epidote, and andalusite, whereas rounded resistant ilmenite, rutile, tourmaline and zircon predominate on the deltaic coast. Mineral assemblage and chemical composition of individual samples are related to specific source areas and river tributaries. The results demonstrate northwestwards flow of the Nandu River during the mid-Holocene and earlier avulsion of the river to the northeast coast, probably during a Late Pleistocene marine highstand. Minor basement tilting, producing little relief, was sufficient to divert the lower reaches of rivers, and this effect was enhanced where basalt flows dammed former river courses. Bulk sample REE geochemistry is largely controlled by the relative abundance of monazite, allanite, titanite, zircon and epidote, derived principally from granites. Detrital geochemistry alone shows too much variability to interpret provenance. However, a smaller number of heavy mineral analyses provide an understanding of the mineralogical origins of geochemical variation, thus enabling interpretations of provenance.
Gibon, E; Romana, C; Vialle, R; Fitoussi, F
Cervical root avulsions are the worst pattern of injury in obstetrical brachial plexus injury (OBPI). The prognosis is poor and the treatment is mainly surgical with extraplexual neurotizations or muscle transfers. We present the outcomes of a technique performed in our institution to treat C5-C6 avulsion in obstetrical brachial plexus injury. This technique consists of a total ipsilateral C7 neurotization to the upper trunk. Ten babies with isolated C5-C6 root avulsion were operated on; we were able to review nine of them at over 12 months follow-up. The shoulder and the elbow function were assessed, as well as the Mallet Score. The mean follow-up was 9.2 years (SD 5.7). After a follow-up of 6 years, elbow flexion was restored with a range of motion ⩾130° and a motor function ⩾M3 in all patients. The average Mallet score was 18.1 (SD 1.2). This approach appears to be a viable alternative to extraplexual neurotizations for the treatment of C5-C6 nerve root avulsion. © The Author(s) 2015.
Background The superiority of a single stage combined anterior (first) posterior (second) approach and end-to-side side-to-side grafting neurorrhaphy in direct cord implantation was investigated as to providing adequate exposure to both the cervical cord and the brachial plexus, as to causing less tissue damage and as to being more extensible than current surgical approaches. Methods The front and back of the neck, the front and back of the chest up to the midline and the whole affected upper limb were sterilized while the patient was in the lateral position; the patient was next turned into the supine position, the plexus explored anteriorly and the grafts were placed; the patient was then turned again into the lateral position, and a posterior cervical laminectomy was done. The grafts were retrieved posteriorly and side grafted to the anterior cord. Using this approach, 5 patients suffering from complete traumatic brachial plexus palsy, 4 adults and 1 obstetric case were operated upon and followed up for 2 years. 2 were C5,6 ruptures and C7,8T1 avulsions. 3 were C5,6,7,8T1 avulsions. C5,6 ruptures were grafted and all avulsions were cord implanted. Results Surgery in complete avulsions led to Grade 4 improvement in shoulder abduction/flexion and elbow flexion. Cocontractions occurred between the lateral deltoid and biceps on active shoulder abduction. No cocontractions occurred after surgery in C5,6 ruptures and C7,8T1 avulsions, muscle power improvement extended into the forearm and hand; pain disappeared. Limitations include spontaneous recovery despite MRI appearance of avulsions, fallacies in determining intraoperative avulsions (wrong diagnosis, wrong level); small sample size; no controls rule out superiority of this technique versus other direct cord reimplantation techniques or other neurotization procedures; intra- and interobserver variability in testing muscle power and cocontractions. Conclusion Through providing proper exposure to the brachial plexus
Doi, K; Muramatsu, K; Hattori, Y; Otsuka, K; Tan, S H; Nanda, V; Watanabe, M
Recent interest in reconstruction of the upper limb following brachial plexus injuries has focused on the restoration of prehension following complete avulsion of the brachial plexus. Double free muscle transfer was performed in patients who had complete avulsion of the brachial plexus. After initial exploration of the brachial plexus and (if possible) repair of the fifth cervical nerve root, the first free muscle, used to restore elbow flexion and finger extension, is transferred and reinnervated by the spinal accessory nerve. The second free muscle, transferred to restore finger flexion, is reinnervated by the fifth and sixth intercostal nerves. The motor branch of the triceps brachii is reinnervated by the third and fourth intercostal nerves to restore elbow extension. Hand sensibility is restored by suturing of the sensory rami of the intercostal nerves to the median nerve or the ulnar nerve component of the medial cord. Secondary reconstructive procedures, such as arthrodesis of the carpometacarpal joint of the thumb, shoulder arthrodesis, and tenolysis of the transferred muscle and the distal tendons, may be required to improve the functional outcome. The early results were evaluated in thirty-two patients who had had reconstruction with use of the double free muscle procedure. Twenty-six of these patients were followed for at least twenty-four months (mean duration, thirty-nine months) after the second free muscle transfer, and they were assessed with regard to the long-term outcome as well. Satisfactory (excellent or good) elbow flexion was restored in twenty-five (96 percent) of the twenty-six patients and satisfactory prehension (more than 30 degrees of total active motion of the fingers), in seventeen (65 percent). Fourteen patients (54 percent) could position the hand in space, negating simultaneous flexion of the elbow, while moving the fingers at least 30 degrees and could use the reconstructed hand for activities requiring the use of two hands, such
Persoiu, I.; Radoane, M.
. Four palaeochannels are visible on the floodplain's surface, these being also evident in the sedimentary structure of the valley infill, as revealed by the electrical imaging and drilling. Former channel infills consist mainly of massive and sandy clays (low electrical resistivity - 5.8 ohm.m), whereas the sectors between them are filled by pebbles and sands interpreted to be channel deposits (high values of the electrical resistivity - 80 ohm.m).The absence of coarse gravels from the bottom, direct disposal of fine sediments on marls and the presence of massive clay suggests 3 stages in the channels evolution. The first one is a long period of stability, supposed to be associated to a low sinuous course, when river incised the sedimentary complex of the floodplain, until it was intersected the valley bottom. The second stage is an abrupt avulsion to the right, produced probably during an important flood, and the third stage corresponds to the period of complete abandonment of it and the evolution as oxbow lake. If we take in consideration the presence of the diapiric syncline on the right side of the valley, and the disposal of parallel channels with it (including the present-day one), we conclude that this behavior is caused by a lateral tilting of the floodplain trough the right.
Ernat, Justin J; Bottoni, Craig R; Rowles, Douglas J
Humeral avulsion of the glenohumeral ligament (HAGL) is a lesion that has been recognized as a cause of recurrent shoulder instability. To our knowledge there are no reports of successful return to full function in young, competitive athletes or return to manual labor following nonoperative management of a HAGL lesion. A 26-year-old Navy SEAL was diagnosed with a HAGL injury, and associated traction injury of the axillary nerve as well as a partial tear of the rotator cuff. Operative intervention was recommended; however, due to issues with training and with inability to properly rehab with the axillary nerve injury, surgical plans were delayed. Interestingly, the patient demonstrated both clinical and radiographic magnetic resonance imaging healing of his lesion over an 18-month period. At 18 months the patient had returned to full active duty without pain or instability as a Navy SEAL.
Ogino, T; Naito, T
Ten patients with a root avulsion type of brachial plexus injury were treated with simultaneous intercostal nerve crossing to the musculocutaneous and median nerves, and nine cases were followed for more than 40 months. The average interval from injury to surgery was 2.7 months. The average age at operation was 18.6 years. The elbow flexor was M4 in six patients, M3 in two patients, and M1 in one patient. The wrist flexor was more than M3 in six patients and less than M2 in four patients. The finger flexor was more than M3 in four patients and less than M2 in five patients. Protective sensation in the areas innervated by the musculocutaneous and median nerves was restored in all cases.
Prabhu, Jagadish; Faqi, Mohammed Khalid; Alkhalifa, Fahad; Tayara, Bader Kamal; Awad, Rashad Khamis
Injuries to the pectoralis major muscle are relatively infrequent. The mechanism of injury is usually an eccentric shortening of the pectoralis major under heavy load, such as when performing a bench press exercise. We report a case that presented to us with a history of sudden pain in the left pectoral region while doing heavy bench press exercise. The patient sustained a type III D pectoralis muscle -tendon avulsion. Surgical repair was done through a bi-cortical tendon sliding technique using two cortical buttons. In this article we describe our modifications to the previously described surgical technique for the pectoralis major tendon repair using the EndoButton and tension - slide technique, aiming to overcome the possible complications.
Prabhu, Jagadish; Faqi, Mohammed Khalid; Alkhalifa, Fahad; Tayara, Bader Kamal; Awad, Rashad Khamis
Injuries to the pectoralis major muscle are relatively infrequent. The mechanism of injury is usually an eccentric shortening of the pectoralis major under heavy load, such as when performing a bench press exercise. We report a case that presented to us with a history of sudden pain in the left pectoral region while doing heavy bench press exercise. The patient sustained a type III D pectoralis muscle –tendon avulsion. Surgical repair was done through a bi-cortical tendon sliding technique using two cortical buttons. In this article we describe our modifications to the previously described surgical technique for the pectoralis major tendon repair using the EndoButton and tension – slide technique, aiming to overcome the possible complications. PMID:28217216
Karmali, Arif; McLeod, Jennifer
Objective: To present the assessment and conservative management of chronic shoulder pain in the presence of a humeral avulsion of the inferior glenohumeral ligament (HAGL) lesion in an active individual. Clinical Features: A 47 year-old female office-worker with constant, deep, right shoulder pain with occasional clicking and catching claimed to have “tore something” in her right shoulder five years ago while performing reverse bicep curls. A physical exam led to differential diagnoses of a Superior Labrum Anterior to Posterior (SLAP) lesion, Bankart lesion, and bicipital tendinopathy. A Magnetic Resonance Arthrogram revealed a HAGL lesion. Intervention and Outcome: A conservative chiropractic treatment plan in addition to physical therapy was initiated. The patient reported 75% improvement in symptoms after 4 treatments over a four-week duration. Summary: This case demonstrates the successful implementation of a conservative plan of management suggesting that the treatment provided to this patient should be considered and attempted prior to arthroscopic surgery. PMID:27385837
Shah, Aakash A; Selesnick, F Harlan
Traumatic anterior shoulder instability has been well documented to have associated lesions such as a Bankart tear, humeral avulsion of the glenohumeral ligament (HAGL), Hill-Sachs lesion, fracture, and nerve injury. To our knowledge, the combined Bankart and HAGL injury in a single acute anterior shoulder dislocation has not yet been reported. We describe a traumatic first-time anterior-inferior shoulder dislocation in a professional basketball player with a combined Bankart and HAGL lesion. The patient underwent arthroscopic Bankart repair followed by open repair of the HAGL lesion with an open capsular shift reconstruction. At 3 years' follow-up, the patient had returned to an elite level of play, with an excellent outcome.
Berman, Jonathan S; Symonds, Catherine; Birch, Rolfe
The objective was to investigate the effectiveness of cannabis-based medicines for treatment of chronic pain associated with brachial plexus root avulsion. This condition is an excellent human model of central neuropathic pain as it represents an unusually homogenous group in terms of anatomical location of injury, pain descriptions and patient demographics. Forty-eight patients with at least one avulsed root and baseline pain score of four or more on an 11-point ordinate scale participated in a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, three period crossover study. All patients had intractable symptoms regardless of current analgesic therapy. Patients entered a baseline period of 2 weeks, followed by three, 2-week treatment periods during each of which they received one of three oromucosal spray preparations. These were placebo and two whole plant extracts of Cannabis sativa L.: GW-1000-02 (Sativex), containing Delta(9)tetrahydrocannabinol (THC):cannabidiol (CBD) in an approximate 1:1 ratio and GW-2000-02, containing primarily THC. The primary outcome measure was the mean pain severity score during the last 7 days of treatment. Secondary outcome measures included pain related quality of life assessments. The primary outcome measure failed to fall by the two points defined in our hypothesis. However, both this measure and measures of sleep showed statistically significant improvements. The study medications were generally well tolerated with the majority of adverse events, including intoxication type reactions, being mild to moderate in severity and resolving spontaneously. Studies of longer duration in neuropathic pain are required to confirm a clinically relevant, improvement in the treatment of this condition.
Luo, Haoxuan; Cheng, Xiao; Tang, Ying; Ling, Zemin; Zhou, Lihua
This study was performed in order to investigate the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) on motoneurons and the expression of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) following brachial plexus root avulsion (BPRA). A total of 40 female Sprague-Dawley rats underwent BPRA (5th cervical-1st thoracic) and were randomly divided into the avulsion plus EA stimulation (AV+EA) and AV groups. The AV+EA group received a continuous 20-Hz asymmetric bidirectional disperse-dense wave at the acupuncture points (acupoints) of Dazhui (DU4) and Shousanli (LI10) for 15 min on alternate days until the animals were sacrificed, at 1, 2, 3 and 6 weeks. The AV group received no treatment. The cryostat sections of the 7th cervical segments were prepared and stained with neuronal nitric oxide synthase nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate diaphorase (NADPH-d) and histochemically stained and counterstained with neutral red (NR). The number of nNOS-positive motoneurons on the lesion side and survived motoneurons on both sides of the 7th cervical segments were blindly counted and compared between the two groups. The results demonstrated that the number of nNOS-positive motoneurons was significantly lower in the AV+EA group compared with that in the AV group and the percentage of survived motoneurons was significantly higher compared with that of the AV group at 2 and 3 weeks. However, the number of nNOS-positive motoneurons and the percentage of survived motoneurons were not significantly different between the two groups at 1 and 6 weeks. These results indicated that, during the early period after BPRA, EA stimulation at the acupoints of Dazhui (DU4) and Shousanli (LI10) may significantly reduce the number of nNOS-positive motoneurons and protect against motoneuron death.
[Lesion of the Lissauer tract and of the posterior horn of the gray substance of the spinal cord and the electrical stimulation of the central nervous system for the treatment of brachial plexus avulsion pain].
Teixeira, M J; De Souza, E C; Yeng, L T; Pereira, W C
We analyze the effectiveness of the treatment of 10 patients of brachial plexus avulsion pain. Seven underwent dorsal root entry zone lesions (DREZ), 3, dorsal column stimulation (DCS) and, 2 thalamic stimulation (TS). DCS resulted in immediate improvement of pain in 50% of the patients. After a long term follow up period, just 25% of the patients were still better. TS resulted the in temporary improvement of 2 patients. Both had full recurrence few months after the operation. Immediate improvement of the symptoms occurred in all patients treated by DREZ. After a long term follow up period, excellent results were observed in 71.4% of the patients and good results in the remainder. The complication rate was higher among DREZ patients. It is concluded that DREZ is a better procedure for treatment of brachial plexus avulsion pain than DCS and TS (p = 0.0046); however, DCS and TS are safer.
Ko, Andrew L; Ozpinar, Alp; Raskin, Jeffrey S; Magill, Stephen T; Raslan, Ahmed M; Burchiel, Kim J
OBJECT Lesioning of the dorsal root entry zone (DREZotomy) is an effective treatment for brachial plexus avulsion (BPA) pain. The role of preoperative assessment with MRI has been shown to be unreliable for determining affected levels; however, it may have a role in predicting pain outcomes. Here, DREZotomy outcomes are reviewed and preoperative MRI is examined as a possible prognostic factor. METHODS A retrospective review was performed of an institutional database of patients who had undergone brachial plexus DREZ procedures since 1995. Preoperative MRI was examined to assess damage to the DREZ or dorsal horn, as evidenced by avulsion of the DREZ or T2 hyperintensity within the spinal cord. Phone interviews were conducted to assess the long-term pain outcomes. RESULTS Between 1995 and 2012, 27 patients were found to have undergone cervical DREZ procedures for BPA. Of these, 15 had preoperative MR images of the cervical spine available for review. The outcomes were graded from 1 to 4 as poor (no significant relief), good (more than 50% pain relief), excellent (more than 75% pain relief), or pain free, respectively. Overall, DREZotomy was found to be a safe, efficacious, and durable procedure for relief of pain due to BPA. The initial success rate was 73%, which declined to 66% at a median follow-up time of 62.5 months. Damage to the DREZ or dorsal horn was significantly correlated with poorer outcomes (p = 0.02). The average outcomes in patients without MRI evidence of DREZ or dorsal horn damage was significantly higher than in patients with such damage (3.67 vs 1.75, t-test; p = 0.001). A longer duration of pain prior to operation was also a significant predictor of treatment success (p = 0.004). CONCLUSIONS Overall, the DREZotomy procedure has a 66% chance of achieving meaningful pain relief on long-term follow-up. Successful pain relief is associated with the lack of damage to the DREZ and dorsal horn on preoperative MRI.
Ahangari, Zohreh; Alborzi, Samiye; Yadegari, Zahra; Dehghani, Fatemeh; Ahangari, Leila; Naseri, Mandana
Both the length of extra-alveolar time and type of storage media are significant factors that can affect the long-term prognosis of replanted teeth. This study aims to compare propolis 50%, propolis 10%, Hank's balanced salt solution (HBSS), milk and egg white on periodontal ligament (PDL) cell survival for different time points. : In this in vitro experimental study, we divided 60 extracted teeth without any periodontal diseases into five experimental and two control groups that consisted each experimental group with 10 and each control group with 5 teeth. The storage times were one and three hours for each media. The controls corresponded to 0-minute (positive) and 12-hour (negative) dry time. Rinsing in the experimental media, the teeth were treated with dispase and collagenase for one hour. Cell viability was determined by using trypan blue exclusion. Statistical analysis of the data was accomplished by using two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) complemented by the Tukey's HSD post-hoc. Within one hour, there was no significant difference between the two propolis groups, however these two groups had significantly more viable PDL cells compared to the other experimental media (p<0.05). The results of the three-hour group showed that propolis 10% was significantly better than egg white, whereas both propolis 10% and 50% were significantly better than milk (p<0.05). Based on PDL cell viability, propolis could be recommended as a suitable biological storage media for avulsed teeth.
Tu, Yuan-Kun; Tsai, Yi-Jung; Chang, Chih-Han; Su, Fong-Chin; Hsiao, Chih-Kun; Tan, Jacqueline Siau-Woon
Purpose: We conducted a clinical study to evaluate the effects of neurotization, especially comparing the total contralateral C7 (CC7) root transfer to hemi-CC7 transfer, on total root avulsion brachial plexus injuries (BPI). Methods: Forty patients who received neurotization for BPI were enrolled in this prospective study. Group 1 (n = 20) received hemi-CC7 transfer for hand function, while group 2 (n = 20) received total-CC7 transfer. Additional neurotization included spinal accessory, phrenic, and intercostal nerve transfer for shoulder and elbow function. The results were evaluated with an average of 6 years follow-up. Results: Group 1 had fewer donor site complications (15%) than group 2 (45%); group 2 had significantly better hand M3 and M4 motor function (65%) than group 1 (30%; P = 0.02). There was no difference in sensory recovery. Significantly, better shoulder function was obtained by simultaneous neurotization on both suprascapular and axillary nerves. Conclusions: Total-CC7 transfer had better hand recovery but more donor complications than hemi-CC7. Neurotization on both supra-scapular and axillary nerves improved shoulder recovery. © 2013 The Authors. Microsurgery published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Microsurgery 34:91–101, 2014. PMID:23913440
Janssens, Sara Ds; Haagsman, Annika N; Ter Haar, Gert
Objectives The objective of this study was to report the surgical outcome and complication rate of deep traction avulsion (TA) of feline aural inflammatory polyps after a lateral approach (LA) to the ear canal. Methods This was a retrospective analysis of data retrieved from an electronic database of 62 cats treated with TA after an LA (TALA) for removal of ear canal polyps. Long-term outcome was assessed via a telephone questionnaire survey with the owners. Results Domestic shorthair cats (48%) and Maine Coons (37%) were over-represented. The most common presenting clinical signs were otorrhoea, ear scratching and head shaking. Video-otoscopic examination confirmed a polypous mass in the ear canal in all patients. All 62 cats underwent TALA, with a mean surgical time of 33 mins for experienced surgeons (n = 4) and 48 mins (n = 12) for less experienced surgeons. The recurrence rate of polyp regrowth for experienced surgeons was 14.3% vs 35% for the less experienced surgeons. Postoperative complications included Horner's syndrome (11.5%) and facial nerve paralysis (3%). Otitis interna was not observed. Conclusions and relevance A lateral approach to the ear canal in combination with deep TA of an aural inflammatory polyp is an effective first-line technique that results in a low recurrence and complication rate.
Graham, Matthew R.; Wood, Dustin A.; Henault, Jonathan A.; Valois, Zachary J.; Cushing, Paula E.
Recent syntheses of phylogeographical data from terrestrial animals in the Mojave and Sonoran deserts have revealed a complex history of geologic and climatic vicariance events. We studied the phylogeography of Smeringurus vachoni to see how vicariance events may have impacted a large, endemic rock scorpion. Additionally, we used the phylogeographical data to examine the validity of two subspecies of S. vachoni that were described using unconventional morphological characters. Phylogenetic, network and SAMOVA analyses indicate that S. vachoni consists of 11 clades mostly endemic to isolated desert mountain ranges. Molecular clock estimates suggest that clades diversified between the Miocene and early Pleistocene. Species distribution models predict a contraction of suitable habitat during the last glacial maximum. Landscape interpolations and Migrate-n analyses highlight areas of gene flow across the Colorado River. Smeringurus vachoni does not comprise two subspecies. Instead, the species represents at least 11 mitochondrial clades that probably diversified by vicariance associated with Pleistocene climate changes and formation of ancient lakes along the Colorado River corridor. Gene flow appears to have occurred from west to east across the Colorado River during periodic river avulsions.
Najefi, Ali; Jeyaseelan, Lucksmana; Patel, Anand; Kapoor, Akhil; Auplish, Sunil
Introduction: Simultaneous contraction of the extensor carpi radialis longus (ECRL) with forced hyperflexion of the wrist can result in avulsion of the tendon and its bony attachment at its insertion at the dorsum of the base of the second metacarpal. This is a rare and often unreported fracture pattern. Case Presentation: We present a 31- year- old male who sustained a hyperflexion injury. He was managed surgically and had good post-operative outcomes. A literature search revealed 16 papers covering 18 cases of similar injuries. 12 were initially managed surgically and 6 were managed conservatively. Conclusions: Of the open reductions and internal fixations, 11 (92%) were successful and patients made a full recovery. Conservative management was unsuccessful in 4 cases; one patient required surgery for metacarpal boss, one patient had retraction of the tendon at one week follow up and another had weak flexion of the wrist. We recommend open reduction and internal fixation for these injuries. It may allow a faster recovery and therefore allow an earlier return to work and activity. PMID:27148501
Athanasopoulos, Panagiotis G.; Hadjittofi, Christopher; Dharmapala, Arinda Dinesh; Orti-Rodriguez, Rafael Jose; Ferro, Alessandra; Nasralla, David; Konstantinidou, Sofia K.; Malagó, Massimo
Abstract Donor organ shortage continues to limit the availability of liver transplantation, a successful and established therapy of end-stage liver diseases. Strategies to mitigate graft shortage include the utilization of marginal livers and recently ex-situ normothermic machine perfusion devices. A 59-year-old woman with cirrhosis due to primary sclerosing cholangitis was offered an ex-situ machine perfused graft with unnoticed severe injury of the suprahepatic vasculature due to road traffic accident. Following a complex avulsion, repair and reconstruction of all donor hepatic veins as well as the suprahepatic inferior vena cava, the patient underwent a face-to-face piggy-back orthotopic liver transplantation and was discharged on the 11th postoperative day after an uncomplicated recovery. This report illustrates the operative technique to utilize an otherwise unusable organ, in the current environment of donor shortage and declining graft quality. Normothermic machine perfusion can definitely play a role in increasing the graft pool, without compromising the quality of livers who had vascular or other damage before being ex-situ perfused. Furthermore, it emphasizes the importance of promptly and thoroughly communicating organ injuries, as well as considering all reconstructive options within the level of expertise at the recipient center. PMID:27082550
Ahangari, Zohreh; Alborzi, Samiye; Yadegari, Zahra; Dehghani, Fatemeh; Ahangari, Leila; Naseri, Mandana
Objective: Both the length of extra-alveolar time and type of storage media are significant factors that can affect the long-term prognosis of replanted teeth. This study aims to compare propolis 50%, propolis 10%, Hank’s balanced salt solution (HBSS), milk and egg white on periodontal ligament (PDL) cell survival for different time points. Materials and Methods: : In this in vitro experimental study, we divided 60 extracted teeth without any periodontal diseases into five experimental and two control groups that consisted each experimental group with 10 and each control group with 5 teeth. The storage times were one and three hours for each media. The controls corresponded to 0-minute (positive) and 12-hour (negative) dry time. Rinsing in the experimental media, the teeth were treated with dispase and collagenase for one hour. Cell viability was determined by using trypan blue exclusion. Statistical analysis of the data was accomplished by using two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) complemented by the Tukey’s HSD post-hoc. Results: Within one hour, there was no significant difference between the two propolis groups, however these two groups had significantly more viable PDL cells compared to the other experimental media (p<0.05). The results of the three-hour group showed that propolis 10% was significantly better than egg white, whereas both propolis 10% and 50% were significantly better than milk (p<0.05). Conclusion: Based on PDL cell viability, propolis could be recommended as a suitable biological storage media for avulsed teeth. PMID:24027666
Pan, Feng; Wei, Hai-feng; Chen, Liang; Gu, Yu-dong
Clinically, contralateral C7 transfer is used for nerve reconstruction in brachial plexus injuries. Postoperatively, synchronous motions at the donor limb are noteworthy. This study studied if different recipient nerves influenced transhemispheric functional reorganization of motor cortex after this procedure. 90 young rats with total root avulsion of the brachial plexus were divided into groups 1-3 of contralateral C7 transfer to anterior division of the upper trunk, to both the musculocutaneous and median nerves, and to the median nerve, respectively. After reinnervation of target muscles, number of sites for forelimb representations in bilateral motor cortices was determined by intracortical microstimulation at 1.5, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months postoperatively. At nine months, transhemispheric reorganization of nerves neurotized by contralateral C7 was fulfilled in four of six rats in group 1, one of six in group 2 and none in group 3, respectively; at 12 months, that was fulfilled in five of six in group 1, four of six in groups 2 and 3, respectively. Logistic regression analysis showed that rate of fulfilled transhemispheric reorganization in group 1 was 12.19 times that in group 3 (95% CI 0.006-0.651, p=0.032). At 12 months, number of sites for hindlimb representations which had encroached upon original forelimb representations on the uninjured side was statistically more in group 3 than in group 2 (t=9.5, p<0.0001). It is concluded that contralateral C7 transfer to upper trunk or to both the musculocutaneous and median nerves induces faster transhemispheric functional reorganization of motor cortex than that to median nerve alone in rats.
Haus, Brian M; Arora, Danny; Upton, Joseph; Micheli, Lyle J
Patients with chronic injuries of the proximal hamstring can develop significant impairment because of weakness of the hamstring muscles, sciatic nerve compression from scar formation, or myositis ossificans. To describe the surgical outcomes of patients with chronic injury of the proximal hamstrings who were treated with hamstring repair and sciatic neurolysis supplemented with nerve wrapping with acellular dermal matrix. Retrospective case series; Level of evidence, 4. Fifteen consecutive patients with a diagnosis of chronic complete proximal hamstring rupture or chronic ischial tuberosity apophyseal avulsion fracture (mean age, 39.67 years; range, 14-69 years) were treated with proximal hamstring repair and sciatic neurolysis supplemented with nerve wrapping with acellular dermal matrix. Nine patients had preoperative sciatica, and 6 did not. Retrospective chart review recorded clinical outcomes measured by the degree of pain relief, the rate of return to activities, and associated postoperative complications. All 15 patients were followed in the postoperative period for an average of 16.6 months. Postoperatively, there were 4 cases of transient sciatic nerve neurapraxia. Four patients (26%) required postoperative betamethasone sodium phosphate (Celestone Soluspan) injectable suspension USP 6 mg/mL. Among the 9 patients with preoperative sciatica, 6 (66%) had a good or excellent outcome and were able to return to their respective activities/sports; 3 (33%) had persistent chronic pain. One of these had persistent sciatic neuropathy that required 2 surgical reexplorations and scar excision after development of recurrent extraneural scar formation. Among the 6 without preoperative sciatica, 100% had a good or excellent outcomes and 83% returned to their respective activities/sports. Better outcomes were observed in younger patients, as the 3 cases of persistent chronic sciatic pain were in patients older than 45 years. This study suggests that when used as an
Haus, Brian M.; Arora, Danny; Upton, Joseph; Micheli, Lyle J.
Background: Patients with chronic injuries of the proximal hamstring can develop significant impairment because of weakness of the hamstring muscles, sciatic nerve compression from scar formation, or myositis ossificans. Purpose: To describe the surgical outcomes of patients with chronic injury of the proximal hamstrings who were treated with hamstring repair and sciatic neurolysis supplemented with nerve wrapping with acellular dermal matrix. Study Design: Retrospective case series; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: Fifteen consecutive patients with a diagnosis of chronic complete proximal hamstring rupture or chronic ischial tuberosity apophyseal avulsion fracture (mean age, 39.67 years; range, 14-69 years) were treated with proximal hamstring repair and sciatic neurolysis supplemented with nerve wrapping with acellular dermal matrix. Nine patients had preoperative sciatica, and 6 did not. Retrospective chart review recorded clinical outcomes measured by the degree of pain relief, the rate of return to activities, and associated postoperative complications. Results: All 15 patients were followed in the postoperative period for an average of 16.6 months. Postoperatively, there were 4 cases of transient sciatic nerve neurapraxia. Four patients (26%) required postoperative betamethasone sodium phosphate (Celestone Soluspan) injectable suspension USP 6 mg/mL. Among the 9 patients with preoperative sciatica, 6 (66%) had a good or excellent outcome and were able to return to their respective activities/sports; 3 (33%) had persistent chronic pain. One of these had persistent sciatic neuropathy that required 2 surgical reexplorations and scar excision after development of recurrent extraneural scar formation. Among the 6 without preoperative sciatica, 100% had a good or excellent outcomes and 83% returned to their respective activities/sports. Better outcomes were observed in younger patients, as the 3 cases of persistent chronic sciatic pain were in patients older than 45
Erosion and deposition by supercritical density flows during channel avulsion and backfilling: Field examples from coarse-grained deepwater channel-levée complexes (Sandino Forearc Basin, southern Central America)
Lang, Jörg; Brandes, Christian; Winsemann, Jutta
Erosion and deposition by supercritical density flows can strongly impact the facies distribution and architecture of submarine fans. Field examples from coarse-grained channel-levée complexes from the Sandino Forearc Basin (southern Central America) show that cyclic-step and antidune deposits represent common sedimentary facies of these depositional systems and relate to the different stages of avulsion, bypass, levée construction and channel backfilling. During channel avulsion, large-scale scour-fill complexes (18 to 29 m deep, 18 to 25 m wide, 60 to > 120 m long) were incised by supercritical density flows. The multi-storey infill of the large-scale scour-fill complexes comprises amalgamated massive, normally coarse-tail graded or widely spaced subhorizontally stratified conglomerates and pebbly sandstones, interpreted as deposits of the hydraulic-jump zone of cyclic steps. The large-scale scour-fill complexes can be distinguished from small-scale channel fills based on the preservation of a steep upper margin and a coarse-grained infill comprising mainly amalgamated hydraulic-jump zone deposits. Channel fills include repeated successions deposited by cyclic steps with superimposed antidunes. The deposits of the hydraulic-jump zone of cyclic steps comprise regularly spaced scours (0.2 to 2.6 m deep, 0.8 to 23 m long) infilled by intraclast-rich conglomerates or pebbly sandstones, displaying normal coarse-tail grading or backsets. These deposits are laterally and vertically associated with subhorizontally stratified, low-angle cross-stratified or sinusoidally stratified sandstones and pebbly sandstones, which were deposited by antidunes on the stoss side of the cyclic steps during flow re-acceleration. The field examples indicate that so-called spaced stratified deposits may commonly represent antidune deposits with varying stratification styles controlled by the aggradation rate, grain-size distribution and amalgamation. The deposits of small-scale cyclic
Dynamic alterations of the levels of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, and interleukin-1β in rat primary motor cortex during transhemispheric functional reorganization after contralateral seventh cervical spinal nerve root transfer following brachial plexus avulsion injuries.
Yang, Ming-Jie; Li, Shuang; Yang, Chen-Song; Wang, Xu-Jia; Chang, Shi-Min; Sun, Gui-Xin
The transfer of a contralateral healthy seventh cervical spinal nerve root (cC7) to the recipient nerve in the injured side is considered a reliable and effective procedure for restoration of the physiological functions of an injured hand after brachial plexus root avulsion injury (BPAI). Growing evidence shows that the transhemispheric cortical reorganization is induced after cC7 nerve transfer surgery. However, little is known about the underlying molecular mechanism. Proinflammatory cytokines reportedly play an important role in the neural plasticity. We hypothesize that proinflammatory cytokines are involved in the transhemispheric functional reorganization after cC7 transfer. In the present study, we investigated the level of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) in the rat primary motor cortex after cC7 transfer following BPAI by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The results showed that, in the sham group, no statistical significance was observed between the level of TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β at each time point after the operation compared with that at day 0, respectively. However, in the unrepaired and repaired groups, the level of TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β changed dynamically. The study is the first to provide evidence for the involvement of proinflammatory cytokines in transhemispheric functional reorganization after cC7 transfer following BPAI, which are useful for understanding the underlying mechanism.
Comparative evaluation of maintenance of cell viability of an experimental transport media “coconut water” with Hank's balanced salt solution and milk, for transportation of an avulsed tooth: An in vitro cell culture study
Thomas, Toby; Gopikrishna, Velayutham; Kandaswamy, Deivanayagam
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of a new storage medium, coconut water, in comparison with other traditional storage media like Hank's balanced salt solution (HBBS) and milk, in maintaining the viability of an established cell line BHK-21/C13 (baby hamster kidney fibroblasts) using the direct suspension cell culture technique. The storage media tested in the study were divided into three major groups and two control groups - Group A: HBBS, Group B: milk, and Group C: coconut water. The positive and negative controls corresponded to 0-minute and 24-hour dry times respectively. The three groups were then divided into five subgroups, each denoting the storage time periods 15 min, 30 min, 45 min, 60 min and 120 min respectively. The cell line BHK-21/C13 was subcultured and the number of cells was standardized by making a cell suspension using Minimal Essential Medium in five culture plates. One ml of each experimental group (HBBS, milk and coconut water) was added to eight wells of each culture plate. The culture plates containing the cells and the experimental groups were incubated for the respective time periods. The cells were then counted with a Neubauer counting chamber, under light microscope. The results were statistically analyzed using One-way ANOVA and Multiple Range Test using the Tukey-HSD procedure to identify the significant groups at p ≤ 0.05. Within the parameters of this study, it appears that coconut water may be a better alternative to HBSS or milk, in terms of maintaining cell viability. Coconut water can be used as a superior transport medium for avulsed teeth. PMID:20142880
Doshi, Piyush Bhupendra; Bhatt, Yogesh Chimanbhai
Context: In surgical management of global brachial plexus injuries, direct repair of contralateral C7 (cC7) to the anterior division of the lower trunk, can produce good extrinsic finger flexion. The pitfalls associated with the pre-spinal passage have, perhaps, proved to be a deterrent for using this technique routinely. Aims: The aim of this study is to demonstrate an alternative to pre-spinal route for cC7 transfer in brachial plexus avulsion injuries. Methods: We noted that the mobilised lower trunk, which reaches the level of the scalenus anterior by passage deep to the clavicle, can be brought to the suprasternal notch when brought out from below the clavicle. This area was dissected in two cadavres, and safe passage was found through the carotid sheath with the common carotid artery medially and the internal jugular vein with the vagus nerve laterally. The cC7 root dissected medial to the scalenus anterior muscle can be directly transferred along this path to the subcutaneous plane at the suprasternal notch. This study allowed us to execute a direct repair in ten clinical cases of global brachial plexus injuries. In each case, the passage was prepared rapidly and uneventfully. The repair was technically simple and could be performed comfortably using suitable fine suture materials. In none of these cases, did we need to shorten the humerus. Results: The clinical outcome of this technique is awaited. Conclusions: We advocate carotid sheath route to approximate the cC7 to the injured lower trunk in global palsies, as the risks associated with the pre-spinal route can be readily avoided. PMID:27833275
Dorsal root entry zone lesioning for pain after brachial plexus avulsion: results with special emphasis on differential effects on the paroxysmal versus the continuous components. A prospective study in a 29-patient consecutive series.
Aichaoui, Faycal; Mertens, Patrick; Sindou, Marc
Pain after brachial plexus avulsion (BPA) is generally characterized by 2 main different components: paroxysmal (electrical shooting-like) pain, and continuous (burning) pain. Dorsal root entry zone (DREZ) lesioning, namely, the microsurgical DREZotomy (MDT) used in our practice, has proved to be a worthwhile neurosurgical treatment for this indication. However, according to previous studies, the method does not seem to demonstrate as good effectiveness in patients in whom the continuous background of pain was predominant as in patients with the paroxysmal component predominating. To obtain more insight into this problem, a prospective study on an eventual differential effect of the MDT procedure on the 2 components was undertaken. The presented series included 29 consecutive patients affected with pain after BPA who underwent an operation over the 10 last years. Pain intensity was evaluated using a visual analogue scale (VAS). At last evaluation of the 26 patients followed for 12 to 122 months (60 months on average) after MDT, 76.9% had a good or excellent global pain relief after surgery, ie, pain control with or without additional nonopioid medications, respectively. According to the component types of pain, 84.6% of patients had good or excellent control of the paroxysmal pain, and 73.1% of the continuous pain. Kaplan-Meier prediction of lasting global pain control at 120 months of follow-up was calculated at 41.1%. Comparison of the 2 corresponding Kaplan-Meier curves at long term, namely, pain control in 76.2% for the paroxysmal component and in 43.1% for the continuous component, showed a statistically significant difference (P=.038). Hypotheses for this relative differential effect are discussed.
Comparative evaluation of maintenance of cell viability of an experimental transport media "coconut water" with Hank's balanced salt solution and milk, for transportation of an avulsed tooth: An in vitro cell culture study.
Thomas, Toby; Gopikrishna, Velayutham; Kandaswamy, Deivanayagam
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of a new storage medium, coconut water, in comparison with other traditional storage media like Hank's balanced salt solution (HBBS) and milk, in maintaining the viability of an established cell line BHK-21/C13 (baby hamster kidney fibroblasts) using the direct suspension cell culture technique.The storage media tested in the study were divided into three major groups and two control groups - Group A: HBBS, Group B: milk, and Group C: coconut water. The positive and negative controls corresponded to 0-minute and 24-hour dry times respectively.The three groups were then divided into five subgroups, each denoting the storage time periods 15 min, 30 min, 45 min, 60 min and 120 min respectively. The cell line BHK-21/C13 was subcultured and the number of cells was standardized by making a cell suspension using Minimal Essential Medium in five culture plates.One ml of each experimental group (HBBS, milk and coconut water) was added to eight wells of each culture plate. The culture plates containing the cells and the experimental groups were incubated for the respective time periods. The cells were then counted with a Neubauer counting chamber, under light microscope. The results were statistically analyzed using One-way ANOVA and Multiple Range Test using the Tukey-HSD procedure to identify the significant groups at p = 0.05.Within the parameters of this study, it appears that coconut water may be a better alternative to HBSS or milk, in terms of maintaining cell viability. Coconut water can be used as a superior transport medium for avulsed teeth.
Efficacy, safety and tolerability of an optimized avulsion technique with onyster® (40% urea ointment with plastic dressing) ointment compared to bifonazole-urea ointment for removal of the clinically infected nail in toenail onychomycosis: a randomized evaluator-blinded controlled study.
Lahfa, M; Bulai-Livideanu, C; Baran, R; Ortonne, J P; Richert, B; Tosti, A; Piraccini, B M; Szepietowski, J C; Sibaud, V; Coubetergues, H; Voisard, J J; Paul, C
Toenail onychomycosis is highly prevalent, with 14-28% of people aged 60 or over suffering from the disease. Use of a topical antifungal alone in toenail onychomycosis is associated with low cure rates. This may be due to limited penetration of the topical antifungal through the diseased nail. The objective of the present study was to compare two treatment modalities to obtain diseased nail chemical avulsion in toenail onychomycosis. In this European, multicenter, randomized, parallel-group, open-label, active-controlled study, male or female adult patients with distal-lateral or lateral subungual dermatophyte onychomycosis on at least 12.5% of the great toenail were randomized either to a 40% urea ointment with plastic dressing group (n = 53) or to a bifonazole-urea ointment group (n = 52). The ointments were applied daily for a maximum of 3 weeks according to the summary of product characteristics. After assessment of infected nail debridement, topical antifungal treatment with bifonazole cream was applied daily in both groups for 8 weeks. 102 patients were evaluated, i.e. 51 in the 40% urea ointment with plastic dressing group and 51 in the bifonazole-urea group. The primary end point was complete removal of the nail plate at day 21 (D21). Secondary end points were: complete cure and mycological cure evaluated at D105. Ease of use and local tolerability were also assessed. Complete removal of the clinically infected target nail plate area, assessed by blinded evaluators, was significantly higher in the 40% urea ointment with plastic dressing group (61.2%) than in the control group (39.2%), showing the superiority of 40% urea ointment with plastic dressing (p = 0.028). The same results were observed in the per-protocol population (63.0 vs. 36.6%; p = 0.014). Complete removal of the infected area assessed by the investigator at D21 showed a significantly higher success rate in patients treated with 40% urea ointment with plastic dressing (86.3%) as compared to
Negulesco, J. A.; Clark, D. L.
Rhode Island red female chicks were subjected to complete closed fracture of the right radius at 2 weeks post-hatching. The animals were allowed to heal for 1 week at either earth-gravity or 2-G-hypergravity state with control and estrogen-injected groups. Intact and fractured radial length, weight, average epiphysial-diaphysial diameters, and length, width, and weight of healing fracture callus were measured. Daily 2000 IU estrogen administration for 7 d increased intact radial length. Estrogen augments the effects of the 2-G state by inhibiting growth and depleting the mass of both intact and fractured radii and by decreasing the average distal epiphysial diameter of fractured bones. Animals exposed to the hypergravity state without hormonal treatment showed decreased fractured radial length, weight, and smaller proximal epiphysial diameters. The measurable parameters of the fracture callus (width, length, and weight) were depressed by the hypergravity state regardless of whether the animal was untreated or supplemented with estrogen.
Andreasen, Jens Ove; Schwartz, Ole; Kofoed, Thomas; Daugaard-Jensen, Jette
Autotransplantation of premolars to the anterior region subsequent to tooth loss represent a unique treatment method that has a number of advantages in comparison with other tooth substitution methods. A tooth transplant has a bone inducing capacity implying that lost labial bone is regenerated. Secondly the tooth precipitates growth of the alveolar procces and allows treatment to be performed at an early age (10-12 years) where the trauma incidence is at its maximum. Finally transplanted teeth can be moved orthodontically. These characteristics make implant solutions appealing in a number of situations. The procedure consist in selecting a premolar in a optimal root development stage which is approximately three fourths root formation where optimal pulp and periodontal ligament healing can be achieved in more than 90 percent of the cases. The tooth is later after slight crown remodeling restored with composite or a porcelain laminate. Four recent long-term studies have shown survival rates between 90-98 percent and a single long term study (33 years) showed a survival rate of 90 percent, a survival rate not surpassed by any other type of tooth replacement (fixed or removable prostetics, implants). In conclusion premolar transplantation should be considered in cases of early loss of a permanent tooth.
Negulesco, J. A.; Clark, D. L.
Rhode Island red female chicks were subjected to complete closed fracture of the right radius at 2 weeks post-hatching. The animals were allowed to heal for 1 week at either earth-gravity or 2-G-hypergravity state with control and estrogen-injected groups. Intact and fractured radial length, weight, average epiphysial-diaphysial diameters, and length, width, and weight of healing fracture callus were measured. Daily 2000 IU estrogen administration for 7 d increased intact radial length. Estrogen augments the effects of the 2-G state by inhibiting growth and depleting the mass of both intact and fractured radii and by decreasing the average distal epiphysial diameter of fractured bones. Animals exposed to the hypergravity state without hormonal treatment showed decreased fractured radial length, weight, and smaller proximal epiphysial diameters. The measurable parameters of the fracture callus (width, length, and weight) were depressed by the hypergravity state regardless of whether the animal was untreated or supplemented with estrogen.
Galve, Jorge Pedro; Alvarado, Guillermo; Pérez Peña, José Vicente; Azañón, José Miguel; Mora, Mauricio; Booth-Rea, Guillermo
The Tortuguero area is a coastal plain that forms part of the North Limón sedimentary basin, the back-arc region of the Caribbean side of Costa Rica. This coastal plain is characterised by an abnormal drainage pattern with river captures, diversions and shifts in channel directions. We are analyzing this anomalous drainage network adopting a classical geomorphological approach combined with geomorphometric techniques. The SRTM DEM at 1 arc-second of resolution (~30 m) from NASA, topographic maps 1:50,000, satellital images and the digital cartography of the drainage network have been used for inventorying the channel pattern anomalies. River segments were categorized according to sinuosity, orientation, slope changes and incision using GIS tools. Initially, anomalies in the analyzed river courses suggested that buried thrust fronts could disrupt their natural pattern. However, we have not identified any evidence to link the activity of buried structures with the disruption of natural drainage. Blind thrusts detected through seismic subsurface exploration in the SE sector of the Tortuguero plain do not seem to produce changes in the sinuosity, orientation, slope and incision of rivers as those observed in the deeply studied tectonically active area of the Po Plain (Italy). The identified river pattern anomalies have been explained due to other alternative causes: (1) the migration of the mouths of Reventazón, Pacuare and Matina rivers is produced by sand sedimentation in the coast because of a successive ridge beach formation. This migration to the SE has the same direction than the main ocean currents those deposited the sand. (2) The anomalous course of Parismina river is most probably conditioned by the fracturation of the dissected volcanic apron of Turrialba volcano. (3) Channel migration and capture of Barbilla river by Matina river can be triggered by the tectonic tilting of the coastal plain towards the SE. The subsidence of the SE sector of the plain was documented before the Limón earthquake in 1991. (4) The Sucio, North Chirripó and Toro Amarillo rivers form a channel that takes an abnormal direction towards the NW instead of taking their natural direction towards the Caribbean Sea in the E. This anomalous behaviour is conditioned by the existence of a megafan recently recognized by using topographic data from the SRTM mission. The developed analysis is the first step towards improving the knowledge about the processes behind the observed anomalies. Current research is analyzing the role of active vulcanism and tectonics on Tortuguero rivers behaviour. This has implications on the consequences of torrent-related hazards (flash floods and lahars) that may divert river channels and change the landscape of the coastal plain in only one event.
Miller, Lisa M; Keirstead, Natalie D; Snyder, Patti S
Traumatic detachment of the mitral valve from the annulus fibrosis occurred in a dog following blunt chest trauma. Euthanasia was elected approximately 7 months posttrauma due to refractory, chronic left heart failure. This is the first reported case of traumatic mitral valve rupture in a dog.
Mommsen, Jens; Rodríguez-Fernández, Javier; Mateos-Micas, Mario; Vázquez-Bouso, Olga; Gumbao-Grau, Victor; Forteza-Gonzalez, Gabriel
Amputation of the auricle is a periodic occurrence leading to disfigurement if not treated properly. Venous stasis is a common complication in reattachments and requires decongestant and anticoagulant treatment. Today, leech therapy is the treatment of choice. Common problems are that it is not available everywhere and that it is usually contraindicated in anticoagulated patients. The peculiarities of leech therapy and the various aspects of surgical management are reviewed. A case of a partial amputation of the auricle in a patient under concomitant anticoagulation therapy with warfarin is presented. The amputated part was reattached in another hospital without microvascular anastomosis. The patient presented to our department with early signs of venous congestion. Leech therapy was started 35 hours after trauma, and the patient continued his anticoagulation therapy. With this treatment, 90% of the amputated part was rescued. The anticoagulation therapy of the patient may have played an important role in the first hours after reattachment, preventing capillary thrombosis and in consequence facilitating the minimal oxygenation necessary. The claim that anticoagulation therapy is a contraindication to leeching should be questioned in cases of reattachments in well-controllable locations without arterial anastomosis.
Subramaniam, Priya; Girija, Parvathy; Eswara, Uma; Girish Babu, Kadalagere Lakshmana
To evaluate the efficacy of oral rehydration salt-liquid as a suitable medium for maintaining the periodontal ligament cell viability over different time periods and to compare its efficacy with that of two other storage media, Hanks' balanced salt solu1tion and milk. A total of 130 sound- and caries-free premolars extracted atraumatically for orthodontic reasons were selected. Of these teeth, 120 premolars were randomly divided into three experimental groups comprising 40 teeth each, for immersion in three different experimental storage media. Each tooth was subjected to 30 or 60 min of extra oral dry time. Each experimental group was further subdivided into two groups comprising 10 teeth each, based on the immersion time of 45 and 90 min, respectively. Of the remaining 10 premolars, five teeth each formed positive and negative controls. All teeth were subjected to collagenase II and dispase assay. Trypan blue dye exclusion test was used to determine the viability of the periodontal ligament cells. The number of viable cells was counted using Neubauer's chamber. Data obtained were subjected to statistical analysis using one-way anova and post hoc Tukey's tests. There was no statistically significant difference between Hanks' balanced salt solution and Oral Rehydration Solution-Liquid. Oral Rehydration Solution-Liquid as a storage medium was found to be as efficient as Hanks balanced salt solution to maintain the viability of periodontal ligament cells, and it was found to be better than milk. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Mommsen, Jens; Rodríguez-Fernández, Javier; Mateos-Micas, Mario; Vázquez-Bouso, Olga; Gumbao-Grau, Victor; Forteza-Gonzalez, Gabriel
Amputation of the auricle is a periodic occurrence leading to disfigurement if not treated properly. Venous stasis is a common complication in reattachments and requires decongestant and anticoagulant treatment. Today, leech therapy is the treatment of choice. Common problems are that it is not available everywhere and that it is usually contraindicated in anticoagulated patients. The peculiarities of leech therapy and the various aspects of surgical management are reviewed. A case of a partial amputation of the auricle in a patient under concomitant anticoagulation therapy with warfarin is presented. The amputated part was reattached in another hospital without microvascular anastomosis. The patient presented to our department with early signs of venous congestion. Leech therapy was started 35 hours after trauma, and the patient continued his anticoagulation therapy. With this treatment, 90% of the amputated part was rescued. The anticoagulation therapy of the patient may have played an important role in the first hours after reattachment, preventing capillary thrombosis and in consequence facilitating the minimal oxygenation necessary. The claim that anticoagulation therapy is a contraindication to leeching should be questioned in cases of reattachments in well-controllable locations without arterial anastomosis. PMID:22655116
Patel, Brijesh B; Andrade, Christian; Doraiswamy, Vignesh; Amodeo, Donald
Placement of a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) tube is a common procedure to allow for enteral nutrition in patients with multiple indications. PEG tube placement is a safe procedure with minor complications such as site infection and irritation. One of the more severe complications is splenic laceration, which may result in intra-peritoneal bleeding and manifest as an acute abdomen. We present a rare case of intra-abdominal bleeding secondary to catastrophic splenic injury 12 hours after PEG tube placement resulting in hemodynamic compromise. The patient underwent splenectomy and had an uneventful recovery.
Lee, Wxp; Kyaw, M O
The optimal treatment for thoracolumbar fractures (TLF) without neurological deficit remains controversial. Majority of the systematic reviews and meta-analyses have evaluated open operative approaches but have yet to compare the outcomes of minimally invasive percutaneous pedicle fixation (MIPPF) versus non-operative treatment. A retrospective cohort study was performed to compare clinical and radiological outcomes between MIPPF and conservative groups for TLF AO Type A1 to Type B2 during a 2-year follow-up period. Pre-operative plain and CT films were evaluated and decision made for short segment (non-fusion) MIPPF. Patients who refused operation were treated conservatively with three months of body cast, brace, or corset. MIPPF group showed earlier Visual Analog Score(VAS) improvement at six months post-injury (0 vs 6.0- p<0.001), as well as better functional and radiological outcomes (p<0.050) at final follow-up. Progressions of regional kyphosis (RK) were noted in both groups but there was no significant difference within and between them(p>0.050). MIPPF as a method of internal bracing can be pursued in the treatment of TLF, with larger future cohorts and RCTs being called for to support and explore new findings.
submitted for verification analysis. Materials were then fired and analyzed by X-ray defraction to determine the crystalline phases that might be... defraction to determine the crystalline phases that might be present in the finished implants. The results of the study indicated that preparation of a
and analyzed by X-ray defraction to deter mne the crystalline phases that might be present in the finished implants.rvhe results of the study indicated...were made at Battelle, the powders were mill-blended and submitted for verification analysis. Materials were then fired and analyzed by X-ray defraction
as Tenox ( TBHQ ). The results obtained with this composition to date suggest that this material is ready for in vivo evaluation in a suitable animal...life is a food grade anti- oxidant such as Tenox ( TBHQ ). The results obtained with this composition to date suggest that this material is ready for in...tion. Tertiary butyl hydroquinone (Tenox TBHQ ) used as -an antioxidant was obtained from Eastman Chemicals. 3.2 Methods Low molecular weight poly
Casaroto, Ana Regina; Hidalgo, Mirian Marubayashi; Sell, Ana Maria; Franco, Selma Lucy; Cuman, Roberto Kenji Nakamura; Moreschi, Eduardo; Victorino, Fausto Rodrigo; Steffens, Vânia Antunes; Bersani-Amado, Ciomar Aparecida
The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of propolis extract in maintaining the viability of human periodontal ligament (PDL) cells, and to radiographically analyze tooth replantation and the adjacent periodontium in dogs after storage in this extract. Human PDL cells were incubated with the experimental media propolis, milk, saliva, Hank's balanced salt solution (HBSS), and Dulbecco's modified Eagles medium (DMEM, positive controls), and distilled water (negative control). Cell viability was determined 0, 1, 3, 6, 12, and 24 h later by colorimetric MTT assay. Thirty incisors from dogs were divided into two storage time blocks (1 and 3 h) and were maintained in the experimental media. HBSS served as a positive control, and dry teeth (on gauze) as a negative control. The replanted teeth were radiographed once per month for 6 months. The radiographic images were standardized by the shortening/lengthening factor, and were both qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed. The in vitro results showed that the efficacy of propolis in maintaining functional viability of PDL cells was similar to that of milk. Propolis and milk were significantly better than controls from the 6-h time period. The in vivo results showed that teeth maintained in propolis medium exhibited replacement resorption with significant reduction in tooth length, similar to teeth maintained in saliva and dried teeth. This resorption was less intense with the 3-h storage time than the 1-h storage time. Conditions close to normal were found in teeth maintained in milk, similar to the HBSS control. Therefore, although propolis was effective in maintaining the viability of human PDL cells, resorption of the tooth replantation in dogs occurred under these experimental conditions.
autogenous bone, freeze-dried bone, autogenous bone in a vitallium tray, and composite bone (freeze-dried allogeneic bone with autogenous hematopoetic marrow...inpregnated). All materials healed as bone grafts in the dog mandible. Composite bone and autogenous bone placed in a vitallium tray healed more
Godino, M; Vides, M; Guerado, E
Traumatic dislocation of the posterior tibial tendon (PTT) has a very low prevalence. It presents with pain and recurrent snapping on the posterior side of the medial malleolus after an ankle sprain while practicing sports. The diagnosis is based on clinical examination, supported by imaging techniques. The treatment must be always surgical. A 28 year old man sprained ankle his ankle while jogging. He was treated in an emergency department with an elastic bandage. Once he recovered, he went back to running, noticing a projection with ankle pain. In the physical examination the PTT was reproduced with inversion maneuvers and forced dorsiflexion. Ultrasound and MRI were performed on the ankle. The patient was operated on, leaving a stable ankle with no projection. Three months later he had no pain and restarted his physical activities. Surgical treatment of PTT dislocation by re-anchoring the flexor retinacula provides an excellent functional outcome. Copyright © 2014 SECOT. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Carr, James B; John, Quincy E; Rajadhyaksha, Evan; Carson, Eric W; Turney, Kelly L
A 19-year-old female collegiate rower presented with a new, painful mass along her right anterolateral chest wall after competition. The patient was diagnosed with a rupture of the serratus anterior muscle from its costal attachments, as confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging. The patient fully recovered after a period of rest followed by a graduated 2-month physical therapy regimen consisting of stretching and scapulothoracic and core strengthening. A traumatic rupture of the serratus anterior muscle should be suspected in athletes who present with a painful chest wall mass after exertion of large forces through the scapulothoracic region. Athletes can return to play after nonoperative management.
Kusnezov, Nicholas; Rensing, Nicholas
Fracture of the calcaneal tuberosity with a concomitant Achilles tendon rupture presents a difficult challenge for the treating surgeon. The ultimate goal of treatment is to restore function of both the gastrocnemius-soleus complex and the Achilles tendon. This particular subset of fractures occurs often in diabetics and elderly patients with osteoporosis making fixation of the displaced fragment rather complex. If the Achilles tendon disruption is only discovered later once the fracture is healed, subsequent management is difficult with surgical treatment being more morbid. While this is a rare injury, the consequences of a missed chronic Achilles tendon disruption are severe with significant dysfunction. It is therefore important to have a high index of suspicion for concomitant injury and to be prepared for dual fixation. We present a novel hybrid surgical fixation technique, which may be used in this instance. PMID:28357147
Jeong, Yeon Jin; Park, Seong Hyuk; Lee, Jun Yong
Abstract Rationale: Slowly progressive hand ischemia is mostly associated with medical illness such as vasculitis, and in patients with smoking history, Buerger disease is often considered first. However, despite the very low incidence of vascular anatomical anomalies, they can lead to hand ischemia. And if there is no consideration for them, proper treatment cannot be selected. Patient concerns: A 42-year-old male smoker presented with a slowly progressing 5th fingertip necrosis following blunt trauma. Diagnoses: Angiography revealed congenital hypoplasia of ulnar artery, and excluded Buerger disease or hypothenar hammer syndrome. Interventions and outcomes: We reconstructed the necrotic fingertip using a 2nd toe pulp free flap to reflect the patient's need. Lessons: In this case report, the authors emphasize that the possibility of anatomical anomaly should be considered as a cause of the ischemia. Vascular imaging should be undertaken to investigate the cause of ischemia of the hand. PMID:28383404
Pure ligamentous flexion-distraction injuries of the lumbar spine are relatively rare and even less commonly associated with neurologic compromise. They are largely related to the use of lap belt restrains during motor vehicle accidents. We report a 19-year-old female backseat passenger wearing a lap belt who was involved in a head-on collision. On admission she was paraplegic, with a T12 sensory level and no motor and sensory function of S4-S5 (American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) A). Plain X-ray and computerized axial tomography (CAT) spine showed a flexion-distraction injury at the L3-L4 level. During surgery in the interspinous space a conus medullaris was identified, which was completely severed from the spinal cord. The patient underwent a fusion procedure and made a good recovery. Twelve months after surgery she was able to walk with a knee-ankle-foot orthosis, she has no motor function below knees, no sensation below L2, and no voluntary bladder control. Although described type of injury is very rare, one should always have in mind devastating consequences of inadequate or improperly worn seatbelts.
Rogér, James M; Abayon, Maricelle; Elad, Sharon; Kolokythas, Antonia
Electronic cigarettes (E-cigarettes), or personal vaporizers, were introduced in 2003 and have been available in the United States since 2007. In addition to the health and safety concerns of the aerosol delivery of nicotine through E-cigarettes, during the past 8 years, reports of explosions and fires caused by the E-cigarette devices have led the US Fire Administration to evaluate the safety of these devices. These explosions have been observed frequently enough that the US Department of Transportation has recently banned E-cigarette devices in checked baggage aboard airplanes. This report contributes to existing knowledge about the hazards related to E-cigarettes by describing oral hard and soft tissue injuries from an E-cigarette explosion.
Chiapasco, M; Crescentini, M; Romanoni, G
Lower third molars show the highest incidence of impaction and have been held responsible for pathologies such as pericoronitis, periodontitis, second molars tooth-crown resorption, pain, cysts or odontogenic tumors, primary or secondary crowding of the dentition. Early removal of these teeth to prevent the overmentioned problems is widely acknowledged, as many studies demonstrated a direct correlation between age and incidence of complications. These studies mostly refer to adult patients, while studies about germectomies are few. Because recent contributions showed that the risk of development of these pathologies in presence of impacted third molars is quite low while a certain morbidity associated to this procedure may be expected, a very careful risk to benefit ratio must be considered. The purpose of this study was therefore to compare the incidence of complications and side effects in three age groups, in order to obtain some informations about the choice of the best moment for operation. The patients, 462 females and 406 males, were divided, according to age, in the following three groups: group A included patients from 9 to 16 years; group B included patients from 17 to 24 years; group C included patients over 24 years. All patients were treated under local anesthesia; surgical procedure and instruments were standardized. In group A, formed by 500 germectomies, the incidence of complications was 2.6% (10 instances of secondary infections, 2 instances of trismus, 1 instance of excessive postoperative bleeding). Group B included 570 procedures and the incidence of complications was 2.8% (3 instances of alveolar osteitis, 7 instances of secondary infections, 2 instances of excessive postoperative bleeding, 2 instances od second molar lesions, 1 instance of inferior alveolar nerve paresthesia, 1 instance of trismus). Group C included 430 procedures and the incidence of complications was 7.4% (2 instances of second molar lesions, 9 instances of alveolar osteitis, 8 instances of secondary infections, 4 instances of excessive postoperative bleeding, 6 instances of inferior alveolar nerve paresthesia, 3 instances of trismus). All complications were transient; in one instance only of mandibular nerve paresthesia in group C symptoms were still present 25 months after the operation. This study has shown no significant differences between group A and B, while complications significantly increase in group C. Recent researches have shown that: a) there is a low risk of development of pathologies correlated to third molar impaction; b) nowadays there are not valid criteria to evaluate the future eruption of the impacted tooth; c) a direct correlation between third molar impaction and anterior dental crowding hasn't been demonstrated yet; d) morbidity of the procedure is relevant. Therefore germectomy should be performed: a) if morphostructural alterations or ectopic impactions are present; b) in case eruption is not allowed for dysplastic alterations of the germs or pathological processes of the mandible; c) to gain space in the posterior segments of the lower jaw when distalization of first and second molars is necessary; d) in case of excessive anterior-posterior mandibular growth.
phase tricalcium phosphate will be the predominant phase in all materials, secondary phases of monetite or hydroxyapatite were always found depending...in all materials, secondary phases of monetite or hydroxyapatite were always found depending upon what border of the compositional range the compound...selected because they contain two of the essential elements of the natural bone mineral phase, calcium hydroxyapatite . In vivo studies were conducted
Sommerfeldt, Dirk W
Minimally invasive reduction and internal fixation of anterior tibial spine and anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) without harming knee joint cartilage and physis of the proximal tibia. Anterior tibial spine fractures type II-IV according to Meyers/McKeever. ACL tears. Fractures of the tibial plateau. Fractures involving the growth plate (Aitken I-III). 1. Diagnostic arthroscopy and drainage of the knee joint. Search for additional injuries (menisci, knee joint cartilage, collateral ligaments, posterior cruciate ligament). 2. Arthroscopy-assisted reduction of anterior tibial spine fragment. 3. Epiphyseal internal fixation with Kirschner wires or cannulated screws according to fragment size. Full weight bearing as tolerated after wound healing (day 7 after surgery) in 20 degrees of knee flexion (orthesis or ankle-sparing cast tutor). X-rays postoperatively and after 3 and 6 weeks. Passive and active physiotherapy (extension and flexion without weight bearing) 3-4 weeks postoperatively according to patient's age, weight and compliance. Weight bearing in knee flexion (stairs) 6-8 weeks postoperatively. 19 patients were treated from 2001 to 2005 at an age of 7-14 years. All patients achieved free range of motion without pain or growth disturbances. Three patients developed slight joint laxity (anterior drawer test) which did not affect mobility, sports performance, joint surface or menisci on clinical evaluations conducted at least 1 year postoperatively. One patient had bony healing of the tibial spine in slight dislocation without impingement or decrease of range of motion within the knee joint.
SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES I9. KEY WORDS (Continue on reverse side it necessary mnd Identify by block numb .,) Bioceramics Maxillofacial Tricalcium Phosphate...orange 90 mg/kg. The other half of the above-mentioned sample was left unstained and sectioned for ultraviolet bone growth analysis utilizing these...34zero time". The left implant is clearly visible, but unfortunately the right implant is not clear. At 12 months (Figure 6), there is a definite decrease
Van Slyke, Aaron C; Jansen, Leigh A; Hynes, Sally; Hicks, Jane; Bristol, Sean; Carr, Nicholas
In cases of median nerve injury alongside an unsalvageable ulnar nerve, a vascularized ulnar nerve graft to reconstruct the median nerve is a viable option. While restoration of median nerve sensation is consistently reported, recovery of significant motor function is less frequently observed. The authors report a case involving a previously healthy man who sustained upper arm segmental median and ulnar nerve injuries and, after failure of sural nerve grafts, was treated with a pedicled vascularized ulnar nerve graft to restore median nerve function. Long-term follow-up showed near full fist, with 12 kg of grip strength, key pinch with 1.5 kg of strength and protective sensation in the median nerve distribution. The present case demonstrates that pedicled ulnar vascularized nerve grafts can provide significant improvements to median nerve sensory and motor function in a heavily scarred environment. PMID:26665144
Itadera, Eichi; Muramatsu, Yuta; Shibayama, Masataka; Oikawa, Yasuhiro; Moriya, Hideshige
Although displaced fractures of the lateral aspect of the base of the proximal phalanx can be treated surgically, previously described approaches to the fracture are not necessarily easily performed. We describe a trans-web approach to the metacarpophalangeal joint and report 2 clinical cases. This technique allows the fracture fragments to be reduced and fixed with minimal risk of damage to the adjacent structures. Copyright 2010 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The detachment of subclavian artery from brachiocephalic trunk and subclavian vein from right brachiocephalic vein with brachial plexus injury. Traumas of large vessels of mediastinal and shoulder girdle cause significant life risk and constitute serious diagnostic and therapeutic problems because of lack of time for accurate treatment planning. Particularly difficult to treat are blunt trauma of large arteries in patients under the influence of drugs or with a progressive hypovolemic shock. The aim of this dissertation is presenting my own experience in treating a seventeen-year-old motorcyclist who was under the influence of alcohol suffered a detachment of subclavian artery and subclavian vein from mediastinal large vessels following a traffic accident. Seventeen-year-old motorcyclist who was under the influence of alcohol alcohol hit a concrete pole at a speed of 130 km/h. The patient was brought to the hospital in a state of hypovolemic shock, pulse 126/min, blood pressure 80/60 mmHg, without pulse on the right upper limb. The right upper limb was cold, without active movements, pressure and pain sense. The right shoulder was tumid. The right lung without audible murmurs. Pulses on carotid arteries were perceptible. The thoracic plain film x-ray showed a shading on right half of thorax, widening of the upper mediastinum, fracture of right clavicle and the rear right shoulder sprain. Passive movements in the right elbow were correct. The patient was taken to the operating theatre because of progressive hypovolemic shock and was operated in emergency regimen. The transverse thoracotomy was made by both the intercostals spaces between the second and third rib. The thoracotomy showed that subclavian artery from brachiocephalic trunk and subclavian vein from right brachiocephalic vein were detachment. The subclavian vein was ligated and the brachiocephalic vein was sewn (phleborrhaphy). The subclavian artery was connected with brachiocephalic trunk by a synthetic vascular graft so that the received pulse at the periphery of the upper limb. The thyrocervical trunk, costocervical trunk and damaged intercostal vessels at the first, second and third rib were also ligated. The sprained shoulder was set. During the operation, there was no sight that even one of fascicles of brachial plexus was interrupted. The next day pateint was reoperated because of hemorrhage to right pleura. The rest of intercostal vessels at the first, second and third rib were ligated. The postoperative course was uneventful surgery. After operation was found that ulnar and radial nerve were demaged. The right lung expansion was achieved, upper limb had pulse, wounds healed as needed. The patient was transferred to the neurosurgical treatment. The quick decision to conduct operations without accurate diagnosis was the only factor for patient survival.
Waikakul, S; Wongtragul, S; Vanadurongwan, V
This study was performed to compare the clinical outcome of 2 types of commonly used nerve transfers, the spinal accessory nerve transfer and the intercostal nerve transfer. This study was a prospective randomized parallel trial involving 205 patients presenting between 1989 and 1994. All patients were males ranging in age from 16 to 43 years. All patients underwent surgery within 6 months of injury. Spinal accessory nerve transfer was performed in 130 patients; better results were obtained in terms of less operative time, fewer blood transfusions, fewer immediate complications, and better motor function (very good and good power in 83% of patients). Intercostal nerve transfer was performed in 75 patients; better results were observed in terms of earlier electromyographic evidence of motor reinnervation, improvement in protective sensation, and reduction of pain. However, very good and good motor recovery was observed in only 64% of patients. There was no significant difference with regard to tidal volume, vital capacity, and the FEV1 to FEV ratio before and after surgery in either group. Smoking adversely affected the rate of recovery. Spinal accessory nerve transfer should be used when motor function of the elbow flexors is the major concern. Intercostal nerve transfer should be performed in patients who need both motor and sensory reconstruction and in those who have chronic pain syndrome after brachial plexus injury.
Chuang, D C; Lee, G W; Hashem, F; Wei, F C
During the 5-year period between 1987 and 1991, 99 patients with total root or upper root (C5, C6, or C7) injuries were treated by nerve transfer to obtain shoulder abduction. More than eight different combinations of coaptation between donor nerves (intercostal nerves, phrenic nerve, spinal accessory nerve, ipsilateral C7, or cervical motor nerves) and recipient nerves (suprascapular nerve, axillary nerve, and upper trunk or C5) were applied. All patients had at least 2 years of follow-up. Different results were obtained in each category. Simultaneous neurotization of the suprascapular and axillary nerves with the phrenic and spinal accessory nerves obtained much better and more reliable shoulder abduction. Neurotization of the C5 spinal nerve by multiple nerve transfers was another good option that yielded good shoulder abduction in a single patient. If the phrenic nerve was traumatized, neurotization of the suprascapular nerve solely with the spinal accessory nerve was still capable of achieving an acceptable range of shoulder abduction.
Gifuni, P; Strada, U
Between 1995 and 1997 a total of 5 patients with injury of the distal tendon of the biceps brachii were treated by reattachment to the radial tuberosity using Henry anterior access to the elbow. The results obtained through a clinical and instrumental evaluation, and the answers to a questionnaire, were good or excellent. What was particular about our work was that we treated all of the patients by a single Henry anterior access and not a double Boyd and Anderson one, which is more commonly used. Our decision was based on the minor amount of surgical invasiveness, the simpler method of reinsertion of the tendon and the minor incidence of possible radio-ulnar synostoses. This surgical approach requires particular care with regard to possible injuries of the radial nerve, that, moreover, are easily avoidable if surgery is performed by experts, with accurate and limited preparation of the site of reattachment.
Harb, Ziad; Malhi, Arfan
Fractures involving the proximal tibial epiphysis are rare and form 0.5% of all epiphyseal injuries. The specific anatomical and developmental features of the proximal tibial epiphysis make it vulnerable to unique patterns of fractures. Vitamin-D plays a vital role in bone homeostasis and its deficiency has an impact on fracture risk and healing. We present the first ever reported case of simultaneous bilateral proximal tibial physeal fractures in an athlete with vitamin-D deficiency. Treatment consisted of plaster immobilisation, and the patient made a full recovery and returned to preinjury level of activities. We report this case for its uniqueness and as an educational review of the importance of the developmental anatomy of the proximal tibia. We review the literature and discuss how the stages of the growing physis determine the type of fracture sustained. PMID:26425381
Xiao, Chengwei; Lao, Jie; Wang, Tao; Zhao, Xin; Liu, Jingbo; Gu, Yudong
The purpose of this study was to compare the outcomes of different numbers of intercostal nerve (ICN) transfers for elbow flexion and to determine whether age, body mass index (BMI), type of injury, and preoperative delay influence the outcomes. From 2004 to 2010, 32 (30 included) consecutive patients underwent ICN transfer to the musculocutaneous nerve following brachial plexus injury. Elbow flexion strength was evaluated according to the British Medical Research Council (BMRC) grading system. Of nine patients who received two ICN transfers, six (66.7%) recovered with useful elbow flexion compared with 14 of 17 (82.4%) patients who received three ICN transfers. Of the four patients with four ICN transfers, three (75%) achieved useful recovery. Statistical analysis showed no significant difference. There is no significant difference among the outcomes of two, three, and four ICN transfers to the musculocutaneous nerve. Two ICN transfers are sufficient for useful recovery of elbow flexion. Younger patients achieve better results. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.
Celik, Haluk; Seckin, Mustafa Faik; Kara, Adnan; Akman, Senol
Post-traumatic anterior shoulder instability commonly occurs following an avulsion of capsulolabral complex from glenoid (Bankart lesion) or rarely after humeral avulsion of the glenohumeral ligaments (HAGL lesion). Arthroscopic Bankart repair offers high success rates of healing. However, trauma following the treatment may cause implant failure or re-avulsion of the treated tissue. We aim to present the diagnosis and treatment of an isolated HAGL lesion in a professional soccer player who had previously undergone arthroscopic Bankart repair.
Muellner, Thomas; Kumar, Sandeep; Singla, Amit
The complete proximal hamstring avulsion is relatively uncommon injury and predominantly occurs in young athletes but causes significant functional impairment. In chronic cases, the muscle mass is so much retracted that primary repair is not possible. A surgical technique for reconstruction of chronic proximal hamstring avulsion using contralateral semitendinosus and gracilis autograft is described in this case report. V.
Itro, A; Difalco, P; Carotenuto, A
Replantation is a method in which an avulsed dental element is replaced into its alveolar socket. The dental traumatic exarticulation occurs in any age, but most frequently in the juvenile population. The aim of this paper is to rewiew the risks and benefits of tooth replantation and to discuss the present therapeutic orientations and future perspectives for avulsion management.
Dorrell, Robert M.; Burns, Alan D.; McCaffrey, William D.
New analytical models demonstrate that under aggradational flow conditions, seafloor channel-levee systems are inherently unstable; both channel area and stability necessarily decrease at long timescales. In time such systems must avulse purely through internal (autogenic) forcing. Although autogenic instabilities likely arise over long enough time for additional allogenic forcing to be expected, channel-levee sensitivity to variations in flow character depends on the prior degree of system evolution. Recalibrated modern Amazon Fan avulsion timings are consistent with this model, challenging accepted interpretations of avulsion triggering.
... the banks of a body of water by deposition of water-borne soil. (c) Avulsed lands have the meaning...) Meander line means a survey line established for the purpose of representing the location of the actual...
... the banks of a body of water by deposition of water-borne soil. (c) Avulsed lands have the meaning... channel. (d) Actual shoreline means the line which is washed by the water wherever it covers the bed of...
Lee, Chee Hwee; Tan, Chih Feng; Kim, Okwha; Suh, Kyung Jin; Yao, Min-Szu; Chan, Wing P; Wu, Jim S
One of the most common knee injuries is ligament tear, which may initially manifest as an osseous injury in radiographs. Radiologists should therefore be able to recognize ligament tears of the knee as osseous abnormalities in images. This review focuses on the imaging features of knee ligament injuries and their related osseous injuries: anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tear with Segond fracture; associated marrow contusion; ACL avulsion fracture; posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) tear with osseous avulsion of the ligament including arcuate sign; reverse Segond fracture; PCL avulsion fracture; medial collateral ligament tear with Pellegrini-Stieda disease; lateral collateral ligament tear with avulsion fracture of the fibular head; and patellar ligament injuries with Osgood-Schlatter and Sinding-Larsen-Johansson.
Huang, Yi-Gang; Chen, Liang; Gu, Yu-Dong; Yu, Guang-Rong
Although Horner's syndrome is usually taken as an absolute indicator of avulsions of the C8 and T1 ventral roots in adult brachial plexus injury, its pathological basis in obstetric brachial plexus palsy (OBPP) is unclear. We therefore examined the morphological mechanism for the presence of Horner's syndrome in brachial plexus injury in infants and adults. Some axons of sympathetic preganglionic neurons in T1 innervate the superior cervical ganglion via the C7 ventral root in infants but not in adults. Therefore, the presence of Horner's syndrome may relate in part to avulsion of the C7 root in OBPP. These findings suggest that Horner's syndrome in OBPP is not necessarily indicative of avulsions of the C8 and T1 roots, as it can occur with avulsion of the C7 root.
T. L. Payne; M. T. Smith; M. C. Birch; A. Ascoli
The southern pine bark beetle guild consists of many species, the most economically significant of which are the five scolytid species, Dendructonus frontalis Zimmermann, D. terebrans (Olivier), Ips calligraphus (Germar), I. avulses (Eichhoff), and I. grandicollis (Eichhoff...
The narrow, deep, and sinuous main channel is flanked by anastomosing flood channels, or anabranches. Most anabranches are initiated at meander bends. The primary mechanism of anabranch initiation is avulsion during overbank floods. -from Author
Kalideen, J M; Satyapal, K S
Avulsion fractures of the acromion [corrected] are described in 10 patients with severe tetanus neonatorum. Typically bilateral and invariably contemporaneous, they result from isometric contraction. Forced abduction of the arm against adductor resistance leads to avulsion of that segment of the acromium where the multipenate fibres of the deltoid muscle originate. To our knowledge this unique and ominous orthopaedic complication of severe neonatal tetanus has not been documented previously.
Al-Khayatt, A S; Davidson, L E
The replantation of avulsed primary incisors is contra-indicated. This case describes an 8-year-old child who six years previously had avulsed and had replanted a primary central incisor. At presentation, this tooth was retained, the permanent successor had failed to erupt and appearance of the adjacent lateral incisor was notably delayed. Investigation revealed a radicular cyst in relation to the replanted deciduous incisor together with severe displacement of the permanent tooth, which could not be saved.
Strom, Kyle; Hamilton, Paul; Hoyal, David; Fedele, Juan
Submarine fans are an amalgamation of channels and lobes built over time on the continental slope and abyssal plain through multiple avulsion cycles. This research experimentally explores supercritical submarine fan building processes from a hydraulic and sediment transport perspective. Data for this was provided by a new methodology developed to measure the layer-averaged hydraulic variables of small-scale density currents that change with space and time as they construct the fan. In the presentation, we will present the autogenic avulsion cycle observed, discuss why steep systems can potentially produce "perched" lobes, show the characteristics of lobe and channel fill deposits resulting from a single avulsion cycle, and present data describing the overall development of the fan through multiple avulsion cycles. The experiments showed that the primary avulsion cycle consisted of the following phases: channel incision and basinward extension, cessation of channel extension and mouth bar formation, bar aggradation and hydraulic jump initiation, and upstream propagation of the channel-to-lobe transition. The transition from erosion or bypass in the channels to deposition in an expanded-flow region downstream led to a choked-flow condition that caused a hydraulic jump to initiate before reaching the basin floor. Each avulsion cycle was responsible for an associated lobe deposit. Since hydraulic jumps were common during avulsion cycles, they were used to predict the maximum thickness of the lobe deposits as a function of the upstream flow depth and Froude number. The lobes emplaced by discrete avulsion cycles stacked up over time to form the overall fan. Though each cycle contained elements of both basinward extension and upstream backfilling, the fans showed net progradation at a long-term rate that can be representatively modeled using a mass balance approach based on sediment supply and equilibrium fan slope.
MANCINI, FEDERICO; BERNARDI, GABRIELE; DE LUNA, VINCENZO; TUDISCO, COSIMO
Rupture or avulsion of the distal triceps tendon is one of the least common tendon injuries. The most common clinical presentation of the injury is avulsion from the olecranon. The diagnosis of acute triceps tendon rupture may be missed and this can result in prolonged disability. We report the case of a 42-year-old man with isolated triceps rupture treated by an open surgical repair technique involving the use of bone suture anchors. PMID:28217662
Sollender, J L; Rayan, G M; Barden, G A
Triceps tendon avulsion injuries are rare. We report four weight lifters with triceps tendon raptures, two of whom had received local steroid injections for pain in the triceps. All four patients had taken oral anabolic steroids before injury. All patients had closed avulsion of the triceps tendon from its insertion into the olecranon. Three patients were injured while bench pressing heavy weights, and one patient was injured while swinging a baseball bat. Satisfactory results were achieved after surgical reinsertion of the tendon.
Kraus, M.J.; Aslan, A. )
Pervasive mottling, iron-oxide nodules, and slickensides indicate that alluvial paleosols of the lower Eocene Willwood Formation in the Elk Creek area of the Bighorn Basin, Wyoming were hydromorphic. Two basic groups of hydromorphic paleosols are present: cumulative, which show evidence for concurrent deposition and pedogenesis, and simple (non-cumulative), which show evidence for a single episode of deposition and pedogenesis. Lithologic packages consisting of vertically stacked simple paleosols and crevasse-splay sandstones alternate with cumulative paleosols. The simple paleosols are weakly developed, indicating rapid deposition with relatively little time for pedogenesis. Cumulative paleosols show greater pedogenic development, indicating significantly longer periods of paleogenic modification and slower, more episodic sediment accumulation. Differences between the simple and cumulative paleosols reflect differences in the deposition of their parent materials. The packages of simple paleosols are similar to avulsion-belt deposits described from the Saskatchewan River, and suggest that avulsion was significant in floodplain construction. The upper parts of cumulative paleosols were formed on true overbank deposits, which accumulated gradually after avulsion and establishment of a new channel. The lower parts of many cumulative paleosols resulted from a prior episode of avulsion deposition and simple soil formation. Because hydromorphy is associated with texture, these different depositional processes influenced lateral variations in hydromorphy of the cumulative paleosols. Paleosols in the Elk Creek area provide a simple means of identifying avulsions. Sediment accumulation rates suggest that avulsions occurred with a regular period of about 20,000 years and may have been induced by climatic cycles.
Risling, Marten; Ochsmann, Thomas; Carlstedt, Thomas; Lindå, Hans; Plantman, Stefan; Rostami, Elham; Angeria, Maria; Sköld, Mattias K.
Replantation of avulsed spinal ventral roots has been show to enable significant and useful regrowth of motor axons in both experimental animals and in human clinical cases, making up an interesting exception to the rule of unsuccessful neuronal regeneration in central nervous system. Compared to avulsion without repair, ventral root replantation seems to rescue lesioned motoneurons from death. In this study we have analyzed the acute response to ventral root avulsion and replantation in adult rats with gene arrays combined with cluster analysis of gene ontology search terms. The data show significant differences between rats subjected to ventral replantation compared to avulsion only. Even though number of genes related to cell death is similar in the two models after 24 h, we observed a significantly larger number of genes related to neurite growth and development in the rats treated with ventral root replantation, possibly reflecting the neuroregenerative capacity in the replantation model. In addition, an acute inflammatory response was observed after avulsion, while effects on genes related to synaptic transmission were much more pronounced after replantation than after avulsion alone. These data indicate that the axonal regenerative response from replantation is initiated at an earlier stage than the possible differences in terms of neuron survival. We conclude that this type of analysis may facilitate the comparison of the acute response in two types of injury. PMID:21228913
Beyeler, J. D.; Rossi, R. K.; Kennard, P. M.; Beason, S. R.
Climate change is drastically affecting the alpine landscape of Mount Rainier, encouraging glacial retreat, changes in snowpack thickness and longevity, and sediment delivery to downstream fluvial systems, leading to an extremely transport limited system and aggradation of the river valleys. River aggradation encourages devastating interactions between the pro-glacial braided fluvial systems and streamside floodplain ecosystems, in most places occupied by old-growth conifer forests. Current aggradation rates of the channels, bordered by late seral stage riparian forests, inhibit floodplain development, leading to an inverted relationship between perched river channels and lower-elevation adjacent floodplains. This disequilibrium creates a steeper gradient laterally towards the floodplains, rather than downstream; promoting flooding of streamside forest, removal and burial of vegetation with coarse alluvium, incision of avulsion channels, tree mortality, wood recruitment to channels, and ultimately widening the alluviated valley towards the glacially carved hillslopes. Aggradation and loss of streamside old-growth forest poses a significant problem to park infrastructure (e.g. roads, trails, and campgrounds) due to flood damage with as frequent as a two-year event. Other park rivers, the White River and Tahoma Creek, characterize two end-member cases. Despite an extremely perched channel, the White River is relatively stable; experiencing small avulsions while the old-growth streamside forest has remained mostly intact. These relatively small avulsions however severely impact park infrastructure, causing extensive flood damage and closure of the heavily trafficked state highway. Conversely debris flows on Tahoma Creek destroyed the streamside forest and migration across the valley is uninhibited. Mature streamside forests tend to oppose avulsions, sieving wood at the channel margins, promoting sediment deposition and deflection of erosive flows. Our study seeks to
Chan, A W; Wong, T K; Cheung, G S
The purpose of this study was to investigate the knowledge of a group of physical education (PE) teachers about the emergency management of dental trauma in Hong Kong. A postal questionnaire was sent to PE teachers in 100 randomly selected secondary schools in Hong Kong. A total of 166 teachers from 65 schools responded. Results show that a majority of the respondents have received formal teaching training (98.8%). While all but one teacher had received formal first aid training, only eight of them recalled that they had received advice on the management of dental trauma. Concerning the management of tooth fracture, 118 respondents (71.1%) gave an appropriate answer. In contrast, only 29 teachers (17.5%) were able to indicate the appropriate management for an avulsed tooth. Over 60% (102) of the respondents indicated it was "very urgent" to seek professional assistance if a permanent tooth has been avulsed, but they had little knowledge of the correct procedures for replanting or transporting avulsed teeth. Only 15 respondents (9%) pointed out that milk was the medium of choice for transporting avulsed teeth. Finally, over 90% (157) of respondents indicated that they had never received advice on the emergency procedures for the management of dental avulsion. The present study showed that the level of lay knowledge of management of dental injuries in a selection of PE teachers in Hong Kong is inadequate and educational campaigns are necessary to improve their emergency management of dental injuries.
Dalman, Rory A. F.; Weltje, Gert Jan
We present a parameterisation of fluvio-deltaic drainage network evolution and alluvial architecture in a basin-scale 2-DH model. The model setup is capable of producing convergent and divergent channel networks. Major elements are the alluvial-ridge aggradation and the coupled overbank deposition, the dimension and style of the channel belt and the sub-grid stratigraphic expression. Avulsions are allowed to develop out of randomly instigated crevasses. Channel stability is modelled one dimensionally by calculating the flow and sediment transport at prospective avulsion nodes. The ultimate fate of crevasses (failed avulsion, successful avulsion, stable bifurcation) depends on the ratio of cross-valley and in-channel gradients in the local neighbourhood of the grid cell under consideration and on the amount and distribution of the suspended sediment load in the water column. The sub-grid parameterisation yields implicit knowledge of the alluvial architecture, which may be analysed stochastically. Stochastic realisations of the alluvial architecture allow us to investigate the relationship between basin-fill architecture and small-scale alluvial architecture, which is likely to improve geological reservoir modelling of these notoriously complex deposits. Modelling results under conditions of time-invariant forcing indicate significant quasi-cyclic autogenic behaviour of the fluvio-deltaic system. Changes in the avulsion frequency are correlated with the number and length of distributary channels, which are in turn related to alternating phases of progradational and aggradational delta development. The resulting parasequences may be difficult to distinguish from their allogenically induced counterparts.
Sessa, Pasquale; Fioravanti, Giulio; Giannicola, Giuseppe; Cinotti, Gianluca
In cruciate retaining total knee arthroplasty (TKA), a partial avulsion of PCL may occur when en-bloc tibial osteotomy is performed. We evaluated the effects of a tibial cut performed with different degrees of posterior slope on PCL insertion and whether the results are affected by the sagittal inclination of the patient's tibial plateau. We selected 83 MRIs of knees showing mild or no degenerative changes. The effects of a simulated tibial cut performed with a posterior slope of 0°, 3°, 5° and parallel to the patient's tibial plateau inclination on PCL insertion in the proximal tibia were investigated. The results were correlated with the degree of posterior inclination of the tibial plateau. Every angle we used for the tibial cut caused a PCL avulsion greater than 50%. The percentage of PCL avulsion significantly increased with increasing the posterior slope of the tibial cut. Patients with sagittal tibial plateau inclination <5° showed greater PCL avulsion than those with sagittal inclination >8°. Most of the PCL insertion is likely to be sacrificed when resection of the proximal tibia is performed en-block. The risk of PCL avulsion is reduced in patients showing a marked posterior inclination of the tibial plateau, but even in this group of patients a surgical technique aimed at sparing most of the PCL insertion is necessary. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Traumatic avulsion of nerve roots from the spinal cord is a devastating event that usually occurs in the brachial plexus of young adults following motor vehicle or sports accidents or in newborn children during difficult childbirth. A strategy to restore motor function in the affected arm by reimplanting into the spinal cord the avulsed ventral roots or autologous nerve grafts connected distally to the avulsed roots has been developed. Surgical outcome is good and useful recovery in shoulder and proximal arm muscles occurs. Pain is alleviated with motor recovery but sensory improvement is poor when only motor conduits have been reconstructed. In experimental studies, restoration of sensory connections with general improvement in the outcome from this surgery is pursued.
Nagano, A; Ochiai, N; Okinaga, S
A retrospective review of 87 patients with loss of elbow flexion secondary to root injuries of the brachial plexus was carried out. Results of nerve grafting, direct nerve transfer with the intercostal nerve, or tendon transfer were analyzed, and treatment recommendations were developed. Nerve transfer provided good or excellent results for injuries that included avulsion of the C5 and/or C6 roots. Nerve grafts were used successfully in cases of single or combined ruptures of C5 and C6. Tendon transfers provided good or excellent results in C5-C6 or C5-C7 avulsions, where nerve grafting was not possible and transferable muscles had good strength. Somatosensory evoked potentials were necessary to demonstrate nerve root avulsions in cases in which the roots appeared ruptured on visual inspection.
Su, Huanxing; Yuan, Qiuju; Qin, Dajiang; Yang, Xiaoying; So, Kwok-Fai; Wu, Wutian
Brachial plexus injury often involves traumatic root avulsion resulting in permanent paralysis of the innervated muscles. The lack of sufficient regeneration from spinal motoneurons to the peripheral nerve (PN) is considered to be one of the major causes of the unsatisfactory outcome of various surgical interventions for repair of the devastating injury. The present study was undertaken to investigate potential inhibitory signals which influence axonal regeneration after root avulsion injury. The results of the study showed that root avulsion triggered GSK-3β activation in the injured motoneurons and remaining axons in the ventral funiculus. Systemic application of a clinical dose of lithium suppressed activated GSK-3β in the lesioned spinal cord to the normal level and induced extensive axonal regeneration into replanted ventral roots. Our study suggests that GSK-3β activity is involved in negative regulation for axonal elongation and regeneration and lithium, the specific GSK-3β inhibitor, enhances motoneuron regeneration from CNS to PNS. PMID:24967390
Alla, Sreenivasa R; Deal, Nicole D; Dempsey, Ian J
Loss of the extensor mechanism at the distal interphalangeal (DIP) joint leads to mallet finger also known as baseball finger or drop finger. This can be secondary to tendon substance disruption or to a bony avulsion. Soft tissue mallet finger is the result of a rupture of the extensor tendon in Zone 1, and a bony mallet finger is the result of an avulsion of the extensor tendon from the distal phalanx with a small fragment of bone attached to the avulsed tendon. Mallet finger leads to an imbalance in the distribution of the extensor force between the proximal interphalangeal (PIP) and DIP joints. If left untreated, mallet finger leads to a swan neck deformity from PIP joint hyper extension and DIP joint flexion. Most mallet finger injuries can be managed non-surgically, but occasionally surgery is recommended for either an acute or a chronic mallet finger or for salvage of failed prior treatment.
Shneck, Marina; Oshry, Tzafrir; Marcus, Mira; Lifshitz, Tova
To report a rare, severe case of partial traumatic bilateral enucleation and its assessment and management. Case report and literature review. A report of clinical and imaging findings, surgical procedure, medical treatment, and final outcome. Complete avulsion of the extraocular muscles and optic nerve resulted in total loss of vision in one eye. Partial visual recovery was achieved by operating on the fellow eye, which was partially avulsed. Both eyes underwent lateral canthotomy in the emergency room. This was followed by exploration, repair of all ruptured extraocular muscles, and anterior chamber tap under general anesthesia. The few previously reported cases of traumatic manual avulsion of the globe are reviewed and discussed in the context of the present case. Partial visual recovery can be achieved after severe orbital and optic nerve trauma. A multidisciplinary approach to the assessment and management of these patients is recommended.
Becerro de Bengoa Vallejo, Ricardo; Losa Iglesias, Marta Elena; Cervera, Luis Alou; Fernández, David Sevillano; Prieto, José Prieto
A common challenge of nail avulsion surgery is the associated bacterial contamination and infection that can manifest. The toe has a difficult anatomy to antiseptically prepare and properly maintain throughout the surgical procedure, lending to this widespread problem. We conducted a controlled, prospective randomized study to examine the antiseptic efficacy of 3 intraoperative irrigation methods during nail avulsion surgery. We compared intraoperative antiseptic irrigation using 0.9% saline solution (24 patients), 0.2% nitrofurazone (22 patients), and 0.1% polihexanide (25 patients). Swab samples were taken from each patient at 5 distinct stages throughout the surgical procedure, and bacterial culture analysis was performed (positive culture rate, total inocula count, reduction of bacterial load, and identification of specific micro-organisms). All 3 intraoperative irrigation methods reduced the total bacterial load, but polihexanide was significantly more effective. Furthermore, no patient from the polihexanide group developed postoperative infection. The reduction in bacterial load was lost for all 3 methods after partial nail avulsion surgery, returning to similar values as the initial presurgical bacterial load. An intraoperative irrigation step after partial nail avulsion with saline, nitrofurazone, and polihexanide was effective in reducing the bacterial load by 95.2%, 96.6%, and 99.5%, respectively. Our patients underwent phenol-based nail avulsion, resulting in no bacterial load after complete nail removal because of the intrinsic antiseptic nature of the phenol. Intraoperative irrigation with 0.1% polihexanide substantially reduced the bacterial load and subsequent infections, highlighting the importance of an irrigation step in nail avulsion surgery. Copyright Â© 2010 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Salter, G.; Paola, C.; Voller, V. R.
Distributary networks are formed by channels which bifurcate downstream in a river delta. Sediment and water fluxes are often split unequally in delta bifurcations. Understanding flux asymmetry in distributary networks is important for predicting how a delta will respond to sea-level rise. We present results of a quasi-1D model of a delta bifurcation. Consistent with previous results, in the absence of deposition, stable bifurcations may be either symmetric or asymmetric, depending on flow conditions. However, in a depositional setting, a stable asymmetric flow partitioning is no longer possible, as the dominant branch becomes less and less steep relative to the other branch. This feedback eventually causes the second branch to become favored. For the depositional case, we identify three regimes of bifurcation behavior: 1) stable symmetric bifurcation, 2) "soft" avulsions where the dominant branch switches without complete abandonment of the previous channel, and 3) complete avulsions where one branch is completely abandoned. In each case, the bifurcation is symmetric in the long-term average, but the latter two allow for short-term asymmetry. We find that keeping upstream sediment and water discharges fixed, as downstream channel length increases the regime shifts from symmetric to soft avulsions to complete avulsions. In the two avulsion regimes we examine the effect of upstream sediment and water discharges and downstream channel length on avulsion period and maximum discharge ratio. Finally, we compare numerical modeling results to a fixed-wall bifurcation experiment. As in the numerical model, the presence or absence of a downstream sink exerts a strong control on system behavior. If a sink is present, a bifurcation may be asymmetric indefinitely. Conversely, without a sink the system is depositional, and the feedback between sediment discharge asymmetry and slope causes the bifurcation to remain symmetric in the long-term average.
Gao, J; Räsänen, T; Persliden, J; Messner, K
The morphology of failed rabbit knee entheses is described after in vitro load to failure testing at low strain velocity. Avulsion fracture was the dominant failure mode both for the cruciate ligaments and the medial collateral ligament. The patellar ligament became avulsed in most cases from the patellar insertion. The ligamentous anterior attachment of the medial meniscus failed by a midsubstance rupture and the posterior fibrocartilaginous attachment by a rupture near to the meniscal horn. On histological inspection the failure characteristics usually appeared more elaborate, involving to different degrees all portions of the bone-ligament-bone complexes. Avulsion fracture through subchondral bone was often combined with a partial ligament midsubstance rupture. In few cases avulsion from the cement line was combined with a rupture between the uncalcified fibrocartilage and the ligament. The medial collateral ligament failed in one case entirely at the cement line of its femoral insertion. Horizontal rupture through the calcified fibrocartilage and a vertical cleavage crossing the tidemark were also observed. The superficial portion of the patellar ligament failed with a midsubstance rupture, and the deeper part with an avulsion through the calcified fibrocartilage or an avulsion fracture. The complex failure characteristics may be attributed to uneven loading, nonuniformity of the structure, and specific anatomical location. Subchondral bone beneath femoral and tibial insertions seems to be weaker than the transitional zone between soft tissue and hard bone at the enthesis. The overall inferior structural quality of a ruptured ligament has to be taken into account when parts of the original structure are used for suturing or reconstruction. Images Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 PMID:8771403
Huang, Yi-Gang; Chen, Liang; Gu, Yu-Dong; Yu, Guang-Rong
We investigated the distribution of sympathetic preganglionic fibers in each spinal nerve of the brachial plexus, and its correlation with presence of Horner's syndrome in the pup and adult rats. According to surgical intervention to the C7-T1 spinal nerves in the right side, rats of 7 days postnatal (P7), P14 and adulthood (24 for each age group) were subdivided into four subgroups of six each, respectively, i.e., C7 or C8 or T1 spared subgroup--where C7 or C8 or T1 alone was kept intact with avulsion of the other two spinal nerves and division of the sympathetic chain caudal to the stellate ganglion; C7-T1 avulsed subgroup--where C7-T1 were all avulsed but the sympathetic chain kept intact. Fluoro-Gold (FG) was injected bilaterally into the superior cervical ganglion (SCG) for labeling of sympathetic preganglionic neurons (SPNs). Furthermore, Horner's syndrome was examined after avulsion of different spinal nerves for P14 and adult rats. In C7 spared subgroups, FG-labeled neurons accounted averagely for 16.9% in P7, 13.5 in P14 and 1.0 in adult rats, and difference was statistically significant between P7 and adults (Z=-2.9, P=0.004), P14 and adults (Z=-2.9, P=0.004). When both C7 and C8 were avulsed, Horner's syndrome was more prone to be produced in pups than in adults (chi(2)=4.2, P=0.04). These results indicate that some SPNs project to SCG via C7 in the pup, but this pathway disappears during postnatal development. It suggests that in newborns with brachial plexopathy, presence of Horner's syndrome may be correlated with avulsion of C7. 2009. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Başar, H; Başar, B; Kaplan, T; Erol, B; Tetik, C
This study sought to demonstrate that successful outcomes can be achieved with the new technique presented here for chronic ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) injury of the thumb metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joint, as well as with K-wire pinning for acute UCL injury. We followed 19 patients who suffered an UCL rupture (mean follow-up: 14.26±4.65 months) and 32 patients who presented with UCL avulsion fracture (mean follow-up: 16.81±7.54 months). We used a free tendon graft for UCL reconstruction in the UCL rupture group. Both ends of the graft were stabilized with bioabsorbable suture anchors, which were used as biotenodesis interference screws. Closed reduction and K-wire fixation was used in UCL avulsion fracture group. There were no statistically significant differences between operated and contralateral healthy thumb MCP joint in both groups in the grip strength, tip pinch strength, flexion, extension, ulnar deviation, and radial deviation movements at final follow-up. Grip strength, tip pinch strength, ulnar deviation and radial deviation were significantly better in the avulsion group than the rupture group. All patients regained full stability at the MCP joint in avulsion group; 16 patients regained full stability and 3 patients presented with mild laxity (less than 10° laxity) in rupture group. Glickel grading scale used as a functional score was excellent for 30 patients and good for 2 patients in avulsion group; it was excellent for 17 patients and good for 2 patients in rupture group. Our study shows that closed reduction and percutaneous K-wire fixation of acute displaced large UCL avulsion fracture is a simple technique and achieves adequate stability of UCL. For UCL rupture, free tendon reconstruction with bioabsorbable suture anchors provides adequate stability and stable fixation within the tunnels. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Thibault-Gagnon, Stéphanie; Yusuf, Sara; Langer, Suzanne; Wong, Vivien; Shek, Ka Lai; Martin, Andrew; Dietz, Hans Peter
The levator ani is thought to play an important role in sexual function; however, to date little literature has been published on the impact of delivery-related levator trauma on female sexual function. We hypothesised that delivery-related levator trauma has a negative impact on women's reports of pelvic floor and sexual function postpartum. In 294 primigravid women with a singleton pregnancy, four-dimensional (4D) translabial ultrasound imaging was used to assess delivery-related levator avulsion and levator hiatal over-distension, and postpartum pelvic floor and sexual function was assessed by an in-house validated questionnaire. Associations between questionnaire responses and levator avulsion and hiatal over-distension were investigated using standard linear modelling methods. Levator avulsion was diagnosed in 14% of women (42 out of 292; 25 unilateral, 17 bilateral) and was found to be significantly associated with lower scores for the pelvic floor integrity and function domain of the questionnaire (P < 0.0005). Avulsion was associated with lower scores for this domain (no avulsion = 2.78, unilateral avulsion = 2.61, bilateral avulsion = 2.29). This association remained significant after controlling for potential confounders (p = 0.013). Avulsion was not associated with any of the other domains of sexual function and levator hiatal over-distension was not associated with scores for any of the questionnaire domains. The effect of levator avulsion on pelvic floor and sexual function an average of 5.2 months after childbirth seems to be limited to a perception of increased vaginal and pelvic floor muscle laxity, and reduced pelvic floor muscle efficiency. The impact of levator hiatal over-distension on postpartum pelvic floor and sexual function appears to be negligible.
Oseni, O G; Olaitan, P B; Badmus, T O; Olajide, A O
Injury to male external genitalia is very rare because of some intrinsic factors like location, strong investing tunica albuginea and cremasteric muscles. However, when it occurs it is considered a urological emergency. Child labour with poor understanding of risks and safety precautions, especially under harsh supervision, surely poses major challenges. This case illustrates degloving injury of the penis and avulsion of the scrotum in a young boy while operating a roller type machine used in palm trees plantation. The penis was primarily regloved and avulsed skin primarily repaired. A good cosmetic outcome was observed from this treatment. This case also illustrates the importance of early presentation and emergency intervention in this condition.
Bencardino, Jenny T; Mellado, José M
Hamstring injuries can be classified with regard to the site of involvement. Traumatic disorders at the proximal bone-tendon origin are best defined as avulsion injuries, such as ischial tuberosity fractures and hamstring tendon tears. Musculotendinous lesions include muscle strains and muscle contusions. Most hamstring injuries occur after in-direct trauma from excessive stretching or forceful contraction, leading to avulsion injuries or muscle strains and tears. Insufficient warm-up, lack of flexibility, inadequate muscle strength and endurance, or abnormal contraction and running may predispose to such injuries. In the event of blunt direct trauma, a muscle contusion, intramuscular hematoma, myositis ossificans, or compartment syndrome may develop.
Somashekar, Deepak K; Wilson, Thomas J; DiPietro, Michael A; Joseph, Jacob R; Ibrahim, Mohannad; Yang, Lynda J-S; Parmar, Hemant A
Despite recent improvements in perinatal care, the incidence of neonatal brachial plexus palsy (NBPP) remains relatively common. CT myelography is currently considered to be the optimal imaging modality for evaluating nerve root integrity. Recent improvements in MRI techniques have made it an attractive alternative to evaluate nerve root avulsions (preganglionic injuries). We demonstrate the utility of MRI for the evaluation of normal and avulsed spinal nerve roots. We also show the utility of ultrasound in providing useful preoperative evaluation of the postganglionic brachial plexus in patients with NBPP.
Nelson-Filho, Paulo; Silva, Raquel A B; Faria, Gisele; Freitas, Aldevina Campos
This report describes a case of a patient (1 year and 8 months old) with traumatic avulsion of the maxillary right primary central incisor and morphological changes in the germ of the permanent successor. One year after the trauma, an odontoma-like malformation developed. This malformation was removed 6 years after trauma and orthodontic treatment was started. Clinical follow-up and periodic radiographs are necessary after traumatic avulsion of primary teeth to monitor possible sequelae in the permanent successor. An odontoma-like malformation requires a multidisciplinary approach.
Greditzer, Harry G; Nawabi, Danyal; Li, Angela Eh; Jawetz, Shari T
Acute adductor longus ruptures occur infrequently and have been rarely described in the literature. Schlegel et al. reviewed a series of adductor longus tendon ruptures and found that all ruptured proximally. A 42-year-old man with right hip pain 3 weeks following a skiing injury underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which demonstrated a distal adductor longus avulsion. The diagnosis of acute adductor longus injury can be difficult on physical examination alone, but MRI can accurately depict the site of injury. Surgery may be indicated for a proximal avulsion, but a distal injury may heal with nonoperative treatment, as in our case. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Aagaard, KE; Lunsjö, K
The adolescent avulsion of the lesser tuberosity of the humerus has historically been considered as very rare. The youngest patient reported in the literature is 11 years old. We report a case of a 9-year-old girl who suffered a subscapularis tendon tear with an occult avulsion of the lesser tuberosity. Late repair restored function. Despite that late repair in this present case resulted in excellent outcome, we strongly recommend the additional axillary lateral view of the plain radiographs, as well as proper physical examination to facilitate early diagnosis. PMID:28122897
... by the Bureau of Land Management or its predecessors and the actual shoreline of a body of water are... the issue; or (C) The lands are accreted, relicted or avulsed and are no longer lands of the United States, including submission for the uplands portion of the body of water affected a copy of an...
Lugeder, A; Jäger, C; Fecht, E; Riemer, C; Sattler, M; Kalbe, P; Zeichen, J
This is a case presentation of a 9-year-old boy who sustained a rare Salter-Harris type IV distal fibular fracture including an avulsion fracture of the anterior inferior tibiofibular ligament at the fibular attachment. Treatment consisted of open reduction and internal fixation by Kirschner wire and cerclage. Possible posttraumatic growth disturbances and the major implications are highlighted.
Jerry R. Miller; Dru Germanoski; Mark L. Lord
Three geomorphic processes are of primary concern with respect to the current and future state of wet meadow ecosystems: channel incision, avulsion (the abrupt movement of the channel to a new location on the valley floor), and gully formation. Gully formation often is accompanied by upvalley headcut migration and a phenomenon referred to as "groundwater sapping...
Keklikoglu, Nurullah; Asci, Selmin Kaan
A maxillary incisor that had been replanted immediately after avulsion 49 years previously was evaluated histologically after extraction. The histological evaluation revealed resorption of the apical root surface, depositions in cement with different phases and mineral density, and histological changes in the periodontal ligament.
To assess, by means of self-administered structured questionnaire, the level of knowledge of primary schools teachers in Ajman with regards to the immediate emergency management of dental trauma. The questionnaire was sent to teachers in randomly selected primary schools in Ajman. A total of 161 teachers responded (response rate 84.4%). The questionnaire surveyed teachers' background, knowledge and management of tooth fracture, avulsion, and also investigated teachers' attitudes and self-assessed knowledge. Ninety-one percent of the teachers were females, 51.6% in their thirties and 61.5% had university qualification. Fifty teachers had received formal first aid training, and only thirteen of them recalled that they had received training on the management of dental trauma. Concerning the management of tooth fracture, 138 respondents (85.8%) gave the appropriate management for fractured tooth. One hundred twenty-one (75%) of the respondents indicated that is very urgent to seek professional assistance if a permanent tooth is avulsed, but they had little knowledge on the correct media for transporting the avulsed tooth. Most teaches were unsatisfied with their level of knowledge for dental trauma and the majority were interested in having further education on the topic. The findings revealed that the level of knowledge of management of dental trauma (especially tooth avulsion) among school teachers in Ajman is inadequate, and education campaigns are necessary to improve their emergency management of dental injuries.
extrapolated to complex traumatic civilian injuries that likewise pose significant issues with available autologous skin coverage (e.g. necrotizing ... fasciitis , motor vehicle accidents or other trauma with associated soft tissue avulsion injuries, etc.). Important data on the mechanism of action
Cashmore, R G; Havlicek, M; Perkins, N R; James, D R; Fearnside, S M; Marchevsky, A M; Black, A P
Dogs treated for congenital medial patellar luxation were reviewed for the purpose of determining the incidence of postoperative major complications requiring surgical revision and the risk factors for their occurrence. Major complications occurred in 18.5% of the patellar luxation stabilization procedures with implant associated complications being the most frequent, patellar reluxation the second, and tibial tuberosity avulsion the third most common major complication. Other complications included patellar ligament rupture and trochlear wedge displacement. When recession trochleoplasty was performed in addition to tibial tuberosity transposition, a 5.1-fold reduction in the rate of patellar reluxation was observed. Release of the cranial belly of the sartorius muscle further reduced the incidence of patellar reluxation, while patella alta (pre- or postoperative) and patellar luxation grade were not found to influence the rate of reluxation. Tibial tuberosity avulsion was 11.1-times more likely when using a single Kirschner wire to stabilize a transposition, compared with two Kirschner wires. Independent to the number of Kirschner wires used, the more caudodistally the Kirschner wires were directed, the higher the risk for tibial tuberosity avulsion. Tension bands were used in 24.4% of the transpositions with no tuberosity avulsion occurring in stifles stabilized with a tension band. Overall, grade 1 luxations had a significantly lower incidence of major complications than other grades, while body weight, age, sex, and bilateral patellar stabilization were not associated with risk of major complication development.
Context: There is a wide spectrum of hamstring-related injuries that can occur in the athlete. Accurate diagnosis is imperative to prevent delayed return to sport, injury recurrence, and accurate clinical decision making regarding the most efficacious treatment. Evidence Acquisition: This review highlights current evidence related to the diagnosis and treatment of hamstring-related injuries in athletes. Data sources were limited to peer-reviewed publications indexed in MEDLINE from 1988 through May 2011. Results: An accurate diagnostic process for athletes with posterior thigh–related complaints should include a detailed and discriminative history, followed by a thorough clinical examination. Diagnostic imaging should be utilized when considering hamstring avulsion or ischial apophyseal avulsion. Diagnostic imaging may also be needed to further define the cause of referred posterior thigh pain. Conclusions: Differentiating acute hamstring strains, hamstring tendon avulsions, ischial apophyseal avulsions, proximal hamstring tendinopathies, and referred posterior thigh pain is critical in determining the most appropriate treatment and expediting safe return to play. PMID:23016076
Muilenburg, Rebecca K; Fry, Thomas R
In summary, an ideal diagnostic plan for cats with suspected FNPs should include a thorough anesthetized oropharyngeal examination, otoscopic examination, and imaging studies, which may consist of a bulla radiographic series or specialized imaging studies such as CT or MR scans. In general, if signs indicative of otitis media are present, ventral bulla osteotomy should be advised. As a result of the distinct appearance of FNPs, a preoperative biopsy is not indicated in all instances but should be considered if there are atypical features to the history or presentation. Traction-avulsion of polyps through the external ear canal or auditory tube from the oropharynx may have a lower success rate than traction-avulsion combined with ventral bulla osteotomy. If the veterinarian opts to treat FNPs by traction-avulsion alone as a result of financial constraints imposed by the client, the client should be strongly cautioned regarding potential recurrence. Postoperative complications are possible with any treatment option, but neurologic impairment, including Horner's syndrome, facial neuropathy, and hypoglossal neuropathy, is significantly more likely after surgical intervention by ventral bulla osteotomy than after traction-avulsion alone. A high percentage of these complications are self-limiting. In all instances, appropriate culture and sensitivity and biopsy specimens should be collected so as to enable provision of appropriate postoperative care. Antibiotic therapy should be provided based on culture and sensitivity test results. The use of postoperative steroids to prevent recurrence is controversial.
D. R. Miller; C. Asaro; C. W. Berisford
We determined the response of the small southern pine engraver, Ips avulses (Eichhoff); eastern fivespined ips, Ips grandicollis (Eichhoff); sixspined ips, Ips calligraphus (Germar); and pine engraver, Ips pini (Say) to the pheromones (Â±)-ipsenol, (Â±)-ipsdienol, and lanierone in the...
Denadai, Rafael; Raposo-Amaral, Cassio Eduardo; Marques, Frederico Figueiredo; Raposo-Amaral, Cesar Augusto
The temporoparietal fascia flap has been extensively used in craniofacial reconstructions. However, its use for eyebrow reconstruction has been sporadically reported. We describe a successfully repaired hair-bearing temporoparietal fascia flap after traumatic avulsion of eyebrow. Temporoparietal fascia flap is a versatile tool and should be considered as a therapeutic option by all plastic surgeons. PMID:25993077
... signed a report titled ``Grays Lake Administrative Navigability Determination and Omitted Lands and... decisions related to Grays Lake. This decision document will be considered filed for the purposes of survey... Grays Lake and no in-lake avulsion. In addition to those decisions, the report also presents an...
Mannil, M; Andreisek, G; Weishaupt, D; Fischer, M A
Chronic sports injuries of the knee joint are common and mainly caused by repetitive (micro) trauma and exertion. Chronic insertion tendinopathies and avulsion fractures and symptoms related to entrapment, friction and impingement can be pathophysiologically distinguished in athletes. In this review, we depict the characteristic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of the most commonly occurring pathologies.
McIntosh, C D; Thomson, C E
Anecdotal reports suggest that certain honey dressings have a positive effect on wound healing. However, there is limited empirical evidence supporting its use. This double-blind randomised controlled trial investigated the effect of a honey dressing on wound healing following toenail surgery with matrix phenolisation. Participants (n=100) were randomly assigned to receive either an active manuka honey dressing (n=52) or paraffin-impregnated tulle gras (n=48). The primary outcome was time (days) taken for complete re-epithelialisation of the nail bed. Mean healing times were 40.30 days (SD 18.21) for the honey group and 39.98 days (SD 25.42) for the paraffin tulle gras group. Partial avulsion wounds healed statistically significantly faster (p=0.01) with paraffin tulle gras (19.62 days, SD 9.31) than with the honey dressing (31.76 days, SD 18.8), but no significant difference (p=0.21) was found following total avulsion when comparing honey (45.28 days, SD 18.03.) with paraffin tulle gras dressings (52.03 days, SD 21.3). The results suggest that patients may benefit more from paraffin tulle gras dressings than honey dressings following partial toenail avulsion. No statistically significant difference was found for healing times after total toenail avulsion, although the marginal benefit of the honey dressing on these healing times warrants further investigation.
process-imitating rules. The model aggrades an alluvial floodplain, creating floodplain architecture by differentiating between sediment deposited by...meandering rivers. The results suggest that the channel aggradation rate influenced heavily the relative channel avulsion frequency during floodplain...composition and organization of the river basin and its floodplain (Schumm 1968). In an actively building ( aggrading ) floodplain, the river channel is
Teo, Elisha A.; Ziegler, Alan D.; Wasson, Robert J.; Morthekai, Paulramasamy
The drainage of the Chiang Mai basin has a dynamic but largely forgotten history. In the late 1980s, an ancient lost city was excavated near the Ping River in Chiang Mai, Thailand. Archaeologists had unearthed Wiang Kum Kam, the former royal capital of the Lanna Civilisation founded in 1286 CE. Former investigations revealed that flood sediments buried the capital and remnants of an abandoned river channel were discovered beneath the surface. This concurs with historical descriptions of the Ping River being on the eastern bank of the capital, despite being presently located on the western bank. The paleochannel drained 500 years ago after diverting west of the ancient city. This switch, an avulsion, coincided with a large flood, which could have triggered and/or caused the avulsion. Local oral histories also recount other Ping avulsions across the basin, but these were not documented. Some of these paleochannels residually remain as unusually sinuous irrigation canals, with historically suggestive names such as the Old Ping and the Small Ping Rivers. Here, the geomorphological evolution of the Ping River is investigated, as a future avulsion in this extensively populated area would be catastrophic. Evidence shows that the drainage of the Chiang Mai basin evolved from a braided system, to an avulsing anastomosing system, to a primarily single channel system. Two-dimensional electrical resistivity tomography and augering detected a large continuous body of fluvial sand 4 m below the surface, across the 10 km distance between the Ping and Kuang Rivers. This sand continues to the depth of at least 30 m and is typical of a braided system. Further augering along paleochannels revealed buried levees that protrude from the braided river deposits to near the surface, separated by fine floodplain sediments. This may have formed as the braided system evolved into an anastomosing system, where distinct channels stabilised and floodplain deposits could develop between channels
Young, Cecilia; Wong, K Y; Cheung, L K
OBJECTIVES. To investigate the level of knowledge about emergency management of dental trauma among Hong Kong primary and secondary school teachers. DESIGN. Questionnaire survey. SETTING. A teachers' union that unites 90% of teachers in Hong Kong. PARTICIPANTS. Randomly selected primary and secondary school teachers. RESULTS. Only 32.8% of respondents correctly stated that a person sustaining dental trauma should go to dentists directly. In all, 73.1% of teachers correctly stated that a dental trauma patient should go for treatment immediately. Only 32.5% knew that a fractured tooth should be put in liquid. Even fewer (23.2%) realised that the displaced tooth should be repositioned back to the original position. Relatively more respondents (74.7%) understood that an avulsed baby tooth should not be put back. Disappointingly, only 16.3% of teachers knew that an avulsed permanent tooth should be replanted. Furthermore, only 29.6% of teachers thought that they were able to distinguish between deciduous teeth and permanent teeth, whilst 20.4% correctly identified at least one of the appropriate mediums: milk, physiological saline or saliva, for storing an avulsed tooth. Teachers who previously received first-aid training with dental content or acquired dental injury information from other sources, scored significantly higher than teachers without such training or acquired information. CONCLUSION. The knowledge on emergency management of dental trauma among primary and secondary school teachers in Hong Kong is insufficient, particularly on the handling of permanent tooth avulsion and the appropriate storage medium for avulsed teeth. Receipt of first-aid training with dental contents and acquisition of dental injury information from other sources were positively correlated with knowledge in managing dental trauma.
Jalgaonkar, Azal A; Dachepalli, Sunil; Al-Wattar, Zaid; Rao, Sudhir; Kochhar, Tony
Avulsion fractures of the tibial tuberosity are typically sustained by adolescent males during sporting activities. Tibial tuberosity avulsions with simultaneous proximal tibial epiphyseal fractures are rare injuries. We present an unusual case of Ogden type IIIA avulsion fracture of tibial tuberosity with a Salter Harris type IV posterior fracture of proximal tibial epiphysis in a 13-year-old boy. We believe that the patient sustained the tibial tuberosity avulsion during the take-off phase of a jump while playing basketball due to sudden violent contraction of the quadriceps as the knee was extending. This was then followed by the posterior Salter Harris type IV fracture of proximal tibial physis as he landed on his leg with enormous forces passing through the knee. Although standard radiographs were helpful in diagnosing the complex fracture pattern, precise configuration was only established by computed tomography (CT) scan. The scan also excluded well-recognized concomitant injuries including ligament and meniscal injuries. Unlike other reported cases, our patient did not have compartment syndrome. Anatomic reduction and stabilization with a partially threaded transepiphyseal cannulated screw and a metaphyseal screw followed by early mobilization ensured an excellent recovery by the patient.Our case highlights the importance of vigilance and a high index of suspicion for coexisting fractures or soft tissue injuries when treating avulsion fractures of tibial tuberosity. A CT scan is justified in such patients to recognize complex fracture configurations, and surgical treatment should be directed appropriately to both the fractures followed by early rehabilitation. Patients with such injuries warrant close monitoring for compartment syndrome during the perioperative period.
Tooth, S.; Rodnight, H.; McCarthy, T. S.; Duller, G. A. T.; Grundling, A. T.
Knowledge of the long-term geomorphological dynamics of wetlands is limited, so currently there is an inadequate scientific basis for assessing anthropogenically induced changes and for developing conservation, remediation, and/or sustainable management guidelines for these fragile ecosystems. Along the upper Klip River, eastern South Africa, geomorphological and sedimentological investigations, geochronology, and remote sensing have been used to establish the late Quaternary dynamics of some internationally important floodplain wetlands, thus providing a reference condition against which to assess the extent of recent human impacts. Optically stimulated luminescence dating reveals that the wetlands have developed over at least the last 30 ky as a result of slow meander migration (< 0.2 m y - 1 ), irregular cutoff events, and infrequent avulsions (approximately one every 3-6 ky) that have occurred autogenically as a natural part of meander-belt development. Following European settlement in the Klip valley (late nineteenth century), however, modifications to local flora and fauna, as well as the initiation of local wetland drainage schemes, have had major impacts. In particular, proliferation of exotic willows and associated debris jams, and the artificial excavation of a 1.2-km-long channel section across the wetlands have initiated an ongoing avulsion that is characterised by failure (gradual abandonment) of the main channel and rapid incision of a headcutting channel. Compared to the pre-settlement condition, little change in lateral migration activity has occurred, but this avulsion provides a clear example of anthropogenically accelerated change, occurring only ~ 1 ky after the last natural avulsion and in a part of the wetlands where avulsions have not occurred previously. Subsequent human interventions have included installing weirs in an attempt to control the resulting erosion and promote reflooding, but ongoing maintenance has been required. In areas that
Shek, K L; Green, K; Hall, J; Guzman-Rojas, R; Dietz, H P
Levator avulsion has been shown to be associated with anterior and central compartment prolapse and is a risk factor for prolapse recurrence. Diagnosis in the delivery room is usually impossible, as levator avulsion is commonly occult. The objective of this study was to determine if vaginal and major perineal tears are clinical markers of levator trauma as diagnosed by four-dimensional (4D) translabial ultrasound 3-6 months postpartum. This was a retrospective observational study using data obtained in two perinatal trials. A total of 774 women seen, on average, 5 (range, 2.3-22.4) months after their first delivery of a term singleton cephalic baby underwent a standardized interview, clinical assessment and 4D translabial ultrasound examination. Clinical data were obtained from the institutional obstetric database, including information on vaginal and perineal tears. Levator avulsion was diagnosed using tomographic ultrasound, with operators blinded to the clinical data. Both third- and fourth-degree perineal tears and vaginal sidewall tears were independently associated with levator avulsion (P = 0.004 and P = 0.012, respectively). The odds ratio for avulsion in women suffering from such overt trauma was 3.44 (95% CI, 1.47-8.03) for third-/fourth-degree perineal tears and 3.35 (95% CI, 1.30-8.61) for vaginal sidewall tears. Vaginal sidewall and third-/fourth-degree perineal tears were found to be independent clinical indicators of an increased risk of levator trauma, as diagnosed by 4D translabial ultrasound 3-6 months postpartum. Such clinical markers may become useful in the identification of women at high risk of levator trauma and future pelvic floor disorders. Copyright © 2015 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Lee, Sun Joo; Jacobson, Jon A; Kim, Sung-Moon; Fessell, David; Jiang, Yebin; Girish, Gandikota; Magerkurth, Olaf
Distinction between musculotendinous tears of the pectoralis major and distal tendon avulsions is important, as the latter typically requires surgical repair. The objective of this study was to characterize the sonographic appearances of surgically proven distal tendon avulsion tears of the pectoralis major. A retrospective search of the radiology database (2001-2011) revealed 22 cases of pectoralis major tears on sonography, of which 9 had surgical correlation. Sonograms were retrospectively characterized by 3 fellowship-trained musculoskeletal radiologists in consensus with respect to the location and size of the fluid collection and the presence of tendon or tendonlike tissue superficial to the biceps brachii tendon. At surgery, complete distal tendon avulsions or tears of the sternal head of the pectoralis were present in all 9 cases: isolated in 6 and combined with clavicular head tears in 3. The location of the fluid collection was at the musculotendinous junction in 89% (8 of 9) and medial to the biceps brachii tendon in 11% (1 of 9), with a mean largest dimension of 3.8 cm (range, 0.7-6.2 cm). In no case was fluid seen at the humeral attachment of the pectoralis. In 67% (6 of 9), linear thickened hypoechoic tissue was seen superficial to the biceps brachii tendon, which simulated an abnormal but intact tendon, whereas in 33% (3 of 9), a normal distal pectoralis tendon was seen. Surgically proven distal pectoralis major tendon avulsions most commonly showed fluid collections at the musculotendinous junction and not at the humeral shaft, with either a normal tendon or hypoechoic tendonlike tissue over the biceps brachii long-head tendon. These findings may potentially cause misdiagnosis of distal tendon avulsions or tears as musculotendinous injuries.
Kaiser, Radek; Waldauf, Petr; Haninec, Pavel
Brachial plexus injuries occur in up to 5% of polytrauma cases involving motorcycle accidents and in approximately 4% of severe winter sports injuries. One of the criteria for a successful operative therapy is the type of lesion. Upper plexus palsy has the best prognosis, whereas lower plexus palsy is surgically untreatable. The aim of this study was to evaluate a group of patients with brachial plexus injury caused by traffic accidents, categorize the injuries according to type of accident, and look for correlations between type of palsy (injury) and specific accidents. A total of 441 brachial plexus reconstruction patients from our department were evaluated retrospectively(1993 to 2011). Sex, age, neurological status, and the type and cause of injury were recorded for each case. Patients with BPI caused by a traffic accident were assessed in detail. Traffic accidents were the cause of brachial plexus injury in most cases (80.7%). The most common type of injury was avulsion of upper root(s) (45.7%) followed by rupture (28.2%), complete avulsion (16.9%) and avulsion of lower root(s) (9.2%). Of the patients, 73.9% had an upper,22.7% had a complete and only 3.4% had a lower brachial plexus palsy. The main cause was motorcycle accidents(63.2%) followed by car accidents (23.5%), bicycle accidents(10.7%) and pedestrian collisions (3.1%) (p<0.001).Patients involved in car accidents had a higher percentage of lower avulsion (22.7%) and a lower percentage of upper avulsion (29.3%), whereas cyclists had a higher percentage of upper avulsion (68.6%) based on the data from the entire group of patients (p<0.001). Lower plexus palsy was significantly increased in patients after car accidents (9.3%,p<0.05). In the two main groups (car and motorcycle accidents),significantly more upper and fewer lower palsies were present. In the bicycle accident group, upper palsy was the most common (89%). Study results indicate that the most common injury was an upper plexus palsy. It was
Ralph, Timothy; Larkin, Zacchary; Hesse, Paul; Westaway, Kira; Heijnis, Henk
Anthropogenic impacts on hydrology and sediment supply are recognized as leading factors contributing to change in many rivers and wetlands. However it is difficult to distinguish between key causes and forms of channel adjustment in fluvial systems where intrinsic geomorphic processes lead to change on a timeframe similar to that of human disturbance. In the Macquarie Marshes, a large (circa 2,500 square kilometres) floodplain wetland in southeastern Australia, intermittent flooding drives sedimentation and erosion leading to levee development, avulsion and floodout. Some contemporary channel change is attributed to human disturbance in the system (e.g. channel incision), which, together with river regulation and recent droughts, have left much of the floodplain high and dry. Distributary channels formed since European settlement in the early 19th century have low sinuosity (1.1 to 1.2), show little evidence of lateral migration, accumulate fine sediment rapidly (0.5 to 10 mm/yr) in levees and floodouts, and avulse or terminate in wetlands. Avulsion appears to occur rapidly; within 100 years. In contrast, the older, discontinuous trunk stream of the lower Macquarie River is more sinuous (1.3 to 1.5) and there is abundant evidence of lateral migration over time followed by levee development on top of ridges and swales. ITRAX core scanning and XRF from sediment profiles in a Macquarie River meander abandoned around 1 ka and subsequently filled with overbank fines revealed no laminations and no evidence of significant geochemical enrichment near the surface that is usually associated with anthropogenic sources (e.g. Pb and Cu). These results indicate a transition in depositional regime and channel adjustment processes from lateral migration to vertical accretion with greater levee development and avulsion in the late Holocene. A clear anthropogenic signal was not found in the sediment record, despite earthworks and other activities contributing to channel change. We
Lindå, Hans; Sköld, Mattias K; Ochsmann, Thomas
Activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) is induced in various tissues in response to stress. In this experiment, ATF3 expression was studied in adult rats subjected either to a dorsal or ventral root avulsion (VRA; L4-6), or sciatic nerve transection (SNT). Post-operative survival times varied between 1.5 h and 3 weeks. In additional experiments an avulsed ventral root was directly replanted to the spinal cord. Dorsal root ganglias (DRGs) from humans exposed to traumatic dorsal root avulsions were also examined. After SNT ATF3 immunoreactivity (ATF3 IR) was detected in a few DRG neurons already 6 h after the lesion. After 24 h the number had clearly increased and still at 3 weeks DRG neurons remained labeled. In the ventral horn, ATF3 IR in motoneurons (MN) was first detected 24 h after the SNT, and still 3 weeks post-operatively lesioned MN showed ATF3 labeling. After a VRA many spinal MN showed ATF3 IR already after 3 h, and after 6 h all MN were labeled. At 3 weeks a majority of the lesioned MN had died, but all the remaining ones were labeled. When an avulsed ventral root was directly replanted, MN survived and were still labeled at 5 weeks. In DRG, a few neurons were labeled already at 1.5 h after a dorsal root avulsion. At 24 h the number had increased but still only a minority of the neurons were labeled. At 3 days the number of labeled neurons was reduced, and a further reduction was at hand at 7 days and 3 weeks. In parallel, in humans, 3 days after a traumatic dorsal root avulsion, only a few DRG neurons showed ATF3 IR. At 6 weeks no labeled neurons could be detected. These facts imply that ATF3 response to axotomy involves a distance-dependent mechanism. ATF3 also appears to be a useful and reliable neuronal marker of nerve lesions even in humans. In addition, ATF3 up-regulation in both motor and sensory neurons seems to be linked to regenerative competence.
Gutmacher, Zvi; Peled, Eli; Norman, Doron; Lin, Shaul
Aim: Dental injuries, especially luxation and avulsion, are common. Dental trauma can cause alveolar bone fracture that can lead to tooth loss and malocclusion. Single tooth alveolar bone fractures are difficult to identify unless it protrudes through the overlying mucosa and can be visualized. Pain, malocclusion, and tooth mobility provide signs of suspected alveolar bone fractures. Integrity of the proximate alveolar bone should be examined for fractures where avulsion, luxation, or other tooth trauma is detected. Any suggestion of alveolar fractures should be further investigated with an appropriate radiograph. Summary: This case report shows a pathognomonic sign that detects and diagnosis single tooth alveolar bone fractures, i.e., a localized hematoma crossing the attached gingiva from the free gingival margin to the vestibular mucosa. This should serve as a warning for localized alveolar bone fracture. A visualized hematoma and gentle, careful palpation may help detect covered fractures when the overlying mucosa is not perforated. PMID:28400864
Saetta, J P; Phair, I C; Quinton, D N
25 patients were assessed following repair of an acutely ruptured ulnar collateral ligament of the thumb metacarpo-phalangeal joint. The patients were divided into two groups, repaired by either a horizontal mattress suture using 4/0 polybutylate (nine patients), or a pre-fashioned steel wire (16 patients). Assessment included a physical examination and functional testing at a mean of 12.9 months (range 4-36 months) after the operation. Both techniques were equally effective, and the use of the more expensive steel wire, while technically satisfying and easy to perform, offers no clinical advantage over simple suture. This pre-fashioned steel wire is, however, recommended in those cases with an avulsion fracture or where distal avulsion of the ligament is associated, since the technique allows easy secure reduction.
The recommendations of oral trauma and dental emergencies management of nine first-aid textbooks and manuals from the last two decades were evaluated. Only one book includes all the relevant topics: dental anatomy, management of tooth luxations and avulsion, tooth fracture, mandible dislocation, jaw fracture, intraoral bleeding and dental pain. Two books recommend self-replantation of an avulsed tooth, but four books detail the storage media and evaluate the importance of a quick referral to a dental surgery. In three first-aid books, the only mention of oral trauma is the hazard of choking from tooth fragments, and in one other book, only mandible dislocation is mentioned as oral trauma. The insufficient information of oral trauma management in these first-aid texts partly explains the previous reports of poor and inadequate knowledge in that topic among medics, teachers and the general public.
Wiens, J P
Trauma from motor vehicle accidents is one of the leading causes of death in the United States; moreover, the costs related to personal harm are only second to cancer. Head and neck injuries predominate and involve contact with the vehicle's interior (80%), contact with the vehicle's exterior (12%), or noncontact with the vehicle (8%). The patient with maxillofacial defects resulting from motor vehicle accident will have numerous soft tissue and hard tissue injuries ranging from neurologic involvement to fractures and/or avulsions of the temporomandibular joint, maxillae, mandible, teeth, and supporting structures. Tooth avulsions, pulpitis, and fractures without pulpitis have been found in a 4:2:1 ratio. The prosthodontist plays an important team role by anticipating the increased functional demands that may be placed on the required prostheses and by anticipating the preprosthetic procedures and counseling that may be necessary to assist in the total treatment.
Zermeño-Rivera, Jaime; Gutiérrez-Amavizca, Bianca Ethel
Brachial plexus avulsion results from excessive stretching and can occur secondary to motor vehicle accidents, mainly in motorcyclists. In a 28-year-old man with panavulsive brachial plexus palsy, we describe an alternative technique to repair brachial plexus avulsion and to stabilize and preserve shoulder function by transferring the contralateral spinal accessory nerve to the suprascapular nerve. We observed positive clinical and electromyographic results in sternocleidomastoid, trapezius, supraspinatus, infraspinatus, pectoralis, triceps, and biceps, with good outcome and prognosis for shoulder function at 12 months after surgery. This technique provides a unique opportunity for patients suffering from severe brachial plexus injuries and lacking enough donor nerves to obtain shoulder stability and mobility while avoiding bone fusion and preserving functionality of the contralateral shoulder with favorable postoperative outcomes.
Terzi, Erdinc; Guvenc, Ulas; Türsen, Belma; Kaya, Tamer İrfan; Erdem, Teoman; Türsen, Ümit
Ingrown toenail is an often painful clinical condition that usually affects the big toe. Chemical matricectomy with phenol has a low recurrence rate and good cosmetic results. However, it produces extensive tissue destruction that can result in drainage and delayed healing. Alternatives such as sodium hydroxide and trichloroacetic acid (TCA) have therefore come into vogue. A total of 39 patients with 56 ingrown toenail edges underwent chemical matricectomy with 90% TCA after partial nail avulsion. In most of the patients, adverse effects such as postoperative pain and drainage were minimal. One patient who underwent matricectomy had recurrence in a single nail edge (1.8%) at 12 months follow-up. No recurrence was observed among 38 patients during the mean follow-up period. This was considered to be statistically significant (P < 0.001). Partial nail avulsion followed by TCA matricectomy is a safe, simple, and effective method with low rates of postoperative morbidity and high rates of success. PMID:25657908
Anastomosing rivers constitute an important category of multi-channel rivers on alluvial plains. Most often they seem to form under relatively low-energetic conditions near a (local) base level. It appears to be impossible to define anastomosing rivers unambiguously on the basis of channel planform only. Therefore, the following definition, which couples floodplain geomorphology and channel pattern, is proposed in this paper: an anastomosing river is composed of two or more interconnected channels that enclose floodbasins. This definition explicitly excludes the phenomenon of channel splitting by convex-up bar-like forms that characterize braided channels. In present definitions of anastomosing rivers, lateral stability of channels is commonly coupled with their multi-channel character. Here, it is suggested that these two properties be uncoupled. At the scale of channel belts, the terms 'straight', 'meandering' and 'braided' apply, whereas at a larger scale, a river can be called anastomosing if it meets the definition given above. This means that, straight, meandering and braided channels may all be part of an anastomosing river system. Straight channels are defined by a sinuosity index; i.e., the ratio of the distance along the channel and the distance along the channel-belt axis is less than 1.3. They are the type of channel that most commonly occurs in combination with anastomosis. The occurrence of straight channels is favoured by low stream power, basically a product of discharge and gradient, and erosion-resistant banks. Anastomosing rivers are usually formed by avulsions, i.e., flow diversions that cause the formation of new channels on the floodplain. As a product of avulsion, anastomosing rivers essentially form in two ways: (1) by formation of bypasses, while bypassed older channel-belt segments remain active for some period; and (2) by splitting of the diverted avulsive flow, leading to contemporaneous scour of multiple channels on the floodplain. Both
Bolhari, Behnam; Pirmoazen, Salma; Taftian, Ensieh; Dehghan, Somayeh
Trauma to primary teeth can lead to devastating sequels in development of permanent successors. The disturbance may range from enamel hypoplasia and/or hypo-calcification to arrest of dental bud development. Crown dilaceration of permanent teeth is one of the consequences of trauma to deciduous teeth mainly due to intrusion or avulsion. This report presents a mandibular central incisor with dilacerated crown and yellowish discoloration with symptomatic apical abscess. History revealed avulsion of primary mandibular central incisors. The purpose of this report is to present: 1. Reasons of dilacerated crown, yellowish discoloration and necrotic pulp in this case, 2. Treatment options in different types of crown dilacerations and also in this case. The tooth was successfully managed by nonsurgical root canal therapy and restoration with composite resin to restore esthetics. We emphasize that trauma to deciduous teeth should not be understated, and regular follow up is essential.
Bolhari, Behnam; Pirmoazen, Salma; Taftian, Ensieh
Trauma to primary teeth can lead to devastating sequels in development of permanent successors. The disturbance may range from enamel hypoplasia and/or hypo-calcification to arrest of dental bud development. Crown dilaceration of permanent teeth is one of the consequences of trauma to deciduous teeth mainly due to intrusion or avulsion. This report presents a mandibular central incisor with dilacerated crown and yellowish discoloration with symptomatic apical abscess. History revealed avulsion of primary mandibular central incisors. The purpose of this report is to present: 1. Reasons of dilacerated crown, yellowish discoloration and necrotic pulp in this case, 2. Treatment options in different types of crown dilacerations and also in this case. The tooth was successfully managed by nonsurgical root canal therapy and restoration with composite resin to restore esthetics. We emphasize that trauma to deciduous teeth should not be understated, and regular follow up is essential. PMID:28243307
Ferreira, Hugo M.; Botelho, Filomena; Carrilho, Eunice
Traumatic dental injury can result in avulsion of anterior teeth. In young patients, it is a challenge to the dental professional because after replantation, late complications such as ankylosis require tooth extraction. Although prosthetic and orthodontic treatment, and implant placement have been described as the options for intervention, autogenous tooth transplantation could be an effective procedure in growing patients if there is a suitable donor tooth available. This case presents the treatment of a patient who suffered a traumatic injury at 9 years old with avulsion of tooth 21, which had been replanted, and intrusion of tooth 11. Both teeth ankylosed; thus they were removed and autotransplantation of premolars was carried out. After transplantation, the tooth underwent root canal treatment because of pulpal necrosis. Orthodontic treatment began 3 months after transplantation and during 7 years' follow-up the aesthetics and function were maintained without signs of resorption. PMID:26295028
Franko, O I; Khalpey, Z; Gates, J
Phrenic nerve palsy has previously been associated with brachial plexus root avulsion; severe unilateral phrenic nerve injury is not uncommonly associated with brachial plexus injury. Brachial plexus injuries can be traumatic (gunshot wounds, lacerations, stretch/contusion and avulsion injuries) or non-traumatic in aetiology (supraclavicular brachial plexus nerve block, subclavian vein catheterisation, cardiac surgeries, or obstetric complications such as birth palsy). Despite the known association, the incidence and morbidity of a phrenic nerve injury and hemidiaphragmatic paralysis associated with traumatic brachial plexus stretch injuries remains ill-defined. The incidence of an associated phrenic nerve injury with brachial plexus trauma ranges from 10% to 20%; however, because unilateral diaphragmatic paralysis often presents without symptoms at rest, a high number of phrenic nerve injuries are likely to be overlooked in the setting of brachial plexus injury. A case report is presented of a unilateral phrenic nerve injury associated with brachial plexus stretch injury presenting with a recalcitrant left lower lobe pneumonia.
Cheung, Jason Pui Yin; Fung, Boris; Ip, Wing Yuk
Mallet finger is a common injury involving either an extensor tendon rupture at its insertion or an avulsion fracture involving the insertion of the terminal extensor tendon. It is usually caused by a forceful blow to the tip of the finger causing sudden flexion or a hyperextension injury. Fracture at the dorsal aspect of the base of the distal phalanx is commonly associated with palmar subluxation of the distal phalanx. Most mallet finger injuries are recommended to be treated with immobilisation of the distal interphalangeal joint in extension by splints. There is no consensus on the type of splint and the duration of use. Most studies have shown comparable results with different splints. Surgical fixation is still indicated in certain conditions such as open injuries, avulsion fracture involving at least one third of the articular surface with or without palmar subluxation of the distal phalanx and also failed splinting treatment.
Transarticular external skeletal fixation usually involves rigid bars that result in a stable but stiff joint. This study describes the technique and the outcome of an elastic transarticular external fixator (ETEF) applied to the elbow joint. Four cases of elbow luxation with collateral ligament injuries were managed with closed reduction and application of an ETEF to maintain the reduction. A triceps tendon avulsion was surgically managed before applying an ETEF. The clinical outcome was considered excellent in 2 cats, good in 2 dogs (1 elbow luxation and the avulsion of the triceps tendon), and poor in 1 dog presented for elbow luxation and a permanent neurological defect. The procedure was rapid, easy to perform, and inexpensive. All animals except the one with a neurological defect had an early return to weight bearing. This method maintains extension of the joint while permitting its motion thereby promoting rehabilitation.
Kimura, Juliana Sayuri; Cadioli, Isabela Capparelli; Alves, Daniela Mazzotti Bressan; Alencar, Cássio José Fornazari; Fonoff, Ricardo De Nardi; Wanderley, Marcia Turolla
Severe dental trauma-such as intrusion or avulsion-to the primary dentition in infants and toddlers may cause developmental disturbances in the permanent successor. In this case, a 9-year-old boy was referred for treatment due to the absence of his permanent maxillary right central incisor. The mother reported avulsion of the corresponding primary tooth when the patient was 2 years old. The radiographic examination revealed impaction and root dilaceration of the permanent tooth; therefore, the treatment plan was tooth extraction. The extracted tooth presented multiple abnormalities, including enamel discoloration, enamel hypoplasia, root dilaceration, and root duplication. Several factors need to be considered when treatment of traumatic sequelae to a permanent successor is planned, including the age of the patient, the developmental stage of the permanent successor at the time of trauma, and the type of trauma to the primary tooth.
Kose, Ozkan; Yuksel, Halil Yalcin; Guler, Ferhat; Ege, Tolga
Avulsion fractures of the anterior inferior tibiofibular ligament from its tibial attachment, Tillaux fractures, are usually seen in adolescents during the interval of the distal tibial epiphyseal closure. However, this pattern of fracture is rare in adult patients, because the ligaments will usually fail before the bone fails. Avulsion fracture of the posterior inferior tibiofibular ligament from its tibial attachment, Volkmann fracture, is the posterolateral counterpart of a similar injury. In the present study, the cases of 2 adult patients with simultaneous Tillaux and Volkmann fractures are reported and the mechanism of injury, diagnosis, and treatment discussed. This fracture pattern is extremely rare and, to the best of our knowledge, has not been previously reported. Copyright © 2015 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Rosenbaum, Andrew J; Uhl, Richard L; DiPreta, John A
The tarsal navicular plays an integral role in hind-foot motion and gait, and is the keystone of the foot's medial longitudinal arch. As such, injuries to the navicular can be devastating. Acute avulsion, tuberosity, and body fractures have been described. Fractures of the body result from high-energy trauma and are often seen in conjunction with additional ipsilateral foot injuries. Plain radiographs are the gold standard for diagnosis, with computed tomography helpful in the presence of intra-articular fracture extension. Non-operative treatment is reserved for avulsion injuries and non-displaced body fractures. Open reduction and internal fixation must be performed for all other types, as failure to achieve an anatomic reduction can impede proper locomotion. Complications following operative intervention include pain, stiffness, posttraumatic arthritis, avascular necrosis, nonunion, and hindfoot deformity. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.
Limb salvage in tumor surgery has encouraged the development of megaprostheses. However, reattaching the ligamentum patellae poses a particular problem: avulsion and/or extensor lag may lead to poor function. We describe a new technique of patellar ligament reconstruction. The technique involves reattachment of the patellar ligament to the tibial tuberosity of the proximal tibial megaprosthesis, which has a porous surface created, and the repair is protected with a cerclage wire through the patella and the prosthesis. In 10 consecutive patients, the range of motion averaged 95° (median, 90°; range, 70°–120°), and the mean extension lag averaged 4° (median, 0°; range, 0°–20°). We had one case of patellar ligament avulsion. This technique resulted in good quadriceps function and a low incidence of complications. Level of Evidence: Level IV, therapeutic study. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. PMID:18425561
Kose, Ozkan; Kilicaslan, Omer Faruk; Guler, Ferhat; Aktan, Cemil
Introduction: Anterior Talofibular Ligament (ATFL) rupture is the most commonly injured anatomic structure in lateral ankle sprain. In some cases, ATFL avulsion fracture from the lateral malleolus may occur instead of purely ligamentous injuries. The ATFL avulsion fracture is detected as a small ossicle at the tip of lateral malleolus on direct radiographs, which is called os subfibulare in chronic cases. Case Presentation: Severe displacement of this ossicle to the tibiotalar joint space is an extremely rare injury. Herein, a case of intra-articular entrapment of os subfibulare following a severe inversion injury of the ankle, which caused a diagnostic challenge was presented. Conclusions: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of entrapment of os subfibulare in the talotibial joint space. Fixation of the os subfibulare to lateral malleolus resulted in union and excellent functional results. PMID:26101763
Niikuni, Naoko; Seki, Nobuyuki; Sato, Kieko; Nasu, Daisuke; Shirakawa, Tetsuo
When a tooth is avulsed and replanted following traumatic dental injury, complications such as replacement and inflammatory resorption may occur. Ultimately, resorption may result in loss of the tooth. This case report describes a traumatic injury to a permanent tooth resulting in complete root resorption within a short period, which required surgery. In the present case, improper treatment measures such as dry condition of the avulsed tooth before replantation and extra-oral retrograde root canal filling may have led to rapid complete root resorption. Even if it is impossible to avoid resorption completely, the overall knowledge of both dentists and patients regarding traumatic dental injuries should be improved to delay the progress of resorption.
Koul, Ashok Raj; Cyriac, Asha; Khaleel, V M; Vinodan, K
Bilateral high amputation of upper limbs in a child is a very unusual injury. In the present case, although the amputation was high and significant avulsion was present, the age of the child (6 years) made the case both challenging and encouraging--challenging because of the anticipated systemic effects of reperfusion, and encouraging because the long-term prognosis is always more encouraging in a child.
Sayre, Rebecca S; Lepiz, Mauricio; Wall, Corey; Thieman-Mankin, Kelley; Dobbin, Jennifer
This report describes the clinical findings and diagnostic images of a traumatic intrathoracic tracheal avulsion with a tracheal diverticulum in a cat. Furthermore, a complete description of the tracheal resection and anastomosis using one-lung ventilation (OLV) with total and partial intravenous anesthesia is made. A 3-year-old neutered male domestic shorthair cat weighing 6.8 kg was presented to the University Teaching Hospital for evaluation of increased respiratory noise 3 months following unknown trauma. Approximately 12 weeks prior to presentation, the cat had been seen by the primary care veterinarian for respiratory distress. At that time, the cat had undergone a tracheal ballooning procedure for a distal tracheal stricture diagnosed by tracheoscopy. The tracheal ballooning had provided only temporary relief. At presentation to our institution, the cat had increased respiratory effort with harsh upper airway noise auscultated during thoracic examination. The remainder of the physical examination was normal. Diagnostics included a tracheoscopy and a thoracic computed tomographic examination. The cat was diagnosed with tracheal avulsion, pseudotrachea with a tracheal diverticulum, and stenosis of the avulsed tracheal ends. Surgical correction of the tracheal stricture via a thoracotomy was performed using OLV with total and partial intravenous anesthesia. The cat recovered uneventfully and at last follow-up was active and doing well. This case report describes OLV using standard anesthesia equipment that is available at most private practices. Furthermore, this case describes the computed tomographic images of the intrathoracic tracheal avulsion and offers a positive outcome for tracheal resection and anastomosis. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2015.
Journeau, Pierre; Polirzstok, E; Launay, F; Barbier, D
Sport injuries are common in children and teenaggers, especially overuse injuries. Typical musculoskelotal disorders include apophyseal pains or avulsion, stess fractures, and also epiphyseal ostoochondritis. Some lesions are specific according the practice, such spine or wrist lesions. Prevention of sport injury should be the main priority as well for the parents than the coaches and children themselves. Proper education and preparation, specific training and streching are essential for all sports activities.
Broski, Stephen M; Murthy, Naveen S; Krych, Aaron J; Obey, Mitchel R; Collins, Mark S
To examine the anatomic MRI characteristics of the adductor magnus mini hamstring (AMMH) and explore its involvement in cases of hamstring avulsion. An IRB-approved retrospective review of patients undergoing "hamstring protocol" MRI between March 2009 and June 2014 was performed. Two musculoskeletal radiologists recorded multiple AMMH anatomic characteristics and involvement in cases of hamstring avulsion. Seventy-six AMMHs were analyzed in 66 patients [35 females and 31 males, mean age 49.3 ± 15.2 years (range 17-81)]. Eleven percent of AMMHs were poorly visualized, 51 % visualized, and 37 % well visualized. Seven percent demonstrated round, 73 % ovoid, and 21 % flat/lenticular tendon morphologies. Most (88 %) demonstrated typical origins. Average cross-sectional area (CSA) was 22.4 ± 10.6 mm² (range 6-56), diameter was 7.2 ± 2.5 mm (range 2.9-15), medial distance from the semimembranosus tendon was 7.5 ± 2.5 mm (range 3-14), and tendon length was 6.8 ± 3.3 cm (range 1.2-14.1). There was no gender difference in AMMH anatomic measurements or correlation between age and CSA or diameter. Of 17 complete hamstring avulsion cases, the AMMH was intact in 13, partially torn in 3, and completely torn in 1. The AMMH is a constant finding with variable anatomic characteristics. It is visualized or well visualized by MRI in 88 % of cases and is a sizable tendon located in close proximity to the semimembranosus tendon. Because it is uncommonly completely torn (6 %) in cases of complete hamstring avulsion, radiologists should be aware of its presence and appearance to avoid diagnostic confusion.
Kenny, David J
Emdogain has been available commercially for just over a decade. It is used currently in clinical practice of periodontics and has been investigated in four clinical outcome studies of replanted teeth. This review covers the origin and concepts behind the use of this amelogenin derivative, the unique conditions associated with an avulsed tooth, and the laboratory and clinical characteristics of this material. Emdogain continues to be an experimental material for replantation applications.
including peripheral inflammatory nerve injury (chronic constriction injury) and spinal root avulsion injury. There are several possibilities that could...explain why morphine-exacerbated pain was not observed. First, the mechanisms of pain at the lumbar level following contusion SCI versus other models...that potentially mediate morphine pain (e.g., TLR4) (Ellis et al., 2016;Eidson and Murphy, 2013) are not induced in lumbar spinal cord by T9 injury
graft contracture and Wound Healing Index; and ancillary outcome measures of tissue perfusion measured graft color and laser Doppler flowmetry, and...infection, fluid loss, and foreign material contamination and relapse secondary to wound contracture. Oral mucosa is in limited supply for use in...reconstructive procedures in the oral cavity. This is especially prevalent after large avulsed soft tissue wounds involving the mouth and lips seen in
Moutet, F; Guinard, D; Lebrun, C; Bello-Champel, P; Massart, P
The metacarpo-phalangeal thumb sprains are very frequent. They mostly occur during sports (50%), and the ulnar collateral ligament is the structure most frequently ruptured (86%). Surgical repair of all severe lesions and/or bony fragment avulsions has led to 90% of good, and excellent results, when the operation is followed by a proper physical therapy. Criteria for evaluation are considered and so is the management of the old or neglected sprains.
received no further dilations (over seven months). Endoscopic examination showed that no esophageal constric- tions were present and that the epithelium of...7 AG 396 ARMY INST OF DENTAL RESEARCH WASHINGTON DC FIG 6/5 REGENERATION OF SURGICALLY EXCISED SEGMENTS OF DOG ESOPHAGUS US-ETC(W) U15 G’OE UN8 N F...which will yield effective long-term functional results. The current therapy for repair and replacement of the diseased or avulsed esophagus is by the
Chodakiewitz, Yosef G; Daniels, Alan H; Kamal, Robin N; Weiss, Arnold-Peter C
Post-traumatic Raynaud's phenomenon following non-penetrating or non-repetitive injury is rare. We report a case of Raynaud's phenomenon occurring in a single digit 3 months following volar plate avulsion injury. Daily episodes of painless pallor of the digit occurred for 1 month upon any exposure to cold, resolving with warm water therapy. Symptoms resolved after the initiation of hand therapy, splinting, and range-of- motion exercises.
Montané, J; Marco, I; López, J; Manteca, X; Lavín, S
Multiple bilateral fractures of the lumbar transverse processes were radiographically identified postmortem in a recently captured roe deer (Capreolus capreolus). These fractures were probably caused by an avulsion of the psoas major occurring during introduction into the transport box. The deer probably died from shock caused by the fractures, muscle damage, and subsequent hemorrhage. Although easily overlooked, fractured lumbar transverse processes may indicate inadequate postcapture management practices.
Major, Jon J.; Bertin, Daniel; Pierson, Thomas C.; Amigo, Álvaro; Iroumé, Andrés.; Ulloa, Héctor; Castro, Jonathan
The 10 day explosive phase of the 2008-2009 eruption of Chaitén volcano, Chile, draped adjacent watersheds with a few cm to >1 m of tephra. Subsequent lava-dome collapses generated pyroclastic flows that delivered additional sediment. During the waning phase of explosive activity, modest rainfall triggered an extraordinary sediment flush which swiftly aggraded multiple channels by many meters. Ten kilometer from the volcano, Chaitén River channel aggraded 7 m and the river avulsed through a coastal town. That aggradation and delta growth below the abandoned and avulsed channels allow estimates of postdisturbance traction-load transport rate. On the basis of preeruption bathymetry and remotely sensed measurements of delta-surface growth, we derived a time series of delta volume. The initial flush from 11 to 14 May 2008 deposited 0.5-1.5 × 106 m3 of sediment at the mouth of Chaitén River. By 26 May, after channel avulsion, a second delta amassed about 2 × 106 m3 of sediment; by late 2011 it amassed about 11 × 106 m3. Accumulated sediment consists of low-density vesicular pumice and lithic rhyolite sand. Rates of channel aggradation and delta growth, channel width, and an assumed deposit bulk density of 1100-1500 kg m-3 indicate mean traction-load transport rate just before and shortly after avulsion (˜14-15 May) was very high, possibly as great as several tens of kg s-1 m-1. From October 2008 to December 2011, mean traction-load transport rate declined from about 7 to 0.4 kg-1 m-1. Despite extraordinary sediment delivery, disturbed channels recovered rapidly (a few years).
Cutshall, Chad; Hutchins, Jacob
An ultrasound-guided thoracic paravertebral catheter was placed at T8 in a 15-year-old girl with cystic fibrosis and right-sided chest pain from avulsion of the eighth rib, secondary to coughing. She was discharged home after respiratory stabilization and returned to school with the catheter in place. We report the effective use of an ultrasound-guided continuous thoracic paravertebral block in the management of acute rib pain in a pediatric patient with cystic fibrosis.
Jerolmack, Douglas; Reitz, Meredith
The surfaces of alluvial fans and river deltas (collectively fans) are often dissected by a small number of channels radiating from the fan apex. On long timescales, channels migrate via avulsion, the process of channel bed deposition and abandonment that often results in catastrophic flooding and loss of life on densely populated fans. What governs the selection of new flow paths, or the ultimate number of active channels, is poorly understood. Here we present results of an experimental noncohesive fan that creates realistic channel patterns by avulsion. The system strongly channelizes in one location until localized shoreline progradation diminishes transport capacity of the channel, resulting in backfilling and subsequent widespread flooding; avulsion is completed when a new channel path is selected. This cycle occurs with a periodicity that is predictable from conservation of mass, and results in fluctuations around an equilibrium slope analogous to sand piles. Selection of a new flow path is inherently stochastic; we observe, however, that previously abandoned channels act as significant attractors for the flow, so that the system tends to oscillate among the same 3-5 channels indefinitely. We demonstrate that a directed random walk model with memory quantitatively reproduces these dynamics and limiting behavior, and is consistent with natural fans. Thus, channel migration behaves as a history-dependent, threshold-driven, stochastic process. Because our experimental fan is built by the recurring avulsion sequence, its shoreline shape is a series of lobes that indicate persistent channel locations. Progradation lengthens lobes, while backfilling results in diffusive widening. These dynamics result in self-similar radial growth of fan lobes, which can be described using a simple geometric model. Together, this work provides a complete description of the statistical spatio-temporal dynamics of fan growth. Experiments also provide another example of realistic
Jubel, A; Faymonville, C; Andermahr, J; Boxberg, S; Schiffer, G
Background: Ankle fractures are extremely common in the elderly, with an incidence of up to 39 fractures per 100,000 persons per year. We found a discrepancy between intraoperative findings and preoperative X-ray findings. It was suggested that many relevant lesions of the ankle joint in the elderly cannot be detected with plain X-rays. Methods: Complete data sets and preoperative X-rays of 84 patients aged above 60 years with ankle fractures were analysed retrospectively. There were 59 women and 25 men, with a mean age of 69.9 years. Operation reports and preoperative X-rays were analysed with respect to four relevant lesions: multifragmentary fracture pattern of the lateral malleolus, involvement of the medial malleolus, posterior malleolar fractures and bony avulsion of anterior syndesmosis. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, accuracy and prevalence were calculated. Results: The prevalence of specific ankle lesions in the analyzed cohort was 24 % for the multifragmentary fracture pattern of the lateral malleolus, 38 % for fractures of the medial malleolus, 25 % for posterior malleolar fractures and 22.6 % for bony avulsions of the anterior syndesmosis. Multifragmentary fracture patterns of the lateral malleolus (sensitivity 0 %) and bony avulsions of the anterior syndesmosis (sensitivity 5 %) could not be detected in plain X-rays of the ankle joint at all. Fractures of the medial malleolus and involvement of the dorsal tibial facet were detected with a sensitivity of 96.8 % and 76.2 %, respectively, and specificity of 100 % in both cases. Conclusions: This study confirms that complex fracture patterns, such as multifragmentary involvement of the lateral malleolus, additional fracture of the medial malleolus, involvement of the dorsal tibial facet or bony avulsion of the anterior syndesmosis are common in ankle fractures of the elderly. Therefore, CT scans should be routinely considered for primary
traumatic avulsions, con- front us with an extremely challenging orthopedic task. The need to initiate bone regeneration in order to restore structural de...repair, whereas Nelson and his associates used sphe- roldal particles that did not aid In bone regeneration . A posi- * . tive piezo electric bone...Research, 1984. 10. Coviello, J. and Brilliant, J.D.: A preliminary clinical study on the use of tricalcium phosphate as an apical barrier. 3. Endodont . 5
Koyuturk, Alp Erdin; Kusgoz, Adem
Dental trauma with children and adolescents is a serious dental public health problem. Traumatic injuries on permanent teeth are common, and dramatic episodes can occur during childhood. Cases of dental avulsions and reimplantations, dentoalveolar fractures, several forms (lateral, extrusive and intrusive) of luxations, concussion, subluxation, gingival lacerations and hard, pulpal dental tissue lesions have been extensively reported. This case report presents the therapy for severe trauma caused by multiple traumatic injuries to the dentoalveolar complex of a patient.
Singh, Ishwar; Gupta, Monika; Singh, Tarun K
The Bain co-axial circuit is fully established in general anaesthesia practice. A major concern is the potential malfunctioning of the circuit due to avulsion of the inner fresh gas delivery tube at the machine end of the circuit. The following case report presents a case in which a patient connected to the Bain circuit developed severe hypercapnia in the early intraoperative period due to the above mentioned defect.
Díaz, Jaime; Bustos, Luís; Herrera, Samira; Sepulveda, Jaqueline
The objective of this study was to investigate the level of knowledge and attitudes regarding first aid for dental trauma in children (TDI) by non-dental professionals and paramedical technicians of hospital emergency rooms in the South Araucanía Health Service, Chile, which was attained through application of a survey. Samples were collected from people with occupations in the respective emergency rooms. The participants were 82 people that were interviewed using a questionnaire regarding management of dental trauma. Paramedic technicians, general and specialist doctors, and nurses were included in this survey. The appraisal covered diverse aspects: birth date, age, sex, years of experience in the emergency room, and questions regarding specific dental trauma topics, which focused on crown fractures, luxation injuries in permanent dentition, avulsion in primary and permanent teeth, and the respective emergency treatments. Of the participants, 78.1% reported to have been presented with a TDI patient. The majority (90.2%) had not received formal training on TDI. These results revealed a wide distribution of responses. The overall dental trauma knowledge among the participants was relatively poor. For crown fractures management 54.9% indicated that they would ask the affected child about the crown remnants. In regard to transport and storage medium of avulsed permanent teeth, only 9.8% of the participants answered correctly and 43.9% of respondents stated that they would not replant an avulsed permanent tooth, since that procedure is considered the responsibility of a dentist. The majority of the respondents were not knowledgeable regarding TDI or the management and benefits of timely care, particularly in cases of avulsed permanent teeth. Therefore, formal education and training on the topic is suggested during undergraduate studies.
Guibert, M.; Chaouat, M.; Boccara, D.; Marco, O.; Lavocat, R.; Alameri, O.; Deslandes, E.; Montlahuc, C.; Mimoun, M.
Summary La greffe de peau mince expansée est très employée dans le traitement des brûlures aiguës. Nous avons étudié l’influence de la préparation du sous-sol sur le taux de prise et le délai de cicatrisation des greffes expansées. Nous avons analysé rétrospectivement les 1 129 greffes expansées réalisées dans notre service entre 1995 et 2005 pour le traitement des brûlures aiguës. Leur taux de prise a été significativement meilleur après une préparation du sous-sol par avulsion (82%) par rapport à une préparation du sous-sol par excision tangentielle (75%). Ce taux était meilleur lorsque l’avulsion était pratiquée dans les 7 jours suivant la brûlure (83% vs 73%). Pour une prise en charge entre 7 et 21 jours, ce taux a semblé être meilleur après excision tangentielle, mais de façon non significative. La durée d’évolution jusqu’à cicatrisation était significativement raccourcie pour une préparation du sous-sol par excision tangentielle par rapport à une préparation du sous-sol par avulsion. Ces résultats montrent, paradoxalement, qu’une préparation du sous-sol par avulsion favorise la prise des greffes expansées mais rallonge leur délai de cicatrisation au contraire de l’excision tangentielle. PMID:28149235
Ding, Yuetong; Qu, Yibo; Feng, Jia; Wang, Meizhi; Han, Qi; So, Kwok-Fai; Wu, Wutian; Zhou, Libing
Brachial plexus injury (BPI) and experimental spinal root avulsion result in loss of motor function in the affected segments. After root avulsion, significant motoneuron function is restored by re-implantation of the avulsed root. How much this functional recovery depends on corticospinal inputs is not known. Here, we studied that question using Celsr3|Emx1 mice, in which the corticospinal tract (CST) is genetically absent. In adult mice, we tore off right C5–C7 motor and sensory roots and re-implanted the right C6 roots. Behavioral studies showed impaired recovery of elbow flexion in Celsr3|Emx1 mice compared to controls. Five months after surgery, a reduced number of small axons, and higher G-ratio of inner to outer diameter of myelin sheaths were observed in mutant versus control mice. At early stages post-surgery, mutant mice displayed lower expression of GAP-43 in spinal cord and of myelin basic protein (MBP) in peripheral nerves than control animals. After five months, mutant animals had atrophy of the right biceps brachii, with less newly formed neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) and reduced peak-to-peak amplitudes in electromyogram (EMG), than controls. However, quite unexpectedly, a higher motoneuron survival rate was found in mutant than in control mice. Thus, following root avulsion/re-implantation, the absence of the CST is probably an important reason to hamper axonal regeneration and remyelination, as well as target re-innervation and formation of new NMJ, resulting in lower functional recovery, while fostering motoneuron survival. These results indicate that manipulation of corticospinal transmission may help improve functional recovery following BPI. PMID:25003601
Volløyhaug, Ingrid; Mørkved, Siv; Salvesen, Kjell Å
It is known that pelvic floor muscle trauma (PFMT) after vaginal delivery is associated with pelvic organ prolapse (POP) symptoms (sPOP) and signs (POP-Q ≥2) in patient populations. Our aims were to establish the prevalence and investigate a possible association between PFMT and sPOP and POP-Q ≥2 in healthy women 20 years after their first delivery. During 2013 and 2014 we conducted a cross-sectional study among 847 women who delivered their first child between 1990 and 1997. Women responded to a postal questionnaire and were offered a clinical examination including prolapse grading and pelvic floor ultrasonography. The main outcome measures were sPOP, POP-Q ≥2 and PFMT, defined by levator avulsion or a levator hiatal area on Valsalva manoeuvre of >40 cm(2) on ultrasonography. Of the 847 eligible women, 608 (72 %) were examined. Data on POP symptoms, POP-Q stage, levator avulsion and levator hiatal area were available in 598, 608, 606 and 554 women, respectively, and of these 75 (13%) had sPOP, 275 (45%) had POP-Q ≥2, 113 (19 %) had levator avulsion and 164 (30%) had a levator hiatal area >40 cm(2). Levator avulsion was associated with POP-Q ≥2 with an odds ratio (OR) of 9.91 and a 95% confidence interval (CI) of 5.73 - 17.13, and with sPOP (OR 2.28, 95% CI 1.34 - 3.91). Levator hiatal area >40 cm(2) was associated with POP-Q ≥2 (OR 6.98, 95% CI 4.54, - 10.74) and sPOP (OR 3.28, 95 % CI 1.96 - 5.50). Many healthy women selected from the general population have symptoms and signs of POP 20 years after their first delivery, and PFMT is associated with POP-Q ≥2 and sPOP.
Hamilton, P.; Strom, K.; Hoyal, D. C. J. D.
Subaqueous fans are distributive channel systems that form in a variety of settings including offshore marine, sub-lacustrine, and reservoirs. These distributive systems create complex sedimentation patterns through repeated avulsion to fill in a basin. Here we ran a series of experiments to explore the intrinsic controls on avulsion cycles on subaqueous fans. Experiments are a convenient way to study these systems since the time-scale of fan development is dramatically shortened compared to natural settings, all boundary conditions can be controlled, and the experimental domain can be instrumented to monitor the pertinent hydraulic and morphologic variables. Experiments in this study used saline underflows and crushed plastic sediment fed down an imposed slope covered in the sediment. Avulsion cycles are a central feature in these experiments which are characterized by: (1) channel extension and stagnation; (2) bar aggradation and hydraulic jump initiation; (3) upstream retreat; and (4) flow avulsion. Looking at and analyzing these cycles yield the following conclusions: (1) distributive channels cease progradation due to a drop in sediment transport capacity in an expanded region ahead of the channel; (2) mouth bar aggradation leads to a large flow obstacle to cause the hydraulic jump feedback; (3) hydraulic jump regions are a significant locus of deposition; and (4) the upstream retreat rate is a function of sediment supply and the strength of the jump. We found that simple one-dimensional hydraulic principles such as the choked flow condition and the sequent depth ratio help to explain hydraulic jump initiation and emplaced lobe thickness respectively.
Haddad, Vidal; Duarte, Marcelo R; Neto, Domingos Garrone
Lizards of the Teiidae family are large reptiles measuring up to 2 meters long. If threatened, they can demonstrate aggressive behavior by whipping their tail and occasionally biting. Here, we report a severe injury following a Teiidae lizard bite on the right index finger of a human. There was significant soft tissue damage and an avulsion fracture of the distal phalanx. He was treated with conservative wound care and prophylactic antibiotics. He developed no evidence of secondary infection and underwent delayed skin grafting.
Anderson, David E; Desrochers, André; St Jean, Guy
This article describes tendon disorders in cattle and treatments for such disorders. Tendon injuries causing loss of a production animal or a decreased level of production result in significant economic loss to the cattle producer. Tendon disorders may be congenital or acquired. Congenital abnormalities may include tendon laxity, contracted tendons, or tendon displacement. Acquired tendon disorders may include tendon laxity, contracture, luxation, tendinitis, laceration, avulsion, rupture, and tenosynovitis.
bicarbonate , dextrose, and water, and is widely used as a universal infusion 61 Pearson, Blood...Ibid. 68 Ibid. 69 Sydney Ringer: Regarding the Action of Hydrate of Soda ,Hhydrate of Ammonia, and Hydrate of Potash on the Ventricle of the Frog’s...areas of abrasion or avulsion (detachment of a body part). These agents could be used to quickly stop vascular and arterial bleeding which occurs in
Kuske, Barbara; Hamilton, David F; Pattle, Sam B; Simpson, A Hamish R W
Hamstring tears are well recognised in the sporting population. Little is known about these injuries in the general population. Evaluating the rates, patterns and risk factors of non-sporting hamstring tears, compared to sporting related hamstring tears. MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (1989-2015). Studies reporting patients with a grade 2 or 3 hamstring muscle tear, identified clinically, confirmed by MRI imaging or direct visualisation during surgical exploration. 144 sets of linked data were extracted for analysis. Most injuries were in males (81.3%), where mean age at injury was lower (30.2, 95% CI 29.1-31.3) than in females (35.4, 95% CI 32.4-38.4) p = 0.06. Key differences were found in the proportion of non-sporting injuries in patients under and over the age 40 (p = 0.001). The proportion of non-sporting injuries was significantly higher in females compared to males (25.9% female non-sporting injuries, versus 8.5% male; p = 0.02). Avulsions were more frequently reported in non-sporting activities (70.5%). The proportion of such injuries was notably higher in females, though this failed to meet significance (p = 0.124). Grouped by age category a bimodal distribution was noted, with the proportion of avulsions greater in younger (age <15) and older patients (age > 40) (p = 0.008). 86.8% of patients returned to pre-injury activity levels with a similar frequency across all study variables; age, activity (sporting vs non-sporting) and injury type (avulsion vs tear). This review highlights a proportion of adults suffering grade 2 or 3 hamstring injuries from activities other than the classic sports trauma. The majority of these non-sporting injuries were avulsion injuries that clustered in older female and skeletally immature patients suggesting a potential link to bone mineral density.
Major, Jon J.; Bertin, Daniel; Pierson, Thomas C.; Amigo, Alvaro; Iroume, Andres; Ulloa, Hector; Castro, Jonathan M.
The 10 day explosive phase of the 2008–2009 eruption of Chaitén volcano, Chile, draped adjacent watersheds with a few cm to >1 m of tephra. Subsequent lava-dome collapses generated pyroclastic flows that delivered additional sediment. During the waning phase of explosive activity, modest rainfall triggered an extraordinary sediment flush which swiftly aggraded multiple channels by many meters. Ten kilometer from the volcano, Chaitén River channel aggraded 7 m and the river avulsed through a coastal town. That aggradation and delta growth below the abandoned and avulsed channels allow estimates of postdisturbance traction-load transport rate. On the basis of preeruption bathymetry and remotely sensed measurements of delta-surface growth, we derived a time series of delta volume. The initial flush from 11 to 14 May 2008 deposited 0.5–1.5 × 106 m3 of sediment at the mouth of Chaitén River. By 26 May, after channel avulsion, a second delta amassed about 2 × 106 m3 of sediment; by late 2011 it amassed about 11 × 106 m3. Accumulated sediment consists of low-density vesicular pumice and lithic rhyolite sand. Rates of channel aggradation and delta growth, channel width, and an assumed deposit bulk density of 1100–1500 kg m−3 indicate mean traction-load transport rate just before and shortly after avulsion (∼14–15 May) was very high, possibly as great as several tens of kg s−1 m−1. From October 2008 to December 2011, mean traction-load transport rate declined from about 7 to 0.4 kg−1 m−1. Despite extraordinary sediment delivery, disturbed channels recovered rapidly (a few years).
Peltola, Erno K; Lindahl, Jan; Koskinen, Seppo K
The aims of this study were to assess the incidence of reverse Segond fracture, to examine the associated ligamentous injuries, and to examine how often reverse Segond fracture coexists with a knee dislocation. At a level 1 trauma center, an 11-year period of emergency department multidetector-row computed tomography (MDCT) examinations for knee trauma was evaluated for reverse Segond and Segond fractures. Surgical findings served as the reference standard for intra-articular injuries. The hospital discharge register was searched for the diagnosis of knee dislocation from August 2000 through the end of August 2011. A total of 1,553 knee MDCT examinations were evaluated. Ten patients with a reverse Segond fracture were found, comprising 0.64 % of emergency room acute knee trauma MDCT examinations. Seven patients who had a reverse Segond fracture were operated: Three had an avulsion fracture of the anterior cruciate ligament, one had an avulsion fracture of posterior cruciate ligament, two had a lateral meniscal tear, and two had a medial collateral ligament tear. The ratio of reverse Segond fractures to Segond fractures was 1:4. None of the 71 knee dislocation patients had a reverse Segond fracture. Reverse Segond fracture is a rare finding even in a level 1 trauma center. Cruciate ligament injuries appear to be associated with avulsion fracture, but every patient does not have PCL injury, as previously reported. Our results do not support the association of knee dislocation with reverse Segond fracture.
Dumont, J. F.; Santana, E.; Valdez, F.; Tihay, J. P.; Usselmann, P.; Iturralde, D.; Navarette, E.
The San Lorenzo area belongs to the Esmeraldas-Tumaco seismic zone where some of the strongest earthquakes of South America occurred during the 20th century. This paper provides evidence for a succession of geomorphic changes characterized by the disruption of the Quaternary drainage network and the reshaping of the Cayapas-Santiago estuary. The rise of the La Boca uplift bordered by the La Boca and San Lorenzo faults is responsible for the southward diversion of the Palabi, Tululbi, Bogotá and Carolina rivers toward the Santiago and Cayapas rivers. The increase of the discharge directed to the Cayapas River generated the change of the channel pattern downstream from the confluence, and the avulsion of a new estuary through the coastal plain. According to the dating of beach ridges the avulsion occurred in the period 3200-2800 BP. This period corresponds also to a faster accretion of the beach ridge margin, interpreted as a response to a small uplift of the shore. The coherency of the three morphologic evidences—diversion of drainage network, avulsion and increase of coastal accretion—suggest a unique morphotectonic event, in relation with the activity of the Esmaraldas-Tumaco seismic zone. The opening of a direct communication through the mangrove margin may have brought favorable conditions for the development of the La Tolita archaeological site after 3000 BP.
Martonffy, Andrea Ildiko
Dental trauma is common among adults and children. As children become mobile, they frequently experience trauma to their primary teeth because of falls. Injuries to permanent teeth are common results of falls, motor vehicle accidents, sports injuries, and violence. Trauma can affect the tooth enamel, dentin, pulp, root, periodontal ligament, gum, or alveolar bone. Avulsions are characterized by complete displacement of the tooth from the socket. Avulsed primary teeth should not be replanted because replantation is associated with a risk of damage to the developing permanent tooth. Avulsed permanent teeth are considered a dental emergency and should be replanted by the first individual capable of doing so. If immediate replantation is not possible, the tooth should be stored in cold animal or human milk; it also can be stored in the mouth, adjacent to the buccal mucosa, if the patient is capable of doing so. Water should be avoided as a storage medium because it impedes healing of the periodontal ligament, but storage in water is superior to dry storage. Intruded teeth (ie, pushed into the jaw) may need immediate extraction, depending on their orientation. All patients with dental trauma should follow up promptly with a dentist. Patients presenting with chronic dental pain without an obvious treatable etiology will benefit from ongoing support from their family physicians. Written permission from the American Academy of Family Physicians is required for reproduction of this material in whole or in part in any form or medium.
Vergotine, Rodney J; Govoni, Robert
To compare the level of knowledge of physical education teachers/athletic coaches (PETs) and academic teachers (ATs) regarding dental trauma management. Surveys were sent to all high schools (17) and all middle schools (23) in the Milwaukee public school system. All PETs and approximately 20 ATs at each school were invited to participate. The survey evaluated knowledge of dental trauma management via two case scenarios. Survey was completed by 140 ATs and 119 PETs. For the urgency of treatment for tooth fractures 81% of ATs and 53% of PETs responded correctly, a significant difference (P < .0001). With regards to avulsions, 56% of ATs and 46% of PETs responded that immediate professional assistance was needed. Only 7% of PETs would replant an avulsed tooth compared with 12% of ATs, a difference that was significant (P = .0062). Milk was chosen as a transportation medium for an avulsed tooth by 25% of ATs and 23% of PETs. Knowledge regarding the initial management of dental trauma was low for both groups. Educational campaigns regarding dental trauma should be targeted at all teachers.
Tzigkounakis, Vasileios; Merglová, Vlasta
Dental injuries are rather common during sport activities and at schools where children spend most of their time every day. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the knowledge of primary school teachers in Pilsen, Czech Republic, of how to provide first aid in cases of one of the most serious dental injuries, the tooth avulsion. To this end, a questionnaire which contained nine questions about avulsion of permanent teeth was prepared. The questionnaires were distributed in nine primary schools in Pilsen where almost 300 teachers are employed. Seventy-four percent of the teachers replied. Sixty-eight percent had never received any information about providing first aid in cases of dental injuries and 81% would place the avulsed tooth in a dry handkerchief until the transfer of the patient to dentist. Prevention of tooth injuries is very important, as they may result even in tooth loss. This demands an effort to properly inform and educate sport trainers and primary school teachers about providing first aid in dental trauma situations; this effort should be intensive and continuous.
Zheng, Mou-Xiong; Xu, Wen-Dong; Qiu, Yan-Qun; Xu, Jian-Guang; Gu, Yu-Dong
To explore long-term recovery of elbow flexion and extension after transferring the phrenic nerve and intercostal nerves, respectively, in adults with global brachial plexus avulsion injuries. Seven adults with global brachial plexus avulsion injuries had the phrenic nerve transferred to the musculocutaneous nerve (or to the anterior division of upper trunk) and intercostal nerves transferred to the triceps branch of the radial nerve at our hospital 7 to 12 years ago. The results of elbow motor strength testing using the Medical Research Council grading scale, and electrodiagnostic findings using electromyogram examinations, were studied retrospectively. Pulmonary function tests were also performed at final visits. Functional elbow flexion was obtained in most of the 7 cases (M2, 1; M3, 3; M4, 2; and M5, 1) but elbow extension was absent or insufficient in all subjects (M0, 1; M1, 3; and M2, 3). Electrical results showed successful biceps reinnervation in 6 patients and successful triceps reinnervation in 5. No patient experienced breathing problems, and pulmonary function results were within normal range. In the long term, after brachial plexus avulsion injury in most patients who underwent both phrenic nerve and intercostal nerve transfer to achieve elbow flexion and extension eventually obtained satisfactory elbow flexion but poor elbow extension. We recommend against transferring the intercostal nerves to the triceps branch of radial nerve in conjunction with primary phrenic to musculocutaneous nerve transfer. Therapeutic IV. Copyright 2010 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Nagata, J Y; Rocha-Lima, T F; Gomes, B P; Ferraz, C C; Zaia, A A; Souza-Filho, F J; De Jesus-Soares, A
Immature avulsed teeth are not usually treated with pulp revascularization because of the possibility of complications. However, this therapy has shown success in the treatment of immature teeth with periapical lesions. This report describes the case of an immature replanted tooth that was successfully treated by pulp revascularization. An 8-year-old boy suffered avulsion on his maxillary left lateral incisor. The tooth showed incomplete root development and was replanted after 30 minutes. After diagnosis, revascularization therapy was performed by irrigating the root canal and applying a calcium hydroxide paste and 2% chlorhexidine gel for 21 days. In the second session, the intracanal dressing was removed and a blood clot was stimulated up to the cervical third of the root canal. Mineral trioxide aggregate was placed as a cervical barrier at the entrance of the root canal and the crown was restored. During the follow-up period, periapical repair, apical closure and calcification in the apical 4 mm of the root canal was observed. An avulsed immature tooth replanted after a brief extra-alveolar period and maintained in a viable storage medium may be treated with revascularization. © 2015 Australian Dental Association.
Nelson-Filho, Paulo; Silva, Lea Assed Bezerra; Silva, Raquel Assed Bezerra; de Carvalho, Fabricio Kitazono; de Queiroz, Alexandra Mussolino
The aim of this paper is to present the clinical and radiological outcome of the treatment involving a delayed tooth replantation after an avulsed immature permanent incisor, with a follow-up of 1 year and 6 months. An 8-year-old boy was referred after dental trauma that occurred on the previous day. The permanent maxillary right central incisor (tooth 11) had been avulsed. The tooth was hand-held during endodontic therapy and an intracanal medication application with calcium hydroxide-based paste was performed. An apical plug with mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) was introduced into the apical portion of the canal. When the avulsed tooth was replanted with digital pressure, a blood clot had formed within the socket, which moved the MTA apical plug about 2 mm inside of the root canal. These procedures developed apical revascularization, which promoted a successful endodontic outcome, evidenced by apical closure, slight increase in root length, and absence of signs of external root resorption, during a follow-up of 1 year and 6 months. PMID:27882250
Heidelbaugh, Joel J; Lee, Hobart
Ingrown toenail, or onychocryptosis, most commonly affects the great toenail. Many anatomic and behavioral factors are thought to contribute to ingrown toenails, such as improper trimming, repetitive or inadvertent trauma, genetic predisposition, hyperhidrosis, and poor foot hygiene. Conservative treatment approaches include soaking the foot in warm, soapy water; placing cotton wisps or dental floss under the ingrown nail edge; and gutter splinting with or without the placement of an acrylic nail. Surgical approaches include partial nail avulsion or complete nail excision with or without phenolization. Electrocautery, radiofrequency, and carbon dioxide laser ablation of the nail matrix are also options. Oral antibiotics before or after phenolization do not improve outcomes. Partial nail avulsion followed by either phenolization or direct surgical excision of the nail matrix are equally effective in the treatment of ingrown toenails. Compared with surgical excision of the nail without phenolization, partial nail avulsion combined with phenolization is more effective at preventing symptomatic recurrence of ingrowing toenails, but has a slightly increased risk of postoperative infection.
Saberi, Sadegh; Arabzadeh, Aidin; Farhoud, Amir Reza
Introduction Lunate fracture is a rare injury. Most reports are associated with other wrist injuries such as perilunate dislocation and distal radius fracture. Isolated lunate fracture has been reported even more rarely. The choice of treatment and outcomes are consequently undetermined. Case Presentation In this case report we will describe a lunate avulsion fracture as an isolated injury after a fall from nine meters treated operatively by excision of the comminuted avulsed fragment. After 33 months of follow-up radiographs showed no sign of degenerative joint disorder on simple X-ray, but slight Volar Intercalated Segment Instability (VISI) by a capitolunate angle of 26 degrees was noted. Clinically, the patient was pain free near full wrist and forearm range of motion and could perform his previous vocational and recreational tasks without any limitations. Conclusions Despite apparently good short and mid-term clinical outcome, slight volar intercalated segment instability after 33 months of follow-up revealed that lunotriquetral ligament function was probably lost, which led to static instability. This ligament injury may be missed primarily. Excision of the avulsed osteochondral fragment should be the last option of treatment and most attempts should be tried to fix and/or restore the normal anatomy of ligamentous structure. PMID:27626007
Alluvial fan processes have been altered in two ways on Mouse Creek, tributary of the Sauk River, WA. A county road and low profile bridge were built in the vicinity of a large scale break in slope, and a berm was built upstream along one bank to confine flows. The system has a high sediment load from episodic mass wasting upstream. Over 10 years of survey data and analyses provide a case study of aggradation, flooding, and avulsion processes above the road crossing, and of efforts to address the resulting problems. The berm precluded fan deposition upstream, and appears to have shifted the deposition zone downstream closer to the bridge, leading to an avulsion and impacting upstream migration of salmon to spawning habitat. In addition, the bed elevation of the channel is now higher than the historic fan surface on the other side of the berm. The bridge was raised to reduce the road crossing influence on sediment transport and deposition, which worked for a while locally until the avulsion developed, which accelerated aggradation in the former main channel above the bridge. Plans have been developed for removing the berm and allowing the stream to re-engage its fan. The key design question presently is: should the berm be excavated to its toe on the channel side to accelerate restoration of depositional processes, or should a semblance of bankfull morphology be retained?
Costa, Andre Luiz F; Yasuda, Clarissa Lin; França, Marcondes C; Morita, Marcia Elisabete; Cendes, Fernando
Dental intrusion and avulsion, crown fracture and mandibular fractures are important dentofacial complications in patients with epilepsy-related traumas. The objective of the present study was to describe the occurrence of orofacial injuries in patients with epilepsy. One hundred and nine consecutive patients (60 women; mean age 38.81 ± 14 years), treated for refractory epilepsy (45 with extratemporal epilepsy and 64 with temporal epilepsy) at the outpatient clinic of our University Hospital, were included in the present study. Orofacial injury occurring as a direct result of a seizure was determined by clinical examination and interview. In addition, seizure frequency, use of medication, and the occurrence and type of injury to other parts of the body, were documented. We employed regression analyses to investigate the association between teeth fractures and frequency of seizures. The majority of injuries were crown fractures (42 subjects), followed by mandibular fractures (eight subjects) and tooth avulsion (eight subjects). Sixteen patients had more than two fractured teeth. Patients with mandibular trauma also suffered concomitant injuries (teeth fracture, avulsion and dislocation). The number of fractured teeth was associated with seizure frequency (r(2) = 0.59, p < 0.001). The data suggest that there is an increased rate of dentoalveolar and maxillofacial injuries in patients with poorly controlled epileptic seizures.
Najeeb, Shariq; Siddiqui, Fahad; Khurshid, Zohaib; Zohaib, Sana; Zafar, Muhammad Sohail; Ansari, Shazia Akbar
Replantation of avulsed teeth may lead to root resorption. Bisphosphonates (BPs), a class of drugs of used to treat resorptive diseases of the bone such as osteoporosis and Paget's disease, have been observed to exert an antiresorptive effect on periodontal bone as well. The antiresorptive properties of BPs could prove them useful in preventing root resorption of replanted avulsed teeth. The aim of this systematic review was to analyze and summarize the currently available literature concerning the use of BPs in preventing root resorption of avulsed teeth. PubMed/MEDLINE, Google Scholar, ISI Web of Knowledge, and Embase databases were searched using keywords 'bisphosphonate', 'replantation', and 'tooth'. Quality assessment of each study was carried out. In addition, general characteristics and outcomes of each study were summarized. After exclusion of 116 irrelevant articles, 10 animal studies were included in this review. The majority of the studies suggest that surface application of zoledronate or alendronate reduces root resorption of replanted teeth in animal models. Surface treatment with etidronate had no significant effect on root resorption, and intracanal etidronate accelerated resorption. Surface application of zoledronate and alendronate reduces root resorption of replanted teeth in animal models. However, the efficacy of intracanal usage of BPs is still debatable. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Caudwell-Hall, Jessica; Kamisan Atan, Ixora; Martin, Andrew; Guzman Rojas, Rodrigo; Langer, Susanne; Shek, Kalai; Dietz, Hans P
Damage to the pelvic floor during vaginal childbirth is common, and may take the form of levator avulsion or irreversible overdistension of the levator hiatus (microtrauma). Such trauma is a major risk factor for pelvic organ prolapse later in life. In this study we aimed to identify intrapartum risk factors for levator trauma. This is a retrospective analysis of data obtained in two perinatal studies on primiparous women. Between 2005 and 2014, 1148 women carrying an uncomplicated singleton pregnancy in the late third trimester were seen for 4D pelvic floor ultrasound and an interview. They were invited for a repeat assessment at three months postpartum. Of 1148 women, 871 (76%) returned for assessment at a mean of five months postpartum. The datasets of 844 women were analyzed due to missing data or concurrent pregnancy in 27. In all, 452 (54%) had a normal vaginal delivery, 102 (12%) a vacuum, 55 (6%) a forceps, and 235 (28%) a cesarean section. On multivariate analysis forceps, length of second stage and obstetric anal sphincter tears were significantly associated with levator avulsion. There were no significant predictors identified for irreversible overdistension. The use of forceps, a prolonged second stage, and obstetric anal sphincter tears were associated with levator avulsion. There were no associated intrapartum predictors for hiatal overdistension. © 2017 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.
Hu, S; Chu, B; Song, J; Chen, L
The purpose of this study was to investigate the anatomical basis of intercostal nerve transfer to the suprascapular nerve and provide a case report. Thoracic walls of 30 embalmed human cadavers were used to investigate the anatomical feasibility for neurotization of the suprascapular nerve with intercostal nerves in brachial plexus root avulsions. We found that the 3rd and 4th intercostal nerves could be transferred to the suprascapular nerve without a nerve graft. Based on the anatomical study, the 3rd and 4th intercostal nerves were transferred to the suprascapular nerve via the deltopectoral approach in a 42-year-old man who had had C5-7 root avulsions and partial injury of C8, T1 of the right brachial plexus. Thirty-two months postoperatively, the patient gained 30° of shoulder abduction and 45° of external rotation. This procedure provided us with a reliable and convenient method for shoulder function reconstruction after brachial plexus root avulsion accompanied with spinal accessory nerve injury. It can also be used when the accessory nerve is intact but needs to be preserved for better shoulder stability or possible future trapezius transfer.
Vergotine, Rodney J; Koerber, Anne
The purposes of this study were to: (1) determine the level of parental knowledge regarding initial trauma management; and (2) assess which factors could influence that level of knowledge. A self-administered questionnaire was given to parents of patients that attended 1 of 2 dental clinics. The questionnaire consisted of 3 parts and assessed patient and parental demographics and knowledge of dental trauma management. Four hundred sixty-seven questionnaires were completed. Most patients had Medicaid insurance (79%). Most parents would seek care from a dentist (71% broken tooth; 62% avulsed tooth). Only 31% knew that avulsed permanent teeth could be placed back into the socket, and only 25% of parents chose milk as a transport medium for avulsed teeth. A mere 3% of parents answered all 5 trauma management questions correctly, and 10% had no correct responses. The number of correct responses was not affected by clinic location, history of previous trauma, sex, education, or insurance status. Parents of recalled patients had more correct responses (P<.05). Knowledge of dental trauma management was poor. The fact that parents of recalled patients were somewhat more knowledgeable suggests that the dental visit can be an effective vehicle for education. The management of dental trauma should be part of the dental health education provided at dental visits.
Background Post-traumatic lumbosacral plexus injuries seem to be rare events, spontaneously recovering in high percentage: as surgery is often challenging and results in poor outcome, many Authors have advocated conservative treatment only. Nevertheless surgery should not be ruled out: in invalidating injuries, it can restore basic function in the lower extremities. Therefore, it might be necessary to establish guidelines for the management and the indication to surgery in such cases. This study aims to identify indicators predicting spontaneous recovery or the need for surgery. Method The clinical and radiological data of 72 patients with a post-traumatic lumbosacral plexus injury were reviewed. A follow up equal or superior to 3 years is available in 42 cases. Results Lumbosacral plexus injuries mostly occurred during road accidents. The incidence of associated lesions was relevant: bone injuries were found in 85% of patients, internal lesions in 30% and vascular injuries in 8%. Lumbosacral trunk and sacral plexus palsies were the most frequent injury patterns. Root avulsions were revealed in 23% of cases and only in sacral plexus and complete lumbosacral plexus injuries: L5 and S1 were the roots more prone to avulsions. About 70% of cases recovered spontaneously, mostly in 18 months. Spontaneous recovery was the rule in lumbar plexus and lumbosacral trunk injuries (where root avulsions never occurred) or in sacral and complete lumbosacral plexus palsies due to compression injuries. The causative mechanism correlated with the injury pattern, the associated bone injury being often predictive of the severity of the nerve injury. Lumbosacral plexus injuries occurred in car crashes were generally associated with fractures causing compression on the nerves, thus resulting in injuries often amenable of spontaneous recovery. Motorcycle accidents implied high kinetic energy traumas where traction played an important role, as the high percentage of sacroiliac joint
Smith, Norman D.; Morozova, Galina S.; Pérez-Arlucea, Marta; Gibling, Martin R.
The E.B. Campbell Dam on the Saskatchewan River, east-central Saskatchewan, was constructed in 1962, forming Tobin Lake (2.2 billion m3 capacity), which today impounds most fluvial sediment and disrupts normal outflow patterns. Thirty-five kilometers below the dam, the river diverts into a 500 km2 belt of alluvial sediment initiated by an avulsion ~ 140 years ago, rejoining the parent channel 108 km from the dam. Effects of the dam on channel geomorphology, including the historical channel (reach I) and the more recent avulsion-affected channels, were investigated by pre- and post-dam cross section surveys combined with grain-size and bedload measurements. Twenty-three sites were surveyed at least twice, and 14 were resurveyed annually in 2003-2014 (except 2007) during which significant floods occurred in 2005, 2011, and 2013. All channel cross sections up to 81 km below the dam have coarsened and enlarged since closure, resulting in excavation of 35.4 × 106 m3 of channel-perimeter sediment since 1962. The most proximal segment is armored and has changed little in recent years. Since 2003, channel enlargement has been greatest in the 35-81 km segment between the avulsion site and the Forks (reaches II, III), manifested as widening and deepening. Enlargement rates were greatest during the three floods, and the paucity of bedload has prevented degraded portions of the channel bed from replenishment following flooding. Budget calculations based on bedload measurements and channel cross-section areas suggest that > 30 years would be required to replace the sediment removed between 2003 and 2014, assuming all available bedload remains in the affected reach. Dam effects appear to be absent or uncertain beyond 81 km, a multichanneled region of varied stages of activity (reach IV), recombining and eventually rejoining the parent Saskatchewan River channel at km 108 (reach V). Sediment evacuated from reaches I-III is sufficient to sustain modest aggradation in some distal
van den Berg, Wilco; de Haas, Tjalling; Braat, Lisanne; Kleinhans, Maarten
Alluvial fans develop their semi-conical shape by cyclic avulsion of their geomorphologically active sector from a fixed fan apex. These cyclic avulsions have been attributed to both allogenic and autogenic forcings and processes. Autogenic dynamics have been extensively studied on fluvial fans through physical scale experiments, and are governed by cyclic alternations of aggradation by unconfined sheet flow, fanhead incision leading to channelized flow, channel backfilling and avulsion. On debris-flow fans, however, autogenic dynamics have not yet been directly observed. We experimentally created debris-flow fans under constant extrinsic forcings, and show that autogenic dynamics are a fundamental intrinsic process on debris-flow fans. We found that autogenic cycles on debris-flow fans are driven by sequences of backfilling, avulsion and channelization, similar to the cycles on fluvial fans. However, the processes that govern these sequences are unique for debris-flow fans, and differ fundamentally from the processes that govern autogenic dynamics on fluvial fans. We experimentally observed that backfilling commenced after the debris flows reached their maximum possible extent. The next debris flows then progressively became shorter, driven by feedbacks on fan morphology and flow-dynamics. The progressively decreasing debris-flow length caused in-channel sedimentation, which led to increasing channel overflow and wider debris flows. This reduced the impulse of the liquefied flow body to the flow front, which then further reduced flow velocity and runout length, and induced further in-channel sedimentation. This commenced a positive feedback wherein debris flows became increasingly short and wide, until the channel was completely filled and the apex cross-profile was plano-convex. At this point, there was no preferential transport direction by channelization, and the debris flows progressively avulsed towards the steepest, preferential, flow path. Simultaneously
Dalman, Rory; Weltje, Gert Jan; Karamitopoulos, Pantelis
A basin-scale numerical model with a sub-grid parameterization of fluvio-deltaic processes and stratigraphy was used to study the relation between alluvial sedimentation and marine deltaic deposition under conditions of time-invariant forcing. The experiments show that delta evolution is governed by a robust morphodynamic feedback loop, which provides a link between major avulsions, delta-lobe switches, and sequestration of sediments on the delta plain. Major avulsions, driven by local superelevation, result in abandonment of delta lobes and initiation of new lobes. Progradation of the delta front lengthens the fluvial profile and reduces its gradient, which induces aggradation upstream. The aggradation, in turn, causes local superelevation of the channel belt. Each major avulsion causes a wave of incision to migrate upstream, whereas downstream of the avulsion point, the rate of aggradation temporarily increases until a new equilibrium situation has been established. The feedback loop explains storage and release of fluvial sediments without the need to invoke changes in upstream or downstream controls and provides a plausible mechanism for the generation of high-frequency incision-aggradation cycles as the sole result of compensational stacking. The stratigraphic expression of a depocentre shift is an essentially isochronous surface. Hence, the stratigraphic record of fluvio-deltaic systems may be subdivided into a series of units representing intervals during which a channel belt and delta lobe were forming at a fixed location in the basin, so-called chronosomes. Fluvio-deltaic chronosomes are bounded by abandonment surfaces, which are clearly expressed in the marine as well as the fluvial domain. The surface marking the abandonment of a particular channel belt and delta lobe correlates with the surface at the base of a new delta lobe. Landward, this surface forms the base of an aggradational package of fluvial sediments downstream of an avulsion site associated
Dorrell, R. M.; McCaffrey, W. D.; Burns, A. D.
Seafloor channel avulsion events recorded in the stratigraphic architecture of submarine fans are often identified as signals of boundary change of the associated sediment supply system. However, interpretation of such signals that are persevered in the rock record is complicated by the interplay between internal (autogenic) forcing and external (allogenic) forcing on the system which may have caused the avulsion of the channel. To investigate the importance of autogenic forcing on seafloor channel evolution, novel models have been constructed which calculate the width-averaged growth of a channel levee system with progressive deposition. These models demonstrate that seafloor channel-levee systems are inherently unstable and will avulse purely subject to autogenic forcing. It is demonstrated that this instability arises as a function of geometric constraints on the cross-sectional shape of the evolving channel and its bounding levees under aggradational flow conditions. Analytical solutions to these simplified models demonstrate that change in the area of the channel is given by the comparative rate at which the bounding outer levee and channel are built up. Whilst the outer levee is built up faster than the channel, there is a relative increase in channel size - increasing the degree by which a flow is confined and thus the decreasing the likelihood of an avulsion. However, if the channel is built up faster than the outer levee the degree by which the flow is confined by the channel will decrease, and thus the likelihood of avulsion will increase. It is seen that as bounding levees become large, and thus cannot be built up as fast as the channel, the evolution of the channel is inherently limited. However, autogenic channel-levee instability likely arises over very long time periods, with the half-life of channel decay proportional to the channel-levee system size. Thus, it is expected that additional external (allogenic) forcing, such as boundary condition
Vanderhave, Kelly L; Bovid, Karen; Alpert, Hilary; Chang, Kate Wan-Chu; Quint, Douglas J; Leonard, James A; Yang, Lynda J S
The rate of neonatal brachial plexus palsy (NBPP) remains 0.4%-4% despite improvements in perinatal care. Among affected children, the extent of brachial plexus palsy differs greatly, as does the prognosis. Controversial elements in management include indications and timing of nerve repair as well as type of reconstruction in patients in whom function will ultimately not be recovered without surgical intervention. Differentiating preganglionic (avulsion) from postganglionic (rupture) lesions is critical because preganglionic lesions cannot spontaneously recover motor function. Distinguishing between these lesions at initial presentation based on clinical examination alone can be difficult in infants. The purpose of the present study was to determine the sensitivity of preoperative electrodiagnostic studies (EDSs) and CT myelography (CTM) in determining the presence of nerve root rupture and avulsions in infants with NBPP. After receiving institutional review board approval, the authors conducted a retrospective review of patients referred to the Neonatal Brachial Plexus Program between 2007 and 2010. Inclusion criteria included children who underwent brachial plexus exploration following preoperative EDSs and CTM. The CTM scans were interpreted by a staff neuroradiologist, EDSs were conducted by a single physiatrist, and intraoperative findings were recorded by the operating neurosurgeon. The findings from the preoperative EDSs and CTM were then compared with intraoperative findings. The sensitivities and 95% confidence intervals were determined to evaluate performance accuracy of each preoperative measure. Twenty-one patients (8 male amd 13 female) met inclusion criteria for this study. The sensitivity of EDSs and CTM for detecting a postganglionic rupture was 92.8% (CI 0.841-0.969) and 58.3% (CI 0.420-0.729), respectively. The sensitivity for EDSs and CTM for preganglionic nerve root avulsion was 27.8% (CI 0.125-0.509) and 72.2% (CI 0.491-0.875), respectively. In
Heyvaert, Vanessa M. A.; Walstra, Jan; Mortier, Clément
The Mesopotamian alluvial plain is dominated by large aggradading river systems (the Euphrates, Tigris and their tributaries), which are prone to avulsions. An avulsion can be defined as the diversion of flow from an existing channel onto the floodplain, eventually resulting in a new channel belt. Early civilizations depended on the position of rivers for their economic survival and hence the impact of channel shifts could be devastating (Wilkinson 2003; Morozova 2005; Heyvaert & Baeteman 2008). Research in the Iranian deltaic part of the Mesopotamian plain has demonstrated that deliberate human action (such as the construction of irrigation canals and dams) triggered or obstructed the alluvial processes leading to an avulsion on fluvial megafans (during preconditioning, triggering and post-triggering stages) (Walstra et al. 2010; Heyvaert et al. 2012, Heyvaert et al.2013). Thus, there is ample evidence that the present-day alluvial landscapes in the region are the result of complex interactions between natural and anthropogenic processes. Here we present a reconstruction of the Late Holocene evolution of the Diyala alluvial fan (one of the main tributaries of the Tigris in Iraq), with particular attention to the relations between alluvial fan development, changes in channel pattern, the construction of irrigation networks and the rise and collapse of societies through historic times. The work largely draws on the use of remote sensing and GIS techniques for geomorphological mapping, and previously published archaeological field data (Adams 1965). By linking archaeological sites of known age with traces of ancient irrigation networks we were able to establish a chronological framework of alluvial activity of the Diyala alluvial fan. Our results demonstrate that centralized and technologically advanced societies were able to maintain a rapidly aggradading distibutary channel system, supplying water and sediment across the entire alluvial fan. As a consequence
Najafi, Zahra; Tieu, Thomas; Mahajan, Ajay M; Schwartz, Bradley F
Ureteroscopic stone extraction devices are effective tools in the management of urolithiasis, but on occasion, their improper use can cause injury to the ureter. Avulsion and perforation of the ureter as a result of excessive forces on the extraction device are some of the more serious complications of this treatment. In this article, avulsion and perforation forces were measured by two different test setups. Eleven clinicians were asked to apply three ranges of forces (safe, cautious, and dangerous). The output force measurements were recorded and plotted for further analysis. The maximal average perforation forces were 7.13±2.36 N in the benchtop tests and 7.07±2.20 N in the ex-vivo porcine tests (P=0.54). The maximal average avulsion forces were measured to be 10.14±2.01 N in the benchtop tests. Although the average forces were similar in the proximal and distal parts of the ureter (P=0.27), higher values were recorded for the distal part. The operative time was noted to be significantly different in the safe and cautious force regions (P=0.006). The average forces were higher in the benchtop tests compared with the porcine ureter tests. The extraction forces were measured and were noted to be significantly different for attending physicians and residents. The results suggest the need for force feedback training for residents. The findings can be used to design a "smart device" that can provide visual force feedback to clinicians while they are operating, leading to improved patient outcome.
Huang, Andrew H; Wong, Michael S
This study aimed to describe immediate nasal reconstruction using a forehead flap after dog bite injuries. Dog bites to the nose can avulse multiple aesthetic subunits, making primary repair difficult, inadvisable, or impossible. Microsurgical replantation and composite grafting of the nose have been reported, but this assumes the avulsed nasal segments are salvageable even after the animal's attack. We present 2 cases of dog bites to the nose with loss of multiple aesthetic subunits. The avulsed portions of the nose were not recovered. A search of the literature (OVID MEDLINE) was also performed, reviewing acute reconstruction of nasal defects after animal bites. Acute forehead flaps were used as part of a first-stage operation to reconstruct the nasal defects. Second- and third-stage operations were performed to thin and divide the flap, respectively. Although the defects involved the full thickness of the nose, only the skin and nasal lining were acutely reconstructed. Acute cartilage grafts were not used due to concern of wound contamination; however, some resultant collapse of the nasal vestibule was noted and selectively addressed with subsequent cartilage grafting. Dog bites to the face can create immediately disfiguring injuries that may initially seem devastating. Nonetheless, soft tissue damage often can be primarily repaired, leading to roughly linear scars that can be revised later. However, nasal injuries from dog bites can be more challenging if multiple subunits are irreparably lost. Acute forehead flap reconstruction after dog bite-concomitant with initial debridement-is a reliable method of reconstruction. It remains to be seen whether acute cartilage grafts would be useful during the first-stage reconstructive operation for better long-term outcomes.
Jerolmack, Douglas J.
Recent research has identified two fundamental unit processes that build delta distributary channels. The first is mouth-bar deposition at the shoreline and subsequent channel bifurcation, which is driven by progradation of the shoreline; the second is avulsion to a new channel, a result of aggradation of the delta topset. The former creates relatively small, branching networks such as Wax Lake Delta; the latter generates relatively few, long distributaries such as the Mississippi and Atchafalaya channels on the Mississippi Delta. The relative rate of progradation to aggradation, and hence the creation of accommodation space, emerges as a controlling parameter on channel network form. Field and experimental research has identified sea level as the dominant control on Holocene delta growth worldwide, and has empirically linked channel network changes to changes in the rate of sea level rise. Here I outline a simple modeling framework for distributary network evolution, and use this to explore large-scale changes in Holocene channel pattern that have been observed in deltas such as the Rhine-Meuse and Mississippi. Rapid early- to mid-Holocene sea level rise forced many deltas into an aggradational mode, where I hypothesize that avulsion and the generation of large-scale branches should dominate. Slowing of sea level rise in the last ˜6000 yr allowed partitioning of sediment into progradation, facilitating the growth of smaller-scale distributary trees at the shorelines of some deltas, and a reduction in the number of large-scale branches. Significant antecedent topography modulates delta response; the filling of large incised valleys, for example, caused many deltas to bypass the aggradational phase. Human effects on deltas can be cast in terms of geologic controls affecting accommodation: constriction of channels forces rapid local progradation and mouth-bar bifurcation, while accelerated sea level rise increases aggradation and induces more frequent channel
Mesgarzadeh, Ali Hossein; Shahamfar, Mohamdreza; Hefzollesan, Ali
The aim of this survey was to evaluate the knowledge and attitudes of Iranian elementary school teachers with regard to emergency management of dental trauma, in a northwestern urban area. A total of 160 teachers from 40 schools, all selected randomly, were included in the study. A three-part self-administered questionnaire surveying teachers' background, knowledge of the growth patterns of children's dentition, general dental trauma, fractured and avulsed teeth, as well as attitudes regarding dental trauma was used. Chi-square analysis was performed to examine the effect of educational background, gender, length of service and topics they teach on their knowledge and attitudes on the management of dental trauma. A majority of the participants had received tertiary education. Regarding the management of tooth fracture, 52.4% provided appropriate answers. A similar proportion (50.6%) realised that they should replant a permanent avulsed tooth. However, they had little knowledge on the correct procedures; less than a fifth were acquainted with the urgent need for action. Only 38% knew about appropriate washing mediums and about a third were familiar with proper storage media. Health teachers and those with higher educational background (16 years of education) were significantly more knowledgeable regarding the disciplines of avulsion management. Teachers with a high level of experience (third decade) were also more knowledgeable in terms of prevalence of dental trauma accidents. The current survey indicated a substantial lack of knowledge regarding dental trauma management among elementary school teachers. Educational campaigns to improve their knowledge and awareness seem crucial for this group of adults who are usually the first to respond in cases of dental trauma accidents in schools.
Biagi, R; Cardarelli, F; Butti, A C; Salvato, A
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the awareness of sports as risk factor of dental injuries, the emergency management when a tooth avulsion occurs and the compliance about mouthguards. Two hundred children and youngsters 8- to 15-year-old (147 boys and 53 girls) attending Sports Societies in Isernia, a town in Southern Italy, participated to the investigation. The sports involved were soccer, martial arts, tennis, swimming, volleyball, basketball and cycling. The questionnaire was structured into three parts: 1) questions about age, sex, type and time of sports practice; 2) questions about dental injuries, particularly personal experience, awareness of first aid and procedure about tooth avulsion; 3) questions about knowledge and use of mouthguards. Sixty-five per cent of the athletes were aware of the possibility of oral injuries during sports practice and 8.5% referred an experience of dental trauma; 71.5% of the participants think that the immediate management of dental injuries by a dentist is very important to increase the rate of success; 31% know that the avulsed tooth may be reimplanted: 33.9% would reimplant the tooth within an hour and 62.9% would keep it in a wet storage medium. Finally, 80.5% of the athletes knew about mouthguards as protective devices, but only 5% actually used them; eight out of ten were provided by the dentist. Educational programs organized by the sports dentistry community are needed to inform coaches, teachers, athletes and parents about dental injuries and to promote the mouthguards use, especially in contact sports practice.
Nicholas, A. P.; Aalto, R. E.; Schwendel, A.; Sambrook Smith, G.
Floodplain construction involves the interplay between channel belt sedimentation and avulsion, overbank deposition of fines, and sediment reworking by channel migration. Each of these processes is controlled, in part, by within-channel and/or overbank hydraulics. However, while spatially-distributed hydrodynamic models are used routinely to simulate floodplain inundation and overbank sedimentation during individual floods, most existing models of long-term floodplain construction and alluvial architecture do not account for flood hydraulics explicitly. Instead, floodplain sedimentation is typically modeled as an exponential function of distance from the river, and avulsion thresholds are defined using topographic indices (e.g., lateral:downstream slope ratios or metrics of channel belt super-elevation). Here we examine the importance of incorporating a physically-based representation of flooding within models of long-term floodplain construction. We combine a simple model of meander migration, cutoff and avulsion with a 2D grid-based model of flood hydrodynamics and overbank sedimentation. The latter involves a finite volume solution of the shallow water equations and an advection-diffusion model for suspended sediment transport. We evaluate model realism over annual to multi-decadal time periods using data quantifying floodplain evolution along the Rio Beni, Bolivia. The Beni is a large (width ~500 m), meandering sand-bed river characterized by very high rates of channel migration (locally >100 m per year) and rapid floodplain sedimentation (~5 cm per year on average adjacent to the channel). We utilise information on planform channel change obtained from satellite imagery, and measurements of floodplain deposit grain size characteristics and overbank sedimentation rates over the past century derived from Pb-210 analysis of floodplain sediment cores. Following model evaluation, we carry out a series of numerical experiments to quantify hydrodynamic controls on
Han, Jun-li; He, Hong; Xu, Zhen; Gu, Tuo; Zhang, Lu-dong; Zhu, Ya-qin
To evaluate the result of using Vitapex paste for preventing root absorption after replanting the avulsed teeth. Thirty patients with 36 avulsed upper anterior teeth with fully developed apices within 5 hours of trauma were enrolled in this study. For each case, the tooth and its alveolar site were irrigated with 0.9%NaCl, then the tooth was put into its original site and fixed with steel wires and composite resin. Two weeks later,the involved teeth underwent pulpectomy and were randomly divided into two groups. Ca(OH)₂ paste was used for temporary root canal filling in group A, and Vitapex paste in group B. The patients were asked to recall every three months, X-ray film was taken to evaluate root absorption and the same temporary root canal filling material was replaced. The permanent root canal filling was performed about one and a half years after treatment when root absorption stopped. Statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS12.0 software package. The success rate of two groups was not significantly different, though which was a little higher one year after treatment in group A than group B (88.9% vs. 83.3%). Vitapex paste had the benefits of both Ca(OH)₂ and iodoform. The radiopaque of iodoform made Vitapex paste observed easily for the status of filling or absorption. The injection style of Vitapex paste makes it easily being manipulated. Vitapex paste is an ideal material for preventing root absorption of replanted avulsed teeth. Supported by Research Fund of Science and Technology Commission of Shanghai Municipality (Grant No. 08DZ2271100).