Sample records for axillary nodal metastases

  1. Correlation of Various Biomarkers with Axillary Nodal Metastases: Can a Panel of Such Biomarkers Guide Selective Use of Axillary Surgery in T1 Breast Cancer?

    PubMed

    Dass, Tufale A; Rakesh, Sharma; Prakash, K Patil; Singh, Chandraveer

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate the correlation of various clinic-pathological variables with axillary nodal involvement in T1 breast cancer & to identify a sub-group of T1 cancers, on the basis of observed variables, with a low risk of axillary nodal metastases. Clinico-pathological variables observed included tumor size, lymphovascular invasion (LVI), histological grade of tumor, tumor palpability, estrogen/progesterone (ER/PR) & her2/neu receptors, age, family history, histological type of tumor, axillary nodal metastases for 100 patients without clinically palpable nodes who underwent axillary lymph node dissection in Bombay Hospital & Medical Research Center from March, 2009. Data compiled was analyzed by univariate & multivariate analysis. All the variables viz. tumor size, LVI, histological grade, tumor palpability & ER/PR/Her2 receptor profile, which were found to be significantly associated with axillary lymph node involvement (ALNI) on univariate analysis were also found to be independent predictors of ALNI on multivariate analysis. Age of the patient, family history & histological type of tumor were not significantly correlated with ALNI. None of the 12 patients with tumor biomarker profile of T1a-b tumors without LVI & with histological grade I, had ALNI. The risk of ALNI can be predicted by using various tumor biomarker variables. Based on the predicted risk of ALNI, the management strategy for axilla can be individualized. The omission of operative axillary staging may be considered in patients with low predictive risk of ALNI.

  2. The distance between breast cancer and the skin is associated with axillary nodal metastasis.

    PubMed

    Eom, Yong Hwa; Kim, Eun Jin; Chae, Byung Joo; Song, Byung Joo; Jung, Sang Seol

    2015-06-01

    More superficially located tumors may be more likely than deeper tumors to metastasize to the axillary nodes via the lymphatics. The aim of this study was to determine whether breast cancer distance from the skin affects axillary node metastasis, ipsilateral breast cancer recurrence, or recurrence-free survival. A total of 1,005 consecutive patients with breast cancer who underwent surgery between January 2003 and December 2009 were selected. The distance of the tumor from the skin was measured from the skin to the most anterior hypoechoic leading edge of the lesion. In total, 603 (68%) patients had no axillary nodal metastasis, and 288 (32%) had axillary nodal metastasis. A breast cancer distance from the skin <3 mm induced more axillary nodal metastasis (P = 0.039). However, no significant correlation was observed between breast cancer distance from the skin <3 mm and ipsilateral breast cancer recurrence (P = 0.788) or recurrence-free survival (P = 0.353). Breast cancers located closer to the skin had a higher incidence of axillary nodal metastasis. Therefore, tumor distance from the skin should be considered when evaluating a patient with breast cancer and considering the risk of nodal metastasis. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Assessment of Ultrasound Features Predicting Axillary Nodal Metastasis in Breast Cancer: The Impact of Cortical Thickness

    PubMed Central

    Stachs, A.; Thi, A. Tra-Ha; Dieterich, M.; Stubert, J.; Hartmann, S.; Glass, Ä.; Reimer, T.; Gerber, B.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the accuracy of axillary ultrasound (AUS) in detecting nodal metastasis in patients with early-stage breast cancer and to identify AUS features with high predictive power. Materials and Methods: Prospective single-center preliminary study in 105 patients with a primary diagnosis of breast cancer and clinically negative axilla. AUS was performed using a 12 MHz linear-array transducer before ultrasound-guided needle biopsy. Nodal characteristics (shape, longitudinal-transverse [LT] axis ratio, margins, cortical thickness, hyperechoic hilum) were correlated with histopathological nodal status after SLNB or axillary lymph node dissection (ALND). Results: Nodal metastases were present in 42/105 patients (40.0%). Univariate analyses showed that absence of hyperechoic hilum, round shape, LT axis ratio<2, sharp margins and cortical thickness>3 mm were associated with lymph node metastasis. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed cortical thickness > 3 mm as an independent predictive parameter for nodal involvement. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy were 66.7, 74.6, 63.6, 77.0% and 71.4% respectively when cortical thickness > 3 mm was applied as the criterion for AUS positivity. Axillary tumor volume was low in patients with pT1/2 tumors and negative AUS, since only 3.2% of patients had > 2 metastatic lymph nodes. Conclusion: Cortical thickness>3 mm is a reliable predictor of nodal metastatic involvement. Negative AUS does not exclude lymph node metastases, but extensive axillary tumor volume is rare. PMID:27689144

  4. Concordance Between FISH Analysis of Her-2/Neu Gene in Breast Duct Carcinoma and Corresponding Axillary Nodal Metastases: Egyptian National Cancer Institute Experience.

    PubMed

    Badawy, Omnia M; Hassan, Hannan; ELBakey, Heba A; Mosaad, Maha

    2018-05-10

    Breast cancer is a major health problem in Egypt. Her-2/Neu gene is routinely assessed for all breast cancer patients primarily by immunohistochemistry. At National Cancer Institute (NCI), Cairo University, Flourescence In Situ hybridization (FISH) analysis of Her-2/Neu gene is carried out for Her-2/Neu score 2 and for some cases of score 3 (particularly those assessed outside NCI). The test is performed essentially on the primary tumor. However, some situations require testing on corresponding lymph node metastases. There is a debate about the concordance between Her-2/Neu status in the primary tumor and synchronous lymph node metastases in various studies. The aim of this study was to test for the concordance between Her-2/Neu status in the primary breast tumor and corresponding axillary nodal metastases. This is a retrospective study in which FISH analysis of Her-2/Neu was carried out simultaneously on archived material of 50 cases previously diagnosed as invasive duct carcinoma and the corresponding nodal metastases from the Pathology Department, NCI. There was complete concordance between Her-2 status in the primary tumor and the corresponding axillary lymph node metastatic deposits in which Her-2 was amplified in 44% of the studied cohort of Egyptian patients. Her-2/Neu gene assessed by FISH analysis on synchronous lymph node metastases is strongly correlated with the primary tumor. Hence, it is justified to carry out the Her-2/Neu test on synchronous lymph nodes to decide on whether to carry out anti-Her-2/Neu target therapy. Further studies on other metastatic sites is recommended.

  5. Predictors of axillary lymph node metastases in women with early breast cancer in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Tan, L G L; Tan, Y Y; Heng, D; Chan, M Y

    2005-12-01

    The presence of axillary lymph node metastases is an important prognostic factor in breast cancer. Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) is an emerging method for the staging of the axilla. It is hoped that with SLNB, the morbidity from axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) can be avoided without compromising the staging and management of early breast cancer. However, only patients found to be SLNB negative benefit from this procedure, as those with positive SLNB may still require ALND. Our objective is to study the various clinico-pathological factors to find predictive factors for axillary lymph node involvement in early breast cancer. It is hoped that with these factors, we will be better able to identify groups of patients most likely to benefit from SLNB. A retrospective study of 380 early breast cancer cases (stage T1 and T2, N0, N1, M0) in women treated in the Department of General Surgery, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, between January 1999 and August 2002, was conducted. Incidence of nodal metastases was correlated with clinico-pathological factors, and analysed by univariate and multivariate analyses. Approximately 35 percent of the 380 cases of early breast cancer had nodal metastases. Multivariate analyses revealed four independent predictors of node positivity: tumour size (p-value equals 0.0001), presence of lymphovascular invasion (p-value is less than 0.0001), tumours with histology other than invasive ductal or lobular carcinoma (p-value equals 0.04), and presence of progesterone receptors (p-value equals 0.05). We have found independent preoperative predictive factors in our local population for the presence of nodal metastases. This information can aid patient selection for SLNB and improve patient counselling.

  6. The accuracy of preoperative axillary nodal staging in primary breast cancer by ultrasound is modified by nodal metastatic load and tumor biology

    PubMed Central

    Dihge, Looket; Grabau, Dorthe A.; Rasmussen, Rogvi W.; Bendahl, Pär-Ola; Rydén, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background The outcome of axillary ultrasound (AUS) with fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) in the diagnostic work-up of primary breast cancer has an impact on therapy decisions. We hypothesize that the accuracy of AUS is modified by nodal metastatic burden and clinico-pathological characteristics. Material and methods The performance of AUS and AUS-guided FNAB for predicting nodal metastases was assessed in a prospective breast cancer cohort subjected for surgery during 2009–2012. Predictors of accuracy were included in multivariate analysis. Results AUS had a sensitivity of 23% and a specificity of 95%, while AUS-guided FNAB obtained 73% and 100%, respectively. AUS-FNAB exclusively detected macro-metastases (median four metastases) and identified patients with more extensive nodal metastatic burden in comparison with sentinel node biopsy. The accuracy of AUS was affected by metastatic size (OR 1.11), obesity (OR 2.46), histological grade (OR 4.43), and HER2-status (OR 3.66); metastatic size and histological grade were significant in the multivariate analysis. Conclusions The clinical utility of AUS in low-risk breast cancer deserves further evaluation as the accuracy decreased with a low nodal metastatic burden. The diagnostic performance is modified by tumor and clinical characteristics. Patients with nodal disease detected by AUS-FNAB represent a group for whom neoadjuvant therapy should be considered. PMID:27050668

  7. Axillary lymph node metastases in adenoid cystic carcinoma of the breast. A rare finding

    PubMed Central

    SPILIOPOULOS, D.; MITSOPOULOS, G.; KAPTANIS, S.; HALKIAS, C.

    2015-01-01

    Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) of the breast is a rare malignant salivary-type neoplasm that has a good prognosis and represents less than 1% of all breast cancers. It is a triple negative carcinoma that presents as a painful mass. The mean age at the time of diagnosis is 50–60 years old. The solid variant of this type of tumour with basaloid features and presence of nodal metastases is very rare and considered to have a more aggressive clinical course. We present a case with presence of axillary lymph node metastases that was successfully treated with no evidence of recurrence one year after the diagnosis and review the literature. PMID:26712257

  8. A predictive index of axillary nodal involvement in operable breast cancer.

    PubMed Central

    De Laurentiis, M.; Gallo, C.; De Placido, S.; Perrone, F.; Pettinato, G.; Petrella, G.; Carlomagno, C.; Panico, L.; Delrio, P.; Bianco, A. R.

    1996-01-01

    We investigated the association between pathological characteristics of primary breast cancer and degree of axillary nodal involvement and obtained a predictive index of the latter from the former. In 2076 cases, 17 histological features, including primary tumour and local invasion variables, were recorded. The whole sample was randomly split in a training (75% of cases) and a test sample. Simple and multiple correspondence analysis were used to select the variables to enter in a multinomial logit model to build an index predictive of the degree of nodal involvement. The response variable was axillary nodal status coded in four classes (N0, N1-3, N4-9, N > or = 10). The predictive index was then evaluated by testing goodness-of-fit and classification accuracy. Covariates significantly associated with nodal status were tumour size (P < 0.0001), tumour type (P < 0.0001), type of border (P = 0.048), multicentricity (P = 0.003), invasion of lymphatic and blood vessels (P < 0.0001) and nipple invasion (P = 0.006). Goodness-of-fit was validated by high concordance between observed and expected number of cases in each decile of predicted probability in both training and test samples. Classification accuracy analysis showed that true node-positive cases were well recognised (84.5%), but there was no clear distinction among the classes of node-positive cases. However, 10 year survival analysis showed a superimposible prognostic behaviour between predicted and observed nodal classes. Moreover, misclassified node-negative patients (i.e. those who are predicted positive) showed an outcome closer to patients with 1-3 metastatic nodes than to node-negative ones. In conclusion, the index cannot completely substitute for axillary node information, but it is a predictor of prognosis as accurate as nodal involvement and identifies a subgroup of node-negative patients with unfavourable prognosis. PMID:8630286

  9. Breast Cancer Subtype is Associated With Axillary Lymph Node Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    He, Zhen-Yu; Wu, San-Gang; Yang, Qi; Sun, Jia-Yuan; Li, Feng-Yan; Lin, Qin; Lin, Huan-Xin

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this study was to assess whether breast cancer subtype (BCS) as determined by estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 can predict the axillary lymph node metastasis in breast cancer. Patients who received breast conserving surgery or mastectomy and axillary lymph node dissection were identified from 2 cancer centers. The associations between clinicopathological variables and axillary lymph node involvement were evaluated in univariate and multivariate regression analyses. A total of 3471 patients met the inclusion criteria, and 53.0% had axillary lymph node metastases at diagnosis. Patients with hormone receptor (HR)−/human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)− subtype had a higher grade disease and the lowest rate of lymphovascular invasion. Univariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses showed that BCS was significantly associated with lymph node involvement. Patients with the HR−/HER2− subtype had the lowest odds of having nodal positivity than those with other BCSs. HR+/HER2− (odds ratio [OR] 1.651, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.349–2.021, P < 0.001), HR+/HER2+ (OR 1.958, 95%CI 1.542–2.486, P < 0.001), and HR−/HER2+ (OR 1.525, 95%CI 1.181–1.970, P < 0.001) tumors had higher risk of nodal positivity than the HR−/HER2− subtype. The other independent predictors of nodal metastases included tumor size, tumor grade, and lymphovascular invasion. Breast cancer subtype can predict the presence of axillary lymph node metastasis in breast cancer. HR−/HER2− is associated with a reduced risk of axillary lymph node metastasis compared to other BCSs. Our findings may play an important role in guiding axillary treatment considerations if further confirmed in larger sample size studies. PMID:26632910

  10. A comparison of the diagnostic accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging to axillary ultrasound in the detection of axillary nodal metastases in newly diagnosed breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Assing, Matthew A; Patel, Bhavika K; Karamsadkar, Neel; Weinfurtner, Jared; Usmani, Omar; Kiluk, John V; Drukteinis, Jennifer S

    2017-11-01

    Patients with a diagnosis of invasive breast cancer are increasingly undergoing breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for preoperative staging including evaluation of axillary lymph node metastases (ALNM). This retrospective study aims to evaluate the utility of adding axillary ultrasound (AUS) in the preoperative setting when an MRI is planned or has already been performed. This IRB approved, HIPAA compliant study reviewed a total of 271 patients with a new diagnosis of invasive breast cancer at a single institution, between June 1, 2010 and June 30, 2013. The study included patients who received both AUS and MRI for preoperative staging. Data were divided into two cohorts, patients who underwent MRI prior to AUS and those who underwent AUS prior to MRI. AUS and MRI reports were categorized according to BI-RADS criteria as "suspicious" or "not suspicious" for ALNM. In the setting of a negative MRI and subsequent positive AUS, only one out of 25 cases (4%) were positive for metastases after correlating with histologic pathology. MRI detected metastatic disease in four out of 27 (15%) patients who had false-negative AUS performed prior to MRI. Our results indicate the addition of AUS after preoperative MRI does not contribute significantly to increased detection of missed disease. MRI could serve as the initial staging imaging method of the axilla in the setting that AUS is not initially performed and may be valuable in identification of lymph nodes not identified on AUS. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. The Impact of the Size of Nodal Metastases on Recurrence Risk in Breast Cancer Patients With 1-3 Positive Axillary Nodes After Mastectomy

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Harris, Eleanor E.R., E-mail: Eleanor.harris@moffitt.org; Freilich, Jessica; Lin, Hui-Yi

    Purpose: Use of postmastectomy radiation therapy (PMRT) in breast cancer patients with 1-3 positive nodes is controversial. The objective of this study was to determine whether the size of nodal metastases in this subset could predict who would benefit from PMRT. Methods and Materials: We analyzed 250 breast cancer patients with 1-3 positive nodes after mastectomy treated with contemporary surgery and systemic therapy at our institution. Of these patients, 204 did not receive PMRT and 46 did receive PMRT. Local and regional recurrence risks were stratified by the size of the largest nodal metastasis measured as less than or equalmore » to 5 mm or greater than 5 mm. Results: The median follow-up was 65.6 months. In the whole group, regional recurrences occurred in 2% of patients in whom the largest nodal metastasis measured 5 mm or less vs 6% for those with metastases measuring greater than 5 mm. For non-irradiated patients only, regional recurrence rates were 2% and 9%, respectively. Those with a maximal nodal size greater than 5 mm had a significantly higher cumulative incidence of regional recurrence (P=.013). The 5-year cumulative incidence of a regional recurrence in the non-irradiated group was 2.7% (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.7%-7.2%) for maximal metastasis size of 5 mm or less, 6.9% (95% CI, 1.7%-17.3%) for metastasis size greater than 5 mm, and 16% (95% CI, 3.4%-36.8%) for metastasis size greater than 10 mm. The impact of the maximal nodal size on regional recurrences became insignificant in the multivariable model. Conclusions: In patients with 1-3 positive lymph nodes undergoing mastectomy without radiation, nodal metastasis greater than 5 mm was associated with regional recurrence after mastectomy, but its effect was modified by other factors (such as tumor stage). The size of the largest nodal metastasis may be useful to identify high-risk patients who may benefit from radiation therapy after mastectomy.« less

  12. Radiation Therapy Field Extent for Adjuvant Treatment of Axillary Metastases From Malignant Melanoma

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Beadle, Beth M.; Guadagnolo, B. Ashleigh; Ballo, Matthew T.

    2009-04-01

    Purpose: To compare treatment-related outcomes and toxicity for patients with axillary lymph node metastases from malignant melanoma treated with postoperative radiation therapy (RT) to either the axilla only or both the axilla and supraclavicular fossa (extended field [EF]). Methods and Materials: The medical records of 200 consecutive patients treated with postoperative RT for axillary lymph node metastases from malignant melanoma were retrospectively reviewed. All patients received postoperative hypofractionated RT for high-risk features; 95 patients (48%) received RT to the axilla only and 105 patients (52%) to the EF. Results: At a median follow-up of 59 months, 111 patients (56%) hadmore » sustained relapse, and 99 patients (50%) had died. The 5-year overall survival, disease-free survival, and distant metastasis-free survival rates were 51%, 43%, and 46%, respectively. The 5-year axillary control rate was 88%. There was no difference in axillary control rates on the basis of the treated field (89% for axilla only vs. 86% for EF; p = 0.4). Forty-seven patients (24%) developed treatment-related complications. On both univariate and multivariate analyses, only treatment with EF irradiation was significantly associated with increased treatment-related complications. Conclusions: Adjuvant hypofractionated RT to the axilla only for metastatic malignant melanoma with high-risk features is an effective method to control axillary disease. Limiting the radiation field to the axilla only produced equivalent axillary control rates to EF and resulted in lower treatment-related complication rates.« less

  13. Tumour thickness as a predictor of nodal metastases in oral cancer: comparison between tongue and floor of mouth subsites.

    PubMed

    Balasubramanian, Deepak; Ebrahimi, Ardalan; Gupta, Ruta; Gao, Kan; Elliott, Michael; Palme, Carsten E; Clark, Jonathan R

    2014-12-01

    To identify whether tumour thickness as a predictor of nodal metastases in oral squamous cell carcinoma differs between tongue and floor of mouth (FOM) subsites. Retrospective review of 343 patients treated between 1987 and 2012. The neck was considered positive in the presence of pathologically proven nodal metastases on neck dissection or during follow-up. There were 222 oral tongue and 121 FOM tumours. In patients with FOM tumours 2.1-4mm thick, the rate of nodal metastases was 41.7%. In contrast, for tongue cancers of a similar thickness the rate was only 11.2%. This increased to 38.5% in patients with tongue cancers that were 4.1-6mm thick. Comparing these two subsites, FOM cancers cross the critical 20% threshold of probability for nodal metastases between 1 and 2mm whereas tongue cancers cross the 20% threshold just under 4mm thickness. On logistic regression adjusting for relevant covariates, there was a significant difference in the propensity for nodal metastases based on tumour thickness according to subsite (p=0.028). Thin FOM tumours (2.1-4mm) have a high rate of nodal metastases. Elective neck dissection is appropriate in FOM tumours ⩾2mm thick and in tongue tumours ⩾4mm thick. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. An Interesting Case of Retropharyngeal Lymph Nodal Metastases in a Case of Iodine-Refractory Thyroid Cancer.

    PubMed

    Harisankar, Chidambaram Natrajan Balasubramanian; Vijayabhaskar, Ramakrishnan

    2018-01-01

    Metastases to cervical lymph node are fairly common in differentiated thyroid cancer. In iodine-refractory disease, the disease may persist in the thyroid bed, cervical lymph nodes, lungs, or the bones commonly. Retropharyngeal lymph nodal involvement in thyroid cancer is unusual and may even be the presenting complaint. We represent a case of iodine-refractory thyroid cancer with retropharyngeal lymph nodal involvement in addition to lung metastases.

  15. Histopathological Parameters predicting Occult Nodal Metastases in Tongue Carcinoma Cases: An Indian Perspective.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Tina Elizabeth; Malathi, N; Rajan, Sharada T; Augustine, Dominic; Manish, N; Patil, Shankargouda

    2016-01-01

    It is a well-established fact that in squamous cell carcinoma cases, the presence of lymph node metastases decreased the 5-year survival rate by 50% and also caused the recurrence of the primary tumor with development of distant metastases. Till date, the predictive factors for occult cervical lymph nodes metastases in cases of tongue squamous cell carcinoma remain inconclusive. Therefore, it is imperative to identify patients who are at the greatest risk for occult cervical metastases. This study was thus performed with the aim to identify various histopathologic parameters of the primary tumor that predict occult nodal metastases. The clinicopathologic features of 56 cases of lateral tongue squamous cell carcinoma with cT1NoMo/cT2NoMo as the stage and without prior radiotherapy or chemotherapy were considered. The surgical excision of primary tumor was followed by elective neck dissection. The glossectomy specimen along with the neck nodes were fixed in formalin and 5 urn thick sections were obtained. The hematoxylin & eosin stained sections were then subjected to microscopic examination. The primary tumor characteristics that were analyzed include tumor grade, invading front, depth of tumor, lymphovascular invasion, perineural invasion and inflammatory response. The nodes were examined for possible metastases using hematoxylin & eosin followed by cytokeratin immunohistochemistry. A total of 12 cases were found with positive occult nodal metastases. On performing univariate analysis, the histopathologic parameters that were found to be statistically significant were lymphovascular invasion (p = 0.004) and perineural invasion (p = 0.003) along with a cut-off depth of infiltration more than 5 mm (p = 0.01). Histopathologic assessment of the primary tumor specimen therefore continues to provide information that is central to guide clinical management, particularly in cases of occult nodal metastases. Clinical significance The study highlights the importance of

  16. Cervical nodal metastases in squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck: what to expect.

    PubMed

    Mukherji, S K; Armao, D; Joshi, V M

    2001-11-01

    The treatment and management of malignancies of the head and neck is directly altered by the presence of metastatic cervical adenopathy. The treatment of nodal metastases in squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (HNSCCA) is determined by the lymphatic drainage of the upper aerodigestive tract. The lymphatic drainage is site-specific and occurs in a predictable manner. The purpose of this text is to provide an overview of the normal routes of lymphatic drainage in the head and neck and correlate this with the current nodal classification system. The specific aims of this manuscript are to 1) illustrate the expected lymphatic drainage patterns of HNSCCA arising in the different subsites (nasopharynx, oropharynx, oral cavity, larynx, and hypopharynx) and 2) review the expected frequency of metastases within nodal groups for HNSCCA that arise in these locations. An understanding of the topographical distribution and incidence of cervical lymph node metastases plays an integral role in the physical examination and radiological evaluation of patients with HNSCCA. For the neuroradiologist, this information may increases the ability to identify those nodal groups at risk for metastatic involvement. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Head Neck 23: 995-1005, 2001.

  17. [Clinical application of positron-emission tomography for the identification of cervical nodal metastases of head and neck cancer compared with CT or MRI and clinical palpation].

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhong-Wei; Zhu, Li-Jun; Hou, Qing-Yi; Wang, Qi-Peng; Jiang, Sui; Feng, Hang

    2008-12-01

    To evaluate the value of positron-emission tomography (PET) for the identification of cervical nodal metastases of head and neck cancer compared with CT/MRI and clinical palpation. Forty patients of head and neck cancer underwent PET and CT/MRI examination 2 weeks before surgery. PET, CT/MRI and clinical palpation were interpreted separately to assess regional lymph node status. Histopathologic analysis was used as the gold standard for assessment of the lymph node involvement. Differences in sensitivity, specificity and accuracy among the imaging modalities and clinical palpation were analyzed. The sensitivity of PET for the identification of nodal metastases was 14.3% higher than that of CT/MRI (P = 0.648) and 14.3% higher than that of clinical palpation (P = 0.648), whereas the specificity of PET was 15.4% higher than that of CT/MRI (P = 0.188) and 7.7% higher than that of clinical palpation (P = 0.482). The accuracy of 18F-FDG PET, CT/MRI, and clinical palpation for the identification of cervical nodal metastases was 85.0%, 70.0% and 75.0% respectively. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of PET for the detection of cervical nodal metastases was higher than that of CT/MRI and clinical palpation. Although the results did not show a statistically significant difference, PET can still serve as a supplementary method for the identification of nodal metastases of head and neck cancer.

  18. Para-aortic nodal metastases in cervical cancer: a blind spot in the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics staging system: current diagnosis and management.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Lindsay; Bailey, April; Lea, Jayanthi; Albuquerque, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    In cervical cancer, para-aortic nodal (PALN) metastases at presentation is a strong indicator of poor prognosis. Despite this, International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics staging system does not require evaluation of lymph node involvement and does not incorporate clinically detected PALN into the staging system. In the USA, despite screening, a significant number of women still present at an advanced stage often with nodal metastases. While the presence of PALN metastases often indicates occult systemic disease, it is possible with modern therapies to provide long-term control of disease in a percentage of patients. We review the epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment of PALN metastases in cervical cancer outlining advances in modern imaging and combined modality therapies (surgery, chemotherapy and radiation therapy).

  19. Preoperative axillary lymph node evaluation in breast cancer patients by breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI): Can breast MRI exclude advanced nodal disease?

    PubMed

    Hyun, Su Jeong; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Moon, Hee Jung; Yoon, Jung Hyun; Kim, Min Jung

    2016-11-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic performance of breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in preoperative evaluation of axillary lymph node metastasis (ALNM) in breast cancer patients and to assess whether breast MRI can be used to exclude advanced nodal disease. A total of 425 patients were included in this study and breast MRI findings were retrospectively reviewed. The diagnostic performance of breast MRI for diagnosis of ALNM was evaluated in all patients, patients with neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC), and those without NAC (no-NAC). We evaluated whether negative MRI findings (cN0) can exclude advanced nodal disease (pN2-pN3) using the negative predictive value (NPV) in each group. The sensitivity and NPV of breast MRI in evaluation of ALNM was 51.3 % (60/117) and 83.3 % (284/341), respectively. For cN0 cases on MRI, pN2-pN3 manifested in 1.8 % (6/341) of the overall patients, 0.4 % (1/257) of the no-NAC group, and 6 % (5/84) of the NAC group. The NPV of negative MRI findings for exclusion of pN2-pN3 was higher for the no-NAC group than for the NAC group (99.6 % vs. 94.0 %, p = 0.039). Negative MRI findings (cN0) can exclude the presence of advanced nodal disease with an NPV of 99.6 % in the no-NAC group. • Breast MRI can be used to exclude advanced nodal disease (pN2-3). • Negative MRI allows breast cancer patients to avoid unnecessary axillary surgery (98.2 %). • Negative MRI findings exclude 99.6 % of pN2-pN3 in the no-NAC group. • Negative MRI findings exclude 96.0 % of pN2-pN3 in the NAC group.

  20. Unusual presentation of Warthin variant of Papillary thyroid carcinoma with lymph nodal metastases in a patient of Graves' disease.

    PubMed

    Padma, Subramanyam; Sundaram, Palaniswamy Shanmuga; Arun, B R

    2015-01-01

    Warthin-like Papillary thyroid carcinoma (WPTC) is a rare variant of papillary carcinoma of thyroid, PTC which derives its name by closely resembling Warthin's tumor of salivary gland. Hallmark histological feature of this variant is papillary folding lined by oncocytic neoplastic cells with clear nuclei and nuclear pseudoinclusions, accompanied by prominent lymphocytic infiltrate in the papillary stalks. It is thought to be one of those differentiated thyroid cancers with favorable prognosis. We report a case of Graves' disease with a cold nodule harboring WPTC with initial presentation of lymph nodal metastases. It is important to identify this peculiar variant of PTC as 5 to 10% of them undergo dedifferentiation and 30% have the lymph nodal metastases and extra thyroidal extension.

  1. Predicting axillary lymph node metastasis from kinetic statistics of DCE-MRI breast images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashraf, Ahmed B.; Lin, Lilie; Gavenonis, Sara C.; Mies, Carolyn; Xanthopoulos, Eric; Kontos, Despina

    2012-03-01

    The presence of axillary lymph node metastases is the most important prognostic factor in breast cancer and can influence the selection of adjuvant therapy, both chemotherapy and radiotherapy. In this work we present a set of kinetic statistics derived from DCE-MRI for predicting axillary node status. Breast DCE-MRI images from 69 women with known nodal status were analyzed retrospectively under HIPAA and IRB approval. Axillary lymph nodes were positive in 12 patients while 57 patients had no axillary lymph node involvement. Kinetic curves for each pixel were computed and a pixel-wise map of time-to-peak (TTP) was obtained. Pixels were first partitioned according to the similarity of their kinetic behavior, based on TTP values. For every kinetic curve, the following pixel-wise features were computed: peak enhancement (PE), wash-in-slope (WIS), wash-out-slope (WOS). Partition-wise statistics for every feature map were calculated, resulting in a total of 21 kinetic statistic features. ANOVA analysis was done to select features that differ significantly between node positive and node negative women. Using the computed kinetic statistic features a leave-one-out SVM classifier was learned that performs with AUC=0.77 under the ROC curve, outperforming the conventional kinetic measures, including maximum peak enhancement (MPE) and signal enhancement ratio (SER), (AUCs of 0.61 and 0.57 respectively). These findings suggest that our DCE-MRI kinetic statistic features can be used to improve the prediction of axillary node status in breast cancer patients. Such features could ultimately be used as imaging biomarkers to guide personalized treatment choices for women diagnosed with breast cancer.

  2. Amplification and protein overexpression of cyclin D1: Predictor of occult nodal metastasis in early oral cancer.

    PubMed

    Noorlag, Rob; Boeve, Koos; Witjes, Max J H; Koole, Ronald; Peeters, Ton L M; Schuuring, Ed; Willems, Stefan M; van Es, Robert J J

    2017-02-01

    Accurate nodal staging is pivotal for treatment planning in early (stage I-II) oral cancer. Unfortunately, current imaging modalities lack sensitivity to detect occult nodal metastases. Chromosomal region 11q13, including genes CCND1, Fas-associated death domain (FADD), and CTTN, is often amplified in oral cancer with nodal metastases. However, evidence in predicting occult nodal metastases is limited. In 158 patients with early tongue and floor of mouth (FOM) squamous cell carcinomas, both CCND1 amplification and cyclin D1, FADD, and cortactin protein expression were correlated with occult nodal metastases. CCND1 amplification and cyclin D1 expression correlated with occult nodal metastases. Cyclin D1 expression was validated in an independent multicenter cohort, confirming the correlation with occult nodal metastases in early FOM cancers. Cyclin D1 is a predictive biomarker for occult nodal metastases in early FOM cancers. Prospective research on biopsy material should confirm these results before implementing its use in routine clinical practice. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck 39: 326-333, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Is axillary surgery beneficial for patients with adenoid cystic carcinoma of the breast?

    PubMed

    Welsh, Jessemae L; Keeney, Michael G; Hoskin, Tanya L; Glazebrook, Katrina N; Boughey, Judy C; Shah, Sejal S; Hieken, Tina J

    2017-11-01

    Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) is a rare, typically triple-negative, breast cancer reported to have a favorable prognosis and low rate of nodal metastasis. No consensus guidelines exist for axillary staging and treatment. We identified all patients with ACC evaluated at our institution from January 1994 to August 2016. Patient, tumor, and treatment variables were abstracted and analyzed. We identified 20 pure ACCs (0.13% of all invasive breast cancers) with size range 0.2-4.8 cm, in 19 women, median age 59 years. Preoperative axillary ultrasound was normal in 10/13 women and suspicious in 3/13 who had a subsequent negative lymph node fine needle aspiration (FNA). Fifteen patients (75%) had sentinel lymph node surgery and were pathologically node-negative, while the remaining five had no axillary surgery. With 3.6 years median follow-up (range 0.2-38.6 years), three patients experienced an in-breast recurrence at 2, 16, and 17 years, respectively, while none recurred in regional nodes. We observed no cases of nodal metastasis in 20 consecutive cases of ACC of the breast. Preoperative axillary ultrasound with FNA of suspicious nodes accurately predicted pathologic nodal stage. These data suggest axillary surgery might be omitted safely in patients with pure ACC and a clinically negative axilla. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Axillary lymph node metastases in patients with breast carcinomas: assessment with nonenhanced versus uspio-enhanced MR imaging.

    PubMed

    Memarsadeghi, Mazda; Riedl, Christopher C; Kaneider, Andreas; Galid, Arik; Rudas, Margaretha; Matzek, Wolfgang; Helbich, Thomas H

    2006-11-01

    To prospectively assess the accuracy of nonenhanced versus ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide (USPIO)-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging for depiction of axillary lymph node metastases in patients with breast carcinoma, with histopathologic findings as reference standard. The study was approved by the university ethics committee; written informed consent was obtained. Twenty-two women (mean age, 60 years; range, 40-79 years) with breast carcinomas underwent nonenhanced and USPIO-enhanced (2.6 mg of iron per kilogram of body weight intravenously administered) transverse T1-weighted and transverse and sagittal T2-weighted and T2*-weighted MR imaging in adducted and elevated arm positions. Two experienced radiologists, blinded to the histopathologic findings, analyzed images of axillary lymph nodes with regard to size, morphologic features, and USPIO uptake. A third independent radiologist served as a tiebreaker if consensus between two readers could not be reached. Visual and quantitative analyses of MR images were performed. Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy values were calculated. To assess the effect of USPIO after administration, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) changes were statistically analyzed with repeated-measurements analysis of variance (mixed model) for MR sequences. At nonenhanced MR imaging, of 133 lymph nodes, six were rated as true-positive, 99 as true-negative, 23 as false-positive, and five as false-negative. At USPIO-enhanced MR imaging, 11 lymph nodes were rated as true-positive, 120 as true-negative, two as false-positive, and none as false-negative. In two metastatic lymph nodes in two patients with more than one metastatic lymph node, a consensus was not reached. USPIO-enhanced MR imaging revealed a node-by-node sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of 100%, 98%, and 98%, respectively. At USPIO-enhanced MR imaging, no metastatic lymph nodes were missed on a patient-by-patient basis. Significant interactions indicating differences

  5. Lymph node metastasis in melanoma: a debate on the significance of nodal metastases, conditional survival analysis and clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Faries, Mark B; Han, Dale; Reintgen, Michael; Kerivan, Lauren; Reintgen, Douglas; Caracò, Corrado

    2018-05-18

    While there is no doubt that regional lymph node metastases are an enormously important factor in melanoma staging and treatment, the biology behind this significance and its precise implications for treatment planning have been a leading controversy in melanoma and other solid tumors for over a century. Recent clinical data, including data from prospective randomized clinical trials have refined our understanding of the process of nodal metastases and the advantages and disadvantages of different clinical management strategies. This review presents two points of view in this debate and discusses the results of new data analyses as well as pivotal clinical trials informing the discussion.

  6. Patterns of nodal metastases on 18F-FDG PET/CT in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma are useful to guide treatment planning of radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chia-Ju; Cheng, Jason Chia-Hsien; Lee, Jang-Ming; Cheng, Mei-Fang; Tzen, Kai-Yuan; Yen, Ruoh-Fang

    2015-05-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the patterns of lymph node metastases from esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and compare the laterality of lymphatic metastasis in cervical, supraclavicular, and paratracheal areas using F-FDG PET/CT. The data of 75 patients who underwent F-FDG PET/CT for staging of ESCC between January 2011 and March 2012 were reviewed. Fourteen groups of lymph nodes from the neck to abdomen were defined. Lateralization of the upper thoracic lymph nodes was defined in reference to the midline of the trachea. Frequencies of positive lymph nodes were used to determine the pattern of lymphatic spread and compare the lateralization of metastases in the cervical and upper thoracic regions. The right paratracheal region was the most frequent site of metastasis among all patients. Left paratracheal and paragastric nodes were more frequent in upper and lower third ESCC, respectively. Upward and downward lymphatic spread was equal in mid third ESCC. In all patients, there was a trend toward more frequent lymph node metastasis on the right side than the left side for the supraclavicular and paratracheal regions. Further stratified analysis with tumor location found that right paratracheal node metastasis was significantly associated with mid third ESCC (P = 0.03). Remote nodal metastasis was found in 10.5% of patients with upper third ESCC and 13% of patients with lower third ESCC, respectively. Remote nodal metastasis was associated with higher SUV of the primary tumor (P = 0.02) and worse survival (P = 0.03). Receiver operating characteristic analysis showed a cutoff SUV of 14.8 for predicting remote lymph node metastases. PET/CT provides important information before radiotherapy planning. Mid and lower third ESCC tends to metastasize to the right paratracheal/supraclavicular lymph nodes. Remote nodal metastases on PET/CT correlated with higher primary tumor SUV and worse survival.

  7. Truncated midkine as a marker of diagnosis and detection of nodal metastases in gastrointestinal carcinomas.

    PubMed Central

    Aridome, K.; Takao, S.; Kaname, T.; Kadomatsu, K.; Natsugoe, S.; Kijima, F.; Aikou, T.; Muramatsu, T.

    1998-01-01

    Midkine (MK) is a growth factor identified as a product of a retinoic acid-responsive gene. A truncated form of MK mRNA, which lacks a sequence encoding the N-terminally located domain, was recently found in cancer cells. We investigated the expression of the truncated MK mRNA in specimens of 47 surgically removed human gastrointestinal organs using polymerase chain reaction. Truncated MK was not detected in all of the 46 corresponding non-cancerous regions. On the other hand, this short MK mRNA was expressed in the primary tumours in 12 of 16 gastric cancers, 8 of 13 colorectal carcinomas, five of nine hepatocellular carcinomas, two of two oesophageal carcinomas and one ampullary duodenal cancer. In addition, truncated MK was detectable in all of the 14 lymph node metastases but in none of three metastatic sites in the liver, suggesting that truncated MK mRNA could become a good marker of nodal metastases in gastrointestinal tract. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:9716029

  8. The genomic heritage of lymph node metastases: implications for clinical management of patients with breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Becker, Tyson E; Ellsworth, Rachel E; Deyarmin, Brenda; Patney, Heather L; Jordan, Rick M; Hooke, Jeffrey A; Shriver, Craig D; Ellsworth, Darrell L

    2008-04-01

    Metastatic breast cancer is an aggressive disease associated with recurrence and decreased survival. To improve outcomes and develop more effective treatment strategies for patients with breast cancer, it is important to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying metastasis. We used allelic imbalance (AI) to determine the molecular heritage of primary breast tumors and corresponding metastases to the axillary lymph nodes. Paraffin-embedded samples from primary breast tumors and matched metastases (n = 146) were collected from 26 patients with node-positive breast cancer involving multiple axillary nodes. Hierarchical clustering was used to assess overall differences in the patterns of AI, and phylogenetic analysis inferred the molecular heritage of axillary lymph node metastases. Overall frequencies of AI were significantly higher (P < 0.01) in primary breast tumors (23%) than in lymph node metastases (15%), and there was a high degree of discordance in patterns of AI between primary breast carcinomas and the metastases. Metastatic tumors in the axillary nodes showed different patterns of chromosomal changes, suggesting that multiple molecular mechanisms may govern the process of metastasis in individual patients. Some metastases progressed with few genomic alterations, while others harbored many chromosomal alterations present in the primary tumor. The extent of genomic heterogeneity in axillary lymph node metastases differs markedly among individual patients. Genomic diversity may be associated with response to adjuvant therapy, recurrence, and survival, and thus may be important in improving clinical management of breast cancer patients.

  9. Positive versus negative sentinel nodes in early breast cancer patients: axillary or loco-regional relapse and survival. A study spanning 2000-2012.

    PubMed

    García Fernández, A; Chabrera, C; García Font, M; Fraile, M; Lain, J M; Barco, I; González, C; Gónzalez, S; Reñe, A; Veloso, E; Cassadó, J; Pessarrodona, A; Giménez, N

    2013-10-01

    Sentinel Node Biopsy (SNB) is a minimally invasive alternative to elective axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) for nodal staging in early breast cancer. The present study was conducted to evaluate prognostic implications of a negative sentinel node (SN) versus a positive SN (followed by completion ALND) in a closely followed-up sample of early breast cancer patients. We studied 889 consecutive breast cancer patients operated for 908 primaries. Patients received adjuvant therapy with chemotherapy, hormone therapy and eventually trastuzumab. Radiation therapy was based on tangential radiation fields that usually included axillary level I. Median follow-up was 47 months. Axillary recurrence was seen in 1.2% (2/162) of positive SN patients, and 0.8% (5/625) of negative SN patients (p = n.s.). There was an overall 3.2% loco-regional failure rate (29/908). Incidence of distant recurrence was 3.3% (23/693) for negative SN patients, and 4.6% (9/196) for positive SN patients (p = n.s.). Overall mortality rate was 4% (8/198) for positive SN patients, while the corresponding specific mortality rate was 2.5% (5/198). For patients with negative SNs, overall mortality was 4.9% (34/693), and the specific mortality was 1.4% (19/693) (p = n.s.). We did not find significant differences in axillary/loco-regional relapse, distant metastases, disease-free interval or mortality between SN negative and SN positive patients, with a follow-up over 4 years. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Auxin flow-mediated competition between axillary buds to restore apical dominance

    PubMed Central

    Balla, Jozef; Medveďová, Zuzana; Kalousek, Petr; Matiješčuková, Natálie; Friml, Jiří; Reinöhl, Vilém; Procházka, Stanislav

    2016-01-01

    Apical dominance is one of the fundamental developmental phenomena in plant biology, which determines the overall architecture of aerial plant parts. Here we show apex decapitation activated competition for dominance in adjacent upper and lower axillary buds. A two-nodal-bud pea (Pisum sativum L.) was used as a model system to monitor and assess auxin flow, auxin transport channels, and dormancy and initiation status of axillary buds. Auxin flow was manipulated by lateral stem wounds or chemically by auxin efflux inhibitors 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid (TIBA), 1-N-naphtylphtalamic acid (NPA), or protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide (CHX) treatments, which served to interfere with axillary bud competition. Redirecting auxin flow to different points influenced which bud formed the outgrowing and dominant shoot. The obtained results proved that competition between upper and lower axillary buds as secondary auxin sources is based on the same auxin canalization principle that operates between the shoot apex and axillary bud. PMID:27824063

  11. Axillary Silicone Granulomas in Patients With Melanoma.

    PubMed

    Fernández Canedo, M I; Blázquez Sánchez, N; Valdés Solís, P; de Troya Martín, M

    2016-05-01

    Subcutaneous lesions may be detected during follow-up of patients with melanoma. The main entities that should be contemplated in the differential diagnosis in such cases are in-transit and regional lymph node metastases. We describe 2 cases of women with breast implants who developed palpable subcutaneous lesions in the axillary region during follow-up of melanoma. In both cases, the ultrasound study showed diffuse hyperechoic signals forming the characteristic snowstorm sign in the subcutaneous tissue. Ultrasound proved to be a key diagnostic tool for ruling out melanoma-related disease, such as in-transit metastases and regional lymph node metastases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y AEDV. All rights reserved.

  12. Primary Germ Cell Tumor of Testes with Extensive Lymph Nodal and Splenic Metastases Masquerading Lymphoma on 18-F-FDG PET/CT

    PubMed Central

    Tripathy, Sarthak; Mukherjee, Anirban; Bal, Chandrasekhar; Tripathi, Madhavi; Mallick, Saumyaranjan; Shamim, Shamim Ahmed

    2017-01-01

    Germ cell tumors (GCT) account for the 95% of the malignancies associated with testes. They are the most common solid malignancies affecting the males in the age group of 15–35 years. It is known to be bilateral in 3% of cases. We herein present FDG PET-CT findings of a case with biopsy proven GCT with multiple lymph nodal and splenic metastases mimicking lymphomatous neoplasm. PMID:28533651

  13. Mapping of nodal disease in locally advanced prostate cancer: Rethinking the clinical target volume for pelvic nodal irradiation based on vascular rather than bony anatomy

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Shih, Helen A.; Harisinghani, Mukesh; Zietman, Anthony L.

    2005-11-15

    Purpose: Toxicity from pelvic irradiation could be reduced if fields were limited to likely areas of nodal involvement rather than using the standard 'four-field box.' We employed a novel magnetic resonance lymphangiographic technique to highlight the likely sites of occult nodal metastasis from prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Eighteen prostate cancer patients with pathologically confirmed node-positive disease had a total of 69 pathologic nodes identifiable by lymphotropic nanoparticle-enhanced MRI and semiquantitative nodal analysis. Fourteen of these nodes were in the para-aortic region, and 55 were in the pelvis. The position of each of these malignant nodes was mapped to amore » common template based on its relation to skeletal or vascular anatomy. Results: Relative to skeletal anatomy, nodes covered a diffuse volume from the mid lumbar spine to the superior pubic ramus and along the sacrum and pelvic side walls. In contrast, the nodal metastases mapped much more tightly relative to the large pelvic vessels. A proposed pelvic clinical target volume to encompass the region at greatest risk of containing occult nodal metastases would include a 2.0-cm radial expansion volume around the distal common iliac and proximal external and internal iliac vessels that would encompass 94.5% of the pelvic nodes at risk as defined by our node-positive prostate cancer patient cohort. Conclusions: Nodal metastases from prostate cancer are largely localized along the major pelvic vasculature. Defining nodal radiation treatment portals based on vascular rather than bony anatomy may allow for a significant decrease in normal pelvic tissue irradiation and its associated toxicities.« less

  14. PREOPERATIVE MRI IMPROVES PREDICTION OF EXTENSIVE OCCULT AXILLARY LYMPH NODE METASTASES IN BREAST CANCER PATIENTS WITH A POSITIVE SENTINEL LYMPH NODE BIOPSY

    PubMed Central

    Loiselle, Christopher; Eby, Peter R.; Kim, Janice N.; Calhoun, Kristine E.; Allison, Kimberly H.; Gadi, Vijayakrishna K.; Peacock, Sue; Storer, Barry; Mankoff, David A.; Partridge, Savannah C.; Lehman, Constance D.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale and Objectives To test the ability of quantitative measures from preoperative Dynamic Contrast Enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) to predict, independently and/or with the Katz pathologic nomogram, which breast cancer patients with a positive sentinel lymph node biopsy will have ≥ 4 positive axillary lymph nodes upon completion axillary dissection. Methods and Materials A retrospective review was conducted to identify clinically node-negative invasive breast cancer patients who underwent preoperative DCE-MRI, followed by sentinel node biopsy with positive findings and complete axillary dissection (6/2005 – 1/2010). Clinical/pathologic factors, primary lesion size and quantitative DCE-MRI kinetics were collected from clinical records and prospective databases. DCE-MRI parameters with univariate significance (p < 0.05) to predict ≥ 4 positive axillary nodes were modeled with stepwise regression and compared to the Katz nomogram alone and to a combined MRI-Katz nomogram model. Results Ninety-eight patients with 99 positive sentinel biopsies met study criteria. Stepwise regression identified DCE-MRI total persistent enhancement and volume adjusted peak enhancement as significant predictors of ≥4 metastatic nodes. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves demonstrated an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.78 for the Katz nomogram, 0.79 for the DCE-MRI multivariate model, and 0.87 for the combined MRI-Katz model. The combined model was significantly more predictive than the Katz nomogram alone (p = 0.003). Conclusion Integration of DCE-MRI primary lesion kinetics significantly improved the Katz pathologic nomogram accuracy to predict presence of metastases in ≥ 4 nodes. DCE-MRI may help identify sentinel node positive patients requiring further localregional therapy. PMID:24331270

  15. Model for breast cancer survival: relative prognostic roles of axillary nodal status, TNM stage, estrogen receptor concentration, and tumor necrosis.

    PubMed

    Shek, L L; Godolphin, W

    1988-10-01

    The independent prognostic effects of certain clinical and pathological variables measured at the time of primary diagnosis were assessed with Cox multivariate regression analysis. The 859 patients with primary breast cancer, on which the proportional hazards model was based, had a median follow-up of 60 months. Axillary nodal status (categorized as N0, N1-3 or N4+) was the most significant and independent factor in overall survival, but inclusion of TNM stage, estrogen receptor (ER) concentration and tumor necrosis significantly improved survival predictions. Predictions made with the model showed striking subset survival differences within stage: 5-year survival from 36% (N4+, loge[ER] = 0, marked necrosis) to 96% (N0, loge[ER] = 6, no necrosis) in TNM I, and from 0 to 70% for the same categories in TNM IV. Results of the model were used to classify patients into four distinct risk groups according to a derived hazard index. An 8-fold variation in survival was seen with the highest (greater than 3) to lowest index values (less than 1). Each hazard index level included patients with varied combinations of the above factors, but could be considered to denote the same degree of risk of breast cancer mortality. A model with ER concentration, nodal status, and tumor necrosis was found to best predict survival after disease recurrence in 369 patients, thus confirming the enduring biological significance of these factors.

  16. An unusual case of isolated, serial metastases of gallbladder carcinoma involving the chest wall, axilla, breast and lung parenchyma

    PubMed Central

    Jeyaraj, Pamela; Sio, Terence T.; Iott, Matthew J.

    2013-01-01

    In the English literature, only 9 cases of adenocarcinoma of the gallbladder with cutaneous metastasis have been reported so far. One case of multiple cutaneous metastases along with deposits in the breast tissue has been reported. We present a case of incidental metastatic gallbladder carcinoma with no intra-abdominal disease presenting as a series of four isolated cutaneous right chest wall, axillary nodal, breast, and pulmonary metastases following resection and adjuvant chemoradiation for her primary tumor. In spite of the metastatic disease coupled with the aggressive nature of the cancer, this patient reported that her energy level had returned to baseline with a good appetite and a stable weight indicating a good performance status and now is alive at 25 months since diagnosis. Her serially-presented, oligometastatic diseases were well-controlled by concurrent chemoradiotherapy and stereotactic radiation therapy. We report this case study because of its rarity and for the purpose of complementing current literature with an additional example of cutaneous metastasis from adenocarcinoma of the gallbladder. PMID:23772306

  17. Strain elastography of abnormal axillary nodes in breast cancer patients does not improve diagnostic accuracy compared with conventional ultrasound alone.

    PubMed

    Park, Young Mi; Fornage, Bruno D; Benveniste, Ana Paula; Fox, Patricia S; Bassett, Roland L; Yang, Wei Tse

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the diagnostic value of strain elastography (SE) alone and in combination with gray-scale ultrasound in the diagnosis of benign versus metastatic disease for abnormal axillary lymph nodes in breast cancer patients. Patients with breast cancer and axillary lymph nodes suspicious for metastatic disease on conventional ultrasound who underwent SE of the suspicious node before ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) were included in this study. On conventional ultrasound, the long- and short-axis diameters, long-axis-to-short-axis ratio, cortical echogenicity, thickness, and evenness were documented. The nodal vascularity was assessed on power Doppler imaging. Elastograms were evaluated for the percentage of black (hard) areas in the lymph node, and the SE-ultrasound size ratio was calculated. Two readers assessed the images independently and then in consensus in cases of disagreement. ROC AUCs were calculated for conventional ultrasound, SE, and both methods combined. Interreader reliability was assessed using kappa statistics. A total of 101 patients with 104 nodes were examined; 35 nodes were benign, and 69 had metastases. SE alone showed a significantly lower AUC (62%) than did conventional ultrasound (92%) (p<0.001). There was no difference between the AUC of conventional ultrasound and the AUC of the combination of conventional ultrasound and SE (93%) (p=0.16). Interreader reliability was moderate for all variables (κ≥0.60) except the SE-ultrasound size ratio (κ=0.35). Added SE does not improve the diagnostic ability of conventional ultrasound when evaluating abnormal axillary lymph nodes.

  18. Regional lymph node staging in breast cancer: the increasing role of imaging and ultrasound-guided axillary lymph node fine needle aspiration.

    PubMed

    Mainiero, Martha B

    2010-09-01

    The status of axillary lymph nodes is a key prognostic indicator in patients with breast cancer and helps guide patient management. Sentinel lymph node biopsy is increasingly being used as a less morbid alternative to axillary lymph node dissection. However, when sentinel lymph node biopsy is positive, axillary dissection is typically performed for complete staging and local control. Axillary ultrasound and ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (USFNA) are useful for detecting axillary nodal metastasis preoperatively and can spare patients sentinel node biopsy, because those with positive cytology on USFNA can proceed directly to axillary dissection or neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Internal mammary nodes are not routinely evaluated, but when the appearance of these nodes is abnormal on imaging, further treatment or metastatic evaluation may be necessary. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Implications of improved diagnostic imaging of small nodal metastases in head and neck cancer: Radiotherapy target volume transformation and dose de-escalation.

    PubMed

    van den Bosch, Sven; Vogel, Wouter V; Raaijmakers, Cornelis P; Dijkema, Tim; Terhaard, Chris H J; Al-Mamgani, Abrahim; Kaanders, Johannes H A M

    2018-05-03

    Diagnostic imaging continues to evolve, and now has unprecedented accuracy for detecting small nodal metastasis. This influences the tumor load in elective target volumes and subsequently has consequences for the radiotherapy dose required to control disease in these volumes. Small metastases that used to remain subclinical and were included in elective volumes, will nowadays be detected and included in high-dose volumes. Consequentially, high-dose volumes will more often contain low-volume disease. These target volume transformations lead to changes in the tumor burden in elective and "gross" tumor volumes with implications for the radiotherapy dose prescribed to these volumes. For head and neck tumors, nodal staging has evolved from mere palpation to combinations of high-resolution imaging modalities. A traditional nodal gross tumor volume in the neck typically had a minimum diameter of 10-15 mm, while nowadays much smaller tumor deposits are detected in lymph nodes. However, the current dose levels for elective nodal irradiation were empirically determined in the 1950s, and have not changed since. In this report the radiobiological consequences of target volume transformation caused by modern imaging of the neck are evaluated, and theoretically derived reductions of dose in radiotherapy for head and neck cancer are proposed. The concept of target volume transformation and subsequent strategies for dose adaptation applies to many other tumor types as well. Awareness of this concept may result in new strategies for target definition and selection of dose levels with the aim to provide optimal tumor control with less toxicity. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Prognostic value of site-specific metastases in pancreatic adenocarcinoma: A Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results database analysis.

    PubMed

    Oweira, Hani; Petrausch, Ulf; Helbling, Daniel; Schmidt, Jan; Mannhart, Meinrad; Mehrabi, Arianeb; Schöb, Othmar; Giryes, Anwar; Decker, Michael; Abdel-Rahman, Omar

    2017-03-14

    To evaluate the prognostic value of site-specific metastases among patients with metastatic pancreatic carcinoma registered within the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) database. SEER database (2010-2013) has been queried through SEER*Stat program to determine the presentation, treatment outcomes and prognostic outcomes of metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma according to the site of metastasis. In this study, metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma patients were classified according to the site of metastases (liver, lung, bone, brain and distant lymph nodes). We utilized chi-square test to compare the clinicopathological characteristics among different sites of metastases. We used Kaplan-Meier analysis and log-rank testing for survival comparisons. We employed Cox proportional model to perform multivariate analyses of the patient population; and accordingly hazard ratios with corresponding 95%CI were generated. Statistical significance was considered if a two-tailed P value < 0.05 was achieved. A total of 13233 patients with stage IV pancreatic cancer and known sites of distant metastases were identified in the period from 2010-2013 and they were included into the current analysis. Patients with isolated distant nodal involvement or lung metastases have better overall and pancreatic cancer-specific survival compared to patients with isolated liver metastases (for overall survival: lung vs liver metastases: P < 0.0001; distant nodal vs liver metastases: P < 0.0001) (for pancreatic cancer-specific survival: lung vs liver metastases: P < 0.0001; distant nodal vs liver metastases: P < 0.0001). Multivariate analysis revealed that age < 65 years, white race, being married, female gender; surgery to the primary tumor and surgery to the metastatic disease were associated with better overall survival and pancreatic cancer-specific survival. Pancreatic adenocarcinoma patients with isolated liver metastases have worse outcomes compared to patients with isolated

  1. Regional Nodal Irradiation in Early-Stage Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Whelan, Timothy J; Olivotto, Ivo A; Parulekar, Wendy R; Ackerman, Ida; Chua, Boon H; Nabid, Abdenour; Vallis, Katherine A; White, Julia R; Rousseau, Pierre; Fortin, Andre; Pierce, Lori J; Manchul, Lee; Chafe, Susan; Nolan, Maureen C; Craighead, Peter; Bowen, Julie; McCready, David R; Pritchard, Kathleen I; Gelmon, Karen; Murray, Yvonne; Chapman, Judy-Anne W; Chen, Bingshu E; Levine, Mark N

    2015-07-23

    Most women with breast cancer who undergo breast-conserving surgery receive whole-breast irradiation. We examined whether the addition of regional nodal irradiation to whole-breast irradiation improved outcomes. We randomly assigned women with node-positive or high-risk node-negative breast cancer who were treated with breast-conserving surgery and adjuvant systemic therapy to undergo either whole-breast irradiation plus regional nodal irradiation (including internal mammary, supraclavicular, and axillary lymph nodes) (nodal-irradiation group) or whole-breast irradiation alone (control group). The primary outcome was overall survival. Secondary outcomes were disease-free survival, isolated locoregional disease-free survival, and distant disease-free survival. Between March 2000 and February 2007, a total of 1832 women were assigned to the nodal-irradiation group or the control group (916 women in each group). The median follow-up was 9.5 years. At the 10-year follow-up, there was no significant between-group difference in survival, with a rate of 82.8% in the nodal-irradiation group and 81.8% in the control group (hazard ratio, 0.91; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.72 to 1.13; P=0.38). The rates of disease-free survival were 82.0% in the nodal-irradiation group and 77.0% in the control group (hazard ratio, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.61 to 0.94; P=0.01). Patients in the nodal-irradiation group had higher rates of grade 2 or greater acute pneumonitis (1.2% vs. 0.2%, P=0.01) and lymphedema (8.4% vs. 4.5%, P=0.001). Among women with node-positive or high-risk node-negative breast cancer, the addition of regional nodal irradiation to whole-breast irradiation did not improve overall survival but reduced the rate of breast-cancer recurrence. (Funded by the Canadian Cancer Society Research Institute and others; MA.20 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00005957.).

  2. Fusion positron emission/computed tomography underestimates the presence of hilar nodal metastases in patients with resected non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Carrillo, Sergio A; Daniel, Vincent C; Hall, Nathan; Hitchcock, Charles L; Ross, Patrick; Kassis, Edmund S

    2012-05-01

    The 5-year survival for patients with resected stage II (N1) non-small cell lung cancer ranges from 40% to 55%. No data exist addressing the benefit of neoadjuvant therapy for patients with stage II disease. This is largely in part due to the lack of a reliable, minimally invasive method to assess hilar nodes. This study is aimed at determining the ability of fusion positron emission/computed tomography (PET/CT) to identify hilar metastases in patients with resected non-small cell lung cancer. A retrospective review of surgically resected patients with fusion PET/CT within 30 days of resection was performed. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value for PET/CT in detecting hilar nodal metastases was calculated for a range of maximum standardized uptake values (SUVmax). Hilar nodes from patients with falsely positive PET/CT scans were analyzed for the presence of histoplasmosis. Additionally, the impact of hilar node size greater than 1 centimeter on the calculated values was assessed. There were 119 patients evaluated. The number of lymph nodes resected ranged from 1 to 12 (X=2.98). There was decreased sensitivity and increased specificity with higher SUVmax cutoff values. At the standard SUVmax value of 2.5, the sensitivity and specificity were only 48.5% and 80.2%. The addition of size of hilar node by CT led to a modest improvement in sensitivity at all SUVmax cutoff values. Fusion PET/CT lacks sensitivity and specificity in identifying hilar nodal metastasis in patients with resected non-small cell lung cancer. Further prospective studies assessing the utility of PET/CT versus alternative sampling techniques are warranted. Copyright © 2012 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Association between US features of primary tumor and axillary lymph node metastasis in patients with clinical T1-T2N0 breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Bae, Min Sun; Shin, Sung Ui; Song, Sung Eun; Ryu, Han Suk; Han, Wonshik; Moon, Woo Kyung

    2018-04-01

    Background Most patients with early-stage breast cancer have clinically negative lymph nodes (LNs). However, 15-20% of patients have axillary nodal metastasis based on the sentinel LN biopsy. Purpose To assess whether ultrasound (US) features of a primary tumor are associated with axillary LN metastasis in patients with clinical T1-T2N0 breast cancer. Material and Methods This retrospective study included 138 consecutive patients (median age = 51 years; age range = 27-78 years) who underwent breast surgery with axillary LN evaluation for clinically node-negative T1-T2 breast cancer. Three radiologists blinded to the axillary surgery results independently reviewed the US images. Tumor distance from the skin and distance from the nipple were determined based on the US report. Association between US features of a breast tumor and axillary LN metastasis was assessed using a multivariate logistic regression model after controlling for clinicopathologic variables. Results Of the 138 patients, 28 (20.3%) had nodal metastasis. At univariate analysis, tumor distance from the skin ( P = 0.019), tumor size on US ( P = 0.023), calcifications ( P = 0.036), architectural distortion ( P = 0.001), and lymphovascular invasion ( P = 0.049) were associated with axillary LN metastasis. At multivariate analysis, shorter skin-to-tumor distance (odds ratio [OR] = 4.15; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.01-16.19; P = 0.040) and masses with associated architectural distortion (OR = 3.80; 95% CI = 1.57-9.19; P = 0.003) were independent predictors of axillary LN metastasis. Conclusion US features of breast cancer can be promising factors associated with axillary LN metastasis in patients with clinically node-negative early-stage breast cancer.

  4. Fibroadenoma in Axillary Ectopic Breast Tissue Mimicking Lymphadenopathy

    PubMed Central

    Maheshwari, Ujwala M

    2017-01-01

    Swellings in the axilla especially in women are always viewed with suspicion owing to a large number of these being associated with breast carcinoma presenting as nodal metastasis. In a country like India, tuberculous lymphadenopathy is also amongst the first differentials. We present a case of a woman with right sided axillary swelling mimicking lymphadenopathy which on Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC) turned out to be fibroadenoma of the ectopic breast tissue. This condition is a rare occurrence in Ectopic Breast Tissue (EBT) as opposed to that in the normal breast, the most common pathology affecting ectopic breast being carcinomas. PMID:28511397

  5. Fenestration of axillary vein by a variant axillary artery.

    PubMed

    Hadimani, S; Desai, S D; Bagoji, I B; Patil, B S

    2013-01-01

    Variations of venous pattern in the arm are common. In this case report, we present a variation of axillary artery and vein. During routine educational dissections of axillary region, it was observed that a fenestrated axillary vein was perforated by a variant axillary artery in right arm of an old male cadaver. The axillary artery which was fenestrated through axillary vein had only two branches arising from its second part and no branches from its remaining distal parts. The branches are thoraco-acromial (usual) and another large collateral (unusual) branch. This collateral branch is the origin of several important arteries as the subscapular, circumflex scapular, posterior circumflex humeral and lateral thoracic arteries. We propose to name this artery as collateral axillary arterial trunk. The course of this collateral axillary arterial trunk and its branches and also clinical significance of this variation are discussed in the paper.

  6. Effect of Axillary Dissection vs No Axillary Dissection on 10-Year Overall Survival Among Women With Invasive Breast Cancer and Sentinel Node Metastasis: The ACOSOG Z0011 (Alliance) Randomized Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Giuliano, Armando E; Ballman, Karla V; McCall, Linda; Beitsch, Peter D; Brennan, Meghan B; Kelemen, Pond R; Ollila, David W; Hansen, Nora M; Whitworth, Pat W; Blumencranz, Peter W; Leitch, A Marilyn; Saha, Sukamal; Hunt, Kelly K; Morrow, Monica

    2017-09-12

    The results of the American College of Surgeons Oncology Group Z0011 (ACOSOG Z0011) trial were first reported in 2005 with a median follow-up of 6.3 years. Longer follow-up was necessary because the majority of the patients had estrogen receptor-positive tumors that may recur later in the disease course (the ACOSOG is now part of the Alliance for Clinical Trials in Oncology). To determine whether the 10-year overall survival of patients with sentinel lymph node metastases treated with breast-conserving therapy and sentinel lymph node dissection (SLND) alone without axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) is noninferior to that of women treated with axillary dissection. The ACOSOG Z0011 phase 3 randomized clinical trial enrolled patients from May 1999 to December 2004 at 115 sites (both academic and community medical centers). The last date of follow-up was September 29, 2015, in the ACOSOG Z0011 (Alliance) trial. Eligible patients were women with clinical T1 or T2 invasive breast cancer, no palpable axillary adenopathy, and 1 or 2 sentinel lymph nodes containing metastases. All patients had planned lumpectomy, planned tangential whole-breast irradiation, and adjuvant systemic therapy. Third-field radiation was prohibited. The primary outcome was overall survival with a noninferiority hazard ratio (HR) margin of 1.3. The secondary outcome was disease-free survival. Among 891 women who were randomized (median age, 55 years), 856 (96%) completed the trial (446 in the SLND alone group and 445 in the ALND group). At a median follow-up of 9.3 years (interquartile range, 6.93-10.34 years), the 10-year overall survival was 86.3% in the SLND alone group and 83.6% in the ALND group (HR, 0.85 [1-sided 95% CI, 0-1.16]; noninferiority P = .02). The 10-year disease-free survival was 80.2% in the SLND alone group and 78.2% in the ALND group (HR, 0.85 [95% CI, 0.62-1.17]; P = .32). Between year 5 and year 10, 1 regional recurrence was seen in the SLND alone group vs none in

  7. Liver resection for colorectal cancer metastases

    PubMed Central

    Gallinger, S.; Biagi, J.J.; Fletcher, G.G.; Nhan, C.; Ruo, L.; McLeod, R.S.

    2013-01-01

    Questions Should surgery be considered for colorectal cancer (crc) patients who have liver metastases plus (a) pulmonary metastases, (b) portal nodal disease, or (c) other extrahepatic metastases (ehms)? What is the role of chemotherapy in the surgical management of crc with liver metastases in (a) patients with resectable disease in the liver, or (b) patients with initially unresectable disease in the liver that is downsized with chemotherapy (“conversion”)? What is the role of liver resection when one or more crc liver metastases have radiographic complete response (rcr) after chemotherapy? Perspectives Advances in chemotherapy have improved survival in crc patients with liver metastases. The 5-year survival with chemotherapy alone is typically less than 1%, although two recent studies with folfox or folfoxiri (or both) reported rates of 5%–10%. However, liver resection is the treatment that is most effective in achieving long-term survival and offering the possibility of a cure in stage iv crc patients with liver metastases. This guideline deals with the role of chemotherapy with surgery, and the role of surgery when there are liver metastases plus ehms. Because only a proportion of patients with crc metastatic disease are considered for liver resection, and because management of this patient population is complex, multidisciplinary management is required. Methodology Recommendations in the present guideline were formulated based on a prepublication version of a recent systematic review on this topic. The draft methodology experts, and external review by clinical practitioners. Feedback was incorporated into the final version of the guideline. Practice Guideline These recommendations apply to patients with liver metastases from crc who have had or will have a complete (R0) resection of the primary cancer and who are being considered for resection of the liver, or liver plus specific and limited ehms, with curative intent. 1(a). Patients with liver and lung

  8. Long-term prognoses and outcomes of axillary lymph node recurrence in 2,578 sentinel lymph node-negative patients for whom axillary lymph node dissection was omitted: results from one Japanese hospital.

    PubMed

    Ogiya, Akiko; Kimura, Kiyomi; Nakashima, Eri; Sakai, Takehiko; Miyagi, Yumi; Iijima, Kotaro; Morizono, Hidetomo; Makita, Masujiro; Horii, Rie; Akiyama, Futoshi; Iwase, Takuji

    2016-03-01

    Axillary dissection omission for sentinel lymph node-negative patients has been a practice at Cancer Institute Hospital, Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research since 2003. We examined the long-term results of omission of axillary dissection in sentinel lymph node-negative patients treated at our hospital, as well as their axillary lymph node recurrence characteristics and outcomes. Our study included 2,578 patients with cTis or T1-T3N0M0 primary breast cancer for whom dissection was omitted because they were sentinel lymph node negative. The median observation period was 75 months. In sentinel lymph node-negative patients for whom dissection was omitted, the rates of axillary lymph node recurrence, distant recurrence, and breast cancer mortality were 0.9, 2, and 1 %, respectively. Eighteen patients underwent additional dissection if axillary lymph node recurrence was observed at the first recurrence. Four triple-negative (TN) patients experienced distant recurrence after additional dissection. All four patients were administered anticancer agents after axillary lymph node recurrence and experienced recurrence within 1 year of additional dissection. The axillary lymph node recurrence rate was 0.8 % for luminal and 4.5 % for TN subtypes. The long-term prognoses of patients for whom dissection was omitted owing to negative sentinel lymph node metastases were similar to those reported previously-low recurrence and mortality rates. The frequency of axillary lymph node recurrence and the post-recurrence outcome differed between luminal and TN cases, with recurrence being more frequent in patients with the TN subtype. TN patients also had poorer prognoses, even after receiving additional dissection and anticancer agents after recurrence.

  9. Delineation of Internal Mammary Nodal Target Volumes in Breast Cancer Radiation Therapy

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Jethwa, Krishan R.; Kahila, Mohamed M.; Hunt, Katie N.

    Purpose: The optimal clinical target volume for internal mammary (IM) node irradiation is uncertain in an era of increasingly conformal volume-based treatment planning for breast cancer. We mapped the location of gross internal mammary lymph node (IMN) metastases to identify areas at highest risk of harboring occult disease. Methods and Materials: Patients with axial imaging of IMN disease were identified from a breast cancer registry. The IMN location was transferred onto the corresponding anatomic position on representative axial computed tomography images of a patient in the treatment position and compared with consensus group guidelines of IMN target delineation. Results: Themore » IMN location in 67 patients with 130 IMN metastases was mapped. The location was in the first 3 intercostal spaces in 102 of 130 nodal metastases (78%), whereas 18 of 130 IMNs (14%) were located caudal to the third intercostal space and 10 of 130 IMNs (8%) were located cranial to the first intercostal space. Of the 102 nodal metastases within the first 3 intercostal spaces, 54 (53%) were located within the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group consensus volume. Relative to the IM vessels, 19 nodal metastases (19%) were located medially with a mean distance of 2.2 mm (SD, 2.9 mm) whereas 29 (28%) were located laterally with a mean distance of 3.6 mm (SD, 2.5 mm). Ninety percent of lymph nodes within the first 3 intercostal spaces would have been encompassed within a 4-mm medial and lateral expansion on the IM vessels. Conclusions: In women with indications for elective IMN irradiation, a 4-mm medial and lateral expansion on the IM vessels may be appropriate. In women with known IMN involvement, cranial extension to the confluence of the IM vein with the brachiocephalic vein with or without caudal extension to the fourth or fifth interspace may be considered provided that normal tissue constraints are met.« less

  10. Prognostic Significance of the Location of Lymph Node Metastases in Patients With Adenocarcinoma of the Distal Esophagus or Gastroesophageal Junction.

    PubMed

    Anderegg, Maarten C J; Lagarde, Sjoerd M; Jagadesham, Vamshi P; Gisbertz, Suzanne S; Immanuel, Arul; Meijer, Sybren L; Hulshof, Maarten C C M; Bergman, Jacques J G H M; van Laarhoven, Hanneke W M; Griffin, S Michael; van Berge Henegouwen, Mark I

    2016-11-01

    To identify the prognostic significance of the location of lymph node metastases in patients with esophageal or gastroesophageal junction (GEJ) adenocarcinoma treated with neoadjuvant therapy followed by esophagectomy. Detection of lymph node metastases in the upper mediastinum and around the celiac trunk after neoadjuvant therapy and resection does not alter the TNM classification of esophageal carcinoma. The impact of these distant lymph node metastases on survival remains unclear. Between March 2003 and September 2013, 479 consecutive patients with adenocarcinoma of the distal esophagus or GEJ who underwent transthoracic esophagectomy with en bloc 2-field lymphadenectomy after neoadjuvant therapy were included, and survival was analyzed according to the location of positive lymph nodes in the resection specimen. Two hundred fifty-three patients had nodal metastases in the resection specimen. Of these patients, 92 patients had metastases in locoregional nodes, 114 patients in truncal nodes, 21 patients in the proximal field of the chest, and 26 patients had both positive truncal and proximal field nodes. Median disease-free survival was 170 months in the absence of nodal metastases, 35 months for metastases limited to locoregional nodes, 16 months for positive truncal nodes, 15 months for positive nodes in the proximal field, and 8 months for nodal metastases in both truncal and the proximal field. On multivariate analysis, location of lymph node metastases was independently associated with survival. Location of lymph node metastases is an independent predictor for survival. Relatively distant lymph node metastases along the celiac axis and/or the proximal field have a negative impact on survival. Location of lymph node metastases should therefore be considered in future staging systems of esophageal and GEJ adenocarcinoma.

  11. 18F-FDG PET/CT for Monitoring Response of Merkel Cell Carcinoma to the Novel Programmed Cell Death Ligand 1 Inhibitor Avelumab.

    PubMed

    Eshghi, Naghmehossadat; Lundeen, Tamara F; MacKinnon, Lea; Avery, Ryan; Kuo, Phillip H

    2018-05-01

    An 85-year-old man with stage IIIA Merkel cell carcinoma of the left arm was initially treated with local excision and axillary node dissection followed by radiation therapy. Eight months after surgery, whole-body FDG PET/CT demonstrated intensely hypermetabolic hepatic metastases and abdominal lymphadenopathy. Given his age and comorbidities, he was considered a poor candidate for chemotherapy, and therefore the novel programmed cell death ligand 1 inhibitor avelumab was initiated. FDG PET/CT after 4 cycles showed complete resolution of hepatic and nodal metastases. Whole-body FDG PET/CT can be used for monitoring response of multisystem metastases from Merkel cell carcinoma to active immunotherapy.

  12. Dual time point 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-D-glucose PET/CT: nodal staging in locally advanced breast cancer.

    PubMed

    García Vicente, A M; Soriano Castrejón, A; Cruz Mora, M Á; Ortega Ruiperez, C; Espinosa Aunión, R; León Martín, A; González Ageitos, A; Van Gómez López, O

    2014-01-01

    To assess dual time point 2-deoxy-2-[(18)F]fluoro-D-glucose (18)(F)FDG PET-CT accuracy in nodal staging and in detection of extra-axillary involvement. Dual time point [(18)F] FDG PET/CT scan was performed in 75 patients. Visual and semiquantitative assessment of lymph nodes was performed. Semiquantitative measurement of SUV and ROC-analysis were carried out to calculate SUV(max) cut-off value with the best diagnostic performance. Axillary and extra-axillary lymph node chains were evaluated. Sensitivity and specificity of visual assessment was 87.3% and 75%, respectively. SUV(max) values with the best sensitivity were 0.90 and 0.95 for early and delayed PET, respectively. SUV(max) values with the best specificity were 1.95 and 2.75, respectively. Extra-axillary lymph node involvement was detected in 26.7%. FDG PET/CT detected extra-axillary lymph node involvement in one-fourth of the patients. Semiquantitative lymph node analysis did not show any advantage over the visual evaluation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. and SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  13. Human papillomavirus reduces the prognostic value of nodal involvement in tonsillar squamous cell carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Straetmans, Jos M J A A; Olthof, Nadine; Mooren, Jeroen J; de Jong, Jos; Speel, Ernst-Jan M; Kremer, Bernd

    2009-10-01

    Assessment of the prognostic value of nodal status in relation to human papillomavirus (HPV) status and the various treatment modalities in tonsillar squamous cell carcinomas (TSCC). Retrospective 5-year survival analysis. A 5-year follow-up of disease-free, disease-specific, and overall survival in a group of 81 patients with TSCC was conducted. The nodal status and integration of HPV-DNA in the genome (detected with fluorescence in situ hybridization) as prognostic indicators were examined while correcting for other clinical parameters (smoking habits, alcohol consumption, treatment modality, differentiation, TNM classification). Of TSCCs, 41% were positive for HPV type 16. In these TSCCs, the primary tumor was significantly smaller when compared to HVP-negative TSCCs (P = .04), whereas the percentage of cases with cervical metastases was identical. In the total population, it was not nodal involvement, but rather HPV manifestation, which was related to patient prognosis. Within the treatment modalities (surgery combined with radiotherapy and radiotherapy alone), neither nodal status nor HPV were prognostic indicators. Since a substantial percentage of TSCCs are HPV-positive and metastasizes to cervical lymph nodes in less advanced primary tumors, the N status is an unreliable prognostic indicator in TSCCs. HPV is only prognostically relevant in the total tumor population, but loses its value within patient groups receiving a single treatment modality. The value of HPV for prognosis of patients with TSCC requires further study.

  14. Incidence and sites of distant metastases from head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Ferlito, A; Shaha, A R; Silver, C E; Rinaldo, A; Mondin, V

    2001-01-01

    The incidence of distant metastases in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is relatively small in comparison to other malignancies. Distant metastases adversely impact survival and may significantly affect treatment planning. The incidence of distant metastases is influenced by location of the primary tumor, initial T and N stage of the neoplasm, and the presence or absence of regional control above the clavicle. Patients with advanced nodal disease have a high incidence of distant metastases, particularly in the presence of jugular vein invasion or extensive soft tissue disease in the neck. Primary tumors of advanced T stages in the hypopharynx, oropharynx and oral cavity are associated with the highest incidence of distant metastases. Pulmonary metastases are the most frequent in SCC, accounting for 66% of distant metastases. It may be difficult to distinguish pulmonary metastasis from a new primary tumor, particularly if solitary. Other metastatic sites include bone (22%), liver (10%), skin, mediastinum and bone marrow. An important question remains as to how intensely pre- and postoperative screening for distant metastases should be performed. Preoperative chest X-ray is warranted in all cases. If the primary tumor and nodal status place the patient at high risk for pulmonary metastasis, then preoperative computed tomography scan of the chest should be done. Screening for distant metastases at other sites is usually not indicated in SCC of the upper aerodigestive tract. Postoperatively, annual X-rays of the chest are usually sufficient, but in high-risk situations a chest X-ray performed every 3-6 months may be beneficial. Certain histologic types of primary tumor have greater or lesser propensity to metastasize distantly, and have a different natural history. Adenoid cystic carcinoma metastasizes frequently, even in the absence of extensive local or regional disease. Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma and neuroendocrine carcinomas also metastasize widely

  15. Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging as a Predictor of Outcome in Head-and-Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma Patients With Nodal Metastases

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Shukla-Dave, Amita, E-mail: davea@mskcc.org; Department of Radiology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY; Lee, Nancy Y.

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) can provide information regarding tumor perfusion and permeability and has shown prognostic value in certain tumors types. The goal of this study was to assess the prognostic value of pretreatment DCE-MRI in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) patients with nodal disease undergoing chemoradiation therapy or surgery. Methods and Materials: Seventy-four patients with histologically proven squamous cell carcinoma and neck nodal metastases were eligible for the study. Pretreatment DCE-MRI was performed on a 1.5T MRI. Clinical follow-up was a minimum of 12 months. DCE-MRI data were analyzed using the Tofts model. DCE-MRI parameters weremore » related to treatment outcome (progression-free survival [PFS] and overall survival [OS]). Patients were grouped as no evidence of disease (NED), alive with disease (AWD), dead with disease (DOD), or dead of other causes (DOC). Prognostic significance was assessed using the log-rank test for single variables and Cox proportional hazards regression for combinations of variables. Results: At last clinical follow-up, for Stage III, all 12 patients were NED. For Stage IV, 43 patients were NED, 4 were AWD, 11 were DOD, and 4 were DOC. K{sup trans} is volume transfer constant. In a stepwise Cox regression, skewness of K{sup trans} (volume transfer constant) was the strongest predictor for Stage IV patients (PFS and OS: p <0.001). Conclusion: Our study shows that skewness of K{sup trans} was the strongest predictor of PFS and OS in Stage IV HNSCC patients with nodal disease. This study suggests an important role for pretreatment DCE-MRI parameter K{sup trans} as a predictor of outcome in these patients.« less

  16. Coexistence of breast cancer metastases and tuberculosis in axillary lymph nodes--a rare association and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Salemis, Nikolaos S; Razou, Anna

    2010-05-01

    The coexistence of metastatic breast cancer and tuberculosis in axillary lymph nodes is very rare. We present the case of a 57-year-old woman with multifocal invasive ductal breast carcinoma in whom the resected axillary nodes were found to harbor both metastatic cancer and tuberculous lymphadenitis. Thorough investigation revealed no evidence of primary tuberculosis elsewhere. A quantiFERON TB-Gold test was positive, indicating latent tuberculosis. The patient was treated with adjuvant chemotherapy antituberculous therapy, radiation and hormonal therapy with aromatase inhibitors. We conclude the possibility of coexistent latent tuberculosis should be kept in mind when granulomatous lesions are identified in axillary lymph nodes with metastatic breast cancer, especially in patients from endemic regions.

  17. Efficacy of Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy in Detecting Axillary Metastasis in Breast Cancer Using Methylene Blue.

    PubMed

    Nandu, Vipul V; Chaudhari, Milind S

    2017-06-01

    Breast cancer is the leading malignancy and the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths. Axillary lymph node status is a very important prognostic factor in breast cancer patients; nodal evaluation is therefore a critical part of breast cancer management. Axillary lymph node dissection results in significant morbidity. Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) is being used in many centers to stage the axilla in planning axillary dissection management of patients and hence plays an important part in reducing morbidity among patients with carcinoma breast. The objectives of this paper is to study the (1) efficacy of sentinel lymph node biopsy in detecting axillary metastasis, (2) location of sentinel lymph node in the axilla, (3) rate of involvement of sentinel lymph nodes, and (4) incidence of skip metastasis. Thirty-five patients with breast cancer with clinically node-negative axilla were selected for the study. Methylene blue dye was injected intralesional and perilesional 20 min prior to surgery. All patients underwent modified radical mastectomy with sentinel lymph node biopsy and axillary dissection and after pathological examination diagnostic statics, namely sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and accuracy were computed. Sentinel lymph node was identified in all of these patients. Sixty percent patients had pathologically positive lymph nodes in the axilla. 90.48% patients of these had sentinel lymph nodes positive for malignant cells. Incidence of skip metastasis is 9.52%. 88.57% patients had sentinel lymph node mapped to level I lymph nodes. Sensitivity of SLNB is 90.48%, specificity is 85.71%, PPV of is 90.48%, NPV is 85.71%, and accuracy is 88.57%. Sentinel lymph node biopsy is an effective method of staging the axilla and deciding on axillary clearance in patients of carcinoma breast. Unnecessary axillary dissection and associated complications can be prevented in most of patients due to sentinel

  18. Sentinel node biopsy before neoadjuvant chemotherapy spares breast cancer patients axillary lymph node dissection.

    PubMed

    van Rijk, Maartje C; Nieweg, Omgo E; Rutgers, Emiel J T; Oldenburg, Hester S A; Olmos, Renato Valdés; Hoefnagel, Cornelis A; Kroon, Bin B R

    2006-04-01

    Neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer patients is a valuable method to determine the efficacy of chemotherapy and potentially downsize the primary tumor, which facilitates breast-conserving therapy. In 18 studies published about sentinel node biopsy after neoadjuvant chemotherapy, the sentinel node was identified in on average 89%, and the false-negative rate was on average 10%. Because of these mediocre results, no author dares to omit axillary clearance just yet. In our institute, sentinel lymph node biopsy is performed before neoadjuvant chemotherapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate our experience with this approach. Sentinel node biopsy was performed before neoadjuvant chemotherapy in 25 T2N0 patients by using lymphoscintigraphy, a gamma ray detection probe, and patent blue dye. Axillary lymph node dissection was performed after chemotherapy if the sentinel node contained metastases. Ten patients had a tumor-positive axillary sentinel node, and one patient had an involved lateral intramammary node. Four patients had additional involved nodes in the completion lymph node dissection specimen. The other 14 patients (56%) had a tumor-negative sentinel node and did not undergo axillary lymph node dissection. No recurrences have been observed after a median follow-up of 18 months. Fourteen (56%) of the 25 patients were spared axillary lymph node dissection when the sentinel node was found to be disease free. Performing sentinel node biopsy before neoadjuvant chemotherapy seems successful and reliable in patients with T2N0 breast cancer.

  19. Evaluation of sentinel lymph node biopsy prior to axillary lymph node dissection: the role of isolated tumor cells/micrometastases and multifocality/multicentricity-a retrospective study of 1214 breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Schröder, Lars; Fricker, Roland; Stein, Roland Gregor; Rink, Thomas; Fitz, Hartmut; Blasius, Sebastian; Wöckel, Achim; Müller, Thomas

    2018-06-01

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) alone has thus become an accepted surgical approach for patients with limited axillary metastatic disease. We investigated to what extent isolated tumor cells (ITC) or micrometastasis in SLNBs is associated with proven tumor cells or metastasis in non-sentinel lymph nodes. Furthermore, we investigated the feasibility of SLNB in multifocal and multicentric tumors as both entities have been considered a contraindication for this technique. 1214 women suffering from T1 and T2 invasive breast cancer, with clinically and sonographically insuspect axillary status and undergoing primary breast cancer surgery including SLNB and axillary staging in case of SLN (sentinel lymph node) metastases, were recruited into this multicentered study. ITC and micrometastases were found in 2.01 and 21.4% of patients with SLN metastases (n = 299). Among patients with sentinel micrometastases, 4.7% showed further axillary micrometastases, while only two patients (3.1%) had two axillary macrometastases. Multifocal and multicentric tumors were diagnosed in 9.3 and 2.6% of our patients who at least had one SLN resected, respectively. Detection rates of SLNs did not differ between the cohorts suffering from unicentric and multifocal or multicentric disease. Moreover, the portion of tumor-free SLNs, the number of SLNs with metastasis as well as the mean number of resected SLNs did not differ. No patient with sentinel node micrometastases showed more than two axillary macrometastases. Multifocal and multicentric disease is no contraindication for SLNB.

  20. [Selective biopsy of the sentinel lymph node in breast cancer: without axillary recurrences after a mean follow-up of 4.5 years].

    PubMed

    Bañuelos Andrío, Luis; Rodríguez Caravaca, Gil; Argüelles Pintos, Miguel; Mitjavilla Casanova, Mercedes

    2014-01-01

    To analyze the rate of axillary recurrences (AR) in patients with early breast cancer who had not undergone an axillary node dissection (ALND) because of a negative sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB). The study includes 173 patients operated on for breast cancer and selective node biopsy. In 32 patients the SLNB was positive and undergone subsequent ALND. We followed up 141 patients with negative SLNB without LDN, with a median follow up of 55 months (range 74-36). The detection rate of SLN was of 99.42%. After a median follow-up of 4.5 years, there were no axillary recurrences. Two patients developed local recurrence, other two patients developed distant metastases and four patients developed a metachronous tumor. Four patients died, none of them because of breast cancer. The results obtained support the SLNB as an accurate technique in the axillary stratification of patients with breast cancer, offering in the cases of negative SLNB a safe axillary control after 4.5 year follow-up. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  1. Clinical utility of routine pre-operative axillary ultrasound and fine needle aspiration cytology in patient selection for sentinel lymph node biopsy.

    PubMed

    Rattay, T; Muttalib, M; Khalifa, E; Duncan, A; Parker, S J

    2012-04-01

    In patients with operable breast cancer, pre-operative evaluation of the axilla may be of use in the selection of appropriate axillary surgery. Pre-operative axillary ultrasound (US) and fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) assessments have become routine practice in many breast units, although the evidence base is still gathering. This study assessed the clinical utility of US+/-FNAC in patient selection for either axillary node clearance (ANC) or sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) in patients undergoing surgery for operable breast cancer. Over a two-year period, 348 patients with a clinically negative axilla underwent axillary US. 67 patients with suspicious nodes on US also underwent FNAC. The sensitivity and specificity of axillary investigations to determine nodal involvement were 56% (confidence interval: 47-64%) and 90% (84-93%) for US alone, and 76% (61-87%) and 100% (65-100%) for FNAC combined with US, respectively. With a positive US, the post-test probability was 78%. A negative US carried a post-test probability of 25%. When FNAC was positive, the post-test probability was greater than unity. A negative FNAC yielded a post-test probability of 52%. All patients with positive FNAC and most patients with suspicious US were listed for axillary node clearance (ANC) after consideration at the multi-disciplinary team (MDT) meeting. With pre-operative axillary US+/-FNAC, 20% of patients were saved a potential second axillary procedure, facilitating a reduction in the overall re-operation rate to 12%. In this study, a positive pre-operative US+/-FNAC directs patients towards ANC. When the result is negative, other clinico-pathological factors need to be taken into account in the selection of the appropriate axillary procedure. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography–computed tomography in evaluation of pelvic and para-aortic nodal involvement in early stage and operable cervical cancer: Comparison with surgicopathological findings

    PubMed Central

    Bansal, Vandana; Damania, Kaizad; Sharma, Anshu Rajnish

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Nodal metastases in cervical cancer have prognostic implications. Imaging is used as an adjunct to clinical staging for evaluation of nodal metastases. Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) has an advantage of superior resolution of its CT component and detecting nodal disease based on increased glycolytic activity rather than node size. But there are limited studies describing its limitations in early stage cervical cancers. Objective: We have done meta-analysis with an objective to evaluate the efficacy of FDG PET/CT and its current clinical role in early stage and operable cervical cancer. Materials and Methods: Studies in which FDG PET/CT was performed before surgery in patients with early stage cervical cancers were included for analysis. PET findings were confirmed with histopathological diagnosis rather than clinical follow-up. FDG PET/CT showed lower sensitivity and clinically unacceptable negative predictive value in detecting nodal metastases in early stage cervical cancer and therefore, can not replace surgicopathological staging. False negative results in presence of microscopic disease and sub-centimeter diseased nodes are still the area of concern for metabolic imaging. However, these studies are single institutional and performed in a small group of patients. There is enough available evidence of clinical utility of FDG PET/CT in locally advanced cervical cancer. But these results can not be extrapolated for early stage disease. Conclusion: The current data suggest that FDG PET/CT is suboptimal in nodal staging in early stage cervical cancer. PMID:23559711

  3. Anatomical study of the accessory axillary vein in cadavers: a contribution to the axillary surgical approach.

    PubMed

    Felix, Valtuir Barbosa; Dos Santos, José André Bernardino; Fernandes, Katharina Jucá de Moraes; Cabral, Dhayanna Rolemberg Gama; Dos Santos, Carlos Adriano Silva; Rodrigues, Célio Fernando de Sousa; Lima, Jacqueline Silva Brito; Ramalho, Antônio José Casado

    2016-01-01

    The axillary vein is an important blood vessel that participates in drainage of the upper limb. Some individuals present a second axillary vein (accessory axillary vein), which is an important collateral drainage path. The goal of this study was to determine the incidence of the accessory axillary vein and to describe this vessel's topography. In this study, axillary dissections were carried out on twenty-four (24) human cadavers of both sexes that had been fixed with 10% formaldehyde. The upper limbs of the cadavers were still attached to the bodies and the axillary structures were preserved. Data collection was carried out and the axillary structures of the cadavers were compared. The incidence of accessory axillary veins was 58.3%, with no significant preference for sex or for side of the body. The accessory axillary vein originated from the lateral brachial vein in 39.28% of cases, from the common brachial vein in 35.71% of cases, and from the deep brachial vein in 25% of cases. Its high incidence and clinical relevance make the accessory axillary vein important for provision of collateral circulation in the event of traumatic injury to the axillary vein.

  4. Anatomical study of the accessory axillary vein in cadavers: a contribution to the axillary surgical approach

    PubMed Central

    Felix, Valtuir Barbosa; dos Santos, José André Bernardino; Fernandes, Katharina Jucá de Moraes; Cabral, Dhayanna Rolemberg Gama; dos Santos, Carlos Adriano Silva; Rodrigues, Célio Fernando de Sousa; Lima, Jacqueline Silva Brito; Ramalho, Antônio José Casado

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background The axillary vein is an important blood vessel that participates in drainage of the upper limb. Some individuals present a second axillary vein (accessory axillary vein), which is an important collateral drainage path. Objectives The goal of this study was to determine the incidence of the accessory axillary vein and to describe this vessel’s topography. Methods In this study, axillary dissections were carried out on twenty-four (24) human cadavers of both sexes that had been fixed with 10% formaldehyde. The upper limbs of the cadavers were still attached to the bodies and the axillary structures were preserved. Data collection was carried out and the axillary structures of the cadavers were compared. Results The incidence of accessory axillary veins was 58.3%, with no significant preference for sex or for side of the body. The accessory axillary vein originated from the lateral brachial vein in 39.28% of cases, from the common brachial vein in 35.71% of cases, and from the deep brachial vein in 25% of cases. Conclusions Its high incidence and clinical relevance make the accessory axillary vein important for provision of collateral circulation in the event of traumatic injury to the axillary vein.

  5. Lymphatic mapping with fluorescence navigation using indocyanine green and axillary surgery in patients with primary breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Megumi; Sugie, Tomoharu; Abdelazeem, Kassim; Kato, Hironori; Shinkura, Nobuhiko; Takada, Masahiro; Yamashiro, Hiroyasu; Ueno, Takayuki; Toi, Masakazu

    2012-01-01

    The indocyanine green fluorescence (ICGf) navigation method provides real-time lymphatic mapping and sentinel lymph node (SLN) visualization, which enables the removal of SLNs and their associated lymphatic networks. In this study, we investigated the features of the drainage pathways detected with the ICGf navigation system and the order of metastasis in axillary nodes. From April 2008 to February 2010, 145 patients with clinically node-negative breast cancer underwent SLN surgery with ICGf navigation. The video-recorded data from 79 patients were used for lymphatic mapping analysis. We analyzed 145 patients with clinically node-negative breast cancer who underwent SLN surgery with the ICGf navigation system. Fluorescence-positive SLNs were identified in 144 (99%) of 145 patients. Both single and multiple routes to the axilla were identified in 47% of cases using video-recorded lymphatic mapping data. An internal mammary route was detected in 6% of the cases. Skip metastasis to the second or third SLNs was observed in 6 of the 28 node-positive patients. We also examined the strategy of axillary surgery using the ICGf navigation system. We found that, based on the features of nodal involvement, 4-node resection could provide precise information on the nodal status. The ICGf navigation system may provide a different lymphatic mapping result than computed tomography lymphography in clinically node-negative breast cancer patients. Furthermore, it enables the identification of lymph nodes that do not accumulate indocyanine green or dye adjacent to the SLNs in the sequence of drainage. Knowledge of the order of nodal metastasis as revealed by the ICGf system may help to personalize the surgical treatment of axilla in SLN-positive cases, although additional studies are required. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Omitting elective nodal irradiation during thoracic irradiation in limited-stage small cell lung cancer--evidence from a phase II trial.

    PubMed

    Colaco, Rovel; Sheikh, Hamid; Lorigan, Paul; Blackhall, Fiona; Hulse, Paul; Califano, Raffaele; Ashcroft, Linda; Taylor, Paul; Thatcher, Nicholas; Faivre-Finn, Corinne

    2012-04-01

    Omitting elective nodal irradiation (ENI) in limited-stage disease small cell lung cancer (LD-SCLC) is expected to result in smaller radiation fields. We report on data from a randomised phase II trial that omitted ENI in patients receiving concurrent chemo-radiotherapy for LD-SCLC. 38 patients with LD-SCLC were randomised to receive once-daily (66 Gy in 33 fractions) or twice-daily (45 Gy in 30 fractions) radiotherapy (RT). 3D-conformal RT was given concurrently with cisplatin and etoposide starting with the second cycle of a total of four cycles. The gross tumour volume was defined as primary tumour with involved lymph nodes (nodes ≥1 cm in short axis) identifiable with CT imaging. ENI was not used. Six recurrence patterns were identified: recurrence within planning target volume (PTV) only, recurrence within PTV+regional nodal recurrence and/or distant recurrence, isolated nodal recurrence outside PTV, nodal recurrence outside PTV+distant recurrence, distant metastases only and no recurrence. At median follow-up 16.9 months, 31/38 patients were evaluable and 14/31 patients had relapsed. There were no isolated nodal recurrences. Eight patients relapsed with intra-thoracic disease: 2 within PTV only, 4 within PTV and distantly and 2 with nodal recurrence outside PTV plus distant metastases. Rates of grade 3+ acute oesophagitis and pneumonitis in the 31 evaluable patients were 23 and 3% respectively. In our study of LD-SCLC, omitting ENI based on CT imaging was not associated with a high risk of isolated nodal recurrence, although further prospective studies are needed to confirm this. Routine ENI omission will be further evaluated prospectively in the ongoing phase III CONVERT trial (NCT00433563). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The role of MRI in axillary lymph node imaging in breast cancer patients: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Kuijs, V J L; Moossdorff, M; Schipper, R J; Beets-Tan, R G H; Heuts, E M; Keymeulen, K B M I; Smidt, M L; Lobbes, M B I

    2015-04-01

    To assess whether MRI can exclude axillary lymph node metastasis, potentially replacing sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB), and consequently eliminating the risk of SLNB-associated morbidity. PubMed, Cochrane, Medline and Embase databases were searched for relevant publications up to July 2014. Studies were selected based on predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria and independently assessed by two reviewers using a standardised extraction form. Sixteen eligible studies were selected from 1,372 publications identified by the search. A dedicated axillary protocol [sensitivity 84.7 %, negative predictive value (NPV) 95.0 %] was superior to a standard protocol covering both the breast and axilla simultaneously (sensitivity 82.0 %, NPV 82.6 %). Dynamic, contrast-enhanced MRI had a lower median sensitivity (60.0 %) and NPV (80.0 %) compared to non-enhanced T1w/T2w sequences (88.4, 94.7 %), diffusion-weighted imaging (84.2, 90.6 %) and ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide (USPIO)- enhanced T2*w sequences (83.0, 95.9 %). The most promising results seem to be achievable when using non-enhanced T1w/T2w and USPIO-enhanced T2*w sequences in combination with a dedicated axillary protocol (sensitivity 84.7 % and NPV 95.0 %). The diagnostic performance of some MRI protocols for excluding axillary lymph node metastases approaches the NPV needed to replace SLNB. However, current observations are based on studies with heterogeneous study designs and limited populations. • Some axillary MRI protocols approach the NPV of an SLNB procedure. • Dedicated axillary MRI is more accurate than protocols also covering the breast. • T1w/T2w protocols combined with USPIO-enhanced sequences are the most promising sequences.

  8. Toxoplasma lymphadenitis mimicking malign axillary lymphadenopathy of a left breast mass.

    PubMed

    Yildirim, Ali Cihat; Bostanci, Hasan; Yilmaz, Engin Deniz; Kutluer, Nizamettin; Kargici, Hulagu

    2013-06-01

    Toxoplasmosis is an infection caused by the intracellular parasite, Toxoplasma gondii. Immunocompetent persons with primary infection are usually asymptomatic, but latent infection can persist for the life of the host. There is a risk of reactivating infection at a later time should the individual become immunocompromised, even if infection was asymptomatic or only mildly symptomatic initially. Axillary lymph nodes receive 85% of the lymphatic drainage from the breast. Lymph node metastases are relatively common even with invasive breast cancers ≤1 cm in size. Here, we report a case of toxoplasma lymphadenitis in a female adult patient mimicking a malign breast lymphadenopathy of a left breast mass.

  9. Factors influencing axillary shoot proliferation and adventitious budding in cedar.

    PubMed

    Renau-Morata, Begoña; Ollero, Javier; Arrillaga, Isabel; Segura, Juan

    2005-04-01

    We developed procedures for in vitro cloning of Cedrus atlantica Manetti and C. libani A. Rich explants from juvenile and mature plants. Explant size was one determinant of the frequency of axillary bud break in both species. Shoot tips and nodal explants mainly developed calli, whereas bud sprouting occurred in defoliated microcuttings cultured on a modified Murashige and Skoog medium without growth regulators. Isolation and continuous subculture of sprouted buds on the same medium allowed cloning of microcuttings from C. atlantica and C. libani seedlings and bicentennial C. libani trees, thus providing a desirable alternative for multiplying mature trees that have demonstrated superior characteristics. We also report adventitious bud differentiation from isolated embryos of C. atlantica. Neither auxin treatments nor other methods tested, including infection with Agrobacterium rhizogenes, were effective in inducing root initiation.

  10. Role of Ultrasonography of Regional Nodal Basins in Staging Triple-Negative Breast Cancer and Implications For Local-Regional Treatment

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Shaitelman, Simona F., E-mail: sfshaitelman@mdanderson.org; Tereffe, Welela; Dogan, Basak E.

    2015-09-01

    Purpose: We sought to determine the rate at which regional nodal ultrasonography would increase the nodal disease stage in patients with triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) beyond the clinical stage determined by physical examination and mammography alone, and significantly affect the treatments delivered to these patients. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively reviewed the charts of women with stages I to III TNBC who underwent physical examination, mammography, breast and regional nodal ultrasonography with needle biopsy of abnormal nodes, and definitive local-regional treatment at our institution between 2004 and 2011. The stages of these patients' disease with and without ultrasonography of the regionalmore » nodal basins were compared using the Pearson χ{sup 2} test. Definitive treatments of patients whose nodal disease was upstaged on the basis of ultrasonographic findings were compared to those of patients whose disease stage remained the same. Results: A total of 572 women met the study requirements. In 111 (19.4%) of these patients, regional nodal ultrasonography with needle biopsy resulted in an increase in disease stage from the original stage by physical examination and mammography alone. Significantly higher percentages of patients whose nodal disease was upstaged by ultrasonographic findings compared to that in patients whose disease was not upstaged underwent neoadjuvant systemic therapy (91.9% and 51.2%, respectively; P<.0001), axillary lymph node dissection (99.1% and 34.5%, respectively; P<.0001), and radiation to the regional nodal basins (88.2% and 29.1%, respectively; P<.0001). Conclusions: Regional nodal ultrasonography in TNBC frequently changes the initial clinical stage and plays an important role in treatment planning.« less

  11. Three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma: is elective nodal irradiation necessary?

    PubMed

    Zhao, Kuai-le; Ma, Jin-bo; Liu, Guang; Wu, Kai-liang; Shi, Xue-hui; Jiang, Guo-liang

    2010-02-01

    To evaluate the local control, survival, and toxicity associated with three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) for squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the esophagus, to determine the appropriate target volumes, and to determine whether elective nodal irradiation is necessary in these patients. A prospective study of 3D-CRT was undertaken in patients with esophageal SCC without distant metastases. Patients received 68.4 Gy in 41 fractions over 44 days using late-course accelerated hyperfractionated 3D-CRT. Only the primary tumor and positive lymph nodes were irradiated. Isolated out-of-field regional nodal recurrence was defined as a recurrence in an initially uninvolved regional lymph node. All 53 patients who made up the study population tolerated the irradiation well. No acute or late Grade 4 or 5 toxicity was observed. The median survival time was 30 months (95% confidence interval, 17.7-41.8). The overall survival rate at 1, 2, and 3 years was 77%, 56%, and 41%, respectively. The local control rate at 1, 2, and 3 years was 83%, 74%, and 62%, respectively. Thirty-nine of the 53 patients (74%) showed treatment failure. Seventeen of the 39 (44%) developed an in-field recurrence, 18 (46%) distant metastasis with or without regional failure, and 3 (8%) an isolated out-of-field nodal recurrence only. One patient died of disease in an unknown location. In patients treated with 3D-CRT for esophageal SCC, the omission of elective nodal irradiation was not associated with a significant amount of failure in lymph node regions not included in the planning target volume. Local failure and distant metastases remained the predominant problems. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The sensitivity of pre-operative axillary staging in breast cancer: comparison of invasive lobular and ductal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Topps, A; Clay, V; Absar, M; Howe, M; Lim, Y; Johnson, R; Bundred, N

    2014-07-01

    Axillary ultrasound (AUS) with fine-needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy of abnormal lymph nodes is important for pre-operative staging and planning the surgical management of the axilla. Invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) metastases are thought to be difficult to detect because the cells are small and on cytology resemble lymphocytes. To investigate this we directly compared the sensitivity of pre-operative axillary staging between ILC and invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC). Consecutive patients that presented in a single breast unit with pure IDC between April 2005 and December 2006 and pure ILC between January 2008 and December 2012 were retrospectively identified from pathology records. Pre-operative axillary ultrasound and FNA biopsy results were compared with post-operative histopathology from the sentinel node biopsy (SNB) or axillary lymph node dissection (ALND). A total of 275 and 142 axillae were identified in the IDC and ILC groups respectively. In the node positive patients there was no significant difference in the sensitivity of AUS (IDC vs. ILC; 58.7% vs. 52.8%). However, there was a significant difference in the sensitivity of ultrasound-guided FNA biopsy of abnormal nodes (IDC vs. ILC; 98.4% vs. 53.6%; p < 0.001). AUS has comparative sensitivities between IDC and ILC populations. In contrast, FNA biopsy of abnormal axillary nodes is clearly less sensitive in the ILC group. In these patients, who have abnormal AUS, we suggest that a core biopsy is required to improve the pre-operative staging and prevent unnecessary surgical procedures. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Factors influencing the distribution of metastases and survival in metastatic breast carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Barişta, I; Baltali, E; Güllü, I H; Güler, N; Celik, I; Saraçbaşi, O; Tekuzman, G; Kars, A; Ozişik, Y; Ruacan, S; Atahan, I L; Firat, D

    1996-12-01

    A total of 370 patients with metastatic breast, carcinoma who had been followed at Hacettepe Oncology Department between 1980 and 1991 were retrospectively analyzed for the factors influencing the distribution of metastases and survival. Median age was 47 years. Radical or modified radical mastectomies were performed in 199 (53.8%). Infiltrative ductal carcinoma was the most common pathologic subtype (69.4%). In 191 patients who were evaluated for estrogen receptor (ER) status, 101 (52.9%) were positive and 90 (47.1%) were negative. The distribution of first metastases did not differ between the soft tissue, bone, and visceral sites. The second, third, and fourth metastases were more common in visceral sites (p < 0.05). ER and menopausal status did not affect distribution. Mortality rate was significantly lower in the group having the first metastasis to the bone (p < 0.05). Of interest, first metastases were predominantly found in visceral sites in patients having radical or modified radical mastectomies (p < 0.05). Response to therapy, presence of initial metastases, axillary status, and age were the important factors influencing the overall survival in univariate analysis, whereas response to therapy, ER status, age, and presence of initial metastases were the important factors according to the multivariate analysis.

  14. Axillary nerve injury.

    PubMed

    Perlmutter, G S

    1999-11-01

    Axillary nerve injury remains the most common peripheral nerve injury to affect the shoulder. It most often is seen after glenohumeral joint dislocation, proximal humerus fracture, or a direct blow to the deltoid muscle. Compression neuropathy has been reported to occur in the quadrilateral space syndrome, although the true pathophysiology of this disorder remains unclear. The axillary nerve is vulnerable during any operative procedure involving the inferior aspect of the shoulder and iatrogenic injury remains a serious complication of shoulder surgery. During the acute phase of injury, the shoulder should be rested, and when clinically indicated, a patient should undergo an extensive rehabilitation program emphasizing range of motion and strengthening of the shoulder girdle muscles. If no axillary nerve recovery is observed by 3 to 6 months after injury, surgical exploration may be indicated, especially if the mechanism of injury is consistent with nerve rupture. Patients who sustain injury to the axillary nerve have a variable prognosis for nerve recovery although return of function of the involved shoulder typically is good to excellent, depending on associated ligamentous or bony injury.

  15. Detection of lymph node metastases in pediatric and adolescent/young adult sarcoma: Sentinel lymph node biopsy versus fludeoxyglucose positron emission tomography imaging-A prospective trial.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Lars M; Kremer, Nathalie; Gelfand, Michael J; Sharp, Susan E; Turpin, Brian K; Nagarajan, Rajaram; Tiao, Gregory M; Pressey, Joseph G; Yin, Julie; Dasgupta, Roshni

    2017-01-01

    Lymph node metastases are an important cause of treatment failure for pediatric and adolescent/young adult (AYA) sarcoma patients. Nodal sampling is recommended for certain sarcoma subtypes that have a predilection for lymphatic spread. Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) may improve the diagnostic yield of nodal sampling, particularly when single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT-CT) is used to facilitate anatomic localization. Functional imaging with positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET-CT) is increasingly used for sarcoma staging and is a less invasive alternative to SLNB. To assess the utility of these 2 staging methods, this study prospectively compared SLNB plus SPECT-CT with PET-CT for the identification of nodal metastases in pediatric and AYA patients. Twenty-eight pediatric and AYA sarcoma patients underwent SLNB with SPECT-CT. The histological findings of the excised lymph nodes were then correlated with preoperative PET-CT imaging. A median of 2.4 sentinel nodes were sampled per patient. No wound infections or chronic lymphedema occurred. SLNB identified tumors in 7 of the 28 patients (25%), including 3 patients who had normal PET-CT imaging of the nodal basin. In contrast, PET-CT demonstrated hypermetabolic regional nodes in 14 patients, and this resulted in a positive predictive value of only 29%. The sensitivity and specificity of PET-CT for detecting histologically confirmed nodal metastases were only 57% and 52%, respectively. SLNB can safely guide the rational selection of nodes for biopsy in pediatric and AYA sarcoma patients and can identify therapy-changing nodal disease not appreciated with PET-CT. Cancer 2017;155-160. © 2016 American Cancer Society. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

  16. [Axillary pathologic response after neoadjuvant chemotherapy in locally advanced breast cancer with axillary involvement].

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Ballvé, A; Serrano-Palacio, A; García-Sáenz, J A; Ortega Candil, A; Salsidua-Arroyo, O; Román-Santamaría, J M; Pelayo Alarcón, A; Fuentes Ferrer, M E; Carreras-Delgado, J L

    2015-01-01

    To compare axillary involvement (N+) at initial staging in locally advanced breast cancer (LABC) with axillary lymphadenectomy histologic results after neoadjuvant chemotherapy treatment (NeoChemo). Retrospective study between November 2011 and September 2013 of LABC cases treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy based on docetaxel (associated with trastuzumab in HER2 positive cases and carboplatin/adriamycin in HER2 negative cases). Those clinically or radiologically suspected cases of axillary involvement were histologically confirmed. When there was no suspicion of axillary involvement, sentinel lymph node radioguided biopsy (SLNRB) was performed using intradermal injection of (99m)Tc-nanocolloid albumin prior to neoadjuvant treatment. Axillary lymphadenectomy after NeoChemo was undertaken in all cases with positive axilla. Final pathologic response was classified as complete (pCR) when there was no evidence of tumoral disease and as non-pathologic complete response (no pCR) in the opposite case. A total of 346 patients treated with docetaxel were reviewed, identifying 105 LABC. Axillary involvement at initial staging was detected in 70 (67%) before starting NeoChemo. From these 70, 73% (n=51) were N+ (fine needle biopsy and/or biopsy) and the remaining 19 (27%) were occult N+ detected by SLNRB. Axillary lymphadenectomy detected pCR in 56% (39/70), increasing up to 84% pCR when initial N+ status was reached using SNLB. On the other hand, when N+ was detected using fine needle biopsy/lymph biopsy, pCR was only 45%. More than 50% of women affected by locally advanced breast cancer with tumoral axillary involvement at initial diagnosis present free metastatic axilla after therapeutic neoadjuvant chemotherapy effect. This increases up to almost 90% in case of occult metastatic axilla detected with sentinel node biopsy prior starting neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  17. An efficient in vitro regeneration protocol for a natural dye yielding plant, Strobilanthes flaccidifolious Nees., from nodal explants.

    PubMed

    Deb, Chitta Ranjan; Arenmongla, T

    2012-11-01

    Adventitious shoot buds formation from axillary buds of nodal segments of S. flaccidifolious was achieved on MS medium containing sucrose (3%, w/v), and a-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA; 3 microM) and benzyl adenine (3 microM) in combination. The nodal segments were primed on 'Growtak Sieve' for 48 h on MS medium containing sucrose (2%), polyvinyl pyrollidone (200 mgL(-1)) as antioxidant. About 80% of primed nodal segments responded positively and formed approximately 12 adventitious shoot buds per explants from explants collected during October-November months of every year. The shoot buds converted into plantlets on MS medium containing sucrose (3%) and kinetin (3 microM) where approximately 7 micro shoots developed per subculture after 8 weeks of culture. The regenerated micro shoots induced average 14 roots/plant on medium containing NAA (3 microM). The regenerates were hardened for 6-7 weeks on medium with 1/2MS salt solution and sucrose (2%) under normal laboratory condition before transferring to potting mix. About 70% transplants survived after two months of transfer.

  18. Comparative study between ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration cytology of axillary lymph nodes and sentinel lymph node histopathology in early-stage breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cardoso-Coelho, Lívio Portela; Borges, Rafael Soares; Alencar, Airlane Pereira; Cardoso-Campos-Verdes, Larysse Maira; da Silva-Sampaio, João Paulo; Borges, Umbelina Soares; Gebrim, Luiz Henrique; da Silva, Benedito Borges

    2017-01-01

    The replacement of sentinel lymph node biopsy (SNB) by ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (US-guided FNA) cytology of axillary lymph nodes is controversial, despite the simplicity and reduced cost of the latter. In the present study, US-guided FNA was performed in 27 patients with early-stage breast cancer for comparison with SNB. Data were analyzed by calculation of sample proportions. Tumor subtypes included invasive ductal carcinoma (85%), invasive lobular carcinoma (7%), and tubular and metaplastic carcinoma (4%). FNA had a sensitivity of 45%, specificity of 100%, positive predictive value of 100% and a negative predictive value of 73%. Axillary lymph node cytology obtained by US guided-FNA in patients with breast cancer had a specificity similar to that of sentinel lymph node histopathology in the presence of axillary node metastases. However, when lymph node cytology is negative, it does not exclude the existence of metastatic implants, due to its low sensitivity in comparison to sentinel lymph node histopathology. PMID:28521436

  19. Clinical and histopathological factors affecting failed sentinel node localization in axillary staging for breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Dordea, Matei; Colvin, Hugh; Cox, Phil; Pujol Nicolas, Andrea; Kanakala, Venkat; Iwuchukwu, Obi

    2013-04-01

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) has become the standard of care in axillary staging of clinically node-negative breast cancer patients. To analyze reasons for failure of SLN localization by means of a multivariate analysis of clinical and histopathological factors. We performed a review of 164 consecutive breast cancer patients who underwent SLNB. A superficial injection technique was used. 9/164 patients failed to show nodes. In 7/9 patients no evidence of radioactivity or blue dye was observed. Age and nodal status were the only statistically significant factors (p < 0.05). For every unit increase in age there was a 9% reduced chance of failed SLN localization. Patients with negative nodal status have 90% reduced risk of failed sentinel node localization than patients with macro or extra capsular nodal invasion. The results suggest that altered lymphatic dynamics secondary to tumour burden may play a role in failed sentinel node localization. We showed that in all failed localizations the radiocolloid persisted around the injection site, showing limited local diffusion only. While clinical and histopathological data may provide some clues as to why sentinel node localization fails, we further hypothesize that integrity of peri-areolar lymphatics is important for successful localization. Copyright © 2012 Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh (Scottish charity number SC005317) and Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Breast cancer subtypes can be determinant in the decision making process to avoid surgical axillary staging: A retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Marrazzo, Antonio; Boscaino, Giovanni; Marrazzo, Emilia; Taormina, Pietra; Toesca, Antonio

    2015-09-01

    The need for performing axillary lymph-node dissection in early breast cancer when the sentinel lymph node (SLN) is positive has been questioned in recent years. The purpose of this study was to identify a low-risk subgroup of early breast cancer patients in whom surgical axillary staging could be avoided, and to assess the probability of having a positive lymph-node (LN). We evaluated the cohort of 612 consecutive women affected by early breast cancer. We considered age, tumor size, histological grade, vascular invasion, lymphatic invasion and cancer subtype (Luminal A, Luminal B HER-2+, Luminal B HER-2-, HER-2+, and Triple Negative) as variables for univariate and multivariate analyses to assess probability of there being a positive SLN o nonsentinel lymph node (NSLN). Chi-square, Fisher's Exact test and Student's t tests were used to investigate the relationship between variables; whereas logit models were used to estimate and quantify the strength of the relationship among some covariates and SLN or the number of metastases. A significant positive effect of vascular invasion and lymphatic invasion (odds ratios are 4 and 6), and a negative effect of TN (odds ratios is 10) were noted. With respect to positive NSLN, size alone has a significant (positive) effect on tumor presence, but focusing on the number of metastases, also age has a (negative) significant effect. This work shows correlation between subtypes and the probability of having positive SLN. Patients not expressing vascular invasion, lymphatic invasion and, moreover, a triple-negative tumor subtype may be good candidates for breast conservative surgery without axillary surgical staging. Copyright © 2015 IJS Publishing Group Limited. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Topical glycopyrrolate reduces axillary hyperhidrosis.

    PubMed

    Baker, D M

    2016-12-01

    Oral anti-cholinergic medications reduce generalized hyperhidrosis, but the effectiveness of topical anticholinergic solutions on axillary hyperhidrosis is unclear. This study determines the initial effectiveness of 1% and 2% topical glycopyrrolate spray and compares this with Botulinum toxin type A injections for the management of axillary hyperhidrosis. In a non-randomized, consecutive patient, prospective questionnaire, treatment comparison study, 40 patients with axillary hyperhidrosis were allocated to one of four study groups (10 patients to each group): (a) 1% glycopyrrolate spray, (b) 2% glycopyrrolate spray, (c) subcutaneous Botulinum toxin type A injections, (d) no treatment. Clinical outcomes were measured by comparing a prospectively administered questionnaire, completed both pre-treatment and 6 weeks after starting treatment. Forty healthy volunteers without axillary hyperhidrosis completed the same questionnaire. The three treatment groups showed a significant (P < 0.05) improvement in their hyperhidrosis scores following treatment. The degree of improvement was less for the 1% glycopyrrolate group when compared with the Botulinum toxin type A group (P < 0.05), but there was no difference in treatment outcomes between the 2% glycopyrrolate and Botulinum toxin type A groups. No treatment group experienced reduced hyperhidrosis to a level similar to those without hyperhidrosis. Patients in both, the 2% glycopyrrolate and Botulinum toxin type A groups reported a significant improvement in axillary hyperhidrosis symptoms. These included reduction in psychologically precipitating factors (e.g. public speaking) and axillary hyperhidrosis-specific physical effects (e.g. limitation of clothing choice). Topical glycopyrrolate spray could provide a further treatment modality to manage axillary hyperhidrosis. © 2016 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  2. Long-term outcome of ultrasound-guided percutaneous ethanol ablation of selected "recurrent" neck nodal metastases in 25 patients with TNM stages III or IVA papillary thyroid carcinoma previously treated by surgery and 131I therapy.

    PubMed

    Hay, Ian D; Lee, Robert A; Davidge-Pitts, Caroline; Reading, Carl C; Charboneau, J William

    2013-12-01

    Ultrasound-guided percutaneous ethanol ablation (UPEA) of neck nodal metastases (NNM) has rarely been reported in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) patients with advanced localized disease. We ablated 25 PTC patients with stage III or IVA disease (mean age 58 years) who had "recurrent" NNM after surgery and 131I therapy. Diagnosis of 37 selected NNM was proven by ultrasound-guided biopsy. UPEA was usually performed in 2 outpatient sessions. After UPEA, 35 of 37 NNM (95%) decreased in size. None had significant Doppler flow. Seventeen (46%) disappeared on rescanning. Serum thyroglobulin fell in 19 of 22 (86%) without thyroglobulin autoantibodies. None of the UPEA-treated NNM, followed on average for 5.4 years, required further intervention. Six patients (24%) subsequently developed 18 "new" recurrences. Of the 18, 15 (83%) were managed successfully by UPEA rather than operation. None of the 25 patients developed permanent hoarseness or have died from PTC. At our institution, where patients undergoing nodal dissections are charged $35-45,000, each outpatient UPEA procedure saves health providers approximately $38,400. Our 25 ablated patients, by avoiding 40 further neck reexplorations, on average, saved $61,440 in charges. UPEA for NNM in advanced localized PTC has proved safe and effective. It is also considerably less expensive than the conventional operative alternative of nodal dissection. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Biofeedback device for patients on axillary crutches.

    PubMed

    Ang, E J; Goh, J C; Bose, K; Toh, S L; Choo, A

    1989-08-01

    The axillary crutch is commonly prescribed as an ambulatory aid to patients with temporal or permanent disability in the lower extremity. When fitting the axillary crutch, it is important that the user be instructed not to bear excessive weight on the axillary bar. Excessive weight bearing on the axillary bar can result in a sevenfold increase in the reaction force under the armpit. This force may be a contributory factor to crutch paralysis or thrombosis of the axillobrachial artery. In order to prevent this occurrence an electronic biofeedback device was designed and developed for use in the training of 3-point swing-through axillary crutch ambulation. It detects excessive weight bearing on the axillary bar during crutch ambulation and produces an audible signal which prompts the patient to make necessary adjustment to relieve load bearing on the axillary bar. The design and development of the biofeedback device is discussed in this paper.

  4. Management of Axillary Lymph Nodes in Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Brenin, David R.; Morrow, Monica; Moughan, Jennifer; Owen, Jean B.; Wilson, J. Frank; Winchester, David P.

    1999-01-01

    Objective To determine the rates of axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) and axillary irradiation (AI) in patients with breast cancer and to identify the factors influencing them. Summary Background Data Routine performance of ALND in the treatment of breast cancer has become controversial. AI has been proposed as an alternative to ALND, and it has been suggested that AI in addition to ALND may decrease local failure in high-risk patients. Methods A joint study was conducted by the Commission on Cancer of the American College of Surgeons and the American College of Radiology. A total of 17,151 patients with stage I and II breast cancer treated at 819 institutions in 1994 were studied. Results A total of 15,992 patients underwent ALND (93%). The mean ages of patients who did and did not undergo ALND were 60.4 and 73.0 years. Univariate analysis demonstrated significantly decreased rates of ALND for women age 70 or older (86%vs. 97%), patients with clinical T1a tumors (81%vs. 93%), grade I histology (90%vs. 95%), and patients with favorable tumor types (88%vs. 94%). The ALND rate did not vary between palpable and nonpalpable tumors. Multivariate analysis of variables affecting the rate of ALND identified type of surgery, age, tumor size, histology, and payer status as significant. A total of 889 patients received AI. Patients not undergoing ALND were more likely to receive AI (10%vs. 5%). A total of 1.6% of patients with no lymph node metastasis underwent AI, 8.9% of those with one to three positive nodes underwent AI, 24.0% of those with four to nine positive lymph nodes underwent AI, and 29.9% of those with ≥10 positive lymph nodes underwent AI. Multivariate analysis of variables affecting the proportion of patients who received AI and had undergone ALND identified nodal status and type of surgery as significant. Conclusions Axillary lymph node dissection continues to be routinely applied in the treatment of breast cancer, and AI remains underused in patients at

  5. Platelet-derived growth factor receptor-α promotes lymphatic metastases in papillary thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jingdong; Wang, Peng; Dykstra, Mark; Gelebart, Pascale; Williams, David; Ingham, Robert; Adewuyi, Esther Ekpe; Lai, Raymond; McMullen, Todd

    2012-10-01

    Lymph node metastases are common in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) and can be resistant to surgical extirpation or radioiodine ablation. We examined the role of platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) in mediating lymph node metastases in PTC. Clinical specimens of PTC (n = 137) were surveyed in a tissue array and by western blots to examine the relationship between expression of the α and β subunits of PDGFR and lymph node metastases. PDGFR-α was found at high levels in primary tumours with known lymphatic metastases but not in those tumours lacking nodal involvement (p < 0.0001). However, PDGFR-β expression was not linked to metastatic disease (p = 0.78) as it was found in virtually all PTC specimens. A matching analysis in fresh PTC specimens (n = 13) confirmed that PDGFR-α expression was strongly linked to metastatic spread (p = 0.0047). PDGFR-α and -β were not found in normal thyroid tissue (p < 0.0001). PTC cell lines selectively expressing PDGFR-α or -β were assessed for invasive potential and activation of downstream signal transduction pathways. PTC cell lines expressing PDGFR-α responded to PDGF-BB stimulation with increased invasive potential and this process can be blocked by the tyrosine kinase receptor inhibitor sunitinib (p < 0.009). Cell lines with only PDGFR-β, or no PDGFR, did not show significant changes in invasive potential. Activation of PDGFR-α led to downstream up-regulation of both the MAPK/ERK and PI3K/Akt pathways and disruption of either pathway is sufficient to block PDGFR-mediated increases in invasive potential. Thus, PDGFR-α is associated with lymph node metastases in papillary thyroid carcinoma and PDGFR-α promotes increased invasive potential in PTC cell lines. PDGFR-α is a strong candidate for a diagnostic biomarker to identify patients at risk of nodal metastases. Our results also strengthen the rationale for selection of tyrosine kinase receptor inhibitors that target PDGFR in the treatment of progressive

  6. Surgical Treatment of Axillary Artery Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Tetik, Omer; Yilik, Levent; Besir, Yuksel; Can, Aynur; Ozbek, Cengiz; Akcay, Ayhan; Gurbuz, Ali

    2005-01-01

    Aneurysms of the axillary artery are rare and dangerous lesions that threaten the upper extremities with vascular and neurologic compromise. Most can be treated effectively with surgical excision and vascular grafting. We retrospectively assessed 4 axillary artery aneurysms upon which we operated from February 1998 through March 2004. Three patients were admitted to our clinic for symptomatic axillary masses. The remaining patient was transported to our clinic emergently due to massive hemorrhage of an enlarging axillary mass that occurred during biopsy of the mass at another hospital. In this patient, the ruptured axillary artery aneurysm was diagnosed by means of emergent upper-extremity selective angiography. All patients were treated surgically by means of aneurysmectomy and graft interpositioning—with polytetrafluoroethylene grafts in 2 patients and saphenous vein grafts in the other 2. Surgical treatment of axillary artery aneurysms is of importance in avoiding thromboembolism and ischemia, which in turn can lead to gangrene and amputation of the affected extremity. For this reason, operative management of such cases should not be delayed. PMID:16107110

  7. Axillary irradiation omitting axillary dissection in breast cancer: is there a role for shoulder-sparing proton therapy?

    PubMed Central

    Deidda, M A; Amichetti, M

    2015-01-01

    The recent EORTC 10981-22023 AMAROS trial showed that axillary radiotherapy and axillary lymph node dissection provide comparable local control and reduced lymphoedema in the irradiated group. However, no significant differences between the two groups in range of motion and quality of life were reported. It has been acknowledged that axillary irradiation could have induced some toxicity, particularly shoulder function impairment. In fact, conventional breast irradiation by tangential beams has to be modified to achieve full-dose coverage of the axillary nodes, including in the treatment field a larger portion of the shoulder structures. In this scenario, alternative irradiation techniques were discussed. Compared with modern photon techniques, axillary irradiation by proton therapy has the potential for sparing the shoulder without detrimental increase of the medium-to-low doses to the other normal tissues. PMID:26153903

  8. Axillary irradiation omitting axillary dissection in breast cancer: is there a role for shoulder-sparing proton therapy?

    PubMed

    Farace, P; Deidda, M A; Amichetti, M

    2015-10-01

    The recent EORTC 10981-22023 AMAROS trial showed that axillary radiotherapy and axillary lymph node dissection provide comparable local control and reduced lymphoedema in the irradiated group. However, no significant differences between the two groups in range of motion and quality of life were reported. It has been acknowledged that axillary irradiation could have induced some toxicity, particularly shoulder function impairment. In fact, conventional breast irradiation by tangential beams has to be modified to achieve full-dose coverage of the axillary nodes, including in the treatment field a larger portion of the shoulder structures. In this scenario, alternative irradiation techniques were discussed. Compared with modern photon techniques, axillary irradiation by proton therapy has the potential for sparing the shoulder without detrimental increase of the medium-to-low doses to the other normal tissues.

  9. Patterns of failure after the reduced volume approach for elective nodal irradiation in nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Seol, Ki Ho; Lee, Jeong Eun

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate the patterns of nodal failure after radiotherapy (RT) with the reduced volume approach for elective neck nodal irradiation (ENI) in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Fifty-six NPC patients who underwent definitive chemoradiotherapy with the reduced volume approach for ENI were reviewed. The ENI included retropharyngeal and level II lymph nodes, and only encompassed the echelon inferior to the involved level to eliminate the entire neck irradiation. Patients received either moderate hypofractionated intensity-modulated RT for a total of 72.6 Gy (49.5 Gy to elective nodal areas) or a conventional fractionated three-dimensional conformal RT for a total of 68.4-72 Gy (39.6-45 Gy to elective nodal areas). Patterns of failure, locoregional control, and survival were analyzed. The median follow-up was 38 months (range, 3 to 80 months). The out-of-field nodal failure when omitting ENI was none. Three patients developed neck recurrences (one in-field recurrence in the 72.6 Gy irradiated nodal area and two in the elective irradiated region of 39.6 Gy). Overall disease failure at any site developed in 11 patients (19.6%). Among these, there were six local failures (10.7%), three regional failures (5.4%), and five distant metastases (8.9%). The 3-year locoregional control rate was 87.1%, and the distant failure-free rate was 90.4%; disease-free survival and overall survival at 3 years was 80% and 86.8%, respectively. No patient developed nodal failure in the omitted ENI site. Our investigation has demonstrated that the reduced volume approach for ENI appears to be a safe treatment approach in NPC.

  10. Patterns of failure after the reduced volume approach for elective nodal irradiation in nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Seol, Ki Ho

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the patterns of nodal failure after radiotherapy (RT) with the reduced volume approach for elective neck nodal irradiation (ENI) in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Materials and Methods Fifty-six NPC patients who underwent definitive chemoradiotherapy with the reduced volume approach for ENI were reviewed. The ENI included retropharyngeal and level II lymph nodes, and only encompassed the echelon inferior to the involved level to eliminate the entire neck irradiation. Patients received either moderate hypofractionated intensity-modulated RT for a total of 72.6 Gy (49.5 Gy to elective nodal areas) or a conventional fractionated three-dimensional conformal RT for a total of 68.4–72 Gy (39.6–45 Gy to elective nodal areas). Patterns of failure, locoregional control, and survival were analyzed. Results The median follow-up was 38 months (range, 3 to 80 months). The out-of-field nodal failure when omitting ENI was none. Three patients developed neck recurrences (one in-field recurrence in the 72.6 Gy irradiated nodal area and two in the elective irradiated region of 39.6 Gy). Overall disease failure at any site developed in 11 patients (19.6%). Among these, there were six local failures (10.7%), three regional failures (5.4%), and five distant metastases (8.9%). The 3-year locoregional control rate was 87.1%, and the distant failure-free rate was 90.4%; disease-free survival and overall survival at 3 years was 80% and 86.8%, respectively. Conclusion No patient developed nodal failure in the omitted ENI site. Our investigation has demonstrated that the reduced volume approach for ENI appears to be a safe treatment approach in NPC. PMID:27104162

  11. Metastatic eccrine porocarcinoma: report of a case and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Eccrine porocarcinoma (EPC) is a rare type of skin cancer arising from the intraepidermal portion of eccrine sweat glands or acrosyringium, representing 0.005-0.01% of all cutaneous tumors. About 20% of EPC will recur and about 20% will metastasize to regional lymph nodes. There is a mortality rate of 67% in patients with lymph node metastases. Although rare, the occurrence of distant metastases has been reported. We report a case of patient with EPC of the left arm, with axillary nodal involvement and subsequent local relapse, treated by complete lymph node dissection and electrochemotherapy (ECT). EPC is an unusual tumor to diagnose. Neither chemotherapy nor radiation therapy has been proven to be of clinical benefit in treating metastatic disease. Although in the current case the short follow-up period is a limitation, we consider in the management of EPC a therapeutic approach involving surgery and ECT, because of its aggressive potential for loregional metastatic spread. PMID:21410982

  12. Metastatic eccrine porocarcinoma: report of a case and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Marone, Ugo; Caracò, Corrado; Anniciello, Anna Maria; Di Monta, Gianluca; Chiofalo, Maria Grazia; Di Cecilia, Maria Luisa; Mozzillo, Nicola

    2011-03-16

    Eccrine porocarcinoma (EPC) is a rare type of skin cancer arising from the intraepidermal portion of eccrine sweat glands or acrosyringium, representing 0.005-0.01% of all cutaneous tumors. About 20% of EPC will recur and about 20% will metastasize to regional lymph nodes. There is a mortality rate of 67% in patients with lymph node metastases. Although rare, the occurrence of distant metastases has been reported.We report a case of patient with EPC of the left arm, with axillary nodal involvement and subsequent local relapse, treated by complete lymph node dissection and electrochemotherapy (ECT).EPC is an unusual tumor to diagnose. Neither chemotherapy nor radiation therapy has been proven to be of clinical benefit in treating metastatic disease. Although in the current case the short follow-up period is a limitation, we consider in the management of EPC a therapeutic approach involving surgery and ECT, because of its aggressive potential for loregional metastatic spread.

  13. Breast-axillary complex in HIV/AIDS patients.

    PubMed

    Eni, U E; Naaya, H U; Yawe, K D T; Lawan, M A; Bakari, A A

    2010-01-01

    HIV/AIDS have not only increased the health care burden especially in developing countries, it equally complicates the presentation of many diseases. Some well known disease entities now occur in fulminant complexities not previously described or known as such. The objective of this article is to report an unusual presentation of HIV/AIDS patients to the surgeon with Axillary and ipsilateral breast swelling. This is a report of three cases seen and managed by the authors. Three adult female patients presented with progressively increasing axillary and ipsilateral breast swellings. They also had associated fevers and weight loss. Their main concern had been development of breast cancer. One of the patients was a known retroviral positive on Highly Active Anti-Retroviral Therapy (HAART). Examination revealed axillary abscess and ipsilateral breast oedema in two cases. The patient on HAART had a hard breast-axillary mass complex. Biopsy (FNAB) revealed inflammatory cells and no malignancy in all three cases. HIV screening was positive in all cases. One of the patients had excision of breast-axillary mass complex, and the histology showed features of chronic inflammation, with no malignant cells. The other two had incision and drainage of their axillary abscess. This shows the ubiquitous presentation of HIV/AIDS in our environment and surgeons should be aware of the breast axillary complex in HIV/AIDS. Medical practitioners should be careful to obtain accurate diagnosis before embarking on treatment especially mutilating surgical procedures.

  14. Harmonic Scalpel Versus Electrocautery in Axillary Dissection in Carcinoma Breast.

    PubMed

    Nawaz, Allah; Waqar, Sadaf; Khan, Ahsan; Mansoor, Rashid; Butt, Usman Ismat; Ayyaz, Mahmood

    2015-12-01

    To compare the results between harmonics scalpel and electrocautery use in axillary dissection for carcinoma breast. Randomized controlled trial. Department of Surgery, Services Hospital, Lahore, from December 2013 to June 2014. Eighty patients fulfilling the inclusion criteria were selected and equally divided in two groups. Axillary dissection for carcinoma breast was performed by using the harmonic scalpel in one group and by using electrocautery in the other group. Total mean axillary drain output and frequency of axillary numbness were noted in both groups and compared. All the patients were females with mean age of 53.52 ± 9.8. Mean axillary drain output in harmonic scalpel group was 167.75 ± 43.90 as compared to 310.00 ± 60.09 in electrocautery group while only 12.5% of patients were positive for axillary numbness in harmonic scalpel group as compared to 100% of patients who were positive for electrocautery group. Use of harmonic scalpel in axillary dissection resulted in decreased total mean axillary drain output and lowered frequency of axillary numbness when compared to utilizing electrocautery.

  15. Generation of volatile fatty acids by axillary bacteria.

    PubMed

    James, A G; Hyliands, D; Johnston, H

    2004-06-01

    It is generally accepted that short-chain (C(2)-C(5)) volatile fatty acids (VFAs) are among the causal molecules of axillary malodour. It is also widely acknowledged that malodour generation is attributable to the biotransformation of odourless natural secretions, into volatile odorous products, by axillary bacteria. However, little information is available on the biochemical origins of VFAs on axillary skin. In these studies, assay systems were developed to investigate the generation of VFAs from substrates readily available to the bacteria resident on axillary skin. Propionibacteria and staphylococci were shown to ferment glycerol and lactic acid to the short-chain (C(2)-C(3)) VFAs, acetic and propionic acid. Furthermore, staphylococci are capable of converting branched aliphatic amino acids, such as leucine, to highly odorous short-chain (C(4)-C(5)) methyl-branched VFAs, such as isovaleric acid, which are traditionally associated with the acidic note of axillary malodour. However, in vitro kinetic data indicates that these pathways contribute less to axillary VFA levels, than fatty acid biotransformations by a recently defined sub-group of the Corynebacterium genus, corynebacteria (A). The results of these studies provide new understanding on the biochemical origins of VFA-based axillary malodour which, in turn, should lead to the development of novel deodorant systems.

  16. Accurate evaluation of axillary sentinel lymph node metastasis using contrast-enhanced ultrasonography with Sonazoid in breast cancer: a preliminary clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Matsuzawa, Fumihiko; Omoto, Kiyoka; Einama, Takahiro; Abe, Hironori; Suzuki, Takashi; Hamaguchi, Jun; Kaga, Terumi; Sato, Mami; Oomura, Masako; Takata, Yumiko; Fujibe, Ayako; Takeda, Chie; Tamura, Etsuya; Taketomi, Akinobu; Kyuno, Kenichi

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer in women. The 5-year survival rate in patients with breast cancer ranges from 74 to 82 %. Sentinel lymph node biopsy has become an alternative to axillary lymph node dissection for nodal staging. We evaluated the detection of the sentinel lymph node and metastasis of the lymph node using contrast enhanced ultrasonography with Sonazoid. Between December 2013 and May 2014, 32 patients with operable breast cancer were enrolled in this study. We evaluated the detection of axillary sentinel lymph nodes and the evaluation of axillary lymph nodes metastasis using contrast enhanced computed tomography, color Doppler ultrasonography and contrast enhanced ultrasonography with Sonazoid. All the sentinel lymph nodes were identified, and the sentinel lymph nodes detected by contrast enhanced ultrasonography with Sonazoid corresponded with those detected by computed tomography lymphography and indigo carmine method. The detection of metastasis based on contrast enhanced computed tomography were sensitivity 20.0 %, specificity 88.2 %, PPV 60.0 %, NPV 55.6 %, accuracy 56.3 %. Based on color Doppler ultrasonography, the results were sensitivity 36.4 %, specificity 95.2 %, PPV 80.0 %, NPV 74.1 %, accuracy 75.0 %. Based on contrast enhanced ultrasonography with Sonazoid, the results were sensitivity 81.8 %, specificity 95.2 %, PPV 90.0 %, NPV 90.9 %, accuracy 90.6 %. The results suggested that contrast enhanced ultrasonography with Sonazoid was the most accurate among the evaluations of these modalities. In the future, we believe that our method would take the place of conventional sentinel lymph node biopsy for an axillary staging method.

  17. Long-term survival in a patient with brain metastases of papillary thyroid carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Guelho, Daniela; Ribeiro, Cristina; Melo, Miguel; Carrilho, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    We present the case of a 43-year-old woman who underwent total thyroidectomy with bilateral lymphadenectomy for a papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), solid variant (T4bN1bMx), with V600E BRAF mutation. After ablative therapy, she presented undetectable thyroglobulin (Tg) but progressively increasing anti-Tg antibodies (TgAbs). During follow-up, nodal, lung and brain metastases were identified. She was submitted to surgical excision of lung lesions, radiosurgery of brain metastases and five radioiodine treatments. The latest brain MRI showed no lesions, pulmonary CT showed stable micronodules and there was progressive reduction in TgAbs. This is a peculiar case of a PTC with lung and brain metastatic lesions detected through TgAbs. Initial histological and molecular study suggested a more aggressive clinical behaviour, which was eventually confirmed. Although PTC brain metastases are extremely rare and present poor prognosis, our patient presented a good response to treatment and longer survival than usually reported for similar cases. PMID:26961557

  18. Incidence of isolated nodal failure in non-small cell lung cancer patients included in a prospective study of the value of PET-CT.

    PubMed

    Kolodziejczyk, Milena; Bujko, Krzysztof; Michalski, Wojciech; Kepka, Lucyna

    2012-07-01

    Elective nodal irradiation (ENI) is not recommended in PET-CT-based radiotherapy for NSCLC despite a low level of evidence to support such guidelines. The aim of this investigation is to find out whether omitting ENI is safe. Sixty-seven patients treated within a frame of a previously published prospective trial of the value of PET-CT were included in the analysis. Seventeen (25%) patients received ENI due to higher initial nodal involvement and in the remaining 50 patients (75%) with N0-N1 or single N2 disease ENI was omitted. Isolated nodal failure (INF) was recorded if relapse occurred in the initially uninvolved regional lymph node without previous or simultaneous local recurrence regardless of the status of distant metastases. With a median follow-up of 32 months, the estimated 3-year overall survival was 42%, local progression-free interval was 55%, and distant metastases-free interval was 62%. Three patients developed INF; all had ENI omitted from treatment, giving a final result of three INFs in 50 (6%) patients treated without ENI. In this group of patients, the 3-year cause-specific cumulative incidence of INF was 6.4% (95% confidence interval: 0-17%). The omission of ENI appears to be not as safe as suggested by current recommendations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Experimental discovery of nodal chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Qinghui; Liu, Rongjuan; Yan, Zhongbo; Liu, Boyuan; Chen, Hongsheng; Wang, Zhong; Lu, Ling

    2018-05-01

    Three-dimensional Weyl and Dirac nodal points1 have attracted widespread interest across multiple disciplines and in many platforms but allow for few structural variations. In contrast, nodal lines2-4 can have numerous topological configurations in momentum space, forming nodal rings5-9, nodal chains10-15, nodal links16-20 and nodal knots21,22. However, nodal lines are much less explored because of the lack of an ideal experimental realization23-25. For example, in condensed-matter systems, nodal lines are often fragile to spin-orbit coupling, located away from the Fermi level, coexist with energy-degenerate trivial bands or have a degeneracy line that disperses strongly in energy. Here, overcoming all these difficulties, we theoretically predict and experimentally observe nodal chains in a metallic-mesh photonic crystal having frequency-isolated linear band-touching rings chained across the entire Brillouin zone. These nodal chains are protected by mirror symmetry and have a frequency variation of less than 1%. We use angle-resolved transmission measurements to probe the projected bulk dispersion and perform Fourier-transformed field scans to map out the dispersion of the drumhead surface state. Our results establish an ideal nodal-line material for further study of topological line degeneracies with non-trivial connectivity and consequent wave dynamics that are richer than those in Weyl and Dirac materials.

  20. The natural history and patterns of metastases from mucosal melanoma: an analysis of 706 prospectively-followed patients.

    PubMed

    Lian, B; Cui, C L; Zhou, L; Song, X; Zhang, X S; Wu, D; Si, L; Chi, Z H; Sheng, X N; Mao, L L; Wang, X; Tang, B X; Yan, X Q; Kong, Y; Dai, J; Li, S M; Bai, X; Zheng, N; Balch, C M; Guo, J

    2017-04-01

    We examined whether mucosal melanomas are different in their clinical course and patterns of metastases when arising from different anatomic sites. Our hypothesis was that metastatic behavior would differ from primary mucosal melanomas at different anatomical sites. Clinical and pathological data from 706 patients were compared for their stage distribution, patterns of metastases, CKIT/BRAF mutation status, and overall survival for different anatomical sites. The anatomic sites of the primary mucosal melanomas were from the lower GI tract (26.5%), nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses (23%), gynecological sites (22.5%), oral cavity (15%), urological sites (5%), upper GI tract (5%), and other sites (3.0%). At initial diagnosis, 14.5% were stage I disease, 41% Stage II, 21.5% Stage III, and 23.0% stage IV. Predominant metastatic sites were regional lymph nodes (21.5%), lung (21%), liver (18.5%), and distant nodes (9%). Oral cavity mucosal melanoma had a higher incidence of regional nodal metastases (31.7% versus 19.8%, P = 0.009), and a higher incidence of lung metastases (32.5% versus 18.5%, P = 0.007) compared to other primary mucosal melanomas. There was a 10% incidence of CKIT mutation and 12% BRAF mutation. Mucosal melanomas from nasal pharyngeal and oral, gastrointestinal, gynecological, and urological had a similar survival with a 1-year survival rate (88%, 83%, 86%), 2-year survival rate (66%, 57%, 61%), 5-year survival rate (27%, 16%, 20%), respectively. The largest sample size allows, for the first time, a comparison of primary melanoma stage and patterns of metastases across anatomical sites. With few exceptions, the presenting stages, incidence of nodal and distant metastases, the site of predilection of distant metastases, or overall survival were similar despite different primary anatomic sites. These findings suggest that clinical trials involving mucosal melanomas and the administration of systemic therapy can be applied equally to mucosal

  1. Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Cervical Lymph Node Metastases From Unknown Primary Cancer

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Madani, Indira; Vakaet, Luc; Bonte, Katrien

    2008-07-15

    Purpose: To compare the effectiveness of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and conventional (two-dimensional) radiotherapy in the treatment of cervical lymph node metastases from unknown primary cancer (UPC). Methods and Materials: Between February 2003 and September 2006, 23 patients with UPC of squamous cell carcinoma were treated with IMRT. Extended putative mucosal and bilateral nodal sites were irradiated to a median dose of 66 Gy. In 19 patients, IMRT was performed after lymph node dissection, and in 4 patients primary radiotherapy was given. The conventional radiotherapy group (historical control group) comprised 18 patients treated to a median dose of 66 Gy betweenmore » August 1994 and October 2003. Results: Twenty patients completed treatment. As compared with conventional radiotherapy, the incidence of Grade 3 acute dysphagia was significantly lower in the IMRT group (4.5% vs. 50%, p = 0.003). By 6 months, Grade 3 xerostomia was detected in 11.8% patients in the IMRT group vs. 53.4% in the historical control group (p = 0.03). No Grade 3 dysphagia or skin fibrosis was observed after IMRT but these were noted after conventional radiotherapy (26.7%, p = 0.01) and 26.7%, p = 0.03) respectively). With median follow-up of living patients of 17 months, there was no emergence of primary cancer. One patient had persistent nodal disease and another had nodal relapse at 5 months. Distant metastases were detected in 4 patients. The 2-year overall survival and distant disease-free probability after IMRT did not differ significantly from those for conventional radiotherapy (74.8% vs. 61.1% and 76.3% vs. 68.4%, respectively). Conclusions: Use of IMRT for UPC resulted in lower toxicity than conventional radiotherapy, and was similar in efficacy.« less

  2. Adjuvant Radiotherapy for Palpable Melanoma Metastases to the Groin: When to Irradiate?

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Gojkovic-Horvat, Andreja; Jancar, Boris; Blas, Mateja

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: To determine the efficacy of and criteria for postoperative radiotherapy (PORT) in patients with palpable melanoma metastases to the groin. Methods and Materials: Patients with palpable metastases to the groin who were treated with therapeutic nodal dissection during 2000 to 2006 were identified in a prospective institutional database. Results: In 101 patients, 103 therapeutic nodal dissections were performed; 37 of these were treated with PORT to a median equivalent dose (eqTD{sub 2}) of 50.6 Gy (range, 50-72 Gy). In the surgery-only and PORT groups, 2-year regional control rates were 86% (95% confidence interval [CI] 76-95%) and 91% (95% CI,more » 81-100%), respectively (p = 0.395). Of five recurrences in radiation-treated patients, four were of dermal type, and in three of these cases, no bolus over the operative scar was used. PORT improved 2-year regional control (46% [95% CI, 11-82%] vs. 82% [95% CI, 63-100%], p = 0.022) among patients in which the sum of risk factors present (i.e., risk factor score) was {>=}2. In multivariate analysis, risk-factor score (<2 vs. {>=}2: HR, 2.93; 95% CI, 1.00-8.56; p < 0.0001) and PORT (yes vs. no: HR, 7.81; 95% CI, 2.83-21.74; p = 0.050) was predictive for regional control and on logistic-regression testing, number of involved lymph nodes was predictive for systemic dissemination (p = 0.011). Conclusions: PORT should follow therapeutic nodal dissection in cases with two or more adverse factors. More conventional fractionation ({<=}2.5 Gy), cumulative eqTD{sub 2} <60 Gy and use of bolus over the operative scar are recommended.« less

  3. [Evaluation of the causes of lymphatic metastases after surgical treatment of patients with laryngeal cancer].

    PubMed

    Semczuk, B; Sekuła, J; Szmeja, Z; Janczewski, G; Kruk-Zagajewska, A; Olszewski, E; Niedzielska, G; Horoch, A; Osuch-Wójcikiewicz, E; Sieradzki, A

    1990-01-01

    During the years 1980-1988 2458 laryngeal cancer patients were operated upon in 4 ENT AM Clinics in Kraków, Poznań, Lublin and Warszawa. 300 (12%) out of them have had the cervical node metastases in 18 months after the surgery. The cause analysis was performed. The primary localizations were in the epiglottic and ++post-cricoid areas. The causes of metastases to the ++lymph nodes were analyzed; the primary epiglottic and ++post-cricoid localization of the tumor, its extensiveness and advanced clinical stage. Twice more often were the nodal metastases stated before the primary treatment, a high degree of histological malignancy, probably insufficient radicality of the surgery and insufficient immunological resistance of the organism were taken in consideration. This group of patients presented a rather high percentage of early unsuccessful results of surgical treatment of the laryngeal cancer; this problem needs further analysis and observations.

  4. Axillary hyperhidrosis: a focused review.

    PubMed

    Sammons, Jason E; Khachemoune, Amor

    2017-11-01

    Axillary hyperhidrosis is characterized by an increased amount of sweat production, localized to the armpits, to compensate for environmental conditions and to control thermoregulation. It affects about 3.12% of the US population. It has a significant effect on one's psychological and physical health, as well as one's occupational life. The objective of this paper is to review the epidemiology, clinical presentation, pathophysiology, histology, genetics, and management and treatment of axillary hyperhidrosis.

  5. Spinless hourglass nodal-line semimetals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Ryo; Hirayama, Motoaki; Murakami, Shuichi

    2017-10-01

    Nodal-line semimetals, one of the topological semimetals, have degeneracy along nodal lines where the band gap is closed. In many cases, the nodal lines appear accidentally, and in such cases it is impossible to determine whether the nodal lines appear or not, only from the crystal symmetry and the electron filling. In this paper, for spinless systems, we show that in specific space groups at 4 N +2 fillings (8 N +4 fillings including the spin degree of freedom), presence of the nodal lines is required regardless of the details of the systems. Here, the spinless systems refer to crystals where the spin-orbit coupling is negligible and the spin degree of freedom can be omitted because of the SU(2) spin degeneracy. In this case the shape of the band structure around these nodal lines is like an hourglass, and we call this a spinless hourglass nodal-line semimetal. We construct a model Hamiltonian as an example and we show that it is always in the spinless hourglass nodal-line semimetal phase even when the model parameters are changed without changing the symmetries of the system. We also establish a list of all the centrosymmetric space groups, under which spinless systems always have hourglass nodal lines, and illustrate where the nodal lines are located. We propose that Al3FeSi2 , whose space-group symmetry is Pbcn (No. 60), is one of the nodal-line semimetals arising from this mechanism.

  6. Positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the assessment of axillary lymph node metastases in early breast cancer: systematic review and economic evaluation.

    PubMed

    Cooper, K L; Meng, Y; Harnan, S; Ward, S E; Fitzgerald, P; Papaioannou, D; Wyld, L; Ingram, C; Wilkinson, I D; Lorenz, E

    2011-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer in women. Evaluation of axillary lymph node metastases is important for breast cancer staging and treatment planning. To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy, cost-effectiveness and effect on patient outcomes of positron emission tomography (PET), with or without computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the evaluation of axillary lymph node metastases in patients with newly diagnosed early-stage breast cancer. A systematic review of literature and an economic evaluation were carried out. Key databases (including MEDLINE, EMBASE and nine others) plus research registers and conference proceedings were searched for relevant studies up to April 2009. A decision-analytical model was developed to determine cost-effectiveness in the UK. One reviewer assessed titles and abstracts of studies identified by the search strategy, obtained the full text of relevant papers and screened them against inclusion criteria. Data from included studies were extracted by one reviewer using a standardised data extraction form and checked by a second reviewer. Discrepancies were resolved by discussion. Quality of included studies was assessed using the quality assessment of diagnostic accuracy studies (QUADAS) checklist, applied by one reviewer and checked by a second. Forty-five citations relating to 35 studies were included in the clinical effectiveness review: 26 studies of PET and nine studies of MRI. Two studies were included in the cost-effectiveness review: one of PET and one of MRI. Of the seven studies evaluating PET/CT (n = 862), the mean sensitivity was 56% [95% confidence interval (CI) 44% to 67%] and mean specificity 96% (95% CI 90% to 99%). Of the 19 studies evaluating PET only (n = 1729), the mean sensitivity was 66% (95% CI 50% to 79%) and mean specificity 93% (95% CI 89% to 96%). PET performed less well for small metastases; the mean sensitivity was 11% (95% CI 5% to 22%) for micrometastases (≤ 2 mm

  7. Comparison of rectal and axillary temperatures in dogs and cats.

    PubMed

    Goic, Joana B; Reineke, Erica L; Drobatz, Kenneth J

    2014-05-15

    To compare rectal versus axillary temperatures in dogs and cats. Prospective observational study. 94 dogs and 31 cats. Paired axillary and rectal temperatures were measured in random order with a standardized method. Animal signalment, initial complaint, blood pressure, blood lactate concentration, and variables associated with vascular perfusion and coat were evaluated for associations with axillary and rectal temperatures. Axillary temperature was positively correlated with rectal temperature (ρ = 0.75 in both species). Median axillary temperature (38.4°C [101.1°F] in dogs, and 38.4°C [101.2°F] in cats) was significantly different from median rectal temperature in dogs (38.9°C [102.0°F]) but not in cats (38.6°C [101.5°F]). Median rectal-axillary gradient (difference) was 0.4°C (0.7°F; range, -1.3° to 2.3°C [-2.4° to 4.1°F]) in dogs and 0.17°C (0.3°F; range -1.1° to 1.6°C [-1.9° to 3°F]) in cats. Sensitivity and specificity for detection of hyperthermia with axillary temperature were 57% and 100%, respectively, in dogs and 33% and 100%, respectively, in cats; sensitivity and specificity for detection of hypothermia were 86% and 87%, respectively, in dogs and 80% and 96%, respectively, in cats. Body weight (ρ = 0.514) and body condition score (ρ = 0.431) were correlated with rectal-axillary gradient in cats. Although axillary and rectal temperatures were correlated in dogs and cats, a large gradient was present between rectal temperature and axillary temperature, suggesting that axillary temperature should not be used as a substitute for rectal temperature.

  8. Lymph node metastases near the celiac trunk should be considered separately from other nodal metastases in patients with cancer of the esophagus or gastroesophageal junction after neoadjuvant treatment and surgery

    PubMed Central

    Lagarde, Sjoerd M.; Anderegg, Martinus C. J.; Gisbertz, Suzanne S.; Meijer, Sybren L.; Hulshof, Maarten C. C. M.; Bergman, Jacques J. G. H. M.; van Laarhoven, Hanneke W. M.

    2018-01-01

    Background The aim of the present study is to identify the incidence and prognostic significance of lymph node metastases near the celiac trunk in patients who underwent neoadjuvant chemo(radio)therapy followed by esophagectomy. Methods Between March 1994 and September 2013 a total of 462 consecutive patients with cancer of the esophagus or gastroesophageal junction (GEJ) who underwent potentially curative esophageal resection after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (N=88; 19.0%) or neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (CRT) (N=374; 81.0%) were included. Results Seventy one (15.4%) patients had truncal node metastases in the resection specimen. Metastases to these nodes occurred more frequently in male patients with adenocarcinoma and in tumors at the gastro-esophageal junction. A lower response to neoadjuvant treatment, higher ypT and ypN stages and a poorer grade of differentiation were significantly related with truncal node metastases. Patients with tumor positive truncal nodes had a worse median overall survival (17 vs. 55 months). In multivariate analysis, truncal node metastases were independently associated with a worse survival. Only 22 (31.0%) of the 71 patients with tumor positive truncal nodes were identified preoperatively with EUS or CT. In contrast, 37 patients had suspicious truncal nodes on EUS or CT, but metastases in the pathology specimen were absent. Conclusions In the present study, it is demonstrated that positive truncal nodes in the resection specimen after neoadjuvant therapy, are associated with advanced tumor stages and are an independent factor for inferior survival. PMID:29707301

  9. Lymph node metastases near the celiac trunk should be considered separately from other nodal metastases in patients with cancer of the esophagus or gastroesophageal junction after neoadjuvant treatment and surgery.

    PubMed

    Lagarde, Sjoerd M; Anderegg, Martinus C J; Gisbertz, Suzanne S; Meijer, Sybren L; Hulshof, Maarten C C M; Bergman, Jacques J G H M; van Laarhoven, Hanneke W M; van Berge Henegouwen, Mark I

    2018-03-01

    The aim of the present study is to identify the incidence and prognostic significance of lymph node metastases near the celiac trunk in patients who underwent neoadjuvant chemo(radio)therapy followed by esophagectomy. Between March 1994 and September 2013 a total of 462 consecutive patients with cancer of the esophagus or gastroesophageal junction (GEJ) who underwent potentially curative esophageal resection after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (N=88; 19.0%) or neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (CRT) (N=374; 81.0%) were included. Seventy one (15.4%) patients had truncal node metastases in the resection specimen. Metastases to these nodes occurred more frequently in male patients with adenocarcinoma and in tumors at the gastro-esophageal junction. A lower response to neoadjuvant treatment, higher ypT and ypN stages and a poorer grade of differentiation were significantly related with truncal node metastases. Patients with tumor positive truncal nodes had a worse median overall survival (17 vs. 55 months). In multivariate analysis, truncal node metastases were independently associated with a worse survival. Only 22 (31.0%) of the 71 patients with tumor positive truncal nodes were identified preoperatively with EUS or CT. In contrast, 37 patients had suspicious truncal nodes on EUS or CT, but metastases in the pathology specimen were absent. In the present study, it is demonstrated that positive truncal nodes in the resection specimen after neoadjuvant therapy, are associated with advanced tumor stages and are an independent factor for inferior survival.

  10. The relevance of ultrasound imaging of suspicious axillary lymph nodes and fine-needle aspiration biopsy in the post ACOSOG Z11 era in early breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Vijayaraghavan, Gopal R.; Vedantham, Srinivasan; Kataoka, Milliam; DeBenedectis, Carolynn; Quinlan, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Rationale and Objective Evaluation of nodal involvement in early-stage breast cancers (T1 or T2) changed following the Z11 trial; however, not all patients meet the Z11 inclusion criteria. Hence, the relevance of ultrasound imaging of the axilla and fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNA) in early-stage breast cancers was investigated. Materials and Methods In this single-center, retrospective study, 758 subjects had pathology-verified breast cancer diagnosis over a 3-year period, of which 128 subjects with T1/T2 breast tumors had abnormal axillary lymph nodes on ultrasound, had FNA, and proceeded to axillary surgery. Ultrasound images were reviewed and analyzed using multivariable logistic regression to identify the features predictive of positive FNA. Accuracy of FNA was quantified as the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve with axillary surgery as reference standard. Results Of 128 subjects, 61 and 65 were positive on FNA and axillary surgery, respectively. Sensitivity, specificity, positive- and negative-predictive values of FNA were 52/65 (80%), 54/63 (85.7%), 52/61(85.2%) and 54/67 (80.5%), respectively. After adjusting for neoadjuvant chemotherapy between FNA and surgery, a positive FNA was associated with higher likelihood for positive axillary surgery (odds ratio: 22.7; 95% CI: 7.2–71.3, p<0.0001), and the accuracy of FNA was 0.801 (95% CI: 0.727–0.876). Among ultrasound imaging features, cortical thickness and abnormal hilum were predictive (p<0.017) of positive FNA with accuracy of 0.817 (95% CI: 0.741–0.893). Conclusion Ultrasound imaging and FNA can play an important role in the management of early breast cancers even in the post-Z11 era. Higher weightage can be accorded to cortical thickness and hilum during ultrasound evaluation. PMID:27916595

  11. Radiofrequency Thermotherapy for Treating Axillary Hyperhidrosis.

    PubMed

    Schick, Christoph H; Grallath, Tanja; Schick, Kerstin S; Hashmonai, Moshe

    2016-05-01

    Thermotherapy has been established between conservative and surgical options as a minimally invasive method for the treatment of axillary hyperhidrosis. The objective of this study was to present radiofrequency thermotherapy (RFTT) as a safe and effective new treatment method. Thirty adult patients with pronounced axillary hyperhidrosis were treated with RFTT with noninsulated microneedles 3 times at intervals of 6 weeks. Subjective improvement was rated using the Hyperhidrosis Disease Severity Scale (HDSS) and Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI). Satisfaction and estimated reduction of sweating were monitored. Objective measurements were made using gravimetry. Adverse effects were recorded in follow-up. At the 6-month follow-up, improvement in sweating was seen in 27 patients. The HDSS dropped from 3.4 to 2.1, the DLQI improved significantly from 16 to 7. The gravimetric measurements of sweat were reduced from 221 to 33 mg/min. The average reduction of sweating was reported to be 72%. Adverse effects were generally mild and improved rapidly. Radiofrequency thermotherapy was shown to be an effective and minimally invasive treatment option for axillary hyperhidrosis. Patients described their sweating as normal. The method clearly has the potential to normalize axillary sweating.

  12. Effect of Occult Metastases on Survival in Node-Negative Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Weaver, Donald L.; Ashikaga, Takamaru; Krag, David N.; Skelly, Joan M.; Anderson, Stewart J.; Harlow, Seth P.; Julian, Thomas B.; Mamounas, Eleftherios P.; Wolmark, Norman

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND Retrospective and observational analyses suggest that occult lymph-node metastases are an important prognostic factor for disease recurrence or survival among patients with breast cancer. Prospective data on clinical outcomes from randomized trials according to sentinel-node involvement have been lacking. METHODS We randomly assigned women with breast cancer to sentinel-lymph-node biopsy plus axillary dissection or sentinel-lymph-node biopsy alone. Paraffin-embedded tissue blocks of sentinel lymph nodes obtained from patients with pathologically negative sentinel lymph nodes were centrally evaluated for occult metastases deeper in the blocks. Both routine staining and immunohistochemical staining for cytokeratin were used at two widely spaced additional tissue levels. Treating physicians were unaware of the findings, which were not used for clinical treatment decisions. The initial evaluation at participating sites was designed to detect all macrometastases larger than 2 mm in the greatest dimension. RESULTS Occult metastases were detected in 15.9% (95% confidence interval [CI], 14.7 to 17.1) of 3887 patients. Log-rank tests indicated a significant difference between patients in whom occult metastases were detected and those in whom no occult metastases were detected with respect to overall survival (P = 0.03), disease-free survival (P = 0.02), and distant-disease–free interval (P = 0.04). The corresponding adjusted hazard ratios for death, any outcome event, and distant disease were 1.40 (95% CI, 1.05 to 1.86), 1.31 (95% CI, 1.07 to 1.60), and 1.30 (95% CI, 1.02 to 1.66), respectively. Five-year Kaplan-Meier estimates of overall survival among patients in whom occult metastases were detected and those without detectable metastases were 94.6% and 95.8%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS Occult metastases were an independent prognostic variable in patients with sentinel nodes that were negative on initial examination; however, the magnitude of the difference in

  13. Axillary nerve dysfunction

    MedlinePlus

    ... Causes Axillary nerve dysfunction is a form of peripheral neuropathy . It occurs when there is damage to the ... and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team. Peripheral Nerve Disorders Read more NIH MedlinePlus Magazine Read more Health ...

  14. Pelvic Nodal Radiotherapy in Patients With Unfavorable Intermediate and High-Risk Prostate Cancer: Evidence, Rationale, and Future Directions

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Morikawa, Lisa K.; Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center; Roach, Mack, E-mail: mroach@radonc.ucsf.ed

    2011-05-01

    Over the past 15 years, there have been three major advances in the use of external beam radiotherapy in the management of men with clinically localized prostate made. They include: (1) image guided (IG) three-dimensional conformal/intensity modulated radiotherapy; (2) radiation dose escalation; and (3) androgen deprivation therapy. To date only the last of these three advances have been shown to improve overall survival. The presence of occult pelvic nodal involvement could explain the failure of increased conformality and dose escalation to prolong survival, because the men who appear to be at the greatest risk of death from clinically localized prostatemore » cancer are those who are likely to have lymph node metastases. This review discusses the evidence for prophylactic pelvic nodal radiotherapy, including the key trials and controversies surrounding this issue.« less

  15. Vascular Alterations in Axillary and Brachial Vessels in Patients with Axillary Web Syndrome After Breast Cancer Surgery.

    PubMed

    Furlan, Cintia; Matheus, Carolina Nascimben; Jales, Rodrigo Menezes; Derchain, Sophie; Sarian, Luís Otávio

    2018-06-01

    Surgical manipulations of the axilla may cause a condition known as Axillary Web Syndrome (AWS). The systems compromised and the sequence of events leading to this syndrome remains unknown. This study evaluated clinical, surgical, and vascular factors associated with onset and duration of AWS after breast cancer surgery. In this prospective study, 155 women were included. They were submitted to a physical examination that consisted of ultrasound Doppler of axillary and brachial vessels and the evaluation of AWS in 1, 3, and 6 months after breast cancer surgery. Women with advanced disease had a significantly higher incidence of AWS than those with early stage breast cancer (p = 0.02). In addition, women who underwent mastectomy or axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) had a significantly higher incidence of AWS in the 1-month (p < 0.01; p < 0.01) and 3-months (p < 0.01; p = 0.02) assessment rounds, respectively. The cross-sectional area of brachial artery was significantly smaller (p = 0.04) in women with AWS at the 3-months postoperative visit. The peak systolic velocity and the blood flow of the axillary artery was significantly higher in women with AWS 6 months after surgery (p < 0.03 and p = 0.02 respectively). Our study confirm the combined changes of lymphatic and vascular systems in woman with AWS, since AWS was associated with more extensive dissection of axillary lymph nodes, compromised lymph nodes, and with abnormalities of the vascular parameters.

  16. Esophagogastric metaplasia relates to nodal metastases in adenocarcinoma of esophagus and cardia.

    PubMed

    Ruffato, Alberto; Mattioli, Sandro; Perrone, Ottorino; Lugaresi, Marialuisa; Di Simone, Massimo Pierluigi; D'Errico, Antonietta; Malvi, Deborah; Aprile, Maria Rosaria; Raulli, Giandomenico; Frassineti, Luca

    2013-04-01

    Immunohistochemical profiles of esophageal and cardia adenocarcinoma differ according to the presence or absence of Barrett's epithelium (BIM) and gastric intestinal metaplasia (GIM) in the fundus and antrum. Different lymphatic spreading has been demonstrated in esophageal adenocarcinoma. We investigated the correlation among the presence or absence of intestinal metaplasia in the esophagus and stomach and lymphatic metastases in patients who underwent radical surgery for esophageal and cardia adenocarcinoma. The mucosa surrounding the adenocarcinoma and the gastric mucosa were analyzed. The BIM+ patients underwent subtotal esophagectomy and gastric pull up, and the BIM- patients underwent esophagectomy at the azygos vein, total gastrectomy, and esophagojejunostomy. The radical thoracic (station numbers 2, 3, 4R, 7, 8, and 9) and abdominal (station numbers 15 through 20) lymphadenectomy was identical in both procedures except for the greater curvature. One hundred ninety-four consecutive patients were collected in three major groups: BIM+/GIM-, 52 patients (26.8%); BIM-/GIM-, 90 patients (46.4%); BIM-/GIM+, 50 patients (25.8%). Two patients (1%) were BIM+/GIM+. A total of 6,010 lymph nodes were resected: 1,515 were recovered in BIM+, 1,587 in BIM-/GIM+, and 2,908 in BIM-/GIM- patients. The percentage of patients with pN+ stations 8 and 9 was higher in BIM+ (p=0.001), and the percentage of patients with pN+ perigastric stations was higher in BIM- (p=0.001). The BIM-/GIM- patients had a number of abdominal metastatic lymph nodes higher than did the BIM-/GIM+ patients (p=0.0001). According to the presence or absence of BIM and GIM in the esophagus and cardia, adenocarcinoma correspond to three different patterns of lymphatic metastasization, which may reflect different biologic and carcinogenetic pathways. Copyright © 2013 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Axillary Hodgkin's disease in manual workers.

    PubMed

    Andrieu, J M; Weh, H J; Teillet, F; Asselain, B

    1979-01-01

    Between 1965 and 1974, 16 patients were clinically staged as having unique axillary localizations of Hodgkin's disease. Sex ratio (4.3), mean age (40.8 years) and professional occupations (12 out of the 16 patients were engaged in manual work) were significantly different from that of all patients observed during the same period. These facts lead us to suppose the existence of a link between manual work and initial axillary localizations.

  18. Axillary nerve monitoring during arthroscopic shoulder stabilization.

    PubMed

    Esmail, Adil N; Getz, Charles L; Schwartz, Daniel M; Wierzbowski, Lawrence; Ramsey, Matthew L; Williams, Gerald R

    2005-06-01

    This study evaluated the ability of a novel intraoperative neurophysiologic monitoring method used to locate the axillary nerve, predict relative capsule thickness, and identify impending injury to the axillary nerve during arthroscopic thermal capsulorrhaphy of the shoulder. Prospective cohort study. Twenty consecutive patients with glenohumeral instability were monitored prospectively during arthroscopic shoulder surgery. Axillary nerve mapping and relative capsule thickness estimates were recorded before the stabilization portion of the procedure. During labral repair and/or thermal capsulorrhaphy, continuous and spontaneous electromyography recorded nerve activity. In addition, trans-spinal motor-evoked potentials of the fourth and fifth cervical roots and brachial plexus electrical stimulation, provided real-time information about nerve integrity. Axillary nerve mapping and relative capsule thickness were recorded in all patients. Continuous axillary nerve monitoring was successfully performed in all patients. Eleven of the 20 patients underwent thermal capsulorrhaphy alone or in combination with arthroscopic labral repair. Nine patients underwent arthroscopic labral repair alone. In 4 of the 11 patients who underwent thermal capsulorrhaphy, excessive spontaneous neurotonic electromyographic activity was noted, thereby altering the pattern of heat application by the surgeon. In 1 of these 4 patients, a small increase in the motor latency was noted after the procedure but no clinical deficit was observed. There were no neuromonitoring or clinical neurologic changes observed in the labral repair group without thermal application. At last follow-up, no patient in either group had any clinical evidence of nerve injury or complications from neurophysiologic monitoring. We successfully evaluated the use of intraoperative nerve monitoring to identify axillary nerve position, capsule thickness, and provide real-time identification of impending nerve injury and

  19. Metastases of transverse colon cancer to bilateral ovaries (Krukenberg tumor) and the left breast: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Xin-Yu; Wang, Jue; Zhao, Jia; Chen, Rui; Zha, Xiao-Ming

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer has the highest rate of incidence among all types of cancer in women. Only ~0.43% of breast malignancies occur as a result of metastatic lesions from extramammary tumors. The present study reports an extremely rare case of transverse colon cancer metastasizing to the bilateral ovaries and the left breast. The patient was a 47-year old female, who had a lump in the left breast without axillary lymphadenopathy. Specimens obtained by core needle biopsy were submitted for hematoxylin and eosin examination, and results revealed that the lump was a poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma. Since the patient had elevated levels of the carcinoembryonic antigen and a medical history of a Krukenberg tumor metastasized from colon cancer, immunohistochemical examinations were applied. Results identified that caudal-related homeobox protein 2 and cytokeratin 20 were positively stained, whilst cytokeratin 7 was negatively stained. Therefore, this patient was diagnosed as having colon cancer that had metastasized to the bilateral ovaries and the left breast. As the life expectancy of patients with cancer is increasing, types of metastases that used to be seen as rare are increasingly becoming more common. For clinicians, diagnosis should be cautious, and differential diagnosis should always be kept in mind. PMID:28693131

  20. Increased risk of brain metastases in women with breast cancer and p16 expression in metastatic lymph-nodes.

    PubMed

    Furet, Elise; El Bouchtaoui, Morad; Feugeas, Jean-Paul; Miquel, Catherine; Leboeuf, Christophe; Beytout, Clémentine; Bertheau, Philippe; Le Rhun, Emilie; Bonneterre, Jacques; Janin, Anne; Bousquet, Guilhem

    2017-06-06

    Metastatic breast cancer is a leading cause of mortality in women, partly on account of brain metastases. However, the mechanisms by which cancer cells cross the blood-brain barrier remain undeciphered. Most molecular studies predicting metastatic risk have been performed on primary breast cancer samples. Here we studied metastatic lymph-nodes from patients with breast cancers to identify markers associated with the occurrence of brain metastases. Transcriptomic analyses identified CDKN2A/p16 as a gene potentially associated with brain metastases. Fifty-two patients with HER2-overexpressing or triple-negative breast carcinoma with lymph nodes and distant metastases were included in this study. Transcriptomic analyses were performed on laser-microdissected tumor cells from 28 metastatic lymph-nodes. Supervised analyses compared the transcriptomic profiles of women who developed brain metastases and those who did not. As a validation series, we studied metastatic lymph-nodes from 24 other patients.Immunohistochemistry investigations showed that p16 mean scores were significantly higher in patients with brain metastases than in patients without (7.4 vs. 1.7 respectively, p < 0.01). This result was confirmed on the validation series. Multivariate analyses showed that the p16 score was the only variable positively associated with the risk of brain metastases (p = 0.01).With the same threshold of 5 for p16 scores using a Cox model, overall survival was shorter in women with a p16 score over 5 in both series. The risk of brain metastases in women with HER2-overexpressing or triple-negative breast cancer could be better assessed by studying p16 protein expression on surgically removed axillary lymph-nodes.

  1. Patterns of practice of regional nodal irradiation in breast cancer: results of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) NOdal Radiotherapy (NORA) survey.

    PubMed

    Belkacemi, Y; Kaidar-Person, O; Poortmans, P; Ozsahin, M; Valli, M-C; Russell, N; Kunkler, I; Hermans, J; Kuten, A; van Tienhoven, G; Westenberg, H

    2015-03-01

    Predicting outcome of breast cancer (BC) patients based on sentinel lymph node (SLN) status without axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) is an area of uncertainty. It influences the decision-making for regional nodal irradiation (RNI). The aim of the NORA (NOdal RAdiotherapy) survey was to examine the patterns of RNI. A web-questionnaire, including several clinical scenarios, was distributed to 88 EORTC-affiliated centers. Responses were received between July 2013 and January 2014. A total of 84 responses were analyzed. While three-dimensional (3D) radiotherapy (RT) planning is carried out in 81 (96%) centers, nodal areas are delineated in only 51 (61%) centers. Only 14 (17%) centers routinely link internal mammary chain (IMC) and supraclavicular node (SCN) RT indications. In patients undergoing total mastectomy (TM) with ALND, SCN-RT is recommend by 5 (6%), 53 (63%) and 51 (61%) centers for patients with pN0(i+), pN(mi) and pN1, respectively. Extra-capsular extension (ECE) is the main factor influencing decision-making RNI after breast conserving surgery (BCS) and TM. After primary systemic therapy (PST), 49 (58%) centers take into account nodal fibrotic changes in ypN0 patients for RNI indications. In ypN0 patients with inner/central tumors, 23 (27%) centers indicate SCN-RT and IMC-RT. In ypN1 patients, SCN-RT is delivered by less than half of the centers in patients with ypN(i+) and ypN(mi). Twenty-one (25%) of the centers recommend ALN-RT in patients with ypN(mi) or 1-2N+ after ALND. Seventy-five (90%) centers state that age is not considered a limiting factor for RNI. The NORA survey is unique in evaluating the impact of SLNB/ALND status on adjuvant RNI decision-making and volumes after BCS/TM with or without PST. ALN-RT is often indicated in pN1 patients, particularly in the case of ECE. Besides the ongoing NSABP-B51/RTOG and ALLIANCE trials, NORA could help to design future specific RNI trials in the SLNB era without ALND in patients receiving or not PST.

  2. Curative Chemoradiotherapy in Patients With Stage IVB Cervical Cancer Presenting With Paraortic and Left Supraclavicular Lymph Node Metastases

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Kim, Ji-Yoon; Kim, Joo-Young; Kim, Jin Hee

    2012-11-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) with curative intent in patients with stage IVB cervical cancer initially presenting with paraortic and left supraclavicular lymph node metastases. Methods and Materials: The medical records of 25 patients with both paraortic and left supraclavicular lymph nodal metastases (group I) were reviewed and compared with those of 101 women with paraortic lymph node metastases alone (group II). Group I received a mean 59.4 Gy to the paraortic and left supraclavicular areas and 50.4 Gy to the pelvis, followed by 30 Gy of high-dose-rate brachytherapy in 6 fractions. Group IImore » received the same dose to the paraortic area and pelvis followed by intracavitary brachytherapy. All patients received platinum-based chemotherapy simultaneously. Results: Of the 25 patients in group I, 16 (64%) experienced acute grade 3-4 hematologic toxicities, and 1 had a late grade 3 genitourinary toxicity. Complete responses, including the primary mass and pelvic, paraortic, and left supraclavicular lymph nodes, were observed in 13 patients (52%). At a median follow-up of 32 months for surviving patients, 3 experienced in-field failure, 6 showed distant failure, and 9 showed both. The 3-year overall and disease-free survival rates were 49% and 33%, respectively. In comparison, of the 101 patients in group II, 16 showed in-field failure, 14 experienced distant failure, and 11 showed both. The 3-year overall and disease-free survival rates were 69% and 57%, respectively. Conclusions: Curative CCRT is feasible in patients with stage IVB cervical cancer presenting with paraortic and left supraclavicular lymph nodal metastases, with acceptable late toxicity and high response rates, despite high rates of acute hematologic toxicity.« less

  3. Axillary lymph nodes and arm lymphatic drainage pathways are spared during routine complete axillary clearance in majority of women undergoing breast cancer surgery.

    PubMed

    Szuba, A; Chachaj, Z; Koba-Wszedybylb, M; Hawro, R; Jasinski, R; Tarkowski, R; Szewczyk, K; Bebenek, M; Forgacz, J; Jodkowska, A; Jedrzejuk, D; Janczak, D; Mrozinska, M; Pilch, U; Wozniewski, M

    2011-09-01

    Alterations in axillary lymph nodes (ALNs) after complete axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) in comparison to the preoperative status were evaluated using lymphoscintigraphy performed preoperatively and 1-6 weeks after surgery in 30 women with a new diagnosis of unilateral, invasive breast carcinoma. Analysis of lymphoscintigrams revealed that ALNs after surgery were present in 26 of 30 examined women. In comparison to preoperative status, they were visualized in the same location (12 women), in the same and additionally in different locations (9 women), or only in different locations (4 women). No lymph nodes were visualized in one woman and lymphocoele were in 4 women. Thus, after ALND, a variable number of axillary lymph nodes remain and were visualized on lymphoscintigraphy in the majority of women. The classical ALND, therefore, does not allow complete dissection and removal of axillary nodes with total disruption of axillary lymphatic pathways, accounting in part for the variable incidence and severity of lymphedema after the procedure.

  4. Liver metastases

    MedlinePlus

    Metastases to the liver; Metastatic liver cancer; Liver cancer - metastatic; Colorectal cancer - liver metastases; Colon cancer - liver metastases; Esophageal cancer - liver metastases; Lung cancer - liver metastases; Melanoma - liver metastases

  5. Nodal surface semimetals: Theory and material realization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Weikang; Liu, Ying; Li, Si; Zhong, Chengyong; Yu, Zhi-Ming; Sheng, Xian-Lei; Zhao, Y. X.; Yang, Shengyuan A.

    2018-03-01

    We theoretically study the three-dimensional topological semimetals with nodal surfaces protected by crystalline symmetries. Different from the well-known nodal-point and nodal-line semimetals, in these materials, the conduction and valence bands cross on closed nodal surfaces in the Brillouin zone. We propose different classes of nodal surfaces, both in the absence and in the presence of spin-orbit coupling (SOC). In the absence of SOC, a class of nodal surfaces can be protected by space-time inversion symmetry and sublattice symmetry and characterized by a Z2 index, while another class of nodal surfaces are guaranteed by a combination of nonsymmorphic twofold screw-rotational symmetry and time-reversal symmetry. We show that the inclusion of SOC will destroy the former class of nodal surfaces but may preserve the latter provided that the inversion symmetry is broken. We further generalize the result to magnetically ordered systems and show that protected nodal surfaces can also exist in magnetic materials without and with SOC, given that certain magnetic group symmetry requirements are satisfied. Several concrete nodal-surface material examples are predicted via the first-principles calculations. The possibility of multi-nodal-surface materials is discussed.

  6. Chylous Fistula following Axillary Lymphadenectomy: Benefit of Octreotide Treatment.

    PubMed

    González-Sánchez-Migallón, Elena; Aguilar-Jiménez, José; García-Marín, José Andrés; Aguayo-Albasini, José Luis

    2016-01-01

    Chyle leak following axillary lymph node clearance is a rare yet important complication. The treatment of postoperative chyle fistula still remains unclear. Conservative management is the first line of treatment. It includes axillary drains on continuous suction, pressure dressings, bed rest, and nutritional modifications. The use of somatostatin analogue is well documented as a treatment for chylous fistulas after neck surgery. We present a case of chylous fistula after axillary surgery resolved with the use of octreotide.

  7. Elusive but not hypothetical: axillary meristems in Wollemia nobilis

    PubMed Central

    Burrows, Geoffrey E.

    2012-01-01

    Background The branches of Wollemia nobilis are unbranched; however, it has been noted that new branches can form from the distal end of damaged ones, and branches can grow from axillary structures once a terminal strobilus has fallen. Tomlinson and Huggett (2011, Annals of Botany 107: 909–916) have recently investigated the formation of these reiterative branches and stated in the title of their paper that ‘Partial shoot reiteration in Wollemia nobilis (Araucariaceae) does not arise from “axillary meristems”’. They go on to state ‘Further research may reveal the presence of these elusive, but still only hypothetical, axillary meristems’. Response In this Viewpoint, I argue that Tomlinson and Huggett do not refer to previously published information that indicates that axillary meristems are present in Wollemia nobilis branch leaf axils, and that their anatomical methods were probably not optimal for locating and examining these minute structures. Thus, whilst I would agree that the axillary meristems in branch leaf axils of Wollemia nobilis are elusive, I contend that they are not hypothetical. PMID:21868407

  8. Axillary lymph node micrometastases in invasive breast cancer: national figures on incidence and overall survival.

    PubMed

    Grabau, D; Jensen, M B; Rank, F; Blichert-Toft, M

    2007-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the incidence and prognostic value of axillary lymph node micrometastases (Nmic) of 2 mm or less in breast carcinomas. Results are based on data from the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group (DBCG). The study was carried out as a nationwide, population-based trial with a study series consisting of 6,959 women under 75 years of age registered in the national DBCG data base from 1 January 1990 to 31 October 1994. All patients had contracted operable primary breast carcinoma, stage I-III, classified according to the TNM system as T1-T3, N0-N1, M0. Women with four or more metastatic axillary lymph nodes were excluded. All patients were treated systematically according to approved national guidelines and treatment protocols. Metastases were recognized microscopically on haematoxylin and eosin-stained sections. In case of doubt immunohistochemical staining for cytokeratin was performed. There was no serial sectioning. Micrometastases were tumour deposits of 2 mm or smaller, and accordingly included deposits of 0.2 mm and smaller. With a median observation time of 10 years and 2 months, women with Nmic (N=427) experienced a significantly worse overall survival (OS) compared with node-negative (Nneg) women (N=4,767) (relative risk (RR)=1.20, 95% CI: 1.01-1.43), irrespective of menopausal status. Women with macrometastases (Nmac) (N=1,765) had significantly worse final outcome than women with Nmic (RR=1.54, 95% CI: 1.29-1.85), irrespective of menopausal status. Multivariate analysis adjusted for patient-, histopathologic-, and loco-regional therapeutic variables showed that cases with Nmic had a significantly higher risk of death relative to Nneg cases (adjusted RR=1.49, 95% CI: 1.18-1.90). Interaction analysis showed that the number of nodes examined had a significant impact on adjusted relative risk of death according to axillary status. Furthermore, the number of nodes involved significantly influenced adjusted risk of death in

  9. Axillary breast: Navigating uncharted terrain

    PubMed Central

    Bhave, Medha A

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Axillary breast is a common condition that leads to discomfort and cosmetic problems. Liposuction alone and open excision are two techniques used for treatment. Materials and Methods: This study assesses the results of treatment in 24 consecutive patients, operated between 2005 and 2015. All patients had Kajava class IV masses. Three were treated by liposuction alone, while 21 were treated by open axillaplasty with limited liposuction. Results: One patient treated by liposuction alone had to be re-operated for a residual lump, while with axillaplasty, no major complications were observed and the results were uniformly good. Discussion: Certain points of technique emerged as major determinants in obtaining the best results. In brief, these are: a) limited skin excision; b) placing elliptical incisions within the most lax, apical axillary skin, irrespective of the location of the lump; c) raising skin flaps at the level of superficial fascia; d)meticulous dissection and preservation of the nerves, especially the second intercostobrachial; f) judicious liposuction for eliminating dog ears and axillary sculpting only; g) avoiding drains. Conclusion: Open axillaplasty with limited liposuction is the best way to minimise complications and produce good results. PMID:26933282

  10. Variations in the management of the axilla in screen-detected ductal carcinoma in situ: evidence from the UK NHS breast screening programme audit of screen detected DCIS.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, S; Hanby, A; Clements, K; Kearins, O; Lawrence, G; Dodwell, D; Bishop, H; Thompson, A

    2015-01-01

    The diagnosis and surgical management of screen-detected Ductal Carcinoma In Situ (DCIS) remains controversial including a range of axillary approaches and consequent morbidity. This study examined the management of the axilla in all patients with DCIS presenting through the United Kingdom National Health Service Breast Screening Programme (UK NHS BSP). Retrospective analysis of the UK NHS BSP identified 26,696 women initially diagnosed with DCIS over the 8 years 1 April 2003-31 March 2011. The final breast pathology of these women was upgraded to invasive ductal cancer in 5564 (20.8%) women or micro-invasive cancer in 1031 (3.9%) women. At first operation, 5290 (26.3%) of the 20,094 women who had a final post-operative diagnosis of DCIS only underwent axillary surgery (72.4% at the time of mastectomy, 23.8% breast conservation surgery, 3.8% axillary surgery alone). Performance of axillary surgery reflected increasing tumour size, micro-invasion or increasing nuclear grade for the final diagnosis of DCIS. More extensive nodal surgery was performed in those undergoing mastectomy; 10.8% of women had more than 8 nodes removed. Overall, 12.0% of women with invasive cancer, 1.7% with micro-invasion, and 0.2% with DCIS alone, were ultimately node positive. Improved pre-operative sampling of DCIS, axillary assessment by ultrasound with needle biopsy for suspected metastases, risk stratification for sentinel node biopsy (for high grade or extensive DCIS) and avoiding axillary clearance for a pre-operative diagnosis of DCIS alone should reduce unnecessary axillary surgery. Standards using such criteria for axillary surgery in screen-detected DCIS should be integrated into the NHS BSP. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Axillary silicone lymphadenopathy secondary to augmentation mammaplasty

    PubMed Central

    Dragoumis, Dimitrios M.; Assimaki, Anthoula S.; Vrizas, Triantafyllos I.; Tsiftsoglou, Aris P.

    2010-01-01

    We report a case involving a 45-year-old woman, who presented with an axillary mass 10 years after bilateral cosmetic augmentation mammaplasty. A lump was detected in the left axilla, and subsequent mammography and magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated intracapsular rupture of the left breast prosthesis. An excisional biopsy of the left axillary lesion and replacement of the ruptured implant was performed. Histological analysis showed that the axillary lump was lymph nodes containing large amounts of silicone. Silicone lymphadenopathy is an obscure complication of procedures involving the use of silicone. It is thought to occur following the transit of silicone droplets from breast implants to lymph nodes by macrophages and should always be considered as a differential diagnosis in patients in whom silicone prostheses are present. PMID:21217983

  12. Design and development of a dedicated mammary and axillary region positron emission tomography system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doshi, Niraj Kumar

    Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death in women. Currently, mammography and physical breast examination, both non-invasive techniques, provide the two most effective methods available for screening potential breast cancer patients. During the management of patients, however, several invasive techniques such as axillary lymph node dissection, core biopsies and lumpectomies, are utilized to determine the stage or malignancy of the disease with significant cost and morbidity associated with them. Positron Emission Tomography (PET), using [F-18] fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) tracer is a sensitive and non-invasive imaging modality that may be a cost-effective alternative to certain invasive procedures. In this project we have developed a low cost, high performance, dedicated PET camera (maxPET) for mammary and axillary region imaging. The system consists of two 15x15 cm2 planar scintillation detector arrays composed of modular detectors operating in coincidence. The modular detectors are comprised of a 9x9 array of 3x3x20 mm3 lutetiurn oxyorthosilicate (LSO) detector elements, read out by a 5x5 array of position- sensitive photomultiplier tubes. The average measured intrinsic spatial resolution of a detector module is 2.26 mm with a sensitivity of up to 40% for a central point source. The measured coincidence timing resolution for two modules is 2.4 ns. The average energy resolution measured across the entire two detector plates is 21.6%. The coincidence timing resolution for the entire system is 8.1 ns. A line bar phantom was imaged and images were reconstructed using the focal plane tomography algorithm. A 4 mm projection image resolution was measured based on profiles taken through the line bar phantom images. The goal of the maxPET system will be to aid in breast cancer patient management by assisting in imaging women with dense, fibro-glandular breasts, detecting axillary lymph node metastases without surgery, monitoring chemotherapy effectiveness and

  13. Comparison of a sentinel lymph node mapping algorithm and comprehensive lymphadenectomy in the detection of stage IIIC endometrial carcinoma at higher risk for nodal disease.

    PubMed

    Ducie, Jennifer A; Eriksson, Ane Gerda Zahl; Ali, Narisha; McGree, Michaela E; Weaver, Amy L; Bogani, Giorgio; Cliby, William A; Dowdy, Sean C; Bakkum-Gamez, Jamie N; Soslow, Robert A; Keeney, Gary L; Abu-Rustum, Nadeem R; Mariani, Andrea; Leitao, Mario M

    2017-12-01

    To determine if a sentinel lymph node (SLN) mapping algorithm will detect metastatic nodal disease in patients with intermediate-/high-risk endometrial carcinoma. Patients were identified and surgically staged at two collaborating institutions. The historical cohort (2004-2008) at one institution included patients undergoing complete pelvic and paraaortic lymphadenectomy to the renal veins (LND cohort). At the second institution an SLN mapping algorithm, including pathologic ultra-staging, was performed (2006-2013) (SLN cohort). Intermediate-risk was defined as endometrioid histology (any grade), ≥50% myometrial invasion; high-risk as serous or clear cell histology (any myometrial invasion). Patients with gross peritoneal disease were excluded. Isolated tumor cells, micro-metastases, and macro-metastases were considered node-positive. We identified 210 patients in the LND cohort, 202 in the SLN cohort. Nodal assessment was performed for most patients. In the intermediate-risk group, stage IIIC disease was diagnosed in 30/107 (28.0%) (LND), 29/82 (35.4%) (SLN) (P=0.28). In the high-risk group, stage IIIC disease was diagnosed in 20/103 (19.4%) (LND), 26 (21.7%) (SLN) (P=0.68). Paraaortic lymph node (LN) assessment was performed significantly more often in intermediate-/high-risk groups in the LND cohort (P<0.001). In the intermediate-risk group, paraaortic LN metastases were detected in 20/96 (20.8%) (LND) vs. 3/28 (10.7%) (SLN) (P=0.23). In the high-risk group, paraaortic LN metastases were detected in 13/82 (15.9%) (LND) and 10/56 (17.9%) (SLN) (%, P=0.76). SLN mapping algorithm provides similar detection rates of stage IIIC endometrial cancer. The SLN algorithm does not compromise overall detection compared to standard LND. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The Effect of Anatomical Location of Lymph Node Metastases on Cancer Specific Survival in Patients with Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Nini, Alessandro; Larcher, Alessandro; Cianflone, Francesco; Trevisani, Francesco; Terrone, Carlo; Volpe, Alessandro; Regis, Federica; Briganti, Alberto; Salonia, Andrea; Montorsi, Francesco; Bertini, Roberto; Capitanio, Umberto

    2018-01-01

    Positive nodal status (pN1) is an independent predictor of survival in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) patients. However, no study to date has tested whether the location of lymph node (LN) metastases does affect oncologic outcomes in a population submitted to radical nephrectomy (RN) and extended lymph node dissection (eLND). To describe nodal disease dissemination in clear cell RCC (ccRCC) patients and to assess the effect of the anatomical sites and the number of nodal areas affected on cancer specific mortality (CSM). The study included 415 patients who underwent RN and eLND, defined as the removal of hilar, side-specific (pre/paraaortic or pre/paracaval) and interaortocaval LNs for ccRCC, at two institutions. Descriptive statistics were used to depict nodal dissemination in pN1 patients, stratified according to nodal site and number of involved areas. Multivariable Cox regression analyses and Kaplan-Meier curves were used to explore the relationship between pN1 disease features and survival outcomes. Median number of removed LN was 14 (IQR 9-19); 23% of patients were pN1. Among patients with one involved nodal site, 54 and 26% of patients were positive only in side-specific and interaortocaval station, respectively. The most frequent nodal site was the interaortocaval and side-specific one, for right and left ccRCC, respectively. Interaortocaval nodal positivity (HR 2.3, CI 95%: 1.3-3.9, p < 0.01) represented an independent predictor of CSM. When ccRCC patient harbour nodal disease, its spreading can occur at any nodal station without involving the others. The presence of interoartocaval positive nodes does affect oncologic outcomes. Lymph node invasion in patients with clear cell renal cell carcinoma is not following a fixed anatomical pattern. An extended lymph node dissection, during treatment for primary kidney tumour, would aid patient risk stratification and multimodality upfront treatment.

  15. Axillary nerve injury associated with sports.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sangkook; Saetia, Kriangsak; Saha, Suparna; Kline, David G; Kim, Daniel H

    2011-11-01

    The aim of this retrospective study was to present and investigate axillary nerve injuries associated with sports. This study retrospectively reviewed 26 axillary nerve injuries associated with sports between the years 1985 and 2010. Preoperative status of the axillary nerve was evaluated by using the Louisiana State University Health Science Center (LSUHSC) grading system published by the senior authors. Intraoperative nerve action potential recordings were performed to check nerve conduction and assess the possibility of resection. Neurolysis, suture, and nerve grafts were used for the surgical repair of the injured nerves. In 9 patients with partial loss of function and 3 with complete loss, neurolysis based on nerve action potential recordings was the primary treatment. Two patients with complete loss of function were treated with resection and suturing and 12 with resection and nerve grafting. The minimum follow-up period was 16 months (mean 20 months). The injuries were associated with the following sports: skiing (12 cases), football (5), rugby (2), baseball (2), ice hockey (2), soccer (1), weightlifting (1), and wrestling (1). Functional recovery was excellent. Neurolysis was performed in 9 cases, resulting in an average functional recovery of LSUHSC Grade 4.2. Recovery with graft repairs averaged LSUHSC Grade 3 or better in 11 of 12 cases Surgical repair can restore useful deltoid function in patients with sports-associated axillary nerve injuries, even in cases of severe stretch-contusion injury.

  16. Correction of accessory axillary breast tissue without visible scar.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young Soo

    2004-01-01

    Various methods for correction of accessory axillary breast tissue have been proposed, including simple excision, diamond-shaped excision, a Y-V technique, and lipoplasty. We present an effective method for correction of a prominent axillary mound that combines lipoplasty with excision of accessory breast tissue along the axillary transverse line. Preoperative markings included an incision within the natural wrinkle line in the axillary fold, and demarcation of areas in which lipoplasty and excision were to be performed. After lipoplasty, deep dissection was performed to isolate and remove accessory breast tissue and excess fat tissue. A compression dressing was applied for 1 to 2 weeks postoperatively, and the patient was instructed to wear a sports bra for 1 to 2 months after removal of the dressing. We treated 7 patients using this procedure between October 1999 and March 2003. No major postoperative complications were detected and recurrence was not noted during the follow-up periods. Aesthetic results were satisfactory. We believe that a procedure that combines lipoplasty and excision provides numerous advantages as a surgical option in treating a prominent axillary mound. The main advantage is that the final scar is laid in the natural axillary fold, rendering scars less conspicuous and eliminating the need to remove excess skin. The one disadvantage was that elevation of the skin flap via small, remote incisions initially produced surgical difficulties, but these were overcome with experience.

  17. Liposuction through an axillary incision for treatment of gynecomastia.

    PubMed

    Abramo, A C; Viola, J C

    1989-01-01

    Using Webster's technique for treating gynecomastia, the removal of the excess breast tissue is facilitated by the use of liposuction introduced through the axillary incision. In the case of pseudogynecomastia, only liposuction via the axillary approach is recommended.

  18. Axillary lymph node uptake of technetium-99m-MDP

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Ongseng, F.; Goldfarb, C.R.; Finestone, H.

    We sought to determine the frequency and significance of axillary lymph node visualization on bone scans performed with diphosphonates. Consecutive {sup 99m}Tc-methylene diphosphonate ({sup 99m}Tc-MDP) bone scans (2435) were inspected for axillary soft-tissue uptake. In positive cases, the results of physical examination, correlative imaging studies and serial bone scans were recorded, as was the site of venipuncture. Forty-eight studies (2%) showed axillary uptake ipsilateral to the injection site. Extravasation of tracer, documented by focal activity near the injection site, was present in every case. There was no association with axillary adenopathy, mass, induration of radiographically visible calcification. On some images,more » foci adjacent to the axilla were superimposed on the rib, scapula, or humerus. The bone-to-background ratio was frequently reduced; repeat imaging after 1-2 hr usually improved osseous detail. Ipsilateral axillary lymph node visualization due to extravasation of {sup 99m}Tc-MDP is frequently associated with additional foci superimposed on osseous structures simulating pathology. Delayed skeletal uptake is common in such cases and necessitates a greater time interval between injection and imaging. 7 refs., 3 figs.« less

  19. Role of Square Flap in Post Burn Axillary Contractures.

    PubMed

    Karki, Durga; Narayan, Ravi Prakash

    2017-09-01

    Post-burn contractures are a commonly encountered problem and many techniques have been described in their treatment. Z-plasties are the commonest local flap procedure done for linear bands with adjacent healthy tissue. Our aim was to assess the use of square flap technique in axillary contractures. Ten patients with type I and II axillary contractures underwent release by the square flap technique. All cases were followed up for at least one year and analysed for range of motion and aesthetic outcome. All cases achieved full range of movement postoperatively with no recurrence during follow up period and a good cosmetic outcome. Square flap was shown to be a reliable technique for mild to moderate axillary contractures of the anterior or posterior axillary folds even when there is significant adjacent scarring of chest wall or back of types I and II.

  20. Characterization of Staphylococcus and Corynebacterium Clusters in the Human Axillary Region

    PubMed Central

    Callewaert, Chris; Kerckhof, Frederiek-Maarten; Granitsiotis, Michael S.; Van Gele, Mireille; Van de Wiele, Tom; Boon, Nico

    2013-01-01

    The skin microbial community is regarded as essential for human health and well-being, but likewise plays an important role in the formation of body odor in, for instance, the axillae. Few molecular-based research was done on the axillary microbiome. This study typified the axillary microbiome of a group of 53 healthy subjects. A profound view was obtained of the interpersonal, intrapersonal and temporal diversity of the human axillary microbiota. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and next generation sequencing on 16S rRNA gene region were combined and used as extent to each other. Two important clusters were characterized, where Staphylococcus and Corynebacterium species were the abundant species. Females predominantly clustered within the Staphylococcus cluster (87%, n = 17), whereas males clustered more in the Corynebacterium cluster (39%, n = 36). The axillary microbiota was unique to each individual. Left-right asymmetry occurred in about half of the human population. For the first time, an elaborate study was performed on the dynamics of the axillary microbiome. A relatively stable axillary microbiome was noticed, although a few subjects evolved towards another stable community. The deodorant usage had a proportional linear influence on the species diversity of the axillary microbiome. PMID:23950955

  1. Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy for the Treatment of Squamous Cell Anal Cancer With Para-aortic Nodal Involvement

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Hodges, Joseph C.; Das, Prajnan, E-mail: PrajDas@mdanderson.or; Eng, Cathy

    2009-11-01

    Purpose: To determine the rates of toxicity, locoregional control, distant control, and survival in anal cancer patients with para-aortic nodal involvement, treated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and concurrent chemotherapy at a single institution. Methods and Materials: Between 2001 and 2007, 6 patients with squamous cell anal cancer and para-aortic nodal involvement were treated with IMRT and concurrent infusional 5-fluorouracil and cisplatin. The primary tumor was treated with a median dose of 57.5 Gy (range, 54-60 Gy), involved para-aortic, pelvic, and inguinal lymph nodes were treated with a median dose of 55 Gy (range, 50.5-55 Gy), and noninvolved nodal regions weremore » treated with a median dose of 45 Gy (range, 43.5-45 Gy). Results: After a median follow-up of 25 months, none of the patients had a recurrence at the primary tumor, pelvic/inguinal nodes, or para-aortic nodes, whereas 2 patients developed distant metastases to the liver. Four of the 6 patients are alive. The 3-year actuarial locoregional control, distant control, and overall survival rates were 100%, 56%, and 63%, respectively. Four of the 6 patients developed Grade 3 acute gastrointestinal toxicity during chemoradiation. Conclusions: Intensity-modulated radiotherapy and concurrent chemotherapy could potentially serve as definitive therapy in anal cancer patients with para-aortic nodal involvement. Adjuvant chemotherapy may be indicated in these patients, as demonstrated by the distant failure rates. These patients need to be followed carefully because of the potential for treatment-related toxicities.« less

  2. Axillary artery injury secondary to inferior shoulder dislocation.

    PubMed

    Plaga, Brad R; Looby, Peter; Feldhaus, Steven J; Kreutzmann, Karl; Babb, Aaron

    2010-11-01

    Dislocation injuries of the glenohumeral joint are common in the general public and generally are corrected without complication. One serious complication with shoulder dislocations, or the subsequent reduction, is a lesion to the axillary artery. This specific complication is most frequently seen in the elderly population, where vascular structures have become less flexible. Also, these injuries are most common in association with anterior dislocations of the shoulder. To bring awareness to the possibility of axillary artery injury with inferior dislocation of the shoulder, the treatment options, and a review. We report a 15-year-old male athlete who inferiorly dislocated his shoulder during wrestling practice. The injury was reduced at the scene with manual traction and the patient was transferred to our clinic for evaluation. The patient was determined to have a pseudoaneurysm of the axillary artery, and the history and treatment of the illness are presented. Axillary artery injuries secondary to shoulder dislocations are rare, especially in the young athlete, and proper recognition and treatment offer patients a full recovery. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Traumatic Axillary Artery Dissection with Radial Artery Embolism

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Chung, Hwan-Hoon; Cha, Sang Hoon, E-mail: shcha123@naver.com; Cho, Sung Bum

    This report describes a case of pathologically proven traumatic arterial dissection, presenting as complete occlusion of the axillary artery with radial artery embolism. Occlusion of the axillary artery by traumatic dissection mimicked transection and radial artery embolism mimicked congenital absence of the radial artery on the initial angiogram, but these were correctly diagnosed with the following sonogram.

  4. Phyllodes tumours

    PubMed Central

    Parker, S; Harries, S

    2001-01-01

    Phyllodes tumours are rare fibroepithelial lesions that account for less than 1% of all breast neoplasms. With the non-operative management of fibroadenomas widely adopted, the importance of phyllodes tumours today lies in the need to differentiate them from other benign breast lesions. All breast lumps should be triple assessed and the diagnosis of a phyllodes tumour considered in women, particularly over the age of 35 years, who present with a rapidly growing "benign" breast lump. Treatment can be by either wide excision or mastectomy provided histologically clear specimen margins are ensured. Nodal metastases are rare and routine axillary dissection is not recommended. Few reliable clinical and histological prognostic factors have been identified. Local recurrence occurs in approximately 15% of patients and is more common after incomplete excision. It can usually be controlled by further surgery. Repeated local recurrence has been reported without the development of distant metastases or reduced survival. Approximately 20% of patients with malignant phyllodes tumours develop distant metastases. Long term survival with distant metastases is rare. The role of chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and hormonal manipulation in both the adjuvant and palliative settings remain to be defined.


Keywords: benign breast disease; fibroadenoma; phyllodes tumour PMID:11423590

  5. Robust doubly charged nodal lines and nodal surfaces in centrosymmetric systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bzdušek, Tomáš; Sigrist, Manfred

    2017-10-01

    Weyl points in three spatial dimensions are characterized by a Z -valued charge—the Chern number—which makes them stable against a wide range of perturbations. A set of Weyl points can mutually annihilate only if their net charge vanishes, a property we refer to as robustness. While nodal loops are usually not robust in this sense, it has recently been shown using homotopy arguments that in the centrosymmetric extension of the AI symmetry class they nevertheless develop a Z2 charge analogous to the Chern number. Nodal loops carrying a nontrivial value of this Z2 charge are robust, i.e., they can be gapped out only by a pairwise annihilation and not on their own. As this is an additional charge independent of the Berry π -phase flowing along the band degeneracy, such nodal loops are, in fact, doubly charged. In this manuscript, we generalize the homotopy discussion to the centrosymmetric extensions of all Atland-Zirnbauer classes. We develop a tailored mathematical framework dubbed the AZ +I classification and show that in three spatial dimensions such robust and multiply charged nodes appear in four of such centrosymmetric extensions, namely, AZ +I classes CI and AI lead to doubly charged nodal lines, while D and BDI support doubly charged nodal surfaces. We remark that no further crystalline symmetries apart from the spatial inversion are necessary for their stability. We provide a description of the corresponding topological charges, and develop simple tight-binding models of various semimetallic and superconducting phases that exhibit these nodes. We also indicate how the concept of robust and multiply charged nodes generalizes to other spatial dimensions.

  6. Locomotor-respiratory coupling during axillary crutch ambulation.

    PubMed

    Hurst, C A; Kirby, R L; MacLeod, D A

    2001-11-01

    To test the hypotheses that locomotor-respiratory coupling occurs in humans using axillary crutches in a swing-through ambulation pattern and that expiration occurs during crutch-stance phase during locomotor-respiratory coupling. Eighteen able-bodied persons were trained in one-footed swing-through gait with axillary crutches. Then, as subjects walked at "somewhat hard" speeds (Borg) on a motorized treadmill for 5 min, we recorded signals from a crutch pressure switch and a mouthpiece-mounted thermocouple. Coupling was defined as being present when the onset of inspiration varied by < or = 5% with respect to the onset of the crutch gait cycle for a minimum of 10 consecutive gait cycles and when there was no drift on a raster plot of the respiratory phases relative to the onset of the gait cycle. Ten (56%) of the 18 subjects exhibited locomotor-respiratory coupling on 1-4 occasions each, with episodes lasting 11.3-148 sec. In 17 (89%) of the 19 episodes of 1:1 locomotor-respiratory coupling, expiration occurred during the crutch-stance phase of the gait cycle and inspiration occurred during crutch swing. Transient 1:1 locomotor-respiratory coupling occurs in many able-bodied subjects ambulating with axillary crutches and a swing-through gait. Expiration is most often associated with the crutch-stance phase of the gait cycle. This study may have implications for training axillary crutch users.

  7. [Axillary hyperhidrosis--efficacy and tolerability of an aluminium chloride antiperspirant. Prospective evaluation on 20 patients with idiopathic axillary hyperhidrosis].

    PubMed

    Streker, M; Reuther, T; Verst, S; Kerscher, M

    2010-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of aluminium chloride gel for treatment of axillary hyperhidrosis. A total of 20 patients aged 22-38 (mean age: 26.9+/-4.3) with idiopathic axillary hyperhidrosis were included and treated with an antiperspirant (Sweat-off, Sweat-off GmbH, Hügelsheim). Study duration was 42 days. Treatment efficacy was evaluated clinically, as well as by starch-iodine test, gravimetric analysis and evaluation of the skin surface pH. After treatment there was a significant clinical improvement accompanied by significant qualitative and quantitative reduction of sweat as well as a significant reduction of skin surface pH. Except for slight skin irritation in 6 patients, there were no other side effects. Patient satisfaction improved markedly during the study. Treatment of axillary hyperhidrosis with aluminium chloride is an effective, safe and inexpensive treatment modality.

  8. Ultrasonographic detection of regional lymph node metastases in patients with intermediate or thick malignant melanoma.

    PubMed

    Brountzos, Elias N; Panagiotou, Irene E; Bafaloukos, Dimitrios I; Kelekis, Dimitrios A

    2003-01-01

    Careful monitoring of regional lymph nodes and early detection of metastases in malignant melanoma patients has an impact on their survival, since it may permit beneficial surgical therapy. Palpation is routinely used in clinical practice. The value of ultrasonography for routine follow-up of melanoma patients, still, is not generally accepted. The aim of our study was to assess the sensitivity and specificity of ultrasound and clinical examination respectively, in the detection of melanoma regional node metastases. Additionally, we evaluated whether early detection of metastases improved overall survival. One hundred and forty-eight melanoma patients with an intermediate or thick primary lesion were followed between January 1997 and May 2001. Clinical examination and concomitant regional lymph node ultrasonography were performed, every 3-4 months. If suspicious findings were identified, regional lymph node dissection was undertaken. Forty-four from the initial 148 patients relapsed with regional lymph nodal metastases. In 11 patients (25%) palpation failed to reveal the disease and metastases were depicted only by ultrasonography. In only 1 patient ultrasonography was false-negative. The sensitivity and specificity of palpation were 72.7 and 97% respectively, while those of ultrasonography were 97.7 (p<0.001) and 98% respectively. Ultrasonography was more sensitive in detecting lymph node metastases in the axilla (100%) and the groin (93.3%). When overall survival of patients presenting with local-regional recurrence was calculated--depending on the number of involved lymph nodes--a survival benefit (p<0.05) was found for patients with only one lymph node metastasis. In conclusion, ultrasonography is superior to clinical examination in the early detection of regional lymph node metastases from an intermediate or thick malignant melanoma and should be a part of those patients' surveillance.

  9. Hopf-link topological nodal-loop semimetals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yao; Xiong, Feng; Wan, Xiangang; An, Jin

    2018-04-01

    We construct a generic two-band model which can describe topological semimetals with multiple closed nodal loops. All the existing multi-nodal-loop semimetals, including the nodal-net, nodal-chain, and Hopf-link states, can be examined within the same framework. Based on a two-nodal-loop model, the corresponding drumhead surface states for these topologically different bulk states are studied and compared with each other. The connection of our model with Hopf insulators is also discussed. Furthermore, to identify experimentally these topologically different semimetal states, especially to distinguish the Hopf-link from unlinked ones, we also investigate their Landau levels. It is found that the Hopf-link state can be characterized by the existence of a quadruply degenerate zero-energy Landau band, regardless of the direction of the magnetic field.

  10. Nodal-chain metals.

    PubMed

    Bzdušek, Tomáš; Wu, QuanSheng; Rüegg, Andreas; Sigrist, Manfred; Soluyanov, Alexey A

    2016-10-06

    The band theory of solids is arguably the most successful theory of condensed-matter physics, providing a description of the electronic energy levels in various materials. Electronic wavefunctions obtained from the band theory enable a topological characterization of metals for which the electronic spectrum may host robust, topologically protected, fermionic quasiparticles. Many of these quasiparticles are analogues of the elementary particles of the Standard Model, but others do not have a counterpart in relativistic high-energy theories. A complete list of possible quasiparticles in solids is lacking, even in the non-interacting case. Here we describe the possible existence of a hitherto unrecognized type of fermionic excitation in metals. This excitation forms a nodal chain-a chain of connected loops in momentum space-along which conduction and valence bands touch. We prove that the nodal chain is topologically distinct from previously reported excitations. We discuss the symmetry requirements for the appearance of this excitation and predict that it is realized in an existing material, iridium tetrafluoride (IrF 4 ), as well as in other compounds of this class of materials. Using IrF 4 as an example, we provide a discussion of the topological surface states associated with the nodal chain. We argue that the presence of the nodal-chain fermions will result in anomalous magnetotransport properties, distinct from those of materials exhibiting previously known excitations.

  11. Clear cell renal cell carcinoma: a comparative study of histological and chromosomal characteristics between primary tumors and their corresponding metastases.

    PubMed

    Dagher, Julien; Kammerer-Jacquet, Solène-Florence; Dugay, Frédéric; Beaumont, Marion; Lespagnol, Alexandra; Cornevin, Laurence; Verhoest, Grégory; Bensalah, Karim; Rioux-Leclercq, Nathalie; Belaud-Rotureau, Marc-Antoine

    2017-07-01

    Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) has a poor prognosis with a 50% risk of metastases. Little is known about the phenotypic and molecular profiles of metastases regarding their corresponding primary tumors. This study aimed to screen phenotypic and genotypic differences between metastases and their corresponding primary tumors. We selected four cases with available frozen material. The histological, immunohistochemical (VEGFA, CD31, SMA, Ki67, p53, PAR-3), FISH (VHL gene), next-generation sequencing (VHL and c-MET genes), multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification, and array-(comparative genomic hybridization) CGH analyses were realized. Metastases were nodal, hepatic (synchronous), adrenal, and pulmonary (metachronous). High-grade tumor cells were significantly more frequent in metastases (p = 0.019). Metastases and high-grade zones of primary tumors shared similar characteristics compared to low-grade zones: a lower microscopic vascular density (43.5 vs 382.5 vessels/mm 2 ; p = 0.0027), a higher expression of VEGF (73 vs 10%, p = 0.045), Ki67 (37.6 vs 8.3%; p = 0.011), and p53 (54 vs 10.6%; p = 0.081), and a cytoplasmic and membranous PAR-3 staining. Metastases exhibited more chromosomal imbalances than primary tumors in total (18.75 ± 6.8; p = 0.044) with more genomic gains (13.5 ± 7; p = 0.013). The loss of chromosome 9 and gain of Xq were found in both primary tumors and metastases but gains of loci or chromosomes 2p, 3q, 5, 8q, 12, and 20 were only found in metastases. The VHL gene status was similar in each tumor couple. Although metastases and primary tumors share common histological features, this study highlights chromosomal differences specific to metastases which could be involved in ccRCC metastatic evolution.

  12. Neonatal infrared axillary thermometry.

    PubMed

    Seguin, J; Terry, K

    1999-01-01

    The authors compared axillary skin temperatures (AT) measured with an infrared (IR) thermometer (Lightouch Neonate, Exergen Corp) with rectal temperatures (RT) in 16 newly born term infants under radiant warmers (RW) and in cribs. Twelve stable, growing premature infants in incubators were also studied. This new device may be useful because of safety and rapid results (1 second), but clinical accuracy is unknown. For term infants, mean (SD) RT-AT difference was 0.1 (0.48) degree C under RW and 0.25 (0.17) degree C 2 hours later in cribs. For premature infants in incubators the mean RT-AT difference was 0.09 (0.16) degree C. Axillary temperatures measured by IR thermometer approximate RT for newly born term infants in cribs and stable premature infants in incubators. For newly born term infants under RW, RT-AT differences vary more widely, limiting clinical usefulness in this setting. The device, the unique age of this population, and the RW environment may play a role.

  13. Blunt traumatic axillary artery truncation, in the absence of associated fracture.

    PubMed

    Bokser, Emily; Caputo, William; Hahn, Barry; Greenstein, Josh

    2018-02-01

    Axillary artery injuries can be associated with both proximal humeral fractures (Naouli et al., 2016; Ng et al., 2016) [1,2] as well as shoulder dislocations (Leclerc et al., 2017; Karnes et al., 2016) [3,4]. We report a rare case of an isolated axillary artery truncation following blunt trauma without any associated fracture or dislocation. A 58-year-old male presented to the emergency department for evaluation after falling on his outstretched right arm. The patient was found to have an absent right radial pulse with decreased sensation to the right arm. Point of care ultrasound showed findings suspicious for traumatic axillary artery injury, and X-rays did not demonstrate any fracture. Computed tomography with angiography confirmed axillary artery truncation with active extravasation. The patient underwent successful vascular repair with an axillary artery bypass. Although extremity injuries are common in emergency departments, emergency physicians need to recognize the risk for vascular injuries, even without associated fracture or dislocation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Breast cancer metastases to the thyroid gland - an uncommon sentinel for diffuse metastatic disease: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Plonczak, Agata M; DiMarco, Aimee N; Dina, Roberto; Gujral, Dorothy M; Palazzo, Fausto F

    2017-09-22

    Metastases to the thyroid are rare. The most common primary cancer to metastasize to the thyroid is renal cell carcinoma, followed by malignancies of the gastrointestinal tract, lungs, and skin, with breast cancer metastases to the thyroid being rare. Overall, the outcomes in malignancies that have metastasized to the thyroid are poor. There are no prospective studies addressing the role of surgery in metastatic disease of the thyroid. Isolated thyroidectomy has been proposed as a local disease control option to palliate and prevent the potential morbidity of tumor extension related to the airway. Here, we present a case of a patient with breast cancer metastases to the thyroid gland and discuss the role of thyroidectomy in the context of the current literature. A 62-year-old Afro-Caribbean woman was diagnosed as having bilateral breast carcinoma in 2004, for which she underwent bilateral mastectomy. The pathology revealed multifocal disease on the right, T2N0(0/20)M0 grade 1 and 2 invasive ductal carcinoma, and on the left side, T3N1(2/18)M0 grade 1 invasive ductal carcinoma. Surgery was followed by adjuvant chemotherapy and regional radiotherapy. The disease was under control on hormonal therapy until 2016, when she developed cervical lymphadenopathy. The fine-needle aspiration cytology of the thyroid was reported as papillary thyroid cancer; and the fine-needle biopsy of the left lateral nodal disease was more suggestive of breast malignancy. She underwent a total thyroidectomy and a clearance of the central compartment lymph nodes and a biopsy of the lateral nodal disease. The histopathological analysis was consistent with metastatic breast cancer in the thyroid and lymph nodes with no evidence of a primary thyroid malignancy. A past history of a malignancy elsewhere should raise the index of suspicion of metastatic disease in patients presenting with thyroid lumps with or without cervical lymphadenopathy. Detection of metastases to the thyroid generally

  15. Conservative treatment versus mastectomy in breast cancer tumors with macroscopic diameter of 20 millimeters or less. The experience of the Institut Gustave-Roussy

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Sarrazin, D.; Le, M.; Roueesse, J.

    1984-03-01

    A clinical trial was conducted at the Institut Gustave Roussy between October 1972 and December 1980 to compare mastectomy with local excision plus Cobalt-irradiation, in patients with breast cancer tumors of 20 mm in diameter or less at macroscopic examination. Low-axillary dissection and extemporaneous histologic examination were carried out for all patients. If one or more positive nodes were found, complete axillary dissection was performed. The study included 179 patients. No significant difference was detected in either overall or relapse-free survival between the two groups, although the conservatively treated group showed slightly better results. The results of conservative treatment weremore » esthetically satisfactory in 92% of the cases. The trial included a second randomization for the patients with positive axillary nodes to assess the value of nodal area irradiation; 72 patients were studied in this part of the trial. No significant differences were found between the two groups after adjustment for the number of positive axillary nodes, although the no-nodal irradiation group showed better results and less complications than the nodal irradiation group.« less

  16. Axillary radiotherapy in conservative surgery for early-stage breast cancer (stage I and II).

    PubMed

    García Novoa, Alejandra; Acea Nebril, Benigno; Díaz, Inma; Builes Ramírez, Sergio; Varela, Cristina; Cereijo, Carmen; Mosquera Oses, Joaquín; López Calviño, Beatriz; Seoane Pillado, María Teresa

    2016-01-01

    Several clinical studies analyze axillary treatment in women with early-stage breast cancer because of changes in the indication for axillary lymph node dissection. The aim of the study is to analyze the impact of axillary radiotherapy in disease-free and overall survival in women with early breast cancer treated with lumpectomy. Retrospective study in women with initial stages of breast carcinoma treated by lumpectomy. A comparative analysis of high-risk women with axillary lymph node involvement who received axillary radiotherapy with the group of women with low risk without radiotherapy was performed. Logistic regression was used to determine factors influencing survival and lymphedema onset. A total of 541 women were included in the study: 384 patients (71%) without axillary lymph node involvement and 157 women (29%) with 1-3 axillary lymph node involvement. Patients with axillary radiotherapy had a higher number of metastatic lymph node compared to non-irradiated (1.6±0.7 vs. 1.4±0.6, P=.02). The group of women with axillary lymph node involvement and radiotherapy showed an overall and disease-free survival at 10 years similar to that obtained in patients without irradiation (89.7% and 77.2%, respectively). 3 lymph nodes involved multiplied by more than 7 times the risk of death (HR=7.20; 95% CI: 1.36 to 38.12). The multivariate analysis showed axillary lymph node dissection as the only variable associated with the development of lymphedema. The incidence of axillary relapse on stage I and II breast cancer is rare. In these patients axillary radiotherapy does not improve overall survival, but contributes to regional control in those patients with risk factors. Copyright © 2016 AEC. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. The anatomical relationship between the axillary artery and vein investigated by radial coronary angiography.

    PubMed

    Sert, Sena; Kepez, Alper; Atas, Halil; Mutlu, Bulent; Erdogan, Okan

    2018-06-01

    To reduce the risk of inadvertent arterial puncture and bleeding, we aimed to define a safe puncture site by demonstrating the relation of the axillary artery and vein. The anatomical course and relation as well as crossover sites of the axillary artery and vein, the presence of small arterial bridges over the axillary vein, and validation of commonly preferred axillary venous puncture sites were determined by simultaneous ipsilateral venography in patients (n  =  111; 80 men, age 60 ± 10 years) who underwent coronary angiography by radial artery access. The axillary vein was detected at the first costa-clavicular intersection in 62% and at the second anterior and third posterior costal intersection in 60% of the patients. Small arterial bridges over the axillary vein were observed in 77% of the patients and more frequently in females and body mass index ≥25 kg/m 2 (P  =  0.034 and P  =  0.03, respectively). The axillary artery crossed the vein in 24% of the patients and almost always within the region close to the first costa-clavicular intersection site. Our study demonstrated a high crossover rate (24%) of axillary artery and vein and a high degree of variation in the course of axillary vein. Small arterial bridges over the axillary vein were observed in 77% of the patients. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. The Effect of Anatomical Location of Lymph Node Metastases on Cancer Specific Survival in Patients with Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Nini, Alessandro; Larcher, Alessandro; Cianflone, Francesco; Trevisani, Francesco; Terrone, Carlo; Volpe, Alessandro; Regis, Federica; Briganti, Alberto; Salonia, Andrea; Montorsi, Francesco; Bertini, Roberto; Capitanio, Umberto

    2018-01-01

    Background Positive nodal status (pN1) is an independent predictor of survival in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) patients. However, no study to date has tested whether the location of lymph node (LN) metastases does affect oncologic outcomes in a population submitted to radical nephrectomy (RN) and extended lymph node dissection (eLND). Objective To describe nodal disease dissemination in clear cell RCC (ccRCC) patients and to assess the effect of the anatomical sites and the number of nodal areas affected on cancer specific mortality (CSM). Design, setting and partecipants The study included 415 patients who underwent RN and eLND, defined as the removal of hilar, side-specific (pre/paraaortic or pre/paracaval) and interaortocaval LNs for ccRCC, at two institutions. Outcome measurement and statistical analysis Descriptive statistics were used to depict nodal dissemination in pN1 patients, stratified according to nodal site and number of involved areas. Multivariable Cox regression analyses and Kaplan-Meier curves were used to explore the relationship between pN1 disease features and survival outcomes. Results and limitations Median number of removed LN was 14 (IQR 9–19); 23% of patients were pN1. Among patients with one involved nodal site, 54 and 26% of patients were positive only in side-specific and interaortocaval station, respectively. The most frequent nodal site was the interaortocaval and side-specific one, for right and left ccRCC, respectively. Interaortocaval nodal positivity (HR 2.3, CI 95%: 1.3–3.9, p < 0.01) represented an independent predictor of CSM. Conclusions When ccRCC patient harbour nodal disease, its spreading can occur at any nodal station without involving the others. The presence of interoartocaval positive nodes does affect oncologic outcomes. Patient summary Lymph node invasion in patients with clear cell renal cell carcinoma is not following a fixed anatomical pattern. An extended lymph node dissection, during treatment for primary

  19. Axillary hyperhidrosis - topical treatment with aluminium chloride hexahydrate

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, Harold; Scurr, John H.

    1979-01-01

    Forty-two patients with axillary hyperhidrosis on the waiting list for surgery were treated with topical saturated solution of aluminium chloride hexahydrate in absolute alcohol. There have been 7 failures. Three patients were unable to cope with the treatment and 4 more experienced severe local irritation or soreness; these 4 were submitted to local surgery. This is a simple and effective treatment for the majority of cases of severe axillary sweating. PMID:548949

  20. Comparison of Oral and Axillary Temperatures in Intubated Pediatric Patients.

    PubMed

    Wood, Danielle; Heitschmidt, Mary; Fogg, Louis

    2018-05-10

    Accurate body temperature measurement is essential in providing timely care to critically ill patients. Current practice within the Pediatric ICU (PICU) at a Midwestern academic medical center is to obtain axillary temperatures in endotracheally intubated patients. According to research, axillary temperatures have greater variance than other forms of temperature measurement. Research in adult patients show that oral temperature measurement in endotracheally intubated patients is acceptable as the heated gases from the ventilator has no significant effect on measured temperatures. This study sought to determine if the same is true in pediatrics. Oral and axillary temperatures of endotracheally intubated pediatric patients were obtained during unit prescribed vital assessment intervals. Patients were divided into neonate, infant, and children age groups with 25 sets of temperatures obtained for each group. Descriptive statistics and Bland-Altman plot interpretation were performed to determine confidence intervals for each age group. Bland-Altman plot analysis of oral and axillary routes of temperature measurement showed a high positive correlation within all age groups studied. The infant age group showed lower correlation in comparison to neonates and children. The infant age group also had an outlier of data sets with lower oral temperatures as compared to the axilla. Oral temperature measurement is a viable alternative to axillary temperature measurement in endotracheally intubated pediatric patients. Correction factors for age groups were calculated for prediction of axillary temperature based on measured oral temperature. This study serves as evidence for practice change within the studied unit. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Histological changes associated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy are predictive of nodal metastases in high-risk prostate cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    O’Brien, Catherine; True, Lawrence D.; Higano, Celestia S.; Rademacher, Brooks L. S.; Garzotto, Mark; Beer, Tomasz M.

    2011-01-01

    Clinical trials are evaluating the effect of neoadjuvant chemotherapy on men with high risk prostate cancer. Little is known about the clinical significance of post-chemotherapy tumor histopathology. We assessed the prognostic and predictive value of histological features (intraductal carcinoma, vacuolated cell morphology, inconspicuous glands, cribriform architecture, and inconspicuous cancer cells) observed in 50 high-risk prostate cancers treated with pre-prostatectomy docetaxel and mitoxantrone. At a median follow-up of 65 months, the overall relapse-free survival (RFS) at 2 and 5 years was 65% and 49%, respectively. In univariate analyses (using Kaplan-Meier method and log-rank tests) intraductal (p=0.001) and cribriform (p=0.014) histologies were associated with shorter RFS. In multivariate analyses, using Cox’s proportional hazards regression, baseline PSA (p=0.004), lymph node metastases (p<0.001), and cribriform histology (p=0.007) were associated with shorter RFS. In multivariable logistic regression analysis, only intraductal pattern (p=0.007) predicted lymph node metastases. Intraductal and cribriform histologies apparently predict post-chemotherapy outcome. PMID:20231619

  2. Partial shoot reiteration in Wollemia nobilis (Araucariaceae) does not arise from ‘axillary meristems’

    PubMed Central

    Tomlinson, P. B.; Huggett, Brett A.

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims Conifers are characterized by the paucity of axillary buds which in dicotyledonous trees usually occur at every node. To compensate, conifers also produce ‘axillary meristems’, which may be stimulated to late development. In juvenile material of Wollemia nobilis (Araucariaceae: Massart's model) first-order (plagiotropic) branches lack both axillary buds and, seemingly, axillary meristems. This contrasts with orthotropic (trunk) axes, which produce branches, either within the terminal bud or as reiterated orthotropic axes originating from axillary meristems. However, plagiotropic axes do produce branches if they are decapitated. This study investigated how this can occur if axillary meristems are not the source. Methods The terminal buds of a series of plagiotropic branches on juvenile trees were decapitated in order to generate axillary shoots. Shoots were culled at about weekly intervals to obtain stages in lateral shoot development. Serial sections were cut with a sliding microtome from the distal end of each sample and scanned sequentially for evidence of axillary meristems and early bud development. Key Results Anatomical search produced no clear evidence of pre-existing axillary meristems but did reveal stages of bud initiation. Buds were initiated in a group of small starch-rich cortical cells. Further development involved de-differentiation of these small cells and the development of contrasting outer and inner regions. The outer part becomes meristematic and organizes the apex of the new branch. The inner part develops a callus-like tissue of vacuolated cells within which vascular cambia are developed. This kind of insertion of a branch on the parent axis seems not to have been described before. Conclusions Axillary meristems in Wollemia characterize the leaf axils of trunk axes so that the origin of reiterated shoots is clear. Plagiotropic axes seemingly lack axillary meristems but still produce axillary branches by distinctive

  3. A systematic review of microwave-based therapy for axillary hyperhidrosis.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Tzu-Herng; Chen, Yu-Tsung; Tu, Yu-Kang; Li, Chien-Nien

    2017-10-01

    To systematically analyse the literature on the use of the microwave-based device for subdermal thermolysis of the axilla and its efficacy for the treatment of axillary hyperhidrosis. A systematic review was conducted using PubMed, Embase, SCOPUS and Cochrane databases on 2 June 2016. The inclusion criteria including: (1) studies with human subjects, (2) full-text articles published in English, (3) a microwave-based device used to treat axillary hyperhidrosis and (4) trials that precisely evaluated axillary hyperhidrosis. Exclusion criteria were the following: (1) studies that did not fit the inclusion criteria mentioned above and (2) case reports and reviews. We reviewed five clinical trials and 189 patients, all of which were published between 2012 and 2016. There was one randomized controlled trial, one retrospective study and the remainder were prospective studies. Although all of the studies were conducted with a small sample size, the results indicated that microwave-based device treatment of axillary hyperhidrosis had long-term efficacy with mild adverse effects. In addition, most patients were satisfied with the outcomes in these studies. Microwave-based device treatment may be an effective alternative treatment for axillary hyperhidrosis. However, further investigation is necessary to determine its long-term efficacy and safety.

  4. The efficacy of adjuvant trastuzumab in HER-2 positive breast cancer with axillary lymph node metastases according to the treatment duration.

    PubMed

    Sendur, Mehmet A N; Aksoy, Sercan; Ozdemir, Nuriye Y; Yazici, Ozan; Zengin, Nurullah; Altundag, Kadri

    2014-12-01

    Trastuzumab is the first anti-HER-2 humanized monoclonal antibody. The benefit of adjuvant trastuzumab has been shown in randomized phase III trials. Despite trastuzumab being recommended for 52 weeks in the adjuvant treatment of HER-2 positive breast cancer according to the current breast cancer guidelines, there is still no consensus on the optimal duration of adjuvant trastuzumab. The aim of our study is to investigate the efficacy and safety of adjuvant trastuzumab for 9 weeks and 52 weeks in axillary lymph node positive HER-2 positive breast cancer patients. A total of 271 HER-2 and axillary node positive breast cancer patients who received trastuzumab in adjuvant treatment between the years 2005 and 2013 were retrospectively analyzed. Patients with axillary node positive HER-2 positive breast cancer who were non-metastatic were enrolled to the study. Patients were allocated to the 9 week trastuzumab group (n = 155) or the 52 week trastuzumab group (n = 116). Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was carried out for disease free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS). Two-sided p values of <0.05 were considered statistically significant. The most important limitation of our manuscript is the retrospective design. The median follow-up time for this analysis was 34 (4-95) months. Patients' clinical and pathological characteristics were well balanced between the two treatment arms. In the 9 week trastuzumab treatment group, the DFS rate was 96.7%, 84.8% and 74.9% in the first, third and fifth years respectively, whereas in the 52 week trastuzumab treatment group it was 94.3%, 80.0% and 80.0% (P = 0.76). In the 9 week trastuzumab treatment group, the OS rate was 99.3%, 92.2% and 88.3% in the first, third and fifth years respectively, whereas in the 52 week trastuzumab treatment group it was 99.0%, 94.7% and 78.6% (P = 0.99). In both groups, symptomatic heart failure was not reported but asymptomatic left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) decline was observed 3 (1

  5. Axillary web syndrome following sentinel node biopsy for breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Nieves Maldonado, S M; Pubul Núñez, V; Argibay Vázquez, S; Macías Cortiñas, M; Ruibal Morell, Á

    2016-01-01

    A 49 year-old woman diagnosed with infiltrating lobular breast carcinoma, underwent a right mastectomy and sentinel node biopsy (SLNB). The resected sentinel lymph nodes were negative for malignancy, with an axillary lymphadenectomy not being performed. In the early post-operative period, the patient reported an axillary skin tension sensation, associated with a painful palpable cord. These are typical manifestations of axillary web syndrome (AWS), a poorly known axillary surgery complication, from both invasive and conservative interventions. By presenting this case we want to focus the attention on a pathological condition, for which its incidence may be underestimated by not including it in SLNB studies. It is important for nuclear medicine physicians to be aware of AWS as a more common complication than infection, seroma, or lymphoedema, and to discuss this possible event with the patient who is consenting to the procedure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  6. Endovascular treatment of a spontaneous aneurysm in the axillary artery.

    PubMed

    Park, Sung Kyun; Hwang, Jeong Kye; Park, Sun Cheol; Kim, Sang Dong

    2015-01-01

    Spontaneous aneurysm in the axillary artery is extremely rare. The standard treatment for axillary artery aneurysm has been surgical repair, but endovascular management of select aneurysms using stent grafts has become more prevalent with the development of endoluminal technology. We report the case of a 36-year old man with a spontaneous aneurysm in the axillary artery. He experienced a tingling sensation and intermittent pain in the left upper extremity and had no history of trauma to the axilla. We performed endovascular treatment [placement of a Viabahn stent graft (W.L. Gore & Associates, Flagstaff, AZ, USA)] for a spontaneous aneurysm in the axillary artery. Following the procedure, his symptoms disappeared completely. After 6, 12 and 24 months, we carried out computed tomography angiography; all scans showed no complications. Now, the patient has no symptoms related to aneurysm in the axilla. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  7. Axillary nerve course and position in the fetal period

    PubMed Central

    Uluer, Tuğba; Aktekin, Mustafa; Kurtoğlu, Zeliha; Buluklu, Semih; Karşıyaka, Dilan; Can, Erdem

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the fetal axillary nerve to reveal and compare its morphometric features within the second and third trimester. Methods: This study was conducted at the Anatomy Department, School of Medicine, Mersin University, Mersin, Turkey. Thirty-five fetal shoulders were studied to provide anatomic data and to describe its position with regard to certain landmarks around the shoulder. Results: The shortest distance between the axillary nerve and the glenoid labrum was found 2.27 mm and 2.89 mm in the second and third trimester fetuses, respectively. The shortest distances between the anterior and posterior acromial tips and the axillary nerve were also measured and were used with arm length measurements to define the anterior and posterior indexes. Conclusion: The indexes show that the distance between the axillary nerve and the anterior/posterior acromial tips are approximately one-fourth of the arm length in both the second and third trimester fetuses. The data presented in this study will be of use to surgeons, particularly to pediatric and orthopedic surgeons who will undertake surgical procedures in the axilla and arm in the newborn or early childhood. PMID:26492124

  8. Quantum oscillations in nodal line systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hui; Moessner, Roderich; Lim, Lih-King

    2018-04-01

    We study signatures of magnetic quantum oscillations in three-dimensional nodal line semimetals at zero temperature. The extended nature of the degenerate bands can result in a Fermi surface geometry with topological genus one, as well as a Fermi surface of electron and hole pockets encapsulating the nodal line. Moreover, the underlying two-band model to describe a nodal line is not unique, in that there are two classes of Hamiltonian with distinct band topology giving rise to the same Fermi-surface geometry. After identifying the extremal cyclotron orbits in various magnetic field directions, we study their concomitant Landau levels and resulting quantum oscillation signatures. By Landau-fan-diagram analyses, we extract the nontrivial π Berry phase signature for extremal orbits linking the nodal line.

  9. Rotator cuff tear following long-standing axillary neuropathy in a female motocross racer.

    PubMed

    Skedros, John G; Henrie, Tanner R; Peterson, Mitchell D

    2018-06-15

    A 'terrible triad' of anterior shoulder dislocation, axillary nerve damage and rotator cuff tear has been previously described. However, we are unaware of any report of anterior shoulder dislocation, humeral fracture, axillary neuropathy and subsequent rotator cuff tear requiring surgery when the axillary neuropathy was deemed permanent. We report the case of a 20-year-old woman who fell in a motocross accident and had an anterior shoulder dislocation, humeral fracture and axillary neuropathy. The fracture was treated surgically with open reduction and internal fixation. The axillary nerve injury was ultimately permanent. Thirteen months after the motocross accident, the patient sustained a rotator cuff tear from seemingly minor trauma. However, several months of aggressive physical therapy preceded the rotator cuff tear. The tear was repaired and the patient was followed for 5 years after the initial injury. She returned to competing in motocross, even though the axillary neuropathy remained complete and permanent. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  10. A contemporary view of atrioventricular nodal physiology.

    PubMed

    Markowitz, Steven M; Lerman, Bruce B

    2018-06-16

    In delaying transmission of the cardiac impulse from the atria to the ventricles, the atrioventricular (AV) node serves a critical function in augmenting ventricular filling during diastole and limiting the ventricular response during atrial tachyarrhythmias. The complex structure of the nodal region, however, also provides the substrate for reentrant rhythms. Recent discoveries have elucidated the cellular basis and anatomical determinants of slow conduction in the node. Based on analysis of gap junction proteins, distinct structural components of the AV node have been defined, including the compact node, right and left inferior nodal extensions, the lower nodal bundle, and transitional tissue. Emerging evidence supports the role of the inferior nodal extensions in mediating slow pathway conduction. The most common form of reentry involving the node, slow-fast AV nodal reentrant tachycardia (AVNRT), utilizes the inferior nodal extensions for anterograde slow pathway conduction; the structures responsible for retrograde fast pathway activation in the superior septum are less well defined and likely heterogeneous. Atypical forms of AVNRT arise from circuits that activate at least one of the inferior extensions in the retrograde direction.

  11. Effective axillary malodour reduction by polyquaternium-16-containing deodorants.

    PubMed

    Traupe, B; Fölster, H; Max, H; Schulz, J

    2017-04-01

    Worldwide, individuals apply deodorants to combat malodour formation originating from the axillary vault. Considering the globally increasing demand for efficacious, safe deodorants, we investigated the antimicrobial effectiveness of a polymeric quaternary ammonium compound (PQ-16) as a new active in a roll-on formulation against microbial growth and axillary malodour. We utilized an in vivo microbiological assessment to determine antimicrobial effects of the PQ-16-containing deodorant formulation (DEO1) (i) in comparison with a commercially available deodorant roll-on claiming a 24-h protection against body odour (DEO2) and (ii) in comparison with a roll-on containing the same formulation as DEO1 but comprising aluminium chlorohydrate instead of PQ-16 (DEO3) 1, 4, 8, 24 and 48 h after treatment. Also, the axillary malodour intensity 24 and 48 h after application of deodorants was investigated in a controlled in vivo study performed by a trained sniffer panel using direct sniffing. Treatment with DEO1 in comparison with application of DEO2 significantly reduced the log 10 bacterial count at all points in time. After 24 and 48 h, sniffers rated malodour production in the DEO1-treated axillae significantly lower than in the DEO2-treated armpits. Application of DEO1 in comparison with DEO3 decreased the log 10 bacterial count after 1, 4, 8 and 24 h (significant for 4 and 8 h). After 48 h, the log 10 bacterial count showed similar values for both DEO1 and DEO3. The sniffer panel reported no significant differences between axillary malodour in DEO1-treated compared to DEO3-treated armpits after 24 and 48 h. We identified polyquaternium-16 (PQ-16, copolymers of 1-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone and 1-vinyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride) as a highly effective deodorant active. Results showed that a newly developed PQ-16-containing deodorant roll-on formulation (i) significantly reduced axillary malodour 24 and 48 h after treatment, (ii) significantly decreased the amount of axillary

  12. Outcomes of simultaneous resections for patients with synchronous colorectal liver metastases.

    PubMed

    Slesser, A A P; Chand, M; Goldin, R; Brown, G; Tekkis, P P; Mudan, S

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the outcomes associated with simultaneous resections compared to patients undergoing sequential resections for synchronous colorectal liver metastases. Consecutive patients undergoing hepatic resections between 2000 and 2012 for synchronous colorectal liver metastases were identified from a prospectively maintained database. Of the 112 hepatic resections that were performed, 36 were simultaneous resections and 76 were sequential resections. There was no difference in disease severity: number of metastases (P 0.228), metastatic size (P 0.58), the primary tumour nodal status (P 0.283), CEA (P 0.387) or the presence of extra-hepatic metastases (P 1.0). Major hepatic resections were performed in 23 (64%) and 60 (79%) of patients in the simultaneous and sequential groups respectively (P 0.089). Intra-operatively no differences were found in blood loss (P 1.0), duration of surgery (P 0.284) or number of adverse events (P 1.0). There were no differences in post-operative complications (P 0.161) or post-operative mortality (P 0.241). The length of hospital stay was 14 (95% CI 12.0-18.0) and 18.5 (95% CI 16.0-23.0) days in the simultaneous and sequential groups respectively (P 0.03). The 3-year overall survival was 75% and 64% in the simultaneous and sequential groups respectively (P 0.379). The 3-year hepatic recurrence free survival was 61% and 46% in the simultaneous and sequential groups respectively (P 0.254). Simultaneous resections result in similar short-term and long-term outcomes as patients receiving sequential resections with comparable metastatic disease and are associated with a significant reduction in the length of stay. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Arteriovenous Hybrid Graft with Outflow in the Proximal Axillary Vein.

    PubMed

    Murga, Allen G; Chiriano, Jason; Kiang, Sharon C; Patel, Sheela; Bianchi, Christian; Abou-Zamzam, Ahmed M; Teruya, Theodore H

    2017-07-01

    The patency of long-term hemodialysis access in end-stage renal disease patients remains a significant challenge. Often these patients are affected with limited venous outflow options, requiring limb abandonment, and creation of new access in the contralateral arm. Vascular surgeons are familiar with the exposure of the proximal axillary artery via an infraclavicular incision. The axillary vein is easily exposed through this technique. The use of the hybrid Gore graft can make the venous anastomosis easier. A hybrid graft with its venous outflow placed in the proximal axillary vein can extend the options of upper extremity access procedures. We reviewed our early experience with this technique. A review of dialysis procedures at the Loma Linda VA was performed. All patients undergoing placement of arteriovenous grafts utilizing the Gore hybrid placed into the proximal axillary vein for outflow were identified. Outcomes in terms of primary and secondary patency rates were determined. Eight patients had placement of an arteriovenous hybrid graft in the proximal axillary vein via an infraclavicular incision. All patients had exhausted other options for hemodialysis access in the ipsilateral upper extremity. All grafts were used successfully for dialysis. The mean primary and secondary patency rates at 6 months were 37.5% and 62.5%, respectively. One patient developed steal syndrome, requiring proximalization of the graft. Seven out of the 8 patients required secondary procedures including thrombectomy (n = 16) and angioplasty (n = 17). Placement of a hybrid graft in the proximal axillary vein is an effective and suitable option for patients who have exhausted arteriovenous access sites in the arm. This procedure can easily be performed in an outpatient setting with a low complication rate and allowing for preservation of the contralateral upper extremity for future use. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Toxoplasmosis presenting as a swelling in the axillary tail of the breast and a palpable axillary lymph node mimicking malignancy: a case report.

    PubMed

    Siriwardana, Hp Priyantha; Teare, Louise; Kamel, Dia; Inwang, E Reggie

    2011-08-04

    Lymphadenopathy is a common finding in toxoplasmosis. A breast mass due to toxoplasmosis is very rare, and only a few cases have been reported. We present a case of toxoplasmosis that presented as a swelling in the axillary tail of the breast with a palpable axillary lymph node which mimicked breast cancer. A 45-year-old otherwise healthy Caucasian woman presented with a lump on the lateral aspect of her left breast. Her mother had breast cancer that was diagnosed at the age of 66 years. During an examination, we discovered that our patient had a discrete, firm lump in the axillary tail of her left breast and an enlarged, palpable lymph node in her left axilla. Her right breast and axilla were normal. The clinical diagnosis was malignancy in the left breast. Ultrasound and mammographic examinations of her breast suggested a pathological process but were not conclusive. She had targeted fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) and core biopsy of the lesions. FNAC was indeterminate (C3) but suggested a possibility of toxoplasmosis. The core biopsy was not suggestive of malignancy but showed granulomatous inflammation. She had a wide local excision of the breast lump and an axillary lymph node biopsy. Histopathology and immunohistochemical studies excluded carcinoma or lymphoma but suggested the possibility of intramammary and axillary toxoplasmic lymphadenopathy. The results of Toxoplasma gondii IgM and IgG serology tests were positive, supporting a diagnosis of toxoplasmosis. Toxoplasmosis rarely presents as a pseudotumor of the breast. FNAC and histology are valuable tools for a diagnosis of toxoplasmosis, and serology is an important adjunct for confirmation.

  15. Toxoplasmosis presenting as a swelling in the axillary tail of the breast and a palpable axillary lymph node mimicking malignancy: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Lymphadenopathy is a common finding in toxoplasmosis. A breast mass due to toxoplasmosis is very rare, and only a few cases have been reported. We present a case of toxoplasmosis that presented as a swelling in the axillary tail of the breast with a palpable axillary lymph node which mimicked breast cancer. Case presentation A 45-year-old otherwise healthy Caucasian woman presented with a lump on the lateral aspect of her left breast. Her mother had breast cancer that was diagnosed at the age of 66 years. During an examination, we discovered that our patient had a discrete, firm lump in the axillary tail of her left breast and an enlarged, palpable lymph node in her left axilla. Her right breast and axilla were normal. The clinical diagnosis was malignancy in the left breast. Ultrasound and mammographic examinations of her breast suggested a pathological process but were not conclusive. She had targeted fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) and core biopsy of the lesions. FNAC was indeterminate (C3) but suggested a possibility of toxoplasmosis. The core biopsy was not suggestive of malignancy but showed granulomatous inflammation. She had a wide local excision of the breast lump and an axillary lymph node biopsy. Histopathology and immunohistochemical studies excluded carcinoma or lymphoma but suggested the possibility of intramammary and axillary toxoplasmic lymphadenopathy. The results of Toxoplasma gondii IgM and IgG serology tests were positive, supporting a diagnosis of toxoplasmosis. Conclusions Toxoplasmosis rarely presents as a pseudotumor of the breast. FNAC and histology are valuable tools for a diagnosis of toxoplasmosis, and serology is an important adjunct for confirmation. PMID:21816047

  16. How do I deal with the axilla in patients with a positive sentinel lymph node?

    PubMed

    Falkson, Conrad B

    2011-12-01

    Optimal management of the axilla in a patient with a positive sentinel node biopsy is not yet defined.These patients usually have Breast Conserving Surgery and receive adjuvant systemic therapy and whole breast radiation.Treatment options for the axilla include: no further surgery with or without radiation completion axillary nodal dissection with or without radiation Radiation options in addition to whole breast radiation include axillary and supraclavicular nodal irradiation regional nodal irradiationincludes supraclavicular and internal mammary nodes Completion axillary dissection has been standard practice in patients with positive sentinel nodes. the number of involved nodes provides prognostic information. theoretically improves local control, but may be obviated by systemic chemotherapy. but avoidance of dissection may not adversely affect locoregional control or survival. dissection has significant morbidity so safe avoidance is desirable. There is little worldwide concordance on the use of radiation: whole breast radiation (commonly used after breast conserving surgery) may radiate the lower axilla supraclavicular radiation is most commonly recommended for patients with four or more nodes but may confer a survival benefit on patients with lower risk disease. adding nodal irradiation reduces local recurrence with only modest toxicity. Adjuvant systemic therapy provides a survival benefit for patients with nodal disease. Most will receive cytostatic chemotherapy containing an anthracycline and a taxane. Hormone therapy is appropriate for estrogen receptor positive disease. The extent to which systemic therapy controls microscopic nodal disease is unknown. Node positive patients should generally receive adjuvant chemotherapy.A small group of patients benefit from specific nodal therapy. Further studies are needed to better identify these patients.

  17. PET-NECK: a multicentre randomised Phase III non-inferiority trial comparing a positron emission tomography-computerised tomography-guided watch-and-wait policy with planned neck dissection in the management of locally advanced (N2/N3) nodal metastases in patients with squamous cell head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Mehanna, Hisham; McConkey, Chris C; Rahman, Joy K; Wong, Wai-Lup; Smith, Alison F; Nutting, Chris; Hartley, Andrew Gj; Hall, Peter; Hulme, Claire; Patel, Dharmesh K; Zeidler, Sandra Ventorin von; Robinson, Max; Sanghera, Bal; Fresco, Lydia; Dunn, Janet A

    2017-04-01

    Planned neck dissection (ND) after radical chemoradiotherapy (CRT) for locally advanced nodal metastases in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) remains controversial. Thirty per cent of ND specimens show histological evidence of tumour. Consequently, a significant proportion of clinicians still practise planned ND. Fludeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (PET)-computerised tomography (CT) scanning demonstrated high negative predictive values for persistent nodal disease, providing a possible alternative paradigm to ND. Evidence is sparse and drawn mainly from retrospective single-institution studies, illustrating the need for a prospective randomised controlled trial. To determine the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of PET-CT-guided surveillance, compared with planned ND, in a multicentre, prospective, randomised setting. A pragmatic randomised non-inferiority trial comparing PET-CT-guided watch-and-wait policy with the current planned ND policy in HNSCC patients with locally advanced nodal metastases and treated with radical CRT. Patients were randomised in a 1 : 1 ratio. Primary outcomes were overall survival (OS) and cost-effectiveness [incremental cost per incremental quality-adjusted life-year (QALY)]. Cost-effectiveness was assessed over the trial period using individual patient data, and over a lifetime horizon using a decision-analytic model. Secondary outcomes were recurrence in the neck, complication rates and quality of life. The recruitment of 560 patients was planned to detect non-inferior OS in the intervention arm with a 90% power and a type I error of 5%, with non-inferiority defined as having a hazard ratio (HR) of no higher than 1.50. An intention-to-treat analysis was performed by Cox's proportional hazards model. Thirty-seven head and neck cancer-treating centres (43 NHS hospitals) throughout the UK. Patients with locally advanced nodal metastases of oropharynx, hypopharynx, larynx, oral or occult HNSCC receiving

  18. Predictive model of outcome of targeted nodal assessment in colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Nissan, Aviram; Protic, Mladjan; Bilchik, Anton; Eberhardt, John; Peoples, George E; Stojadinovic, Alexander

    2010-02-01

    Improvement in staging accuracy is the principal aim of targeted nodal assessment in colorectal carcinoma. Technical factors independently predictive of false negative (FN) sentinel lymph node (SLN) mapping should be identified to facilitate operative decision making. To define independent predictors of FN SLN mapping and to develop a predictive model that could support surgical decisions. Data was analyzed from 2 completed prospective clinical trials involving 278 patients with colorectal carcinoma undergoing SLN mapping. Clinical outcome of interest was FN SLN(s), defined as one(s) with no apparent tumor cells in the presence of non-SLN metastases. To assess the independent predictive effect of a covariate for a nominal response (FN SLN), a logistic regression model was constructed and parameters estimated using maximum likelihood. A probabilistic Bayesian model was also trained and cross validated using 10-fold train-and-test sets to predict FN SLN mapping. Area under the curve (AUC) from receiver operating characteristics curves of these predictions was calculated to determine the predictive value of the model. Number of SLNs (<3; P = 0.03) and tumor-replaced nodes (P < 0.01) independently predicted FN SLN. Cross validation of the model created with Bayesian Network Analysis effectively predicted FN SLN (area under the curve = 0.84-0.86). The positive and negative predictive values of the model are 83% and 97%, respectively. This study supports a minimum threshold of 3 nodes for targeted nodal assessment in colorectal cancer, and establishes sufficient basis to conclude that SLN mapping and biopsy cannot be justified in the presence of clinically apparent tumor-replaced nodes.

  19. The Accuracy of Integrated [18F] Fluorodeoxyglucose-Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography in Detection of Pelvic and Para-aortic Nodal Metastasis in Patients with High Risk Endometrial Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Gholkar, Nikhil Shirish; Saha, Subhas Chandra; Prasad, GRV; Bhattacharya, Anish; Srinivasan, Radhika; Suri, Vanita

    2014-01-01

    Lymph nodal (LN) metastasis is the most important prognostic factor in high-risk endometrial cancer. However, the benefit of routine lymphadenectomy in endometrial cancer is controversial. This study was conducted to assess the accuracy of [18F] fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography ([18F] FDG-PET/CT) in detection of pelvic and para-aortic nodal metastases in high-risk endometrial cancer. 20 patients with high-risk endometrial carcinoma underwent [18F] FDG-PET/CT followed by total abdominal hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy and systematic pelvic lymphadenectomy with or without para-aortic lymphadenectomy. The findings on histopathology were compared with [18F] FDG-PET/CT findings to calculate the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and accuracy of [18F] FDG-PET/CT. The pelvic nodal findings were analyzed on a patient and nodal chain based criteria. The para-aortic nodal findings were reported separately. Histopathology documented nodal involvement in two patients (10%). For detection of pelvic nodes, on a patient based analysis, [18F] FDG-PET/CT had a sensitivity of 100%, specificity of 61.11%, PPV of 22.22%, NPV of 100% and accuracy of 65% and on a nodal chain based analysis, [18F] FDG-PET/CT had a sensitivity of 100%, specificity of 80%, PPV of 20%, NPV of 100%, and accuracy of 80.95%. For detection of para-aortic nodes, [18F] FDG-PET/CT had sensitivity of 100%, specificity of 66.67%, PPV of 20%, NPV of 100%, and accuracy of 69.23%. Although [18F] FDG-PET/CT has high sensitivity for detection of LN metastasis in endometrial carcinoma, it had moderate accuracy and high false positivity. However, the high NPV is important in selecting patients in whom lymphadenectomy may be omitted. PMID:25538488

  20. The diagnostic utility of Merkel cell polyomavirus immunohistochemistry in a fine needle aspirate of metastatic Merkel cell carcinoma of unknown primary to the pancreas.

    PubMed

    Li, Long; Molberg, Kyle; Cheedella, Naga; Thibodeaux, Joel; Hinson, Stacy; Lucas, Elena

    2018-01-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is an aggressive skin tumor with a high tendency for metastases. We report a case of MCC initially presenting as axillary and pancreatic metastases. A 33-year-old HIV-positive Hispanic male presented with a history of a rapidly growing axillary mass. A needle core biopsy demonstrated an epithelioid neoplasm composed of small to medium-sized cells with high nuclear-cytoplasmic ratio, nuclear molding, and frequent mitotic figures. A subsequent PET scan revealed a 1.5 cm FDG avid mass in the pancreas. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided FNA of the pancreatic mass showed neoplastic cells with similar morphology to those of the axillary mass. The tumor cells were positive with pancytokeratin AE1/AE3, CK20, CD56, synatophysin, chromogranin, and Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV). This case of MCC most likely originated from a resolved primary skin lesion drained by the involved axillary lymph node with subsequent metastases to the pancreas and distant lymph nodes. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Additional Nodal Disease Prediction in Breast Cancer with Sentinel Lymph Node Metastasis Based on Clinicopathological Features.

    PubMed

    Orsaria, Paolo; Caredda, Emanuele; Genova, Federica; Materazzo, Marco; Capuano, Ilaria; Vanni, Gianluca; Granai, Alessandra Vittoria; DE Majo, Adriano; Portarena, Ilaria; Sileri, Pierpaolo; Petrella, Giuseppe; Palombi, Leonardo; Buonomo, Oreste Claudio

    2018-04-01

    The standard-of-care in breast cancer (BC) with positive sentinel lymph node (SLN) metastasis includes complete axillary lymph node dissection (ALND); however, almost half of such cases have no further tumor burden. This study aimed to assess the clinicopathological factors that predict non-SLN metastasis to define subgroups of SLN-positive patients in whom the axilla may be staged by SLN biopsy alone, while avoiding unnecessary overtreatment. The records of 191 patients with histologically-proven primary BC who underwent a positive (SLN) biopsy between 2005 and 2017 were reviewed. Patients with at least one tumor-involved SLN who underwent completion ALND were enrolled. Demographic and clinicopathological characteristics, including age, primary tumor size and histological grade, lymphovascular invasion, ratio of positive SLNs to the harvested SLNs, SLN metastasis size, and molecular subtype classification according to immunohistochemical biomarker status [estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)], were evaluated. Data were collected retrospectively and analyzed using the Mann-Whitney and Chi-square tests (statistical significance: p<0.05). The incidence of non-SLN metastasis associated with positive SLN was 48.6% (93/191). The risk of additional nodal spread correlated with high sentinel nodal ratio >0.67 [odds ratio (OR)=2.55, p=0.032], luminal BC subtype (OR=2.67, p=0.06), HER2 overexpression (OR=0.4, p=0.016), and ER + PR - HER2 - profile (OR=2.95, p=0.027). There was a tendency (statistically insignificant; p>0.05) toward higher incidence of non SLN metastasis with increasing age and histological grade, which could be attributed to the small sample size. According to this study, sentinel nodal ratio and BC subtypes as per ER, PR, and HER2 status significantly predicted the likelihood of additional lymphatic involvement. Validation of these parameters in prospective studies is indicated, and may

  2. Partial lower axillary dissection for patients with clinically node-negative breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Kodama, H; Mise, K; Kan, N

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate retrospectively the outcomes of partial lower axillary lymph node dissection caudal to the intercostobrachial nerve in patients with clinically node-negative (N(0)) breast cancer. Numbers of dissected and metastatic nodes, overall and disease-free survival rates, postoperative complication rates, and axillary recurrence were compared between patients who underwent breast cancer surgery with partial axillary node dissection (n = 1043) and historical controls who underwent conventional dissection (n = 1084). The 5-year overall and disease-free survival rates were 95.6% and 89.7%, and 94.9% and 88.4%, respectively, in the partial dissection and conventional dissection groups; the differences were not significant. Mean duration of surgery (41.6 min versus 60.9 min), intraoperative blood loss (28.0 ml versus 51.3 ml), volume of lymphatic drainage at 2 weeks postoperatively (488 ml versus 836 ml), and persistent arm lymphoedema (0.0% versus 11.8%) were significantly different between the partial and conventional dissection groups, respectively. Partial axillary lymph node dissection was associated with similar survival rates (but lower postoperative complication rates) compared with conventional axillary dissection and is recommended in patients with N(0) breast cancer.

  3. Axillary, Oral and Rectal Routes of Temperature Measurement During Treatment of Acute Kawasaki Disease.

    PubMed

    Kanegaye, John T; Jones, Jefferson M; Burns, Jane C; Jain, Sonia; Sun, Xiaoying; Jimenez-Fernandez, Susan; Berry, Erika; Pancheri, Joan M; Jaggi, Preeti; Ramilo, Octavio; Tremoulet, Adriana H

    2016-01-01

    Important therapeutic decisions are made based on the presence or absence of fever in patients with Kawasaki disease (KD), yet no standard method or threshold exists for temperature measurement during the diagnosis and treatment of these patients. We sought to compare surface and internal (rectal or oral) routes of temperature measurement for the detection of fever as a marker of treatment resistance. From a randomized, placebo-controlled trial of infliximab as an adjunct to primary intravenous immunoglobulin treatment for acute KD, we collected concurrent (within 5 minutes) axillary and internal temperature measurements and performed receiver-operating characteristic and Bland-Altman analyses. We also determined the ability of surface temperatures to detect treatment resistance defined by internal temperature measurements. Among 452 oral-axillary and 439 rectal-axillary pairs from 159 patients, mean axillary temperatures were 0.25 and 0.43 °C lower than oral and rectal temperatures and had high receiver-operating characteristic areas under curves. However, axillary temperatures ≥ 38.0 °C had limited sensitivity to detect fever defined by internal temperatures. Axillary thresholds of 37.5 and 37.2 °C provided maximal sensitivity and specificity to detect oral and rectal temperatures ≥ 38.0 °C, respectively. Axillary temperatures are an insensitive metric for fevers defining treatment resistance. Clinical trials should adopt temperature measurement by the oral or rectal routes for adjudication of treatment resistance in KD.

  4. Nodal signalling and asymmetry of the nervous system

    PubMed Central

    Signore, Iskra A.; Palma, Karina

    2016-01-01

    The role of Nodal signalling in nervous system asymmetry is still poorly understood. Here, we review and discuss how asymmetric Nodal signalling controls the ontogeny of nervous system asymmetry using a comparative developmental perspective. A detailed analysis of asymmetry in ascidians and fishes reveals a critical context-dependency of Nodal function and emphasizes that bilaterally paired and midline-unpaired structures/organs behave as different entities. We propose a conceptual framework to dissect the developmental function of Nodal as asymmetry inducer and laterality modulator in the nervous system, which can be used to study other types of body and visceral organ asymmetries. Using insights from developmental biology, we also present novel evolutionary hypotheses on how Nodal led the evolution of directional asymmetry in the brain, with a particular focus on the epithalamus. We intend this paper to provide a synthesis on how Nodal signalling controls left–right asymmetry of the nervous system. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Provocative questions in left–right asymmetry’. PMID:27821531

  5. Primary breast lymphoma presenting as non-healing axillary abscess

    PubMed Central

    Anele, Chukwuemeka; Phan, Yih Chyn; Wong, Suanne; Poddar, Anil

    2015-01-01

    A 67-year-old woman with non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus with a history consistent with a right axillary abscess, presented to her general practitioner (GP). A diagnosis of folliculitis was made and the GP started a course of flucloxacillin. Despite antibiotics, the patient's symptoms worsened and the abscess increased in size. This prompted her GP to perform an incision and drainage procedure of the abscess. The practice nurse subsequently oversaw the follow-up care of the wound. Two months after the incision and drainage, and after regular wound dressing, the patient was referred to the acute surgical team with a complicated, non-healing right axillary abscess cavity and associated generalised right breast cellulitis. There was no history of breast symptoms prior to the onset of the axillary abscess. The patient underwent wound debridement, washout and application of negative pressure vacuum therapy. Biopsies revealed primary breast lymphoma (B-cell). She underwent radical chemotherapy and is currently in remission. PMID:26446318

  6. Primary breast lymphoma presenting as non-healing axillary abscess.

    PubMed

    Anele, Chukwuemeka; Phan, Yih Chyn; Wong, Suanne; Poddar, Anil

    2015-10-07

    A 67-year-old woman with non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus with a history consistent with a right axillary abscess, presented to her general practitioner (GP). A diagnosis of folliculitis was made and the GP started a course of flucloxacillin. Despite antibiotics, the patient's symptoms worsened and the abscess increased in size. This prompted her GP to perform an incision and drainage procedure of the abscess. The practice nurse subsequently oversaw the follow-up care of the wound. Two months after the incision and drainage, and after regular wound dressing, the patient was referred to the acute surgical team with a complicated, non-healing right axillary abscess cavity and associated generalised right breast cellulitis. There was no history of breast symptoms prior to the onset of the axillary abscess. The patient underwent wound debridement, washout and application of negative pressure vacuum therapy. Biopsies revealed primary breast lymphoma (B-cell). She underwent radical chemotherapy and is currently in remission. 2015 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  7. Indications for axillary ultrasound use in breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Joh, Jennifer E; Han, Gang; Kiluk, John V; Laronga, Christine; Khakpour, Nazanin; Lee, M Catherine

    2012-12-01

    Axillary ultrasound has been adopted for preoperative planning in breast cancer. Our objective was to determine features predictive of abnormal AUS and/or positive axillary node needle biopsy (NBx). Single-institution database of breast cancer patients identified patients with preoperative AUS. Patient characteristics and outcomes were correlated with AUS and NBx. Significant features were identified using univariable and multivariable analysis and correlative statistics. Three hundred thirteen breast cancers were evaluated. Abnormal AUS was demonstrated in 250 cases (80%). Node needle biopsy was performed in 247 cases (79%). Sensitivity and specificity was 93% and 48% for AUS and 86% and 100% for NBx, respectively. Palpable axillary adenopathy was significant in logistic regression model (P < .05). There were positive correlations between tumor grade, clinical T and tumor-node-metastasis stage, invasive ductal carcinoma histology, and inflammatory breast carcinoma with AUS and NBx (P < .05). Clinicopathologic features (grade, histology, tumor size) might help guide judicious use of AUS. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Maternal nodal and zebrafish embryogenesis.

    PubMed

    Bennett, James T; Stickney, Heather L; Choi, Wen-Yee; Ciruna, Brian; Talbot, William S; Schier, Alexander F

    2007-11-08

    In fish and amphibians, the dorsal axis is specified by the asymmetric localization of maternally provided components of the Wnt signalling pathway. Gore et al. suggest that the Nodal signal Squint (Sqt) is required as a maternally provided dorsal determinant in zebrafish. Here we test their proposal and show that the maternal activities of sqt and the related Nodal gene cyclops (cyc) are not required for dorsoventral patterning.

  9. Biomechanical study on axillary crutches during single-leg swing-through gait.

    PubMed

    Goh, J C; Toh, S L; Bose, K

    1986-08-01

    This paper describes a kinetic and kinematic study on axillary crutches during one-leg swing-through gait. The primary objective is to evaluate the interplay of forces at the crutch and body interfaces and to relate them in the understanding of problems associated with the use of axillary crutches. Ten normal adult male subjects with simulated left leg impairment participated in the study. For data acquisition, the VICON kinematic system, a Kistler force plate and an instrumented crutch (with force transducers at the two upper struts close to the axillary bar and one near the crutch tip) were used. Results showed that the peak ground reaction force on the weight-bearing leg during lower limb stance increased by 21.6 percent bodyweight. The peak reaction force transmitted to the arm during crutch stance was 44.4 percent bodyweight. These increased loadings could be detrimental to patients with unsound weight-bearing leg and upper extremities respectively. When the crutches were used incorrectly, 34 percent bodyweight was carried by the underarm. This could cause undue pressure over the neurovascular structures at the axillary region.

  10. Delineation of Supraclavicular Target Volumes in Breast Cancer Radiation Therapy

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Brown, Lindsay C.; Diehn, Felix E.; Boughey, Judy C.

    Purpose: To map the location of gross supraclavicular metastases in patients with breast cancer, in order to determine areas at highest risk of harboring subclinical disease. Methods and Materials: Patients with axial imaging of gross supraclavicular disease were identified from an institutional breast cancer registry. Locations of the metastatic lymph nodes were transferred onto representative axial computed tomography images of the supraclavicular region and compared with the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) breast cancer atlas for radiation therapy planning. Results: Sixty-two patients with 161 supraclavicular nodal metastases were eligible for study inclusion. At the time of diagnosis, 117 nodal metastasesmore » were present in 44 patients. Forty-four nodal metastases in 18 patients were detected at disease recurrence, 4 of whom had received prior radiation to the supraclavicular fossa. Of the 161 nodal metastases, 95 (59%) were within the RTOG consensus volume, 4 nodal metastases (2%) in 3 patients were marginally within the volume, and 62 nodal metastases (39%) in 30 patients were outside the volume. Supraclavicular disease outside the RTOG consensus volume was located in 3 regions: at the level of the cricoid and thyroid cartilage (superior to the RTOG volume), in the posterolateral supraclavicular fossa (posterolateral to the RTOG volume), and in the lateral low supraclavicular fossa (lateral to the RTOG volume). Only women with multiple supraclavicular metastases had nodal disease that extended superiorly to the level of the thyroid cartilage. Conclusions: For women with risk of harboring subclinical supraclavicular disease warranting the addition of supraclavicular radiation, coverage of the posterior triangle and the lateral low supraclavicular region should be considered. For women with known supraclavicular disease, extension of neck coverage superior to the cricoid cartilage may be warranted.« less

  11. Rapid multiplication of Dalbergia sissoo Roxb.: a timber yielding tree legume through axillary shoot proliferation and ex vitro rooting.

    PubMed

    Vibha, J B; Shekhawat, N S; Mehandru, Pooja; Dinesh, Rachana

    2014-01-01

    An efficient and improved method for in vitro propagation of mature tree of Dalbergia sissoo, an ecologically and commercially important timber yielding species, has been developed through axillary shoot proliferation. Bud breaking occurred from nodal shoot segments derived from rejuvenated shoots produced during early spring from a 20-25-year-old lopped tree, on MS medium containing 8.88 μM benzylaminopurine (BAP). Multiple shoots differentiated (20-21shoots/node) on re-culture of explants on half-strength agar gelled amended MS medium with a combination of 2.22 μM of BAP and 0.002 μM of thidiazuron (TDZ) with 1.0 mM each of Ca(NO3)2, K2SO4, KCl, and NH4(SO4)2. The maximum shoot multiplication (29-30 shoots/node) was achieved on subculturing in the above mentioned but liquid medium. Furthermore, the problem of shoot tip necrosis and defoliation observed on solid medium were overcome by the use of liquid medium. Ex vitro rooting was achieved on soilrite after basal treatment of microshoots with 984 μM of indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) for 2 min. About 90 % microshoots were rooted on soilrite within 2-3 weeks under the greenhouse conditions. From 20 nodal shoot segments, about 435 hardened plants were acclimatized and transplanted. This is the first report for rapid in vitro propagation of mature trees of D. sissoo on liquid medium followed by ex vitro rooting.

  12. Axillary and Tympanic Temperature Measurement in Children and Normal Values for Ages.

    PubMed

    Oguz, Fatma; Yildiz, Ismail; Varkal, Muhammet Ali; Hizli, Zeynep; Toprak, Sadik; Kaymakci, Kevser; Saygili, Seha Kamil; Kilic, Ayşe; Unuvar, Emin

    2018-03-01

    The aim of the study was define the normal values of tympanic and axillary body temperature in healthy children. This observational cross-sectional study was performed in healthy children aged 0 to 17 years who visited the ambulatory general pediatric of Istanbul Medical Faculty. Of 1364 children, 651 (47.7%) were girls and 713 were boys, the mean (SD, range) age was 72.5 (53.6, 1-204) months. The mean (SD) axillary body temperature was 36.04°C (0.46°C; minimum, 35.0°C; maximum, 37.6°C). The 95th and 99th percentiles were 36.8°C and 37.0°C, respectively. The mean (SD) tympanic body temperature was 36.91°C (0.46°C; minimum, 35.15°C; maximum, 37.9°C). The 95th and 99th percentiles were 37.6°C and 37.8°C, respectively. There were statistically significant differences between sexes for only tympanic body temperatures. Both axillary and tympanic body temperatures were statistically higher in 0 to 2 months compared with other age groups. For this age group, the 99th percentile was 37.5°C for axillary and 37.85°C for tympanic temperature. Axillary and tympanic body temperatures should be considered as fever when they are more than 37.0°C and 37.8°C, respectively. For 0 to 2 months, fever is 37.5°C and 37.85°C in axillary and tympanic temperatures, respectively.

  13. Comparison of rectal, tympanic membrane and axillary temperature measurement methods in dogs.

    PubMed

    Lamb, V; McBrearty, A R

    2013-11-30

    The aim of this study was to compare axillary and tympanic membrane (TM) temperature measurements to rectal temperature in a large group of clinical canine patients. We also sought to ascertain whether certain factors affected the differences between the measurements and to compare the ease of measurement. Axillary temperatures were easy to obtain but tended to be lower than rectal readings (median difference 0.6°C). In 54.7 per cent of dogs there was a difference of >0.5°C between the two readings. Weight, coat length, body condition score and breed size were significantly associated with the difference between the rectal and axillary temperature. TM temperatures were more similar to rectal temperatures (median difference 0°C) but in 25 per cent of dogs, there was a difference of >0.5°C between rectal and TM readings. TM measurements were less well tolerated than axillary measurements. None of the factors assessed were associated with the difference between the rectal and TM temperature. As a difference of >0.5°C has previously been described as unacceptable for different methods of temperature measurement, neither axillary nor TM temperatures are interchangeable with rectal temperatures for the measurement of body temperature.

  14. Local injection of botulinum toxin A: an alternative therapy for axillary osmidrosis.

    PubMed

    Xie, Aiguo; Nie, Lanjun; Tan, Qian

    2014-02-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the efficacy of local injection of botulinum toxin A for treating axillary osmidrosis. One hundred and fifty patients with axillary osmidrosis were randomly divided to receive botulinum toxin A injection treatment (50 U of botulinum toxin A was injected intracutaneously into 6-20 different sites within each axilla, n = 74) or surgical excision of the apocrine glands (n = 76). The patients were followed up for 1-3 months to analyze the therapeutic effect and complications of the two methods. The curative effect in patients with mild and moderate axillary osmidrosis was not significantly different between the botulinum toxin A injection group and operation group. However, for patients with severe axillary osmidrosis, surgery treatment seemed to be superior to botulinum toxin A treatment (P = 0.005). There was also no significant difference in the modified Dermatology Life Quality Index between the two treatments. Two cases showed complications related to hemorrhage and incision infection in the operation group. In conclusion, local injection of botulinum toxin A is a safe, fast and effective treatment for mild and moderate axillary osmidrosis, but the long-term effect remains to be further investigated. © 2014 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  15. Occult nodal metastasis in solid carcinomata

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Moloy, P.J.; Nicolson, G.L.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains 23 selections. Some of the titles are: Rationale for radiotherapy in subclinical nodal disease; rationale of chemotherapy for nodal disease: The stabilization of topoisomerase II-DNA complexes as a mechanism of antineoplastic drug action; magnetic resonance imaging of malignant cervical adenopathy; and local and regional immune function in cancer patients.

  16. Cervical level IIb metastases in squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Kou, Yurong; Zhao, Tengfei; Huang, Shaohui; Liu, Jie; Duan, Weiyi; Wang, Yunjing; Wang, Zechen; Li, Delong; Ning, Chunliu; Sun, Changfu

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify whether level IIb dissection should be performed or avoided in the treatment of oral squamous cell carcinoma by meta-analysis. Articles that were published before June 2017 were searched electronically in four databases (Web of Science, PubMed, Ovid and China National Knowledge Infrastructure) without any date or language restrictions by two independent reviewers. Abstracts and full-text papers which investigated the cervical metastases to level IIb from primary head and neck cancers and were deemed potentially relevant were screened. Data were analyzed using RevMan 5.3. Four hundred and fifty-five abstracts and 129 full-text papers were screened, and 22 studies were included in the analysis. Among the 2001 patients included, 112 patients had level IIb metastases, the pooled frequency of which was 6% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.0-7.0). Among the 400 patients with tongue squamous cell carcinoma from 12 studies, 37 patients had level IIb metastases, the pooled incidence of which was 7% (95% CI: 5.0-10.0). Metastases to level IIb always went together with level IIa, and only three patients were found to have isolated level IIb metastases without involving the other levels. Due to the low frequency of level IIb nodal metastases in oral squamous cell carcinoma patients and rare occurrence of isolated level IIb, level IIb dissection could be avoided when the primary lesions were in early stages (T1 and T2), with the exception of tongue cancer. It is recommended to dissect level IIb tongue cancers without considering the stages of primary lesions and the lymph nodes status. It is also suggested that level IIb dissection should be performed in patients preoperatively or intraoperatively found with multilevel neck metastasis, especially level IIa metastasis.

  17. Clinical Evaluation of a Microwave Device for Treating Axillary Hyperhidrosis

    PubMed Central

    Hong, H Chih-Ho; Lupin, Mark; O'Shaughnessy, Kathryn F

    2012-01-01

    Background A third-generation microwave-based device has been developed to treat axillary hyperhidrosis by selectively heating the interface between the skin and underlying fat where the sweat glands reside. Materials and Methods Thirty-one (31) adults with primary axillary hyperhidrosis were enrolled. All subjects had one to three procedure sessions over a 6-month period to treat both axillae fully. Efficacy was assessed using the Hyperhidrosis Disease Severity Scale (HDSS), gravimetric weight of sweat, and the Dermatologic Life Quality Index (DLQI), a dermatology-specific quality-of-life scale. Subject safety was assessed at each visit. Subjects were followed for 12 months after all procedure sessions were complete. Results At the 12-month follow-up visit, 90.3% had HDSS scores of 1 or 2, 90.3% had at least a 50% reduction in axillary sweat from baseline, and 85.2% had a reduction of at least 5 points on the DLQI. All subjects experienced transient effects in the treatment area such as swelling, discomfort, and numbness. The most common adverse event (12 subjects) was the presence of altered sensation in the skin of the arm that resolved in all subjects. Conclusion The device tested provided efficacious and durable treatment for axillary hyperhidrosis. PMID:22452511

  18. Male breast cancer arising in ectopic axillary breast tissue: A diagnostic dilemma.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yangchun; Huang, Jin; Xiao, Desheng; Zhong, Meizuo

    2013-06-01

    Male breast cancer arising in ectopic axillary breast tissue is a rare occurrence and few cases have been reported in the literature. Due to its rarity, male axillary breast cancer is easy to misdiagnose. As for adenocarcinoma in the axilla, it is difficult to identify whether the origin is the mammary tissue or the skin appendages, particularly in cases where there is a poor differentiation. The present study reports the case of a male patient with a right axillary lesion that had been present for 6 months. A histological evaluation revealed the features of a poorly-differentiated adenocarcinoma with regards to the pathological report. The patient was diagnosed with a metastatic adenocarcinoma with unknown primary origin. However, following 4 cycles of intensive chemotherapy, the patient experienced bone metastasis while the local lesion was in partial remission. Further immunohistochemistry confirmed its mammary origin. There is limited literature relating to male ectopic axillary breast cancer, and a high probability of misdiagnosis of this disease.

  19. Male breast cancer arising in ectopic axillary breast tissue: A diagnostic dilemma

    PubMed Central

    XIE, YANGCHUN; HUANG, JIN; XIAO, DESHENG; ZHONG, MEIZUO

    2013-01-01

    Male breast cancer arising in ectopic axillary breast tissue is a rare occurrence and few cases have been reported in the literature. Due to its rarity, male axillary breast cancer is easy to misdiagnose. As for adenocarcinoma in the axilla, it is difficult to identify whether the origin is the mammary tissue or the skin appendages, particularly in cases where there is a poor differentiation. The present study reports the case of a male patient with a right axillary lesion that had been present for 6 months. A histological evaluation revealed the features of a poorly-differentiated adenocarcinoma with regards to the pathological report. The patient was diagnosed with a metastatic adenocarcinoma with unknown primary origin. However, following 4 cycles of intensive chemotherapy, the patient experienced bone metastasis while the local lesion was in partial remission. Further immunohistochemistry confirmed its mammary origin. There is limited literature relating to male ectopic axillary breast cancer, and a high probability of misdiagnosis of this disease. PMID:23833669

  20. Detection of bone metastases in breast cancer patients in the PET/CT era: Do we still need the bone scan?

    PubMed

    Caglar, M; Kupik, O; Karabulut, E; Høilund-Carlsen, P F

    2016-01-01

    To examine the value of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) for the detection of bone metastasis in breast cancer patients and assess whether whole body bone scan (BS) with (99m)Tc-methylene diphosphonate provides any additional information. Study group comprised 150 patients, mean age 52 years (range 27-85) with breast cancer, suspected of having bone metastases. All patients had undergone both FDG-PET/CT and BS with or without single photon emission tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) within a period of 6 weeks. The final diagnosis of bone metastasis was established by histopathological findings, additional imaging, or clinical follow-up longer than 10 months. Cancer antigen 15-3 (CA15-3) and carcinoembryogenic antigen (CEA) were measured in all patients. Histologically 83%, 7% and 10% had infiltrating ductal, lobular and mixed carcinoma respectively. Confirmed bone metastases were present in 86 patients (57.3%) and absent in 64 (42.7%). Mean CA15-3 and CEA values in patients with bone metastases were 74.6ng/mL and 60.4U/mL respectively, compared to 21.3ng/mL and 3.2U/mL without metastases (p<0.001). The sensitivity of FDG-PET/CT for the detection of bone metastases was 97.6% compared to 89.5% with SPECT/CT. In 57 patients, FDG-PET/CT correctly identified additional pulmonary, hepatic, nodal and other soft tissue metastases, not detected by BS. Our findings suggest that FDG-PET/CT is superior to BS with or without SPECT/CT. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  1. Light Spectral Quality Effects on the Growth of Potato (Solanum Tuberosum L.) Nodal Cuttings in Vitro

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Deborah A.; Weigel, Russell C.; Wheeler, Raymond M.; Sager, John C.

    1993-01-01

    The effects of light spectral quality on the growth of in vitro nodal cuttings of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cultivars Norland, Superior, Kennebec, and Denali were examined. The different light spectra were provided by Vita-Lite fluorescent (VF) (a white light control), blue fluorescent (BF), red fluorescent (RF), low-pressure sodium (LPS), and a combination of low-pressure sodium plus cool-white fluorescent lamps (LPS/CWF). For cultivars, stem lengths after 4 wks were longest under LPS, follow by RF, LPS/CWF, VF, and BF (in descending order). Microscopic studies revealed that cells were shortest when cultured in BF or VF environments, and were longest in RF or LPS lamp environments. The highest number axillary branches occurred on plantlets grown with LPS or LPS/CWF, whereas the lowest number occurred with BF. No leaf or stem edema (callus or gall-like growths) occurred iwth LPS or LPS/cwf lighting, and no edema occurred on cv. Norland plantlets, regardless of lighting. Results suggest that shoot morphologic development of in vitro grown potato plants can be controlled by controlling irradiant spectral quality.

  2. Nodal signalling determines biradial asymmetry in Hydra.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Hiroshi; Schmidt, Heiko A; Kuhn, Anne; Höger, Stefanie K; Kocagöz, Yigit; Laumann-Lipp, Nico; Ozbek, Suat; Holstein, Thomas W

    2014-11-06

    In bilaterians, three orthogonal body axes define the animal form, with distinct anterior-posterior, dorsal-ventral and left-right asymmetries. The key signalling factors are Wnt family proteins for the anterior-posterior axis, Bmp family proteins for the dorsal-ventral axis and Nodal for the left-right axis. Cnidarians, the sister group to bilaterians, are characterized by one oral-aboral body axis, which exhibits a distinct biradiality of unknown molecular nature. Here we analysed the biradial growth pattern in the radially symmetrical cnidarian polyp Hydra, and we report evidence of Nodal in a pre-bilaterian clade. We identified a Nodal-related gene (Ndr) in Hydra magnipapillata, and this gene is essential for setting up an axial asymmetry along the main body axis. This asymmetry defines a lateral signalling centre, inducing a new body axis of a budding polyp orthogonal to the mother polyp's axis. Ndr is expressed exclusively in the lateral bud anlage and induces Pitx, which encodes an evolutionarily conserved transcription factor that functions downstream of Nodal. Reminiscent of its function in vertebrates, Nodal acts downstream of β-Catenin signalling. Our data support an evolutionary scenario in which a 'core-signalling cassette' consisting of β-Catenin, Nodal and Pitx pre-dated the cnidarian-bilaterian split. We presume that this cassette was co-opted for various modes of axial patterning: for example, for lateral branching in cnidarians and left-right patterning in bilaterians.

  3. Comparison of axillary and rectal temperatures for healthy Beagles in a temperature- and humidity-controlled environment.

    PubMed

    Mathis, Justin C; Campbell, Vicki L

    2015-07-01

    To compare axillary and rectal temperature measurements obtained with a digital thermometer for Beagles in a temperature- and humidity-controlled environment. 26 healthy Beagles (17 sexually intact males and 9 sexually intact females). Dogs were maintained in a temperature- and humidity-controlled environment for 56 days before rectal and axillary temperatures were measured. Axillary and rectal temperatures were obtained in triplicate for each dog by use of a single commercially available manufacturer-calibrated digital thermometer. Mean rectal and axillary temperatures of Beagles maintained in a temperature- and humidity-controlled environment were significantly different, with a median ± SD difference of 1.4° ± 0.15°C (range, 0.7° to 2.1°C). Mean rectal and axillary temperatures were 38.7°C (range, 37.6° to 39.5°C) and 37.2°C (range, 36.6° to 38.3°C), respectively. Results of this study indicated that the historical reference of a 0.55°C gradient between rectal and axillary temperatures that has been clinically used for veterinary patients was inaccurate for healthy Beagles in a temperature- and humidity-controlled environment. Rectal and axillary temperatures can be measured in veterinary patients. Reliable interpretation of axillary temperatures may accommodate patient comfort and reduce patient anxiety when serial measurement of temperatures is necessary. Further clinical studies will be needed.

  4. Detection of Cancer Metastases with a Dual-labeled Near-Infrared/Positron Emission Tomography Imaging Agent12

    PubMed Central

    Sampath, Lakshmi; Kwon, Sunkuk; Hall, Mary A; Price, Roger E; Sevick-Muraca, Eva M

    2010-01-01

    By dual labeling a targeting moiety with both nuclear and optical probes, the ability for noninvasive imaging and intraoperative guidance may be possible. Herein, the ability to detect metastasis in an immunocompetent animal model of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER-2)-positive cancer metastases using positron emission tomography (PET) and near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence imaging is demonstrated. METHODS: (64Cu-DOTA)n-trastuzumab-(IRDye800)m was synthesized, characterized, and administered to female Balb/c mice subcutaneously inoculated with highly metastatic 4T1.2neu/R breast cancer cells. (64Cu-DOTA)n-trastuzumab-(IRDye800)m (150 µg, 150 µCi, m = 2, n = 2) was administered through the tail vein at weeks 2 and 6 after implantation, and PET/computed tomography and NIR fluorescence imaging were performed 24 hours later. Results were compared with the detection capabilities of F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (18FDG-PET). RESULTS: Primary tumors were visualized with 18FDG and (64Cu-DOTA)n-trastuzumab-(IRDye800)m, but resulting metastases were identified only with the dual-labeled imaging agent. 64Cu-PET imaging detected lung metastases, whereas ex vivo NIR fluorescence showed uptake in regions of lung, skin, skeletal muscle, and lymph nodes, which corresponded with the presence of cancer cells as confirmed by histologic hematoxylin and eosin stains. In addition to detecting the agent in lymph nodes, the high signal-to-noise ratio from NIR fluorescence imaging enabled visualization of channels between the primary tumor and the axillary lymph nodes, suggesting a lymphatic route for trafficking cancer cells. Because antibody clearance occurs through the liver, we could not distinguish between nonspecific uptake and liver metastases. CONCLUSION: (64Cu-DOTA)n-trastuzumab-(IRDye800)m may be an effective diagnostic imaging agent for staging HER-2-positive breast cancer patients and intraoperative resection. PMID:20885893

  5. An optimized posterior axillary boost technique in radiation therapy to supraclavicular and axillary lymph nodes: A comparative study

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Hernandez, Victor, E-mail: vhernandezmasgrau@gmail.com; Arenas, Meritxell; Müller, Katrin

    2013-01-01

    To assess the advantages of an optimized posterior axillary (AX) boost technique for the irradiation of supraclavicular (SC) and AX lymph nodes. Five techniques for the treatment of SC and levels I, II, and III AX lymph nodes were evaluated for 10 patients selected at random: a direct anterior field (AP); an anterior to posterior parallel pair (AP-PA); an anterior field with a posterior axillary boost (PAB); an anterior field with an anterior axillary boost (AAB); and an optimized PAB technique (OptPAB). The target coverage, hot spots, irradiated volume, and dose to organs at risk were evaluated and a statisticalmore » analysis comparison was performed. The AP technique delivered insufficient dose to the deeper AX nodes. The AP-PA technique produced larger irradiated volumes and higher mean lung doses than the other techniques. The PAB and AAB techniques originated excessive hot spots in most of the cases. The OptPAB technique produced moderate hot spots while maintaining a similar planning target volume (PTV) coverage, irradiated volume, and dose to organs at risk. This optimized technique combines the advantages of the PAB and AP-PA techniques, with moderate hot spots, sufficient target coverage, and adequate sparing of normal tissues. The presented technique is simple, fast, and easy to implement in routine clinical practice and is superior to the techniques historically used for the treatment of SC and AX lymph nodes.« less

  6. Primary nodal hemangiosarcoma in four dogs.

    PubMed

    Chan, Catherine M; Zwahlen, Courtney H; de Lorimier, Louis-Philippe; Yeomans, Stephen M; Hoffmann, Karon L; Moore, Antony S

    2016-11-01

    CASE DESCRIPTION 4 dogs with a slow-growing mass in the cervical region were evaluated. CLINICAL FINDINGS All dogs had no clinical signs at the time of the evaluation. There was no apparent evidence of visceral metastases or other primary tumor based on available CT or MRI data for any dog. TREATMENT AND OUTCOME For each dog, surgery to remove the mass was performed. Histologic examination of the excised tissue revealed a completely excised grade 1 or 2 lymph node hemangiosarcoma. All dogs received adjuvant chemotherapy; 2 dogs underwent curative intent chemotherapy, 1 dog underwent metronomic treatment with cyclophosphamide, and 1 dog underwent metronomic treatment with chlorambucil. The survival time was 259 days in 1 dog; 3 dogs were still alive 615, 399, and 365 days after surgery. CLINICAL RELEVANCE Primary nodal hemangiosarcoma in dogs is a rare and, to the authors' knowledge, previously undescribed disease that appears to develop in the cervical lymph nodes as a slow-growing mass or masses. Surgical excision and adjunct treatment resulted in long survival times for 3 of the 4 dogs of the present report. Given the aggressive biologic behavior of hemangiosarcomas in other body locations, adjunct chemotherapy should be considered for affected dogs, although its role in the cases described in this report was unclear. Additional clinical information is required to further characterize the biologic behavior of this tumor type and determine the expected survival times and associated risk factors in dogs.

  7. Pattern of neck recurrence after lateral neck dissection for cervical metastases in papillary thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    McNamara, William F; Wang, Laura Y; Palmer, Frank L; Nixon, Iain J; Shah, Jatin P; Patel, Snehal G; Ganly, Ian

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the rate and pattern of nodal recurrence in patients who underwent a therapeutic, lateral neck dissection (LND) for papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) with clinically evident cervical metastases and to determine if there was any correlation between the extent of initial dissection and the rate and pattern of neck recurrence. A total of 3,664 patients with PTC treated between 1986 and 2010 at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center were identified from our institutional database. Tumor factors, patient demographics, extent of initial LND, and adjuvant therapy were recorded. Patterns of recurrent lateral neck metastases by level involvement were recorded and outcomes calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. A total of 484 patients had an LND for cervical metastases; 364 (75%) had a comprehensive LND (CLND) and 120 (25%) had a selective neck dissection (SND). The median duration of follow-up was 63.5 months. As expected, patients with CLND had a greater number of nodes removed as well as a greater number of positive nodes (P < .001). There was no difference in overall lateral neck recurrence-free status (CLND 94.4% vs SND 89.4%, P = .158), but in the dissected neck, the ipsilateral lateral neck recurrence-free status was superior in the CLND patients (97.7% vs 89.4%, P < .001). Patients with clinically evident neck metastases from PTC managed by CLND have lesser rates of recurrence in the dissected neck compared with patients managed by SND. SND should only be done in highly selected cases with small volume disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Pattern of neck recurrence after lateral neck dissection for cervical metastases in papillary thyroid cancer

    PubMed Central

    McNamara, William F.; Wang, Laura Y.; Palmer, Frank L.; Nixon, Iain J.; Shah, Jatin P.; Patel, Snehal G.; Ganly, Ian

    2016-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to determine the rate and pattern of nodal recurrence in patients who underwent a therapeutic, lateral neck dissection (LND) for papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) with clinically evident cervical metastases and to determine if there was any correlation between the extent of initial dissection and the rate and pattern of neck recurrence. Methods A total of 3,664 patients with PTC treated between 1986 and 2010 at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center were identified from our institutional database. Tumor factors, patient demographics, extent of initial LND, and adjuvant therapy were recorded. Patterns of recurrent lateral neck metastases by level involvement were recorded and outcomes calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Results A total of 484 patients had an LND for cervical metastases; 364 (75%) had a comprehensive LND (CLND) and 120 (25%) had a selective neck dissection (SND). The median duration of follow-up was 63.5 months. As expected, patients with CLND had a greater number of nodes removed as well as a greater number of positive nodes (P < .001). There was no difference in overall lateral neck recurrence-free status (CLND 94.4% vs SND 89.4%, P = .158), but in the dissected neck, the ipsilateral lateral neck recurrence-free status was superior in the CLND patients (97.7% vs 89.4%, P < .001). Conclusion Patients with clinically evident neck metastases from PTC managed by CLND have lesser rates of recurrence in the dissected neck compared with patients managed by SND. SND should only be done in highly selected cases with small volume disease. PMID:26994486

  9. Axillary Lymph Node Evaluation Utilizing Convolutional Neural Networks Using MRI Dataset.

    PubMed

    Ha, Richard; Chang, Peter; Karcich, Jenika; Mutasa, Simukayi; Fardanesh, Reza; Wynn, Ralph T; Liu, Michael Z; Jambawalikar, Sachin

    2018-04-25

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the role of convolutional neural network (CNN) in predicting axillary lymph node metastasis, using a breast MRI dataset. An institutional review board (IRB)-approved retrospective review of our database from 1/2013 to 6/2016 identified 275 axillary lymph nodes for this study. Biopsy-proven 133 metastatic axillary lymph nodes and 142 negative control lymph nodes were identified based on benign biopsies (100) and from healthy MRI screening patients (42) with at least 3 years of negative follow-up. For each breast MRI, axillary lymph node was identified on first T1 post contrast dynamic images and underwent 3D segmentation using an open source software platform 3D Slicer. A 32 × 32 patch was then extracted from the center slice of the segmented tumor data. A CNN was designed for lymph node prediction based on each of these cropped images. The CNN consisted of seven convolutional layers and max-pooling layers with 50% dropout applied in the linear layer. In addition, data augmentation and L2 regularization were performed to limit overfitting. Training was implemented using the Adam optimizer, an algorithm for first-order gradient-based optimization of stochastic objective functions, based on adaptive estimates of lower-order moments. Code for this study was written in Python using the TensorFlow module (1.0.0). Experiments and CNN training were done on a Linux workstation with NVIDIA GTX 1070 Pascal GPU. Two class axillary lymph node metastasis prediction models were evaluated. For each lymph node, a final softmax score threshold of 0.5 was used for classification. Based on this, CNN achieved a mean five-fold cross-validation accuracy of 84.3%. It is feasible for current deep CNN architectures to be trained to predict likelihood of axillary lymph node metastasis. Larger dataset will likely improve our prediction model and can potentially be a non-invasive alternative to core needle biopsy and even sentinel lymph node

  10. The prognostic value of node status in different breast cancer subtypes

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Xin-Wei; Chi, Jiang-Rui; Ge, Jie; Wang, Xin; Cao, Xu-Chen

    2017-01-01

    Nodal metastases and breast cancer subtypes (BCS) are both well-recognized prognostic indicators. However, the association between nodal metastases and BCS, and the prognostic value of nodal metastases in different BCS are still remains unclear. Our aim was to investigate the association between nodal metastases and BCS, and the prognostic value of nodal metastases in the different BCS. We found that the breast cancer subtype was closely associated with the pN stage. pN stage and breast cancer subtype were significantly associated with disease-free survival. The subgroup analysis showed that the patients in higher pN stage had a poor outcome than patients in lower pN stage in each breast cancer subtype. Furthermore, when the analysis was stratified by breast cancer subtype, we found that even in the same pN stage (pN0-pN2), there was significant survival difference among patients in different BCS, and Luminal A breast cancer patients had the best survival outcome. However, there were no significant survival difference between Luminal A patients and other breast cancer subtype when patients in pN3 stage. Thus, our study suggested that both lymph node status and molecular subtype played important roles in the outcome of breast cancer patients and they cannot replace each other. PMID:27999188

  11. Diagnostic Assessment of Deep Learning Algorithms for Detection of Lymph Node Metastases in Women With Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Veta, Mitko; Johannes van Diest, Paul; van Ginneken, Bram; Karssemeijer, Nico; Litjens, Geert; van der Laak, Jeroen A. W. M.; Hermsen, Meyke; Manson, Quirine F; Balkenhol, Maschenka; Geessink, Oscar; Stathonikos, Nikolaos; van Dijk, Marcory CRF; Bult, Peter; Beca, Francisco; Beck, Andrew H; Wang, Dayong; Khosla, Aditya; Gargeya, Rishab; Irshad, Humayun; Zhong, Aoxiao; Dou, Qi; Li, Quanzheng; Chen, Hao; Lin, Huang-Jing; Heng, Pheng-Ann; Haß, Christian; Bruni, Elia; Wong, Quincy; Halici, Ugur; Öner, Mustafa Ümit; Cetin-Atalay, Rengul; Berseth, Matt; Khvatkov, Vitali; Vylegzhanin, Alexei; Kraus, Oren; Shaban, Muhammad; Rajpoot, Nasir; Awan, Ruqayya; Sirinukunwattana, Korsuk; Qaiser, Talha; Tsang, Yee-Wah; Tellez, David; Annuscheit, Jonas; Hufnagl, Peter; Valkonen, Mira; Kartasalo, Kimmo; Latonen, Leena; Ruusuvuori, Pekka; Liimatainen, Kaisa; Albarqouni, Shadi; Mungal, Bharti; George, Ami; Demirci, Stefanie; Navab, Nassir; Watanabe, Seiryo; Seno, Shigeto; Takenaka, Yoichi; Matsuda, Hideo; Ahmady Phoulady, Hady; Kovalev, Vassili; Kalinovsky, Alexander; Liauchuk, Vitali; Bueno, Gloria; Fernandez-Carrobles, M. Milagro; Serrano, Ismael; Deniz, Oscar; Racoceanu, Daniel; Venâncio, Rui

    2017-01-01

    Importance Application of deep learning algorithms to whole-slide pathology images can potentially improve diagnostic accuracy and efficiency. Objective Assess the performance of automated deep learning algorithms at detecting metastases in hematoxylin and eosin–stained tissue sections of lymph nodes of women with breast cancer and compare it with pathologists’ diagnoses in a diagnostic setting. Design, Setting, and Participants Researcher challenge competition (CAMELYON16) to develop automated solutions for detecting lymph node metastases (November 2015-November 2016). A training data set of whole-slide images from 2 centers in the Netherlands with (n = 110) and without (n = 160) nodal metastases verified by immunohistochemical staining were provided to challenge participants to build algorithms. Algorithm performance was evaluated in an independent test set of 129 whole-slide images (49 with and 80 without metastases). The same test set of corresponding glass slides was also evaluated by a panel of 11 pathologists with time constraint (WTC) from the Netherlands to ascertain likelihood of nodal metastases for each slide in a flexible 2-hour session, simulating routine pathology workflow, and by 1 pathologist without time constraint (WOTC). Exposures Deep learning algorithms submitted as part of a challenge competition or pathologist interpretation. Main Outcomes and Measures The presence of specific metastatic foci and the absence vs presence of lymph node metastasis in a slide or image using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. The 11 pathologists participating in the simulation exercise rated their diagnostic confidence as definitely normal, probably normal, equivocal, probably tumor, or definitely tumor. Results The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) for the algorithms ranged from 0.556 to 0.994. The top-performing algorithm achieved a lesion-level, true-positive fraction comparable with that of the pathologist

  12. Diagnostic Assessment of Deep Learning Algorithms for Detection of Lymph Node Metastases in Women With Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Ehteshami Bejnordi, Babak; Veta, Mitko; Johannes van Diest, Paul; van Ginneken, Bram; Karssemeijer, Nico; Litjens, Geert; van der Laak, Jeroen A W M; Hermsen, Meyke; Manson, Quirine F; Balkenhol, Maschenka; Geessink, Oscar; Stathonikos, Nikolaos; van Dijk, Marcory Crf; Bult, Peter; Beca, Francisco; Beck, Andrew H; Wang, Dayong; Khosla, Aditya; Gargeya, Rishab; Irshad, Humayun; Zhong, Aoxiao; Dou, Qi; Li, Quanzheng; Chen, Hao; Lin, Huang-Jing; Heng, Pheng-Ann; Haß, Christian; Bruni, Elia; Wong, Quincy; Halici, Ugur; Öner, Mustafa Ümit; Cetin-Atalay, Rengul; Berseth, Matt; Khvatkov, Vitali; Vylegzhanin, Alexei; Kraus, Oren; Shaban, Muhammad; Rajpoot, Nasir; Awan, Ruqayya; Sirinukunwattana, Korsuk; Qaiser, Talha; Tsang, Yee-Wah; Tellez, David; Annuscheit, Jonas; Hufnagl, Peter; Valkonen, Mira; Kartasalo, Kimmo; Latonen, Leena; Ruusuvuori, Pekka; Liimatainen, Kaisa; Albarqouni, Shadi; Mungal, Bharti; George, Ami; Demirci, Stefanie; Navab, Nassir; Watanabe, Seiryo; Seno, Shigeto; Takenaka, Yoichi; Matsuda, Hideo; Ahmady Phoulady, Hady; Kovalev, Vassili; Kalinovsky, Alexander; Liauchuk, Vitali; Bueno, Gloria; Fernandez-Carrobles, M Milagro; Serrano, Ismael; Deniz, Oscar; Racoceanu, Daniel; Venâncio, Rui

    2017-12-12

    Application of deep learning algorithms to whole-slide pathology images can potentially improve diagnostic accuracy and efficiency. Assess the performance of automated deep learning algorithms at detecting metastases in hematoxylin and eosin-stained tissue sections of lymph nodes of women with breast cancer and compare it with pathologists' diagnoses in a diagnostic setting. Researcher challenge competition (CAMELYON16) to develop automated solutions for detecting lymph node metastases (November 2015-November 2016). A training data set of whole-slide images from 2 centers in the Netherlands with (n = 110) and without (n = 160) nodal metastases verified by immunohistochemical staining were provided to challenge participants to build algorithms. Algorithm performance was evaluated in an independent test set of 129 whole-slide images (49 with and 80 without metastases). The same test set of corresponding glass slides was also evaluated by a panel of 11 pathologists with time constraint (WTC) from the Netherlands to ascertain likelihood of nodal metastases for each slide in a flexible 2-hour session, simulating routine pathology workflow, and by 1 pathologist without time constraint (WOTC). Deep learning algorithms submitted as part of a challenge competition or pathologist interpretation. The presence of specific metastatic foci and the absence vs presence of lymph node metastasis in a slide or image using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. The 11 pathologists participating in the simulation exercise rated their diagnostic confidence as definitely normal, probably normal, equivocal, probably tumor, or definitely tumor. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) for the algorithms ranged from 0.556 to 0.994. The top-performing algorithm achieved a lesion-level, true-positive fraction comparable with that of the pathologist WOTC (72.4% [95% CI, 64.3%-80.4%]) at a mean of 0.0125 false-positives per normal whole-slide image

  13. Topological transport in Dirac nodal-line semimetals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rui, W. B.; Zhao, Y. X.; Schnyder, Andreas P.

    2018-04-01

    Topological nodal-line semimetals are characterized by one-dimensional Dirac nodal rings that are protected by the combined symmetry of inversion P and time-reversal T . The stability of these Dirac rings is guaranteed by a quantized ±π Berry phase and their low-energy physics is described by a one-parameter family of (2+1)-dimensional quantum field theories exhibiting the parity anomaly. Here we study the Berry-phase supported topological transport of P T -invariant nodal-line semimetals. We find that small inversion breaking allows for an electric-field-induced anomalous transverse current, whose universal component originates from the parity anomaly. Due to this Hall-like current, carriers at opposite sides of the Dirac nodal ring flow to opposite surfaces when an electric field is applied. To detect the topological currents, we propose a dumbbell device, which uses surface states to filter charges based on their momenta. Suggestions for experiments and device applications are discussed.

  14. Risk of Nodal Metastasis in Major Salivary Gland Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Megwalu, Uchechukwu C; Sirjani, Davud

    2017-04-01

    Objective To determine the risk of nodal metastasis, examine risk factors for nodal metastasis, and evaluate the impact of nodal metastasis on survival in patients with major salivary gland adenoid cystic carcinoma. Study Design Retrospective cohort study from a large population- based cancer database. Methods Data were extracted from the SEER 18 database (Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results) of the National Cancer Institute. The study cohort included 720 patients diagnosed with major salivary gland adenoid cystic carcinoma between 1988 and 2013. Results The overall rate of lymph node metastasis was 17%. T3 disease (odds ratio, 4.74) and T4 disease (odds ratio, 9.24) were associated with increased risk of nodal metastasis. Age, sex, and site were not associated with nodal metastasis. Nodal metastasis was associated with worse overall survival (hazard ratio, 2.56) and disease-specific survival (hazard ratio, 3.27), after adjusting for T stage, presence of distant metastasis, site, surgical resection, radiotherapy, neck dissection, age, sex, race, marital status, and year of diagnosis. Conclusion Major salivary gland adenoid cystic carcinoma carries significant risk of nodal metastasis. Advanced T stage is associated with increased risk of nodal metastasis. Nodal metastasis is associated with worse survival.

  15. Hemodialysis catheter implantation in the axillary vein by ultrasound guidance versus palpation or anatomical reference

    PubMed Central

    Valencia, Cesar A Restrepo; Villa, Carlos A Buitrago; Cardona, Jose A Chacon

    2013-01-01

    Background We compared the results of four different methods of hemodialysis catheter insertion in the medial segment of the axillary vein: ultrasound guidance, palpation, anatomical reference, and prior transient catheter. Methods All patients that required acute or chronic hemodialysis and for whom it was determined impossible or not recommended either to place a catheter in the internal jugular vein (for instance, those patients with a tracheostomy), or to practice arteriovenous fistula or graft; it was then essential to obtain an alternative vascular access. When the procedure of axillary vein catheter insertion was performed in the Renal Care Facility (RCF), ultrasound guidance was used, but in the intensive care unit (ICU), this resource was unavailable, so the palpation or anatomical reference technique was used. Results Two nephrologists with experience in the technique performed 83 procedures during a period lasting 15 years and 8 months (from January 1997–August 2012): 41 by ultrasound guidance; 19 by anatomical references; 15 by palpation of the contiguous axillary artery; and 8 through a temporary axillary catheter previously placed. The ultrasound-guided patients had fewer punctures than other groups, but the value was not statistically significant. Arterial punctures were infrequent in all techniques. Analyzing all the procedure-related complications, such as hematoma, pneumothorax, brachial-plexus injury, as well as the reasons for catheter removal, no differences were observed among the groups. The functioning time was longer in the ultrasound-guided and previous catheter groups. In 15 years and 8 months of surveillance, no clinical or image evidence for axillary vein stenosis was found. Conclusion The ultrasound guide makes the procedure of inserting catheters in the axillary veins easier, but knowledge of the anatomy of the midaxillary region and the ability to feel the axillary artery pulse (for the palpation method) also allow relatively easy

  16. Chiral topological insulating phases from three-dimensional nodal loop semimetals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Linhu; Yin, Chuanhao; Chen, Shu; Araujo, Miguel

    We begin with a minimal model of three-dimensional nodal loop semimetals, and study the effect of anticommuting gap terms. The resulting topological insulating phases are protected by a chiral symmetry, and can be characterized by a winding number defined along the nodal loop. We illustrate the geometric relation between the nodal loop and the gap terms, which has a correspondence to the nodal loop winding number. We further investigate a lattice model and study its edge states under open boundary condition. The edge states hold Dirac cones with the same number as the summation of the winding numbers of each nodal loop in the first Brillouin zone.

  17. Trends and clinicopathological predictors of axillary evaluation in ductal carcinoma in situ patients treated with breast-conserving therapy.

    PubMed

    Huang, Nai-Si; Si, Jing; Yang, Ben-Long; Quan, Chen-Lian; Chen, Jia-Jian; Wu, Jiong

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the trends of axillary lymph node evaluation in ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) patients treated with breast-conserving therapy (BCT) and to identify the clinicopathological predictors of axillary evaluation. DCIS patients treated with BCT in 2006-2015 at our institute were retrospectively included in the analysis. Patients were categorized into three groups: sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB), axillary lymph node dissection (ALND), and non-evaluation. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to identify factors that predicted axillary evaluation. A total of 315 patients were identified, among whom 135 underwent SLNB, and 15 underwent ALND. The proportion of patients who underwent axillary evaluation increased from 33.0% in 2006-2010 to 53.8% in 2011-2015 (P < 0.001), however, no patients had lymph node metastasis based on final pathology. In multivariate analysis, high-grade tumor favored axillary evaluation (OR = 4.376, 95% CI:1.410-13.586, P = 0.011); while excision biopsy favored no axillary evaluation compared with other biopsy methods (OR = 0.418, 95% CI: 0.192-0.909, P = 0.028). Subgroup analysis of patients treated in 2011-2015 revealed that high-grade tumor (OR = 5.898, 95% CI: 1.626-21.390, P = 0.007) and palpable breast lump (OR = 2.497, 95% CI: 1.037-6.011, P = 0.041) were independent predictors of axillary lymph node evaluation. Despite the significant decrease in ALND and a concerning overuse of SLNB, we identified no axillary lymph node metastasis, which justified omitting axillary evaluation in these patients. High-grade tumor, palpable lump, and biopsy method were independent predictors of axillary evaluations. Excision biopsy of suspicious DCIS lesions may potentially preclude the invasive component of the disease and help to avoid axillary surgery. © 2017 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Self-taught axillary vein access without venography for pacemaker implantation: prospective randomized comparison with the cephalic vein access.

    PubMed

    Squara, Fabien; Tomi, Julien; Scarlatti, Didier; Theodore, Guillaume; Moceri, Pamela; Ferrari, Emile

    2017-12-01

    Axillary vein access for pacemaker implantation is uncommon in many centres because of the lack of training in this technique. We assessed whether the introduction of the axillary vein technique was safe and efficient as compared with cephalic vein access, in a centre where no operators had any previous experience in axillary vein puncture. Patients undergoing pacemaker implantation were randomized to axillary or cephalic vein access. All three operators had no experience nor training in axillary vein puncture, and self-learned the technique by reading a published review. Axillary vein puncture was fluoroscopy-guided without contrast venography. Cephalic access was performed by dissection of delto-pectoral groove. Venous access success, venous access duration (from skin incision to guidewire or lead in superior vena cava), procedure duration, X-ray exposure, and peri-procedural (1 month) complications were recorded. results We randomized 74 consecutive patients to axillary (n = 37) or cephalic vein access (n = 37). Axillary vein was successfully accessed in 30/37 (81.1%) patients vs. 28/37 (75.7%) of cephalic veins (P = 0.57). Venous access time was shorter in axillary group than in cephalic group [5.7 (4.4-8.3) vs. 12.2 (10.5-14.8) min, P < 0.001], as well as procedure duration [34.8 (30.6-38.4) vs. 42.0 (39.1-46.6) min, P = 0.043]. X-ray exposure and peri-procedural overall complications were comparable in both groups. Axillary puncture was safe and faster than cephalic access even for the five first procedures performed by each operator. Self-taught axillary vein puncture for pacemaker implantation seems immediately safe and faster than cephalic vein access, when performed by electrophysiologists trained to pacemaker implantation but not to axillary vein puncture. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2017. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Increased expression of EZH2 in Merkel cell carcinoma is associated with disease progression and poorer prognosis.

    PubMed

    Harms, Kelly L; Chubb, Heather; Zhao, Lili; Fullen, Douglas R; Bichakjian, Christopher K; Johnson, Timothy M; Carskadon, Shannon; Palanisamy, Nallasivam; Harms, Paul W

    2017-09-01

    Enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) is a histone methyltransferase that affects tumorigenesis by epigenetic gene silencing. Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare cutaneous neuroendocrine carcinoma that has a high risk of disease progression with nodal and distant metastases. Here, we evaluated EZH2 expression by immunohistochemistry in a cohort of 85 MCC tumors (29 primary tumors, 41 lymph node metastases, 13 in-transit metastases, and 2 distant metastases) with clinical follow-up. We show strong/moderate EZH2 expression in 54% of tumors. Importantly, weak expression of EZH2 in the primary tumor, but not nodal metastases, correlated with improved prognosis compared to moderate/strong EZH2 expression (5-year MCC-specific survival of 68% versus 22%, respectively, P=.024). In addition, EZH2 was expressed at higher levels in nodal metastases compared to primary tumors (P=.005). Our data demonstrate that EZH2 has prognostic value and may play an oncogenic role in MCC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Topological Nodal-Net Semimetal in a Graphene Network Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jian-Tao; Nie, Simin; Weng, Hongming; Kawazoe, Yoshiyuki; Chen, Changfeng

    2018-01-01

    Topological semimetals are characterized by the nodal points in their electronic structure near the Fermi level, either discrete or forming a continuous line or ring, which are responsible for exotic properties related to the topology of bulk bands. Here we identify by ab initio calculations a distinct topological semimetal that exhibits nodal nets comprising multiple interconnected nodal lines in bulk and have two coupled drumheadlike flat bands around the Fermi level on its surface. This nodal net semimetal state is proposed to be realized in a graphene network structure that can be constructed by inserting a benzene ring into each C- C bond in the bct-C4 lattice or by a crystalline modification of the (5,5) carbon nanotube. These results expand the realm of nodal manifolds in topological semimetals, offering a new platform for exploring novel physics in these fascinating materials.

  1. Axillary lymphadenectomy for breast cancer in elderly patients and fibrin glue

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Axillary lymphadenectomy or sentinel biopsy is integral part of breast cancer treatment, yet seroma formation occurs in 15-85% of cases. Among methods employed to reduce seroma magnitude and duration, fibrin glue has been proposed in numerous studies with controversial results. Methods Thirty patients over 60 years underwent quadrantectomy or mastectomy with level I/II axillary lymphadenectomy; a suction drain was fitted in all patients. Fibrin glue spray were applied to the axillary fossa in 15 patients; the other 15 patients were treated with harmonic scalpel. Results Suction drainage was removed between post-operative Days 3 and 4. Seroma magnitude and duration were not significant in patients receiving fibrin glue compared with the harmonic scalpel group. Conclusions Use of fibrin glue does not always prevent seroma formation, but can reduce seroma magnitude, duration and necessary evacuative punctures. PMID:24266959

  2. The measurement of axillary moisture for the assessment of dehydration among older patients: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, Kensuke; Hattori, Kazuya; Ota, Yoshio; Kanai, Takao; Shimizu, Miyuki; Kobayashi, Hiroyuki; Tokuda, Yasuharu

    2013-02-01

    Dry axilla can sometimes be found among dehydrated older patients. In this study, we measured the axillary moisture and assessed it as possible marker for dehydration. Twenty-nine older patients admitted with acute medical conditions participated in this study. Dehydration was diagnosed by the calculated serum osmolality of greater than 295 mOsm/L. The moisture of axilla was measured by a skin moisture impedance meter which was applied at the center of axilla of patients. 11 patients (7 males and 4 females) were diagnosed as dehydrated and 18 patients (10 males and 8 females) were diagnosed as non-dehydrated. The mean axillary moisture (33%) in the dehydrated group was significantly lower than that (42%) in the non-dehydrated group (p<0.05). The axillary moisture ≥50% showed the sensitivity of 88%. The axillary moisture <30% showed the specificity of 91%. Use of a single cutoff value of 40% moisture produced the sensitivity of 59% and the specificity of 9%. As for the physical signs, dry axilla had also moderate sensitivity and excellent specificity to detect dehydration. The measurement of the axillary moisture could help assess dehydration. Dehydration could be ruled out when the axillary moisture ≥50%, while it could be ruled-in when the axillary moisture is <30%. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Lung metastases

    MedlinePlus

    Metastases to the lung; Metastatic cancer to the lung; Lung cancer - metastases ... Metastatic tumors in the lungs are cancers that developed at other places in the body (or other parts of the lungs). They then spread through the bloodstream or lymphatic ...

  4. Nodal portraits of quantum billiards: Domains, lines, and statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Sudhir Ranjan; Samajdar, Rhine

    2017-10-01

    This is a comprehensive review of the nodal domains and lines of quantum billiards, emphasizing a quantitative comparison of theoretical findings to experiments. The nodal statistics are shown to distinguish not only between regular and chaotic classical dynamics but also between different geometric shapes of the billiard system itself. How a random superposition of plane waves can model chaotic eigenfunctions is discussed and the connections of the complex morphology of the nodal lines thereof to percolation theory and Schramm-Loewner evolution are highlighted. Various approaches to counting the nodal domains—using trace formulas, graph theory, and difference equations—are also illustrated with examples. The nodal patterns addressed pertain to waves on vibrating plates and membranes, acoustic and electromagnetic modes, wave functions of a "particle in a box" as well as to percolating clusters, and domains in ferromagnets, thus underlining the diversity and far-reaching implications of the problem.

  5. 47 CFR 101.503 - Digital Electronic Message Service Nodal Stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Digital Electronic Message Service Nodal... AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES 24 GHz Service and Digital Electronic Message Service § 101.503 Digital Electronic Message Service Nodal Stations. 10.6 GHz DEMS Nodal Stations may be...

  6. Microbiological and biochemical origins of human axillary odour.

    PubMed

    James, A Gordon; Austin, Corrine J; Cox, Diana S; Taylor, David; Calvert, Ralph

    2013-03-01

    The generation of malodour on various sites of the human body is caused by the microbial biotransformation of odourless natural secretions into volatile odorous molecules. On the skin surface, distinctive odours emanate, in particular, from the underarm (axilla), where a large and permanent population of microorganisms thrives on secretions from the eccrine, apocrine and sebaceous glands. Traditional culture-based microbiological studies inform us that this resident microbiota consists mainly of Gram-positive bacteria of the genera Staphylococcus, Micrococcus, Corynebacterium and Propionibacterium. Among the molecular classes that have been implicated in axillary malodour are short- and medium-chain volatile fatty acids, 16-androstene steroids and, most recently, thioalcohols. Most of the available evidence suggests that members of the Corynebacterium genus are the primary causal agents of axillary odour, with the key malodour substrates believed to originate from the apocrine gland. In this article, we examine, in detail, the microbiology and biochemistry of malodour formation on axillary skin, focussing on precursor-product relationships, odour-forming enzymes and metabolic pathways and causal organisms. As well as reviewing the literature, some relevant new data are presented and considered alongside that already available in the public domain to reach an informed view on the current state-of-the-art, as well as future perspectives. © 2012 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Agreement of Axillary and Auricular Temperature with Rectal Temperature in Systemically Healthy Dogs Undergoing Surgery.

    PubMed

    Cichocki, Brandy; Dugat, Danielle; Payton, Mark

    Obtaining a patient's temperature is an important part of a patient's physical examination. As human medicine transitions to noninvasive temperature measurements, so does veterinary medicine. Historically, temperature measurement has been obtained from rectal readings; however, alternative methods, such as axillary and auricular temperatures, are increasing in popularity. The purpose of the study was to compare these alternative techniques to the gold standard of rectal temperature. Temperatures were obtained three ways for each patient: rectal, axillary, and auricular. Results indicated a positive linear relationship between rectal and axillary temperatures (bivariate correlation coefficient [r] = 0.65, P < .001) and axillary and auricular temperatures (r = 0.55, P < .001). Agreement was strongest between rectal and auricular temperatures (r = 0.80, P < .001). The average discrepancy between axillary and rectal temperature was 1.2°C [2.1°F] with the highest difference being 4.0°C [7.3°F]. The average discrepancy between auricular and rectal temperature was 0.6°C [1.2°F] with the highest difference being 2.2°C [4.1°F]. Despite auricular temperatures having stronger agreement, Bland-Altman Limits of Agreement testing revealed that it was a poor predictor of rectal temperature. Based on these results, axillary and auricular temperatures should not be substituted for rectal temperature.

  8. Nodal domains of a non-separable problem—the right-angled isosceles triangle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aronovitch, Amit; Band, Ram; Fajman, David; Gnutzmann, Sven

    2012-03-01

    We study the nodal set of eigenfunctions of the Laplace operator on the right-angled isosceles triangle. A local analysis of the nodal pattern provides an algorithm for computing the number νn of nodal domains for any eigenfunction. In addition, an exact recursive formula for the number of nodal domains is found to reproduce all existing data. Eventually, we use the recursion formula to analyse a large sequence of nodal counts statistically. Our analysis shows that the distribution of nodal counts for this triangular shape has a much richer structure than the known cases of regular separable shapes or completely irregular shapes. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the nodal count sequence contains information about the periodic orbits of the corresponding classical ray dynamics.

  9. Nodal weighting factor method for ex-core fast neutron fluence evaluation

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Chiang, R. T.

    The nodal weighting factor method is developed for evaluating ex-core fast neutron flux in a nuclear reactor by utilizing adjoint neutron flux, a fictitious unit detector cross section for neutron energy above 1 or 0.1 MeV, the unit fission source, and relative assembly nodal powers. The method determines each nodal weighting factor for ex-core neutron fast flux evaluation by solving the steady-state adjoint neutron transport equation with a fictitious unit detector cross section for neutron energy above 1 or 0.1 MeV as the adjoint source, by integrating the unit fission source with a typical fission spectrum to the solved adjointmore » flux over all energies, all angles and given nodal volume, and by dividing it with the sum of all nodal weighting factors, which is a normalization factor. Then, the fast neutron flux can be obtained by summing the various relative nodal powers times the corresponding nodal weighting factors of the adjacent significantly contributed peripheral assembly nodes and times a proper fast neutron attenuation coefficient over an operating period. A generic set of nodal weighting factors can be used to evaluate neutron fluence at the same location for similar core design and fuel cycles, but the set of nodal weighting factors needs to be re-calibrated for a transition-fuel-cycle. This newly developed nodal weighting factor method should be a useful and simplified tool for evaluating fast neutron fluence at selected locations of interest in ex-core components of contemporary nuclear power reactors. (authors)« less

  10. Versajet-Assisted Hydraulic Epilation Through Small Incisions for Axillary Osmidrosis.

    PubMed

    Han, Jin Ho; Kim, June-Kyu; Yoon, Kun Chul; Shin, Hyun Woo

    2018-06-01

    Osmidrosis is a malodorous disease caused by the breakdown of sweat secreted from the apocrine glands by surface bacteria. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Versajet-assisted hydraulic epilation for the treatment of axillary osmidrosis. Thirty-two patients with axillary osmidrosis (64 axillae) underwent Versajet-assisted hydraulic epilation between January 2016 and January 2017. Subjective assessments were evaluated by a patient survey at least 3 months after the procedure. There were no complications other than one mild pigmentation in the axilla at 3 months after the procedure. Thirty-two patients evaluated malodor elimination as good. No patients evaluated it as fair or poor. There were no recurrences. Versajet-assisted hydraulic epilation is an ideal surgical procedure for the treatment of axillary osmidrosis that decreases complications and recurrence. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .

  11. Incidence of bone metastases and survival after a diagnosis of bone metastases in breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Harries, M; Taylor, A; Holmberg, L; Agbaje, O; Garmo, H; Kabilan, S; Purushotham, A

    2014-08-01

    Bone is the most common metastatic site associated with breast cancer. Using a database of women with breast cancer treated at Guy's Hospital, London 1976-2006 and followed until end 2010, we determined incidence of and survival after bone metastases. We calculated cumulative incidence of bone metastases considering death without prior bone metastases as a competing risk. Risk of bone metastases was modelled through Cox-regression. Survival after bone metastases diagnosis was calculated using Kaplan-Meier methodology. Of the 7064 women, 589 (22%) developed bone metastases during 8.4 years (mean). Incidence of bone metastases was significantly higher in younger women, tumour size >5 cm, higher tumour grade, lobular carcinoma and ≥ four positive nodes, but was not affected by hormone receptor status. Median survival after bone metastases diagnosis was 2.3 years in women with bone-only metastases compared with <1 year in women with visceral and bone metastases. There was a trend for decreased survival for patients who developed visceral metastases early, and proportionately fewer patients in this group. Incidence of bone metastases has decreased but bone metastases remain a highly relevant clinical problem due to the large number of patients being diagnosed with breast cancer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Nodal network generator for CAVE3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmieri, J. V.; Rathjen, K. A.

    1982-01-01

    A new extension of CAVE3 code was developed that automates the creation of a finite difference math model in digital form ready for input to the CAVE3 code. The new software, Nodal Network Generator, is broken into two segments. One segment generates the model geometry using a Tektronix Tablet Digitizer and the other generates the actual finite difference model and allows for graphic verification using Tektronix 4014 Graphic Scope. Use of the Nodal Network Generator is described.

  13. Observation of a nodal chain with Dirac surface states in Ti B2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, C.-J.; Lv, B. Q.; Wu, Q. S.; Fu, B.-B.; Gao, X.; Yang, M.; Peng, X.-L.; Li, M.; Huang, Y.-B.; Richard, P.; Shi, M.; Li, G.; Yazyev, Oleg V.; Shi, Y.-G.; Qian, T.; Ding, H.

    2018-05-01

    Topological nodal-line semimetals (TNLSMs) are characterized by symmetry-protected band crossings extending along one-dimensional lines in momentum space. The nodal lines exhibit a variety of possible configurations, such as nodal ring, nodal link, nodal chain, and nodal knot. Here, using angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, we observe nodal rings on the orthogonal kz=0 and kx=0 planes of the Brillouin zone in Ti B2 . The nodal rings connect with each other on the intersecting line Γ-K of the orthogonal planes forming a remarkable nodal-chain structure. Furthermore, we observe surface states (SSs) on the (001) cleaved surface, which are consistent with the calculated SSs considering the contribution from both Ti and B terminations. The calculated SSs have novel Dirac-cone-like band structures, which are distinct from the usual drumhead SSs with a single flatband proposed in other TNLSMs.

  14. Nodal lines and nodal loops in nonsymmorphic odd-parity superconductors

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Micklitz, T.; Norman, M. R.

    2017-01-01

    We discuss the nodal structure of odd-parity superconductors in the presence of nonsymmorphic crystal symmetries, both with and without spin-orbit coupling, and with and without time-reversal symmetry. We comment on the relation of our work to previous work in the literature, and also the implications for unconventional superconductors such as UPt3.

  15. Surgical Repair of Axillary Artery Aneurysm in a 2-Year-Old Child: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Beshish, Asaad G; Arutyunyan, Tsovinar

    2017-05-01

    Peripheral aneurysm and pseudoaneurysm of an artery is a well-recognized but rare phenomenon in children. We report a case of an axillary artery aneurysm in a 2-year-old boy with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus septic shock, acute respiratory distress syndrome, and multiorgan dysfunction syndrome. Definitive surgical treatment with left axillary artery aneurysm exclusion and bypass with greater saphenous vein graft were performed. To our knowledge, this is the only axillary artery aneurysm ever reported in a child. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Functional characterisation of a SNP in the ABCC11 allele - effects on axillary skin metabolism, odour generation and associated behaviours.

    PubMed

    Harker, Mark; Carvell, Ann-Marie; Marti, Vernon P J; Riazanskaia, Svetlana; Kelso, Hailey; Taylor, David; Grimshaw, Sally; Arnold, David S; Zillmer, Ruediger; Shaw, Jane; Kirk, Jayne M; Alcasid, Zee M; Gonzales-Tanon, Sheila; Chan, Gertrude P; Rosing, Egge A E; Smith, Adrian M

    2014-01-01

    A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), 538G→A, leading to a G180R substitution in the ABCC11 gene results in reduced concentrations of apocrine derived axillary odour precursors. Determine the axillary odour levels in the SNP ABCC11 genotype variants and to investigate if other parameters associated with odour production are affected. Axillary odour was assessed by subjective quantification and gas chromatography headspace analysis. Metabolite profiles, microbiome diversity and personal hygiene habits were also assessed. Axillary odour in the A/A homozygotes was significantly lower compared to the G/A and G/G genotypes. However, the perception-based measures still detected appreciable levels of axillary odour in the A/A subjects. Metabolomic analysis highlighted significant differences in axillary skin metabolites between A/A subjects compared to those carrying the G allele. These differences resulted in A/A subjects lacking specific volatile odourants in the axillary headspace, but all genotypes produced odoriferous short chain fatty acids. Microbiomic analysis revealed differences in the relative abundance of key bacterial genera associated with odour generation between the different genotypes. Deodorant usage indicated a high level of self awareness of axillary odour levels with A/A individuals less likely to adopt personal hygiene habits designed to eradicate/mask its presence. The SNP in the ABCC11 gene results in lower levels of axillary odour in the A/A homozygotes compared to those carrying the G allele, but A/A subjects still produce noticeable amounts of axillary odour. Differences in axillary skin metabolites, bacterial genera and personal hygiene behaviours also appear to be influenced by this SNP. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  17. Ultrasound-guided axillary nerve block for ED incision and drainage of deltoid abscess.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Claire; Herring, Andrew A

    2017-07-01

    Deltoid abscesses are common and painful, often a consequence of injection drug use and seen frequently in emergency departments (EDs). The required incision and drainage can be completed successfully with effective pain relief using a peripheral nerve block. The brachial plexus nerve block works well, however it is technically complex with a low, but potentially serious, risk of complications such as phrenic nerve paralysis. Selective blockade of the axillary nerve eliminates the risks associated with a brachial plexus block, while providing more specific anesthesia for the deltoid region. Our initial experience suggests that the axillary nerve block (ANB) is a technically simple, safe, and effective way to manage the pain of deltoid abscesses and the necessary incision and drainage (I&D). The block involves using ultrasound guidance to inject a 20mL bolus of local anesthetic into the quadrangular space surrounding the axillary nerve (inferior to the posterolateral aspect of the acromion, near the overlap of the long head of triceps brachii and teres minor). Once injected the local will anesthetize the axillary nerve resulting in analgesia of the cutaneous area of the lateral shoulder and the deeper tissues including the deltoid muscle. Further research will clarify questions about the volume and concentration of local anesthetic, the role of injected adjuncts, and expected duration of analgesia and anesthesia. Herein we present a description of an axillary nerve block successfully used for deltoid abscess I&D in the ED. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Missing metastases as a model to challenge current therapeutic algorithms in colorectal liver metastases.

    PubMed

    Lucidi, Valerio; Hendlisz, Alain; Van Laethem, Jean-Luc; Donckier, Vincent

    2016-04-21

    In oncosurgical approach to colorectal liver metastases, surgery remains considered as the only potentially curative option, while chemotherapy alone represents a strictly palliative treatment. However, missing metastases, defined as metastases disappearing after chemotherapy, represent a unique model to evaluate the curative potential of chemotherapy and to challenge current therapeutic algorithms. We reviewed recent series on missing colorectal liver metastases to evaluate incidence of this phenomenon, predictive factors and rates of cure defined by complete pathologic response in resected missing metastases and sustained clinical response when they were left unresected. According to the progresses in the efficacy of chemotherapeutic regimen, the incidence of missing liver metastases regularly increases these last years. Main predictive factors are small tumor size, low marker level, duration of chemotherapy, and use of intra-arterial chemotherapy. Initial series showed low rates of complete pathologic response in resected missing metastases and high recurrence rates when unresected. However, recent reports describe complete pathologic responses and sustained clinical responses reaching 50%, suggesting that chemotherapy could be curative in some cases. Accordingly, in case of missing colorectal liver metastases, the classical recommendation to resect initial tumor sites might have become partially obsolete. Furthermore, the curative effect of chemotherapy in selected cases could lead to a change of paradigm in patients with unresectable liver-only metastases, using intensive first-line chemotherapy to intentionally induce missing metastases, followed by adjuvant surgery on remnant chemoresistant tumors and close surveillance of initial sites that have been left unresected.

  19. Sentinel node detection in pre-operative axillary staging.

    PubMed

    Trifirò, Giuseppe; Viale, Giuseppe; Gentilini, Oreste; Travaini, Laura Lavinia; Paganelli, Giovanni

    2004-06-01

    The concept of sentinel lymph node biopsy in breast cancer surgery is based on the fact that the tumour drains in a logical way via the lymphatic system, from the first to upper levels. Since axillary node dissection does not improve the prognosis of patients with breast cancer, sentinel lymph node biopsy might replace complete axillary dissection for staging of the axilla in clinically N0 patients. Sentinel lymph node biopsy would represent a significant advantage as a minimally invasive procedure, considering that about 70% of patients are found to be free from metastatic disease, yet axillary node dissection can lead to significant morbidity. Subdermal or peritumoural injection of small aliquots (and very low activity) of radiotracer is preferred to intratumoural administration, and (99m)Tc-labelled colloids with most of the particles in the 100-200 nm size range would be ideal for radioguided sentinel node biopsy in breast cancer. The success rate of radioguidance in localising the sentinel lymph node in breast cancer surgery is about 97% in institutions where a high number of procedures are performed, and the success rate of lymphoscintigraphy in sentinel node detection is about 100%. The sentinel lymph node should be processed for intraoperative frozen section examination in its entirety, based on conventional histopathology and, when necessary, immune staining with anti-cytokeratin antibody. Nowadays, lymphoscintigraphy is a useful procedure in patients with different clinical evidence of breast cancer.

  20. [Studies on the chemical constituents from the bark of Choerospondias axillaries].

    PubMed

    Li, Sheng-Hua; Wu, Xian-Jin; Zheng, Yao; Jiang, Chong-Liang

    2009-10-01

    To study the chemical constituents of Choerospondias axillaries. All compounds were isolated and purified by normal column chromatograph, paper thin layer chromatograph and sephadex chromatograph, the chemical strucures were mainly elucidated by ESI-MS and NMR spectra. seven compouds were isolated from the Choerospondias axillaries and as following: beta-sitostero (I), hexadecanoic acid (II), correctitude fourty-two alkyl acid (III), daucosterol (IV), quercetin (V), rutinum (VI), lueolin-3'-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (VII). Compounds II, III, V, VII are isolated from this plant for the first time.

  1. Super-nodal methods for space-time kinetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mertyurek, Ugur

    The purpose of this research has been to develop an advanced Super-Nodal method to reduce the run time of 3-D core neutronics models, such as in the NESTLE reactor core simulator and FORMOSA nuclear fuel management optimization codes. Computational performance of the neutronics model is increased by reducing the number of spatial nodes used in the core modeling. However, as the number of spatial nodes decreases, the error in the solution increases. The Super-Nodal method reduces the error associated with the use of coarse nodes in the analyses by providing a new set of cross sections and ADFs (Assembly Discontinuity Factors) for the new nodalization. These so called homogenization parameters are obtained by employing consistent collapsing technique. During this research a new type of singularity, namely "fundamental mode singularity", is addressed in the ANM (Analytical Nodal Method) solution. The "Coordinate Shifting" approach is developed as a method to address this singularity. Also, the "Buckling Shifting" approach is developed as an alternative and more accurate method to address the zero buckling singularity, which is a more common and well known singularity problem in the ANM solution. In the course of addressing the treatment of these singularities, an effort was made to provide better and more robust results from the Super-Nodal method by developing several new methods for determining the transverse leakage and collapsed diffusion coefficient, which generally are the two main approximations in the ANM methodology. Unfortunately, the proposed new transverse leakage and diffusion coefficient approximations failed to provide a consistent improvement to the current methodology. However, improvement in the Super-Nodal solution is achieved by updating the homogenization parameters at several time points during a transient. The update is achieved by employing a refinement technique similar to pin-power reconstruction. A simple error analysis based on the relative

  2. Arm morbidity of axillary dissection with sentinel node biopsy versus delayed axillary dissection.

    PubMed

    Ballal, Helen; Hunt, Catherine; Bharat, Chrianna; Murray, Kevin; Kamyab, Roshi; Saunders, Christobel

    2018-02-02

    Staging of axillary lymph nodes in breast cancer is important for prognostication and planning of adjuvant therapy. The traditional practice of proceeding to axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) if sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) is positive is being challenged and clinical trials are underway. For many centres, this will mean a move away from intra-operative SLNB assessment and utilization of a second procedure to perform ALND. It is sometimes perceived that a delayed ALND results in increased tissue damage and thus increased morbidity. We compared morbidity in those undergoing SLNB only, or ALND as a one- or two-stage procedure. A retrospective review of a prospectively collected institutional database was used to review rates of lymphoedema and shoulder function in women undergoing breast cancer surgery between 2008 and 2012. The overall lymphoedema rate in 745 patients was 8.2% at 12 months. There was no difference in lymphoedema rates between those undergoing immediate or delayed ALND (17.8 and 8.6%, respectively, P = 0.092). Post-operative shoulder elevation, odds ratio (OR) = 0.390, 95% confidence interval (CI) = (0.218, 0.698) and abduction, OR = 0.437 (95% CI = (0.271, 0.705)) were reduced if an ALND was performed although there was no difference between immediate or delayed. ALND remains a risk factor for post-operative morbidity. There is no increased risk of lymphoedema or shoulder function deficit with a positive SLNB and delayed ALND compared to immediate ALND. © 2018 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  3. [Lymph node and distant metastases of thyroid gland cancer. Metastases in the thyroid glands].

    PubMed

    Schmid, K W

    2015-11-01

    The different biological features of the various major entities of thyroid cancer, e.g. papillary, follicular, poorly differentiated, anaplastic and medullary, depend to a large extent on their different metastatic spread. Papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) has a propensity for cervical lymphatic spread that occurs in 20-50 % of patients whereas distant metastasis occurs in < 5 % of cases. Cervical lymphadenopathy may be the first symptom particularly of (micro) PTC. In contrast follicular thyroid cancer (FTC) has a marked propensity for vascular but not lymphatic invasion and 10-20 % of FTC develop distant metastases. At the time of diagnosis approximately one third of medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) cases show lymph node metastases, in 10-15 % distant metastases and 25 % develop metastases during the course of the disease. Poorly differentiated (PDTC) and anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) spread via both lymphatic and vascular invasion. Thus distant metastases are relatively uncommon in DTC and when they occur, long-term stable disease is the typical clinical course. The major sites of distant metastases are the lungs and bone. Metastases to the brain, breasts, liver, kidneys, muscle and skin are relatively rare or even rare. The thyroid gland itself can be a site of metastases from a variety of other tumors. In autopsy series of patients with disseminated cancer disease, metastases to the thyroid gland were found in up to 10 % of cases. Metastases from other primary tumors to the thyroid gland have been reported in 1.4-3 % of patients who have surgery for suspected cancer of the thyroid gland. The most common primary cancers that metastasize to the thyroid gland are renal cell (48.1 %), colorectal (10.4 %), lung (8.3 %) and breast cancer (7.8 %) and surprisingly often sarcomas (4.0 %).

  4. Nodal Lymphangiogenesis and Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Hirakawa, Satoshi; Detmar, Michael; Kerjaschki, Dontscho; Nagamatsu, Shogo; Matsuo, Keitaro; Tanemura, Atsushi; Kamata, Nobuyuki; Higashikawa, Koichiro; Okazaki, Hidenori; Kameda, Kenji; Nishida-Fukuda, Hisayo; Mori, Hideki; Hanakawa, Yasushi; Sayama, Koji; Shirakata, Yuji; Tohyama, Mikiko; Tokumaru, Sho; Katayama, Ichiro; Hashimoto, Koji

    2009-01-01

    Nodal lymphangiogenesis promotes distant lymph node (LN) metastasis in experimental cancer models. However, the role of nodal lymphangiogenesis in distant metastasis and in the overall survival of cancer patients remains unknown. Therefore, we investigated mechanisms that might facilitate regional and distant LN metastasis in extramammary Paget’s disease (EMPD). We retrospectively analyzed the impact of tumor-induced lymphatic vessel activation on the survival of 116 patients, the largest cohort with EMPD studied to date. Nodal lymphangiogenesis was significantly increased in metastatic, compared with tumor-free, LNs (P = 0.022). Increased lymphatic invasion within regional LNs was significantly associated with distant metastasis in LN (P = 0.047) and organs (P = 0.003). Thus, invasion within regional LNs is a powerful indicator of systemic tumor spread and reduced patient survival in EMPD (P = 0.0004). Lymphatic vessels associated with tumors expressed stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1), whereas CXCR4 was expressed on invasive Paget cells undergoing epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-like process. A431 cells overexpressing Snail expressed increased levels of CXCR4 in the presence of transforming growth factor-β1. Haptotactic migration assays confirmed that Snail-induced EMT-like process promotes tumor cell motility via the CXCR4-SDF-1 axis. Sinusoidal lymphatic endothelial cells and macrophages expressed SDF-1 in subcapsular sinuses of lymph nodes before Paget cell arrival. Our findings reveal that EMT-related features likely promote lymphatic metastasis of EMPD by activating the CXCR4-SDF-1 axis. PMID:19815713

  5. Nipple adenoma arising from axillary accessory breast: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Nipple adenoma is a relatively rare benign breast neoplasm, and cases of the disease arising from the axillary accessory breast have very seldom been reported in the English literature. We report a case of nipple adenoma arising from axillary accessory breast including clinical and pathological findings. An 82-year-old woman presented with the complaint of a small painful mass in the right axilla. Physical examination confirmed a well-defined eczematous crusted mass that was 8 mm in size. The diagnosis of nipple adenoma was made from an excisional specimen on the basis of characteristic histological findings. Microscopic structural features included a compact proliferation of small tubules lined by epithelial and myoepithelial cells, and the merging of glandular epithelial cells of the adenoma into squamous epithelial cells in the superficial epidermal layer. Because clinically nipple adenoma may resemble Paget’s disease and pathologically can be misinterpreted as tubular carcinoma, the correct identification of nipple adenoma is an important factor in the differential diagnosis for axillary tumor neoplasms. Virtual slides The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1186821489769063 PMID:23186145

  6. Axillary approach for gynecomastia liposuction.

    PubMed

    Abramo, A C

    1994-01-01

    Liposuction through an axillary incision is used to treat pseudogynecomastia and true gynecomastia. It avoids the large undermining between the skin and the muscular plane that frequently occurs with usual procedures. When true gynecomastia is present, liposuction can be combined with an inferior periareolar incision for resection of the remaining glandular tissue. Unlike usual procedures that can lead to deep skin adherence, depression in the mammary area, or nipple-areola complex deformity, liposuction provides a well-defined contour for the male breast.

  7. Surgical treatment of axillary hyperhidrosis by suction-curettage of sweat glands*

    PubMed Central

    de Rezende, Rebeca Maffra; Luz, Flávio Barbosa

    2014-01-01

    Suction curettage is a dermatologic surgery technique for the treatment of axillary hyperhidrosis, which is becoming more popular. Objective: The purpose of this study is to describe the current technique of removal of axillary sweat glands, and evaluate its efficacy and safety. Conclusion: Suction-curettage of sweat glands is a minimally invasive surgical technique that is easy to perform, safe, has high rates of success and relatively few side-effects. It is generally well tolerated by patients and requires shorter time away from daily activities, when compared with other surgical modalities. PMID:25387499

  8. A Nodal-independent and tissue-intrinsic mechanism controls heart-looping chirality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noël, Emily S.; Verhoeven, Manon; Lagendijk, Anne Karine; Tessadori, Federico; Smith, Kelly; Choorapoikayil, Suma; den Hertog, Jeroen; Bakkers, Jeroen

    2013-11-01

    Breaking left-right symmetry in bilateria is a major event during embryo development that is required for asymmetric organ position, directional organ looping and lateralized organ function in the adult. Asymmetric expression of Nodal-related genes is hypothesized to be the driving force behind regulation of organ laterality. Here we identify a Nodal-independent mechanism that drives asymmetric heart looping in zebrafish embryos. In a unique mutant defective for the Nodal-related southpaw gene, preferential dextral looping in the heart is maintained, whereas gut and brain asymmetries are randomized. As genetic and pharmacological inhibition of Nodal signalling does not abolish heart asymmetry, a yet undiscovered mechanism controls heart chirality. This mechanism is tissue intrinsic, as explanted hearts maintain ex vivo retain chiral looping behaviour and require actin polymerization and myosin II activity. We find that Nodal signalling regulates actin gene expression, supporting a model in which Nodal signalling amplifies this tissue-intrinsic mechanism of heart looping.

  9. Rules for Phase Shifts of Quantum Oscillations in Topological Nodal-Line Semimetals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Cequn; Wang, C. M.; Wan, Bo; Wan, Xiangang; Lu, Hai-Zhou; Xie, X. C.

    2018-04-01

    Nodal-line semimetals are topological semimetals in which band touchings form nodal lines or rings. Around a loop that encloses a nodal line, an electron can accumulate a nontrivial π Berry phase, so the phase shift in the Shubnikov-de Haas (SdH) oscillation may give a transport signature for the nodal-line semimetals. However, different experiments have reported contradictory phase shifts, in particular, in the WHM nodal-line semimetals (W =Zr /Hf , H =Si /Ge , M =S /Se /Te ). For a generic model of nodal-line semimetals, we present a systematic calculation for the SdH oscillation of resistivity under a magnetic field normal to the nodal-line plane. From the analytical result of the resistivity, we extract general rules to determine the phase shifts for arbitrary cases and apply them to ZrSiS and Cu3 PdN systems. Depending on the magnetic field directions, carrier types, and cross sections of the Fermi surface, the phase shift shows rich results, quite different from those for normal electrons and Weyl fermions. Our results may help explore transport signatures of topological nodal-line semimetals and can be generalized to other topological phases of matter.

  10. Lymph node dissection technique is more important than lymph node count in identifying nodal metastases in radical cystectomy patients: a comparative mapping study.

    PubMed

    Dorin, Ryan P; Daneshmand, Siamak; Eisenberg, Manuel S; Chandrasoma, Shahin; Cai, Jie; Miranda, Gus; Nichols, Peter W; Skinner, Donald G; Skinner, Eila C

    2011-11-01

    The value of lymph node dissection (LND) in the treatment of bladder urothelial carcinoma is well established. However, standards for the quality of LND remain controversial. We compared the distribution of lymph node (LN) metastases in a two-institution cohort of patients undergoing radical cystectomy (RC) using a uniformly applied extended LND template. Patients undergoing RC at the University of Southern California (USC) Institute of Urology and at Oregon Health Sciences University (OHSU) were included if they met the following criteria: (1) no prior pelvic radiotherapy or LND; (2) lymphatic tissue submitted from all nine predesignated regions, including the paracaval and para-aortic LNs; (3) bladder primary; and (4) category M0 disease. The number and location of LN metastases were prospectively entered into corresponding databases. LN maps were constructed and correlated with preoperative and pathologic characteristics. Kaplan-Meier curves were constructed to estimate overall survival (OS) and recurrence free survival (RFS) among LN-positive (LN+) patients. Inclusion criteria were met by 646 patients (439 USC, 207 OHSU), and 23% had LN metastases at time of cystectomy. Although there was a difference in the median per-patient LN count between institutions, there were no significant interinstitutional differences in the incidence or distribution of positive LNs, which were found in 11% of patients with ≤pT2b and in 44% of patients with ≥pT3a tumors. Among LN+ patients, 41% had positive LNs above the common iliac bifurcation. Estimated 5-yr RFS and OS rates for LN+ patients were 45% and 33%, respectively, and did not differ significantly between institutions. LN metastases in regions outside the boundaries of standard LND are common. Adherence to meticulous dissection technique within an extended template is likely more important than total LN count for achieving optimal oncologic outcomes. Copyright © 2011 European Association of Urology. Published by

  11. Preablation 131-I scans with SPECT/CT in postoperative thyroid cancer patients: what is the impact on staging?

    PubMed

    Avram, Anca M; Fig, Lorraine M; Frey, Kirk A; Gross, Milton D; Wong, Ka Kit

    2013-03-01

    The utility of preablation radioiodine scans for the management of differentiated thyroid cancer remains controversial. To determine the contribution of preablation Iodine 131 (131-I) planar with single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT; diagnostic [Dx] scans) to differentiated thyroid cancer staging. Prospective sequential series at university clinic. Using American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) tumor, node, metastasis (TNM) staging, seventh edition 320 patients post-total thyroidectomy were initially staged based on clinical and pathology data (pTN) and then restaged after imaging (TNM). The impact of Dx scans with SPECT/CT on N and M scores, and TNM stage, was assessed in younger, age <45 years, n = 138 (43%), and older, age ≥ 45 years, n = 182 (57%) patients, with subgroup analysis for T1a and T1b tumors. In younger patients Dx scans detected distant metastases in 5 of 138 patients (4%), and nodal metastases in 61 of 138 patients (44%), including unsuspected nodal metastases in 24 of 63 (38%) patients initially assigned pathologic (p) N0 or pNx. In older patients distant metastases were detected in 18 of 182 patients (10%), and nodal metastases in 51 of 182 patients (28%), including unsuspected nodal metastases in 26 of 108 (24%) patients initially assigned pN0 or pNx. Dx scans detected distant metastases in 2 of 49 (4%) T1a, and 3 of 67 (4.5%) T1b patients. Dx scans detected regional metastases in 35% of patients, and distant metastases in 8% of patients. Information acquired with Dx scans changed staging in 4% of younger, and 25% of older patients. Preablation scans with SPECT/CT contribute to staging of thyroid cancer. Identification of regional and distant metastases prior to radioiodine therapy has significant potential to alter patient management.

  12. Nodal aberration theory for wild-filed asymmetric optical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yang; Cheng, Xuemin; Hao, Qun

    2016-10-01

    Nodal Aberration Theory (NAT) was used to calculate the zero field position in Full Field Display (FFD) for the given aberration term. Aiming at wide-filed non-rotational symmetric decentered optical systems, we have presented the nodal geography behavior of the family of third-order and fifth-order aberrations. Meanwhile, we have calculated the wavefront aberration expressions when one optical element in the system is tilted, which was not at the entrance pupil. By using a three-piece-cellphone lens example in optical design software CodeV, the nodal geography is testified under several situations; and the wavefront aberrations are calculated when the optical element is tilted. The properties of the nodal aberrations are analyzed by using Fringe Zernike coefficients, which are directly related with the wavefront aberration terms and usually obtained by real ray trace and wavefront surface fitting.

  13. Axillary and thoracic skin temperatures poorly comparable to core body temperature circadian rhythm: results from 2 adult populations.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Karen A; Burr, Robert; Wang, Shu-Yuann; Lentz, Martha J; Shaver, Joan

    2004-01-01

    Data from 2 separate studies were used to examine the relationships of axillary or thoracic skin temperature to rectal temperature and to determine the phase relationships of the circadian rhythms of these temperatures. In study 1, axillary skin and rectal temperatures were recorded in 19 healthy women, 21 to 36 years of age. In study 2, thoracic skin and rectal temperatures were recorded in 74 healthy women, 39 to 59 years of age. In both studies, temperatures were recorded continuously for 24 h while subjects carried out normal activities. Axillary and thoracic probes were insulated purposely to prevent ambient effects. Cosinor analysis was employed to estimate circadian rhythm mesor, amplitude, and acrophase. In addition, correlations between temperatures at various measurement sites were calculated and agreement determined. The circadian timing of axillary and skin temperature did not closely approximate that of rectal temperature: the mean acrophase (clock time) for study 1 was 18:57 h for axillary temperature and 16:12 h for rectal; for study 2, it was 03:05 h for thoracic and 15:05 h for rectal. Across individual subjects, the correlations of axillary or thoracic temperatures with rectal temperatures were variable. Results do not support the use of either axillary or skin temperature as a substitute for rectal temperature in circadian rhythm research related to adult women.

  14. The gravity-regulated growth of axillary buds is mediated by a mechanism different from decapitation-induced release.

    PubMed

    Kitazawa, Daisuke; Miyazawa, Yutaka; Fujii, Nobuharu; Hoshino, Atsushi; Iida, Shigeru; Nitasaka, Eiji; Takahashi, Hideyuki

    2008-06-01

    When the upper part of the main shoot of the Japanese morning glory (Pharbitis nil or Ipomoea nil) is bent down, the axillary bud situated on the uppermost node of the bending region is released from apical dominance and elongates. Here, we demonstrate that this release of axillary buds from apical dominance is gravity regulated. We utilized two agravitropic mutants of morning glory defective in gravisensing cell differentiation, weeping (we) and weeping2 (we2). Bending the main shoots of either we or we2 plants resulted in minimal elongation of their axillary buds. This aberration was genetically linked to the agravitropism phenotype of the mutants, which implied that shoot bending-induced release from apical dominance required gravisensing cells. Previous studies have shown that basipetal translocation of auxin from the apical bud inhibits axillary bud growth, whereas cytokinin promotes axillary bud outgrowth. We therefore compared the roles of auxin and cytokinin in bending- or decapitation-induced axillary bud growth. In the wild-type and we plants, decapitation increased cytokinin levels and reduced auxin response. In contrast, shoot bending did not cause significant changes in either cytokinin level or auxin response, suggesting that the mechanisms underlying gravity- and decapitation-regulated release from apical dominance are distinct and unique.

  15. Axillary metastasis as first symptom of occult breast cancer: a case report.

    PubMed

    Frattaroli, Fabrizio Maria; Carrara, Alessandro; Conte, Anna Maria; Pappalardo, Giuseppe

    2002-01-01

    Axillary lymph node metastasis from an occult breast carcinoma is a rare occurrence. We report this condition in a 59-year-old woman who presented with a swelling in the right axilla. No breast mass was clinically evident. Mammography, ultrasonography and multiple random fine-needle breast biopsies yielded no pathological findings. No extramammary primary lesions were present. Axillary sampling was performed and histological examination revealed the presence of metastatic adenocarcinoma in three of the 12 dissected lymph nodes. Estrogen receptors were positive and immunohistochemistry pointed to a breast origin. All these data were suggestive of occult breast cancer. The patient refused any further treatment but accepted clinical and radiological follow-up. Eight years later mammography revealed in the same breast a 10-mm nodule containing microcalcifications, which was not evident at physical examination. The patient underwent a lumpectomy. Intraoperative histology was positive for breast carcinoma and complete axillary clearance was performed. Histological examination revealed a lobular invasive breast carcinoma and the presence of micrometastasis in one of the 23 removed lymph nodes. The patient was given radiotherapy to the breast and axilla and tamoxifen. At present, one year after the appearance of the primary tumor, she is free of disease. Based on this case report we suggest an eclectic approach in the management of patients with axillary metastasis from occult breast cancer, depending on the clinical, pathological and biological findings.

  16. Are metastases from metastases clinical relevant? Computer modelling of cancer spread in a case of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Bethge, Anja; Schumacher, Udo; Wree, Andreas; Wedemann, Gero

    2012-01-01

    Metastasis formation remains an enigmatic process and one of the main questions recently asked is whether metastases are able to generate further metastases. Different models have been proposed to answer this question; however, their clinical significance remains unclear. Therefore a computer model was developed that permits comparison of the different models quantitatively with clinical data and that additionally predicts the outcome of treatment interventions. The computer model is based on discrete events simulation approach. On the basis of a case from an untreated patient with hepatocellular carcinoma and its multiple metastases in the liver, it was evaluated whether metastases are able to metastasise and in particular if late disseminated tumour cells are still capable to form metastases. Additionally, the resection of the primary tumour was simulated. The simulation results were compared with clinical data. The simulation results reveal that the number of metastases varies significantly between scenarios where metastases metastasise and scenarios where they do not. In contrast, the total tumour mass is nearly unaffected by the two different modes of metastasis formation. Furthermore, the results provide evidence that metastasis formation is an early event and that late disseminated tumour cells are still capable of forming metastases. Simulations also allow estimating how the resection of the primary tumour delays the patient's death. The simulation results indicate that for this particular case of a hepatocellular carcinoma late metastases, i.e., metastases from metastases, are irrelevant in terms of total tumour mass. Hence metastases seeded from metastases are clinically irrelevant in our model system. Only the first metastases seeded from the primary tumour contribute significantly to the tumour burden and thus cause the patient's death.

  17. Orbital nodal surfaces: Topological challenges for density functionals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aschebrock, Thilo; Armiento, Rickard; Kümmel, Stephan

    2017-06-01

    Nodal surfaces of orbitals, in particular of the highest occupied one, play a special role in Kohn-Sham density-functional theory. The exact Kohn-Sham exchange potential, for example, shows a protruding ridge along such nodal surfaces, leading to the counterintuitive feature of a potential that goes to different asymptotic limits in different directions. We show here that nodal surfaces can heavily affect the potential of semilocal density-functional approximations. For the functional derivatives of the Armiento-Kümmel (AK13) [Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 036402 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.111.036402] and Becke88 [Phys. Rev. A 38, 3098 (1988), 10.1103/PhysRevA.38.3098] energy functionals, i.e., the corresponding semilocal exchange potentials, as well as the Becke-Johnson [J. Chem. Phys. 124, 221101 (2006), 10.1063/1.2213970] and van Leeuwen-Baerends (LB94) [Phys. Rev. A 49, 2421 (1994), 10.1103/PhysRevA.49.2421] model potentials, we explicitly demonstrate exponential divergences in the vicinity of nodal surfaces. We further point out that many other semilocal potentials have similar features. Such divergences pose a challenge for the convergence of numerical solutions of the Kohn-Sham equations. We prove that for exchange functionals of the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) form, enforcing correct asymptotic behavior of the potential or energy density necessarily leads to irregular behavior on or near orbital nodal surfaces. We formulate constraints on the GGA exchange enhancement factor for avoiding such divergences.

  18. Lung Cancer Brain Metastases.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Sarah B; Contessa, Joseph N; Omay, Sacit B; Chiang, Veronica

    2015-01-01

    Brain metastases are common among patients with lung cancer and have been associated with significant morbidity and limited survival. However, the treatment of brain metastases has evolved as the field has advanced in terms of central nervous system imaging, surgical technique, and radiotherapy technology. This has allowed patients to receive improved treatment with less toxicity and more durable benefit. In addition, there have been significant advances in systemic therapy for lung cancer in recent years, and several treatments including chemotherapy, targeted therapy, and immunotherapy exhibit activity in the central nervous system. Utilizing systemic therapy for treating brain metastases can avoid or delay local therapy and often allows patients to receive effective treatment for both intracranial and extracranial disease. Determining the appropriate treatment for patients with lung cancer brain metastases therefore requires a clear understanding of intracranial disease burden, tumor histology, molecular characteristics, and overall cancer prognosis. This review provides updates on the current state of surgery and radiotherapy for the treatment of brain metastases, as well as an overview of systemic therapy options that may be effective in select patients with intracranial metastases from lung cancer.

  19. Counting nodal domains on surfaces of revolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karageorge, Panos D.; Smilansky, Uzy

    2008-05-01

    We consider eigenfunctions of the Laplace-Beltrami operator on special surfaces of revolution. For this separable system, the nodal domains of the (real) eigenfunctions form a checkerboard pattern, and their number νn is proportional to the product of the angular and the 'surface' quantum numbers. Arranging the wavefunctions by increasing values of the Laplace-Beltrami spectrum, we obtain the nodal sequence, whose statistical properties we study. In particular, we investigate the distribution of the normalized counts \\frac{\

  20. Secondary node analysis as an indicator for axillary lymphadenectomy in breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Cremades, Manel; Torres, Mireia; Solà, Montse; Navinés, Jordi; Pascual, Icíar; Mariscal, Antonio; Caballero, Albert; Castellà, Eva; Luna, Miguel Ángel; Julián, Joan Francesc

    2017-11-01

    Currently, there is no agreement regarding if it would be necessary to perform an axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) in patients who have macrometastases in the sentinel lymph node (SLN). We studied the utility of the secondary node analysis (SN), defined as the following node after the SLN in an anatomical and lymphatic pathway, as a sign of malignant axillary involvement. An observational, retrospective and multicentre study was designed to assess the utility of the SN as a sign of axillary involvement. Among 2273 patients with breast cancer, a valid sample of 283 was obtained representing those who had the SN studied. Main endpoints of our study were: the SLN, the SN and the ALND histological pattern. Sensitivity, specificity and precision of the test were also calculated. SN test, in cases with positive SLN, has a sensitivity of 61.1%, a specificity of 78.7%, a positive predictive value of 45.8% and a negative predictive value of 87.3% with a precision of 74.7%. The study of the SN together with the technique of the SLN allows a more precise staging of the axillary involvement, in patients with breast cancer, than just the SLN technique. Copyright © 2017 AEC. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Outcome following sentinel lymph node biopsy-guided decisions in breast cancer patients with conversion from positive to negative axillary lymph nodes after neoadjuvant chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Kang, Young-Joon; Han, Wonshik; Park, Soojin; You, Ji Young; Yi, Ha Woo; Park, Sungmin; Nam, Sanggeun; Kim, Joo Heung; Yun, Keong Won; Kim, Hee Jeong; Ahn, Sei Hyun; Park, Seho; Lee, Jeong Eon; Lee, Eun Sook; Noh, Dong-Young; Lee, Jong Won

    2017-11-01

    Many breast cancer patients with positive axillary lymph nodes achieve complete node remission after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. The usefulness of sentinel lymph node biopsy in this situation is uncertain. This study evaluated the outcomes of sentinel biopsy-guided decisions in patients who had conversion of axillary nodes from clinically positive to negative following neoadjuvant chemotherapy. We reviewed the records of 1247 patients from five hospitals in Korea who had breast cancer with clinically axillary lymph node-positive status and negative conversion after neoadjuvant chemotherapy, between 2005 and 2012. Patients who underwent axillary operations with sentinel biopsy-guided decisions (Group A) were compared with patients who underwent complete axillary lymph node dissection without sentinel lymph node biopsy (Group B). Axillary node recurrence and distant recurrence-free survival were compared. There were 428 cases in Group A and 819 in Group B. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that recurrence-free survivals were not significantly different between Groups A and B (4-year axillary recurrence-free survival: 97.8 vs. 99.0%; p = 0.148). Multivariate analysis also indicated the two groups had no significant difference in axillary and distant recurrence-free survival. For breast cancer patients who had clinical conversion of axillary lymph nodes from positive to negative following neoadjuvant chemotherapy, sentinel biopsy-guided axillary surgery, and axillary lymph node dissection without sentinel lymph node biopsy had similar rates of recurrence. Thus, sentinel biopsy-guided axillary operation in breast cancer patients who have clinically axillary lymph node positive to negative conversion following neoadjuvant chemotherapy is a useful strategy.

  2. Effect of radiotherapy after mastectomy and axillary surgery on 10-year recurrence and 20-year breast cancer mortality: meta-analysis of individual patient data for 8135 women in 22 randomised trials.

    PubMed

    McGale, P; Taylor, C; Correa, C; Cutter, D; Duane, F; Ewertz, M; Gray, R; Mannu, G; Peto, R; Whelan, T; Wang, Y; Wang, Z; Darby, S

    2014-06-21

    Postmastectomy radiotherapy was shown in previous meta-analyses to reduce the risks of both recurrence and breast cancer mortality in all women with node-positive disease considered together. However, the benefit in women with only one to three positive lymph nodes is uncertain. We aimed to assess the effect of radiotherapy in these women after mastectomy and axillary dissection. We did a meta-analysis of individual data for 8135 women randomly assigned to treatment groups during 1964-86 in 22 trials of radiotherapy to the chest wall and regional lymph nodes after mastectomy and axillary surgery versus the same surgery but no radiotherapy. Follow-up lasted 10 years for recurrence and to Jan 1, 2009, for mortality. Analyses were stratified by trial, individual follow-up year, age at entry, and pathological nodal status. 3786 women had axillary dissection to at least level II and had zero, one to three, or four or more positive nodes. All were in trials in which radiotherapy included the chest wall, supraclavicular or axillary fossa (or both), and internal mammary chain. For 700 women with axillary dissection and no positive nodes, radiotherapy had no significant effect on locoregional recurrence (two-sided significance level [2p]>0·1), overall recurrence (rate ratio [RR], irradiated vs not, 1·06, 95% CI 0·76-1·48, 2p>0·1), or breast cancer mortality (RR 1·18, 95% CI 0·89-1·55, 2p>0·1). For 1314 women with axillary dissection and one to three positive nodes, radiotherapy reduced locoregional recurrence (2p<0·00001), overall recurrence (RR 0·68, 95% CI 0·57-0·82, 2p=0·00006), and breast cancer mortality (RR 0·80, 95% CI 0·67-0·95, 2p=0·01). 1133 of these 1314 women were in trials in which systemic therapy (cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and fluorouracil, or tamoxifen) was given in both trial groups and, for them, radiotherapy again reduced locoregional recurrence (2p<0·00001), overall recurrence (RR 0·67, 95% CI 0·55-0·82, 2p=0·00009), and

  3. Classification of reflection-symmetry-protected topological semimetals and nodal superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, Ching-Kai; Schnyder, Andreas P.

    2014-11-01

    While the topological classification of insulators, semimetals, and superconductors in terms of nonspatial symmetries is well understood, less is known about topological states protected by crystalline symmetries, such as mirror reflections and rotations. In this work, we systematically classify topological semimetals and nodal superconductors that are protected, not only by nonspatial (i.e., global) symmetries, but also by a crystal reflection symmetry. We find that the classification crucially depends on (i) the codimension of the Fermi surface (nodal line or point) of the semimetal (superconductor), (ii) whether the mirror symmetry commutes or anticommutes with the nonspatial symmetries, and (iii) how the Fermi surfaces (nodal lines or points) transform under the mirror reflection and nonspatial symmetries. The classification is derived by examining all possible symmetry-allowed mass terms that can be added to the Bloch or Bogoliubov-de Gennes Hamiltonian in a given symmetry class and by explicitly deriving topological invariants. We discuss several examples of reflection-symmetry-protected topological semimetals and nodal superconductors, including topological crystalline semimetals with mirror Z2 numbers and topological crystalline nodal superconductors with mirror winding numbers.

  4. Cerberus-Nodal-Lefty-Pitx signaling cascade controls left-right asymmetry in amphioxus.

    PubMed

    Li, Guang; Liu, Xian; Xing, Chaofan; Zhang, Huayang; Shimeld, Sebastian M; Wang, Yiquan

    2017-04-04

    Many bilaterally symmetrical animals develop genetically programmed left-right asymmetries. In vertebrates, this process is under the control of Nodal signaling, which is restricted to the left side by Nodal antagonists Cerberus and Lefty. Amphioxus, the earliest diverging chordate lineage, has profound left-right asymmetry as a larva. We show that Cerberus , Nodal , Lefty , and their target transcription factor Pitx are sequentially activated in amphioxus embryos. We then address their function by transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALEN)-based knockout and heat-shock promoter (HSP)-driven overexpression. Knockout of Cerberus leads to ectopic right-sided expression of Nodal , Lefty , and Pitx , whereas overexpression of Cerberus represses their left-sided expression. Overexpression of Nodal in turn represses Cerberus and activates Lefty and Pitx ectopically on the right side. We also show Lefty represses Nodal , whereas Pitx activates Nodal These data combine in a model in which Cerberus determines whether the left-sided gene expression cassette is activated or repressed. These regulatory steps are essential for normal left-right asymmetry to develop, as when they are disrupted embryos may instead form two phenotypic left sides or two phenotypic right sides. Our study shows the regulatory cassette controlling left-right asymmetry was in place in the ancestor of amphioxus and vertebrates. This includes the Nodal inhibitors Cerberus and Lefty, both of which operate in feedback loops with Nodal and combine to establish asymmetric Pitx expression. Cerberus and Lefty are missing from most invertebrate lineages, marking this mechanism as an innovation in the lineage leading to modern chordates.

  5. Rate of regional nodal metastases of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma in the immunosuppressed patient.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, Eamon J; Miller, Lauren; Shin, Thuzar M; Sobanko, Joseph F; Cannady, Steven B; Miller, Christopher J; Newman, Jason G

    Immunosuppressed solid organ transplant recipients (SOTRs) have an increased risk of developing cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas (cSCCs) with metastatic potential. This study sought to determine the rate of regional lymph node involvement in a large cohort of solid organ transplant patients with cutaneous head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. A retrospective chart review was performed on solid organ transplant patients with head and neck cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma treated at a tertiary academic medical center from 2005 to 2015. 130 solid organ transplant patients underwent resection of 383 head and neck cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas. The average age of the patient was 63. Seven patients (5%) developed regional lymph node metastases (3 parotid, 4 cervical lymph nodes). The mean time from primary tumor resection to diagnosis of regional lymphatic disease was 6.7months. Six of these patients underwent definitive surgical resection followed by adjuvant radiation; one patient underwent definitive chemoradiation. 6 of the 7 patients died of disease progression with a mean survival of 15months. The average follow up time was 3years (minimum 6months). Solid organ transplant recipients with cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck develop regional lymph node metastasis at a rate of 5%. Regional lymph node metastasis in this population has a poor prognosis and requires aggressive management and surveillance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Hybrid nodal loop metal: Unconventional magnetoresponse and material realization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaoming; Yu, Zhi-Ming; Lu, Yunhao; Sheng, Xian-Lei; Yang, Hui Ying; Yang, Shengyuan A.

    2018-03-01

    A nodal loop is formed by a band crossing along a one-dimensional closed manifold, with each point on the loop a linear nodal point in the transverse dimensions, and can be classified as type I or type II depending on the band dispersion. Here, we propose a class of nodal loops composed of both type-I and type-II points, which are hence termed as hybrid nodal loops. Based on first-principles calculations, we predict the realization of such loops in the existing electride material Ca2As . For a hybrid loop, the Fermi surface consists of coexisting electron and hole pockets that touch at isolated points for an extended range of Fermi energies, without the need for fine-tuning. This leads to unconventional magnetic responses, including the zero-field magnetic breakdown and the momentum-space Klein tunneling observable in the magnetic quantum oscillations, as well as the peculiar anisotropy in the cyclotron resonance.

  7. Type-I and type-II topological nodal superconductors with s -wave interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Beibing; Yang, Xiaosen; Xu, Ning; Gong, Ming

    2018-01-01

    Topological nodal superconductors with protected gapless points in momentum space are generally realized based on unconventional pairings. In this work we propose a minimal model to realize these topological nodal phases with only s -wave interaction. In our model the linear and quadratic spin-orbit couplings along the two orthogonal directions introduce anisotropic effective unconventional pairings in momentum space. This model may support different nodal superconducting phases characterized by either an integer winding number in BDI class or a Z2 index in D class at the particle-hole invariant axes. In the vicinity of the nodal points the effective Hamiltonian can be described by either type-I or type-II Dirac equations, and the Lifshitz transition from type-I nodal phases to type-II nodal phases can be driven by external in-plane magnetic fields. We show that these nodal phases are robust against weak impurities, which only slightly renormalizes the momentum-independent parameters in the impurity-averaged Hamiltonian, thus these phases are possible to be realized in experiments with real semi-Dirac materials. The smoking-gun evidences to verify these phases based on scanning tunneling spectroscopy method are also briefly discussed.

  8. Benefits of ambulatory axillary intra-aortic balloon pump for circulatory support as bridge to heart transplant.

    PubMed

    Umakanthan, Ramanan; Hoff, Steven J; Solenkova, Natalia; Wigger, Mark A; Keebler, Mary E; Lenneman, Andrew; Leacche, Marzia; Disalvo, Thomas G; Ooi, Henry; Naftilan, Allen J; Byrne, John G; Ahmad, Rashid M

    2012-05-01

    Axillary intra-aortic balloon pump therapy has been described as a bridge to transplant. Advantages over femoral intra-aortic balloon pump therapy include reduced incidence of infection and enhanced patient mobility. We identified the patients who would benefit most from this therapy while awaiting heart transplantation. We conducted a single-center, retrospective observational study to evaluate outcomes from axillary intra-aortic balloon pump therapy. These included hemodynamic parameters, duration of support, and success in bridging to transplant. We selected patients on the basis of history of sternotomy, elevated panel-reactive antibody, and small body habitus. Patients were made to ambulate aggressively beginning on postoperative day 1. Between September 2007 and September 2010, 18 patients underwent axillary intra-aortic balloon pump therapy. All patients had the devices placed through the left axillary artery with a Hemashield side graft (Boston Scientific, Natick, Mass). Before axillary placement, patients underwent femoral placement to demonstrate hemodynamic benefit. Duration of support ranged from 5 to 63 days (median = 19 days). There was marked improvement in ambulatory potential and hemodynamic parameters, with minimal blood transfusion requirements. There were no device-related infections. Some 72% of the patients (13/18) were successfully bridged to transplantation. Axillary intra-aortic balloon pump therapy provides excellent support for selected patients as a bridge to transplant. The majority of the patients were successfully bridged to transplant and discharged. Although this therapy has been described in previous studies, this is the largest series to incorporate a regimen of aggressive ambulation with daily measurements of distances walked. Copyright © 2012. Published by Mosby, Inc.

  9. Nodal Topological Phases in s-wave Superfluid of Ultracold Fermionic Gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Bei-Bing; Yang, Xiao-Sen

    2018-02-01

    The gapless Weyl superfluid has been widely studied in the three-dimensional ultracold fermionic superfluid. In contrast to Weyl superfluid, there exists another kind of gapless superfluid with topologically protected nodal lines, which can be regarded as the superfluid counterpart of nodal line semimetal in the condensed matter physics, just as Weyl superfluid with Weyl semimetal. In this paper we study the ground states of the cold fermionic gases in cubic optical lattices with one-dimensional spin-orbit coupling and transverse Zeeman field and map out the topological phase diagram of the system. We demonstrate that in addition to a fully gapped topologically trivial phase, some different nodal line superfluid phases appear when the Zeeman field is adjusted. The presence of topologically stable nodal lines implies the dispersionless zero-energy flat band in a finite region of the surface Brillouin zone. Experimentally these nodal line superfluid states can be detected via the momentum-resolved radio-frequency spectroscopy. The nodal line topological superfluid provide fertile grounds for exploring exotic quantum matters in the context of ultracold atoms. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos. 11547047 and 11504143

  10. Prediction of lymph node involvement in patients with breast tumors measuring 3-5 cm in a middle-income setting: the role of CancerMath.

    PubMed

    Pijnappel, E N; Bhoo-Pathy, N; Suniza, J; See, M H; Tan, G H; Yip, C H; Hartman, M; Taib, N A; Verkooijen, H M

    2014-12-01

    In settings with limited resources, sentinel lymph node biopsy (SNB) is only offered to breast cancer patients with small tumors and a low a priori risk of axillary metastases. We investigated whether CancerMath, a free online prediction tool for axillary lymph node involvement, is able to identify women at low risk of axillary lymph node metastases in Malaysian women with 3-5 cm tumors, with the aim to offer SNB in a targeted, cost-effective way. Women with non-metastatic breast cancers, measuring 3-5 cm were identified within the University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC) breast cancer registry. We compared CancerMath-predicted probabilities of lymph node involvement between women with versus without lymph node metastases. The discriminative performance of CancerMath was tested using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Out of 1,017 patients, 520 (51 %) had axillary involvement. Tumors of women with axillary involvement were more often estrogen-receptor positive, progesterone-receptor positive, and human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER)-2 positive. The mean CancerMath score was higher in women with axillary involvement than in those without (53.5 vs. 51.3, p = 0.001). In terms of discrimination, CancerMath performed poorly, with an area under the ROC curve of 0.553 (95 % confidence interval CI 0.518-0.588). Attempts to optimize the CancerMath model by adding ethnicity and HER2 to the model did not improve discriminatory performance. For Malaysian women with tumors measuring 3-5 cm, CancerMath is unable to accurately predict lymph node involvement and is therefore not helpful in the identification of women at low risk of node-positive disease who could benefit from SNB.

  11. Topological Phase Transitions in Line-nodal Superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Gil Young; Han, Sangeun; Moon, Eun-Gook

    Fathoming interplay between symmetry and topology of many-electron wave-functions deepens our understanding in quantum nature of many particle systems. Topology often protects zero-energy excitation, and in a certain class, symmetry is intrinsically tied to the topological protection. Namely, unless symmetry is broken, topological nature is intact. We study one specific case of such class, symmetry-protected line-nodal superconductors in three spatial dimensions (3d). Mismatch between phase spaces of order parameter fluctuation and line-nodal fermion excitation induces an exotic universality class in a drastic contrast to one of the conventional ϕ4 theory in 3d. Hyper-scaling violation and relativistic dynamic scaling with unusually large quantum critical region are main characteristics, and their implication in experiments is discussed. For example, continuous phase transition out of line-nodal superconductors has a linear phase boundary in a temperature-tuning parameter phase-diagram. This work was supported by the Brain Korea 21 PLUS Project of Korea Government and KAIST start-up funding.

  12. ADC Histogram Analysis of Cervical Cancer Aids Detecting Lymphatic Metastases-a Preliminary Study.

    PubMed

    Schob, Stefan; Meyer, Hans Jonas; Pazaitis, Nikolaos; Schramm, Dominik; Bremicker, Kristina; Exner, Marc; Höhn, Anne Kathrin; Garnov, Nikita; Surov, Alexey

    2017-12-01

    Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) histogram analysis has been used to some extent in cervical cancer (CC) to distinguish between low-grade and high-grade tumors. Although this differentiation is undoubtedly helpful, it would be even more crucial in the presurgical setting to determine whether a tumor already gained the potential to metastasize via the lymphatic system. So far, no studies investigated the potential of 3T ADC histogram analysis in CC to differentiate between nodal-positive and nodal-negative entities. Therefore, the principal aim of our study was to investigate the potential of 3T ADC histogram analysis to differentiate between CC with and without lymph node metastasis. The second aim was to elucidate possible differences in ADC histogram parameters between CC with limited vs. advanced tumor stages and well-differentiated vs. undifferentiated lesions. Finally, correlations of p53 expression and Ki-67 index with ADC parameters were analyzed. Eighteen female patients (mean age 55.4 years, range 32-79 years) with histopathologically confirmed cervical squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix were prospectively enrolled. Tumor stages, tumor grading, status of metastatic dissemination, Ki67-index, and p53 expression were assessed in these patients. Diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) was obtained in a 3T scanner using the following b values: b0 and b1000 s/mm 2 . Group comparisons using Mann-Whitney U test revealed the following findings: nodal-positive CC had statistically significant lower ADC parameters (ADCmin, ADCmean, median ADC, Mode, p10, p25, p75, and p90) in comparison to nodal-negative CC (all p < 0.05). ADCentropy was significantly elevated (p = 0.046) in tumors with advanced T stages (T3/4) compared to tumors with limited T stage (T2). ADCmin values were different in a statistically significant manner comparing G1/G2 and G3 tumors (40.45 ± 18.63 vs. 65.0 ± 23.63 × 10-5 mm2 s -1 , p = 0.035). Furthermore, Spearman Rho

  13. Targeting nodal in conjunction with dacarbazine induces synergistic anticancer effects in metastatic melanoma.

    PubMed

    Hardy, Katharine M; Strizzi, Luigi; Margaryan, Naira V; Gupta, Kanika; Murphy, George F; Scolyer, Richard A; Hendrix, Mary J C

    2015-04-01

    Metastatic melanoma is a highly aggressive skin cancer with a poor prognosis. Despite a complete response in fewer than 5% of patients, the chemotherapeutic agent dacarbazine (DTIC) remains the reference drug after almost 40 years. More recently, FDA-approved drugs have shown promise but patient outcome remains modest, predominantly due to drug resistance. As such, combinatorial targeting has received increased attention, and will advance with the identification of new molecular targets. One attractive target for improving melanoma therapy is the growth factor Nodal, whose normal expression is largely restricted to embryonic development, but is reactivated in metastatic melanoma. In this study, we sought to determine how Nodal-positive human melanoma cells respond to DTIC treatment and to ascertain whether targeting Nodal in combination with DTIC would be more effective than monotherapy. A single treatment with DTIC inhibited cell growth but did not induce apoptosis. Rather than reducing Nodal expression, DTIC increased the size of the Nodal-positive subpopulation, an observation coincident with increased cellular invasion. Importantly, clinical tissue specimens from patients with melanomas refractory to DTIC therapy stained positive for Nodal expression, both in pre- and post-DTIC tumors, underscoring the value of targeting Nodal. In vitro, anti-Nodal antibodies alone had some adverse effects on proliferation and apoptosis, but combining DTIC treatment with anti-Nodal antibodies decreased cell growth and increased apoptosis synergistically, at concentrations incapable of producing meaningful effects as monotherapy. Targeting Nodal in combination with DTIC therapy holds promise for the treatment of metastatic melanoma. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  14. Characteristics of axillary lymph nodes apparent on dynamic contrast-enhanced breast MRI in healthy women.

    PubMed

    Krammer, Julia; Engel, Dorothee; Nissen, Johanna; Schnitzer, Andreas; Suetterlin, Marc; Schoenberg, Stefan O; Wasser, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    The study was initiated to characterize and better understand the natural characteristics of axillary lymph nodes (LNs) apparent on dynamic breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The most important finding in 71 subjects that included healthy women was that 41% showed strong enhanced axillary LNs. The dynamic curves of these LNs revealed an initial mean signal increase of 197% (±58%), all of them with a following plateau (34%) or washout (66%). Our study points out that the previous understanding of contrast enhancement in breast lesions should be taken with care when assessing axillary LNs. This has to be considered especially in preoperative breast MRI. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The effects of ECE on the benefits of PMRT for breast cancer patients with positive axillary nodes.

    PubMed

    Geng, Wenwen; Zhang, Bin; Li, Danhua; Liang, Xinrui; Cao, Xunchen

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of the present study was to retrospectively evaluate the effects of extracapsular extension (ECE) on the benefits of post-mastectomy radiation therapy (PMRT) for groups of patients with varying numbers of positive axillary nodes (1-3, 4-9 and ≥10 positive axillary nodes). A total of 1220 axillary node-positive patients who had received mastectomy were involved in this study. Patients were grouped as 'Radio + /ECE + ', 'Radio-/ECE + ', 'Radio + /ECE-' or 'Radio-/ECE-' according to status of ECE and whether receiving PMRT or not, and were evaluated in terms of local region relapse (LRR) rate. The 5-year and 10-year Kaplan-Meier disease-free survival and overall survival (OS) rates were analyzed. ECE-positive differed from ECE-negative groups with statistical significance for all comparisons in favor of the ECE-negative group: 5-year locoregional failure-free survival (LRFFS) (82.69% vs 91.83%, P < 0.001), 10-year LRFFS (75.39% vs 90.02%, P < 0.001); 5-year OS (52.12% vs 74.46%, P < 0.001), 10-year OS (35.17% vs 67.63%, P < 0.001). There were no significant effects of ECE on the benefits of PMRT for patients with 1-3 (P = 0.5720), ≥10(P = 0.0614) positive axillary nodes. However, for the group of patients with 4-9 positive axillary nodes, ECE status had a significant effect on the benefits of PMRT with respect to 5-year and 10-year LRFFS (P < 0.05). In our study, regardless of the ECE status, PMRT didn't significantly improve the LRFFS for patients with 1-3 or ≥10 positive axillary nodes. However, for patients with 4-9 positive axillary nodes, ECE could be an important criterion to consider when deciding whether to receive PMRT.

  16. Implications of inaccurate clinical nodal staging in pancreatic adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Swords, Douglas S; Firpo, Matthew A; Johnson, Kirsten M; Boucher, Kenneth M; Scaife, Courtney L; Mulvihill, Sean J

    2017-07-01

    Many patients with stage I-II pancreatic adenocarcinoma do not undergo resection. We hypothesized that (1) clinical staging underestimates nodal involvement, causing stage IIB to have a greater percent of resected patients and (2) this stage-shift causes discrepancies in observed survival. The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) research database was used to evaluate cause-specific survival in patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma from 2004-2012. Survival was compared using the log-rank test. Single-center data on 105 patients who underwent resection of pancreatic adenocarcinoma without neoadjuvant treatment were used to compare clinical and pathologic nodal staging. In SEER data, medium-term survival in stage IIB was superior to IB and IIA, with median cause-specific survival of 14, 9, and 11 months, respectively (P < .001). Seventy-two percent of stage IIB patients underwent resection vs 28% in IB and 36% in IIA (P < .001). In our institutional data, 12.4% of patients had clinical evidence of nodal involvement vs 69.5% by pathologic staging (P < .001). Among clinical stage IA-IIA patients, 71.6% had nodal involvement by pathologic staging. Both SEER and institutional data support substantial underestimation of nodal involvement by clinical staging. This finding has implications in decisions regarding neoadjuvant therapy and analysis of outcomes in the absence of pathologic staging. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Evaluation of cervical lymph nodes in head and neck cancer with CT and MRI: tips, traps, and a systematic approach.

    PubMed

    Hoang, Jenny K; Vanka, Jyotsna; Ludwig, Benjamin J; Glastonbury, Christine M

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we present a 4-step approach to evaluating lymph nodes in the setting of head and neck squamous cell and thyroid carcinoma and highlight important tips and traps. The presence and extent of nodal metastases in head and neck cancer has a great impact on treatment and prognosis. Pretreatment CT and MRI of the neck are commonly performed to evaluate for nodal metastases.

  18. Localization of malignant melanoma using monoclonal antibodies

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Wasselle, J.; Becker, J.; Cruse, W.

    1991-04-01

    Finding a screening test to evaluate patients with cancer for occult metastatic disease, as well as imaging all known disease, is a goal of research efforts. Twenty-nine evaluable patients with deeply invasive (stage I), regional nodal (stage II), or systemic (stage III) melanoma underwent imaging by administration of a preparation of the antimelanoma antibody labeled with technetium 99m. Scan results indicated that 28 of 32 confirmed metastatic sites were imaged with this technique (88% sensitivity). Analysis of the individual positive sites revealed that nodal basins and visceral metastases accounted for the highest percentage of metastatic sites imaged, with 14 (88%)more » of 16 nodal basin metastases and all four visceral metastases being detected through imaging. Occult nodal disease was detected in the iliac nodal chain in two of the 29 patients. The imaging of benign tumors and nodal basins not containing disease accounted for a confirmed false-positive rate of 21%. Three (10%) of the 29 scan results were confirmed to be false-negative. In vivo tumor localization with monoclonal antibodies showed a sensitivity similar to that of other roentgenographic procedures for identifying metastatic disease and was useful in two of three patients in identifying occult iliac nodal disease, a region that is difficult to evaluate with physical examination and other imaging modalities.« less

  19. [Cutaneous manifestations of male breast cancer].

    PubMed

    Hali, Fouzia; Khadir, Khadija; Idhammou, Wassima; Bensardi, Fatima-Zahra; Lefriyekh, Mohamed-Rachid; Benider, Abdelatif; Zamiati, Soumia; Benchikhi, Hakima

    2011-11-01

    The appearance of skin symptoms in male breast is the main reason for consultation in our context. The aim of this study is to describe the various cutaneous manifestations of male breast cancer through a series of cases collected in a dermatology department. A retrospective study was conducted in the dermatology department at the CHU Ibn Rochd January 1988 to December 2009. All cases of male breast cancer initially diagnosed in dermatology were included. The various epidemiological, clinical, histological and therapeutic data were collected from medical records. Twenty cases were collected. The mean age was 61.25 years. Skin invasion by tumor was found in all patients, and it was the reason for consultation. It was a cutaneous involvement at the nipple and areola (17 cases) and at the periareolar skin (three cases). The clinical appearance of skin involvement was vegetative type in 12 cases, infiltrating with nipple retraction in five cases and nodule with skin change in three cases. The average period of consultation was 25 months. The axillary lymph nodes were noted in 11 patients and distant metastases in eight patients. The cutaneous metastases outside breast were noted in six patients. The histological types were: infiltrating ductal carcinoma in 15 cases (75%), papillary carcinoma in two cases (10%) and non-specific carcinoma in three cases (15%). The treatment was surgery in 14 patients and consisted of radical mastectomy with complete axillary nodal dissection according to Patey. Complementary therapies, chemotherapy or radiotherapy, were indicated in 14 patients. Our single-center study with dermatological recruitment illustrates the frequency and variety of skin disease in male breast cancer and demonstrates that they are still the main reason for consultation in our context. Better information for public and practitioners would allow earlier diagnosis and a more favourable prognosis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Evaluation of the use of nodal methods for MTR neutronic analysis

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Reitsma, F.; Mueller, E.Z.

    1997-08-01

    Although modern nodal methods are used extensively in the nuclear power industry, their use for research reactor analysis has been very limited. The suitability of nodal methods for material testing reactor analysis is investigated with the emphasis on the modelling of the core region (fuel assemblies). The nodal approach`s performance is compared with that of the traditional finite-difference fine mesh approach. The advantages of using nodal methods coupled with integrated cross section generation systems are highlighted, especially with respect to data preparation, simplicity of use and the possibility of performing a great variety of reactor calculations subject to strict timemore » limitations such as are required for the RERTR program.« less

  1. Optical conductivity of three and two dimensional topological nodal-line semimetals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barati, Shahin; Abedinpour, Saeed H.

    2017-10-01

    The peculiar shape of the Fermi surface of topological nodal-line semimetals at low carrier concentrations results in their unusual optical and transport properties. We analytically investigate the linear optical responses of three- and two-dimensional nodal-line semimetals using the Kubo formula. The optical conductivity of a three-dimensional nodal-line semimetal is anisotropic. Along the axial direction (i.e., the direction perpendicular to the nodal-ring plane), the Drude weight has a linear dependence on the chemical potential at both low and high carrier dopings. For the radial direction (i.e., the direction parallel to the nodal-ring plane), this dependence changes from linear into quadratic in the transition from low into high carrier concentration. The interband contribution into optical conductivity is also anisotropic. In particular, at large frequencies, it saturates to a constant value for the axial direction and linearly increases with frequency along the radial direction. In two-dimensional nodal-line semimetals, no interband optical transition could be induced and the only contribution to the optical conductivity arises from the intraband excitations. The corresponding Drude weight is independent of the carrier density at low carrier concentrations and linearly increases with chemical potential at high carrier doping.

  2. Complex mammary carcinoma with metastases to lymph nodes, subcutaneous tissue, and multiple joints in a dog.

    PubMed

    McCourt, Maggie R; Dieterly, Alexandra M; Mackey, Paige E; Lyon, Shane D; Rizzi, Theresa E; Ritchey, Jerry W

    2018-05-07

    An 8-year-old, intact female, mixed-breed dog presented to the Oklahoma State University Boren Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital for evaluation of progressive lameness and joint effusion of multiple joints. Physical examination revealed joint effusion of the elbow, hock, and stifle joints bilaterally, enlarged left axillary and right popliteal lymph nodes, a subcutaneous mass over the left elbow, and a subcutaneous mass involving the left second and third mammary glands. Cytologic examination of the mammary mass, enlarged lymph nodes, and joint fluid from most affected joints revealed a monomorphic population of loosely cohesive neoplastic epithelial cells. The patient was humanely euthanized, and subsequent necropsy with histopathologic examination revealed a complex mammary carcinoma with metastases to enlarged lymph nodes, subcutaneous tissue over the left elbow, and the synovium of multiple joints. Immunohistochemical stains were performed and showed diffusely positive pan cytokeratin, CK8/18, and CK19 staining in the neoplastic luminal epithelial cells of the mammary carcinoma, synovium, and lymph nodes, and showed diffusely positive vimentin staining of the myoepithelial cells. Myoepithelial calponin positivity was diffuse in the mammary mass and lymph nodes but minimal in the synovium. Only the mammary mass showed p63 positivity. Metastatic mammary neoplasia is relatively common in dogs; however, metastasis to the synovium has only been reported once previously in the literature. This is the first case utilizing immunohistochemistry for confirmation and characterization of metastases. © 2018 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  3. Successful Completion of the Pilot Phase of a Randomized Controlled Trial Comparing Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy to No Further Axillary Staging in Patients with Clinical T1-T2 N0 Breast Cancer and Normal Axillary Ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Cyr, Amy E; Tucker, Natalia; Ademuyiwa, Foluso; Margenthaler, Julie A; Aft, Rebecca L; Eberlein, Timothy J; Appleton, Catherine M; Zoberi, Imran; Thomas, Maria A; Gao, Feng; Gillanders, William E

    2016-01-01

    Background Axillary surgery is not considered therapeutic in patients with clinical T1-T2 N0 breast cancer. The importance of axillary staging is eroding in an era where tumor biology, as defined by biomarker and gene expression profile, is increasingly important in medical decision making. We hypothesize that axillary ultrasound (AUS) is a noninvasive alternative to sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB), and AUS could replace SLNB without compromising patient care. Study Design Patients with clinical T1-T2 N0 breast cancer and normal AUS were eligible for enrollment. Subjects were randomized to no further axillary staging (Arm 1) versus SLNB (Arm 2). Descriptive statistics were used to describe the results of the pilot phase of the randomized controlled trial. Results 68 subjects were enrolled in the pilot phase of the trial (34 subjects in Arm 1, no further staging; 32 subjects in Arm 2, SLNB, and 2 subjects voluntarily withdrew from the trial). The median age was 61 years (range 40-80) in Arm 1 and 59 years (range 31-81) in Arm 2, and there were no significant clinical or pathologic differences between the arms. Median follow-up was 17 months (range 1-32). The negative predictive value (NPV) of AUS for identification of clinically significant axillary disease (> 2.0 mm) was 96.9%. No axillary recurrences have been observed in either arm. Conclusions Successful completion of the pilot phase of the randomized controlled trial confirms the feasibility of the study design, and provides prospective evidence supporting the ability of AUS to exclude clinically significant disease in the axilla. The results provide strong support for a phase 2 randomized controlled trial. PMID:27212005

  4. Winding numbers of nodal points in Fe-based superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chichinadze, Dmitry V.; Chubukov, Andrey V.

    2018-03-01

    We analyze the nodal points in multiorbital Fe-based superconductors from a topological perspective. We consider the s+- gap structure with accidental nodes, and the d -wave gap with nodes along the symmetry directions. In both cases, the nodal points can be moved by varying an external parameter, e.g., a degree of interpocket pairing. Eventually, the nodes merge and annihilate via a Lifshitz-type transition. We discuss the Lifshitz transition in Fe-based superconductors from a topological point of view. We show, both analytically and numerically, that the merging nodal points have winding numbers of opposite sign. This is consistent with the general reasoning that the total winding number is a conserved quantity in the Lifshitz transition.

  5. Merkel Cell Carcinoma of Unknown Primary Origin

    PubMed Central

    Deneve, Jeremiah L.; Messina, Jane L.; Marzban, Suroosh S.; Gonzalez, Ricardo J.; Walls, Brooke M.; Fisher, Kate J.; Ann Chen, Y.; Wayne Cruse, C.; Sondak, Vernon K.; Zager, Jonathan S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare neuroendocrine tumor of the skin. MCC from an unknown primary origin (MCCUP) can present a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. We describe our single-institution experience with the diagnosis and management of MCCUP presenting as metastases to lymph nodes. Methods After institutional review board approval, our institutional database spanning the years 1998–2010 was queried for patients with MCCUP. Clinicopathologic variables and outcomes were assessed. Results From a database of 321 patients with MCC, 38 (12%) were identified as having nodal MCCUP. Median age was 67 years, and 79% were men. Nodal basins involved at presentation were cervical (58%), axillary/epitrochlear (21%), or inguinal/iliac (21%). CK20 staining was positive in 93% of tumors tested, and all were negative for thyroid transcription factor-1. Twenty-nine patients (76%) underwent complete regional lymph node dissection (LND): 3 had LND alone, ten had LND and adjuvant radiotherapy, and 16 underwent LND followed by chemoradiotherapy. Definitive chemoradiotherapy without surgery was provided to six patients (16%), while radiotherapy alone was provided to three (8%). Recurrence was observed in 34% of patients. Median recurrence-free survival was 35 months. Ten patients (26%) died, five of disease and five of other causes. The median overall survival was 104 months. Conclusions Nodal MCCUP is a rare disease affecting primarily elderly white men. Recurrence is observed in approximately one-third of patients, with a 104 month median overall survival after a multimodal treatment approach consisting of surgery along with adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy in the majority of patients. PMID:22271206

  6. Contribution of Kinetic Characteristics of Axillary Lymph Nodes to the Diagnosis in Breast Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Örgüç, Şebnem; Başara, Işıl; Pekindil, Gökhan; Coşkun, Teoman

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess the contribution of kinetic characteristics in the discrimination of malignant-benign axillary lymph nodes. Material and Methods: One hundred fifty-five female patients were included in the study. Following magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations postprocessing applications were applied, dynamic curves were obtained from subtracted images. Types of dynamic curves were correlated with histopathological results in malignant cases or final clinical results in patients with no evidence of malignancy. Sensitivity, specificity, positive likehood ratio (+LHR), negative (−LHR) of dynamic curves characterizing the axillary lymph nodes were calculated. Results: A total of 178 lymph nodes greater than 8 mm were evaluated in 113 patients. Forty-six lymph nodes in 24 cases had malignant axillary involvement. 132 lymph nodes in 89 patients with benign diagnosis were included in the study. The sensitivity of type 3 curve as an indicator of malignancy was calculated as 89%. However the specificity, +LHR, −LHR were calculated as 14%, 1.04, 0.76 respectively. Conclusion: Since kinetic analysis of both benign and malignant axillary lymph nodes, rapid enhancement and washout (type 3) they cannot be used as a discriminator, unlike breast lesions. MRI, depending on the kinetic features of the axillary lymph nodes, is not high enough to be used in the clinical management of breast cancer patients. PMID:25207016

  7. Pathology of nodal marginal zone lymphomas.

    PubMed

    Pileri, Stefano; Ponzoni, Maurilio

    Nodal marginal zone B cell lymphomas (NMZLs) are a rare group of lymphoid disorders part of the spectrum of marginal zone B-cell lymphomas, which encompass splenic marginal one B-cell lymphoma (SMZL) and extra nodal marginal zone of B-cell lymphoma (EMZL), often of MALT-type. Two clinicopathological forms of NMZL are recognized: adult-type and pediatric-type, respectively. NMZLs show overlapping features with other types of MZ, but distinctive features as well. In this review, we will focus on the salient distinguishing features of NMZL mostly under morphological/immunophenotypical/molecular perspectives in views of the recent acquisitions and forthcoming updated 2016 WHO classification of lymphoid malignancies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Studies on topical antiperspirant control of axillary hyperhidrosis.

    PubMed

    Shelley, W B; Hurley, H J

    1975-01-01

    Axillary hyperhidrotics is reviewed from the standpoint of anatomical factors, physiological mechanisms and the history of methods of control. Anhydrous aluminum chloride and anhydrous zirconium tetrachloride are shown to be superior topical agents for partial control of axillary sweating when applied as a powder or in anhydrous nonreactive vehicles. Complete anhidrosis as demonstrated by sustained garment armpit dryness could be achieved in hyperhidrotics within 48 hours by the following trinary antiperspirant system: (1) a saturated solution of aluminum chloride hexahydrate or zirconyl chloride in absolute ethanol or isopropyl alcohol, (2) application to the dry axilla at times of sleep or other prolonged non-sweating period, (3) water vapor occlusion of area for 6 to 8 hours by means of Saran wrap. The hypothesis is presented that metallic antiperspirants act by reflux entrance into the terminal intraepidermal eccrine duct, slowly combining with the intraductal keratin, to produce a fibrillar contraction (super contraction) of keratin and hence functional closure, not histologically evident. This altered keratin is shed weeks later, with the consequent return of ductal patency and sweating.

  9. Differentiated and Medullary Thyroid Cancer: Surgical Management of Cervical Lymph Nodes

    PubMed Central

    Asimakopoulos, P.; Nixon, I.J.; Shaha, A.R.

    2017-01-01

    Thyroid cancer metastasises to the central and lateral compartments of the neck frequently and early. The impact of nodal metastases on outcome is affected by the histological subtype of the primary tumour and the patient’s age, as well as the size, number and location of those metastases. The impact of extranodal extension has recently been highlighted as an important prognosticating factor. Although clinically evident nodal disease in the lateral neck compartments has a significant impact on both survival and recurrence, microscopic metastases to the central or the lateral neck in well-differentiated thyroid cancer do not significantly affect outcome. Here we discuss the surgical management of neck metastases in well-differentiated and medullary thyroid carcinoma. PMID:28094086

  10. Role of Tulipa gesneriana TEOSINTE BRANCHED1 (TgTB1) in the control of axillary bud outgrowth in bulbs.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Pachon, Natalia M; Mutimawurugo, Marie-Chantal; Heynen, Eveline; Sergeeva, Lidiya; Benders, Anne; Blilou, Ikram; Hilhorst, Henk W M; Immink, Richard G H

    2018-06-01

    Tulip vegetative reproduction. Tulips reproduce asexually by the outgrowth of their axillary meristems located in the axil of each bulb scale. The number of axillary meristems in one bulb is low, and not all of them grow out during the yearly growth cycle of the bulb. Since the degree of axillary bud outgrowth in tulip determines the success of their vegetative propagation, this study aimed at understanding the mechanism controlling the differential axillary bud activity. We used a combined physiological and "bottom-up" molecular approach to shed light on this process and found that first two inner located buds do not seem to experience dormancy during the growth cycle, while mid-located buds enter dormancy by the end of the growing season. Dormancy was assessed by weight increase and TgTB1 expression levels, a conserved TCP transcription factor and well-known master integrator of environmental and endogenous signals influencing axillary meristem outgrowth in plants. We showed that TgTB1 expression in tulip bulbs can be modulated by sucrose, cytokinin and strigolactone, just as it has been reported for other species. However, the limited growth of mid-located buds, even when their TgTB1 expression is downregulated, points at other factors, probably physical, inhibiting their growth. We conclude that the time of axillary bud initiation determines the degree of dormancy and the sink strength of the bud. Thus, development, apical dominance, sink strength, hormonal cross-talk, expression of TgTB1 and other possibly physical but unidentified players, all converge to determine the growth capacity of tulip axillary buds.

  11. A quantitative description of normal AV nodal conduction curve in man.

    PubMed

    Teague, S; Collins, S; Wu, D; Denes, P; Rosen, K; Arzbaecher, R

    1976-01-01

    The AV nodal conduction curve generated by the atrial extrastimulus technique has been described only qualitatively in man, making clinical comparison of known normal curves with those of suspected AV nodal dysfunction difficult. Also, the effects of physiological and pharmacological interventions have not been quantifiable. In 50 patients with normal AV conduction as defined by normal AH (less than 130 ms), normal AV nodal effective and functional refractory periods (less than 380 and less than 500 ms), and absence of demonstrable dual AV nodal pathways, we found that conduction curves (at sinus rhythm or longest paced cycle length) can be described by an exponential equation of the form delta = Ae-Bx. In this equation, delta is the increase in AV nodal conduction time of an extrastimulus compared to that of a regular beat and x is extrastimulus interval. The natural logarithm of this equation is linear in the semilogarithmic plane, thus permitting the constants A and B to be easily determined by a least-squares regression analysis with a hand calculator.

  12. Consumption of garlic positively affects hedonic perception of axillary body odour.

    PubMed

    Fialová, Jitka; Roberts, S Craig; Havlíček, Jan

    2016-02-01

    Beneficial health properties of garlic, as well as its most common adverse effect - distinctive breath odour - are well-known. In contrast, analogous research on the effect of garlic on axillary odour is currently missing. Here, in three studies varying in the amount and nature of garlic provided (raw garlic in study 1 and 2, garlic capsules in study 3), we tested the effect of garlic consumption on the quality of axillary odour. A balanced within-subject experimental design was used. In total, 42 male odour donors were allocated to either a "garlic" or "non-garlic" condition, after which they wore axillary pads for 12 h to collect body odour. One week later, the conditions were reversed. Odour samples were then judged for their pleasantness, attractiveness, masculinity and intensity by 82 women. We found no significant differences in ratings of any characteristics in study 1. However, the odour of donors after an increased garlic dosage was assessed as significantly more pleasant, attractive and less intense (study 2), and more attractive and less intense in study 3. Our results indicate that garlic consumption may have positive effects on perceived body odour hedonicity, perhaps due to its health effects (e.g., antioxidant properties, antimicrobial activity). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. An effective protocol for micropropagation of edible bamboo species (Bambusa tulda and Melocanna baccifera) through nodal culture.

    PubMed

    Waikhom, Sayanika Devi; Louis, Bengyella

    2014-01-01

    High demand for edible bamboo shoots of Bambusa tulda and Melocanna baccifera in many Asian ethnic groups has led to the need for developing intensive bamboo farming. To achieve this, in vitro regeneration of bamboo plantlets is needed due to the long and irregular bamboo flowering cycle and scarcity of bamboo seeds. An effective protocol for plantlets regeneration in B. tulda and M. baccifera from nodal explants following validation of the species using the sequence of trnL-F intergenic spacer region is described. Effective axillary bud breaking was achieved at 3 mg/L of 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) in MS medium. Importantly, combining 2 mg/L of kinetin (Kn) with 3 mg/L of BAP produced a synergistic effect for shoot multiplication in B. tulda and M. baccifera. Under optimized conditions in half-strength MS medium supplemented with 3 mg/L of indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), 10 mg/L of coumarin, and 3% sucrose, profuse production of dark-brown rhizome in B. tulda and abundant rooting (81.67%, P < 0.05, F = 15.46) for M. baccifera within 30 days were achieved. The established protocol and the validation of the reported species at the molecular level will be of help to stakeholders in edible bamboo trade to conserve gene-pool and increase productivity.

  14. Targeting Nodal in Conjunction with Dacarbazine Induces Synergistic Anti-cancer Effects in Metastatic Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Hardy, Katharine M.; Strizzi, Luigi; Margaryan, Naira V.; Gupta, Kanika; Murphy, George F.; Scolyer, Richard A.; Hendrix, Mary J.C.

    2015-01-01

    Metastatic melanoma is a highly aggressive skin cancer with a poor prognosis. Despite a complete response in fewer than 5% of patients, the chemotherapeutic agent Dacarbazine (DTIC) remains the reference drug after almost 40 years. More recently FDA approved drugs have shown promise but patient outcome remains modest, predominantly due to drug resistance. As such, combinatorial targeting has received increased attention, and will advance with the identification of new molecular targets. One attractive target for improving melanoma therapy is the growth factor Nodal, whose normal expression is largely restricted to embryonic development, but is reactivated in metastatic melanoma. In this study, we sought to determine how Nodal-positive human melanoma cells respond to DTIC treatment and to ascertain if targeting Nodal in combination with DTIC would be more effective than monotherapy. A single treatment with DTIC inhibited cell growth but did not induce apoptosis. Rather than reducing Nodal expression, DTIC increased the size of the Nodal-positive subpopulation, an observation coincident with increased cellular invasion. Importantly, clinical tissue specimens from patients with melanomas refractory to DTIC therapy stained positive for Nodal expression, both in pre- and post-DTIC tumors, underscoring the value of targeting Nodal. In vitro, anti-Nodal antibodies alone had some adverse effects on proliferation and apoptosis, but combining DTIC treatment with anti-Nodal antibodies decreased cell growth and increased apoptosis synergistically, at concentrations incapable of producing meaningful effects as monotherapy. Implications Targeting Nodal in combination with DTIC therapy holds promise for the treatment of metastatic melanoma. PMID:25767211

  15. Effectiveness of OK-432 (Sapylin) to reduce seroma formation after axillary lymphadenectomy for breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yinlong; Gao, Erli; Liu, Xinying; Ye, Zhiqiang; Chen, Yizuo; Li, Quan; Qu, Jinmiao; Dai, Xuanxuan; Wang, Ouchen; Pan, Yifei; Zhang, Xiaohua

    2013-05-01

    The occurrence of seroma formation after axillary lymphadenectomy for breast cancer cannot be ignored. Various approaches have been used in an effort to reduce it, but these results are still controversial. We aimed to describe a new method of application of OK-432 (Sapylin, heat-treated Su strain of Streptococcus) to reduce seroma formation after axillary lymphadenectomy for breast cancer and to verify the safety and efficacy of it as a beneficial supplement for conventional surgery. A prospective, randomized analysis of consecutive quadrantectomy or mastectomy plus axillary lymphadenectomy using or not using OK-432 was designed. From July 2010 to November 2011, a total of 111 patients were enrolled in this prospective, randomized study and completed the follow-up. OK-432 applied to the axillary fossa plus placement of closed suction drainage was used in 54 patients (the experimental group); placement of closed suction drainage was used in 57 patients (the control group). There were no statistical significance between the two groups in terms of age, body mass index, treatment received, tumor size, number of removed lymph nodes, and lymph node status. Postoperative drainage magnitude and duration were significantly reduced in the experimental group (P = 0.008 and 0.003, respectively). One week after hospital discharge, fewer patients developed a palpable seroma in the experimental group: 10 in the experimental group versus 28 in the control group (P = 0.001). Fewer seromas needed aspiration (mean 1 [range 0-3] in the experimental group vs. mean 4 [range 1-5] in the control group; P < 0.001). There were no significant differences in terms of the incidence of complications associated with axillary lymphadenectomy (P = 0.941). OK-432 is a feasible and safe option for axillary lymphadenectomy for breast cancer. The use of it does not always prevent seroma formation, but it can reduce drainage magnitude and duration, as well as decrease the incidence of seroma after the

  16. Cilia are required for asymmetric nodal induction in the sea urchin embryo.

    PubMed

    Tisler, Matthias; Wetzel, Franziska; Mantino, Sabrina; Kremnyov, Stanislav; Thumberger, Thomas; Schweickert, Axel; Blum, Martin; Vick, Philipp

    2016-08-23

    Left-right (LR) organ asymmetries are a common feature of metazoan animals. In many cases, laterality is established by a conserved asymmetric Nodal signaling cascade during embryogenesis. In most vertebrates, asymmetric nodal induction results from a cilia-driven leftward fluid flow at the left-right organizer (LRO), a ciliated epithelium present during gastrula/neurula stages. Conservation of LRO and flow beyond the vertebrates has not been reported yet. Here we study sea urchin embryos, which use nodal to establish larval LR asymmetry as well. Cilia were found in the archenteron of embryos undergoing gastrulation. Expression of foxj1 and dnah9 suggested that archenteron cilia were motile. Cilia were polarized to the posterior pole of cells, a prerequisite of directed flow. High-speed videography revealed rotating cilia in the archenteron slightly before asymmetric nodal induction. Removal of cilia through brief high salt treatments resulted in aberrant patterns of nodal expression. Our data demonstrate that cilia - like in vertebrates - are required for asymmetric nodal induction in sea urchin embryos. Based on these results we argue that the anterior archenteron represents a bona fide LRO and propose that cilia-based symmetry breakage is a synapomorphy of the deuterostomes.

  17. Successful Completion of the Pilot Phase of a Randomized Controlled Trial Comparing Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy to No Further Axillary Staging in Patients with Clinical T1-T2 N0 Breast Cancer and Normal Axillary Ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Cyr, Amy E; Tucker, Natalia; Ademuyiwa, Foluso; Margenthaler, Julie A; Aft, Rebecca L; Eberlein, Timothy J; Appleton, Catherine M; Zoberi, Imran; Thomas, Maria A; Gao, Feng; Gillanders, William E

    2016-08-01

    Axillary surgery is not considered therapeutic in patients with clinical T1-T2 N0 breast cancer. The importance of axillary staging is eroding in an era in which tumor biology, as defined by biomarker and gene expression profile, is increasingly important in medical decision making. We hypothesized that axillary ultrasound (AUS) is a noninvasive alternative to sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB), and AUS could replace SLNB without compromising patient care. Patients with clinical T1-T2 N0 breast cancer and normal AUS were eligible for enrollment. Subjects were randomized to no further axillary staging (arm 1) vs SLNB (arm 2). Descriptive statistics were used to describe the results of the pilot phase of the randomized controlled trial. Sixty-eight subjects were enrolled in the pilot phase of the trial (34 subjects in arm 1, no further staging; 32 subjects in arm 2, SLNB; and 2 subjects voluntarily withdrew from the trial). The median age was 61 years (range 40 to 80 years) in arm 1 and 59 years (range 31 to 81 years) in arm 2, and there were no significant clinical or pathologic differences between the arms. Median follow-up was 17 months (range 1 to 32 months). The negative predictive value (NPV) of AUS for identification of clinically significant axillary disease (>2.0 mm) was 96.9%. No axillary recurrences have been observed in either arm. Successful completion of the pilot phase of the randomized controlled trial confirms the feasibility of the study design, and provides prospective evidence supporting the ability of AUS to exclude clinically significant disease in the axilla. The results provide strong support for a phase 2 randomized controlled trial. Copyright © 2016 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Toddler signaling regulates mesodermal cell migration downstream of Nodal signaling

    PubMed Central

    Norris, Megan L; Pauli, Andrea; Gagnon, James A; Lord, Nathan D; Rogers, Katherine W; Mosimann, Christian; Zon, Leonard I

    2017-01-01

    Toddler/Apela/Elabela is a conserved secreted peptide that regulates mesendoderm development during zebrafish gastrulation. Two non-exclusive models have been proposed to explain Toddler function. The ‘specification model’ postulates that Toddler signaling enhances Nodal signaling to properly specify endoderm, whereas the ‘migration model’ posits that Toddler signaling regulates mesendodermal cell migration downstream of Nodal signaling. Here, we test key predictions of both models. We find that in toddler mutants Nodal signaling is initially normal and increasing endoderm specification does not rescue mesendodermal cell migration. Mesodermal cell migration defects in toddler mutants result from a decrease in animal pole-directed migration and are independent of endoderm. Conversely, endodermal cell migration defects are dependent on a Cxcr4a-regulated tether of the endoderm to mesoderm. These results suggest that Toddler signaling regulates mesodermal cell migration downstream of Nodal signaling and indirectly affects endodermal cell migration via Cxcr4a-signaling. PMID:29117894

  19. Nodal patterning without Lefty inhibitory feedback is functional but fragile

    PubMed Central

    Gagnon, James A; Pauli, Andrea; Zimmerman, Steven; Aksel, Deniz C; Reyon, Deepak; Tsai, Shengdar Q; Joung, J Keith

    2017-01-01

    Developmental signaling pathways often activate their own inhibitors. Such inhibitory feedback has been suggested to restrict the spatial and temporal extent of signaling or mitigate signaling fluctuations, but these models are difficult to rigorously test. Here, we determine whether the ability of the mesendoderm inducer Nodal to activate its inhibitor Lefty is required for development. We find that zebrafish lefty mutants exhibit excess Nodal signaling and increased specification of mesendoderm, resulting in embryonic lethality. Strikingly, development can be fully restored without feedback: Lethal patterning defects in lefty mutants can be rescued by ectopic expression of lefty far from its normal expression domain or by spatially and temporally uniform exposure to a Nodal inhibitor drug. While drug-treated mutants are less tolerant of mild perturbations to Nodal signaling levels than wild type embryos, they can develop into healthy adults. These results indicate that patterning without inhibitory feedback is functional but fragile. PMID:29215332

  20. Occult Nodal Disease Prevalence and Distribution in Recurrent Laryngeal Cancer Requiring Salvage Laryngectomy.

    PubMed

    Birkeland, Andrew C; Rosko, Andrew J; Issa, Mohamad R; Shuman, Andrew G; Prince, Mark E; Wolf, Gregory T; Bradford, Carol R; McHugh, Jonathan B; Brenner, J Chad; Spector, Matthew E

    2016-03-01

    The indications for neck dissection concurrent with salvage laryngectomy in the clinically N0 setting remain unclear. Our goals were to determine the prevalence of occult nodal disease, analyze nodal disease distribution patterns, and identify predictors of occult nodal disease in a salvage laryngectomy cohort. Case series with planned data collection. Tertiary academic center. Patients with persistent or recurrent laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) after radiation/chemoradiation failure undergoing salvage laryngectomy with neck dissection. We analyzed a single-institution retrospective case series of patients between 1997 and 2014 and identified those who had clinically N0 (cN0) necks (n = 203). Clinical and pathologic data, including nodal prevalence and distribution, were collected and statistical analyses performed. Overall, cN0 necks had histologically positive occult nodes in 17% (n = 35) of cases. Univariate predictors of occult nodal positivity included recurrent T4 stage (34% T4 vs 12% non-T4; P = .0003) and supraglottic subsite (28% supraglottic vs 10% nonsupraglottic; P = .0006). Histologically positive nodes associated with supraglottic primaries were most frequently positive in ipsilateral levels II and III (17% and 16%). Positive nodes for glottic LSCC were most frequently positive in the ipsilateral and contralateral paratracheal nodes (11% and 9%). Histologically positive occult nodes are identified in 17% of cN0 patients undergoing salvage laryngectomy with neck dissection. Occult nodal disease varies in frequency and distribution based on tumor subsite. Predictors of high (>20%) occult nodal positivity include T4 tumors and supraglottic subsite. In glottic LSCC, the most frequent sites of occult nodal disease are the paratracheal nodal basins. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2016.

  1. Correlation between obesity and fat-infiltrated axillary lymph nodes visualized on mammography.

    PubMed

    diFlorio Alexander, Roberta M; Haider, Steffen J; MacKenzie, Todd; Goodrich, Martha E; Weiss, Julie; Onega, Tracy

    2018-01-05

    Using screening mammography, this study investigated the association between obesity and axillary lymph node (LN) size and morphology. We conducted a retrospective review of 188 females who underwent screening mammography at an academic medical centre. Length and width of the LN and hilum were measured in the largest, mammographically visible axillary node. The hilo-cortical ratio (HCR) was calculated as the hilar width divided by the cortical width. Measurements were performed by a board certified breast radiologist and a resident radiology physician. Inter-rater agreement was assessed with Pearson correlation coefficient. We performed multivariable regression analysis for associations of LN measurements with body mass index (BMI), breast density and age. There was a strong association between BMI and LN dimensions, hilum dimensions and HCR (p < 0.001 for all metrics). There was no significant change in cortex width with increasing BMI (p = 0.15). Increases in LN length and width were found with increasing BMI [0.6 mm increase in length per unit BMI, 95% CI (0.4-0.8), p < 0.001 and0.3 mm increase in width per unit BMI, 95% CI(0.2-0.4), p < 0.001, respectively]. Inter-rater reliability for lymph node and hilum measurements was 0.57-0.72. We found a highly significant association between increasing BMI and axillary LN dimensions independent of age and breast density with strong interobserver agreement. The increase in LN size was driven by expansion of the LN hilum secondary to fat infiltration. Advances in knowledge: This preliminary work determined a relationship between fat infiltrated axillary lymph nodes and obesity.

  2. Outcomes of uterine cervical cancer patients with pelvic lymph node metastases after radiotherapy without boost irradiation of metastases.

    PubMed

    Yoshizawa, Eriko; Koiwai, Keiichiro; Ina, Hironobu; Fukazawa, Ayumu; Sakai, Katsuya; Ozawa, Takesumi; Matsushita, Hirohide; Kadoya, Masumi

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcomes of uterine cervical cancer patients with pelvic lymph node (PLN) metastases after radiotherapy without boost irradiation of the metastases and to clarify the necessity of the boost irradiation of metastatic lesions. Thirty-two patients with uterine cervical cancer metastasizing only to the PLN were treated with definitive radiotherapy without boost irradiation of the metastases between 2008 and 2012 at our institution and were selected for this study. The pattern of progression, overall survival, and progression-free survival were analyzed. Ninety percent of the PLN metastases were controlled by radiotherapy. Twenty-two of 32 patients (69%) experienced progression. Distant metastases as initial progression were observed in 21 of these 22 patients (95%). Only two patients experienced failures in pre-treatment metastatic PLN as initial progression, along with other failures. Severe late lower gastrointestinal toxicities were not observed in any patients. Two-year cumulative overall survival and progression-free survival were 74% and 31%, respectively. Boost irradiation of PLN metastases is not necessarily indispensable. Further studies to examine the necessity of boost irradiation of PLN metastases in radiotherapy for uterine cervical cancer patients with metastases are required. © 2017 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  3. Sensitive molecular detection of small nodal metastasis in uterine cervical cancer using HPV16-E6/CK19/MUC1 cancer biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Samouëlian, Vanessa; Mechtouf, Nawel; Leblanc, Eric; Cardin, Guillaume B.; Lhotellier, Valérie; Querleu, Denis; Révillion, Françoise; Rodier, Francis

    2018-01-01

    Metastatic nodal involvement is a critical prognostic factor in uterine cervical cancer (UCC). To improve current methods of detecting UCC metastases in lymph nodes (LNs), we used quantitative PCR (qPCR) to assess mRNA expression of potential metastatic biomarkers. We found that expression of HPV16-E6, cytokeratin19 (CK19), and mucin1 (MUC1) is consistently upregulated in tumors and metastatic tissues, supporting a role for these genes in UCC progression. These putative biomarkers were able to predict the presence of histologically positive metastatic LNs with respective sensitivities and specificities of 82% and 99% (CK19), 76% and 95% (HPV16-E6), and 76% and 78% (MUC1). While the biomarkers failed to detect 1.7% to 2.2% of the histologically positive LNs when used individually, combining CK19 and HPV16-E6 enhanced sensitivity and specificity to 100% and 94%, respectively. To explore the sensitivity of qPCR-based detection of varying proportions of invading HPV16-positive UCC cells, we designed a LN metastasis model that achieved a fresh cell detection limit of 0.008% (1:12500 HPV16-positive to HPV16-negative cells), and a paraffin-embedded, formalin-fixed (PEFF) detection limit of 0.02% (1:5000 HPV16-positive to HPV16-negative cells), both of which are within the theoretical detection limit for micrometastasis. Thus, HPV E6/E7 oncogenes may be useful targets for the ultrasensitive detection of nodal involvements like micrometastases in fresh or archived tissue samples. Moreover, our results suggest that the biomarker combination of CK19/HPV-E6 could support a real-time intraoperative strategy for the detection of small, but potentially lethal, metastatic nodal involvements in fresh UCC tissues. PMID:29774091

  4. Sensitive molecular detection of small nodal metastasis in uterine cervical cancer using HPV16-E6/CK19/MUC1 cancer biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Samouëlian, Vanessa; Mechtouf, Nawel; Leblanc, Eric; Cardin, Guillaume B; Lhotellier, Valérie; Querleu, Denis; Révillion, Françoise; Rodier, Francis

    2018-04-24

    Metastatic nodal involvement is a critical prognostic factor in uterine cervical cancer (UCC). To improve current methods of detecting UCC metastases in lymph nodes (LNs), we used quantitative PCR (qPCR) to assess mRNA expression of potential metastatic biomarkers. We found that expression of HPV16-E6, cytokeratin19 (CK19), and mucin1 (MUC1) is consistently upregulated in tumors and metastatic tissues, supporting a role for these genes in UCC progression. These putative biomarkers were able to predict the presence of histologically positive metastatic LNs with respective sensitivities and specificities of 82% and 99% (CK19), 76% and 95% (HPV16-E6), and 76% and 78% (MUC1). While the biomarkers failed to detect 1.7% to 2.2% of the histologically positive LNs when used individually, combining CK19 and HPV16-E6 enhanced sensitivity and specificity to 100% and 94%, respectively. To explore the sensitivity of qPCR-based detection of varying proportions of invading HPV16-positive UCC cells, we designed a LN metastasis model that achieved a fresh cell detection limit of 0.008% (1:12500 HPV16-positive to HPV16-negative cells), and a paraffin-embedded, formalin-fixed (PEFF) detection limit of 0.02% (1:5000 HPV16-positive to HPV16-negative cells), both of which are within the theoretical detection limit for micrometastasis. Thus, HPV E6/E7 oncogenes may be useful targets for the ultrasensitive detection of nodal involvements like micrometastases in fresh or archived tissue samples. Moreover, our results suggest that the biomarker combination of CK19/HPV-E6 could support a real-time intraoperative strategy for the detection of small, but potentially lethal, metastatic nodal involvements in fresh UCC tissues.

  5. Molecular insights into melanoma brain metastases.

    PubMed

    Westphal, Dana; Glitza Oliva, Isabella C; Niessner, Heike

    2017-06-01

    Substantial proportions of patients with metastatic melanoma develop brain metastases during the course of their disease, often resulting in significant morbidity and death. Despite recent advances with BRAF/MEK and immune-checkpoint inhibitors in the treatment of patients who have melanoma with extracerebral metastases, patients who have melanoma brain metastases still have poor overall survival, highlighting the need for further therapy options. A deeper understanding of the molecular pathways involved in the development of melanoma brain metastases is required to develop more brain-specific therapies. Here, the authors summarize the currently known preclinical data and describe steps involved in the development of melanoma brain metastases. Only by knowing the molecular background is it possible to design new therapeutic agents that can be used to improve the outcome of patients with melanoma brain metastases. Cancer 2017;123:2163-75. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  6. Incidence of cervical lymph node metastasis and its association with outcomes in patients with adenoid cystic carcinoma. An international collaborative study

    PubMed Central

    Amit, Moran; Binenbaum, Yoav; Sharma, Kanika; Ramer, Naomi; Ramer, Ilana; Agbetoba, Abib; Glick, Joelle; Yang, Xinjie; Lei, Delin; Bjørndal, Kristine; Godballe, Christian; Mücke, Thomas; Wolff, Klaus-Dietrich; Fliss, Dan; Eckardt, André M.; Copelli, Chiara; Sesenna, Enrico; Palmer, Frank; Ganly, Ian; Patel, Snehal; Gil, Ziv

    2016-01-01

    Background The patterns of regional metastasis in adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) of the head and neck and its association with outcome is not established. Methods We conducted a retrospective multicentered multivariate analysis of 270 patients who underwent neck dissection. Results The incidence rate of neck metastases was 29%. The rate observed in the oral cavity is 37%, and in the major salivary glands is 19% (p = .001). The rate of occult nodal metastases was 17%. Overall 5-year survival rates were 44% in patients undergoing therapeutic neck dissections, and 65% and 73% among those undergoing elective neck dissections, with and without nodal metastases, respectively (p = .017). Multivariate analysis revealed that the primary site, nodal classification, and margin status were independent predictors of survival. Conclusion Our findings support the consideration of elective neck treatment in patients with ACC of the oral cavity. PMID:25060927

  7. Nomogram for prediction of level 2 axillary lymph node metastasis in proven level 1 node-positive breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yanlin; Xu, Hong; Zhang, Hao; Ou, Xunyan; Xu, Zhen; Ai, Liping; Sun, Lisha; Liu, Caigang

    2017-09-22

    The current management of the axilla in level 1 node-positive breast cancer patients is axillary lymph node dissection regardless of the status of the level 2 axillary lymph nodes. The goal of this study was to develop a nomogram predicting the probability of level 2 axillary lymph node metastasis (L-2-ALNM) in patients with level 1 axillary node-positive breast cancer. We reviewed the records of 974 patients with pathology-confirmed level 1 node-positive breast cancer between 2010 and 2014 at the Liaoning Cancer Hospital and Institute. The patients were randomized 1:1 and divided into a modeling group and a validation group. Clinical and pathological features of the patients were assessed with uni- and multivariate logistic regression. A nomogram based on independent predictors for the L-2-ALNM identified by multivariate logistic regression was constructed. Independent predictors of L-2-ALNM by the multivariate logistic regression analysis included tumor size, Ki-67 status, histological grade, and number of positive level 1 axillary lymph nodes. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve of the modeling set and the validation set were 0.828 and 0.816, respectively. The false-negative rates of the L-2-ALNM nomogram were 1.82% and 7.41% for the predicted probability cut-off points of < 6% and < 10%, respectively, when applied to the validation group. Our nomogram could help predict L-2-ALNM in patients with level 1 axillary lymph node metastasis. Patients with a low probability of L-2-ALNM could be spared level 2 axillary lymph node dissection, thereby reducing postoperative morbidity.

  8. [Muscular metastases from renal cell carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Montagnac, Richard; Champion, Justine; Pradel, Jean; Takin, Romulus; Eychenne, Dominique; Schendel, Adeline

    2016-12-01

    Renal cell carcinoma can metastasize to several locations but rarely in muscles. However, this possibility must never be overlooked because muscle metastases may occur a very long time after the initial nephrectomy. So the post-operative follow-up, according to the recommendations, with thoraco-abdomino-pelvic imaging (computed tomography or nuclear magnetic resonance) allowing to detect metastases, including muscle metastases in the trunk, does not have to neglect the metastases located in the members. This search is based upon a thorough clinical examination, completed by targeted imaging in case of symptoms and/or palpable mass. Copyright © 2016 Association Société de néphrologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. 47 CFR 101.503 - Digital Electronic Message Service Nodal Stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... DEMS Nodal Station licenses should specify the maximum number of 10.6 GHz DEMS User Stations to be served by that nodal station. Any increase in that number must be applied for pursuant to § 1.913 of this... Stations. 101.503 Section 101.503 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY...

  10. 47 CFR 101.503 - Digital Electronic Message Service Nodal Stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... DEMS Nodal Station licenses should specify the maximum number of 10.6 GHz DEMS User Stations to be served by that nodal station. Any increase in that number must be applied for pursuant to § 1.913 of this... Stations. 101.503 Section 101.503 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY...

  11. 47 CFR 101.503 - Digital Electronic Message Service Nodal Stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... DEMS Nodal Station licenses should specify the maximum number of 10.6 GHz DEMS User Stations to be served by that nodal station. Any increase in that number must be applied for pursuant to § 1.913 of this... Stations. 101.503 Section 101.503 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY...

  12. 47 CFR 101.503 - Digital Electronic Message Service Nodal Stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... DEMS Nodal Station licenses should specify the maximum number of 10.6 GHz DEMS User Stations to be served by that nodal station. Any increase in that number must be applied for pursuant to § 1.913 of this... Stations. 101.503 Section 101.503 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY...

  13. Elsevier Trophoblast Research Award lecture: The multifaceted role of Nodal signaling during mammalian reproduction.

    PubMed

    Park, C B; Dufort, D

    2011-03-01

    Nodal, a secreted signaling protein in the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) superfamily, has established roles in vertebrate development. However, components of the Nodal signaling pathway are also expressed at the maternal-fetal interface and have been implicated in many processes of mammalian reproduction. Emerging evidence indicates that Nodal and its extracellular inhibitor Lefty are expressed in the uterus and complex interactions between the two proteins mediate menstruation, decidualization and embryo implantation. Furthermore, several studies have shown that Nodal from both fetal and maternal sources may regulate trophoblast cell fate and facilitate placentation as both embryonic and uterine-specific Nodal knockout mouse strains exhibit disrupted placenta morphology. Here we review the established and prospective roles of Nodal signaling in facilitating successful pregnancy, including recent evidence supporting a potential link to parturition and preterm birth. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Assessment of axillary temperature for the evaluation of normal body temperature of healthy young adults at rest in a thermoneutral environment.

    PubMed

    Marui, Shuri; Misawa, Ayaka; Tanaka, Yuki; Nagashima, Kei

    2017-02-22

    The aims of this study were to (1) evaluate whether recently introduced methods of measuring axillary temperature are reliable, (2) examine if individuals know their baseline body temperature based on an actual measurement, and (3) assess the factors affecting axillary temperature and reevaluate the meaning of the axillary temperature. Subjects were healthy young men and women (n = 76 and n = 65, respectively). Three measurements were obtained: (1) axillary temperature using a digital thermometer in a predictive mode requiring 10 s (T ax-10 s ), (2) axillary temperature using a digital thermometer in a standard mode requiring 10 min (T ax-10 min ), and (3) tympanic membrane temperature continuously measured by infrared thermometry (T ty ). The subjects answered questions about eating and exercise habits, sleep and menstrual cycles, and thermoregulation and reported what they believed their regular body temperature to be (T reg ). T reg , T ax-10 s , T ax-10 min , and T ty were 36.2 ± 0.4, 36.4 ± 0.5, 36.5 ± 0.4, and 36.8 ± 0.3 °C (mean ± SD), respectively. There were correlations between T ty and T ax-10 min , T ty and T ax-10 s , and T ax-10 min and T ax-10 s (r = .62, r = .46, and r = .59, respectively, P < .001), but not between T reg and T ax-10 s (r = .11, P = .20). A lower T ax-10 s was associated with smaller body mass indices and irregular menstrual cycles. Modern devices for measuring axillary temperature may have changed the range of body temperature that is recognized as normal. Core body temperature variations estimated by tympanic measurements were smaller than those estimated by axillary measurements. This variation of axillary temperature may be due to changes in the measurement methods introduced by modern devices and techniques. However, axillary temperature values correlated well with those of tympanic measurements, suggesting that the technique may reliably report an

  15. Tumor microvessel density–associated mast cells in canine nodal lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Mann, Elizabeth; Whittington, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Mast cells are associated in angiogenesis in various human and animal neoplasms. However, association of mast cells with tumor microvessel density in canine lymphoma was not previously documented. The objective of the study is to determine if mast cells are increased in canine nodal lymphomas and to evaluate their correlation with tumor microvessel density and grading of lymphomas. Methods: Nodal lymphomas from 33 dogs were studied and compared with nonneoplastic lymph nodes from 6 dogs as control. Mast cell count was made on Toluidine blue stained sections. Immunohistochemistry using antibody against Factor VIII was employed to visualize and determine microvessel density. Results: The mast cell count in lymphoma (2.95 ± 2.4) was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than that in the control (0.83 ± 0.3) and was positively correlated with tumor microvessel density (r = 0.44, p = 0.009). Significant difference was not observed in mast cell count and tumor microvessel density among different gradings of lymphomas. Conclusions: Mast cells are associated with tumor microvessel density in canine nodal lymphoma with no significant difference among gradings of lymphomas. Mast cells may play an important role in development of canine nodal lymphomas. Further detailed investigation on the role of mast cells as important part of tumor microenvironment in canine nodal lymphomas is recommended. PMID:26770752

  16. Cutaneous metastases of internal tumors.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Antón Martínez, M C; Parra-Blanco, V; Avilés Izquierdo, J A; Suárez Fernández, R M

    2013-12-01

    Cutaneous metastases are relatively rare in clinical practice and their diagnosis requires a high index of suspicion because clinical findings can be subtle. These metastases reveal the presence of disseminated malignant disease and can lead to the diagnosis of unsuspected internal tumors or the spread or recurrence of an already diagnosed tumor. Early recognition of cutaneous metastases can facilitate prompt and accurate diagnosis resulting in early treatment; however, they are generally indicative of a poor prognosis. Some tumors have a predilection to metastasize to specific areas. Recognition of these patterns provides essential information that can guide the search for the underlying tumor. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier España, S.L. y AEDV. All rights reserved.

  17. Metastasizing leiomyoma to heart.

    PubMed

    Consamus, Erin N; Reardon, Michael J; Ayala, Alberto G; Schwartz, Mary R; Ro, Jae Y

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac smooth muscle tumors are rare. Three different clinical settings for these tumors have been reported, including benign metastasizing leiomyoma from the uterus, primary cardiac leiomyoma and leiomyosarcoma, and intravenous cardiac extension of pelvic leiomyoma, which is the most common. We present a case of a 55-year-old woman with a benign metastasizing leiomyoma to the heart 17 years after hysterectomy and 16 years after metastasis to the lung. Immunohistochemical stains for smooth muscle actin, desmin, and estrogen and progesterone receptors were positive, indicating a smooth muscle tumor of uterine origin. To our knowledge, this is only the fourth reported case of benign metastasizing leiomyoma to the heart and the first case of long-delayed cardiac metastasis after successful treatment of pulmonary metastasis. It illustrates that benign metastasizing leiomyoma should be included in the differential diagnosis of cardiac tumors in patients with a history of uterine leiomyoma, especially when associated with pulmonary metastasis.

  18. Response of millet and sorghum to a varying water supply around the primary and nodal roots

    PubMed Central

    Rostamza, M.; Richards, R. A.; Watt, M.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Cereals have two root systems. The primary system originates from the embryo when the seed germinates and can support the plant until it produces grain. The nodal system can emerge from stem nodes throughout the plant's life; its value for yield is unclear and depends on the environment. The aim of this study was to test the role of nodal roots of sorghum and millet in plant growth in response to variation in soil moisture. Sorghum and millet were chosen as both are adapted to dry conditions. Methods Sorghum and millet were grown in a split-pot system that allowed the primary and nodal roots to be watered separately. Key Results When primary and nodal roots were watered (12 % soil water content; SWC), millet nodal roots were seven times longer than those of sorghum and six times longer than millet plants in dry treatments, mainly from an 8-fold increase in branch root length. When soil was allowed to dry in both compartments, millet nodal roots responded and grew 20 % longer branch roots than in the well-watered control. Sorghum nodal roots were unchanged. When only primary roots received water, nodal roots of both species emerged and elongated into extremely dry soil (0·6–1·5 % SWC), possibly with phloem-delivered water from the primary roots in the moist inner pot. Nodal roots were thick, short, branchless and vertical, indicating a tropism that was more pronounced in millet. Total nodal root length increased in both species when the dry soil was covered with plastic, suggesting that stubble retention or leaf mulching could facilitate nodal roots reaching deeper moist layers in dry climates. Greater nodal root length in millet than in sorghum was associated with increased shoot biomass, water uptake and water use efficiency (shoot mass per water). Millet had a more plastic response than sorghum to moisture around the nodal roots due to (1) faster growth and progression through ontogeny for earlier nodal root branch length and (2

  19. Response of millet and sorghum to a varying water supply around the primary and nodal roots.

    PubMed

    Rostamza, M; Richards, R A; Watt, M

    2013-07-01

    Cereals have two root systems. The primary system originates from the embryo when the seed germinates and can support the plant until it produces grain. The nodal system can emerge from stem nodes throughout the plant's life; its value for yield is unclear and depends on the environment. The aim of this study was to test the role of nodal roots of sorghum and millet in plant growth in response to variation in soil moisture. Sorghum and millet were chosen as both are adapted to dry conditions. Sorghum and millet were grown in a split-pot system that allowed the primary and nodal roots to be watered separately. When primary and nodal roots were watered (12 % soil water content; SWC), millet nodal roots were seven times longer than those of sorghum and six times longer than millet plants in dry treatments, mainly from an 8-fold increase in branch root length. When soil was allowed to dry in both compartments, millet nodal roots responded and grew 20 % longer branch roots than in the well-watered control. Sorghum nodal roots were unchanged. When only primary roots received water, nodal roots of both species emerged and elongated into extremely dry soil (0.6-1.5 % SWC), possibly with phloem-delivered water from the primary roots in the moist inner pot. Nodal roots were thick, short, branchless and vertical, indicating a tropism that was more pronounced in millet. Total nodal root length increased in both species when the dry soil was covered with plastic, suggesting that stubble retention or leaf mulching could facilitate nodal roots reaching deeper moist layers in dry climates. Greater nodal root length in millet than in sorghum was associated with increased shoot biomass, water uptake and water use efficiency (shoot mass per water). Millet had a more plastic response than sorghum to moisture around the nodal roots due to (1) faster growth and progression through ontogeny for earlier nodal root branch length and (2) partitioning to nodal root length from primary roots

  20. Comparison of Modal to Nodal Approaches for Wavefront Correction,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-02-01

    the influence function of the wavefront corrector. (Implicit here is the assumption that the influence function is the same for every node, which is...To implement a nodal correction, the wavefront to be corrected is -. .. decomposed using a basis which is determined by the nodal (actuator) influence ... function of the wavefront corrector. This decomposition results in a set of coefficients which correspond to the drive signal required at the

  1. Deodorants and antiperspirants affect the axillary bacterial community.

    PubMed

    Callewaert, Chris; Hutapea, Prawira; Van de Wiele, Tom; Boon, Nico

    2014-10-01

    The use of underarm cosmetics is common practice in the Western society to obtain better body odor and/or to prevent excessive sweating. A survey indicated that 95 % of the young adult Belgians generally use an underarm deodorant or antiperspirant. The effect of deodorants and antiperspirants on the axillary bacterial community was examined on nine healthy subjects, who were restrained from using deodorant/antiperspirant for 1 month. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis was used to investigate the individual microbial dynamics. The microbial profiles were unique for every person. A stable bacterial community was seen when underarm cosmetics were applied on a daily basis and when no underarm cosmetics were applied. A distinct community difference was seen when the habits were changed from daily use to no use of deodorant/antiperspirant and vice versa. The richness was higher when deodorants and antiperspirants were applied. Especially when antiperspirants were applied, the microbiome showed an increase in diversity. Antiperspirant usage led toward an increase of Actinobacteria, which is an unfavorable situation with respect to body odor development. These initial results show that axillary cosmetics modify the microbial community and can stimulate odor-producing bacteria.

  2. Harmonic focus versus electrocautery in axillary lymph node dissection for breast cancer: a randomized clinical study.

    PubMed

    He, Qingqing; Zhuang, Dayong; Zheng, Luming; Fan, Ziyi; Zhou, Peng; Zhu, Jian; Lv, Zhen; Chai, Jixin; Cao, Lei

    2012-12-01

    Electrocautery has been proven to be associated with prolonged serous drainage that might result in several complications in patients requiring axillary lymph node dissection for breast cancer. We proposed that the Harmonic Focus might outperform electrocautery in axillary lymph node dissection, resulting in shorter operative times and reduced postoperative complications. One hundred twenty-eight women with confirmed T1-3 N1-2 breast cancer were randomly assigned to undergo mastectomy or breast-conserving surgery with axillary dissection by using Harmonic Focus or electrocautery. Sixty-four has surgery with Harmonic Focus (group A) and 64 with electrocautery (group B) by the same surgical team. Operative time, blood loss, total drainage volume and days, incidence of seroma, hematoma, pain score, and flap necrosis were recorded. Using Harmonic Focus significantly diminished operative time, blood loss, total drainage volume, days of stay, and visual analogue scale as compared with traditional electrocautery. There was no statistical difference between the 2 groups regarding seroma, hematoma, and flap necrosis. Axillary lymph node dissection using Harmonic Focus is feasible, safe, and a more comfortable design for the surgeon. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Sub-axillary access with the use of costal cartilages articulated bars for correction of pectus carinatum

    PubMed Central

    Andreetti, Claudio; D'Andrilli, Antonio; Venuta, Federico; Rendina, Erino Angelo

    2013-01-01

    We describe an original technique for correction of pectus carinatum (PC) through a limited sub-axillary incision by chondrectomy and the use of costal cartilages articulated bars to stabilize the chest wall. We have developed this technique in order to improve the cosmetic results in the surgical treatment of even complex sterno-chondral deformities. The surgical incision is made along the lateral edge of the pectoralis major muscle in the sub-axillary region and its length is related to the number of costal cartilages to be treated. This technique is principally indicated for asymmetric PC with unilateral deformities of the costal cartilages, but its application can be extended to bilateral alteration of the parasternal cartilages by performing the sub-axillary incision bilaterally. When more than four cartilages are removed, the chest is stabilized by articulated bars made using cylindrical fragments obtained by the division of the removed costal cartilages. This thoracoplasty technique performed with a minimally invasive sub-axillary access is simple and safe. It allows the effective treatment of severe PC with either unilateral asymmetric or bilateral costal cartilages deformities, avoiding the median sternal incision and the use of the metallic bar. PMID:23111343

  4. Sub-axillary access with the use of costal cartilages articulated bars for correction of pectus carinatum.

    PubMed

    Andreetti, Claudio; D'Andrilli, Antonio; Venuta, Federico; Rendina, Erino Angelo

    2013-02-01

    We describe an original technique for correction of pectus carinatum (PC) through a limited sub-axillary incision by chondrectomy and the use of costal cartilages articulated bars to stabilize the chest wall. We have developed this technique in order to improve the cosmetic results in the surgical treatment of even complex sterno-chondral deformities. The surgical incision is made along the lateral edge of the pectoralis major muscle in the sub-axillary region and its length is related to the number of costal cartilages to be treated. This technique is principally indicated for asymmetric PC with unilateral deformities of the costal cartilages, but its application can be extended to bilateral alteration of the parasternal cartilages by performing the sub-axillary incision bilaterally. When more than four cartilages are removed, the chest is stabilized by articulated bars made using cylindrical fragments obtained by the division of the removed costal cartilages. This thoracoplasty technique performed with a minimally invasive sub-axillary access is simple and safe. It allows the effective treatment of severe PC with either unilateral asymmetric or bilateral costal cartilages deformities, avoiding the median sternal incision and the use of the metallic bar.

  5. On the Nodal Lines of Eisenstein Series on Schottky Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakobson, Dmitry; Naud, Frédéric

    2017-04-01

    On convex co-compact hyperbolic surfaces {X=Γ backslash H2}, we investigate the behavior of nodal curves of real valued Eisenstein series {F_λ(z,ξ)}, where {λ} is the spectral parameter, {ξ} the direction at infinity. Eisenstein series are (non-{L^2}) eigenfunctions of the Laplacian {Δ_X} satisfying {Δ_X F_λ=(1/4+λ^2)F_λ}. As {λ} goes to infinity (the high energy limit), we show that, for generic {ξ}, the number of intersections of nodal lines with any compact segment of geodesic grows like {λ}, up to multiplicative constants. Applications to the number of nodal domains inside the convex core of the surface are then derived.

  6. [Isolated traumatic injuries of the axillary nerve. Radial nerve transfer in four cases and literatura review].

    PubMed

    Domínguez-Páez, Miguel; Socolovsky, Mariano; Di Masi, Gilda; Arráez-Sánchez, Miguel Ángel

    2012-11-01

    To analyze the results of an initial series of four cases of traumatic injuries of the axillary nerve, treated by a nerve transfer from the triceps long branch of the radial nerve. An extensive analysis of the literature has also been made. Four patients aged between 21 and 42 years old presenting an isolated traumatic palsy of the axillary nerve were operated between January 2007 and June 2010. All cases were treated by nerve transfer six to eight months after the trauma. The results of these cases are analyzed, the same as the axillary nerve injuries series presented in the literature from 1982. One year after the surgery, all patients improved their abduction a mean of 70° (range 30 to 120°), showing a M4 in the British Medical Council Scale. No patient complained of triceps weakness after the procedure. These results are similar to those published employing primary grafting for the axillary nerve. Isolated injuries of the axillary nerve should be treated with surgery when spontaneous recovery is not verified 6 months after the trauma. Primary repair with grafts is the most popular surgical technique, with a rate of success of approximately 90%. The preliminary results of a nerve transfer employing the long triceps branch are similar, and a definite comparison of both techniques with a bigger number of cases should be done in the future. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Neurocirugía. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  7. Profiles of Brain Metastases: Prioritization of Therapeutic Targets.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Sherise D; Zheng, Siyuan; Xiu, Joanne; Zhou, Shouhao; Khasraw, Mustafa; Brastianos, Priscilla K; Kesari, Santosh; Hu, Jethro; Rudnick, Jeremy; Salacz, Michael E; Piccioni, David; Huang, Suyun; Davies, Michael A; Glitza, Isabella C; Heymach, John V; Zhang, Jianjun; Ibrahim, Nuhad K; DeGroot, John F; McCarty, Joseph; O'Brien, Barbara J; Sawaya, Raymond; Verhaak, Roeland G W; Reddy, Sandeep K; Priebe, Waldemar; Gatalica, Zoran; Spetzler, David; Heimberger, Amy B

    2018-06-19

    We sought to compare the tumor profiles of brain metastases from common cancers with those of primary tumors and extracranial metastases in order to identify potential targets and prioritize rational treatment strategies. Tumor samples were collected from both the primary and metastatic sites of non-small cell lung cancer, breast cancer, and melanoma from patients in locations worldwide, and these were submitted to Caris Life Sciences for tumor multiplatform analysis, including gene sequencing (Sanger and next-generation sequencing with a targeted 47-gene panel), protein expression (assayed by immunohistochemistry), and gene amplification (assayed by in situ hybridization). The data analysis considered differential protein expression, gene amplification, and mutations among brain metastases, extracranial metastases, and primary tumors. The analyzed population included: 16,999 unmatched primary tumor and/or metastasis samples: 8178 non-small cell lung cancers (5098 primaries; 2787 systemic metastases; 293 brain metastases), 7064 breast cancers (3496 primaries; 3469 systemic metastases; 99 brain metastases), and 1757 melanomas (660 primaries; 996 systemic metastases; 101 brain metastases). TOP2A expression was increased in brain metastases from all 3 cancers, and brain metastases overexpressed multiple proteins clustering around functions critical to DNA synthesis and repair and implicated in chemotherapy resistance, including RRM1, TS, ERCC1, and TOPO1. cMET was overexpressed in melanoma brain metastases relative to primary skin specimens. Brain metastasis patients may particularly benefit from therapeutic targeting of enzymes associated with DNA synthesis, replication, and/or repair. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2018 UICC.

  8. Topological nodal-line fermions in spin-orbit metal PbTaSe2

    DOE PAGES

    Bian, Guang; Chang, Tay-Rong; Sankar, Raman; ...

    2016-02-02

    Here we discuss how topological semimetals can support one-dimensional Fermi lines or zero-dimensional Weyl points in momentum space, where the valence and conduction bands touch. While the degeneracy points in Weyl semimetals are robust against any perturbation that preserves translational symmetry, nodal lines require protection by additional crystalline symmetries such as mirror reflection. Here we report, based on a systematic theoretical study and a detailed experimental characterization, the existence of topological nodal-line states in the non-centrosymmetric compound PbTaSe 2 with strong spin-orbit coupling. Remarkably, the spin-orbit nodal lines in PbTaSe 2 are not only protected by the reflection symmetry butmore » also characterized by an integer topological invariant. Our detailed angle-resolved photoemission measurements, first-principles simulations and theoretical topological analysis illustrate the physical mechanism underlying the formation of the topological nodal-line states and associated surface states for the first time, thus paving the way towards exploring the exotic properties of the topological nodal-line fermions in condensed matter systems.« less

  9. Topological nodal-line fermions in spin-orbit metal PbTaSe2

    PubMed Central

    Bian, Guang; Chang, Tay-Rong; Sankar, Raman; Xu, Su-Yang; Zheng, Hao; Neupert, Titus; Chiu, Ching-Kai; Huang, Shin-Ming; Chang, Guoqing; Belopolski, Ilya; Sanchez, Daniel S.; Neupane, Madhab; Alidoust, Nasser; Liu, Chang; Wang, BaoKai; Lee, Chi-Cheng; Jeng, Horng-Tay; Zhang, Chenglong; Yuan, Zhujun; Jia, Shuang; Bansil, Arun; Chou, Fangcheng; Lin, Hsin; Hasan, M. Zahid

    2016-01-01

    Topological semimetals can support one-dimensional Fermi lines or zero-dimensional Weyl points in momentum space, where the valence and conduction bands touch. While the degeneracy points in Weyl semimetals are robust against any perturbation that preserves translational symmetry, nodal lines require protection by additional crystalline symmetries such as mirror reflection. Here we report, based on a systematic theoretical study and a detailed experimental characterization, the existence of topological nodal-line states in the non-centrosymmetric compound PbTaSe2 with strong spin-orbit coupling. Remarkably, the spin-orbit nodal lines in PbTaSe2 are not only protected by the reflection symmetry but also characterized by an integer topological invariant. Our detailed angle-resolved photoemission measurements, first-principles simulations and theoretical topological analysis illustrate the physical mechanism underlying the formation of the topological nodal-line states and associated surface states for the first time, thus paving the way towards exploring the exotic properties of the topological nodal-line fermions in condensed matter systems. PMID:26829889

  10. Optimizing treatment for children and adolescents with papillary thyroid carcinoma in post-Chernobyl exposed region: The roles of lymph node dissections in the central and lateral neck compartments.

    PubMed

    Fridman, Mikhail; Krasko, Olga; Lam, Alfred King-Yin

    2018-06-01

    There is lack of data to predict lymph node metastases in pediatric thyroid cancer. The aims are to study (1) the factors affecting the lymph node metastases in children and adolescence with papillary thyroid carcinoma in region exposed to radiation and (2) to evaluate the predictive significance of these factors for lateral compartment lymphadenectomy. Five hundred and nine patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma underwent total thyroidectomy and lymph nodes resection (central and lateral compartments of the neck) surgery during the period of 1991-2010 in Belarus were recruited. The factors related to lymph node metastases were studied in these patients. In the patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma, increase number of cancer-positive lymph nodes in the central neck compartment were associated with a risk to develop lateral nodal disease as well as bilateral nodal disease. Futhermore, positive lateral compartment nodal metastases are associated with age and gender of the patients, tumour size, minimal extra-thyroidal extension, solid architectonic, extensive desmoplasia in carcinoma, presence of psammoma bodies, extensive involvement of the thyroid and metastatic ratio index revealed after examination of the central cervical chain lymph nodes. The presence of nodal disease, degree of lymph node involvement and the distribution of lymph node metastases significantly increase the recurrence rates of patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma. To conclude, the lymph nodes metastases in young patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma in post-Chernobyl exposed region are common and the pattern could be predicted by many clinical and pathological factors. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd, BASO ~ The Association for Cancer Surgery, and the European Society of Surgical Oncology. All rights reserved.

  11. TGF-β promotes glioma cell growth via activating Nodal expression through Smad and ERK1/2 pathways

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Sun, Jing; Liu, Su-zhi; Lin, Yan

    Highlights: •TGF-β promoted Nodal expression in glioma cells. •TGF-β promoted Nodal expression via activating Smad and ERK1/2 pathways. •TGF-β promotes glioma cell growth via activating Nodal expression. -- Abstract: While there were certain studies focusing on the mechanism of TGF-β promoting the growth of glioma cells, the present work revealed another novel mechanism that TGF-β may promote glioma cell growth via enhancing Nodal expression. Our results showed that Nodal expression was significantly upregulated in glioma cells when TGF-β was added, whereas the TGF-β-induced Nodal expression was evidently inhibited by transfection Smad2 or Smad3 siRNAs, and the suppression was especially significantmore » when the Smad3 was downregulated. Another, the attenuation of TGF-β-induced Nodal expression was observed with blockade of the ERK1/2 pathway also. Further detection of the proliferation, apoptosis, and invasion of glioma cells indicated that Nodal overexpression promoted the proliferation and invasion of tumor cells and inhibited their apoptosis, resembling the effect of TGF-β addition. Downregulation of Nodal expression via transfection Nodal-specific siRNA in the presence of TGF-β weakened the promoting effect of the latter on glioma cells growth, and transfecting Nodal siRNA alone in the absence of exogenous TGF-β more profoundly inhibited the growth of glioma cells. These results demonstrated that while both TGF-β and Nodal promoted glioma cells growth, the former might exert such effect by enhancing Nodal expression, which may form a new target for glioma therapy.« less

  12. OK-432 (Sapylin) Reduces Seroma Formation After Axillary Lymphadenectomy in Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Kong, Deguang; Liu, Yu; Li, Zhihua; Cui, Qiuxia; Wang, Kun; Wu, Kongming; Wu, Gaosong

    2017-02-01

    Purpose/aim: Modified radical mastectomy is the standard surgery for breast cancer in developing countries. However, seroma formation regarded as the most frequent postoperative complication limits the therapeutic benefit of mastectomy and axillary surgery. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of OK-432 in reducing seroma formation after axillary dissection. This prospective cohort study included 80 patients with advanced breast cancer who underwent modified radical mastectomy. Patients were randomized into two groups, which differed with the OK-432 administration. N = 40 patients per group were treated with either OK-432 plus closed suction drainage or drainage-only. In comparison with the drainage-only group, we found that patients in the OK-432 group had a lower drainage volume (p = .030) and a shorter duration of axillary drainage (p < .01). Besides, the use of OK-432 could reduce the incidence of seroma formation (p < .01) and the volume of seroma (p = .040). There were also significant differences in reducing the chance of evacuative punctures (p = .036) and the healing time (p < .01) between control and OK-432 group. OK-432 not only shortened the suction drainage duration, but also significantly reduced seroma formation as well as the needs for aspiration punctures after modified radical mastectomy.

  13. Human axillary skin condition is improved following incorporation of glycerol into the stratum corneum from an antiperspirant formulation.

    PubMed

    Evans, Richard L; Turner, Graham A; Bates, Susan; Robinson, Teresa; Arnold, David; Marriott, Robert E; Pudney, Paul D A; Bonnist, Eleanor Y M; Green, Darren

    2017-11-01

    The study objectives were to demonstrate that glycerol, when topically applied from a roll-on antiperspirant formulation, can be delivered directly to human skin ex vivo and the axillary stratum corneum (SC) in vivo, and to assess whether it improves the quality of the axillary skin barrier. Ex vivo human skin absorption of glycerol was measured following application of a roll-on antiperspirant formulation containing 4% 13 C 3 -glycerol. Skin distribution of 13 C 3 -glycerol over 24 h was assessed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. In vivo axillary SC penetration was measured by confocal Raman spectroscopy and multivariate curve-resolution software 1 h after topical application of a roll-on antiperspirant formulation containing 8% deuterated glycerol (d 5 -glycerol). A clinical study was conducted to determine the efficacy of a roll-on antiperspirant formulation containing 4% glycerol in reducing shaving-induced visual irritation and in increasing axillary-skin hydration. Ex vivo skin absorption studies indicated that the formulation delivered 13 C 3 -glycerol into the SC at all timepoints over the 24-h period. In vivo Raman measurements (1 h after application) demonstrated that d 5 -glycerol was detectable to a depth of at least 10 μm in the axillary SC. Application of 4% glycerol from a roll-on antiperspirant formulation to the axilla was associated with significantly less visible irritation and greater skin hydration than observed with the control (glycerol-free) product. These studies demonstrate that glycerol, incorporated in a roll-on antiperspirant formulation, is delivered directly and rapidly to all depths of the axillary SC, and results in improvements in visible irritation and hydration in the axilla.

  14. Comparison of temporal artery, mid-forehead skin and axillary temperature recordings in preterm infants <1500 g of birthweight.

    PubMed

    Duran, Ridvan; Vatansever, Ulfet; Acunaş, Betül; Süt, Necdet

    2009-01-01

    Preterm infants are prone to temperature maintenance problems due to immature thermoregulatory mechanism and relatively large body surface area. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the performance of a new non-invasive infrared thermometer applied to the mid-forehead and temporal artery in comparison with axillary temperature recordings by mercury-in-glass thermometer, and to determine the discomfort caused by these procedures in preterm infants on incubator care. The present comparative prospective study was composed of 34 preterm infants <1500 g of birthweight nursed in an incubator. Temperature recording from mid-forehead, temporal artery and axilla were recorded six times a day for 7 days since the end of the first week of life. For pain assessment, the premature infant pain profile (PIPP) was used. The mean mid-forehead, temporal artery and axillary temperatures were 36.72 +/- 0.08, 36.81 +/- 0.09 and 36.71 +/- 0.07 degrees C, respectively. No statistically significant difference was noted between the means of mid-forehead and axillary temperatures. The mean temporal artery temperature was statistically higher than the means of the mid-forehead and axillary temperatures. The PIPP scores of the mid-forehead, temporal artery and axillary temperature measurements were 5.07 +/- 0.36 degrees C, 5.18 +/- 0.43 degrees C and 7.59 +/- 0.84 degrees C, respectively. The mean PIPP score of axillary temperature measurements was statistically higher than the means of mid-forehead and temporal artery measurements. The infrared skin thermometer applied to the mid-forehead is a useful and valid device for easy and less painful measurement of skin temperature in preterm infants <1500 g of birthweight.

  15. Endovascular Repair of a Traumatic Axillary Pseudoaneurysm Following Anterior Shoulder Dislocation

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Stahnke, Michaela; Duddy, Martin J.

    2006-04-15

    Pseudoaneurysms due to musculoskeletal trauma are rare and comprise less than 2% of all pseudoaneurysms. We report a case of axillary pseudoaneurysm following anterior dislocation of the shoulder. The patient was successfully treated by endovascular intervention.

  16. Axillary Ultrasound After Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy and Its Impact on Sentinel Lymph Node Surgery: Results From the American College of Surgeons Oncology Group Z1071 Trial (Alliance)

    PubMed Central

    Boughey, Judy C.; Ballman, Karla V.; Hunt, Kelly K.; McCall, Linda M.; Mittendorf, Elizabeth A.; Ahrendt, Gretchen M.; Wilke, Lee G.; Le-Petross, Huong T.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The American College of Surgeons Oncology Group Z1071 trial reported a 12.6% false-negative rate (FNR) for sentinel lymph node (SLN) surgery after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) in cN1 disease. Patients were not selected for surgery based on response, but a secondary end point was to determine whether axillary ultrasound (AUS) after NAC after fine-needle aspiration cytology can identify abnormal nodes and guide patient selection for SLN surgery. Patients and Methods Patients with T0-4, N1-2, M0 breast cancer underwent AUS after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. AUS images were centrally reviewed and classified as normal or suspicious lymph nodes. AUS findings were tested for association with pathologic nodal status and SLN FNR. The impact of AUS results to select patients for SLN surgery to reduce the FNR was assessed. Results Postchemotherapy AUS images were reviewed for 611 patients. One hundred thirty (71.8%) of 181 AUS-suspicious patients were node positive at surgery compared with 243 (56.5%) of 430 AUS-normal patients (P < .001). Patients with AUS-suspicious nodes had a greater number of positive nodes and greater metastasis size (P < .001). The SLN FNR was not different based on AUS results; however, using a strategy where only patients with normal AUS undergo SLN surgery would potentially reduce the FNR in Z1071 patients with ≥ two SLNs removed from 12.6% to 9.8% when preoperative AUS results are considered as part of SLN surgery. Conclusion AUS is recommended after chemotherapy to guide axillary surgery. An FNR of 9.8% with the combination of AUS and SLN surgery would be acceptable for the adoption of SLN surgery for women with node-positive breast cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy. PMID:25646192

  17. Axillary Ultrasound After Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy and Its Impact on Sentinel Lymph Node Surgery: Results From the American College of Surgeons Oncology Group Z1071 Trial (Alliance).

    PubMed

    Boughey, Judy C; Ballman, Karla V; Hunt, Kelly K; McCall, Linda M; Mittendorf, Elizabeth A; Ahrendt, Gretchen M; Wilke, Lee G; Le-Petross, Huong T

    2015-10-20

    The American College of Surgeons Oncology Group Z1071 trial reported a 12.6% false-negative rate (FNR) for sentinel lymph node (SLN) surgery after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) in cN1 disease. Patients were not selected for surgery based on response, but a secondary end point was to determine whether axillary ultrasound (AUS) after NAC after fine-needle aspiration cytology can identify abnormal nodes and guide patient selection for SLN surgery. Patients with T0-4, N1-2, M0 breast cancer underwent AUS after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. AUS images were centrally reviewed and classified as normal or suspicious lymph nodes. AUS findings were tested for association with pathologic nodal status and SLN FNR. The impact of AUS results to select patients for SLN surgery to reduce the FNR was assessed. Postchemotherapy AUS images were reviewed for 611 patients. One hundred thirty (71.8%) of 181 AUS-suspicious patients were node positive at surgery compared with 243 (56.5%) of 430 AUS-normal patients (P < .001). Patients with AUS-suspicious nodes had a greater number of positive nodes and greater metastasis size (P < .001). The SLN FNR was not different based on AUS results; however, using a strategy where only patients with normal AUS undergo SLN surgery would potentially reduce the FNR in Z1071 patients with ≥ two SLNs removed from 12.6% to 9.8% when preoperative AUS results are considered as part of SLN surgery. AUS is recommended after chemotherapy to guide axillary surgery. An FNR of 9.8% with the combination of AUS and SLN surgery would be acceptable for the adoption of SLN surgery for women with node-positive breast cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy. © 2015 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  18. Off-diagonal Jacobian support for Nodal BCs

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Peterson, John W.; Andrs, David; Gaston, Derek R.

    In this brief note, we describe the implementation of o-diagonal Jacobian computations for nodal boundary conditions in the Multiphysics Object Oriented Simulation Environment (MOOSE) [1] framework. There are presently a number of applications [2{5] based on the MOOSE framework that solve complicated physical systems of partial dierential equations whose boundary conditions are often highly nonlinear. Accurately computing the on- and o-diagonal Jacobian and preconditioner entries associated to these constraints is crucial for enabling ecient numerical solvers in these applications. Two key ingredients are required for properly specifying the Jacobian contributions of nonlinear nodal boundary conditions in MOOSE and nite elementmore » codes in general: 1. The ability to zero out entire Jacobian matrix rows after \

  19. Barrier tunneling of the loop-nodal semimetal in the hyperhoneycomb lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Ji-Huan; Zhang, Yan-Yang; Lu, Wei-Er; Xia, Yang; Li, Shu-Shen

    2018-05-01

    We theoretically investigate the barrier tunneling in the 3D model of the hyperhoneycomb lattice, which is a nodal-line semimetal with a Dirac loop at zero energy. In the presence of a rectangular potential, the scattering amplitudes for different injecting states around the nodal loop are calculated, by using analytical treatments of the effective model, as well as numerical simulations of the tight binding model. In the low energy regime, states with remarkable transmissions are only concentrated in a small range around the loop plane. When the momentum of the injecting electron is coplanar with the nodal loop, nearly perfect transmissions can occur for a large range of injecting azimuthal angles if the potential is not high. For higher potential energies, the transmission shows a resonant oscillation with the potential, but still with peaks being perfect transmissions that do not decay with the potential width. These strikingly robust transports of the loop-nodal semimetal can be approximately explained by a momentum dependent Dirac Hamiltonian.

  20. Increased copy number of the DLX4 homeobox gene in breast axillary lymph node metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Torresan, Clarissa; Oliveira, Márcia M.C.; Pereira, Silma R.F.; Ribeiro, Enilze M.S.F.; Marian, Catalin; Gusev, Yuriy; Lima, Rubens S.; Urban, Cicero A.; Berg, Patricia E.; Haddad, Bassem R.; Cavalli, Iglenir J.; Cavalli, Luciane R.

    2017-01-01

    DLX4 is a homeobox gene strongly implicated in breast tumor progression and invasion. Our main objective was to determine the DLX4 copy number status in sentinel lymph node (SLN) metastasis to assess its involvement in the initial stages of the axillary metastatic process. A total of 37 paired samples of SLN metastasis and primary breast tumors (PBT) were evaluated by fluorescence in situ hybridization, quantitative polymerase chain reaction and array comparative genomic hybridization assays. DLX4 increased copy number was observed in 21.6% of the PBT and 24.3% of the SLN metastasis; regression analysis demonstrated that the DLX4 alterations observed in the SLN metastasis were dependent on the ones in the PBT, indicating that they occur in the primary tumor cell populations and are maintained in the early axillary metastatic site. In addition, regression analysis demonstrated that DLX4 alterations (and other DLX and HOXB family members) occurred independently of the ones in the HER2/NEU gene, the main amplification driver on the 17q region. Additional studies evaluating DLX4 copy number in non-SLN axillary lymph nodes and/or distant breast cancer metastasis are necessary to determine if these alterations are carried on and maintained during more advanced stages of tumor progression and if could be used as a predictive marker for axillary involvement. PMID:24947980

  1. Quantum anomalies in nodal line semimetals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burkov, A. A.

    2018-04-01

    Topological semimetals are a new class of condensed matter systems with nontrivial electronic structure topology. Their unusual observable properties may often be understood in terms of quantum anomalies. In particular, Weyl and Dirac semimetals, which have point band-touching nodes, are characterized by the chiral anomaly, which leads to the Fermi arc surface states, anomalous Hall effect, negative longitudinal magnetoresistance, and planar Hall effect. In this paper, we explore analogous phenomena in nodal line semimetals. We demonstrate that such semimetals realize a three-dimensional analog of the parity anomaly, which is a known property of two-dimensional Dirac semimetals arising, for example, on the surface of a three-dimensional topological insulator. We relate one of the characteristic properties of nodal line semimetals, namely, the drumhead surface states, to this anomaly, and derive the field theory, which encodes the corresponding anomalous response.

  2. Three-dimensional graphdiyne as a topological nodal-line semimetal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nomura, Takafumi; Habe, Tetsuro; Sakamoto, Ryota; Koshino, Mikito

    2018-05-01

    We study the electronic band structure of three-dimensional ABC-stacked (rhombohedral) graphdiyne, which is a new planar carbon allotrope recently fabricated. Using first-principles calculation, we show that the system is a nodal-line semimetal, in which the conduction band and valence band cross at a closed ring in the momentum space. We derive the minimum tight-binding model and the low-energy effective Hamiltonian in a 4 ×4 matrix form. The nodal line is protected by a nontrivial winding number, and it ensures the existence of the topological surface state in a finite-thickness slab. The Fermi surface of the doped system exhibits a peculiar, self-intersecting hourglass structure, which is quite different from the torus or pipe shape in the previously proposed nodal semimetals. Despite its simple configuration, three-dimensional graphdiyne offers unique electronic properties distinct from any other carbon allotropes.

  3. Comparative Dispositions of Ofloxacin in Human Head, Axillary, and Pubic Hairs

    PubMed Central

    Kosuge, Kazuhiro; Uematsu, Toshihiko; Araki, Sei-Ichi; Matsuno, Hiroyuki; Ohashi, Kyoichi; Nakashima, Mitsuyoshi

    1998-01-01

    The distribution of ofloxacin (OFLX) along the shaft of each of three hair types, i.e., head, axillary and pubic, was investigated and compared among five healthy male volunteers 1 to 4 months after ingestion of OFLX for 1 or 2 days (total dose, 200 or 600 mg). Five strands of each hair type were sectioned together into successive 0.5-cm lengths starting from the dermal end, over a length of ≤6 cm, and the OFLX concentration in each hair section was measured by high-pressure liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. The distribution of OFLX along the head hair shaft was narrow, having a single peak even 3 to 4 months after administration, suggesting a rather uniform growth rate among hair strands. On the other hand, the OFLX distribution along axillary or pubic hair shafts tended to be broad, even having two apparent peaks, and the growth rate did not seem uniform. Since axillary hair seemed to stop growing after having gained a length of ≤4 to 5 cm, it was suggested to enter a resting stage after the growth of ≤3 cm over the 2 to 4 months after OFLX incorporation. These findings indicate that head hair is the most suitable for analysis of individual drug use and the larger growth rate and cycle stage variabilities of strands of the other types of hair should be taken into account. PMID:9593174

  4. Comparative dispositions of ofloxacin in human head, axillary, and pubic hairs.

    PubMed

    Kosuge, K; Uematsu, T; Araki, S I; Matsuno, H; Ohashi, K; Nakashima, M

    1998-05-01

    The distribution of ofloxacin (OFLX) along the shaft of each of three hair types, i.e., head, axillary and pubic, was investigated and compared among five healthy male volunteers 1 to 4 months after ingestion of OFLX for 1 or 2 days (total dose, 200 or 600 mg). Five strands of each hair type were sectioned together into successive 0.5-cm lengths starting from the dermal end, over a length of < or = 6 cm, and the OFLX concentration in each hair section was measured by high-pressure liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. The distribution of OFLX along the head hair shaft was narrow, having a single peak even 3 to 4 months after administration, suggesting a rather uniform growth rate among hair strands. On the other hand, the OFLX distribution along axillary or pubic hair shafts tended to be broad, even having two apparent peaks, and the growth rate did not seem uniform. Since axillary hair seemed to stop growing after having gained a length of < or = 4 to 5 cm, it was suggested to enter a resting stage after the growth of < or = 3 cm over the 2 to 4 months after OFLX incorporation. These findings indicate that head hair is the most suitable for analysis of individual drug use and the larger growth rate and cycle stage variabilities of strands of the other types of hair should be taken into account.

  5. Long period nodal motion of sun synchronous orbits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duck, K. I.

    1975-01-01

    An approximative model is formulated for assessing these perturbations that significantly affect long term modal motion of sun synchronous orbits. Computer simulations with several independent computer programs consider zonal and tesseral gravitational harmonics, third body gravitational disturbances induced by the sun and the moon, and atmospheric drag. A pendulum model consisting of evenzonal harmonics through order 4 and solar gravity dominated nodal motion approximation. This pendulum motion results from solar gravity inducing an inclination oscillation which couples into the nodal precession induced by the earth's oblateness. The pendulum model correlated well with simulations observed flight data.

  6. Surgical treatment of solitary brain metastases.

    PubMed

    Gates, Marilyn; Alsaidi, Mohammed; Kalkanis, Steven

    2012-01-01

    Brain metastases are the most common form of brain tumors and are diagnosed in about 40% of all patients with systemic malignancies. Although the percentage of solitary brain metastases has dropped in recent estimates from about 50-30% of all patients with brain metastases, this percentage still represents a significant number of patients, and the overall incidence of brain metastases is still on the rise. Historically, brain metastases carried a grim prognosis with a median survival of only a few weeks. The utilization of whole-brain radiation therapy (WBRT) and steroids improved the prognosis to few months. However, it was not until the advent of advanced surgical techniques in conjunction with other treatment modalities such as WBRT and stereotactic radiosurgery that patients became less likely to succumb to neurological complications. In the last few decades, surgical resection has evolved from a mere emergent palliative treatment to a standard treatment modality that has led to improved clinical outcomes in carefully selected patients with brain metastases. This positive contribution has been made possible by randomized clinical trials, advancement of surgical techniques and tools, imaging modalities, and better understanding of the pathophysiology and perioperative care. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Topological nodal superconducting phases and topological phase transition in the hyperhoneycomb lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouhon, Adrien; Schmidt, Johann; Black-Schaffer, Annica M.

    2018-03-01

    We establish the topology of the spin-singlet superconducting states in the bare hyperhoneycomb lattice, and we derive analytically the full phase diagram using only symmetry and topology in combination with simple energy arguments. The phase diagram is dominated by two states preserving time-reversal symmetry. We find a line-nodal state dominating at low doping levels that is topologically nontrivial and exhibits surface Majorana flatbands, which we show perfectly match the bulk-boundary correspondence using the Berry phase approach. At higher doping levels, we find a fully gapped state with trivial topology. By analytically calculating the topological invariant of the nodal lines, we derive the critical point between the line-nodal and fully gapped states as a function of both pairing parameters and doping. We find that the line-nodal state is favored not only at lower doping levels but also if symmetry-allowed deformations of the lattice are present. Adding simple energy arguments, we establish that a fully gapped state with broken time-reversal symmetry likely appears covering the actual phase transition. We find this fully gapped state to be topologically trivial, while we find an additional point-nodal state at very low doing levels that also break time-reversal symmetry and has nontrivial topology with associated Fermi surface arcs. We eventually address the robustness of the phase diagram to generalized models also including adiabatic spin-orbit coupling, and we show how all but the point-nodal state are reasonably stable.

  8. Unilateral dampening of Bmp activity by nodal generates cardiac left-right asymmetry.

    PubMed

    Veerkamp, Justus; Rudolph, Franziska; Cseresnyes, Zoltan; Priller, Florian; Otten, Cécile; Renz, Marc; Schaefer, Liliana; Abdelilah-Seyfried, Salim

    2013-03-25

    Signaling by Nodal and Bmp is essential for cardiac laterality. How activities of these pathways translate into left-right asymmetric organ morphogenesis is largely unknown. We show that, in zebrafish, Nodal locally reduces Bmp activity on the left side of the cardiac field. This effect is mediated by the extracellular matrix enzyme Hyaluronan synthase 2, expression of which is induced by Nodal. Unilateral reduction of Bmp signaling results in lower expression of nonmuscle myosin II and higher cell motility on the left, driving asymmetric displacement of the entire cardiac field. In silico modeling shows that left-right differences in cell motility are sufficient to induce a robust, directional migration of cardiac tissue. Thus, the mechanism underlying the formation of cardiac left-right asymmetry involves Nodal modulating an antimotogenic Bmp activity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Management of Brain Metastases.

    PubMed

    Jeyapalan, Suriya A.; Batchelor, Tracy

    2004-07-01

    Advances in neurosurgery and the development of stereotactic radiosurgery have expanded treatment options available for patients with brain metastases. However, despite several randomized clinical trials and multiple uncontrolled studies, there is not a uniform consensus on the best treatment strategy for all patients with brain metastases. The heterogeneity of this patient population in terms of functional status, types of underlying cancers, status of systemic disease control, and number and location of brain metastases make such consensus difficult. Nevertheless, in certain situations, there is Class I evidence that supports one approach or another. The primary objectives in the management of this patient population include improved duration and quality of survival. Very few patients achieve long-term survival after the diagnosis of a brain metastasis.

  10. An Effective Protocol for Micropropagation of Edible Bamboo Species (Bambusa tulda and Melocanna baccifera) through Nodal Culture

    PubMed Central

    Waikhom, Sayanika Devi; Louis, Bengyella

    2014-01-01

    High demand for edible bamboo shoots of Bambusa tulda and Melocanna baccifera in many Asian ethnic groups has led to the need for developing intensive bamboo farming. To achieve this, in vitro regeneration of bamboo plantlets is needed due to the long and irregular bamboo flowering cycle and scarcity of bamboo seeds. An effective protocol for plantlets regeneration in B. tulda and M. baccifera from nodal explants following validation of the species using the sequence of trnL-F intergenic spacer region is described. Effective axillary bud breaking was achieved at 3 mg/L of 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) in MS medium. Importantly, combining 2 mg/L of kinetin (Kn) with 3 mg/L of BAP produced a synergistic effect for shoot multiplication in B. tulda and M. baccifera. Under optimized conditions in half-strength MS medium supplemented with 3 mg/L of indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), 10 mg/L of coumarin, and 3% sucrose, profuse production of dark-brown rhizome in B. tulda and abundant rooting (81.67%, P < 0.05, F = 15.46) for M. baccifera within 30 days were achieved. The established protocol and the validation of the reported species at the molecular level will be of help to stakeholders in edible bamboo trade to conserve gene-pool and increase productivity. PMID:24967429

  11. Face Centered Cubic SnSe as a Z2 Trivial Dirac Nodal Line Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tateishi, Ikuma; Matsuura, Hiroyasu

    2018-07-01

    The presence of a Dirac nodal line in a time-reversal and inversion symmetric system is dictated by the Z2 index when spin-orbit interaction is absent. In a first principles calculation, we show that a Dirac nodal line can emerge in Z2 trivial material by calculating the band structure of SnSe in a face centered cubic lattice as an example. We qualitatively show that it becomes a topological crystalline insulator when spin-orbit interaction is taken into account. We clarify the origin of the Dirac nodal line by obtaining irreducible representations corresponding to bands and explain the triviality of the Z2 index. We construct an effective model representing the Dirac nodal line using the k · p method, and discuss the Berry phase and a surface state expected from the Dirac nodal line.

  12. Sonoelastography for the evaluation of an axillary schwannoma in a case of quadrilateral space syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hung, Chen-Yu; Chang, Ke-Vin; Chen, Pei-Tsen; Ho, Yu-Tsun; Han, Der-Sheng; Chen, Wen-Shiang; Wang, Tyng-Guey

    2014-01-01

    Entrapment axillary neuropathy at the quadrilateral space, also known as quadrilateral space syndrome (QSS), is a rare cause of posterior shoulder pain. We present a case of an axillary schwannoma causing QSS evaluated by both conventional ultrasound and sonoelastography. The application of sonoelastography is useful in elaborating the elastic feature of a soft tissue tumor, which provides additional information to conventional ultrasound regarding its growth pattern, and can help the differential diagnosis and guide the management. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Symmorphic Intersecting Nodal Rings in Semiconducting Layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Cheng; Xie, Yuee; Chen, Yuanping; Kim, Heung-Sik; Vanderbilt, David

    2018-03-01

    The unique properties of topological semimetals have strongly driven efforts to seek for new topological phases and related materials. Here, we identify a critical condition for the existence of intersecting nodal rings (INRs) in symmorphic crystals, and further classify all possible kinds of INRs which can be obtained in the layered semiconductors with Amm2 and Cmmm space group symmetries. Several honeycomb structures are suggested to be topological INR semimetals, including layered and "hidden" layered structures. Transitions between the three types of INRs, named as α , β , and γ type, can be driven by external strains in these structures. The resulting surface states and Landau-level structures, more complicated than those resulting from a simple nodal loop, are also discussed.

  14. [Bone metastases pain in the elderly].

    PubMed

    Chouahnia, K; Luu, M; Baba-Hamed, N; Des Guetz, G

    2009-05-20

    Every year in Europe and in USA, more than 60% of new cases of cancer are diagnosed at the patient's of more than 65 years with a mortality of more than 70%. Pain, is a major symptom which often accompanies cancer. It is always painful and intolerable, notably when pain is linked to bone metastases to elderly patients often poly pathological. In 1/3 of cases pain is present at the time of diagnosis of cancer and in 2/3 of cases at the advanced diseases. The bone metastases occupy the third place after the pulmonary and liver metastases. They are in order of frequency linked in breast cancer, the kidney and the prostate cancer. Bone metastases are at the origin of the loss of the elderly autonomy, with for consequence an impairment of quality of life. Validated tools are at now available to assess this pain. The different treatments offered in bone metastases pain are: the chemotherapy, the surgery, radiotherapy, bisphosphonates and analgesic treatment.

  15. Imaging of brain metastases.

    PubMed

    Fink, Kathleen R; Fink, James R

    2013-01-01

    Imaging plays a key role in the diagnosis of central nervous system (CNS) metastasis. Imaging is used to detect metastases in patients with known malignancies and new neurological signs or symptoms, as well as to screen for CNS involvement in patients with known cancer. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are the key imaging modalities used in the diagnosis of brain metastases. In difficult cases, such as newly diagnosed solitary enhancing brain lesions in patients without known malignancy, advanced imaging techniques including proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), contrast enhanced magnetic resonance perfusion (MRP), diffusion weighted imaging (DWI), and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) may aid in arriving at the correct diagnosis. This image-rich review discusses the imaging evaluation of patients with suspected intracranial involvement and malignancy, describes typical imaging findings of parenchymal brain metastasis on CT and MRI, and provides clues to specific histological diagnoses such as the presence of hemorrhage. Additionally, the role of advanced imaging techniques is reviewed, specifically in the context of differentiating metastasis from high-grade glioma and other solitary enhancing brain lesions. Extra-axial CNS involvement by metastases, including pachymeningeal and leptomeningeal metastases is also briefly reviewed.

  16. Polyhouse cultivation of invitro raised elite Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni: An assessment of biochemical and photosynthetic characteristics

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Polyhouse cultivated Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni plants, initially raised from synthetic seeds, were assessed for biochemical and photosynthetic characteristics and compared with their mother plant. Synthetic seeds were produced using nodal segments containing single axillary buds excised from in vitr...

  17. Painful cutaneous metastases from esophageal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Stein, Ronnit Hamuy; Spencer, James M

    2002-10-01

    Cutaneous metastases, which are not included among the painful dermal tumors, are primarily asymptomatic and of variable clinical appearance. Although, to our knowledge, this case report of painful cutaneous metastases is only the fifth in the literature, physicians who discover a painful tumor perhaps now should consider cutaneous metastasis. In this report, we describe painful nodular scalp lesions related to esophageal adenocarcinoma, which rarely metastasizes to the skin.

  18. Axillary pH and influence of deodorants.

    PubMed

    Stenzaly-Achtert, S.; Schölermann, A.; Schreiber, J.; Diec, K. H.; Rippke, F.; Bielfeldt, S.

    2000-05-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS: In moist intertriginous regions, such as the armpit, the pH value is physiologically higher than in other skin regions. The regulation of the axillary pH-value was examined in an open study with 48 subjects in three groups with n=16 each. METHODS: In the first 10 days (run-in) the subjects received a standard treatment in the axilla with shaving, cleansing and application of a pH-neutral deodorant. This was followed by a 5 day treatment period with the three test products (pH5 Eucerin(R) Deodorant Roll-on, Deodorant Balsam Spray, Deodorant Cream). The study was concluded by a wash-out period with procedures identical to the run-in phase. The pH was measured with a calibrated pH-meter. RESULTS: A significant pH reduction was shown during the treatment period when compared to the run-in phase. The Deodorant Roll-on induced a reduction of the mean pH values from 6.1 to 5.3, the Deodorant Balsam Spray from 6.5 to 5.7 and the Deodorant Cream from 6.2 to 5.3. During the wash-out period all pH values returned to baseline. CONCLUSION: All of the deodorants tested demonstrated a significant reduction in axillary pH. There is evidence that a high skin pH promotes the growth of several microorganisms that produce malodor. Therefore, the regulation of pH may contribute to the deodorant efficacy of the test products.

  19. Comparison of neonatal skin sensor temperatures with axillary temperature: does skin sensor placement really matter?

    PubMed

    Schafer, Dorothea; Boogaart, Sheri; Johnson, Lynette; Keezel, Catherine; Ruperts, Liga; Vander Laan, Karen J

    2014-02-01

    Appropriate thermoregulation affects both morbidity and mortality in the neonatal setting. Nurses rely on information from temperature sensors and radiant warmers or incubators to appropriately maintain a neonate's body temperature. Skin temperature sensors must be repositioned to prevent skin irritation and breakdown. This study addresses whether there is a significant difference between skin sensor temperature readings from 3 locations on the neonate and whether there is a significant difference between skin sensor temperatures compared with digital axillary temperatures. The study participants included 36 hemodynamically stable neonates, with birth weight of 750 g or more and postnatal age of 15 days or more, in a neonatal intensive care unit. Gestational age ranged from 29.6 to 36.1 weeks at the time of data collection. A method-comparison design was used to evaluate the level of agreement between skin sensor temperatures and digital axillary thermometer measurements. When the neonate's skin sensor was scheduled for routine site change, 3 new skin sensors were placed-1 each on the right upper abdomen, left flank, and right axilla. The neonate was placed in a supine position and redressed or rewrapped if previously dressed or wrapped. Subjects served as their own controls, with temperatures measured at all 3 skin sensor sites and followed by a digital thermometer measurement in the left axilla. The order of skin sensor temperature measurements was randomly assigned by a computer-generated number sequence. An analysis of variance for repeated measures was used to test for statistical differences between the skin sensor temperatures. The difference in axillary and skin sensor temperatures was calculated by subtracting the reference standard temperature (digital axillary) from the test temperatures (skin temperatures at 3 different locations), using the Bland-Altman method. The level of significance was set at P < .05. No statistically significant differences were

  20. Reactivation of Embryonic Nodal Signaling is Associated with Tumor Progression and Promotes the Growth of Prostate Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, Mitchell G.; Margaryan, Naira V.; Loessner, Daniela; Collins, Angus; Kerr, Kris M.; Turner, Megan; Seftor, Elisabeth A.; Stephens, Carson R.; Lai, John; BioResource, APC; Postovit, Lynne-Marie; Clements, Judith A.; Hendrix, Mary J.C.

    2011-01-01

    Background Nodal is a member of the Transforming Growth Factor β (TGFβ) superfamily that directs embryonic patterning and promotes the plasticity and tumorigenicity of tumor cells, but its role in the prostate is unknown. The goal of this study was to characterize the expression and function of Nodal in prostate cancer and determine whether, like other TGFβ ligands, it modulates androgen receptor (AR) activity. Methods Nodal expression was investigated using immunohistochemistry of tissue microarrays and Western blots of prostate cell lines. The functional role of Nodal was examined using Matrigel and soft agar growth assays. Cross-talk between Nodal and AR signaling was assessed with luciferase reporter assays and expression of endogenous androgen regulated genes. Results Significantly increased Nodal expression was observed in cancer compared with benign prostate specimens. Nodal was only expressed by DU145 and PC3 cells. All cell lines expressed Nodal’s co-receptor, Cripto-1, but lacked Lefty, a critical negative regulator of Nodal signaling. Recombinant human Nodal triggered downstream Smad2 phosphorylation in DU145 and LNCaP cells, and stable transfection of pre-pro-Nodal enhanced the growth of LNCaP cells in Matrigel and soft agar. Finally, Nodal attenuated AR signaling, reducing the activity of a PSA promoter construct in luciferase assays and down-regulating the endogenous expression of androgen regulated genes. Conclusions An aberrant Nodal signaling pathway is re-expressed and functionally active in prostate cancer cells. PMID:21656830

  1. Brady's Geothermal Field Nodal Seismometers Metadata

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Lesley Parker

    Metadata for the nodal seismometer array deployed at the POROTOMO's Natural Laboratory in Brady Hot Spring, Nevada during the March 2016 testing. Metadata includes location and timing for each instrument as well as file lists of data to be uploaded in a separate submission.

  2. Lymph node density vs. the American Joint Committee on Cancer TNM nodal staging system in node-positive bladder cancer in patients undergoing extended or super-extended pelvic lymphadenectomy.

    PubMed

    Lee, Donghyun; Yoo, Sangjun; You, Dalsan; Hong, Bumsik; Cho, Yong Mee; Hong, Jun Hyuk; Kim, Choung-Soo; Ahn, Hanjonh; Ro, Jae Y; Jeong, In Gab

    2017-04-01

    We compared the prognostic value of the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) TNM nodal staging system with that of lymph node (LN) density in patients with LN-positive bladder cancer who received extended or super-extended pelvic lymphadenectomy. Of the 1,018 patients, who underwent radical cystectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy between February 2005 and August 2014, 110 patients with LN metastases with extended (n = 68) or super-extended (n = 42) pelvic lymphadenectomy were included. All patients were staged using the 2002 (sixth edition) and 2010 (seventh edition) AJCC TNM staging systems. The association of several variables with recurrence-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) was evaluated. The median number of total LNs removed was 29 (6-118) and the median LN density was 12.5% (1.6%-100%). RFS and OS were not significantly different between the 2002 (pN1-pM1) and 2010 (pN1-N3) AJCC TNM nodal staging systems (sixth edition: P = 0.512 and P = 0.519; seventh edition: P = 0.676 and P = 0.671, respectively). The 2-year RFS and OS rates according to the LN density quartiles were 58.5% and 76.9% in Q1, 39.1% and 70.8% in Q2, 28.8% and 50.1% in Q3, and 12.7% and 20.8% in Q4 (P = 0.001 and P = 0.001, respectively). Multivariate analysis adjusted for the 2010 AJCC TNM staging system showed that LN density was associated with a decreased OS (HR = 1.024; 95% CI: 1.010-1.039; P = 0.001). The nodal staging system (2002 or 2010) was not associated with the RFS and OS. LN density shows a better prognostic value than the AJCC TNM nodal staging system in patients with LN-positive bladder cancer receiving extended or super-extended pelvic lymphadenectomy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Future directions in treatment of brain metastases.

    PubMed

    Barani, Igor J; Larson, David A; Berger, Mitchel S

    2013-01-01

    Brain metastases affect up to 30% of patients with cancer. Management of brain metastases continues to evolve with ever increasing focus on cognitive preservation and quality of life. This manuscript reviews current state of brain metastases management and discusses various treatment controversies with focus on future clinical trials. Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) and whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT) are discussed in context of multiple (4+ brain metastases) as well as new approaches combining radiation and targeted agents. A brief discussion of modified WBRT approaches, including hippocampal-avoidance WBRT (HA-WBRT) is included as well as a section on recently presented results of Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 0614, a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of menantine for prevention of neurocognitive injury after WBRT. A search of selected studies relevant to management of brain metastases was performed in PubMed as well as in various published meeting abstracts. This data was collated and analyzed in context of contemporary management and future clinical trial plans. This data is presented in tabular form and discussed extensively in the text. The published data demonstrate continued evolution of clinical trials and management strategies designed to minimize and/or prevent cognitive decline following radiation therapy management of brain metastases. Hippocampal avoidance whole-brain radiation therapy (HA-WBRT) and radiosurgery treatments for multiple brain metastases are discussed along with preliminary results of RTOG 0614, a trial of memantine therapy to prevent cognitive decline following WBRT. Trial results appear to support the use of memantine for prevention of cognitive decline. Different management strategies for multiple brain metastases (>4 brain metastases) are currently being evaluated in prospective clinical trials to minimize the likelihood of cognitive decline following WBRT.

  4. Spontaneous Osteoblastic Osteosarcoma in a Mongolian Gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus)

    PubMed Central

    Salyards, Gregory W; Blas-Machado, Uriel; Mishra, Sasmita; Harvey, Stephen B; Butler, Abigail M

    2013-01-01

    Spontaneous neoplasms in Mongolian gerbils have an incidence of 20% to 26.8%, but osteosarcomas occur at a much lower rate. Here we report a 1-y-old Mongolian gerbil with a spontaneous osteosarcoma at the level of the proximal tibia, with metastases to the pectoral muscles and lungs. Grossly, the tibial mass obliterated the tibia and adjacent muscles, and an axillary mass with a bloody, cavitary center expanded the pectoral muscles. Microscopically, the tibial mass was an infiltrative, osteoblastic mesenchymal neoplasm, and the axillary mass was an anaplastic mesenchymal neoplasm with hemorrhage. The lung contained multiple metastatic foci. Immunohistochemistry for osteonectin was strongly positive in the tibial, axillary, and pulmonary metastases. Although osteosarcoma is the most common primary malignant bone neoplasm that occurs spontaneously in all laboratory and domestic animal species and humans, it arises less frequently than does other neoplasms. The current case of spontaneous osteoblastic osteosarcoma of the proximal tibia and metastases to the pectoral muscles and lung in a Mongolian gerbil is similar in presentation, histology, and predilection site of both osteoblastic and telangiectatic osteosarcomas in humans. In addition, this case is an unusual manifestation of osteosarcoma in the appendicular skeleton of a Mongolian gerbil. PMID:23561939

  5. Ultrasound-Guided Single-Injection Infraclavicular Block Versus Ultrasound-Guided Double-Injection Axillary Block: A Noninferiority Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Boivin, Ariane; Nadeau, Marie-Josée; Dion, Nicolas; Lévesque, Simon; Nicole, Pierre C; Turgeon, Alexis F

    2016-01-01

    Single-injection ultrasound-guided infraclavicular block is a simple, reliable, and effective technique. A simplified double-injection ultrasound-guided axillary block technique with a high success rate recently has been described. It has the advantage of being performed in a superficial and compressible location, with a potentially improved safety profile. However, its effectiveness in comparison with single-injection infraclavicular block has not been established. We hypothesized that the double-injection ultrasound-guided axillary block would show rates of complete sensory block at 30 minutes noninferior to the single-injection ultrasound-guided infraclavicular block. After approval by our research ethics committee and written informed consent, adults undergoing distal upper arm surgery were randomized to either group I, ultrasound-guided single-injection infraclavicular block, or group A, ultrasound-guided double-injection axillary block. In group I, 30 mL of 1.5% mepivacaine was injected posterior to the axillary artery. In group A, 25 mL of 1.5% mepivacaine was injected posteromedial to the axillary artery, after which 5 mL was injected around the musculocutaneous nerve. Primary outcome was the rate of complete sensory block at 30 minutes. Secondary outcomes were the onset of sensory and motor blocks, surgical success rates, performance times, and incidence of complications. All outcomes were assessed by a blinded investigator. The noninferiority of the double-injection ultrasound-guided axillary block was considered if the limits of the 90% confidence intervals (CIs) were within a 10% margin of the rate of complete sensory block of the infraclavicular block. At 30 minutes, the rate of complete sensory block was 79% in group A (90% CI, 71%-85%) compared with 91% in group I (90% CI, 85%-95%); the upper limit of CI of group A is thus included in the established noninferiority margin of 10%. The rate of complete sensory block was lower in group A (proportion

  6. Persistence of RSV promotes proliferation and epithelial-mesenchymal transition of bronchial epithelial cells through Nodal signaling.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Zhao; Liang, Zhang; Yanfeng, Huang; Leitao, Kang

    2017-10-01

    Nodal may play an important role in the development of cancers. The present study was designed to determine the effects of Nodal induced by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection on the occurrence and development of lung cancer and the underlying mechanisms. After verification of RSV infection by observation of cytopathic effect and indirect immunofluorescence, real-time PCR, Western blot and methylation assays were used to verify the influence of RSV on Nodal expression. Then, a Nodal overexpressed vector was constructed and the effects of Nodal on the proliferation and apoptosis of bronchial epithelial cells (BECs) and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) were assayed by flow cytometry and Western blot, respectively. Moreover, Lefty and pSmad2/3 were assayed by Western blot and Cyclin D1, CDK4, c-myc and Bcl-2 induced by Nodal overepression or RSV infection were also assayed by real-time PCR. The results showed that Nodal over expression and demethylation of the promoter were observed in BECs after RSV infection. Activation of Nodal promoted proliferation, colony formation and EMT and inhibited apoptosis of BECs. Nodal also promoted malignant change by promoting expression of cyclin D1 and related-dependent kinase and inhibiting apoptosis. Besides, RSV infection inhibited Lefty expression and promoted the activation of pSmad2/3. RSV also promoted Cyclin D1, CDK4, c-myc and Bcl-2 expression through the activation of pSmad2/3. Our data showed that persistence of RSV promoted the proliferation, epithelial-mesenchymal transition and expression of oncogenes through Nodal signaling, which may be associated with the occurrence and development of lung cancers.

  7. Brady's Geothermal Field - Map of DAS, Nodal, Vibroseis and Reftek Station Deployment

    DOE Data Explorer

    Kurt Feigl

    2016-10-15

    Map of DAS, nodal, vibroseis and Reftek stations during March 2016 deployment. The plot on the left has nodal stations labeled; the plot on the right has vibroseis observations labeled. Stations are shown in map-view using Brady's rotated X-Y coordinates with side plots denoting elevation with respect to the WGS84 ellipsoid. Blue circles denote vibroseis data, x symbols denote DAS (cyan for horizontal and magenta for vertical), black asterisks denote Reftek data, and red plus signs denote nodal data. This map can be found on UW-Madison's askja server at /PoroTomo/DATA/MAPS/Deployment_Stations.pdf

  8. Brain metastasization of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Custódio-Santos, Tânia; Videira, Mafalda; Brito, Maria Alexandra

    2017-08-01

    Central nervous system metastases have been reported in 15-25% of breast cancer patients, and the incidence is increasing. Moreover, the survival of these patients is generally poor, with reports of a 1-year survival rate of 20%. Therefore, a better knowledge about the determinants of brain metastasization is essential for the improvement of the clinical outcomes. Here, we summarize the current data about the metastatic cascade, ranging from the output of cancer cells from the primary tumour to their colonization in the brain, which involves the epithelial-mesenchymal transition, invasion of mammary tissue, intravasation into circulation, and homing into and extravasation towards the brain. The phenotypic change in malignant cells, and the importance of the microenvironment in the formation of brain metastases are also inspected. Finally, the importance of genetic and epigenetic changes, and the recently disclosed effects of microRNAs in brain metastasization of breast cancer are highlighted. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Recognizing nodal marginal zone lymphoma: recent advances and pitfalls. A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    van den Brand, Michiel; van Krieken, J. Han J.M.

    2013-01-01

    The diagnosis of nodal marginal zone lymphoma is one of the remaining problem areas in hematopathology. Because no established positive markers exist for this lymphoma, it is frequently a diagnosis of exclusion, making distinction from other low-grade B-cell lymphomas difficult or even impossible. This systematic review summarizes and discusses the current knowledge on nodal marginal zone lymphoma, including clinical features, epidemiology and etiology, histology, and cytogenetic and molecular features. In particular, recent advances in diagnostics and pathogenesis are discussed. New immunohistochemical markers have become available that could be used as positive markers for nodal marginal zone lymphoma. These markers could be used to ensure more homogeneous study groups in future research. Also, recent gene expression studies and studies describing specific gene mutations have provided clues to the pathogenesis of nodal marginal zone lymphoma, suggesting deregulation of the nuclear factor kappa B pathway. Nevertheless, nodal marginal zone lymphoma remains an enigmatic entity, requiring further study to define its pathogenesis to allow an accurate diagnosis and tailored treatment. However, recent data indicate that it is not related to splenic or extranodal lymphoma, and that it is also not related to lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma. Thus, even though the diagnosis is not always easy, it is clearly a separate entity. PMID:23813646

  10. Potential role of combined FDG PET/CT & contrast enhancement MRI in a rectal carcinoma model with nodal metastases characterized by a poor FDG-avidity.

    PubMed

    Farace, Paolo; Conti, Giamaica; Merigo, Flavia; Tambalo, Stefano; Marzola, Pasquina; Sbarbati, Andrea; Quarta, Carmelo; D'Ambrosio, Daniela; Chondrogiannis, Sotirios; Nanni, Cristina; Rubello, Domenico

    2012-04-01

    To investigate the additional role of MRI contrast enhancement (CE) in the primary tumor and the FDG uptake at PET in the lymph-node metastases. A model of colorectal cancer induced by orthotopic HT-29 cells microinjection, producing pelvic lymph node metastases, was assessed using CE-MRI and FDG-PET. Histology and GLUT-1 immunohistochemistry were performed on primary tumors and iliac lymph nodes. Primary tumors were characterized by low FDG-uptake but high CE-MRI, particularly at tumor periphery. Undetectable FDG-uptake characterized the metastatic lymph-nodes. Histology revealed large stromal bundles at tumor periphery and a dense network of stromal fibers and neoplastic cells in the inner portion of the tumors. Both primary tumors and positive lymph nodes showed poor GLUT-1 staining. Our data support the complementary role of MRI-CE and FDG PET in some types of carcinomas characterized by abundant cancer-associated stroma and poor FDG avidity consequent to poor GLUT-1 transported. In these tumors FDG-PET alone may be not completely adequate to obtain an adequate tumor radiotherapy planning, and a combination with dual CE-MRI is strongly recommended. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Future directions in treatment of brain metastases

    PubMed Central

    Barani, Igor J.; Larson, David A.; Berger, Mitchel S.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Brain metastases affect up to 30% of patients with cancer. Management of brain metastases continues to evolve with ever increasing focus on cognitive preservation and quality of life. This manuscript reviews current state of brain metastases management and discusses various treatment controversies with focus on future clinical trials. Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) and whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT) are discussed in context of multiple (4+ brain metastases) as well as new approaches combining radiation and targeted agents. A brief discussion of modified WBRT approaches, including hippocampal-avoidance WBRT (HA-WBRT) is included as well as a section on recently presented results of Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 0614, a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of menantine for prevention of neurocognitive injury after WBRT. Methods: A search of selected studies relevant to management of brain metastases was performed in PubMed as well as in various published meeting abstracts. This data was collated and analyzed in context of contemporary management and future clinical trial plans. This data is presented in tabular form and discussed extensively in the text. Results: The published data demonstrate continued evolution of clinical trials and management strategies designed to minimize and/or prevent cognitive decline following radiation therapy management of brain metastases. Hippocampal avoidance whole-brain radiation therapy (HA-WBRT) and radiosurgery treatments for multiple brain metastases are discussed along with preliminary results of RTOG 0614, a trial of memantine therapy to prevent cognitive decline following WBRT. Trial results appear to support the use of memantine for prevention of cognitive decline. Conclusions: Different management strategies for multiple brain metastases (>4 brain metastases) are currently being evaluated in prospective clinical trials to minimize the likelihood of cognitive decline following WBRT. PMID

  12. Stereotactic radiosurgery for multiple brain metastases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Anna; (Josh Yamada, Yoshiya

    2017-01-01

    Whole brain radiation therapy has been the traditional treatment of choice for patients with multiple brain metastases. Although stereotactic radiosurgery is widely accepted for the management to up to 4 brain metastases, its use is still controversial in cases of 5 or more brain metastases. Randomized trials have suggested that stereotactic radiosurgery alone is appropriate in up to 4 metastases without concomitant whole brain radiation. Level 1 evidence also suggests that withholding whole brain radiation may also reduce the impact of radiation on neurocognitive function and also may even offer a survival advantage. A recent analysis of a large multicentre prospective database has suggested that there are no differences in outcomes such as the likelihood of new metastasis or leptomeningeal disease in cases of 2-10 brain metastases, nor in overall survival. Hence in the era of prolonged survival with stage IV cancer, stereotactic radiosurgery is a reasonable alternative to whole brain radiation in order to minimize the impact of treatment upon quality of life without sacrificing overall survival.

  13. Sustained Benefit Lasting One Year from T4 Instead of T3-T4 Sympathectomy for Isolated Axillary Hyperhidrosis

    PubMed Central

    Munia, Marco Antonio S.; Wolosker, Nelson; Kaufmann, Paulo; de Campos, José Ribas Milanes; Puech-Leão, Pedro

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Level T4 video-assisted thoracoscopic sympathectomy proved superior to T3-T4 treatment for controlling axillary hyperhidrosis at the initial and six-month follow-ups of these patients. OBJECTIVE To compare the results of two levels of sympathectomy (T3-T4 vs. T4) for treating axillary sudoresis over one year of follow-up. METHODS Sixty-four patients with axillary hyperhidrosis were randomized to denervation of T3-T4 or T4 alone and followed prospectively. All patients were examined preoperatively and were followed postoperatively for one year. Axillary hyperhidrosis treatment was evaluated, along with the presence, location, and severity of compensatory hyperhidrosis and self-reported quality of life. RESULTS According to patient reports after one year, all cases of axillary hyperhidrosis were successfully treated by surgery. There were no instances of treatment failure. After six months, compensatory hyperhidrosis was present in 27 patients of the T3-T4 group (87.1%) and in 16 patients of the T4 group (48.5%). After one year, all T3-T4 patients experienced some degree of compensatory hyperhidrosis, compared to only 14 patients in the T4 group (42.4%). In addition, compensatory hyperhidrosis was less severe in the T4 patients (p < 0.01). Quality of life was poor before surgery, and it improved in both groups at six months and one year of follow-up (p = 0.002). There were no cases of mortality, no significant postoperative complications, and no need for conversion to thoracotomy in either group. CONCLUSION Both techniques were effective for treating axillary hyperhidrosis, but the T4 group showed milder compensatory hyperhidrosis and greater patient satisfaction at the one-year follow-up. PMID:19060999

  14. RW Per - Nodal motion changes its amplitude by 1.4 mag

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaefer, Bradley E.; Fried, Robert E.

    1991-01-01

    RW Per was found to have large secular changes in its eclipse amplitude. In blue light, for example, the amplitude was 3.2 mag in the early 1900s, 2.2 mag in the late 1960s, and 1.75 mag in 1990. Throughout this time, the brightness at maximum was constant in all colors. It is shown that the only possible explanation is nodal motion, where the inclination varies with a period of roughly 100,000 yr. The nodal motion is caused by a third star, for which the light curve, the colors, and the O - C curve already provide evidence. Thus, RW Per is only the fourth known star with large changes of eclipse amplitude and is only the second example of nodal motion.

  15. Stereotactic radiosurgery of brain metastases.

    PubMed

    Specht, Hanno M; Combs, Stephanie E

    2016-09-01

    Brain metastases are a common problem in solid malignancies and still represent a major cause of morbidity and mortality. With the ongoing improvement in systemic therapies, the expectations on the efficacy of brain metastases directed treatment options are growing. As local therapies against brain metastases continue to evolve, treatment patterns have shifted from a palliative "one-treatment-fits-all" towards an individualized, patient adapted approach. In this article we review the evidence for stereotactic radiation treatment based on the current literature. Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) as a local high precision approach for the primary treatment of asymptomatic brain metastases has gained wide acceptance. It leads to lasting tumor control with only minor side effects compared to whole brain radiotherapy, since there is only little dose delivered to the healthy brain. The same holds true for hypofractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (HFSRT) for large metastases or for lesions close to organs at risk (e.g. the brainstem). New treatment indications such as neoadjuvant SRS followed by surgical resection or postoperative local therapy to the resection cavity show promising data and are also highlighted in this manuscript. With the evolution of local treatment options, optimal patient selection becomes more and more crucial. This article aims to aid decision making by outlining prognostic factors, treatment techniques and indications and common dose prescriptions.

  16. Diversification in the South American Pampas: the genetic and morphological variation of the widespread Petunia axillaris complex (Solanaceae).

    PubMed

    Turchetto, Caroline; Fagundes, Nelson J R; Segatto, Ana L A; Kuhlemeier, Cris; Solís Neffa, Viviana G; Speranza, Pablo R; Bonatto, Sandro L; Freitas, Loreta B

    2014-02-01

    Understanding the spatiotemporal distribution of genetic variation and the ways in which this distribution is connected to the ecological context of natural populations is fundamental for understanding the nature and mode of intraspecific and, ultimately, interspecific differentiation. The Petunia axillaris complex is endemic to the grasslands of southern South America and includes three subspecies: P. a. axillaris, P. a. parodii and P. a. subandina. These subspecies are traditionally delimited based on both geography and floral morphology, although the latter is highly variable. Here, we determined the patterns of genetic (nuclear and cpDNA), morphological and ecological (bioclimatic) variation of a large number of P. axillaris populations and found that they are mostly coincident with subspecies delimitation. The nuclear data suggest that the subspecies are likely independent evolutionary units, and their morphological differences may be associated with local adaptations to diverse climatic and/or edaphic conditions and population isolation. The demographic dynamics over time estimated by skyline plot analyses showed different patterns for each subspecies in the last 100 000 years, which is compatible with a divergence time between 35 000 and 107 000 years ago between P. a. axillaris and P. a. parodii, as estimated with the IMa program. Coalescent simulation tests using Approximate Bayesian Computation do not support previous suggestions of extensive gene flow between P. a. axillaris and P. a. parodii in their contact zone. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Distribution of Cervical Lymph Node Metastases From Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx in the Era of Risk Stratification Using Human Papillomavirus and Smoking Status

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Amsbaugh, Mark J., E-mail: mjamsb01@louisville.edu; Yusuf, Mehran; Cash, Elizabeth

    Purpose/Objective(s): To investigate the factors contributing to the clinical presentation of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) in the era of risk stratification using human papilloma virus (HPV) and smoking status. Methods and Materials: All patients with OPSCC presenting to our institutional multidisciplinary clinic from January 2009 to June 2015 were reviewed from a prospective database. The patients were grouped as being at low risk, intermediate risk, and high risk in the manner described by Ang et al. Variance in clinical presentation was examined using χ{sup 2}, Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney, and logistic regression analyses. Results: The rates of HPV/p16 positivity (P<.001), never-smoking (P=.016),more » and cervical lymph node metastases (P=.023) were significantly higher for patients with OPSCC of the tonsil, base of tongue (BOT), or vallecula subsites when compared with pharyngeal wall or palate subsites. Low-risk patients with tonsil, base of tongue, or vallecula primary tumors presented with nodal stage N2a at a much higher than expected frequency (P=.007), and high-risk patients presented with tumor stage T4 at a much higher than expected frequency (P=.003). Patients with BOT primary tumors who were never-smokers were less likely to have clinically involved ipsilateral neck disease than were former smokers (odds ratio 1.8; P=.038). The distribution of cervical lymph node metastases was not associated with HPV/p16 positivity, risk group, or subsite. When these data were compared with those in historical series, no significant differences were seen in the patterns of cervical lymph node metastases for patients with OPSCC. Conclusions: For patients with OPSCC differences in HPV status, smoking history and anatomic subsite were associated with differences in clinical presentation but not with distribution of cervical lymph node metastases. Historical series describing the patterns of cervical lymph node metastases in patients with OPSCC

  18. Distribution of Cervical Lymph Node Metastases From Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx in the Era of Risk Stratification Using Human Papillomavirus and Smoking Status.

    PubMed

    Amsbaugh, Mark J; Yusuf, Mehran; Cash, Elizabeth; Silverman, Craig; Wilson, Elizabeth; Bumpous, Jeffrey; Potts, Kevin; Perez, Cesar; Bert, Robert; Redman, Rebecca; Dunlap, Neal

    2016-10-01

    To investigate the factors contributing to the clinical presentation of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) in the era of risk stratification using human papilloma virus (HPV) and smoking status. All patients with OPSCC presenting to our institutional multidisciplinary clinic from January 2009 to June 2015 were reviewed from a prospective database. The patients were grouped as being at low risk, intermediate risk, and high risk in the manner described by Ang et al. Variance in clinical presentation was examined using χ(2), Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney, and logistic regression analyses. The rates of HPV/p16 positivity (P<.001), never-smoking (P=.016), and cervical lymph node metastases (P=.023) were significantly higher for patients with OPSCC of the tonsil, base of tongue (BOT), or vallecula subsites when compared with pharyngeal wall or palate subsites. Low-risk patients with tonsil, base of tongue, or vallecula primary tumors presented with nodal stage N2a at a much higher than expected frequency (P=.007), and high-risk patients presented with tumor stage T4 at a much higher than expected frequency (P=.003). Patients with BOT primary tumors who were never-smokers were less likely to have clinically involved ipsilateral neck disease than were former smokers (odds ratio 1.8; P=.038). The distribution of cervical lymph node metastases was not associated with HPV/p16 positivity, risk group, or subsite. When these data were compared with those in historical series, no significant differences were seen in the patterns of cervical lymph node metastases for patients with OPSCC. For patients with OPSCC differences in HPV status, smoking history and anatomic subsite were associated with differences in clinical presentation but not with distribution of cervical lymph node metastases. Historical series describing the patterns of cervical lymph node metastases in patients with OPSCC remain clinically relevant. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. [Interventional radiology in bone metastases].

    PubMed

    Chiras, Jacques; Cormier, Evelyne; Baragan, Hector; Jean, Betty; Rose, Michèle

    2007-02-01

    Interventional radiology takes a large place in the treatment of bone metastases by numerous techniques, percutaneous or endovascular. Vertebroplasty appears actually as the most important technique for stabilisation of spine metastases as it induces satisfactory stabilisation of the vertebra and offer clear improvement of the quality of life. Due to the success of this technique cementoplasty of other bones, mainly pelvic girdle, largely develop. The heath due to the polymerisation of the cement induce carcinolytic effect but this effect is not as important as that can be created with radiofrequency destruction. This last technique appears actually as the most important development to destroy definitively some bone metastases and replace progressively alcoholic destruction of such lesions. Angiographic techniques appear more confidential but endovascular embolization is very useful to diminish the risk of surgical treatment of hyper vascular metastases. Chemoembolization is actually developped to associate the relief of pain induced by endovascular embolization and the carcinolytic effect obtained by local endovascular chemotherapy. All these techniques should develop largely during the next years and their efficacy and safety should improve largely by treating earlier the metastasis.

  20. Incidental Prophylactic Nodal Irradiation and Patterns of Nodal Relapse in Inoperable Early Stage NSCLC Patients Treated With SBRT: A Case-Matched Analysis

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Lao, Louis; Department of Radiation Oncology, Auckland City Hospital, Auckland; Hope, Andrew J.

    2014-09-01

    Purpose: Reported rates of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) nodal failure following stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) are lower than those reported in the surgical series when matched for stage. We hypothesized that this effect was due to incidental prophylactic nodal irradiation. Methods and Materials: A prospectively collected group of medically inoperable early stage NSCLC patients from 2004 to 2010 was used to identify cases with nodal relapses. Controls were matched to cases, 2:1, controlling for tumor volume (ie, same or greater) and tumor location (ie, same lobe). Reference (normalized to equivalent dose for 2-Gy fractions [EQD2]) point doses atmore » the ipsilateral hilum and carina, demographic data, and clinical outcomes were extracted from the medical records. Univariate conditional logistical regression analyses were performed with variables of interest. Results: Cases and controls were well matched except for size. The controls, as expected, had larger gross tumor volumes (P=.02). The mean ipsilateral hilar doses were 9.6 Gy and 22.4 Gy for cases and controls, respectively (P=.014). The mean carinal doses were 7.0 Gy and 9.2 Gy, respectively (P=.13). Mediastinal nodal relapses, with and without ipsilateral hilar relapse, were associated with mean ipsilateral hilar doses of 3.6 Gy and 19.8 Gy, respectively (P=.01). The conditional density plot appears to demonstrate an inverse dose-effect relationship between ipsilateral hilar normalized total dose and risk of ipsilateral hilar relapse. Conclusions: Incidental hilar dose greater than 20 Gy is significantly associated with fewer ipsilateral hilar relapses in inoperable early stage NSCLC patients treated with SBRT.« less

  1. Skin metastases from lung cancer: a case report.

    PubMed

    Pajaziti, Laura; Hapçiu, Syzana Rexhepi; Dobruna, Shkendije; Hoxha, Naim; Kurshumliu, Fisnik; Pajaziti, Artina

    2015-04-11

    Lung cancer is one of the most frequent malignancies, with high mortality rates. It can metastasize in almost all organs, but more often invades hilar nodes, liver, adrenal glands, bones and brain. There are various data on the incidence of lung cancer metastases in the skin. In 1-12% of patients with lung cancer are developed skin metastases. Metastases in the skin may be the first sign of lung cancer. Forty-five years old Albanian male, smoker, was admitted to our department with multiple nodules localized in the skin of the head, neck, back and chest. The nodules measuring 5-15 millimeters in greatest dimension were round and skin-colored, with telangiectasias, firm and tender. They appeared in an eruptive form about two weeks before being admitted at our hospital. In addition, the patient exhibited signs of weight loss, anorexia and fatigue. Excisional biopsy was performed to one of the lesions. Histopathology confirmed metastatic nature of the lesion namely, malignant tumor of neuroendocrine phenotype consistent with small-cell carcinoma. Chest X-ray and computed tomography revealed an expansive process in the 7(th) segment of the left lung, left hilar and mediastinal lymphadenopathy and a suspicious initial secondary deposit in the left adrenal gland. The patient was referred to the department of oncology for further treatment. After the third cycle of chemotherapy, the magnetic resonance imaging revealed brain metastases. The patient passed away four months after the diagnosis of lung cancer first presented with skin metastases. Metastases in skin may be the first sign of lung cancer. Although rare appearing, we should raise suspicion in cases of atypical lesions in the skin not only of the smokers, but also of the non-smokers. Skin metastases from small-cell lung carcinoma are a poor prognostic indicator. The appearance of multiple skin metastases with other internal metastases shorten the survival time.

  2. Metastases of breast cancer to a uterine leiomyoma.

    PubMed

    Ludovisi, Manuela; Moruzzi, Maria Cristina; Ferrandina, Gabriella; Scambia, Giovanni; Testa, Antonia Carla

    2017-09-19

    Metastases to the uterus occur very rarely, accounting for less than 10% of all cases of metastases involving the female genital tract; mammary and gastrointestinal carcinomas are the most frequent extragenital primary neoplasms metastasizing to the uterine corpus 1 . Very little data is available in the literature including 24 cases of breast cancer metastasized to a uterine leiomyoma 2 , as assessed at surgery (N = 16), and autoptic evaluation (n = 8). This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  3. The orphan receptor ALK7 and the Activin receptor ALK4 mediate signaling by Nodal proteins during vertebrate development.

    PubMed

    Reissmann, E; Jörnvall, H; Blokzijl, A; Andersson, O; Chang, C; Minchiotti, G; Persico, M G; Ibáñez, C F; Brivanlou, A H

    2001-08-01

    Nodal proteins have crucial roles in mesendoderm formation and left-right patterning during vertebrate development. The molecular mechanisms of signal transduction by Nodal and related ligands, however, are not fully understood. In this paper, we present biochemical and functional evidence that the orphan type I serine/threonine kinase receptor ALK7 acts as a receptor for mouse Nodal and Xenopus Nodal-related 1 (Xnr1). Receptor reconstitution experiments indicate that ALK7 collaborates with ActRIIB to confer responsiveness to Xnr1 and Nodal. Both receptors can independently bind Xnr1. In addition, Cripto, an extracellular protein genetically implicated in Nodal signaling, can independently interact with both Xnr1 and ALK7, and its expression greatly enhances the ability of ALK7 and ActRIIB to respond to Nodal ligands. The Activin receptor ALK4 is also able to mediate Nodal signaling but only in the presence of Cripto, with which it can also interact directly. A constitutively activated form of ALK7 mimics the mesendoderm-inducing activity of Xnr1 in Xenopus embryos, whereas a dominant-negative ALK7 specifically blocks the activities of Nodal and Xnr1 but has little effect on other related ligands. In contrast, a dominant-negative ALK4 blocks all mesoderm-inducing ligands tested, including Nodal, Xnr1, Xnr2, Xnr4, and Activin. In agreement with a role in Nodal signaling, ALK7 mRNA is localized to the ectodermal and organizer regions of Xenopus gastrula embryos and is expressed during early stages of mouse embryonic development. Therefore, our results indicate that both ALK4 and ALK7 can mediate signal transduction by Nodal proteins, although ALK7 appears to be a receptor more specifically dedicated to Nodal signaling.

  4. The orphan receptor ALK7 and the Activin receptor ALK4 mediate signaling by Nodal proteins during vertebrate development

    PubMed Central

    Reissmann, Eva; Jörnvall, Henrik; Blokzijl, Andries; Andersson, Olov; Chang, Chenbei; Minchiotti, Gabriella; Persico, M. Graziella; Ibáñez, Carlos F.; Brivanlou, Ali H.

    2001-01-01

    Nodal proteins have crucial roles in mesendoderm formation and left–right patterning during vertebrate development. The molecular mechanisms of signal transduction by Nodal and related ligands, however, are not fully understood. In this paper, we present biochemical and functional evidence that the orphan type I serine/threonine kinase receptor ALK7 acts as a receptor for mouse Nodal and Xenopus Nodal-related 1 (Xnr1). Receptor reconstitution experiments indicate that ALK7 collaborates with ActRIIB to confer responsiveness to Xnr1 and Nodal. Both receptors can independently bind Xnr1. In addition, Cripto, an extracellular protein genetically implicated in Nodal signaling, can independently interact with both Xnr1 and ALK7, and its expression greatly enhances the ability of ALK7 and ActRIIB to respond to Nodal ligands. The Activin receptor ALK4 is also able to mediate Nodal signaling but only in the presence of Cripto, with which it can also interact directly. A constitutively activated form of ALK7 mimics the mesendoderm-inducing activity of Xnr1 in Xenopus embryos, whereas a dominant-negative ALK7 specifically blocks the activities of Nodal and Xnr1 but has little effect on other related ligands. In contrast, a dominant-negative ALK4 blocks all mesoderm-inducing ligands tested, including Nodal, Xnr1, Xnr2, Xnr4, and Activin. In agreement with a role in Nodal signaling, ALK7 mRNA is localized to the ectodermal and organizer regions of Xenopus gastrula embryos and is expressed during early stages of mouse embryonic development. Therefore, our results indicate that both ALK4 and ALK7 can mediate signal transduction by Nodal proteins, although ALK7 appears to be a receptor more specifically dedicated to Nodal signaling. PMID:11485994

  5. Germline BRCA mutations are associated with higher risk of nodal involvement, distant metastasis, and poor survival outcomes in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Castro, Elena; Goh, Chee; Olmos, David; Saunders, Ed; Leongamornlert, Daniel; Tymrakiewicz, Malgorzata; Mahmud, Nadiya; Dadaev, Tokhir; Govindasami, Koveela; Guy, Michelle; Sawyer, Emma; Wilkinson, Rosemary; Ardern-Jones, Audrey; Ellis, Steve; Frost, Debra; Peock, Susan; Evans, D Gareth; Tischkowitz, Marc; Cole, Trevor; Davidson, Rosemarie; Eccles, Diana; Brewer, Carole; Douglas, Fiona; Porteous, Mary E; Donaldson, Alan; Dorkins, Huw; Izatt, Louise; Cook, Jackie; Hodgson, Shirley; Kennedy, M John; Side, Lucy E; Eason, Jacqueline; Murray, Alex; Antoniou, Antonis C; Easton, Douglas F; Kote-Jarai, Zsofia; Eeles, Rosalind

    2013-05-10

    To analyze the baseline clinicopathologic characteristics of prostate tumors with germline BRCA1 and BRCA2 (BRCA1/2) mutations and the prognostic value of those mutations on prostate cancer (PCa) outcomes. This study analyzed the tumor features and outcomes of 2,019 patients with PCa (18 BRCA1 carriers, 61 BRCA2 carriers, and 1,940 noncarriers). The Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression analysis were used to evaluate the associations between BRCA1/2 status and other PCa prognostic factors with overall survival (OS), cause-specific OS (CSS), CSS in localized PCa (CSS_M0), metastasis-free survival (MFS), and CSS from metastasis (CSS_M1). PCa with germline BRCA1/2 mutations were more frequently associated with Gleason ≥ 8 (P = .00003), T3/T4 stage (P = .003), nodal involvement (P = .00005), and metastases at diagnosis (P = .005) than PCa in noncarriers. CSS was significantly longer in noncarriers than in carriers (15.7 v 8.6 years, multivariable analyses [MVA] P = .015; hazard ratio [HR] = 1.8). For localized PCa, 5-year CSS and MFS were significantly higher in noncarriers (96% v 82%; MVA P = .01; HR = 2.6%; and 93% v 77%; MVA P = .009; HR = 2.7, respectively). Subgroup analyses confirmed the poor outcomes in BRCA2 patients, whereas the role of BRCA1 was not well defined due to the limited size and follow-up in this subgroup. Our results confirm that BRCA1/2 mutations confer a more aggressive PCa phenotype with a higher probability of nodal involvement and distant metastasis. BRCA mutations are associated with poor survival outcomes and this should be considered for tailoring clinical management of these patients.

  6. Role of Nodal-PITX2C signaling pathway in glucose-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Su, Dongmei; Jing, Sun; Guan, Lina; Li, Qian; Zhang, Huiling; Gao, Xiaobo; Ma, Xu

    2014-06-01

    Pathological cardiac hypertrophy is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in cardiovascular disease. Recent studies have shown that cardiomyocytes, in response to high glucose (HG) stimuli, undergo hypertrophic growth. While much work still needs to be done to elucidate this important mechanism of hypertrophy, previous works have showed that some pathways or genes play important roles in hypertrophy. In this study, we showed that sublethal concentrations of glucose (25 mmol/L) could induce cardiomyocyte hypertrophy with an increase in the cellular surface area and the upregulation of the atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) gene, a hypertrophic marker. High glucose (HG) treatments resulted in the upregulation of the Nodal gene, which is under-expressed in cardiomyocytes. We also determined that the knockdown of the Nodal gene resisted HG-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. The overexpression of Nodal was able to induce hypertrophy in cardiomyocytes, which was associated with the upregulation of the PITX2C gene. We also showed that increases in the PITX2C expression, in response to Nodal, were mediated by the Smad4 signaling pathway. This study is highly relevant to the understanding of the effects of the Nodal-PITX2C pathway on HG-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, as well as the related molecular mechanisms.

  7. Comparison of only T3 and T3–T4 sympathectomy for axillary hyperhidrosis regarding treatment effect and compensatory sweating

    PubMed Central

    Yuncu, Gökhan; Turk, Figen; Ozturk, Gökhan; Atinkaya, Cansel

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Patients diagnosed with axillary hyperhidrosis can face psychosocial issues that can ultimately hinder their quality of life both privately and socially. The routine treatment for axillary hyperhidrosis is T3–T4 sympathectomy, but compensatory sweating is a serious side effect that is commonly seen with this approach. This study was designed to evaluate whether a T3 sympathectomy was effective for the treatment of axillary hyperhidrosis and whether this treatment led to less compensatory sweating than T3–T4 sympathectomies among our 60-patient population. METHODS One hundred and twenty endoscopic thoracic sympathectomies were performed on 60 patients who had axillary hyperhidrosis. The sympathectomies were accomplished by means of a single-lumen endotracheal tube and a single port. The axillary hyperhidrosis patients were randomly divided into two groups with 17 patients in Group 1 undergoing T3–T4 sympathectomies and 43 in Group 2 undergoing only T3 sympathectomies. We analysed the data associated with the resolution of axillary hyperhidrosis, the degree of patient satisfaction with the surgical outcome and the quality of life in parallel with compensatory sweating after the procedure as reported by the patient and confirmed by the examiner. Moreover, the results were compared statistically. RESULTS No statistically significant difference was observed between the groups based on age (P = 0.56), gender (P = 0.81), duration of the surgery (P = 0.35) or postoperative satisfaction levels (P = 0.45). However, the incidence and degree of compensatory sweating were lower in the T3 group than the T3–T4 group at the 1-year follow-up (P = 0.008). CONCLUSIONS T3 sympathectomy was as effective as T3–T4 sympathectomy for the treatment of axillary hyperhidrosis based on the patients’ reported postoperative satisfaction, and the T3 group demonstrated lower compensatory sweating at the 1-year follow-up. PMID:23644731

  8. Indocyanine green detects sentinel lymph nodes in early breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jun; Huang, Linping; Wang, Ning; Chen, Ping

    2017-04-01

    Objective To explore the clinical value of indocyanine green (ICG) for the fluorescence-guided detection of sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) during sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) in patients with early breast cancer. Methods This retrospective study included female patients with breast cancer. Patients were administered methylene blue and ICG using standard techniques. All SLNs that were collected during surgery were submitted for pathological examination. SLNs were defined as those that were either fluorescent, blue, fluorescent and blue or palpably suspicious. Surgical complications, axillary recurrence, distant metastasis and overall survival rates were observed postoperatively. Results A total of 60 patients were enrolled in the study. The fluorescence detection rate of SLNs was 100% ( n = 177), with a mean of 2.95 SLNs per patient. The methylene blue staining rate was 88.3% ( n = 106), with a mean of 1.77 SLNs per patient. Pathological assessment of intraoperative frozen specimens revealed SLN metastases in 10 patients, who immediately underwent axillary lymph node dissection. No patient had axillary recurrence or distant metastases, with a survival rate of 100%. Patients who underwent SLNB showed good appearance in the axillary wound, with no limited shoulder joint abduction and upper limb oedema. Conclusion Fluorescence-guided SLNB has several advantages and is suitable for clinical application.

  9. The role of epithelial-mesenchymal transition in squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity.

    PubMed

    Zidar, Nina; Boštjančič, Emanuela; Malgaj, Marija; Gale, Nina; Dovšak, Tadej; Didanovič, Vojko

    2018-02-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) has emerged as a possible mechanism of cancer metastasizing, but strong evidence for EMT involvement in human cancer is lacking. Our aim was to compare oral spindle cell carcinoma (SpCC) as an example of EMT with oral conventional squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) with and without nodal metastases to test the hypothesis that EMT contributes to metastasizing in oral SCC. Thirty cases of oral SCC with and without nodal metastasis and 15 cases of SpCC were included. Epithelial (cytokeratin, E-cadherin), mesenchymal (vimentin, N-cadherin), and stem cell markers (ALDH-1, CD44, Nanog, Sox-2) and transcription repressors (Snail, Slug, Twist) were analyzed immunohistochemically. We also analyzed the expression of microRNAs miR-141, miR-200 family, miR-205, and miR-429. SpCC exhibited loss of epithelial markers and expression of mesenchymal markers or coexpression of both up-regulation of transcription repressors and down-regulation of the investigated microRNAs. SCC showed only occasional focal expression of mesenchymal markers at the invasive front. No other differences were observed between SCC with and without nodal metastases except for a higher expression of ALDH-1 in SCC with metastases. Our results suggest that SpCC is an example of true EMT but do not support the hypothesis that EMT is involved in metastasizing of conventional SCC. Regarding oral SCC progression and metastasizing, we have been facing a shift from the initial enthusiasm for the EMT concept towards a more critical approach with "EMT-like" and "partial EMT" concepts. The real question, though, is, is there no EMT at all?

  10. CCR7 and CXCR4 Expression in Primary Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinomas and Nodal Metastases – a Clinical and Immunohistochemical Study

    PubMed Central

    Al-Jokhadar, Maya; Al-Mandily, Ahmad; Zaid, Khaled; Maalouf, Elie Azar

    2017-01-01

    Background: Squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) are common head and neck malignancies demonstrating lymph node LN involvement. Recently chemokine receptor overxpression has been reported in many cancers. Of particular interest, CCR7 appears to be a strong mediator of LN metastases, while CXCR4 may mediate distant metastases. Any relations between their expression in primary HNSCCs and metastatic lymph nodes need to be clarified. Aims: To investigate CCR7 andCXCR4 expression in primary HNSCCs of all tumor sizes, clinical stages and histological grades, as well as involved lymph nodes, then make comparisons, also with control normal oral epithelium. Materials and Methods: The sample consisted of 60 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded specimens of primary HNSCCs, 77 others of metastasi-positive lymph nodes, and 10 of control normal oral epithelial tissues. Sections were conventionally stained with H&E and immunohistochemically with monoclonal anti-CCR7 and monoclonal anti-CXCR4 antibodies. Positive cells were counted under microscopic assessment in four fields (X40) per case. Results: There was no variation among primary HNSCC tumors staining positive for CCR7 and CXCR4 with tumor size of for CCR7 with lymph node involvement. However, a difference was noted between primary HNSCC tumors stained by CXCR4 with a single as compared to more numerous node involvement. CXCR4 appear to vary with the clinical stagebut no links were noted with histological grades. Staining for primary HNSCC tumors and metastatic lymph nodes correlated. PMID:28547946

  11. Negative pressure wound therapy, staged excision and definitive closure with split-thickness skin graft for axillary hidradenitis suppurativa: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Pearce, F B; Richardson, K A

    2017-01-02

    Bilateral axillary hidradenitis is a chronic, suppurative, and scarring disease that is most effectively treated by complete excision of all hair-bearing tissues. We assessed our staged procedure for excision and placement of a split-thickness skin graft for bilateral axillary hidradenitis in terms of costs, outcomes, and timing of excision. An IRB approved retrospective case analysis was performed on patients that underwent bilateral axillary hidradenitis skin excision with eventual placement of split-thickness skin grafting using the current LSUHSC/University Health hidradenitis surgical treatment protocol. Using ICD-9 codes (705.83) and CPT codes (11041, 11042, 11451, 11600, 11601, 11602, 11603, 11604) we reviewed cases performed at our institution from 1 January 2008 to 24 Febuary 2014 and we selected patients based on bilateral axillary involvement (alone) and >1 year history of active disease. Patients were excluded if resection of tissue encompassed regions outside of the immediately adjacent axillary. A total of seven patients matching criteria for bilateral axillary hidradenitis were selected for analysis. Clinical course, cost and surgical techniques were assessed. Of the seven patients, six required admission throughout their treatment due to lack of funding making use of negative pressure wound therapy at home not possible. These patients stayed an average of 10 days with a mean hospital charge of $35,178 and a mean hospital provider charge of $10,019. No recurrence was demonstrated. All patients attained full range of motion, post grafting. No patient required a further operation due to graft failure. Split-thickness skin grafting without use of bilayer dermal regenerative templates yielded definitive results with acceptable cosmesis and functionality, without the added cost of treatments such as a bilayer dermal regenerative template.

  12. Efficacy and safety of methantheline bromide (Vagantin(®) ) in axillary and palmar hyperhidrosis: results from a multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Müller, C; Berensmeier, A; Hamm, H; Dirschka, T; Reich, K; Fischer, T; Rzany, B

    2013-10-01

    Focal hyperhidrosis can severely affect quality of life. So far, knowledge on the effect of systemic therapy of focal hyperhidrosis is limited. To assess the efficacy and safety of methantheline bromide (MB) in the treatment of axillary and palmar-axillary hyperhidrosis. A multicenter controlled randomized double-blind clinical trial was conducted in patients with axillary or palmar-axillary hyperhidrosis defined by a sweat production >50 mg/5 min. Patients received 3 × 50 mg MB daily or placebo over a period of 28 ± 1 days. Main outcome criterion was the reduction of sweat as measured by gravimetry on day 28 ± 1. Quality of life was assessed by Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) and Hyperhidrosis Disease Severity Score (HDSS). A total of 339 patients were randomly assigned to receive MB or placebo. On day 28 ± 1, the mean axillary sweat production was 99 mg for MB and 130 mg for placebo compared with 168 mg and 161 mg respectively at baseline (P = 0.004). Patient's HDSS score decreased in the MB group from 3.2 to 2.4 compared with 3.2 to 2.7 for placebo (P = 0.002). Similar results could be obtained for the DLQI with 9.7 for MB and 12.2 for placebo, which decreased from 16.4 or 17 respectively (P = 0.003). Tolerability was good for both groups. The most frequent adverse event was dry mouth. Fifty milligrams methantheline bromide three times a day is an effective and safe treatment of axillary hyperhidrosis. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology © 2012 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  13. Comparison of bioactivities and phenolic composition of Choerospondias axillaris peels and fleshes.

    PubMed

    Li, Qian; Chen, Jun; Li, Ti; Liu, Chengmei; Liu, Wei; Liu, Jiyan

    2016-05-01

    Choerospondias axillaris is both an edible and medicinal fruit. It has a growing popularity and economic importance due to its nutritive value and medicinal effects, but comprehensive information on the chemical composition and bioactivity of its fruits is still lacking. Therefore the aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant, antimicrobial and antiproliferative effects and chemical composition of peel polyphenolic (PP) and flesh polyphenolic (FP) extracts from C. axillaris. The phenolics and flavonoids of peel were significantly higher than those of flesh. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) and ultra-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (UPLC/ESI-QTOF-MS(2) ) analysis revealed that (+)-catechin and oligomeric procyanidins were the most abundant compounds in PP and FP. Both extracts exhibited strong ferric-reducing antioxidant power, total antioxidant activity and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH(•) )-scavenging ability. PP showed a significantly higher antimicrobial effect against tested strains than that of FP, in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, both extracts inhibited the growth of HepG2 and Caco-2 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner, with IC50 values of 39.31 and 47.49 µg mL(-1) to HepG2 cells and 101.90 and 102.61 µg mL(-1) to Caco-2 cells respectively. This is the first detailed report on the chemical composition and bioactivities of C. axillaris fruits. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. [Interventional radiology for bone metastases].

    PubMed

    Iannessi, Antoine; Garnon, Julien; Cormier, Évelyne; Clarencon, Frédéric; Chiras, Jacques

    2013-11-01

    The management of bone metastases requires a multidisciplinary staff to include systemic and local treatments like radiotherapy, surgery or interventional radiology (IR). Patients are often fragile. Imaging allows safe guidance to create "mini-invasive" procedures under adequate anesthesia. Patients' selection is important. If the goal is pain relief, cementoplasty provides a very effective bone consolidation and pain control. Simple and low-risk, vertebroplasty is the technique of choice in case of lytic bone metastases with spinal fracture risk or after failure of analgesic radiotherapy. If the medical project is curative, the tumor ablation procedures are realised through thermic or embolic techniques. After 60°C, the heat induces a coagulative necrose. Under -20°C, the cold leads to destroy the tissues. The major advantage of the cryotherapy is the predictibility of the ablation zone due to the well-visualized ice ball on perprocedural images. This technique is much more adapted to spare the nervous structures closed to the metastasis. The development of these new techniques of IR will treat bone metastases earlier, sometimes asymptomatic and thus improves the quality of life in patients with bone metastases.

  15. Interventional radiology in bone metastases.

    PubMed

    Chiras, J; Shotar, E; Cormier, E; Clarençon, F

    2017-11-01

    Interventional radiology plays a significant role in the treatment of bone metastases by various techniques, percutaneous or endovascular. Vertebroplasty is the most well-studied technique for stabilisation of spine metastases as it induces satisfactory stabilisation of the vertebra and offers clear improvement of the quality of life. Due to the success of this technique cementoplasty of other bones, mainly pelvic girdle, has been largely developed. The development of reinforced cementoplasty allows treatment of pre-fractural osteolysis of some long bones. The heat due to the polymerisation of the cement induces carcinolytic effect but this effect is not as important as that which results from radiofrequency destruction. This last technique appears currently as the most important development to definitively destroy bone metastases and is progressively replacing percutaneous alcoholic destruction of such lesions. Angiographic techniques, such as endovascular embolisation, can also be very useful to reduce the risk of surgical treatment of hyper vascular metastases. Chemoembolisation is currently developed to associate pain relief induced by Endovascular embolisation and the carcinolytic effect obtained by local endovascular chemotherapy. All these techniques should develop largely during the next years. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Role of surgery in brain metastases.

    PubMed

    Laghari, Altaf Ali; Ahmed, Syed Ijlal; Shamim, Muhammad Shahzad

    2017-08-01

    Brain metastases remain the commonest type of brain tumour, being four times more common than primary brain tumours. Although surgical intervention may be recommended for one of various reasons in the management of these tumours, including but not limited to conformation of diagnosis, relief of mass effect, improvement of neurological status and prolongation of survival, the guidelines for management of brain metastases remain largely subjective and therefore controversial. Herein the authors have attempted to review some of the existing evidence on role of surgery in the management of brain metastases and have presented their selected guidelines for the readers.

  17. Near infrared photoimmunotherapy for lung metastases

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Kazuhide; Nagaya, Tadanobu; Mitsunaga, Makoto; Choyke, Peter L.; Kobayashi, Hisataka

    2015-01-01

    Lung metastases are a leading cause of cancer related deaths; nonetheless current treatments are limited. Near infrared photoimmunotherapy (NIR-PIT) is a new cancer treatment that combines the specificity of intravenously injected antibodies that target tumors with the toxicity induced by photosensitizers activated by NIR-light. Herein, we demonstrate the efficacy of NIR-PIT in a mouse model of lung metastases. Experiments were conducted with a HER2, luciferase and GFP expressing cell line (3T3/HER2-luc-GFP). An antibody-photosensitizer conjugate (APC) consisting of trastuzumab and a phthalocyanine dye, IRDye-700DX, was synthesized. In vitro NIR-PIT-induced cytotoxicity was light dose dependent. With 3D culture, repeated NIR-PIT could eradicate entire spheroids. In vivo anti-tumor effects of NIR-PIT included significant reductions in both tumor volume (p = 0.0141 vs. APC) and bioluminescence image (BLI) (p = 0.0086 vs. APC) in the flank model, and prolonged survival (p < 0.0001). BLI demonstrated a significant reduction in lung metastases volume (p = 0.0117 vs. APC). Multiple NIR-PIT doses significantly prolonged survival in the lung metastases model (p < 0.0001). These results suggested that NIR-PIT is a potential new therapy for the local control of lung metastases. PMID:26021765

  18. The Effect of Ketamine and Dexamethasone in Combination with Lidocaine on the Onset and Duration of Axillary Block in Hand and Forearm Soft Tissue Surgery.

    PubMed

    Zaman, Behrooz; Hojjati Ashrafi, Siavash; Seyed Siamdoust, Seyedalireza; Hassani, Valiollah; Mohamad Taheri, Siavash; Noorizad, Samad

    2017-10-01

    Using peripheral nerve block compared to general anesthesia has gained more popularity due to reduced postoperative pain, less need for post-surgery analgesic drugs, reduced incidence of nausea, shortness of PACU time, and increased patient satisfaction. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of ketamine and dexamethasone as additives to lidocaine on duration and onset of axillary block action. In this clinical trial, all patients who referred to Hazrat-e-Fatemeh hospital for forearm and hand soft tissue surgery with informed consent were randomly divided into three groups in order to examine the onset and duration of axillary block: lidocaine + ketamine, lidocaine + dexamethasone in axillary block, and lidocaine alone (control). Then, the onset and duration of sensory and motor blocks were measured and recorded every three minutes and after the surgery. Quantitative and qualitative variables were analyzed using ANOVA or Kruskal-Wallis test and Chi-square or Fisher exact test in SPSS v.22. Duration of sensory and motor block axillary was significantly higher in lidocaine + dexamethasone group than in lidocaine + ketamine group (P < 0.05); it was also significantly higher in lidocaine + ketamine group compared to lidocaine group (P < 0.05). However, there was no significant difference in the onset of sensory and motor block axillary between the three groups (P > 0.05). According to the results of our study, we can conclude that adding dexamethasone or ketamine to lidocaine could improve duration of sensory and motor axillary block in patients undergoing forearm and hand soft tissue surgery. However, dexamethasone had the highest effect on duration of block axillary. We proved that dexamethasone or ketamine added to lidocaine had no effect on the onset of block axillary.

  19. A nodal signaling pathway regulates the laterality of neuroanatomical asymmetries in the zebrafish forebrain.

    PubMed

    Concha, M L; Burdine, R D; Russell, C; Schier, A F; Wilson, S W

    2000-11-01

    Animals show behavioral asymmetries that are mediated by differences between the left and right sides of the brain. We report that the laterality of asymmetric development of the diencephalic habenular nuclei and the photoreceptive pineal complex is regulated by the Nodal signaling pathway and by midline tissue. Analysis of zebrafish embryos with compromised Nodal signaling reveals an early role for this pathway in the repression of asymmetrically expressed genes in the diencephalon. Later signaling mediated by the EGF-CFC protein One-eyed pinhead and the forkhead transcription factor Schmalspur is required to overcome this repression. When expression of Nodal pathway genes is either absent or symmetrical, neuroanatomical asymmetries are still established but are randomized. This indicates that Nodal signaling is not required for asymmetric development per se but is essential to determine the laterality of the asymmetry.

  20. Extent of regional lymph node surgery and impact on outcomes in patients with early-stage breast cancer and limited axillary disease undergoing mastectomy.

    PubMed

    Picado, Omar; Khazeni, Kristina; Allen, Casey; Yakoub, Danny; Avisar, Eli; Kesmodel, Susan B

    2018-06-05

    Management of the axilla in patients with early-stage breast cancer (ESBC) has evolved. Recent trials support less extensive axillary surgery in patients undergoing mastectomy. We examine factors affecting regional lymph node (RLN) surgery and outcomes in patients with ESBC undergoing mastectomy. Women with clinical T1/2 N0 M0 invasive BC who underwent mastectomy with 1-2 positive nodes were selected from the National Cancer Database (2004-2015). Axillary surgery was defined by number of RLNs examined: 1-5 sentinel LN dissection (SLND), and ≥ 10 axillary LND (ALND). Binary logistic regression and survival analyses were performed to assess the association between axillary surgery and clinical characteristics, and overall survival (OS), respectively. 34,243 patients were included: 13,821 SLND (40%) and 20,422 ALND (60%). SLND significantly increased from 21% (2004) to 45% (2015) (p < .001). Independent factors associated with SLND were treatment year, non-Academic centers, geographic region, tumor histology, and postmastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT). Multivariable survival analysis showed that ALND was associated with better OS (HR 0.78, 95% CI 0.72-0.83, p < .001) relative to SLND; however, there was no difference in patients with LN micrometastases treated without RT (HR 0.87, 95% CI 0.73-1.05, p = .153) or patients receiving PMRT (HR 0.92, 95% CI 0.76-1.13, p = .433). SLND has significantly increased in patients undergoing mastectomy with limited axillary disease and is influenced by patient, tumor, and treatment factors. Survival outcomes did not differ by axillary treatment for patients with LN micrometastases treated without RT or patients who received PMRT. SLND may be considered in select patients with ESBC and limited axillary disease undergoing mastectomy.

  1. Ultrasound-Guided Fine-Needle Aspiration of Non-palpable and Suspicious Axillary Lymph Nodes with Subsequent Removal after Tattooing: False-Negative Results and Concordance with Sentinel Lymph Nodes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Won Hwa; Kim, Hye Jung; Jung, Jin Hyang; Park, Ho Yong; Lee, Jeeyeon; Kim, Wan Wook; Park, Ji Young; Cheon, Hyejin; Lee, So Mi; Cho, Seung Hyun; Shin, Kyung Min; Kim, Gab Chul

    2017-11-01

    Ultrasonography-guided fine-needle aspiration (US-guided FNA) for axillary lymph nodes (ALNs) is currently used with various techniques for the initial staging of breast cancer and tagging of ALNs. With the implementation of the tattooing of biopsied ALNs, the rate of false-negative results of US-guided FNA for non-palpable and suspicious ALNs and concordance with sentinel lymph nodes were determined by node-to node analyses. A total of 61 patients with breast cancer had negative results for metastasis on US-guided FNA of their non-palpable and suspicious ALNs. The biopsied ALNs were tattooed with an injection of 1-3 mL Charcotrace (Phebra, Lane Cove West, Australia) ink and removed during sentinel lymph node biopsy or axillary dissection. We determined the rate of false-negative results and concordance with the sentinel lymph nodes by a retrospective review of surgical and pathologic findings. The association of false-negative results with clinical and imaging factors was evaluated using logistic regression. Of the 61 ALNs with negative results for US-guided FNA, 13 (21%) had metastases on final pathology. In 56 of 61 ALNs (92%), tattooed ALNs corresponded to the sentinel lymph nodes. Among the 5 patients (8%) without correspondence, 1 patient (2%) had 2 metastatic ALNs of 1 tattooed node and 1 sentinel lymph node. In multivariate analysis, atypical cells on FNA results (odds ratio = 20.7, p = 0.040) was independently associated with false-negative FNA results. False-negative ALNs after US-guided FNA occur at a rate of 21% and most of the tattooed ALNs showed concordance with sentinel lymph nodes. Copyright © 2017 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. A Unique Branching Pattern of the Axillary Artery: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Bagoji, Ishwar B.; Hadimani, Gavishiddappa A.; Bannur, Balappa M.; Patil, B.G.; Bharatha, Ambadasu

    2013-01-01

    During routine dissection classes for under graduate students, we found a unique and unusual case regarding the anomalous branching in the third part of the axillary artery was terminated into subscapular arterial trunk, superficial brachial artery and deep brachial artery. The subscapular arterial trunk was origin of several important arteries as the circumflex scapular, thoracodorsal, posterior circumflex humeral, thoraco-acromial and lateral thoracic arteries. The deep brachial artery in the arm gave anterior circumflex humeral artery at the surgical neck of humerus, which terminated in the cubital fossa by dividing into radial and ulnar arteries. The superficial brachial artery gave two profunda brachii arteries, both of which passed through spiral groove, along with radial nerve and three muscular branches, to brachialis muscle. This variation is very rare. As per our knowledge, we did not find any literature which explained variations which were similar to this. The normal and abnormal anatomy of the axillary region has practical importance among vascular radiologists and surgeons and it should be known for making an accurate diagnostic interpretation. PMID:24551680

  3. A unique branching pattern of the axillary artery: a case report.

    PubMed

    Bagoji, Ishwar B; Hadimani, Gavishiddappa A; Bannur, Balappa M; Patil, B G; Bharatha, Ambadasu

    2013-12-01

    During routine dissection classes for under graduate students, we found a unique and unusual case regarding the anomalous branching in the third part of the axillary artery was terminated into subscapular arterial trunk, superficial brachial artery and deep brachial artery. The subscapular arterial trunk was origin of several important arteries as the circumflex scapular, thoracodorsal, posterior circumflex humeral, thoraco-acromial and lateral thoracic arteries. The deep brachial artery in the arm gave anterior circumflex humeral artery at the surgical neck of humerus, which terminated in the cubital fossa by dividing into radial and ulnar arteries. The superficial brachial artery gave two profunda brachii arteries, both of which passed through spiral groove, along with radial nerve and three muscular branches, to brachialis muscle. This variation is very rare. As per our knowledge, we did not find any literature which explained variations which were similar to this. The normal and abnormal anatomy of the axillary region has practical importance among vascular radiologists and surgeons and it should be known for making an accurate diagnostic interpretation.

  4. Axillary hyperhidrosis: A review of the extent of the problem and treatment modalities.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sanjay; Davis, Harriet; Wilson, Paul

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this review is to summarize the extent of the problem of axillary hyperhidrosis and treatment modalities available. The benefits and disadvantages of various treatments are reflected on with the hope of providing a starting point to investigate new ways of treating hyperhidrosis. A literature search was conducted using various databases and search criteria. Current treatments include aluminium chloride antiperspirants, iontophoresis, botox injections and endoscopic thoracic sympathectomy. Botox therapy is usually the most effective treatment, without surgery or unpleasant side effects. However it has to be administered by a skilled clinician and involves around 20 injections to treat axillary hyperhidrosis. Other ways of giving Botox are being developed, the most promising one being the use of microneedles which are able to penetrate the skin and deliver drugs to the target area of the dermis without causing pain. In comparison to the temporary effects of microneedles, laser and microwave therapies are also assessed as they offer the hope of permanent relief from hyperhidrosis. There is a considerable dearth in the literature on the management of axillary hyperhidrosis. Further study in larger populations with longer follow up times is critical to access the long term effects of treatment. Microneedles could be the future treatment of choice with the potential to deliver drugs in a safe and pain free way. Copyright © 2015 Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh (Scottish charity number SC005317) and Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A Prospective Study of Axillary Hair Reduction in Patients Treated With Microwave Technology.

    PubMed

    Brauer, Jeremy A; Neckman, Julia P; Zelickson, Brian; Vasily, David B; Geronemus, Roy G

    2017-04-01

    Removing unwanted body hair is a growing trend in society today, and there are many laser-based devices for hair reduction. There are some limitations to those methods, including the lack of efficacy for lighter color hair. The objective was to quantify hair reduction in the axillae after treatment with a noninvasive microwave energy device. A prospective, multicenter study was performed at 3 private dermatology clinics. Fifty-six adult subjects seeking axillary hair reduction were enrolled and treated with the device in 1 or 2 treatment sessions 3 months apart at various energy levels, and followed for 12 months. The primary analysis was monitoring reduction of hair counts from baseline to follow-up visits. A subject assessment of overall satisfaction, odor ratings, and sweat reduction ratings was provided at follow-up visits. Fifty-six subjects received treatment, with an average total underarm hair reduction of approximately 70% for both light and dark hair. Percentage of patients with hair reduction of 30% or more was significantly higher than 50% at all follow-up visits. Half of treated subjects reported expected mild transient post-treatment effects such as localized edema, discomfort, and bruising. Other reported events were mild. This clinical study provides evidence for safe and permanent axillary hair reduction, showing stable average reduction that lasted through the year of follow-up. Most notably, the study has shown the treatment's efficacy for reduction of light-colored axillary hair.

  6. Prognostic effect of isolated paraaortic nodal spread in endometrial cancer.

    PubMed

    Türkmen, Osman; Başaran, Derman; Karalok, Alper; Cömert Kimyon, Günsu; Taşçı, Tolga; Üreyen, Işın; Tulunay, Gökhan; Turan, Taner

    2018-03-28

    To evaluate the prognostic effect of isolated paraaortic lymph node metastasis in endometrial cancer (EC). This retrospective study included patients with FIGO 2009 stage IIIC2 disease due to isolated paraaortic lymph node metastasis (LNM). Patients with sarcomatous histology, synchronous gynecologic cancers and patients with concurrent pelvic lymph node metastases or patients that have intraabdominal tumor spread were excluded. Kaplan-Meier method was used for calculation of progression free survival (PFS) and overall survival. 1614 patients were operated for EC during study period.961 patients underwent lymph node dissection and 25 (2.6%) were found to have isolated LNM in paraaortic region and these constituted the study cohort.20 (80%) patients had endometrioid EC. Median number of retrieved lymph nodes from pelvic region and paraaortic region was 21.5 (range; 5-41) and 34.5 (range; 1-65), respectively. Median number of metastatic paraaortic nodes was 1 (range; 1-32).The median follow-up time was 15 months (range 5-94). 7 (28%) patients recurred after a median of 20 months (range, 3-99) from initial surgery. 3 patients recurred only in pelvis, one patient had upper abdominal spread and 3 had isolated extraabdominal recurrence.İnvolvement of uterine serosa, positive peritoneal cytology and presence of adnexal metastasis were significantly associated with diminished PFS (p<0.05). The presence of serosal involvement or adnexal involvement is as important as gross peritoneal spread and is related with poor survival in patients with isolated paraaortic nodal spread in EC. Chemotherapy should be the mainstay of treatment in this patient cohort which may eradicate systemic tumor spread.

  7. An approach to model reactor core nodalization for deterministic safety analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salim, Mohd Faiz; Samsudin, Mohd Rafie; Mamat @ Ibrahim, Mohd Rizal; Roslan, Ridha; Sadri, Abd Aziz; Farid, Mohd Fairus Abd

    2016-01-01

    Adopting good nodalization strategy is essential to produce an accurate and high quality input model for Deterministic Safety Analysis (DSA) using System Thermal-Hydraulic (SYS-TH) computer code. The purpose of such analysis is to demonstrate the compliance against regulatory requirements and to verify the behavior of the reactor during normal and accident conditions as it was originally designed. Numerous studies in the past have been devoted to the development of the nodalization strategy for small research reactor (e.g. 250kW) up to the bigger research reactor (e.g. 30MW). As such, this paper aims to discuss the state-of-arts thermal hydraulics channel to be employed in the nodalization for RTP-TRIGA Research Reactor specifically for the reactor core. At present, the required thermal-hydraulic parameters for reactor core, such as core geometrical data (length, coolant flow area, hydraulic diameters, and axial power profile) and material properties (including the UZrH1.6, stainless steel clad, graphite reflector) have been collected, analyzed and consolidated in the Reference Database of RTP using standardized methodology, mainly derived from the available technical documentations. Based on the available information in the database, assumptions made on the nodalization approach and calculations performed will be discussed and presented. The development and identification of the thermal hydraulics channel for the reactor core will be implemented during the SYS-TH calculation using RELAP5-3D® computer code. This activity presented in this paper is part of the development of overall nodalization description for RTP-TRIGA Research Reactor under the IAEA Norwegian Extra-Budgetary Programme (NOKEBP) mentoring project on Expertise Development through the Analysis of Reactor Thermal-Hydraulics for Malaysia, denoted as EARTH-M.

  8. An approach to model reactor core nodalization for deterministic safety analysis

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Salim, Mohd Faiz, E-mail: mohdfaizs@tnb.com.my; Samsudin, Mohd Rafie, E-mail: rafies@tnb.com.my; Mamat Ibrahim, Mohd Rizal, E-mail: m-rizal@nuclearmalaysia.gov.my

    Adopting good nodalization strategy is essential to produce an accurate and high quality input model for Deterministic Safety Analysis (DSA) using System Thermal-Hydraulic (SYS-TH) computer code. The purpose of such analysis is to demonstrate the compliance against regulatory requirements and to verify the behavior of the reactor during normal and accident conditions as it was originally designed. Numerous studies in the past have been devoted to the development of the nodalization strategy for small research reactor (e.g. 250kW) up to the bigger research reactor (e.g. 30MW). As such, this paper aims to discuss the state-of-arts thermal hydraulics channel to bemore » employed in the nodalization for RTP-TRIGA Research Reactor specifically for the reactor core. At present, the required thermal-hydraulic parameters for reactor core, such as core geometrical data (length, coolant flow area, hydraulic diameters, and axial power profile) and material properties (including the UZrH{sub 1.6}, stainless steel clad, graphite reflector) have been collected, analyzed and consolidated in the Reference Database of RTP using standardized methodology, mainly derived from the available technical documentations. Based on the available information in the database, assumptions made on the nodalization approach and calculations performed will be discussed and presented. The development and identification of the thermal hydraulics channel for the reactor core will be implemented during the SYS-TH calculation using RELAP5-3D{sup ®} computer code. This activity presented in this paper is part of the development of overall nodalization description for RTP-TRIGA Research Reactor under the IAEA Norwegian Extra-Budgetary Programme (NOKEBP) mentoring project on Expertise Development through the Analysis of Reactor Thermal-Hydraulics for Malaysia, denoted as EARTH-M.« less

  9. Structural insights into the interaction of a monoclonal antibody and Nodal peptides by STD-NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Calvanese, Luisa; Focà, Annalia; Sandomenico, Annamaria; Focà, Giuseppina; Caporale, Andrea; Doti, Nunzianna; Iaccarino, Emanuela; Leonardi, Antonio; D'Auria, Gabriella; Ruvo, Menotti; Falcigno, Lucia

    2017-12-15

    Nodal is a growth factor expressed during early embryonic development, but reactivated in several advanced-stage cancers. Targeting of Nodal signaling, which occurs via the binding to Cripto-1 co-receptor, results in inhibition of cell aggressiveness and reduced tumor growth. The Nodal binding region to Cripto-1 was identified and targeted with a high affinity monoclonal antibody (3D1). By STD-NMR technique, we investigated the interaction of Nodal fragments with 3D1 with the aim to elucidate at atomic level the interaction surface. Data indicate with high accuracy the antibody-antigen contact atoms and confirm the information previously obtained by immune-enzymatic methods. Main residues contacted by 3D1 are P46, V47, E49 and E50, which belong to the Nodal loop involved in the interaction with the co-receptor. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. [Progress in diagnosis and treatment of adrenal metastases tumor].

    PubMed

    Wu, Chu-jun; Qiu, Min; Ma, Lu-lin

    2015-08-18

    The adrenal gland is a common site of metastases, only second to pulmonary, liver and bone. The prevalence of adrenal metastases in patients with a history of cancer is between 10%-25%.The most common sites of origin are cancers of the lung, kidney, breast, gastrointestinal tract, and skin (melanoma).The mainstays of adrenal metastases diagnosis are computerized tomogramphy (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and positron emission tomogramphy (PET). All patients should undergo complete hormonal evaluation to rule out functional adrenal tumors. Adrenal biopsy should be reserved for cases in which the results of non-invasive techniques are equivocal. In patients with isolated adrenal metastases, adrenalectomy is recommended, because of improved overall survival. For the patient with unresectable adrenal metastases tumor, radiotherapy and ablative therapy are feasible and useful methods for controlling adrenal metastases and offer patients opportunities for improved survival.

  11. Relative value of physical examination, mammography, and breast sonography in evaluating the size of the primary tumor and regional lymph node metastases in women receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy for locally advanced breast carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Herrada, J; Iyer, R B; Atkinson, E N; Sneige, N; Buzdar, A U; Hortobagyi, G N

    1997-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to correlate physical examination and sonographic and mammographic measurements of breast tumors and regional lymph nodes with pathological findings and to evaluate the effect of neoadjuvant chemotherapy on clinical Tumor-Node-Metastasis stage by noninvasive methods. This was a retrospective analysis of 100 patients with locally advanced breast cancer registered and treated in prospective trials of neoadjuvant chemotherapy. All patients received four cycles of a doxorubicin-containing regimen and had noninvasive evaluation of the primary tumor and regional lymph nodes before and after neoadjuvant chemotherapy by physical examination, sonography, and mammography and underwent breast surgery and axillary dissection within 5 weeks after completion of neoadjuvant chemotherapy. The correlations between clinical and pathological measurements were determined by Spearman rank correlation analysis. A proportional odds model was used to examine predictive values. Eighty-three patients had both a clinically detectable primary tumor and lymph node metastases. Sixty-four patients had a decrease in Tumor-Node-Metastasis stage after chemotherapy. For 54% of patients, there was concordance in clinical response between the primary tumor and lymph node compartment; for the rest, results were discordant. Physical examination correlated best with pathological findings in the measurement of the primary tumor (P = 0.0003), whereas sonography was the most accurate predictor of size for axillary lymph nodes (P = 0.0005). The combination of physical examination and mammography worked best for assessment of the primary tumor (P = 0.003), whereas combining physical examination with sonography gave optimal evaluation of regional lymph nodes (P = 0.0001). In conclusion, physical examination is the best noninvasive predictor of the real size of locally advanced primary breast cancer, whereas sonography correlates better with the real dimensions of axillary lymph

  12. Evaluation of aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 and transcription factors in both primary breast cancer and axillary lymph node metastases as a prognostic factor.

    PubMed

    Ito, Maiko; Shien, Tadahiko; Omori, Masako; Mizoo, Taeko; Iwamoto, Takayuki; Nogami, Tomohiro; Motoki, Takayuki; Taira, Naruto; Doihara, Hiroyoshi; Miyoshi, Shinichiro

    2016-05-01

    Aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1) is a marker of breast cancer stem cells, and the expression of ALDH1 may be a prognostic factor of poor clinical outcome. The epithelial-mesenchymal transition may produce cells with stem-cell-like properties promoted by transcription factors. We investigated the expression of ALDH1 and transcription factors in both primary and metastatic lesions, and prognostic value of them in breast cancer patients with axillary lymph node metastasis (ALNM). Forty-seven breast cancer patients with ALNM who underwent surgery at Okayama University Hospital from 2002 to 2008 were enrolled. We retrospectively evaluated the levels of ALDH1 and transcription factors, such as Snail, Slug and Twist, in both primary and metastatic lesions by immunohistochemistry. In primary lesions, the positive rate of ALDH1, Snail, Slug and Twist was 19, 49, 40 and 26%, respectively. In lymph nodes, that of ALDH1, Snail, Slug and Twist was 21, 32, 13 and 23%, respectively. The expression of ALDH1 or transcription factors alone was not significantly associated with a poor prognosis. However, co-expression of ALDH1 and Slug in primary lesions was associated with a shorter DFS (P = 0.009). The evaluation of the co-expression of ALDH1 and transcription factors in primary lesions may be useful in prognosis of node-positive breast cancers.

  13. Contralateral pulmonary metastases in lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Onuigbo, Wilson I. B.

    1974-01-01

    Onuigbo, W. I. B. (1974).Thorax, 29, 132-133. Contralateral pulmonary metastases in lung cancer. It has long been known that lung cancer may attack many organs and yet spare the opposite lung. In 100 cases of this tumour studied at necropsy, only 22 showed contralateral pulmonary spread. Contralateral deposits are generally small and may be related to damaged tissues. Although tissue unsuitability is supposed to underlie the limitation of metastases in recipient organs, this does not apply to the contralateral lung. Since lung tissue is readily accessible to bloodborne cancer cells, research should be directed towards explaining the paradoxical paucity of the metastases. PMID:4825544

  14. Ultrasound-guided approach for axillary brachial plexus, femoral nerve, and sciatic nerve blocks in dogs.

    PubMed

    Campoy, Luis; Bezuidenhout, Abraham J; Gleed, Robin D; Martin-Flores, Manuel; Raw, Robert M; Santare, Carrie L; Jay, Ariane R; Wang, Annie L

    2010-03-01

    To describe an ultrasound-guided technique and the anatomical basis for three clinically useful nerve blocks in dogs. Prospective experimental trial. Four hound-cross dogs aged 2 +/- 0 years (mean +/- SD) weighing 30 +/- 5 kg and four Beagles aged 2 +/- 0 years and weighing 8.5 +/- 0.5 kg. Axillary brachial plexus, femoral, and sciatic combined ultrasound/electrolocation-guided nerve blocks were performed sequentially and bilaterally using a lidocaine solution mixed with methylene blue. Sciatic nerve blocks were not performed in the hounds. After the blocks, the dogs were euthanatized and each relevant site dissected. Axillary brachial plexus block Landmark blood vessels and the roots of the brachial plexus were identified by ultrasound in all eight dogs. Anatomical examination confirmed the relationship between the four ventral nerve roots (C6, C7, C8, and T1) and the axillary vessels. Three roots (C7, C8, and T1) were adequately stained bilaterally in all dogs. Femoral nerve block Landmark blood vessels (femoral artery and femoral vein), the femoral and saphenous nerves and the medial portion of the rectus femoris muscle were identified by ultrasound in all dogs. Anatomical examination confirmed the relationship between the femoral vessels, femoral nerve, and the rectus femoris muscle. The femoral nerves were adequately stained bilaterally in all dogs. Sciatic nerve block. Ultrasound landmarks (semimembranosus muscle, the fascia of the biceps femoris muscle and the sciatic nerve) could be identified in all of the dogs. In the four Beagles, anatomical examination confirmed the relationship between the biceps femoris muscle, the semimembranosus muscle, and the sciatic nerve. In the Beagles, all but one of the sciatic nerves were stained adequately. Ultrasound-guided needle insertion is an accurate method for depositing local anesthetic for axillary brachial plexus, femoral, and sciatic nerve blocks.

  15. Analysis of nodal aberration properties in off-axis freeform system design.

    PubMed

    Shi, Haodong; Jiang, Huilin; Zhang, Xin; Wang, Chao; Liu, Tao

    2016-08-20

    Freeform surfaces have the advantage of balancing off-axis aberration. In this paper, based on the framework of nodal aberration theory (NAT) applied to the coaxial system, the third-order astigmatism and coma wave aberration expressions of an off-axis system with Zernike polynomial surfaces are derived. The relationship between the off-axis and surface shape acting on the nodal distributions is revealed. The nodal aberration properties of the off-axis freeform system are analyzed and validated by using full-field displays (FFDs). It has been demonstrated that adding Zernike terms, up to nine, to the off-axis system modifies the nodal locations, but the field dependence of the third-order aberration does not change. On this basis, an off-axis two-mirror freeform system with 500 mm effective focal length (EFL) and 300 mm entrance pupil diameter (EPD) working in long-wave infrared is designed. The field constant aberrations induced by surface tilting are corrected by selecting specific Zernike terms. The design results show that the nodes of third-order astigmatism and coma move back into the field of view (FOV). The modulation transfer function (MTF) curves are above 0.4 at 20 line pairs per millimeter (lp/mm) which meets the infrared reconnaissance requirement. This work provides essential insight and guidance for aberration correction in off-axis freeform system design.

  16. Clinical accuracy of tympanic thermometer and noncontact infrared skin thermometer in pediatric practice: an alternative for axillary digital thermometer.

    PubMed

    Apa, Hurşit; Gözmen, Salih; Bayram, Nuri; Çatkoğlu, Asl; Devrim, Fatma; Karaarslan, Utku; Günay, İlker; Ünal, Nurettin; Devrim, İlker

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the body temperature measurements of infrared tympanic and forehead noncontact thermometers with the axillary digital thermometer. Randomly selected 50 pediatric patients who were hospitalized in Dr Behcet Uz Children's Training and Research Hospital, Pediatric Infectious Disease Unit, between March 2012 and September 2012 were included in the study. Body temperature measurements were performed using an axillary thermometer (Microlife MT 3001), a tympanic thermometer (Microlife Ear Thermometer IR 100), and a noncontact thermometer (ThermoFlash LX-26). Fifty patients participated in this study. We performed 1639 temperature readings for every method. The average difference between the mean (SD) of both axillary and tympanic temperatures was -0.20°C (0.61°C) (95% confidence interval, -1.41°C to 1.00°C). The average difference between the mean (SD) of both axillary and forehead temperatures was -0.38 (0.55°C) (95% confidence interval, -1.47°C to 0.70°C). The Bland-Altman plot showed that most of the data points were tightly clustered around the zero line of the difference between the 2 temperature readings. With the use of the axillary method as the criterion standard, positive likelihood ratios were 17.9 and 16.5 and negative likelihood ratios were 0.2 and 0.4 for tympanic and forehead measurements, respectively. The results demonstrated that the infrared tympanic thermometer could be a good option in the measurement of fever in the pediatric population. The noncontact infrared thermometer is very useful for the screening of fever in the pediatric population, but it must be used with caution because it has a high value of bias.

  17. Immediate liposuction could shorten the time for endoscopic axillary lymphadenectomy in breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Shi, Fujun; Huang, Zonghai; Yu, Jinlong; Zhang, Pusheng; Deng, Jianwen; Zou, Linhan; Zhang, Cheng; Luo, Yunfeng

    2017-01-31

    Endoscopic axillary lymphadenectomy (EALND) was introduced to clinical work to reduce side effects of conventional axillary lymphadenectomy, while the lipolysis and liposuction of EALND made the process consume more time. The aim of the study was to determine whether immediate liposuction after tumescent solution injection to the axilla could shorten the total time of EALND. Fifty-nine patients were enrolled in the study, 30 of them received EALND with traditional liposuction method (TLM), and the rest 29 patients received EALND with immediate liposuction method (ILM). The operation time, cosmetic result, drainage amount, and hospitalization time of the two groups were compared. The median EALND operation time of TLM group and ILM group were 68 and 46 min, respectively, the difference was significant (P < 0.05); the median cosmetic results of the two groups were 6.6 and 6.4, respectively; the median drainage amount of the two groups were 366 and 385 ml, respectively; the hospitalization time of the two groups were 15 and 16 days, respectively. For the last three measures, no significant difference was confirmed (P > 0.05). Our work suggests immediate liposuction could shorten the endoscopic axillary lymphadenectomy process, and this method would not compromise the operation results. However, due to the limitations of the research, more work needs to be done to prove the availability and feasibility of immediate liposuction.

  18. Brain Metastases from Endometrial Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Piura, Ettie; Piura, Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    This paper will focus on knowledge related to brain metastases from endometrial carcinoma. To date, 115 cases were documented in the literature with an incidence of 0.6% among endometrial carcinoma patients. The endometrial carcinoma was usually an advanced-stage and high-grade tumor. In most patients (~90%), brain metastasis was detected after diagnosis of endometrial carcinoma with a median interval from diagnosis of endometrial carcinoma to diagnosis of brain metastases of 17 months. Brain metastasis from endometrial carcinoma was either an isolated disease limited to the brain only (~50%) or part of a disseminated disease involving also other parts of the body (~50%). Most often, brain metastasis from endometrial carcinoma affected the cerebrum (~75%) and was solitary (~60%). The median survival after diagnosis of brain metastases from endometrial carcinoma was 5 months; however, a significantly better survival was achieved with multimodal therapy including surgical resection or stereotactic radiosurgery followed by whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) and/or chemotherapy compared to WBRT alone. It is suggested that brain imaging studies should be considered in the routine follow up of patients with endometrial carcinoma and that the search for a primary source in females with brain metastases of unknown primary should include endometrial biopsy. PMID:22523707

  19. Segregated nodal domains of two-dimensional multispecies Bose-Einstein condensates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Shu-Ming; Lin, Chang-Shou; Lin, Tai-Chia; Lin, Wen-Wei

    2004-09-01

    In this paper, we study the distribution of m segregated nodal domains of the m-mixture of Bose-Einstein condensates under positive and large repulsive scattering lengths. It is shown that components of positive bound states may repel each other and form segregated nodal domains as the repulsive scattering lengths go to infinity. Efficient numerical schemes are created to confirm our theoretical results and discover a new phenomenon called verticillate multiplying, i.e., the generation of multiple verticillate structures. In addition, our proposed Gauss-Seidel-type iteration method is very effective in that it converges linearly in 10-20 steps.

  20. Is neoadjuvant chemoradiation with dose-escalation and consolidation chemotherapy sufficient to increase surgery-free and distant metastases-free survival in baseline cT3 rectal cancer?

    PubMed

    São Julião, Guilherme Pagin; Habr-Gama, Angelita; Vailati, Bruna Borba; Aguilar, Patricia Bailão; Sabbaga, Jorge; Araújo, Sérgio Eduardo Alonso; Mattacheo, Adrian; Alexandre, Flavia Andrea; Fernandez, Laura Melina; Gomes, Diogo Bugano; Gama-Rodrigues, Joaquim; Perez, Rodrigo Oliva

    2018-01-01

    Patients with cT3 rectal cancer are less likely to develop complete response to neoadjuvant chemoradiation (nCRT) and still face significant risk for systemic relapse. In this setting, radiation (RT) dose-escalation and consolidation chemotherapy in "extended" nCRT regimens have been suggested to improve primary tumor response and decrease the risks of systemic recurrences. For these reasons we compared surgery-free and distant-metastases free survival among cT3 patients undergoing standard or extended nCRT. Patients with distal and non-metastatic T3 rectal cancer managed by nCRT were retrospectively reviewed. Patients undergoing standard CRT (50.4 Gy and 2 cycles of 5FU-based chemotherapy) were compared to those undergoing extended CRT (54 Gy and 6 cycles of 5FU-based chemotherapy). Patients were assessed for tumor response at 8-10 weeks. Patients with complete clinical response (cCR) underwent organ-preservation strategy (Watch & Wait). Patients were referred to salvage surgery in the event of local recurrence during follow-up. Cox's logistic regression was performed to identify independent features associated with improved surgery-free survival after cCR and distant-metastases-free survival. 155 patients underwent standard and 66 patients extended CRT. Patients undergoing extended CRT were more likely to harbor larger initial tumor size (p = 0.04), baseline nodal metastases (cN+; p < 0.001) and higher tumor location (p = 0.02). Cox-regression analysis revealed that the type of nCRT regimen was not independently associated with distinct surgery-free survival after cCR or distant-metastases-free survival (p > 0.05). Dose-escalation and consolidation chemotherapy are insufficient to increase long-term surgery-free survival among cT3 rectal cancer patients and provides no advantage in distant metastases-free survival. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd, BASO ~ The Association for Cancer Surgery, and the European Society of Surgical Oncology. All rights

  1. Regional Nodal Irradiation After Breast Conserving Surgery for Early HER2-Positive Breast Cancer: Results of a Subanalysis From the ALTTO Trial.

    PubMed

    Gingras, Isabelle; Holmes, Eileen; De Azambuja, Evandro; Nguyen, David H A; Izquierdo, Miguel; Anne Zujewski, Jo; Inbar, Moshe; Naume, Bjorn; Tomasello, Gianluca; Gralow, Julie R; Wolff, Antonio C; Harris, Lyndsay; Gnant, Michael; Moreno-Aspitia, Alvaro; Piccart, Martine J; Azim, Hatem A

    2017-08-01

    Two randomized trials recently demonstrated that regional nodal irradiation (RNI) could reduce the risk of recurrence in early breast cancer; however, these trials were conducted in the pretrastuzumab era. Whether these results are applicable to human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive breast cancer patients treated with anti-HER2-targeted therapy is unknown. This retrospective analysis was performed on patients with node-positive breast cancer who were enrolled in the Adjuvant Lapatinib and/or Trastuzumab Treatment Optimization phase III adjuvant trial and subjected to BCS. The primary objective of the present study was to examine the effect of RNI on disease-free survival (DFS). A multivariable cox regression analysis adjusted for number of positive lymph nodes, tumor size, grade, age, hormone receptors status, presence of macrometastatis, treatment arm, and chemotherapy timing was carried out to investigate the relationship between RNI and DFS. One thousand six hundred sixty-four HER2-positive breast cancer patients were included, of whom 878 (52.8%) had received RNI to the axillary, supraclavicular, and/or internal mammary lymph nodes. Patients in the RNI group had higher nodal burden and more frequently had tumors larger than 2 cm. At a median follow-up of 4.5 years, DFS was 84.3% in the RNI group and 88.3% in the non-RNI group. No differences in regional recurrence (0.9 % vs 0.6 %) or in overall survival (93.6% vs 95.3%) were observed between the two groups. After adjustment in multivariable analysis, there was no statistically significant association between RNI and DFS (hazard ratio = 0.96, 95% confidence interval = 0.71 to 1.29). Our analysis did not demonstrate a DFS benefit of RNI in HER2-positive, node-positive patients treated with adjuvant HER2-targeted therapy. The benefit of RNI in HER2-positive breast cancer needs further testing within randomized clinical trials. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All

  2. Comparison of the effect of diode laser versus intense pulsed light in axillary hair removal.

    PubMed

    Ormiga, Patricia; Ishida, Cleide Eiko; Boechat, Alvaro; Ramos-E-Silva, Marcia

    2014-10-01

    Devices such as diode laser and intense pulsed light (IPL) are in constant development aiming at permanent hair removal, but there are few comparative studies between these technologies. The objective was to comparatively assess axillary hair removal performed by diode laser and IPL and to obtain parameters of referred pain and evolution response for each method. A comparative prospective, double-blind, and randomized study of axillary hair removal performed by the diode laser and IPL was conducted in 21 females. Six sessions were held with application of the diode laser in one axilla and the IPL in the other, with intervals of 30 days and follow-up of 6 months after the last session. Clinical photographs and digital dermoscopy for hair counts in predefined and fixed fields of the treated areas were performed before, 2 weeks after the sixth session, and 6 months after the end of treatment. A questionnaire to assess the pain was applied. The number of hair shafts was significantly reduced with the diode laser and IPL. The diode laser was more effective, although more painful than the IPL. No serious, adverse, or permanent effects were observed with both technologies. Both diode laser and the IPL are effective, safe, and able to produce lasting results in axillary hair removal.

  3. The Use of Ultrasound to Improve Axillary Vein Access and Minimize Complications during Pacemaker Implantation.

    PubMed

    Esmaiel, Abdullah; Hassan, Jeremy; Blenkhorn, Fay; Mardigyan, Vartan

    2016-05-01

    The Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality in the United States recommends the use of ultrasound (US) for central venous access to improve patient outcomes. However, in a recent publication, US is still underutilized for axillary vein access during pacemaker implantation. We sought to describe a technique for US-guided axillary vein access during pacemaker implantation and to report complication rates and success rate. Retrospective data collection included success rate and complications on all pacemaker implants by one operator since implementing the systematic use of US at our institution, from November 2012 to January 2015. For the last 59 cases, data were collected prospectively to include time of venous access and number of attempts. A total of 403 consecutive patients were included in the analysis. Two leads were implanted in 255 cases and one lead was implanted in 148 cases. The rate of successful US-guided access was 99.25%. There were no access-related complications. The average number of venipuncture attempts was 1.18 per patient. The average time to obtain venous access was 2.24 minutes including the time to apply the sterile US sleeve. The described technique has the potential to improve the success rate of axillary vein access and minimize complications during pacemaker implantation. ©2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Adaptive Nodal Transport Methods for Reactor Transient Analysis

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Thomas Downar; E. Lewis

    2005-08-31

    Develop methods for adaptively treating the angular, spatial, and time dependence of the neutron flux in reactor transient analysis. These methods were demonstrated in the DOE transport nodal code VARIANT and the US NRC spatial kinetics code, PARCS.

  5. Efficacy and safety of nitroglycerin for preventing venous spasm during contrast-guided axillary vein puncture for pacemaker or defibrillator leads implantation.

    PubMed

    Duan, Xu; Ling, Feng; Shen, Yun; Yang, Jun; Xu, Hai-ying; Tong, Xiao-shan

    2013-04-01

    We investigated the efficacy and safety of nitroglycerin for preventing venous spasm during contrast-guided axillary vein puncture for pacemaker or defibrillator leads implantation. A total of 40 consecutive patients referred for contrast-guided axillary vein puncture for pacemaker or defibrillator implantations were included in the study. Patients were randomly assigned to control group and nitroglycerin group. Patients in the nitroglycerin group were given 200 µg (2 mL) nitroglycerin via ipsilateral peripheral vein about 3 min before puncture. The degree of venous spasm was evaluated by the reduction in lumen calibre of the axillary vein after puncture. Mild venous spasm and severe venous spasm were defined as a reduction in lumen calibre of 50-90% and ≥ 90%, respectively. The mean degree of venous spasm of axillary vein was lower in the nitroglycerin group than in the control group (23.0 ± 22.3 vs. 45.5 ± 33.6%, P = 0.018). The incidence of mild or severe venous spasm was lower in the nitroglycerin group than in the control group (3/20 vs. 11/20, P = 0.019). In the nitroglycerin group, the systolic blood pressure had a significant decrease after puncture (129.5 ± 23.7 vs. 143.0 ± 24.1 mmHg, P = 0.003). There was no hypotension and other adverse reaction of nitroglycerin in the nitroglycerin group. Intravenous nitroglycerin is effective and safe for preventing venous spasm during contrast-guided axillary vein puncture for pacemaker or defibrillator leads implantation.

  6. Temperature measurement in intensive care patients: comparison of urinary bladder, oesophageal, rectal, axillary, and inguinal methods versus pulmonary artery core method.

    PubMed

    Lefrant, J-Y; Muller, L; de La Coussaye, J Emmanuel; Benbabaali, M; Lebris, C; Zeitoun, N; Mari, C; Saïssi, G; Ripart, J; Eledjam, J-J

    2003-03-01

    Comparisons of urinary bladder, oesophageal, rectal, axillary, and inguinal temperatures versus pulmonary artery temperature. Prospective cohort study. Intensive Care Unit of a University-Hospital. Forty-two intensive care patients requiring a pulmonary artery catheter (PAC). Patients requiring PAC and without oesophageal, urinary bladder, and/or rectal disease or recent surgery were included in the study. Temperature was simultaneously monitored with PAC, urinary, oesophageal, and rectal electronic thermometers and with axillary and inguinal gallium-in-glass thermometers. Comparisons used a Bland and Altman method. The pulmonary arterial temperature ranged from 33.7 degrees C to 40.2 degrees C. Urinary bladder temperature was assessed in the last 22 patients. A total of 529 temperature measurement comparisons were carried out (252 comparisons of esophageal, rectal, inguinal, axillary, and pulmonary artery temperature measurements in the first 20 patients, and 277 comparisons with overall methods in the last patients). Nine to 18 temperature measurement comparisons were carried out per patient (median = 13). The mean differences between pulmonary artery temperatures and those of the different methods studied were: oesophageal (0.11+/-0.30 degrees C), rectal (-0.07+/-0.40 degrees C), axillary (0.27+/-0.45 degrees C), inguinal (0.17+/-0.48 degrees C), urinary bladder (-0.21+/-0.20 degrees C). In critically ill patients, urinary bladder and oesophageal electronic thermometers are more reliable than the electronic rectal thermometer which is better than inguinal and axillary gallium-in-glass thermometers to measure core temperature.

  7. Prognostic significance of pathological response of primary tumor and metastatic axillary lymph nodes after neoadjuvant chemotherapy for locally advanced breast carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Machiavelli, M R; Romero, A O; Pérez, J E; Lacava, J A; Domínguez, M E; Rodríguez, R; Barbieri, M R; Romero Acuña, L A; Romero Acuña, J M; Langhi, M J; Amato, S; Ortiz, E H; Vallejo, C T; Leone, B A

    1998-01-01

    The prognostic significance of pathological response of primary tumor and metastatic axillary lymph nodes after neoadjuvant chemotherapy was assessed in patients with noninflammatory locally advanced breast carcinoma. Between January 1989 and April 1995, 148 consecutive patients with locally advanced breast carcinoma participated in the study. Of these, 140 fully evaluable patients (67, stage IIIA; 73, stage IIIB) were treated with three courses of 5-fluorouracil, doxorubicin, and cyclophosphamide (FAC), followed by modified radical mastectomy when technically feasible or definitive radiation therapy. The median age was 53 years (range, 26 to 75 years); 55% of patients were postmenopausal. Objective response was recorded in 99 of 140 patients (71%; 95% confidence interval, 63% to 79%). Complete response occurred in 11 patients (8%), and partial response occurred in 88 patients (63%). No change was recorded in 37 patients (26%), and progressive disease occurred in 4 patients (3%). One hundred and thirty-six patients underwent the planned surgery. Maximal pathological response of the primary tumor (in situ carcinoma or minimal microscopic residual tumor) was observed in 24 (18%); 112 patients (82%) presented minimal pathological response of the primary tumor (gross residual tumor). The number of metastatic axillary nodes after neoadjuvant chemotherapy was as follows: N0, 39 patients (29%); N1-N3, 35 patients (26%); > N3, 62 patients (45%). Considering the initial TNM status, 75% of the patients had decreases in tumor compartment after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Also, 31% and 23% of patients with clinical N1 and N2, respectively, showed uninvolved axillary lymph nodes. A significant correlation was noted between pathological response of primary tumor and the number of metastatic axillary lymph nodes. Median disease-free survival was 34 months, whereas median overall survival was 66 months. Pathological responses of both primary tumor and metastatic axillary lymph nodes

  8. Choroidal metastases: Origin, features, and therapy

    PubMed Central

    Arepalli, Sruthi; Kaliki, Swathi; Shields, Carol L

    2015-01-01

    The choroid is the most common ocular site for metastatic disease, owing to abundant vascular supply. The primary cancers that most commonly lead to choroidal metastases include breast cancer (40-47%) and lung cancer (21-29%). Bilateral, multifocal metastases are most often secondary to breast cancer, whereas unilateral, unifocal metastasis are more commonly found with lung cancer. The treatment of choroidal metastasis depends on the systemic status of the patient and number, location, and laterality of the choroidal tumors. Treatment options include observation in patients with poor systemic status or those with resolved or asymptomatic disease; systemic chemotherapy, immunotherapy, hormone therapy, or whole eye radiotherapy if the metastases are active, multifocal and bilateral; plaque radiotherapy, transpupillary radiotherapy, or photodynamic therapy for active, solitary metastasis; and enucleation for those with blind painful eye. A database search was performed on PubMed, using the terms “choroidal metastasis,” or “choroidal metastases,” in combination with terms such as “treatment,” “features,” or “diagnosis.” Relevant articles were extracted and reviewed. PMID:25827542

  9. DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Ng, Sweet Ping, E-mail: sweet.ng@petermac.org; David, Steven; Alamgeer, Muhammad

    Purpose: To assess the diagnostic performance of pretreatment {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography ({sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT) and its impact on radiation therapy treatment decisions in patients with locally advanced breast cancer (LABC). Methods and Materials: Patients with LABC with Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status <2 and no contraindication to neoadjuvant chemotherapy, surgery, and adjuvant radiation therapy were enrolled on a prospective trial. All patients had pretreatment conventional imaging (CI) performed, including bilateral breast mammography and ultrasound, bone scan, and CT chest, abdomen, and pelvis scans performed. Informed consent was obtained before enrolment. Pretreatment whole-body {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT scansmore » were performed on all patients, and results were compared with CI findings. Results: A total of 154 patients with LABC with no clinical or radiologic evidence of distant metastases on CI were enrolled. Median age was 49 years (range, 26-70 years). Imaging with PET/CT detected distant metastatic disease and/or locoregional disease not visualized on CI in 32 patients (20.8%). Distant metastatic disease was detected in 17 patients (11.0%): 6 had bony metastases, 5 had intrathoracic metastases (pulmonary/mediastinal), 2 had distant nodal metastases, 2 had liver metastases, 1 had pulmonary and bony metastases, and 1 had mediastinal and distant nodal metastases. Of the remaining 139 patients, nodal disease outside conventional radiation therapy fields was detected on PET/CT in 15 patients (10.8%), with involvement of ipsilateral internal mammary nodes in 13 and ipsilateral level 5 cervical nodes in 2. Conclusions: Imaging with PET/CT provides superior diagnostic and staging information in patients with LABC compared with CI, which has significant therapeutic implications with respect to radiation therapy management. Imaging with PET/CT should be considered in all patients undergoing

  10. Effect of Lump Size and Nodal Status on Prognosis in Invasive Breast Cancer: Experience from Rural India

    PubMed Central

    Garg, Monique; Sidhu, Darshan Singh; Singh, Amandeep

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Breast cancer is now the leading cause of cancer among Indian women. Usually large tumour size and axillary lymph node involvement are linked with adverse outcome and this notion forms the basis of screening programs i.e. early detection. Aim The present study was carried out to analyse relationship between tumour size, lymph node status and there relation with outcome after treatment. Materials and Methods Fifty patients with cytology-proven invasive breast tumours were evaluated for size, clinical and pathologic characteristics of tumour, axillary lymph node status and outcome data recorded on sequential follow-up. Results Mean age of all participated patients was 52.24±10 years. Most common tumour location was in the upper outer quadrant with mean size of primary tumour being 3.31±1.80cm. On pathology number of lymph nodes examined ranged from 10 to 24 and 72% of patients recorded presence of disease in axilla. Significant positive correlation (p<0.013; r2=0.026) between tumour size and axillary lymph node involvement on linear regression. Also an indicative correlation between size and grade of tumour and axillary lymph node status was found with survival from the disease. Conclusion The present study highlights that the size of the primary tumour and the number of positive lymph nodes have an inverse linear relationship with prognosis. Despite advances in diagnostic modalities, evolution of newer markers and genetic typing both size of tumour as T and axillary lymphadenopathy as N form an integral part of TNM staging and are of paramount importance for their role in treatment decisions and illustrate prognosis in patients with invasive breast cancer. PMID:27504343

  11. Interplay between short-range correlated disorder and Coulomb interaction in nodal-line semimetals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yuxuan; Nandkishore, Rahul M.

    2017-09-01

    In nodal-line semimetals, Coulomb interactions and short-range correlated disorder are both marginal perturbations to the clean noninteracting Hamiltonian. We analyze their interplay using a weak-coupling renormalization group approach. In the clean case, the Coulomb interaction has been found to be marginally irrelevant, leading to Fermi liquid behavior. We extend the analysis to incorporate the effects of disorder. The nodal line structure gives rise to kinematical constraints similar to that for a two-dimensional Fermi surface, which plays a crucial role in the one-loop renormalization of the disorder couplings. For a twofold degenerate nodal loop (Weyl loop), we show that disorder flows to strong coupling along a unique fixed trajectory in the space of symmetry inequivalent disorder couplings. Along this fixed trajectory, all symmetry inequivalent disorder strengths become equal. For a fourfold degenerate nodal loop (Dirac loop), disorder also flows to strong coupling, however, the strengths of symmetry inequivalent disorder couplings remain different. We show that feedback from disorder reverses the sign of the beta function for the Coulomb interaction, causing the Coulomb interaction to flow to strong coupling as well. However, the Coulomb interaction flows to strong coupling asymptotically more slowly than disorder. Extrapolating our results to strong coupling, we conjecture that at low energies nodal line semimetals should be described by a noninteracting nonlinear sigma model. We discuss the relation of our results with possible many-body localization at zero temperatures in such materials.

  12. Successful ablation of a right atrium-axillary ventricular accessory pathway associated with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yuan; Long, Deyong; Dong, Jianzeng; Tao, Ling; Ma, Changsheng

    2017-12-01

    We report a case of a patient with right axillary ventricular. Similar congenital anomaly of the right atrium was reported as "right appendage diverticulum or right atrial diverticulum." However, this independent chamber has its own annulus, synchronizes with the right ventricular, and generates large ventricular potential. Under the guidance of the CARTO mapping system (Biosense Webster, Diamond Bar, CA, USA), a right atrioventricular accessory pathway associated with type B Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome was ablated successfully. This pathway was close to the annulus of the axillary ventricular. The patient remained free of arrhythmia at 1-year follow-up. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Giant Malignant Pheochromocytoma with Palpable Rib Metastases

    PubMed Central

    Gokce, Gokhan; Kilicli, Fatih; Elagoz, Sahande; Ayan, Semih; Gultekin, Emin Yener

    2014-01-01

    Pheochromocytoma is a rare and usually benign neuroendocrine neoplasm. Only 10% of all these tumors are malignant and there are no definitive histological or cytological criteria of malignancy. Single malignancy criteria are the presence of advanced locoregional disease or metastases. We report a case, with a giant retroperitoneal tumor having multiple metastases including palpable rib metastases, who was diagnosed as a malignant pheochromocytoma. The patient was treated with surgery. The literature was reviewed to evaluate tumor features and current diagnostic and therapeutic approaches for patients with metastatic or potentially malignant pheochromocytoma. PMID:25152826

  14. Radiation Field Design in the ACOSOG Z0011 (Alliance) Trial

    PubMed Central

    Jagsi, Reshma; Chadha, Manjeet; Moni, Janaki; Ballman, Karla; Laurie, Fran; Buchholz, Thomas A.; Giuliano, Armando; Haffty, Bruce G.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose ACOSOG Z0011 established that axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) is unnecessary in patients with breast cancer with one to two positive sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) who undergo lumpectomy, radiotherapy (RT), and systemic therapy. We sought to ascertain RT coverage of the regional nodes in that trial. Methods We evaluated case report forms completed 18 months after enrollment. From 2012 to 2013, we collected all available detailed RT records for central review. Results Among 605 patients with completed case report forms, 89% received whole-breast RT. Of these, 89 (15%) were recorded as also receiving treatment to the supraclavicular region. Detailed RT records were obtained for 228 patients, of whom 185 (81.1%) received tangent-only treatment. Among 142 with sufficient records to evaluate tangent height, high tangents (cranial tangent border ≤ 2 cm from humeral head) were used in 50% of patients (33 of 66) randomly assigned to ALND and 52.6% (40 of 76) randomly assigned to SLND. Of the 228 patients with records reviewed, 43 (18.9%) received directed regional nodal RT using ≥ three fields: 22 in the ALND arm and 21 in the SLND arm. Those receiving directed nodal RT had greater nodal involvement (P < .001) than those who did not. Overall, there was no significant difference between treatment arms in the use of protocol-prohibited nodal fields. Conclusion Most patients treated in Z0011 received tangential RT alone, and some received no RT at all. Some patients received directed nodal irradiation via a third field. Further research is necessary to determine the optimal RT approach in patients with low-volume axillary disease treated with SLND alone. PMID:25135994

  15. Constructing a polynomial whose nodal set is the three-twist knot 52

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dennis, Mark R.; Bode, Benjamin

    2017-06-01

    We describe a procedure that creates an explicit complex-valued polynomial function of three-dimensional space, whose nodal lines are the three-twist knot 52. The construction generalizes a similar approach for lemniscate knots: a braid representation is engineered from finite Fourier series and then considered as the nodal set of a certain complex polynomial which depends on an additional parameter. For sufficiently small values of this parameter, the nodal lines form the three-twist knot. Further mathematical properties of this map are explored, including the relationship of the phase critical points with the Morse-Novikov number, which is nonzero as this knot is not fibred. We also find analogous functions for other simple knots and links. The particular function we find, and the general procedure, should be useful for designing knotted fields of particular knot types in various physical systems.

  16. Germline BRCA Mutations Are Associated With Higher Risk of Nodal Involvement, Distant Metastasis, and Poor Survival Outcomes in Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Castro, Elena; Goh, Chee; Olmos, David; Saunders, Ed; Leongamornlert, Daniel; Tymrakiewicz, Malgorzata; Mahmud, Nadiya; Dadaev, Tokhir; Govindasami, Koveela; Guy, Michelle; Sawyer, Emma; Wilkinson, Rosemary; Ardern-Jones, Audrey; Ellis, Steve; Frost, Debra; Peock, Susan; Evans, D. Gareth; Tischkowitz, Marc; Cole, Trevor; Davidson, Rosemarie; Eccles, Diana; Brewer, Carole; Douglas, Fiona; Porteous, Mary E.; Donaldson, Alan; Dorkins, Huw; Izatt, Louise; Cook, Jackie; Hodgson, Shirley; Kennedy, M. John; Side, Lucy E.; Eason, Jacqueline; Murray, Alex; Antoniou, Antonis C.; Easton, Douglas F.; Kote-Jarai, Zsofia; Eeles, Rosalind

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To analyze the baseline clinicopathologic characteristics of prostate tumors with germline BRCA1 and BRCA2 (BRCA1/2) mutations and the prognostic value of those mutations on prostate cancer (PCa) outcomes. Patients and Methods This study analyzed the tumor features and outcomes of 2,019 patients with PCa (18 BRCA1 carriers, 61 BRCA2 carriers, and 1,940 noncarriers). The Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression analysis were used to evaluate the associations between BRCA1/2 status and other PCa prognostic factors with overall survival (OS), cause-specific OS (CSS), CSS in localized PCa (CSS_M0), metastasis-free survival (MFS), and CSS from metastasis (CSS_M1). Results PCa with germline BRCA1/2 mutations were more frequently associated with Gleason ≥ 8 (P = .00003), T3/T4 stage (P = .003), nodal involvement (P = .00005), and metastases at diagnosis (P = .005) than PCa in noncarriers. CSS was significantly longer in noncarriers than in carriers (15.7 v 8.6 years, multivariable analyses [MVA] P = .015; hazard ratio [HR] = 1.8). For localized PCa, 5-year CSS and MFS were significantly higher in noncarriers (96% v 82%; MVA P = .01; HR = 2.6%; and 93% v 77%; MVA P = .009; HR = 2.7, respectively). Subgroup analyses confirmed the poor outcomes in BRCA2 patients, whereas the role of BRCA1 was not well defined due to the limited size and follow-up in this subgroup. Conclusion Our results confirm that BRCA1/2 mutations confer a more aggressive PCa phenotype with a higher probability of nodal involvement and distant metastasis. BRCA mutations are associated with poor survival outcomes and this should be considered for tailoring clinical management of these patients. PMID:23569316

  17. Development of a phenotyping platform for high throughput screening of nodal root angle in sorghum.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Dinesh C; Singh, Vijaya; Hunt, Colleen; Mace, Emma; van Oosterom, Erik; Sulman, Richard; Jordan, David; Hammer, Graeme

    2017-01-01

    In sorghum, the growth angle of nodal roots is a major component of root system architecture. It strongly influences the spatial distribution of roots of mature plants in the soil profile, which can impact drought adaptation. However, selection for nodal root angle in sorghum breeding programs has been restricted by the absence of a suitable high throughput phenotyping platform. The aim of this study was to develop a phenotyping platform for the rapid, non-destructive and digital measurement of nodal root angle of sorghum at the seedling stage. The phenotyping platform comprises of 500 soil filled root chambers (50 × 45 × 0.3 cm in size), made of transparent perspex sheets that were placed in metal tubs and covered with polycarbonate sheets. Around 3 weeks after sowing, once the first flush of nodal roots was visible, roots were imaged in situ using an imaging box that included two digital cameras that were remotely controlled by two android tablets. Free software ( openGelPhoto.tcl ) allowed precise measurement of nodal root angle from the digital images. The reliability and efficiency of the platform was evaluated by screening a large nested association mapping population of sorghum and a set of hybrids in six independent experimental runs that included up to 500 plants each. The platform revealed extensive genetic variation and high heritability (repeatability) for nodal root angle. High genetic correlations and consistent ranking of genotypes across experimental runs confirmed the reproducibility of the platform. This low cost, high throughput root phenotyping platform requires no sophisticated equipment, is adaptable to most glasshouse environments and is well suited to dissect the genetic control of nodal root angle of sorghum. The platform is suitable for use in sorghum breeding programs aiming to improve drought adaptation through root system architecture manipulation.

  18. Influence of FDG-PET on primary nodal target volume definition for head and neck carcinomas.

    PubMed

    van Egmond, Sylvia L; Piscaer, Vera; Janssen, Luuk M; Stegeman, Inge; Hobbelink, Monique G; Grolman, Wilko; Terhaard, Chris H

    The role of 2-[ 18 F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) in routine diagnostic staging remains controversial. In case of discordance between FDG-PET and CT, a compromise has to be made between the risk of false positive FDG-PET and the risk of delaying appropriate salvage intervention. Second, with intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), smaller radiation fields allow tissue sparing, but could also lead to more marginal failures. We retrospectively studied 283 patients with head and neck carcinoma scheduled for radiotherapy between 2002 and 2010. We analyzed the influence of FDG-PET/CT versus CT alone on defining nodal target volume definition and evaluated its long-term clinical results. Second, the location of nodal recurrences was related to the radiation regional dose distribution. In 92 patients, CT and FDG-PET, performed in mold, showed discordant results. In 33%, nodal staging was altered by FDG-PET. In 24%, FDG-PET also led to an alteration in nodal treatment, including a nodal upstage of 18% and downstage of 6%. In eight of these 92 patients, a regional recurrence occurred. Only two patients had a recurrence in the discordant node on FDG-PET and CT and both received a boost (high dose radiation). These results support the complementary value of FDG-PET/CT compared to CT alone in defining nodal target volume definition for radiotherapy of head and neck cancer.

  19. Axillary Temperature, as Recorded by the iThermonitor WT701, Well Represents Core Temperature in Adults Having Noncardiac Surgery.

    PubMed

    Pei, Lijian; Huang, Yuguang; Mao, Guangmei; Sessler, Daniel I

    2018-03-01

    Core temperature can be accurately measured from the esophagus or nasopharynx during general anesthesia, but neither site is suitable for neuraxial anesthesia. We therefore determined the precision and accuracy of a novel wireless axillary thermometer, the iThermonitor, to determine its suitability for use during neuraxial anesthesia and in other patients who are not intubated. We enrolled 80 adults having upper abdominal surgery with endotracheal intubation. Intraoperative core temperature was measured in distal esophagus and was estimated at the axilla with a wireless iThermonitor WT701 (Raiing Medical, Boston MA) at 5-minute intervals. Pairs of axillary and reference distal esophageal temperatures were compared and summarized using linear regression and repeated-measured Bland-Altman methods. We a priori determined that the iThermonitor would have clinically acceptable accuracy if most estimates were within ±0.5°C of the esophageal reference, and suitable precision if the limits of agreement were within ±0.5°C. There were 3339 sets of paired temperatures. Axillary and esophageal temperatures were similar, with a mean difference (esophageal minus axillary) of only 0.14°C ± 0.26°C (standard deviation). The Bland-Altman 95% limits of agreement were reasonably narrow, with the estimated upper limit at 0.66°C and the lower limit at -0.38°C, thus ±0.52°C, indicating good agreement across the range of mean temperatures from 34.9°C to 38.1°C. The absolute difference was within 0.5°C in 91% of the measurements (95% confidence interval, 88%-93%). Axillary temperature, as recorded by the iThermonitor WT701, well represents core temperature in adults having noncardiac surgery and thus appears suitable for clinical use.

  20. Anomalous contagion and renormalization in networks with nodal mobility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manrique, Pedro D.; Qi, Hong; Zheng, Minzhang; Xu, Chen; Hui, Pak Ming; Johnson, Neil F.

    2016-07-01

    A common occurrence in everyday human activity is where people join, leave and possibly rejoin clusters of other individuals —whether this be online (e.g. social media communities) or in real space (e.g. popular meeting places such as cafes). In the steady state, the resulting interaction network would appear static over time if the identities of the nodes are ignored. Here we show that even in this static steady-state limit, a non-zero nodal mobility leads to a diverse set of outbreak profiles that is dramatically different from known forms, and yet matches well with recent real-world social outbreaks. We show how this complication of nodal mobility can be renormalized away for a particular class of networks.

  1. [Pleural metastases of renal carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Giigoruk, O G; Lazarev, A F; Doroshenko, V S

    2007-01-01

    Metastases in renal carcinoma are diagnosed at initial diagnosis in 25% examinees. Traditional renal carcinoma has higher metastatic potential, is associated with worse survival of the patients compared to papillary cancer. We studied cytological characteristics of renal carcinoma metastases to the pleura in comparison with histological studies of the primary lesion using immunohistochemical findings. We examined cytologically pleural liquid in renal carcinoma metastases to the pleura in 6 patients (2.3% of carcinomatous pleuricies). High efficacy was shown by a cytocentrifuge CYTOSPIN-4. In 3 cases initial cancer was renal cell carcinoma, pleural exudation developed 2 years later, clear cell carcinoma appeared 6 years later and papillary cancer--10 years later. In the other 3 cases malignant cells were detected in new-onset cases. Renal carcinoma was diagnosed in one case. Cytological preparations were studied with identification of cytological signs typical for classic clear cell, granulocell and papillary renal cancer. Immunohistochemical examination of primary tumor lesion in the kidney discovered high proliferative activity of tumor cells by Ki-67 index to 5.28%. The tumors had solitary Bcl-2 positive cells. Expression of mutant p-53 took place in 0.93%. Her-2/neu hyperexpression was not found in the tumors of the above patients. Such immunohistochemical parameters point to poor prognosis. This is confirmed by renal carcinoma metastases to the pleura.

  2. Use of sentinel lymph node biopsy to select patients for local–regional therapy after neoadjuvant chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Erdahl, Lillian M.; Boughey, Judy C.

    2014-01-01

    Use of sentinel lymph node biopsy for axillary staging of patients with breast cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy has been widely debated. Questions arise regarding the accuracy of sentinel lymph node biopsy in axillary staging for these patients and its use to determine further local–regional therapy, including surgery and radiation therapy. For patients who are clinically node-negative at presentation, sentinel lymph node biopsy enables accurate staging of the axilla after neoadjuvant chemotherapy, and determination of which patients should go on to further axillary surgery and regional nodal radiation therapy. Importantly, performing axillary staging after completion of chemotherapy, rather than before chemotherapy, enables assessment of response to chemotherapy and the extent of residual disease. This information can assist the planning of adjuvant treatment. Recent data indicate that sentinel node biopsy can also be used to assess disease response after neoadjuvant chemotherapy for patients with clinical N1 disease at presentation. PMID:24683440

  3. Comparative Study of Assisted Ambulation and Perceived Exertion With the Wheeled Knee Walker and Axillary Crutches in Healthy Subjects.

    PubMed

    Kocher, Benjamin K; Chalupa, Robyn L; Lopez, Donna M; Kirk, Kevin L

    2016-11-01

    Functional limitations after lower extremity surgery often require the use of an assistive device for ambulation during rehabilitation and recovery. There are no known objective data evaluating the wheeled knee walker as an assistive device for protected ambulation. The purpose of this study was to compare assisted ambulation and perceived exertion with the wheeled knee walker and the axillary crutches in healthy participants. A prospective, randomized crossover study was performed using 24 healthy volunteers. Each participant performed a 6-minute walk test (6MWT) using each assistive device in a crossover manner. Preactivity and postactivity heart rates were recorded. The self-selected walking velocity (SSWV) was calculated and the participant's rating of perceived exertion was recorded using the OMNI Rating of Perceived Exertion (OMNI-RPE). Participant's preference for assistive device was identified. The 6MWT, SSWV, and the Omni-RPE were evaluated using paired t tests and determined to be statistically significant for the wheeled knee walker compared with axillary crutches. Evaluation of the preactivity and postactivity heart rates demonstrated a statistically significant difference for the wheeled knee walker compared with axillary crutches. The wheeled knee walker was preferred by 88% of participants. The wheeled knee walker provided increased assisted ambulation and had a lower rating of perceived exertion than axillary crutches on level surfaces in healthy participants. Level III, comparative study. © The Author(s) 2016.

  4. Red to Far-Red Light Ratio Modulates Hormonal and Genetic Control of Axillary bud Outgrowth in Chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflorum 'Jinba').

    PubMed

    Yuan, Cunquan; Ahmad, Sagheer; Cheng, Tangren; Wang, Jia; Pan, Huitang; Zhao, Liangjun; Zhang, Qixiang

    2018-05-28

    Single-flower cut Chrysanthemum ( Dendranthema grandiflorum 'Jinba') holds a unique status in global floriculture industry. However, the extensive axillary bud outgrowth presents a major drawback