Science.gov

Sample records for axial magnetic fields

  1. EVOLUTION OF THE AXIAL MAGNETIC FIELD IN SOLAR FILAMENT CHANNELS

    SciTech Connect

    Litvinenko, Yuri E.

    2010-09-01

    Formation of solar filament channels by photospheric magnetic reconnection is considered. A magnetohydrodynamic model for magnetic merging, driven by converging convective motions in the photosphere, is presented. Evolution of the axial magnetic field in a channel is analyzed. An exact time-dependent analytical solution for the field profile in a steady stagnation-point flow is derived. The maximum magnetic field in the channel is determined, and its dependence on the reconnection inflow speed is discussed. The quantitative results show that the maximum axial magnetic field in a forming channel is an indicator of the photospheric reconnection rate, in agreement with recent solar observations and laboratory experiments.

  2. Bistability between equatorial and axial dipoles during magnetic field reversals.

    PubMed

    Gissinger, Christophe; Petitdemange, Ludovic; Schrinner, Martin; Dormy, Emmanuel

    2012-06-08

    Numerical simulations of the geodynamo in the presence of heterogeneous heating are presented. We study the dynamics and the structure of the magnetic field when the equatorial symmetry of the flow is broken. If the symmetry breaking is sufficiently strong, the m=0 axial dipolar field is replaced by a hemispherical magnetic field, dominated by an oscillating m=1 magnetic field. Moreover, for moderate symmetry breaking, a bistability between the axial and the equatorial dipole is observed. In this bistable regime, the axial magnetic field exhibits chaotic switches of its polarity, involving the equatorial dipole during the transition period. This new scenario for magnetic field reversals is discussed within the framework of Earth's dynamo.

  3. Electrons Confined with an Axially Symmetric Magnetic Mirror Field

    SciTech Connect

    Higaki, H.; Ito, K.; Kira, K.; Okamoto, H.

    2008-08-08

    Low energy non-neutral electron plasmas were confined with an axially symmetric magnetic mirror field and an electrostatic potential to investigate the basic confinement properties of a simple magnetic mirror trap. As expected the confinement time became longer as a function of the mirror ratio. The axial electrostatic oscillations of a confined electron plasma were also observed. Obtained results suggested an improved scheme to accumulate low energy charged particles with the use of a magnetic mirror field, which would enable the investigation of electron-positron plasmas.

  4. A high-performance axial-field magnetic gear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mezani, S.; Atallah, K.; Howe, D.

    2006-04-01

    The paper describes an axial-field topology of magnetic gear, which is particularly suitable for applications which require a hermetic isolation between the input and output shafts, such as pumps for use in the chemical/pharmaceutical, food, and aerospace industries. It is shown that a torque density in excess of 70 kN m/m3 can be achieved, and that the axial forces, which are exerted on the high-speed and low-speed rotors, are relatively low.

  5. Dynamics of intrinsic axial flows in unsheared, uniform magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Li, J. C.; Diamond, P. H.; Xu, X. Q.; Tynan, G. R.

    2016-05-15

    A simple model for the generation and amplification of intrinsic axial flow in a linear device, controlled shear decorrelation experiment, is proposed. This model proposes and builds upon a novel dynamical symmetry breaking mechanism, using a simple theory of drift wave turbulence in the presence of axial flow shear. This mechanism does not require complex magnetic field structure, such as shear, and thus is also applicable to intrinsic rotation generation in tokamaks at weak or zero magnetic shear, as well as to linear devices. This mechanism is essentially the self-amplification of the mean axial flow profile, i.e., a modulational instability. Hence, the flow development is a form of negative viscosity phenomenon. Unlike conventional mechanisms where the residual stress produces an intrinsic torque, in this dynamical symmetry breaking scheme, the residual stress induces a negative increment to the ambient turbulent viscosity. The axial flow shear is then amplified by this negative viscosity increment. The resulting mean axial flow profile is calculated and discussed by analogy with the problem of turbulent pipe flow. For tokamaks, the negative viscosity is not needed to generate intrinsic rotation. However, toroidal rotation profile gradient is enhanced by the negative increment in turbulent viscosity.

  6. Dynamics of intrinsic axial flows in unsheared, uniform magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, J. C.; Diamond, P. H.; Xu, X. Q.; Tynan, G. R.

    2016-05-01

    A simple model for the generation and amplification of intrinsic axial flow in a linear device, controlled shear decorrelation experiment, is proposed. This model proposes and builds upon a novel dynamical symmetry breaking mechanism, using a simple theory of drift wave turbulence in the presence of axial flow shear. This mechanism does not require complex magnetic field structure, such as shear, and thus is also applicable to intrinsic rotation generation in tokamaks at weak or zero magnetic shear, as well as to linear devices. This mechanism is essentially the self-amplification of the mean axial flow profile, i.e., a modulational instability. Hence, the flow development is a form of negative viscosity phenomenon. Unlike conventional mechanisms where the residual stress produces an intrinsic torque, in this dynamical symmetry breaking scheme, the residual stress induces a negative increment to the ambient turbulent viscosity. The axial flow shear is then amplified by this negative viscosity increment. The resulting mean axial flow profile is calculated and discussed by analogy with the problem of turbulent pipe flow. For tokamaks, the negative viscosity is not needed to generate intrinsic rotation. However, toroidal rotation profile gradient is enhanced by the negative increment in turbulent viscosity.

  7. Collimation of laser-produced plasmas using axial magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, Amitava; Harilal, Sivanandan S.; Hassan, Syed M.; Endo, Akira; Mocek, Tomas; Hassanein, A.

    2015-06-01

    We investigated the expansion dynamics of laser-produced plasmas expanding into an axial magnetic field. Plasmas were generated by focusing 1.064 µm Nd:YAG laser pulses onto a planar tin target in vacuum and allowed to expand into a 0.5 T magnetic-filed where field lines were aligned along the plume expansion direction. Gated images employing intensified CCD showed focusing of the plasma plume, which were also compared with results obtained using particle-in-cell modelling methods. The estimated density and temperature of the plasma plumes employing emission spectroscopy revealed significant changes in the presence and absence of the 0.5T magnetic field. In the presence of the field, the electron temperature is increased with distance from the target, while the density showed opposite effects.

  8. High temperature superconducting axial field magnetic coupler: realization and test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belguerras, L.; Mezani, S.; Lubin, T.; Lévêque, J.; Rezzoug, A.

    2015-09-01

    Contactless torque transmission through a large airgap is required in some industrial applications in which hermetic isolation is necessary. This torque transmission usually uses magnetic couplers, whose dimension strongly depends on the airgap flux density. The use of high temperature superconducting (HTS) coils to create a strong magnetic field may constitute a solution to reduce the size of the coupler. It is also possible to use this coupler to replace a torque tube in transmitting the torque produced by a HTS motor to its load. This paper presents the detailed construction and tests of an axial field HTS magnetic coupler. Pancake coils have been manufactured from BSCCO tape and used in one rotor of the coupler. The second rotor is mainly composed of NdFeB permanent magnets. Several tests have been carried out showing that the constructed coupler is working properly. A 3D finite element (FE) model of the studied coupler has been developed. Airgap magnetic field and torque measurements have been carried out and compared to the FE results. It has been shown that the measured and the computed quantities are in satisfactory agreement.

  9. Permanent Magnet Spiral Motor for Magnetic Gradient Energy Utilization: Axial Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valone, Thomas F.

    2010-01-01

    power for magnetic field switching device can be achieved in order to deflect the rotor magnet in transit. The Wiegand effect itself (bistable FeCoV wire called "Vicalloy") invented by John Wiegand (Switchable Magnetic Device, US Patent ♯4,247,601), utilizing Barkhausen jumps of magnetic domains, is also applied for a similar achievement (Dilatush, 1977). Conventional approaches for spiral magnetic gradient force production have not been adequate for magnetostatic motors to perform useful work. It is proposed that integrating a magnetic force control device with a spiral stator inhomogeneous axial magnetic field motor is a viable approach to add a sufficient nonlinear boundary shift to apply the angular momentum and potential energy gained in 315 degrees of the motor cycle.

  10. Magnetic field uniformity of the practical tri-axial Helmholtz coils systems.

    PubMed

    Beiranvand, R

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, effects of the assembly misalignments and the manufacturing mismatches on the magnetic field uniformity of a practical tri-axial Helmholtz coils system have been modeled mathematically. These undesired effects regularly occur in any practical tri-axial Helmholtz coils system. To confirm the mathematical calculations, a tri-axial Helmholtz coils system has been constructed and the uniformity of its magnetic field has been measured under different conditions. The experimental results are in good agreement with the mathematical analyses.

  11. Radiofrequency hydrogen ion source with permanent magnets providing axial magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Oikawa, Kohei Saito, Yuta; Komizunai, Shota; Takahashi, Kazunori; Ando, Akira

    2014-02-15

    Uniform axial magnetic field of about 70 G is applied to a radiofrequency (rf) hydrogen ion source by arrays of permanent magnets. The plasma density and electron temperature downstream of the source and near the magnetic filter are compared with those in the previously described ion source, where the axial field has been applied by two solenoids. The source is operated at ∼350 kHz and above 10 kW rf power with a field-effect-transistor-based invertor power supply in 1.5 Pa hydrogen. The results show that the plasma density of ∼10{sup 19} m{sup −3} near the source exit and ∼10{sup 18} m{sup −3} near the magnetic filter can be obtained, which are higher than those with the solenoids.

  12. Radiofrequency hydrogen ion source with permanent magnets providing axial magnetic field.

    PubMed

    Oikawa, Kohei; Saito, Yuta; Komizunai, Shota; Takahashi, Kazunori; Ando, Akira

    2014-02-01

    Uniform axial magnetic field of about 70 G is applied to a radiofrequency (rf) hydrogen ion source by arrays of permanent magnets. The plasma density and electron temperature downstream of the source and near the magnetic filter are compared with those in the previously described ion source, where the axial field has been applied by two solenoids. The source is operated at ∼350 kHz and above 10 kW rf power with a field-effect-transistor-based invertor power supply in 1.5 Pa hydrogen. The results show that the plasma density of ∼10(19) m(-3) near the source exit and ∼10(18) m(-3) near the magnetic filter can be obtained, which are higher than those with the solenoids.

  13. Effect of axial magnetic field on a 2.45 GHz permanent magnet ECR ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Nakamura, T. Wada, H.; Furuse, M.; Asaji, T.

    2016-02-15

    Herein, we conduct a fundamental study to improve the generation efficiency of a multi-charged ion source using argon. A magnetic field of our electron cyclotron resonance ion source is composed of a permanent magnet and a solenoid coil. Thereby, the axial magnetic field in the chamber can be tuned. Using the solenoid coil, we varied the magnetic field strength in the plasma chamber and measured the ion beam current extracted at the electrode. We observed an approximately three times increase in the Ar{sup 4+} ion beam current when the magnetic field on the extractor-electrode side of the chamber was weakened. From our results, we can confirm that the multi-charged ion beam current changes depending on magnetic field intensity in the plasma chamber.

  14. Vacuum current induced by an axial-vector condensate and electron anomalous magnetic moment in a magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bubnov, A. F.; Gubina, N. V.; Zhukovsky, V. Ch.

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, we consider vacuum polarization effects in the model of charged fermions with anomalous magnetic moment and axial-vector interaction term in a constant and uniform magnetic field. Nontrivial corrections to the effective Lagrangian from the anomalous moment and axial-vector term are calculated with account for various configurations of parameters of the model. An analogue of the chiral magnetic effect in the axial-vector background as well as a vacuum current induced under the combined action of the anomalous magnetic moment of fermions and the axial vector background in a magnetic field is also calculated.

  15. Axial-field permanent magnet motors for electric vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, P.

    1981-01-01

    The modelling of an anisotropic alnico magnet for the purpose of field computation involves assigning a value for the material's permeability in the transverse direction. This is generally based upon the preferred direction properties, being all that are easily available. By analyzing the rotation of intrinsic magnetization due to the self demagnetizing field, it is shown that the common assumptions relating the transverse to the preferred direction are not accurate. Transverse magnetization characteristics are needed, and these are given for Alnico 5, 5-7, and 8 magnets, yielding appropriate permeability values.

  16. Distorted orbit due to field errors and particle trajectories in combined undulator and axial magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Papadichev, V.A.

    1995-12-31

    Undulator and solenoid field errors cause electron trajectory deviation from the ideal orbit. Even small errors can result in a large lower frequency excursion from the undulator axis of a distorted orbit and of betatron oscillations performed now around it, especially near resonant conditions. Numerical calculation of a trajectory step by step requires large computing time and treats only particular cases, thus lacking generality. Theoretical treatment is traditionally based on random distribution of field errors, which allows a rather general approach, but is not convenient for practical purposes. In contrast, analytical treatment shows explicitly how distorted orbit and betatron oscillation amplitude depend on field parameters and errors and indicates how to eliminate these distortions. An analytical solution of the equations of motion can be found by expanding field errors and distorted orbit in Fourier series as was done earlier for the simplest case of a plane undulator without axial magnetic field. The same method is applied now to the more general case of combined generlized undulator and axial magnetic fields. The undulator field is a superposition of the fields of two plane undulators with mutually orthogonal fields and an arbitrary axial shift of the second undulator relative to the first. Beam space-charge forces and external linear focusing are taken into account. The particle trajectory is a superposition of ideal and distorted orbits with cyclotron gyration and slow drift gyration in the axial magnetic field caused by a balance of focusing and defocusing forces. The amplitudes of these gyrations depend on transverse coordinate and velocity at injection and can nearly double the total deviation of an electron from the undulator axis even after an adiabatic undulator entry. If the wavenumber of any Fourier harmonic is close to the wavenumbers of cyclotron or drift gyrations, a resonant increase of orbit distortion occurs.

  17. Vacuum arcing behavior between transverse magnetic field contacts subjected to variable axial magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Hui; Wang, Jianhua; Liu, Zhiyuan Geng, Yingsan; Wang, Zhenxing; Yan, Jing

    2016-06-15

    The objective of this work is to reveal the effects of an axial magnetic field (AMF) on the vacuum arc characteristics between transverse magnetic field (TMF) contacts. These vacuum arc characteristics include the vacuum arcing behavior and the arc voltage waveform. In the experiments, an external AMF was applied to a pair of TMF contacts. The external AMF flux density B{sub AMF} can be adjusted from 0 to 110 mT. The arc current in the tests varied over a range from 0 to 20 kA rms at 45 Hz. The contact material was CuCr25 (25% Cr). A high-speed charge-coupled device video camera was used to record the vacuum arc evolution. The experimental results show that the application of the AMF effectively reduces the TMF arc voltage noise component and reduces the formation of liquid metal drops between the contacts. The diffuse arc duration increases linearly with increasing AMF flux density, but it also decreases linearly with increasing arc current under application of the external AMF. The results also indicate that the diffuse arc duration before the current zero is usually more than 1 ms under the condition that the value of the AMF per kiloampere is more than 2.0 mT/kA. Finally, under application of the AMF, the arc column of the TMF contacts may constrict and remain in the center region without transverse rotation. Therefore, the combined TMF–AMF contacts should be designed such that they guarantee that the AMF is not so strong as to oppose transverse rotation of the arc column.

  18. Vacuum arcing behavior between transverse magnetic field contacts subjected to variable axial magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Hui; Wang, Jianhua; Liu, Zhiyuan; Geng, Yingsan; Wang, Zhenxing; Yan, Jing

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this work is to reveal the effects of an axial magnetic field (AMF) on the vacuum arc characteristics between transverse magnetic field (TMF) contacts. These vacuum arc characteristics include the vacuum arcing behavior and the arc voltage waveform. In the experiments, an external AMF was applied to a pair of TMF contacts. The external AMF flux density BAMF can be adjusted from 0 to 110 mT. The arc current in the tests varied over a range from 0 to 20 kA rms at 45 Hz. The contact material was CuCr25 (25% Cr). A high-speed charge-coupled device video camera was used to record the vacuum arc evolution. The experimental results show that the application of the AMF effectively reduces the TMF arc voltage noise component and reduces the formation of liquid metal drops between the contacts. The diffuse arc duration increases linearly with increasing AMF flux density, but it also decreases linearly with increasing arc current under application of the external AMF. The results also indicate that the diffuse arc duration before the current zero is usually more than 1 ms under the condition that the value of the AMF per kiloampere is more than 2.0 mT/kA. Finally, under application of the AMF, the arc column of the TMF contacts may constrict and remain in the center region without transverse rotation. Therefore, the combined TMF-AMF contacts should be designed such that they guarantee that the AMF is not so strong as to oppose transverse rotation of the arc column.

  19. Melt Motion Due to Peltier Marking During Bridgman Crystal Growth with an Axial Magnetic Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sellers, C. C.; Walker, John S.; Szofran, Frank R.; Motakef, Shariar

    2000-01-01

    This paper treats a liquid-metal flow inside an electrically insulating cylinder with electrically conducting solids above and below the liquid region. There is a uniform axial magnetic field, and there is an electric current through the liquid and both solids. Since the lower liquid-solid interface is concave into the solid and since the liquid is a better electrical conductor than the adjacent solid, the electric current is locally concentrated near the centerline. The return to a uniform current distribution involves a radial electric current which interacts with the axial magnetic field to drive an azimuthal flow. The axial variation of the centrifugal force due to the azimuthal velocity drives a meridional circulation with radial and axial velocities. This problem models the effects of Peltier marking during the vertical Bridgman growth of semiconductor crystals with an externally applied magnetic field, where the meridional circulation due to the Peltier Current may produce important mixing in the molten semiconductor.

  20. Melt Motion Due to Peltier Marking During Bridgman Crystal Growth with an Axial Magnetic Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sellers, C. C.; Walker, John S.; Szofran, Frank R.; Motakef, Shariar

    2000-01-01

    This paper treats a liquid-metal flow inside an electrically insulating cylinder with electrically conducting solids above and below the liquid region. There is a uniform axial magnetic field, and there is an electric current through the liquid and both solids. Since the lower liquid-solid interface is concave into the solid and since the liquid is a better electrical conductor than the adjacent solid, the electric current is locally concentrated near the centerline. The return to a uniform current distribution involves a radial electric current which interacts with the axial magnetic field to drive an azimuthal flow. The axial variation of the centrifugal force due to the azimuthal velocity drives a meridional circulation with radial and axial velocities. This problem models the effects of Peltier marking during the vertical Bridgman growth of semiconductor crystals with an externally applied magnetic field, where the meridional circulation due to the Peltier Current may produce important mixing in the molten semiconductor.

  1. Effect of the axial magnetic field on a metallic gas-puff pinch implosion

    SciTech Connect

    Rousskikh, A. G.; Zhigalin, A. S.; Frolova, V.; Yushkov, G. Yu.; Baksht, R. B.; Oreshkin, V. I.; Velikovich, A. L.

    2016-06-15

    The effect of an axial magnetic field B{sub z} on an imploding metallic gas-puff Z-pinch was studied using 2D time-gated visible self-emission imaging. Experiments were performed on the IMRI-5 generator (450 kA, 450 ns). The ambient field B{sub z} was varied from 0.15 to 1.35 T. It was found that the initial density profile of a metallic gas-puff Z-pinch can be approximated by a power law. Time-gated images showed that the magneto-Rayleigh–Taylor instabilities were suppressed during the run-in phase both without axial magnetic field and with axial magnetic field. Helical instability structures were detected during the stagnation phase for B{sub z} < 1.1 T. For B{sub z} = 1.35 T, the pinch plasma boundary was observed to be stable in both run-in and stagnation phases. When a magnetic field of 0.3 T was applied to the pinch, the soft x-ray energy was about twice that generated without axial magnetic field, mostly due to longer dwell time at stagnation.

  2. Modelling of melt motion in a Czochralski crystal puller with an axial magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hjellming, L. N.; Walker, J. S.

    1986-12-01

    The use of matched asymptotic expansions provide analytical solutions for the bulk flow in a Czochralski crystal puller in a strong axial magnetic field. Treating the crystal as a slight electrical conductor alters the radial and axial flows driven by centrifugal pumping. The motion due to buoyancy and thermocapillarity are found by considering the temperature as a known function and solving the non-linear heat equation numerically for different magnetic field strengths and melt depths. This note presents a summary of the analysis and results that are detailed in two papers.

  3. Influence of axial self-magnetic field component on arcing behavior of spiral-shaped contacts

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Dingyu; Xiu, Shixin Wang, Yi; Liu, Gang; Zhang, Yali; Bi, Dongli

    2015-10-15

    The transverse magnetic field (TMF) contact design is commonly used in vacuum interrupters. When arcing occurs between the TMF contacts, the contact structure can create a self-induced magnetic field that drives the arc to move and rotate on the contact, and thus local overheating and severe erosion can be avoided. However, TMF contacts could also create an axial self-magnetic component, and the influence of this component on the arc behavior has not been considered to date. In this paper, five different types of Cu-Cr spiral-shaped TMF contacts with three different structures are investigated in a demountable vacuum chamber that contains a high-speed charge-coupled device video camera. It was found that the contact structure greatly influenced the arc behavior, especially in terms of arc rotation and the effective contact area, while contacts with the same slot structure but different diameters showed similar arc behavior and arc motion. The magnetic field distribution and the Lorentz force of each of the three different contact structures are simulated, and the axial self-magnetic field was first taken into consideration for investigation of the TMF contact design. It was found that contact designs that have higher axial self-magnetic field components tend to have arc columns with larger diameters and show poorer arc motion and rotation performance in the experiments.

  4. Numerical simulation of a helical shape electric arc in the external axial magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urusov, R. M.; Urusova, I. R.

    2016-10-01

    Within the frameworks of non-stationary three-dimensional mathematical model, in approximation of a partial local thermodynamic equilibrium, a numerical calculation was made of characteristics of DC electric arc burning in a cylindrical channel in the uniform external axial magnetic field. The method of numerical simulation of the arc of helical shape in a uniform external axial magnetic field was proposed. This method consists in that that in the computational algorithm, a "scheme" analog of fluctuations for electrons temperature is supplemented. The "scheme" analogue of fluctuations increases a weak numerical asymmetry of electrons temperature distribution, which occurs randomly in the course of computing. This asymmetry can be "picked up" by the external magnetic field that continues to increase up to a certain value, which is sufficient for the formation of helical structure of the arc column. In the absence of fluctuations in the computational algorithm, the arc column in the external axial magnetic field maintains cylindrical axial symmetry, and a helical form of the arc is not observed.

  5. The concept of a plasma centrifuge with a high frequency rotating magnetic field and axial circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borisevich, V. D.; Potanin, E. P.

    2017-07-01

    The possibility of using a rotating magnetic field (RMF) in a plasma centrifuge (PC), with axial circulation to multiply the radial separation effect in an axial direction, is considered. For the first time, a traveling magnetic field (TMF) is proposed to drive an axial circulation flow in a PC. The longitudinal separation effect is calculated for a notional model, using specified operational parameters and the properties of a plasma, comprising an isotopic mixture of 20Ne-22Ne and generated by a high frequency discharge. The optimal intensity of a circulation flow, in which the longitudinal separation effect reaches its maximum value, is studied. The optimal parameters of the RMF and TMF for effective separation, as well as the centrifuge performance, are calculated.

  6. Nonisothermal theory of the positive column of an electric discharge in the axial magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Ul'yanov, D. K. Ul'yanov, K. N.

    2013-01-15

    A nonisothermal model of the positive column allowing for electron energy balance is analyzed. The influence of the axial magnetic field on the characteristics of the cylindrical positive column of a low-pressure discharge is investigated in the hydrodynamic approximation. It is shown that the magnetic field affects the plasma density distribution, plasma velocity, and electron energies. The radial dependences of the plasma density, electron energy, and plasma velocity, as well as the azimuthal velocities of electrons and ions, are calculated for helium at different values of the magnetic field strength. It is established that inertia should be taken into account in the equations for the azimuthal motion of electrons and ions. The results obtained in the hydrodynamic approximation differ significantly from those obtained in the framework of the common diffusion model of the positive column in the axial magnetic field. It is shown that the distributions of the plasma density and radial plasma velocity in the greater part of the positive column tend to those obtained in the diffusion approximation at higher values of the axial magnetic field and gas density, although substantial differences remain in the near-wall region.

  7. Radiation-Hydromagnetic Models of a Z-Pinch Implosion with an Axial Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, R. W.; Giuliani, J. L.; Terry, R.; Davis, J.; Velikovich, A. L.

    1997-11-01

    Experimental results on a 1MA pulser suggest that axial magnetic fields can stabilize z-pinch implosions and enhance the compression ratio(S. Sorokin and S. Chaikovsky, Dense Z-Pinches, AIP Conf. Proc. 299, p.83 (1993).). The present theoretical work calculates the effects of an axial magnetic field on the plasma and field profiles in an imploding z-pinch. The initial mass configuration is an annular shell of krypton. The 1-D simulation model includes: resistive diffusion (skin effect) for both the azimuthal and axial fields, ionization dynamics, and non-LTE radiation transport. Unlike the constant pulser current of self-similar models for the screw-pinch, a transmission line is used to model the circuit of a realistic ~10MA pulser. The implosion dynamics resulting from an axial field generated by a twisted return current cage will be compared with results due to an initial field from external Helmholtz coils. The dependence of the radiative performance on compression ratio, which in turn is a function of inital field strength or cage twist, will be discussed.

  8. Theory and compensation method of axial magnetic error induced by axial magnetic field in a polarization-maintaining fiber optic gyro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yanru; Zhao, Yuxiang; Tian, Hui; Zhang, Dengwei; Huang, Tengchao; Miao, Lijun; Shu, Xiaowu; Che, Shuangliang; Liu, Cheng

    2016-12-01

    In an axial magnetic field (AMF), which is vertical to the plane of the fiber coil, a polarization-maintaining fiber optic gyro (PM-FOG) appears as an axial magnetic error. This error is linearly related to the intensity of an AMF, the radius of the fiber coil, and the light wavelength, and also influenced by the distribution of fiber twist. When a PM-FOG is manufactured completely, this error only appears a linear correlation with the AMF. A real-time compensation model is established to eliminate the error, and the experimental results show that the axial magnetic error of the PM-FOG is decreased from 5.83 to 0.09 deg/h in 12G AMF with 18-dB suppression.

  9. One-dimensional magnetohydrodynamics of a cylindrical liner imploded by an azimuthal magnetic field and compressing an axial field

    SciTech Connect

    Hamann, F. Combis, P.; Videau, L.

    2015-08-15

    The one-dimensional magnetohydrodynamics of a plasma cylindrical liner is addressed in the case of a two components magnetic field. The azimuthal component is responsible for the implosion of the liner and the axial field is compressed inside the liner. A complete set of analytical profiles for the magnetic field components, the density, and the local velocity are proposed at the scale of the liner thickness. Numerical simulations are also presented to test the validity of the analytical formulas.

  10. Plasma dynamics of laser produced plasma plumes propagating in an axial magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Favre, Mario; Ruiz, Marcelo; Wyndham, Edmund; Veloso, Felipe; Bhuyan, Heman

    2015-11-01

    We have performed experimental studies of the effect of static axial magnetic fields on the plasma dynamics of laser produced carbon and titanium plasmas. The laser plasmas are produced in vacuum, with a Nd:YAG laser, 3.5 ns, 340 mJ at 1.06 4 μm, operating at 10 Hz, and propagate in static magnetic fields of maximum value ~0.2 T. Laser plasma features are characterized using 50 ns time resolved plasma imaging, time and space resolved visible spectroscopy and Faraday cup measurements. The presence of the magnetic field is found to affect plasma dynamics, plasma emission and plasma ions energy spectrum. Based on these measurements, a detailed analysis of the confinement effects of the magnetic field on the laser plasma will be presented. Funded by project FONDECYT 1141119 and CONICYT PIA No. ACT1108.

  11. Numerical study of arc plasmas and weld pools for GTAW with applied axial magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Xianqing; Gou, Jianjun; Zhang, Jianxun; Sun, Jiangtao

    2012-07-01

    A 3D numerical model containing the welding arc and the weld pool for gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) with applied axial magnetic fields is established. The model is validated by comparing the calculated arc temperature with the measured ones. The influence of the magnetic field on the welding process is studied by changing the magnetic inductions, from 0 T to 0.06 T. For welding arcs, a radial spread is discovered, and a reverse flow appears over the anode. The distribution of temperature, heat flux, current density and pressure on the anode surface becomes double-peaked, while the voltage distributes in a double-valley type. For weld pools, the fluid flow cycle brings about a wide and shallow pool. In the circumferential direction, the fluid in the centre areas rotates in an opposite direction to that in the outer regions; in the axial direction, the fluid flows upwards at the centre while downwards in the edge area of the weld pool. All the driving forces including the surface tension, the shear stress from the arc plasma, the electromagnetic force and the buoyancy force that influence the fluid flow are analysed to explain these phenomena. The mechanism of how the applied axial magnetic field regulates the GTAW process is thus clarified.

  12. Axial Halbach Magnetic Bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J.; Gallo, Christopher A.; Thompson, William K.

    2008-01-01

    Axial Halbach magnetic bearings have been investigated as part of an effort to develop increasingly reliable noncontact bearings for future high-speed rotary machines that may be used in such applications as aircraft, industrial, and land-vehicle power systems and in some medical and scientific instrumentation systems. Axial Halbach magnetic bearings are passive in the sense that unlike most other magnetic bearings that have been developed in recent years, they effect stable magnetic levitation without need for complex active control.

  13. Motion of relativistic particles in axially symmetric and perturbed magnetic fields in a tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    de Rover, M.; Lopes Cardozo, N.J.; Montvai, A.

    1996-12-01

    An extensive comparison is given between an analytical theory for the computations of particle orbits of relativistic runaway electrons [M. de Rover {ital et} {ital al}., Phys. Plasmas {bold 3}, 4468 (1996)], and numerical simulations. A new numerical scheme is used for the computer simulations of guiding center orbits. Furthermore, simulations of the full particle motion, including the gyration are performed to check the guiding center approximation. The behavior of drift surfaces and particle orbits in axially symmetric magnetic fields, as predicted in the companion paper are confirmed. This includes the smaller minor radius of a drift surface compared to a magnetic flux surface with identical rotational transform, and the decrease of the minor radius of a drift surface with increasing particle energy. Magnetic islands and drift islands appear when the axial symmetry of the magnetic field is broken by harmonic perturbations. In the numerical simulations the amplitudes of the perturbations have been chosen to increase towards the plasma edge. The analytic theory gave predictions of the width of the drift islands that are in good agreement with the numerical simulations. When overlap of the magnetic perturbations introduces stochasticity, the Hamiltonian theory shows that drift islands can exist in the region of stochastic magnetic field lines, which is also confirmed by the numerical simulations. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  14. Electrohydrodynamic instability of a charged liquid jet in the presence of an axial magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruo, An-Cheng; Chang, Min-Hsing; Chen, Falin

    2010-04-01

    Electrified liquid jets subjected to electrical destabilizing mechanisms often deform asymmetrically, creating an uncontrollable random motion that prevents the formation of uniform drops or organized microstructures. Employing a magnetic field is a potentially effective method of inhibiting the onset of unstable motion. This paper develops a theoretical model to investigate the effect of an axial magnetic field on the instability of a charged liquid jet. To demonstrate the stabilizing ability of this approach, this study uses temporal linear stability analysis to manifest the magnetic effect in various parameter domains including the Rayleigh regime, the atomization zone, and the bending instability for a viscous jet. Results show that the magnetic force induced by the motion of charged surface is insignificant in comparison with the electric force and does not have effect on the instability of a dielectric liquid jet. However, for a liquid with high electrical conductivity, the Lorentz force induced by a conducting current becomes significant, suppressing destabilizing mechanisms and substantially improving jet stability. In the atomization zone, the effect of magnetic inhibition is relatively limited because the imposed axial magnetic field does not affect long-wave nonaxisymmetric disturbances.

  15. Study of axial magnetic effect

    SciTech Connect

    Braguta, Victor; Chernodub, M. N.; Goy, V. A.; Landsteiner, K.; Ulybyshev, M.

    2016-01-22

    The Axial Magnetic Effect manifests itself as an equilibrium energy flow of massless fermions induced by the axial (chiral) magnetic field. Here we study the Axial Magnetic Effect in the quenched SU(2) lattice gauge theory with massless overlap fermions at finite temperature. We numerically observe that in the low-temperature hadron phase the effect is absent due to the quark confinement. In the high-temperature deconfinement phase the energy flow is an increasing function of the temperature which reaches the predicted asymptotic T{sup 2} behavior at high temperatures. We find, however, that energy flow is about one order of magnitude lower compared to a theoretical prediction.

  16. Research on a novel axial-flux magnetic-field-modulated brushless double-rotor machine with low axial force and high efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Chengde; Song, Zhiyi; Bai, Jingang; Liu, Jiaqi; Zheng, Ping

    2017-05-01

    The axial-flux magnetic-field-modulated brushless double-rotor machine (MFM-BDRM) is a possible alternative as a power-split device for hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). However, the existence of large axial force may lead to assembly problems and rich inner air-gap harmonics could result in high PM loss and low efficiency. This paper proposes a novel axial-flux MFM-BDRM with improved PM rotor structure. 2-D analytical method to predict the magnetic-field distribution of the proposed MFM-BDRM is developed and the design procedure of the proposed machine is illustrated. The impact of key geometrical parameters on axial force and torque is investigated. To evaluate the advantage of the proposed machine, a comparison is made with a conventional one with respect to electromagnetic performances. Results show that the proposed machine is effective in reducing PM eddy loss and axial force by 60% and 35%, respectively.

  17. Global Aspects of Charged Particle Motion in Axially Symmetric Multipole Magnetic Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shebalin, John V.

    2003-01-01

    The motion of a single charged particle in the space outside of a compact region of steady currents is investigated. The charged particle is assumed to produce negligible electromagnetic radiation, so that its energy is conserved. The source of the magnetic field is represented as a point multipole. After a general description, attention is focused on magnetic fields with axial symmetry. Lagrangian dynamical theory is utilized to identify constants of the motion as well as the equations of motion themselves. The qualitative method of Stonner is used to examine charged particle motion in axisymmetric multipole fields of all orders. Although the equations of motion generally have no analytical solutions and must be integrated numerically to produce a specific orbit, a topological examination of dynamics is possible, and can be used, d la Stonner, to completely describe the global aspects of the motion of a single charged particle in a space with an axisymmetric multipole magnetic field.

  18. Large-acceptance-angle gridded analyzers in an axial magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Molvik, A.W.

    1981-06-01

    Electrostatic retarding-potential gridded analyzers have been used to measure the current and the axial energy distributions of ions escaping along magnetic field lines in the 2XIIB magnetic mirror fusion experiment at Lawerence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Three analyzers are discussed: a large scanning analyzer with a movable entrance aperture that can measure ion or electron losses from a different segment of the plasma diameter on each shot, a smaller analyzer that mounts in 5-cm-diam ports, and a multicollector analyzer that can continuously measure losses from the entire plasma diameter.

  19. Measurements of the Ion Species of Cathodic Arc Plasma in an Axial Magnetic Field

    SciTech Connect

    Oks, Efim; Anders, Andre

    2010-10-19

    Metal and gas ion species and their charge state distributions were measured for pulsed copper cathodic arcs in argon background gas in the presence of an axial magnetic field. It was found that changing the cathode position relative to anode and ion extraction system as well as increasing the gas pressure did not much affect the arc burning voltage and the related power dissipation. However, the burning voltage and power dissipation greatly increased as the magnetic field strength was increased. The fraction of metal ions and the mean ion charge state were reduced as the discharge length was increased. The observations can be explained by the combination of charge exchange collisions and electron impact ionization. They confirm that previously published data on characteristic material-dependent charge state distributions (e.g., Anders and Yushkov, J. Appl. Phys., Vol. 91, pp. 4824-4832, 2002) are not universal but valid for high vacuum conditions and the specifics of the applied magnetic fields.

  20. Hall attractor in axially symmetric magnetic fields in neutron star crusts.

    PubMed

    Gourgouliatos, Konstantinos N; Cumming, Andrew

    2014-05-02

    We find an attractor for an axially symmetric magnetic field evolving under the Hall effect and subdominant Ohmic dissipation, resolving the question of the long-term fate of the magnetic field in neutron star crusts. The electron fluid is in isorotation, analogous to Ferraro's law, with its angular velocity being approximately proportional to the poloidal magnetic flux, Ω∝Ψ. This equilibrium is the long-term configuration of a magnetic field evolving because of the Hall effect and Ohmic dissipation. For an initial dipole-dominated field, the attractor consists mainly of a dipole and an octupole component accompanied by an energetically negligible quadrupole toroidal field. The field dissipates in a self-similar way: Although higher multipoles should decay faster, the toroidal field mediates transfer of energy into them from the lower ones, leading to an advection diffusion equilibrium and keeping the ratio of the poloidal multipoles almost constant. This has implications for the structure of the intermediate-age neutron stars, suggesting that their poloidal field should consist of a dipole and an octupole component accompanied by a very weak toroidal quadrupole. For initial conditions that have a higher multipole ℓ structure, the attractor consists mainly of ℓ and ℓ+2 poloidal components.

  1. Dynamics of liquid metal droplets and jets influenced by a strong axial magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández, D.; Karcher, Ch

    2017-07-01

    Non-contact electromagnetic control and shaping of liquid metal free surfaces is crucial in a number of high-temperature metallurgical processes like levitation melting and electromagnetic sealing, among others. Other examples are the electromagnetic bending or stabilization of liquid metal jets that frequently occur in casting or fusion applications. Within this context, we experimentally study the influence of strong axial magnetic fields on the dynamics of falling metal droplets and liquid metal jets. GaInSn in eutectic composition is used as test melt being liquid at room temperature. In the experiments, we use a cryogen-free superconducting magnet (CFM) providing steady homogeneous fields of up to 5 T and allowing a tilt angle between the falling melt and the magnet axis. We vary the magnetic flux density, the tilt angle, the liquid metal flow rate, and the diameter and material of the nozzle (electrically conducting/insulating). Hence, the experiments cover a parameter range of Hartmann numbers Ha, Reynolds numbers Re, and Weber numbers We within 0 < Ha < 440, 340 < Re < 4500, and 0.09 < We < 12.1. As major results we find that under the influence of the strong magnetic field, droplet rotation ceases and the droplets are stretched in the field direction. Moreover, we observe that the jet breakup into droplets (spheroidization) is suppressed, and in the case of electrically conducting nozzles and tilt, the jets are bent towards the field axis.

  2. Orbital motion in generalized static fields of FELs accounting for axial magnetic field, beam forces, undulator and external focusing

    SciTech Connect

    Papadichev, V.A.

    1995-12-31

    Various types of undulators with or without axial magnetic field are used in FELs. Supplementary beam focusing can be applied by wedging, inclining or profiling pole faces of plan undulators or superposing external focusing magnetic fields in addition to undulator own focusing. Space-charge forces influence significantly particle motion in high-current, low-energy electron beams. Finally, one can use simultaneously two or more different undulators for some specific purpose: more efficient and selective higher harmonics generation, changing polarization types and direction, gain enhancement in double-period undulator etc. All these cases can be treated by solving the generalized equations of transverse orbital motion in a linear approximation, which is widely used for orbit calculation, gives sufficient accuracy for practical purposes and allows to consider many variants and optimize the chosen one. The undulator field is described as a field of two plane undulators with mutually orthogonal fields and an arbitrary axial (phase) shift between them. Various values of the phase shift correspond to right- or left-handed helical undulators, plane undulator of different polarization etc. The general formulae are reduced to forms that allow easier examination of particular cases: planar or helical undulator combined with axial magnetic field or without it, gyroresonance, limiting beam current, polarization etc.

  3. Negative viscosity from negative compressibility and axial flow shear stiffness in a straight magnetic field

    DOE PAGES

    Li, J. C.; Diamond, P. H.

    2017-03-23

    Here, negative compressibility ITG turbulence in a linear plasma device (CSDX) can induce a negative viscosity increment. However, even with this negative increment, we show that the total axial viscosity remains positive definite, i.e. no intrinsic axial flow can be generated by pure ITG turbulence in a straight magnetic field. This differs from the case of electron drift wave (EDW) turbulence, where the total viscosity can turn negative, at least transiently. When the flow gradient is steepened by any drive mechanism, so that the parallel shear flow instability (PSFI) exceeds the ITG drive, the flow profile saturates at a level close to the value above which PSFI becomes dominant. This saturated flow gradient exceeds the PSFI linear threshold, and grows withmore » $$\

  4. Helical plasma striations in liners in the presence of an external axial magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atoyan, L.; Hammer, D. A.; Kusse, B. R.; Byvank, T.; Cahill, A. D.; Greenly, J. B.; Pikuz, S. A.; Shelkovenko, T. A.

    2016-02-01

    Awe et al. found on the 20 MA Z machine [Acta Phys. Pol. A 115, 956 (2009)] that applying an externally generated axial magnetic field to an imploding liner leads to a helical pattern in the liner when viewed with soft x-ray radiography ([Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 235005 (2013)] and [Phys. Plasmas 21, 056303 (2014)]). Here, we show that this phenomenon is also observed in extreme ultraviolet self-emission images of 10 mm long cylindrical metal liners having varying diameters and varying wall thicknesses on a 1 MA, 100-200 ns pulsed power generator. The magnetic field in these experiments is created using either twisted return current wires positioned close to the liner, generating a time-varying Bz, or a Helmholtz coil, generating a steady-state Bz.

  5. Mixed convection in liquid metal flow in a horizontal duct with strong axial magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xuan; Zikanov, Oleg

    2016-11-01

    The work is motivated by design of self-cooled liquid-metal breeder blankets for Tokamak fusion reactors. Thermal convection caused by non-uniform internal heating in a liquid metal flow in a horizontal duct with strong axial magnetic field is analyzed numerically. Axial magnetic field is considered strong enough (the Hartmann number up to 104 corresponding to typical reactor condition) to suppress the streamwise variation of the flow, so a two-dimensional fully developed flow is studied. Duct walls are assumed to be thermally and electrically insulated. The non-uniform internal heat deposited by captured neutrons is fully diverted by the mean flow. Realistically high Grashof (up to 1011) and Reynolds (up to 106) numbers are considered. It is found that the state of the flow is strongly affected by the vertical stable stratification developing in response to the streamwise growth of mean temperature. Two flow regimes are identified: the regime with developed transverse convection at moderate Grashof numbers, and the regime, in which convection is suppressed at high Grashof numbers. Financial support was provided by the U.S. National Science Foundation (Grant CBET 1435269) and by the University of Michigan - Dearborn.

  6. Optoelectronic properties of silicon hexagonal nanotubes under an axial magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmadi, N.; Shokri, A. A.

    2017-07-01

    In this work, we derive a clear and easy-to-use analytic expression for optical transition matrix elements for the zigzag silicon hexagonal nanotubes (Si h-NTs) in the presence of axial magnetic field. The optical dipole matrix elements and optical absorption are analytically derived in terms of one-dimensional wave vector, kz and subband index l for a light polarization parallel to the tube axis. The model is based on a single-orbital π-electron tight-binding Hamiltonian extended up to the first nearest-neighbors. By comparing the band structure of tubes in different magnetic fields, one can see that the band gap is modified and the degenerated bands are split and create new allowed transition corresponding to the band modifications. Moreover, it is found that the system is metallic in the absence of magnetic field, but with increasing the magnetic flux the system tends towards the semiconducting behavior and the metal-semiconductor phase transition is observed.

  7. Arrangement for measuring the field angle of a magnetic field as a function of axial position within a magnet bore tube

    DOEpatents

    Pidcoe, Stephen V.; Zink, Roger A.; Boroski, William N.; McCaw, William R.

    1993-01-01

    An arrangement for measuring the field angle of a magnetic field as a function of axial position within a magnet bore tube of a magnet such as is used with the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC). The arrangement includes a magnetic field alignment gauge that is carried through the magnet bore tube by a positioning shuttle in predetermined increments. The positioning shuttle includes an extensible body assembly which is actuated by an internal piston arrangement. A pair of spaced inflatable cuffs are carried by the body assembly and are selectively actuated in cooperation with pressurizing of the piston to selectively drive the positioning shuttle in an axial direction. Control of the shuttle is provided by programmed electronic computer means located exteriorly of the bore tube and which controls valves provided pressurized fluid to the inflatable cuss and the piston arrangement.

  8. Magnetospheric environments of outer planet rings - Influence of Saturn's axially symmetric magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hood, L. L.

    1987-07-01

    Saturn's main rings exist within a zone of negligible magnetospheric losses and surface alteration effects, substantially due to the solid-body absorption of inwardly diffusing magnetospheric particles. This process is presently shown to be especially efficient in the inner magnetosphere of Saturn, due to the near-axial symmetry of the planetary magnetic field relative to the equatorial rotation plane; under the assumption of comparable diffusion rates, the inward magnetospheric particle transport is far more inhibited in the inner Saturnian magnetosphere than in the same regions of Jupiter and Uranus, even when only rings of comparable widths and depths are considered. In light of this, ring particle surface exposure to the ion fluxes of the radiation belt remains a prepossessing rationale for low Uranian ring albedos.

  9. Control of Meridional Flow in Circular Cylinders by a Travelling Axial Magnetic Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazuruk, K.; Ramachandran, N.; Volz, M. P.

    1999-01-01

    Convective flow in a Bridgman or float zone configuration significantly affects the interface shape and segregation phenomena. While the primary causative factor for this flow is buoyancy induced convection in an enclosed Bridgman melt, the presence of a free surface gives rise to surface tension driven flows in the floating zone processing of melts. It is of interest to curtail these flows in order to realize near quiescent growth conditions that have shown to result in crystals with good longitudinal and radial homogeneity and thereby of better overall quality. While buoyancy effects can be reduced by careful processing in a low gravity (space) environment, the reduction of Marangoni flows due to surface tension variations is not that straight forward. Attempts have been made with some limited success with the use of external fields to affect the melt thermo-fluid behavior. The use of a static magnetic field that reduces convective contamination through the effects of a non-intrusively induced, dissipative Lorentz force in an electrically conducting melt is one such approach. Experiments have shown that axial fields of the order of 5 Tesla can significantly eliminate convection and yield close to diffusion limited crystal growth conditions. The generation and use of such high magnetic fields require substantial hardware and incur significant costs for its operation. Lately, the use of rotating magnetic fields has been tested in semiconductor crystal growth. The method is fairly well known and commonly used in metal processing but its adaptation to crystal growth of semiconductors is fairly recent. The elegance of the technique rests in its low power requirement (typically 10-20 milli-Tesla at 50-400 Hz) and its efficacy in curtailing deleterious temperature fluctuations in the melt. A rotating magnetic field imposes a rotational force and thereby induces a circulation within the melt that tends to dominate other sporadic convective effects. Thus a known low level

  10. Three-dimensional rotational plasma flows near solid surfaces in an axial magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Gorshunov, N. M. Potanin, E. P.

    2016-11-15

    A rotational flow of a conducting viscous medium near an extended dielectric disk in a uniform axial magnetic field is analyzed in the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) approach. An analytical solution to the system of nonlinear differential MHD equations of motion in the boundary layer for the general case of different rotation velocities of the disk and medium is obtained using a modified Slezkin–Targ method. A particular case of a medium rotating near a stationary disk imitating the end surface of a laboratory device is considered. The characteristics of a hydrodynamic flow near the disk surface are calculated within the model of a finite-thickness boundary layer. The influence of the magnetic field on the intensity of the secondary flow is studied. Calculations are performed for a weakly ionized dense plasma flow without allowance for the Hall effect and plasma compressibility. An MHD flow in a rotating cylinder bounded from above by a retarding cap is considered. The results obtained can be used to estimate the influence of the end surfaces on the main azimuthal flow, as well as the intensities of circulating flows in various devices with rotating plasmas, in particular, in plasma centrifuges and laboratory devices designed to study instabilities of rotating plasmas.

  11. Striations in CZ silicon crystals grown under various axial magnetic field strengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, K. M.; Smetana, P.

    1985-10-01

    Inhibition of fluid flow instabilities in the melt by the axial magnetic field in Czochralski silicon crystal growth (AMCZ) is investigated precisely by a high-sensitivity striation etch in conjunction with temperature measurements. The magnetic field strength (B) was varied up to 4.0 kG, incremented mostly in 0.5-kG/2.5-cm crystal length. The convection flow was substantially suppressed at B greater than or equal to 1.0 kG. A low oxygen level of 2-3 ppm and a high resistivity of 400 ohm-cm is achieved in the AMCZ silicon crystals at B greater than or equal to 1.0 kG. Random striations at B = O, characteristic of turbulent convection, assumed progressively a periodicity, indicative of oscillatory convection at B from 0.35-4.0 kG. The striation contrast or 'intensity' decreased steadily with the increase in B. At B = 4 kG, most of the crystal was free of striations, although some weak, localized periodic striations persisted near the crystal periphery. Spreading-resistance measurement shows, however, a uniform dopant distribution in all crystal sections grown at B from 0.35-4.0 kG within a few percent.

  12. Acceleration of electrons by a circularly polarized laser pulse in the presence of an intense axial magnetic field in vacuum

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, K. P.

    2006-08-15

    Acceleration of electrons by a circularly polarized laser pulse in the presence of a short duration intense axial magnetic field has been studied. Resonance occurs between the electrons and the laser field for an optimum magnetic field leading to effective energy transfer from laser to electrons. The value of optimum magnetic field is independent of the laser intensity and decreases with initial electron energy. The electrons rotate around the axis of the laser pulse with small angle of emittance and small energy spread. Acceleration gradient increases with laser intensity and decreases with initial electron energy.

  13. Investigation of mechanical field weakening of axial flux permanent magnet motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syaifuddin Mohd, M.; Aziz, A. Rashid A.; Syafiq Mohd, M.

    2015-12-01

    An investigation of axial flux permanent magnet motor (AFPM) characteristics was conducted with a proposed mechanical field weakening control mechanisms (by means of stator-rotor force manipulation) on the motor through modeling and experimentation. By varying the air gap between at least two bistable positions, the peak torque and top speed of the motor can be extended. The motor high efficiency region can also be extended to cover greater part of the motor operating points. An analytical model of the motor had been developed to study the correlation between the total attraction force (between the rotor and the stator) and the operating parameters of the motor. The test results shows that the motor output complies with the prediction of the research hypothesis and it is likely that a spring locking mechanism can be built to dynamically adjust the air gap of the motor to increase the operating range and could be applied in electric drivetrain applications to improve overall efficiency of electric and hybrid electric vehicles.

  14. Two-dimensional model of the Penning discharge in a cylindrical chamber with the axial magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surzhikov, S. T.

    2017-08-01

    The drift-diffusion model of a Penning discharge in molecular hydrogen under pressures of about 1 Torr with regard to the external electric circuit has been proposed. A two-dimensional axially symmetric discharge geometry with a cylindrical anode and flat cathodes perpendicular to the symmetry axis has been investigated. An external magnetic field of about 0.1 T is applied in the axial direction. Using the developed drift-diffusion model, the electrodynamic structure of a Penning discharge in the pressure range of 0.5-5 Torr at a current source voltage of 200-500 V is numerically simulated. The evolution of the discharge electrodynamic structure upon pressure variations in zero magnetic field (the classical glow discharge mode) and in the axial magnetic field (Penning discharge) has been studied using numerical experiments. The theoretical predictions of the existence of an averaged electron and ion motion in a Penning discharge both in the axial and radial directions and in the azimuthal direction have been confirmed by the calculations.

  15. Formation mechanism of axial macrosegregation of primary phases induced by a static magnetic field during directional solidification

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xi; Fautrelle, Yves; Ren, Zhongming; Moreau, Rene

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the macrosegregation formed by applying magnetic fields is of high commercial importance. This work investigates how static magnetic fields control the solute and primary phase distributions in four directionally solidified alloys (i.e., Al-Cu, Al-Si, Al-Ni and Zn-Cu alloys). Experimental results demonstrate that significant axial macrosegregation of the solute and primary phases (i.e., Al2Cu, Si, Al3Ni and Zn5Cu phases) occurs at the initial solidification stage of the samples. This finding is accompanied by two interface transitions in the mushy zone: quasi planar → sloping → quasi planar. The amplitude of the macrosegregation of the primary phases under the magnetic field is related to the magnetic field intensity, temperature gradient and growth speed. The corresponding numerical simulations present a unidirectional thermoelectric (TE) magnetic convection pattern in the mushy zone as a consequence of the interaction between the magnetic field and TE current. Furthermore, a model is proposed to explain the peculiar macrosegregation phenomenon by considering the effect of the forced TE magnetic convection on the solute distribution. The present study not only offers a new approach to control the solute distribution by applying a static magnetic field but also facilitates the understanding of crystal growth in the solute that is controlled by the static magnetic field during directional solidification. PMID:28367991

  16. Studies on the effect of the axial magnetic field on the x-ray bremsstrahlung in a 2.45 GHz permanent magnet microwave ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Narender; Rodrigues, G. Lakshmy, P. S.; Mathur, Y.; Ahuja, R.; Kanjilal, D.; Baskaran, R.

    2014-02-15

    A compact microwave ion source has been designed and developed for operation at a frequency of 2.45 GHz. The axial magnetic field is based on two permanent magnet rings, operating in the “off-resonance” mode and is tunable by moving the permanent magnets. In order to understand the electron energy distribution function, x-ray bremsstrahlung has been measured in the axial direction. Simulation studies on the x-ray bremsstrahlung have been carried out to compare with the experimental results. The effect of the axial magnetic field with respect to the microwave launching position and the position of the extraction electrode on the x-ray bremsstrahlung have been studied.

  17. Axially uniform magnetic field-modulation excitation for electron paramagnetic resonance in rectangular and cylindrical cavities by slot cutting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidabras, Jason W.; Richie, James E.; Hyde, James S.

    2017-01-01

    In continuous-wave (CW) Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) a low-frequency time-harmonic magnetic field, called field modulation, is applied parallel to the static magnetic field and incident on the sample. Varying amplitude of the field modulation incident on the sample has consequences on spectral line-shape and line-height over the axis of the sample. Here we present a method of coupling magnetic field into the cavity using slots perpendicular to the sample axis where the slot depths are designed in such a way to produce an axially uniform magnetic field along the sample. Previous literature typically assumes a uniform cross-section and axial excitation due to the wavelength of the field modulation being much larger than the cavity. Through numerical analysis and insights obtained from the eigenfunction expansion of dyadic Green's functions, it is shown that evanescent standing-wave modes with complex cross-sections are formed within the cavity. From this analysis, a W-band (94 GHz) cylindrical cavity is designed where modulation slots are optimized to present a uniform 100 kHz field modulation over the length of the sample.

  18. Axially uniform magnetic field-modulation excitation for electron paramagnetic resonance in rectangular and cylindrical cavities by slot cutting.

    PubMed

    Sidabras, Jason W; Richie, James E; Hyde, James S

    2017-01-01

    In continuous-wave (CW) Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) a low-frequency time-harmonic magnetic field, called field modulation, is applied parallel to the static magnetic field and incident on the sample. Varying amplitude of the field modulation incident on the sample has consequences on spectral line-shape and line-height over the axis of the sample. Here we present a method of coupling magnetic field into the cavity using slots perpendicular to the sample axis where the slot depths are designed in such a way to produce an axially uniform magnetic field along the sample. Previous literature typically assumes a uniform cross-section and axial excitation due to the wavelength of the field modulation being much larger than the cavity. Through numerical analysis and insights obtained from the eigenfunction expansion of dyadic Green's functions, it is shown that evanescent standing-wave modes with complex cross-sections are formed within the cavity. From this analysis, a W-band (94GHz) cylindrical cavity is designed where modulation slots are optimized to present a uniform 100kHz field modulation over the length of the sample. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Boundary-value problem for a counterrotating electrical discharge in an axial magnetic field. [plasma centrifuge for isotope separation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hong, S. H.; Wilhelm, H. E.

    1978-01-01

    An electrical discharge between two ring electrodes embedded in the mantle of a cylindrical chamber is considered, in which the plasma in the anode and cathode regions rotates in opposite directions under the influence of an external axial magnetic field. The associated boundary-value problem for the coupled partial differential equations describing the azimuthal velocity and radial current-density fields is solved in closed form. The velocity, current density, induced magnetic induction, and electric fields are presented for typical Hartmann numbers, magnetic Reynolds numbers, and geometry parameters. The discharge is shown to produce anodic and cathodic plasma sections rotating at speeds of the order 1,000,000 cm/sec for conventional magnetic field intensities. Possible application of the magnetoactive discharge as a plasma centrifuge for isotope separation is discussed.

  20. Boundary-value problem for a counterrotating electrical discharge in an axial magnetic field. [plasma centrifuge for isotope separation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hong, S. H.; Wilhelm, H. E.

    1978-01-01

    An electrical discharge between two ring electrodes embedded in the mantle of a cylindrical chamber is considered, in which the plasma in the anode and cathode regions rotates in opposite directions under the influence of an external axial magnetic field. The associated boundary-value problem for the coupled partial differential equations describing the azimuthal velocity and radial current-density fields is solved in closed form. The velocity, current density, induced magnetic induction, and electric fields are presented for typical Hartmann numbers, magnetic Reynolds numbers, and geometry parameters. The discharge is shown to produce anodic and cathodic plasma sections rotating at speeds of the order 1,000,000 cm/sec for conventional magnetic field intensities. Possible application of the magnetoactive discharge as a plasma centrifuge for isotope separation is discussed.

  1. Novel Integration Radial and Axial Magnetic Bearing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blumenstock, Kenneth; Brown, Gary

    2000-01-01

    Typically, fully active magnetically suspended systems require one axial and two radial magnetic bearings. Combining radial and axial functions into a single device allows for more compact and elegant packaging. Furthermore, in the case of high-speed devices such as energy storage flywheels, it is beneficial to minimize shaft length to keep rotor mode frequencies as high as possible. Attempts have been made to combine radial and axial functionality, but with certain drawbacks. One approach requires magnetic control flux to flow through a bias magnet reducing control effectiveness, thus resulting in increased resistive losses. This approach also requires axial force producing magnetic flux to flow in a direction into the rotor laminate that is undesirable for minimizing eddy-current losses resulting in rotational losses. Another approach applies a conical rotor shape to what otherwise would be a radial heteropolar magnetic bearing configuration. However, positional non-linear effects are introduced with this scheme and the same windings are used for bias, radial, and axial control adding complexity to the controller and electronics. For this approach, the amount of axial capability must be limited. It would be desirable for an integrated radial and axial magnetic bearing to have the following characteristics; separate inputs for radial and axial control for electronics and control simplicity, all magnetic control fluxes should only flow through their respective air gaps and should not flow through any bias magnets for minimal resistive losses, be of a homopolar design to minimize rotational losses, position related non-linear effects should be minimized, and dependent upon the design parameters, be able to achieve any radial/axial force or power ratio as desired. The integrated radial and axial magnetic bearing described in this paper exhibits all these characteristics. Magnetic circuit design, design equations, and magnetic field modeling results will be presented.

  2. High energy micro electron beam generation using chirped laser pulse in the presence of an axial magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Akou, H. Hamedi, M.

    2015-10-15

    In this paper, the generation of high-quality and high-energy micro electron beam in vacuum by a chirped Gaussian laser pulse in the presence of an axial magnetic field is numerically investigated. The features of energy and angular spectra, emittances, and position distribution of electron beam are compared in two cases, i.e., in the presence and absence of an external magnetic field. The electron beam is accelerated with higher energy and qualified in spatial distribution in the presence of the magnetic field. The presence of an axial magnetic field improves electron beam spatial quality as well as its gained energy through keeping the electron motion parallel to the direction of propagation for longer distances. It has been found that a 64 μm electron bunch with about MeV initial energy becomes a 20 μm electron beam with high energy of the order of GeV, after interacting with a laser pulse in the presence of an external magnetic field.

  3. Magnetic Field, Force, and Inductance Computations for an Axially Symmetric Solenoid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, John E.; Youngquist, Robert C.; Immer, Christopher D.; Simpson, James C.

    2001-01-01

    The pumping of liquid oxygen (LOX) by magnetic fields (B field), using an array of electromagnets, is a current topic of research and development at Kennedy Space Center, FL. Oxygen is paramagnetic so that LOX, like a ferrofluid, can be forced in the direction of a B field gradient. It is well known that liquid oxygen has a sufficient magnetic susceptibility that a strong magnetic gradient can lift it in the earth's gravitational field. It has been proposed that this phenomenon can be utilized in transporting (i.e., pumping) LOX not only on earth, but on Mars and in the weightlessness of space. In order to design and evaluate such a magnetic pumping system, it is essential to compute the magnetic and force fields, as well as inductance, of various types of electromagnets (solenoids). In this application, it is assumed that the solenoids are air wrapped, and that the current is essentially time independent.

  4. Influence of an external axial magnetic field on betatron radiation from the interaction of a circularly polarized laser with plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Bao; Wang, Xiao-Fang

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, theoretical analyses and numerical calculations are carried out to investigate the influence of an externally applied axial constant magnetic field on electrons' betatron radiation when an ultra-short, circularly polarized laser pulse of a peak intensity I0 = 5 × 1019 W/cm2 propagates in plasma of an electron density n0 = 1020/cm3. Ring-like x-ray radiation is emitted from the electrons' betatron oscillations. The applied magnetic field can modulate the resonance process between an electron's betatron oscillation and the laser electric field, and the electron energy gain from the direct laser acceleration is thus changed. When a magnetic field of strength B0=3 × 103 T is applied, which is in anti-parallel to the self-generated axial magnetic field, both the trapping efficiency of electrons by the wakefield and the maximum accelerated energy are increased. The maximum electron energy, the peak of angular radiation, and the total radiation energy are increased by 11.0%, 45.6%, and 41.1%, respectively, and the radiation spectra are blue-shifted significantly.

  5. Axial buckling analysis of a slender current-carrying nanowire acted upon by a magnetic field using the surface energy approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiani, Keivan

    2015-06-01

    The axial buckling behavior of magnetically affected current-carrying nanowires is studied accounting for the surface energy effect. Using Euler-Bernoulli beam theory, the Lorentz force on the nanowire is determined and the governing equations are established. By application of the Galerkin approach and assumed mode method, the critical axial compressive load of the nanostructure is evaluated in the cases of simply supported and fully clamped ends. The effects of surface energy, electric current, strength of the magnetic field, slenderness ratio, and nanowire’s radius on the axial buckling loads are comprehensively discussed. The obtained results reveal that both the electric current and exerted magnetic field endanger the axial stability of the nanowire. For high levels of electric current or magnetic field strength, the surface effect becomes significant in the axial buckling performance of the nanostructure.

  6. Analysis and Design Considerations of a High-Power Density, Dual Air Gap, Axial-Field Brushless, Permanent Magnet Motor.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Chahee Peter

    1995-01-01

    Until recently, brush dc motors have been the dominant drive system because they provide easily controlled motor speed over a wide range, rapid acceleration and deceleration, convenient control of position, and lower product cost. Despite these capabilities, the brush dc motor configuration does not satisfy the design requirements for the U.S. Navy's underwater propulsion applications. Technical advances in rare-earth permanent magnet materials, in high-power semiconductor transistor technology, and in various rotor position-sensing devices have made using brushless permanent magnet motors a viable alternative. This research investigates brushless permanent magnet motor technology, studying the merits of dual-air gap, axial -field, brushless, permanent magnet motor configuration in terms of power density, efficiency, and noise/vibration levels. Because the design objectives for underwater motor applications include high-power density, high-performance, and low-noise/vibration, the traditional, simplified equivalent circuit analysis methods to assist in meeting these goals were inadequate. This study presents the development and verification of detailed finite element analysis (FEA) models and lumped parameter circuit models that can calculate back electromotive force waveforms, inductance, cogging torque, energized torque, and eddy current power losses. It is the first thorough quantification of dual air-gap, axial -field, brushless, permanent magnet motor parameters and performance characteristics. The new methodology introduced in this research not only facilitates the design process of an axial field, brushless, permanent magnet motor but reinforces the idea that the high-power density, high-efficiency, and low-noise/vibration motor is attainable.

  7. Characteristic and magnetic field analysis of a high temperature superconductor axial-flux coreless induction maglev motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Qin; Yu, Fan; Jin, Fang; Shuo, Li; Guoguo, Li; Gang, Lv

    2012-04-01

    A new high temperature superconductor axial-flux coreless maglev motor (HTS AFIM) is proposed, of which the primary windings are made of HTS tapes and the secondary is a non-magnetic conductor. The main works of this paper are the magnetic-field computation and characteristics analysis of HTS AFIM. For the first one, the reduction of magnetic fields near outer and inner radius of the HTS AFIM is solved by introducing the sub-loop electro-magnetic model along the radial position. For the second one, the AC losses of HTS coils are calculated. The relationships between the device's characteristics and device parameters are presented, and the results indicate that under certain frequency and current levitation device can output enough lift force. The conclusions are verified by finite element calculations.

  8. Axial variations in the magnetic field of superconducting dipoles and quadrupoles

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, A.K.; Robins, K.E.; Sampson, W.B.

    1993-09-01

    A periodic variation in the magnetic field along the axis has been observed in both quadrupole and dipole magnets made from superconducting cable. This oscillation is present in all components of the field and has a wavelength equal to the transposition length of the cable. In general the amplitude of these variations increases with magnet current and is not reversible. The residual field patten at zero current depends on the energizing cycle and increases with time spent at high field. The decay of the oscillations has a complex time dependence which contains some extremely long time constants. Unbalanced currents in the individual strands of the cable appear to cause these effects and the field variations can only be completely erased by raising the magnet above its critical temperature.

  9. Theoretical and experimental study of a high-current vacuum arc in a uniform axial magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morimiya, Osami

    1992-01-01

    Measurements of the electron temperature, floating potential, plasma density, and average plasma pressure in a magnetically confined high-current vacuum arc are described. A 40-mm-diam, 30-mm-long arc was initiated between OFCu copper electrodes in a uniform axial magnetic field by triggering the gap. The crest values of the arc current ranged from 3 to 20 kA. The electron temperature by Langmuir probe measurement was Te= 2.5-3.0 eV with a uniform space distribution and was independent of the arc current. The space distribution of the ion density was parabolic in the radial direction and with a zero derivative in the axial direction. The average plasma pressure by paramagnetic measurement increased with the square of the arc current. The experiment showed that the arc column could be considered as an infinitely long column in which the plasma parameters have zero axial derivatives. Theoretical analysis has been carried out under the following assumptions. An infinitely long cylindrical and fully ionized steady-state plasma in which all quantities varied in the r direction only was considered. The anisotropy factor σ∥/σ⊥ for electrical conductivities was taken into account in the theoretical analysis, where σ∥ and σ⊥ were electrical conductivities parallel to the magnetic field and perpendicular to it, respectively. The plasma parameters determined from the experiments and theoretical analysis agreed closely with each other when the factor σ∥/σ⊥ was equal to ˜2, which is the theoretical upper limit in a high magnetic field. Constant temperature characteristics independent of the arc current have been found to be clearly seen by using line radiation as the dominant power loss in the power balance equation.

  10. Experimental investigation of cathode spots and plasma jets behavior subjected to two kinds of axial magnetic field electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Lijun; Deng, Jie; Zhou, Xin; Jia, Shenli; Qian, Zhonghao; Shi, Zongqian

    2016-04-15

    In this paper, cathode spot plasma jet (CSPJ) rotation and cathode spots behavior subjected to two kinds of large diameter axial magnetic field (AMF) electrode (cup-shaped and coil-shaped) are studied and analyzed based on experiments. The influence of gap distances on the CSPJ rotational behavior is analyzed. Experimental results show that CSPJ rotational phenomena extensively exist in the vacuum interrupters, and CSPJ rotational direction is along the direction of composite magnetic field (mainly the combination of the axial and azimuthal components). For coil-shaped and cup-shaped AMF electrodes, the rotational or inclination phenomena before the current peak value are much more significant than that after current peak value (for the same arc current), which is related to the larger ratio of azimuthal magnetic field B{sub t} and AMF B{sub z} (B{sub t}/B{sub z}). With the increase of the gap distance, the AMF strength decreases, when the arc current is kept as constant, the azimuthal magnetic field is kept invariable, the ratio between azimuthal magnetic field and AMF is increased, which results in the increase of rotational effect. For cathode spots motion, compared with cup-shaped electrode, coil-shaped electrode has the inverse AMF direction. The Robson drift direction of cathode spots of coil-shaped electrode is opposite to that of cup-shaped electrode. With the increase of gap distance, the Robson angle is decreased, which is associated with the reduced AMF strength. Erosion imprints of anode and cathode are also related to the CSPJ rotational phenomena and cathode spots behavior. The noise of arc voltage in the initial arcing stage is related to the weaker AMF.

  11. The effects of a uniform axial magnetic field on the global stability of the rotating-disk boundary-layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, Christopher; Thomas, Christian

    2006-11-01

    Following on from the earlier discovery by Lingwood (1995) that the rotating-disk boundary-layer is absolutely unstable, Jasmine & Gajjar (2005) have shown that the application of a uniform axial magnetic field can raise the critical Reynolds number for the onset of absolute instability. As with Lingwood's analysis, a parallel-flow' type of approximation is needed in order to derive this locally-based stability result. The approximation amounts to a freezing out' of the underlying radial variation of the mean flow. Numerical simulations have been conducted to investigate the behaviour of linearized disturbances in the genuine rotating disk boundary layer, where the radial dependence of the mean flow is fully accounted for. This extends the work of Davies & Carpenter (2003), who studied the more usual rotating-disk problem, in the absence of any magnetic field. The simulation results suggest that globally unstable behaviour can be promoted when a uniform axial magnetic field is applied. Impulsively excited disturbances were found to display an increasingly rapid growth at the radial position of the impulse, albeit without any selection of a dominant frequency, as would be more usual for an unstable global mode. This is very similar to the behaviour to that was observed in a recent investigation by Davies & Thomas (2005) of the effects of mass transfer, where suction was also found to promote global instability.

  12. Experimental Investigation of the Effects of an Axial Magnetic Field on the Magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor Instability in Ablating Planar Foils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yager-Elorriaga, D. A.; Patel, S. G.; Steiner, A. M.; Jordan, N. M.; Weiss, M. R.; Gilgenbach, R. M.; Lau, Y. Y.

    2014-10-01

    Experiments are underway to study the effects an axial magnetic field on the magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor instability (MRT) in ablating planar foils on the 1-MA LTD at the Michigan Accelerator for Inductive Z-pinch Experiments (MAIZE) facility at the University of Michigan. For 600 kA drive current, a 15 T axial magnetic field is produced using helical return current posts. During the current pulse, the magnetic field may diffuse into the foil, creating a sheared magnetic field along with the possibility of shear stabilization of the MRT instability. Theoretical investigation at UM has shown that a sheared azimuthal magnetic field coupled with an axial magnetic field reduces the MRT growth rate in general. In order to study this effect, the amount of magnetic shear is controlled by offsetting the initial position of the foil. A 775 nm Ti:sapphire laser will be used to shadowgraph the foil in order to measure the MRT growth rate. By comparing these results to previous experiments at UM, the effects of magnetic shear and an axial magnetic field will be determined. This work was supported by US DoE. S.G. Patel and A.M. Steiner supported by NPSC funded by Sandia. D.A. Yager-Elorriaga supported by NSF fellowship Grant DGE 1256260.

  13. Comparison of performance of the axial-field and radial-field permanent magnet brushless direct current motors using computer aided design and finite element methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Upadhyay, P. R.; Rajagopal, K. R.

    2005-05-01

    In this article, performance of 70 W, 350 rpm, axial-field and radial-field permanent magnet brushless dc motors is compared using computer aided design (CAD) and finite element (FE) methods. The design variables like number of poles, slots per pole per phase, airgap length, airgap flux density, slot electric loading, stator flux density, and the permanent magnet material are changed one at a time and the performances are calculated using the developed CAD program. The CAD results are validated by carrying out two-dimensional and three-dimensional FE analyses. It is observed that the axial-field motor gives higher efficiency, whereas the radial-field motor has less weight.

  14. Observation of multipactor suppression in a dielectric-loaded accelerating structure using an applied axial magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Jing, C.; Konecny, R.; Antipov, S.; Chang, C.; Gold, S. H.; Schoessow, P.; Kanareykin, A.; Gai, W.

    2013-11-18

    Efforts by a number of institutions to develop a Dielectric-Loaded Accelerating (DLA) structure capable of supporting high gradient acceleration when driven by an external radio frequency source have been ongoing over the past decade. Single surface resonant multipactor has been previously identified as one of the major limitations on the practical application of DLA structures in electron accelerators. In this paper, we report the results of an experiment that demonstrated suppression of multipactor growth in an X-band DLA structure through the use of an applied axial magnetic field. This represents an advance toward the practical use of DLA structures in many accelerator applications.

  15. Computer Calculations of Eddy-Current Power Loss in Rotating Titanium Wheels and Rims in Localized Axial Magnetic Fields

    SciTech Connect

    Mayhall, D J; Stein, W; Gronberg, J B

    2006-05-15

    We have performed preliminary computer-based, transient, magnetostatic calculations of the eddy-current power loss in rotating titanium-alloy and aluminum wheels and wheel rims in the predominantly axially-directed, steady magnetic fields of two small, solenoidal coils. These calculations have been undertaken to assess the eddy-current power loss in various possible International Linear Collider (ILC) positron target wheels. They have also been done to validate the simulation code module against known results published in the literature. The commercially available software package used in these calculations is the Maxwell 3D, Version 10, Transient Module from the Ansoft Corporation.

  16. Optical visualisation of the flow around a cylinder in electrolyte under strong axial magnetic field.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreev, O.; Kobzev, A.; Kolesnikov, Yu.; Thess, A.

    Flows around obstacles are among the most common problems encountered in the fluid mechanics literature, and cylindrical obstacles definitely received the most extensive attention. The reason for this is that this relatively simple geometry already encompasses most of the important physical effects likely to play a role in flow around more complicated obstacles. This means that understanding the cylinder problem provides relevant insight on a wide variety of problem ranging from aerodynamics, with the flow around a wing or a vehicle, to pollutant dispersion around building, flows in turbines … When the working fluid conducts electricity additional effects are involved. In particular, the presence of a magnetic field tends to homogenise the flow in the direction of the magnetic field lines which leads to strong alterations of the flow patterns known from the classical nonconducting case. This configuration is also a very generic one as Magnetohydrodynamic flows around obstacle also occur in a wide variety of applications: for instance, the space vehicle re-entry problem features the flow of a conducting plasma around an obstacle: [1] and [2] have shown that it could be influenced by a strong magnetic field in order to reduce heat transfer. The cooling blanket of the future nuclear fusion reactor ITER soon to be built in France, features a complex flow of liquid metal in a very high magnetic field (typically 10 T), in which the occurrence of obstacles cannot be avoided.

  17. Enhancement of axial momentum lost to the radial wall by the upstream magnetic field in a helicon source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Kazunori; Ando, Akira

    2017-05-01

    Individual measurements of forces exerted to an upstream back wall, a radial source wall, and a magnetic field of a helicon plasma thruster, which has two solenoids upstream and downstream of a radiofrequency antenna, are precisely measured. Two different structures of magnetic field lines in the source are tested, where the solenoid current is supplied to either only the downstream solenoid or to both the solenoids. It is observed that the high density plasma exists upstream of the rf antenna when both the solenoids are powered, while the maximum density exists near the rf antenna when only the downstream solenoid is powered. Although the force exerted to the back wall is increased for the two solenoids case, the axial momentum lost to the radial wall is simultaneously enhanced; then the total force exerted to the whole structure of the thruster is found to be very similar for the two magnetic field configurations. It is shown that the individual force measurement provides useful information on the plasma momentum interacting with the physical boundaries and the magnetic fields.

  18. Comparison of self-fields effects in two-stream electromagnetically pumped FEL with ion-channel guiding and axial magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saviz, S.; Mehdian, H.; Aghamir, Farzin M.; Ghorannevis, M.; Ashkarran, A. A.

    2011-12-01

    A theory of two-stream free-electron laser in a combined electromagnetic wiggler and an ion-channel guiding is developed. In the analysis, the electron trajectories and the small signal gain are derived by considering the effects of self-fields. Numerical calculations show that there are seven group's trajectories rather than nine groups reported in Mehdian and Saviz (2010 Chin. Phys. B 19(1), 014214). The comparison of the normalized gains and their corresponding normalized frequencies by employing the axial magnetic field and ion-channel guiding, with and without self-fields, in FEL has been studied numerically. The results show that the normalized maximum gain in FEL with axial magnetic is larger than that for using ion-channel guiding except in small region, but the results for their corresponding normalized frequencies are opposite.

  19. Turbulent convection in a horizontal duct with strong axial magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xuan; Zikanov, Oleg

    2014-11-01

    Convection in a horizontal duct with one heated wall is studied computationally. The work is motivated by the concept of a blanket for fusion reactors, according to which liquid metal slowly flows in toroidal ducts aligned with the main component of the magnetic field. We first assume that the magnetic field is sufficiently strong for the flow to be purely two-dimensional and analyze chaotic flow regimes at very high Grashof numbers. Furthermore, three-dimensional perturbations are considered and the relation between the length of the duct and the critical Hartmann number, below which the flow becomes three-dimensional, is determined. Financial support was provided by the US NSF (Grant CBET 1232851).

  20. A three-step calibration method for tri-axial field sensors in a 3D magnetic digital compass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Xiaoning; Zhao, Ta; Cheng, Defu; Zhou, Zhijian

    2017-04-01

    In a 3D magnetic compass, it is important to calibrate the tri-axial magnetometers and accelerometers so the compass will provide accurate heading and attitude information. Previous researchers have used two methods to calibrate these two field sensors separately, i.e. the classic independent ellipsoid fitting method and the independent dot product invariant method, respectively. Both methods are easy to use, and no highly accurate, external equipment is required. However, self-calibration with ellipsoid fitting has the disadvantage that it interfuses an orthogonal matrix, and the dot product invariant method requires the use of pre-calibrated internal field sensors, which may be unavailable in many cases. In this paper, we have introduced and unified an error model of two tri-axial field sensors. Accordingly, the orthogonal matrix caused by ellipsoid fitting was mathematically proved to be the combination of two sources, the mounting misalignment and the rotation misalignment. Moreover, a new method, which we call optimal resultant vector, was proposed to further calibrate multi-sensor systems on the basis of ellipsoid fitting and dot product invariant methods, establishing a new, three-step calibration method. The superiority of the proposed method over the state-of-the-art approaches were demonstrated by simulations and a 3D compass experiment.

  1. Orbital stability in combined uniform axial and three-dimensional wiggler magnetic fields for free-electron lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, S.

    1984-01-01

    Zachary Phys. Rev. A 29 (6), 3224 (1984) recently analyzed the instability of relativistic-electron helical trajectories in combined uniform axial and helical wiggler magnetic fields when the radial variation of the wiggler field is taken into account. It is shown here that the type 2 instability comprised of secular terms growing linearly in time, identified by Zachary and earlier by Diament Phys. Rev. A 23 (5), 2537 (1981), is an artifact of simple perturbation theory. A multiple-time-scale perturbation analysis reveals a nonsecular evolution on a slower time scale which accommodates an arbitrary initial perturbation. It is shown that, in the absence of exponential instability, the electron seeks a modified helical orbit more appropriate to its perturbed state and oscillates stably about it. Thus, the perturbed motion is oscillatory but nonsecular, and hence the helical orbits are stable.

  2. ¹⁴N Quadrupole Resonance line broadening due to the earth magnetic field, occuring only in the case of an axially symmetric electric field gradient tensor.

    PubMed

    Aissani, Sarra; Guendouz, Laouès; Marande, Pierre-Louis; Canet, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    As demonstrated before, the application of a weak static B0 magnetic field (less than 10 G) may produce definite effects on the ¹⁴N Quadrupole Resonance line when the electric field gradient tensor at the nitrogen nucleus level is of axial symmetry. Here, we address more precisely the problem of the relative orientation of the two magnetic fields (the static field and the radio-frequency field of the pure NQR experiment). For a field of 6G, the evolution of the signal intensity, as a function of this relative orientation, is in very good agreement with the theoretical predictions. There is in particular an intensity loss by a factor of three when going from the parallel configuration to the perpendicular configuration. By contrast, when dealing with a very weak magnetic field (as the earth field, around 0.5 G), this effect drops to ca. 1.5 in the case Hexamethylenetetramine (HMT).This is explained by the fact that the Zeeman shift (due to the very weak magnetic field) becomes comparable to the natural line-width. The latter can therefore be determined by accounting for this competition. Still in the case of HMT, the estimated natural line-width is half the observed line-width. The extra broadening is thus attributed to earth magnetic field. The latter constitutes therefore the main cause of the difference between the natural transverse relaxation time (T₂) and the transverse relaxation time derived from the observed line-width (T₂(⁎)).

  3. Anomalous, quasilinear, and percolative regimes for magnetic-field-line transport in axially symmetric turbulence

    PubMed

    Zimbardo; Veltri; Pommois

    2000-02-01

    We studied a magnetic turbulence axisymmetric around the unperturbed magnetic field for cases having different ratios l( ||)/l( perpendicular). We find, in addition to the fact that a higher fluctuation level deltaB/B(0) makes the system more stochastic, that by increasing the ratio l( ||)/l( perpendicular) at fixed deltaB/B(0), the stochasticity increases. It appears that the different transport regimes can be organized in terms of the Kubo number R=(deltaB/B(0))(l( ||)/l( perpendicular)). The simulation results are compared with the two analytical limits, that is the percolative limit and the quasilinear limit. When R<1 weak chaos, closed magnetic surfaces, and anomalous transport regimes are found. When R approximately 1 the diffusion regime is Gaussian, and the quasilinear scaling of the diffusion coefficient D( perpendicular) approximately (deltaB/B(0))(2) is recovered. Finally, for R>1 the percolation scaling of the diffusion coefficient D( perpendicular) approximately (deltaB/B(0))(0.7) is obtained.

  4. Analytic treatment of vortex states in cylindrical superconductors in applied axial magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Ludu, A.; Van Deun, J.; Cuyt, A.; Milosevic, M. V.; Peeters, F. M.

    2010-08-15

    We solve the linear Ginzburg-Landau (GL) equation in the presence of a uniform magnetic field with cylindrical symmetry and we find analytic expressions for the eigenfunctions in terms of the confluent hypergeometric functions. The discrete spectrum results from an implicit equation associated to the boundary conditions and it is resolved in analytic form using the continued fractions formalism. We study the dependence of the spectrum and the eigenfunctions on the sample size and the surface conditions for solid and hollow cylindrical superconductors. Finally, the solutions of the nonlinear GL formalism are constructed as expansions in the linear GL eigenfunction basis and selected by minimization of the free energy. We present examples of vortex states and their energies for different samples in enhancing/suppressing superconductivity surroundings.

  5. Inhomogeneous Weyl and Dirac Semimetals: Transport in Axial Magnetic Fields and Fermi Arc Surface States from Pseudo-Landau Levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grushin, Adolfo G.; Venderbos, Jörn W. F.; Vishwanath, Ashvin; Ilan, Roni

    2016-10-01

    Topological Dirac and Weyl semimetals have an energy spectrum that hosts Weyl nodes appearing in pairs of opposite chirality. Topological stability is ensured when the nodes are separated in momentum space and unique spectral and transport properties follow. In this work, we study the effect of a space-dependent Weyl node separation, which we interpret as an emergent background axial-vector potential, on the electromagnetic response and the energy spectrum of Weyl and Dirac semimetals. This situation can arise in the solid state either from inhomogeneous strain or nonuniform magnetization and can also be engineered in cold atomic systems. Using a semiclassical approach, we show that the resulting axial magnetic field B5 is observable through an enhancement of the conductivity as σ ˜B52 due to an underlying chiral pseudomagnetic effect. We then use two lattice models to analyze the effect of B5 on the spectral properties of topological semimetals. We describe the emergent pseudo-Landau-level structure for different spatial profiles of B5, revealing that (i) the celebrated surface states of Weyl semimetals, the Fermi arcs, can be reinterpreted as n =0 pseudo-Landau levels resulting from a B5 confined to the surface, (ii) as a consequence of position-momentum locking, a bulk B5 creates pseudo-Landau levels interpolating in real space between Fermi arcs at opposite surfaces, and (iii) there are equilibrium bound currents proportional to B5 that average to zero over the sample, which are the analogs of bound currents in magnetic materials. We conclude by discussing how our findings can be probed experimentally.

  6. Electron acceleration in the inverse free electron laser with a helical wiggler by axial magnetic field and ion-channel guiding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reza, Khazaeinezhad; Mahdi, Esmaeilzadeh

    2012-09-01

    Electron acceleration in the inverse free electron laser (IFEL) with a helical wiggler in the presence of ion-channel guiding and axial magnetic field is investigated in this article. The effects of tapering wiggler amplitude and axial magnetic field are calculated for the electron acceleration. In free electron lasers, electron beams lose energy through radiation while in IFEL electron beams gain energy from the laser. The equation of electron motion and the equation of energy exchange between a single electron and electromagnetic waves are derived and then solved numerically using the fourth order Runge-Kutta method. The tapering effects of a wiggler magnetic field on electron acceleration are investigated and the results show that the electron acceleration increases in the case of a tapered wiggler magnetic field with a proper taper constant.

  7. Two-dimensional simulations of thermonuclear burn in ignition-scale inertial confinement fusion targets under compressed axial magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, L. J.; Logan, B. G.; Zimmerman, G. B.; Werner, C. J.

    2013-07-15

    We report for the first time on full 2-D radiation-hydrodynamic implosion simulations that explore the impact of highly compressed imposed magnetic fields on the ignition and burn of perturbed spherical implosions of ignition-scale cryogenic capsules. Using perturbations that highly convolute the cold fuel boundary of the hotspot and prevent ignition without applied fields, we impose initial axial seed fields of 20–100 T (potentially attainable using present experimental methods) that compress to greater than 4 × 10{sup 4} T (400 MG) under implosion, thereby relaxing hotspot areal densities and pressures required for ignition and propagating burn by ∼50%. The compressed field is high enough to suppress transverse electron heat conduction, and to allow alphas to couple energy into the hotspot even when highly deformed by large low-mode amplitudes. This might permit the recovery of ignition, or at least significant alpha particle heating, in submarginal capsules that would otherwise fail because of adverse hydrodynamic instabilities.

  8. Vacuum arc behavior and its voltage characteristics in drawing process controlled by composite magnetic fields along axial and transverse directions

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Lijun Deng, Jie; Wang, Haijing; Jia, Shenli; Qin, Kang; Shi, Zongqian

    2015-10-15

    In this research, drawing vacuum arc (VA) experiments were conducted using composite contacts under currents ranging from 5 kA to 20 kA root mean square (rms). The new type of contact comprised an axial magnetic field (AMF) configuration and a transverse magnetic field (TMF) configuration. The TMF plate was in the center, surrounded by the AMF plate. The contact generated both AMFs and TMFs simultaneously. VA appearances and arc voltages were recorded, and the VA was modeled as a conductor for electromagnetic force analysis in ANSYS software. The results showed that the coaxiality of operating mechanisms significantly influenced arc behavior just as the arc was ignited. When arc brightness did not increase after ignition, there was a voltage drop accompanied with diffusion of the VA. As to VA development, when an arc was ignited on an AMF plate, it spread on the plate and rotated. Over time the arc current increased, the constricting arc forms, and the arc column rotated on the TMF plate under the action of Ampere's force. With regard to the influence of a magnetic field on a VA at different stages, in the initial drawing arc stage the TMF was dominant, and the arc started to rotate under the action of Ampere's force. Afterwards, the AMF was dominant, with a steadily burning arc. As for contact melting, in the initial arcing period, a contracted short arc caused severe melting and erosion of the contact plate. When the ignition spot or root was close to the slot of plate, the electromagnetic force pushed the arc toward slot and contact edge, resulting in local erosion of the slot region.

  9. Small-amplitude magnetic Rayleigh-Taylor instability growth in cylindrical liners and Z-pinches imploded in an axial magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velikovich, A. L.; Giuliani, J. L.; Clark, R. W.; Mikitchuk, D.; Kroupp, E.; Maron, Y.; Fisher, A.; Schmit, P. F.

    2014-10-01

    Recent progress in developing the MagLIF approach to pulsed-power driven inertial confinement fusion has stimulated the interest in observation and mitigation of the magnetic Rayleigh-Taylor instability (MRTI) of liners and Z-pinches imploded in an axial magnetic field. Theoretical analysis of these issues is particularly important because direct numerical simulation of the MRTI development is challenging due to intrinsically 3D helical structure of the fastest-growing modes. We review the analytical small-amplitude theory of the MRTI perturbation development and the weakly nonlinear theory of MRTI mode interaction, emphasizing basic physics, opportunity for 3D code verification against exact analytical solutions, and stabilization criteria. The theory is compared to the experimental results obtained at Weizmann Institute with gas-puff Z pinches and on the Z facility at Sandia with solid liners imploded in an axial magnetic field. Work supported by the US DOE/NNSA, and by the US-Israel Binational Science Foundation. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  10. Crustal magnetization and the subseafloor structure of the ASHES vent field, Axial Seamount, Juan de Fuca Ridge: Implications for the investigation of hydrothermal sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caratori Tontini, Fabio; Crone, Timothy J.; de Ronde, Cornel E. J.; Fornari, Daniel J.; Kinsey, James C.; Mittelstaedt, Eric; Tivey, Maurice

    2016-06-01

    High-resolution geophysical data have been collected using the Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) Sentry over the ASHES (Axial Seamount Hydrothermal Emission Study) high-temperature ( 348°C) vent field at Axial Seamount, on the Juan de Fuca Ridge. Multiple surveys were performed on a 3-D grid at different altitudes above the seafloor, providing an unprecedented view of magnetic data resolution as a function of altitude above the seafloor. Magnetic data derived near the seafloor show that the ASHES field is characterized by a zone of low magnetization, which can be explained by hydrothermal alteration of the host volcanic rocks. Surface manifestations of hydrothermal activity at the ASHES vent field are likely controlled by a combination of local faults and fractures and different lava morphologies near the seafloor. Three-dimensional inversion of the magnetic data provides evidence of a vertical, pipe-like upflow zone of the hydrothermal fluids with a vertical extent of 100 m.

  11. Electron bunch acceleration in an inverse free-electron laser with a helical magnetic wiggler and axial guide field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirzanejhad, Saeed; Sohbatzadeh, Farshad; Asri, Mehdi; Toosi, Ershad Sadeghi

    2006-12-01

    Electron bunch acceleration by a laser pulse having Gaussian radial and temporal profiles of intensity has been studied numerically in a static helical magnetic wiggler in vacuum. The main electron bunch parameters for simulations are 10MeV initial energy with 0.1% longitudinal energy spread, 1mm mrad rms transverse emittance, and 3×1012cm-3 density. It is shown that the radial Gaussian profile can decrease the acceleration gradient compared with that of the plane-wave approximation due to the reduction of electron-pulse interaction area. In order to collimate electron bunch and overcome the decreasing of the acceleration gradient, an external axial magnetic field is used. The importance of the electron initial phase with respect to laser pulse is considered, and some appropriate values are found. Finally, acceleration of a femtosecond (fs) microbunch with an optimum appropriate initial phase is considered, which leads to a nearly monoenergetic microbunch and an acceleration gradient of about ≈0.2GeV/m.

  12. Self-field effects on electron dynamics in a three-dimensional helical wiggler free-electron laser with axial magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Bahi, R.; Rhimi, M. N.

    2010-04-01

    An analytic linear theory of the electron dynamics in a three-dimensional helical wiggler free electron laser (FEL) with axial magnetic field is presented. Orbits are obtained by perturbing the steady state-trajectories in order to determine the characteristic frequencies Ω± of the FEL. The effect of the self-fields on electron dynamics is studied and modified steady-state orbits and their stabilities have been analysed considering variation of electron energy and density. Among the features encountered is that in both group-I and group-II, one of the characteristic frequencies may have either signs affecting then the stability of the motion, while in group-II operation a repulsion of the frequencies at a pseudocrossing leads to highly perturbed trajectories when the wiggler frequency is approximately half the cyclotron frequency. Self-fields effects can significantly impair the stability of the electron orbits. For group-I orbits, they are more important for higher wiggler frequencies and lower beam energies. For group-II orbits, they remain less important for higher wiggler frequencies and lower beam energies before reaching the inversion zone, then they behave as for group-I orbits. It should be remarked that self-fields shift the inversion zone towards higher cyclotron frequencies the thing that is obtained by either decreasing the wiggler frequency or increasing the beam energy. It is shown that the axial velocity-induced self-magnetic field has a diamagnetic effect for both groups orbits, while the wiggler-induced self-magnetic field has a diamagnetic effect for group-I orbits and a paramagnetic effect for group-II orbits. The paramagnetic and diamagnetic effects are more important for higher beam energies and densities.

  13. Columnar-to-Equiaxed Transition and Equiaxed Grain Alignment in Directionally Solidified Ni3Al Alloy Under an Axial Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Huan; Xuan, Weidong; Xie, Xinliang; Li, Chuanjun; Wang, Jiang; Yu, Jianbo; Li, Xi; Zhong, Yunbo; Ren, Zhongming

    2017-09-01

    The effect of an axial magnetic field on the solidification structure in directionally solidified Ni-21.5Al-0.4Zr-0.1B (at. pct) alloy was investigated. The experimental results indicated that the application of a high magnetic field caused the deformation of dendrites and the occurrence of columnar-to-equiaxed transition (CET). The magnetic field tended to orient the 〈001〉 crystal direction of the equiaxed grains along the magnetic field direction. The bulk solidification experiment under a high magnetic field showed that the crystal exhibited magnetic crystalline anisotropy. Further, the thermoelectric (TE) magnetic force and TE magnetic convention were analyzed by three-dimensional (3-D) numerical simulations. The results showed that the maximum value of TE magnetic force localized in the vicinity of the secondary dendrite arm root, which should be responsible for the dendrite break and CET. Based on the high-temperature creep mechanism, a simple model was proposed to describe the magnetic field intensity needed for CET: B ≥ kG^{ - 1.5} R^{1.25} . The model is in good agreement with the experiment results. The experimental results should be attributed to the combined action of TE magnetic effects and the magnetic moment.

  14. Columnar-to-Equiaxed Transition and Equiaxed Grain Alignment in Directionally Solidified Ni3Al Alloy Under an Axial Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Huan; Xuan, Weidong; Xie, Xinliang; Li, Chuanjun; Wang, Jiang; Yu, Jianbo; Li, Xi; Zhong, Yunbo; Ren, Zhongming

    2017-06-01

    The effect of an axial magnetic field on the solidification structure in directionally solidified Ni-21.5Al-0.4Zr-0.1B (at. pct) alloy was investigated. The experimental results indicated that the application of a high magnetic field caused the deformation of dendrites and the occurrence of columnar-to-equiaxed transition (CET). The magnetic field tended to orient the <001> crystal direction of the equiaxed grains along the magnetic field direction. The bulk solidification experiment under a high magnetic field showed that the crystal exhibited magnetic crystalline anisotropy. Further, the thermoelectric (TE) magnetic force and TE magnetic convention were analyzed by three-dimensional (3-D) numerical simulations. The results showed that the maximum value of TE magnetic force localized in the vicinity of the secondary dendrite arm root, which should be responsible for the dendrite break and CET. Based on the high-temperature creep mechanism, a simple model was proposed to describe the magnetic field intensity needed for CET: B ≥ kG^{ - 1.5} R^{1.25} . The model is in good agreement with the experiment results. The experimental results should be attributed to the combined action of TE magnetic effects and the magnetic moment.

  15. Fabrication and test of an axial-field HTS rotating machine with integrated magnetic coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolisy, B.; Mezani, S.; Lubin, T.; Lévêque, J.

    2017-03-01

    High temperature superconducting (HTS) electrical machines have high torque density with a very high efficiency. Torque tubes are usually used to transmit the torque from the cold to the warm environment which results in thermal losses and mechanical problems. To overcome these difficulties, we propose to transmit the torque of the HTS machine through an integrated HTS magnetic coupling. A prototype has been constructed and tested showing the effectiveness of the proposed solution. The machine and the coupling share the same HTS rotor while the torque produced by the machine is transmitted to the load via a permanent magnets rotor. This solution allows the reduction of the thermal losses and a natural protection against overload during fault. The electromagnetic design is carried out using 3D finite elements (FE). The HTS material electrical behavior is described using a power law so it was possible to determine the operating current of the HTS coils of the device. Many test results such as U(I) curves of the HTS coils, static torque, back-EMF and on-load characteristics are presented and checked by the FE computations.

  16. Influence of the axial magnetic field on sheath development after current zero in a vacuum circuit breaker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yi; Yang, Fei; Sun, Hao; Wu, Yi; Niu, Chunping; Rong, Mingzhe

    2017-06-01

    After current zero, which is the moment when the vacuum circuit breaker interrupts a vacuum arc, sheath development is the first process in the dielectric recovery process. An axial magnetic field (AMF) is widely used in the vacuum circuit breaker when the high-current vacuum arc is interrupted. Therefore, it is very important to study the influence of different AMF amplitudes on the sheath development. The objective of this paper is to study the influence of different AMF amplitudes on the sheath development from a micro perspective. Thus, the particle in cell-Monte Carlo collisions (PIC-MCC) method was adopted to develop the sheath development model. We compared the simulation results with the experimental results and then validated the simulation. We also obtained the speed of the sheath development and the energy density of the ions under different AMF amplitudes. The results showed that the larger the AMF amplitudes are, the faster the sheath develops and the lower the ion energy density is, meaning the breakdown is correspondingly more difficult.

  17. Enhancement of the Excitation Efficiency of the Non-Contact Magnetostrictive Sensor for Pipe Inspection by Adjusting the Alternating Magnetic Field Axial Length

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Pengfei; Wu, Xinjun; Xu, Jiang; Li, Jian

    2014-01-01

    The non-contact magnetostrictive sensor (MsS) has been widely used in the guided wave testing of pipes, cables, and so on. However, it has a disadvantage of low excitation efficiency. A new method for enhancing the excitation efficiency of the non-contact MsS for pipe inspection using guided waves, by adjusting the axial length of the excitation magnetic field, is proposed. A special transmitter structure, in which two copper rings are added beside the transmitter coil, is used to adjust the axial length at the expense of weakening the excitation magnetic field. An equivalent vibration model is presented to analyze the influence of the axial length variation. The final result is investigated by experiments. Results show that the excitation efficiency of the non-contact MsS is enhanced in the whole inspection frequency range of the L(0,2) mode if the axial length is adjusted to a certain value. Moreover that certain axial length is the same for pipes of different sizes but made of the same material. PMID:24441769

  18. Axial magnetic field and toroidally streaming fast ions in the dense plasma focus are natural consequences of conservation laws in the curved axisymmetric geometry of the current sheath

    SciTech Connect

    Auluck, S. K. H.

    2014-10-15

    Direct measurement of axial magnetic field in the PF-1000 dense plasma focus (DPF), and its reported correlation with neutron emission, call for a fresh look at previous reports of existence of axial magnetic field component in the DPF from other laboratories, and associated data suggesting toroidal directionality of fast ions participating in fusion reactions, with a view to understand the underlying physics. In this context, recent work dealing with application of the hyperbolic conservation law formalism to the DPF is extended in this paper to a curvilinear coordinate system, which reflects the shape of the DPF current sheath. Locally unidirectional shock propagation in this coordinate system enables construction of a system of 7 one-dimensional hyperbolic conservation law equations with geometric source terms, taking into account all the components of magnetic field and flow velocity. Rankine-Hugoniot jump conditions for this system lead to expressions for the axial magnetic field and three components of fluid velocity having high ion kinetic energy.

  19. Effect of an axial magnetic field and arc current on the anode current density in diffuse vacuum arcs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Hui; Geng, Yingsan; Liu, Zhiyuan; Wang, Jianhua; Wang, Zhenxing; Zhang, Zaiqin

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this paper is to measure the effect of an axial magnetic field (AMF) BAMF and arc current on the anode current density in diffuse vacuum arcs. The experimental geometry included a split anode and a butt-type cathode, both with a diameter of 60 mm. The anode surface was divided into a central area and three symmetrically disposed peripheral annular areas. The central area of the split anode had a diameter of 20 mm. The contact material was CuCr25 (25% Cr). The arc current IARC ranged from 4 to 14 kA (rms) at 50 Hz. The opening velocity was 2.4 m/s. The currents of the four areas on the anode contact were measured using four Rogowski coils situated outside the vacuum chamber. An external uniform AMF BAMF ranging from 0 to 110 mT was applied during the experiment. The observed arc modes were recorded by a high-speed charge-coupled device video camera. The experimental results quantitatively reveal that the current density distribution on the anode surface in the diffuse arc mode was not uniform but concentrated in the central area. The current density in the central anode area at the current peak JPeakArea I decreased with increasing BAMF following a power law. For BAMF of 0-110 mT and IARC of 4-14 kA, JPeakArea I = (2.2 IARC + 0.069 IARC2) BAMF-0.22, where JPeakArea I is in A/mm2, BAMF is in mT, and IARC is in kA. Moreover, the current distribution was uneven in the three peripheral areas.

  20. Novel Integrated Radial and Axial Magnetic Bearing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blumenstock, Kenneth A.; Brown, Gary L.; Powers, Edward I. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Typically, fully active magnetically suspended systems require one axial and two radial magnetic bearings. Combining radial and axial functions into a single device allows for more compact and elegant packaging. Furthermore, in the case of high-speed devices such as energy storage flywheels, it is beneficial to minimize shaft length to keep rotor mode frequencies as high as possible. Attempts have been made to combine radial and axial functionality, but with certain drawbacks. One approach requires magnetic control flux to flow through a bias magnet reducing control effectiveness, thus resulting in increased resistive losses. This approach also requires axial force producing magnetic flux to flow in a direction into the rotor laminate that is undesirable for minimizing eddy-current losses resulting in rotational losses. Another approach applies a conical rotor shape to what otherwise would be a radial heteropolar magnetic bearing configuration. However, positional non-linear effects are introduced with this scheme and the same windings are used for bias, radial, and axial control adding complexity to the controller and electronics. For this approach, the amount of axial capability must be limited. It would be desirable for an integrated radial and axial magnetic bearing to have the following characteristics, separate inputs for radial and axial control for electronics and control simplicity, all magnetic control fluxes should only flow through their respective air gaps and should not flow through any bias magnets for minimal resistive losses, be of a homopolar design to minimize rotational losses, position related non-linear effects should be minimized, and dependent upon the design parameters, be able to achieve any radial/axial force or power ratio as desired. The integrated radial and axial magnetic bearing described in this paper exhibits all these characteristics. Magnetic circuit design, design equations, and analysis results will be presented.

  1. Axial magnetic effect in two-color quenched lattice QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braguta, V.; Chernodub, M. N.; Goy, V. A.; Landsteiner, K.; Molochkov, A. V.; Polikarpov, M. I.

    2015-05-01

    The Axial Magnetic Effect manifests itself as an equilibrium energy flow of massless fermions induced by the axial (chiral) magnetic field. Here we study the Axial Magnetic Effect in the quenched SU(2) lattice gauge theory with massless overlap fermions at finite temperature. We numerically observe that in the low-temperature hadron phase the effect is absent due to the quark confinement. In the high-temperature deconfinement phase the energy flow is an increasing function of the temperature which reaches the predicted asymptotic T2 behavior at high temperatures. We find, however, that energy flow is about one order of magnitude lower compared to a theoretical prediction.

  2. Axial magnetic effect in two-color quenched lattice QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braguta, V.; Chernodub, M. N.; Goy, V. A.; Landsteiner, K.; Molochkov, A. V.; Polikarpov, M. I.

    2015-01-01

    The Axial Magnetic Effect manifests itself as an equilibrium energy flow of massless fermions induced by the axial (chiral) magnetic field. Here we study the Axial Magnetic Effect in the quenched SU(2) lattice gauge theory with massless overlap fermions at finite temperature. We numerically observe that in the low-temperature hadron phase the effect is absent due to the quark confinement. In the high-temperature deconfinement phase the energy flow is an increasing function of the temperature which reaches the predicted asymptotic T2 behavior at high temperatures. We find, however, that energy flow is about one order of magnitude lower compared to a theoretical prediction.

  3. Stability of the circular Couette flow of a ferrofluid in an axial magnetic field: influence of polydispersity.

    PubMed

    Leschhorn, A; Lücke, M; Hoffmann, C; Altmeyer, S

    2009-03-01

    The gap between two concentric rotating cylinders is filled with a ferrofluid. A homogeneous magnetic field is applied parallel to the cylinder axis. The stability of the circular Couette flow is analyzed with different models that take into account the polydispersity of the ferrofluid to a varying degree. Their results are compared and their merits are discussed.

  4. Development and Testing of an Axial Halbach Magnetic Bearing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J.; Gallo, Christopher A.; Thompson, William K.

    2006-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center has developed and tested a revolutionary Axial Halbach Magnetic Bearing. The objective of this work is to develop a viable non-contact magnetic thrust bearing utilizing Halbach arrays for all-electric flight, and many other applications. This concept will help to reduce harmful emissions, reduce the Nation s dependence on fossil fuels and mitigate many of the concerns and limitations encountered in conventional axial bearings such as bearing wear, leaks, seals and friction loss. The Axial Halbach Magnetic Bearing is inherently stable and requires no active feedback control system or superconductivity as required in many magnetic bearing designs. The Axial Halbach Magnetic Bearing is useful for very high speed applications including turbines, instrumentation, medical systems, computer memory systems, and space power systems such as flywheels. Magnetic fields suspend and support a rotor assembly within a stator. Advanced technologies developed for particle accelerators, and currently under development for maglev trains and rocket launchers, served as the basis for this application. Experimental hardware was successfully designed and developed to validate the basic principles and analyses. The report concludes that the implementation of Axial Halbach Magnetic Bearings can provide significant improvements in rotational system performance and reliability.

  5. Removal of Axial Twist in RHIC Insertion Quadrupole Magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cozzolino, J.; Anerella, M.; Jain, A.; Louie, W.; Muratore, P.

    1997-05-01

    The focusing triplets located on either side of the six interaction points of RHIC each consist of three 13cm aperture quadrupoles with magnetic lengths of 1.44m (Q1), 3.40m (Q2), and 2.10m (Q3). The field quality and alignment of these magnets are most critical to the performance of the accelerator. The maximum allowable axial twist of the cold mass, defined as the standard deviation in the quadrupole roll angle, is 0.5 mrad. This requirement has occasionally exceeded the capabilities of the assembly fixturing and the procedures used to complete the axial welding of the shell halves around the cold mass yoke. A corrective shell welding technique has been successfully employed to remove excessive axial twist of the 13cm quadrupoles. This ``custom straightening" method will be described along with the before and after mechanical inspection data. The magnetic results which confirm the untwisting procedure shall also be discussed.

  6. Research on the dq coordinate transform in the six-phase double star windings shifted by 30° synchronous generators with axial magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bian, Xiangnan; Ma, Qishuang

    2006-11-01

    As an intermediate frequency power source, the double star windings shifted by 30° synchronous generator with axial magnetic field (DSWAMF) is widely used in the different areas. Using the generalized inverse, the transformation matrix of double windings synchronous generators with two Y-connected 3-phase symmetrical windings displaced in turn by 30° from rotating to stationary axes is proposed. With the transformation matrix, the state-space model of the generators is established. Obtained the relation of interconnection, and optimize the parameter. The kind of machine is simulated by finite element method (FEM), mutual inductance of the simulation is similar to theory. The generator mathematical model is established, the internal parameter of this kind of generator can be obtained easily with transformation matrix.

  7. Magnetic Field Solver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ilin, Andrew V.

    2006-01-01

    The Magnetic Field Solver computer program calculates the magnetic field generated by a group of collinear, cylindrical axisymmetric electromagnet coils. Given the current flowing in, and the number of turns, axial position, and axial and radial dimensions of each coil, the program calculates matrix coefficients for a finite-difference system of equations that approximates a two-dimensional partial differential equation for the magnetic potential contributed by the coil. The program iteratively solves these finite-difference equations by use of the modified incomplete Cholesky preconditioned-conjugate-gradient method. The total magnetic potential as a function of axial (z) and radial (r) position is then calculated as a sum of the magnetic potentials of the individual coils, using a high-accuracy interpolation scheme. Then the r and z components of the magnetic field as functions of r and z are calculated from the total magnetic potential by use of a high-accuracy finite-difference scheme. Notably, for the finite-difference calculations, the program generates nonuniform two-dimensional computational meshes from nonuniform one-dimensional meshes. Each mesh is generated in such a way as to minimize the numerical error for a benchmark one-dimensional magnetostatic problem.

  8. Flow field visualization about external axial corners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Talcott, N. A., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to visualize the flow field about external axial corners. The investigation was initiated to provide answers to questions about the inviscid flow pattern for continuing numerical investigations. Symmetrical and asymmetrical corner models were tested at a Reynolds number per meter of 60,700,000. Oil-flow and vapor-screen photographs were taken for both models at angle of attack and yaw. The paper presents the results of the investigation in the form of oil-flow photographs and the surrounding shock wave location obtained from the vapor screens.

  9. Fabrication of Tri-axially Oriented RE-Ba-Cu-O Ceramics by Magnetic Alignment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaki, M.; Furuta, M.; Doi, T.; Shimoyama, J.; Horii, S.

    Magnetic alignment is a new crystal alignment process which enables tri-axial orientation without epitaxial growth at room temperature. In order to investigate the effectiveness of this magnetic tri-axial alignment process, we attempted to fabricate tri-axially oriented ErBa2Cu4O8 (Er124) ceramics by a slip-casting technique under two different modulated rotation magnetic fields (MRFs); uni-directional rotation type and oscillation type. For improvement of the degrees of tri-axial orientation in the Er124 green compacts slip-casted under MRFs, appropriate choice of sample-rotation method, magnetic field condition, control of mean diameter of source powders, and viscosity of slurry was found to be important in the case of MRFs induced by the sample-rotation. At the current stage, the degree of inplane orientation with ∼10̊ in Er124 was achieved.

  10. Temperature dependence of the axial magnetic effect in two-color quenched QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braguta, V.; Chernodub, M. N.; Goy, V. A.; Landsteiner, K.; Molochkov, A. V.; Polikarpov, M. I.

    2014-04-01

    The axial magnetic effect is the generation of an equilibrium dissipationless energy flow of chiral fermions in the direction of the axial (chiral) magnetic field. At finite temperature the dissipationless energy transfer may be realized in the absence of any chemical potentials. We numerically study the temperature behavior of the axial magnetic effect in quenched SU(2) lattice gauge theory. We show that in the confinement (hadron) phase the effect is absent. In the deconfinement transition region the conductivity quickly increases, reaching the asymptotic T2 behavior in a deep deconfinement (plasma) phase. Apart from an overall proportionality factor, our results qualitatively agree with theoretical predictions for the behavior of the energy flow as a function of temperature and strength of the axial magnetic field.

  11. Formation of ordered films of axially bridged aluminum phthalocyanine [(tBu){sub 4}PcAl]{sub 2}O via magnetic field-induced reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Basova, Tamara Berezin, Aleksei; Nadolinny, Vladimir; Peisert, Heiko; Chassé, Thomas; Banimuslem, Hikmat; Hassan, Aseel

    2013-11-28

    The μ-(oxo)bis[tetra-tert-butylphthalocyaninato] aluminum(III) [(tBu){sub 4}PcAl]{sub 2}O films with the crystallites oriented preferably in one direction were obtained via chemical transformation of tetra-tert-butylsubstituted chloroaluminum(III) phthalocyanine (tBu){sub 4}PcAlCl film upon its annealing in magnetic field. A comparative analysis of the influence of post-deposition annealing process without and under applied magnetic field of 1 T, on the orientation and morphology of (tBu){sub 4}PcAlCl and [(tBu){sub 4}PcAl]{sub 2}O films, has been carried out by the methods of UV-vis, Infrared and Raman spectroscopies, XRD as well as atomic force microscopy. The formation of [(tBu){sub 4}PcAl]{sub 2}O films with elongated crystallites having preferential orientation was observed upon heating of the films in magnetic field while annealing without magnetic field under the same conditions does not demonstrate any effect on the structure and morphology of these films. The reasons of the sensitivity of this reaction to the presence of such magnetic field is discussed and studied by electronic paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy.

  12. Buoyant convection during the growth of compound semiconductors by the liquid-encapsulated Czochralski process with an axial magnetic field and with a non-axisymmetric temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, N.; Walker, J.S.

    1995-12-31

    This paper treats the buoyant convection of a molten semiconductor in a cylindrical crucible with a vertical axis, with a uniform vertical magnetic field, and with a non-axisymmetric temperature. Most previous treatments of melt motions with vertical magnetic fields have assumed that the temperature and buoyant convection were axisymmetric. In reality, the temperature and resultant buoyant convection often deviate significantly from axisymmetry. For a given non-axisymmetric temperature, the electromagnetic suppression of the axisymmetric part of the buoyant convection is stronger than that of the non-axisymmetric part, so that the deviation from an axisymmetric melt motion increases as the magnetic field strength is increased. The non-axisymmetric part of the buoyant convection includes relatively strong azimuthal velocities adjacent to the electrically insulating vertical crucible wall, because this wall blocks the radial electric currents needed to suppress azimuthal velocities.

  13. Axially symmetric static sources of gravitational field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez-Pastora, J. L.; Herrera, L.; Martin, J.

    2016-12-01

    A general procedure to find static and axially symmetric, interior solutions to the Einstein equations is presented. All the so obtained solutions, verify the energy conditions for a wide range of values of the parameters, and match smoothly to some exterior solution of the Weyl family, thereby representing globally regular models describing non-spherical sources of gravitational field. In the spherically symmetric limit, all our models converge to the well known incompressible perfect fluid solution. The key stone of our approach is based on an ansatz allowing to define the interior metric in terms of the exterior metric functions evaluated at the boundary source. Some particular sources are obtained, and the physical variables of the energy-momentum tensor are calculated explicitly, as well as the geometry of the source in terms of the relativistic multipole moments. The total mass of different configurations is also calculated, it is shown to be equal to the monopole of the exterior solution.

  14. Effect of radial plasma transport at the magnetic throat on axial ion beam formation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yunchao Charles, Christine; Boswell, Rod

    2016-08-15

    Correlation between radial plasma transport and formation of an axial ion beam has been investigated in a helicon plasma reactor implemented with a convergent-divergent magnetic nozzle. The plasma discharge is sustained under a high magnetic field mode and a low magnetic field mode for which the electron energy probability function, the plasma density, the plasma potential, and the electron temperature are measured at the magnetic throat, and the two field modes show different radial parametric behaviors. Although an axial potential drop occurs in the plasma source for both field modes, an ion beam is only observed in the high field mode while not in the low field mode. The transport of energetic ions is characterized downstream of the plasma source using the delimited ion current and nonlocal ion current. A decay of ion beam strength is also observed in the diffusion chamber.

  15. Effect of radial plasma transport at the magnetic throat on axial ion beam formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yunchao; Charles, Christine; Boswell, Rod

    2016-08-01

    Correlation between radial plasma transport and formation of an axial ion beam has been investigated in a helicon plasma reactor implemented with a convergent-divergent magnetic nozzle. The plasma discharge is sustained under a high magnetic field mode and a low magnetic field mode for which the electron energy probability function, the plasma density, the plasma potential, and the electron temperature are measured at the magnetic throat, and the two field modes show different radial parametric behaviors. Although an axial potential drop occurs in the plasma source for both field modes, an ion beam is only observed in the high field mode while not in the low field mode. The transport of energetic ions is characterized downstream of the plasma source using the delimited ion current and nonlocal ion current. A decay of ion beam strength is also observed in the diffusion chamber.

  16. Cascaded fiber-optic Fabry-Perot interferometers with Vernier effect for highly sensitive measurement of axial strain and magnetic field.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Peng; Tang, Ming; Gao, Feng; Zhu, Benpeng; Fu, Songnian; Ouyang, Jun; Shum, Perry Ping; Liu, Deming

    2014-08-11

    We report a highly sensitive fiber-optic sensor based on two cascaded intrinsic fiber Fabry-Perot interferometers (IFFPIs). The cascaded IFFPIs have different free spectral ranges (FSRs) and are formed by a short section of hollow core photonic crystal fiber sandwiched by two single mode fibers. With the superposition of reflective spectrum with different FSRs, the Vernier effect will be generated in the proposed sensor and we found that the strain sensitivity of the proposed sensor can be improved from 1.6 pm/με for a single IFFPI sensor to 47.14 pm/με by employing the Vernier effect. The sensor embed with a metglas ribbon can be also used to measure the magnetic field according to the similar principle. The sensitivity of the magnetic field measurement is achieved to be 71.57 pm/Oe that is significantly larger than the 2.5 pm/Oe for a single IFFPI sensor.

  17. Miniaturization of a magnetically levitated axial flow blood pump.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Shanbao; Olles, Mark W; Olsen, Don B; Joyce, Lyle D; Day, Steven W

    2010-10-01

    This article introduces a unique miniaturization process of a magnetically levitated axial flow blood pump from a functional prototype to a pump suitable for animal trials. Through COMSOL three-dimensional finite element analysis and experimental verification, the hybrid magnetic bearings of the pump have been miniaturized, the axial spacing between magnetic components has been reduced, and excess material in mechanical components of the pump was reduced. Experimental results show that the pump performance was virtually unchanged and the smaller size resulted in the successful acute pump implantation in calves.

  18. Tubular discharge in a magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Karasev, V.Yu.; Semenov, R.I.; Chaika, M.P.

    1995-04-01

    Visual observations of Xe discharge glow in an axial magnetic field are described. Tubular discharge is detected in a narrow range of the parameters p, I, and H. A qualitative explanation of this effect is proposed.

  19. Field line twist and field-aligned currents in an axially symmetric equilibrium magnetosphere. [of Uranus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voigt, Gerd-Hannes

    1986-01-01

    Field-aligned Birkeland currents and the angle of the magnetic line twist were calculated for an axially symmetric pole-on magnetosphere (assumed to be in MHD equilibrium). The angle of the field line twist was shown to have a strong radial dependence on the axisymmetric magnetotail as well as on the ionospheric conductivity and the amount of thermal plasma contained in closed magnetotail flux tubes. The field line twist results from the planetary rotation, which leads to the development of a toroidal magnetic B-sub-phi component and to differentially rotating magnetic field lines. It was shown that the time development of the toroidal magnetic B-sub-phi component and the rotation frequency are related through an induction equation.

  20. Proposal of an Axial Gap Magnetic Gear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirata, Katsuhiro; Yamamoto, Masafumi; Muramatsu, Masari

    Magnetic gears have some benefits such as low noise, low vibration, and they are maintenance free as opposed to mechanical gears. In the view of these advantages, some high-performance magnetic gears have been proposed; however, these gears have a complex structure because they require several magnets. In this paper, we propose a new magnetic gear with a high reduction ratio comprising only two magnets. From the result of 3D-FE analysis, it was found that our model generated large transmitted torque and less cogging torque despite its thin compact size. This result shows the possibility of the application of the proposed gear in various industries.

  1. Magnetically suspended centrifugal blood pump with an axially levitated motor.

    PubMed

    Masuzawa, Toru; Ezoe, Shiroh; Kato, Tsuyoshi; Okada, Yohji

    2003-07-01

    The longevity of a rotary blood pump is mainly determined by the durability of its wearing mechanical parts such as bearings and seals. Magnetic suspension techniques can be used to eliminate these mechanical parts altogether. This article describes a magnetically suspended centrifugal blood pump using an axially levitated motor. The motor comprises an upper stator, a bottom stator, and a levitated rotor-impeller between the stators. The upper stator has permanent magnets to generate an attractive axial bias force on the rotor and electric magnets to control the inclination of the rotor. The bottom stator has electric magnets to generate attractive forces and rotating torque to control the axial displacement and rotation of the rotor. The radial displacement of the rotor is restricted by passive stability. A shrouded impeller is integrated within the rotor. The performance of the magnetic suspension and pump were evaluated in a closed mock loop circuit filled with water. The maximum amplitude of the rotor displacement in the axial direction was only 0.06 mm. The maximum possible rotational speed during levitation was 1,600 rpm. The maximum pressure head and flow rate were 120 mm Hg and 7 L/min, respectively. The pump shows promise as a ventricular assist device.

  2. Nuclear axial currents in chiral effective field theory

    SciTech Connect

    Baroni, Alessandro; Girlanda, Luca; Pastore, Saori; Schiavilla, Rocco; Viviani, Michele

    2016-01-11

    Two-nucleon axial charge and current operators are derived in chiral effective field theory up to one loop. The derivation is based on time-ordered perturbation theory and accounts for cancellations between the contributions of irreducible diagrams and the contributions owing to nonstatic corrections from energy denominators of reducible diagrams. Ultraviolet divergencies associated with the loop corrections are isolated in dimensional regularization. The resulting axial current is finite and conserved in the chiral limit, while the axial charge requires renormalization. As a result, a complete set of contact terms for the axial charge up to the relevant order in the power counting is constructed.

  3. Nuclear axial currents in chiral effective field theory

    DOE PAGES

    Baroni, Alessandro; Girlanda, Luca; Pastore, Saori; ...

    2016-01-11

    Two-nucleon axial charge and current operators are derived in chiral effective field theory up to one loop. The derivation is based on time-ordered perturbation theory and accounts for cancellations between the contributions of irreducible diagrams and the contributions owing to nonstatic corrections from energy denominators of reducible diagrams. Ultraviolet divergencies associated with the loop corrections are isolated in dimensional regularization. The resulting axial current is finite and conserved in the chiral limit, while the axial charge requires renormalization. As a result, a complete set of contact terms for the axial charge up to the relevant order in the power countingmore » is constructed.« less

  4. Permanent magnet excitation of axial flow synchronous machines with high rotation moment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, Rolf

    Computation of axial magnetic flux machines under consideration of radial dependant geometric, and electric and magnetic properties is presented. A three-dimensional permanent magnet flux model provides the conditions for the establishment of a programmable design algorithm. Analytical magnetic field study leads to the prediction of torque oscillations generated by harmonic effects of air gap field and permits their reduction. Calculus results obtained are used for the design and fabrication of a traction motor of 200 kW with a torque of 3.8 kNm at 500 t/min.

  5. Magnetic field sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Nicolas

    2012-09-01

    Earlier papers1-3 in this journal have described experiments on measuring the magnetic fields of current-carrying wires and permanent magnets using magnetic field probes of various kinds. This paper explains how to use an iPad and the free app MagnetMeter-3D Vector Magnetometer and Accelerometer4 (compass HD) to measure the magnetic fields.

  6. The MAVEN Magnetic Field Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connerney, J. E. P.; Espley, J.; Lawton, P.; Murphy, S.; Odom, J.; Oliversen, R.; Sheppard, D.

    2014-01-01

    The MAVEN magnetic field investigation is part of a comprehensive particles and fields subsystem that will measure the magnetic and electric fields and plasma environment of Mars and its interaction with the solar wind. The magnetic field instrumentation consists of two independent tri-axial fluxgate magnetometer sensors, remotely mounted at the outer extremity of the two solar arrays on small extensions ("boomlets"). The sensors are controlled by independent and functionally identical electronics assemblies that are integrated within the particles and fields subsystem and draw their power from redundant power supplies within that system. Each magnetometer measures the ambient vector magnetic field over a wide dynamic range (to 65,536 nT per axis) with a quantization uncertainty of 0.008 nT in the most sensitive dynamic range and an accuracy of better than 0.05%. Both magnetometers sample the ambient magnetic field at an intrinsic sample rate of 32 vector samples per second. Telemetry is transferred from each magnetometer to the particles and fields package once per second and subsequently passed to the spacecraft after some reformatting. The magnetic field data volume may be reduced by averaging and decimation, when necessary to meet telemetry allocations, and application of data compression, utilizing a lossless 8-bit differencing scheme. The MAVEN magnetic field experiment may be reconfigured in flight to meet unanticipated needs and is fully hardware redundant. A spacecraft magnetic control program was implemented to provide a magnetically clean environment for the magnetic sensors and the MAVEN mission plan provides for occasional spacecraft maneuvers - multiple rotations about the spacecraft x and z axes - to characterize spacecraft fields and/or instrument offsets in flight.

  7. The MAVEN Magnetic Field Investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connerney, J. E. P.; Espley, J.; Lawton, P.; Murphy, S.; Odom, J.; Oliversen, R.; Sheppard, D.

    2015-12-01

    The MAVEN magnetic field investigation is part of a comprehensive particles and fields subsystem that will measure the magnetic and electric fields and plasma environment of Mars and its interaction with the solar wind. The magnetic field instrumentation consists of two independent tri-axial fluxgate magnetometer sensors, remotely mounted at the outer extremity of the two solar arrays on small extensions ("boomlets"). The sensors are controlled by independent and functionally identical electronics assemblies that are integrated within the particles and fields subsystem and draw their power from redundant power supplies within that system. Each magnetometer measures the ambient vector magnetic field over a wide dynamic range (to 65,536 nT per axis) with a resolution of 0.008 nT in the most sensitive dynamic range and an accuracy of better than 0.05 %. Both magnetometers sample the ambient magnetic field at an intrinsic sample rate of 32 vector samples per second. Telemetry is transferred from each magnetometer to the particles and fields package once per second and subsequently passed to the spacecraft after some reformatting. The magnetic field data volume may be reduced by averaging and decimation, when necessary to meet telemetry allocations, and application of data compression, utilizing a lossless 8-bit differencing scheme. The MAVEN magnetic field experiment may be reconfigured in flight to meet unanticipated needs and is fully hardware redundant. A spacecraft magnetic control program was implemented to provide a magnetically clean environment for the magnetic sensors and the MAVEN mission plan provides for occasional spacecraft maneuvers—multiple rotations about the spacecraft x and z axes—to characterize spacecraft fields and/or instrument offsets in flight.

  8. Magnetic thermal stability of permalloy microstructures with shape-induced bi-axial anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Telepinsky, Yevgeniy; Sinwani, Omer; Mor, Vladislav; Schultz, Moty; Klein, Lior

    2016-02-01

    We study the thermal stability of the magnetization states in permalloy microstructures in the form of two crossing elongated ellipses, a shape which yields effective bi-axial magnetic anisotropy in the overlap area. We prepare the structure with the magnetization along one of the easy axes of magnetization and measure the waiting time for switching when a magnetic field favoring the other easy axis is applied. The waiting time for switching is measured as a function of the applied magnetic field and temperature. We determine the energy barrier for switching and estimate the thermal stability of the structures. The experimental results are compared with numerical simulations. The results indicate exceptional stability which makes such structures appealing for a variety of applications including magnetic random access memory based on the planar Hall effect.

  9. Cosmological magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunze, Kerstin E.

    2013-12-01

    Magnetic fields are observed on nearly all scales in the Universe, from stars and galaxies up to galaxy clusters and even beyond. The origin of cosmic magnetic fields is still an open question, however a large class of models puts its origin in the very early Universe. A magnetic dynamo amplifying an initial seed magnetic field could explain the present day strength of the galactic magnetic field. However, it is still an open problem how and when this initial magnetic field was created. Observations of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) provide a window to the early Universe and might therefore be able to tell us whether cosmic magnetic fields are of a primordial cosmological origin and at the same time constrain its parameters. We will give an overview of the observational evidence of large-scale magnetic fields, describe generation mechanisms of primordial magnetic fields and possible imprints in the CMB.

  10. Axial inlet conversion to a centrifugal compressor with magnetic bearings

    SciTech Connect

    Novecosky, T. )

    1994-01-01

    NOVA's Alberta Gas Transmission Division transports natural gas via pipeline throughout the province of Alberta, Canada, exporting it to eastern Canada, US, and British Columbia. There is a continuing effort to operate the facilities and pipeline at the highest possible efficiency. One area being addressed to improve efficiency is compression of the gas. By improving compressor efficiency, fuel consumption and hence operating costs can be reduced. One method of improving compressor efficiency is by converting the compressor to an axial inlet configuration, a conversion that has been carried out more frequently in the past years. Concurrently, conventional hydrodynamic bearings have been replaced with magnetic bearings on many centrifugal compressors. This paper discusses the design and installation for converting a radial overhung unit to an axial inlet configuration, having both magnetic bearings and a thrust reducer. The thrust reducer is required to reduce axial compressor shaft loads, to a level that allows the practical installation of magnetic bearings within the space limitations of the compressor (Bear and Gibson, 1992).

  11. Facility Measures Magnetic Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Honess, Shawn B.; Narvaez, Pablo; Mcauley, James M.

    1991-01-01

    Partly automated facility measures and computes steady near magnetic field produced by object. Designed to determine magnetic fields of equipment to be installed on spacecraft including sensitive magnetometers, with view toward application of compensating fields to reduce interfernece with spacecraft-magnetometer readings. Because of its convenient operating features and sensitivity of its measurements, facility serves as prototype for similar facilities devoted to magnetic characterization of medical equipment, magnets for high-energy particle accelerators, and magnetic materials.

  12. Magnetic Field Effect on the Stability of Flow Induced by a Rotating Magnetic Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazuruk, K.; Volz, M. P.; Gillies, D. C.

    1999-01-01

    A linear stability analysis has been performed for the flow induced by a rotating magnetic field in a cylindrical column filled with electrically conducting fluid. The first transition is time- independent and results in the generation of Taylor vortices. The critical value of the magnetic Taylor number has been examined as a function of the strength of the transverse rotating magnetic field, the strength of an axial static magnetic field, and thermal buoyancy. Increasing the transverse field increases the critical magnetic Taylor number and decreases the aspect ratio of the Taylor vortices at the onset of instability. An increase in the axial magnetic field also increases the critical magnetic Taylor number but increases the aspect ratio of the Taylor vortices. Thermal buoyancy is found to have only a negligible effect on the onset of instability.

  13. Magnetic Field Effect on the Stability of Flow Induced by a Rotating Magnetic Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazuruk, K.; Gillies, D. C.; Volz, M. P.

    1999-01-01

    A linear stability analysis has been performed for the flow induced by a rotating magnetic field in a cylindrical column filled with electrically conducting fluid. The first transition is time-independent and results in the generation of Taylor vortices. The critical value of the magnetic Taylor number has been examined as a function of the strength of the transverse rotating magnetic field, the strength of an axial static magnetic field, and thermal buoyancy. Increasing the transverse field increases the critical magnetic Taylor number and decreases the aspect ratio of the Taylor vortices at the onset of instability. An increase in the axial magnetic field also increases the critical magnetic Taylor number but increases the aspect ratio of the Taylor vortices. Thermal buoyancy is found to have only a negligible effect on the onset of instability.

  14. Magnetic Field Effect on the Stability of Flow Induced by a Rotating Magnetic Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazuruk, K.; Volz, M. P.; Gillies, D. C.

    1999-01-01

    A linear stability analysis has been performed for the flow induced by a rotating magnetic field in a cylindrical column filled with electrically conducting fluid. The first transition is time- independent and results in the generation of Taylor vortices. The critical value of the magnetic Taylor number has been examined as a function of the strength of the transverse rotating magnetic field, the strength of an axial static magnetic field, and thermal buoyancy. Increasing the transverse field increases the critical magnetic Taylor number and decreases the aspect ratio of the Taylor vortices at the onset of instability. An increase in the axial magnetic field also increases the critical magnetic Taylor number but increases the aspect ratio of the Taylor vortices. Thermal buoyancy is found to have only a negligible effect on the onset of instability.

  15. Magnetic Field Effect on the Stability of Flow Induced by a Rotating Magnetic Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazuruk, K.; Gillies, D. C.; Volz, M. P.

    1999-01-01

    A linear stability analysis has been performed for the flow induced by a rotating magnetic field in a cylindrical column filled with electrically conducting fluid. The first transition is time-independent and results in the generation of Taylor vortices. The critical value of the magnetic Taylor number has been examined as a function of the strength of the transverse rotating magnetic field, the strength of an axial static magnetic field, and thermal buoyancy. Increasing the transverse field increases the critical magnetic Taylor number and decreases the aspect ratio of the Taylor vortices at the onset of instability. An increase in the axial magnetic field also increases the critical magnetic Taylor number but increases the aspect ratio of the Taylor vortices. Thermal buoyancy is found to have only a negligible effect on the onset of instability.

  16. Explaining Mercury's peculiar magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wicht, Johannes; Cao, Hao; Heyner, Daniel; Dietrich, Wieland; Christensen, Ulrich R.

    2014-05-01

    MESSENGER magnetometer data revealed that Mercury's magnetic field is not only particularly weak but also has a peculiar geometry. The MESSENGER team finds that the location of the magnetic equator always lies significantly north of the geographic equator, is largely independent of the distance to the planet, and also varies only weakly with longitude. The field is best described by an axial dipole that is offset to the north by about 20% of the planetary radius. In terms of classical Gauss coefficients, this translates into a low axial dipole component of g10= -190 nT but a relatively large axial quadrupole contribution that amounts to roughly 40% of this value. The axial octupole is also sizable while higher harmonic contributions are much weaker. Very remarkable is also the fact that the equatorial dipole contribution is very small, consistent with a dipole tilt below 0.8 degree, and this is also true for the other non-axisymmetic field contributions. We analyze several numerical dynamos concerning their capability of explaining Mercury's magnetic field. Classical schemes geared to model the geomagnetic field typically show a much weaker quadrupole component and thus a smaller offset. The onset only becomes larger when the dynamo operates in the multipolar regime at higher Rayleigh numbers. However, since the more complex dynamics generally promotes all higher multipole contributions the location of the magnetic equator varies strongly with longitude and distance to the planet. The situation improves when introducing a stably stratified outer layer in the dynamo region, representing either a rigid FeS layer or a sub-adiabatic core-mantle boundary heat flux. This layer filters out the higher harmonic contributions and the field not only becomes sufficiently weak but also assumes a Mercury like offset geometry during a few percent of the simulation time. To increase the likelihood for the offset configuration, the north-south symmetry must be permanently broken

  17. Three-Dimensional Field Solutions for Multi-Pole Cylindrical Halbach Arrays in an Axial Orientation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, William K.

    2006-01-01

    This article presents three-dimensional B field solutions for the cylindrical Halbach array in an axial orientation. This arrangement has applications in the design of axial motors and passive axial magnetic bearings and couplers. The analytical model described here assumes ideal magnets with fixed and uniform magnetization. The field component functions are expressed as sums of 2-D definite integrals that are easily computed by a number of mathematical analysis software packages. The analysis is verified with sample calculations and the results are compared to equivalent results from traditional finite-element analysis (FEA). The field solutions are then approximated for use in flux linkage and induced EMF calculations in nearby stator windings by expressing the field variance with angular displacement as pure sinusoidal function whose amplitude depends on radial and axial position. The primary advantage of numerical implementation of the analytical approach presented in the article is that it lends itself more readily to parametric analysis and design tradeoffs than traditional FEA models.

  18. Intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging for resection of intra-axial brain lesions: a decade of experience using low-field magnetic resonance imaging, Polestar N-10, 20, 30 systems.

    PubMed

    Livne, Ofir; Harel, Ran; Hadani, Moshe; Spiegelmann, Roberto; Feldman, Zeev; Cohen, Zvi R

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the utility of an intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging (i-MRI) system (Polestar N-10, 20, 30) in achieving maximal resection of intra-axial brain lesions. The subjects comprised 163 patients with intra-axial brain lesions who underwent resection at Sheba Medical Center using the Polestar from February 2000 through February 2012. Demographic and imaging data were obtained and analyzed retrospectively. The patients included 83 men (50.9%) and had a mean age of 43 years. High-grade gliomas were diagnosed in 72 patients, low-grade gliomas in 35, metastases in 22, and various pathologies (e.g., cavernous angiomas, juvenile pilocytic astrocytoma, pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma, etc.) were diagnosed in 34. The majority of the lesions (84, 51.5%) were located in or near eloquent areas. Fifty-one patients had nonenhancing lesions. We intended to achieve complete resection in 110 of 163 cases, based on preoperative imaging. Complete resection was achieved in 90 of these 110 (81.8%) cases. Intraoperative MRI led to additional resection in 42.3% of the total cases and to complete resection in 43.3% of all the cases in which a complete resection was achieved. In 76.8% of these cases, 2 intraoperative scans were sufficient to achieve complete resection. Sex, age, intent of resection, recurrence, affected side, and radiologic characteristics did not differ significantly between cases in which intraoperative MRI led to further resection and cases in which it did not. Nonenhancing lesions of all types were 3 times more likely to require additional resection after obtaining intraoperative MRIs (P = .02). The Polestar (N-10, 20, 30) proved useful for evaluating residual intra-axial brain lesions and achieving the maximal extent of resection in 42.3% of the total cases and in 43.3% of cases in which complete resection was achieved. Intraoperative MRI led to extended resection in 46.9% of patients for whom the initial intent was to perform an

  19. Highly ionized plasma plume generation by long-pulse CO/sub 2/ laser irradiation of solid targets in strong axial magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, A L; Crawford, E A

    1982-01-01

    The present work utilizes high f number optics and is directed primarily at controlling the conditions in the magnetically confined plume. Typically, fully ionized carbon plasmas have been produced with 10/sup 18/ cm/sup -3/ electron densities and 100 to 150 eV electron temperatures. These carbon plasmas have been doped with high Z atoms in order to study ionization and emission rates at the above conditions.

  20. Direct measurement of the beam deflection angle using the axial B-dot field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Xiaozhong; Zhang, Kaizhi; Li, Qin

    2011-05-01

    Beam position monitors are an important diagnostics tool for particle accelerator operation and related beam dynamics research. The measurement of the beam deflection angle, or moving direction of a charged particle beam with respect to the beam pipe axis, can provide useful additional information. Beam monitors sensitive to the beam’s azimuthal B-dot field (sometimes referred as B dots) are used to measure the displacement (position) of the beam centroid, as the beam generates a dipole term of the azimuthal magnetic field. Similarly, a dipole term of the axial magnetic field will be generated by the beam moving in a direction not parallel to the axis of the beam pipe. In this paper, a new method using the axial B-dot field is presented to measure the beam deflection angle directly, including the theoretical background. Simulations using the MAFIA numerical code have been performed, demonstrating a good agreement to the new established analytical model.

  1. Development of a Co-Axial Hot Cathode for Magnetized Ion Source Plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Miyamoto, N.; Hamamoto, N.; Imakita, S.; Mendenilla, A. G.; Wada, M.

    2008-11-03

    Directly heated high temperature cathodes of refractory metals such as tungsten run electric current of more than several tens of amperes. The electric current makes magnetic field around the cathode wire, and the magnetic field causes inhomogeneous emission of electrons from the cathode. To solve this problem we have designed the cathode having a co-axial heater current flow structure, and mounted it in a Bernas-type ion source. A plasma produced by co-axial hot cathode showed a clearer column along the external magnetic field and less displacement in the direction perpendicular to the field than that produced by a hair-pin filament. Stable discharge current as high as 5000 mA was obtained for Ar and BF{sub 3} gases with the co-axial cathode. Boron and phosphorus ion beams were extracted from the source on an actual ion implanter. The ion beam currents were 1.5 times as large as those obtained with a hair-pin filament.

  2. The Juno Magnetic Field Investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connerney, J. E. P.; Benn, M.; Bjarno, J. B.; Denver, T.; Espley, J.; Jorgensen, J. L.; Jorgensen, P. S.; Lawton, P.; Malinnikova, A.; Merayo, J. M.; Murphy, S.; Odom, J.; Oliversen, R.; Schnurr, R.; Sheppard, D.; Smith, E. J.

    2017-02-01

    The Juno Magnetic Field investigation (MAG) characterizes Jupiter's planetary magnetic field and magnetosphere, providing the first globally distributed and proximate measurements of the magnetic field of Jupiter. The magnetic field instrumentation consists of two independent magnetometer sensor suites, each consisting of a tri-axial Fluxgate Magnetometer (FGM) sensor and a pair of co-located imaging sensors mounted on an ultra-stable optical bench. The imaging system sensors are part of a subsystem that provides accurate attitude information (to ˜20 arcsec on a spinning spacecraft) near the point of measurement of the magnetic field. The two sensor suites are accommodated at 10 and 12 m from the body of the spacecraft on a 4 m long magnetometer boom affixed to the outer end of one of 's three solar array assemblies. The magnetometer sensors are controlled by independent and functionally identical electronics boards within the magnetometer electronics package mounted inside Juno's massive radiation shielded vault. The imaging sensors are controlled by a fully hardware redundant electronics package also mounted within the radiation vault. Each magnetometer sensor measures the vector magnetic field with 100 ppm absolute vector accuracy over a wide dynamic range (to 16 Gauss = 1.6 × 106 nT per axis) with a resolution of ˜0.05 nT in the most sensitive dynamic range (±1600 nT per axis). Both magnetometers sample the magnetic field simultaneously at an intrinsic sample rate of 64 vector samples per second. The magnetic field instrumentation may be reconfigured in flight to meet unanticipated needs and is fully hardware redundant. The attitude determination system compares images with an on-board star catalog to provide attitude solutions (quaternions) at a rate of up to 4 solutions per second, and may be configured to acquire images of selected targets for science and engineering analysis. The system tracks and catalogs objects that pass through the imager field of

  3. The Juno Magnetic Field Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connerney, J. E. P.; Benna, M.; Bjarno, J. B.; Denver, T.; Espley, J.; Jorgensen, J. L.; Jorgensen, P. S.; Lawton, P.; Malinnikova, A.; Merayo, J. M.; hide

    2017-01-01

    The Juno Magnetic Field investigation (MAG) characterizes Jupiter's planetary magnetic field and magnetosphere, providing the first globally distributed and proximate measurements of the magnetic field of Jupiter. The magnetic field instrumentation consists of two independent magnetometer sensor suites, each consisting of a tri-axial Fluxgate Magnetometer (FGM) sensor and a pair of co-located imaging sensors mounted on an ultra-stable optical bench. The imaging system sensors are part of a subsystem that provides accurate attitude information (to approx. 20 arcsec on a spinning spacecraft) near the point of measurement of the magnetic field. The two sensor suites are accommodated at 10 and 12 m from the body of the spacecraft on a 4 m long magnetometer boom affixed to the outer end of one of 's three solar array assemblies. The magnetometer sensors are controlled by independent and functionally identical electronics boards within the magnetometer electronics package mounted inside Juno's massive radiation shielded vault. The imaging sensors are controlled by a fully hardware redundant electronics package also mounted within the radiation vault. Each magnetometer sensor measures the vector magnetic field with 100 ppm absolute vector accuracy over a wide dynamic range (to 16 Gauss = 1.6 x 10(exp. 6) nT per axis) with a resolution of approx. 0.05 nT in the most sensitive dynamic range (+/-1600 nT per axis). Both magnetometers sample the magnetic field simultaneously at an intrinsic sample rate of 64 vector samples per second. The magnetic field instrumentation may be reconfigured in flight to meet unanticipated needs and is fully hardware redundant. The attitude determination system compares images with an on-board star catalog to provide attitude solutions (quaternions) at a rate of up to 4 solutions per second, and may be configured to acquire images of selected targets for science and engineering analysis. The system tracks and catalogs objects that pass through

  4. Photospheric magnetic fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, R.

    1972-01-01

    Knowledge on the nature of magnetic fields on the solar surface is reviewed. At least a large part of the magnetic flux in the solar surface is confined to small bundles of lines of force within which the field strength is of the order of 500 gauss. Magnetic fields are closely associated with all types of solar activity. Magnetic flux appears at the surface at the clearly defined birth or regeneration of activity of an active region. As the region ages, the magnetic flux migrates to form large-scale patterns and the polar fields. Some manifestations of the large-scale distribution are discussed.

  5. Proterozoic low orbital obliquity and axial-dipolar geomagnetic field from evaporite palaeolatitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, David A. D.

    2006-11-01

    Palaeomagnetism of climatically sensitive sedimentary rock types, such as glacial deposits and evaporites, can test the uniformitarianism of ancient geomagnetic fields and palaeoclimate zones. Proterozoic glacial deposits laid down in near-equatorial palaeomagnetic latitudes can be explained by `snowball Earth' episodes, high orbital obliquity or markedly non-uniformitarian geomagnetic fields. Here I present a global palaeomagnetic compilation of the Earth's entire basin-scale evaporite record. Magnetic inclinations are consistent with low orbital obliquity and a geocentric-axial-dipole magnetic field for most of the past two billion years, and the snowball Earth hypothesis accordingly remains the most viable model for low-latitude Proterozoic ice ages. Efforts to reconstruct Proterozoic supercontinents are strengthened by this demonstration of a consistently axial and dipolar geomagnetic reference frame, which itself implies stability of geodynamo processes on billion-year timescales.

  6. Proterozoic low orbital obliquity and axial-dipolar geomagnetic field from evaporite palaeolatitudes.

    PubMed

    Evans, David A D

    2006-11-02

    Palaeomagnetism of climatically sensitive sedimentary rock types, such as glacial deposits and evaporites, can test the uniformitarianism of ancient geomagnetic fields and palaeoclimate zones. Proterozoic glacial deposits laid down in near-equatorial palaeomagnetic latitudes can be explained by 'snowball Earth' episodes, high orbital obliquity or markedly non-uniformitarian geomagnetic fields. Here I present a global palaeomagnetic compilation of the Earth's entire basin-scale evaporite record. Magnetic inclinations are consistent with low orbital obliquity and a geocentric-axial-dipole magnetic field for most of the past two billion years, and the snowball Earth hypothesis accordingly remains the most viable model for low-latitude Proterozoic ice ages. Efforts to reconstruct Proterozoic supercontinents are strengthened by this demonstration of a consistently axial and dipolar geomagnetic reference frame, which itself implies stability of geodynamo processes on billion-year timescales.

  7. A tubular hybrid Halbach/axially-magnetized permanent-magnet linear machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sui, Yi; Liu, Yong; Cheng, Luming; Liu, Jiaqi; Zheng, Ping

    2017-05-01

    A single-phase tubular permanent-magnet linear machine (PMLM) with hybrid Halbach/axially-magnetized PM arrays is proposed for free-piston Stirling power generation system. Machine topology and operating principle are elaborately illustrated. With the sinusoidal speed characteristic of the free-piston Stirling engine considered, the proposed machine is designed and calculated by finite-element analysis (FEA). The main structural parameters, such as outer radius of the mover, radial length of both the axially-magnetized PMs and ferromagnetic poles, axial length of both the middle and end radially-magnetized PMs, etc., are optimized to improve both the force capability and power density. Compared with the conventional PMLMs, the proposed machine features high mass and volume power density, and has the advantages of simple control and low converter cost. The proposed machine topology is applicable to tubular PMLMs with any phases.

  8. Axial force imparted by a current-free magnetically expanding plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, Kazunori; Lafleur, Trevor; Charles, Christine; Alexander, Peter; Boswell, Rod W.

    2012-08-15

    The axial force imparted from a magnetically expanding, current-free, radiofrequency plasma is directly measured. For an argon gas flow rate of 25 sccm and an effective rf input power of {approx}800W, a maximum force of {approx}6mN is obtained; {approx}3mN of which is transmitted via the expanding magnetic field. The measured forces are reasonably compared with a simple fluid model associated with the measured electron pressure. The model suggests that the total force is the sum of an electron pressure inside the source and a Lorentz force due to the electron diamagnetic drift current and the applied radial magnetic field. It is shown that the Lorentz force is greatest near the magnetic nozzle surface where the radial pressure gradient is largest.

  9. Permanent Magnet Ecr Plasma Source With Magnetic Field Optimization

    DOEpatents

    Doughty, Frank C.; Spencer, John E.

    2000-12-19

    In a plasma-producing device, an optimized magnet field for electron cyclotron resonance plasma generation is provided by a shaped pole piece. The shaped pole piece adjusts spacing between the magnet and the resonance zone, creates a convex or concave resonance zone, and decreases stray fields between the resonance zone and the workpiece. For a cylindrical permanent magnet, the pole piece includes a disk adjacent the magnet together with an annular cylindrical sidewall structure axially aligned with the magnet and extending from the base around the permanent magnet. The pole piece directs magnetic field lines into the resonance zone, moving the resonance zone further from the face of the magnet. Additional permanent magnets or magnet arrays may be utilized to control field contours on a local scale. Rather than a permeable material, the sidewall structure may be composed of an annular cylindrical magnetic material having a polarity opposite that of the permanent magnet, creating convex regions in the resonance zone. An annular disk-shaped recurve section at the end of the sidewall structure forms magnetic mirrors keeping the plasma off the pole piece. A recurve section composed of magnetic material having a radial polarity forms convex regions and/or magnetic mirrors within the resonance zone.

  10. Magnetic Fields in Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landstreet, J.; Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Magnetism—the force that deflects the needle of a compass—and magnetic fields have been found in some hundreds of stars during the past 50 yr. Magnetic fields have been detected in T Tauri stars and other pre-main-sequence stars, several types of main sequence stars, white dwarfs and neutron stars. We now know a number of methods by which such magnetic fields may be detected, we are in the proces...

  11. Organic magnetic field sensor

    DOEpatents

    McCamey, Dane; Boehme, Christoph

    2017-01-24

    An organic, spin-dependent magnetic field sensor (10) includes an active stack (12) having an organic material with a spin-dependence. The sensor (10) also includes a back electrical contact (14) electrically coupled to a back of the active stack (12) and a front electrical contact (16) electrically coupled to a front of the active stack (12). A magnetic field generator (18) is oriented so as to provide an oscillating magnetic field which penetrates the active stack (12).

  12. Unveiling locally linearly polarized vector fields with broken axial symmetry

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Xilin; Lou Kai; Chen Jing; Gu Bing; Li Yongnan; Wang Huitian

    2011-06-15

    We explore how the focusing of axial-symmetry-broken vector fields is associated with a sector aperture whose apex coincides with the field axis. Its focused field is azimuthally split into a pair of orthogonal right- and left-handed circularly polarized partial rings which are rotated by angles of {+-}{pi}/2 with respect to the input vector field carrying no orbital angular momentum (OAM) and no spin angular momentum (SAM), respectively. Each member of the pair of partial rings carries not only the opposite OAM but also the opposite SAM. We unveil the underlying physics behind such an effect.

  13. Mini hemoreliable axial flow LVAD with magnetic bearings: part 1: historical overview and concept advantages.

    PubMed

    Goldowsky, Michael

    2002-01-01

    Intec has been developing an ultra-miniature axial flow left ventricular assist device (LVAD) turbo pump that incorporates non-contacting magnetic bearings specifically designed to eliminate thrombus. The patent pending pump is similar in size to the Jarvik 2000, being 1.0 inch in diameter and having a volume of 25cc. This paper provides two decades of historical background regarding blood pumps and discusses new advances made possible by our contactless design. Design details are left for parts two and three. This LVAD is presently the smallest magnetically suspended turbo pump. It was made possible by use of new 1/2-inch diameter fringing ring magnetic bearings. These axial field bearings are 10 times smaller than equal capacity radial field conventional magnetic bearings currently in development in turbo pumps. Our LVAD is physiologically controllable, without the use of invasive sensors, by directly measuring pump differential pressure with the magnetic bearings. This mechanism will allow attainment of cyclic, closed-loop control of impeller revolutions per minute to achieve a high degree of pressure pulsatility. Pulsatile flow is important in obtaining long-term hemodynamic reliability without thrombus being generated in either the pump or body.

  14. Magnetic field generator

    DOEpatents

    Krienin, Frank

    1990-01-01

    A magnetic field generating device provides a useful magnetic field within a specific retgion, while keeping nearby surrounding regions virtually field free. By placing an appropriate current density along a flux line of the source, the stray field effects of the generator may be contained. One current carrying structure may support a truncated cosine distribution, and it may be surrounded by a current structure which follows a flux line that would occur in a full coaxial double cosine distribution. Strong magnetic fields may be generated and contained using superconducting cables to approximate required current surfaces.

  15. Drop formation in a magnetic fluid coating a horizontal cylinder carrying an axial electric current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weidner, D. E.

    2017-05-01

    We consider the effect of a magnetic field generated by a current flowing in the axial direction, in a cylindrical conducting medium on the evolution of a thin magnetic liquid film coating the outside of the cylinder. We first derive the new governing equations when a body force, due to the interaction of the magnetic dipoles in the liquid with the magnetic field due to the current in the cylinder, is included with surface tension and gravitational forces. The equations are discretized and solved numerically using an alternating direction implicit algorithm. Simulations demonstrate that the transition from a uniform coating to the formation of undulations to a final configuration of distinct drops follows a similar evolution for a wide range of cylinder radii and magnetic field strengths. Magnetic forces generally oppose the effects of gravity, and consequently the drainage toward the bottom of the cylinder is slowed, the characteristic time for drop formation is delayed, and the final coating is not confined to the cylinder bottom, but can wrap around the entire circumference of cylinder for sufficiently large magnetic fields. The range of dimensionless parameters considered are limited by the physicochemical properties of an ester ferrofluid, the maximum current density and radius of the conducting cylinder, and the susceptibility χ, where there is a linear relationship between H and M. Thus the results are applicable to actual physical situations.

  16. Mini hemoreliable axial flow LVAD with magnetic bearings: part 3: modeling of demo-magnetic bearing and verification.

    PubMed

    Goldowsky, Michael

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses my previous work on aerospace magnetic bearings during the 1970s and 1980s. Modeling of the magnetic field in the bearing is discussed and stiffness test data are provided, which verifies the model. An LVAD this small was made possible by the use of axial field fringing ring magnetic bearings that are much stronger than the radial field bearings currently used in turbo pumps. The analytical design of a first prototype bearing is discussed in detail that is mainly of interest to bearing designers. Modeling was accurately done without finite element analysis (FEA), which readily provided design insights not easily obtained through FEA. This bearing was not meant to satisfy all specifications of a blood pump. The next prototype, to be reported at the 2001 ASAIO conference, will meet these specifications.

  17. Quasi-Axially Symmetric Stellarators with 3 Field Periods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garabedian, Paul; Ku, Long-Poe

    1998-11-01

    Compact hybrid configurations with 2 field periods have been studied recently as candidates for a proof of principle experiment at PPPL, cf. A. Reiman et al., Physics design of a high beta quasi-axially symmetric stellarator, J. Plas. Fus. Res. SERIES 1, 429(1998). This enterprise has led us to the discovery of a family of quasi-axially symmetric stellarators with 3 field periods that seem to have significant advantages, although their aspect ratios are a little larger. They have reversed shear and perform better in a local analysis of ballooning modes. Nonlinear equilibrium and stability calculations predict that the average beta limit may be as high as 6% if the bootstrap current turns out to be as big as that expected in comparable tokamaks. The concept relies on a combination of helical fields and bootstrap current to achieve adequate rotational transform at low aspect ratio. A detailed manuscript describing some of this work will be published soon, cf. P.R. Garabedian, Quasi-axially symmetric stellarators, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95 (1998).

  18. Spine labeling in axial magnetic resonance imaging via integral kernels.

    PubMed

    Miles, Brandon; Ben Ayed, Ismail; Hojjat, Seyed-Parsa; Wang, Michael H; Li, Shuo; Fenster, Aaron; Garvin, Gregory J

    2016-12-01

    This study investigates a fast integral-kernel algorithm for classifying (labeling) the vertebra and disc structures in axial magnetic resonance images (MRI). The method is based on a hierarchy of feature levels, where pixel classifications via non-linear probability product kernels (PPKs) are followed by classifications of 2D slices, individual 3D structures and groups of 3D structures. The algorithm further embeds geometric priors based on anatomical measurements of the spine. Our classifier requires evaluations of computationally expensive integrals at each pixel, and direct evaluations of such integrals would be prohibitively time consuming. We propose an efficient computation of kernel density estimates and PPK evaluations for large images and arbitrary local window sizes via integral kernels. Our method requires a single user click for a whole 3D MRI volume, runs nearly in real-time, and does not require an intensive external training. Comprehensive evaluations over T1-weighted axial lumbar spine data sets from 32 patients demonstrate a competitive structure classification accuracy of 99%, along with a 2D slice classification accuracy of 88%. To the best of our knowledge, such a structure classification accuracy has not been reached by the existing spine labeling algorithms. Furthermore, we believe our work is the first to use integral kernels in the context of medical images.

  19. Field Mapping System for Solenoid Magnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, K. H.; Jung, Y. K.; Kim, D. E.; Lee, H. G.; Park, S. J.; Chung, C. W.; Kang, B. K.

    2007-01-01

    A three-dimensional Hall probe mapping system for measuring the solenoid magnet of PLS photo-cathode RF e-gun has been developed. It can map the solenoid field either in Cartesian or in cylindrical coordinate system with a measurement reproducibility better than 5 × 10-5 T. The system has three axis motors: one for the azimuthal direction and the other two for the x and z direction. This architecture makes the measuring system simple in fabrication. The magnetic center was calculated using the measured axial component of magnetic field Bz in Cartesian coordinate system because the accuracy of magnetic axis measurement could be improved significantly by using Bz, instead of the radial component of magnetic field Br. This paper describes the measurement system and summarizes the measurement results for the solenoid magnetic of PLS photo-cathode RF e-gun.

  20. Operating a magnetic nozzle helicon thruster with strong magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, Kazunori Komuro, Atsushi; Ando, Akira

    2016-03-15

    A pulsed axial magnetic field up to ∼2.8 kG is applied to a 26-mm-inner-diameter helicon plasma thruster immersed in a vacuum chamber, and the thrust is measured using a pendulum target. The pendulum is located 30-cm-downstream of the thruster, and the thruster rf power and argon flow rate are fixed at 1 kW and 70 sccm (which gives a chamber pressure of 0.7 mTorr). The imparted thrust increases as the applied magnetic field is increased and saturates at a maximum value of ∼9.5 mN for magnetic field above ∼2 kG. At the maximum magnetic field, it is demonstrated that the normalized plasma density, and the ion flow energy in the magnetic nozzle, agree within ∼50% and of 10%, respectively, with a one-dimensional model that ignores radial losses from the nozzle. This magnetic nozzle model is combined with a simple global model of the thruster source that incorporates an artificially controlled factor α, to account for radial plasma losses to the walls, where α = 0 and 1 correspond to zero losses and no magnetic field, respectively. Comparison between the experiments and the model implies that the radial losses in the thruster source are experimentally reduced by the applied magnetic field to about 10% of that obtained from the no magnetic field model.

  1. Evanescent field shapes excitation profile under axial epi-illumination

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Abstract. Axial epi-illuminating light transmitting a >1.3-numerical-aperture microscope objective creates an excitation volume at focus with size and shape dictated by diffraction and due to refraction by the objective and by the coverslip interface separating a specimen in aqueous buffer from the oil immersion objective. The evanescent field on the coverslip aqueous side affects primarily the excitation volume axial dimension as the specimen in focus approaches the interface to within a few hundred nanometers. Following excitation, an excited stationary dipole moment emits fluorescence in a spatially varying pattern collected over the large objective aperture. Collected light propagates in parallel rays toward the tube lens that forms a real three-dimensional image that is decoded to identify dipole orientation. An integral representation of the excitation and emitted fields for infinity-corrected optics—including effects of finite conjugate illumination, fluorescence emission near an interface, emitter dipole orientation, spherical aberration, light transmission through a dichroic filter, and for real microscopic specifications—accurately models observed field intensities including the substantial excitation from the evanescent field. The goal is to develop and verify the practical depiction of excitation and emission in a real microscope for quantitative interpretation of the 3-D emission pattern. PMID:22734777

  2. Magnetic field evolution in neutron stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castillo, F.; Reisenegger, A.; Valdivia, J. A.

    2017-07-01

    Neutron stars contain the strongest magnetic fields known in the Universe. Using numerical simulations restricted to axially symmetric geometry, we study the long-term evolution of the magnetic field in the interior of an isolated neutron star under the effect of ambipolar diffusion, i.e. the drift of the magnetic field and the charged particles relative to the neutrons. We model the stellar interior as an electrically neutral fluid composed of neutrons, protons and electrons; these species can be converted into each other by weak interactions (beta decays), suffer binary collisions, and be affected by each other's macroscopic electromagnetic fields. We show that, in the restricted case of pure ambipolar diffusion, neglecting weak interactions, the magnetic fields evolves towards a stable MHD equilibria configuration, in the timescales analytically expected.

  3. Magnetic fields in spiral galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiba, Masashi

    The magnetic-field characteristics in spiral galaxies are investigated, with emphasis on the Milky Way. The dynamo theory is considered, and axisymmetric spiral (ASS) and bisymmetric spiral (BSS) magnetic fields are analyzed. Toroidal and poloidal magnetic fields are discussed.

  4. Magnetic field dosimeter development

    SciTech Connect

    Lemon, D.K.; Skorpik, J.R.; Eick, J.L.

    1980-09-01

    In recent years there has been increased concern over potential health hazards related to exposure of personnel to magnetic fields. If exposure standards are to be established, then a means for measuring magnetic field dose must be available. To meet this need, the Department of Energy has funded development of prototype dosimeters at the Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratory. This manual reviews the principle of operation of the dosimeter and also contains step-by-step instructions for its operation.

  5. Magnetosheath magnetic field variability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sibeck, D. G.

    1994-01-01

    A case study using simulations IRM and CCE observations demonstrates that transient magnetospheric events correspond to pressure pulses in the magnetosheath, inward bow shock motion, and magnetopause compression. Statistical surveys indicate that the magnetosheath magnetic field orientation rarely remains constant during periods of magnetopause and bow shock motion (both characterized by periods of 1 to 10 min). There is no tendency for bow shock motion to occur for southward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) orientations.

  6. Solar Wind Magnetic Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, E. J.

    1995-01-01

    The magnetic fields originate as coronal fields that are converted into space by the supersonic, infinitely conducting, solar wind. On average, the sun's rotation causes the field to wind up and form an Archimedes Spiral. However, the field direction changes almost continuously on a variety of scales and the irregular nature of these changes is often interpreted as evidence that the solar wind flow is turbulent.

  7. Solar Wind Magnetic Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, E. J.

    1995-01-01

    The magnetic fields originate as coronal fields that are converted into space by the supersonic, infinitely conducting, solar wind. On average, the sun's rotation causes the field to wind up and form an Archimedes Spiral. However, the field direction changes almost continuously on a variety of scales and the irregular nature of these changes is often interpreted as evidence that the solar wind flow is turbulent.

  8. Magnetic Field Illuminated

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-06-16

    Each day NASA solar scientists produce overlays (in white lines) that show their estimation of how the magnetic field lines above the sun are configured (June16, 2016). In the video clip we show the sun in a wavelength of extreme ultraviolet light, then reveal the magnetic field line configuration in the same wavelength. Notice how the lines are tightly bundled near the lighter-toned active regions, which are magnetically intense regions. The magnetic lines from the darker areas, called coronal holes, open out into space and the extended lines show that. Our magnetically active sun is a dynamic body that changes all the time. Movie are also available at the Photojournal. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20881

  9. Molecules in Magnetic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berdyugina, Svetlana

    2015-08-01

    Molecules probe cool matter in the Universe and various astrophysical objects. Their ability to sense magnetic fields provides new insights into magnetic properties of these objects. During the past fifteen years we have carried out a theoretical study of molecular magnetic effects such as the Zeeman, Paschen-Back and Hanle effects and their applications for inferring magnetic structures and spatial inhomogeneities on the Sun, cool stars, brown dwarfs, and exoplanets from molecular spectro-polarimetry (e.g., Berdyugina 2011). Here, we present an overview of this study and compare our theoretical predictions with recent laboratory measurements of magnetic properties of some molecules. We present also a new web-based tool to compute molecular magnetic effects and polarized spectra which is supported by the ERC Advanced Grant HotMol.

  10. Cluster Magnetic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carilli, C. L.; Taylor, G. B.

    Magnetic fields in the intercluster medium have been measured using a variety of techniques, including studies of synchrotron relic and halo radio sources within clusters, studies of inverse Compton X-ray emission from clusters, surveys of Faraday rotation measures of polarized radio sources both within and behind clusters, and studies of cluster cold fronts in X-ray images. These measurements imply that most cluster atmospheres are substantially magnetized, with typical field strengths of order 1 μGauss with high areal filling factors out to Mpc radii. There is likely to be considerable variation in field strengths and topologies both within and between clusters, especially when comparing dynamically relaxed clusters to those that have recently undergone a merger. In some locations, such as the cores of cooling flow clusters, the magnetic fields reach levels of 10-40 μG and may be dynamically important. In all clusters the magnetic fields have a significant effect on energy transport in the intracluster medium. We also review current theories on the origin of cluster magnetic fields.

  11. Helical Striation Pattern Generation and Axial Field Compression in Aluminum Liner Experiments at 1 MA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atoyan, Levon; Byvank, Tom; Greenly, John; Kusse, Bruce; Pikuz, Sergei; Potter, William; Shelkovenko, Tania; Hammer, David

    2015-11-01

    Awe et al. [Phys. Plasmas 21, 235005, 2014] found on the 20 MA Z machine that applying an externally generated axial magnetic field to an imploding liner produces a helical plasma pattern near the surface of the liner. Here we show that this phenomenon is also observed using 10 mm long cylindrical metal liners having 16 mm diameter and 3 to 6 μm wall thickness on the 1 MA, 100-200 ns COBRA pulsed power generator [T. A. Shelkovenko et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 10F521, 2006]. The magnetic field in these experiments is created using a 150 μs rise time Helmholtz coil, and the pattern is observed using extreme ultraviolet imaging. Moreover, using B-dot probes we show that there is a 4-8% axial magnetic field compression relative to the initially applied Bz. Using a visible light framing camera, we show that this compression begins before the outside surface of the liner has become a visible light emitting plasma. This research was sponsored by the NNSA SSAP under DOE Coop Agreement DE-NA0001836 and DOE grant DE-NA0001847 as well as by NSF grant PHY-1102471.

  12. Solenoid magnetic fields calculated from superposed semi-infinite solenoids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, G. V.; Flax, L.

    1966-01-01

    Calculation of a thick solenoid coils magnetic field components is made by a superposition of the fields produced by four solenoids of infinite length and zero inner radius. The field produced by this semi-infinite solenoid is dependent on only two variables, the radial and axial field point coordinates.

  13. On the generation of magnetic field enhanced microwave plasma line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Longwei; Zhao, Ying; Wu, Kenan; Wang, Qi; Meng, Yuedong; Ren, Zhaoxing

    2016-12-01

    Microwave linear plasmas sustained by surface waves have attracted much attention due to the potential abilities to generate large-scale and uniform non-equilibrium plasmas. An external magnetic field was generally applied to enhance and stabilize plasma sources because the magnetic field decreased the electron losses on the wall. The effects of magnetic field on the generation and propagation mechanisms of the microwave plasma were tentatively investigated based on a 2-D numerical model combining a coupled system of Maxwell's equations and continuity equations. The mobility of electrons and effective electric conductivity of the plasma were considered as a full tensor in the presence of magnetic field. Numerical results indicate that both cases of magnetic field in the axial-direction and radial-direction benefit the generation of a high-density plasma; the former one allows the microwave to propagate longer in the axis direction compared to the latter one. The time-averaged power flow density and the amplitude of the electric field on the inner rod of coaxial waveguide attenuate with the propagation of the microwave for both cases of with and without external magnetic field. The attenuation becomes smaller in the presence of appropriately higher axial-direction magnetic field, which allows more microwave energies to transmit along the axial direction. Meanwhile, the anisotropic properties of the plasma, like electron mobility, in the presence of the magnetic field confine more charged particles in the direction of the magnetic field line.

  14. A Study of Thermocurrent Induced Magnetic Fields in ILC Cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, Anthony C.; Cooley, Victoria

    2014-03-31

    The case of axisymmetric ILC-type cavities with titanium helium vessels is investigated. A first-order estimate for magnetic field within the SRF current layer is presented. The induced magnetic field is found to be not more than 1.4x10-8 Tesla = 0.14 milligauss for the case of axial symmetry. Magnetic fields due to symmetry breaking effects are discussed.

  15. Magnetic fields at uranus.

    PubMed

    Ness, N F; Acuña, M H; Behannon, K W; Burlaga, L F; Connerney, J E; Lepping, R P; Neubauer, F M

    1986-07-04

    The magnetic field experiment on the Voyager 2 spacecraft revealed a strong planetary magnetic field of Uranus and an associated magnetosphere and fully developed bipolar masnetic tail. The detached bow shock wave in the solar wind supersonic flow was observed upstream at 23.7 Uranus radii (1 R(U) = 25,600 km) and the magnetopause boundary at 18.0 R(U), near the planet-sun line. A miaximum magnetic field of 413 nanotesla was observed at 4.19 R(U ), just before closest approach. Initial analyses reveal that the planetary magnetic field is well represented by that of a dipole offset from the center of the planet by 0.3 R(U). The angle between Uranus' angular momentum vector and the dipole moment vector has the surprisingly large value of 60 degrees. Thus, in an astrophysical context, the field of Uranus may be described as that of an oblique rotator. The dipole moment of 0.23 gauss R(3)(U), combined with the large spatial offset, leads to minimum and maximum magnetic fields on the surface of the planet of approximately 0.1 and 1.1 gauss, respectively. The rotation period of the magnetic field and hence that of the interior of the planet is estimated to be 17.29+/- 0.10 hours; the magnetotail rotates about the planet-sun line with the same period. Thelarge offset and tilt lead to auroral zones far from the planetary rotation axis poles. The rings and the moons are embedded deep within the magnetosphere, and, because of the large dipole tilt, they will have a profound and diurnally varying influence as absorbers of the trapped radiation belt particles.

  16. Mercury's Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, C. L.

    2014-12-01

    Mercury is the only inner solar system body other than Earth to possess an active core dynamo-driven magnetic field and the only planet with a small, highly dynamic magnetosphere. Measurements made by the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft have provided a wealth of data on Mercury's magnetic field environment. Mercury's weak magnetic field was discovered 40 years ago by the Mariner 10 spacecraft, but its large-scale geometry, strength and origin could not be definitively established. MESSENGER data have shown that the field is dynamo-generated and can be described as an offset axisymmetric dipole field (hereafter OAD): the magnetic equator lies ~0.2 RM (RM = 2440 km) north of the geographic equator and the dipole moment is 2.8 x1019 Am2 (~0.03% that of Earth's). The weak internal field and the high, but variable, solar wind ram pressure drive vigorous magnetospheric dynamics and result in an average distance from the planet center to the sub-solar magnetopause of only 1.42 RM. Magnetospheric models developed with MESSENGER data have allowed re-analysis of the Mariner 10 observations, establishing that there has been no measureable secular variation in the internal field over 40 years. Together with spatial power spectra for the OAD, this provides critical constraints for viable dynamo models. Time-varying magnetopause fields induce secondary core fields, the magnitudes of which confirm the core radius estimated from MESSENGER gravity and Earth-based radar data. After accounting for large-scale magnetospheric fields, residual signatures are dominated by additional external fields that are organized in the local time frame and that vary with magnetospheric activity. Birkeland currents have been identified, which likely close in the planetary interior at depths below the base of the crust. Near-periapsis magnetic field measurements at altitudes greater than 200 km have tantalizing hints of crustal fields, but crustal

  17. Light fields with an axially expanded intensity distribution for stable three-dimensional optical trapping.

    PubMed

    Zwick, Susanne; Schaub, Christian; Haist, Tobias; Osten, Wolfgang

    2010-09-13

    We introduce a new kind of light field to improve and simplify the trapping process of axially displaced particles. To this end we employ a light field with an axially expanded intensity distribution, which at the same time enables stable axial trapping. We present simulations of the axial intensity distribution of the novel trapping field and first experimental results, which demonstrate the improvement of the reliability of the axial trapping process. The method can be used to automate trapping of particles that are located outside of the focal plane of the microscope.

  18. The influence of centrifugal forces on the B field structure of an axially symmetric equilibrium magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ye, Gang; Voigt, Gerd-Hannes

    1989-01-01

    A model is presented of an axially symmetric pole-on magnetosphere in MHD force balance, in which both plasma thermal pressure gradients and centrifugal force are taken into account. Assuming that planetary rotation leads to differentially rotating magnetotail field lines, the deformation of magnetotail field lines under the influence of both thermal plasma pressure and centrifugal forces was calculated. Analytic solutions to the Grad-Shafranov equation are presented, which include the centrifugal force term. It is shown that the nonrotational magnetosphere with hot thermal plasma leads to a field configuration without a toroidal B(phi) component and without field-aligned Birkeland currents. The other extreme, a rapidly rotating magnetosphere with cold plasma, leads to a configuration in which plasma must be confined within a thin disk in a plane where the radial magnetic field component B(r) vanishes locally.

  19. Magnetic Field Arches

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-09-28

    When an active region rotated into a profile view, SDO was able to capture the magnificent loops arching above an active region (Sept. 28-29, 2016). Active region are areas of strong magnetic fields. The magnetic field lines above these regions are illuminated by charged particles spiraling along them. The images were taken in a wavelength of extreme ultraviolet light. The video covers 12 hours of activity. The Earth was inset to give a sense of the scale of these towering arches. Movies are available at http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21101

  20. Effect of Axial Loading on Quench Performance in Nb3Sn Magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Ambrosio, G.; Bordini, B.; Caspi, S.; Dietderich, D.R.; Felice, H.; Hafalia, A.R.; Hannaford, C.R.; Lizarazo, J.; Lietzke, A.F.; McInturff, A.D.; Sabbi, G.L.; DiMarco, J.D.; Tartaglia, M.; Vedrice, P.; Ferracin, P.

    2008-06-01

    A series of tests has been performed at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) and Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL) with the goal of assessing the influence of coil axial pre-load on Nb{sub 3}Sn magnet training. The tests involved two subscale Nb{sub 3}Sn magnets: SQ02, a quadrupole magnet fabricated as part of the US LHC Accelerator Research Program (LARP), and SD01, a dipole magnet developed in collaboration between CEA/Saclay and LBNL. Both magnets used similar Nb{sub 3}Sn flat racetrack coils from LBNL Subscale Magnet Program, and implemented an axial support system composed of stainless steel end-plates and aluminum rods. The system was designed to withstand full longitudinal electro-magnetic forces and provide controllable preloads. Quench performances, training, and quench locations have been recorded in various axial loading conditions. Test results are reported.

  1. Magnetohydrodynamic Simulations of Hypersonic Flow over a Cylinder Using Axial- and Transverse-Oriented Magnetic Dipoles

    PubMed Central

    Guarendi, Andrew N.; Chandy, Abhilash J.

    2013-01-01

    Numerical simulations of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) hypersonic flow over a cylinder are presented for axial- and transverse-oriented dipoles with different strengths. ANSYS CFX is used to carry out calculations for steady, laminar flows at a Mach number of 6.1, with a model for electrical conductivity as a function of temperature and pressure. The low magnetic Reynolds number (≪1) calculated based on the velocity and length scales in this problem justifies the quasistatic approximation, which assumes negligible effect of velocity on magnetic fields. Therefore, the governing equations employed in the simulations are the compressible Navier-Stokes and the energy equations with MHD-related source terms such as Lorentz force and Joule dissipation. The results demonstrate the ability of the magnetic field to affect the flowfield around the cylinder, which results in an increase in shock stand-off distance and reduction in overall temperature. Also, it is observed that there is a noticeable decrease in drag with the addition of the magnetic field. PMID:24307870

  2. Magnetohydrodynamic simulations of hypersonic flow over a cylinder using axial- and transverse-oriented magnetic dipoles.

    PubMed

    Guarendi, Andrew N; Chandy, Abhilash J

    2013-01-01

    Numerical simulations of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) hypersonic flow over a cylinder are presented for axial- and transverse-oriented dipoles with different strengths. ANSYS CFX is used to carry out calculations for steady, laminar flows at a Mach number of 6.1, with a model for electrical conductivity as a function of temperature and pressure. The low magnetic Reynolds number (<1) calculated based on the velocity and length scales in this problem justifies the quasistatic approximation, which assumes negligible effect of velocity on magnetic fields. Therefore, the governing equations employed in the simulations are the compressible Navier-Stokes and the energy equations with MHD-related source terms such as Lorentz force and Joule dissipation. The results demonstrate the ability of the magnetic field to affect the flowfield around the cylinder, which results in an increase in shock stand-off distance and reduction in overall temperature. Also, it is observed that there is a noticeable decrease in drag with the addition of the magnetic field.

  3. Tri-axial magnetic anisotropies in RE{sub 2}Ba{sub 4}Cu{sub 7}O{sub 15−y} superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Horii, Shigeru Doi, Toshiya; Okuhira, Shota; Yamaki, Momoko; Kishio, Kohji; Shimoyama, Jun-ichi

    2014-03-21

    We report a novel quantification method of tri-axial magnetic anisotropy in orthorhombic substances containing rare earth (RE) ions using tri-axial magnetic alignment and tri-axial magnetic anisotropies depending on the type of RE in RE-based cuprate superconductors. From the changes in the axes for magnetization in magnetically aligned powders of (RE′{sub 1−x}RE″{sub x}){sub 2}Ba{sub 4}Cu{sub 7}O{sub y} [(RE′,RE″)247] containing RE ions with different single-ion magnetic anisotropies, the ratios of three-dimensional magnetic anisotropies between RE′247 and RE″247 could be determined. The results in (Y,Er)247, (Dy,Er)247, (Ho,Er)247, and (Y,Eu)247 systems suggest that magnetic anisotropies largely depended on the type of RE′ (or RE″), even in the heavy RE ions with higher magnetic anisotropies. An appropriate choice of RE ions in RE-based cuprate superconductors enables the reduction of the required magnetic field for the production of their bulks and thick films based on the tri-axial magnetic alignment technique using modulated rotation magnetic fields.

  4. Magnetic fields from inflation?

    SciTech Connect

    Demozzi, Vittoria; Mukhanov, Viatcheslav; Rubinstein, Hector E-mail: viatcheslav.mukhanov@physik.uni-muenchen.de

    2009-08-01

    We consider the possibility of generation of the primordial magnetic field on inflation and show that the effect of the back reaction of this field can be very important. Assuming that the back reaction does not spoil inflation we find a rather strong restriction on the amplitude of the primordial field which could be generated on inflation. Namely, this amplitude recalculated to the present epoch cannot exceed 10{sup −32}G in Mpc scales. This field seems to be too small to be amplified to the observable values by a possible dynamo mechanism.

  5. Multi-axial fiber-optic electric field sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perry, D.; Gibson, R.; Schreeve, B.; Schultz, S.; Selfridge, D.

    2010-03-01

    High powered microwave weapons use electric fields to overload electronics. We developed a non-intrusive sensor using a technology based on slab coupled optical sensing (SCOS). Each sensor detects the electric field component normal to the surface of the slab. By mounting two of these sensors orthogonally to each other, a more complete image of the electrical field can be obtained. One of the major hurdles of creating a multi-axial SCOS is keeping the size of the sensor small. The size is limited by (1) the size of the sensing material and (2) the ability to package the sensor to maintain its structural integrity and orientation. Good sensitivity is attained with SCOS with a length less than 3 mm and the D-fiber platform has a small core which allows for much less bending loss than standard single mode fiber. We have developed a mounting system that is heat resistant and structurally robust to protect the sensor that is extremely small when compared to traditional electric field sensors.

  6. A Model for Axial Magnetic Bearings Including Eddy Currents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kucera, Ladislav; Ahrens, Markus

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents an analytical method of modelling eddy currents inside axial bearings. The problem is solved by dividing an axial bearing into elementary geometric forms, solving the Maxwell equations for these simplified geometries, defining boundary conditions and combining the geometries. The final result is an analytical solution for the flux, from which the impedance and the force of an axial bearing can be derived. Several impedance measurements have shown that the analytical solution can fit the measured data with a precision of approximately 5%.

  7. Magnetic dipole in a nonuniform magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraftmakher, Yaakov

    2017-05-01

    The magnetic moment of a permanent magnet is determined from forces acting on the magnet in nonuniform magnetic fields produced by two coaxial current-carrying coils. Therefore, the measurements are performed under well controllable and reproducible conditions. With a data-acquisition system, the experiments can be done in a reasonably short time. The magnetic moment of the magnet is in good agreement with values obtained by other experimental techniques. The experiment is well suited for undergraduate laboratories.

  8. Magnetic Field Control of Combustion Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barmina, I.; Valdmanis, R.; Zake, M.; Kalis, H.; Marinaki, M.; Strautins, U.

    2016-08-01

    Experimental studies and mathematical modelling of the effects of magnetic field on combustion dynamics at thermo-chemical conversion of biomass are carried out with the aim of providing control of the processes developing in the reaction zone of swirling flame. The joint research of the magnetic field effect on the combustion dynamics includes the estimation of this effect on the formation of the swirling flame dynamics, flame temperature and composition, providing analysis of the magnetic field effects on the flame characteristics. The results of experiments have shown that the magnetic field exerts the influence on the flow velocity components by enhancing a swirl motion in the flame reaction zone with swirl-enhanced mixing of the axial flow of volatiles with cold air swirl, by cooling the flame reaction zone and by limiting the thermo-chemical conversion of volatiles. Mathematical modelling of magnetic field effect on the formation of the flame dynamics confirms that the electromagnetic force, which is induced by the electric current surrounding the flame, leads to field-enhanced increase of flow vorticity by enhancing mixing of the reactants. The magnetic field effect on the flame temperature and rate of reactions leads to conclusion that field-enhanced increase of the flow vorticity results in flame cooling by limiting the chemical conversion of the reactants.

  9. High field superconducting magnets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hait, Thomas P. (Inventor); Shirron, Peter J. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A superconducting magnet includes an insulating layer disposed about the surface of a mandrel; a superconducting wire wound in adjacent turns about the mandrel to form the superconducting magnet, wherein the superconducting wire is in thermal communication with the mandrel, and the superconducting magnet has a field-to-current ratio equal to or greater than 1.1 Tesla per Ampere; a thermally conductive potting material configured to fill interstices between the adjacent turns, wherein the thermally conductive potting material and the superconducting wire provide a path for dissipation of heat; and a voltage limiting device disposed across each end of the superconducting wire, wherein the voltage limiting device is configured to prevent a voltage excursion across the superconducting wire during quench of the superconducting magnet.

  10. The interplanetary magnetic field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, L., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    Large-scale properties of the interplanetary magnetic field as determined by the solar wind velocity structure are examined. The various ways in which magnetic fields affect phenomena in the solar wind are summarized. The dominant role of high and low velocity solar wind streams that persist, with fluctuations and evolution, for weeks or months is emphasized. It is suggested that for most purposes the sector structure is better identified with the stream structure than with the magnetic polarity and that the polarity does not necessarily change from one velocity sector to the next. Several mechanisms that might produce the stream structure are considered. The interaction of the high and low velocity streams is analyzed in a model that is steady state when viewed in a frame that corotates with the sun.

  11. The Sun Magnetic Field

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-12-16

    This frame from an animation shows how the magnetic field lines emanating from our sun spiral out into the solar system as the sun rotates. NASA Voyager 1 is in an area scientists are calling the stagnation region, at the outer layer of the heliosphere.

  12. Axial traction magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the glenohumeral joint in healthy volunteers: initial experience.

    PubMed

    Garwood, Elisabeth R; Souza, Richard B; Zhang, Amy; Zhang, Alan L; Ma, C Benjamin; Link, Thomas M; Motamedi, Daria

    Evaluate technical feasibility and potential applications of glenohumeral (GH) joint axial traction magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in healthy volunteers. Eleven shoulders were imaged in neutral and with 4kg axial traction at 3T. Quantitative measurements were assessed. Axial traction was well tolerated. There was statistically significant widening of the superior GH joint space (p=0.002) and acromial angle (p=0.017) with traction. Inter-rater agreement was high. GH joint axial traction MRI is technically feasible and well tolerated in volunteers. Traction of the capsule, widening of the superior GH joint space and acromial angle were observed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Measuring magnetic field vector by stimulated Raman transitions

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Wenli; Wei, Rong Lin, Jinda; Wang, Yuzhu; Dong, Richang; Zou, Fan; Chen, Tingting

    2016-03-21

    We present a method for measuring the magnetic field vector in an atomic fountain by probing the line strength of stimulated Raman transitions. The relative line strength for a Λ-type level system with an existing magnetic field is theoretically analyzed. The magnetic field vector measured by our proposed method is consistent well with that by the traditional bias magnetic field method with an axial resolution of 6.1 mrad and a radial resolution of 0.16 rad. Dependences of the Raman transitions on laser polarization schemes are also analyzed. Our method offers the potential advantages for magnetic field measurement without requiring additional bias fields, beyond the limitation of magnetic field intensity, and extending the spatial measurement range. The proposed method can be widely used for measuring magnetic field vector in other precision measurement fields.

  14. Research on a novel high stiffness axial passive magnetic bearing for DGMSCMG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Jinji; Wang, Chun'e.; Le, Yun

    2016-08-01

    To increase the displacement stiffness and decrease power loss of double gimbals magnetically suspended control momentum gyro (DGMSCMG), this paper researches a new structure of axial passive magnetic bearing (APMB). Different from the existing APMB, the proposed APMB is composed of segmented permanent magnets and magnetic rings. The displacement stiffness and angular stiffness expressions are derived by equivalent magnetic circuit method and infinitesimal method based on the end magnetic flux. The relationships are analyzed between stiffness and structure parameters such as length of air gap, length of permanent magnet, height of permanent magnet and end length of magnetic ring. Besides, the axial displacement stiffness measurement method of the APMB is proposed, and it verified the correctness of proposed theoretical method. The DGMSCMG prototype is manufactured and the slow-down characteristic experiment is carried out, and the experimental result reflects the low power loss feature of the APMB.

  15. Axially adjustable magnetic properties in arrays of multilayered Ni/Cu nanowires with variable segment sizes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirazi Tehrani, A.; Almasi Kashi, M.; Ramazani, A.; Montazer, A. H.

    2016-07-01

    Arrays of multilayered Ni/Cu nanowires (NWs) with variable segment sizes were fabricated into anodic aluminum oxide templates using a pulsed electrodeposition method in a single bath for designated potential pulse times. Increasing the pulse time between 0.125 and 2 s in the electrodeposition of Ni enabled the formation of segments with thicknesses ranging from 25 to 280 nm and 10-110 nm in 42 and 65 nm diameter NWs, respectively, leading to disk-shaped, rod-shaped and/or near wire-shaped geometries. Using hysteresis loop measurements at room temperature, the axial and perpendicular magnetic properties were investigated. Regardless of the segment geometry, the axial coercivity and squareness significantly increased with increasing Ni segment thickness, in agreement with a decrease in calculated demagnetizing factors along the NW length. On the contrary, the perpendicular magnetic properties were found to be independent of the pulse times, indicating a competition between the intrawire interactions and the shape demagnetizing field.

  16. Field-Effects in Large Axial Ratio Liquid Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lonberg, Franklin J.

    This paper consists of an introduction and four chapters, the abstracts of which are presented below. Chapter 2. The subject of this chapter is the dynamic periodic structures which are observed in the twist Frederiks transition. It is found that, for fields above a material dependent level, a transient periodic distortion is observed. The wave vector is parallel to the unperturbed director and increases with increasing field. A theoretical model and experimental data are presented. Chapter 3. The subject of this chapter is the discovery of a new equilibrium structure in the splay Frederiks transition. Experimental observation has shown that the imposition of a field, just above the critical strength, produces a periodic distortion in the polymer liquid crystal PBG. This periodic state is not dynamic in origin but it is a true ground state. An analysis of the energy of a liquid crystal, in the splay Frederiks transition geometry, shows that in materials with K(,1)/K(,3) > 3.3 the periodic distortion will have a lower critical field than the uniform distortion. Chapter 4. The subject of this chapter is the dynamics of the bend Frederiks transition in large axial ratio nematics. Experimental evidence is presented to show that there is a distortion mode which occurs at field greater than 2H(,c), which is very fast and does not grow exponentially. An analysis of the equations of motion shows that a mode with wave length half that of the static equilibrium mode will have these properties. Chapter 5. The bend Frederiks transition is use to show that the bend and splay elastic constants are linear in concentration in PBG. Interpretation of this result is made in connection with models of the elastic energy in liquid crystal made of semi-flexible partiles.

  17. Unsteady Flow Field in a Multistage Axial Flow Compressor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suryavamshi, N.; Lakshminarayana, B.; Prato, J.

    1997-01-01

    The flow field in a multistage compressor is three-dimensional, unsteady, and turbulent with substantial viscous effects. Some of the specific phenomena that has eluded designers include the effects of rotor-stator and rotor-rotor interactions and the physics of mixing of velocity, pressure, temperature and velocity fields. An attempt was made, to resolve experimentally, the unsteady pressure and temperature fields downstream of the second stator of a multistage axial flow compressor which will provide information on rotor-stator interaction effects and the nature of the unsteadiness in an embedded stator of a three stage axial flow compressor. Detailed area traverse measurements using pneumatic five hole probe, thermocouple probe, semi-conductor total pressure probe (Kulite) and an aspirating probe downstream of the second stator were conducted at the peak efficiency operating condition. The unsteady data was then reduced through an ensemble averaging technique which splits the signal into deterministic and unresolved components. Auto and cross correlation techniques were used to correlate the deterministic total temperature and velocity components (acquired using a slanted hot-film probe at the same measurement locations) and the gradients, distributions and relative weights of each of the terms of the average passage equation were then determined. Based on these measurements it was observed that the stator wakes, hub leakage flow region, casing endwall suction surface corner region, and the casing endwall region away from the blade surfaces were the regions of highest losses in total pressure, lowest efficiency and highest levels of unresolved unsteadiness. The deterministic unsteadiness was found to be high in the hub and casing endwall regions as well as on the pressure side of the stator wake. The spectral distribution of hot-wire and kulite voltages shows that at least eight harmonics of all three rotor blade passing frequencies are present at this

  18. Nongeocentric axial dipole field behavior during the Mono Lake excursion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negrini, Robert M.; McCuan, Daniel T.; Horton, Robert A.; Lopez, James D.; Cassata, William S.; Channell, James E. T.; Verosub, Kenneth L.; Knott, Jeffrey R.; Coe, Robert S.; Liddicoat, Joseph C.; Lund, Steven P.; Benson, Larry V.; Sarna-Wojcicki, Andrei M.

    2014-04-01

    A new record of the Mono Lake excursion (MLE) is reported from the Summer Lake Basin of Oregon, USA. Sediment magnetic properties indicate magnetite as the magnetization carrier and imply suitability of the sediments as accurate recorders of the magnetic field including relative paleointensity (RPI) variations. The magnitudes and phases of the declination, inclination, and RPI components of the new record correlate well with other coeval but lower resolution records from western North America including records from the Wilson Creek Formation exposed around Mono Lake. The virtual geomagnetic pole (VGP) path of the new record is similar to that from another high-resolution record of the MLE from Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Site 919 in the Irminger Basin between Iceland and Greenland but different from the VGP path for the Laschamp excursion (LE), including that found lower in the ODP-919 core. Thus, the prominent excursion recorded at Mono Lake, California, is not the LE but rather one that is several thousands of years younger. The MLE VGP path contains clusters, the locations of which coincide with nonaxial dipole features found in the Holocene geomagnetic field. The clusters are occupied in the same time progression by VGPs from Summer Lake and the Irminger Basin, but the phase of occupation is offset, a behavior that suggests time-transgressive decay and return of the principal field components at the beginning and end of the MLE, respectively, leaving the nonaxial dipole features associated with the clusters dominant during the excursion.

  19. Effect of magnetic field on the rotating filamentary molecular clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aghili, P.; Kokabi, K.

    2017-04-01

    The Purpose of this work is to study the evolution of magnetized rotating filamentary molecular clouds. We consider cylindrical symmetric filamentary molecular clouds at an early stage of evolution. For the first time we consider the rotation of filamentary molecular in the presence of an axial and azimuthal magnetic field without any assumption of density and magnetic functions. We show that in addition to decreasing the radial collapse velocity, the rotational velocity is also affected by the magnetic field. The existence of rotation yields fragmentation of filaments. Moreover, we show that the magnetic field has a significant effect on the fragmentation of filamentary molecular clouds.

  20. Magnetic fields and cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, T.L.

    1993-10-01

    This letter is a response to an article by Savitz and Kaune, EHP 101:76-80. W-L wire code was applied to data from a 1988 Denver study, and an association was reported between high W-L wire code and childhood cancer. This author discusses several studies and provides explanations which weakens the argument that classification error resulted in an appreciable reduction in the association between W-L high wire code and childhood cancer. In conclusion, the fact that new wire code is only weakly correlated with magnetic field measurements (in the same manner as the original W-L wire code) suggests that the newly reported stronger association with childhood cancer is likely due to factors other than magnetic fields. Differential residential mobility and differential residential age are two possible explanations and are suggestive that the reported association may be false.

  1. Photonic Magnetic Field Sensor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    reduce feedback in fiber optic links can be the basis for excellent magnetic field sensors. Based on the giant magneto-optical ( GMO ) or Faraday...Squids are those based upon the giant magneto-optical ( GMO ) effect in ferrimagnetic materials or YIG garnets and the giant magneto-resistance (GMR...effect in manganese based compounds. The development of the GMO material was mostly motivated by the need for compact, in-line fiber optical

  2. Magnetic field reconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Axford, W. I.

    The fundamental principles of particle acceleration by magnetic reconnection in cosmic plasmas are reviewed. The history of reconnection models is traced, and consideration is given to the Kelvin-Helmholtz theorem, the frozen-field theorem, the application of the Kelvin-Helmholtz theorem to a collisionless plasma, solutions to specific reconnection problems, and configurational instability. Diagrams and graphs are provided, and the objections raised by critics of the reconnection theory and/or its astrophysical applications are discussed.

  3. The magnetic field of a permanent hollow cylindrical magnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reich, Felix A.; Stahn, Oliver; Müller, Wolfgang H.

    2016-09-01

    Based on the rational version of M AXWELL's equations according to T RUESDELL and T OUPIN or KOVETZ, cf. (Kovetz in Electromagnetic theory, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2000; Truesdell and Toupin in Handbuch der Physik, Bd. III/1, Springer, Berlin, pp 226-793; appendix, pp 794-858, 2000), we present, for stationary processes, a closed-form solution for the magnetic flux density of a hollow cylindrical magnet. Its magnetization is constant in axial direction. We consider M AXWELL's equations in regular and singular points that are obtained by rational electrodynamics, adapted to stationary processes. The magnetic flux density is calculated analytically by means of a vector potential. We obtain a solution in terms of complete elliptic integrals. Therefore, numerical evaluation can be performed in a computationally efficient manner. The solution is written in dimensionless form and can easily be applied to cylinders of arbitrary shape. The relation between the magnetic flux density and the magnetic field is linear, and an explicit relation for the field is presented. With a slight modification the result can be used to obtain the field of a solid cylindrical magnet. The mathematical structure of the solution and, in particular, singularities are discussed.

  4. Coronal Magnetic Field Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiegelmann, Thomas; Petrie, Gordon J. D.; Riley, Pete

    2017-09-01

    Coronal magnetic field models use photospheric field measurements as boundary condition to model the solar corona. We review in this paper the most common model assumptions, starting from MHD-models, magnetohydrostatics, force-free and finally potential field models. Each model in this list is somewhat less complex than the previous one and makes more restrictive assumptions by neglecting physical effects. The magnetohydrostatic approach neglects time-dependent phenomena and plasma flows, the force-free approach neglects additionally the gradient of the plasma pressure and the gravity force. This leads to the assumption of a vanishing Lorentz force and electric currents are parallel (or anti-parallel) to the magnetic field lines. Finally, the potential field approach neglects also these currents. We outline the main assumptions, benefits and limitations of these models both from a theoretical (how realistic are the models?) and a practical viewpoint (which computer resources to we need?). Finally we address the important problem of noisy and inconsistent photospheric boundary conditions and the possibility of using chromospheric and coronal observations to improve the models.

  5. Electromagnetic radiation from filamentary sources in the presence of axially magnetized cylindrical plasma scatterers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Es'kin, V. A.; Ivoninsky, A. V.; Kudrin, A. V.; Popova, L. L.

    2017-02-01

    Electromagnetic radiation from filamentary electric-dipole and magnetic-current sources of infinite length in the presence of gyrotropic cylindrical scatterers in the surrounding free space is studied. The scatterers are assumed to be infinitely long, axially magnetized circular plasma columns parallel to the axis of the filamentary source. The field and the radiation pattern of each source are calculated in the case where the source frequency is equal to one of the surface plasmon resonance frequencies of the cylindrical scatterers. It is shown that the presence of even a single resonant magnetized plasma scatterer of small electrical radius or a few such scatterers significantly affects the total fields of the filamentary sources, so that their radiation patterns become essentially different from those in the absence of scatterers or the presence of isotropic scatterers of the same shape and size. It is concluded that the radiation characteristics of the considered sources can efficiently be controlled using their resonance interaction with the neighboring gyrotropic scatterers.

  6. Topological invariants and the dynamics of an axial vector torsion field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drechsler, W.

    1983-08-01

    A generalized theory of gravitation is discussed which is based on a Riemann-Cartan space-time,U 4, with an axial vector torsion field. Besides Einstein's equations determining the metric of theU 4, a system of nonlinear field equations is established coupling an axial vector source current to the axial vector torsion field. The properties of the solutions of these equations are discussed assuming a London-type condition relating the axial current and torsion field. To characterize the solutions use is made of the Euler and Pontrjagin forms and the associated quadratic curvature invariants for theU 4 space-time. It is found that there exists for a Riemann-Cartan space-time a relation between the zeros of the axial vector torsion field and the singularities of the Pontrjagin invariant, which is analogous to the well-known Hopf relation between the zeros of vector fields and the Euler characteristic.

  7. Magnetic Field Topology in Jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardiner, T. A.; Frank, A.

    2000-01-01

    We present results on the magnetic field topology in a pulsed radiative. jet. For initially helical magnetic fields and periodic velocity variations, we find that the magnetic field alternates along the, length of the jet from toroidally dominated in the knots to possibly poloidally dominated in the intervening regions.

  8. Low field magnetic resonance imaging

    DOEpatents

    Pines, Alexander; Sakellariou, Dimitrios; Meriles, Carlos A.; Trabesinger, Andreas H.

    2010-07-13

    A method and system of magnetic resonance imaging does not need a large homogenous field to truncate a gradient field. Spatial information is encoded into the spin magnetization by allowing the magnetization to evolve in a non-truncated gradient field and inducing a set of 180 degree rotations prior to signal acquisition.

  9. Magnetic Field Topology in Jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardiner, T. A.; Frank, A.

    2000-01-01

    We present results on the magnetic field topology in a pulsed radiative. jet. For initially helical magnetic fields and periodic velocity variations, we find that the magnetic field alternates along the, length of the jet from toroidally dominated in the knots to possibly poloidally dominated in the intervening regions.

  10. Magnetic field switchable dry adhesives.

    PubMed

    Krahn, Jeffrey; Bovero, Enrico; Menon, Carlo

    2015-02-04

    A magnetic field controllable dry adhesive device is manufactured. The normal adhesion force can be increased or decreased depending on the presence of an applied magnetic field. If the magnetic field is present during the entire normal adhesion test cycle which includes both applying a preloading force and measuring the pulloff pressure, a decrease in adhesion is observed when compared to when there is no applied magnetic field. Similarly, if the magnetic field is present only during the preload portion of the normal adhesion test cycle, a decrease in adhesion is observed because of an increased stiffness of the magnetically controlled dry adhesive device. When the applied magnetic field is present during only the pulloff portion of the normal adhesion test cycle, either an increase or a decrease in normal adhesion is observed depending on the direction of the applied magnetic field.

  11. The Martian magnetic field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, C. T.

    1979-01-01

    The paper presents an overview of the Martian magnetic field measurements and the criticisms made of them. The measurements of the Mars 2, 3, and 5 spacecraft were interpreted by Dolginov et al. (1976, 1978) to be consistent with an intrinsic planetary magnetic moment of 2.5 times 10 to the 22nd power gauss cu cm, basing this result on the apparent size of the obstacle responsible for deflecting the solar wind and an apparent encounter of the spacecraft with the planetary field. It is shown that if the dependence of the Martian magnetic moment on the rotation rate was linear, the estimate of the moment would be far larger than reported by Dolginov et al. An upper limit of 250 km is calculated for the dynamo radius using the similarity law, compared with 500 km obtained by Dolginov et al. It is concluded that the possible strength of a Martian dynamo is below expectations, and it is likely that the Mars dynamo is not presently operative.

  12. Superhorizon magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campanelli, Leonardo

    2016-03-01

    We analyze the evolution of superhorizon-scale magnetic fields from the end of inflation till today. Whatever is the mechanism responsible for their generation during inflation, we find that a given magnetic mode with wave number k evolves, after inflation, according to the values of k ηe , nk , and Ωk , where ηe is the conformal time at the end of inflation, nk is the number density spectrum of inflation-produced photons, and Ωk is the phase difference between the two Bogoliubov coefficients which characterize the state of that mode at the end of inflation. For any realistic inflationary magnetogenesis scenario, we find that nk-1≪|k ηe|≪1 , and three evolutionary scenarios are possible: (i) |Ωk∓π |=O (1 ) , in which case the evolution of the magnetic spectrum Bk(η ) is adiabatic, a2Bk(η )=const , with a being the expansion parameter; (ii) |Ωk∓π |≪|k ηe| , in which case the evolution is superadiabatic, a2Bk(η )∝η ; (iii) |k ηe|≪|Ωk∓π |≪1 or |k ηe|˜|Ωk∓π |≪1 , in which case an early phase of adiabatic evolution is followed, after a time η⋆˜|Ωk∓π |/k , by a superadiabatic evolution. Once a given mode reenters the horizon, it remains frozen into the plasma and then evolves adiabatically till today. As a corollary of our results, we find that inflation-generated magnetic fields evolve adiabatically on all scales and for all times in conformal-invariant free Maxwell theory, while they evolve superadiabatically after inflation on superhorizon scales in the nonconformal-invariant Ratra model, where the inflaton is kinematically coupled to the electromagnetic field. The latter result supports and, somehow, clarifies our recent claim that the Ratra model can account for the presence of cosmic magnetic fields without suffering from both backreaction and strong-coupling problems.

  13. Electric and magnetic fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, H. R.; Robinson, R. S.; Etters, R. D.

    1982-01-01

    A number of energy momentum anomalies are described that result from the use of Abraham-Lorentz electromagnetic theory. These anomalies have in common the motion of charged bodies or current carrying conductors relative to the observer. The anomalies can be avoided by using the nonflow approach, based on internal energy of the electromagnetic field. The anomalies can also be avoided by using the flow approach, if all contributions to flow work are included. The general objective of this research is a fundamental physical understanding of electric and magnetic fields which, in turn, might promote the development of new concepts in electric space propulsion. The approach taken is to investigate quantum representations of these fields.

  14. Axial field shaping under high-numerical-aperture focusing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jabbour, Toufic G.; Kuebler, Stephen M.

    2007-03-01

    Kant reported [J. Mod. Optics47, 905 (2000)] a formulation for solving the inverse problem of vector diffraction, which accurately models high-NA focusing. Here, Kant's formulation is adapted to the method of generalized projections to obtain an algorithm for designing diffractive optical elements (DOEs) that reshape the axial point-spread function (PSF). The algorithm is applied to design a binary phase-only DOE that superresolves the axial PSF with controlled increase in axial sidelobes. An 11-zone DOE is identified that axially narrows the PSF central lobe by 29% while maintaining the sidelobe intensity at or below 52% of the peak intensity. This DOE could improve the resolution achievable in several applications without significantly complicating the optical system.

  15. Optimization of the recovery efficiency in an axial HGMF cell with bounded flow field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badescu, V.; Murariu, V.; Rotariu, O.; Rezlescu, N.

    1996-09-01

    This work presents a method to optimize the recovery efficiency of fine paramagnetic particles from a liquid suspension in an axial HGMF cell. The cell has the flow field bounded by a circular cylindrical wall. It has only one ferromagnetic wire mounted outside the flow field, parallel with its axis and in `paramagnetic capture mode'. The optimization criterion was deduced from the analysis of the particles' trajectories inside the magnetic active space. It is based on the relationship between the geometrical 0022-3727/29/9/042/img1 and operational 0022-3727/29/9/042/img2 parameters for which the filtration efficiency is 100%. The work also presents some experimental data which are in good agreement with theoretical results.

  16. Reconnection of Magnetic Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Spacecraft observations of steady and nonsteady reconnection at the magnetopause are reviewed. Computer simulations of three-dimensional reconnection in the geomagnetic tail are discussed. Theoretical aspects of the energization of particles in current sheets and of the microprocesses in the diffusion region are presented. Terrella experiments in which magnetospheric reconnection is simulated at both the magnetopause and in the tail are described. The possible role of reconnection in the evolution of solar magnetic fields and solar flares is discussed. A two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic computer simulation of turbulent reconnection is examined. Results concerning reconnection in Tokamak devices are also presented.

  17. Performance Prediction of a Hybrid-Excitation Synchronous Machine with Axially Arranged Excitation Poles and Permanent-Magnet Poles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuuchi, Kotaro; Fukami, Tadashi; Naoe, Nobuyuki; Hanaoka, Ryoichi; Takata, Shinzo; Miyamoto, Toshio

    This paper presents a method of predicting the steady-state performance of a new hybrid-excitation synchronous machine (HESM) theoretically. The field pole of this HESM is axially divided into two parts; one is an excitation part and the other a permanent-magnet (PM) part. A nonlinear equivalent circuit, which can include the saliency of the rotor and the magnetic saturation due to iron core, is derived. Based on this equivalent circuit, the steady-state performance of the HESM is calculated, and the results are confirmed through experiments.

  18. A Dysprosium Metallocene Single-Molecule Magnet Functioning at the Axial Limit.

    PubMed

    Guo, Fu-Sheng; Day, Benjamin M; Chen, Yan-Cong; Tong, Ming-Liang; Mansikkamäki, Akseli; Layfield, Richard A

    2017-09-11

    Abstraction of a chloride ligand from the dysprosium metallocene [(Cp(ttt) )2 DyCl] (1Dy Cp(ttt) =1,2,4-tri(tert-butyl)cyclopentadienide) by the triethylsilylium cation produces the first base-free rare-earth metallocenium cation [(Cp(ttt) )2 Dy](+) (2Dy ) as a salt of the non-coordinating [B(C6 F5 )4 ](-) anion. Magnetic measurements reveal that [2Dy ][B(C6 F5 )4 ] is an SMM with a record anisotropy barrier up to 1277 cm(-1) (1837 K) in zero field and a record magnetic blocking temperature of 60 K, including hysteresis with coercivity. The exceptional magnetic axiality of 2Dy is further highlighted by computational studies, which reveal this system to be the first lanthanide SMM in which all low-lying Kramers doublets correspond to a well-defined MJ value, with no significant mixing even in the higher doublets. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. The Heliospheric Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owens, Mathew J.; Forsyth, Robert J.

    2013-12-01

    The heliospheric magnetic field (HMF) is the extension of the coronal magnetic field carried out into the solar system by the solar wind. It is the means by which the Sun interacts with planetary magnetospheres and channels charged particles propagating through the heliosphere. As the HMF remains rooted at the solar photosphere as the Sun rotates, the large-scale HMF traces out an Archimedean spiral. This pattern is distorted by the interaction of fast and slow solar wind streams, as well as the interplanetary manifestations of transient solar eruptions called coronal mass ejections. On the smaller scale, the HMF exhibits an array of waves, discontinuities, and turbulence, which give hints to the solar wind formation process. This review aims to summarise observations and theory of the small- and large-scale structure of the HMF. Solar-cycle and cycle-to-cycle evolution of the HMF is discussed in terms of recent spacecraft observations and pre-spaceage proxies for the HMF in geomagnetic and galactic cosmic ray records.

  20. Polar Magnetic Field Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, C. T.

    1999-01-01

    This grant covers the initial data reduction and analysis of the magnetic field measurements of the Polar spacecraft. At this writing data for the first three years of the mission have been processed and deposited in the key parameter database. These data are also available in a variety of time resolutions and coordinate systems via a webserver at UCLA that provides both plots and digital data. The flight software has twice been reprogrammed: once to remove a glitch in the data where there were rare collisions between commands in the central processing unit and once to provide burst mode data at 100 samples per second on a regular basis. The instrument continues to function as described in the instrument paper (1.1 in the bibliography attached below). The early observations were compared with observations on the same field lines at lower altitude. The polar magnetic measurements also proved to be most useful for testing the accuracy of MHD models. WE also made important contributions to study of waves and turbulence.

  1. Photonic Magnetic Field Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyntjes, Geert

    2002-02-01

    Small, in-line polarization rotators or isolators to reduce feedback in fiber optic links can be the basis for excellent magnetic field sensors. Based on the giant magneto-optical (GMO) or Faraday effect in iron garnets, they with a magnetic field of a few hundred Gauss, (20 mT) for an interaction length for an optical beam of a few millimeters achieve a polarization rotation or phase shift of 45 deg (1/8 cycle). When powered by a small laser diode, with the induced linear phase shift recovered at the shot noise limit, we have demonstrated sensitivities at the 3.3 nT/Hz1/2 level for frequencies from less than 1 Hz to frequencies into the high kHz range. Through further improvements; an increase in interaction length, better materials and by far the greatest factor, the addition of a flux concentrator, sensitivities at the pT/Hz1/2 level appear to be within reach. We will detail such a design and discuss the issues that may limit achieving these goals.

  2. Magnetic Fields: Visible and Permanent.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winkeljohn, Dorothy R.; Earl, Robert D.

    1983-01-01

    Children will be able to see the concept of a magnetic field translated into a visible reality using the simple method outlined. Standard shelf paper, magnets, iron filings, and paint in a spray can are used to prepare a permanent and well-detailed picture of the magnetic field. (Author/JN)

  3. Effects of applied magnetic fields on thruster performance and discharge phenomena of a quasi-steady MPD arcjet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takiguchi, Futoshi; Tahara, Hirokazu; Kagaya, Yoichi; Yoshikawa, Takao

    A quasi-steady magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) arcjet with applied magnetic fields was studied to clarify the influence of axial magnetic fields on the thruster performance and discharge feature. Pulsed axial magnetic fields were applied by a few-turn coil, which was connected with a pulse forming network independent of the main discharge circuit. An increase in axial intensity raised the discharge voltage at the same discharge current below the limiting current. The thrust characteristics for mixture of N2+2H2 and H2 showed that there were the optimum axial field intensities with which the maximum thrusts were achieved. The discharges for most of discharge current levels occurred more upstream as axial field intensity increased. It was inferred that these effects of axial magnetic fields on the thruster performance and the arc feature were due to rotating motion of -J(sub r) x B(sub z), that is, swirl acceleration and enhanced thermalization.

  4. A component compensation method for magnetic interferential field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qi; Wan, Chengbiao; Pan, Mengchun; Liu, Zhongyan; Sun, Xiaoyong

    2017-04-01

    A new component searching with scalar restriction method (CSSRM) is proposed for magnetometer to compensate magnetic interferential field caused by ferromagnetic material of platform and improve measurement performance. In CSSRM, the objection function for parameter estimation is to minimize magnetic field (components and magnitude) difference between its measurement value and reference value. Two scalar compensation method is compared with CSSRM and the simulation results indicate that CSSRM can estimate all interferential parameters and external magnetic field vector with high accuracy. The magnetic field magnitude and components, compensated with CSSRM, coincide with true value very well. Experiment is carried out for a tri-axial fluxgate magnetometer, mounted in a measurement system with inertial sensors together. After compensation, error standard deviation of both magnetic field components and magnitude are reduced from more than thousands nT to less than 20 nT. It suggests that CSSRM provides an effective way to improve performance of magnetic interferential field compensation.

  5. Further Development of an Optimal Design Approach Applied to Axial Magnetic Bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloodgood, V. Dale, Jr.; Groom, Nelson J.; Britcher, Colin P.

    2000-01-01

    Classical design methods involved in magnetic bearings and magnetic suspension systems have always had their limitations. Because of this, the overall effectiveness of a design has always relied heavily on the skill and experience of the individual designer. This paper combines two approaches that have been developed to aid the accuracy and efficiency of magnetostatic design. The first approach integrates classical magnetic circuit theory with modern optimization theory to increase design efficiency. The second approach uses loss factors to increase the accuracy of classical magnetic circuit theory. As an example, an axial magnetic thrust bearing is designed for minimum power.

  6. Design optimization of an axial gap permanent magnet brushless dc motor for electric vehicle applications

    SciTech Connect

    Wijenayake, A.H.; Bailey, J.M.; McCleer, P.J.

    1995-12-31

    This paper describes a method of design and multiobjective optimization of an axial field permanent magnet brushless dc machine (BDCM), primarily aimed for electric vehicle propulsion applications. The disc type permanent magnet brushless dc motor has two stator windings connected in parallel with its rotor sandwiched between them. The simplified design equations for an axial gap trapezoidal back emf motor are obtained and programmed using the software package QPRO. Then using classical design approach, design parameters for a 100 Hp, 3,200 Rpm, 216 Volts BDCM are obtained. This design configuration is then used as the starting design point for the multiobjective optimization process, where the objective is to maximize the efficiency and the specific power.The feasibility frontier is obtained as a set of optimal solutions, from which a most suitable design parameters can be selected depending on the user preferences. A specific power as high as 4.54 Hp/Lb. (at 94% efficiency) and an efficiency as high as 98.06% (at specific power of 0.69 Hp/Lb.) have been achieved during the optimization process. The cost factors in the respective cases being 223$ and 649$. A very high and relatively flat efficiency curve over the torque speed plane is also achieved during the process, especially when the weighting coefficient related to efficiency function is made bigger. Advantage of this method is that much time is saved in developing the optimization program. Also, the motor design engineer does not have to be an expert in optimization theory in order to obtain a superior design with a very short time.

  7. Fast superconducting magnetic field switch

    DOEpatents

    Goren, Y.; Mahale, N.K.

    1996-08-06

    The superconducting magnetic switch or fast kicker magnet is employed with electron stream or a bunch of electrons to rapidly change the direction of flow of the electron stream or bunch of electrons. The apparatus employs a beam tube which is coated with a film of superconducting material. The tube is cooled to a temperature below the superconducting transition temperature and is subjected to a constant magnetic field which is produced by an external dc magnet. The magnetic field produced by the dc magnet is less than the critical field for the superconducting material, thus, creating a Meissner Effect condition. A controllable fast electromagnet is used to provide a magnetic field which supplements that of the dc magnet so that when the fast magnet is energized the combined magnetic field is now greater that the critical field and the superconducting material returns to its normal state allowing the magnetic field to penetrate the tube. This produces an internal field which effects the direction of motion and of the electron stream or electron bunch. The switch can also operate as a switching mechanism for charged particles. 6 figs.

  8. Fast superconducting magnetic field switch

    DOEpatents

    Goren, Yehuda; Mahale, Narayan K.

    1996-01-01

    The superconducting magnetic switch or fast kicker magnet is employed with electron stream or a bunch of electrons to rapidly change the direction of flow of the electron stream or bunch of electrons. The apparatus employs a beam tube which is coated with a film of superconducting material. The tube is cooled to a temperature below the superconducting transition temperature and is subjected to a constant magnetic field which is produced by an external dc magnet. The magnetic field produced by the dc magnet is less than the critical field for the superconducting material, thus, creating a Meissner Effect condition. A controllable fast electromagnet is used to provide a magnetic field which supplements that of the dc magnet so that when the fast magnet is energized the combined magnetic field is now greater that the critical field and the superconducting material returns to its normal state allowing the magnetic field to penetrate the tube. This produces an internal field which effects the direction of motion and of the electron stream or electron bunch. The switch can also operate as a switching mechanism for charged particles.

  9. Martian external magnetic field proxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langlais, Benoit; Civet, Francois

    2015-04-01

    Mars possesses no dynamic magnetic field of internal origin as it is the case for the Earth or for Mercury. Instead Mars is characterized by an intense and localized magnetic field of crustal origin. This field is the result of past magnetization and demagnetization processes, and reflects its evolution. The Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF) interacts with Mars' ionized environment to create an external magnetic field. This external field is weak compared to lithospheric one but very dynamic, and may hamper the detailed analysis of the internal magnetic field at some places or times. Because there are currently no magnetic field measurements made at Mars' surface, it is not possible to directly monitor the external field temporal variability as it is done in Earth's ground magnetic observatories. In this study we examine to indirect ways of quantifying this external field. First we use the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) mission which measures the solar wind about one hour upstream of the bow-shock resulting from the interaction between the solar wind and the Earth's internal magnetic field. These measurements are extrapolated to Mars' position taking into account the orbital configurations of the Mars-Earth system and the velocity of particles carrying the IMF. Second we directly use Mars Global Surveyor magnetic field measurements to quantify the level of variability of the external field. We subtract from the measurements the internal field which is otherwise modeled, and bin the residuals first on a spatial and then on a temporal mesh. This allows to compute daily or semi daily index. We present a comparison of these two proxies and demonstrate their complementarity. We also illustrate our analysis by comparing our Martian external field proxies to terrestrial index at epochs of known strong activity. These proxies will especially be useful for upcoming magnetic field measurements made around or at the surface of Mars.

  10. Magnetic Fields in Irregular Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kepley, Amanda A.; Muehle, S.; Robishaw, T.; Everett, J.; Wilcots, E.; Zweibel, E.; Heiles, C.

    2007-12-01

    Magnetic fields are an important component of the interstellar medium (ISM). They provide a source of pressure support, transfer energy from supernovae, are a possible heating mechanism for the ISM, and channel gas flows. Despite the importance of magnetic fields in the ISM, what generates and sustains galactic magnetic fields or how magnetic fields, gas, and stars interact in galaxies is not well understood. The magnetic fields may be especially important in low-mass galaxies like irregulars where the magnetic pressure may be great enough for the field to be dynamically important. Only three irregular galaxies besides the LMC and the SMC have previously observed magnetic field structures. NGC 4449 (Chyzy et al. 2000) and the LMC (Gaensler et al. 2005) both have large-scale fields, while IC 10 and NGC 6822 have mostly random fields (Chyzy et al. 2003). Our goal is to determine what mechanisms generate and sustain large-scale magnetic fields in irregular galaxies and what causes the range of magnetic field structure in irregular galaxies. We have observed the polarized radio continuum emission of four irregular galaxies with the VLA, GBT, and ATCA. Our observations double the number of irregular galaxies with observed magnetic field structure. Here we present results from two of our galaxies: NGC 4214 and NGC 1569. We find that NGC 4214 has a mostly random magnetic field structure, which is not surprising given its weak bar, small size, and high star formation rate. The magnetic field of NGC 1569 has large-scale structure which has been shaped not by a dynamo, but by an outflow generated by the massive star formation rate in this galaxy. Support for this research has been provided by a GBT Student Support Award, a Wisconsin Space Grant Consortium Graduate Fellowship, and an NSF Graduate Research Fellowship.

  11. Electromagnetic fields in axial symmetric waveguides with variable cross section

    SciTech Connect

    Kheifets, S.

    1980-02-15

    A new class of separable variables is found which allows one to find an approximate analytical solution of the Maxwell equations for axial symmetric waveguides with slow (but not necessarily small) varying boundary surfaces. An example of the solution is given. Possible applications and limitations of this approach are discussed. 6 refs., 10 figs.

  12. Evolution of twisted magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Zweibel, E.G.; Boozer, A.H.

    1985-02-01

    The magnetic field of the solar corona evolves quasistatically in response to slowly changing photospheric boundary conditions. The magnetic topology is preserved by the low resistivity of the solar atmosphere. We show that a magnetic flux coordinate system simplifies the problem of calculating field evolution with invariant topology. As an example, we calculate the equilibrium of a thin magnetic flux tube with small twist per unit length.

  13. Field dependence of the magnetic correlations of the frustrated magnet SrDy2O4

    DOE PAGES

    Gauthier, N.; Fennell, A.; Prévost, B.; ...

    2017-05-30

    Tmore » he frustrated magnet SrDy2O4 exhibits a field-induced phase with a magnetization plateau at 1 / 3 of the saturation value for magnetic fields applied along the b axis. We report here a neutron scattering study of the nature and symmetry of the magnetic order in this field-induced phase. Below ≈ 0.5 K, there are strong hysteretic effects, and the order is short- or long-ranged for zero-field and field cooling, respectively. We find that the long-range ordered magnetic structure within the zigzag chains is identical to that expected for the one-dimensional axial next-nearest neighbor Ising (ANNNI) model in longitudinal fields. he long-range ordered structure in field contrasts with the short-range order found at zero field, and is most likely reached through enhanced quantum fluctuations with increasing fields.« less

  14. Field dependence of the magnetic correlations of the frustrated magnet SrDy2O4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gauthier, N.; Fennell, A.; Prévost, B.; Désilets-Benoit, A.; Dabkowska, H. A.; Zaharko, O.; Frontzek, M.; Sibille, R.; Bianchi, A. D.; Kenzelmann, M.

    2017-05-01

    The frustrated magnet SrDy2O4 exhibits a field-induced phase with a magnetization plateau at 1 /3 of the saturation value for magnetic fields applied along the b axis. We report here a neutron scattering study of the nature and symmetry of the magnetic order in this field-induced phase. Below T ≈0.5 K, there are strong hysteretic effects, and the order is short- or long-ranged for zero-field and field cooling, respectively. We find that the long-range ordered magnetic structure within the zigzag chains is identical to that expected for the one-dimensional axial next-nearest neighbor Ising (ANNNI) model in longitudinal fields. The long-range ordered structure in field contrasts with the short-range order found at zero field, and is probably reached through enhanced quantum fluctuations with increasing fields.

  15. Exposure guidelines for magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, G.

    1987-12-01

    The powerful magnetic fields produced by a controlled fusion experiment at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) necessitated the development of personnel-exposure guidelines for steady magnetic fields. A literature search and conversations with active researchers showed that it is currently possible to develop preliminary exposure guidelines for steady magnetic fields. An overview of the results of past research into the bioeffects of magnetic fields was compiled, along with a discussion of hazards that may be encountered by people with sickle-cell anemia or medical electronic and prosthetic implants. The LLNL steady magnetic-field exposure guidelines along with a review of developments concerning the safety of time-varying fields were also presented in this compilation. Guidelines developed elsewhere for time varying fields were also given. Further research is needed to develop exposure standards for both steady or time-varying fields.

  16. Exposure guidelines for magnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Miller, G

    1987-12-01

    The powerful magnetic fields produced by a controlled fusion experiment at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) necessitated the development of personnel-exposure guidelines for steady magnetic fields. A literature search and conversations with active researchers showed that it is currently possible to develop preliminary exposure guidelines for steady magnetic fields. An overview of the results of past research into the bioeffects of magnetic fields was compiled, along with a discussion of hazards that may be encountered by people with sickle-cell anemia or medical electronic and prosthetic implants. The LLNL steady magnetic-field exposure guidelines along with a review of developments concerning the safety of time-varying fields were also presented in this compilation. Guidelines developed elsewhere for time varying fields were also given. Further research is needed to develop exposure standards for both steady or time-varying fields.

  17. Magnetic-field-dosimetry system

    DOEpatents

    Lemon, D.K.; Skorpik, J.R.; Eick, J.L.

    1981-01-21

    A device is provided for measuring the magnetic field dose and peak field exposure. The device includes three Hall-effect sensors all perpendicular to each other, sensing the three dimensional magnetic field and associated electronics for data storage, calculating, retrieving and display.

  18. Magnetic-field-dosimetry system

    SciTech Connect

    Lemon, D.K.; Skorpik, J.R.; Eick, J.L.

    1981-01-21

    A device is provided for measuring the magnetic field dose and peak field exposure. The device includes three Hall-effect sensors all perpendicular to each other, sensing the three dimensional magnetic field and associated electronics for data storage, calculating, retrieving and display.

  19. Static Magnetic Fields in Semiconductor Floating-Zone Growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Croll, Arne; Benz, K. W.

    1999-01-01

    Heat and mass transfer in semiconductor float-zone processing are strongly influenced by convective flows in the zone, originating from sources such as buoyancy convection, thermocapillary (Marangoni) convection, differential rotation, or radio frequency heating. Because semiconductor melts are conducting, flows can be damped by the use of static magnetic fields to influence the interface shape and the segregation of dopants and impurities. An important objective is often the suppression of time-dependent flows and the ensuing dopant striations. In RF-heated Si-FZ - crystals, fields up to O.STesla show some flattening of the interface curvature and a reduction of striation amplitudes. In radiation-heated (small-scale) SI-FZ crystals, fields of 0.2 - 0.5 Tesla already suppress the majority of the dopant striations. The uniformity of the radial segregation is often compromised by using a magnetic field, due to the directional nature of the damping. Transverse fields lead to an asymmetric interface shape and thus require crystal rotation (resulting in rotational dopant striations) to achieve a radially symmetric interface, whereas axial fields introduce a coring effect. A complete suppression of dopant striations and a reduction of the coring to insignificant values, combined with a shift of the axial segregation profile towards a more diffusion-limited case, are possible with axial static fields in excess of 1 Tesla. Strong static magnetic fields, however, can also lead to the appearance of thermoelectromagnetic convection, caused by the interaction of thermoelectric currents with the magnetic field.

  20. Development of a magnetic fluid shaft seal for an axial-flow blood pump.

    PubMed

    Sekine, Kazumitsu; Mitamura, Yoshinori; Murabayashi, Shun; Nishimura, Ikuya; Yozu, Ryouhei; Kim, Dong-Wook

    2003-10-01

    A rotating impeller in a rotary blood pump requires a supporting system in blood, such as a pivot bearing or magnetic suspension. To solve potential problems such as abrasive wear and complexity of a supporting system, a magnetic fluid seal was developed for use in an axial-flow blood pump. Sealing pressures at motor speeds of up to 8,000 rpm were measured with the seal immersed in water or bovine blood. The sealing pressure was about 200 mm Hg in water and blood. The calculated theoretical sealing pressure was about 230 mm Hg. The seal remained perfect for 743 days in a static condition and for 180+ days (ongoing test) at a motor speed of 7,000 rpm. Results of measurement of cell growth activity indicated that the magnetic fluid has no negative cytological effects. The specially designed magnetic fluid shaft seal is useful for an axial-flow blood pump.

  1. Vestibular stimulation by magnetic fields

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Bryan K.; Roberts, Dale C.; Della Santina, Charles C.; Carey, John P.; Zee, David S.

    2015-01-01

    Individuals working next to strong static magnetic fields occasionally report disorientation and vertigo. With the increasing strength of magnetic fields used for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies, these reports have become more common. It was recently learned that humans, mice and zebrafish all demonstrate behaviors consistent with constant peripheral vestibular stimulation while inside a strong, static magnetic field. The proposed mechanism for this effect involves a Lorentz force resulting from the interaction of a strong static magnetic field with naturally occurring ionic currents flowing through the inner ear endolymph into vestibular hair cells. The resulting force within the endolymph is strong enough to displace the lateral semicircular canal cupula, inducing vertigo and the horizontal nystagmus seen in normal mice and in humans. This review explores the evidence for interactions of magnetic fields with the vestibular system. PMID:25735662

  2. Magnetic fields around evolved stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leal-Ferreira, M.; Vlemmings, W.; Kemball, A.; Amiri, N.; Maercker, M.; Ramstedt, S.; Olofsson, G.

    2014-04-01

    A number of mechanisms, such as magnetic fields, (binary) companions and circumstellar disks have been suggested to be the cause of non-spherical PNe and in particular collimated outflows. This work investigates one of these mechanisms: the magnetic fields. While MHD simulations show that the fields can indeed be important, few observations of magnetic fields have been done so far. We used the VLBA to observe five evolved stars, with the goal of detecting the magnetic field by means of water maser polarization. The sample consists in four AGB stars (IK Tau, RT Vir, IRC+60370 and AP Lyn) and one pPN (OH231.8+4.2). In four of the five sources, several strong maser features were detected allowing us to measure the linear and/or circular polarization. Based on the circular polarization detections, we infer the strength of the component of the field along the line of sight to be between ~30 mG and ~330 mG in the water maser regions of these four sources. When extrapolated to the surface of the stars, the magnetic field strength would be between a few hundred mG and a few Gauss when assuming a toroidal field geometry and higher when assuming more complex magnetic fields. We conclude that the magnetic energy we derived in the water maser regions is higher than the thermal and kinetic energy, leading to the conclusion that, indeed, magnetic fields probably play an important role in shaping Planetary Nebulae.

  3. Magnetic Field Generation and Electron Acceleration in Relativistic Laser Channel

    SciTech Connect

    I.Yu. Kostyukov; G. Shvets; N.J. Fisch; J.M. Rax

    2001-12-12

    The interaction between energetic electrons and a circularly polarized laser pulse inside an ion channel is studied. Laser radiation can be resonantly absorbed by electrons executing betatron oscillations in the ion channel and absorbing angular momentum from the laser. The absorbed angular momentum manifests itself as a strong axial magnetic field (inverse Faraday effect). The magnitude of this magnetic field is calculated and related to the amount of the absorbed energy. Absorbed energy and generated magnetic field are estimated for the small and large energy gain regimes. Qualitative comparisons with recent experiments are also made.

  4. The effect of suspension concentration on the buildup evolution in a HGMF-axial magnetic filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murariu, V.; Rezlescu, N.; Rotariu, O.; Badescu, V.

    1998-01-01

    In this work the influence of solid particles concentration from suspension on the buildup evolution for a single wire from a magnetic filter working in axial configuration is presented. The buildup differential equations are solved and the surface contour of the buildup at different moments is obtained. It is evidenced the existence of a suspension concentration for which the radial deposit extension is maximum.

  5. [Research on the feasibility of a magnetic-coupling-driven axial flow blood pump].

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiaoqing; Ding, Wenxiang; Wang, Wei; Chen, En; Jiang, Zuming; Zou, Wenyan

    2004-02-01

    A new-designed axial flow blood pump, dived by magnetic coupling and using internal hollow brushless DC motor and inlet and outlet in line with impeller, was tested in mimic circuit. The results showed good performance of the new pump and indicated that its hydrodynamic characteristic can meet the demands of clinical extracorporeal circulation and auxiliary circulation.

  6. Absolute magnetic helicity and the cylindrical magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Low, B. C.

    2011-05-15

    The different magnetic helicities conserved under conditions of perfect electrical conductivity are expressions of the fundamental property that every evolving fluid surface conserves its net magnetic flux. This basic hydromagnetic point unifies the well known Eulerian helicities with the Lagrangian helicity defined by the conserved fluxes frozen into a prescribed set of disjoint toroidal tubes of fluid flowing as a permanent partition of the entire fluid [B. C. Low, Astrophys. J. 649, 1064 (2006)]. This unifying theory is constructed from first principles, beginning with an analysis of the Eulerian and Lagrangian descriptions of fluids, separating the ideas of fluid and magnetic-flux tubes and removing the complication of the magnetic vector potential's free gauge from the concept of helicity. The analysis prepares for the construction of a conserved Eulerian helicity, without that gauge complication, to describe a 3D anchored flux in an upright cylindrical domain, this helicity called absolute to distinguish it from the well known relative helicity. In a version of the Chandrasekhar-Kendall representation, the evolving field at any instant is a unique superposition of a writhed, untwisted axial flux with a circulating flux of field lines all closed and unlinked within the cylindrical domain. The absolute helicity is then a flux-weighted sum of the writhe of that axial flux and its mutual linkage with the circulating flux. The absolute helicity is also conserved if the frozen-in field and its domain are continuously deformed by changing the separation between the rigid cylinder-ends with no change of cylinder radius. This hitherto intractable cylindrical construction closes a crucial conceptual gap for the fundamentals to be complete at last. The concluding discussion shows the impact of this development on our understanding of helicity, covering (i) the helicities of wholly contained and anchored fields; (ii) the Eulerian and Lagrangian descriptions of field

  7. Experiments on the stability of a liquid bridge in an axial electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sankaran, Subramanian; Saville, D. A.

    1993-04-01

    The behavior of a neutrally buoyant liquid bridge was studied in the presence of axial electric fields. Silicone oil and a castor-oil-eugenol mixture were used to form cylinders with slenderness ratios larger than π with strong, axial, dc electric fields. Below a certain field strength, a smooth transition to an axisymmetric, vaselike shape occurred. Circulation patterns were observed in these bridges. At lower field strengths, the bridge shape was more deformed and, at a well-defined field, pinch-off occurred. With ac fields, the field strength required to stabilize the bridge was higher and the collapse of the cylinder was much sharper. Upon interchanging the fluids, a steady axial field was found to destabilize cylinders with slenderness ratios less than 3. This behavior is consistent with that anticipated if the fluids behave as leaky dielectrics but not if they act as perfect dielectrics.

  8. Experiments on the stability of a liquid bridge in an axial electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sankaran, Subramanian; Saville, D. A.

    1993-04-01

    The behavior of a neutrally buoyant liquid bridge was studied in the presence of axial electric fields. Silicone oil and a castor-oil-eugenol mixture were used to form cylinders with slenderness ratios larger than pi with strong, axial, dc electric fields. Below a certain field strength, a smooth transition to an axisymmetric, vaselike shape occurred. Circulation patterns were observed in these bridges. At lower field strengths, the bridge shape was more deformed and, at a well-defined field, pinch-off occurred. With ac fields, the field strength required to stabilize the bridge was higher and the collapse of the cylinder was much sharper. Upon interchanging the fluids, a steady axial field was found to destabilize cylinders with slenderness ratios less than 3. This behavior is consistent with that anticipated if the fluids behave as leaky dielectrics but not if they act as perfect dielectrics.

  9. Experiments on the stability of a liquid bridge in an axial electric field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sankaran, Subramanian; Saville, D. A.

    1993-01-01

    The behavior of a neutrally buoyant liquid bridge was studied in the presence of axial electric fields. Silicone oil and a castor-oil-eugenol mixture were used to form cylinders with slenderness ratios larger than pi with strong, axial, dc electric fields. Below a certain field strength, a smooth transition to an axisymmetric, vaselike shape occurred. Circulation patterns were observed in these bridges. At lower field strengths, the bridge shape was more deformed and, at a well-defined field, pinch-off occurred. With ac fields, the field strength required to stabilize the bridge was higher and the collapse of the cylinder was much sharper. Upon interchanging the fluids, a steady axial field was found to destabilize cylinders with slenderness ratios less than 3. This behavior is consistent with that anticipated if the fluids behave as leaky dielectrics but not if they act as perfect dielectrics.

  10. Experiments on the stability of a liquid bridge in an axial electric field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sankaran, Subramanian; Saville, D. A.

    1993-01-01

    The behavior of a neutrally buoyant liquid bridge was studied in the presence of axial electric fields. Silicone oil and a castor-oil-eugenol mixture were used to form cylinders with slenderness ratios larger than pi with strong, axial, dc electric fields. Below a certain field strength, a smooth transition to an axisymmetric, vaselike shape occurred. Circulation patterns were observed in these bridges. At lower field strengths, the bridge shape was more deformed and, at a well-defined field, pinch-off occurred. With ac fields, the field strength required to stabilize the bridge was higher and the collapse of the cylinder was much sharper. Upon interchanging the fluids, a steady axial field was found to destabilize cylinders with slenderness ratios less than 3. This behavior is consistent with that anticipated if the fluids behave as leaky dielectrics but not if they act as perfect dielectrics.

  11. Role of external magnetic field and current closure in the force balance mechanism of a magnetically stabilized plasma torch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    G, Ravi; Goyal, Vidhi

    2012-10-01

    Experimental investigations on the role of applied external magnetic field and return current closure in the force balance mechanism of a plasma torch are reported. The plasma torch is of low power and has wall, gas and magnetic stabilization mechanisms incorporated in it. Gas flow is divided into two parts: axial-central and peripheral-shroud, applied magnetic field is axial and return current is co-axial. Results indicate that application of large external magnetic field gives rise to not only J x B force but also, coupled with gas flow, to a new drag-cum-centrifugal force that acts on the plasma arc root and column. The magnetic field also plays a role in the return current closure dynamics and thus in the overall force balance mechanism. This in turn affects the electro-thermal efficiency of the plasma torch. Detailed experimental results, analytical calculations and physical model representing the processes will be presented and discussed.

  12. Error field generation of solenoid magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Saunders, J.L.

    1982-01-01

    Many applications for large solenoids and solenoidal arrays depend on the high precision of the axial field profile. In cases where requirements of ..delta..B/B for nonaxial fields are on the order of 10/sup -4/, the actual winding techniques of the solenoid need to be considered. Whereas an ideal solenoid consisting of current loops would generate no radial fields along the axis, in reality, the actual current-carrying conductors must follow spiral or helical paths. A straightforward method for determining the radial error fields generated by coils wound with actual techniques employed in magnet fabrication has been developed. The method devised uses a computer code which models a magnet by sending a single, current-carrying filament along the same path taken by the conductor during coil winding. Helical and spiral paths are simulated using small, straight-line current segments. This technique, whose results are presented in this paper, was used to predict radial field errors for the Elmo Bumpy Torus-Proof of Principle magnet. These results include effects due to various winding methods, not only spiral/helical and layer-to-layer transitions, but also the effects caused by worst-case tolerance conditions both from the conductor and the winding form (bobbin). Contributions made by extraneous circuitry (e.g., overhead buswork and incoming leads) are also mentioned.

  13. A non-axial superconducting magnet design for optimized patient access and minimal SAD for use in a Linac-MR hybrid: proof of concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yaghoobpour Tari, Shima; Wachowicz, Keith; Fallone, B. Gino

    2017-04-01

    A prototype rotating hybrid magnetic resonance imaging system and linac has been developed to allow for simultaneous imaging and radiation delivery parallel to B 0. However, the design of a compact magnet capable of rotation in a small vault with sufficient patient access and a typical clinical source-to-axis distance (SAD) is challenging. This work presents a novel superconducting magnet design as a proof of concept that allows for a reduced SAD and ample patient access by moving the superconducting coils to the side of the yoke. The yoke and pole-plate structures are shaped to direct the magnetic flux appropriately. The outer surface of the pole plate is optimized subject to the minimization of a cost function, which evaluates the uniformity of the magnetic field over an ellipsoid. The magnetic field calculations required in this work are performed with the 3D finite element method software package Opera-3D. Each tentative design strategy is virtually modeled in this software package, which is externally controlled by MATLAB, with its key geometries defined as variables. The optimization variables are the thickness of the pole plate at control points distributed over the pole plate surface. A novel design concept as a superconducting non-axial magnet is introduced, which could create a large uniform B 0 magnetic field with fewer geometric restriction. This non-axial 0.5 T superconducting magnet has a moderately reduced SAD of 123 cm and a vertical patient opening of 68 cm. This work is presented as a proof of principle to investigate the feasibility of a non-axial magnet with the coils located around the yoke, and the results encourage future design optimizations to maximize the benefits of this non-axial design.

  14. A non-axial superconducting magnet design for optimized patient access and minimal SAD for use in a linac-MR hybrid: proof of concept.

    PubMed

    Yaghoobpour Tari, Shima; Wachowicz, Keith; Fallone, B Gino

    2017-02-08

    A prototype rotating hybrid magnetic resonance (MR) imaging system and linac has been developed to allow for simultaneous imaging and radiation delivery parallel to B0. However, the design of a compact magnet capable of rotation in a small vault with sufficient patient access and a typical clinical source-to-axis distance (SAD) is challenging. This work presents a novel superconducting magnet design as a proof of concept that allows for a reduced SAD and ample patient access by moving the superconducting coils to the side of the yoke. The yoke and pole-plate structures are shaped to direct the magnetic flux appropriately. The outer surface of the pole plate is optimized subject to the minimization of a cost function, which evaluates the uniformity of the magnetic field over an ellipsoid. The magnetic field calculations required in this work are performed with the 3D finite element method (FEM) software package Opera-3D. Each tentative design strategy is virtually modeled in this software package, which is externally controlled by MATLAB, with its key geometries defined as variables. The optimization variables are the thickness of the pole plate at control points distributed over the pole plate surface. A novel design concept as a superconducting non-axial magnet is introduced, which could create a large uniform B0 magnetic field with fewer geometric restriction. This non-axial 0.5 T superconducting magnet has a moderately reduced SAD of 123 cm and a vertical patient opening of 68 cm. This work is presented as a proof of principle to investigate the feasibility of a non-axial magnet with the coils located around the yoke, and the results encourage future design optimizations to maximize the benefits of this non-axial design.

  15. The Capacitive Magnetic Field Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zyatkov, D. O.; Yurchenko, A. V.; Balashov, V. B.; Yurchenko, V. I.

    2016-01-01

    The results of a study of sensitive element magnetic field sensor are represented in this paper. The sensor is based on the change of the capacitance with an active dielectric (ferrofluid) due to the magnitude of magnetic field. To prepare the ferrofluid magnetic particles are used, which have a followingdispersion equal to 50 < Ø < 56, 45 < Ø < 50, 40 < Ø < 45 and Ø < 40micron of nanocrystalline alloy of brand 5BDSR. The dependence of the sensitivity of the capacitive element from the ferrofluid with different dispersion of magnetic particles is considered. The threshold of sensitivity and sensitivity of a measuring cell with ferrofluid by a magnetic field was determined. The experimental graphs of capacitance change of the magnitude of magnetic field are presented.

  16. Measurements of magnetic field alignment

    SciTech Connect

    Kuchnir, M.; Schmidt, E.E.

    1987-11-06

    The procedure for installing Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) dipoles in their respective cryostats involves aligning the average direction of their field with the vertical to an accuracy of 0.5 mrad. The equipment developed for carrying on these measurements is described and the measurements performed on the first few prototypes SSC magnets are presented. The field angle as a function of position in these 16.6 m long magnets is a characteristic of the individual magnet with possible feedback information to its manufacturing procedure. A comparison of this vertical alignment characteristic with a magnetic field intensity (by NMR) characteristic for one of the prototypes is also presented. 5 refs., 7 figs.

  17. Cosmic Magnetic Fields - An Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wielebinski, Richard; Beck, Rainer

    Magnetic fields have been known in antiquity. Aristotle attributes the first of what could be called a scientific discussion on magnetism to Thales, who lived from about 625 BC. In China “magnetic carts” were in use to help the Emperor in his journeys of inspection. Plinius comments that in the Asia Minor province of Magnesia shepherds' staffs get at times “glued” to a stone, a alodestone. In Europe the magnetic compass came through the Arab sailors who met the Portuguese explorers. The first scientific treatise on magnetism, “De Magnete”, was published by William Gilbert who in 1600 described his experiments and suggested that the Earth was a huge magnet. Johannes Kepler was a correspondent of Gilbert and at times suggested that planetary motion was due to magnetic forces. Alas, this concept was demolished by Isaac Newton,who seeing the falling apple decided that gravity was enough. This concept of dealing with gravitational forces only remains en vogue even today. The explanations why magnetic effects must be neglected go from “magnetic energy is only 1% of gravitation” to “magnetic fields only complicate the beautiful computer solutions”. What is disregarded is the fact that magnetic effects are very directional(not omni-directional as gravity) and also the fact that magnetic fields are seen every where in our cosmic universe.

  18. Magnetic Fields of Nondegenerate Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donati, J.-F.; Landstreet, J. D.

    2009-09-01

    Magnetic fields are present in a wide variety of stars throughout the HR diagram and play a role at basically all evolutionary stages, from very-low-mass dwarfs to very massive stars, and from young star-forming molecular clouds and protostellar accretion discs to evolved giants/supergiants and magnetic white dwarfs/neutron stars. These fields range from a few μG (e.g., in molecular clouds) to TG and more (e.g., in magnetic neutron stars); in nondegenerate stars in particular, they feature large-scale topologies varying from simple nearly axisymmetric dipoles to complex nonaxsymmetric structures, and from mainly poloidal to mainly toroidal topologies. After recalling the main techniques of detecting and modeling stellar magnetic fields, we review the existing properties of magnetic fields reported in cool, hot, and young nondegenerate stars and protostars, and discuss our understanding of the origin of these fields and their impact on the birth and life of stars.

  19. Anisotropic magnetic particles in a magnetic field

    PubMed Central

    Martchenko, Ilya; Mihut, Adriana M.; Bialik, Erik; Hirt, Ann M.; Rufier, Chantal; Menzel, Andreas; Dietsch, Hervé; Linse, Per

    2016-01-01

    We characterize the structural properties of magnetic ellipsoidal hematite colloids with an aspect ratio ρ ≈ 2.3 using a combination of small-angle X-ray scattering and computer simulations. The evolution of the phase diagram with packing fraction φ and the strength of an applied magnetic field B is described, and the coupling between orientational order of magnetic ellipsoids and the bulk magnetic behavior of their suspension addressed. We establish quantitative structural criteria for the different phase and arrest transitions and map distinct isotropic, polarized non-nematic, and nematic phases over an extended range in the φ–B coordinates. We show that upon a rotational arrest of the ellipsoids around φ = 0.59, the bulk magnetic behavior of their suspension switches from superparamagnetic to ordered weakly ferromagnetic. If densely packed and arrested, these magnetic particles thus provide persisting remanent magnetization of the suspension. By exploring structural and magnetic properties together, we extend the often used colloid-atom analogy to the case of magnetic spins. PMID:27722439

  20. Axial magnetic bearing development for the BiVACOR rotary BiVAD/TAH.

    PubMed

    Greatrex, Nicholas A; Timms, Daniel L; Kurita, Nobuyuki; Palmer, Edward W; Masuzawa, Toru

    2010-03-01

    A suspension system for the BiVACOR biventricular assist device (BiVAD) has been developed and tested. The device features two semi-open centrifugal impellers mounted on a common rotating hub. Flow balancing is achieved through the movement of the rotor in the axial direction. The rotor is suspended in the pump casings by an active magnetic suspension system in the axial direction and a passive hydrodynamic bearing in the radial direction. This paper investigates the axial movement capacity of the magnetic bearing system and the power consumption at various operating points. The force capacity of the passive hydrodynamic bearing is investigated using a viscous glycerol solution. Axial rotor movement in the range of +/-0.15 mm is confirmed and power consumption is under 15.5 W. The journal bearing is shown to stabilize the rotor in the radial direction at the required operating speed. Magnetic levitation is a viable suspension technique for the impeller of an artificial heart to improve device lifetime and reduce blood damage.

  1. A hydrodynamically suspended, magnetically sealed mechanically noncontact axial flow blood pump: design of a hydrodynamic bearing.

    PubMed

    Mitamura, Yoshinori; Kido, Kazuyuki; Yano, Tetsuya; Sakota, Daisuke; Yambe, Tomoyuki; Sekine, Kazumitsu; OKamoto, Eiji

    2007-03-01

    To overcome the drive shaft seal and bearing problem in rotary blood pumps, a hydrodynamic bearing, a magnetic fluid seal, and a brushless direct current (DC) motor were employed in an axial flow pump. This enabled contact-free rotation of the impeller without material wear. The axial flow pump consisted of a brushless DC motor, an impeller, and a guide vane. The motor rotor was directly connected to the impeller by a motor shaft. A hydrodynamic bearing was installed on the motor shaft. The motor and the hydrodynamic bearing were housed in a cylindrical casing and were waterproofed by a magnetic fluid seal, a mechanically noncontact seal. Impeller shaft displacement was measured using a laser sensor. Axial and radial displacements of the shaft were only a few micrometers for motor speed up to 8500 rpm. The shaft did not make contact with the bearing housing. A flow of 5 L/min was obtained at 8000 rpm at a pressure difference of 100 mm Hg. In conclusion, the axial flow blood pump consisting of a hydrodynamic bearing, a magnetic fluid seal, and a brushless DC motor provided contact-free rotation of the impeller without material wear.

  2. A comparative study between axial and radial fluxfocusing magnetic gear topologies and mechanical gearboxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvin, Matthew

    A variety of magnetic gear topologies have been investigated in recent years as alternatives to traditional mechanical gearboxes. In general these magnetic gears offer advantages in the non-contact transmission of torque including inherent overload protection, reduced acoustic emissions, and a reduction in the number of contacting components subject to wear. The earliest magnetic gear designs however suffered from low volumetric torque densities, which limited their utility for industrial applications. Research into flux focusing magnetic gearbox topologies has resulted in increased volumetric torque densities by actively engaging all of the magnets in the transmission of torque throughout the process. This research compared the volumetric torque density of axial and radial flux focusing magnetic gearbox designs and prototypes to planetary, cycloidal, and harmonic mechanical gearboxes. The rare earth scaled up radial and axial flux focusing topologies were found to have consistently higher volumetric torque densities than planetary gearboxes of comparable diameter. The cycloidal and harmonic gearboxes had comparable volumetric torque densities, with greater volumetric torque densities for some models and lesser volumetric torque densities for others. The expectation is that further improvements in volumetric torque density are possible for flux focusing magnetic gears with additional refinement and optimization of the designs. The current study does show that flux focusing magnetic gear topologies are a plausible future alternative to mechanical gearboxes in applications where their unique torque transmission mechanism would be advantageous.

  3. Performance analysis of a new radial-axial flux machine with SMC cores and ferrite magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chengcheng; Wang, Youhua; Lei, Gang; Guo, Youguang; Zhu, Jianguo

    2017-05-01

    Soft magnetic composite (SMC) is a popular material in designing of new 3D flux electrical machines nowadays for it has the merits of isotropic magnetic characteristic, low eddy current loss and high design flexibility over the electric steel. The axial flux machine (AFM) with the extended stator tooth tip both in the radial and circumferential direction is a good example, which has been investigated in the last years. Based on the 3D flux AFM and radial flux machine, this paper proposes a new radial-axial flux machine (RAFM) with SMC cores and ferrite magnets, which has very high torque density though the low cost low magnetic energy ferrite magnet is utilized. Moreover, the cost of RAFM is quite low since the manufacturing cost can be reduced by using the SMC cores and the material cost will be decreased due to the adoption of the ferrite magnets. The 3D finite element method (FEM) is used to calculate the magnetic flux density distribution and electromagnetic parameters. For the core loss calculation, the rotational core loss computation method is used based on the experiment results from previous 3D magnetic tester.

  4. Magnetic field synthesis for microwave magnetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgenthaler, F. R.

    1982-04-01

    The Microwave and Quantum Magnetics Group of the M.I.T. Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science undertook a two-year research program directed at developing synthesis procedures that allow magnetostatic and/or magnetoelastic modes to be specially tailored for microwave signal processing applications that include magnetically tunable filters and limiters as well as delay lines that are either linearly dispersive or nondispersive over prescribed bandwidths. Special emphasis was given to devices employing thin films of yttrium iron garnet (YIG) that are blessed with spatially nonuniform dc magnetic fields.

  5. Weaker axially dipolar time-averaged paleomagnetic field based on multidomain-corrected paleointensities from Galapagos lavas

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Huapei; Kent, Dennis V.; Rochette, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    The geomagnetic field is predominantly dipolar today, and high-fidelity paleomagnetic mean directions from all over the globe strongly support the geocentric axial dipole (GAD) hypothesis for the past few million years. However, the bulk of paleointensity data fails to coincide with the axial dipole prediction of a factor-of-2 equator-to-pole increase in mean field strength, leaving the core dynamo process an enigma. Here, we obtain a multidomain-corrected Pliocene–Pleistocene average paleointensity of 21.6 ± 11.0 µT recorded by 27 lava flows from the Galapagos Archipelago near the Equator. Our new result in conjunction with a published comprehensive study of single-domain–behaved paleointensities from Antarctica (33.4 ± 13.9 µT) that also correspond to GAD directions suggests that the overall average paleomagnetic field over the past few million years has indeed been dominantly dipolar in intensity yet only ∼60% of the present-day field strength, with a long-term average virtual axial dipole magnetic moment of the Earth of only 4.9 ± 2.4 × 1022 A⋅m2. PMID:26598664

  6. Weaker axially dipolar time-averaged paleomagnetic field based on multidomain-corrected paleointensities from Galapagos lavas.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huapei; Kent, Dennis V; Rochette, Pierre

    2015-12-08

    The geomagnetic field is predominantly dipolar today, and high-fidelity paleomagnetic mean directions from all over the globe strongly support the geocentric axial dipole (GAD) hypothesis for the past few million years. However, the bulk of paleointensity data fails to coincide with the axial dipole prediction of a factor-of-2 equator-to-pole increase in mean field strength, leaving the core dynamo process an enigma. Here, we obtain a multidomain-corrected Pliocene-Pleistocene average paleointensity of 21.6 ± 11.0 µT recorded by 27 lava flows from the Galapagos Archipelago near the Equator. Our new result in conjunction with a published comprehensive study of single-domain-behaved paleointensities from Antarctica (33.4 ± 13.9 µT) that also correspond to GAD directions suggests that the overall average paleomagnetic field over the past few million years has indeed been dominantly dipolar in intensity yet only ∼ 60% of the present-day field strength, with a long-term average virtual axial dipole magnetic moment of the Earth of only 4.9 ± 2.4 × 10(22) A ⋅ m(2).

  7. Current Sheets Formation and Relaxation of Coronal Magnetic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rappazzo, A. F.

    2013-12-01

    We investigate the relaxation of magnetic fields in closed regions of solar and stellar coronae, extending to further topologies our previous work (Rappazzo, A.F. & Parker, E.N., ApJL, 773, L2 (2013)). The dynamical evolution is integrated with the equations of reduced magnetohydrodynamics (RMHD) apt to model a plasma embedded in a strong guide field B0 extended along the axial direction, where the dynamical field is the orthogonal component b. Dissipative and ideal simulations are carried out in Cartesian geometry: magnetic field lines thread the system along the axial direction that spans the length L and are line-tied at the top and bottom plates in a motionless photosphere. The magnetic field b initially has only large scales, and is not in equilibrium. We show that the magnetic relaxation leads to the formation of current sheets when the intensity of the magnetic field b is beyond a critical value b_c. For values of b below this threshold (b < b_c), line-tying and field-line tension inhibit the formation of current sheets, while above the threshold (b > b_c) they form quickly on fast ideal timescales. In the ideal case, above the magnetic threshold, we show that current sheets thickness decreases in time until it becomes smaller than the grid resolution, with the analyticity strip width δ decreasing at least exponentially, after which the simulations become under-resolved.

  8. CURRENT SHEETS FORMATION IN TANGLED CORONAL MAGNETIC FIELDS

    SciTech Connect

    Rappazzo, A. F.; Parker, E. N. E-mail: parker@oddjob.uchicago.edu

    2013-08-10

    We investigate the dynamical evolution of magnetic fields in closed regions of solar and stellar coronae. To understand under which conditions current sheets form, we examine dissipative and ideal reduced magnetohydrodynamic models in Cartesian geometry, where two magnetic field components are present: the strong guide field B{sub 0}, extended along the axial direction, and the dynamical orthogonal field b. Magnetic field lines thread the system along the axial direction that spans the length L and are line-tied at the top and bottom plates. The magnetic field b initially has only large scales, with its gradient (current) length scale of the order of l{sub b}. We identify the magnetic intensity threshold b/B{sub 0} {approx} l{sub b}/L. For values of b below this threshold, field-line tension inhibits the formation of current sheets, while above the threshold they form quickly on fast ideal timescales. In the ideal case, above the magnetic threshold, we show that current sheets thickness decreases in time until it becomes smaller than the grid resolution, with the analyticity strip width {delta} decreasing at least exponentially, after which the simulations become underresolved.

  9. Rotating superconductor magnet for producing rotating lobed magnetic field lines

    DOEpatents

    Hilal, Sadek K.; Sampson, William B.; Leonard, Edward F.

    1978-01-01

    This invention provides a rotating superconductor magnet for producing a rotating lobed magnetic field, comprising a cryostat; a superconducting magnet in the cryostat having a collar for producing a lobed magnetic field having oppositely directed adjacent field lines; rotatable support means for selectively rotating the superconductor magnet; and means for energizing the superconductor magnet.

  10. PREPROCESSING MAGNETIC FIELDS WITH CHROMOSPHERIC LONGITUDINAL FIELDS

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, Tetsuya T.; Kusano, K.

    2012-06-20

    Nonlinear force-free field (NLFFF) extrapolation is a powerful tool for the modeling of the magnetic field in the solar corona. However, since the photospheric magnetic field does not in general satisfy the force-free condition, some kind of processing is required to assimilate data into the model. In this paper, we report the results of new preprocessing for the NLFFF extrapolation. Through this preprocessing, we expect to obtain magnetic field data similar to those in the chromosphere. In our preprocessing, we add a new term concerning chromospheric longitudinal fields into the optimization function proposed by Wiegelmann et al. We perform a parameter survey of six free parameters to find minimum force- and torque-freeness with the simulated-annealing method. Analyzed data are a photospheric vector magnetogram of AR 10953 observed with the Hinode spectropolarimeter and a chromospheric longitudinal magnetogram observed with SOLIS spectropolarimeter. It is found that some preprocessed fields show the smallest force- and torque-freeness and are very similar to the chromospheric longitudinal fields. On the other hand, other preprocessed fields show noisy maps, although the force- and torque-freeness are of the same order. By analyzing preprocessed noisy maps in the wave number space, we found that small and large wave number components balance out on the force-free index. We also discuss our iteration limit of the simulated-annealing method and magnetic structure broadening in the chromosphere.

  11. Effect of increased axial field of view of on the performance of a volume PET scanner

    SciTech Connect

    Karp, J.S.; Kinahan, P.E.; Muehllehner, G.; Countryman, P.

    1991-12-31

    The performance of the PENN-PET 240H scanner from UGM Medical Systems is tested and compared to the prototype PENN-PET scanner built at the University of Pennsylvania. The UGM PENN-PET scanner consists of six continuous position-sensitive NaI(Tl) detectors, which results in a 50-cm transverse field-of-view and a 12.8-cm axial field-of-view. The fine spatial sampling in the axial direction allows the data to be sorted into as many as 64 transverse planes, each 2-mm thick. A large axial acceptance angle, without interplane septa, results in a high sensitivity, with a low scatter and randoms fraction, due to the use of a narrow photopeak energy window. This paper emphasizes those performance measurements that illustrate the special characteristics of a volume imaging scanner and how they change as the axial length is increased.

  12. Investigation of Axial Electric Field Measurements with Grounded-Wire TEM Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Nan-nan; Xue, Guo-qiang; Li, Hai; Hou, Dong-yang

    2017-09-01

    The grounded-wire transient electromagnetic (TEM) surveying is often performed along the equatorial direction with its observation lines paralleling to the transmitting wire with a certain transmitter-receiver distance. However, such method takes into account only the equatorial component of the electromagnetic field, and a little effort has been made on incorporating the other major component along the transmitting wire, here denoted as axial field. To obtain a comprehensive understanding of its fundamental characteristics and guide the designing of the corresponding observation system for reliable anomaly detection, this study for the first time investigates the axial electric field from three crucial aspects, including its decay curve, plane distribution, and anomaly sensitivity, through both synthetic modeling and real application to one major coal field in China. The results demonstrate a higher sensitivity to both high- and low-resistivity anomalies by the electric field in axial direction and confirm its great potentials for robust anomaly detection in the subsurface.

  13. The influence of stray magnetic fields on ion beam neutralization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feng, Y.-C.; Wilbur, P. J.

    1982-01-01

    An experimental investigation is described of a comparison between the ion beam neutralization characteristics of a local neutralizer (within approximately 5 cm of the beam edge) and those associated with a distant one (approximately 1 meter away from the thruster). The influence of magnetic fields in the vicinity of the neutralizer cathode orifice which are either parallel or normal to the neutralizer axis is assessed. The plasma property profiles which reflect the influence of the magnetic fields are measured. The results suggest that magnetic fields at the region of a neutralizer cathode orifice influence its ability to couple to the ion beam. They reveal that there is a potential jump from the neutralizer cathode orifice to the plasma which exists close to the orifice. This potential drop is found to increase as the axial component of magnetic flux density increases. A magnetic field perpendicular to the neutralizer axis induces a potential rise a few centimeters downstream from the neutralizer cathode.

  14. Passive magnetic bearing in the 3rd generation miniature axial flow pump-the valvo pump 2.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Eiji; Ishida, Yuya; Yano, Tetsuya; Mitamura, Yoshinori

    2015-06-01

    The new miniature axial flow pump (valvo pump 2) that is installed at the base of the ascending aorta consists of a six-phase stator, an impeller in which four neodymium magnets are incorporated, and passive magnetic bearings that suspend the impeller for axial levitation. The impeller is sustained by hydrodynamic force between the blade tip of the impeller and the inner housing of the stator. The passive magnetic bearing consists of a ring neodymium magnet and a columnar neodymium magnet. The ring neodymium magnet is set in the stationary side and the columnar neodymium magnet is incorporated in the impeller shaft. Both neodymium magnets are coaxially mounted, and the anterior and posterior passive magnetic bearings suspend the impeller by repulsion force against the hydrodynamic force that acts to move the impeller in the inflow port direction. The passive magnetic bearing was evaluated by a tensile test, and the levitation force of 8.5 N and stiffness of 2.45 N/mm was obtained. Performance of the axial flow pump was evaluated by an in vitro experiment. The passive magnetic bearing showed sufficient levitation capacity to suspend the impeller in an axial direction. In conclusion, the passive magnetic bearing is promising to be one of levitation technology for the third-generation axial flow blood pump.

  15. Preflare magnetic and velocity fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagyard, M. J.; Gaizauskas, V.; Chapman, G. A.; Deloach, A. C.; Gary, G. A.; Jones, H. P.; Karpen, J. T.; Martres, M.-J.; Porter, J. G.; Schmeider, B.

    1986-01-01

    A characterization is given of the preflare magnetic field, using theoretical models of force free fields together with observed field structure to determine the general morphology. Direct observational evidence for sheared magnetic fields is presented. The role of this magnetic shear in the flare process is considered within the context of a MHD model that describes the buildup of magnetic energy, and the concept of a critical value of shear is explored. The related subject of electric currents in the preflare state is discussed next, with emphasis on new insights provided by direct calculations of the vertical electric current density from vector magnetograph data and on the role of these currents in producing preflare brightenings. Results from investigations concerning velocity fields in flaring active regions, describing observations and analyses of preflare ejecta, sheared velocities, and vortical motions near flaring sites are given. This is followed by a critical review of prevalent concepts concerning the association of flux emergence with flares

  16. AC photovoltaic module magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Jennings, C.; Chang, G.J.; Reyes, A.B.; Whitaker, C.M.

    1997-12-31

    Implementation of alternating current (AC) photovoltaic (PV) modules, particularly for distributed applications such as PV rooftops and facades, may be slowed by public concern about electric and magnetic fields (EMF). This paper documents magnetic field measurements on an AC PV module, complementing EMF research on direct-current PV modules conducted by PG and E in 1993. Although not comprehensive, the PV EMF data indicate that 60 Hz magnetic fields (the EMF type of greatest public concern) from PV modules are comparable to, or significantly less than, those from household appliances. Given the present EMF research knowledge, AC PV module EMF may not merit considerable concern.

  17. Magnetic Field of Strange Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baghdasaryan, D. S.

    2016-03-01

    The generation of a magnetic field in a strange quark star owing to differential rotation of the superfluid and superconducting quark core relative to the normal electron-nuclear crust of the star is examined. The maximum possible magnetic field on the surface is estimated for various models of strange dwarfs. Depending on the configuration parameters, i.e., the mass M and radius R of the star, a range of 103-105 G is found. These values of the magnetic field may be an additional condition for identification of strange dwarfs among the extensive class of observed white dwarfs.

  18. Magnetoconvection in sheared magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Bian, N. H.; Garcia, O. E.

    2008-10-15

    The development of magnetoconvection in a sheared magnetic field is investigated. The equilibrium magnetic field B{sub 0} is horizontal and its orientation varies linearly along the vertical axis. Preliminary consideration of the transition from the inertial to the viscous regime of the gravitational resistive interchange instability, reveals that the latter is characterized by the existence of viscoresistive boundary layers of vertical width which scales as Q{sup -1/6}, where Q is the Chandrasekhar number. The situation is analogous to the one encountered in magnetically confined laboratory plasmas, where convective flows are constrained by the magnetic shear to develop in boundary layers located around resonant magnetic surfaces in order to fulfill the 'interchange condition'k{center_dot}B{sub 0}=0, where k is the wave vector of the magnetic perturbation. It follows that when the effect of thermal diffusion is taken into account in the process, convection can only occur above a certain critical value of the Rayleigh number which scales as Q{sup 2/3} for large Q. At the onset, the convection pattern is a superposition of identically thin convective rolls everywhere aligned with the local magnetic field lines and which therefore adopt the magnetic field geometry, a situation also reminiscent of the penumbra of sunspots. Using this degeneracy, equations describing the weakly nonlinear state are obtained and discussed. A reduced magnetohydrodynamic description of magnetoconvection is introduced. Since it is valid for arbitrary magnetic field configurations, it allows a simple extension to the case where there exists an inclination between the direction of gravity and the plane spanned by the equilibrium magnetic field. These reduced magnetohydrodynamic equations are proposed as a powerful tool for further investigations of magnetoconvection in more complex field line geometries.

  19. Preface: Cosmic magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosovichev, Alexander

    2015-02-01

    Recent advances in observations and modeling have opened new perspectives for the understanding of fundamental dynamical processes of cosmic magnetism, and associated magnetic activity on the Sun, stars and galaxies. The goal of the Special Issue is to discuss the progress in solar physics and astrophysics, similarities and differences in phenomenology and physics of magnetic phenomena on the Sun and other stars. Space observatories, ground-based telescopes, and new observational methods have provided tremendous amount of data that need to be analyzed and understood. The solar observations discovered multi-scale organization of solar activity, dramatically changing current paradigms of solar variability. On the other side, stellar observations discovered new regimes of dynamics and magnetism that are different from the corresponding solar phenomena, but described by the same physics. Stars represent an astrophysical laboratory for studying the dynamical, magnetic and radiation processes across a broad range of stellar masses and ages. These studies allow us to look at the origin and evolution of our Sun, whereas detailed investigations of the solar magnetism give us a fundamental basis for interpretation and understanding of unresolved stellar data.

  20. Magnetic fields during galaxy mergers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodenbeck, Kai; Schleicher, Dominik R. G.

    2016-09-01

    Galaxy mergers are expected to play a central role for the evolution of galaxies and may have a strong effect on their magnetic fields. We present the first grid-based 3D magnetohydrodynamical simulations investigating the evolution of magnetic fields during merger events. For this purpose, we employed a simplified model considering the merger event of magnetized gaseous disks in the absence of stellar feedback and without a stellar or dark matter component. We show that our model naturally leads to the production of two peaks in the evolution of the average magnetic field strength within 5 kpc, within 25 kpc, and on scales in between 5 and 25 kpc. The latter is consistent with the peak in the magnetic field strength previously reported in a merger sequence of observed galaxies. We show that the peak on the galactic scale and in the outer regions is most likely due to geometrical effects, as the core of one galaxy enters the outskirts of the other one. In addition, the magnetic field within the central ~5 kpc is physically enhanced, which reflects the enhancement in density that is due to efficient angular momentum transport. We conclude that high-resolution observations of the central regions will be particularly relevant for probing the evolution of magnetic field structures during merger events.

  1. Probe measurements of the three-dimensional magnetic field structure in a rotating magnetic field sustained field-reversed configuration

    SciTech Connect

    Velas, K. M.; Milroy, R. D.

    2014-01-15

    A translatable three-axis probe was constructed and installed on the translation, confinement, and sustainment upgrade (TCSU) experiment. With ninety windings, the probe can simultaneously measure B{sub r}, B{sub θ}, and B{sub z} at 30 radial positions, and can be placed at any desired axial position within the field reversed configuration (FRC) confinement chamber. Positioning the probe at multiple axial positions and taking multiple repeatable shots allows for a full r-z map of the magnetic field. Measurements were made for odd-parity rotating magnetic field (RMF) antennas and even-parity RMF. The steady state data from applying a 10 kHz low pass filter used in conjunction with data at the RMF frequency yields a map of the full 3D rotating field structure. Comparisons will be made to the 3D magnetic structure predicted by NIMROD simulations, with parameters adjusted to match that of the TCSU experiments. The probe provides sufficient data to utilize a Maxwell stress tensor approach to directly measure the torque applied to the FRC's electrons, which combined with a resistive torque model, yields an estimate of the average FRC resistivity.

  2. Probe measurements of the three-dimensional magnetic field structure in a rotating magnetic field sustained field-reversed configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velas, K. M.; Milroy, R. D.

    2014-01-01

    A translatable three-axis probe was constructed and installed on the translation, confinement, and sustainment upgrade (TCSU) experiment. With ninety windings, the probe can simultaneously measure Br, Bθ, and Bz at 30 radial positions, and can be placed at any desired axial position within the field reversed configuration (FRC) confinement chamber. Positioning the probe at multiple axial positions and taking multiple repeatable shots allows for a full r-z map of the magnetic field. Measurements were made for odd-parity rotating magnetic field (RMF) antennas and even-parity RMF. The steady state data from applying a 10 kHz low pass filter used in conjunction with data at the RMF frequency yields a map of the full 3D rotating field structure. Comparisons will be made to the 3D magnetic structure predicted by NIMROD simulations, with parameters adjusted to match that of the TCSU experiments. The probe provides sufficient data to utilize a Maxwell stress tensor approach to directly measure the torque applied to the FRC's electrons, which combined with a resistive torque model, yields an estimate of the average FRC resistivity.

  3. Axial acoustic radiation force on a sphere in Gaussian field

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Rongrong; Liu, Xiaozhou Gong, Xiufen

    2015-10-28

    Based on the finite series method, the acoustical radiation force resulting from a Gaussian beam incident on a spherical object is investigated analytically. When the position of the particles deviating from the center of the beam, the Gaussian beam is expanded as a spherical function at the center of the particles and the expanded coefficients of the Gaussian beam is calculated. The analytical expression of the acoustic radiation force on spherical particles deviating from the Gaussian beam center is deduced. The acoustic radiation force affected by the acoustic frequency and the offset distance from the Gaussian beam center is investigated. Results have been presented for Gaussian beams with different wavelengths and it has been shown that the interaction of a Gaussian beam with a sphere can result in attractive axial force under specific operational conditions. Results indicate the capability of manipulating and separating spherical spheres based on their mechanical and acoustical properties, the results provided here may provide a theoretical basis for development of single-beam acoustical tweezers.

  4. Magnetic fields from phase transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hindmarsh, Mark; Everett, Allen

    1998-11-01

    The generation of primordial magnetic fields from cosmological phase transitions is discussed, paying particular attention to the electroweak transition and to the various definitions of the ``average'' field that have been put forward. It is emphasized that only the volume average has dynamical significance as a seed for galactic dynamos. On rather general grounds of causality and energy conservation, it is shown that, in the absence of MHD effects that transfer power in the magnetic field from small to large scales, processes occurring at the electroweak transition cannot generate fields stronger than 10-20 G on a scale of 0.5 Mpc. However, it is implausible that this upper bound could ever be reached, as it would require all the energy in the Universe to be turned into a magnetic field coherent at the horizon scale. Non-linear MHD effects seem therefore to be necessary if the electroweak transition is to create a primordial seed field.

  5. Measuring Earth's Magnetic Field Simply.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Gay B.

    2000-01-01

    Describes a method for measuring the earth's magnetic field using an empty toilet paper tube, copper wire, clear tape, a battery, a linear variable resistor, a small compass, cardboard, a protractor, and an ammeter. (WRM)

  6. Measuring Earth's Magnetic Field Simply.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Gay B.

    2000-01-01

    Describes a method for measuring the earth's magnetic field using an empty toilet paper tube, copper wire, clear tape, a battery, a linear variable resistor, a small compass, cardboard, a protractor, and an ammeter. (WRM)

  7. Advanced AC permanent magnet axial flux disc motor for electric passenger vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kliman, G. B.

    1982-01-01

    An ac permanent magnet axial flux disc motor was developed to operate with a thyristor load commutated inverter as part of an electric vehicle drive system. The motor was required to deliver 29.8 kW (40 hp) peak and 10.4 kW (14 hp) average with a maximum speed of 11,000 rpm. It was also required to run at leading power factor to commutate the inverter. Three motors were built.

  8. Fabrication and magnetic properties of Ni nanowire arrays with ultrahigh axial squareness.

    PubMed

    Tian, F; Huang, Z P; Whitmore, L

    2012-06-28

    Poly- and single-crystalline Ni nanowire arrays showing ultrahigh axial squareness are fabricated by direct-current electrodeposition in pores of anodic aluminum oxide templates. High voltage is shown to be the key in order for Ni nanowires to have a (220) preferred orientation. 2-Dimensional nucleation theory is used to understand the growth of the nanowires. Based on the structure and growth analyses, the magnetic properties of different kinds of nanowires are explained.

  9. Investigation of Magnetic Field Measurements.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-02-28

    the magnetic field in space by cancelling the ambient magnetic field. An observatory-quality, proton - precession magnetometer is available to monitor...test and calibrate the fluxgate magnetometers . Changes in design of the induction-coil magnetometere should enhance their reliability. The value of...Report) Ill. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES IS. KEY WORDS (CoEntnue on revere side I necoseer mnd Identify by block mamber) AFGL Magnetometer Network Fluxgate

  10. Magnetic-Field Hazards Bibliography.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-09-01

    Puchalska, I. B., Influence of magnetic fields on frog sciatic nerve , Biochem. Biophys. Res. Comm. 91:118 (1979). 35. Fardon, 3. C., "Effect of magnetic...fields, Bioelectromagnetic 2:357 (1981). 41. Gaffey, C. T. and Tenforde, T. S., Bioelectric properties of frog sciatic nerves during exposure to...available from: U.S. Dept. of Energy, Bonneville Power Administration, Portland, Oregon 97208 (1982). 29. Levy , R. H., and Jones, G. S., "Plasma

  11. Modified helix-like instability structure on imploding z-pinch liners that are pre-imposed with a uniform axial magnetic fielda)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awe, T. J.; Jennings, C. A.; McBride, R. D.; Cuneo, M. E.; Lamppa, D. C.; Martin, M. R.; Rovang, D. C.; Sinars, D. B.; Slutz, S. A.; Owen, A. C.; Tomlinson, K.; Gomez, M. R.; Hansen, S. B.; Herrmann, M. C.; Jones, M. C.; McKenney, J. L.; Robertson, G. K.; Rochau, G. A.; Savage, M. E.; Schroen, D. G.; Stygar, W. A.

    2014-05-01

    Recent experiments at the Sandia National Laboratories Z Facility have, for the first time, studied the implosion dynamics of magnetized liner inertial fusion (MagLIF) style liners that were pre-imposed with a uniform axial magnetic field. As reported [T. J. Awe et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 235005 (2013)] when premagnetized with a 7 or 10 T axial field, these liners developed 3D-helix-like hydrodynamic instabilities; such instabilities starkly contrast with the azimuthally correlated magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor (MRT) instabilities that have been consistently observed in many earlier non-premagnetized experiments. The helical structure persisted throughout the implosion, even though the azimuthal drive field greatly exceeded the expected axial field at the liner's outer wall for all but the earliest stages of the experiment. Whether this modified instability structure has practical importance for magneto-inertial fusion concepts depends primarily on whether the modified instability structure is more stable than standard azimuthally correlated MRT instabilities. In this manuscript, we discuss the evolution of the helix-like instability observed on premagnetized liners. While a first principles explanation of this observation remains elusive, recent 3D simulations suggest that if a small amplitude helical perturbation can be seeded on the liner's outer surface, no further influence from the axial field is required for the instability to grow.

  12. Optical sensor of magnetic fields

    DOEpatents

    Butler, M.A.; Martin, S.J.

    1986-03-25

    An optical magnetic field strength sensor for measuring the field strength of a magnetic field comprising a dilute magnetic semi-conductor probe having first and second ends, longitudinally positioned in the magnetic field for providing Faraday polarization rotation of light passing therethrough relative to the strength of the magnetic field. Light provided by a remote light source is propagated through an optical fiber coupler and a single optical fiber strand between the probe and the light source for providing a light path therebetween. A polarizer and an apparatus for rotating the polarization of the light is provided in the light path and a reflector is carried by the second end of the probe for reflecting the light back through the probe and thence through the polarizer to the optical coupler. A photo detector apparatus is operably connected to the optical coupler for detecting and measuring the intensity of the reflected light and comparing same to the light source intensity whereby the magnetic field strength may be calculated.

  13. Manipulating Magnetism: Ru-2(5+) Paddlewheels Devoid of Axial Interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Chiarella, Gina M; Cotton, F. A.; Murillo, Carlos A; Ventura, Karen; Vilagran, Dino; Wang, Xiaoping

    2014-01-01

    Variable-temperature magnetic and structural data of two pairs of diruthenium isomers, one pair having an axial ligand and the formula Ru-2(DArF)(4)Cl (where DArF is the anion of a diarylformamidine isomer and Ar = p-anisyl or m-anisyl) and the other one being essentially identical but devoid of axial ligands and having the formula [Ru-2(DArF)(4)]BF4, show that the axial ligand has a significant effect on the electronic structure of the diruthenium unit. Variable temperature crystallographic and magnetic data as well as density functional theory calculations unequivocally demonstrate the occurrence of pi interactions between the p orbitals of the chlorine ligand and the pi* orbitals in the Ru-2(5+) units. The magnetic and structural data are consistent with the existence of combined ligand sigma/metal sigma and ligand p pi/metal-d pi interactions. Electron paramagnetic resonance data show unambiguously that the unpaired electrons are in metal-based molecular orbitals.

  14. Characteristics of 2D magnetic field sensor based on magnetic sensitivity diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xiaofeng; Yang, Xianghong; Yu, Yang; Wu, Tong; Wen, Dianzhong

    2015-04-01

    A two-dimensional (2D) magnetic field sensor is proposed in this paper. It contains two Wheatstone bridges composed of four magnetic sensitivity diodes(MSDs)with similar characteristics and four loading resistances. In order to realize the axial symmetric distribution of four MSDs, two MSDs with opposite magnetic sensitive directions were located along the x and -x axes, and two with opposite magnetic sensitive directions were located along the y and -y axes. The experimental results indicate that when VDD = 5.0 V, the magnetic sensitivities of the 2D magnetic sensor can reach SxB = 544 mV/T and SyB = 498 mV/T in the x and y directions, respectively. Consequently, it is possible to measure the two-dimensional magnetic field.

  15. Quantum oscillations without magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Tianyu; Pikulin, D. I.; Franz, M.

    2017-01-01

    When the magnetic field B is applied to a metal, nearly all observable quantities exhibit oscillations periodic in 1 /B . Such quantum oscillations reflect the fundamental reorganization of electron states into Landau levels as a canonical response of the metal to the applied magnetic field. We predict here that, remarkably, in the recently discovered Dirac and Weyl semimetals, quantum oscillations can occur in the complete absence of magnetic field. These zero-field quantum oscillations are driven by elastic strain which, in the space of the low-energy Dirac fermions, acts as a chiral gauge potential. We propose an experimental setup in which the strain in a thin film (or nanowire) can generate a pseudomagnetic field b as large as 15 T and demonstrate the resulting de Haas-van Alphen and Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations periodic in 1 /b .

  16. Fabrication of co-axial field emitter tips for scanning probe energy loss spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Song, Mi Yeon; Robinson, Alex P G; Palmer, Richard E

    2010-04-16

    We report on the fabrication of a co-axial tip for application to scanning probe energy loss spectroscopy (SPELS). The device consists of a 23.3 microm tall tip on a 76 microm tall mesa with a multilayer Si/Au/HfO(2)/Au structure; the outer Au and HfO(2) layers are stripped from the apex of the tip. The inner Au layer is used as a field emitting layer and the outer Au layer is grounded to screen the electric field between the tip and the substrate. The co-axial tip shows comparable field emission characteristics to electrochemically etched tungsten tips. The SPELS spectra of graphite obtained with the new tips show pi and sigma plasmon peaks and intense secondary electron emission peaks. It is anticipated that such co-axial tips will present a significant advantage for future angular resolved SPELS measurements.

  17. Effect of axial displacement of loops on the appearance of breakdown in a spiral explosion-driven magnetic generator

    SciTech Connect

    Zharinov, E.I.; Chernyshev, V.K.; Mikhailov, O.D.

    1985-07-01

    The authors study the effect of an axial displacement of the loops under the action of pondermotive forces of the magnetic field in a spiral explosion-driven magnetic generator (EMG). EMGs are being increasingly used in physical experiments as sources of powerful pulses of electromagnetic energies. Among the existing EMGs, one of the most promising and structurally simplest generators, which enables amplification of the initial energy by hundreds of times, are the high-inductance multisectional generators of the spiral type. In the course of the explosive experiments performed here with EMG, it was established that the displacement of the loops leads to the appearance of electrical breakdown in the working volume of the EMG and lowers the magnitude of the final current.

  18. Magnetic fields in spiral galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, Rainer

    2015-12-01

    Radio synchrotron emission, its polarization and Faraday rotation of the polarization angle are powerful tools to study the strength and structure of magnetic fields in galaxies. Unpolarized synchrotron emission traces isotropic turbulent fields which are strongest in spiral arms and bars (20-30 \\upmu G) and in central starburst regions (50-100 \\upmu G). Such fields are dynamically important; they affect gas flows and drive gas inflows in central regions. Polarized emission traces ordered fields, which can be regular or anisotropic turbulent, where the latter originates from isotropic turbulent fields by the action of compression or shear. The strongest ordered fields (10-15 \\upmu G) are generally found in interarm regions. In galaxies with strong density waves, ordered fields are also observed at the inner edges of spiral arms. Ordered fields with spiral patterns exist in grand-design, barred and flocculent galaxies and in central regions. Ordered fields in interacting galaxies have asymmetric distributions and are a tracer of past interactions between galaxies or with the intergalactic medium.—Faraday rotation measures of the diffuse polarized radio emission from galaxy disks reveal large-scale spiral patterns that can be described by the superposition of azimuthal modes; these are signatures of regular fields generated by mean-field dynamos. "Magnetic arms" between gaseous spiral arms may also be products of dynamo action, but need a stable spiral pattern to develop. Helically twisted field loops winding around spiral arms were found in two galaxies so far. Large-scale field reversals, like the one found in the Milky Way, could not yet be detected in external galaxies. In radio halos around edge-on galaxies, ordered magnetic fields with X-shaped patterns are observed. The origin and evolution of cosmic magnetic fields, in particular their first occurrence in young galaxies and their dynamical importance during galaxy evolution, will be studied with

  19. Nanometric alternating magnetic field generator.

    PubMed

    Espejo, A P; Tejo, F; Vidal-Silva, N; Escrig, J

    2017-07-05

    In this work we introduce an alternating magnetic field generator in a cylindrical nanostructure. This field appears due to the rotation of a magnetic domain wall located at some position, generating a magnetic region that varies its direction of magnetization alternately, thus inducing an alternating magnetic flux in its vicinity. This phenomenon occurs due to the competition between a spin-polarized current and a magnetic field, which allows to control both the angular velocity and the pinning position of the domain wall. As proof of concept, we study the particular case of a diameter-modulated nanowire with a spin-polarized current along its axis and the demagnetizing field produced by its modulation. This inhomogeneous field allows one to control the angular velocity of the domain wall as a function of its position along the nanowire allowing frequencies in the GHz range to be achieved. This generator could be used in telecommunications for devices in the range of radiofrequencies or, following Faraday's induction law, could also induce an electromotive force and be used as a movable alternate voltage source in future nanodevices.

  20. Strong Magnetic Field Characterisation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-01

    coils were driven by a pulsed-power system to generate the fields. All the sources were characterised through a series of measurements and modelling... generated for the coils. Options for further investigation were provided. UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED This...investigation. The desired field strength was based on assessments [1] from preliminary magnetohydrodynamic ( MHD ) modelling and while not achievable by

  1. A geometrical crossover in excited states of two-electron quantum dots in a magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazmitdinov, R. G.; Simonović, N. S.; Plastino, A. R.; Chizhov, A. V.

    2012-11-01

    We use the entanglement measure to study the evolution of quantum correlations in two-electron axially-symmetric parabolic quantum dots under a perpendicular magnetic field. We found that the entanglement indicates on the shape transition in the density distribution of two electrons in the lowest state with zero angular momentum projection at the specific value of the applied magnetic field.

  2. Ultra-high speed permanent magnet axial gap alternator with multiple stators

    DOEpatents

    Hawsey, Robert A.; Bailey, J. Milton

    1991-01-01

    An ultra-high speed, axial gap alternator that can provide an output to a plurality of loads, the alternator providing magnetic isolation such that operating conditions in one load will not affect operating conditions of another load. This improved alternator uses a rotor member disposed between a pair of stator members, with magnets disposed in each of the rotor member surfaces facing the stator members. The magnets in one surface of the rotor member, which alternate in polarity, are isolated from the magnets in the other surface of the rotor member by a disk of magnetic material disposed between the two sets of magents. In the preferred embodiment, this disk of magnetic material is laminated between two layers of non-magnetic material that support the magnets, and the magnetic material has a peripheral rim that extends to both surfaces of the rotor member to enhance the structural integrity. The stator members are substantially conventional in construction in that equally-spaced and radially-oriented slots are provided, and winding members are laid in these slots. A unit with multiple rotor members and stator members is also described.

  3. The resistance peak of helicon plasmas at low magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, Suwon

    2006-03-15

    The dispersion characteristics of the radial eigenmodes and resistive loading of helicon plasmas are studied to explain the occurrence of the density peak at low magnetic fields. The plasma resistance is usually found to be large for the eigenmodes near the magnetic field where the fast and slow waves are coupled and can be peaked at low magnetic fields depending on the antenna configuration. It is explained how reflection of the waves at an axial end causes the resistance peak at low magnetic fields for a single loop antenna and the Nagoya type III or helical antenna itself can give rise to the resistance peak regardless of reflection. Finally, the dependence of the resistance peak on the density and the wave frequency is examined to show that the general trend is consistent with experimental observations.

  4. The effect of stress and magnetic field orientation on surface Barkhausen noise in pipeline steel

    SciTech Connect

    Jagadish, C.; Clapham, L.; Atherton, D.L. . Dept. of Physics)

    1990-01-01

    Surface Barkhausen noise (SBN) measurements were mae on a 2-percent Mn pipeline steel sample subjected to different levels of applied tensile and compressive isostress. The magnetic field direction was varied through a full 360{degrees}. SBN voltage was found to depend on both stress level and magnetic field direction. The results were analyzed in terms of the reorientation of magnetic moments from axial to circumferential directions with increasing tension. Compression was found to re-align the magnetic moments in the axial direction.

  5. Three dimensional flow field inside the passage of a low speed axial flow compressor rotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pouagare, M.; Murthy, K. N. S.; Lakshminarayana, B.

    1982-01-01

    Measurements of the subsonic flow in the rotor passage of a single stage axial flow compressor were made to study the nature of the flow field and to verify the existing numerical codes. The velocity and pressure fields were measured across the entire rotor passage at six axial locations and at five radial locations. A five-hole probe, rotating with the rotor, was used to measure the three components of velocity, the static and the total pressure. The experimental results are compared with the predictions from Katsanis and McNally's computer program. The agreement between the two is good for most of the cases.

  6. Active magnetic suspension in main magnetic field of electric motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urusov, I. D.; Galkin, V. I.; Likhoshvay, I. P.

    1985-10-01

    An active magnetic suspension for the rotor of an electric motor is considered, especially in small or miniature high-speed devices such as gyros, microturbomachines, and machine-tool spindle drives where it would eliminate the need for extra bearings and contribute to size and weight reduction. A disk-type rotor made of a ferromagnetic material is located horizontally inside the bore of a vertical stator so that weight and external loads compensate the magnetic pull upward. This pull is generated by the magnetic field in the air gap and can be automatically controlled by an electronic feedback circuit which regulates the stator input voltage depending on the rotor position along the stator bore, with a displacement transducer on the rotor indicating the position. The performance of such a suspension with automatic control in a 3-phase induction motor is analyzed on the basis of the system of differential equations describing the behavior of the electromechanical system during axial oscillations of the rotor, assuming a constant rotor speed during the transient periods.

  7. MAGNETIC FIELD MEASUREMENTS FOR FAST-CHANGING MAGNETIC FIELDS.

    SciTech Connect

    JAIN, A.; ESCALLIER, J.; GANETIS, G.; LOUIE, W.; MARONE, A.; THOMAS. R.; WANDERER, P.

    2004-10-03

    Several recent applications for fast ramped magnets have been found that require rapid measurement of the field quality during the ramp. (In one instance, accelerator dipoles will be ramped at 1 T/sec, with measurements needed to the accuracy typically required for accelerators.) We have built and tested a new type of magnetic field measuring system to meet this need. The system consists of 16 stationary pickup windings mounted on a cylinder. The signals induced in the windings in a changing magnetic field are sampled and analyzed to obtain the field harmonics. To minimize costs, printed circuit boards were used for the pickup windings and a combination of amplifiers and ADPs used for the voltage readout system. New software was developed for the analysis. Magnetic field measurements of a model dipole developed for the SIS200 accelerator at GSI are presented. The measurements are needed to insure that eddy currents induced by the fast ramps do not impact the field quality needed for successful accelerator operation.

  8. Catastrophe of coronal magnetic flux ropes in partially open magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Y. Q.

    2001-05-01

    Using a 2.5-D, time-dependent ideal MHD model in Cartesian coordinates, a numerical study is carried out to find equilibrium solutions associated with a magnetic flux rope in the corona. The ambient magnetic field is partially open, consisting of a closed arcade in the center and an open field at the flank. The coronal magnetic flux rope is characterized by its magnetic properties, including the axial and annular magnetic fluxes and the magnetic helicity, and its geometrical features, including the height of the rope axis, the halfwidth of the rope and the length of the vertical current sheet below the rope. It is shown that for a given partially open ambient magnetic field, the dependence of the geometrical features on the magnetic properties displays a catastrophic behavior, namely, there exists a certain critical point, across which an infinitesimal enhancement of the magnetic parameters causes a finite jump of the geometrical parameters for the rope. The amplitude of the jump depends on the extent to which the ambient magnetic field in open, and approaches to zero when the ambient magnetic field becomes completely closed. The implication of such a catastrophe in solar active phenomena is briefly discussed.

  9. Magnetic Helicity Estimations in Models and Observations of the Solar Magnetic Field. III. Twist Number Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Y.; Pariat, E.; Valori, G.; Anfinogentov, S.; Chen, F.; Georgoulis, M. K.; Liu, Y.; Moraitis, K.; Thalmann, J. K.; Yang, S.

    2017-05-01

    We study the writhe, twist, and magnetic helicity of different magnetic flux ropes, based on models of the solar coronal magnetic field structure. These include an analytical force-free Titov-Démoulin equilibrium solution, non-force-free magnetohydrodynamic simulations, and nonlinear force-free magnetic field models. The geometrical boundary of the magnetic flux rope is determined by the quasi-separatrix layer and the bottom surface, and the axis curve of the flux rope is determined by its overall orientation. The twist is computed by the Berger-Prior formula, which is suitable for arbitrary geometry and both force-free and non-force-free models. The magnetic helicity is estimated by the twist multiplied by the square of the axial magnetic flux. We compare the obtained values with those derived by a finite volume helicity estimation method. We find that the magnetic helicity obtained with the twist method agrees with the helicity carried by the purely current-carrying part of the field within uncertainties for most test cases. It is also found that the current-carrying part of the model field is relatively significant at the very location of the magnetic flux rope. This qualitatively explains the agreement between the magnetic helicity computed by the twist method and the helicity contributed purely by the current-carrying magnetic field.

  10. Optimum Design and Analysis of Axial Hybrid Magnetic Bearings Using Multi-Objective Genetic Algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, J. S.; Tiwari, R.

    2012-01-01

    Design optimization of axial hybrid magnetic thrust bearings (with bias magnets) was carried out using multi-objective evolutionary algorithms (MOEAs) and compared with the case of electromagnetic bearings (without bias magnets). Mathematical models of objective functions and associated constraints are presented and discussed. The different aspects of implemented MOEA are discussed. It is observed that the size of the bearing with bias magnets is considerably reduced as compared to the case of those without bias magnets, with the objective function as the minimization of weight for the same operating conditions. Similarly, current densities aret reduced drastically with biased magnets when the objective function is chosen as the minimization of the power loss. For illustration of various performances of the bearing, a typical design has been chosen from the final optimized population by an "a posteriori" approach. Sensitivities for both the objective functions with respect to the outer radius, the inner radius, and the height of coil are observed to be approximately in the ratio 2.5:1.6:1. Analysis of final optimized population has been carried out and is compared with the case without bias magnets and some salient points are observed in the case of using bias magnets.

  11. Analysis and measurement of the 3D magnetic field in a rotating magnetic field driven FRC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velas, K. M.; Milroy, R. D.

    2012-10-01

    A translatable three-axis probe was installed on TCSU shortly before its shutdown. The probe has 90 windings that simultaneously measure Br, Bθ, and Bz at 30 radial positions. Positioning the probe at multiple axial positions and taking multiple repeatable shots allows for a full r-z map of the magnetic field. Probe measurements are used to calculate the end-shorting torque and the rotating magnetic field (RMF) torque. The torque applied to the plasma is the RMF torque reduced by the shorting torque. An estimate of the plasma resistivity is made based on the steady state balance between the applied torque and the resistive torque. The steady state data from applying a 10 kHz low pass filter used in conjunction with data at the RMF frequency yields a map of the full 3D rotating field structure. Data from even- and odd-parity experiments will be presented. The NIMROD code has been adapted to simulate the TCSU experiment using boundary conditions adjusted to match both even- and odd-parity experimental conditions. A comparison of the n=0 components of the calculated fields to the 3-axis probe measurements shows agreement in the magnetic field structure of the FRC as well as in the jet region.

  12. OPEN CAVITY SOLUTIONS TO THE RF IN MAGNETIC FIELD PROBLEM.

    SciTech Connect

    PALMER,R.B.; BERG, J.S.; FERNOW, R.C.; GALLARDO, J.C.; KIRK, H.G.

    2007-08-06

    It has been observed [1] that breakdown in an 805 MHz pill-box cavity occurs at much lower gradients as an external axial magnetic field is increased. This effect was not observed with on open iris cavity. It is proposed that this effect depends on the relative angles of the magnetic and maximum electric fields: parallel in the pill-box case; at an angle in the open iris case. If so, using an open iris structure with solenoid coils in the irises should perform even better. A lattice, using this principle, is presented, for use in 6D cooling for a Muon Collider. Experimental layouts to test this principle are proposed.

  13. Open Cavity Solutions to the rf in Magnetic Field Problem

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, Robert B.; Berg, J. Scott; Fernow, Richard C.; Gallardo, Juan C.; Kirk, Harold G.

    2008-02-21

    It has been observed that breakdown in an 805 MHz pill-box cavity occurs at much lower gradients as an external axial magnetic field is increased. This effect was not observed with on open iris cavity. It is proposed that this effect depends on the relative angles of the magnetic and maximum electric fields: parallel in the pill-box case; at an angle in the open iris case. If so, using an open iris structure with solenoid coils in the irises should perform even better. A lattice, using this principle, is presented, for use in 6D cooling for a Muon Collider. Experimental layouts to test this principle are proposed.

  14. The effects of magnetic field topology on secondary neutron spectra in Magnetized Liner Inertial Fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appelbe, B.; Pecover, J.; Chittenden, J.

    2017-03-01

    The Magnetized Liner Inertial Fusion (MagLIF) concept involves the compression of a magnetized fuel such that the stagnated fuel contains a magnetic field that can suppress heat flow losses and confine α particles. Magnetic confinement of α particles reduces the fuel ρR required for ignition. Recent work [1,2] has demonstrated that the magnitude of the magnetic field in deuterium fuel can be inferred from the yields and spectra of secondary DT neutrons. In this work we investigate the potential for using the shape of the secondary neutron spectra to diagnose the magnetic field topology in the stagnated fuel. Three different field topologies that could possibly occur in MagLIF experiments are studied: (1) a cylindrical fuel column containing axial and azimuthal magnetic field components, (2) a fuel column which is pinched at the ends to form a magnetic mirror and (3) a fuel column that has a helical tube shape with magnetic field lines following the helical path of the tube's axis. Each topology is motivated by observations from experimental or simulated MagLIF data. For each topology we use a multi-physics model to investigate the shapes of the secondary neutron spectra emitted from a steady-state stagnated fuel column. It is found that the azimuthal and helical topologies are more suitable than the mirror topology for reproducing an asymmetry in the axial spectra that was observed in experiments. Gorgon MHD simulations of the MagLIF implosion in 1D are also carried out. These show that sufficient azimuthal magnetic field can penetrate from the liner into the fuel to qualitatively reproduce the observed spectral asymmetry.

  15. Indoor localization using magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathapati Subbu, Kalyan Sasidhar

    Indoor localization consists of locating oneself inside new buildings. GPS does not work indoors due to multipath reflection and signal blockage. WiFi based systems assume ubiquitous availability and infrastructure based systems require expensive installations, hence making indoor localization an open problem. This dissertation consists of solving the problem of indoor localization by thoroughly exploiting the indoor ambient magnetic fields comprising mainly of disturbances termed as anomalies in the Earth's magnetic field caused by pillars, doors and elevators in hallways which are ferromagnetic in nature. By observing uniqueness in magnetic signatures collected from different campus buildings, the work presents the identification of landmarks and guideposts from these signatures and further develops magnetic maps of buildings - all of which can be used to locate and navigate people indoors. To understand the reason behind these anomalies, first a comparison between the measured and model generated Earth's magnetic field is made, verifying the presence of a constant field without any disturbances. Then by modeling the magnetic field behavior of different pillars such as steel reinforced concrete, solid steel, and other structures like doors and elevators, the interaction of the Earth's field with the ferromagnetic fields is described thereby explaining the causes of the uniqueness in the signatures that comprise these disturbances. Next, by employing the dynamic time warping algorithm to account for time differences in signatures obtained from users walking at different speeds, an indoor localization application capable of classifying locations using the magnetic signatures is developed solely on the smart phone. The application required users to walk short distances of 3-6 m anywhere in hallway to be located with accuracies of 80-99%. The classification framework was further validated with over 90% accuracies using model generated magnetic signatures representing

  16. Magnetic field of the Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, Aleksey

    2013-04-01

    The magnetic field of the Earth has global meaning for a life on the Earth. The world geophysical science explains: - occurrence of a magnetic field of the Earth it is transformation of kinetic energy of movements of the fused iron in the liquid core of Earth - into the magnetic energy; - the warming up of a kernel of the Earth occurs due to radioactive disintegration of elements, with excretion of thermal energy. The world science does not define the reasons: - drift of a magnetic dipole on 0,2 a year to the West; - drift of lithospheric slabs and continents. The author offers: an alternative variant existing in a world science the theories "Geodynamo" - it is the theory « the Magnetic field of the Earth », created on the basis of physical laws. Education of a magnetic field of the Earth occurs at moving the electric charge located in a liquid kernel, at rotation of the Earth. At calculation of a magnetic field is used law the Bio Savara for a ring electric current: dB = . Magnetic induction in a kernel of the Earth: B = 2,58 Gs. According to the law of electromagnetic induction the Faradey, rotation of a iron kernel of the Earth in magnetic field causes occurrence of an electric field Emf which moves electrons from the center of a kernel towards the mantle. So of arise the radial electric currents. The magnetic field amplifies the iron of mantle and a kernel of the Earth. As a result of action of a radial electric field the electrons will flow from the center of a kernel in a layer of an electric charge. The central part of a kernel represents the field with a positive electric charge, which creates inverse magnetic field Binv and Emfinv When ?mfinv = ?mf ; ?inv = B, there will be an inversion a magnetic field of the Earth. It is a fact: drift of a magnetic dipole of the Earth in the western direction approximately 0,2 longitude, into a year. Radial electric currents a actions with the basic magnetic field of a Earth - it turn a kernel. It coincides with laws

  17. Cold atmospheric plasma jet in an axial DC electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Li; Keidar, Michael

    2016-08-01

    Cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) jet is currently intensively investigated as a tool for new and potentially transformative cancer treatment modality. However, there are still many unknowns about the jet behavior that requires attention. In this paper, a helium CAP jet is tested in an electrostatic field generated by a copper ring. Using Rayleigh microwave scattering method, some delays of the electron density peaks for different ring potentials are observed. Meanwhile, a similar phenomenon associated with the bullet velocity is found. Chemical species distribution along the jet is analyzed based on the jet optical emission spectra. The spectra indicate that a lower ring potential, i.e., lower DC background electric field, can increase the amount of excited N2, N2+, He, and O in the region before the ring, but can decrease the amount of excited NO and HO almost along the entire jet. Combining all the results above, we discovered that an extra DC potential mainly affects the temporal plasma jet properties. Also, it is possible to manipulate the chemical compositions of the jet using a ring with certain electric potentials.

  18. Cold atmospheric plasma jet in an axial DC electric field

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Li E-mail: keidar@gwu.edu; Keidar, Michael E-mail: keidar@gwu.edu

    2016-08-15

    Cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) jet is currently intensively investigated as a tool for new and potentially transformative cancer treatment modality. However, there are still many unknowns about the jet behavior that requires attention. In this paper, a helium CAP jet is tested in an electrostatic field generated by a copper ring. Using Rayleigh microwave scattering method, some delays of the electron density peaks for different ring potentials are observed. Meanwhile, a similar phenomenon associated with the bullet velocity is found. Chemical species distribution along the jet is analyzed based on the jet optical emission spectra. The spectra indicate that a lower ring potential, i.e., lower DC background electric field, can increase the amount of excited N{sub 2}, N{sub 2}{sup +}, He, and O in the region before the ring, but can decrease the amount of excited NO and HO almost along the entire jet. Combining all the results above, we discovered that an extra DC potential mainly affects the temporal plasma jet properties. Also, it is possible to manipulate the chemical compositions of the jet using a ring with certain electric potentials.

  19. Observations of Mercury's magnetic field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ness, N. F.; Behannon, K. W.; Lepping, R. P.; Whang, Y. C.

    1975-01-01

    Magnetic field data obtained by Mariner 10 during the third and final encounter with the planet Mercury on 16 March 1975 were studied. A well developed bow shock and modest magnetosphere, previously observed at first encounter on 29 March 1974, were again observed. In addition, a much stronger magnetic field near closest approach, 400 gamma versus 98 gamma, was observed at an altitude of 327 km and approximately 70 deg north Mercurian latitude. Spherical harmonic analysis of the data provide an estimate of the centered planetary magnetic dipole of 4.7 x 10 to the 22nd power Gauss/cu cm with the axis tilted 12 deg to the rotation axis and in the same sense as Earth's. The interplanetary field was sufficiently different between first and third encounters that in addition to the very large field magnitude observed, it argues strongly against a complex induction process generating the observed planetary field. While a possibility exists that Mercury possesses a remanent field due to magnetization early in its formation, a present day active dynamo seems to be a more likely candidate for its origin.

  20. Satellite to study earth's magnetic field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The Magnetic Field Satellite (Magsat) designed to measure the near earth magnetic field and crustal anomalies is briefly described. A scalar magnetometer to measure the magnitude of the earth's crustal magnetic field and a vector magnetometer to measure magnetic field direction as well as magnitude are included. The mission and its objectives are summarized along with the data collection and processing system.

  1. Galactic and Intergalactic Magnetic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, U.; Fletcher, A.

    This course-tested textbook conveys the fundamentals of magnetic fields and relativistic plasma in diffuse cosmic media, with a primary focus on phenomena that have been observed at different wavelengths. Theoretical concepts are addressed wherever necessary, with derivations presented in sufficient detail to be generally accessible. In the first few chapters the authors present an introduction to various astrophysical phenomena related to cosmic magnetism, with scales ranging from molecular clouds in star-forming regions and supernova remnants in the Milky Way, to clusters of galaxies. Later chapters address the role of magnetic fields in the evolution of the interstellar medium, galaxies and galaxy clusters. The book is intended for advanced undergraduate and postgraduate students in astronomy and physics and will serve as an entry point for those starting their first research projects in the field.

  2. Parameter estimation and actuator characteristics of hybrid magnetic bearings for axial flow blood pump applications.

    PubMed

    Lim, Tau Meng; Cheng, Shanbao; Chua, Leok Poh

    2009-07-01

    Axial flow blood pumps are generally smaller as compared to centrifugal pumps. This is very beneficial because they can provide better anatomical fit in the chest cavity, as well as lower the risk of infection. This article discusses the design, levitated responses, and parameter estimation of the dynamic characteristics of a compact hybrid magnetic bearing (HMB) system for axial flow blood pump applications. The rotor/impeller of the pump is driven by a three-phase permanent magnet brushless and sensorless motor. It is levitated by two HMBs at both ends in five degree of freedom with proportional-integral-derivative controllers, among which four radial directions are actively controlled and one axial direction is passively controlled. The frequency domain parameter estimation technique with statistical analysis is adopted to validate the stiffness and damping coefficients of the HMB system. A specially designed test rig facilitated the estimation of the bearing's coefficients in air-in both the radial and axial directions. Experimental estimation showed that the dynamic characteristics of the HMB system are dominated by the frequency-dependent stiffness coefficients. By injecting a multifrequency excitation force signal onto the rotor through the HMBs, it is noticed in the experimental results the maximum displacement linear operating range is 20% of the static eccentricity with respect to the rotor and stator gap clearance. The actuator gain was also successfully calibrated and may potentially extend the parameter estimation technique developed in the study of identification and monitoring of the pump's dynamic properties under normal operating conditions with fluid.

  3. Testing the Axial Dipole Hypothesis for the Moon by Modeling the Direction of Crustal Magnetization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, Joana S.; Wieczorek, Mark A.

    2017-04-01

    Magnetic field maps of the Moon show that there are strong magnetic anomalies of crustal origin distributed heterogeneously across the lunar surface. However, the origin of the fields that magnetized the crust are not understood and could be the result of either a long-lived core generated dynamo or transient fields associated with large impact events. Core-dynamo models usually predict that the field would be predominantly dipolar, with the dipole axis aligned with the rotation axis. In this case, the direction of crustal magnetization would vary with planetary latitude, just as on Earth. We test this hypothesis by modeling the direction of crustal magnetization using spacecraft-derived magnetic field data. From the direction of magnetization, we calculate the corresponding paleopole, which we define as the north magnetic pole of a predominantly dipolar core-generated field when the anomaly was formed. The dipolar core field hypothesis will be confirmed if the paleopoles cluster in one or two regions. We use the Parker method, originally developed to study seamounts magnetism, to invert for the direction of crustal magnetization associated with isolated lunar magnetic anomalies. This method largely bypasses the non-uniqueness associated with specifying the geometry of the magnetic sources. The only assumption is that when the region acquired a remnant magnetization, the main field was constant in direction. In practice, unidirectional equivalent source dipoles are placed on the surface within a circle of specified radius over a region that encompasses an isolated anomaly. For an assumed direction of magnetization, we solve for the magnetic moments of the dipoles and determine the misfit between the model and observations using a non-negative least squares inversions approach. The inversion naturally finds those dipoles that are non-zero, as well as their intensities. For our inversions we use global gridded magnetic field maps at 30 km altitude with a resolution

  4. Extreme ultraviolet emission and confinement of tin plasmas in the presence of a magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, Amitava E-mail: aroy@barc.gov.in; Murtaza Hassan, Syed; Harilal, Sivanandan S.; Hassanein, Ahmed; Endo, Akira; Mocek, Tomas

    2014-05-15

    We investigated the role of a guiding magnetic field on extreme ultraviolet (EUV) and ion emission from a laser produced Sn plasma for various laser pulse duration and intensity. For producing plasmas, planar slabs of pure Sn were irradiated with 1064 nm, Nd:YAG laser pulses with varying pulse duration (5–15 ns) and intensity. A magnetic trap was fabricated with the use of two neodymium permanent magnets which provided a magnetic field strength ∼0.5 T along the plume expansion direction. Our results indicate that the EUV conversion efficiency do not depend significantly on applied axial magnetic field. Faraday Cup ion analysis of Sn plasma show that the ion flux reduces by a factor of ∼5 with the application of an axial magnetic field. It was found that the plasma plume expand in the lateral direction with peak velocity measured to be ∼1.2 cm/μs and reduced to ∼0.75 cm/μs with the application of an axial magnetic field. The plume expansion features recorded using fast photography in the presence and absence of 0.5 T axial magnetic field are simulated using particle-in-cell code. Our simulation results qualitatively predict the plasma behavior.

  5. Low-degree Structure in Mercury's Planetary Magnetic Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Brian J.; Johnson, Catherine L.; Korth, Haje; Winslow, Reka M.; Borovsky, Joseph E.; Purucker, Michael E.; Slavin, James A.; Solomon, Sean C.; Zuber, Maria T.; McNutt, Ralph L. Jr.

    2012-01-01

    The structure of Mercury's internal magnetic field has been determined from analysis of orbital Magnetometer measurements by the MESSENGER spacecraft. We identified the magnetic equator on 531 low-altitude and 120 high-altitude equator crossings from the zero in the radial cylindrical magnetic field component, Beta (sub rho). The low-altitude crossings are offset 479 +/- 6 km northward, indicating an offset of the planetary dipole. The tilt of the magnetic pole relative to the planetary spin axis is less than 0.8 deg.. The high-altitude crossings yield a northward offset of the magnetic equator of 486 +/- 74 km. A field with only nonzero dipole and octupole coefficients also matches the low-altitude observations but cannot yield off-equatorial Beta (sub rho) = 0 at radial distances greater than 3520 km. We compared offset dipole and other descriptions of the field with vector field observations below 600 km for 13 longitudinally distributed, magnetically quiet orbits. An offset dipole with southward directed moment of 190 nT-R-cube (sub M) yields root-mean-square (RMS) residuals below 14 nT, whereas a field with only dipole and octupole terms tuned to match the polar field and the low-altitude magnetic equator crossings yields RMS residuals up to 68 nT. Attributing the residuals from the offset-dipole field to axial degree 3 and 4 contributions we estimate that the Gauss coefficient magnitudes for the additional terms are less than 4% and 7%, respectively, relative to the dipole. The axial alignment and prominent quadrupole are consistent with a non-convecting layer above a deep dynamo in Mercury's fluid outer core.

  6. Coils of Magnetic Field Lines

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-06-27

    A smallish solar filament looks like it collapsed into the sun and set off a minor eruption that hurled plasma into space (June 20, 2017). Then, the disrupted magnetic field immediately began to reorganize itself, hence the bright series of spirals coiling up over that area. The magnetic field lines are made visible in extreme ultraviolet light as charged particles spin along them. Also of interest are the darker, cooler strands of plasma being pulled and twisted at the edge of the sun just below the active region. The activity here is in a 21-hour period. Movies are available at https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21764

  7. Standing Helicon Wave Induced by a Rapidly Bent Magnetic Field in Plasmas.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Kazunori; Takayama, Sho; Komuro, Atsushi; Ando, Akira

    2016-04-01

    An electron energy probability function and a rf magnetic field are measured in a rf hydrogen helicon source, where axial and transverse static magnetic fields are applied to the source by solenoids and to the diffusion chamber by filter magnets, respectively. It is demonstrated that the helicon wave is reflected by the rapidly bent magnetic field and the resultant standing wave heats the electrons between the source and the magnetic filter, while the electron cooling effect by the magnetic filter is maintained. It is interpreted that the standing wave is generated by the presence of a spatially localized change of a refractive index.

  8. Parallax error in long-axial field-of-view PET scanners—a simulation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmall, Jeffrey P.; Karp, Joel S.; Werner, Matt; Surti, Suleman

    2016-07-01

    There is a growing interest in the design and construction of a PET scanner with a very long axial extent. One critical design challenge is the impact of the long axial extent on the scanner spatial resolution properties. In this work, we characterize the effect of parallax error in PET system designs having an axial field-of-view (FOV) of 198 cm (total-body PET scanner) using fully-3D Monte Carlo simulations. Two different scintillation materials were studied: LSO and LaBr3. The crystal size in both cases was 4  ×  4  ×  20 mm3. Several different depth-of-interaction (DOI) encoding techniques were investigated to characterize the improvement in spatial resolution when using a DOI capable detector. To measure spatial resolution we simulated point sources in a warm background in the center of the imaging FOV, where the effects of axial parallax are largest, and at several positions radially offset from the center. Using a line-of-response based ordered-subset expectation maximization reconstruction algorithm we found that the axial resolution in an LSO scanner degrades from 4.8 mm to 5.7 mm (full width at half max) at the center of the imaging FOV when extending the axial acceptance angle (α) from  ±12° (corresponding to an axial FOV of 18 cm) to the maximum of  ±67°—a similar result was obtained with LaBr3, in which the axial resolution degraded from 5.3 mm to 6.1 mm. For comparison we also measured the degradation due to radial parallax error in the transverse imaging FOV; the transverse resolution, averaging radial and tangential directions, of an LSO scanner was degraded from 4.9 mm to 7.7 mm, for a measurement at the center of the scanner compared to a measurement with a radial offset of 23 cm. Simulations of a DOI detector design improved the spatial resolution in all dimensions. The axial resolution in the LSO-based scanner, with α  =  ± 67°, was improved from 5.7 mm to 5.0 mm by

  9. A single-phase axially-magnetized permanent-magnet oscillating machine for miniature aerospace power sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sui, Yi; Zheng, Ping; Cheng, Luming; Wang, Weinan; Liu, Jiaqi

    2017-05-01

    A single-phase axially-magnetized permanent-magnet (PM) oscillating machine which can be integrated with a free-piston Stirling engine to generate electric power, is investigated for miniature aerospace power sources. Machine structure, operating principle and detent force characteristic are elaborately studied. With the sinusoidal speed characteristic of the mover considered, the proposed machine is designed by 2D finite-element analysis (FEA), and some main structural parameters such as air gap diameter, dimensions of PMs, pole pitches of both stator and mover, and the pole-pitch combinations, etc., are optimized to improve both the power density and force capability. Compared with the three-phase PM linear machines, the proposed single-phase machine features less PM use, simple control and low controller cost. The power density of the proposed machine is higher than that of the three-phase radially-magnetized PM linear machine, but lower than the three-phase axially-magnetized PM linear machine.

  10. Exact general relativistic disks with magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Letelier, Patricio S.

    1999-11-01

    The well-known ``displace, cut, and reflect'' method used to generate cold disks from given solutions of Einstein equations is extended to solutions of Einstein-Maxwell equations. Four exact solutions of the these last equations are used to construct models of hot disks with surface density, azimuthal pressure, and azimuthal current. The solutions are closely related to Kerr, Taub-NUT, Lynden-Bell-Pinault, and to a one-soliton solution. We find that the presence of the magnetic field can change in a nontrivial way the different properties of the disks. In particular, the pure general relativistic instability studied by Bic̆ák, Lynden-Bell, and Katz [Phys. Rev. D 47, 4334 (1993)] can be enhanced or cured by different distributions of currents inside the disk. These currents, outside the disk, generate a variety of axial symmetric magnetic fields. As far as we know these are the first models of hot disks studied in the context of general relativity.

  11. Photospheric and coronal magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Sheeley, N.R., Jr. )

    1991-01-01

    Research on small-scale and large-scale photospheric and coronal magnetic fields during 1987-1990 is reviewed, focusing on observational studies. Particular attention is given to the new techniques, which include the correlation tracking of granules, the use of highly Zeeman-sensitive infrared spectral lines and multiple lines to deduce small-scale field strength, the application of long integration times coupled with good seeing conditions to study weak fields, and the use of high-resolution CCD detectors together with computer image-processing techniques to obtain images with unsurpassed spatial resolution. Synoptic observations of large-scale fields during the sunspot cycle are also discussed. 101 refs.

  12. Observations of Interstellar Magnetic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crutcher, R.; Heiles, C.; Troland, T.

    This article describes how interstellar magnetic fields are detected, measured, and mapped, the results of such observations, and the role played by interstellar magnetic fields in the physics of the interstellar medium. A goal of the observations is the measurement of the morphology and strengths of the uniform (Bu) and random (Br) components of magnetic fields. Observational techniques probe either the component of B parallel to the line of sight (B_parallel) or in the plane of the sky (B_⊥). Tracers of B_parallel are Faraday rotation of the position angle of linearly polarized radiation and Zeeman splitting of spectral lines. Tracers of B_⊥ are the strength of synchrotron radiation and linear polarization of syn chrotron radiation and of emission or absorption from dust and spectral lines. Starlight polarization shows that on large spatial scales the Galactic magnetic field is not heavily tangled (B_u/B_r ≈ 0.7 - 1.0), that the field is generally parallel to the Galactic plane near the plane, that the local field points approximately along the local spiral arm (pitch angle 9.4(°) , center of curvature 7.8 kpc distant towards ℓ ≈ -15.4(°) ), and that off the Galactic plane there is considerable small-scale structure to the field. Galactic synchrotron emission shows magnetic spiral arms with a total strength B_t ≈ 6 #55G and B_u ≈ 4 #55G. Pulsar data show evidence for reversals of the field direction with Galactic radius and yield B_r ≈ 5 #55G and B_u ≈ 1.5 #55G; the morphology of the large-scale mean field is consistent with dynamo generation. H I Zeeman detections for diffuse clouds yield B_parallel char 126 5 - 20 #55G with many limits B_parallel #55G. A recent survey of Galactic H I in absorption against extragalactic sources confirms the result that the fields in diffuse clouds are often quite weak. The critical parameter for evaluating the importance of magnetic fields in star formation is the ratio of the mass to the magnetic flux, M

  13. Magnetic fields around black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garofalo, David A. G.

    Active Galactic Nuclei are the most powerful long-lived objects in the universe. They are thought to harbor supermassive black holes that range from 1 million solar masses to 1000 times that value and possibly greater. Theory and observation are converging on a model for these objects that involves the conversion of gravitational potential energy of accreting gas to radiation as well as Poynting flux produced by the interaction of the rotating spacetime and the electromagnetic fields originating in the ionized accretion flow. The presence of black holes in astrophysics is taking center stage, with the output from AGN in various forms such as winds and jets influencing the formation and evolution of the host galaxy. This dissertation addresses some of the basic unanswered questions that plague our current understanding of how rotating black holes interact with their surrounding magnetized accretion disks to produce the enormous observed energy. Two magnetic configurations are examined. The first involves magnetic fields connecting the black hole with the inner accretion disk and the other involves large scale magnetic fields threading the disk and the hole. We study the effects of the former type by establishing the consequences that magnetic torques between the black hole and the inner accretion disk have on the energy dissipation profile. We attempt a plausible explanation to the observed "Deep Minimum" state in the Seyfert galaxy MCG-6- 30-15. For the latter type of magnetic geometry, we study the effects of the strength of the magnetic field threading the black hole within the context of the cherished Blandford & Znajek mechanism for black hole spin energy extraction. We begin by addressing the problem in the non-relativistic regime where we find that the black hole-threading magnetic field is stronger for greater disk thickness, larger magnetic Prandtl number, and for a larger accretion disk. We then study the problem in full relativity where we show that our

  14. Electrodeless RF Plasma Propulsion by Rotating Magnetic Field Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furukawa, Takerku; Takizawa, Kohei; Kuwahara, Daisuke; Shinohara, Shunjiro

    2016-10-01

    Electric propulsion scheme is promising in the field of the space propulsion because of high fuel efficiency and long operating time. However, this time is limited due to the loss of electrodes contacting with plasmas directly. In order to solve this problem, we have proposed electrodeless acceleration schemes, e.g., a rotating magnetic field (RMF) scheme. In this RMF scheme, we use two pairs of 5 turns RMF coils with AC currents, which have a 90 deg. phase difference. The rotating magnetic field induces azimuthal current j by a nonlinear effect. Then, plasma is accelerated by the axial Lorentz force using the product of j and the radial component of external magnetic field. We have investigated the effect of the RMF current frequency f, and 24% increase of ion velocity in the case of f = 3 MHz. We will present the experimental results, using lower f and gas pressure, and also discuss the penetration of RMF into the plasma.

  15. Testing the axial dipole hypothesis for the Moon by modeling the direction of crustal magnetization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, J. S.; Wieczorek, M. A.

    2017-02-01

    Orbital magnetic field data show that portions of the Moon's crust are strongly magnetized, and paleomagnetic data of lunar samples suggest that Earth strength magnetic fields could have existed during the first several hundred million years of lunar history. The origin of the fields that magnetized the crust are not understood and could be the result of either a long-lived core-generated dynamo or transient fields associated with large impact events. Core dynamo models usually predict that the field would be predominantly dipolar, with the dipole axis aligned with the rotation axis. We test this hypothesis by modeling the direction of crustal magnetization using a global magnetic field model of the Moon derived from Lunar Prospector and Kaguya magnetometer data. We make use of a model that assumes that the crust is unidirectionally magnetized. The intensity of magnetization can vary with the crust, and the best fitting direction of magnetization is obtained from a nonnegative least squares inversion. From the best fitting magnetization direction we obtain the corresponding north magnetic pole predicted by an internal dipolar field. Some of the obtained paleopoles are associated with the current geographic poles, while other well-constrained anomalies have paleopoles at equatorial latitudes, preferentially at 90° east and west longitudes. One plausible hypothesis for this distribution of paleopoles is that the Moon possessed a long-lived dipolar field but that the dipole was not aligned with the rotation axis as a result of large-scale heat flow heterogeneities at the core-mantle boundary.

  16. Concentration influences on recovery in a high gradient magnetic separation axial filter

    SciTech Connect

    Murariu, V.; Rezlescu, N.; Rotariu, O.; Badescu, V.

    1998-05-01

    The buildup differential equations for the case of a single wire in high gradient magnetic filtration (HGMF)-axial configuration taking into account the suspension concentration are solved. A new equation for the deposit contour surface at different moments and for different suspension concentrations are obtained. The existence of a particulate suspension concentration, for which the radial extension velocity of deposit is maximum, is evidenced. The recovery for an ordered ferromagnetic matrix is calculated. The influence of the solid particle concentration from suspension on the filtration efficiency is presented.

  17. Majorana neutrinos and magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schechter, J.; Valle, J. W. F.

    1981-10-01

    It is stressed that if neutrinos are massive they are probably of "Majorana" type. This implies that their magnetic-moment form factor vanishes identically so that the previously discussed phenomenon of spin rotation in a magnetic field would not appear to take place. We point out that Majorana neutrinos can, however, have transition moments. This enables an inhomogeneous magnetic field to rotate both spin and "flavor" of a neutrino. In this case the spin rotation changes particle to antiparticle. The spin-flavor-rotation effect is worked out in detail. We also discuss the parametrization and calculation of the electromagnetic form factors of Majorana neutrinos. Our discussion takes into account the somewhat unusual quantum theory of massive Majorana particles.

  18. Observations of altered instability structure for imploding z-pinch liners that are premagnetized with a uniform axial field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awe, Thomas

    2013-10-01

    Magnetically driven implosions provide an energy-rich platform for inertial confinement fusion. The magnetized liner inertial fusion concept (MagLIF, Slutz et al., Phys. Plasmas 17, 056303 (2010)) uses a pulsed-power-driven metallic liner to compress and inertially confine preheated and premagnetized fusion fuel. The fuel is premagnetized with a uniform axial seed field Bz , 0 of 10 to 30 T, which is then compressed by the liner to nearly 1000 T. In the fuel, the ultra-high field reduces thermal conduction and enhances alpha-particle heating. Preheating the fuel to 100-300 eV eases requirements on liner-convergence; nonetheless, convergence ratios at stagnation of 20 or more may be necessary. The ability to maintain liner stability and uniformity through stagnation may ultimately determine the success of the MagLIF concept. The integrity of magnetically imploded liners is compromised both by electrode instabilities and by the magneto-Rayleigh Taylor (MRT) instability. Electrode instabilities form local perturbations that can mix liner material into the fuel prior to bulk compression. Recent experiments on the Z facility have shown that this instability is mitigated when the liner's ends implode onto a nylon ``cushion,'' which impedes local perturbation growth. Other recent experiments have, for the first time, studied the implosion dynamics of premagnetized (Bz , 0 > 0) MagLIF-type liners. When seeded with a 7 or 10 T axial field, these liners developed 3D-helix-like surface instabilities; such instabilities starkly contrast with the azimuthally-correlated MRT instabilities that have been consistently observed in many earlier unmagnetized (Bz , 0 = 0 T) experiments. Quite unexpectedly, the helical structure persisted throughout the implosion, even though the azimuthal drive field greatly exceeded the expected axial field at the liner surface for all but the earliest stages of the experiment. Thus far, no self-consistent model has reproduced this fundamentally 3D

  19. Magnetic Fields of Neutron Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konar, Sushan

    2017-09-01

    This article briefly reviews our current understanding of the evolution of magnetic fields in neutron stars, which basically defines the evolutionary pathways between different observational classes of neutron stars. The emphasis here is on the evolution in binary systems and the newly emergent classes of millisecond pulsars.

  20. Transverse Magnetic Field Propellant Isolator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, John E.

    2000-01-01

    An alternative high voltage isolator for electric propulsion and ground-based ion source applications has been designed and tested. This design employs a transverse magnetic field that increases the breakdown voltage. The design can greatly enhance the operating range of laboratory isolators used for high voltage applications.

  1. Crystal field and magnetic properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flood, D. J.

    1977-01-01

    Magnetization and magnetic susceptibility measurements have been made in the temperature range 1.3 to 4.2 K on powdered samples of ErH3. The susceptibility exhibits Curie-Weiss behavior from 4.2 to 2 K, and intercepts the negative temperature axis at theta = 1.05 + or - 0.05 K, indicating that the material is antiferromagnetic. The low field effective moment is 6.77 + or - 0.27 Bohr magnetons per ion. The magnetization exhibits a temperature independent contribution, the slope of which is (5 + or - 1.2) x 10 to the -6th Weber m/kg Tesla. The saturation moment is 3.84 + or - 1 - 0.15 Bohr magnetons per ion. The results can be qualitatively explained by the effects of crystal fields on the magnetic ions. No definitive assignment of a crystal field ground state can be given, nor can a clear choice between cubically or hexagonally symmetric crystal fields be made. For hexagonal symmetry, the first excited state is estimated to be 86 to 100 K above the ground state. For cubic symmetry, the splitting is on the order of 160 to 180 K.

  2. Intense electron beam propagation across a magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, X.; Striffler, C.D.; Yao, R.L.; Destler, W.W.; Reiser, M.P.

    1989-01-01

    In this paper we consider the propagation of an intense electron-ion beam across an applied magnetic field. In the absence of the applied field, the beam system is in a Bennett equilibrium state that involves electrons with both large axial and thermal velocities and a cold stationary space-charge neutralizing ion species. Typical parameters under consideration are V{sub o} {approximately} 1 MV, I {approximately} 5 kA, T{sub e} {approximately} 100 keV, and beam radii {approximately} 1 cm. We find that in the intense beam regime, the propagation is limited due to space-charge depression caused by the deflection of the electron beam by the transverse field. This critical field is of the order of the peak self-magnetic field of the electron beam which is substantially higher than the single particle cut-off field. 8 refs., 3 figs.

  3. Separation of magnetic field lines

    SciTech Connect

    Boozer, Allen H.

    2012-11-15

    The field lines of magnetic fields that depend on three spatial coordinates are shown to have a fundamentally different behavior from those that depend on two coordinates. Unlike two-coordinate cases, a flux tube in a magnetic field that depends on all three spatial coordinates that has a circular cross section at one location along the tube characteristically has a highly distorted cross section at other locations. In an ideal evolution of a magnetic field, the current densities typically increase. Crudely stated, if the current densities increase by a factor {sigma}, the ratio of the long to the short distance across a cross section of a flux tube characteristically increases by e{sup 2{sigma}}, and the ratio of the longer distance to the initial radius increases as e{sup {sigma}}. Electron inertia prevents a plasma from isolating two magnetic field structures on a distance scale shorter than c/{omega}{sub pe}, which is about 10 cm in the solar corona, and reconnection must be triggered if {sigma} becomes sufficiently large. The radius of the sun, R{sub Circled-Dot-Operator }=7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 10}cm is about e{sup 23} times larger, so when {sigma} Greater-Than-Or-Equivalent-To 23, two lines separated by c/{omega}{sub pe} at one location can be separated by the full scale of any magnetic structures in the corona at another. The conditions for achieving a large exponentiation, {sigma}, are derived, and the importance of exponentiation is discussed.

  4. Pursuit of Record Breaking Energy Barriers: A Study of Magnetic Axiality in Diamide Ligated Dy(III) Single-Molecule Magnets.

    PubMed

    Harriman, Katie L M; Brosmer, Jonathan L; Ungur, Liviu; Diaconescu, Paula L; Murugesu, Muralee

    2017-02-01

    Dy(III) single-ion magnets (SIMs) with strong axial donors and weak equatorial ligands are attractive model systems with which to harness the maximum magnetic anisotropy of Dy(III) ions. Utilizing a rigid ferrocene diamide ligand (NN(TBS)), a Dy(III) SIM, (NN(TBS))DyI(THF)2, 1-Dy (NN(TBS) = fc(NHSitBuMe2)2, fc = 1,1'-ferrocenediyl), composed of a near linear arrangement of donor atoms, exhibits a large energy barrier to spin reversal (770.8 K) and magnetic blocking (14 K). The effects of the transverse ligands on the magnetic and electronic structure of 1-Dy were investigated through ab initio methods, eliciting significant magnetic axiality, even in the fourth Kramers doublet, thus demonstrating the potential of rigid diamide ligands in the design of new SIMs with defined magnetic axiality.

  5. Magnetic fields in spiral galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krause, Marita

    2015-03-01

    The magnetic field structure in edge-on galaxies observed so far shows a plane-parallel magnetic field component in the disk of the galaxy and an X-shaped field in its halo. The plane-parallel field is thought to be the projected axisymmetric (ASS) disk field as observed in face-on galaxies. Some galaxies addionionally exhibit strong vertical magnetic fields in the halo right above and below the central region of the disk. The mean-field dynamo theory in the disk cannot explain these observed fields without the action of a wind, which also probably plays an important role to keep the vertical scale heights constant in galaxies of different Hubble types and star formation activities, as has been observed in the radio continuum: At λ6 cm the vertical scale heights of the thin disk and the thick disk/halo in a sample of five edge-on galaxies are similar with a mean value of 300 +/- 50 pc for the thin disk and 1.8 +/- 0.2 kpc for the thick disk (a table and references are given in Krause 2011) with our sample including the brightest halo observed so far, NGC 253, with strong star formation, as well as one of the weakest halos, NGC 4565, with weak star formation. If synchrotron emission is the dominant loss process of the relativistic electrons the outer shape of the radio emission should be dumbbell-like as has been observed in several edge-on galaxies like e.g. NGC 253 (Heesen et al. 2009) and NGC 4565. As the synchrotron lifetime t syn at a single frequency is proportional to the total magnetic field strength B t -1.5, a cosmic ray bulk speed (velocity of a galactic wind) can be defined as v CR = h CR /t syn = 2 h z /t syn , where h CR and h z are the scale heights of the cosmic rays and the observed radio emission at this freqnency. Similar observed radio scale heights imply a self regulation mechanism between the galactic wind velocity, the total magnetic field strength and the star formation rate SFR in the disk: v CR ~ B t 1.5 ~ SFR ~ 0.5 (Niklas & Beck 1997).

  6. Magnetic fields in the sun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mullan, D. J.

    1974-01-01

    The observed properties of solar magnetic fields are reviewed, with particular reference to the complexities imposed on the field by motions of the highly conducting gas. Turbulent interactions between gas and field lead to heating or cooling of the gas according to whether the field energy density is less or greater than the maximum kinetic energy density in the convection zone. The field strength above which cooling sets in is 700 gauss. A weak solar dipole field may be primeval, but dynamo action is also important in generating new flux. The dynamo is probably not confined to the convection zone, but extends throughout most of the volume of the sun. Planetary tides appear to play a role in driving the dynamo.

  7. The source surface and photospheric magnetic field models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saito, T.; Kozuka, Y.; Oki, T.; Akasofu, S.-I.

    1991-01-01

    It is possible to reproduce the configuration of the neutral line on the solar source surface by the axial dipole at the center of the sun and a few fictitious dipoles on the photosphere. An attempt is made to identify the nature of such fictitious dipoles in the photospheric magnetic fields. It is shown that large-scale photospheric dipole fields can be identified clearly at the locations indicated by the fictitious dipoles when the photospheric field is very simple. They are found to be active regions.

  8. The magnetic field of Jupiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acuna, M. H.; Ness, N. F.

    1976-01-01

    The paper is concerned mainly with the intrinsic planetary field which dominates the inner magnetosphere up to a distance of 10 to 12 Jovian radii where other phenomena, such as ring currents and diamagnetic effects of trapped charged particles, become significant. The main magnetic field of Jupiter as determined by in-situ observations by Pioner 10 and 11 is found to be relatively more complex than a simple offset tilted dipole. Deviations from a simple dipole geometry lead to distortions of the charged particle L shells and warping of the magnetic equator. Enhanced absorption effects associated with Io and Amalthea are predicted. The results are consistent with the conclusions derived from extensive radio observations at decimetric and decametric wavelengths for the planetary field.

  9. Oxide superconductors under magnetic field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kitazawa, K.

    1990-01-01

    One of the current most serious problems for the oxide superconductors from the standpoint of practical application is the various novel features derived mainly from their extremely short coherence. In particular, the coherence length so far observed in the cuprate superconductors is in the range of 0.1 nm perpendicular to the CuO2 plane. This seems to be creating most of the difficulties in the device fabrication and in the performance under the magnetic field. Some of the superconducting properties under the magnetic field will be discussed in terms of the short coherence length. A model will be presented based on the gradual strengthening of the pinning force with decrease in temperature and the weak coupling at the grain boundaries. Secondly, the broadening of the superconducting transition under the magnetic field is discussed. This is observed significantly only when the field is applied perpendicular to the basal plane and the relative orientation of the current to the field is insignificant in determining the extent of the broadening. Besides, the change in the strength of the pinning force does not affect the width of the broadening. From these observations discussions will be made on a model based on the giant fluctuation. Based on this model, it is predicted that the coherence length along the c-axis will be the single most important material parameter to determine the performance of the superconductor under a strong magnetic field. It seems that BYCO is superior in this regard to Bi- or Tl-systems as far as the performance at 77 K is considered, although another material with the coherence length slightly longer along the c-axis is still highly desired.

  10. Oxide superconductors under magnetic field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kitazawa, K.

    1991-01-01

    One of the current most serious problems for the oxide superconductors from the standpoint of practical application is the various novel features derived mainly from their extremely short coherence. In particular, the coherence length so far observed in the cuprate superconductors is in the range of 0.1 nm perpendicular to the CuO2 plane. This seems to be creating most of the difficulties in the device fabrication and in the performance under the magnetic field. Some of the superconducting properties under the magnetic field will be discussed in terms of the short coherence length. A model will be presented based on the gradual strengthening of the pinning force with decrease in temperature and the weak coupling at the grain boundaries. Secondly, the broadening of the superconducting transition under the magnetic field is discussed. This is observed significantly only when the field is applied perpendicular to the basal plane and the relative orientation of the current to the field is insignificant in determining the extent of broadening. Besides, the change in the strength of the pinning force does not affect the width of the broadening. From these observations discussions will be made on a model based on the giant fluctuation. Based on this model, it is predicted that the coherence length along the c-axis will be the single most important material parameter to determine the performance of the superconductor under a strong magnetic field. It seems that BYCO is superior in this regard to Bi- or Tl-systems as far as the performance at 77 K is considered, although another material with the coherence length slightly longer along the c-axis is still highly desired.

  11. The Earth's magnetic field: Which geometry?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Courtillot, Vincent; Valet, Jean-Pierre; Hulot, Gauthier; Le Mouël, Jean-Louis

    Were it not for the presence of a solar wind, the intrinsic magnetic field of the Earth—if observed from far enough out in space—would appear to be almost perfectly dipolar, with the axis of the dipole presently tilted by some 10° with respect to the rotation axis. At the Earth's surface, the axial dipolar term is dominant, which serves among other uses as a basis for both orientation with a compass and plate-tectonic applications of paleomagnetism. One can ask whether this dipolar dominance would hold were the field observed from just above its source at the core-mantle boundary. The answer is that indeed it does (Figure 1), although of course the dipolar part is reduced in amplitude relative to the higher-order (shorter wavelength) terms. These higher-order terms are compatible with a flat, white-noise-like, power spectrum. This implies that there are similar amounts of energy stored in the various harmonic terms (see, for example,Constable and Parker [1988]), although a “pink” spectrum (that is, slightly more power at the longer wavelengths) is as plausible [Hulot et al., 1992]. Terms beyond degree and order 13 (that is, wavelengths shorter than 1500 km) are contaminated by crustal and lithospheric (that is, surficial static) fields.

  12. Particle capture in axial magnetic filters with power law flow model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbasov, T.; Herdem, S.; Köksal, M.

    1999-05-01

    A theory of capture of magnetic particle carried by laminar flow of viscous non-Newtonian (power law) fluid in axially ordered filters is presented. The velocity profile of the fluid flow is determined by the Kuwabara-Happel cell model. For the trajectory of the particle, the capture area and the filter performance simple analytical expressions are obtained. These expressions are valid for particle capture processes from both Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids. For this reason the obtained theoretical results make it possible to widen the application of high-gradient magnetic filtration (HGMF) to other industrial areas. For Newtonian fluids the theoretical results are shown to be in good agreement with the experimental ones reported in the literature.

  13. Development of the axial gap type motor/generator for the flywheel with superconducting magnetic bearings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagaya, S.; Kashima, N.; Kawashima, H.; Kakiuchi, Y.; Hoshino, A.; Isobe, S.

    2003-10-01

    Flywheel with superconducting magnetic bearings requires the characteristics for the motor/generator such as lower loss, higher efficiency, lower bearing load and more displacement tolerance of the radial directions. We developed an extremely flat shape axial gap type motor/generator which consists of a rotor with permanent magnets and slotless windings to satisfy these characteristics. We introduced the system for adjusting intensity of the excitation to decrease the eddy current loss during the storage and to get the controllability of electromotive force for variable speed operation during charging and discharging. We manufactured the motor/generator of output power 17 kW at 10,000 rpm. It was tested to perform the fundamental functions of motor and generator at partial speeds up to 4000 rpm.

  14. Development of high-vacuum planar magnetron sputtering using an advanced magnetic field geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Ohno, Takahiro; Yagyu, Daisuke; Saito, Shigeru Ohno, Yasunori; Itoh, Masatoshi; Uhara, Yoshio; Miura, Tsutomu; Nakano, Hirofumi

    2015-11-15

    A permanent magnet in a new magnetic field geometry (namely, with the magnetization in the radial direction) was fabricated and used for high-vacuum planar magnetron sputtering using Penning discharge. Because of the development of this magnet, the discharge current and deposition rate were increased two to three times in comparison with the values attainable with a magnet in the conventional geometry. This improvement was because the available space for effective discharge of the energetic electrons for the ionization increased because the magnetic field distribution increased in both the axial and radial directions of discharge.

  15. The HMI Magnetic Field Pipeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoeksema, Jon Todd; Liu, Y.; Schou, J.; Scherrer, P.; HMI Science Team

    2009-05-01

    The Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) will provide frequent full-disk magnetic field data after launch of the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), currently scheduled for fall 2009. 16 megapixel line-of-sight magnetograms (Blos) will be recorded every 45 seconds. A full set of polarized filtergrams needed to determine the vector magnetic field requires 90 seconds. Quick-look data will be available within a few minutes of observation. Quick-look space weather and browse products must have identified users, and the list currently includes full disk magnetograms, feature identification and movies, 12-minute disambiguated vector fields in active region patches, time evolution of AR indices, synoptic synchronic frames, potential and MHD model results, and 1 AU predictions. A more complete set of definitive science data products will be offered about a day later and come in three types. "Pipeline” products, such as full disk vector magnetograms, will be computed for all data on an appropriate cadence. A larger menu of "On Demand” products, such as Non-Linear Force Free Field snapshots of an evolving active region, will be produced whenever a user wants them. Less commonly needed "On Request” products that require significant project resources, such as a high resolution MHD simulation of the global corona, will be created subject to availability of resources. Further information can be found at the SDO Joint Science Operations Center web page, jsoc.stanford.edu

  16. Generation of an ultralong pure longitudinal magnetization needle with high axial homogeneity using an azimuthally polarized beam modulated by pure multi-zone plate phase filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Weichao; Nie, Zhongquan; Zhang, Xueru; Wang, Yuxiao; Song, Yinglin

    2017-08-01

    Based on the vector diffraction theory and the inverse Faraday effect in the magneto-optic film, light-induced magnetization distributions, for a high numerical aperture focusing configuration with an azimuthally polarized beam modulated by an optimized pure multi-zone plate phase filter, are investigated. By making use of the compeletely destructive interference of its inter circle with the π phase shift between adjacent sub-annuli, and the capability to extend the constructive interference in the propagating direction through its narrow outer annulus modulated by three misplaced helical phases, an ultralong (107λ ) magnetization needle with both transverse super-resolution (0.37λ ) and uniform axial field strength is achieved in the focal region. The perfect magnetization needle and the accessible method give a guide for ultrahigh density magnetic storage, fabricating magnetic lattices for spin wave operation, as well as atomic trapping.

  17. Ultra-high-field superconducting magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Hoard, R.W.; Cornish, D.N.; Scanlan, R.M.; Zbasnik, J.P.; Leber, R.L.; Hickman, R.B.; Lee, J.D.

    1983-08-01

    The following topics are considered: (1) superfluid helium for advanced magnets, (2) conductor reinforcement, (3) designing a 20-T, 2-m bore solenoidal coil, (4) coil size and conductor properties, (5) axial forces on the coil, (6) effect of radiation on the coil systems, and (7) helium-II transient heat transfer and coil protection. (MOW)

  18. Fe XII STALKS AND THE ORIGIN OF THE AXIAL FIELD IN FILAMENT CHANNELS

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Y.-M.; Sheeley, N. R. Jr.; Stenborg, G. E-mail: neil.sheeley@nrl.navy.mil

    2013-06-10

    Employing Fe XII images and line-of-sight magnetograms, we deduce the direction of the axial field in high-latitude filament channels from the orientation of the adjacent stalklike structures. Throughout the rising phase of the current solar cycle 24, filament channels poleward of latitude 30 Degree-Sign overwhelmingly obeyed the hemispheric chirality rule, being dextral (sinistral) in the northern (southern) hemisphere, corresponding to negative (positive) helicity. During the deep minimum of 2007-2009, the orientation of the Fe XII stalks was often difficult to determine, but no obvious violations of the rule were found. Although the hemispheric trend was still present during the maximum and early declining phase of cycle 23 (2000-2003), several high-latitude exceptions were identified at that time. From the observation that dextral (sinistral) filament channels form through the decay of active regions whose Fe XII features show a counterclockwise (clockwise) whorl, we conclude that the axial field direction is determined by the intrinsic helicity of the active regions. In contrast, generation of the axial field component by the photospheric differential rotation is difficult to reconcile with the observed chirality of polar crown and circular filament channels, and with the presence of filament channels along the equator. The main role of differential rotation in filament channel formation is to expedite the cancellation of flux and thus the removal of the transverse field component. We propose further that, rather than being ejected into the heliosphere, the axial field is eventually resubmerged by flux cancellation as the adjacent unipolar regions become increasingly mixed.

  19. Inhomogeneous Magnetic Field Geometry Light Ion Helicon Plasma Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, Yoshitaka; Nakashima, Hideki; Goulding, R. H.; Carter Baity, M. D., Jr.; Sparks, D. O.; Barber, G. C.; White, K. F.; Jaeger, E. F.; Chang-Díaz, F. R.; Squire, J. P.

    2002-11-01

    Helicon plasma source is a well-known high-density plasma source for many applications including plasma processing and fusion. However, most helicon research has been focused on a uniform static magnetic field and relatively heavy ions. Light ion helicon operation is more sensitive to magnetic field strength and geometry than heavy ions. The axially inhomogeneous Mini-Radio Frequency Test Facility (Mini-RFTF) has a capability for controlling static magnetic fields then is applicative for light ion source plasma operation. Inhomogeneous static magnetic field geometry also can procedure a high velocity to plasma exhaust when combined with ICRF heating enabling the possibility of use in plasma propulsion. In this poster, we will show how the source has been optimized for a hydrogen operation and a specific plasma propulsion concept: The Variable Specific Impulse Magnetoplasma Rocket (VASIMR). Measurements of the rf magnetic fields and profile of plasma parameters for several magnetic field strengths and geometries will be discussed. Comparisons with a RF modeling code EMIR3 also will be reported here.

  20. An Analysis of Saturn's Non-Axisymmetric Planetary Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, M.; Burton, M. E.; Dougherty, M. K.

    2013-12-01

    Planetary magnetic field models based on Pioneer and Voyager data [Davis and Smith, 1990], [Connerney et al., 1984], [Giampieri and Dougherty, 2004] as well as initial models based on Cassini data [Dougherty et al., 2005] were necessarily axisymmetric since they were based on a rotation period now thought to be incorrect by several minutes [Galopeau and Lecacheux, 2000]. Subsequent models were constrained to be strictly axisymmetric because of this lack of knowledge [Burton et al., 2009], yet the periodic character of the magnetic field in Saturn's inner magetosphere is evident [Southwood and Kivelson, 2007], [Andrews et al., 2008]. For Jupiter, the substantial contribution by the non-axial field, a direct method of determining the rate of rotation, is possible by examining the periodic variation in the tilt of the magnetic dipole axis. Saturn's magnetic field with a negligible dipole tilt, makes this direct determination difficult. Attempts to quantify the degree of non-axisymmetry based on Cassini data obtained on thrity-seven orbits during the prime mission were inconclusive [Burton et al., 2010]. Without accurate knowledge of Saturn's rotation rate, it is not possible to derive an internal magnetic field model that includes non-axial terms. Given the high degree of symmetry, less direct methods have been used to estimate Saturn's rotation rate [Anderson and Schubert, 2007] and[ Read et al., 2009]. Since the beginning of the Cassini mission in July 2004 until the present, the spacecraft has completed more than 194 orbits in a wide variety of geometries in Saturn's magnetosphere. Seventy-four of those orbits have come closer than the L-shell of Enceladus at 3.95 Rs. In this analysis we use magnetic field measurements obtained on more then seventy orbits to attempt to quantify the degree of non-axisymmetry of Saturn's magnetic field. Because of the significant effect of Enceladus on Saturn's magnetosphere [Kivelson, 2006], only data obtained on orbits well inside

  1. Magnetic Fields in Massive Filaments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pillai, Thushara

    Magnetic fields pervade galaxies, shaping them from the largest scales to the smallest star forming scales. A firm understanding of their role is crucial to our understanding of the physics of ISM. A dominant phase of the ISM that has received considerable attention is that of filaments which are ubiquitous and dominate the mass reservoir in molecular clouds. Enormous progress has been made recently towards understanding filament properties. The next major step should be to understand the role of magnetic fields in filaments. We propose to take advantage of HAWC+ dust emission polarimeter now available on SOFIA to launch a pilot polarization study towards three major classes of filaments: (i) Pristine (ii) Hub-Filament systems and (iii) Perturbed. HAWC+ will trace the connection between the star forming cores and the filaments enveloping them. By covering a vast range in parameter space from quiescent to active filaments, we will be constraining the initial conditions prior to star formation, during star formation and after star formation (feedback from newly formed stars on their parent clouds.) The interpretation of observations will be supported by extensive custom-made numerical simulations of magnetized clouds and subsequent dust radiative transfer with various grain alignment mechanisms, as provided by collaborators. Combined, these observations will provide the first panoramic view of the magnetized nature of massive filaments in the ISM.

  2. Magnetic Fields in Massive Filaments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pillai, G. S. Thushara

    2015-10-01

    Magnetic fields pervade galaxies, shaping them from the largest scales to the smallest star forming scales. A firm understanding of their role is crucial to our understanding of the physics of ISM. A dominant phase of the ISM that has received considerable attention is that of filaments which are ubiquitous and dominate the mass reservoir in molecular clouds. Enormous progress has been made recently towards understanding filament properties. The next major step should be to understand the role of magnetic fields in filaments. We propose to take advantage of HAWC+ dust emission polarimeter now available on SOFIA to launch a pilot polarization study towards three major classes of filaments: (i) Pristine (ii) Hub-Filament systems and (iii) Perturbed. HAWC+ will trace the connection between the star forming cores and the filaments enveloping them. By covering a vast range in parameter space from quiescent to active filaments, we will be constraining the initial conditions prior to star formation, during star formation and after star formation (feedback from newly formed stars on their parent clouds.) The interpretation of observations will be supported by extensive custom--made numerical simulations of magnetized clouds and subsequent dust radiative transfer with various grain alignment mechanisms, as provided by collaborators. Combined, these observations will provide the first panoramic view of the magnetized nature of massive filaments in the ISM.

  3. Low eddy loss axial hybrid magnetic bearing with gimballing control ability for momentum flywheel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Jiqiang; Sun, Jinji; Fang, Jiancheng; Shuzhi Sam, Ge

    2013-03-01

    For a magnetically suspended momentum flywheel (MSMF), the spinning rotor can be tilted by a pair of the presented axial hybrid magnetic bearing (AHMB) with eight poles and rotates around the radial axes to generate a large torque to maneuver the spacecraft. To improve the control performance and gimballing control ability of the AHMB, characteristics such as magnetic suspension force, angular stiffness and tilting momentum are researched. These segmented stator poles cause the magnetic density in the thrust rotor plate to be uneven unavoidably and the rotational loss is large at high speed, but we optimized the stator poles configuration and caused the thrust rotor plate formed by bulk DT4C and laminated material to make the magnetic density in the thrust rotor plate change less and be smoother. Laminated material such as 1J50 film with a thickness of 0.1 mm can make the variation of the magnetic density in DT4C become very small and the eddy loss of it be negligible, but the stress produced in the “O” shape stacks by reeling has a bad effect on its power loss. Nanocrystalline can reduce eddy losses and is not affected by the reeling process. Based on the AHBM consisting of the stator with eight improved poles and the presented thrust rotor plate with DT4 and nanocrystalline, the rotational loss of 5-DOF magnetically suspended momentum flywheel with angular momentum of 15 N m s at 5000 rpm has reduced from 23.4 W to 3.2 W, which proved that this AHMB has low eddy loss for the gimballing control ability.

  4. Field errors in superconducting magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Barton, M. Q.

    1982-01-01

    The mission of this workshop is a discussion of the techniques for tracking particles through arbitrary accelerator field configurations to look for dynamical effects that are suggested by various theoretical models but are not amenable to detailed analysis. A major motivation for this type of study is that many of our accelerator projects are based on the use of superconducting magnets which have field imperfections that are larger and of a more complex nature than those of conventional magnets. Questions such as resonances, uncorrectable closed orbit effects, coupling between planes, and diffusion mechanisms all assume new importance. Since, simultaneously, we are trying to do sophisticated beam manipulations such as stacking, high current accelerator, long life storage, and low loss extraction, we clearly need efficient and accurate tracking programs to proceed with confidence.

  5. Magnetic fields for fluid motion.

    PubMed

    Weston, Melissa C; Gerner, Matthew D; Fritsch, Ingrid

    2010-05-01

    Three forces induced by magnetic fields offer unique control of fluid motion and new opportunities in microfluidics. This article describes magnetoconvective phenomena in terms of the theory and controversy, tuning by redox processes at electrodes, early-stage applications in analytical chemistry, mature applications in disciplines far afield, and future directions for micro total analysis systems. (To listen to a podcast about this article, please go to the Analytical Chemistry multimedia page at pubs.acs.org/page/ancham/audio/index.html .).

  6. Single-particle dynamics of a free-electron laser with axial field

    SciTech Connect

    Pandya, T.P.; Bali, L.M.; Bakshi, U.; Jha, P.

    1987-06-15

    Single-particle dynamics of electron motion through a free-electron-laser cavity with axial guide field is presented. Equations governing the trajectories in the absence of radiation are obtained, and significant departures from the results of earlier work are discussed. Linearized gain in the presence of radiation is derived. Comparison with previous studies reveals (i) good agreement with results and (ii) gain enhancements at hitherto unreported frequencies.

  7. Gradient parameter and axial and field rays in the gradient-index crystalline lens model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez, M. V.; Bao, C.; Flores-Arias, M. T.; Rama, M. A.; Gómez-Reino, C.

    2003-09-01

    Gradient-index models of the human lens have received wide attention in optometry and vision sciences for considering how changes in the refractive index profile with age and accommodation may affect refractive power. This paper uses the continuous asymmetric bi-elliptical model to determine gradient parameter and axial and field rays of the human lens in order to study the paraxial propagation of light through the crystalline lens of the eye.

  8. Field-driven magnetization dynamics of nanoparticles and nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Jie

    This thesis is about micromagnetism in confined magnetic microstructures. The field-driven magnetization dynamics of nanoparticles and nanowires is systematically discussed following a clear thread of thought: from "macrospin" to "microspin". At the same time, four topics are raised and investigated. First, inspired by the traditional ferromagnetic resonance technique, two strategies for measuring the Gilbert damping coefficient using the magnetic circular dichroism effect are presented and discussed. The investigation is performed within a framework of the linear response of the macrospin in 2-D magnetic films to external time-dependent fields. The object of the study then turns to Stoner particles, which are single-domain magnetic nanoparticles, that are quasi 0-D systems and still assumed to be macrospins. The field-driven magnetization reversal in multi-axial Stoner particles is investigated and the corresponding Eular equations are presented. The Eular equations provide a unified framework for research of this kind. After that, the macrospin assumption itself is examined. The study of when and how it fails results in the famous "nucleation problem" in micromagnetism, thus the discussion then moves into the microspin category. The nucleation problem of single-domain cuboid permalloy nanowires, which are quasi 1-D systems, is investigated and a magnetization reversal mode named "domain formation and domain wall propagation" is revealed. Field-driven magnetic domain wall propagation is an excellent example of microspin behavior, and has been a hot issue in recent spintronic research. The effects of transverse magnetic anisotropies on field-driven transverse wall propagation in narrow magnetic nanowires are systematically investigated. These results should not only deepen the understanding of the domain wall dynamics in magnetic nanowires, but also offer inspiration for further developments of ultrafast nano-devices with higher integration levels.

  9. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer with axial field in a quadrupole reaction cell.

    PubMed

    Bandura, Dmitry R; Baranov, Vladimir I; Tanner, Scott D

    2002-10-01

    A novel reaction cell for ICP-MS with an electric field provided inside the quadrupole along its axis is described. The field is implemented via a DC bias applied to additional auxiliary electrodes inserted between the rods of the quadrupole. The field reduces the settling time of the pressurized quadrupole when its mass bandpass is dynamically tuned. It also improves the transmission of analyte ions. It is shown that for the pressurized cell with the field activated, the recovery time for a change in quadrupole operating parameters is reduced to <4 ms, which allows fast tuning of the mass bandpass in concert with and at the speed of the analyzing quadrupole. When the cell is operated with ammonia, the field reduces ion-ammonia cluster formation, further enhancing the transmission of atomic ions that have a high cluster formation rate. Ni x (NH3)n+ cluster formation in a cell operated with a wide bandpass (i.e., Ni+ precursors are stable in the cell) is shown to be dependent on the axial field strength. Clusters at n = 2-4 can be suppressed by 9, 1200, and >610 times, respectively. The use of a retarding axial field for in-situ energy discrimination against cluster and polyatomic ions is shown. When the cell is pressurized with O2 for suppression of 129Xe+, the formation of 127IH2+ by reactions with gas impurities limits the detection of 129I to isotopic abundance of approximately 10(-6). In-cell energy discrimination against 127IH2+ utilizing a retarding axial field is shown to reduce the abundance of the background at m/z = 129 to ca. 3 x 10(-8) of the 127I+ signal. In-cell energy discrimination against 127IH2+ is shown to cause less I+ loss than a post-cell potential energy barrier for the same degree of 127IH2+ suppression.

  10. Optimization of an axial flow heart pump with active and passive magnetic bearings.

    PubMed

    Glauser, Matthias; Jiang, Wei; Li, Guoxin; Lin, Zongli; Allaire, Paul E; Olson, Don

    2006-05-01

    Optimization of a magnetically suspended left ventricular assist device (LVAD) is crucial. We desire a totally implantable, long-life LVAD that delivers the necessary flow rate, pressure rise, and blood compatibility. By using a novel combination of passive and active magnetic bearings (AMBs), we have developed an axial flow LVAD prototype, the LEV-VAD, which provides an unobstructed blood flow path, preventing stagnation regions for the blood. Our current effort is focused on the optimization of the magnetic suspension system to allow for control of the AMB, minimizing its size and power consumption. The properties of the passive magnetic bearings and AMBs serve as parameter space, over which a cost function is minimized, subject to constraints such as suspension stability and sufficient disturbance rejection capabilities. The design process is expected to lead to the construction of a small prototype pump along with the necessary robust controller for the AMB. Sensitivity of the LVAD performance with respect to various design parameters is examined in-depth and an optimized, more compact LVAD prototype is designed.

  11. Interaction of gravitational waves with magnetic and electric fields

    SciTech Connect

    Barrabes, C.; Hogan, P. A.

    2010-03-15

    The existence of large-scale magnetic fields in the universe has led to the observation that if gravitational waves propagating in a cosmological environment encounter even a small magnetic field then electromagnetic radiation is produced. To study this phenomenon in more detail we take it out of the cosmological context and at the same time simplify the gravitational radiation to impulsive waves. Specifically, to illustrate our findings, we describe the following three physical situations: (1) a cylindrical impulsive gravitational wave propagating into a universe with a magnetic field, (2) an axially symmetric impulsive gravitational wave propagating into a universe with an electric field and (3) a 'spherical' impulsive gravitational wave propagating into a universe with a small magnetic field. In cases (1) and (3) electromagnetic radiation is produced behind the gravitational wave. In case (2) no electromagnetic radiation appears after the wave unless a current is established behind the wave breaking the Maxwell vacuum. In all three cases the presence of the magnetic or electric fields results in a modification of the amplitude of the incoming gravitational wave which is explicitly calculated using the Einstein-Maxwell vacuum field equations.

  12. Column buckling of doubly parallel slender nanowires carrying electric current acted upon by a magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiani, Keivan

    2016-08-01

    Axial buckling of current-carrying double-nanowire-systems immersed in a longitudinal magnetic field is aimed to be explored. Each nanowire is affected by the magnetic forces resulted from the externally exerted magnetic field plus the magnetic field resulted from the passage of electric current through the adjacent nanowire. To study the problem, these forces are appropriately evaluated in terms of transverse displacements. Subsequently, the governing equations of the nanosystem are constructed using Euler-Bernoulli beam theory in conjunction with the surface elasticity theory of Gurtin and Murdoch. Using a meshless technique and assumed mode method, the critical compressive buckling load of the nanosystem is determined. In a special case, the obtained results by these two numerical methods are successfully checked. The roles of the slenderness ratio, electric current, magnetic field strength, and interwire distance on the axial buckling load and stability behavior of the nanosystem are displayed and discussed in some detail.

  13. Intermittent magnetic field excitation by a turbulent flow of liquid sodium.

    PubMed

    Nornberg, M D; Spence, E J; Kendrick, R D; Jacobson, C M; Forest, C B

    2006-07-28

    The magnetic field measured in the Madison dynamo experiment shows intermittent periods of growth when an axial magnetic field is applied. The geometry of the intermittent field is consistent with the fastest-growing magnetic eigenmode predicted by kinematic dynamo theory using a laminar model of the mean flow. Though the eigenmodes of the mean flow are decaying, it is postulated that turbulent fluctuations of the velocity field change the flow geometry such that the eigenmode growth rate is temporarily positive. Therefore, it is expected that a characteristic of the onset of a turbulent dynamo is magnetic intermittency.

  14. Observation of the Faraday effect via beam deflection in a longitudinal magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, Ambarish; Hill, Winfield; Fischer, Peer

    2007-11-15

    We show that magnetic-field-induced circular differential deflection of light can be observed in reflection or refraction at a single interface. The difference in the reflection or refraction angles between the two circular polarization components is a function of the magnetic-field strength and the Verdet constant, and permits the observation of the Faraday effect not via polarization rotation in transmission, but via changes in the propagation direction. Deflection measurements do not suffer from n-{pi} ambiguities and are shown to be another means to map magnetic fields with high axial resolution, or to determine the sign and magnitude of magnetic-field pulses in a single measurement.

  15. Magnetic Fields and Bow Shocks Illustration

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-02-19

    This illustration shows quasi-parallel top and quasi-perpendicular bottom magnetic field conditions at a planetary bow shock. Bow shocks are shockwaves created when the solar wind blows on a planet magnetic field.

  16. Solar and Interstellar Magnetic Fields Artist Concept

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-12-03

    This artist concept shows the different expected directions of the magnetic fields in interstellar space black lines and the magnetic field emanating from our sun white lines as NASA Voyager 1 spacecraft travels northward out of the heliosphere.

  17. Passing Comet Affects Magnetic Field at Mars

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-03-09

    This artist depiction shows the close encounter between comet Siding Sprng and Mars in 2014. The comet powerful magnetic field temporarily merged with, and overwhelmed, the planet weak magnetic field.

  18. Comparing Magnetic Fields on Earth and Mars

    NASA Image and Video Library

    This animation compares the magnetic fields on Earth and Mars. The Earth has a large-scale planetary magnetic field that can protect it from space weather and other hazards. Mars, on the other hand...

  19. Field quality aspects of CBA superconducting magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Kahn, S.; Engelmann, R.; Fernow, R.; Greene, A.F.; Herrera, J.; Kirk, H.; Skaritka, J.; Wanderer, P.; Willen, E.

    1983-01-01

    A series of superconducting dipole magnets for the BNL Colliding Beam Accelerator which were manufactured to have the proper field quality characteristics has been tested. This report presents the analysis of the field harmonics of these magnets.

  20. Measurements of Solar Vector Magnetic Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagyard, M. J. (Editor)

    1985-01-01

    Various aspects of the measurement of solar magnetic fields are presented. The four major subdivisions of the study are: (1) theoretical understanding of solar vector magnetic fields; (3) techniques for interpretation of observational data; and (4) techniques for data display.

  1. Magnetic holes in the solar wind. [(interplanetary magnetic fields)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, J. M.; Burlaga, L. F.; Ness, N. F.; Lemaire, J. F.

    1976-01-01

    An analysis is presented of high resolution interplanetary magnetic field measurements from the magnetometer on Explorer 43 which showed that low magnetic field intensities in the solar wind at 1 AU occur as distinct depressions or 'holes'. These magnetic holes are new kinetic-scale phenomena, having a characteristic dimension on the order of 20,000 km. They occurred at a rate of 1.5/day in the 18-day time span (March 18 to April 6, 1971) that was analyzed. Most of the magnetic holes are characterized by both a depression in the absolute value of the magnetic field, and a change in the magnetic field direction; some of these are possibly the result of magnetic merging. However, in other cases the magnetic field direction does not change; such holes are not due to magnetic merging, but might be a diamagnetic effect due to localized plasma inhomogeneities.

  2. Minireview: Biological effects of magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Villa, M.; Mustarelli, P. ); Caprotti, M. )

    1991-01-01

    The literature about the biological effects of magnetic fields is reviewed. The authors begin by discussing the weak and/or time variable fields, responsible for subtle changes in the circadian rhythms of superior animals, which are believed to be induced by same sort of resonant mechanism. The safety issues related with the strong magnetic fields and gradients generated by clinical NMR magnets are then considered. The last portion summarizes the debate about the biological effects of strong and uniform magnetic fields.

  3. STUDIES IN GALACTIC ASTRONOMY, INCLUDING MAGNETIC FIELDS.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    ASTRONOMY , GALAXIES), (*GALAXIES, BIBLIOGRAPHIES), (*BIBLIOGRAPHIES, GALAXIES), NOVAE, INTERSTELLAR MATTER, MAGNETIC FIELDS, POLARIZATION, STARS, STABILITY, ENERGY, DISTRIBUTION, OPTICAL PROPERTIES, CELESTIAL MECHANICS

  4. Rotating copper plasmoid in external magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Pandey, Pramod K.; Thareja, Raj K.

    2013-02-15

    Effect of nonuniform magnetic field on the expanding copper plasmoid in helium and argon gases using optical emission spectroscopy and fast imaging is presented. We report a peculiar oscillatory rotation of plasmoid in magnetic field and argon ambient. The temporal variation and appearance of the dip in the electron temperature show a direct evidence of the threading and expulsion of the magnetic field lines from the plasmoid. Rayleigh Taylor instability produced at the interface separating magnetic field and plasma is discussed.

  5. Magnetic resonance imaging in diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis: similarities to axial spondyloarthritis.

    PubMed

    Arad, Uri; Elkayam, Ori; Eshed, Iris

    2017-03-31

    Diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) is a non-inflammatory condition that involves calcification and ossification of the spinal ligaments and entheses. While, characteristic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) lesions of the spine in patients with axial spondyloarthritis, another enthesitis-related disease, have been described and defined, there is a paucity of information regarding the MRI findings in DISH. The aim of this study was to describe the MRI findings of patients with DISH. We collected computed tomography studies with findings characteristic of DISH and that also had corresponding and concurrent MRI studies of the spine. For each patient, sagittal T1-weighted and STIR MRI sequences were evaluated for anterior/posterior vertebral corners of bone marrow edema (BME) and fat deposition. In total, we assessed 156 vertebral units in 10 patients that had both radiographic evidence of DISH and available MRI studies of the spine. Lesions consistent with BME corners were detected in five patients, and in three of them, three separate sites were involved, a finding that is suggestive of axial spondyloarthritis (SpA) according to the ASAS/OMERACT consensus statement. Fat deposition corners were detected in eight patients and in seven of them, several sites were involved. Spinal MRI lesions that are characteristic of axial SpA were commonly observed in a cohort of patients with DISH. This bears relevance to cases with diagnostic uncertainty and may imply overlapping pathogenetic mechanisms for new bone formation in both SpA and DISH. Further study is indicated to better characterize the similarities and differences between the MRI lesions of DISH and SpA.

  6. Applied Magnetic Field Enhances Arc Vapor Deposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, T. A.; Loutfy, R. O.; Withers, J. C.

    1993-01-01

    Applied magnetic field enhances performance of vaporization part of arc vapor deposition apparatus. When no magnetic field applied by external means, arc wonders semirandomly over cathode, with net motion toward electrical feedthrough. When magnetic field applied arc moves circumferentially around cathode, and downward motion suppressed.

  7. Generalized cable formalism to calculate the magnetic field of single neurons and neuronal populations.

    PubMed

    Bedard, Claude; Destexhe, Alain

    2014-10-01

    Neurons generate magnetic fields which can be recorded with macroscopic techniques such as magnetoencephalography. The theory that accounts for the genesis of neuronal magnetic fields involves dendritic cable structures in homogeneous resistive extracellular media. Here we generalize this model by considering dendritic cables in extracellular media with arbitrarily complex electric properties. This method is based on a multiscale mean-field theory where the neuron is considered in interaction with a "mean" extracellular medium (characterized by a specific impedance). We first show that, as expected, the generalized cable equation and the standard cable generate magnetic fields that mostly depend on the axial current in the cable, with a moderate contribution of extracellular currents. Less expected, we also show that the nature of the extracellular and intracellular media influence the axial current, and thus also influence neuronal magnetic fields. We illustrate these properties by numerical simulations and suggest experiments to test these findings.

  8. Bats respond to very weak magnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Tian, Lan-Xiang; Pan, Yong-Xin; Metzner, Walter; Zhang, Jin-Shuo; Zhang, Bing-Fang

    2015-01-01

    How animals, including mammals, can respond to and utilize the direction and intensity of the Earth's magnetic field for orientation and navigation is contentious. In this study, we experimentally tested whether the Chinese Noctule, Nyctalus plancyi (Vespertilionidae) can sense magnetic field strengths that were even lower than those of the present-day geomagnetic field. Such field strengths occurred during geomagnetic excursions or polarity reversals and thus may have played an important role in the evolution of a magnetic sense. We found that in a present-day local geomagnetic field, the bats showed a clear preference for positioning themselves at the magnetic north. As the field intensity decreased to only 1/5th of the natural intensity (i.e., 10 μT; the lowest field strength tested here), the bats still responded by positioning themselves at the magnetic north. When the field polarity was artificially reversed, the bats still preferred the new magnetic north, even at the lowest field strength tested (10 μT), despite the fact that the artificial field orientation was opposite to the natural geomagnetic field (P<0.05). Hence, N. plancyi is able to detect the direction of a magnetic field even at 1/5th of the present-day field strength. This high sensitivity to magnetic fields may explain how magnetic orientation could have evolved in bats even as the Earth's magnetic field strength varied and the polarity reversed tens of times over the past fifty million years.

  9. Hybrid Shielding for Magnetic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mullins, David; Royal, Kevin

    2017-01-01

    Precision symmetry measurements such as the search for the electric dipole moment of the neutron require magnetic shielding rooms to reduce the ambient field to the pT scale. The massive mu-metal sheets and large separation between layers make these shield rooms bulky and expensive. Active field cancellation systems used to reduce the surrounding field are limited in uniformity of cancellation. A novel approach to reducing the space between shield layers and increasing the effectiveness of active cancellation is to combine the two systems into a hybrid system, with active and passive layers interspersed. We demonstrate this idea in a prototype with an active layer sandwiched between two passive layers of shielding.

  10. The emergence of weakly twisted magnetic fields in the sun

    SciTech Connect

    Archontis, V.; Hood, A. W.; Tsinganos, K.

    2013-11-20

    We have studied the emergence of a weakly twisted magnetic flux tube from the upper convection zone into the solar atmosphere. It is found that the rising magnetized plasma does not undergo the classical, single Ω-shaped loop emergence, but it becomes unstable in two places, forming two magnetic lobes that are anchored in small-scale bipolar structures at the photosphere, between the two main flux concentrations. The two magnetic lobes rise and expand into the corona, forming an overall undulating magnetic flux system. The dynamical interaction of the lobes results in the triggering of high-speed and hot jets and the formation of successive cool and hot loops that coexist in the emerging flux region. Although the initial emerging field is weakly twisted, a highly twisted magnetic flux rope is formed at the low atmosphere, due to shearing and reconnection. The new flux rope (hereafter post-emergence flux rope) does not erupt. It remains confined by the overlying field. Although there is no ejective eruption of the post-emergence rope, it is found that a considerable amount of axial and azimuthal flux is transferred into the solar atmosphere during the emergence of the magnetic field.

  11. An investigation of a flow field in one and half axial turbine stage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Němec, Martin; Jelínek, Tomáš; Milčák, Petr

    2017-09-01

    An investigation of one and half axial turbine stage configuration was carried out in a closed-loop wind tunnel. The investigation was addressed to that impact how the previous stage outlet flow field influences a flow structures in the next stator in steam multistage turbines. The detailed measurement behind the rotor and the second stator was performed with a pneumatic probes to gain a useful data for an impact analysis. Various rotor shroud clearances were also tested to capture the shroud outlet flow field influences.

  12. Interplanetary magnetic field data book

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, J. H.

    1975-01-01

    An interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) data set is presented that is uniform with respect to inclusion of cislunar IMF data only, and which has as complete time coverage as presently possible over a full solar cycle. Macroscale phenomena in the interplanetary medium (sector structure, heliolatitude variations, solar cycle variations, etc.) and other phenomena (e.g., ground level cosmic-ray events) for which knowledge of the IMF with hourly resolution is necessary, are discussed. Listings and plots of cislunar hourly averaged IMP parameters over the period November 27, 1963, to May 17, 1974, are presented along with discussion of the mutual consistency of the IMF data used herein. The magnetic tape from which the plots and listings were generated, which is available from the National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC), is also discussed.

  13. The Giotto magnetic field investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neubauer, F. M.; Musmann, G.; Acuna, M. H.; Burlaga, L. F.; Ness, N. F.; Mariani, F.; Wallis, M.; Ungstrup, E.; Schmidt, H.

    1983-01-01

    The Giotto spacecraft will carry sensors for investigating the interplanetary magnetic field while en route and the interaction between the solar wind magnetoplasma and Halley's Comet neutral gas outflow during close approach. Giotto will carry an outboard biaxial fluxgate system and inboard electronics. The instrumentation draws 1.2 kW and weighs 1.31 kg. Sampling rates will be 28/sec during close encounter, covering selectable ranges from 16 nT to 65,535 nT. In-flight calibration techniques are under development to ensure magnetic cleanliness will be obtained. Measurements are also planned of the inbound bow shock, the magnetosheath and the cometary ionopause. The data will be collected as close as 1000 km from the comet surface.

  14. Design, simulation and analysis of 3 kW low speed axial flux permanent magnet generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasim, Muhammad; Irasari, Pudji; Hikmawan, Muhammad Fathul

    2016-03-01

    Design and simulation of an axial flux permanent magnet generator (AFPMG) have been described in this paper. It was designed using the single rotor - single stator construction. The analytical method was using in the design process. The design process also employed the simulation using Finite Element Method Magnetics (FEMM) 4.2 software for identifying the magnetic characteristic and heat transfer. The effect of fill factor (FF) variation on the generator performances also observed in this paper. The design result shows that using the selected FF, the conductor diameter, power output, efficiency and heat distribution are affected but not for the Bg. The generator output can achieve up to 5.2 kW using the FF 0.4 which is more than assumed power output at the pre-design using FF 0.3. It also can be seen that the increasing FF will increase the power output and the efficiency. Despite a higher temperature compared with FF 0.3 and 0.35, the value of 0.4 is the most appropriate FF for designing the AFPMG.

  15. Magnetic field sources and their threat to magnetic media

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jewell, Steve

    1993-01-01

    Magnetic storage media (tapes, disks, cards, etc.) may be damaged by external magnetic fields. The potential for such damage has been researched, but no objective standard exists for the protection of such media. This paper summarizes a magnetic storage facility standard, Publication 933, that ensures magnetic protection of data storage media.

  16. Static magnetic fields: animal studies.

    PubMed

    Saunders, Richard

    2005-01-01

    Various experimental studies carried out over the last 30-40 years have examined the effects of the chronic or acute exposure of laboratory animals to static magnetic fields. Many of the earlier studies have been adequately reviewed elsewhere; few adverse effects were identified. This review focuses on studies carried out more recently, mostly those using vertebrates, particularly mammals. Four main areas of investigation have been covered, viz., nervous system and behavioural studies, cardiovascular system responses, reproduction and development, and genotoxicity and cancer. Work on the role of the natural geomagnetic field in animal orientation and migration has been omitted. Generally, the acute responses found during exposure to static fields above about 4 T are consistent with those found in volunteer studies, namely the induction of flow potentials around the heart and the development of aversive/avoidance behaviour resulting from body movement in such fields. No consistently demonstrable effects of exposure to fields of approximately 1T and above have been seen on other behavioural or cardiovascular endpoints. In addition, no adverse effects of such fields on reproduction and development or on the growth and development of tumours have been firmly established. Overall, however, far too few animal studies have been carried out to reach any firm conclusions.

  17. Saturn's Magnetic Field and Magnetosphere.

    PubMed

    Smith, E J; Davis, L; Jones, D E; Coleman, P J; Colburn, D S; Dyal, P; Sonett, C P

    1980-01-25

    The Pioneer Saturn vector helium magnetometer has detected a bow shock and magnetopause at Saturn and has provided an accurate characterization of the planetary field. The equatorial surface field is 0.20 gauss, a factor of 3 to 5 times smaller than anticipated on the basis of attempted scalings from Earth and Jupiter. The tilt angle between the magnetic dipole axis and Saturn's rotation axis is < 1 degrees , a surprisingly small value. Spherical harmonic analysis of the measurements shows that the ratio of quadrupole to dipole moments is < 10 percent, indicating that the field is more uniform than those of the Earth or Jupiter and consistent with Saturn having a relatively small core. The field in the outer magnetosphere shows systematic departures from the dipole field, principally a compression of the field near noon and an equatorial orientation associated with a current sheet near dawn. A hydromagnetic wake resulting from the interaction of Titan with the rotating magnetosphere appears to have been observed.

  18. Variation of axial and oblique astigmatism with accommodation across the visual field

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Tao; Thibos, Larry N.

    2017-01-01

    In this study we investigated the impact of accommodation on axial and oblique astigmatism along 12 meridians of the central 30° of visual field and explored the compensation of corneal first-surface astigmatism by the remainder of the eye's optical system. Our experimental evidence revealed no systematic effect of accommodation on either axial or oblique astigmatism for two adult populations (myopic and emmetropic eyes). Although a few subjects exhibited systematic changes in axial astigmatism during accommodation, the dioptric value of these changes was much smaller than the amount of accommodation. For most subjects, axial and oblique astigmatism of the whole eye are both less than for the cornea alone, which indicates a compensatory role for internal optics at all accommodative states in both central and peripheral vision. A new method for determining the eye's optical axis based on visual field maps of oblique astigmatism revealed that, on average, the optical axis is 4.8° temporal and 0.39° superior to the foveal line-of-sight in object space, which agrees with previous results obtained by different methodologies and implies that foveal astigmatism includes a small amount of oblique astigmatism (0.06 D on average). Customized optical models of each eye revealed that oblique astigmatism of the corneal first surface is negligible along the pupillary axis for emmetropic and myopic eyes. Individual variation in the eye's optical axis is due in part to misalignment of the corneal and internal components that is consistent with tilting of the crystalline lens relative to the pupillary axis. PMID:28362902

  19. Variation of axial and oblique astigmatism with accommodation across the visual field.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tao; Thibos, Larry N

    2017-03-01

    In this study we investigated the impact of accommodation on axial and oblique astigmatism along 12 meridians of the central 30° of visual field and explored the compensation of corneal first-surface astigmatism by the remainder of the eye's optical system. Our experimental evidence revealed no systematic effect of accommodation on either axial or oblique astigmatism for two adult populations (myopic and emmetropic eyes). Although a few subjects exhibited systematic changes in axial astigmatism during accommodation, the dioptric value of these changes was much smaller than the amount of accommodation. For most subjects, axial and oblique astigmatism of the whole eye are both less than for the cornea alone, which indicates a compensatory role for internal optics at all accommodative states in both central and peripheral vision. A new method for determining the eye's optical axis based on visual field maps of oblique astigmatism revealed that, on average, the optical axis is 4.8° temporal and 0.39° superior to the foveal line-of-sight in object space, which agrees with previous results obtained by different methodologies and implies that foveal astigmatism includes a small amount of oblique astigmatism (0.06 D on average). Customized optical models of each eye revealed that oblique astigmatism of the corneal first surface is negligible along the pupillary axis for emmetropic and myopic eyes. Individual variation in the eye's optical axis is due in part to misalignment of the corneal and internal components that is consistent with tilting of the crystalline lens relative to the pupillary axis.

  20. Magnetic field penetration of erosion switch plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, Rodney J.; Jones, Michael E.; Grossmann, John M.; Ottinger, Paul F.

    1988-10-01

    Computer simulations demonstrate that the entrainment (or advection) of magnetic field with the flow of cathode-emitted electrons can constitute a dominant mechanism for the magnetic field penetration of erosion switch plasmas. Cross-field drift in the accelerating electric field near the cathode starts the penetration process. Plasma erosion propagates the point for emission and magnetic field injection along the cathode toward the load-for the possibility of rapid switch opening.

  1. Harmonic undulator radiations with constant magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeevakhan, Hussain; Mishra, G.

    2015-01-01

    Harmonic undulators has been analysed in the presence of constant magnetic field along the direction of main undulator field. The spectrum modifications in harmonic undulator radiations and intensity degradation as a function of constant magnetic field magnitude at fundamental and third harmonics have been evaluated with a numerical integration method and generalised Bessel function. The role of harmonic field to overcome the intensity reduction due to constant magnetic field and energy spread in electron beam has also been demonstrated.

  2. A model of field and spherical aberration in soft/hard edge solenoid magnets.

    PubMed

    Biswas, B

    2013-10-01

    A solenoid magnetic field model is presented that describes the on axis field by a parameter of its hard edginess and axial half-width at half-maximum field, which universally define its spherical aberration without solving the ray equation. The model shows an increase in spherical aberration from real soft edge fields to hard edge models, as used in beam tracking. It compares well with existing field models. It simply and accurately finds the spherical aberration in many types of solenoids.

  3. Shape transitions in excited states of two-electron quantum dots in a magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazmitdinov, R. G.; Simonović, N. S.; Plastino, A. R.; Chizhov, A. V.

    2012-10-01

    We use entanglement to study shape transitions in two-electron axially symmetric parabolic quantum dots in a perpendicular magnetic field. At a specific magnetic field value the dot attains a spherical symmetry. The transition from the axial to the spherical symmetry manifests itself as a drastic change of the entanglement of the lowest state with zero angular momentum projection. While the electrons in such a state are always localized in the plane (x - y) before the transition point, after this point they become localized in the vertical direction.

  4. Graphene in high magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlita, Milan; Escoffier, Walter; Plochocka, Paulina; Raquet, Bertrand; Zeitler, Uli

    2013-01-01

    Carbon-based nano-materials, such as graphene and carbon nanotubes, represent a fascinating research area aiming at exploring their remarkable physical and electronic properties. These materials not only constitute a playground for physicists, they are also very promising for practical applications and are envisioned as elementary bricks of the future of the nano-electronics. As for graphene, its potential already lies in the domain of opto-electronics where its unique electronic and optical properties can be fully exploited. Indeed, recent technological advances have demonstrated its effectiveness in the fabrication of solar cells and ultra-fast lasers, as well as touch-screens and sensitive photo-detectors. Although the photo-voltaic technology is now dominated by silicon-based devices, the use of graphene could very well provide higher efficiency. However, before the applied research to take place, one must first demonstrates the operativeness of carbon-based nano-materials, and this is where the fundamental research comes into play. In this context, the use of magnetic field has been proven extremely useful for addressing their fundamental properties as it provides an external and adjustable parameter which drastically modifies their electronic band structure. In order to induce some significant changes, very high magnetic fields are required and can be provided using both DC and pulsed technology, depending of the experimental constraints. In this article, we review some of the challenging experiments on single nano-objects performed in high magnetic and low temperature. We shall mainly focus on the high-field magneto-optical and magneto-transport experiments which provided comprehensive understanding of the peculiar Landau level quantization of the Dirac-type charge carriers in graphene and thin graphite.

  5. Wigner function and kinetic phenomena for chiral plasma in a strong magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorbar, E. V.; Miransky, V. A.; Shovkovy, I. A.; Sukhachov, P. O.

    2017-08-01

    By using the exact solutions of the Weyl equation in a constant magnetic field, the equal-time Wigner function for magnetized chiral plasma is derived. It is found that the dependence of the Wigner function on the component of momentum along the magnetic field is asymmetric and is correlated with the fermion chirality. Such a dependence is principal for reproducing the correct chiral magnetic and chiral separation effects. In the lowest Landau level approximation, the equation for the equal-time Wigner function in a strong magnetic field is derived. By making use of this equation, it is found that the longitudinal collective modes in a strong magnetic field are gapped plasmons whose gap is determined by the magnetic field. Unlike the ordinary magnetic field, an axial one allows for the dispersion law of the collective excitations asymmetric in the wave vector. The thermoelectric phenomena for chiral fermions in strong magnetic and axial magnetic fields are studied and the corresponding transport coefficients are calculated.

  6. The embryonic development of frogs under strong DC magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Ueno, S.; Harada, K.; Shiodawa, K.

    1984-09-01

    Possible influence of d.c. magnetic fields in the early embryonic development of frogs was studied. Embryos of African clawed toads, Xenopus laevis, were exposed to 1.0 T magnetic fields with different gradients of a range from 10 T/m to 10/sup 3/ T/m either during cleavage to neurula stage, blastula to neurula stage, or neurula to tail bud stage. The developmental processes of embryos during and after magnetic field exposures were followed to examine a possibility of teratogenic effects. The results suggest that the magnetic field exerts no harmful or modifying effects on the important morphogenetic movements such as gastrulation and neurulation. However, it was observed that embryos which were exposed to the gradient magnetic fields during cleavage to neurula stage occasionally developed into tadpoles with reduced pigmentation or some axial anomalies such as the formation of curled tail. Tadpoles with edema or microcephaly were also observed. Compared with the control, the rate of malformation was higher by about 35 %. The influence of oxygen concentration in Ringer's solution on the embryonic development was also studied, and toxicity of oxygen with high concentration is discussed.

  7. The Effects of a Magnetic Field on the Crystallization of a Fluorozirconate Glass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, Dennis S.; Lapointe, Michael R.; Jia, Zhiyong

    2006-01-01

    An axial magnetic field of 0.1T was applied to ZrF4-BaF2-LaF3-AlF3-NaF (ZBLAN) fibers during heating to the glass crystallization temperature. Scanning electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction were used to identify crystal phases. It was shown that fibers exposed to the magnetic field did not crystallize while fibers not exposed to the field did crystallize. A hypothesis based on magnetic work was proposed to explain the results and tested by measuring the magnetic susceptibilities of the glass and crystal.

  8. Thruster performance and acceleration mechanisms of a quasi-steady MPD arcjet with applied magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaki, Masanori; Tahara, Hirokazu; Kagaya, Yoichi; Yoshikawa, Takao

    A quasi-steady magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) arcjet with applied axial magnetic fields has been investigated at high specific impulse levels to improve the thruster performance and to understand the complex acceleration mechanisms with both a self-induced magnetic field and an applied one. Axial-field application was found to achieve higher thrust efficiencies at the same specific impulses and to achieve stable operations at higher specific impulses with less electrode erosion. Furthermore, the measured pressure characteristics near the electrodes and current density patterns showed that the total thrust increased in spite of a decrease in the electromagnetic pumping thrust and the small contribution of Hall acceleration. Thus, additional thrust components due to the axial field were expected to exist.

  9. Penning trap with an inclined magnetic field.

    PubMed

    Yaremko, Yurij; Przybylska, Maria; Maciejewski, Andrzej J

    2016-08-01

    A modified Penning trap with a spatially uniform magnetic field B inclined with respect to the axis of rotational symmetry of the electrodes is considered. The inclination angle can be arbitrary. Canonical transformation of phase variables transforming the Hamiltonian of the considered system into a sum of three uncoupled harmonic oscillators is found. We determine the region of stability in space of two parameters controlling the dynamics: the trapping parameter κ and the squared sine of the inclination angle ϑ0. If the angle ϑ0 is smaller than 54°, a charge occupies a finite spatial volume within the processing chamber. A rigid hierarchy of trapping frequencies is broken if B is inclined at the critical angle: the magnetron frequency reaches the modified cyclotron frequency while the axial frequency exceeds them. Apart from this resonance, we reveal the family of resonant curves in the region of stability. In the relativistic regime, the system is not linear. We show that it is not integrable in the Liouville sense. The averaging over the fast variable allows to reduce the system to two degrees of freedom. An analysis of the Poincaré cross-sections of the averaged systems shows the regions of effective stability of the trap.

  10. Penning trap with an inclined magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yaremko, Yurij; Przybylska, Maria; Maciejewski, Andrzej J.

    2016-08-01

    A modified Penning trap with a spatially uniform magnetic field B inclined with respect to the axis of rotational symmetry of the electrodes is considered. The inclination angle can be arbitrary. Canonical transformation of phase variables transforming the Hamiltonian of the considered system into a sum of three uncoupled harmonic oscillators is found. We determine the region of stability in space of two parameters controlling the dynamics: the trapping parameter κ and the squared sine of the inclination angle ϑ 0 . If the angle ϑ 0 is smaller than 54°, a charge occupies a finite spatial volume within the processing chamber. A rigid hierarchy of trapping frequencies is broken if B is inclined at the critical angle: the magnetron frequency reaches the modified cyclotron frequency while the axial frequency exceeds them. Apart from this resonance, we reveal the family of resonant curves in the region of stability. In the relativistic regime, the system is not linear. We show that it is not integrable in the Liouville sense. The averaging over the fast variable allows to reduce the system to two degrees of freedom. An analysis of the Poincaré cross-sections of the averaged systems shows the regions of effective stability of the trap.

  11. MESSENGER observations of induced magnetic fields in Mercury's core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Catherine L.; Philpott, Lydia C.; Anderson, Brian J.; Korth, Haje; Hauck, Steven A.; Heyner, Daniel; Phillips, Roger J.; Winslow, Reka M.; Solomon, Sean C.

    2016-03-01

    Orbital data from the Magnetometer on the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft allow investigation of magnetic fields induced at the top of Mercury's core by time-varying magnetospheric fields. We used 15 Mercury years of observations of the magnetopause position as well as the magnetic field inside the magnetosphere to establish the presence and magnitude of an annual induction signal. Our results indicate an annual change in the internal axial dipole term, g10, of 7.5 to 9.5 nT. For negligible mantle conductivity, the average annual induction signal provides an estimate of Mercury's core radius to within ±90 km, independent of geodetic results. Larger induction signals during extreme events are expected but are challenging to identify because of reconnection-driven erosion. Our results indicate that the magnetopause reaches the dayside planetary surface 1.5-4% of the time.

  12. Near-Field Magnetic Dipole Moment Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, Patrick K.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the data analysis technique used for magnetic testing at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). Excellent results have been obtained using this technique to convert a spacecraft s measured magnetic field data into its respective magnetic dipole moment model. The model is most accurate with the earth s geomagnetic field cancelled in a spherical region bounded by the measurement magnetometers with a minimum radius large enough to enclose the magnetic source. Considerably enhanced spacecraft magnetic testing is offered by using this technique in conjunction with a computer-controlled magnetic field measurement system. Such a system, with real-time magnetic field display capabilities, has been incorporated into other existing magnetic measurement facilities and is also used at remote locations where transport to a magnetics test facility is impractical.

  13. Magnetic Fields in Irregular Galaxies: NGC 4214

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kepley, Amanda A.; Wilcots, E. M.; Robishaw, T.; Heiles, C.; Zweibel, E.

    2006-12-01

    Magnetic fields are an important component of the interstellar medium of galaxies. They provide support, transfer energy from supernovae, provide a possible heating mechanism, and channel gas flows (Beck 2004). Despite the importance of magnetic fields in the ISM, it is not well known what generates and sustains galactic magnetic fields or how magnetic fields, gas, and stars interact in galaxies. The magnetic fields may be especially important in low-mass galaxies like irregulars where the magnetic pressure may be great enough for the field to be dynamically important. However, only four irregular galaxies besides the LMC and the SMC have observed magnetic field structures. The goal of our project is to significantly increase the number of irregular galaxies with observed magnetic field structure. Here we present preliminary results for one of the galaxies in our sample: NGC 4214. Using the VLA and the GBT, we have obtained 3cm, 6cm, and 20cm radio continuum polarization observations of this well-studied galaxy. Our observations allow us to investigate the effects of NGC 4214's high star formation rate, slow rotation rate, and weak bar on the structure of its magnetic field. We find that NGC 4214's magnetic field has an S-shaped structure, with the central field following the bar and the outer edges curving to follow the shape of the arms. The mechanism for generating these fields is still uncertain. A. Kepley is funded by an NSF Graduate Research Fellowship.

  14. Magnetic field generation by rotating black holes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leahy, D. A.; Vilenkin, A.

    1981-01-01

    A new mechanism of cosmic magnetic field generation is discussed. Neutrinos asymmetrically emitted by rotating black holes scatter on protons and produce a proton current which generates the magnetic field. It is shown that this mechanism can in principle produce a seed field sufficiently strong to account for present galactic fields.

  15. Magnetic fields from the electroweak phase transition

    SciTech Connect

    Tornkvist, O.

    1998-02-01

    I review some of the mechanisms through which primordial magnetic fields may be created in the electroweak phase transition. I show that no magnetic fields are produced initially from two-bubble collisions in a first-order transition. The initial field produced in a three-bubble collision is computed. The evolution of fields at later times is discussed.

  16. Magnetic field observations in Comet Halley's coma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riedler, W.; Schwingenschuh, K.; Yeroshenko, Ye. G.; Styashkin, V. A.; Russell, C. T.

    1986-05-01

    During the encounter with Comet Halley, the magnetometer (MISCHA) aboard the Vega 1 spacecraft observed an increased level of magnetic field turbulence, resulting from an upstream bow wave. Both Vega spacecraft measured a peak field strength of 70-80 nT and observed draping of magnetic field lines around the cometary obstacle. An unexpected rotation of the magnetic field vector was observed, which may reflect either penetration of magnetic field lines into a diffuse layer related to the contact surface separating the solar-wind and cometary plasma, or the persistence of pre-existing interplanetary field structures.

  17. Spin dephasing in a magnetic dipole field.

    PubMed

    Ziener, C H; Kampf, T; Reents, G; Schlemmer, H-P; Bauer, W R

    2012-05-01

    Transverse relaxation by dephasing in an inhomogeneous field is a general mechanism in physics, for example, in semiconductor physics, muon spectroscopy, or nuclear magnetic resonance. In magnetic resonance imaging the transverse relaxation provides information on the properties of several biological tissues. Since the dipole field is the most important part of the multipole expansion of the local inhomogeneous field, dephasing in a dipole field is highly important in relaxation theory. However, there have been no analytical solutions which describe the dephasing in a magnetic dipole field. In this work we give a complete analytical solution for the dephasing in a magnetic dipole field which is valid over the whole dynamic range.

  18. Spin dephasing in a magnetic dipole field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziener, C. H.; Kampf, T.; Reents, G.; Schlemmer, H.-P.; Bauer, W. R.

    2012-05-01

    Transverse relaxation by dephasing in an inhomogeneous field is a general mechanism in physics, for example, in semiconductor physics, muon spectroscopy, or nuclear magnetic resonance. In magnetic resonance imaging the transverse relaxation provides information on the properties of several biological tissues. Since the dipole field is the most important part of the multipole expansion of the local inhomogeneous field, dephasing in a dipole field is highly important in relaxation theory. However, there have been no analytical solutions which describe the dephasing in a magnetic dipole field. In this work we give a complete analytical solution for the dephasing in a magnetic dipole field which is valid over the whole dynamic range.

  19. Magnetic field effects on microwave absorbing materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, Ira; Hollingsworth, Charles S.; Mckinney, Ted M.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of this program was to gather information to formulate a microwave absorber that can work in the presence of strong constant direct current (DC) magnetic fields. The program was conducted in four steps. The first step was to investigate the electrical and magnetic properties of magnetic and ferrite microwave absorbers in the presence of strong magnetic fields. This included both experimental measurements and a literature survey of properties that may be applicable to finding an appropriate absorbing material. The second step was to identify those material properties that will produce desirable absorptive properties in the presence of intense magnetic fields and determine the range of magnetic field in which the absorbers remain effective. The third step was to establish ferrite absorber designs that will produce low reflection and adequate absorption in the presence of intense inhomogeneous static magnetic fields. The fourth and final step was to prepare and test samples of such magnetic microwave absorbers if such designs seem practical.

  20. Highly Axial Magnetic Anisotropy in a N3 O5 Dysprosium(III) Coordination Environment Generated by a Merocyanine Ligand.

    PubMed

    Selvanathan, Pramila; Huang, Gang; Guizouarn, Thierry; Roisnel, Thierry; Fernandez-Garcia, Guglielmo; Totti, Federico; Le Guennic, Boris; Calvez, Guillaume; Bernot, Kévin; Norel, Lucie; Rigaut, Stéphane

    2016-10-17

    A spiropyran-based switchable ligand isomerizes upon reaction with lanthanide(III) precursors to generate complexes with an unusual N3 O5 coordination sphere. The air-stable dysprosium(III) complex shows a hysteresis loop at 2 K and a very strong axial magnetic anisotropy generated by the merocyanine phenolate donor.

  1. Enhanced trapped field performance of bulk high-temperature superconductors using split coil, pulsed field magnetization with an iron yoke

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ainslie, M. D.; Fujishiro, H.; Mochizuki, H.; Takahashi, K.; Shi, Y.-H.; Namburi, D. K.; Zou, J.; Zhou, D.; Dennis, A. R.; Cardwell, D. A.

    2016-07-01

    Investigating and predicting the magnetization of bulk superconducting materials and developing practical magnetizing techniques is crucial to using them as trapped field magnets in engineering applications. The pulsed field magnetization (PFM) technique is considered to be a compact, mobile and relative inexpensive way to magnetize bulk samples, requiring shorter magnetization times (on the order of milliseconds) and a smaller and less complicated magnetization fixture; however, the trapped field produced by PFM is generally much smaller than that of slower zero field cooling or field cooling techniques, particularly at lower operating temperatures. In this paper, the PFM of two, standard Ag-containing Gd-Ba-Cu-O samples is carried out using two types of magnetizing coils: (1) a solenoid coil, and (2) a split coil, both of which make use of an iron yoke to enhance the trapped magnetic field. It is shown that a significantly higher trapped field can be achieved using a split coil with an iron yoke, and in order to explain these how this arrangement works in detail, numerical simulations using a 2D axisymmetric finite element method based on the H -formulation are carried to qualitatively reproduce and analyze the magnetization process from both electromagnetic and thermal points of view. It is observed that after the pulse peak significantly less flux exits the bulk when the iron core is present, resulting in a higher peak trapped field, as well as more overall trapped flux, after the magnetization process is complete. The results have important implications for practical applications of bulk superconductors as such a split coil arrangement with an iron yoke could be incorporated into the design of a portable, high magnetic field source/magnet to enhance the available magnetic field or in an axial gap-type bulk superconducting electric machine, where iron can be incorporated into the stator windings to (1) improve the trapped field from the magnetization process

  2. Numerical simulations on the flow fields of dynamic axial compression columns in chromatography processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chien Liang, Ru; Che Liu, Cheng; Tsai Liang, Ming; Chen, Jiann Lin

    2017-02-01

    Dynamic axial compression (DAC) columns are key elements in Simulated Moving Bed, which is a chromatography process in drug industry and chemical engineering. In this study, we apply the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) technique to analyze the flow fields in the DAC column and propose rules for distributor design based on mass conservation in fluid dynamics. Computer aided design (CAD) is used in constructing the numerical 3D modelling for the mesh system. The laminar flow fields with Darcy’s law to model the porous zone are governed by the Navier-Stokes equations and employed to describe the porous flow fields. Experimental works have been conducted as the benchmark for us to choose feasible porous parameters for CFD. Besides, numerical treatments are elaborated to avoid calculation divergence resulting from large source terms. Results show that CFD combined with CAD is a good approach to investigate detailed flow fields in DAC columns and the design for distributors is straightforward.

  3. Chiral plasmons without magnetic field

    PubMed Central

    Song, Justin C. W.; Rudner, Mark S.

    2016-01-01

    Plasmons, the collective oscillations of interacting electrons, possess emergent properties that dramatically alter the optical response of metals. We predict the existence of a new class of plasmons—chiral Berry plasmons (CBPs)—for a wide range of 2D metallic systems including gapped Dirac materials. As we show, in these materials the interplay between Berry curvature and electron–electron interactions yields chiral plasmonic modes at zero magnetic field. The CBP modes are confined to system boundaries, even in the absence of topological edge states, with chirality manifested in split energy dispersions for oppositely directed plasmon waves. We unveil a rich CBP phenomenology and propose setups for realizing them, including in anomalous Hall metals and optically pumped 2D Dirac materials. Realization of CBPs will offer a powerful paradigm for magnetic field-free, subwavelength optical nonreciprocity, in the mid-IR to terahertz range, with tunable splittings as large as tens of THz, as well as sensitive all-optical diagnostics of topological bands. PMID:27071090

  4. Chiral plasmons without magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Justin C. W.

    2016-04-01

    Plasmons, the collective oscillations of interacting electrons, possess emergent properties that dramatically alter the optical response of metals. We predict the existence of a new class of plasmons—chiral Berry plasmons (CBPs)—for a wide range of 2D metallic systems including gapped Dirac materials. As we show, in these materials the interplay between Berry curvature and electron-electron interactions yields chiral plasmonic modes at zero magnetic field. The CBP modes are confined to system boundaries, even in the absence of topological edge states, with chirality manifested in split energy dispersions for oppositely directed plasmon waves. We unveil a rich CBP phenomenology and propose setups for realizing them, including in anomalous Hall metals and optically pumped 2D Dirac materials. Realization of CBPs will offer a powerful paradigm for magnetic field-free, subwavelength optical nonreciprocity, in the mid-IR to terahertz range, with tunable splittings as large as tens of THz, as well as sensitive all-optical diagnostics of topological bands.

  5. The flexible magnetic field thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brophy, J. R.; Wilbur, P. J.

    1982-01-01

    The thruster is designed so that ion currents to various internal surfaces can be measured directly; these measurements facilitate calculations of the distribution of ion currents inside the discharge chamber. Experiments are described suggesting that the distribution of ion currents inside the discharge chamber is strongly dependent on the shape and strength of the magnetic field but independent of the discharge current, discharge voltage, and neutral flow rate. Measurements of the energy cost per plasma ion suggest that this cost decreases with increasing magnetic field strength as a consequence of increased anode shielding from the primary electrons. Energy costs per argon plasma ion as low as 50 eV are measured. The energy cost per beam ion is found to be a function of the energy cost per plasma ion, extracted ion fraction, and discharge voltage. Part of the energy cost per beam ion has to do with creating many ions in the plasma and then extracting only a fraction of them into the beam. The balance of the energy goes into accelerating the remaining plasma ions into the walls of the discharge chamber.

  6. Magnetic field waves at Uranus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Charles W.; Goldstein, Melvyn L.; Lepping, Ronald P.; Mish, William H.; Wong, Hung K.

    1994-01-01

    The research efforts funded by the Uranus Data Analysis Program (UDAP) grant to the Bartol Research Institute (BRI) involved the study of magnetic field waves associated with the Uranian bow shock. Upstream wave studies are motivated as a study of the physics of collisionless shocks. Collisionless shocks in plasmas are capable of 'reflecting' a fraction of the incoming thermal particle distribution and directing the resulting energetic particle motion back into the upstream region. Once within the upstream region, the backward streaming energetic particles convey information of the approaching shock to the supersonic flow. This particle population is responsible for the generation of upstream magnetic and electrostatic fluctuations known as 'upstream waves', for slowing the incoming wind prior to the formation of the shock ramp, and for heating of the upstream plasma. The waves produced at Uranus not only differed in several regards from the observations at other planetary bow shocks, but also gave new information regarding the nature of the reflected particle populations which were largely unmeasurable by the particle instruments. Four distinct magnetic field wave types were observed upstream of the Uranian bow shock: low-frequency Alfven or fast magnetosonic waves excited by energetic protons originating at or behind the bow shock; whistler wave bursts driven by gyrating ion distributions within the shock ramp; and two whistler wave types simultaneously observed upstream of the flanks of the shock and argued to arise from resonance with energetic electrons. In addition, observations of energetic particle distributions by the LECP experiment, thermal particle populations observed by the PLS experiment, and electron plasma oscillations recorded by the PWS experiment proved instrumental to this study and are included to some degree in the papers and presentations supported by this grant.

  7. Magnetic Field Distribution for Massive Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medvedev, A.; Kholtygin, A.

    2017-06-01

    A model of the evolution of an ensemble of magnetic massive stars on the main sequence is developed. We use our own population synthesis code, which allows us to obtain distributions of stars by radii, ages, masses, temperatures, effective magnetic fields, and magnetic fluxes from the pre-main sequence up to the TAMS stages. We assume that magnetic fields in massive stars decrease with time. The rate of magnetic field dissipation may depend on the mass of a star on ZAMS. The distribution of magnetic fluxes of the ZAMS stars is assumed to be log-normal. We show that such kind of distribution may be a result of the dynamo action occurring at the pre-MS evolutionary stage of magnetic stars. Our model also includes capabilities for statistical simulations and parameter estimation necessary for the analysis of real data. Comparison of model magnetic field distributions with those obtained from recent measurements of stellar magnetic fields allows us to conclude that the evolution of magnetic fields of massive stars is very slow if not absent. The shape of the real magnetic field distribution has no indications of the “magnetic desert,” previously suggested by Lignieres et al. (2014). Based on those findings we argue that the observed fraction of magnetic stars is determined only by physical conditions at early stages of stellar evolution.

  8. Magnetic Sensors with Picotesla Magnetic Field Sensitivity at Room Temperature

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-01

    concern MTJ - magnetic tunneling junction pT - the picotesla (10-12 tesla) SQUID - Superconducting quantum interference device MFC - magnetic flux...magnetic noise by annealing of MTJ in high magnetic field and a hydrogen environment, and (3) increasing signal by the use of external low-noise...indicate the reference layer pinning direction. Fig. 2 The structure of the magnetic tunnel junctions ( MTJs ) is 5 nm Ta / 5 nm

  9. Elevator mode convection in flows with strong magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Li; Zikanov, Oleg

    2015-04-01

    Instability modes in the form of axially uniform vertical jets, also called "elevator modes," are known to be the solutions of thermal convection problems for vertically unbounded systems. Typically, their relevance to the actual flow state is limited by three-dimensional breakdown caused by rapid growth of secondary instabilities. We consider a flow of a liquid metal in a vertical duct with a heated wall and strong transverse magnetic field and find elevator modes that are stable and, thus, not just relevant, but a dominant feature of the flow. We then explore the hypothesis suggested by recent experimental data that an analogous instability to modes of slow axial variation develops in finite-length ducts, where it causes large-amplitude fluctuations of temperature. The implications for liquid metal blankets for tokamak fusion reactors that potentially invalidate some of the currently pursued design concepts are discussed.

  10. Elevator mode convection in flows with strong magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Li; Zikanov, Oleg

    2015-04-15

    Instability modes in the form of axially uniform vertical jets, also called “elevator modes,” are known to be the solutions of thermal convection problems for vertically unbounded systems. Typically, their relevance to the actual flow state is limited by three-dimensional breakdown caused by rapid growth of secondary instabilities. We consider a flow of a liquid metal in a vertical duct with a heated wall and strong transverse magnetic field and find elevator modes that are stable and, thus, not just relevant, but a dominant feature of the flow. We then explore the hypothesis suggested by recent experimental data that an analogous instability to modes of slow axial variation develops in finite-length ducts, where it causes large-amplitude fluctuations of temperature. The implications for liquid metal blankets for tokamak fusion reactors that potentially invalidate some of the currently pursued design concepts are discussed.

  11. Magnetic Trapping of Bacteria at Low Magnetic Fields

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Z. M.; Wu, R. G.; Wang, Z. P.; Ramanujan, R. V.

    2016-01-01

    A suspension of non-magnetic entities in a ferrofluid is referred to as an inverse ferrofluid. Current research to trap non-magnetic entities in an inverse ferrofluid focuses on using large permanent magnets to generate high magnetic field gradients, which seriously limits Lab-on-a-Chip applications. On the other hand, in this work, trapping of non-magnetic entities, e.g., bacteria in a uniform external magnetic field was studied with a novel chip design. An inverse ferrofluid flows in a channel and a non-magnetic island is placed in the middle of this channel. The magnetic field was distorted by this island due to the magnetic susceptibility difference between this island and the surrounding ferrofluid, resulting in magnetic forces applied on the non-magnetic entities. Both the ferromagnetic particles and the non-magnetic entities, e.g., bacteria were attracted towards the island, and subsequently accumulate in different regions. The alignment of the ferrimagnetic particles and optical transparency of the ferrofluid was greatly enhanced by the bacteria at low applied magnetic fields. This work is applicable to lab-on-a-chip based detection and trapping of non-magnetic entities bacteria and cells. PMID:27254771

  12. Magnetic Trapping of Bacteria at Low Magnetic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Z. M.; Wu, R. G.; Wang, Z. P.; Ramanujan, R. V.

    2016-06-01

    A suspension of non-magnetic entities in a ferrofluid is referred to as an inverse ferrofluid. Current research to trap non-magnetic entities in an inverse ferrofluid focuses on using large permanent magnets to generate high magnetic field gradients, which seriously limits Lab-on-a-Chip applications. On the other hand, in this work, trapping of non-magnetic entities, e.g., bacteria in a uniform external magnetic field was studied with a novel chip design. An inverse ferrofluid flows in a channel and a non-magnetic island is placed in the middle of this channel. The magnetic field was distorted by this island due to the magnetic susceptibility difference between this island and the surrounding ferrofluid, resulting in magnetic forces applied on the non-magnetic entities. Both the ferromagnetic particles and the non-magnetic entities, e.g., bacteria were attracted towards the island, and subsequently accumulate in different regions. The alignment of the ferrimagnetic particles and optical transparency of the ferrofluid was greatly enhanced by the bacteria at low applied magnetic fields. This work is applicable to lab-on-a-chip based detection and trapping of non-magnetic entities bacteria and cells.

  13. Deformation of Water by a Magnetic Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Zijun; Dahlberg, E. Dan

    2011-01-01

    After the discovery that superconducting magnets could levitate diamagnetic objects, researchers became interested in measuring the repulsion of diamagnetic fluids in strong magnetic fields, which was given the name "The Moses Effect." Both for the levitation experiments and the quantitative studies on liquids, the large magnetic fields necessary…

  14. Exploring Magnetic Fields with a Compass

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunk, Brandon; Beichner, Robert

    2011-01-01

    A compass is an excellent classroom tool for the exploration of magnetic fields. Any student can tell you that a compass is used to determine which direction is north, but when paired with some basic trigonometry, the compass can be used to actually measure the strength of the magnetic field due to a nearby magnet or current-carrying wire. In this…

  15. Exploring Magnetic Fields with a Compass

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunk, Brandon; Beichner, Robert

    2011-01-01

    A compass is an excellent classroom tool for the exploration of magnetic fields. Any student can tell you that a compass is used to determine which direction is north, but when paired with some basic trigonometry, the compass can be used to actually measure the strength of the magnetic field due to a nearby magnet or current-carrying wire. In this…

  16. Deformation of Water by a Magnetic Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Zijun; Dahlberg, E. Dan

    2011-01-01

    After the discovery that superconducting magnets could levitate diamagnetic objects, researchers became interested in measuring the repulsion of diamagnetic fluids in strong magnetic fields, which was given the name "The Moses Effect." Both for the levitation experiments and the quantitative studies on liquids, the large magnetic fields necessary…

  17. Baryon onset in a magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Haber, Alexander; Preis, Florian; Schmitt, Andreas

    2016-01-22

    The critical baryon chemical potential for the onset of nuclear matter is a function of the vacuum mass and the binding energy. Both quantities are affected by an external magnetic field. We show within two relativistic mean-field models – including magnetic catalysis, but omitting the anomalous magnetic moment – that a magnetic field increases both the vacuum mass and the binding energy. For sufficiently large magnetic fields, the effect on the vacuum mass dominates and as a result the critical baryon chemical potential is increased.

  18. Magnetic field concentrator for probing optical magnetic metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Antosiewicz, Tomasz J; Wróbel, Piotr; Szoplik, Tomasz

    2010-12-06

    Development of all dielectric and plasmonic metamaterials with a tunable optical frequency magnetic response creates a need for new inspection techniques. We propose a method of measuring magnetic responses of such metamaterials within a wide range of optical frequencies with a single probe. A tapered fiber probe with a radially corrugated metal coating concentrates azimuthally polarized light in the near-field into a subwavelength spot the longitudinal magnetic field component which is much stronger than the perpendicular electric one. The active probe may be used in a future scanning near-field magnetic microscope for studies of magnetic responses of subwavelength elementary cells of metamaterials.

  19. Effects of Traveling Magnetic Field on Dynamics of Solidification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The Lorentz body force induced in electrically conducting fluids can be utilized for a number of materials processing technologies. An application of strong static magnetic fields can be beneficial for damping convection present during solidification. On the other hand, alternating magnetic fields can be used to reduce as well as to enhance convection. However, only special types of time dependent magnetic fields can induce a non-zero time averaged Lorentz force needed for convection control. One example is the rotating magnetic field. This field configuration induces a swirling flow in circular containers. Another example of a magnetic field configuration is the traveling magnetic field (TMF). It utilizes axisymmetric magnetostatic waves. This type of field induces an axial recirculating flow that can be advantageous for controlling axial mass transport, such as during solidification in long cylindrical tubes. Incidentally, this is the common geometry for crystal growth research. The Lorentz force induced by TMF can potentially counter-balance the buoyancy force, diminishing natural convection, or even setting up the flow in reverse direction. Crystal growth process in presence of TMF can be then significantly modified. Such properties as the growth rate, interface shape and macro segregation can be affected and optimized. Melt homogenization is the other potential application of TMF. It is a necessary step prior to solidification. TMF can be attractive for this purpose, as it induces a basic flow along the axis of the ampoule. TMF can be a practical alloy mixing method especially suited for solidification research in space. In the theoretical part of this work, calculations of the induced Lorentz force in the whole frequency range have been completed. The basic flow characteristics for the finite cylinder geometry are completed and first results on stability analysis for higher Reynolds numbers are obtained. A theoretical model for TMF mixing is also developed

  20. Effects of Traveling Magnetic Field on Dynamics of Solidification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The Lorentz body force induced in electrically conducting fluids can be utilized for a number of materials processing technologies. An application of strong static magnetic fields can be beneficial for damping convection present during solidification. On the other hand, alternating magnetic fields can be used to reduce as well as to enhance convection. However, only special types of time dependent magnetic fields can induce a non-zero time averaged Lorentz force needed for convection control. One example is the rotating magnetic field. This field configuration induces a swirling flow in circular containers. Another example of a magnetic field configuration is the traveling magnetic field (TMF). It utilizes axisymmetric magnetostatic waves. This type of field induces an axial recirculating flow that can be advantageous for controlling axial mass transport, such as during solidification in long cylindrical tubes. Incidentally, this is the common geometry for crystal growth research. The Lorentz force induced by TMF can potentially counter-balance the buoyancy force, diminishing natural convection, or even setting up the flow in reverse direction. Crystal growth process in presence of TMF can be then significantly modified. Such properties as the growth rate, interface shape and macro segregation can be affected and optimized. Melt homogenization is the other potential application of TMF. It is a necessary step prior to solidification. TMF can be attractive for this purpose, as it induces a basic flow along the axis of the ampoule. TMF can be a practical alloy mixing method especially suited for solidification research in space. In the theoretical part of this work, calculations of the induced Lorentz force in the whole frequency range have been completed. The basic flow characteristics for the finite cylinder geometry are completed and first results on stability analysis for higher Reynolds numbers are obtained. A theoretical model for TMF mixing is also developed

  1. Wave propagation downstream of a high power helicon in a dipolelike magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Prager, James; Winglee, Robert; Roberson, B. Race; Ziemba, Timothy

    2010-01-15

    The wave propagating downstream of a high power helicon source in a diverging magnetic field was investigated experimentally. The magnetic field of the wave has been measured both axially and radially. The three-dimensional structure of the propagating wave is observed and its wavelength and phase velocity are determined. The measurements are compared to predictions from helicon theory and that of a freely propagating whistler wave. The implications of this work on the helicon as a thruster are also discussed.

  2. Analysis of magnetic field levels at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christodoulou, Christos G.

    1994-01-01

    The scope of this work is to evaluate the magnetic field levels of distribution systems and other equipment at Kennedy Space Center (KSC). Magnetic fields levels in several operational areas and various facilities are investigated. Three dimensional mappings and contour are provided along with the measured data. Furthermore, the portion of magnetic fields generated by the 60 Hz fundamental frequency and the portion generated by harmonics are examined. Finally, possible mitigation techniques for attenuating fields from electric panels are discussed.

  3. Magnetic field gradiometer. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Fraser-Smith, A.C.

    1983-02-01

    This report has two principal goals. First, to present a general review of magnetic field gradiometers and, second, to provide new data concerning these gradiometers, including new information about their response to magnetic dipole fields. A system of nomenclature is introduced that is consistent with the mathematical concept of gradient and which provides a basis for discussions of the different functions of magnetic field gradiometers and differential magnetometers. The distinction between component gradiometers and total field gradiometers is also stressed.

  4. Optimal design of a novel hybrid MR brake for motorcycles considering axial and radial magnetic flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Q. H.; Choi, S. B.

    2012-05-01

    This work presents an optimal solution of a new type of motorcycle brake featuring different smart magnetorheological (MR) fluids. In this study, typical types of commercial MR fluid are considered there for the design of a motorcycle MR brake; MRF-122-2ED (low yield stress), MRF-132-DG (medium yield stress) and MRF-140-CG (high yield stress). As a first step, a new configuration featuring a T-shaped drum MR brake is introduced and a hybrid concept of magnetic circuit (using both axial and radial magnetic flux) to generate braking force is analyzed based on the finite element method. An optimal design of the MR brake considering the required braking torque, the temperature due to friction of the MR fluid, the mass of the brake system and all significant geometric dimensions is then performed. For the optimization, the finite element analysis (FEA) is used to achieve principal geometric dimensions of the MR brake. In addition, the size, mass and power consumption of three different MR motorcycle brakes are quantitatively analyzed and compared.

  5. An optimal design of coreless direct-drive axial flux permanent magnet generator for wind turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, D.; Ahmad, A.

    2013-06-01

    Different types of generators are currently being used in wind power technology. The commonly used are induction generator (IG), doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG), electrically excited synchronous generator (EESG) and permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG). However, the use of PMSG is rapidly increasing because of advantages such as higher power density, better controllability and higher reliability. This paper presents an innovative design of a low-speed modular, direct-drive axial flux permanent magnet (AFPM) generator with coreless stator and rotor for a wind turbine power generation system that is developed using mathematical and analytical methods. This innovative design is implemented in MATLAB / Simulink environment using dynamic modelling techniques. The main focus of this research is to improve efficiency of the wind power generation system by investigating electromagnetic and structural features of AFPM generator during its operation in wind turbine. The design is validated by comparing its performance with standard models of existing wind power generators. The comparison results demonstrate that the proposed model for the wind power generator exhibits number of advantages such as improved efficiency with variable speed operation, higher energy yield, lighter weight and better wind power utilization.

  6. Detection of electron magnetic circular dichroism signals under zone axial diffraction geometry.

    PubMed

    Song, Dongsheng; Rusz, Jan; Cai, Jianwang; Zhu, Jing

    2016-10-01

    EMCD (electron magnetic circular dichroism) technique provides us a new opportunity to explore magnetic properties in the transmission electron microscope. However, specific diffraction geometry is the major limitation. Only the two-beam and three-beam case are demonstrated in the experiments until now. Here, we present the more general case of zone axial (ZA) diffraction geometry through which the EMCD signals can be detected even with the very strong sensitivity to dynamical diffraction conditions. Our detailed calculations and well-controlled diffraction conditions lead to experiments in agreement with theory. The effect of dynamical diffraction conditions on EMCD signals are discussed both in theory and experiments. Moreover, with the detailed analysis of dynamical diffraction effects, we experimentally obtain the separate EMCD signals for each crystallographic site in Y3Fe5O12, which is also applicable for other materials and cannot be achieved by site-specific EMCD and XMCD technique directly. Our work extends application of more general diffraction geometries and will further promote the development of EMCD technique.

  7. Magnetic resonance elastography detected with a SQUID in microtesla magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelso, Nathan; Koski, Kristie; Reimer, Jeffrey

    2005-03-01

    We have used a SQUID-based microtesla magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) system to perform magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) experiments in a measurement field of 132 microtesla. Magnetic resonance elastography is based on MRI and measures three-dimensional displacement and strain fields in a sample. With appropriate data processing this allows for a quantitative map of the physical response of a material to an applied deformation. In the past, MRE experiments using conventional (1.5 tesla and above) MRI systems have demonstrated that MRE may be used as a non-invasive method for measuring stiffness of human tissues, which may aid in the detection and diagnosis of breast cancer and other cancers. Our MRE experiment consists of applying a small axial deformation to a cylindrical sample of 0.5% agarose gel. For samples approximately 30 mm in height, we were able to measure displacements on the order of 500 micrometers. Supported by USDOE.

  8. Electrostatic ion acceleration across a diverging magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Ichihara, D. Uchigashima, A.; Iwakawa, A.; Sasoh, A.

    2016-08-01

    Electrostatic ion acceleration across a diverging magnetic field, which is generated by a solenoid coil, permanent magnets, and a yoke between an upstream ring anode and a downstream off-axis hollow cathode, is investigated. The cathode is set in an almost magnetic-field-free region surrounded by a cusp. Inside the ring anode, an insulating wall is set to form an annular slit through which the working gas is injected along the anode inner surface, so the ionization of the working gas is enhanced there. By supplying 1.0 Aeq of argon as working gas with a discharge voltage of 225 V, the ion beam energy reached about 60% of a discharge voltage. In spite of this unique combination of electrodes and magnetic field, a large electrical potential drop is formed almost in the axial direction, located slightly upstream of the magnetic-field-free region. The ion beam current almost equals the equivalent working gas flow rate. These ion acceleration characteristics are useful for electric propulsion in space.

  9. Electrostatic ion acceleration across a diverging magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichihara, D.; Uchigashima, A.; Iwakawa, A.; Sasoh, A.

    2016-08-01

    Electrostatic ion acceleration across a diverging magnetic field, which is generated by a solenoid coil, permanent magnets, and a yoke between an upstream ring anode and a downstream off-axis hollow cathode, is investigated. The cathode is set in an almost magnetic-field-free region surrounded by a cusp. Inside the ring anode, an insulating wall is set to form an annular slit through which the working gas is injected along the anode inner surface, so the ionization of the working gas is enhanced there. By supplying 1.0 Aeq of argon as working gas with a discharge voltage of 225 V, the ion beam energy reached about 60% of a discharge voltage. In spite of this unique combination of electrodes and magnetic field, a large electrical potential drop is formed almost in the axial direction, located slightly upstream of the magnetic-field-free region. The ion beam current almost equals the equivalent working gas flow rate. These ion acceleration characteristics are useful for electric propulsion in space.

  10. Transient magnetic field and temperature modeling in large magnet applications

    SciTech Connect

    Gurol, H.; Hardy, G.E.; Peck, S.D.; Leung, E. . Space Systems Div.)

    1989-07-01

    This paper discusses a coupled magnetic/thermal model developed to study heat and magnetic field diffusion in conducting materials subject to time-varying external fields. There are numerous applications, both military and commercial. These include: energy storage devices, pulsed power transformers, and electromagnetic launchers. The time scales of interest may range from a magnetic field pulse of a microsecond in an electromagnetic launcher, to hundreds of seconds in an energy storage magnet. The problem can be dominated by either the magnetic field or heat diffusion, depending on the temperature and the material properties of the conductor. In general, heat diffuses much more rapidly in high electrical conductivity materials of cryogenic temperatures. The magnetic field takes longer to diffuse, since screening currents can be rapidly set up which shield the interior of the material from further magnetic field penetration. Conversely, in high resistivity materials, the magnetic field diffuses much more rapidly. A coupled two-dimensional thermal/magnetic model has been developed. The results of this model, showing the time and spatial variation of the magnetic field and temperature, are discussed for the projectile of an electromagnetic launcher.

  11. Abnormal Magnetic Field Effects on Electrogenerated Chemiluminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Haiping; Shen, Yan; Wang, Hongfeng; He, Lei; Hu, Bin

    2015-03-01

    We report abnormal magnetic field effects on electrogenerated chemiluminescence (MFEECL) based on triplet emission from the Ru(bpy)3Cl2-TPrA electrochemical system: the appearance of MFEECL after magnetic field ceases. In early studies the normal MFEECL have been observed from electrochemical systems during the application of magnetic field. Here, the abnormal MFEECL suggest that the activated charge-transfer [Ru(bpy)33+ … TPrA•] complexes may become magnetized in magnetic field and experience a long magnetic relaxation after removing magnetic field. Our analysis indicates that the magnetic relaxation can gradually increase the density of charge-transfer complexes within reaction region due to decayed magnetic interactions, leading to a positive component in the abnormal MFEECL. On the other hand, the magnetic relaxation facilitates an inverse conversion from triplets to singlets within charge-transfer complexes. The inverse triplet --> singlet conversion reduces the density of triplet light-emitting states through charge-transfer complexes and gives rise to a negative component in the abnormal MFEECL. The combination of positive and negative components can essentially lead to a non-monotonic profile in the abnormal MFEECL after ceasing magnetic field. Nevertheless, our experimental studies may reveal un-usual magnetic behaviors with long magnetic relaxation from the activated charge-transfer [Ru(bpy)33+ … TPrA•] complexes in solution at room temperature.

  12. A Novel superconducting toroidal field magnet concept using advanced materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, J.

    1992-03-01

    The plasma physics database indicates that two distinct approaches to tokamak design may lead to commercial fusion reactors: low Aspect ratio, high plasma current, relatively low magnetic field devices, and high Aspect ratio, high field devices. The former requires significant enhancements in plasma performance, while the latter depends primarily upon technology development. The key technology for the commercialization of the high-field approach is large, high magnetic field superconducting magnets. In this paper, the physics motivation for the high field approach and key superconducting magnet (SCM) development issues are reviewed. Improved SCM performance may be obtained from improved materials and/or improved engineering. Superconducting materials ranging from NbTi to high- T c oxides are reviewed, demonstrating the broad range of potential superconducting materials. Structural material options are discussed, including cryogenic steel alloys and fiber-reinforced composite materials. Again, the breadth of options is highlighted. The potential for improved magnet engineering is quantified in terms of the Virial Theorem Limit, and two examples of approaches to highly optimized magnet configurations are discussed. The force-reduced concept, which is a finite application of the force-free solutions to Ampere's Law, appear promising for large SCMs but may be limited by the electromagnetics of a fusion plasma. The Solid Superconducting Cylinder (SSC) concept is proposed. This concept combines the unique properties of high- T c superconductors within a low- T c SCM to obtain (1) significant reductions in the structural material volume, (2) a decoupling of the tri-axial (compressive and tensile) stress state, and (3) a demountable TF magnet system. The advantages of this approach are quantified in terms of a 24 T commercial reactor TF magnet system. Significant reductions in the mechanical stress and the TF radial build are demonstrated.

  13. Mercury's Internal Magnetic Field: Results from MESSENGER's Search for Remanent Crustal Magnetization Associated with Impact Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purucker, M. E.; Johnson, C. L.; Nicholas, J. B.; Philpott, L. C.; Korth, H.; Anderson, B. J.; Head, J. W., III; Phillips, R. J.; Solomon, S. C.

    2014-12-01

    Magnetic field measurements obtained by the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft in orbit around Mercury have entered a new phase since April 2014, with periapsis altitudes below 200 km. MESSENGER is now obtaining magnetic profiles across large impact features at altitudes less than the horizontal scale of those features. We use data from this latest phase to investigate evidence for remanent crustal magnetization specifically associated with impact basins and large craters. The spatial resolution of magnetic field measurements for investigating crustal magnetization is approximately equal to the altitude of the observations. We focus on large impact features because their relative ages provide a powerful chronological tool for interpreting any associated magnetic signatures. We examine profiles across large impact basins such as Caloris, Shakespeare, Budh-Sobkou and Goethe. For example, coverage over Caloris during the last year of the mission will be largely at night and will comprise 18 profiles with altitudes between 125 and 200 km and 12 profiles with altitudes between 50 and 125 km over the northern part of the basin. We use large-scale magnetospheric models developed with MESSENGER data to remove contributions from the offset axial dipole, magnetopause, and magnetotail. The residual magnetic fields above 200 km are still dominated by poorly understood magnetospheric fields such as those from the cusp and from Birkeland currents. We empirically average, or exclude observations from these local times, in order to search for repeatable internal field signals. We use local basis functions such as equivalent source dipoles, applied with regularization tools, in order to map the altitude-normalized magnetic field from internal sources. These internal sources may comprise both crustal and core contributions, and we use the information from the along-track magnetic gradient in order to separate these contributions.

  14. Evaporative capillary instability for flow in porous media under the influence of axial electric field

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar Awasthi, Mukesh

    2014-04-15

    We study the linear analysis of electrohydrodynamic capillary instability of the interface between two viscous, incompressible and electrically conducting fluids in a fully saturated porous medium, when the phases are enclosed between two horizontal cylindrical surfaces coaxial with the interface and, when there is mass and heat transfer across the interface. The fluids are subjected to a constant electric field in the axial direction. Here, we use an irrotational theory in which the motion and pressure are irrotational and the viscosity enters through the jump in the viscous normal stress in the normal stress balance at the interface. A quadratic dispersion relation that accounts for the growth of axisymmetric waves is obtained and stability criterion is given in terms of a critical value of wave number as well as electric field. It is observed that heat transfer has stabilizing effect on the stability of the considered system while medium porosity destabilizes the interface. The axial electric field has dual effect on the stability analysis.

  15. Quark stars with strong magnetic fields: considering different magnetic field geometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Wei; Liu, Xi-Wei; Zheng, Xiao-Ping

    2017-09-01

    We calculate the mass-radius relationship of quark stars with the magnetized density-dependent quark mass model in this work, considering two magnetic field geometries: a statistically isotropic, tangled field and a force-free configuration. In both cases, magnetic field production decreases in the case of maximum quark star mass. Furthermore, a tangled, isotropic magnetic field has a relatively smaller impact on the mass and radius, compared to the force-free configuration, which implies that the geometry of the interior magnetic field is at least as important as the field strength itself when the influence of the strong magnetic field on the mass and radius is assessed.

  16. Unique topological characterization of braided magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Yeates, A. R.; Hornig, G.

    2013-01-15

    We introduce a topological flux function to quantify the topology of magnetic braids: non-zero, line-tied magnetic fields whose field lines all connect between two boundaries. This scalar function is an ideal invariant defined on a cross-section of the magnetic field, and measures the average poloidal magnetic flux around any given field line, or the average pairwise crossing number between a given field line and all others. Moreover, its integral over the cross-section yields the relative magnetic helicity. Using the fact that the flux function is also an action in the Hamiltonian formulation of the field line equations, we prove that it uniquely characterizes the field line mapping and hence the magnetic topology.

  17. Clean measurements of the nucleon axial-vector and free-neutron magnetic form factors

    SciTech Connect

    Deur, A.

    2013-11-07

    We discuss the feasibility of a weak charged current experiment using a low energy electron beam. A first goal is to measure the Q{sup 2} dependence of the axial-vector form factor g{sub a}(Q{sup 2}). It can be measured model-independently and as robustly as for electromagnetic form factors from typical electron scattering experiments, in contrast to the methods used so far to measure g{sub a}(Q{sup 2}). If g{sub a}(Q{sup 2}) follows a dipole form, the axial mass can be extracted with a better accuracy than the world data altogether. The most important detection equipment would be a segmented neutron detector with good momentum and angular resolution that is symmetric about the beam direction, and covers a moderate angular range. A high intensity beam (100 uA) is necessary. Beam polarization is highly desirable as it provides a clean measurement of the backgrounds. Beam energies between 70 and 110 MeV are ideal. This range would provide a Q{sup 2} mapping of g{sub a} between 0.01 magnetic form factor G{sub M}{sup n}. The experiment employs the usual techniques of electron-nucleon scattering and presents no special difficulty. Higher energy extensions are possible. They could yield measurements of g{sub a}(Q{sup 2}) up to Q{sup 2}=3 GeV{sup 2} and the possibility to access other form factors, such as the almost unknown pseudoscalar form factor g{sub P}. However, the experiments become much more challenging as soon as beam energies pass the pion production threshold.

  18. Application peculiarities of magnetic materials for protection from magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wai, P.; Dmitrenko, V.; Grabchikov, S.; Vlasik, K.; Novikov, A.; Petrenko, D.; Trukhanov, V.; Ulin, S.; Uteshev, Z.; Chernysheva, V.; Shustov, A.

    2016-02-01

    In different materials for magnetic shields, the maximum permeability is achieved for different values of the magnetic field. This determines the choice of material. So for protection from magnetic fields strength of 10 - 150 A/m it is advisable to apply the amorphous ribbon 84KXCP. For stronger fields (more than 400 A/m) it is recommended to use MFS based on Ni20Fe80. Use of these materials allows creating an effective shield working in a wide range of magnetic field strengths.

  19. General planar transverse domain walls realized by optimized transverse magnetic field pulses in magnetic biaxial nanowires

    PubMed Central

    Li, Mei; Wang, Jianbo; Lu, Jie

    2017-01-01

    The statics and field-driven dynamics of transverse domain walls (TDWs) in magnetic nanowires (NWs) have attracted continuous interests because of their theoretical significance and application potential in future magnetic logic and memory devices. Recent results demonstrate that uniform transverse magnetic fields (TMFs) can greatly enhance the wall velocity, meantime leave a twisting in the TDW azimuthal distribution. For application in high-density NW devices, it is preferable to erase the twisting so as to minimize magnetization frustrations. Here we report the realization of a completely planar TDW with arbitrary tilting attitude in a magnetic biaxial NW under a TMF pulse with fixed strength and well-designed orientation profile. We smooth any twisting in the TDW azimuthal plane thus completely decouple the polar and azimuthal degrees of freedom. The analytical differential equation describing the polar angle distribution is derived and the resulting solution is not the Walker-ansatz form. With this TMF pulse comoving, the field-driven dynamics of the planar TDW is investigated with the help of the asymptotic expansion method. It turns out the comoving TMF pulse increases the wall velocity under the same axial driving field. These results will help to design a series of modern magnetic devices based on planar TDWs. PMID:28220893

  20. General planar transverse domain walls realized by optimized transverse magnetic field pulses in magnetic biaxial nanowires.

    PubMed

    Li, Mei; Wang, Jianbo; Lu, Jie

    2017-02-21

    The statics and field-driven dynamics of transverse domain walls (TDWs) in magnetic nanowires (NWs) have attracted continuous interests because of their theoretical significance and application potential in future magnetic logic and memory devices. Recent results demonstrate that uniform transverse magnetic fields (TMFs) can greatly enhance the wall velocity, meantime leave a twisting in the TDW azimuthal distribution. For application in high-density NW devices, it is preferable to erase the twisting so as to minimize magnetization frustrations. Here we report the realization of a completely planar TDW with arbitrary tilting attitude in a magnetic biaxial NW under a TMF pulse with fixed strength and well-designed orientation profile. We smooth any twisting in the TDW azimuthal plane thus completely decouple the polar and azimuthal degrees of freedom. The analytical differential equation describing the polar angle distribution is derived and the resulting solution is not the Walker-ansatz form. With this TMF pulse comoving, the field-driven dynamics of the planar TDW is investigated with the help of the asymptotic expansion method. It turns out the comoving TMF pulse increases the wall velocity under the same axial driving field. These results will help to design a series of modern magnetic devices based on planar TDWs.

  1. General planar transverse domain walls realized by optimized transverse magnetic field pulses in magnetic biaxial nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Mei; Wang, Jianbo; Lu, Jie

    2017-02-01

    The statics and field-driven dynamics of transverse domain walls (TDWs) in magnetic nanowires (NWs) have attracted continuous interests because of their theoretical significance and application potential in future magnetic logic and memory devices. Recent results demonstrate that uniform transverse magnetic fields (TMFs) can greatly enhance the wall velocity, meantime leave a twisting in the TDW azimuthal distribution. For application in high-density NW devices, it is preferable to erase the twisting so as to minimize magnetization frustrations. Here we report the realization of a completely planar TDW with arbitrary tilting attitude in a magnetic biaxial NW under a TMF pulse with fixed strength and well-designed orientation profile. We smooth any twisting in the TDW azimuthal plane thus completely decouple the polar and azimuthal degrees of freedom. The analytical differential equation describing the polar angle distribution is derived and the resulting solution is not the Walker-ansatz form. With this TMF pulse comoving, the field-driven dynamics of the planar TDW is investigated with the help of the asymptotic expansion method. It turns out the comoving TMF pulse increases the wall velocity under the same axial driving field. These results will help to design a series of modern magnetic devices based on planar TDWs.

  2. Bipolar pulse field for magnetic refrigeration

    DOEpatents

    Lubell, Martin S.

    1994-01-01

    A magnetic refrigeration apparatus includes first and second steady state magnets, each having a field of substantially equal strength and opposite polarity, first and second bodies made of magnetocaloric material disposed respectively in the influence of the fields of the first and second steady state magnets, and a pulsed magnet, concentric with the first and second steady state magnets, and having a field which cycles between the fields of the first and second steady state magnets, thereby cyclically magnetizing and demagnetizing and thus heating and cooling the first and second bodies. Heat exchange apparatus of suitable design can be used to expose a working fluid to the first and second bodies of magnetocaloric material. A controller is provided to synchronize the flow of working fluid with the changing states of magnetization of the first and second bodies.

  3. Bipolar pulse field for magnetic refrigeration

    DOEpatents

    Lubell, M.S.

    1994-10-25

    A magnetic refrigeration apparatus includes first and second steady state magnets, each having a field of substantially equal strength and opposite polarity, first and second bodies made of magnetocaloric material disposed respectively in the influence of the fields of the first and second steady state magnets, and a pulsed magnet, concentric with the first and second steady state magnets, and having a field which cycles between the fields of the first and second steady state magnets, thereby cyclically magnetizing and demagnetizing and thus heating and cooling the first and second bodies. Heat exchange apparatus of suitable design can be used to expose a working fluid to the first and second bodies of magnetocaloric material. A controller is provided to synchronize the flow of working fluid with the changing states of magnetization of the first and second bodies. 2 figs.

  4. Strong intrinsic mixing in vortex magnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Martin, James E; Shea-Rohwer, Lauren; Solis, Kyle J

    2009-07-01

    We report a method of magnetic mixing wherein a "vortex" magnetic field applied to a suspension of magnetic particles creates strong homogeneous mixing throughout the fluid volume. Experiments designed to elucidate the microscopic mechanism of mixing show that the torque is quadratic in the field, decreases with field frequency, and is optimized at a vortex field angle of approximately 55 degrees . Theory and simulations indicate that the field-induced formation of volatile particle chains is responsible for these phenomena. This technique has applications in microfluidic devices and is ideally suited to applications such as accelerating the binding of target biomolecules to biofunctionalized magnetic microbeads.

  5. Dynamics and stability of rigid rotors levitated by passive cylinder-magnet bearings and driven/supported axially by pointwise contact clutch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersen, Søren B.; Enemark, Søren; Santos, Ilmar F.

    2013-12-01

    A stable rotor—supported laterally by passive magnetic bearings and longitudinally by magnetic forces and a clutch—loses suddenly its contact to the clutch and executes abruptly longitudinal movements away from its original equilibrium position as a result of small increases in angular velocity. Such an abrupt unstable behaviour and its reasons are thoroughly theoretically as well as experimentally investigated in this work. In this context, this paper gives theoretical as well as experimental contributions to the problem of two dimensional passive magnetic levitation and one dimensional pointwise contact stability dictated by mechanical-magnetic interaction. Load capacity and stiffness of passive multicylinder magnetic bearings (MCMB) are thoroughly investigated using two theoretical approaches followed by experimental validation. The contact dynamics between the clutch and the rotor supported by MCMB using several configurations of magnet distribution are described based on an accurate nonlinear model able to reliably reproduce the rotor-bearing dynamic behaviour. Such investigations lead to: (a) clear physical explanation about the reasons for the rotor's unstable behaviour, losing its contact to the clutch and (b) an accurate prediction of the threshold of stability based on the nonlinear rotor-bearing model, i.e. maximum angular velocity before the rotor misses its contact to the clutch as a function of rotor, bearing and clutch design parameters. passive cylinder-magnet bearings, imbalance ring with a screw, passive rotating cylinder-magnets, rotor, Pointwise contact clutch, and DC-motor. The rotor (4) is levitated in the two horseshoe-shaped bearing houses (1) which contain several cylinder-magnets arranged in a circular pattern. These permanent magnets form a magnetic field around the rotor which repels similar cylinder-magnets (3) embedded in the rotor, thereby counteracting the gravity forces. As the shape of the magnetic field generated by the

  6. Two density peaks in low magnetic field helicon plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Y.; Zhao, G.; Ouyang, J. T. E-mail: lppmchenqiang@hotmail.com; Liu, Z. W.; Chen, Q. E-mail: lppmchenqiang@hotmail.com

    2015-09-15

    In this paper, we report two density peaks in argon helicon plasma under an axial magnetic field from 0 G to 250 G with Boswell-type antenna driven by radio frequency (RF) power of 13.56 MHz. The first peak locates at 40–55 G and the second one at 110–165 G, as the RF power is sustainably increased from 100 W to 250 W at Ar pressure of 0.35 Pa. The absorbed power of two peaks shows a linear relationship with the magnetic field. End views of the discharge taken by intensified charge coupled device reveal that, when the first peak appeared, the discharge luminance moves to the edge of the tube as the magnetic field increases. For the second peak, the strong discharge area is centered at the two antenna legs after the magnetic field reaches a threshold value. Comparing with the simulation, we suggest that the efficient power absorption of two peaks at which the efficient power absorption mainly appears in the near-antenna region is due to the mode conversion in bounded non-uniform helicon plasma. The two low-field peaks are caused, to some extent, by the excitation of Trivelpiece-Gould wave through non-resonance conversion.

  7. Double Catastrophe of Coronal Flux Rope in Quadrupolar Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y. Z.; Hu, Y. Q.; Wang, J. X.

    2005-06-01

    Using a relaxation method based on time-dependent ideal magnetohydrodynamic simulations, we find 2.5-dimensional force-free field solutions in spherical geometry, which are associated with an isolated flux rope embedded in a quadrupolar background magnetic field. The background field is of Antiochos type, consisting of a dipolar and an octopolar component with a neutral point somewhere in the equatorial plane. The flux rope is characterized by its magnetic fluxes, including the annular flux Φp and the axial magnetic flux Φϕ, and its geometric features described by the height of the rope axis and the length of the vertical current sheet below the rope. It is found that for a given Φp, the force-free field exhibits a complex catastrophic behavior with respect to increasing Φϕ. There exist two catastrophic points, and the catastrophic amplitude, measured by the jump in the height of the rope axis, is finite for both catastrophes. As a result, the flux rope may levitate stably in the corona after catastrophe, with a transverse current sheet above and a vertical current sheet below. The magnetic energy threshold for the two successive catastrophes are found to be larger than the corresponding partly open field energy. We argue that it is the transverse current sheet formed above the flux rope that provides a downward Lorentz force on the flux rope and thus keeps the rope levitating stably in the corona.

  8. Three Dimensional Viscous Flow Field in an Axial Flow Turbine Nozzle Passage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ristic, D.; Lakshminarayana, B.

    1997-01-01

    The objective of this investigation is experimental and computational study of three dimensional viscous flow field in the nozzle passage of an axial flow turbine stage. The nozzle passage flow field has been measured using a two sensor hot-wire probe at various axial and radial stations. In addition, two component LDV measurements at one axial station (x/c(sum m) = 0.56) were performed to measure the velocity field. Static pressure measurements and flow visualization, using a fluorescent oil technique, were also performed to obtain the location of transition and the endwall limiting streamlines. A three dimensional boundary layer code, with a simple intermittency transition model, was used to predict the viscous layers along the blade and endwall surfaces. The boundary layers on the blade surface were found to be very thin and mostly laminar, except on the suction surface downstream of 70% axial chord. Strong radial pressure gradient, especially close to the suction surface, induces strong cross flow components in the trailing edge regions of the blade. On the end-walls the boundary layers were much thicker, especially near the suction corner of the casing surface, caused by secondary flow. The secondary flow region near the suction-casing surface corner indicates the presence of the passage vortex detached from the blade surface. The corner vortex is found to be very weak. The presence of a closely spaced rotor downstream (20% of the nozzle vane chord) introduces unsteadiness in the blade passage. The measured instantaneous velocity signal was filtered using FFT square window to remove the periodic unsteadiness introduced by the downstream rotor and fans. The filtering decreased the free stream turbulence level from 2.1% to 0.9% but had no influence on the computed turbulence length scale. The computation of the three dimensional boundary layers is found to be accurate on the nozzle passage blade surfaces, away from the end-walls and the secondary flow region. On

  9. Near field imaging of refraction via the magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanté, Boubacar; Germain, Dylan; de Lustrac, André

    2014-01-01

    We experimentally map positive and negative refractions by probing the magnetic field after the interaction of a complex metallo-dielectric composite with electromagnetic wave. The structure consists of coupled electric dipoles and negative refractive index is achieved exclusively from coupled localized resonances. By mapping out the magnetic field, negative refraction is directly observed from the three dimensional composite using a small magnetic antenna as local probe. Our work shows that light meta-matter interaction can be equally probed from magnetic light.

  10. Magnetic field waves at Uranus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Charles W.; Goldstein, Melvyn L.; Lepping, Ronald P.; Mish, William H.; Wong, Hung K.

    1991-01-01

    The proposed research efforts funded by the UDAP grant to the BRI involve the study of magnetic field waves associated with the Uranian bow shock. This is a collaborative venture bringing together investigators at the BRI, Southwest Research Institute (SwRI), and Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). In addition, other collaborations have been formed with investigators granted UDAP funds for similar studies and with investigators affiliated with other Voyager experiments. These investigations and the corresponding collaborations are included in the report. The proposed effort as originally conceived included an examination of waves downstream from the shock within the magnetosheath. However, the observations of unexpected complexity and diversity within the upstream region have necessitated that we confine our efforts to those observations recorded upstream of the bow shock on the inbound and outbound legs of the encounter by the Voyager 2 spacecraft.

  11. Measuring broadband magnetic fields on the nanoscale using a hybrid quantum register

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakobi, Ingmar; Neumann, Philipp; Wang, Ya; Dasari, Durga Bhaktavatsala Rao; El Hallak, Fadi; Bashir, Muhammad Asif; Markham, Matthew; Edmonds, Andrew; Twitchen, Daniel; Wrachtrup, Jörg

    2017-01-01

    The generation and control of fast switchable magnetic fields with large gradients on the nanoscale is of fundamental interest in material science and for a wide range of applications. However, it has not yet been possible to characterize those fields at high bandwidth with arbitrary orientations. Here, we measure the magnetic field generated by a hard-disk-drive write head with high spatial resolution and large bandwidth by coherent control of single electron and nuclear spins. We are able to derive field profiles from coherent spin Rabi oscillations close to the gigahertz range, measure magnetic field gradients on the order of 1 mT nm-1 and quantify axial and radial components of a static and dynamic magnetic field independent of its orientation. Our method paves the way for precision measurement of the magnetic fields of nanoscale write heads, which is important for future miniaturization of these devices.

  12. Measuring broadband magnetic fields on the nanoscale using a hybrid quantum register.

    PubMed

    Jakobi, Ingmar; Neumann, Philipp; Wang, Ya; Dasari, Durga Bhaktavatsala Rao; El Hallak, Fadi; Bashir, Muhammad Asif; Markham, Matthew; Edmonds, Andrew; Twitchen, Daniel; Wrachtrup, Jörg

    2017-01-01

    The generation and control of fast switchable magnetic fields with large gradients on the nanoscale is of fundamental interest in material science and for a wide range of applications. However, it has not yet been possible to characterize those fields at high bandwidth with arbitrary orientations. Here, we measure the magnetic field generated by a hard-disk-drive write head with high spatial resolution and large bandwidth by coherent control of single electron and nuclear spins. We are able to derive field profiles from coherent spin Rabi oscillations close to the gigahertz range, measure magnetic field gradients on the order of 1 mT nm(-1) and quantify axial and radial components of a static and dynamic magnetic field independent of its orientation. Our method paves the way for precision measurement of the magnetic fields of nanoscale write heads, which is important for future miniaturization of these devices.

  13. Power distribution of a co-axial dual-mechanical-port flux-switching permanent magnet machine for fuel-based extended range electric vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Lingkang; Hua, Wei; Zhang, Gan

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, power distribution between the inner and outer machines of a co-axial dual-mechanical-port flux-switching permanent magnet (CADMP-FSPM) machine is investigated for fuel-based extended range electric vehicle (ER-EV). Firstly, the topology and operation principle of the CADMP-FSPM machine are introduced, which consist of an inner FSPM machine used for high-speed, an outer FSPM machine for low-speed, and a magnetic isolation ring between them. Then, the magnetic field coupling of the inner and outer FSPM machines is analyzed with more attention paid to the optimization of the isolation ring thickness. Thirdly, the power-dimension (PD) equations of the inner and outer FSPM machines are derived, respectively, and thereafter, the PD equation of the whole CADMP-FSPM machine can be given. Finally, the PD equations are validated by finite element analysis, which supplies the guidance on the design of this type of machines.

  14. Representation of magnetic fields in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stern, D. P.

    1975-01-01

    Several methods by which a magnetic field in space can be represented are reviewed with particular attention to problems of the observed geomagnetic field. Time dependence is assumed to be negligible, and five main classes of representation are described by vector potential, scalar potential, orthogonal vectors, Euler potentials, and expanded magnetic field.

  15. DC-based magnetic field controller

    DOEpatents

    Kotter, D.K.; Rankin, R.A.; Morgan, J.P.

    1994-05-31

    A magnetic field controller is described for laboratory devices and in particular to dc operated magnetic field controllers for mass spectrometers, comprising a dc power supply in combination with improvements to a Hall probe subsystem, display subsystem, preamplifier, field control subsystem, and an output stage. 1 fig.

  16. DC-based magnetic field controller

    DOEpatents

    Kotter, Dale K.; Rankin, Richard A.; Morgan, John P,.

    1994-01-01

    A magnetic field controller for laboratory devices and in particular to dc operated magnetic field controllers for mass spectrometers, comprising a dc power supply in combination with improvements to a hall probe subsystem, display subsystem, preamplifier, field control subsystem, and an output stage.

  17. Trapped magnetic field measurements on HTS bulk by peak controlled pulsed field magnetization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ida, Tetsuya; Watasaki, Masahiro; Kimura, Yosuke; Miki, Motohiro; Izumi, Mitsuru

    2010-06-01

    For the past several years, we have studied the high-temperature superconducting (HTS) synchronous motor assembled with melt-textured Gd-Ba-Cu-O bulk magnets. If the single pulse field magnetizes a bulk effectively, size of electrical motor will become small for the strong magnetic field of the HTS magnets without reducing output power of motor. In the previous study, we showed that the HTS bulk was magnetized to excellent cone-shape magnetic field distribution by using the waveform control pulse magnetization (WCPM) method. The WCPM technique made possible the active control of the waveform on which magnetic flux motion depended. We generated the pulse waveform with controlled risetime for HTS bulk magnetization to suppress the magnetic flux motion which decreases magnetization efficiency. The pulsed maximum magnetic flux density with slow risetime is not beyond the maximum magnetic flux density which is trapped by the static field magnetization. But, as for applying the pulse which has fast risetime, the magnetic flux which exceed greatly the threshold penetrates the bulk and causes the disorder of the trapped magnetic distribution. This fact suggests the possibility that the threshold at pulsed magnetization influences the dynamic magnetic flux motion. In this study, Gd-Ba-Cu-O bulk is magnetized by the controlled arbitrary trapezoidal shape pulse, of which the maximum magnetic flux density is controlled not to exceed the threshold. We will present the trapped magnetic characteristics and the technique to generate the controlled pulsed field.

  18. Static uniform magnetic fields and amoebae

    SciTech Connect

    Berk, S.G.; Srikanth, S.; Mahajan, S.M.; Ventrice, C.A.

    1997-03-01

    Three species of potentially pathogenic amoebae were exposed to 71 and 106.5 mT from constant homogeneous magnetic fields and examined for inhibition of population growth. The number of amoebae for three species was significantly less than controls after a 72 h exposure to the magnetic fields when the temperature was 20 C or above. Axenic cultures, i.e., cultures grown without bacteria, were significantly affected after only 24 h. In 20 of 21 tests using the three species, the magnetic field significantly inhibited the growth of amoebae. In one test in which the temperature was 20 C for 48 h, exposure to the magnetic field was not inhibitory. Final numbers of magnetic field-exposed amoebae ranged from 9 to 72% lower than the final numbers of unexposed controls, depending on the species. This research may lead to disinfection strategies utilizing magnetic fields for surfaces on which pathogenic amoebae may proliferate.

  19. Electric-field and magnetic-field sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wieckowski, T. W.

    1993-05-01

    Analysis of double-loaded loop antennas and their properties has led to the design of new measuring sensors which enable has led to determination of both electric field strength and magnetic field strength. Sensors of the design proposed are applicable to a quasipoint measurement providing independent determination of the electric and magnetic component of the field.

  20. Thermoelectric Magnetohydrodynamic Flow During Crystal Growth with a Moderate or Weak Magnetic Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khine, Y. Y.; Walker, John S.; Szofran, Frank R.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    This paper treats a steady, axisymmetric melt motion in a cylindrical ampoule with a uniform, axial magnetic field and with an electric current due to a radial temperature variation along the crystal-melt interface, where the values of the absolute thermoelectric power for the crystal and melt are different. The radial component of the thermoelectric current in the melt produces an azimuthal body force, and the axial variation of the centrifugal force due to the azimuthal motion drives a meridional circulation with radial and axial velocities. For moderate magnetic field strengths, the azimuthal velocity and magnetic field produce a radial induced electric field which partially cancels the Seebeck electromotive force in the melt, so that the thermoelectric current and the melt motion are coupled. For weak magnetic fields, the thermoelectric current is decoupled from the melt motion, which is an ordinary hydrodynamic flow driven by a known azimuthal body force. The results show how the flow varies with the strength of the magnetic field and with the magnitude of the temperature variation along the crystal-melt interface. They also define the parameter ranges for which the simpler weak-field decoupled analysis gives accurate predictions.

  1. Magnetic field sensor for isotropically sensing an incident magnetic field in a sensor plane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pant, Bharat B. (Inventor); Wan, Hong (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A magnetic field sensor that isotropically senses an incident magnetic field. This is preferably accomplished by providing a magnetic field sensor device that has one or more circular shaped magnetoresistive sensor elements for sensing the incident magnetic field. The magnetoresistive material used is preferably isotropic, and may be a CMR material or some form of a GMR material. Because the sensor elements are circular in shape, shape anisotropy is eliminated. Thus, the resulting magnetic field sensor device provides an output that is relatively independent of the direction of the incident magnetic field in the sensor plane.

  2. Fuel magnetization without external field coils (AutoMag)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slutz, Stephen; Jennings, Christopher; Awe, Thomas; Shipley, Gabe; Lamppa, Derek; McBride, Ryan

    2016-10-01

    Magnetized Liner Inertial Fusion (MagLIF) has produced fusion-relevant plasma conditions on the Z accelerator where the fuel was magnetized using external field coils. We present a novel concept that does not need external field coils. This concept (AutoMag) magnetizes the fuel during the early part of the drive current by using a composite liner with helical conduction paths separated by insulating material. The drive is designed so the current rises slowly enough to avoid electrical breakdown of the insulators until a sufficiently strong magnetic field is established. Then the current rises more quickly, which causes the insulators to break down allowing the drive current to follow an axial path and implode the liner. Low inductance magnetically insulated power feeds can be used with AutoMag to increase the drive current without interfering with diagnostic access. Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  3. High-rate axial-field ionization chamber for particle identification of Radioactive beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desouza, Romualdo; Vadas, Justin; Singh, Varinderjit; Visser, G.; Alexander, A.; Hudan, S.; Huston, J.; Wiggins, B.; Chbihi, A.; Famiano, M.; Bischak, M.

    2017-01-01

    The design, construction and performance characteristics of a simple axial-field ionization chamber suitable for identifying ions in a radioactive beam are presented. The detector is optimized for use with low-energy radioactive beams (<) 5 MeV/A. A fast charge sensitive amplifier (CSA) integrated into the detector design is also described. Coupling this fast CSA to the axial field ionization chamber produces an output pulse with a rise-time of 60 to 70 ns and a fall time of 100 ns, making the detector capable of sustaining a relatively high rate while providing a time resolution of 6 to 8 ns. Tests with an α source establish the detector energy resolution as 8 % for an energy deposit of 3.5 MeV. Beam tests indicate that the detector is an effective tool for the characterization of low-energy radioactive beams at beam intensities up to 3 x 105 ions/s. Supported by the U.S. DOE under Award # DE-FG02-88ER-40404 and the NSF under Grant No. 1342962.

  4. High-rate axial-field ionization chamber for particle identification of radioactive beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vadas, J.; Singh, Varinderjit; Visser, G.; Alexander, A.; Hudan, S.; Huston, J.; Wiggins, B. B.; Chbihi, A.; Famiano, M.; Bischak, M. M.; deSouza, R. T.

    2016-11-01

    The design, construction and performance characteristics of a simple axial-field ionization chamber suitable for identifying ions in a radioactive beam are presented. Optimized for use with low-energy radioactive beams (< 5 MeV / A) the detector presents only three 0.5 μm/cm2 foils to the beam in addition to the detector gas. A fast charge sensitive amplifier (CSA) integrated into the detector design is also described. Coupling this fast CSA to the axial field ionization chamber produces an output pulse with a risetime of 60-70 ns and a fall time of 100 ns, making the detector capable of sustaining a relatively high rate and providing a time resolution of 6-8 ns. Tests with an α source establish the detector energy resolution as ∼ 8 % for an energy deposit of ∼3.5 MeV. The energy resolution with beams of 2.5 and 4.0 MeV/A 39K ions and the dependence of the energy resolution on beam intensity is measured. At an instantaneous rate of 3×105 ions/s the energy resolution has degraded to 14% with a pileup of 12%. The good energy resolution of this detector at rates up to 3×105 ions/s makes it an effective tool in the characterization of low-energy radioactive beams.

  5. Kr II and Xe II axial velocity distribution functions in a cross-field ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lejeune, A.; Bourgeois, G.; Mazouffre, S.

    2012-07-01

    Laser induced fluorescence measurements were carried out in a cross-field ion source to examine the behaviour of the axial ion velocity distribution functions (VDFs) in the expanding plasma. In the present paper, we focus on the axial VDFs of Kr II and Xe II ions. We examine the contourplots in a 1D-phase space (x,vx) representation in front of the exhaust channel and along the centerline of the ion source. The main ion beam, whose momentum corresponds to the ions that are accelerated through the whole potential drop, is observed. A secondary structure reveals the ions coming from the opposite side of the channel. We show that the formation of the neutralized ion flow is governed by the annular geometry. The assumption of a collisionless shock or a double layer due to supersonic beam interaction is not necessary. A non-negligible fraction of slow ions originates in local ionization or charge-exchange collision events between ions of the expanding plasma and atoms of the background residual gas. Slow ions that are produced near the centerline in the vicinity of the exit plane are accelerated toward the source body with a negative velocity leading to a high sputtering of front face. On the contrary, the ions that are produced in the vicinity of the channel exit plane are partially accelerated by the extended electric field.

  6. Swarm: ESA's Magnetic Field Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drinkwater, M. R.; Haagmans, R.; Floberghagen, R.; Plank, G.; Menard, Y.

    2011-12-01

    Swarm is the fifth Earth Explorer mission in ESA's Living Planet Programme, and is scheduled for launch in 2012. The objective of the Swarm mission is to provide the best-ever survey of the geomagnetic field and its temporal evolution using a constellation of 3 identical satellites. The Mission shall deliver data that allow access to new insights into the Earth system by improved scientific understanding of the Earth's interior and near-Earth electromagnetic environment. After launch and triple satellite release at an initial altitude of about 490 km, a pair of the satellites will fly side-by-side with slowly decaying altitude, while the third satellite will be lifted to 530 km to complete the Swarm constellation. High-precision and high-resolution measurements of the strength, direction and variation of the magnetic field, complemented by precise navigation, accelerometer and electric field measurements, will provide the observations required to separate and model various sources of the geomagnetic field and near-Earth current systems. The mission science goals are to provide a unique view into Earth core dynamics, mantle conductivity, crustal magnetisation, ionospheric and magnetospheric current systems and upper atmosphere dynamics - ranging from understanding the geodynamo to contributing to space weather. The scientific objectives and results from recent scientific studies will be presented. In addition the current status of the project, which is presently approaching the final stage of the development phase, will be addressed. A consortium of European scientific institutes is developing a distributed processing system to produce geophysical (Level 2) data products to the Swarm user community. The setup of Swarm ground segment and the contents of the data products will be addressed. More information on the Swarm mission can be found at the mission web site (see URL below).

  7. Nonlinear energy dissipation of magnetic nanoparticles in oscillating magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soto-Aquino, D.; Rinaldi, C.

    2015-11-01

    The heating of magnetic nanoparticle suspensions subjected to alternating magnetic fields enables a variety of emerging applications such as magnetic fluid hyperthermia and triggered drug release. Rosensweig (2002) [25] obtained a model for the heat dissipation rate of a collection of non-interacting particles. However, the assumptions made in this analysis make it rigorously valid only in the limit of small applied magnetic field amplitude and frequency (i.e., values of the Langevin parameter that are much less than unity and frequencies below the inverse relaxation time). In this contribution we approach the problem from an alternative point of view by solving the phenomenological magnetization relaxation equation exactly for the case of arbitrary magnetic field amplitude and frequency and by solving a more accurate magnetization relaxation equation numerically. We also use rotational Brownian dynamics simulations of non-interacting magnetic nanoparticles subjected to an alternating magnetic field to estimate the rate of energy dissipation and compare the results of the phenomenological theories to the particle-scale simulations. The results are summarized in terms of a normalized energy dissipation rate and show that Rosensweig's expression provides an upper bound on the energy dissipation rate achieved at high field frequency and amplitude. Estimates of the predicted dependence of energy dissipation rate, quantified as specific absorption rate (SAR), on magnetic field amplitude and frequency, and particle core and hydrodynamic diameter, are also given.

  8. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance in the Earth's Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollos, Stefan; Hollos, Richard

    2002-10-01

    We will address the challenges of doing NMR in the Earth's magnetic field. The design of an Earth's field proton precession magnetometer will be presented along with some preliminary attempts to do spectroscopy with this device.

  9. Magnetic Field Observation around Current Path by Magnetic Force Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saida, Daisuke; Takahashi, Takuji

    2004-07-01

    The magnetic field around a GaAs/AlGaAs mesa stripe induced by an AC current in the range of 0.3-15.6 μA was observed by magnetic force microscopy (MFM). To confirm the possibility of the vector decomposition of the current-induced magnetic field gradient, we compared the magnetic force signals in the cases of parallel and perpendicular configurations between the MFM cantilever and the current path. In addition, we proposed a novel way of eliminating some effects of electrostatic force, by which a good linearity in the magnetic force signals against the currents was achieved. The spatial resolution of this method was also discussed.

  10. Space charge field in a FEL with axially symmetric electron beam

    SciTech Connect

    Goncharov, I.A.; Belyavskiy, E.D.

    1995-12-31

    Nonlinear two-dimensional theory of the space charge of an axially symmetric electron beam propagating in combined right-hand polarized wiggler and uniform axial guide fields in a presence of high-frequency electromagnetic wave is presented. The well-known TE{sub 01} mode in a cylindrical waveguide for the model of radiation fields and paraxial approximation for the wiggler field are used. Space charge field components are written in the Lagrange coordinates by the twice averaged Green`s functions of two equally charged infinitely thin discs. For that {open_quotes}compensating charges{close_quotes} method is applied in which an electron ring model is substituted by one with two different radii and signs discs. On this approach the initial Green`s functions peculiarities are eliminated and all calculations are considerably simplified. Coefficients of a twice averaged Green`s function expansion into a Fourier series are obtained by use of corresponding expansion coefficients of longitudinal Green`s functions of equal radii discs and identical rings known from the one-dimensional theory of super HF devices taking into account electron bunches periodicity. This approach permit the space charge field components for an arbitrary stratified stream to be expressed in a simple and strict enough form. The expressions obtained can be employed in a nonlinear two-dimensional FEL theory in order to investigate beam dynamical defocusing and electrons failing on the waveguide walls in the high gain regime. This is especially important for FEL operation in mm and submm.

  11. Magnetically modified bioсells in constant magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abramov, E. G.; Panina, L. K.; Kolikov, V. A.; Bogomolova, E. V.; Snetov, V. N.; Cherepkova, I. A.; Kiselev, A. A.

    2017-02-01

    Paper addresses the inverse problem in determining the area, where the external constant magnetic field captures the biological cells modified by the magnetic nanoparticles. Zero velocity isolines, in area where the modified cells are captured by the magnetic field were determined by numerical method for two locations of the magnet. The problem was solved taking into account the gravitational field, magnetic induction, density of medium, concentration and size of cells, and size and magnetization of nanoparticles attached to the cell. Increase in the number of the nanoparticles attached to the cell and decrease in the cell' size, enlarges the area, where the modified cells are captured and concentrated by the magnet. Solution is confirmed by the visible pattern formation of the modified cells Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

  12. Minimizing magnetic fields for precision experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Altarev, I.; Fierlinger, P.; Lins, T.; Marino, M. G.; Nießen, B.; Petzoldt, G.; Reisner, M.; Stuiber, S. Sturm, M.; Taggart Singh, J.; Taubenheim, B.; Rohrer, H. K.; Schläpfer, U.

    2015-06-21

    An increasing number of measurements in fundamental and applied physics rely on magnetically shielded environments with sub nano-Tesla residual magnetic fields. State of the art magnetically shielded rooms (MSRs) consist of up to seven layers of high permeability materials in combination with highly conductive shields. Proper magnetic equilibration is crucial to obtain such low magnetic fields with small gradients in any MSR. Here, we report on a scheme to magnetically equilibrate MSRs with a 10 times reduced duration of the magnetic equilibration sequence and a significantly lower magnetic field with improved homogeneity. For the search of the neutron's electric dipole moment, our finding corresponds to a 40% improvement of the statistical reach of the measurement. However, this versatile procedure can improve the performance of any MSR for any application.

  13. Magnetic field evolution in tidal disruption events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonnerot, Clément; Price, Daniel J.; Lodato, Giuseppe; Rossi, Elena M.

    2017-08-01

    When a star gets tidally disrupted by a supermassive black hole, its magnetic field is expected to pervade its debris. In this paper, we study this process via smoothed particle magnetohydrodynamical simulations of the disruption and early debris evolution including the stellar magnetic field. As the gas stretches into a stream, we show that the magnetic field evolution is strongly dependent on its orientation with respect to the stretching direction. In particular, an alignment of the field lines with the direction of stretching induces an increase of the magnetic energy. For disruptions happening well within the tidal radius, the star compression causes the magnetic field strength to sharply increase by an order of magnitude at the time of pericentre passage. If the disruption is partial, we find evidence for a dynamo process occurring inside the surviving core due to the formation of vortices. This causes an amplification of the magnetic field strength by a factor of ˜10. However, this value represents a lower limit since it increases with numerical resolution. For an initial field strength of 1 G, the magnetic field never becomes dynamically important. Instead, the disruption of a star with a strong 1 MG magnetic field produces a debris stream within which magnetic pressure becomes similar to gas pressure a few tens of hours after disruption. If the remnant of one or multiple partial disruptions is eventually fully disrupted, its magnetic field could be large enough to magnetically power the relativistic jet detected from Swift J1644+57. Magnetized streams could also be significantly thickened by magnetic pressure when it overcomes the confining effect of self-gravity.

  14. Effect of increased axial field of view of on the performance of a volume PET scanner. [Positron Emission Tomography (PET)

    SciTech Connect

    Karp, J.S.; Kinahan, P.E. . Dept. of Radiology); Muehllehner, G.; Countryman, P. )

    1991-01-01

    The performance of the PENN-PET 240H scanner from UGM Medical Systems is tested and compared to the prototype PENN-PET scanner built at the University of Pennsylvania. The UGM PENN-PET scanner consists of six continuous position-sensitive NaI(Tl) detectors, which results in a 50-cm transverse field-of-view and a 12.8-cm axial field-of-view. The fine spatial sampling in the axial direction allows the data to be sorted into as many as 64 transverse planes, each 2-mm thick. A large axial acceptance angle, without interplane septa, results in a high sensitivity, with a low scatter and randoms fraction, due to the use of a narrow photopeak energy window. This paper emphasizes those performance measurements that illustrate the special characteristics of a volume imaging scanner and how they change as the axial length is increased.

  15. Bats Respond to Very Weak Magnetic Fields

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Lan-Xiang; Pan, Yong-Xin; Metzner, Walter; Zhang, Jin-Shuo; Zhang, Bing-Fang

    2015-01-01

    How animals, including mammals, can respond to and utilize the direction and intensity of the Earth’s magnetic field for orientation and navigation is contentious. In this study, we experimentally tested whether the Chinese Noctule, Nyctalus plancyi (Vespertilionidae) can sense magnetic field strengths that were even lower than those of the present-day geomagnetic field. Such field strengths occurred during geomagnetic excursions or polarity reversals and thus may have played an important role in the evolution of a magnetic sense. We found that in a present-day local geomagnetic field, the bats showed a clear preference for positioning themselves at the magnetic north. As the field intensity decreased to only 1/5th of the natural intensity (i.e., 10 μT; the lowest field strength tested here), the bats still responded by positioning themselves at the magnetic north. When the field polarity was artificially reversed, the bats still preferred the new magnetic north, even at the lowest field strength tested (10 μT), despite the fact that the artificial field orientation was opposite to the natural geomagnetic field (P<0.05). Hence, N. plancyi is able to detect the direction of a magnetic field even at 1/5th of the present-day field strength. This high sensitivity to magnetic fields may explain how magnetic orientation could have evolved in bats even as the Earth’s magnetic field strength varied and the polarity reversed tens of times over the past fifty million years. PMID:25922944

  16. Magnetic vector field tag and seal

    DOEpatents

    Johnston, Roger G.; Garcia, Anthony R.

    2004-08-31

    One or more magnets are placed in a container (preferably on objects inside the container) and the magnetic field strength and vector direction are measured with a magnetometer from at least one location near the container to provide the container with a magnetic vector field tag and seal. The location(s) of the magnetometer relative to the container are also noted. If the position of any magnet inside the container changes, then the measured vector fields at the these locations also change, indicating that the tag has been removed, the seal has broken, and therefore that the container and objects inside may have been tampered with. A hollow wheel with magnets inside may also provide a similar magnetic vector field tag and seal. As the wheel turns, the magnets tumble randomly inside, removing the tag and breaking the seal.

  17. Magnetic monopole field exposed by electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Béché, Armand; van Boxem, Ruben; van Tendeloo, Gustaaf; Verbeeck, Jo

    2014-01-01

    The experimental search for magnetic monopole particles has, so far, been in vain. Nevertheless, these elusive particles of magnetic charge have fuelled a rich field of theoretical study. Here, we created an approximation of a magnetic monopole in free space at the end of a long, nanoscopically thin magnetic needle. We experimentally demonstrate that the interaction of this approximate magnetic monopole field with a beam of electrons produces an electron vortex state, as theoretically predicted for a true magnetic monopole. This fundamental quantum mechanical scattering experiment is independent of the speed of the electrons and has consequences for all situations where electrons meet such monopole magnetic fields, as, for example, in solids. The set-up not only shows an attractive way to produce electron vortex states but also provides a unique insight into monopole fields and shows that electron vortices might well occur in unexplored solid-state physics situations.

  18. Simulation of Magnetic Field Guided Plasma Expansion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebersohn, Frans; Sheehan, J. P.; Gallimore, Alec; Shebalin, John

    2015-09-01

    Magnetic field guided expansion of a radio-frequency plasma was simulated with a quasi-one-dimensional particle-in-cell code. Two-dimensional effects were included in a one-dimensional particle-in-cell code by varying the cross-sectional area of the one dimensional domain and including forces due to the magnetic field. Acceleration of electrons by the magnetic field forces leads to the formation of potential structures which then accelerate the ions into a beam. Density changes due to the plasma expansion only weakly affect the ion acceleration. Rapidly diverging magnetic fields lead to more rapid acceleration and the electrons cool as they expand.

  19. Magnetic field spectrum at cosmological recombination revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saga, Shohei; Ichiki, Kiyotomo; Takahashi, Keitaro; Sugiyama, Naoshi

    2015-06-01

    If vector type perturbations are present in the primordial plasma before recombination, the generation of magnetic fields is known to be inevitable through the Harrison mechanism. In the context of the standard cosmological perturbation theory, nonlinear couplings of first-order scalar perturbations create second-order vector perturbations, which generate magnetic fields. Here we reinvestigate the generation of magnetic fields at second-order in cosmological perturbations on the basis of our previous study, and extend it by newly taking into account the time evolution of purely second-order vector perturbations with a newly developed second-order Boltzmann code. We confirm that the amplitude of magnetic fields from the product-terms of the first-order scalar modes is consistent with the result in our previous study. However, we find, both numerically and analytically, that the magnetic fields from the purely second-order vector perturbations partially cancel out the magnetic fields from one of the product-terms of the first-order scalar modes, in the tight coupling regime in the radiation dominated era. Therefore, the amplitude of the magnetic fields on small scales, k ≳10 h Mpc-1 , is smaller than the previous estimates. The amplitude of the generated magnetic fields at cosmological recombination is about Brec=5.0 ×10-24 Gauss on k =5.0 ×10-1 h Mpc-1 . Finally, we discuss the reason for the discrepancies that exist in estimates of the amplitude of magnetic fields among other authors.

  20. Ferroelectric Cathodes in Transverse Magnetic Fields

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander Dunaevsky; Yevgeny Raitses; Nathaniel J. Fisch

    2002-07-29

    Experimental investigations of a planar ferroelectric cathode in a transverse magnetic field up to 3 kGs are presented. It is shown that the transverse magnetic field affects differently the operation of ferroelectric plasma cathodes in ''bright'' and ''dark'' modes in vacuum. In the ''bright'' mode, when the surface plasma is formed, the application of the transverse magnetic field leads to an increase of the surface plasma density. In the ''dark'' mode, the magnetic field inhibits the development of electron avalanches along the surface, as it does similarly in other kinds of surface discharges in the pre-breakdown mode.