Science.gov

Sample records for azeotropic distillation columns

  1. Azeotropic distillation in a middle vessel batch column. 2: Nonlinear separation boundaries

    SciTech Connect

    Cheong, W.; Barton, P.I.

    1999-04-01

    On the basis of the analytical tools developed for the middle vessel column (MVC) operated under limiting conditions, analysis of the qualitative dynamics of the MVC in separating an azeotropic mixture is extended to the more realistic case in which the separation boundaries are nonlinear. The differences between batch stripper pot composition boundaries and batch rectifier pot composition being able to cross these pot composition boundaries. On the basis of these insights, operating procedures are developed in which ternary azeotropic mixtures of acetone, benzene, and chloroform can be separated into their constituent pure components, a separation not achievable with either the batch stripper or the batch rectifier. The operating procedures suggested for separating the ternary azeotropic mixture of acetone, benzene, and chloroform in the MVC are then shown to be the time analogues of sequences of continuous distillation columns that achieve the same separation. On the basis of this space-time analogy, further analogies are developed between the MVC and a continuous column, and it is postulated that many complex separations currently achieved with sequences of continuous columns can also be achieved with a single MVC. Thus, the MVC represents the ultimate multipurpose solvent recovery technology, as it can handle, in a batch multipurpose mode. separations that will otherwise require a dedicated continuous distillation sequence. Finally, the characteristics of perfect MVC batch entrainers, which allow the complete separation of any azeotrope into its constituent pure components in a single MVC, are discussed.

  2. Azeotropic distillation in a middle vessel batch column. 3: Model validation

    SciTech Connect

    Cheong, W.; Barton, P.I.

    1999-04-01

    A dimensional time model of the middle vessel batch distillation column (MVC) is developed in the ABACUSS process modeling environment, and simulations are conducted to validate the theoretical insights developed for the operation of the MVC based on a warped time model of the MVC. The qualitative dynamics of the MVC operated in the presence of linear separation boundaries are validated via simulations conducted on the ternary azeotropic mixture of acetone, chloroform, and methanol. It is also shown via simulation that the separation results obtained from a column with significant but reasonable amounts of holdup on the trays are not significantly different from a column in which holdup in the trays is assumed to be negligible. Theoretical operating policies for separating the azeotrope of acetone and chloroform using benzene as a batch entrainer are also validated using the ABACUSS model. Finally, the authors explore the advantages and disadvantages of different feasible operating policies for separating a mixture of acetone, benzene, and chloroform completely into its constituent pure components.

  3. Azeotropic distillation in a middle vessel batch column. 1: Model formulation and linear separation boundaries

    SciTech Connect

    Cheong, W.; Barton, P.I.

    1999-04-01

    A mathematical model for the middle vessel batch distillation column (MVC) is developed using the concept of warped time analysis and used to study the qualitative dynamics of the MVC when it is used to separate multicomponent azeotropic mixtures. A limiting analysis is then developed for a MVC with an infinite number of trays, operated under infinite reflux/reboil ratios, under the assumption of linear separation boundaries. It is determined that, under limiting conditions, the distillate product drawn from the MVC is given by the {alpha} limit set of the MVC still pot composition, while the bottoms product drawn from the MVC is given by the {omega} limit set of the MVC still pot composition. The net product composition is determined by taking a convex combination of the two products. The notions of steering the still pot composition, the vector cone of possible motion for the still pot composition, and the equivalency of the MVC to the combined operation of a batch rectifier and a stripper are also explored. The definition of batch distillation regions for the MVC operated at a given value of the middle vessel parameter {lambda}, and the bifurcation of these regions with the variation of {lambda}, are investigated. Lastly, a mathematical model incorporating the concept of warped time is developed for a multivessel column. The MVC can be viewed as a specific case of the multivessel column.

  4. Synthesis of azeotropic batch distillation separation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Safrit, B.T.; Westerberg, A.W.

    1997-05-01

    The sequencing of batch distillation systems, in particular batch distillation columns, can be complicated by the existence of azeotropes in the mixture. These azeotropes can form batch distillation regions where, depending on the initial feed to the batch column, the types of feasible products and separations are limited. It is very important that these distillation regions are known while attempting to synthesize sequences of batch columns so infeasible designs can be eliminated early on in the design phase. The distillation regions also give information regarding the feasible products that can be obtained when the mixture is separated by using a variety of batch column configurations. The authors will show how a tool for finding the batch distillation regions of a particular mixture can be used in the synthesis of batch distillation column sequences. These sequences are determined by the initial feed composition to the separation network. The network of all possible sequences will be generated by using state-task networks when batch rectifying, stripping, middle vessel, and extractive middle vessel columns are allowed. The authors do not determine which sequence is the best, as the best sequence will depend on the particular application to which one is applying the algorithms. They show an example problem for illustration of this technique.

  5. The product composition regions of azeotropic distillation columns. 2. Separability in two-feed columns and entrainer selection

    SciTech Connect

    Wahnschafft, O.M.; Westerberg, A.W. . Engineering Design Research Center and Department of Chemical Engineering)

    1993-06-01

    A method to assess the product composition regions for distillation of ternary mixtures in single-feed distillation columns, introduced in the first paper of this series, is generalized to account for the effect of introducing multiple feeds of different trays. The method relies on so-called fixed point curves which are trajectories in the compositions space. These trajectories describe the possible compositions of pinch points in each column section as functions of the energy supplied to a column, i.e., for all conceivable values of the reflux ratio. Pinch point trajectories may be determined analytically or, for ternary mixtures, can be located graphically using residue curve maps. The authors carry out a mostly graphical analysis, using pinch point trajectories to establish separation feasibility ahead of design calculations. This analysis also provides information on the minimum entrainer supply for a specified separation and visualizes the phenomenon of the occurrence of a maximum reflux ratio for separation in a column with a separate, extractive agent feed. The analysis is analogous to that for single-feed columns, only the critical pinch trajectories may be those for the extractive column section between the feeds. This analogy suggests the notion of a generalized extractive distillation process, for which new entrainer selection criteria are proposed.

  6. Validating the Equilibrium Stage Model for an Azeotropic System in a Laboratorial Distillation Column

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duarte, B. P. M.; Coelho Pinheiro, M. N.; Silva, D. C. M.; Moura, M. J.

    2006-01-01

    The experiment described is an excellent opportunity to apply theoretical concepts of distillation, thermodynamics of mixtures and process simulation at laboratory scale, and simultaneously enhance the ability of students to operate, control and monitor complex units.

  7. Multiple steady states in heterogeneous azeotropic distillation

    SciTech Connect

    Bekiaris, N.; Meski, G.A.; Morari, M.

    1996-01-01

    In this article, the authors study multiple steady states in ternary heterogeneous azeotropic distillation. They show that in the case of infinite reflux and an infinite number of trays, one can construct bifurcation diagrams on physical grounds with the distillate flow as the bifurcation parameter. Multiple steady states exist when the distillate flow varies nonmonotonically along the continuation path of the bifurcation diagram. The authors show how the distillate and bottom product paths can be located for tray or packed columns, with or without decanter and with different types of condenser and reboiler. They derive a necessary and sufficient condition for the existence of these multiple steady states based on the geometry of the product paths. They also locate in the composition triangle the feed compositions that lead to these multiple steady states. They show that the prediction of the existence of multiple steady states in the case of infinite reflux and an infinite number of trays has relevant implications for columns operating at finite reflux and with a finite number of trays.

  8. Simulation, design, and analysis of azeotropic distillation operations

    SciTech Connect

    Bossen, B.S.; Joergensen, S.B.; Gani, R. )

    1993-04-01

    The computational tools needed for simulation, design, and analysis of azeotropic distillation operations are described. These tools include simple methods to identify the existence of binary and ternary azeotropes and to classify ternary mixtures as homogeneous or heterogeneous. The tools also include more complex methods to compute the phase diagram (or a heterogeneous liquid boiling surface), predict liquid-vapor phase equilibrium, and/or predict liquid-liquid-vapor phase equilibrium for simulations of batch and continuous distillation column operations. Important new features of these tools are the incorporation of a fast and efficient method for test of phase stability in simulation of distillation operations, the ability to handle a large range of mixtures (including mixtures with supercritical compounds), and the ability for computations covering wide ranges of temperature and pressure. On the basis of these tools, simple and consistent design algorithms are developed. The applicability of the design algorithms is verified through process simulation and analysis of the predicted behavior and data from the open literature. Conditions are given for examples illustrating (when and how possible distillation boundaries can be crossed) how multiple steady states can be obtained. Finally, the effect of changes in operating on the dynamic behavior of the azeotropic distillation columns and the sensitivity of design to the prediction of phase equilibria are presented.

  9. Experimental study of multiple steady states in homogeneous azeotropic distillation

    SciTech Connect

    Guettinger, T.E.; Dorn, C.; Morari, M.

    1997-03-01

    Bekiaris et al. (1993) explained the existence of multiple steady states in homogeneous ternary azeotropic distillation, on the basis of the analysis of the case of infinite reflux and infinite column length (infinite number of trays). They showed that the predictions of multiple steady states for such infinite columns have relevant implications for columns of finite length operated at finite reflux. In this article, experiments are described for the ternary homogeneous system methanol-methyl butyrate-toluene which demonstrate the existence of multiple steady states (output multiplicities) caused by the vapor-liquid-equilibrium. The experiments on an industrial pilot column show two stable steady states for the same feed flow rate and composition and the same set of operating parameters. The measurements are in excellent agreement with the predictions obtained for infinite columns using the {infinity}/{infinity} analysis tool as well as with stage-by-stage simulation results. These experiments represent the first published study reporting evidence for the predictions and simulations by various researchers showing that type of output multiplicities in distillation.

  10. A PROCESS FOR SEPARATING AZEOTROPIC MIXTURES BY EXTRACTIVE AND CONVECTIVE DISTILLATION

    DOEpatents

    Frazer, J.W.

    1961-12-19

    A method is described for separating an azeotrope of carbon tetrachloride and 1,1,2,2-tetrafluorodinitroethane boiling at 60 deg C. The ndethod comnprises, specifically, feeding azeotrope vapors admixed with a non- reactive gas into an extractive distillation column heated to a temperature preferably somewhat above the boiling point of the constant boiling mixture. A solvent, di-n-butylphthalate, is metered into the column above the gas inlet and permitted to flow downward, earrying with it the higher bomling fraction, while the constituent having the lower boiling point passes out of the top of the column with the non-reactive gas and is collected in a nitrogen cold trap. Other solvents which alter the vapor pressure relationship may be substituted. The method is generally applicable to azeotropic mixtures. A number of specific mixtures whicb may be separated are disclosed. (AEC)

  11. Distillation Column Modeling Tools

    SciTech Connect

    2001-09-01

    Advanced Computational and Experimental Techniques will Optimize Distillation Column Operation. Distillation is a low thermal efficiency unit operation that currently consumes 4.8 quadrillion BTUs of energy...

  12. Distillation Column Flooding Predictor

    SciTech Connect

    2002-02-01

    This factsheet describes a research project whose goal is to develop the flooding predictor, an advanced process control strategy, into a universally useable tool that will maximize the separation yield of a distillation column.

  13. A geometric design method for side-stream distillation columns

    SciTech Connect

    Rooks, R.E.; Malone, M.F.; Doherty, M.F.

    1996-10-01

    A side-stream distillation column may replace two simple columns for some applications, sometimes at considerable savings in energy and investment. This paper describes a geometric method for the design of side-stream columns; the method provides rapid estimates of equipment size and utility requirements. Unlike previous approaches, the geometric method is applicable to nonideal and azeotropic mixtures. Several example problems for both ideal and nonideal mixtures, including azeotropic mixtures containing distillation boundaries, are given. The authors make use of the fact that azeotropes or pure components whose classification in the residue curve map is a saddle can be removed as side-stream products. Significant process simplifications are found among some alternatives in example problems, leading to flow sheets with fewer units and a substantial savings in vapor rate.

  14. Distillation Column Flooding Predictor

    SciTech Connect

    George E. Dzyacky

    2010-11-23

    The Flooding Predictor™ is a patented advanced control technology proven in research at the Separations Research Program, University of Texas at Austin, to increase distillation column throughput by over 6%, while also increasing energy efficiency by 10%. The research was conducted under a U. S. Department of Energy Cooperative Agreement awarded to George Dzyacky of 2ndpoint, LLC. The Flooding Predictor™ works by detecting the incipient flood point and controlling the column closer to its actual hydraulic limit than historical practices have allowed. Further, the technology uses existing column instrumentation, meaning no additional refining infrastructure is required. Refiners often push distillation columns to maximize throughput, improve separation, or simply to achieve day-to-day optimization. Attempting to achieve such operating objectives is a tricky undertaking that can result in flooding. Operators and advanced control strategies alike rely on the conventional use of delta-pressure instrumentation to approximate the column’s approach to flood. But column delta-pressure is more an inference of the column’s approach to flood than it is an actual measurement of it. As a consequence, delta pressure limits are established conservatively in order to operate in a regime where the column is never expected to flood. As a result, there is much “left on the table” when operating in such a regime, i.e. the capacity difference between controlling the column to an upper delta-pressure limit and controlling it to the actual hydraulic limit. The Flooding Predictor™, an innovative pattern recognition technology, controls columns at their actual hydraulic limit, which research shows leads to a throughput increase of over 6%. Controlling closer to the hydraulic limit also permits operation in a sweet spot of increased energy-efficiency. In this region of increased column loading, the Flooding Predictor is able to exploit the benefits of higher liquid

  15. Azeotropic distillation assisted fabrication of silver nanocages and their catalytic property for reduction of 4-nitrophenol.

    PubMed

    Min, Jianzhong; Wang, Fei; Cai, Yunliang; Liang, Shuai; Zhang, Zhenwei; Jiang, Xingmao

    2015-01-14

    Monodisperse silver nanocages (AgNCs) with specific interiors were successfully synthesized by an azeotropic distillation (AD) assisted method and exhibited excellent catalytic activities for reduction of 4-nitrophenol (4-NP) into 4-aminophenol (4-AP) due to the unique hollow morphology and small thickness of the silver shell.

  16. Analyze distillation columns with thermodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Ognisty, T.P. )

    1995-02-01

    In a distillation column, heat supplies the work for separating the components of a feed stream into products. Distillation columns consume some 95% of the total energy used in separations. This amounts to roughly 3% of the energy consumed in the US. Since distillation is so energy intensive and requires significant capital outlays, an endless quest to improve the economics has continued since the beginning of the industry. By analyzing the thermodynamics of a distillation column, an engineer can quantify the thermodynamic efficiency of the process, identify the regions where energy can be better utilized, and define the minimum targets for energy consumption. This article reviews the principles of distillation column thermodynamics and outlines the analysis of lost work profiles and column heat profiles. It then illustrates these concepts through three examples.

  17. Identifying operating units for the design and synthesis of azeotropic-distillation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, G.; Fan, L.T.; Friedler, F.; Seib, P.A.

    2000-01-01

    A highly effective method has been established to identify processing or operating units necessary for the design or synthesis of azeotropic-distillation systems by resorting to the first principles and logical sequencing of such units. The materials represented in the space of the residue curve map are partitioned into lumped materials bounded by the thermodynamic boundaries and pinches. Subsequently, the operating units are identified on the basis of these lumped materials. The efficacy of the method has been amply illustrated by generating some feasible flowsheets with a set of relatively simple heuristics for the process of producing pure ethanol from its aqueous solution via azeotropic distillation, which is a typical complex process involving thermodynamic pinches, such as azeotropes, phase transition, and/or phase separation. The method is applicable to other complex processes, e.g., crystallization, extraction, reactive distillation, and their combinations. It is highly likely that the method can be an integral part of any conventional heuristic or algorithmic flowsheeting procedure because selecting plausible or candidate operating units is essential for synthesizing a flowsheet by any procedure.

  18. An Analytical Method to Measure Free-Water Tritium in Foods using Azeotropic Distillation.

    PubMed

    Soga, Keisuke; Kamei, Toshiyuki; Hachisuka, Akiko; Nishimaki-Mogami, Tomoko

    2016-01-01

    A series of accidents at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant has raised concerns about the discharge of contaminated water containing tritium ((3)H) from the nuclear power plant into the environment and into foods. In this study, we explored convenient analytical methods to measure free-water (3)H in foods using a liquid scintillation counting and azeotropic distillation method. The detection limit was 10 Bq/L, corresponding to about 0.01% of 1 mSv/year. The (3)H recoveries were 85-90% in fruits, vegetables, meats and fishes, 75-85% in rice and cereal crops, and less than 50% in sweets containing little water. We found that, in the case of sweets, adding water to the sample before the azeotropic distillation increased the recovery and precision. Then, the recoveries reached more than 75% and RSD was less than 10% in all food categories (13 kinds). Considering its sensitivity, precision and simplicity, this method is practical and useful for (3)H analysis in various foods, and should be suitable for the safety assessment of foods. In addition, we examined the level of (3)H in foods on the Japanese market. No (3)H radioactivity was detected in any of 42 analyzed foods. PMID:27558225

  19. An Analytical Method to Measure Free-Water Tritium in Foods using Azeotropic Distillation.

    PubMed

    Soga, Keisuke; Kamei, Toshiyuki; Hachisuka, Akiko; Nishimaki-Mogami, Tomoko

    2016-01-01

    A series of accidents at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant has raised concerns about the discharge of contaminated water containing tritium ((3)H) from the nuclear power plant into the environment and into foods. In this study, we explored convenient analytical methods to measure free-water (3)H in foods using a liquid scintillation counting and azeotropic distillation method. The detection limit was 10 Bq/L, corresponding to about 0.01% of 1 mSv/year. The (3)H recoveries were 85-90% in fruits, vegetables, meats and fishes, 75-85% in rice and cereal crops, and less than 50% in sweets containing little water. We found that, in the case of sweets, adding water to the sample before the azeotropic distillation increased the recovery and precision. Then, the recoveries reached more than 75% and RSD was less than 10% in all food categories (13 kinds). Considering its sensitivity, precision and simplicity, this method is practical and useful for (3)H analysis in various foods, and should be suitable for the safety assessment of foods. In addition, we examined the level of (3)H in foods on the Japanese market. No (3)H radioactivity was detected in any of 42 analyzed foods.

  20. Optimal design of thermally coupled distillation columns

    SciTech Connect

    Duennebier, G.; Pantelides, C.C.

    1999-01-01

    This paper considers the optimal design of thermally coupled distillation columns and dividing wall columns using detailed column models and mathematical optimization. The column model used is capable of describing both conventional and thermally coupled columns, which allows comparisons of different structural alternatives to be made. Possible savings in both operating and capital costs of up to 30% are illustrated using two case studies.

  1. Distillation of light hydrocarbons in packed columns

    SciTech Connect

    Strigle, R.F.

    1985-04-01

    Newly developed design procedures have led to a wider acceptance of packed columns for distillation operations, especially those operating at atmospheric or higher pressures. Based on these new design methods, modern IMTP packing has been used in a wide variety of services to revamp over 300 distillation columns previously equipped with trays. A few of these columns are listed. These revamps were justified by capacity increase and by greater product recovery. In addition, energy savings were realized from reduction of reflux ratio.

  2. Neural network modeling of distillation columns

    SciTech Connect

    Baratti, R.; Vacca, G.; Servida, A.

    1995-06-01

    Neural network modeling (NNM) was implemented for monitoring and control applications on two actual distillation columns: the butane splitter tower and the gasoline stabilizer. The two distillation columns are in operation at the SARAS refinery. Results show that with proper implementation techniques NNM can significantly improve column operation. The common belief that neural networks can be used as black-box process models is not completely true. Effective implementation always requires a minimum degree of process knowledge to identify the relevant inputs to the net. After background and generalities on neural network modeling, the paper describes efforts on the development of neural networks for the two distillation units.

  3. Study on Exploration of Azeotropic Point of Pb-Sb Alloys by Vacuum Distillation and Ab Initio Molecular Dynamic Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Bingyi; Jiang, Wenlong; Yang, Bin; Chen, Xiumin; Xu, Baoqiang; Kong, Lingxin; Liu, Dachun; Dai, Yongnian

    2016-10-01

    The possibility of the separation of Pb-Sb alloys by vacuum distillation was investigated theoretically. The results show that Pb and Sb can be separated by vacuum distillation. However, the experimental results show that vacuum distillation technique does not provide clear separation. According to the literature, Pb-Sb alloys belong to azeotropic compounds under some certain temperature; the experiment and computer simulation were carried out based on the exceptional condition so as to analyze the reason from the experiment and microstructure of Pb-Sb alloys perspective. The separation of Pb-Sb alloys by vacuum distillation was experimentally carried out to probe the azeotropic point. Also, the functions, such as partial radial distributions functions, the structure factor, mean square displacement, and the density of state, were calculated by ab-initio molecular dynamics for the representation of the structure and properties of Pb-Sb alloys with different composition of Sb. The experimental results indicate that there exists common volatilization for Pb-Sb alloys when Sb content is 16.5 wt pct. On the other hand, the calculation results show that there is an intense interaction between Pb and Sb when Sb content is 22 wt pct, which supports the experimental results although Sb content is slightly deviation.

  4. Study on Exploration of Azeotropic Point of Pb-Sb Alloys by Vacuum Distillation and Ab Initio Molecular Dynamic Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Bingyi; Jiang, Wenlong; Yang, Bin; Chen, Xiumin; Xu, Baoqiang; Kong, Lingxin; Liu, Dachun; Dai, Yongnian

    2016-07-01

    The possibility of the separation of Pb-Sb alloys by vacuum distillation was investigated theoretically. The results show that Pb and Sb can be separated by vacuum distillation. However, the experimental results show that vacuum distillation technique does not provide clear separation. According to the literature, Pb-Sb alloys belong to azeotropic compounds under some certain temperature; the experiment and computer simulation were carried out based on the exceptional condition so as to analyze the reason from the experiment and microstructure of Pb-Sb alloys perspective. The separation of Pb-Sb alloys by vacuum distillation was experimentally carried out to probe the azeotropic point. Also, the functions, such as partial radial distributions functions, the structure factor, mean square displacement, and the density of state, were calculated by ab-initio molecular dynamics for the representation of the structure and properties of Pb-Sb alloys with different composition of Sb. The experimental results indicate that there exists common volatilization for Pb-Sb alloys when Sb content is 16.5 wt pct. On the other hand, the calculation results show that there is an intense interaction between Pb and Sb when Sb content is 22 wt pct, which supports the experimental results although Sb content is slightly deviation.

  5. Avoid problems during distillation column startups

    SciTech Connect

    Sloley, A.W.

    1996-07-01

    The startup of a distillation column is the end product of the design process. Indeed, startup is the culmination of the theory and practice of designing the column to meet the process objectives. The author will direct most of this discussion towards column revamps due to their inherent complexity; however, the points apply equally to new columns, as well. The most important question that must be answered prior to a startup is how will the distillation system changes affect initial startup, process control of the system, and normal day-to-day operations? How will the operators run the system? Steady-state distillation-column simulations alone cannot provide an authoritative answer and, indeed, engineers` over-reliance on software too often has led them to ignore many practical aspects. Computer modeling, while an important engineering tool, is not reality. Distillation columns are real functioning pieces of equipment that require practical skills to successfully modify. They are not steady-state solutions that result from converged computer simulations. Early planning, coupled with thorough inspections and comprehensive reviews of instrumentation and procedures, can play a key role in assuring smooth startups.

  6. Optimal operation of multivessel batch distillation columns

    SciTech Connect

    Furlonge, H.I.; Pantelides, C.C.; Soerensen, E.

    1999-04-01

    Increased interest in unconventional batch distillation column configurations offers new opportunities for increasing the flexibility and energy efficiency of batch distillation. One configuration of particular interest is the multivessel column, which can be viewed as a generalization of all previously studied batch column configurations. A detailed dynamic model was used for comparing various optimal operating policies for a batch distillation column with two intermediate vessels. A wide variety of degrees of freedom including reflux ratios, product withdrawal rates, heat input to the reboiler, and initial feed distribution were considered. A mixture consisting of methanol, ethanol, n-propanol and n-butanol was studied using an objective function relating to the economics of the column operation. Optimizing the initial distribution of the feed among the vessels improved column performance significantly. For some separations, withdrawing product from the vessels into accumulators was better than total reflux operation in terms of energy consumption. Open-loop optimal operation was also compared to a recently proposed feedback control strategy where the controller parameters are optimized. The energy consumption of a regular column was about twice that of a multivessel column having the same number of stages.

  7. Semicontinuous, pressure-swing distillation

    SciTech Connect

    Phimister, J.R.; Seider, W.D.

    2000-01-01

    The merits of semicontinuous, pressure-swing, azeotropic distillation are examined. In continuous operation, two columns at different pressures are fed streams having compositions on opposite sides of the azeotropic compositions. The distillates, which approach the azeotropic compositions at high and low pressure, are cycled between the columns. In contrast, semicontinuous operation involves only a single distillation column, which has lower investment costs and, when the mixture to be separated is changed, shorter downtimes. An optimal-control algorithm is employed to determine desirable campaigns, and to schedule pressure switch-over policies. Simulation results for the dehydration of tetrahydrofuran, involving a pressure-sensitive azeotrope, indicate that switch-over between steady states occurs quickly with on-spec product removed during 93% of the campaign. The column achieves production rates near 89% of the maximum throughput of a single column in the continuous process and shows superior performance when compared to reverse-batch operation.

  8. The forms of azeotropic rule for multidimensional diagrams of equilibrium distillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisarenko, Yu. A.; Usol'tseva, O. O.; Cardona, C. A.; Gerard, O. T.

    2013-09-01

    Linear independent forms of the azeotropy rule applicable to diagrams of distillation (reaction distillation) and their fragments are established and presented as simple polyhedra of arbitrary dimensions.

  9. A Comparison of delO18 Composition of Water Extracted from Suction Lysimeters, Centrifugation, and Azeotropic Distillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figueroa, A.; Tindall, J. A.; Friedel, M. J.

    2005-12-01

    Concentration of delO18 in water samples extracted by suction lysimeters is compared to samples obtained by methods of centrifugation and azeotropic distillation. Intact soil cores (30 cm diameter by 40 cm height) were extracted from two different sites. Site 1 was rapid infiltration basin number 50, near Altamonte Springs in Seminole County, Florida on properties belonging to the Walt Disney World Resort Complex. Site 2 was the Missouri Management System Evaluation Area (MSEA) near Centralia in Boone County, Missouri. The delO18 water was analyzed on a mass spectrophotometer. Potassium Bromide (KBr) was also used as a tracer and analyzed by ion chromatography. A portion of the data obtained was modeled using CXTFIT. Water collected by centrifugation and azeotropic distillation data were about 2-5% more negative than that collected by suction lysimeter values from the Florida (sandy) soil and about 5-7 % more negative from the Missouri (well structured clay) soil. Results indicate that the majority of soil water in well structured soil is strongly bound to soil grain surfaces and is not easily sampled by suction lysimeters. Also, it is plausible that evaporation caused some delO18 enrichment in the suction lysimeters. Suction lysimeters preferentially sampled water held at lower matric potentials, which may not represent total soil water. In cases where a sufficient volume of water has passed through the soil profile and displaced all previous pore water, suction lysimeters will however collect a representative sample of all the water at that depth interval. It is suggested that for stable isotope studies monitoring precipitation and soil water, suction lysimeters be installed at shallow depths (10 cm). Samples should also be coordinated with precipitation events. The CXTFIT program worked well for Florida soils (a more homogeneous sand), but gave poor performance for Missouri soils (well structured clays) except for deeper depths where clay structure was less

  10. Analysis of finishing reactive distillation columns

    SciTech Connect

    Espinosa, J.; Aguirre, P.; Frey, T.; Stichlmair, J.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, a novel method to deal with the design and the synthesis of finishing reactive distillation columns with one reactive core, two rectifying sections, and one stripping section is presented. The attention of the work is concentrated on three subjects: (1) the feasibility of a given separation at both finite and total reflux operation; (2) the minimum energy demand operation; (3) the distribution of the reaction between the reactor and the finishing reactive column. The design problem presents the same grade of difficulty as that found in the design of conventional extractive columns. A geometric based method is used to explain key features of reactive distillation. Here, the relation between the reaction yield and the distillate flow rate plays a role similar to that of the entrainer flow in extractive distillation. Hence, special attention is given to the behavior of the profiles inside the rectifying section below the reactive core. The methodology is illustrated using the well-known MTBE case study.

  11. Heat Integration in Batch Distillation Column

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maiti, Debadrita; Jana, Amiya K.; Samanta, Amar Nath

    2010-10-01

    A new heat integrated batch distillation column has been configured in this paper. Here the column and reboiler are connected in an annular arrangement and a compressor is positioned between them to maintain the pressure difference. The heat integration is between the rectifying batch column and one concentric reboiler. Ethanol-Water binary system is chosen as an example for the design and analysis of this heat integrated batch distillation column (HIBDiC). In this work, a sensitivity test for selecting the optimal value of the total number of trays and reboiler duty and a thermodynamic feasibility test for its design acceptability has been accomplished. The principal objective of this study is to investigate the influence of compression ratio (CR) on the energy consumption of distillation and to find out the optimal value of CR. Also a comparative analysis of HIBiDC on energy consumption in steady state as well as in dynamic state has been carried out on the basis of its conventional model. The proposed scheme is capable to save the energy up to 50.52% compared to its conventional one by selecting the CR of 1.4 as an optimal value.

  12. Final Report, Distillation Column Flooding Predictor

    SciTech Connect

    George E. Dzyacky

    2003-05-31

    The Flooding Predictor is an advanced process control strategy comprising a patented pattern-recognition methodology that identifies pre-flood patterns discovered to precede flooding events in distillation columns. The grantee holds a U.S. patent on the modeling system. The technology was validated at the Separations Research Program, The University of Texas at Austin under a grant from the U. S. Department of Energy, Inventions & Innovation Program. Distillation tower flooding occurs at abnormally high vapor and/or liquid rates. The loss in tray efficiencies is attributed to unusual behavior of liquid inventories inside the column leading to conditions of flooding of the space in between trays with liquid. Depending on the severity of the flood condition, consequences range from off spec products to equipment damage and tower shutdown. This non-intrusive pattern recognition methodology, processes signal data obtained from existing column instrumentation. Once the pattern is identified empirically, it is modeled and coded into the plant's distributed control system. The control system is programmed to briefly "unload" the tower each time the pattern appears. The unloading takes the form of a momentary reduction in column severity, e.g., decrease bottom temperature, reflux or tower throughput. Unloading the tower briefly at the pre-flood state causes long-term column operation to become significantly more stable - allowing an increase in throughput and/or product purity. The technology provides a wide range of value between optimization and flooding. When a distillation column is not running at capacity, it should be run in such a way ("pushed") that optimal product purity is achieved. Additional benefits include low implementation and maintenance costs, and a high level of console operator acceptance. The previous commercial applications experienced 98% uptime over a four-year period. Further, the technology is unique in its ability to distinguish between different

  13. Improve distillation-column control design

    SciTech Connect

    Fruehauf, P.S.; Mahoney, D.P.

    1994-03-01

    Steady-state process models have long been used to assist the engineer in designing control strategies for distillation columns. Yet, a large number of industrial columns still operate in manual or with ineffectual controls. So, better control design techniques using steady-state models certainly are needed. In this article, the authors introduced an improved method that already has proven itself on 33 industrial columns. This article deals exclusively with the design of single-point composition controls. The vast majority of columns have one-sided composition specifications. With such specifications, a single-point composition control scheme can keep both top and bottom product compositions at or below limits for a wide range of disturbances. The predominance of one-sided specifications means that the main incentive for dual-point control schemes is achieving energy savings. In most cases, though, the energy savings are small and do not justify the added difficulty of implementing and maintaining dual-point control. Additionally, dual-point schemes often have significantly longer recoveries from upsets due to interactions between the control loops. The design procedure can be best thought of as a general approach rather than a single detailed procedure that covers all cases. The produce must be adapted to each problem because there are many different types of distillation and almost every industrial problem has some unique requirement.

  14. GOBF-ARMA based model predictive control for an ideal reactive distillation column.

    PubMed

    Seban, Lalu; Kirubakaran, V; Roy, B K; Radhakrishnan, T K

    2015-11-01

    This paper discusses the control of an ideal reactive distillation column (RDC) using model predictive control (MPC) based on a combination of deterministic generalized orthonormal basis filter (GOBF) and stochastic autoregressive moving average (ARMA) models. Reactive distillation (RD) integrates reaction and distillation in a single process resulting in process and energy integration promoting green chemistry principles. Improved selectivity of products, increased conversion, better utilization and control of reaction heat, scope for difficult separations and the avoidance of azeotropes are some of the advantages that reactive distillation offers over conventional technique of distillation column after reactor. The introduction of an in situ separation in the reaction zone leads to complex interactions between vapor-liquid equilibrium, mass transfer rates, diffusion and chemical kinetics. RD with its high order and nonlinear dynamics, and multiple steady states is a good candidate for testing and verification of new control schemes. Here a combination of GOBF-ARMA models is used to catch and represent the dynamics of the RDC. This GOBF-ARMA model is then used to design an MPC scheme for the control of product purity of RDC under different operating constraints and conditions. The performance of proposed modeling and control using GOBF-ARMA based MPC is simulated and analyzed. The proposed controller is found to perform satisfactorily for reference tracking and disturbance rejection in RDC.

  15. Efficiency of methods for Karl Fischer determination of water in oils based on oven evaporation and azeotropic distillation.

    PubMed

    Larsson, William; Jalbert, Jocelyn; Gilbert, Roland; Cedergren, Anders

    2003-03-15

    The efficiency of azeotropic distillation and oven evaporation techniques for trace determination of water in oils has recently been questioned by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), on the basis of measurements of the residual water found after the extraction step. The results were obtained by volumetric Karl Fischer (KF) titration in a medium containing a large excess of chloroform (> or = 65%), a proposed prerequisite to ensure complete release of water from the oil matrix. In this work, the extent of this residual water was studied by means of a direct zero-current potentiometric technique using a KF medium containing more than 80% chloroform, which is well above the concentration recommended by NIST. A procedure is described that makes it possible to correct the results for dilution errors as well as for chemical interference effects caused by the oil matrix. The corrected values were found to be in the range of 0.6-1.5 ppm, which should be compared with the 12-34 ppm (uncorrected values) reported by NIST for the same oils. From this, it is concluded that the volumetric KF method used by NIST gives results that are much too high. PMID:12659179

  16. Efficiency of methods for Karl Fischer determination of water in oils based on oven evaporation and azeotropic distillation.

    PubMed

    Larsson, William; Jalbert, Jocelyn; Gilbert, Roland; Cedergren, Anders

    2003-03-15

    The efficiency of azeotropic distillation and oven evaporation techniques for trace determination of water in oils has recently been questioned by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), on the basis of measurements of the residual water found after the extraction step. The results were obtained by volumetric Karl Fischer (KF) titration in a medium containing a large excess of chloroform (> or = 65%), a proposed prerequisite to ensure complete release of water from the oil matrix. In this work, the extent of this residual water was studied by means of a direct zero-current potentiometric technique using a KF medium containing more than 80% chloroform, which is well above the concentration recommended by NIST. A procedure is described that makes it possible to correct the results for dilution errors as well as for chemical interference effects caused by the oil matrix. The corrected values were found to be in the range of 0.6-1.5 ppm, which should be compared with the 12-34 ppm (uncorrected values) reported by NIST for the same oils. From this, it is concluded that the volumetric KF method used by NIST gives results that are much too high.

  17. Continuous and Batch Distillation in an Oldershaw Tray Column

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva, Carlos M.; Vaz, Raquel V.; Santiago, Ana S.; Lito, Patricia F.

    2011-01-01

    The importance of distillation in the separation field prompts the inclusion of distillation experiments in the chemical engineering curricula. This work describes the performance of an Oldershaw column in the rectification of a cyclohexane/n-heptane mixture. Total reflux distillation, continuous rectification under partial reflux, and batch…

  18. An Automated Distillation Column for the Unit Operations Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkins, Douglas M.; Bruce, David A.; Gooding, Charles H.; Butler, Justin T.

    2005-01-01

    A batch distillation apparatus has been designed and built for use in the undergraduate unit operations laboratory course. The column is fully automated and is accompanied by data acquisition and control software. A mixture of 1­-propanol and 2-­propanol is separated in the column, using either a constant distillate rate or constant composition…

  19. Application of the Firefly and Luus-Jaakola algorithms in the calculation of a double reactive azeotrope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendes Platt, Gustavo; Pinheiro Domingos, Roberto; Oliveira de Andrade, Matheus

    2014-01-01

    The calculation of reactive azeotropes is an important task in the preliminary design and simulation of reactive distillation columns. Classically, homogeneous nonreactive azeotropes are vapor-liquid coexistence conditions where phase compositions are equal. For homogeneous reactive azeotropes, simultaneous phase and chemical equilibria occur concomitantly with equality of compositions (in the Ung-Doherty transformed space). The modeling of reactive azeotrope calculation is represented by a nonlinear algebraic system with phase equilibrium, chemical equilibrium and azeotropy equations. This nonlinear system can exhibit more than one solution, corresponding to a double reactive azeotrope. In a previous paper (Platt et al 2013 J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 410 012020), we investigated some numerical aspects of the calculation of reactive azeotropes in the isobutene + methanol + methyl-tert-butyl-ether (with two reactive azeotropes) system using two metaheuristics: the Luus-Jaakola adaptive random search and the Firefly algorithm. Here, we use a hybrid structure (stochastic + deterministic) in order to produce accurate results for both azeotropes. After identifying the neighborhood of the reactive azeotrope, the nonlinear algebraic system is solved using Newton's method. The results indicate that using metaheuristics and some techniques devoted to the calculation of multiple minima allows both azeotropic coordinates in this reactive system to be obtains. In this sense, we provide a comprehensive analysis of a useful framework devoted to solving nonlinear systems, particularly in phase equilibrium problems.

  20. Some aspects in the design of multicomponent reactive distillation columns with a reacting core: Mixtures containing inerts

    SciTech Connect

    Espinosa, J.; Aguirre, P.; Perez, G.

    1996-12-01

    Some aspects related to the design of reactive distillation columns with a reacting core are addressed in this paper. A set of transformed composition variables proposed in a previous paper is used to develop both the design equations and the reactive residue curve maps for quaternary reacting mixtures. Also, conventional residue curve maps are employed to achieve a better physical and conceptual insight into the relationships between the different constitutive parts of a column with a reacting core. Limitations in product specifications of entirely reactive distillation columns are explained by means of reactive residue curve maps, and a new feasibility criterion of a given separation for reactive columns with a reacting core is also developed on the basis of the two extreme operation conditions of a column. Finally, the behavior of column profiles for both high-conversion and low-conversion cases is analyzed and optimal product specifications are suggested to obtain high purity products. As the authors concluded in previous works, the inerts have a central role in both the design and synthesis of a reactive distillation column. All the concepts are applied to azeotrope-forming mixtures.

  1. Research on Configurations of Thermally Integrated Distillation Column(TIDC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Lanyi; Li, Jun; Liu, Xuenuan; Li, Qingsong

    Taking a C3 distillation column as the base case, possible configurations for Thermally Integrated Distillation Columns (TIDC) are proposed and compared to a conventional column and a column with a vapor recompression system (VRC). Thermal efficiency of the TIDC appears to be strongly sensitive to column configuration and a highly efficient asymmetrical configuration with stripping section stages thermally interconnected with the same number of stages in the upper part of the rectifying section emerges as the most promising option. The relationships among pressure ratio of rectifying section to stripping section and energy consumption were also discussed.

  2. Improved direct and indirect systems of columns for ternary distillation

    SciTech Connect

    Agrawal, R.; Fidkowski, Z.T.

    1998-04-01

    Separation of a ternary mixture into almost pure components is discussed. Systems of distillation columns, with higher thermodynamic efficiency, are developed from a direct sequence (or indirect sequence) of distillation columns by allowing for two interconnecting streams of the same composition and different enthalpy. This increases the reversibility of distillation in the second column, which results in replacing a portion of the high-temperature boiling duty with a lower-temperature heat in the direct split case. For the indirect split case, the improvement allows a portion of the low-temperature condensing duty to be replaced with a higher-temperature condensation.

  3. Tritium Isotope Separation Using Adsorption-Distillation Column

    SciTech Connect

    Fukada, Satoshi

    2005-07-15

    In order to miniaturize the height of a distillation tower for the detritiation of waste water from fusion reactors, two experiments were conducted: (1) liquid frontal chromatography of tritium water eluting through an adsorption column and (2) water distillation using a column packed with adsorbent particles. The height of the distillation tower depends on the height equivalent to a theoretical plate, HETP, and the equilibrium isotope separation factor, {alpha}{sub H-T}{sup equi}. The adsorption action improved not only HETP but also {alpha}{sub H-T}{sup equi}. Since the adsorption-distillation method proposed here can shorten the tower height with keeping advantages of the distillation, it may bring an excellent way for miniaturizing the distillation tower to detritiate a large amount of waste water from fusion reactors.

  4. Design and minimum reflux calculations for multicomponent reactive distillation columns

    SciTech Connect

    Barbosa, D.; Doherty, M.F.

    1987-01-01

    A new set of transformed composition variables is introduced to simplify the design equations for single-feed, multicomponent reactive distillation columns. Based on these equations, a general method of calculating minimum reflux ratios for reactive distillation columns is presented. The new composition variables are also used to derive simple relationships between the dependent design variables, which are not evident when the design equations are written in terms of mole fractions.

  5. Experimental study of wave propagation dynamics of multicomponent distillation columns

    SciTech Connect

    Ting, J.; Helfferich, F.G.; Hwang, Y.L.; Graham, G.K.; Keller, G.E. II

    1999-10-01

    Distillation columns with sharp separations exhibit severely nonlinear behavior, which has been known to cause difficulties in column control and design. Such a column is characterized by sharp composition and temperature variations in the column. Previously, the binary distillation case was thoroughly analyzed using a nonlinear wave theory and such an analysis was experimentally validated. For multicomponent distillation, the complicated nonlinear dynamics of the movement and interference of multiple sharp composition variations can be elucidated with a coherent-wave theory developed earlier for general countercurrent separation processes. With a ternary alcohol mixture, the present study has experimentally verified the theory by demonstrating the existence and propagation of constant-pattern coherent waves in a 50-tray stripping column in response to a step disturbance of feed composition, feed flow rate, or reboiler heat supply. The study has also tested the theory's predictions of composition profile, wave velocities, and asymmetric dynamics.

  6. Intermediate reboiler and condenser arrangement for binary distillation columns

    SciTech Connect

    Agrawal, R.; Herron, D.M.

    1998-06-01

    The most thermodynamically efficient configuration for adding or removing heat from an intermediate location of an ideal binary distillation column distilling pure products is derived. The optimal policy requires that preconditioning of the feed be part of the overall decision-making process. The optimal configuration can be determined through the use of two parameters, {alpha}{sub IR} and {alpha}{sub IC}, that are solely functions of feed composition. Simple and readily usable heuristics using these parameters are developed that help instantly identify the most efficient selection among (1) totally vaporizing and returning a side-draw liquid stream from an intermediate location of the distillation column, (2) partially or totally vaporizing a portion of the given saturated liquid feed, (3) partially or totally condensing a portion of the given saturated vapor feed, and (4) totally condensing and returning a side-draw vapor stream from an intermediate location of the distillation column.

  7. Temperature cascade control of distillation columns

    SciTech Connect

    Wolff, E.A.; Skogestad, S.

    1996-02-01

    This paper examines how difficult control tasks are enhanced by introducing secondary measurements, creating control cascades. Temperature is much used as secondary measurement because of cheap implementation and quick and accurate response. Distillation is often operated in this manner due to slow or lacking composition measurements, although the benefits have hardly been investigated closely, especially for multivariable control applications. The authors therefore use distillation as the example when quantifying improvements in interaction and disturbance rejection. They also give analytical expressions for the secondary controller gain. The improvements are reached through simple cascade operation of the control system and require no complicated estimator function.

  8. Stabilization of the Circulation Flow of the Cryogenic Distillation Column

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juromskiy, V. M.

    Two-circuit system of automatic stabilization of the hydrodynamics of the cryogenic distillation column is considered. Control system eliminates flooding/depletion of column in long-term mode of operation when the accuracy of stabilization of the circulation flow is better than 1%.

  9. Microstructures of negative and positive azeotropes.

    PubMed

    Shephard, J J; Callear, S K; Imberti, S; Evans, J S O; Salzmann, C G

    2016-07-28

    Azeotropes famously impose fundamental restrictions on distillation processes, yet their special thermodynamic properties make them highly desirable for a diverse range of industrial and technological applications. Using neutron diffraction, we investigate the structures of two prototypical azeotropes, the negative acetone-chloroform and the positive benzene-methanol azeotrope. C-HO hydrogen bonding is the dominating interaction in the negative azeotrope but C-ClO halogen bonding contributes as well. Hydrogen-bonded chains of methanol molecules, which are on average longer than in pure methanol, are the defining structural feature of the positive azeotrope illustrating the fundamentally different local mixing in the two kinds of azeotropes. The emerging trend for both azeotropes is that the more volatile components experience the more pronounced structural changes in their local environments as the azeotropes form. The mixing of the acetone-chloroform azeotrope is essentially random above 20 Å, where the running Kirkwood-Buff integrals of our structural model converge closely to the ones expected from thermodynamic data. The benzene-methanol azeotrope on the other hand displays extended methanol-rich regions and consequently the running Kirkwood-Buff integrals oscillate up to at least 60 Å. Our study provides the first experimental insights into the microstructures of azeotropes and a direct link with their thermodynamic properties. Ultimately, this will provide a route for creating tailored molecular environments in azeotropes to improve and fine-tune their performances. PMID:27367534

  10. Miniature Distillation Column for Producing LOX From Air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rozzi, Jay C.

    2006-01-01

    The figure shows components of a distillation column intended for use as part of a system that produces high-purity liquid oxygen (LOX) from air by distillation. (The column could be easily modified to produce high-purity liquid nitrogen.) Whereas typical industrial distillation columns for producing high-purity liquid oxygen and/or nitrogen are hundreds of feet tall, this distillation column is less than 3 ft (less than about 0.9 m) tall. This column was developed to trickle-charge a LOX-based emergency oxygen system (EOS) for a large commercial aircraft. A description of the industrial production of liquid oxygen and liquid nitrogen by distillation is prerequisite to a meaningful description of the present miniaturized distillation column. Typically, such industrial production takes place in a chemical processing plant in which large quantities of high-pressure air are expanded in a turboexpander to (1) recover a portion of the electrical power required to compress the air and (2) partially liquefy the air. The resulting two-phase flow of air is sent to the middle of a distillation column. The liquid phase is oxygen-rich, and its oxygen purity increases as it flows down the column. The vapor phase is nitrogen-rich and its nitrogen purity increases as it flows up the column. A heater or heat exchanger, commonly denoted a reboiler, is at the bottom of the column. The reboiler is so named because its role is to reboil some of the liquid oxygen collected at the bottom of the column to provide a flow of oxygen-rich vapor. As the oxygen-rich vapor flows up the column, it absorbs the nitrogen in the down-flowing liquid by mass transfer. Once the vapor leaves the lower portion of the column, it interacts with down-flowing nitrogen liquid that has been condensed in a heat exchanger, commonly denoted a condenser, at the top of the column. Liquid oxygen and liquid nitrogen products are obtained by draining some of the purified product at the bottom and top of the column

  11. Kinetic azeotropy and design of reactive distillation columns

    SciTech Connect

    Mahajani, S.M.

    1999-01-01

    The reactive fixed points in the distillation maps of a reactive distillation column (RDC) with kinetically controlled reactions are identified and their role in deciding the design feasibility has been elucidated. The fixed points at which both reaction and distillation vectors have zero magnitudes correspond to the equilibrium fixed point. It is known that the relative positions of these points for the rectifying and stripping sections determine the value of the minimum reflux ratio. However, apart from these fixed points, there are certain fixed points in the distillation map at which, though the reaction and distillation vectors have nonzero magnitudes, they nullify the effects of each other. These points correspond to the kinetic fixed points and have a special significance. Their positions have direct influence on the feasible product composition. A simple example of an ideal ternary system undergoing a reaction 2B {longleftrightarrow} A + c has been illustrated to show the importance of kinetic azeotropy in the design aspects of RDC.

  12. Some design aspects of reactive distillation columns (RDC)

    SciTech Connect

    Mahajani, S.M.; Kolah, A.K.

    1996-12-01

    The design approach of Doherty and co-workers (1988a,b; 1994) for reactive distillation columns (RDC) has been extended for the packed-bed column in which liquid phase backmixing is totally absent. The influence of various design parameters on the feasibility of design has been studied in detail for both kinetically controlled and equilibrium-controlled reactions. A hypothetical example of a three-component reactive system has been considered in the present exercise.

  13. Are thermally coupled distillation columns always thermodynamically more efficient for ternary distillations?

    SciTech Connect

    Agrawal, R.; Fidkowski, Z.T.

    1998-08-01

    The thermodynamic efficiency of five ternary distillation configurations to distill ideal saturated liquids into pour product streams are calculated and compared. A striking result of this study is that for the fully coupled column (Petlyuk) configuration, which is known to have the lowest heat demand for ternary distillation, the range of values of feed composition and relative volatilities for which it is the most thermodynamically efficient configuration is quite limited. Among the three thermally coupled column configurations tend to provide the most efficient configuration more often than the fully coupled configuration. Generally, the modified direct and indirect split configurations together provide the most thermodynamically efficient configuration for more feed compositions and relative volatilities than do the three thermally coupled column configurations. The high thermodynamic efficiency of these two configurations is primarily due to their ability to either accept or reject heat at the intermediate temperatures of binary mixtures.

  14. Shortcut models and feasibility considerations for emerging batch distillation columns

    SciTech Connect

    Lotter, S.P.; Diwekar, U.M.

    1997-03-01

    The transient nature and flexibility of batch distillation allow for configuring the column in a number of different ways. Some of the new configurations are an inverted column, a middle vessel column, and a multivessel column. These new column configurations have also provided new ways of operation. The preliminary analysis of these emerging columns has shown promising behavior, because of the added flexibility. This added flexibility is especially interesting for a chemical industry where the quantity and lifetime of the products are uncertain, but it has also made the analysis of the system more difficult. Shortcut procedures provide an easy way of understanding the global behavior of complex systems. In this paper the authors are presenting shortcut procedures for the newly described batch distillation column configurations. The transient profiles obtained by the proposed shortcut procedures and rigorous models are compared using extensive test cases. Global qualitative properties and feasibility criteria are derived for these new designs, and a detailed analysis of these configurations is also presented.

  15. ITER relevant testing of a cryogenic distillation column system

    SciTech Connect

    Bellamy, D.G.; Robins, J.R.; Woodall, K.B.; Sood, S.K.; Gierszewski, P.

    1995-10-01

    A new experimental system has been constructed to test ITER relevant distillation columns and related cryogenic distillation (CD) hardware and control systems. These columns are used to purify tritium in the ITER fuel cycle. The ITER test column reported here has a diameter of about 30 mm and a packed length of approximately 150 cm. It can operate with a hydrogen isotope (Q{sub 2}) boilup of about 60 watts. Two 30 W refrigeration systems were coupled together to deliver as close as possible to 60 watts of cooling. The separation performance of the column was determined by accurately measuring the tritium concentration in the feed and product streams using a mixture of D{sub 2} and DT gas. Conditions which yield a column theoretical plate height as low as 2.05 cm. and a plate inventory of 0.118 moles are reported. The goal of this research program is to measure the performance of ITER relevant columns, packings, condensers, and reboilers in order to minimize hydrogen (Q{sub 2}) and tritium holdup and to show that ITER objectives can be met with smaller diameter and lower tritium inventory columns than have previously been considered. 5 refs., 4 figs.

  16. A nonequilibrium model for dynamic simulation of tray distillation columns

    SciTech Connect

    Kooijman, H.A.; Taylor, R.

    1995-08-01

    A nonequilibrium model for the dynamic simulation of distillation columns is described. The nonequilibrium model includes the direct calculation of the rates of mass and energy transfer and is better able to model the actual physical processes occurring on a real distillation tray than is the conventional equilibrium stage model. Example calculations show that heat-transfer limitations and the vapor holdup above the froth cannot be neglected at elevated pressures. Back-computed Murphree tray efficiencies are not constant over time, which implies that the equilibrium model should not be used for dynamic simulations.

  17. Experimental study of wave propagation dynamics of binary distillation columns

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, Y.L.; Graham, G.K.; Keller, G.E. II; Ting, J.; Helfferich, F.G.

    1996-10-01

    High-purity distillation columns are typically difficult to control because of their severely nonlinear behavior reflected by their sharp composition and temperature profiles. The dynamic behavior of such a column, as characterized by the movement of its sharp profile, was elucidated by a nonlinear wave theory established previously. With binary alcohol mixtures, this study provides an experimental observation of such wave-propagation dynamics of a 40-tray stripping column and a 50-tray fractionation column in response to step disturbances of feed composition, feed flow rate, and reboiler heat supply. These experimental results have verified that the sharp profile in a high-purity column moves as a constant-pattern wave and that the nonlinear wave theory predicts its velocity satisfactorily with very simple mathematics. Results also demonstrate the asymmetric dynamics of the transitions between two steady states.

  18. Applying risk assessment principles to a batch distillation column

    SciTech Connect

    Woodward, J.L.; Moosemiller, M.D.

    1996-12-31

    Some distillation columns in the chemical industry are operated in batch mode with a fairly short operating cycle. At the end of each cycle the columns are cooled and recharged. During the cooling cycle, air will be drawn into the column by the action of a vacuum relief valve. Consequently, for a finite portion of the operating cycle a flammable mixture will exist in the column. Here we evaluate the risk posed by such an operation to see if a mitigation measure is justified. We develop a fault tree and estimate the frequency of ignition by all possible ignition sources. By comparing the risk reduction attainable by installing a lightning protection system with that attainable by using an inert blanketing system the lightning protection system is found to be the preferred solution. It provides about the same risk reduction at a lower overall cost. 2 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  19. Simple, analytical criteria for the sequencing of distillation columns

    SciTech Connect

    Malone, M.F.; Douglas, J.M.; Glinos, K.; Marquez, F.E.

    1985-04-01

    A quantitative criterion for the selection of simple distillation sequences is derived for ideal mixtures. A simple cost model, along with a short-cut solution of Underwood's equations, gives an analytical form for the total vapor rate, which is the key design variable. The results for column sequencing that are based on the analytical criterion agree well with more exact solutions, but they indicate that in numerous situations the commonly accepted heuristics are incorrect.

  20. Distillation column for the XENON1T experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fieguth, Alexander; XENON Collaboration

    2016-05-01

    The XENON1T experiment will probe a new parameter space in the direct dark matter search. Besides the enlargement of target mass to the ton scale, a further background reduction with respect to its predecessor XENON100 is necessary. A major contribution to the intrinsic contamination is the β-decaying isotope 85Kr, which leads to the requirement of a concentration less than 0.2 ppt of natural krypton in xenon. Its removal from the xenon gas is achieved by cryogenic distillation. For the new experiment a custom-build distillation column with a separation factor larger than 105 and a throughput of 3kg/h has been designed and built at the University of Muenster. Furthermore its performance has been characterized using different trace gas detection techniques, e.g. a novel 83mKr-tracer method, and its functionality has been tested successfully. The distillation column, which is installed and commissioned at the XENON1T experiment, is ready to process the 3.5 tons of xenon.

  1. A cryogenic distillation column for the XENON1T experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosendahl, S.; Brown, E.; Cristescu, I.; Fieguth, A.; Huhmann, C.; Murra, M.; Weinheimer, C.

    2014-11-01

    The XENON collaboration aims for the direct detection of cold dark matter in form of weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs). A dual phase time projection chamber filled with liquid xenon is used to detect the WIMP-nucleon interaction. For the next generation experiment XENON1T with an active target mass of 1 ton of xenon, a new distillation column to remove krypton out of xenon to a concentration of < 5 × 10-13 (0.5 ppt) natural krypton in xenon is designed and tested at the Institut für Kernphysik, Universitat Munster. The experimental setup together with two diagnostic tools is presented, as well as one stability test of a 11 hour distillation run at the designed flowrate of 3 kg per hour.

  2. Column flooding and entrainment. [Estimation of maximum allowable vapor velocity and entrainment in a distillation column

    SciTech Connect

    Lygeros, A.I.; Magoulas, K.G.

    1986-12-01

    Here is a way to estimate maximum allowable vapor velocity and entrainment in a distillation column. The method can easily be computerized. It is based on equations derived from the widely accepted correlations. The equation for flooding velocity is applicable to bubble-cup, sieve and valve trays, while the entrainment equation applies only to sieve trays.

  3. Distillation column revamp eliminates jet flooding; increases efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Arneson, A.D.; Boike, J.

    1986-10-01

    UOP's McCook, IL, plant produces a great variety of chemicals, among them many antioxidants and antiozonants which are used by gasoline producers, rubber processors and other industrial customers. Low boiling oxygenated aliphatics are stripped from high boiling nitrogenous compounds in a distillation column. In order to achieve the necessary separation, very high column reflux rates were required. This sometimes caused jet flooding which led to entrainment and contamination of the overhead streams. When the overhead streams did not meet purity specs, they had to be inventoried and later recycled. The result was unacceptably high costs and low overall unit efficiency. To correct the problem, UOP decided to revamp the column in question. The 28 original sieve trays were removed from the 28' tall, 19 1/4'' ID column, and 27 SS304 cartridge-type fabricated screen trays were installed don 12'' spacing. The closely spaced wires from which the decks of the trays are fabricated form venturi-shaped slots that allow operation in the froth regime over a wide range of conditions. Reduced entrainment and low pressure drop combine to permit use of very high vapor and liquid rates without flooding. After the revamp, UOP found that flooding problems were eliminated in the column. Pressure drop was considerably reduced, too. An increase in separation efficiency was also noticed which permitted reboiler temperatures to be lowered by 20-50/sup 0/F, and lower reflux rates to be employed. Energy requirements of the reboiler were cut by 400,000 Btu/hr at 80% of maximum column feed rate. This represented a savings of more that $16,000/yr in fuel costs on an annualized basis, calculated on 80% efficiency in the natural gas-fired furnace.

  4. Floral aroma improvement of Muscat spirits by packed column distillation with variable internal reflux.

    PubMed

    Matias-Guiu, Pau; Rodríguez-Bencomo, Juan José; Orriols, Ignacio; Pérez-Correa, José Ricardo; López, Francisco

    2016-12-15

    The organoleptic quality of wine distillates depends on raw materials and the distillation process. Previous work has shown that rectification columns in batch distillation with fixed reflux rate are useful to obtain distillates or distillate fractions with enhanced organoleptic characteristics. This study explores variable reflux rate operating strategies to increase the levels of terpenic compounds in specific distillate fractions to emphasize its floral aroma. Based on chemical and sensory analyses, two distillate heart sub-fractions obtained with the best operating strategy found, were compared with a distillate obtained in a traditional alembic. Results have shown that a drastic reduction of the reflux rate at an early stage of the heart cut produced a distillate heart sub-fraction with a higher concentration of terpenic compounds and lower levels of negative aroma compounds. Therefore, this sub-fraction presented a much more noticeable floral aroma than the distillate obtained with a traditional alembic.

  5. Floral aroma improvement of Muscat spirits by packed column distillation with variable internal reflux.

    PubMed

    Matias-Guiu, Pau; Rodríguez-Bencomo, Juan José; Orriols, Ignacio; Pérez-Correa, José Ricardo; López, Francisco

    2016-12-15

    The organoleptic quality of wine distillates depends on raw materials and the distillation process. Previous work has shown that rectification columns in batch distillation with fixed reflux rate are useful to obtain distillates or distillate fractions with enhanced organoleptic characteristics. This study explores variable reflux rate operating strategies to increase the levels of terpenic compounds in specific distillate fractions to emphasize its floral aroma. Based on chemical and sensory analyses, two distillate heart sub-fractions obtained with the best operating strategy found, were compared with a distillate obtained in a traditional alembic. Results have shown that a drastic reduction of the reflux rate at an early stage of the heart cut produced a distillate heart sub-fraction with a higher concentration of terpenic compounds and lower levels of negative aroma compounds. Therefore, this sub-fraction presented a much more noticeable floral aroma than the distillate obtained with a traditional alembic. PMID:27451153

  6. Startup of distillation columns using profile position control based on nonlinear wave model

    SciTech Connect

    Han, M.; Park, S. |

    1999-04-01

    Startup of distillation columns is a very challenging control problem because of its strong nonlinearity and a wide operating range during the transient period. A nonlinear wave model captures the essential dynamic behavior of the distillation process so that it is possible to deal with the difficulties encountered during startup operation. This paper is concerned with the startup of distillation systems using nonlinear wave model based control developed by Han and Park. This control scheme uses profile positions as controlled variables and is based on the nonlinear wave model by Hwang and generic model control scheme by Lee and Sullivan. It can be applied to a binary or a multicomponent distillation system that can be represented as a pseudobinary. The proposed control scheme is shown by simulation studies to provide a safe and economic startup operation not only for dual composition control of a simple distillation column but also for a complex distillation configuration.

  7. Effect of feed characteristics on the controllability of binary distillation columns

    SciTech Connect

    Cantrell, J.G.; Elliott, T.R.; Luyben, W.L.

    1995-09-01

    The design and control of binary distillation columns have been the focus of a great deal of industrial and academic research. However, the effect of the feed characteristics on the controllability of the column has remained unclear. This paper first examines how feed tray location affects the inherent controllability of a binary distillation column. It is shown that controllability can be significantly improved by feeding on a nonoptimum tray. The effects of feed thermal condition are also explored. Generic rules are proposed to improve the controllability of the column by changing the thermal condition of the feed.

  8. Multiple steady states in distillation: Effect of VL(L)E inaccuracies

    SciTech Connect

    Bekiaris, N.; Guettinger, T.E.; Morari, M.

    2000-05-01

    Output multiplicities in heterogeneous azeotropic distillation columns were studied. The accuracy of the thermodynamic description is a key factor that determines if multiplicities can be observed in numerical simulations. The descriptions used in the multiplicity-related literature are analyzed. The {infinity}/{infinity} analysis of Bekiaris et al. (1996) was used to check implications of inaccuracies in the reported thermodynamics on the existence of multiplicities in azeotropic distillation. On this basis, guidelines are derived concerning what features of thermodynamic descriptions need special attention for use in multiplicity prediction and simulation. secondly, numerical studies on output multiplicities in heterogeneous azeotropic distillation in the literature were compared to the {infinity}/{infinity} predictions wherever possible. The {infinity}/{infinity} analysis was used to derive the relations between the reported multiplicities and to identify the physical phenomena causing them.

  9. Feasibility of separations for distillation of nonideal ternary mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Fidkowski, Z.T.; Doherty, M.F.; Malone, M.F. . Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1993-08-01

    The product compositions in single-feed distillation columns can be specified only in certain regions of the composition space, which depend only on the pressure, feed, and vapor-liquid equilibrium for the mixture. In nonideal mixtures, even without azeotropes, the regions may allow unusual product distributions. For example, the distillate in a direct split is composed primarily of the lightest component. Intuition and experience with relatively ideal mixtures suggest that the next most plentiful component is the intermediate boiler. In nonideal mixtures, however, with or without azeotropes, the next most plentiful component may be the highest-boiling species with only trace amounts of the intermediate boiler. For azeotropic mixtures, distillation boundaries may give rise to additional restrictions on the product compositions. The authors describe how simple distillation boundaries deform into continuous distillation boundaries and, in a limited number of cases, how the simple distillation boundaries can be crossed in continuous columns for certain ranges of the design variables. Unfortunately, such designs may be quite sensitive to model uncertainties or to disturbances in the parameters.

  10. Output-feedback control of reactive batch distillation columns

    SciTech Connect

    Monroy-Loperena, R.; Alvarez-Ramirez, J.

    2000-02-01

    In this work, an output-feedback, control for the regulation of distillate purity via manipulations of the reflux ratio in reactive batch distillation is designed. The approach is based on an approximate model of the composition dynamics and makes use of a reduced-order observer to estimate the modeling error. An input/output linearizing feedback is proposed where the estimated modeling error is included to achieve robust tracking of a composition reference. It is shown that the resulting controller has the structure of a proportional-integral derivative (PID) controller with antireset windup. The controller performance is tested using a simulation example including strong uncertainties in the reaction model. An interesting finding is that the required reflux ratio policy to reach asymptotically a constant reference resembles the reflux ratio policy obtained from posing an optimization technique.

  11. Heat Transfer Study of Heat-Integrated Distillation Column (HIDiC) Using Simulation Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pulido, Jeffrey León; Martínez, Edgar Leonardo; Wolf, Maria Regina; Filho, Rubens Maciel

    2011-08-01

    Separation processes is largely used in petroleum refining and alcohol industries. Distillation columns consume a huge amount of energy in industrial process. Therefore, the concept of Heat-Integrated Distillation Column (HIDiC) was studied using simulation techniques in order to overcome this drawback. In this configuration the column is composed for two concentric sections called rectifying and stripping. The heat transfer is conducted from the rectifying section (which works at higher pressure and temperature) to the stripping section (which works at lower pressure and temperature) using the heat present in the process and decreasing the energy charge required by the reboiler. The HIDiC column offers great potential to reduce energy consumption compared to conventional columns. However, the complexity of the internal configuration requires the development of rigorous works that enable a better understanding of the column operation. For this reason, techniques of simulation were used through of computational software. The current work presents a heat transfer study in a concentric stage of a HIDiC column. The results obtained by Aspen Plus and CFD simulation showed the internal heat transfer in a concentric tray as a promissory configuration in order to decrease energy consumption in distillation processes.

  12. Extending continuous conventional and extractive distillation feasibility insights to batch distillation

    SciTech Connect

    Safrit, B.T.; Westerberg, A.W.; Diwekar, U.; Wahnschafft, O.M.

    1995-10-01

    Researchers have begun to study a batch column with simultaneous top and bottom products, sometimes called a middle vessel column. The column is similar to a continuous column in that it has both a rectifying and a stripping section. However, instead of a feed tray, the middle vessel column has a tray with a large holdup that acts like the still pot. Using ternary diagrams, the authors show that one can identify the feasible products and possible column profile regions for the batch rectifier, the stripper, and the middle vessel columns using methods developed for continuous distillation. Using insights developed for continuous distillation, they also compare extractive distillation using the batch rectifier and middle vessel column and show that these columns can theoretically recover all of the pure distillate product from an azeotropic feed. However, the batch rectifier requires a still pot of infinite size. It is possible to steer the still pot composition i the middle vessel column by adjusting column parameters such as the product and extractive agent flow rates. Theoretically, it thus becomes possible to recover all of the distillate product without the need for an infinite still pot.

  13. Modified method to improve the design of Petlyuk distillation columns

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A response surface analysis was performed to study the effect of the composition and feeding thermal conditions of ternary mixtures on the number of theoretical stages and the energy consumption of Petlyuk columns. A modification of the pre-design algorithm was necessary for this purpose. Results The modified algorithm provided feasible results in 100% of the studied cases, compared with only 8.89% for the current algorithm. The proposed algorithm allowed us to attain the desired separations, despite the type of mixture and the operating conditions in the feed stream, something that was not possible with the traditional pre-design method. The results showed that the type of mixture had great influence on the number of stages and on energy consumption. A higher number of stages and a lower consumption of energy were attained with mixtures rich in the light component, while higher energy consumption occurred when the mixture was rich in the heavy component. Conclusions The proposed strategy expands the search of an optimal design of Petlyuk columns within a feasible region, which allow us to find a feasible design that meets output specifications and low thermal loads. PMID:25061476

  14. Improving dual composition control in continuous distillation by a novel column design

    SciTech Connect

    Barolo, M.; Papini, C.A.

    2000-01-01

    How a novel design of continuous distillation columns may impact the performance of conventional controllers when it is required to accurately control the purity of both products in a binary separation is analyzed. The proposed column layout is characterized by the presence of a middle vessel, to which two streams are fed: the liquid flow coming from the rectifying section and the feed to be separated. The actual liquid flow to the column is determined by the middle-vessel level controller. For different control configurations and conventional proportional-integral control, it is shown that using a middle-vessel column provides a way to reduce the interaction between the composition loops, in such a way that the control performance of middle-vessel columns may be made remarkably superior to that of the conventional columns. The results obtained are supported by a theoretical analysis based on the frequency-dependent relative gain array tool.

  15. Characteristics of energy savings in an ideal heat-integrated distillation column (HIDiC)

    SciTech Connect

    Nakaiwa, Masaru; Huang, Kejin; Owa, Masaru; Akiya, Takaji; Nakane, Takashi; Sato, Masahito; Takamatsu, Takeichiro

    1997-12-31

    Distillation columns are major energy consumers in the chemical and petrochemical industries. In order to reduce energy consumption, considerable studies have been carried out and many distillation columns have been proposed. A Heat-Integrated Distillation Column (HIDiC) is constructed in such a manner that its rectifying and stripping sections are separated, while connected through a compressor and a throttling valve. Separation is benefited by heat integration between the two sections. To provide the driving forces for heat transfers from the rectifying to the stripping sections, the former must be operated at higher pressure than the latter. The HIDiC is expected to be more energy efficient than conventional columns, while at the expenses of some energy to raise up the pressure of the rectifying section. In this paper, it is shown by thermodynamical consideration that the HIDiC has high potential of exergy loss reduction compared with conventional columns. The effects of pressure difference on energy saving are analyzed, and possibility of energy saving is found in some case studies.

  16. Nonlinear model-based control algorithm for a distillation column using software sensor.

    PubMed

    Jana, Amiya Kumar; Samanta, Amar Nath; Ganguly, Saibal

    2005-04-01

    This paper presents the design of model-based globally linearizing control (GLC) structure for a distillation process within the differential geometric framework. The model of a nonideal binary distillation column, whose characteristics were highly nonlinear and strongly interactive, is used as a real process. The classical GLC law is comprised of a transformer (input-output linearizing state feedback), a nonlinear state observer, and an external PI controller. The tray temperature based short-cut observer (TTBSCO) has been used as a state estimator within the control structure, in which all tray temperatures were considered to be measured. Accordingly, the liquid phase composition of each tray was calculated online using the derived temperature-composition correlation. In the simulation experiment, the proposed GLC coupled with TTBSCO (GLC-TTBSCO) outperformed a conventional PI controller based on servo performances with and without measurement noise as well as on regulatory behaviors. In the subsequent part, the GLC law has been synthesized in conjunction with tray temperature based reduced-order observer (GLC-TTBROO) where the distillate and bottom compositions of the distillation process have been inferred from top and bottom product temperatures respectively, which were measured online. Finally, the comparative performance of the GLC-TTBSCO and the GLC-TTBROO has been addressed under parametric uncertainty and the GLC-TTBSCO algorithm provided slightly better performance than the GLC-TTBROO. The resulting control laws are rather general and can be easily adopted for other binary distillation columns.

  17. Design and Operation of Cryogenic Distillation Research Column for Ultra-Low Background Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiller, Christopher; Alanson Chiller, Angela; Jasinski, Benjamin; Snyder, Nathan; Mei, Dongming

    2013-04-01

    Motivated by isotopically enriched germanium (76Ge and 73Ge) for monocrystalline crystal growth for neutrinoless double-beta decay and dark matter experiments, a cryogenic distillation research column was developed. Without market availability of distillation columns in the temperature range of interest with capabilities necessary for our purposes, we designed, fabricated, tested, refined and operated a two-meter research column for purifying and separating gases in the temperature range from 100-200K. Due to interest in defining stratification, purity and throughput optimization, capillary lines were integrated at four equidistant points along the length of the column such that real-time residual gas analysis could guide the investigation. Interior gas column temperatures were monitored and controlled within 0.1oK accuracy at the top and bottom. Pressures were monitored at the top of the column to four significant figures. Subsequent impurities were measured at partial pressures below 2E-8torr. We report the performance of the column in this paper.

  18. The setup of an extraction system coupled to a hydrogen isotopes distillation column

    SciTech Connect

    Zamfirache, M.; Bornea, A.; Stefanescu, I.; Bidica, N.; Balteanu, O.; Bucur, C.

    2008-07-15

    Among the most difficult problems of cryogenic distillation one stands apart: the extraction of the heavy fraction. By an optimal design of the cycle scheme, this problem could be avoided. A 'worst case scenario' is usually occurring when the extracted fraction consists of one prevalent isotope such as hydrogen and small amounts of the other two hydrogen isotopes (deuterium and/or tritium). This situation is further complicated by two parameters of the distillation column: the extraction flow rate and the hold-up. The present work proposes the conceptual design of an extraction system associated to the cryogenic distillation column used in hydrogen separation processes. During this process, the heavy fraction (DT, T{sub 2}) is separated, its concentration being the highest at the bottom of the distillation column. From this place the extraction of the gaseous phase can now begin. Being filled with adsorbent, the extraction system is used to temporarily store the heavy fraction. Also the extraction system provides samples for the gas Chromatograph. The research work is focused on the existent pilot plant for tritium and deuterium separation from our institute to validate the experiments carried out until now. (authors)

  19. Control of high-purity distillation column using a nonlinear wave theory

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Myungwan; Park, Sunwon )

    1993-05-01

    A new model-based controller for profile position control of high-purity distillation columns is presented. The controller has been developed by incorporating nonlinear wave model into the generic model control framework. An observer based on the nonlinear wave theory is also proposed to determine the profile position. The performance of the nonlinear control scheme has been tested in simulation experiments of high-purity binary distillation columns. Tight control of profile position, which leads to fast stabilization of product compositions, has been achieved. Since the profile position control alone produces a slight offset from the desired product concentration, the composition/profile position cascade system has been used to remove the offset. The control scheme can handle significant disturbances and model-plant mismatch.

  20. Optimal feed locations and number of trays for distillation columns with multiple feeds

    SciTech Connect

    Viswanathan, J.; Grossmann, I.E. . Engineering Design Research Center)

    1993-11-01

    MINLP models for finding the optimal locations for the feeds and the number of trays required for a specified separation for a distillation column with multiple feeds are presented. Systems with ideal, Soave-Redlich-Kwong equation of state and UNIQUAC thermodynamic models are considered. This rigorous procedure requires no assumptions concerning the order of the feeds-i.e., the disposition of any feed with respect to other feeds. The optimization step automatically determines the order and the locations.

  1. The effects of thermodynamic data on the design and operation of distillation columns

    SciTech Connect

    Zeck, S. )

    1993-04-01

    The relative importance of various physical properties for distillation-column design and operation is classified. Vapor-liquid equilibrium data have a dominant effect. It is possible to quantify the effect of errors of relative volatility on the uncertainty of the number of stages required for a given simple binary separation problem by using the simplest, so-termed short-cut methods of column design, because the results obtained are, practically, the same as those found by more sophisticated methods. The same error in the relative volatility [alpha] leads to a sharply increasing uncertainty in the number of stages required as the value of [alpha] approaches unity.

  2. Soft sensor based composition estimation and controller design for an ideal reactive distillation column.

    PubMed

    Vijaya Raghavan, S R; Radhakrishnan, T K; Srinivasan, K

    2011-01-01

    In this research work, the authors have presented the design and implementation of a recurrent neural network (RNN) based inferential state estimation scheme for an ideal reactive distillation column. Decentralized PI controllers are designed and implemented. The reactive distillation process is controlled by controlling the composition which has been estimated from the available temperature measurements using a type of RNN called Time Delayed Neural Network (TDNN). The performance of the RNN based state estimation scheme under both open loop and closed loop have been compared with a standard Extended Kalman filter (EKF) and a Feed forward Neural Network (FNN). The online training/correction has been done for both RNN and FNN schemes for every ten minutes whenever new un-trained measurements are available from a conventional composition analyzer. The performance of RNN shows better state estimation capability as compared to other state estimation schemes in terms of qualitative and quantitative performance indices. PMID:20887987

  3. Soft sensor based composition estimation and controller design for an ideal reactive distillation column.

    PubMed

    Vijaya Raghavan, S R; Radhakrishnan, T K; Srinivasan, K

    2011-01-01

    In this research work, the authors have presented the design and implementation of a recurrent neural network (RNN) based inferential state estimation scheme for an ideal reactive distillation column. Decentralized PI controllers are designed and implemented. The reactive distillation process is controlled by controlling the composition which has been estimated from the available temperature measurements using a type of RNN called Time Delayed Neural Network (TDNN). The performance of the RNN based state estimation scheme under both open loop and closed loop have been compared with a standard Extended Kalman filter (EKF) and a Feed forward Neural Network (FNN). The online training/correction has been done for both RNN and FNN schemes for every ten minutes whenever new un-trained measurements are available from a conventional composition analyzer. The performance of RNN shows better state estimation capability as compared to other state estimation schemes in terms of qualitative and quantitative performance indices.

  4. Fault detection in the distillation column process using Kullback Leibler divergence.

    PubMed

    Aggoune, Lakhdar; Chetouani, Yahya; Raïssi, Tarek

    2016-07-01

    Chemical plants are complex large-scale systems which need designing robust fault detection schemes to ensure high product quality, reliability and safety under different operating conditions. The present paper is concerned with a feasibility study of the application of the black-box modeling method and Kullback Leibler divergence (KLD) to the fault detection in a distillation column process. A Nonlinear Auto-Regressive Moving Average with eXogenous input (NARMAX) polynomial model is firstly developed to estimate the nonlinear behavior of the plant. Furthermore, the KLD is applied to detect abnormal modes. The proposed FD method is implemented and validated experimentally using realistic faults of a distillation plant of laboratory scale. The experimental results clearly demonstrate the fact that proposed method is effective and gives early alarm to operators.

  5. Separation of organic azeotropic mixtures by pervaporation

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, R.W.

    1991-12-01

    Distillation is a commonly used separation technique in the petroleum refining and chemical processing industries. However, there are a number of potential separations involving azetropic and close-boiling organic mixtures that cannot be separated efficiently by distillation. Pervaporation is a membrane-based process that uses selective permeation through membranes to separate liquid mixtures. Because the separation process is not affected by the relative volatility of the mixture components being separated, pervaporation can be used to separate azetropes and close-boiling mixtures. Our results showed that pervaporation membranes can be used to separate azeotropic mixtures efficiently, a result that is not achievable with simple distillation. The membranes were 5--10 times more permeable to one of the components of the mixture, concentrating it in the permeate stream. For example, the membrane was 10 times more permeable to ethanol than methyl ethyl ketone, producing 60% ethanol permeate from an azeotropic mixture of ethanol and methyl ethyl ketone containing 18% ethanol. For the ethyl acetate/water mixture, the membranes showed a very high selectivity to water (> 300) and the permeate was 50--100 times enriched in water relative to the feed. The membranes had permeate fluxes on the order of 0.1--1 kg/m{sup 2}{center dot}h in the operating range of 55--70{degrees}C. Higher fluxes were obtained by increasing the operating temperature.

  6. Compact sieve-tray distillation column for ammonia-water absorption heat pump: Part 1 -- Design methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Anand, G.; Erickson, D.C.

    1999-07-01

    The distillation column is a key component of ammonia-water absorption units including advanced generator-absorber heat exchange (GAX) cycle heat pumps. The design of the distillation column is critical to unit performance, size, and cost. The distillation column can be designed with random packing, structured packing, or various tray configurations. A sieve-tray distillation column is the least complicated tray design and is less costly than high-efficiency packing. Substantial literature is available on sieve tray design and performance. However, most of the correlations and design recommendations were developed for large industrial hydrocarbon systems and are generally not directly applicable to the compact ammonia-water column discussed here. The correlations were reviewed and modified as appropriate for this application, and a sieve-tray design model was developed. This paper presents the sieve-tray design methodology for highly compact ammonia-water columns. A conceptual design of the distillation column for an 8 ton vapor exchange (VX) GAX heat pump is presented, illustrating relevant design parameters and trends. The design process revealed several issues that have to be investigated experimentally to design the final optimized rectifier. Validation of flooding and weeping limits and tray/point efficiencies are of primary importance.

  7. Synthesis of crystallization-distillation hybrid separation processes

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, D.A.; Ng, K.M.

    1997-07-01

    A systematic method to synthesize crystallization-distillation hybrid separation processes is presented. Two classes of hybrids are identified for binary mixtures. The first bypasses azeotropes and tangent pinches, while the second bypasses eutectics. Guidelines for flow-sheet selection are proposed based on an analysis of simple eutectic, constant relative volatility systems. In addition, the hybrids are compared to both extractive and adductive crystallization in order to determine the conditions under which solvent-based crystallization techniques outperform the proposed hybrid configurations. The method is extended to ternary mixture. The use of stream combination and complex distillation columns is also considered.

  8. On the use of intermediate reboilers in the rectifying section and condensers in the stripping section of a distillation column

    SciTech Connect

    Agrawal, R.; Fidkowski, Z.T.

    1996-08-01

    Advantages of an intermediate reboiler in the stripping section of a distillation column and an intermediate condenser in the rectifying section are well-known. For highly nonideal mixtures the distillation process can be improved by placing an intermediate reboiler in the rectifying section of the column or an intermediate condenser in the stripping section, which is counterintuitive. In consequence the more expensive heating utility used in the bottom reboiler can be partially replaced with a less expensive heating medium (at a lower temperature) used in the intermediate reboiler. Similarly, a portion of the condensing duty from the top condenser can be replaced with the less expensive condensing duty (at a higher temperature) in the intermediate condenser. This placement of reboilers (condensers) can be used to reduce the total number of stages in the distillation column with a lower (higher) level of utility. Operating and capital costs of the distillation process with an intermediate heat exchanger can be lower than those for a classic column. A simple method providing valuable insights on the possible placement of intermediate heat exchangers along the column is proposed. It is based on calculations of the vapor flow along the height of a reversible, binary distillation column performing the equivalent separation task.

  9. Experimental results of hydrogen distillation at the low power cryogenic column for the production of deuterium depleted hydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Alekseev, I.; Fedorchenko, O.; Kravtsov, P.; Vasilyev, A.; Vznuzdaev, M.

    2008-07-15

    The Deuterium Removal Unit (DRU) has been designed and built at the Petersburg Nuclear Physics Inst. (PNPI) to produce isotopically pure hydrogen with deuterium content less than 1 ppm. The cryogenic distillation column of 2.2 cm inner diameter and 155 cm packing height is the main element of the DRU. Column performances at different hydrogen distillation operating modes have been measured. The height equivalent to theoretical plate (HETP) for the column is 2.2 cm and almost constant over a wide range of vapour flow rates. Deuterium depleted hydrogen with a deuterium content of less than 0.1 ppm was produced in required quantity. (authors)

  10. Penetration of different human pathogenic viruses into sand columns percolated with distilled water, groundwater, or wastewater.

    PubMed Central

    Dizer, H; Nasser, A; Lopez, J M

    1984-01-01

    The adsorption of several enteroviruses and rotavirus SA11 to sand from an aquifer in the Federal Republic of Germany was estimated in sand-filled columns loaded with ca. 10(7) PFU and run at a velocity of 2.5 m/day for 12 h. After either distilled water, groundwater, secondary effluent, or tertiary effluent was percolated, the sand core was slowly extruded out of the column and cut in 1-cm slices. The slices were eluted with nutrient broth, and the amount of viruses in the broth was estimated. The best adsorption was promoted by groundwater and tertiary effluent, followed by distilled water and secondary effluent. Similar experiments, carried out at different percolation rates, indicated that a 50-day underground stay of recharged water probably suffices to eliminate viruses in the groundwater-recharged tertiary effluent. However, when viruses and sand were incubated in the presence of the surfactants sodium dodecyl sulfate, nonyl phenol, dodigen 226, or alkylbenzylsulfonate, the adsorption of the viruses was substantially diminished. Experiments in the presence of nonyl phenol seem to indicate that hydrophobic interactions are involved in the adsorption of viruses to sand. PMID:6324676

  11. Design method for distillation columns filled with metallic, ceramic, or plastic structured packings

    SciTech Connect

    Gualito, J.J.; Cerino, F.J.; Cardenas, J.C.; Rocha, J.A.

    1997-05-01

    This work is a continuation and refinement of a general model developed at the Separations Research Program at The University of Texas at Austin (SRP II model) for the prediction of the height equivalent to a theoretical plate and pressure drop for distillation columns filled with metallic structured packings. It contains three parts. In the first part, the general model is briefly described and the participating equations are summarized. In the main part, the parameters needed for applying the general model for structured packings made of ceramic and plastic are presented and discussed. In the third part, the authors try to correct the model in order to get good predictions at low and high pressures.

  12. Research on the separation properties of empty-column gas chromatography (EC-GC) and conditions for simulated distillation (SIMDIS).

    PubMed

    Boczkaj, Grzegorz; Kamiński, Marian

    2013-10-01

    Previous studies have revealed it is possible to separate a high-boiling mixture by gas chromatography in empty fused-silica capillary tubing rather than in columns coated with stationary phase. Chromatographic separation occurs solely on the basis of the different boiling points of the substances separated. The high similarity of such separations to those in classic distillation seems advantageous when gas chromatography is used for simulated distillation. This paper presents results from further research on the separation properties of empty fused silica tubing. The efficiency of this chromatographic system has been examined. The usefulness of such conditions has been studied for simulated distillation, i.e. to determine the boiling-point distribution of complex mixtures, mainly petroleum fractions and products, on the basis of their retention relative to reference substances. The results obtained by use of empty-column gas chromatography (EC-GC) and by use of classical simulated distillation columns have been compared for solutes of different polarity. Studies revealed boiling points determined by EC-GC were more accurate than those obtained by the standard method of simulated distillation.

  13. Research on the separation properties of empty-column gas chromatography (EC-GC) and conditions for simulated distillation (SIMDIS).

    PubMed

    Boczkaj, Grzegorz; Kamiński, Marian

    2013-10-01

    Previous studies have revealed it is possible to separate a high-boiling mixture by gas chromatography in empty fused-silica capillary tubing rather than in columns coated with stationary phase. Chromatographic separation occurs solely on the basis of the different boiling points of the substances separated. The high similarity of such separations to those in classic distillation seems advantageous when gas chromatography is used for simulated distillation. This paper presents results from further research on the separation properties of empty fused silica tubing. The efficiency of this chromatographic system has been examined. The usefulness of such conditions has been studied for simulated distillation, i.e. to determine the boiling-point distribution of complex mixtures, mainly petroleum fractions and products, on the basis of their retention relative to reference substances. The results obtained by use of empty-column gas chromatography (EC-GC) and by use of classical simulated distillation columns have been compared for solutes of different polarity. Studies revealed boiling points determined by EC-GC were more accurate than those obtained by the standard method of simulated distillation. PMID:23925798

  14. CFD modeling of mass-transfer processes in randomly packed distillation columns

    SciTech Connect

    Yin, F.H.; Sun, C.G.; Afacan, A.; Nandakumar, K.; Chuang, K.T.

    2000-05-01

    The volume-averaged equations for velocity and concentration fields have been used to simulate the hydrodynamics and mass-transfer processes in randomly packed distillation columns. This approach is regarded as a second-generation computational fluid dynamics (CFD) based model, and a significant departure from the traditional one-dimensional, first-generation models. The model has ability to capture radial and axial variations in flow and mass-transfer conditions. The spatial variation of void fraction has been included to take into account the effect of bed structures. The simulation results have been compared with experimental data reported by Fractionation Research, Inc. (FRI) which performed their tests in a 1.22-m-diameter column with a packed bed height of 3.66 m. For validation, the authors have used data obtained with 15.9-, 25.4-, and 50.8-mm metal Pall rings at various operating conditions. Good agreement between CFD predictions and published experimental data has been obtained. This is regarded as an encouraging sign that CFD models can play a useful role in studying separation processes.

  15. Effects of reflux ratio and feed conditions for the purification of bioethanol in a continuous distillation column

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dasan, Y. K.; Abdullah, M. A.; Bhat, A. H.

    2014-10-01

    Continuous distillation column was used for the purification of bioethanol from fermentation of molasses using Saccharomyces cerevisia. Bioethanol produced was at 8.32% (v/v) level. The efficiency of continuous distillation process was evaluated based on reflux ratio, and feed condition. The lab results were validated using COFE simulation Software. The analyses showed that both reflux ratio and feed condition had significant effects on the distillation process. Stages increased from 1.79 to 2.26 as the reflux ratio was decreased from 90% to 45% and the saturated feed produced lower mole fraction of desired product. We concluded that the lower reflux ratio with cold feed condition was suitable for higher mole fraction of top product.

  16. Design/retrofit targets of pump-around refluxes for better energy integration of a crude distillation column

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, R.; Jindal, A.; Mandawala, D.; Jana, S.K.

    1999-06-01

    Crude oil distillation is a highly energy-intensive process and represents one of the most important areas for energy integration in a refinery. Current practice recovers useful energy by pump-around refluxes in type A columns for the preheating of crude oil in heat exchanger trains; however, energy-recovery targets are not well-defined or known a priori. This work presents a simple methodology for developing invariant column grand composite curves (CGCCs) for type U and type A columns using the well-established principles of pinch analysis and the refining-industry accepted Packie`s method for designing/rating crude columns. The CGCCs for type U and type A columns set the thermodynamic and practical heat-recovery targets, respectively. Since the CGCCs developed in this work are invariant with respect to pump-around reflux and depend only on the feed and product rates and specifications at given conditions of temperature and pressure, they set reflux-energy-recovery targets for either designing a new crude column or retrofitting an existing column. The application of this methodology is illustrated by means of a case study.

  17. COED Transactions, Vol. X, No. 5, May 1978. STAGEF, A Program to Compute the Internal Variables of an Operating Distillation Column.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcovitz, Alan B., Ed.

    A digital computer program, STAGEF, designed for use with the distillation experiments in a typical undergraduate Chemical Engineering laboratory in Unit Operations is explained. The program enables the student to determine the rate of liquid overflow and vapor boil-up which leaves each tray within the distillation column. The student may also…

  18. Experimental study of rigorous nonlinear model predictive control for a packed distillation column

    SciTech Connect

    Junesam Lin; Shi-Shang Jang; Junghui Chen

    1996-12-31

    Dynamic modeling of distillation processes has been substantial in the recently years. In this work, a rigorous model for packed bed distillation system is solved using the method of collocation polynomial. The control methodology used is the two-phase approach that devises an on-line identification phase and an on-line optimization phase. The experimental studies show that the on-line control using this approach is feasible and performs better than traditional controllers. 7 refs., 3 figs.

  19. Separation of organic azeotropic mixtures by pervaporation. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, R.W.

    1991-12-01

    Distillation is a commonly used separation technique in the petroleum refining and chemical processing industries. However, there are a number of potential separations involving azetropic and close-boiling organic mixtures that cannot be separated efficiently by distillation. Pervaporation is a membrane-based process that uses selective permeation through membranes to separate liquid mixtures. Because the separation process is not affected by the relative volatility of the mixture components being separated, pervaporation can be used to separate azetropes and close-boiling mixtures. Our results showed that pervaporation membranes can be used to separate azeotropic mixtures efficiently, a result that is not achievable with simple distillation. The membranes were 5--10 times more permeable to one of the components of the mixture, concentrating it in the permeate stream. For example, the membrane was 10 times more permeable to ethanol than methyl ethyl ketone, producing 60% ethanol permeate from an azeotropic mixture of ethanol and methyl ethyl ketone containing 18% ethanol. For the ethyl acetate/water mixture, the membranes showed a very high selectivity to water (> 300) and the permeate was 50--100 times enriched in water relative to the feed. The membranes had permeate fluxes on the order of 0.1--1 kg/m{sup 2}{center_dot}h in the operating range of 55--70{degrees}C. Higher fluxes were obtained by increasing the operating temperature.

  20. An applicable method for efficiency estimation of operating tray distillation columns and its comparison with the methods utilized in HYSYS and Aspen Plus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadeghifar, Hamidreza

    2015-10-01

    Developing general methods that rely on column data for the efficiency estimation of operating (existing) distillation columns has been overlooked in the literature. Most of the available methods are based on empirical mass transfer and hydraulic relations correlated to laboratory data. Therefore, these methods may not be sufficiently accurate when applied to industrial columns. In this paper, an applicable and accurate method was developed for the efficiency estimation of distillation columns filled with trays. This method can calculate efficiency as well as mass and heat transfer coefficients without using any empirical mass transfer or hydraulic correlations and without the need to estimate operational or hydraulic parameters of the column. E.g., the method does not need to estimate tray interfacial area, which can be its most important advantage over all the available methods. The method can be used for the efficiency prediction of any trays in distillation columns. For the efficiency calculation, the method employs the column data and uses the true rates of the mass and heat transfers occurring inside the operating column. It is highly emphasized that estimating efficiency of an operating column has to be distinguished from that of a column being designed.

  1. Design of a thermally integrated bioethanol-fueled solid oxide fuel cell system integrated with a distillation column

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamsak, W.; Douglas, P. L.; Croiset, E.; Suwanwarangkul, R.; Laosiripojana, N.; Charojrochkul, S.; Assabumrungrat, S.

    Solid oxide fuel cell systems integrated with a distillation column (SOFC-DIS) have been investigated in this study. The MER (maximum energy recovery) network for SOFC-DIS system under the base conditions (C EtOH = 25%, EtOH recovery = 80%, V = 0.7 V, fuel utilization = 80%, T SOFC = 1200 K) yields Q Cmin = 73.4 and Q Hmin = 0 kW. To enhance the performance of SOFC-DIS, utilization of internal useful heat sources from within the system (e.g. condenser duty and hot water from the bottom of the distillation column) and a cathode recirculation have been considered in this study. The utilization of condenser duty for preheating the incoming bioethanol and cathode recirculation for SOFC-DIS system were chosen and implemented to the SOFC-DIS (CondBio-CathRec). Different MER designs were investigated. The obtained MER network of CondBio-CathRec configuration shows the lower minimum cold utility (Q Cmin) of 55.9 kW and total cost index than that of the base case. A heat exchanger loop and utility path were also investigated. It was found that eliminate the high temperature distillate heat exchanger can lower the total cost index. The recommended network is that the hot effluent gas is heat exchanged with the anode heat exchanger, the external reformer, the air heat exchanger, the distillate heat exchanger and the reboiler, respectively. The corresponding performances of this design are 40.8%, 54.3%, 0.221 W cm -2 for overall electrical efficiency, Combine Heat and Power (CHP) efficiency and power density, respectively. The effect of operating conditions on composite curves on the design of heat exchanger network was investigated. The obtained composite curves can be divided into two groups: the threshold case and the pinch case. It was found that the pinch case which T SOFC = 1173 K yields higher total cost index than the CondBio-CathRec at the base conditions. It was also found that the pinch case can become a threshold case by adjusting split fraction or operating at

  2. Nonequilibrium cell model for packed distillation columns -- The influence of maldistribution

    SciTech Connect

    Higler, A.; Krishna, R.; Taylor, R.

    1999-10-01

    In this paper the authors present a nonequilibrium model for studying the effects of flow maldistribution in packed columns. The model consists of a set of mass and energy balances along with a set of mass- and energy-transfer correlations. Maldistribution is treated by means of the zone/stage approach, as developed by Zuiderweg et al. Simulations show that, for binary mixtures, packing HETPs are a function of the height of the packing. It should be noted that in some cases the behavior of HETPs is not intuitive, even for binary mixtures. For ternary mixtures, cases were found in which differences in maldistribution patterns can result in substantial differences in column behavior; in some cases completely different column products can be obtained.

  3. Development of soft sensor for neural network based control of distillation column.

    PubMed

    Rani, Asha; Singh, Vijander; Gupta, J R P

    2013-05-01

    The present work is aimed at the design of Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) and adaptive linear network (ADALINE) based soft sensors and their application in inferential control of a multicomponent distillation process. Further the ADALINE sensor is trained online using past measurements, to adapt the changes in the inputs and is termed as dynamic ADALINE (D-ADALINE) sensor. The soft sensors are then used in the control loop to obtain LM based inferential controller (LMIC), ADALINE based inferential controller (ADIC) and D-ADALINE based inferential controller (DADIC) for the process. The performance of dynamic controller is also analyzed for different inputs and sampling intervals. The comparison of results shows the efficient and robust prediction capability of D-ADALINE sensor and hence DADIC proves to be the best controller.

  4. Activation of aqueous hydrogen peroxide for non-catalyzed dihydroperoxidation of ketones by azeotropic removal of water.

    PubMed

    Starkl Renar, K; Pečar, S; Iskra, J

    2015-09-28

    Cyclic and acyclic ketones were selectively converted to gem-dihydroperoxides in 72-99% yield with 30% aq. hydrogen peroxide by azeotropic distillation of water from the reaction mixture without any catalyst. The reactions were more selective than with 100% H2O2 and due to neutral conditions also less stable products could be obtained. PMID:26289229

  5. Activation of aqueous hydrogen peroxide for non-catalyzed dihydroperoxidation of ketones by azeotropic removal of water.

    PubMed

    Starkl Renar, K; Pečar, S; Iskra, J

    2015-09-28

    Cyclic and acyclic ketones were selectively converted to gem-dihydroperoxides in 72-99% yield with 30% aq. hydrogen peroxide by azeotropic distillation of water from the reaction mixture without any catalyst. The reactions were more selective than with 100% H2O2 and due to neutral conditions also less stable products could be obtained.

  6. Final Report - Advanced Hydraulic and Mass Transfer Models for Distillation Column Optimization and Design

    SciTech Connect

    Eldridge, Robert, B.

    2005-10-13

    The project successfully developed a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) based simulation of the hydrodynamics of flow in a commercial structured packing element. This result fulfilled the prime objective of the research program. The simulation utilized commercial CFD code marketed by Fluent Inc. in combination with a novel graphical interface developed by Oak Ridge National Lab. The end product will allow the design of next generation column internals without the need for extensive experimental validation and will expand the fundamental understanding of the vapor-liquid contacting process.

  7. Catalytic distillation structure

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Jr., Lawrence A.

    1984-01-01

    Catalytic distillation structure for use in reaction distillation columns, a providing reaction sites and distillation structure and consisting of a catalyst component and a resilient component intimately associated therewith. The resilient component has at least about 70 volume % open space and being present with the catalyst component in an amount such that the catalytic distillation structure consist of at least 10 volume % open space.

  8. A simplified mathematical model of the cryogenic distillation with application to the (13C) isotope separation column

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neaga, A. O.; Festila, C.; Dulf, E. H.; Both, R.; Szelitzky, T.; Gligan, M.

    2012-02-01

    The isotope (13C) has a widespread application in many fields such as chemistry, physics, medicine, etc. To obtain a high concentration in isotope of interest, in our case (13C), it is used the method of cryogenic distillation of carbon monoxide (CO) which is based on the difference between the vapor pressure of (12C16O) and (13C16O) at the temperature of liquid nitrogen. Isotopic separation plant, used to obtain the isotope (13C), is a complex installation, with many inputs and outputs, rather difficult to control. Due to this reason, from the point of view of automation, it is needed a simplified mathematical model. This model can be determined only with some presumption and simplification assumptions. Using the physical laws, the hydrodynamic part of the process and the mass balance will be described by partial differential equations. In order to design a controller for the column, it is needed a transfer function or a statespace realization of the plant, which is the main contribution of the present work. Implementing this mathematical model will be the key element for describing and understanding the operation of the plant and for future development of process control strategies.

  9. A New Hybrid BFOA-PSO Optimization Technique for Decoupling and Robust Control of Two-Coupled Distillation Column Process

    PubMed Central

    Mohamed, Amr E.; Dorrah, Hassen T.

    2016-01-01

    The two-coupled distillation column process is a physically complicated system in many aspects. Specifically, the nested interrelationship between system inputs and outputs constitutes one of the significant challenges in system control design. Mostly, such a process is to be decoupled into several input/output pairings (loops), so that a single controller can be assigned for each loop. In the frame of this research, the Brain Emotional Learning Based Intelligent Controller (BELBIC) forms the control structure for each decoupled loop. The paper's main objective is to develop a parameterization technique for decoupling and control schemes, which ensures robust control behavior. In this regard, the novel optimization technique Bacterial Swarm Optimization (BSO) is utilized for the minimization of summation of the integral time-weighted squared errors (ITSEs) for all control loops. This optimization technique constitutes a hybrid between two techniques, which are the Particle Swarm and Bacterial Foraging algorithms. According to the simulation results, this hybridized technique ensures low mathematical burdens and high decoupling and control accuracy. Moreover, the behavior analysis of the proposed BELBIC shows a remarkable improvement in the time domain behavior and robustness over the conventional PID controller. PMID:27807444

  10. RELIABLE COMPUTATION OF HOMOGENEOUS AZEOTROPES. (R824731)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    It is important to determine the existence and composition of homogeneous azeotropes in the analysis of phase behavior and in the synthesis and design of separation systems, from both theoretical and practical standpoints. A new method for reliably locating an...

  11. Catalytic distillation structure

    DOEpatents

    Smith, L.A. Jr.

    1984-04-17

    Catalytic distillation structure is described for use in reaction distillation columns, and provides reaction sites and distillation structure consisting of a catalyst component and a resilient component intimately associated therewith. The resilient component has at least about 70 volume % open space and is present with the catalyst component in an amount such that the catalytic distillation structure consists of at least 10 volume % open space. 10 figs.

  12. Variation of Azeotropic Composition and Temperature with Pressure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbard, H. Frank; Emptage, Michael R.

    1975-01-01

    Describes an undergraduate physical chemistry experiment in which an azeotropic mixture is studied using the vapor pressures of the components as functions of temperature and the azeotropic composition and temperature at one pressure. Discusses in detail the mathematical treatment of obtained thermodynamic data. (MLH)

  13. Calculation of a double reactive azeotrope using stochastic optimization approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendes Platt, Gustavo; Pinheiro Domingos, Roberto; Oliveira de Andrade, Matheus

    2013-02-01

    An homogeneous reactive azeotrope is a thermodynamic coexistence condition of two phases under chemical and phase equilibrium, where compositions of both phases (in the Ung-Doherty sense) are equal. This kind of nonlinear phenomenon arises from real world situations and has applications in chemical and petrochemical industries. The modeling of reactive azeotrope calculation is represented by a nonlinear algebraic system with phase equilibrium, chemical equilibrium and azeotropy equations. This nonlinear system can exhibit more than one solution, corresponding to a double reactive azeotrope. The robust calculation of reactive azeotropes can be conducted by several approaches, such as interval-Newton/generalized bisection algorithms and hybrid stochastic-deterministic frameworks. In this paper, we investigate the numerical aspects of the calculation of reactive azeotropes using two metaheuristics: the Luus-Jaakola adaptive random search and the Firefly algorithm. Moreover, we present results for a system (with industrial interest) with more than one azeotrope, the system isobutene/methanol/methyl-tert-butyl-ether (MTBE). We present convergence patterns for both algorithms, illustrating - in a bidimensional subdomain - the identification of reactive azeotropes. A strategy for calculation of multiple roots in nonlinear systems is also applied. The results indicate that both algorithms are suitable and robust when applied to reactive azeotrope calculations for this "challenging" nonlinear system.

  14. Dealcoholized wines by spinning cone column distillation: phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity measured by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl method.

    PubMed

    Belisario-Sánchez, Yulissa Y; Taboada-Rodríguez, Amaury; Marín-Iniesta, Fulgencio; López-Gómez, Antonio

    2009-08-12

    Spinning cone column (SCC) distillation has been shown to be a commercially suitable technique for dealcoholized wine (DW) manufacturing, but there are not enough studies about its influence on the DW quality. So, the effect of this technique on the antioxidant activity (% of remaining 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical) and the phenolic compound composition of red, rose, and white DW, obtained at pilot plant scale, has been analyzed. Nineteen raw wines (RWs) from different grape varieties and five different Spanish viticultural regions have been studied before and after dealcoholization. The total phenolic content, flavonols, tartaric esters, and anthocyanins, was determined by spectrophotometry, while the content of phenolic compounds such as stilbenes (trans- and cis-resveratrol), flavonols (rutin, quercetin, and myricetin), flavan-3-ols [(+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin], anthocyanins (malvidin 3-glucoside), and non-flavonoids (gallic, caffeic, and p-coumaric acids) was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The resveratrol contents in red wines were between 1.81 and 34.01 mg/L in RWs and between 2.12 and 39.57 mg/L in DWs, Merlot being the grape producing the RWs and DWs with higher resveratrol content. In general, the percent of remaining DPPH(*) was similar or slightly higher (until 5 units of % of remaining DPPH(*)) in DWs versus RWs. This small difference may be due to removal of SO2 (that is an antioxidant) from RWs during distillation. DWs and RWs show similar contents of the studied phenolic compounds, with a tendency, in some cases, to exhibit increases after dealcoholization, caused by the concentration effect via removal of the ethanol. From this work, we can deduce that SCC distillation is a dealcoholization technique minimally destructive with the wine phenolic compounds.

  15. Dealcoholized wines by spinning cone column distillation: phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity measured by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl method.

    PubMed

    Belisario-Sánchez, Yulissa Y; Taboada-Rodríguez, Amaury; Marín-Iniesta, Fulgencio; López-Gómez, Antonio

    2009-08-12

    Spinning cone column (SCC) distillation has been shown to be a commercially suitable technique for dealcoholized wine (DW) manufacturing, but there are not enough studies about its influence on the DW quality. So, the effect of this technique on the antioxidant activity (% of remaining 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical) and the phenolic compound composition of red, rose, and white DW, obtained at pilot plant scale, has been analyzed. Nineteen raw wines (RWs) from different grape varieties and five different Spanish viticultural regions have been studied before and after dealcoholization. The total phenolic content, flavonols, tartaric esters, and anthocyanins, was determined by spectrophotometry, while the content of phenolic compounds such as stilbenes (trans- and cis-resveratrol), flavonols (rutin, quercetin, and myricetin), flavan-3-ols [(+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin], anthocyanins (malvidin 3-glucoside), and non-flavonoids (gallic, caffeic, and p-coumaric acids) was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The resveratrol contents in red wines were between 1.81 and 34.01 mg/L in RWs and between 2.12 and 39.57 mg/L in DWs, Merlot being the grape producing the RWs and DWs with higher resveratrol content. In general, the percent of remaining DPPH(*) was similar or slightly higher (until 5 units of % of remaining DPPH(*)) in DWs versus RWs. This small difference may be due to removal of SO2 (that is an antioxidant) from RWs during distillation. DWs and RWs show similar contents of the studied phenolic compounds, with a tendency, in some cases, to exhibit increases after dealcoholization, caused by the concentration effect via removal of the ethanol. From this work, we can deduce that SCC distillation is a dealcoholization technique minimally destructive with the wine phenolic compounds. PMID:19588980

  16. Catalytic distillation process

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Jr., Lawrence A.

    1982-01-01

    A method for conducting chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture comprising feeding reactants to a distillation column reactor into a feed zone and concurrently contacting the reactants with a fixed bed catalytic packing to concurrently carry out the reaction and fractionate the reaction mixture. For example, a method for preparing methyl tertiary butyl ether in high purity from a mixed feed stream of isobutene and normal butene comprising feeding the mixed feed stream to a distillation column reactor into a feed zone at the lower end of a distillation reaction zone, and methanol into the upper end of said distillation reaction zone, which is packed with a properly supported cationic ion exchange resin, contacting the C.sub.4 feed and methanol with the catalytic distillation packing to react methanol and isobutene, and concurrently fractionating the ether from the column below the catalytic zone and removing normal butene overhead above the catalytic zone.

  17. Catalytic distillation process

    DOEpatents

    Smith, L.A. Jr.

    1982-06-22

    A method is described for conducting chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture comprising feeding reactants to a distillation column reactor into a feed zone and concurrently contacting the reactants with a fixed bed catalytic packing to concurrently carry out the reaction and fractionate the reaction mixture. For example, a method for preparing methyl tertiary butyl ether in high purity from a mixed feed stream of isobutene and normal butene comprising feeding the mixed feed stream to a distillation column reactor into a feed zone at the lower end of a distillation reaction zone, and methanol into the upper end of said distillation reaction zone, which is packed with a properly supported cationic ion exchange resin, contacting the C[sub 4] feed and methanol with the catalytic distillation packing to react methanol and isobutene, and concurrently fractionating the ether from the column below the catalytic zone and removing normal butene overhead above the catalytic zone.

  18. Efficient water removal in lipase-catalyzed esterifications using a low-boiling-point azeotrope.

    PubMed

    Yan, Youchun; Bornscheuer, Uwe T; Schmid, Rolf D

    2002-04-01

    High conversions in lipase-catalyzed syntheses of esters from free acyl donors and an alcohol requires efficient removal of water preferentially at temperatures compatible to enzyme activity. Using a lipase B from Candida antarctica (CAL-B)-mediated synthesis of sugar fatty-acid esters, we show that a mixture of ethyl methylketone (EMK) and hexane (best ratio: 4:1, vo/vo) allows efficient removal of water generated during esterification. Azeotropic distillation of the solvent mixture (composition: 26% EMK, 55% hexane, 19% water) takes place at 59 degrees C, which closely matches the optimum temperature reported for CAL-B. Water is then removed from the azeotrope by membrane vapor permeation. In case of glucose stearate, 93% yield was achieved after 48 h using an equimolar ratio of glucose and stearic acid. CAL-B could be reused for seven reaction cycles, with 86% residual activity after 14 d total reaction time at 59 degrees C. A decrease in fatty-acid chain length as well as increasing temperatures (75 degrees C) resulted in lower conversions. In addition, immobilization of CAL-B on a magnetic polypropylene carrier (EP 100) facilitated separation of the biocatalyst.

  19. Successfully troubleshoot distillation towers

    SciTech Connect

    Hasbrouck, J.F. ); Kunesh, J.G. ); Smith, V.C. )

    1993-03-01

    Distillation dominates separation services in the chemical process industries. With this widespread use, not surprisingly, operating problems are common. Because distillation columns frequently are limiting factors in plant capacity or product quality, correcting these problems usually is urgent. The paper describes the steps to be taken to start to correct problems on distillation towers: understand the ground rules, understand the people and procedures, and understand the plant. Then observe the actual operation, monitor the system, collect required data, and analyze the data. The paper discusses how to determine the problem area, broadening the search, focusing on the distillation tower and its internals, confirming the specific problem, extending the troubleshooting activities, and dealing with tougher problems.

  20. Membrane distillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryk, Mikhail T.; Nigmatullin, R. R.

    1994-12-01

    Studies in the field of membrane distillation are analysed. A critical analysis of the theoretical and experimental investigations of membrane distillation is presented. Attention is concentrated on the mechanism of mass transfer and the influence of various external factors on the process characteristics. Questions concerning the creation of modules and apparatus for membrane distillation and aspects of the practical employment of such distillation in order to obtain pure water, for the purification of waste water, and for the concentration of technological solutions in various branches of industry are considered quite fully. The advantages and disadvantages of membrane distillation compared with other membrane methods are analysed. The bibliography includes 97 references.

  1. A Comprehensive Real-World Distillation Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kazameas, Christos G.; Keller, Kaitlin N.; Luyben, William L.

    2015-01-01

    Most undergraduate mass transfer and separation courses cover the design of distillation columns, and many undergraduate laboratories have distillation experiments. In many cases, the treatment is restricted to simple column configurations and simplifying assumptions are made so as to convey only the basic concepts. In industry, the analysis of a…

  2. Mathematical modeling of a single stage ultrasonically assisted distillation process.

    PubMed

    Mahdi, Taha; Ahmad, Arshad; Ripin, Adnan; Abdullah, Tuan Amran Tuan; Nasef, Mohamed M; Ali, Mohamad W

    2015-05-01

    The ability of sonication phenomena in facilitating separation of azeotropic mixtures presents a promising approach for the development of more intensified and efficient distillation systems than conventional ones. To expedite the much-needed development, a mathematical model of the system based on conservation principles, vapor-liquid equilibrium and sonochemistry was developed in this study. The model that was founded on a single stage vapor-liquid equilibrium system and enhanced with ultrasonic waves was coded using MATLAB simulator and validated with experimental data for ethanol-ethyl acetate mixture. The effects of both ultrasonic frequency and intensity on the relative volatility and azeotropic point were examined, and the optimal conditions were obtained using genetic algorithm. The experimental data validated the model with a reasonable accuracy. The results of this study revealed that the azeotropic point of the mixture can be totally eliminated with the right combination of sonication parameters and this can be utilized in facilitating design efforts towards establishing a workable ultrasonically intensified distillation system.

  3. Adsorption isotherm of non-azeotropic solution onto porous adsorbents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bono, A.; Ramlan, N. A.; Anisuzzaman, S. M.; Chu, C. M.; Farm, Y. Y.

    2016-06-01

    Adsorption isotherm is essential component in the understanding of the adsorption process. Several methods of the measurements, analysis and interpretation of adsorption from solution have been reported in the literature. Most of the measurements of adsorption isotherm from solution were involved the measurement of excess isotherm conducted at low region of sorbates concentration. Direct interpretation of excess adsorption isotherm as adsorption isotherm is always been practice. Therefore, in this work a study on the measurement of the adsorption isotherm from solution of non-azeotropic organic solvent mixture onto porous adsorbents for whole range of liquid concentration was conducted. The study included the measurement of excess adsorption isotherm using conventional technique. Theoretical analysis and interpretation of adsorption isotherm from the excess isotherm were conducted using Pseudo Ideal Adsorption, Gibbs Dividing Plane Model and Langmuir-Fruendlich binary isotherm model. For organic solvents, acetone and propanol were chosen as the adsorbates due to the non-azeotropic properties in the mixture. Activated carbon and silicalite were chosen as adsorbents due to the different in their porosity such as macro porous and micro porous structure. The result of the study has revealed that the adsorption isotherm of non-azeotropic mixture onto activated carbon and silicalite can be interpreted as monolayer type of adsorption.

  4. Design of processes with reactive distillation line diagrams

    SciTech Connect

    Bessling, B.; Schembecker, G.; Simmrock, K.H.

    1997-08-01

    On the basis of the transformation of concentration coordinates, the concept of reactive distillation lines is developed. It is applied to study the feasibility of a reactive distillation with an equilibrium reaction on all trays of a distillation column. The singular points in the distillation line diagrams are characterized in terms of nodes and saddles. Depending on the characterization of the reactive distillation line diagrams, it can be decided whether a column with two feed stages is required. On the basis of the reaction space concept, a procedure for identification of reactive distillation processes is developed, in which the reactive distillation column has to be divided into reactive and nonreactive sections. This can be necessary to overcome the limitations in separation which result from the chemical equilibrium. The concentration profile of this combined reactive/nonreactive distillation column is estimated using combined reactive/nonreactive distillation lines.

  5. Column test-rig facility for column scanning studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zain, Rasif M.; Roslan, Y.

    2010-03-01

    Distillation columns are considered as one of the most critical components in oil and gas plants. The plant performance depends on the ability of these columns to function as intended. Defective columns may lead to serious consequences to the plant operation, and hence the quality of product. In order to perform any inspection techniques to distillation column for NDT practitioner, the best facility was designed when the adjustable defeats of distillation column test rig has been developed. The paper discussed the development and the function of this facility.

  6. Column test-rig facility for column scanning studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zain, Rasif M.; Roslan, Y.

    2009-12-01

    Distillation columns are considered as one of the most critical components in oil and gas plants. The plant performance depends on the ability of these columns to function as intended. Defective columns may lead to serious consequences to the plant operation, and hence the quality of product. In order to perform any inspection techniques to distillation column for NDT practitioner, the best facility was designed when the adjustable defeats of distillation column test rig has been developed. The paper discussed the development and the function of this facility.

  7. The effect of azeotropism on combustion characteristics of blended fuel pool fire.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yanming; Wang, Changjian; Lu, Shouxiang

    2014-04-30

    The effect of azeotropism on combustion characteristics of blended fuel pool fire was experimentally studied in an open fire test space of State Key Laboratory of Fire Science. A 30 cm × 30 cm square pool filled with n-heptane and ethanol blended fuel was employed. Flame images, burning rate and temperature distribution were collected and recorded in the whole combustion process. Results show that azeotropism obviously dominates the combustion behavior of n-heptane/ethanol blended fuel pool fire. The combustion process after ignition exhibits four typical stages: initial development, azeotropic burning, single-component burning and decay stage. Azeotropism appears when temperature of fuel surface reaches azeotropic point and blended fuel burns at azeotropic ratio. Compared with individual pure fuel, the effect of azeotropism on main fire parameters, such as flame height, burning rate, flame puffing frequency and centerline temperature were analyzed. Burning rate and centerline temperature of blended fuel are higher than that of individual pure fuel respectively at azeotropic burning stage, and flame puffing frequency follows the empirical formula between Strouhal and Froude number for pure fuel.

  8. Distillation and rectification in the production of water free alcohol

    SciTech Connect

    De Luzuriaga, E.R.

    1980-12-01

    The operation of a modern alcohol distillery using waste molasses as its prime material in the manufacture of anhydrous alcohol is described. The VMC distillery uses the azeotropic non-pressure process using benzene as the dehydrant. Scheduled production is 30,000 G.L., water free alcohol daily but 41,500 G.L., of water free alcohol has been produced indicating that the VMC dehydrating column can produce its expected capacity.

  9. Digital distillation the easy way

    SciTech Connect

    Basta, N.

    1995-10-01

    Designing distillation columns may well be the most common problem for chemical engineers. For decades, engineering students have grunted through the iterations of McCabe-Thiele diagrams; working engineers regularly cast a critical eye at column efficiencies and maintenance requirements in their plants. The design and optimization of distillation columns is a problem that has been adapted smoothly to computerization, especially on personal computers. The extensive need for accurate equilibrium and thermodynamics data is tailormade for digital storage. The iterative nature of the design process is also a common element of programming algorithms. Most of the programs on the market feature at least three components: a library of commercially available databases of fluid properties; a distillation or separations engine, using one or several design methods; and algorithms for generating physical-property data synthetically. This paper describes many of the programs on the market for this purpose.

  10. Study to determine the existence of an azeotropic R-22 `drop-in` substitute

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, M.S.; Morrison, G.; Mulroy, W.J.; Didion, D.A.

    1996-03-01

    The reduction in chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) and hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) production and the scheduled phase-out of these ozone depleting refrigerants requires the development and determination of environmentally safe refrigerants for use in heat pumps, water chillers, air conditioners, and refrigerators. Azeotropic mixtures are attractive as alternative refrigerants because they behave very nearly as pure materials. A simple correlative scheme that allows one to judge whether or not an azeotrope is likely in a binary refrigerant mixture is discussed. This paper presents laboratory and computer simulation model evaluation of two of the azeotropic refrigerant mixtures which are identified, HFC-134a (1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane) with R-C290 (Propane) and HFC-134a with R-600a (Isobutane), in a generic heat pump apparatus. A third azeotropes mixture, HFC-134a with R-C290 (Cyclopropane) is examined by computer simulation only.

  11. Distillation plus membrane processing of gas streams

    SciTech Connect

    Waldo, R.A.; Burkinshaw, J.R.

    1990-06-26

    This patent describes a process for separating components of a feed gas stream comprising carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, nitrogen, methane, and higher molecular weight hydrocarbons to form a carbon dioxide-rich stream and a methane-rich stream. It comprises: passing the feed gas stream to a first fractional distillation column; withdrawing a first overhead stream from the first fractional distillation column; withdrawing a first bottoms stream from the first fractional distillation column; passing the first overhead stream to a second fractional distillation column; withdrawing a second overhead stream wherein the second overhead stream is withdrawn from the second fractional distillation column; withdrawing a second bottoms stream wherein the second bottoms stream is withdrawn from the second fractional distillation column; passing the second overhead stream to a membrane separation unit; withdrawing a residual gas stream from the membrane separation unit to form the methane-rich stream; and withdrawing a residual gas stream from the membrane separation unit to form a recycle stream having a substantially increased concentration of carbon dioxide relative to the concentration of carbon dioxide in the second overhead stream.

  12. Distributive Distillation Enabled by Microchannel Process Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Arora, Ravi

    2013-01-22

    The application of microchannel technology for distributive distillation was studied to achieve the Grand Challenge goals of 25% energy savings and 10% return on investment. In Task 1, a detailed study was conducted and two distillation systems were identified that would meet the Grand Challenge goals if the microchannel distillation technology was used. Material and heat balance calculations were performed to develop process flow sheet designs for the two distillation systems in Task 2. The process designs were focused on two methods of integrating the microchannel technology 1) Integrating microchannel distillation to an existing conventional column, 2) Microchannel distillation for new plants. A design concept for a modular microchannel distillation unit was developed in Task 3. In Task 4, Ultrasonic Additive Machining (UAM) was evaluated as a manufacturing method for microchannel distillation units. However, it was found that a significant development work would be required to develop process parameters to use UAM for commercial distillation manufacturing. Two alternate manufacturing methods were explored. Both manufacturing approaches were experimentally tested to confirm their validity. The conceptual design of the microchannel distillation unit (Task 3) was combined with the manufacturing methods developed in Task 4 and flowsheet designs in Task 2 to estimate the cost of the microchannel distillation unit and this was compared to a conventional distillation column. The best results were for a methanol-water separation unit for the use in a biodiesel facility. For this application microchannel distillation was found to be more cost effective than conventional system and capable of meeting the DOE Grand Challenge performance requirements.

  13. Using water in distillation systems heat pumps

    SciTech Connect

    Meili, A.

    1993-05-01

    Conventional steam-heated distillation columns are among the largest energy consumers in a chemical process industries (CPI) plant. More and more distillation columns are, therefore, being equipped with heat pumps. In many cases, this is done not only to reduce energy costs, but also for safety and operational reasons. Most heat pumps in industrial-scale evaporation or distillation plants employ steam ejectors, direct vapor recompression, or an auxiliary heat-transfer medium. An earlier article covered the various alternatives for heat-pump-assisted distillation. This article takes an in-depth look at heat pumps with an auxiliary medium, specifically those employing water. The article provides some general background on heat-pump-assisted distillation, discusses the advantages and disadvantages of using water as the heat-transfer medium, highlights the range of possible applications, and illustrates the technology and its potential energy savings via several examples.

  14. Column internals

    SciTech Connect

    Bravo, J.L.

    1998-02-01

    In the fields of distillation, absorption, stripping and extraction, theory and technology go hand in hand. The thermodynamic principles of phase equilibrium and the concepts of mass transfer and fluid flow are of primary importance in all of these operations. The engineer must understand these phenomena to select equipment effectively. This article discusses the latest in commercial technology in column internals for gas-liquid and liquid-liquid contacting. The principles of operation are explained vis-a-vis the characteristics of the applications in which they are used. The focus is on moderate-to-large columns for refining and chemical applications. Guidelines for selecting the most appropriate type of device are presented, and examples of typical applications are described.

  15. Conceptual design of distillation-based hybrid separation processes.

    PubMed

    Skiborowski, Mirko; Harwardt, Andreas; Marquardt, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Hybrid separation processes combine different separation principles and constitute a promising design option for the separation of complex mixtures. Particularly, the integration of distillation with other unit operations can significantly improve the separation of close-boiling or azeotropic mixtures. Although the design of single-unit operations is well understood and supported by computational methods, the optimal design of flowsheets of hybrid separation processes is still a challenging task. The large number of operational and design degrees of freedom requires a systematic and optimization-based design approach. To this end, a structured approach, the so-called process synthesis framework, is proposed. This article reviews available computational methods for the conceptual design of distillation-based hybrid processes for the separation of liquid mixtures. Open problems are identified that must be addressed to finally establish a structured process synthesis framework for such processes.

  16. Advanced distillation saves energy and capital

    SciTech Connect

    Lestak, F.; Collins, C.

    1997-07-01

    Although new separation methods are continuously being explored, distillation remains the most frequently used separation process. It is well known that distillation is both energy intensive and inefficient. Compared to conventional column sequences, one particular configuration--the fully thermally coupled distillation column--can save significant amounts of energy by reducing thermodynamic losses. In such a setup, a number of columns (typically two) are linked together through vapor and liquid streams without reboilers or condensers between the columns. One practical application of the fully thermal coupled column has been known for a long time. However, lack of design experience and fear of operational and control problems, have prevented its widespread use to date. In addition to energy savings, divided-wall columns can save capital costs, by reducing the number of column shells, reboilers and condensers. The divided-wall column can be applied with real benefits in a variety of refinery, gas separation and chemical processes. Generally, the technology should be considered in any ternary (three-component) separation, as a possible low-cost alternative to conventional schemes. Generic guidelines for the use of divided-wall columns are discussed. The application of the divided-wall column for natural gas liquids separation is also presented.

  17. Anthracene + Pyrene Solid Mixtures: Eutectic and Azeotropic Character

    PubMed Central

    Rice, James W.; Fu, Jinxia; Suuberg, Eric M.

    2010-01-01

    To better characterize the thermodynamic behavior of a binary polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon mixture, thermochemical and vapor pressure experiments were used to examine the phase behavior of the anthracene (1) + pyrene (2) system. A solid-liquid phase diagram was mapped for the mixture. A eutectic point occurs at 404 K at x1 = 0.22. A model based on eutectic formation can be used to predict the enthalpy of fusion associated with the mixture. For mixtures that contain x1 < 0.90, the enthalpy of fusion is near that of pure pyrene. This and X-ray diffraction results indicate that mixtures of anthracene and pyrene have pyrene-like crystal structures and energetics until the composition nears that of pure anthracene. Solid-vapor equilibrium studies show that mixtures of anthracene and pyrene form solid azeotropes at x1 of 0.03 and 0.14. Additionally, mixtures at x1 = 0.99 sublime at the vapor pressure of pure anthracene, suggesting that anthracene behavior is not significantly influenced by x2 = 0.01 in the crystal structure. PMID:21116474

  18. Anthracene + Pyrene Solid Mixtures: Eutectic and Azeotropic Character.

    PubMed

    Rice, James W; Fu, Jinxia; Suuberg, Eric M

    2010-09-01

    To better characterize the thermodynamic behavior of a binary polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon mixture, thermochemical and vapor pressure experiments were used to examine the phase behavior of the anthracene (1) + pyrene (2) system. A solid-liquid phase diagram was mapped for the mixture. A eutectic point occurs at 404 K at x(1) = 0.22. A model based on eutectic formation can be used to predict the enthalpy of fusion associated with the mixture. For mixtures that contain x(1) < 0.90, the enthalpy of fusion is near that of pure pyrene. This and X-ray diffraction results indicate that mixtures of anthracene and pyrene have pyrene-like crystal structures and energetics until the composition nears that of pure anthracene. Solid-vapor equilibrium studies show that mixtures of anthracene and pyrene form solid azeotropes at x(1) of 0.03 and 0.14. Additionally, mixtures at x(1) = 0.99 sublime at the vapor pressure of pure anthracene, suggesting that anthracene behavior is not significantly influenced by x(2) = 0.01 in the crystal structure.

  19. Thermodynamical estimation of the limit potentialities of irreversible binary distillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsirlin, A. M.; Grigorevsky, I. N.

    2010-10-01

    The limit capacity of binary distillation is considered for conventional heat supply to the column bottom and heat removal from the refluxer and for heat supply and removal distributed over the column height. The form of operating line, appropriating to the minimum of irreversible loss for adjusted productivity and limited transfer coefficients, was found. The expression for possible capacity limit of the distillation column was obtained, depending on flow composition and heat and mass transfer coefficients.

  20. Distillation tray structural parameter study: Phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winter, J. Ronald

    1991-01-01

    The purpose here is to identify the structural parameters (plate thickness, liquid level, beam size, number of beams, tray diameter, etc.) that affect the structural integrity of distillation trays in distillation columns. Once the sensitivity of the trays' dynamic response to these parameters has been established, the designer will be able to use this information to prepare more accurate specifications for the construction of new trays. Information is given on both static and dynamic analysis, modal response, and tray failure details.

  1. Collocation methods for distillation design. 2: Applications for distillation

    SciTech Connect

    Huss, R.S.; Westerberg, A.W.

    1996-05-01

    The authors present applications for a collocation method for modeling distillation columns that they developed in a companion paper. They discuss implementation of the model, including discussion of the ASCEND (Advanced System for Computations in ENgineering Design) system, which enables one to create complex models with simple building blocks and interactively learn to solve them. They first investigate applying the model to compute minimum reflux for a given separation task, exactly solving nonsharp and approximately solving sharp split minimum reflux problems. They next illustrate the use of the collocation model to optimize the design a single column capable of carrying out a prescribed set of separation tasks. The optimization picks the best column diameter and total number of trays. It also picks the feed tray for each of the prescribed separations.

  2. Integrated process of distillation with side reactors for synthesis of organic acid esters

    SciTech Connect

    Panchal, Chandrakant B; Prindle, John C; Kolah, Aspri; Miller, Dennis J; Lira, Carl T

    2015-11-04

    An integrated process and system for synthesis of organic-acid esters is provided. The method of synthesizing combines reaction and distillation where an organic acid and alcohol composition are passed through a distillation chamber having a plurality of zones. Side reactors are used for drawing off portions of the composition and then recycling them to the distillation column for further purification. Water is removed from a pre-reactor prior to insertion into the distillation column. An integrated heat integration system is contained within the distillation column for further purification and optimizing efficiency in the obtaining of the final product.

  3. Distillation sequence for the purification and recovery of hydrocarbons

    DOEpatents

    Reyneke, Rian; Foral, Michael; Papadopoulos, Christos G.; Logsdon, Jeffrey S.; Eng, Wayne W. Y.; Lee, Guang-Chung; Sinclair, Ian

    2007-12-25

    This invention is an improved distillation sequence for the separation and purification of ethylene from a cracked gas. A hydrocarbon feed enters a C2 distributor column. The top of the C2 distributor column is thermally coupled to an ethylene distributor column, and the bottoms liquid of a C2 distributor column feeds a deethanizer column. The C2 distributor column utilizes a conventional reboiler. The top of the ethylene distributor is thermally coupled with a demethanizer column, and the bottoms liquid of the ethylene distributor feeds a C2 splitter column. The ethylene distributor column utilizes a conventional reboiler. The deethanizer and C2 splitter columns are also thermally coupled and operated at a substantially lower pressure than the C2 distributor column, the ethylene distributor column, and the demethanizer column. Alternatively, a hydrocarbon feed enters a deethanizer column. The top of the deethanizer is thermally coupled to an ethylene distributor column, and the ethylene distributor column utilizes a conventional reboiler. The top of the ethylene distributor column is thermally coupled with a demethanizer column, and the bottoms liquid of the ethylene distributor column feeds a C2 splitter column. The C2 splitter column operates at a pressure substantially lower than the ethylene distributor column, the demethanizer column, and the deethanizer column.

  4. Setting the Pressure at Which to Conduct a Distillation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barduhn, Allen J.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses how pressure setting is determined for distillation columns, examining factors which must be considered when optimizing design for economical balance. Also discusses the basics of heat exchangers and cites a common problem with pressure differences. (JM)

  5. Distillation with Vapour Compression. An Undergraduate Experimental Facility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pritchard, Colin

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the need to design distillation columns that are more energy efficient. Describes a "design and build" project completed by two college students aimed at demonstrating the principles of vapour compression distillation in a more energy efficient way. General design specifications are given, along with suggestions for teaching and…

  6. High-pressure distillation is different

    SciTech Connect

    Brierley, R.J.P.

    1994-07-01

    Many fluid systems perform differently at higher pressures than at lower ones. This makes high-pressure distillation different, too. But it also offers significant opportunities to engineers, both those deciding on the types of equipment to specify at the design stage, and those responsible for making high-pressure columns work, getting the best out of them, and assessing whether they can be uprated. Indeed, in a number of cases, it has been possible to uprate columns substantially (in one case by 70%) by redesign of the trays, and by replacement of trays with packing. This article provides practical guidance, based on the author's 20 years of experience as a distillation specialist, on how to get the best out of high-pressure distillation.

  7. Effect of kinetics on residue curve maps for reactive distillation

    SciTech Connect

    Venimadhavan, G.; Buzad, G.; Doherty, M.F.; Malone, M.F. . Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1994-11-01

    A class of models is derived for studying the effects of chemical kinetics on residue curve maps for reactive distillation. Activity-based rate and phase equilibrium expressions provide an accurate and thermodynamically consistent description of composition changes in nonideal, reacting vapor-liquid mixtures. For certain strategies of operation, which dictate the rate of product removal, the model equations are nonautonomous, leading to unusual dynamic behavior. However, for a certain special product removal policy, the effects of kinetics can be described by a single parameter, the Damkoehler number, which measures the rate of reaction relative to product removal. For small values of the Damkoehler number, the nonreactive simple distillation residue curve map is recovered and the singular points are the pure components and azeotropes in the nonreactive mixture. A bifurcation analysis shows the deformation and, in some cases, the disappearance of these singular points as the Damkoehler number is increased until the equilibrium reactive residue curve map is recovered at large values. A model problem for the reactive distillation of methyl tert-butyl ether from isobutene and methanol is solved.

  8. Successfully downsize trayed columns

    SciTech Connect

    Sloley, A.W.; Fleming, B. )

    1994-03-01

    Techniques for the design and sizing of new trayed distillation columns are abundant in the literature. So, too, are the guidelines for modifying towers for operation beyond their original design range. Reducing capacity of distillation trays merits at least as much consideration. Indeed, lack of knowledge and experience in this area causes many tower failures and misdesigned columns. In this article, the authors present some practical design considerations, based on field experience, for tower trays operating at loadings dramatically lower than normal for a particular design. General considerations cover liquid and vapor hydraulics and flow behavior. Case studies are included for there typical units: a refinery vacuum crude still, a petrochemical superfractionator, and a steam stripper.

  9. Kinetic Method for Hydrogen-Deuterium-Tritium Mixture Distillation Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Sazonov, A.B.; Kagramanov, Z.G.; Magomedbekov, E.P.

    2005-07-15

    Simulation of hydrogen distillation plants requires mathematical procedures suitable for multicomponent systems. In most of the present-day simulation methods a distillation column is assumed to be composed of theoretical stages, or plates. However, in the case of a multicomponent mixture theoretical plate does not exist.An alternative kinetic method of simulation is depicted in the work. According to this method a system of mass-transfer differential equations is solved numerically. Mass-transfer coefficients are estimated with using experimental results and empirical equations.Developed method allows calculating the steady state of a distillation column as well as its any non-steady state when initial conditions are given. The results for steady states are compared with ones obtained via Thiele-Geddes theoretical stage technique and the necessity of using kinetic method is demonstrated. Examples of a column startup period and periodic distillation simulations are shown as well.

  10. Multipartite nonlocality distillation

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, Li-Yi; Wu, Keng-Shuo

    2010-11-15

    The stronger nonlocality than that allowed in quantum theory can provide an advantage in information processing and computation. Since quantum entanglement is distillable, can nonlocality be distilled in the nonsignalling condition? The answer is positive in the bipartite case. In this article the distillability of the multipartite nonlocality is investigated. We propose a distillation protocol solely exploiting xor operations on output bits. The probability-distribution vectors and matrix are introduced to tackle the correlators. It is shown that only the correlators with extreme values can survive the distillation process. As the main result, the amplified nonlocality cannot maximally violate any Bell-type inequality. Accordingly, a distillability criterion in the postquantum region is proposed.

  11. Rigorous comparative study of energy-integrated distillation schemes

    SciTech Connect

    Annakou, O.; Mizsey, P.

    1996-06-01

    This paper presents results of a rigorous study and comparison of conventional and energy-integrated distillation schemes for the separation of ternary mixtures. The major part of this work is devoted to the design and simulation of the fully thermally coupled distillation column (Petlyuk or Kaibel column) with particular emphasis on the question of the fractional recovery of the middle component in the prefractionator and as a consequence the internal recycle streams. A comparative economic parametric study is carried out for three different distillation schemes: conventional sequences, heat-integrated columns, and the fully thermally coupled distillation column. The heat-integrated columns show the best economic features over the other two schemes except the few cases when the concentration of the middle component in the feed is high and the A/B split is more difficult than the B/C split. In such rare cases the fully thermally coupled distillation column proves to be the cheapest solution. In the cases of sharp separations the heat-integrated scheme is always the most economical solution.

  12. Collocation methods for distillation design. 1: Model description and testing

    SciTech Connect

    Huss, R.S.; Westerberg, A.W.

    1996-05-01

    Fast and accurate distillation design requires a model that significantly reduces the problem size while accurately approximating a full-order distillation column model. This collocation model builds on the concepts of past collocation models for design of complex real-world separation systems. Two variable transformations make this method unique. Polynomials cannot accurately fit trajectories which flatten out. In columns, flat sections occur in the middle of large column sections or where concentrations go to 0 or 1. With an exponential transformation of the tray number which maps zero to an infinite number of trays onto the range 0--1, four collocation trays can accurately simulate a large column section. With a hyperbolic tangent transformation of the mole fractions, the model can simulate columns which reach high purities. Furthermore, this model uses multiple collocation elements for a column section, which is more accurate than a single high-order collocation section.

  13. Aggregated models for integrated distillation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Caballero, J.A.; Grossmann, I.E.

    1999-06-01

    In this work the authors present an aggregated representation for distillation columns that can be used in the synthesis of separation sequences with heat integration. A new aggregated model is first presented for the stripping and rectifying sections of individual distillation columns. This model is based on mass balances and equilibrium feasibility, expressed in terms of flows, inlet concentrations, and recoveries. The energy balance can then be decoupled from the mass balance, and the utilities can be calculated for each separation task. The proposed model is applied to three different superstructures: state task network, state equipment network, and an intermediate representation. The proposed model yields a lower bound to the vapor flow or to the total cost of the utilities. Performance of the different superstructure representations in terms of robustness and computational time is illustrated with several examples.

  14. Contact structure for use in catalytic distillation

    DOEpatents

    Jones, Jr., Edward M.

    1985-01-01

    A method and apparatus for conducting catalytic chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture, comprising and feeding reactants into a distillation column reactor contracting said reactant in a liquid phase with a fixed bed catalyst in the form of a contact catalyst structure, consisting of closed porous containers containing the catalyst for the reaction and a clip means to hold and support said containers, which are disposed above, i.e., on the distillation trays in the tower. The trays have weir means to provide a liquid level on the trays to substantially cover the containers. In other words, the trays function in their ordinary manner with the addition thereto of the catalyst. The reaction mixture is concurrently fractionated in the column.

  15. Contact structure for use in catalytic distillation

    DOEpatents

    Jones, E.M. Jr.

    1985-08-20

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for conducting catalytic chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture, comprising and feeding reactants into a distillation column reactor contracting said reactant in a liquid phase with a fixed bed catalyst in the form of a contact catalyst structure, consisting of closed porous containers containing the catalyst for the reaction and a clip means to hold and support said containers, which are disposed above, i.e., on the distillation trays in the tower. The trays have weir means to provide a liquid level on the trays to substantially cover the containers. In other words, the trays function in their ordinary manner with the addition thereto of the catalyst. The reaction mixture is concurrently fractionated in the column. 7 figs.

  16. Contact structure for use in catalytic distillation

    DOEpatents

    Jones, Jr., Edward M.

    1984-01-01

    A method for conducting catalytic chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture comprising feeding reactants into a distillation column reactor contracting said reactant in liquid phase with a fixed bed catalyst in the form of a contact catalyst structure consisting of closed porous containers containing the catatlyst for the reaction and a clip means to hold and support said containers, which are disposed above, i.e., on the distillation trays in the tower. The trays have weir means to provide a liquid level on the trays to substantially cover the containers. In other words, the trays function in their ordinary manner with the addition thereto of the catalyst. The reaction mixture is concurrently fractionated in the column.

  17. Contact structure for use in catalytic distillation

    DOEpatents

    Jones, E.M. Jr.

    1984-03-27

    A method is described for conducting catalytic chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture comprising feeding reactants into a distillation column reactor, contracting said reactant in liquid phase with a fixed bed catalyst in the form of a contact catalyst structure consisting of closed porous containers containing the catalyst for the reaction and a clip means to hold and support said containers, which are disposed above, i.e., on the distillation trays in the tower. The trays have weir means to provide a liquid level on the trays to substantially cover the containers. In other words, the trays function in their ordinary manner with the addition thereto of the catalyst. The reaction mixture is concurrently fractionated in the column. 7 figs.

  18. Gas viscosities of azeotropic mixtures of the halogenated hydrocarbons R500, R502, and R503

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, M.; Yokoyama, C.; Takahashi, S.

    1988-07-01

    Gas viscosities of azeotropic mixtures R500 (dichlorodifluoromethane (R12)-1, 1-difluoroethane (R152a)), R 502 (chlorodifluoromethane (R22)-chloropentafluoroethane (R115)), and R503 (chlorotrifluoromethane (R13)-trifluoromethane (R23)) were measured with an oscillating disk viscometer of the Maxwell type at 273.15-423.15 K up to 7.5 MPa. Two empirical equations for the viscosities were obtained; one is for the atmospheric viscosities as a function of temperature, and the other is for the viscosities in the whole range of the present measurement as a function of temperature and density.

  19. Neither azeotropic drying, nor base nor other additives: a minimalist approach to (18)F-labeling.

    PubMed

    Richarz, R; Krapf, P; Zarrad, F; Urusova, E A; Neumaier, B; Zlatopolskiy, B D

    2014-10-28

    A novel, efficient, time-saving and reliable radiolabeling procedure via nucleophilic substitution with [(18)F]fluoride is described. Different radiolabeled aliphatic and aromatic compounds were prepared in high radiochemical yields simply by heating of quaternary anilinium, diaryliodonium and triarylsulfonium [(18)F]fluorides in suitable solvents. The latter were obtained via direct elution of (18)F(-) from an anion exchange resin with alcoholic solutions of onium precursors. Neither azeotropic evaporation of water, nor a base, nor any other additives like cryptands or crown ethers were necessary. Due to its simplicity this method should be highly suitable for automated radiosyntheses, especially in microfluidic devices. PMID:25190038

  20. Controllability analysis of thermally coupled distillation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hernandez, S.; Jimenez, A.

    1999-10-01

    A comparison of the controllability properties of three thermally coupled distillation sequences (Petlyuk, sequence with side rectifier, and sequence with side stripper) using singular value decomposition is developed. Those properties are also compared to the energy consumption required for separating ternary mixtures. The parameters obtained via singular value decomposition show that sequences with a side rectifier or a side stripper have better control properties than the Petlyuk system, although the Petlyuk scheme has lower energy requirements than the systems with side columns.

  1. Parametric study of complex distillation flowsheets for the separations of five-component mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Rong, B.G.; Zheng, S.Q.; Zhou, C.G.

    1996-12-31

    Twenty two distillation flowsheets are studied for the separations of five-component mixtures based on the energy consumption and the annual costs. Fourteen flowsheets with simple columns and eight flowsheets with complex columns of side strippers and/or side rectifiers are included. Several five-component mixtures are selected, for various cases of feed composition distribution, the costs of the flowsheets are calculated and compared. Several heuristics are produced for the synthesis of distillation flowsheets with complex columns.

  2. Advanced Distillation Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Maddalena Fanelli; Ravi Arora; Annalee Tonkovich; Jennifer Marco; Ed Rode

    2010-03-24

    The Advanced Distillation project was concluded on December 31, 2009. This U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) funded project was completed successfully and within budget during a timeline approved by DOE project managers, which included a one year extension to the initial ending date. The subject technology, Microchannel Process Technology (MPT) distillation, was expected to provide both capital and operating cost savings compared to conventional distillation technology. With efforts from Velocys and its project partners, MPT distillation was successfully demonstrated at a laboratory scale and its energy savings potential was calculated. While many objectives established at the beginning of the project were met, the project was only partially successful. At the conclusion, it appears that MPT distillation is not a good fit for the targeted separation of ethane and ethylene in large-scale ethylene production facilities, as greater advantages were seen for smaller scale distillations. Early in the project, work involved flowsheet analyses to discern the economic viability of ethane-ethylene MPT distillation and develop strategies for maximizing its impact on the economics of the process. This study confirmed that through modification to standard operating processes, MPT can enable net energy savings in excess of 20%. This advantage was used by ABB Lumus to determine the potential impact of MPT distillation on the ethane-ethylene market. The study indicated that a substantial market exists if the energy saving could be realized and if installed capital cost of MPT distillation was on par or less than conventional technology. Unfortunately, it was determined that the large number of MPT distillation units needed to perform ethane-ethylene separation for world-scale ethylene facilities, makes the targeted separation a poor fit for the technology in this application at the current state of manufacturing costs. Over the course of the project, distillation experiments were

  3. Datalogging the Distillation Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soares, Allan; Creevy, Steven

    1995-01-01

    Presents a distillation experiment that uses temperature sensors connected to a computer in place of thermometers, and enables the whole class to view the data on a monitor and interpret and discuss the data in real time. (JRH)

  4. Energy conservation in distillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mix, T. W.; Dweck, J. S.; Weinberg, M.; Armstrong, R. C.

    1981-07-01

    An audit of major industrial and processes and key colums in each major process indicated that approximately twoquads of energy were consumed for distillation in the US in 1976. Energy usage by industry is included: petroleum refineries, 66% chemical (including petrochemical) industry, 29% natural gas liquids processing, 5%. Techniques and current practices for conserving distillation energy are reviewed, and guidelines indicating those process conditons which favor the use of each energy conserving technique are enumerated. Expressions for payout time for tray and control retrofit options are developed based on energy savings and increased throughput. Calculations for industrial colums suggested that both types of retrofits would frequently have short (,6 months) payout times based on either criterion. Extractive distillation is also discussed, and criteria enabling the estimation of the energy which may be conserved using this technique are developed. Good housekeeping practices and field techniques for checking the energy efficiency of industrial distillations are also discussed.

  5. Adsorbate shape selectivity: Separation of the HF/134a azeotrope over carbogenic molecular sieve

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, A.; Mariwala, R.K.; Kane, M.S.; Foley, H.C.

    1995-03-01

    Experimental evidence is provided for adsorptive shape selectivity in the separation of the azeotrope between HF and 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (134a) over pyrolyzed poly(furfuryl alcohol)-derived carbogenic molecular sieve (PPFA-CMS). The separation can be accomplished over coconut charcoal or Carbosieve G on the basis of the differences in the extent of equilibrium adsorption of HF and 134a. On these adsorbents 134a is more strongly bound than HF, thus it elutes much more slowly from the bed. The heat of adsorption for 134a in the vicinity of 200 C on Carbosieve G is {approximately}8.8 kcal/mol. In contrast, when the same azeotropic mixture is separated over PPFA-CMS prepared at 500 C, 134a is not adsorbed. As a result 134a elutes from the bed first, followed by HF. The reversal is brought about by the narrower pore size and pore size distribution of the PPFA-CMS versus that for Carbosieve G. Thus the separation over PPFA-CMS is an example of adsorbate shape selectivity and represents a limiting case of kinetic separation.

  6. Laboratory unit for distillation of crude oils and products

    SciTech Connect

    Manovyan, A.K.; Khachaturova, D.A.; Lozin, V.V.

    1983-11-01

    The ARN-2 apparatus currently used to distill crude oil in order to determine its fractional composition requires too much time and labor. A distillation unit with stripping columns (RUST) has been developed with which a crude oil can be subjected to continuous distillation while taking several cuts simultaneously. The basic characteristics of the unit are outlined, and the unit subjected to comprehensive evaluations. The tests demonstrate the feasibility of using the RUST-1 and RUST-2 units for an extremely diverse group of laboratory operations.

  7. Prefractionation to reduce energy consumption in distillation without changing utility temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Agrawal, R.; Fidkowski, Z.T.; Xu, J.

    1996-08-01

    Distillation systems composed of a prefractionator and a main column are introduced. The columns operate at different pressures, but the temperatures of the utilities are the same as for a single column performing the same separation. The energy integration of the columns is realized by condensing a vapor overhead from the prefractionator in an intermediate reboiler located in the stripping section of the main column or by boiling a bottoms liquid from the prefractionator in an intermediate condenser placed in the rectifying section of the main column. Analysis is performed to determine feasible regions of operational parameters and to minimize vapor flows. A detailed simulation example of the benzene-toluene separation shows that for certain feed compositions it is possible to reduce energy requirements of a conventional binary distillation column by almost one-third using this new distillation system. This savings is achieved without any change in the temperature of the utilities used.

  8. DISTILLATION OF CALCIUM

    DOEpatents

    Barton, J.

    1954-07-27

    This invention relates to an improvement in the process for the purification of caicium or magnesium containing an alkali metal as impurity, which comprises distiiling a batch of the mixture in two stages, the first stage distillation being carried out in the presence of an inert gas at an absolute pressure substantially greater than the vapor pressure of calcium or maguesium at the temperature of distillation, but less than the vaper pressure at that temperature of the alkali metal impurity so that only the alkali metal is vaporized and condensed on a condensing surface. A second stage distilso that substantially only the calcium or magnesium distills under its own vapor pressure only and condenses in solid form on a lower condensing surface.

  9. Distillation under electric fields

    SciTech Connect

    Shah, V.M.; Blankenship, K.D.; Tsouris, C.

    1997-11-01

    Distillation Is the most common separation process used in the chemical and petroleum industry. Major limitations in the applicability and efficiency of distillation come from thermodynamic equilibria, that is, vapor-liquid equilibria (VLE), and heat and mass transfer rates. In this work, electric fields are used to manipulate the VLE of mixtures. VLE experiments are performed for various binary mixtures in the presence of electric fields on the order of a few kilovolts per centimeter. The results show that the VLE is changed by electric fields, with changes in the separation factor as high as 10% being observed. Batch distillation experiments are also carried out for binary mixtures of 2-propanol and water with and without an applied electric field. Results show enhanced distillation rates and separation efficiency in the presence of an electric field but decreased separation enhancement when the electric current is increased. The latter phenomenon is caused by the formation at the surface of the liquid mixture of microdroplets that are entrained by the vapor. These observations suggest that there should be an electric field strength for each system for which the separation enhancement is maximum.

  10. Tritium Attenuation by Distillation

    SciTech Connect

    Wittman, N.E.

    2001-07-31

    The objective of this study was to determine how a 100 Area distillation system could be used to reduce to a satisfactory low value the tritium content of the dilute moderator produced in the 100 Area stills, and whether such a tritium attenuator would have sufficient capacity to process all this material before it is sent to the 400 Area for reprocessing.

  11. Cryogenic distillation facility for isotopic purification of protium and deuterium

    SciTech Connect

    Alekseev, I.; Arkhipov, Ev.; Bondarenko, S.; Fedorchenko, O.; Ganzha, V.; Ivshin, K.; Kravtsov, P. Trofimov, V.; Vasilyev, A.; Vasyanina, T.; Vorobyov, A.; Vznuzdaev, M.; Kammel, P.; Petitjean, C.

    2015-12-15

    Isotopic purification of the protium and deuterium is an important requirement of many physics experiments. A cryogenic facility for high-efficiency separation of hydrogen isotopes with a cryogenic distillation column as the main element is described. The instrument is portable, so that it can be used at the experimental site. It was designed and built at the Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, Gatchina, Russia. Fundamental operating parameters have been measured including a liquid holdup in the column packing, the pressure drops across the column and the purity of the product at different operating modes. A mathematical model describes expected profiles of hydrogen isotope concentration along the distillation column. An analysis of ortho-parahydrogen isomeric composition by gas chromatography was used for evaluation of the column performance during the tuning operations. The protium content during deuterium purification (≤100 ppb) was measured using gas chromatography with accumulation of the protium in the distillation column. A high precision isotopic measurement at the Institute of Particle Physics, ETH-Zurich, Switzerland, provided an upper bound of the deuterium content in protium (≤6 ppb), which exceeds all commercially available products.

  12. Cryogenic distillation facility for isotopic purification of protium and deuterium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alekseev, I.; Arkhipov, Ev.; Bondarenko, S.; Fedorchenko, O.; Ganzha, V.; Ivshin, K.; Kammel, P.; Kravtsov, P.; Petitjean, C.; Trofimov, V.; Vasilyev, A.; Vasyanina, T.; Vorobyov, A.; Vznuzdaev, M.

    2015-12-01

    Isotopic purification of the protium and deuterium is an important requirement of many physics experiments. A cryogenic facility for high-efficiency separation of hydrogen isotopes with a cryogenic distillation column as the main element is described. The instrument is portable, so that it can be used at the experimental site. It was designed and built at the Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, Gatchina, Russia. Fundamental operating parameters have been measured including a liquid holdup in the column packing, the pressure drops across the column and the purity of the product at different operating modes. A mathematical model describes expected profiles of hydrogen isotope concentration along the distillation column. An analysis of ortho-parahydrogen isomeric composition by gas chromatography was used for evaluation of the column performance during the tuning operations. The protium content during deuterium purification (≤100 ppb) was measured using gas chromatography with accumulation of the protium in the distillation column. A high precision isotopic measurement at the Institute of Particle Physics, ETH-Zurich, Switzerland, provided an upper bound of the deuterium content in protium (≤6 ppb), which exceeds all commercially available products.

  13. Cryogenic distillation facility for isotopic purification of protium and deuterium.

    PubMed

    Alekseev, I; Arkhipov, Ev; Bondarenko, S; Fedorchenko, O; Ganzha, V; Ivshin, K; Kammel, P; Kravtsov, P; Petitjean, C; Trofimov, V; Vasilyev, A; Vasyanina, T; Vorobyov, A; Vznuzdaev, M

    2015-12-01

    Isotopic purification of the protium and deuterium is an important requirement of many physics experiments. A cryogenic facility for high-efficiency separation of hydrogen isotopes with a cryogenic distillation column as the main element is described. The instrument is portable, so that it can be used at the experimental site. It was designed and built at the Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, Gatchina, Russia. Fundamental operating parameters have been measured including a liquid holdup in the column packing, the pressure drops across the column and the purity of the product at different operating modes. A mathematical model describes expected profiles of hydrogen isotope concentration along the distillation column. An analysis of ortho-parahydrogen isomeric composition by gas chromatography was used for evaluation of the column performance during the tuning operations. The protium content during deuterium purification (≤100 ppb) was measured using gas chromatography with accumulation of the protium in the distillation column. A high precision isotopic measurement at the Institute of Particle Physics, ETH-Zurich, Switzerland, provided an upper bound of the deuterium content in protium (≤6 ppb), which exceeds all commercially available products.

  14. Reactive Distillation and Air Stripping Processes for Water Recycling and Trace Contaminant Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boul, Peter J.; Lange, Kevin E.; Conger, Bruce; Anderson, Molly

    2009-01-01

    Reactive distillation designs are considered to reduce the presence of volatile organic compounds in the purified water. Reactive distillation integrates a reactor with a distillation column. A review of the literature in this field has revealed a variety of functional reactive columns in industry. Wastewater may be purified by a combination of a reactor and a distiller (e.g., the EWRS or VPCAR concepts) or, in principle, through a design which integrates the reactor with the distiller. A review of the literature in reactive distillation has identified some different designs in such combinations of reactor and distiller. An evaluation of reactive distillation and reactive air stripping is presented with regards to the reduction of volatile organic compounds in the contaminated water and air. Among the methods presented, an architecture is presented for the evaluation of the simultaneous oxidation of organics in air and water. These and other designs are presented in light of potential improvements in power consumptions and air and water purities for architectures which include catalytic activity integrated into the water processor. In particular, catalytic oxidation of organics may be useful as a tool to remove contaminants that more traditional distillation and/or air stripping columns may not remove. A review of the current leading edge at the commercial level and at the research frontier in catalytically active materials is presented. Themes and directions from the engineering developments in catalyst design are presented conceptually in light of developments in the nanoscale chemistry of a variety of catalyst materials.

  15. Gas chromatographic characterization of vegetable oil deodorization distillate.

    PubMed

    Verleyen, T; Verhe, R; Garcia, L; Dewettinck, K; Huyghebaert, A; De Greyt, W

    2001-07-01

    Because of its complex nature, the analysis of deodorizer distillate is a challenging problem. Deodorizer distillate obtained from the deodorization process of vegetable oils consists of many components including free fatty acids, tocopherols, sterols, squalene and neutral oil. A gas chromatographic method for the analysis of deodorizer distillate without saponification of the sample is described. After a concise sample preparation including derivatization and silylation, distillate samples were injected on column at 60 degrees C followed by a gradual increase of the oven temperature towards 340 degrees C. The temperature profile of the oven was optimized in order to obtain a baseline separation of the different distillate components including free fatty acids, tocopherols, sterols, squalene and neutral oil. Good recoveries for delta-tocopherol, alpha-tocopherol, stigmasterol and cholesteryl palmitate of 97, 94.4, 95.6 and 92%, respectively were obtained. Repeatability of the described gas chromatographic method was evaluated by analyzing five replicates of a soybean distillate. Tocopherols and sterols had low relative standard deviations ranging between 1.67 and 2.25%. Squalene, mono- and diacylglycerides had higher relative standard deviations ranging between 3.33 and 4.12%. Several industrial deodorizer distillates obtained from chemical and physical refining of corn, canola, sunflower and soybean have been analyzed for their composition.

  16. Gas chromatographic characterization of vegetable oil deodorization distillate.

    PubMed

    Verleyen, T; Verhe, R; Garcia, L; Dewettinck, K; Huyghebaert, A; De Greyt, W

    2001-07-01

    Because of its complex nature, the analysis of deodorizer distillate is a challenging problem. Deodorizer distillate obtained from the deodorization process of vegetable oils consists of many components including free fatty acids, tocopherols, sterols, squalene and neutral oil. A gas chromatographic method for the analysis of deodorizer distillate without saponification of the sample is described. After a concise sample preparation including derivatization and silylation, distillate samples were injected on column at 60 degrees C followed by a gradual increase of the oven temperature towards 340 degrees C. The temperature profile of the oven was optimized in order to obtain a baseline separation of the different distillate components including free fatty acids, tocopherols, sterols, squalene and neutral oil. Good recoveries for delta-tocopherol, alpha-tocopherol, stigmasterol and cholesteryl palmitate of 97, 94.4, 95.6 and 92%, respectively were obtained. Repeatability of the described gas chromatographic method was evaluated by analyzing five replicates of a soybean distillate. Tocopherols and sterols had low relative standard deviations ranging between 1.67 and 2.25%. Squalene, mono- and diacylglycerides had higher relative standard deviations ranging between 3.33 and 4.12%. Several industrial deodorizer distillates obtained from chemical and physical refining of corn, canola, sunflower and soybean have been analyzed for their composition. PMID:11471811

  17. 27 CFR 24.216 - Distilling material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... fermentation or distillation. No sugar may be added in the production of distilling material. Distillates containing aldehydes may be used in the fermentation of wine to be used as distilling material. Lees,...

  18. 27 CFR 24.216 - Distilling material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... fermentation or distillation. No sugar may be added in the production of distilling material. Distillates containing aldehydes may be used in the fermentation of wine to be used as distilling material. Lees,...

  19. 27 CFR 24.216 - Distilling material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... fermentation or distillation. No sugar may be added in the production of distilling material. Distillates containing aldehydes may be used in the fermentation of wine to be used as distilling material. Lees,...

  20. 27 CFR 27.40 - Distilled spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS IMPORTATION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER Tax On Imported Distilled Spirits, Wines, and Beer Distilled Spirits § 27.40 Distilled spirits. (a) A tax is imposed on...

  1. 27 CFR 27.40 - Distilled spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL IMPORTATION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER Tax On Imported Distilled Spirits, Wines, and Beer Distilled Spirits § 27.40 Distilled spirits. (a) A tax is imposed on...

  2. 27 CFR 27.40 - Distilled spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS IMPORTATION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER Tax On Imported Distilled Spirits, Wines, and Beer Distilled Spirits § 27.40 Distilled spirits. (a) A tax is imposed on...

  3. 27 CFR 27.40 - Distilled spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL IMPORTATION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER Tax On Imported Distilled Spirits, Wines, and Beer Distilled Spirits § 27.40 Distilled spirits. (a) A tax is imposed on...

  4. 27 CFR 27.40 - Distilled spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS IMPORTATION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER Tax On Imported Distilled Spirits, Wines, and Beer Distilled Spirits § 27.40 Distilled spirits. (a) A tax is imposed on...

  5. Polyhydroxy glucose functionalized silica for the dehydration of bio-ethanol distillate.

    PubMed

    Tang, Baokun; Bi, Wentao; Row, Kyung Ho

    2014-07-01

    Although most of the water in a bio-ethanol fermentation broth can be removed by distillation, a small amount of water remains in the bio-ethanol distillate as the water-ethanol azeotrope. To improve the use of ethanol as a fuel, glucose-modified silica, as an adsorbent, was prepared using a facile method and applied to the dehydration of bio-ethanol distillate. The factors affecting the adsorption capacity of the adsorbent, such as the particle size, initial concentration of water in the samples, adsorption temperature and adsorbent dose, were examined by measuring the adsorption kinetics and equilibrium. The Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin isotherms were used to evaluate the adsorption efficiency. Of these, the Freundlich and Temkin isotherms showed a good correlation with the experimental data. The Langmuir isotherm showed some deviation from the experimental results, and indicated that adsorption in this case was not a simple monolayer adsorption. The property of the adsorbent was attributed to functionalized silica with many hydroxyl groups on its surface. An examination of the separation factors of water/ethanol revealed the modified silica to have preferential selectivity for water. Compared to activated carbon and silica, glucose-modified silica exhibited higher adsorption capacity for water under the same adsorption conditions. In addition, the glucose-modified silica adsorbent exhibited a relatively constant adsorption capacity for five adsorption/desorption cycles. PMID:24366162

  6. Polyhydroxy glucose functionalized silica for the dehydration of bio-ethanol distillate.

    PubMed

    Tang, Baokun; Bi, Wentao; Row, Kyung Ho

    2014-07-01

    Although most of the water in a bio-ethanol fermentation broth can be removed by distillation, a small amount of water remains in the bio-ethanol distillate as the water-ethanol azeotrope. To improve the use of ethanol as a fuel, glucose-modified silica, as an adsorbent, was prepared using a facile method and applied to the dehydration of bio-ethanol distillate. The factors affecting the adsorption capacity of the adsorbent, such as the particle size, initial concentration of water in the samples, adsorption temperature and adsorbent dose, were examined by measuring the adsorption kinetics and equilibrium. The Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin isotherms were used to evaluate the adsorption efficiency. Of these, the Freundlich and Temkin isotherms showed a good correlation with the experimental data. The Langmuir isotherm showed some deviation from the experimental results, and indicated that adsorption in this case was not a simple monolayer adsorption. The property of the adsorbent was attributed to functionalized silica with many hydroxyl groups on its surface. An examination of the separation factors of water/ethanol revealed the modified silica to have preferential selectivity for water. Compared to activated carbon and silica, glucose-modified silica exhibited higher adsorption capacity for water under the same adsorption conditions. In addition, the glucose-modified silica adsorbent exhibited a relatively constant adsorption capacity for five adsorption/desorption cycles.

  7. Renormalizing Entanglement Distillation.

    PubMed

    Waeldchen, Stephan; Gertis, Janina; Campbell, Earl T; Eisert, Jens

    2016-01-15

    Entanglement distillation refers to the task of transforming a collection of weakly entangled pairs into fewer highly entangled ones. It is a core ingredient in quantum repeater protocols, which are needed to transmit entanglement over arbitrary distances in order to realize quantum key distribution schemes. Usually, it is assumed that the initial entangled pairs are identically and independently distributed and are uncorrelated with each other, an assumption that might not be reasonable at all in any entanglement generation process involving memory channels. Here, we introduce a framework that captures entanglement distillation in the presence of natural correlations arising from memory channels. Conceptually, we bring together ideas from condensed-matter physics-ideas from renormalization and matrix-product states and operators-with those of local entanglement manipulation, Markov chain mixing, and quantum error correction. We identify meaningful parameter regions for which we prove convergence to maximally entangled states, arising as the fixed points of a matrix-product operator renormalization flow.

  8. Renormalizing Entanglement Distillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waeldchen, Stephan; Gertis, Janina; Campbell, Earl T.; Eisert, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Entanglement distillation refers to the task of transforming a collection of weakly entangled pairs into fewer highly entangled ones. It is a core ingredient in quantum repeater protocols, which are needed to transmit entanglement over arbitrary distances in order to realize quantum key distribution schemes. Usually, it is assumed that the initial entangled pairs are identically and independently distributed and are uncorrelated with each other, an assumption that might not be reasonable at all in any entanglement generation process involving memory channels. Here, we introduce a framework that captures entanglement distillation in the presence of natural correlations arising from memory channels. Conceptually, we bring together ideas from condensed-matter physics—ideas from renormalization and matrix-product states and operators—with those of local entanglement manipulation, Markov chain mixing, and quantum error correction. We identify meaningful parameter regions for which we prove convergence to maximally entangled states, arising as the fixed points of a matrix-product operator renormalization flow.

  9. Cascade Distillation System Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callahan, Michael R.; Sargushingh, Miriam; Shull, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Life Support System (LSS) Project is chartered with de-veloping advanced life support systems that will ena-ble NASA human exploration beyond low Earth orbit (LEO). The goal of AES is to increase the affordabil-ity of long-duration life support missions, and to re-duce the risk associated with integrating and infusing new enabling technologies required to ensure mission success. Because of the robust nature of distillation systems, the AES LSS Project is pursuing develop-ment of the Cascade Distillation Subsystem (CDS) as part of its technology portfolio. Currently, the system is being developed into a flight forward Generation 2.0 design.

  10. Dehydration of an ethanol/water azeotrope through alginate-DNA membranes cross-linked with metal ions by pervaporation.

    PubMed

    Uragami, Tadashi; Banno, Masashi; Miyata, Takashi

    2015-12-10

    To obtain high dehydration membranes for an ethanol/water azeotrope, dried blend membranes prepared from mixtures of sodium alginate (Alg-Na) and sodium deoxyribonucleate (DNA-Na) were cross-linked by immersing in a methanol solution of CaCl2 or MaCl2. In the dehydration of an ethanol/water azeotropic mixture by pervaporation, the effects of immersion time in methanol solution of CaCl2 or MaCl2 on the permeation rate and water/ethanol selectivity through Alg-DNA/Ca(2+) and Alg-DNA/Mg(2+) cross-linked membranes were investigated. Alg-DNA/Mg(2+) cross-linked membrane immersed for 12h in methanol solution of MaCl2 exhibited the highest water/ethanol selectivity. This results from depressed swelling of the membranes by formation of a cross-linked structure. However, excess immersion in solution containing cross-linker led to an increase in the hydrophobicity of cross-linked membrane. Therefore, the water/ethanol selectivity of Alg-DNA/Mg(2+) cross-linked membranes with an excess immersion in cross-linking solution was lowered. The relationship between the structure of Alg-DNA/Ca(2+) and Alg-DNA/Mg(2+) cross-linked membranes and their permeation and separation characteristics during pervaporation of an ethanol/water azeotropic mixture is discussed in detail.

  11. Observation of vapor bubble of non-azeotropic binary mixture in microgravity with a two-wavelength interferometer

    SciTech Connect

    Abe, Yoshiyuki; Iwasaki, Akira

    1999-07-01

    Although non-azeotropic mixtures are considered to be promising working fluids in advanced energy conversion systems, the primary technical problems in the heat transfer degradation in phase change processes cause economical handicap to wide-spread applications. The boiling behavior of mixtures still remains a number of basic questions being not answered yet, and the present authors believe that the most essential information for the boiling process in non-azeotropic mixtures is how temperature and concentration profiles are developed around the bubbles. The present study attempts at understanding fundamental heat and mass transfer mechanisms in nucleate pool boiling of non-azeotropic binary mixtures, and with the knowledge to develop a passive boiling heat transfer enhancement eventually. To this end, the authors have employed microgravity environment for rather detailed observation around vapor bubbles in the course of boiling inception and bubble growth. A two-wavelength Mach-Zehnder interferometer has been developed, which withstands mechanical shock caused by gravity change from very low gravity of the order of 10{sup {minus}5} g to relatively high gravity of approximately 8 g exposed during deceleration period. A series of experiments on single vapor bubbles for CFC113 single component and CFC12/CFC112 non-azeotropic binary mixture have been conducted under a high quality microgravity conditions available in 10-second free-fall facility of Japan Microgravity Center (JAMIC). The results for single component liquid showed a strong influence due to Marangoni effect caused by the temperature profile around the bubble. The results for non-azeotropic binary mixture showed, however, considerably different behavior from single component liquid. Both temperature and concentration profiles around a single vapor bubble were evaluated from the interferograms. The temperature and concentration layers established around the bubbles were nearly one order of magnitude larger

  12. Microbial activity in weathering columns.

    PubMed

    García, C; Ballester, A; González, F; Blázquez, M L

    2007-03-22

    The aim of the present work was to evaluate the metabolic activity of the microbial population associated with a pyritic tailing after a column-weathering test. For this purpose, a column 150cm high and 15cm diameter was used. The solid was a tailing with 63.4% pyrite and with minor amounts of Cu, Pb and Zn sulfides (1.4, 0.5 and 0.8%, respectively). The column model was the habitual one for weathering tests: distilled water was added at the top of the column; the water flowed down through tailings and finally was collected at the bottom for chemical and microbiological analysis. Weathering was maintained for 36 weeks. The results showed a significant presence of microbial life that was distributed selectively over the column: sulfur- and iron-oxidizing aerobic bacteria were in the more oxygenated zone; anaerobic sulfur-reducing bacteria were isolated from the samples taken from the anoxic part of the column. Activity testing showed that (oxidizing and reducing) bacteria populations were active at the end of the weathering test. The quality of the water draining from the column was thus the final product of biological oxidation and reduction promoted by the bacteria consortia.

  13. An artificial intelligence method for the synthesis of heat-integrated distillation flowsheets

    SciTech Connect

    Fang-Yu Han; Ben-Guang Rong

    1996-12-31

    In this paper, a concept of Heat-Integrated Distillation Flowsheet (HIDF) is proposed. It refers to the multicomponent separation flowsheet which is composed of simple and complex columns and in which heat integration is considered so as to achieve minimum energy consumption. The HIDF is very different from the Heat-Integrated Distillation Sequences (HIDS) in the literature which only consists of simple columns. In this paper, an artificial intelligence method is proposed for the synthesis of HIDF. It is based on the Database, Simulator, Heat Exchanger Network, and four Knowledge Bases which are all developed by the authors and their coworkers. A strategy of eight steps which combines the knowledge-based and rigorous algorithms is adopted for the synthesis of HIDF. The illustrated examples for the conventional distillation and extractive distillation show that the practical minimum energy consumption distillation flowsheets; can be generated with this method.

  14. Automation of a clean-up procedure for determination of trichothecenes in cereals using a charcoal-alumina column.

    PubMed

    Langseth, W; Clasen, P E

    1992-06-19

    Automation of the clean-up procedure for trichothecenes on a charcoal-alumina column is described. Standard high-performance liquid chromatographic equipment was used for the clean-up step. An acetonitrile-water (84 + 16, v/v) extract of the sample was cleaned up on a column packed with charcoal-alumina-Celite, which was washed with acetonitrile between each sample. The eluates were collected directly in reaction vials and evaporated to dryness. The residual water was removed azeotropically with benzene. The sample was derivatized with 1-(trimethylsilyl)imidazole and analysed by capillary gas chromatography with electron-capture detection.

  15. A heat & mass integration approach to reduce capital and operating costs of a distillation configuration

    SciTech Connect

    Madenoor Ramapriya, Gautham; Jiang, Zheyu; Tawarmalani, Mohit; Agrawal, Rakesh

    2015-11-11

    We propose a general method to consolidate distillation columns of a distillation configuration using heat and mass integration. The proposed method encompasses all heat and mass integrations known till date, and includes many more. Each heat and mass integration eliminates a distillation column, a condenser, a reboiler and the heat duty associated with a reboiler. Thus, heat and mass integration can potentially offer significant capital and operating cost benefits. In this talk, we will study the various possible heat and mass integrations in detail, and demonstrate their benefits using case studies. This work will lay out a framework to synthesize an entire new class of useful configurations based on heat and mass integration of distillation columns.

  16. Thermomechanically integrated distillation of ethylene from ethane

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, D.G.; Haddad, H.; Manley, D.B.

    1994-12-31

    The separation of ethylene from ethane by distillation is normally the final step in the production of ethylene. The critical temperature of ethylene is about 50 F, therefore moderately low temperatures and moderately high pressures are typically used to provide optimum economic conditions. The optimum design can require thick walled and heavy pressure vessels which may be constructed of expensive alloy steels depending on the specific operating conditions. The required purity of ethylene usually exceeds 99.9%, and the economic level of recovery is approximately 99%. In addition, the relative volatility of ethylene to ethane is moderately small ranging from about 1.13 for high pressure mixtures rich in ethylene to 2.34 for low pressure mixtures rich in ethane. The relatively high purity and recovery and relatively low relative volatility dictate a large distillation column with more than 100 trays and a large diameter for world scale production levels of over a billion pounds per year of ethylene. The installed capital cost for a unit of this type and size can exceed twenty million dollars, and utility costs can exceed one million dollars per year. Consequently, there is a strong economic incentive to reduce costs through improved process designs for the distillation of ethylene from ethane, and the process is well studied in the literature. Thermomechanically integrated distillation provides an improved design which can reduce both capital and operating costs as compared to the best conventional designs. In this paper, the conventional designs for both vapor and liquid feeds are reviewed, the underlying thermodynamics characterizing the process is discussed, alternative thermomechanically integrated designs are presented, and utility and purchased equipment costs are compared.

  17. Systems and methods for reactive distillation with recirculation of light components

    DOEpatents

    Stickney, Michael J.; Jones, Jr., Edward M.

    2011-07-26

    Systems and methods for producing gas-to-liquids products using reactive distillation are provided. The method for producing gas-to-liquids products can include reacting a feedstock in a column having a distillation zone and a reaction zone to provide a bottoms stream and an overhead stream. A first portion of the overhead stream can be recycled to the column at the top of the reaction zone and second portion of the overhead stream can be recycled to the column at the bottom of the reaction zone.

  18. Two-feed distillation: Same-composition feeds with different enthalpies

    SciTech Connect

    Wankat, P.C.; Kessler, D.P.

    1993-12-01

    Additional separation can be achieved in flash distillation by separating the liquid feed into two parts, vaporizing only one part, and feeding these (now) two feeds to the top and bottom of a column. The driving force for the additional separation is the difference in chemical potential between liquid and vapor feeds with the same composition. This idea of using two feeds with the same composition but different enthalpies (herein called two-enthalpy feed) is applied to stripping and enriching columns and fractional distillation. Two-enthalpy-feed distillation, a new method for using waste heat effectively, should be useful in heat-integrated plants. When an ordinary distillation column has a two-phase feed, the use of two-enthalpy feed increases separation (same N and L/D), or decreases the number of stages (same L/D, x{sub D}, and x{sub B}), or decreases the reflux ratio (same N, x{sub D}, and x{sub B}). The two-enthalpy-feed system has a lower minimum reflux ratio than ordinary distillation with a two-phase feed. For other types of feed, two-enthalpy-feed distillation requires either less energy or energy at a less extreme temperature (i.e., lower temperature for reboilers or higher temperature for condensers) than ordinary distillation. Examples are presented for constant relative volatilities, hydrocarbon systems, and ethanol-water.

  19. PULSE COLUMN

    DOEpatents

    Grimmett, E.S.

    1964-01-01

    This patent covers a continuous countercurrent liquidsolids contactor column having a number of contactor states each comprising a perforated plate, a layer of balls, and a downcomer tube; a liquid-pulsing piston; and a solids discharger formed of a conical section at the bottom of the column, and a tubular extension on the lowest downcomer terminating in the conical section. Between the conical section and the downcomer extension is formed a small annular opening, through which solids fall coming through the perforated plate of the lowest contactor stage. This annular opening is small enough that the pressure drop thereacross is greater than the pressure drop upward through the lowest contactor stage. (AEC)

  20. Vapor compression distillation module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nuccio, P. P.

    1975-01-01

    A Vapor Compression Distillation (VCD) module was developed and evaluated as part of a Space Station Prototype (SSP) environmental control and life support system. The VCD module includes the waste tankage, pumps, post-treatment cells, automatic controls and fault detection instrumentation. Development problems were encountered with two components: the liquid pumps, and the waste tank and quantity gauge. Peristaltic pumps were selected instead of gear pumps, and a sub-program of materials and design optimization was undertaken leading to a projected life greater than 10,000 hours of continuous operation. A bladder tank was designed and built to contain the waste liquids and deliver it to the processor. A detrimental pressure pattern imposed upon the bladder by a force-operated quantity gauge was corrected by rearranging the force application, and design goals were achieved. System testing has demonstrated that all performance goals have been fulfilled.

  1. Effects of distillation system and yeast strain on the aroma profile of Albariño (Vitis vinifera L.) grape pomace spirits.

    PubMed

    Arrieta-Garay, Y; Blanco, P; López-Vázquez, C; Rodríguez-Bencomo, J J; Pérez-Correa, J R; López, F; Orriols, I

    2014-10-29

    Orujo is a traditional alcoholic beverage produced in Galicia (northwest Spain) from distillation of grape pomace, a byproduct of the winemaking industry. In this study, the effect of the distillation system (copper charentais alembic versus packed column) and the yeast strain (native yeast L1 versus commercial yeast L2) on the chemical and sensory characteristics of orujo obtained from Albariño (Vitis vinifera L.) grape pomace has been analyzed. Principal component analysis, with two components explaining 74% of the variance, is able to clearly differentiate the distillates according to distillation system and yeast strain. Principal component 1, mainly defined by C6-C12 esters, isoamyl octanoate, and methanol, differentiates L1 from L2 distillates. In turn, principal component 2, mainly defined by linear alcohols, linalool, and 1-hexenol, differentiates alembic from packed column distillates. In addition, an aroma descriptive test reveals that the distillate obtained with a packed column from a pomace fermented with L1 presented the highest positive general impression, which is associated with the highest fruity and smallest solvent aroma scores. Moreover, chemical analysis shows that use of a packed column increases average ethanol recovery by 12%, increases the concentration of C6-C12 esters by 25%, and reduces the concentration of higher alcohols by 21%. In turn, L2 yeast obtained lower scores in the alembic distillates aroma profile. In addition, with L1, 9% higher ethanol yields were achieved, and L2 distillates contained 34%-40% more methanol than L1 distillates.

  2. Quantum distillation of bosons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, David

    2015-05-01

    The non-equilibrium dynamics of many-body quantum systems present a series of challenges for theory and opportunities for cold atom experiments. I will describe an experiment in which a bundle of initially trapped superfluid 1D Bose lattice gases is quenched to an untrapped, flat lattice potential. This simple experimental situation in the intermediate coupling regime (U/J between 4 and 9.6) leads to interesting dynamics. These include the progressive dissolution of a fraction of the doublons, as well as the quantum distillation and long term confinement of singlons out of and within the central, doublon-dominated region. We measure these processes by combining absorption imaging, photoassociation and 3-body loss to separately reconstruct the spatial distributions of the expectation values of singlons, doublons and triplons. The qualitative dynamics is reproduced by a Gutzwiller mean field model and the essence of the experiment can be understood by considering simple spatial pictures of site occupancies. This work was supported by the NSF and the ARO.

  3. Selective Retention of Explosives and Related Compounds on Gas-Chromatographic Capillary Columns Coated with Lanthanide(III) ß-diketonate Polymers

    SciTech Connect

    Harvey, Scott D.; Wenzel, Thomas J.

    2009-09-04

    The purpose of this research was to investigate coating capillary columns with lanthanide(III) beta-diketonate polymers to provide gas-chromatographic columns with selectivity toward explosives and related compounds. Capillary columns were statically coated with a combination of a lanthanide(III) beta-diketonate polymer, which utilized p-di(4,4,5,5,6,6,6-heptafluoro-1,3-hexanedionyl)benzene (dihed) as a ligand, and SE-30. A novel coating technique was developed that used a methanol-containing azeotrope to provide solubility for both polymers while maintaining a low boiling point compatible with static coating. As based on temperature-programmed retention indices, the custom experimental columns displayed selective retention of nitroaromatic, nitroalkane, and nitrate ester test probes relative to an appropriate SE-30 control column. Selective retention was more pronounced for strong Lewis base analytes (i.e., cyclohexanone). Relative analyte retention on the La(dihed), Tb(dihed) and Eu(dihed) columns are discussed relative to Lewis acidity and solubility of the polymer in the azeotrope coating solution.

  4. Understand the limitations of air/water testing of distillation equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, D.L.; Ludwig, K.A. )

    1994-04-01

    Distillation continues to be a unit operation of major importance--and a dynamic area for technical development. The designs of trays and packings are rapidly evolving, and the application of equipment also is changing. As chemical processes are pushed to become more efficient and lower cost, a general reduction in the traditional values for equipment safety factors are being seen. The net results is that one now has a greater need for a more thorough and fundamental understanding of distillation equipment. One technique to improve the understanding of distillation equipment is air/water testing. Such testing of distillation trays has become very common, and air/water test results for packed columns also are being reported. In this article, the authors will provide some guidance on how to assess the validity of such tests to industrial applications. In addition, they will discuss several possible approaches to test--and develop confidence in--the design of distillation equipment.

  5. Quantum entanglement distillation with metamaterials.

    PubMed

    al Farooqui, Md Abdullah; Breeland, Justin; Aslam, Muhammad I; Sadatgol, Mehdi; Özdemir, Şahin K; Tame, Mark; Yang, Lan; Güney, Durdu Ö

    2015-07-13

    We propose a scheme for the distillation of partially entangled two-photon Bell and three-photon W states using metamaterials. The distillation of partially entangled Bell states is achieved by using two metamaterials with polarization dependence, one of which is rotated by π/2 around the direction of propagation of the photons. On the other hand, the distillation of three-photon W states is achieved by using one polarization dependent metamaterial and two polarization independent metamaterials. Upon transmission of the photons of the partially entangled states through the metamaterials the entanglement of the states increases and they become distilled. This work opens up new directions in quantum optical state engineering by showing how metamaterials can be used to carry out a quantum information processing task.

  6. Revamp for more middle distillate

    SciTech Connect

    Weeks, D.J.; Pierce, V.E.

    1985-03-01

    In view of the continued decline in demand for residual fuel oil, the much publicised tightness of refining margins and hence funds for new investment, it is appropriate at this time to review some relatively inexpensive, but well-proven, revamp options that are available to the refiner for increasing yields of mid-distillate products at the expense of fuel oil components. With the partial or complete closure of so much refining capacity, much surplus equipment is available for implementing revamp projects. There is also scope for revamping hitherto moth-balled units and operating them in a manner different from that envisaged during their original design. Some long established conversion processes such as visbreaking and thermal cracking can enjoy a renaissance if demand for distillates remains strong. Mild hydrocracking and distillate dewaxing which are more recent developments in refinery processing can also figure prominently in plans for incremental production of middle distillates.

  7. SIMULATION OF NON-AZEOTROPIC REFRIGERANT MIXTURES FOR USE IN A DUAL-CIRCUIT REFRIGERATOR/FREEZER WITH COUNTERCURRENT HEAT EXCHANGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses a refrigerator/freezer (RF) system that has two complete and independent refrigeration cycles for the two compartments. It uses a non-azeotropic refrigerant mixture (NARM) in each cycle and countercurrent heat exchangers throughout. This RF is housed in a stan...

  8. Distillation process using microchannel technology

    SciTech Connect

    Tonkovich, Anna Lee; Simmons, Wayne W.; Silva, Laura J.; Qiu, Dongming; Perry, Steven T.; Yuschak, Thomas; Hickey, Thomas P.; Arora, Ravi; Smith, Amanda; Litt, Robert Dwayne; Neagle, Paul

    2009-11-03

    The disclosed invention relates to a distillation process for separating two or more components having different volatilities from a liquid mixture containing the components. The process employs microchannel technology for effecting the distillation and is particularly suitable for conducting difficult separations, such as the separation of ethane from ethylene, wherein the individual components are characterized by having volatilities that are very close to one another.

  9. Vacuum distillation of americium metal

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, J W; Knighton, J B; Nannie, C A

    1982-01-22

    High-purity americium metal has been distilled in multigram quantities from a plutonium-americium alloy. The procedure consisted of a two-stage vacuum distillation carried out at 1200/sup 0/C and 10/sup -6/ torr pressure. Four batches of americium metal were produced ranging in weight from 13.3 grams to 54.1 grams. The purity of the americium product ranged from 99.27 to 99.79%.

  10. Experimental investigation on hydrogen cryogenic distillation equipped with package made by ICIT

    SciTech Connect

    Bornea, A.; Zamfirache, M.; Stefan, L.; Stefanescu, I.; Preda, A.

    2015-03-15

    ICIT (Institute for Cryogenics and Isotopic Technologies) has used its experience in cryogenic water distillation process to propose a similar process for hydrogen distillation that can be used in detritiation technologies. This process relies on the same packages but a stainless filling is tested instead of the phosphorous bronze filling used for water distillation. This paper presents two types of packages developed for hydrogen distillation, both have a stainless filling but it differs in terms of density, exchange surface and specific volume. Performance data have been obtained on laboratory scale. In order to determine the characteristics of the package, the installation was operated in the total reflux mode, for different flow rate for the liquid. There were made several experiments considering different operating conditions. Samples extracted at the top and bottom of cryogenic distillation column allowed mathematical processing to determine the separation performance. The experiments show a better efficiency for the package whose exchange surface was higher and there were no relevant differences between both packages as the operating pressure of the cryogenic column was increasing. For a complete characterization of the packages, future experiments will be considered to determine performance at various velocities in the column and their correlation with the pressure in the column. We plan further experiments to separate tritium from the mixture of isotopes DT, having in view that our goal is to apply this results to a detritiation plant.

  11. Investigation related to hydrogen isotopes separation by cryogenic distillation

    SciTech Connect

    Bornea, A.; Zamfirache, M.; Stefanescu, I.; Preda, A.; Balteanu, O.; Stefan, I.

    2008-07-15

    Research conducted in the last fifty years has shown that one of the most efficient techniques of removing tritium from the heavy water used as moderator and coolant in CANDU reactors (as that operated at Cernavoda (Romania)) is hydrogen cryogenic distillation. Designing and implementing the concept of cryogenic distillation columns require experiments to be conducted as well as computer simulations. Particularly, computer simulations are of great importance when designing and evaluating the performances of a column or a series of columns. Experimental data collected from laboratory work will be used as input for computer simulations run at larger scale (for The Pilot Plant for Tritium and Deuterium Separation) in order to increase the confidence in the simulated results. Studies carried out were focused on the following: - Quantitative analyses of important parameters such as the number of theoretical plates, inlet area, reflux flow, flow-rates extraction, working pressure, etc. - Columns connected in series in such a way to fulfil the separation requirements. Experiments were carried out on a laboratory-scale installation to investigate the performance of contact elements with continuous packing. The packing was manufactured in our institute. (authors)

  12. Distillation and Air Stripping Designs for the Lunar Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boul, Peter J.; Lange, Kevin E.; Conger, Bruce; Anderson, Molly

    2009-01-01

    Air stripping and distillation are two different gravity-based methods, which may be applied to the purification of wastewater on the lunar base. These gravity-based solutions to water processing are robust physical separation techniques, which may be advantageous to many other techniques for their simplicity in design and operation. The two techniques can be used in conjunction with each other to obtain high purity water. The components and feed compositions for modeling waste water streams are presented in conjunction with the Aspen property system for traditional stage distillation models and air stripping models. While the individual components for each of the waste streams will vary naturally within certain bounds, an analog model for waste water processing is suggested based on typical concentration ranges for these components. Target purity levels for the for recycled water are determined for each individual component based on NASA s required maximum contaminant levels for potable water Distillation processes are modeled separately and in tandem with air stripping to demonstrate the potential effectiveness and utility of these methods in recycling wastewater on the Moon. Optimum parameters such as reflux ratio, feed stage location, and processing rates are determined with respect to the power consumption of the process. Multistage distillation is evaluated for components in wastewater to determine the minimum number of stages necessary for each of 65 components in humidity condensate and urine wastewater mixed streams. Components of the wastewater streams are ranked by Henry s Law Constant and the suitability of air stripping in the purification of wastewater in terms of component removal is evaluated. Scaling factors for distillation and air stripping columns are presented to account for the difference in the lunar gravitation environment. Commercially available distillation and air stripping units which are considered suitable for Exploration Life Support

  13. Comparison of advanced distillation control methods. Third annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Riggs, J.B.

    1997-07-01

    Detailed dynamic simulations of three industrial distillation columns (a propylene/propane splitter, a xylene/toluene column, and a depropanizer) have been used to study the issue of configuration selection for diagonal PI dual composition controls, feedforward from a feed composition analyzer, and decouplers. Auto Tune Variation (ATV) identification with on-line detuning for setpoint changes was used for tuning the diagonal proportional integral (PI) composition controls. In addition, robustness tests were conducted by inducting reboiler duty upsets. For single composition control, the (L, V) configuration was found to be best. For dual composition control, the optimum configuration changes from one column to another. Moreover, the use of analysis tools, such as RGA, appears to be of little value in identifying the optimum configuration for dual composition control. Using feedforward from a feed composition analyzer and using decouplers are shown to offer significant advantages for certain specific cases.

  14. Optimal protocols for nonlocality distillation

    SciTech Connect

    Hoeyer, Peter; Rashid, Jibran

    2010-10-15

    Forster et al. recently showed that weak nonlocality can be amplified by giving the first protocol that distills a class of nonlocal boxes (NLBs) [Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 120401 (2009)] We first show that their protocol is optimal among all nonadaptive protocols. We next consider adaptive protocols. We show that the depth-2 protocol of Allcock et al. [Phys. Rev. A 80, 062107 (2009)] performs better than previously known adaptive depth-2 protocols for all symmetric NLBs. We present a depth-3 protocol that extends the known region of distillable NLBs. We give examples of NLBs for which each of the Forster et al., the Allcock et al., and our protocols perform best. The understanding we develop is that there is no single optimal protocol for NLB distillation. The choice of which protocol to use depends on the noise parameters for the NLB.

  15. Distillation Apparatuses Using Household Items

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campanizzi, Danielle R. D.; Mason, Brenda; Hermann, Christine K. F.

    1999-08-01

    A simple apparatus to demonstrate distillation principles can be very difficult to build without the specialty glassware found in chemistry laboratories. We have built inexpensive but effective distillation apparatuses from equipment that can be easily purchased at local department, grocery, or hardware stores. In one apparatus, colored water is heated to boiling and the condensed vapors drip into another container. In another apparatus, acetone is heated to boiling with hot water and the acetone vapors condense onto a Styrofoam cup. The Styrofoam cup is softened by the acetone and collapses. Rubbing alcohol can be used instead of acetone, but the cup is not softened and the boiling point is much higher. Both apparatuses can be used in a classroom. Both are simple, cost-effective ways of demonstrating distillation, evaporation, and condensation. They would be ideal to use in elementary and middle school classrooms when explaining these concepts.

  16. Solar power water distillation unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hameed, Kamran; Muzammil Khan, Muhammad; Shahrukh Ateeq, Ijlal; Omair, Syed Muhammad; Ahmer, Muhammad; Wajid, Abdul

    2013-06-01

    Clean drinking water is the basic necessity for every human being, but about 1.1 billion people in the world lacked proper drinking water. There are many different types of water purification processes such as filtration, reverse osmosis, ultraviolet radiation, carbon absorption, but the most reliable processes are distillation and boiling. Water purification, such as distillation, is especially important in regions where water resources or tap water is not suitable for ingesting without boiling or chemical treatment. In design project It treats the water by combining different methods such as Filtration, Distillation and a technique called concentrated solar power (CSP). Distillation is literally the method seen in nature, whereby: the sun heats the water on the earth's surface, the water is turned into a vapor (evaporation) and rises, leaving contaminants behind, to form clouds. As the upper atmosphere drops in temperature the vapors cool and convert back to water to form water. In this project distillation is achieved by using a parabolic mirror which boils water at high temperature. Filtration is done by sand filter and carbon filter. First sand filter catches the sand particles and the carbon filter which has granules of active carbon is used to remove odor dissolved gases from water. This is the Pre-treatment of water. The filtered water is then collected in a water container at a focus of parabolic mirror where distillation process is done. Another important feature of designed project is the solar tracking of a parabolic mirror which increases the efficiency of a parabolic mirror [1],[2].

  17. Extended testing of compression distillation.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bambenek, R. A.; Nuccio, P. P.

    1972-01-01

    During the past eight years, the NASA Manned Spacecraft Center has supported the development of an integrated water and waste management system which includes the compression distillation process for recovering useable water from urine, urinal flush water, humidity condensate, commode flush water, and concentrated wash water. This paper describes the design of the compression distillation unit, developed for this system, and the testing performed to demonstrate its reliability and performance. In addition, this paper summarizes the work performed on pretreatment and post-treatment processes, to assure the recovery of sterile potable water from urine and treated urinal flush water.

  18. Bounds for nonlocality distillation protocols

    SciTech Connect

    Forster, Manuel

    2011-06-15

    Nonlocality can be quantified by the violation of a Bell inequality. Since this violation may be amplified by local operations, an alternative measure has been proposed--distillable nonlocality. The alternative measure is difficult to calculate exactly due to the double exponential growth of the parameter space. In this paper, we give a way to bound the distillable nonlocality of a resource by the solutions to a related optimization problem. Our upper bounds are exponentially easier to compute than the exact value and are shown to be meaningful in general and tight in some cases.

  19. Influence of the distillation step on the ratios of stable isotopes of ethanol in cherry brandies.

    PubMed

    Baudler, Ron; Adam, Ludwig; Rossmann, Andreas; Versini, Giuseppe; Engel, Karl-Heinz

    2006-02-01

    Isotope ratio mass spectrometry and site-specific natural isotope fractionation-nuclear magnetic resonance were applied to determine the overall carbon isotope ratio (delta13C) and the hydrogen isotope ratios [(D/H)I and (D/H)II] of ethanol, respectively. Ethanol was obtained by distillation of fermented cherry mash from a pot still commonly used in fruit brandy production. Analyses of distillate fractions revealed that the distillation proceeds with a fractionation of ethanol isotopologues. The inverse vapor pressure isotope effect (VPIE) observed for the carbon isotopologues is in accordance with the data reported for distillation of ethanol in spinning band columns. In contrast, the inverse VPIE for hydrogen isotopologues of ethanol observed in spinning band columns could not be confirmed. To investigate whether the observed isotope fractionations might influence the applicability of stable isotope analysis for quality and authenticity assessment of fruit brandies, the collected distillate fractions were recombined to cuts, as is common practice in commercial fruit brandy production. Taking into consideration the limits of repeatability of the method, it could be demonstrated that the isotope fractionations observed do not impair the applicability of stable isotope analysis of the carbon and hydrogen isotopes of ethanol for the authenticity assessment of cherry brandies if the cuts are placed in accordance with common distillers' practice.

  20. Evaluation of corn and sorghum distillers byproducts.

    PubMed

    Lodge, S L; Stock, R A; Klopfenstein, T J; Shain, D H; Herold, D W

    1997-01-01

    Two trials were conducted to determine the feeding value of sorghum distillers byproducts. Trial 1, a finishing trial, used 160 yearling steers (327 kg). Treatments consisted of dry-rolled corn (DRC) control, sorghum wet distillers grains (SWDG), sorghum wet distillers grains plus solubles (SWDGS), and sorghum dried distillers grain plus solubles (SDDGS). Distillers byproducts were fed at 40% of the diet DM. Cattle fed diets containing SWDG, SWDGS, or DRC were similar in efficiency of gain (P > .10); cattle fed SDDGS were less efficient (P < .10) than all other treatments. Sorghum wet distillers grains, SWDGS, and SDDGS contained 96, 102, and 80% relative NEg of corn, respectively. In Trial 2, 16 crossbred lambs (55 kg) were used to determine the digestibility of sorghum and corn distillers byproducts. Byproducts were fed at 80% of the diet DM and treatments consisted of corn wet distillers grains (CWDG), corn dried distillers grains plus solubles (CDDGS), SWDG, and SDDGS. Neutral detergent fiber digestibility was not different among treatments (P > .10). Corn wet distillers grains were higher in true nitrogen (P < .001), apparent nitrogen (P < .01), and organic matter digestibility (P < .05) than SWDG. Wet distillers byproducts were higher (P < .01) in apparent organic matter and nitrogen digestibility than dried distillers byproducts. Digestibility of distillers byproducts and subsequent energy values are influenced by type of grain used in the fermentation process and drying of the finished byproduct. PMID:9027546

  1. Plant transpiration distillation of water

    SciTech Connect

    Virostko, M.K.; Spielberg, J.I.

    1986-01-01

    A project using solar energy and the transpiration of plants for the distillation of water is described. Along with determining which of three plants thrived best growing in a still, the experiment also revealed that the still functioned nearly as well in inclement weather as in fair weather.

  2. Purifying Aluminum by Vacuum Distillation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Du Fresne, E. R.

    1985-01-01

    Proposed method for purifying aluminum employs one-step vacuum distillation. Raw material for process impure aluminum produced in electrolysis of aluminum ore. Impure metal melted in vacuum. Since aluminum has much higher vapor pressure than other constituents, boils off and condenses on nearby cold surfaces in proportions much greater than those of other constituents.

  3. Entanglement preservation by continuous distillation

    SciTech Connect

    Mundarain, D.; Orszag, M.

    2009-05-15

    We study the two-qubit entanglement preservation for a system in the presence of independent thermal baths. We use a combination of filtering operations and distillation protocols as a series of frequent measurements on the system. It is shown that a small fraction of the total amount of available copies of the system preserves or even improves its initial entanglement during the evolution.

  4. Corrosion inhibition for distillation apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Baumert, Kenneth L.; Sagues, Alberto A.; Davis, Burtron H.; Schweighardt, Frank K.

    1985-01-01

    Tower material corrosion in an atmospheric or sub-atmospheric distillation tower in a coal liquefaction process is reduced or eliminated by subjecting chloride-containing tray contents to an appropriate ion-exchange resin to remove chloride from such tray contents materials.

  5. Dynamic low-order models for capturing directionality in nonideal distillation

    SciTech Connect

    Saagfors, M.F.; Waller, K.V.

    1995-06-01

    The common way to obtain low-order models of distillation columns by identifying the transfer function elements independently may result in models that are inconsistent with the physical reality. The description of the process directionality may be poor, and the model is likely to contain an excessive number of slow poles. In this paper, the directionality of nonideal (real) distillation columns is studied with the help of a number of published experimental and simulated models. Based on the results, a multivariable model structure for capturing process directionality in continuous nonideal distillation is proposed. Further, a method is given for how to avoid multiple representation of single states in the model, when flow lags are explicitly included.

  6. Efficient optimization of batch distillation with chemical reaction using polynomial curve fitting techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Mujtaba, I.M.; Macchietto, S.

    1997-06-01

    A computationally efficient framework is presented for dynamic optimization of batch distillation where chemical reaction and separation take place simultaneously. An objective to maximize the conversion of the limiting reactant dynamic optimization problem (maximum conversion problem) is formulated for a representative system, and parametric solutions of the problem are obtained. Polynomial curve fitting techniques are then applied to the results of the dynamic optimization problem. These polynomials are used to formulate a nonlinear algebraic maximum profit problem which can be solved extremely efficiently using a nonlinear optimization solver. This provides an efficient framework which can be used for on-line optimization of batch distillation within scheduling programs for batch processes. The method can also be easily extended to nonreactive batch distillation and to nonconventional batch distillation columns.

  7. 27 CFR 19.301 - Distillation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Distillation. 19.301 Section 19.301 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... of Spirits § 19.301 Distillation. The distillation of spirits must be done in a continuous...

  8. 27 CFR 19.301 - Distillation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Distillation. 19.301 Section 19.301 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... of Spirits § 19.301 Distillation. The distillation of spirits must be done in a continuous...

  9. 27 CFR 19.301 - Distillation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Distillation. 19.301 Section 19.301 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... of Spirits § 19.301 Distillation. The distillation of spirits must be done in a continuous...

  10. 27 CFR 19.316 - Distillation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Distillation. 19.316 Section 19.316 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Production § 19.316 Distillation. The...

  11. 27 CFR 19.301 - Distillation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Distillation. 19.301 Section 19.301 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... of Spirits § 19.301 Distillation. The distillation of spirits must be done in a continuous...

  12. 27 CFR 24.216 - Distilling material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Distilling material. 24..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Production of Other Than Standard Wine § 24.216 Distilling material... fruit residues, for use as distilling material, using any quantity of water desired to...

  13. 27 CFR 24.216 - Distilling material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Distilling material. 24..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Other Than Standard Wine § 24.216 Distilling material... fruit residues, for use as distilling material, using any quantity of water desired to...

  14. Cascade Distillation Subsystem Development: Progress Toward a Distillation Comparison Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callahan, M. R.; Lubman, A.; Pickering, Karen D.

    2009-01-01

    Recovery of potable water from wastewater is essential for the success of long-duration manned missions to the Moon and Mars. Honeywell International and a team from NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) are developing a wastewater processing subsystem that is based on centrifugal vacuum distillation. The wastewater processor, referred to as the Cascade Distillation Subsystem (CDS), utilizes an innovative and efficient multistage thermodynamic process to produce purified water. The rotary centrifugal design of the system also provides gas/liquid phase separation and liquid transport under microgravity conditions. A five-stage subsystem unit has been designed, built, delivered and integrated into the NASA JSC Advanced Water Recovery Systems Development Facility for performance testing. A major test objective of the project is to demonstrate the advancement of the CDS technology from the breadboard level to a subsystem level unit. An initial round of CDS performance testing was completed in fiscal year (FY) 2008. Based on FY08 testing, the system is now in development to support an Exploration Life Support (ELS) Project distillation comparison test expected to begin in early 2009. As part of the project objectives planned for FY09, the system will be reconfigured to support the ELS comparison test. The CDS will then be challenged with a series of human-gene-rated waste streams representative of those anticipated for a lunar outpost. This paper provides a description of the CDS technology, a status of the current project activities, and data on the system s performance to date.

  15. Mechanisms of recirculating liquid flow on distillation sieve plates

    SciTech Connect

    Biddulph, M.W. . Dept. of Chemical Engineering); Burton, A.C. )

    1994-11-01

    This paper describes an experimental investigation into the phenomenon of flow recirculation on distillation sieve trays. A novel dye injection technique has been applied to a 1.81 m air-water simulation column and has yielded new information concerning the nature of the boundary layer of gas-liquid biphase as it detaches from the column wall. The study has shown that recirculation is strongly influenced by inlet conditions. A critical factor is the underflow clearance between the inlet downcomer apron and the tray floor. As this clearance is increased, the size of the recirculating zones passes through a minimum, indicating the existence of two different mechanisms responsible for the nonuniform flow patterns. A significant implication of this work is that tray designers may minimize the impact of recirculating on mass transfer efficiency by appropriate choice of underflow clearance.

  16. Multiple steady state and instability in distillation. Implications for operation and control

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobsen, E.W.; Skogestad, S.

    1995-12-01

    The fact that distillation columns, even in the ideal binary case, may display multiple steady states and unstable operating points has only recently been recognized. This article addresses some implications of these phenomena for the operation and control of distillation columns. Under manual operation, the multiplicity and instability will result in ability to reach separations corresponding to unstable operating points and may furthermore cause abrupt changes and hysteresis in operating conditions. It is shown that an unstable operating point may be stabilized by feedback control of a single product composition or tray temperature (one-point control). The steady-state multiplicity does, in this case, not represent any severe limitation in operation, but if the control is not sufficient tight, the column may settle in sustained oscillations (stable limit cycle). Finally, the impact of open-loop instability on the achievable closed-loop performance with both product compositions under feedback control is discussed.

  17. Dynamic simulation and nonlinear control of a rigorous batch reactive distillation.

    PubMed

    Kathel, Prateek; Jana, Amiya K

    2010-01-01

    This work deals with the dynamics and control of a high-purity batch distillation column with chemical reaction. A heterogeneous esterification reaction between the acetic acid and butanol takes place to produce butyl acetate. The process model is formulated considering variable liquid holdup, UNIQUAC model for thermodynamic property predictions, nonlinear Francis weir formula for tray hydraulics, pseudohomogeneous model to represent the reaction kinetics and rigorous energy balance. A structured and simple iterative approach is devised to compute the vapor flows with the fast convergence, under the rigorous energy balance. The representative column is treated with a distillate policy based on which, the lightest product, water is removed as distillate at the starting of production phase. As a consequence, the column gets progressively richer with the main product, butyl acetate. In addition, almost complete conversion of the limiting reactant is achieved. In order to maintain the product purity at the top, a nonlinear generic model controller (GMC) in two different forms has been proposed. Finally, a comparative closed-loop performance is addressed. It is shown that the control scheme, along with the effective distillate strategy, leads to almost complete conversion of ingredients and high-purity products. PMID:19815199

  18. Dynamic simulation and nonlinear control of a rigorous batch reactive distillation.

    PubMed

    Kathel, Prateek; Jana, Amiya K

    2010-01-01

    This work deals with the dynamics and control of a high-purity batch distillation column with chemical reaction. A heterogeneous esterification reaction between the acetic acid and butanol takes place to produce butyl acetate. The process model is formulated considering variable liquid holdup, UNIQUAC model for thermodynamic property predictions, nonlinear Francis weir formula for tray hydraulics, pseudohomogeneous model to represent the reaction kinetics and rigorous energy balance. A structured and simple iterative approach is devised to compute the vapor flows with the fast convergence, under the rigorous energy balance. The representative column is treated with a distillate policy based on which, the lightest product, water is removed as distillate at the starting of production phase. As a consequence, the column gets progressively richer with the main product, butyl acetate. In addition, almost complete conversion of the limiting reactant is achieved. In order to maintain the product purity at the top, a nonlinear generic model controller (GMC) in two different forms has been proposed. Finally, a comparative closed-loop performance is addressed. It is shown that the control scheme, along with the effective distillate strategy, leads to almost complete conversion of ingredients and high-purity products.

  19. Irresolvable complex mixture of hydrocarbons in soybean oil deodorizer distillate.

    PubMed

    Ju, Yi-Hsu; Huynh, Lien-Huong; Gunawan, Setiyo; Chern, Yaw-Terng; Kasim, Novy S

    2012-01-01

    Aliphatic hydrocarbons (HCs) can be used as a fingerprint of a given seed oil. Only by characterization of aliphatic HCs could contamination by mineral oil in that seed oil be confirmed. During the isolation of squalene from soybean oil deodorizer distillate, a significant amount of unknown HCs, ca. 44 wt%, was obtained. These seemingly-easy-to-identify HCs turned out to be much more difficult to elucidate due to the presence of an irresolvable complex mixture (ICM). The objective of this study was to purify and identify the unknown ICM of aliphatic HCs from soybean oil deodorizer distillate. Purification of the ICM was successfully achieved by using modified Soxhlet extraction, followed by modified preparative column chromatography, and finally by classical preparative column chromatography. FT-IR, TLC, elemental analysis, GC/FID, NMR and GC-MS analyses were then performed on the purified HCs. The GC chromatogram detected the presence of ICM peaks comprising two major peaks and a number of minor peaks. Validation methods such as IR and NMR justified that the unknowns are saturated HCs. This work succeeded in tentatively identifying the two major peaks in the ICM as cycloalkane derivatives. PMID:22162261

  20. Vapor Compression Distillation Flight Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutchens, Cindy F.

    2002-01-01

    One of the major requirements associated with operating the International Space Station is the transportation -- space shuttle and Russian Progress spacecraft launches - necessary to re-supply station crews with food and water. The Vapor Compression Distillation (VCD) Flight Experiment, managed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala., is a full-scale demonstration of technology being developed to recycle crewmember urine and wastewater aboard the International Space Station and thereby reduce the amount of water that must be re-supplied. Based on results of the VCD Flight Experiment, an operational urine processor will be installed in Node 3 of the space station in 2005.

  1. A new procedure for the determination of distillation temperature distribution of high-boiling petroleum products and fractions.

    PubMed

    Boczkaj, Grzegorz; Przyjazny, Andrzej; Kamiński, Marian

    2011-03-01

    The distribution of distillation temperatures of liquid and semi-fluid products, including petroleum fractions and products, is an important process and practical parameter. It provides information on properties of crude oil and content of particular fractions, classified on the basis of their boiling points, as well as the optimum conditions of atmospheric or vacuum distillation. At present, the distribution of distillation temperatures is often investigated by simulated distillation (SIMDIS) using capillary gas chromatography (CGC) with a short capillary column with polydimethylsiloxane as the stationary phase. This paper presents the results of investigations on the possibility of replacing currently used CGC columns for SIMDIS with a deactivated fused silica capillary tube without any stationary phase. The SIMDIS technique making use of such an empty fused silica column allows a considerable lowering of elution temperature of the analytes, which results in a decrease of the final oven temperature while ensuring a complete separation of the mixture. This eliminates the possibility of decomposition of less thermally stable mixture components and bleeding of the stationary phase which would result in an increase of the detector signal. It also improves the stability of the baseline, which is especially important in the determination of the end point of elution, which is the basis for finding the final temperature of distillation. This is the key parameter for the safety process of hydrocracking, where an excessively high final temperature of distillation of a batch can result in serious damage to an expensive catalyst bed. This paper compares the distribution of distillation temperatures of the fraction from vacuum distillation of petroleum obtained using SIMDIS with that obtained by the proposed procedure. A good agreement between the two procedures was observed. In addition, typical values of elution temperatures of n-paraffin standards obtained by the two

  2. Distillation of liquid fuels by thermogravimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, He; Wang, Keyu; Wang, Shaojie; Klein, M.T.; Calkins, W.H.

    1996-12-31

    In this paper, design and operation of a custom-built thermogravimetric apparatus for the distillation of liquid fuels are reported. Using a sensitive balance with scale of 0.001 g and ASTM distillation glassware, several petroleum and petroleum-derived samples have been analyzed by the thermogravimetric distillation method. When the ASTM distillation glassware is replaced by a micro-scale unit, sample size could be reduced from 100 g to 5-10 g. A computer program has been developed to transfer the data into a distillation plot, e.g. Weight Percent Distilled vs. Boiling Point. It also generates a report on the characteristic distillation parameters, such as, IBP (Initial Boiling Point), FBP (Final Boiling Point), and boiling point at 50 wt% distilled. Comparison of the boiling point distributions determined by TG (thermogravimetry) with those by SimDis GC (Simulated-Distillation Gas Chromatography) on two liquid fuel samples (i.e. a decanted oil and a filtered crude oil) are also discussed in this paper.

  3. Improving the (18)F-fluoromethylcholine ((18)F-FCH) radiochemical yield via optimising the azeotropic drying of non-carrier-added (18)F-fluorine.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Hishar; Abu Bakar, Suharzelim; Halim, Khairul Najah Che A; Idris, Jaleezah; Ahmad Saad, Fathinul Fikri; Nordin, Abdul Jalil

    2015-01-01

    (18)F-Fluoromethylcholine ((18)F-FCH) has been suggested as one of the reputable imaging tracers for diagnosis of prostate tumour in PET/CT examination. Nevertheless, it has never been synthesised in Malaysia. We acknowledged the major problem with (18)F-FCH is due to its relatively low radiochemical yield at the end of synthesis (EOS). Therefore, this technical note presents improved (18)F-FCH radiochemical yields after carrying out optimisation on azeotropic drying of non-carrier-added (18)F-Fluorine.

  4. Starch columns: Analog model for basalt columns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Gerhard

    1998-07-01

    Desiccation of starch-water mixtures produces tensile-crack patterns which appear to be interesting, but largely unknown study objects for fracture mechanics, structural geology, and volcanology. This paper concentrates on columnar jointing and on columns in starch. Starch columns have polygonal cross sections and are very similar to basalt columns. They are produced by lamp drying starch specimens with dimensions of several centimeters and have diameters in the millimeter range. The columns develop behind a crack front which propagates from the surface into the interior. The experiments, supported by X ray tomograms, show that polygonal regularity of the crack pattern is not present at the surface but develops during penetration. This transition is steered by a minimum-fracture-energy principle. The analogy between basalt cooling and starch desiccation is far reaching: water concentration in starch is analogous to temperature in basalt, both quantities obey diffusion equations, water loss is equivalent to heat loss, the resulting contraction stresses have similar dependences on depth and time, and in both cases the material strength is exceeded. The starch experiments show that column diameters are controlled by the depth gradient of water concentration at the crack front. High (low) gradients are connected with thin (thick) columns. By analogy, a similar relation with the temperature gradient exists for basalt columns. The (normalized) starch gradients are about 3 orders of magnitude larger than the (normalized) gradients in basalt. This explains why starch columns are much thinner than basalt columns. The gradients are so different, because the crack front speeds differ by a factor of about 10: after 3 days the speed is about 10 mm/d in starch but about 100 mm/d in basalt [Peck, 1978]. The speed difference, in turn, results from the difference of the diffusion constants: the hydraulic diffusivity of starch is 2 orders of magnitude lower than the thermal

  5. Neuro-estimator based GMC control of a batch reactive distillation.

    PubMed

    Prakash, K J Jithin; Patle, Dipesh S; Jana, Amiya K

    2011-07-01

    In this paper, an artificial neural network (ANN)-based nonlinear control algorithm is proposed for a simulated batch reactive distillation (RD) column. In the homogeneously catalyzed reactive process, an esterification reaction takes place for the production of ethyl acetate. The fundamental model has been derived incorporating the reaction term in the model structure of the nonreactive distillation process. The process operation is simulated at the startup phase under total reflux conditions. The open-loop process dynamics is also addressed running the batch process at the production phase under partial reflux conditions. In this study, a neuro-estimator based generic model controller (GMC), which consists of an ANN-based state predictor and the GMC law, has been synthesized. Finally, this proposed control law has been tested on the representative batch reactive distillation comparing with a gain-scheduled proportional integral (GSPI) controller and with its ideal performance (ideal GMC).

  6. Quality evaluation of agricultural distillates using different types of electronic noses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dymerski, Tomasz; Gebicki, Jacek; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2014-08-01

    The paper presents the results of investigation on quality evaluation of agricultural distillates using a prototype of electronic nose instrument and a commercial electronic nose of Fast/Flash GC type- HERACLES II. The prototype was equipped with TGS type semiconductor sensors. HERACLES II included two chromatographic columns with different polarity of stationary phase and two FID detectors. In case of the prototype volatile fraction of the agricultural distillate was prepared via barbotage process, whereas HERACLES II analysed the headspace fraction. Classification of the samples into three quality classes was performed using: quadratic discriminant function (QDA), supported with cross-validation method. Over 95% correct classification of the agricultural distillates into particular quality classes was observed for the analyses with HERACLES II. The prototype of electronic nose provided correct classification at the level of 70%.

  7. Influence of type of distillation apparatus on chemical profiles of brazilian cachaças.

    PubMed

    Reche, Roni Vicente; Neto, Alexandre Ferreira Leite; Silva, Alexandre Ataide Da; Galinaro, Carlos Alexandre; Osti, Renata Zachi De; Franco, Douglas Wagner

    2007-08-01

    Brazilian cachaças (115 samples; 73 samples derived from distillation in copper pot stills, 42 samples derived from distillation in stainless steel columns), collected directly at the producers, were analyzed for the contents of 34 constituents by chromatography, inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry, and atomic absorption spectrometry. The analytical data were subjected to principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA). The PCA treatment led to discrimination of the two groups of cachaças, explaining 65.0% of the database variance. Using LDA and ethanal, ethyl carbamate, dimethyl sulfide, isobutyl alcohol, n-propanal, copper, ethyl acetate, and phenylmethanal as chemical descriptors, a model was developed that presented 95.1% accuracy in predicting the type of distillation apparatus.

  8. Recycling of Waste Acetone by Fractional Distillation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weires, Nicholas A.; Johnston, Aubrey; Warner, Don L.; McCormick, Michael M.; Hammond, Karen; McDougal, Owen M.

    2011-01-01

    Distillation is a ubiquitous technique in the undergraduate organic chemistry curriculum; the technique dates back to ca. 3500 B.C.E. With the emergence of green chemistry in the 1990s, the importance of emphasizing responsible waste management practices for future scientists is paramount. Combining the practice of distillation with the message…

  9. Distillation of Bell states in open systems

    SciTech Connect

    Isasi, E.; Mundarain, D.

    2010-04-15

    In this work we show that the distillation protocol proposed by P. Chen et al. [Phys. Rev. A 54, 3824 (1996)] allows one to distill Bell states at any time for a system evolving in vacuum and prepared in an initial singlet. It is also shown that the same protocol, applied in nonzero temperature thermal baths, yields a considerable recovering of entanglement.

  10. Potential bleaching techniques for corn distillers grains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ethanol industry is booming, and extensive research is now being pursued to develop alternative uses for distillers dried grains (DDG) and distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), coproducts of the ethanol production process. Currently, DDG and DDGS are used exclusively as livestock feed. P...

  11. Locally accessible information and distillation of entanglement

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, Sibasish; Joag, Pramod; Kar, Guruprasad; Kunkri, Samir; Roy, Anirban

    2005-01-01

    A different type of complementarity relation is found between locally accessible information and final average entanglement for a given ensemble. It is also shown that in some well-known distillation protocols, this complementary relation is optimally satisfied. We discuss the interesting trade-off between locally accessible information and distillable entanglement for some states.

  12. Shell middle distillate hydrogenation process

    SciTech Connect

    Lucien, J.P.; Berg, J.P. van den; Hooijdonk, H.M.J.H. van; Thielemans, G.L.B.; Germaine, G.; Gjers, M.

    1994-12-31

    The strive towards cleaner environment has lead to low sulfur specifications for middle distillate fuels. In addition compositional specifications are presently debated. Thus, to meet future emissions standards regarding, specifically, particulates emissions, the motor industry calls for improved automotive gasoil quality. Although automotive gasoil quality affects emissions from diesel engines it is considered less influential than engine design and maintenance. Sulfur, density and cetane number are the fuel properties having the greatest influence on diesel engine emissions although also aromatics and endpoint specifications have been defined in environmentally adopted government initiatives. This paper reviews the options which are available to tackle these new requirements. The high severity single stage concept (using conventional mixed sulfides catalysts) will be discussed in its potential to meet more severe product requirements as well as in terms of its limitations, especially at the point of aromatics saturation and cetaine upgrading. Furthermore, it is shown that the option of severe hydrotreating followed by hydrogenation with conventional noble metal catalysts is preferred if deep aromatics saturation is aimed at. However, this conventional two stage concept has limitations with respect to heaviness and sulfur and nitrogen content of feedstocks. The new Shell Middle Distillate Hydrogenation (SMDH) technology, applying a (semi) two stage approach based on the Shell developed hydrogenation catalyst is presented. The SMDH process will be discussed in its potential to break the limitations of the conventional options. The new catalyst is crucial in this process and allows a highly integrated mode of operation. A number of applications of this novel process will be discussed.

  13. Column Liquid Chromatography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Majors, Ronald E.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Reviews literature covering developments of column liquid chromatography during 1982-83. Areas considered include: books and reviews; general theory; columns; instrumentation; detectors; automation and data handling; multidimensional chromatographic and column switching techniques; liquid-solid chromatography; normal bonded-phase, reversed-phase,…

  14. Small scale ethanol production demonstration: comparison of packed versus plate rectifying column

    SciTech Connect

    Adcock, II, L E; Eley, M H; Schroer, B J

    1982-07-01

    The Johnson Environmental and Energy Center with assistance from the Madison County Farm Bureau Association received a grant in 1980 from the US Department of Energy to design, fabricate, and evaluate a small scale continuous ethanol plant. In 1981, the Center received a second DOE grant to compare the economics of replacing the plate rectifying column in the initial unit with a packed rectifying column. The results of the study indicate that the distillation unit with the packed rectifying column is capable of producing 14 gallons per hour of 170 proof ethanol. The energy ratio for distillation was a positive 2:1. Cost of the packed column was considerably less than the plate column. 1 reference, 19 figures, 9 tables.

  15. 27 CFR 24.183 - Use of distillates containing aldehydes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... the fermentation of wine and then returned to the distilled spirits plant from which distillates were... fermentation of wine made from a different kind of fruit. Distillates containing aldehydes which are...

  16. 27 CFR 24.183 - Use of distillates containing aldehydes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... the fermentation of wine and then returned to the distilled spirits plant from which distillates were... fermentation of wine made from a different kind of fruit. Distillates containing aldehydes which are...

  17. 27 CFR 24.183 - Use of distillates containing aldehydes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... the fermentation of wine and then returned to the distilled spirits plant from which distillates were... fermentation of wine made from a different kind of fruit. Distillates containing aldehydes which are...

  18. 27 CFR 24.183 - Use of distillates containing aldehydes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... the fermentation of wine and then returned to the distilled spirits plant from which distillates were... fermentation of wine made from a different kind of fruit. Distillates containing aldehydes which are...

  19. 27 CFR 24.183 - Use of distillates containing aldehydes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... the fermentation of wine and then returned to the distilled spirits plant from which distillates were... fermentation of wine made from a different kind of fruit. Distillates containing aldehydes which are...

  20. Imaging of liquid distribution in reactive distillation packings with a new high-energy x-ray tomograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toye, D.; Crine, M.; Marchot, P.

    2005-11-01

    We describe a new, high-energy (420 kV), large-scale (0.45 m in diameter, 4 m in height) x-ray tomograph developed to investigate gas and liquid flow through fixed bed like absorption, distillation and reactive distillation columns. The first results obtained with this set-up on test objects (physical phantoms), such as a cylindrical container filled with water or a large diameter structured metallic packing, validate the technique as a quantitative tool for geometrical measurements. Very detailed two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) images of a 0.09 m diameter KATAPAK-SP 12, a reactive distillation packing, are presented. Quantitative information relative to liquid hold-up distribution may be obtained from tomographic imaging performed on an irrigated column packed with this element.

  1. Comparison of advanced distillation control methods. Second annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Riggs, J.B.

    1996-11-01

    Detailed dynamic simulations of two industrial distillation columns (a propylene/propane splitter and a xylene/toluene column) have been used to study the issue of configuration selection for diagonal PI dual composition controls. Auto Tune Variation (ATV) identification with on-line detuning was used for tuning the diagonal proportional integral (PI) composition controls. Each configuration was evaluated with respect to steady-state relative gain array (RGA) values, sensitivity to feed composition changes, and open loop dynamic performance. Each configuration was tuned using setpoint changes over a wider range of operation for robustness and tested for feed composition upsets. Overall, configuration selection was shown to have a dominant effect upon control performance. Configuration analysis tools (e.g., RGA, condition number, disturbance sensitivity) were found to reject configuration choices that are obviously poor choices, but were unable to critically differentiate between the remaining viable choices. Configuration selection guidelines are given although it is demonstrated that the most reliable configuration selection approach is based upon testing the viable configurations using dynamic column simulators.

  2. Comparison of advanced distillation control methods. Second annual report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-11-01

    Detailed dynamic simulations of three industrial distillation columns (a propylene/propane splitter, a xylene/toluene column, and a depropanizer) have been used to study the issue of configuration selection for diagonal PI dual composition controls. ATV identification with on-line detuning was used for tuning the diagonal PI composition controllers. Each configuration was evaluated with respect to steady-state RGA values, sensitivity to feed composition changes, and open loop dynamic performance. Each configuration was tuned using setpoint changes over a wider range of operation for robustness and tested for feed composition upsets. Overall, configuration selection was shown to have a dominant effect upon control performance. Configuration analysis tools (e.g., RGA, condition number, disturbance sensitivity), were found to reject configuration choices that are obviously poor choices, but were unable to critically differentiate between the remaining viable choices. Configuration selection guidelines are given although it is demonstrated that the most reliable configuration selection approach is based upon testing the viable configurations using dynamic column simulators.

  3. Use of a Batch Reactive Distillation with Dynamic Optimization Strategy to Achieve Industrial Grade Ethyl Acetate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konakom, Kwantip; Saengchan, Aritsara; Kittisupakorn, Paisan; Mujtaba, Iqbal M.

    2011-08-01

    Industrial grade ethyl acetate is available with minimum purity of 85.0%. It is mostly produced by an ethanol esterification in a distillation process on both batch and continuous modes. However, researches on high purity production with short operating time are rarely achieved. Therefore, the objective in this work is to study an approach to produce ethyl acetate of 90.0% by 8 hours using a batch reactive distillation column. Based on open-loop simulations, the distillation with constant reflux ratio cannot achieve the product specification. Thus, the dynamic optimization strategy is proposed to handle this problem. For the process safety—preventing the dried column and fractured, a minimum reflux ratio must be determined in advance and then an optimal reflux profile is calculated to achieve optimal product yield. Simulation results show that the industrial grade ethyl acetate can be produced by the dynamic optimization programming with two or more time intervals. Besides, the increasing of time intervals can produce more distillate product.

  4. Cascade Distiller System Performance Testing Interim Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callahan, Michael R.; Pensinger, Stuart; Sargusingh, Miriam J.

    2014-01-01

    The Cascade Distillation System (CDS) is a rotary distillation system with potential for greater reliability and lower energy costs than existing distillation systems. Based upon the results of the 2009 distillation comparison test (DCT) and recommendations of the expert panel, the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Water Recovery Project (WRP) project advanced the technology by increasing reliability of the system through redesign of bearing assemblies and improved rotor dynamics. In addition, the project improved the CDS power efficiency by optimizing the thermoelectric heat pump (TeHP) and heat exchanger design. Testing at the NASA-JSC Advanced Exploration System Water Laboratory (AES Water Lab) using a prototype Cascade Distillation Subsystem (CDS) wastewater processor (Honeywell d International, Torrance, Calif.) with test support equipment and control system developed by Johnson Space Center was performed to evaluate performance of the system with the upgrades as compared to previous system performance. The system was challenged with Solution 1 from the NASA Exploration Life Support (ELS) distillation comparison testing performed in 2009. Solution 1 consisted of a mixed stream containing human-generated urine and humidity condensate. A secondary objective of this testing is to evaluate the performance of the CDS as compared to the state of the art Distillation Assembly (DA) used in the ISS Urine Processor Assembly (UPA). This was done by challenging the system with ISS analog waste streams. This paper details the results of the AES WRP CDS performance testing.

  5. Pear distillates from pear juice concentrate: effect of lees in the aromatic composition.

    PubMed

    García-Llobodanin, L; Achaerandio, I; Ferrando, M; Güell, C; López, F

    2007-05-01

    Pear juice obtained from pear concentrate was fermented at room temperature using Saccharomyces cerevisiae (BDX, ENOFERM, France) as the fermentation microorganism. During the fermentation process, total sugars were measured. High performance liquid chromatography analyses were used to monitor the fermentation process and to characterize the pear wine. The pear wine obtained was distilled with its lees using three different equipments: a glass alembic (a glass pot still coupled to a glass column), a copper alembic, and a glass alembic with the addition of 5 g/L of copper shavings to the pot still. The same distillations were repeated with the wine without its lees (separated by decanting). Several distillation fractions were collected, up to a total of 500 mL of distillate. Gas chromatography was used to identify and quantify the volatile compounds in each fraction, and the methanol and ethanol contents. Based on these results, the heart fraction was defined. ANOVA tests were performed on the heart fractions to determine quantitative differences between some volatile compounds depending on the equipment used and the presence or absence of the wine lees. From this series of ANOVA tests, it can be concluded that the concentrations of the compounds that are considered to have a negative effect on the quality of the distillates (methanol, ethyl acetate, furfural) decrease or do not change when they are distilled in the presence of lees and in the copper alembic. In addition, the concentrations of the positive compounds (ethyl decanoate and ethyl-2-trans-4-cis-decadienoate) increase in the presence of lees for all of the equipment tested. So, it can be assumed that the distillation of pear wine with its lees in copper alembic leads to a better quality product.

  6. Biodiesel production from integration between reaction and separation system: reactive distillation process.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Nívea de Lima; Santander, Carlos Mario Garcia; Batistella, César Benedito; Filho, Rubens Maciel; Maciel, Maria Regina Wolf

    2010-05-01

    Biodiesel is a clean burning fuel derived from a renewable feedstock such as vegetable oil or animal fat. It is biodegradable, non-inflammable, non-toxic, and produces lesser carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, and unburned hydrocarbons than petroleum-based fuel. The purpose of the present work is to present an efficient process using reactive distillation columns applied to biodiesel production. Reactive distillation is the simultaneous implementation of reaction and separation within a single unit of column. Nowadays, it is appropriately called "Intensified Process". This combined operation is especially suited for the chemical reaction limited by equilibrium constraints, since one or more of the products of the reaction are continuously separated from the reactants. This work presents the biodiesel production from soybean oil and bioethanol by reactive distillation. Different variables affect the conventional biodiesel production process such as: catalyst concentration, reaction temperature, level of agitation, ethanol/soybean oil molar ratio, reaction time, and raw material type. In this study, the experimental design was used to optimize the following process variables: the catalyst concentration (from 0.5 wt.% to 1.5 wt.%), the ethanol/soybean oil molar ratio (from 3:1 to 9:1). The reactive column reflux rate was 83 ml/min, and the reaction time was 6 min.

  7. Biodiesel production from integration between reaction and separation system: reactive distillation process.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Nívea de Lima; Santander, Carlos Mario Garcia; Batistella, César Benedito; Filho, Rubens Maciel; Maciel, Maria Regina Wolf

    2010-05-01

    Biodiesel is a clean burning fuel derived from a renewable feedstock such as vegetable oil or animal fat. It is biodegradable, non-inflammable, non-toxic, and produces lesser carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, and unburned hydrocarbons than petroleum-based fuel. The purpose of the present work is to present an efficient process using reactive distillation columns applied to biodiesel production. Reactive distillation is the simultaneous implementation of reaction and separation within a single unit of column. Nowadays, it is appropriately called "Intensified Process". This combined operation is especially suited for the chemical reaction limited by equilibrium constraints, since one or more of the products of the reaction are continuously separated from the reactants. This work presents the biodiesel production from soybean oil and bioethanol by reactive distillation. Different variables affect the conventional biodiesel production process such as: catalyst concentration, reaction temperature, level of agitation, ethanol/soybean oil molar ratio, reaction time, and raw material type. In this study, the experimental design was used to optimize the following process variables: the catalyst concentration (from 0.5 wt.% to 1.5 wt.%), the ethanol/soybean oil molar ratio (from 3:1 to 9:1). The reactive column reflux rate was 83 ml/min, and the reaction time was 6 min. PMID:20221864

  8. Distillation: Still towering over other options

    SciTech Connect

    Kunesh, J.G.; Kister, H.Z.; Lockett, M.J.; Fair, J.R.

    1995-10-01

    Distillation dominates separations in the chemical process industries (CPI), at least for mixtures that normally are processed as liquids. The authors fully expect that distillation will continue to be the method of choice for many separations, and the method against which other options must be compared. So, in this article, they will put into some perspective just why distillation continues to reign as the king of separations, and what steps are being taken to improve its applicability and performance, as well as basic understanding of the technique.

  9. Low capital implementation of distributed distillation in ethylene recovery

    DOEpatents

    Reyneke, Rian; Foral, Michael J.; Lee, Guang-Chung

    2006-10-31

    An apparatus for recovering ethylene from a hydrocarbon feed stream, where the apparatus is a single distillation column pressure shell encasing an upper region and a lower region. The upper region houses an ethylene distributor rectifying section and the lower region houses a C2 distributor section and an ethylene distributor stripping section. Vapor passes from the lower region into the upper region, and liquid passes from the upper region to the lower region. The process for recovering the ethylene is also disclosed. The hydrocarbon feed stream is introduced into the C2 distributor section, and after a series of stripping and refluxing steps, distinct hydrocarbon products are recovered from the C2 distributor section, the ethylene distributor stripping section, and the ethylene distributor rectifying section, respectively.

  10. Inelastic column behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duberg, John E; Wilder, Thomas W , III

    1952-01-01

    The significant findings of a theoretical study of column behavior in the plastic stress range are presented. When the behavior of a straight column is regarded as the limiting behavior of an imperfect column as the initial imperfection (lack of straightness) approaches zero, the departure from the straight configuration occurs at the tangent-modulus load. Without such a concept of the behavior of a straight column, one is led to the unrealistic conclusion that lateral deflection of the column can begin at any load between the tangent-modulus value and the Euler load, based on the original elastic modulus. A family of curves showing load against lateral deflection is presented for idealized h-section columns of various lengths and of various materials that have a systematic variation of their stress-strain curves.

  11. [Evaluation of the usefulness of extrelut(R) columns obtained from MERCK for isolation of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) in the water phase].

    PubMed

    Jabłoński, J; Roszczenko, A; Moniuszko-Jakoniuk, J; Tołwińska, I

    1996-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the method of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) isolation from the water phase using Extrelut columns (Merck). Results were compared with data obtained from isolation of NDMA by classic distillation method. The estimation was carried out on fortificated water and blood samples. Extraction Extrelut columns are found very useful in isolation of NDMA both in water and blood samples. Their advantage over the method of water vapour distillation is also indicated.

  12. Efficient entanglement distillation without quantum memory.

    PubMed

    Abdelkhalek, Daniela; Syllwasschy, Mareike; Cerf, Nicolas J; Fiurášek, Jaromír; Schnabel, Roman

    2016-05-31

    Entanglement distribution between distant parties is an essential component to most quantum communication protocols. Unfortunately, decoherence effects such as phase noise in optical fibres are known to demolish entanglement. Iterative (multistep) entanglement distillation protocols have long been proposed to overcome decoherence, but their probabilistic nature makes them inefficient since the success probability decays exponentially with the number of steps. Quantum memories have been contemplated to make entanglement distillation practical, but suitable quantum memories are not realised to date. Here, we present the theory for an efficient iterative entanglement distillation protocol without quantum memories and provide a proof-of-principle experimental demonstration. The scheme is applied to phase-diffused two-mode-squeezed states and proven to distil entanglement for up to three iteration steps. The data are indistinguishable from those that an efficient scheme using quantum memories would produce. Since our protocol includes the final measurement it is particularly promising for enhancing continuous-variable quantum key distribution.

  13. Entanglement of Distillation for Lattice Gauge Theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Acoleyen, Karel; Bultinck, Nick; Haegeman, Jutho; Marien, Michael; Scholz, Volkher B.; Verstraete, Frank

    2016-09-01

    We study the entanglement structure of lattice gauge theories from the local operational point of view, and, similar to Soni and Trivedi [J. High Energy Phys. 1 (2016) 1], we show that the usual entanglement entropy for a spatial bipartition can be written as the sum of an undistillable gauge part and of another part corresponding to the local operations and classical communication distillable entanglement, which is obtained by depolarizing the local superselection sectors. We demonstrate that the distillable entanglement is zero for pure Abelian gauge theories at zero gauge coupling, while it is in general nonzero for the non-Abelian case. We also consider gauge theories with matter, and show in a perturbative approach how area laws—including a topological correction—emerge for the distillable entanglement. Finally, we also discuss the entanglement entropy of gauge fixed states and show that it has no relation to the physical distillable entropy.

  14. Efficient entanglement distillation without quantum memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdelkhalek, Daniela; Syllwasschy, Mareike; Cerf, Nicolas J.; Fiurášek, Jaromír; Schnabel, Roman

    2016-05-01

    Entanglement distribution between distant parties is an essential component to most quantum communication protocols. Unfortunately, decoherence effects such as phase noise in optical fibres are known to demolish entanglement. Iterative (multistep) entanglement distillation protocols have long been proposed to overcome decoherence, but their probabilistic nature makes them inefficient since the success probability decays exponentially with the number of steps. Quantum memories have been contemplated to make entanglement distillation practical, but suitable quantum memories are not realised to date. Here, we present the theory for an efficient iterative entanglement distillation protocol without quantum memories and provide a proof-of-principle experimental demonstration. The scheme is applied to phase-diffused two-mode-squeezed states and proven to distil entanglement for up to three iteration steps. The data are indistinguishable from those that an efficient scheme using quantum memories would produce. Since our protocol includes the final measurement it is particularly promising for enhancing continuous-variable quantum key distribution.

  15. Minimizing corrosion in coal liquid distillation

    DOEpatents

    Baumert, Kenneth L.; Sagues, Alberto A.; Davis, Burtron H.

    1985-01-01

    In an atmospheric distillation tower of a coal liquefaction process, tower materials corrosion is reduced or eliminated by introduction of boiling point differentiated streams to boiling point differentiated tower regions.

  16. Efficient entanglement distillation without quantum memory

    PubMed Central

    Abdelkhalek, Daniela; Syllwasschy, Mareike; Cerf, Nicolas J.; Fiurášek, Jaromír; Schnabel, Roman

    2016-01-01

    Entanglement distribution between distant parties is an essential component to most quantum communication protocols. Unfortunately, decoherence effects such as phase noise in optical fibres are known to demolish entanglement. Iterative (multistep) entanglement distillation protocols have long been proposed to overcome decoherence, but their probabilistic nature makes them inefficient since the success probability decays exponentially with the number of steps. Quantum memories have been contemplated to make entanglement distillation practical, but suitable quantum memories are not realised to date. Here, we present the theory for an efficient iterative entanglement distillation protocol without quantum memories and provide a proof-of-principle experimental demonstration. The scheme is applied to phase-diffused two-mode-squeezed states and proven to distil entanglement for up to three iteration steps. The data are indistinguishable from those that an efficient scheme using quantum memories would produce. Since our protocol includes the final measurement it is particularly promising for enhancing continuous-variable quantum key distribution. PMID:27241946

  17. Distillation modeling for a uranium refining process

    SciTech Connect

    Westphal, B.R.

    1996-03-01

    As part of the spent fuel treatment program at Argonne National Laboratory, a vacuum distillation process is being employed for the recovery of uranium following an electrorefining process. Distillation of a salt electrolyte, containing a eutectic mixture of lithium and potassium chlorides, from uranium is achieved by a simple batch operation and is termed {open_quotes}cathode processing{close_quotes}. The incremental distillation of electrolyte salt will be modeled by an equilibrium expression and on a molecular basis since the operation is conducted under moderate vacuum conditions. As processing continues, the two models will be compared and analyzed for correlation with actual operating results. Possible factors that may contribute to aberrations from the models include impurities at the vapor-liquid boundary, distillate reflux, anomalous pressure gradients, and mass transport phenomena at the evaporating surface. Ultimately, the purpose of either process model is to enable the parametric optimization of the process.

  18. Efficient entanglement distillation without quantum memory.

    PubMed

    Abdelkhalek, Daniela; Syllwasschy, Mareike; Cerf, Nicolas J; Fiurášek, Jaromír; Schnabel, Roman

    2016-01-01

    Entanglement distribution between distant parties is an essential component to most quantum communication protocols. Unfortunately, decoherence effects such as phase noise in optical fibres are known to demolish entanglement. Iterative (multistep) entanglement distillation protocols have long been proposed to overcome decoherence, but their probabilistic nature makes them inefficient since the success probability decays exponentially with the number of steps. Quantum memories have been contemplated to make entanglement distillation practical, but suitable quantum memories are not realised to date. Here, we present the theory for an efficient iterative entanglement distillation protocol without quantum memories and provide a proof-of-principle experimental demonstration. The scheme is applied to phase-diffused two-mode-squeezed states and proven to distil entanglement for up to three iteration steps. The data are indistinguishable from those that an efficient scheme using quantum memories would produce. Since our protocol includes the final measurement it is particularly promising for enhancing continuous-variable quantum key distribution. PMID:27241946

  19. Multipartite secret key distillation and bound entanglement

    SciTech Connect

    Augusiak, Remigiusz; Horodecki, Pawel

    2009-10-15

    Recently it has been shown that quantum cryptography beyond pure entanglement distillation is possible and a paradigm for the associated protocols has been established. Here we systematically generalize the whole paradigm to the multipartite scenario. We provide constructions of new classes of multipartite bound entangled states, i.e., those with underlying twisted Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) structure and nonzero distillable cryptographic key. We quantitatively estimate the key from below with the help of the privacy squeezing technique.

  20. 7 CFR 160.8 - Steam distilled wood turpentine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Steam distilled wood turpentine. 160.8 Section 160.8... STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES General § 160.8 Steam distilled wood turpentine. The designation “steam distilled wood turpentine” shall refer to the kind of spirits of turpentine obtained by steam distillation...

  1. 7 CFR 160.8 - Steam distilled wood turpentine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Steam distilled wood turpentine. 160.8 Section 160.8... STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES General § 160.8 Steam distilled wood turpentine. The designation “steam distilled wood turpentine” shall refer to the kind of spirits of turpentine obtained by steam distillation...

  2. 7 CFR 160.8 - Steam distilled wood turpentine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Steam distilled wood turpentine. 160.8 Section 160.8... STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES General § 160.8 Steam distilled wood turpentine. The designation “steam distilled wood turpentine” shall refer to the kind of spirits of turpentine obtained by steam distillation...

  3. 27 CFR 19.307 - Distillates containing extraneous substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Production of Distilled Spirits Rules for Production of Spirits § 19.307 Distillates containing extraneous substances. (a) Use in production. Distillates that contain substantial quantities of fusel oil, aldehydes, or other...

  4. 7 CFR 160.8 - Steam distilled wood turpentine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Steam distilled wood turpentine. 160.8 Section 160.8... STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES General § 160.8 Steam distilled wood turpentine. The designation “steam distilled wood turpentine” shall refer to the kind of spirits of turpentine obtained by steam distillation...

  5. 7 CFR 160.8 - Steam distilled wood turpentine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Steam distilled wood turpentine. 160.8 Section 160.8... STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES General § 160.8 Steam distilled wood turpentine. The designation “steam distilled wood turpentine” shall refer to the kind of spirits of turpentine obtained by steam distillation...

  6. Separation characteristics of multistage water/hydrogen exchange column for water detritiation in fusion reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Yamanishi, T.; Okuno, K.

    1995-10-01

    A simulation code of multistage chemical exchange columns has been developed. The sieve trays for liquid-vapor scrubbing and the catalyst beds for vapor-hydrogen exchange reactions are alternately piled within the column. The code deals with all the twelve molecular species of hydrogen gas and water; and is based on the Newton-Raphson method. The characteristics of the column were discussed from the calculated results by this code such as effects of temperature and pressure. Similar to the distillation columns, the phase flow rates within the column (hydrogen gas and water vapor) and product flow rates have large effects on the separation performance of the column. A control method of the column was also proposed from these calculated results. 9 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  7. Inflatable Column Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hedgepeth, J. M.

    1985-01-01

    Lightweight structural member easy to store. Billowing between circumferential loops of fiber inflated column becomes series of cells. Each fiber subjected to same tension along entire length (though tension is different in different fibers). Member is called "isotensoid" column. Serves as jack for automobiles or structures during repairs. Also used as support for temporary bleachers or swimming pools.

  8. Glass-silicon column

    DOEpatents

    Yu, Conrad M.

    2003-12-30

    A glass-silicon column that can operate in temperature variations between room temperature and about 450.degree. C. The glass-silicon column includes large area glass, such as a thin Corning 7740 boron-silicate glass bonded to a silicon wafer, with an electrode embedded in or mounted on glass of the column, and with a self alignment silicon post/glass hole structure. The glass/silicon components are bonded, for example be anodic bonding. In one embodiment, the column includes two outer layers of silicon each bonded to an inner layer of glass, with an electrode imbedded between the layers of glass, and with at least one self alignment hole and post arrangement. The electrode functions as a column heater, and one glass/silicon component is provided with a number of flow channels adjacent the bonded surfaces.

  9. A review on minimum energy calculations for ideal and nonideal distillations

    SciTech Connect

    Koehler, J.; Poellmann, P.; Blass, E.

    1995-04-01

    The minimum energy requirement of a distillation sets a lower, thermodynamically defined operating limit, which is increasingly important in practice due to growing interest in saving energy. During the conceptual design phase this energy information can also be used to quickly compare distillation configurations. This paper gives a summary of the most important methods published to date for the calculation of the minimum energy requirement. Firstly, the occurrence of so-called pinch zones will be systematically described. These are sections of the column in which at minimum reflux an infinite number of separation stages would be necessary. Then exact and approximating solutions of the problems both for ideal and for nonideal mixtures will be discussed. For ideal mixtures a rapid calculation is possible using the well-known Underwood equations, which can also be applied to complex columns (e.g., several feeds and side products, side stream strippers and enrichers). However, strongly nonideal multicomponent mixtures still require time-consuming simulations of columns having large numbers of plates. In such cases serious convergence problems must often be reckoned with. Recent developments aim at avoiding column simulations and at calculating pinch points directly.

  10. Simple rules help select best hydrocarbon distillation scheme

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchezllanes, M.T.; Perez, A.L.; Martinez, M.P.; Aguilar-Rodriguez, E.; Rosal, R. del )

    1993-12-06

    Separation economics depend mainly on investment for major equipment and energy consumption. This relationship, together with the fact that, in most cases, many alternative schemes will be proposed, make it essential to find an optimum scheme that minimizes overall costs. Practical solutions are found by applying heuristics -- exploratory problem-solving techniques that eliminate alternatives without applying rigorous mathematical procedures. These techniques have been applied to a case study. In the case study, a hydrocarbon mixture will be transported through a pipeline to a fractionation plant, where it will be separated into commercial products for distribution. The fractionation will consist of a simple train of distillation columns, the sequence of which will be defined by applying heuristic rules and determining the required thermal duties for each column. The facility must separate ethane, propane and mixed butanes, natural gasoline (light straight-run, or LSR, gasoline), and condensate (heavy naphtha). The ethane will be delivered to an ethylene plant as a gaseous stream, the propane and butanes will be stored in cryogenic tanks, and the gasoline and heavy naphtha also will be stored.

  11. 40 CFR 721.4500 - Isopropylamine distillation residues and ethylamine distillation residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Isopropylamine distillation residues and ethylamine distillation residues. 721.4500 Section 721.4500 Protection of Environment... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4500 Isopropylamine...

  12. 40 CFR 721.4500 - Isopropylamine distillation residues and ethylamine distillation residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Isopropylamine distillation residues and ethylamine distillation residues. 721.4500 Section 721.4500 Protection of Environment... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4500 Isopropylamine...

  13. 40 CFR 721.4500 - Isopropylamine distillation residues and ethylamine distillation residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Isopropylamine distillation residues and ethylamine distillation residues. 721.4500 Section 721.4500 Protection of Environment... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4500 Isopropylamine...

  14. 40 CFR 721.4500 - Isopropylamine distillation residues and ethylamine distillation residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Isopropylamine distillation residues and ethylamine distillation residues. 721.4500 Section 721.4500 Protection of Environment... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4500 Isopropylamine...

  15. 40 CFR 721.4500 - Isopropylamine distillation residues and ethylamine distillation residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Isopropylamine distillation residues and ethylamine distillation residues. 721.4500 Section 721.4500 Protection of Environment... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4500 Isopropylamine...

  16. Model of decision system for 13C Isotope Separation column

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boca, M. L.

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents the model of a decisional system for 13C Isotope Separation column, which is used to detect mission critical situation. The start model was a model of one distributed control system of critical situations that may arise in the operation of the distillation column. The research work it is proposed a model of decision system which implement a temperature sensor inside of liquid nitrogen level in the condenser. The condenser is a part of column where take place the cryogenic process using nitrogen liquid. The work temperature is very low about -192oC, and because the temperature can grow or go down more than 2 degrees is a very critical location inside the column. In this way the column has a deeply monitor and supervised and it take a decision in a proper time when the temperature is grow up or getting down and became a critical situation. For monitor and supervised it was used MatLAB SimuLink. The model, the decision system gives a signal to one sensor when something is wrong in the condenser which is the most critical place of the isotopic column. In this way it creates an alarm that something is getting wrong in the isotopic column.

  17. Understanding the azeotropic diethyl carbonate-water mixture by structural and energetic characterization of DEC(H2O)(n) heteroclusters.

    PubMed

    Ripoll, Juan D; Mejía, Sol M; Mills, Matthew J L; Villa, Aída L

    2015-04-01

    Diethyl carbonate (DEC) is an oxygenated fuel additive. During its synthesis through a promising green process, a DEC-water azeotrope is formed, which decreases DEC production efficiency in the gas phase. Molecular information about this system is scarce but could be of benefit in understanding (and potentially improving) the synthetic process. Therefore, we report a detailed computational study of the conformers of DEC, and their microsolvation with up to four water molecules, with the goal of understanding the observed 1:3 DEC:H2O molar ratio. The most stable DEC conformers (with mutual energy differences < 1.5 kcal mol(-1)) contribute to the energetic and structural properties of the complexes. An exhaustive stochastic exploration of each potential energy surface of DEC-(H2O)n, (where n = 1, 2, 3, 4) heteroclusters discovered 3, 8, 7, and 4 heterodimers, heterotrimers, heterotetramers, and heteropentamers, respectively, at the MP2/6-311++G(d,p) level of theory. DEC conformers and energies of the most stable structures at each heterocluster size were refined using CCSD(T)/6-311++G(d,p). Energy decomposition, electron density topology, and cooperative effects analyses were carried out to determine the relationship between the geometrical features of the heteroclusters and the non-covalent interaction types responsible for their stabilization. Our findings show that electrostatic and exchange energies are responsible for heterocluster stabilization, and also suggest a mutual weakening among hydrogen bonds when more than three water molecules are present. All described results are complementary and suggest a structural and energetic explanation at the molecular level for the experimental molar ratio of 1:3 (DEC:H2O) for the DEC-water azeotrope. PMID:25786831

  18. Nuclear reactor control column

    DOEpatents

    Bachovchin, Dennis M.

    1982-01-01

    The nuclear reactor control column comprises a column disposed within the nuclear reactor core having a variable cross-section hollow channel and containing balls whose vertical location is determined by the flow of the reactor coolant through the column. The control column is divided into three basic sections wherein each of the sections has a different cross-sectional area. The uppermost section of the control column has the greatest cross-sectional area, the intermediate section of the control column has the smallest cross-sectional area, and the lowermost section of the control column has the intermediate cross-sectional area. In this manner, the area of the uppermost section can be established such that when the reactor coolant is flowing under normal conditions therethrough, the absorber balls will be lifted and suspended in a fluidized bed manner in the upper section. However, when the reactor coolant flow falls below a predetermined value, the absorber balls will fall through the intermediate section and into the lowermost section, thereby reducing the reactivity of the reactor core and shutting down the reactor.

  19. DE-ENTRAINMENT COLUMN

    DOEpatents

    Mooradian, A.J.

    1958-07-01

    A de-entrainnnent colunnn is described for removing substances from a stream of vapor coming from a distillation apparatus. The device comprises a hollow cylindrical body mounted with its axis vertical on a flange on the upper slde of a vaporizing vessel; two sintered metal circular discs through which all the vapor passes mounted in axially spaced relationship in the cylindrical body; and two semi-circular baffle plates mounted in spaced relationship between the discs.

  20. Comparison of the volatile composition of Stachys pubescence oils obtained by hydro distillation and steam distillation.

    PubMed

    Biglar, Mahmoud; Ardekani, Mohammad Reza Shams; Khanavi, Mahnaz; Shafiee, Abbas; Rustaiyan, Abdolhossein; Salimpour, Fahimeh; Farjadmand, Fatemeh

    2014-07-01

    The oils obtained by hydrodistillation and steam distillation of the aerial part of Stachys pubescence Ten. was analyzed by GC and GC/MS. Water distilled essential oil of the aerial part of S. pubescence, was rich in fatty acids like hexadecanoic acid and linoleic acid and also benzaldehyde and spathulenol whereas the steam distilled oil of the plant contained hexadecanoic acid, spathulenol and eugenol. Both of oils were rich in fatty acids (36.6 and 27.9%, respectively). Moreover, the content of oxygenated mono and sesquiterpenss were defined higher in steam distilled oil than hydrodistiledd oil (24.5, 17.2 and 6.1, 15.5%, respectively). In conclusion it seems that oxygenated terpenoids were trended to steam distillation method more than hydrodistillation, respectively. PMID:26035946

  1. Future perspectives of using hollow fibers as structured packings in light hydrocarbon distillation

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Dali; Orler, Bruce; Tornga, Stephanie; Welch, Cindy

    2011-01-26

    Olefin and paraffin are the largest chemical commodities. Furthermore, they are major building blocks for the petrochemical industry. Each year, petroleum refining, consumes 4,500 TBtu/yr in separation energy, making it one of the most energy-intensive industries in the United States). Just considering liquefied petroleum gas (ethane/propane/butane) and olefins (ethylene and propylene) alone, the distillation energy consumption is about 400 TBtu/yr in the US. Since petroleum distillation is a mature technology, incremental improvements in column/tray design will only provide a few percent improvements in the performance. However, each percent saving in net energy use amounts to savings of 10 TBtu/yr and reduces CO{sub 2} emissions by 0.2 MTon/yr. In practice, distillation columns require 100 to 200 trays to achieve the desired separation. The height of a transfer unit (HTU) of conventional packings is typical in the range of 36-60 inch. Since 2006, we had explored using several non-selective membranes as the structured packings to replace the conventional packing materials used in propane and propylene distillation. We obtained the lowest HTU of < 8 inch for the hollow fiber column, which was >5 times shorter than that of the conventional packing materials. In 2008, we also investigated this type of packing materials in iso-/n-butane distillation. Because of a slightly larger relative volatility of iso-/n-butane than that of propane/propylene, a wider and a more stable operational range was obtained for the iso-/n-butane pair. However, all of the experiments were conducted on a small scale with flowrate of < 25 gram/min. Recently, we demonstrated this technology on a larger scale (<250 gram/min). Within the loading range of F-factor < 2.2 Pa{sup 0.5}, a pressure drop on the vapor side is below 50 mbar/m, which suggests that the pressure drop of hollow fibers packings is not an engineering barrier for the applications in distillations. The thermal stability study

  2. Comparison of Advanced Distillation Control Methods, Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. James B. Riggs

    2000-11-30

    Detailed dynamic simulations of three industrial distillation columns (a propylene/propane splitter, a xylene/toluene column, and a depropanizer) have been used to evaluate configuration selections for single-ended and dual-composition control, as well as to compare conventional and advanced control approaches. In addition, a simulator of a main fractionator was used to compare the control performance of conventional and advanced control. For each case considered, the controllers were tuned by using setpoint changes and tested using feed composition upsets. Proportional Integral (PI) control performance was used to evaluate the configuration selection problem. For single ended control, the energy balance configuration was found to yield the best performance. For dual composition control, nine configurations were considered. It was determined that the use of dynamic simulations is required in order to identify the optimum configuration from among the nine possible choices. The optimum configurations were used to evaluate the relative control performance of conventional PI controllers, MPC (Model Predictive Control), PMBC (Process Model-Based Control), and ANN (Artificial Neural Networks) control. It was determined that MPC works best when one product is much more important than the other, while PI was superior when both products were equally important. PMBC and ANN were not found to offer significant advantages over PI and MPC. MPC was found to outperform conventional PI control for the main fractionator. MPC was applied to three industrial columns: one at Phillips Petroleum and two at Union Carbide. In each case, MPC was found to significantly outperform PI controls. The major advantage of the MPC controller is its ability to effectively handle a complex set of constraints and control objectives.

  3. Microminiature gas chromatographic column

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donaldson, R. W., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    Techniques commonly used for fabrication of integrated circuits are utilized to produce long capillary tubes for microminiature chromatographs. Method involves bonding of flat silicon plate to top of spirally grooved silicon chip to close groove and form capillary column.

  4. Optimal thermodynamic approximation to reversible distillation by means of interheaters and intercoolers

    SciTech Connect

    Aguirre, P.; Espinosa, J.; Tarifa, E.; Scenna, N.

    1997-11-01

    The purpose of this paper is to deal with the problem of heat and power integration on one side and the problem of minimizing heat exchange areas on the other side, in both conventional and nonconventional distillation columns. The authors consider the limiting case of columns operating at minimum reflux. The appropriate objective functions that one must consider are the entropy production rate and the total heat exchange area, respectively. This is done by means of optimal placement of a given number of interheaters (IHs) and intercoolers (ICs) in stripping and rectifying sections, respectively. To solve these problems, an appropriate thermodynamic model for both conventional and nonconventional distillative columns is formally presented. This model allows one to formulate an optimization problem involving thermodynamically reversible profiles in stripping and rectifying sections of the columns. This approach differs from others previously reported in that multiple reversible profiles were identified for each section of the column which give rise to lower and upper bounds for the objective function of the minimization problem. In other words, the authors obtain two solutions for each column section: the first is a nonoptimal feasible one, and the second is an optimal but not necessarily feasible one. Finally, the comparison of this approach with a method based on pseudobinary reversible profiles is carried out. Optimizing with this curve, solutions will be generated with objective function values between the lower and upper bounds. Therefore, care would be taken in using a pseudobinary pinch point curve for the placement of intermediate heat-exchanger units especially when the difference between the upper and lower bounds for the objective function values is relatively great.

  5. Studies of the separation performance of silanized silica gel for simulated distillation.

    PubMed

    Boczkaj, Grzegorz; Momotko, Malwina; Przyjazny, Andrzej; Kamiński, Marian

    2016-02-01

    We present the results of investigations of the chromatographic (sorptive) properties of silanized silica gel as a stationary phase for gas chromatography used for simulated distillation. Commercially available silanized sorbent (particle diameter range 63-200 μm, average pore size 60 Å) was sieved to obtain the 80-100 mesh fraction (180-150 μm). The obtained results revealed that silanized silica gel allows the complete separation of a mixture of n- and iso-alkanes in the C1 -C7 range. Such a separation is achieved with a temperature program starting with an initial temperature of 50˚C, which is advantageous because the gas chromatograph oven does not have to be cooled below room temperature. The use of temperature programming with a final temperature of 300˚C ensures separation and elution of all mixture components from C1 to n-C28 in one run. This study confirms the applicability of silanized silica gel as a stationary phase for the investigation of distillation temperature distribution of gasoline and diesel fuel based on the simulated distillation procedure according to ASTM D2887. The deviations of individual points of distillation curve obtained using ASTM D2887 and columns packed with silanized silica gel were within the reproducibility range of the standard procedure. PMID:26634792

  6. Studies of the separation performance of silanized silica gel for simulated distillation.

    PubMed

    Boczkaj, Grzegorz; Momotko, Malwina; Przyjazny, Andrzej; Kamiński, Marian

    2016-02-01

    We present the results of investigations of the chromatographic (sorptive) properties of silanized silica gel as a stationary phase for gas chromatography used for simulated distillation. Commercially available silanized sorbent (particle diameter range 63-200 μm, average pore size 60 Å) was sieved to obtain the 80-100 mesh fraction (180-150 μm). The obtained results revealed that silanized silica gel allows the complete separation of a mixture of n- and iso-alkanes in the C1 -C7 range. Such a separation is achieved with a temperature program starting with an initial temperature of 50˚C, which is advantageous because the gas chromatograph oven does not have to be cooled below room temperature. The use of temperature programming with a final temperature of 300˚C ensures separation and elution of all mixture components from C1 to n-C28 in one run. This study confirms the applicability of silanized silica gel as a stationary phase for the investigation of distillation temperature distribution of gasoline and diesel fuel based on the simulated distillation procedure according to ASTM D2887. The deviations of individual points of distillation curve obtained using ASTM D2887 and columns packed with silanized silica gel were within the reproducibility range of the standard procedure.

  7. Distillation of local purity from quantum states

    SciTech Connect

    Devetak, I.

    2005-06-15

    Recently Horodecki et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 100402 (2003)] introduced an important quantum information processing paradigm, in which two parties sharing many copies of the same bipartite quantum state distill local pure states by means of local unitary operations assisted by a one-way (two-way) completely dephasing channel. Local pure states are a valuable resource from a thermodynamical point of view, since they allow thermal energy to be converted into work by local quantum heat engines. We give a simple information-theoretical characterization of the one-way distillable local purity, which turns out to be closely related to a previously known operational measure of classical correlations, the one-way distillable common randomness.

  8. Superadditivity of distillable entanglement from quantum teleportation

    SciTech Connect

    Bandyopadhyay, Somshubhro; Roychowdhury, Vwani

    2005-12-15

    We show that the phenomenon of superadditivity of distillable entanglement observed in multipartite quantum systems results from the consideration of states created during the execution of the standard end-to-end quantum teleportation protocol [and a few additional local operations and classical communication (LOCC) steps] on a linear chain of singlets. Some of these intermediate states are tensor products of bound entangled (BE) states, and hence, by construction possess distillable entanglement, which can be unlocked by simply completing the rest of the LOCC operations required by the underlying teleportation protocol. We use this systematic approach to construct both new and known examples of superactivation of bound entanglement, and examples of activation of BE states using other BE states. A surprising outcome is the construction of noiseless quantum relay channels with no distillable entanglement between any two parties, except for that between the two end nodes.

  9. Preprototype Vapor Compression Distillation Subsystem development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, C. D.; Ellis, G. S.; Schubert, F. H.

    1981-01-01

    Vapor Compression Distillation (VCD) has evolved as the most promising approach to reclaim potable water from wastewater for future long-term manned space missions. Life Systems, Inc. (LSI), working with NASA, has developed a preprototype Vapor Compression Distillation Subsystem (VCDS) which processes wastewater at 1.4 kg/h. The preprototype unit weighs 143 kg, occupies a volume of 0.47 cu m, and will reclaim 96 percent of the available wastewater. This unit has been tested by LSI and is scheduled for further testing at NASA-JSC. This paper presents the preprototype VCDS design, configuration, performance data, test results and flight system projections.

  10. Vacuum distillation/vapor filtration water recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Honegger, R. J.; Neveril, R. B.; Remus, G. A.

    1974-01-01

    The development and evaluation of a vacuum distillation/vapor filtration (VD/VF) water recovery system are considered. As a functional model, the system converts urine and condensates waste water from six men to potable water on a steady-state basis. The system is designed for 180-day operating durations and for function on the ground, on zero-g aircraft, and in orbit. Preparatory tasks are summarized for conducting low gravity tests of a vacuum distillation/vapor filtration system for recovering water from urine.

  11. Classic papers in Solar Energy: Solar distillation

    SciTech Connect

    Howe, E.D.

    1990-06-01

    The following Classic Paper was presented by Professor Howe at the first international Conference on Solar Energy at Tucson, Arizona, USA in 1955. That conference was sponsored by the Association of Applied solar Energy (AFASE), the precursor of ISES. Although this paper does not represent the many developments in solar distillation later applied by Professor Howe in the South Pacific, it is a classic paper because it presents Professor Howe's pioneering work in setting up the Seawater Conversion Laboratory in Richmond for the University of California at Berkeley, US. The research of Professor Howe and his colleagues at the Seawater Conversion Laboratory formed the foundation of contemporary solar energy desalination and distillation systems.

  12. Towards Atomic Column-by-Column Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Pennycook, S.J.; Rafferty, B.

    1998-09-06

    The optical arrangement of the scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) is ideally suited for performing analysis of individual atomic columns in materials. Using the incoherent Z-contrast image as a reference, and arranging incoherent conditions also for the spectroscopy, a precise correspondence is ensured between features in the inelastic image and elastic signals. In this way the exact probe position needed to maximise the inelastic signal from a selected column can be located and monitored during the analysis using the much higher intensity elastic signal. Although object functions for EELS are typically less than 1 {Angstrom} full width at half maximum, this is still an order of magnitude larger than the corresponding object functions for elastic (or diffuse) scattering used to form the Z-contrast image. Therefore the analysis is performed with an effective probe that is significantly broader than that used for the reference Z-contrast image. For a 2.2 {Angstrom} probe the effective probe is of the order of 2.5 {Angstrom}, while for a 1.3 {Angstrom} probe the effective probe is 1.6 {Angstrom}. Such increases in effective probe size can significantly reduce or even eliminate contrast between atomic columns that are visible in the image. However, this is only true if we consider circular collector apertures. Calculations based upon the theory of Maslen and Rossouw (Maslen and Rossouw 1984; Rossouw and Maslen 1984) show that employing an annular aperture can reduce the FWHM of the inelastic object function down to values close 0.1 {Angstrom}. With practical aperture sizes it should be possible to achieve this increased spatial resolution without loosing too much signal.

  13. The development of the super-biodiesel production continuously from Sunan pecan oil through the process of reactive distillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yohana, Eflita; Yulianto, Moh. Endy; Ikhsan, Diyono; Nanta, Aditya Marga; Puspitasari, Ristiyanti

    2016-06-01

    In general, a vegetable oil-based biodiesel production commercially operates a batch process with high investments and operational costs. Thus, it is necessary to develop super-biodiesel production from sunan pecan oil continuously through the process of reactive distillation. There are four advantages of the reactive distillation process for the biodiesel production, as follows: (i) it incorporates the process of transesterification reaction, and product separation of residual reactants become one stage of the process, so it saves the investment and operation costs, (ii) it reduces the need for raw materials because the methanol needed corresponds to the stoichiometry, so it also reduces the operation costs, (iii) the holdup time in the column is relatively short (5±0,5 minutes) compared to the batch process (1-2 hours), so it will reduce the operational production costs, and (iv) it is able to shift the reaction equilibrium, because the products and reactants that do not react are instantly separated (based on Le Chatelier's principles) so the conversion will be increased. However, the very crucial problem is determining the design tools and process conditions in order to maximize the conversion of the transesterification reaction in both phases. Thus, the purpose of this research was to design a continuous reactive distillation process by using a recycled condensate to increase the productivity of the super-biodiesel from sunan pecan oil. The research was carried out in three stages including (i) designing and fabricating the reactive distillation equipment, (ii) testing the tool performance and the optimization of the biodiesel production, and (iii) biodiesel testing on the diesel engine. These three stages were needed in designing and scaling-up the process tools and the process operation commercially. The reactive distillation process tools were designed and manufactured with reference to the design system tower by Kitzer, et.al. (2008). The manufactured

  14. Chemical composition of distillers grains, a review

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In recent years, increasing demand for ethanol as a fuel additive and decreasing dependency on fossil fuels have resulted in a dramatic increase in the amount of grains used for ethanol production. Dry-grind is the major process, resulting in distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) as a major ...

  15. Holoprosencephaly: A mythologic and teratologic distillate.

    PubMed

    Cohen, M Michael

    2010-02-15

    This review of holoprosencephaly provides a mythologic and teratologic distillate of the subject under the following headings: Babylonian tablets; Greek mythology; pictures from the 16th through the 20th Centuries; 19th Century teratology; history of more modern concepts and their terminologies; and ocean-going ships named "Cyclops."

  16. Distillation Calculations with a Programmable Calculator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Charles A.; Halpern, Bret L.

    1983-01-01

    Describes a three-step approach for teaching multicomponent distillation to undergraduates, emphasizing patterns of distribution as an aid to understanding the separation processes. Indicates that the second step can be carried out by programmable calculators. (A more complete set of programs for additional calculations is available from the…

  17. 7 CFR 58.331 - Starter distillate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Quality Specifications for Raw Material § 58.331 Starter distillate. The refined flavor components when used to flavor butter and related products. It shall be of food grade quality, free of extraneous material and prepared in accordance...

  18. Holoprosencephaly: A mythologic and teratologic distillate.

    PubMed

    Cohen, M Michael

    2010-02-15

    This review of holoprosencephaly provides a mythologic and teratologic distillate of the subject under the following headings: Babylonian tablets; Greek mythology; pictures from the 16th through the 20th Centuries; 19th Century teratology; history of more modern concepts and their terminologies; and ocean-going ships named "Cyclops." PMID:20082455

  19. An Integrated Extraction/Crystallization/Distillation Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amsterdamsky, Claude

    1998-02-01

    As a laboratory exercise the constitents of a mixture of 2,2,4-trimethylpentane, methoxybenzene and benzoic acid are separated by a combination of extraction and distillation. The crude products are further purified by recrystallization for the solid and redistillation for the liquids. Three important laboratory techniques are thus taught in two 4h laboratory periods.

  20. 21 CFR 184.1848 - Starter distillate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... this ingredient as generally recognized as safe (GRAS) as a direct human food ingredient is based upon... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Starter distillate. 184.1848 Section 184.1848 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD...

  1. 21 CFR 184.1848 - Starter distillate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... this ingredient as generally recognized as safe (GRAS) as a direct human food ingredient is based upon... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Starter distillate. 184.1848 Section 184.1848 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD...

  2. 21 CFR 184.1848 - Starter distillate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... this ingredient as generally recognized as safe (GRAS) as a direct human food ingredient is based upon... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Starter distillate. 184.1848 Section 184.1848 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD...

  3. 21 CFR 184.1848 - Starter distillate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... ingredient as generally recognized as safe (GRAS) as a direct human food ingredient is based upon the... agent and adjuvant as defined in § 170.3(o)(12) of this chapter. (2) The ingredient is used in food at... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Starter distillate. 184.1848 Section 184.1848...

  4. Eruption column physics

    SciTech Connect

    Valentine, G.A.

    1997-03-01

    In this paper the author focuses on the fluid dynamics of large-scale eruption columns. The dynamics of these columns are rooted in multiphase flow phenomena, so a major part of the paper sets up a foundation on that topic that allows one to quickly assess the inherent assumptions made in various theoretical and experimental approaches. The first part is centered on a set of complex differential equations that describe eruption columns, but the focus is on a general understanding of important physical processes rather than on the mathematics. The author discusses briefly the relative merits and weaknesses of different approaches, emphasizing that the largest advances in understanding are made by combining them. He then focuses on dynamics of steady eruption columns and then on transient phenomena. Finally he briefly reviews the effects of varying behavior of the ambient medium through which an eruption column moves. These final sections will emphasize concepts and a qualitative understanding of eruption dynamics. This paper relies on principles of continuum mechanics and transport processes but does not go into detail on the development of those principles. 36 refs., 36 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Reducing CO2 emissions and energy consumption of heat-integrated distillation systems.

    PubMed

    Gadalla, Mamdouh A; Olujic, Zarko; Jansens, Peter J; Jobson, Megan; Smith, Robin

    2005-09-01

    Distillation systems are energy and power intensive processes and contribute significantly to the greenhouse gases emissions (e.g. carbon dioxide). Reducing CO2 emissions is an absolute necessity and expensive challenge to the chemical process industries in orderto meetthe environmental targets as agreed in the Kyoto Protocol. A simple model for the calculation of CO2 emissions from heat-integrated distillation systems is introduced, considering typical process industry utility devices such as boilers, furnaces, and turbines. Furnaces and turbines consume large quantities of fuels to provide electricity and process heats. As a result, they produce considerable amounts of CO2 gas to the atmosphere. Boilers are necessary to supply steam for heating purposes; besides, they are also significant emissions contributors. The model is used in an optimization-based approach to optimize the process conditions of an existing crude oil atmospheric tower in order to reduce its CO2 emissions and energy demands. It is also applied to generate design options to reduce the emissions from a novel internally heat-integrated distillation column (HIDiC). A gas turbine can be integrated with these distillation systems for larger emissions reduction and further energy savings. Results show that existing crude oil installations can save up to 21% in energy and 22% in emissions, when the process conditions are optimized. Additionally, by integrating a gas turbine, the total emissions can be reduced further by 48%. Internal heat-integrated columns can be a good alternative to conventional heat pump and other energy intensive close boiling mixtures separations. Energy savings can reach up to 100% with respect to reboiler heat requirements. Emissions of these configurations are cut down by up to 83%, compared to conventional units, and by 36%, with respect to heat pump alternatives. Importantly, cost savings and more profit are gained in parallel to emissions minimization. PMID:16190250

  6. Fluid mechanics of distillation trays (II): Prediction of flow fields on some practically important sieve trays

    SciTech Connect

    Basaran, O.A.; Wohlhuter, F.K.

    1995-04-01

    Separation processes account for 6% of the annual US energy expenditure, 50% of which is consumed by distillation alone. Therefore, it is not too surprising that distillation, the work horse of the chemical process industry, is under attack by emerging technologies based on membranes and adsorption, whose proponents claim enormous potential savings in energy expenditures. Moreover, the massive scale of use plus the energy intensiveness implies that even small improvements in the efficiency of distillation processes can result in large gains in energy savings. Such improvements can come from developing fundamental understanding of the fluid mechanics of tray columns, which has heretofore been lacking and is the subject of this paper. The flow on a distillation tray is governed by the equations of mass and momentum conservation in three-dimensions. These equations are reduced here to a set of two-dimensional equations by averaging them across the depth of the fluid film flowing across the tray. The depth-averaged equations are then solved by a Galerkin/finite element technique. The evolution of film height and flow fields are determined for three types of trays that are commonly found in the laboratory and in actual plants: rectangular trays, circular trays, and so-called race track trays. Sample results include development and growth of eddies of zones of recirculation on various types of trays, variation of film height with position on a tray, and effect of tray geometry, flow rate, and physical properties on tray holdup. Occurrence of eddies and large height variations on trays can have detrimental consequences in vapor-liquid contacting operations. Therefore, the new rigorous computations should prove indispensable in developing column designs that avoid or minimize them.

  7. Reducing CO2 emissions and energy consumption of heat-integrated distillation systems.

    PubMed

    Gadalla, Mamdouh A; Olujic, Zarko; Jansens, Peter J; Jobson, Megan; Smith, Robin

    2005-09-01

    Distillation systems are energy and power intensive processes and contribute significantly to the greenhouse gases emissions (e.g. carbon dioxide). Reducing CO2 emissions is an absolute necessity and expensive challenge to the chemical process industries in orderto meetthe environmental targets as agreed in the Kyoto Protocol. A simple model for the calculation of CO2 emissions from heat-integrated distillation systems is introduced, considering typical process industry utility devices such as boilers, furnaces, and turbines. Furnaces and turbines consume large quantities of fuels to provide electricity and process heats. As a result, they produce considerable amounts of CO2 gas to the atmosphere. Boilers are necessary to supply steam for heating purposes; besides, they are also significant emissions contributors. The model is used in an optimization-based approach to optimize the process conditions of an existing crude oil atmospheric tower in order to reduce its CO2 emissions and energy demands. It is also applied to generate design options to reduce the emissions from a novel internally heat-integrated distillation column (HIDiC). A gas turbine can be integrated with these distillation systems for larger emissions reduction and further energy savings. Results show that existing crude oil installations can save up to 21% in energy and 22% in emissions, when the process conditions are optimized. Additionally, by integrating a gas turbine, the total emissions can be reduced further by 48%. Internal heat-integrated columns can be a good alternative to conventional heat pump and other energy intensive close boiling mixtures separations. Energy savings can reach up to 100% with respect to reboiler heat requirements. Emissions of these configurations are cut down by up to 83%, compared to conventional units, and by 36%, with respect to heat pump alternatives. Importantly, cost savings and more profit are gained in parallel to emissions minimization.

  8. Determination of the boiling-point distribution by simulated distillation from n-pentane through n-tetratetracontane in 70 to 80 seconds.

    PubMed

    Lubkowitz, Joaquin A; Meneghini, Roberto I

    2002-01-01

    This work presents the carrying out of boiling-point distributions by simulated distillation with direct-column heating rather than oven-column heating. Column-heating rates of 300 degrees C/min are obtained yielding retention times of 73 s for n-tetratetracontane. The calibration curves of the retention time versus the boiling point, in the range of n-pentane to n-tetratetracontane, are identical to those obtained by slower oven-heating rates. The boiling-point distribution of the reference gas oil is compared with that obtained with column oven heating at rates of 15 to 40 degrees C/min. The results show boiling-point distribution values nearly the same (1-2 degrees F) as those obtained with oven column heating from the initial boiling point to 80% distilled off. Slightly higher differences are obtained (3-4 degrees F) for the 80% distillation to final boiling-point interval. Nonetheless, allowed consensus differences are never exceeded. Precision of the boiling-point distributions (expressed as standard deviations) are 0.1-0.3% for the data obtained in the direct column-heating mode.

  9. Sieve tray performances for steam stripping toluene from water in a 4-ft diameter column

    SciTech Connect

    Kunesh, J.G.; Ognisty, T.P.; Sakata, M.; Chen, G.X.

    1996-08-01

    The liquid holdup, pressure drop, and mass transfer efficiency of sieve trays for the steam stripping trace toluene from water were measured from a 4-ft column at atmospheric pressure. The measured data were then compared with predictions from often-used models. It was found that the published efficiency models whether based on distillation or stripping systems are unable to predict both the trend and value of the measured efficiency. Since the 4-ft column owned by Fractionation Research, Inc. (FRI) can be considered as an industrial-scale column, the measured efficiency provides immediate design guidelines for such services.

  10. 27 CFR 19.322 - Distillates containing extraneous substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... bonded wine cellar shall be in accordance with the provisions of 27 CFR part 240. (Sec. 201, Pub. L. 85... therein for fermentation of wine to be used as distilling material at the distilled spirits plant...

  11. Process for the preparation of hydrocarbon oil distillates

    SciTech Connect

    Van Dongen, R.H.; Newsome, J.R.

    1983-09-20

    Distillates are prepared from asphaltenes-rich feeds by a process comprising subjecting the feed to catalytic hydroconversion, and subjecting the distillation residue of the hydroconverted product to a combination of solvent deasphalting and thermal cracking.

  12. Process for the preparation of hydrocarbon oil distillates

    SciTech Connect

    Kwant, P.B.; Newsome, J.R.

    1983-08-23

    Distillates are prepared from asphaltenes-rich feeds by a process comprising subjecting the feed to thermal cracking, and subjecting the distillation residue of the cracked product to a combination solvent deasphalting and catalytic hydroconversion.

  13. Interpolation of recurrence and hashing entanglement distillation protocols

    SciTech Connect

    Vollbrecht, Karl Gerd H.; Verstraete, Frank

    2005-06-15

    We construct interesting entanglement distillation protocols by interpolating between the recurrence and hashing protocols. This leads to asymptotic two-way distillation protocols, resulting in an improvement of the distillation rate for all mixed Bell diagonal entangled states, even for the ones with very high fidelity. We also present a method for how entanglement-assisted distillation protocol can be converted into nonentanglement-assisted protocols with the same yield.

  14. 7 CFR 160.9 - Destructively distilled wood turpentine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Destructively distilled wood turpentine. 160.9 Section... REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES General § 160.9 Destructively distilled wood turpentine. The designation “destructively distilled wood turpentine” shall refer to the kind of spirits of...

  15. 7 CFR 160.9 - Destructively distilled wood turpentine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Destructively distilled wood turpentine. 160.9 Section... REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES General § 160.9 Destructively distilled wood turpentine. The designation “destructively distilled wood turpentine” shall refer to the kind of spirits of...

  16. 7 CFR 160.9 - Destructively distilled wood turpentine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Destructively distilled wood turpentine. 160.9 Section... REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES General § 160.9 Destructively distilled wood turpentine. The designation “destructively distilled wood turpentine” shall refer to the kind of spirits of...

  17. Antioxidant Activity of Phytochemicals from Dried Distillers Grain Oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A distillate was obtained by molecular distillation of oil extracted from distiller’s dried grains (DDG). The dried distiller’s grains distillate (DDGD) contained phytosterols, steryl ferulates, tocopherols, tocotrienols, and carotenoids. DDGD was tested for its impact on the oxidative stability i...

  18. Antioxidant activity of phytochemicals from dried distillers grain oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A distillate was obtained by molecular distillation of oil extracted from distiller’s dried grains (DDG). The dried distiller’s grains distillate (DDGD) contained phytosterols, steryl ferulates, tocopherols, tocotrienols, and carotenoids. DDGD was tested for its impact on the oxidative stability in...

  19. 7 CFR 160.9 - Destructively distilled wood turpentine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Destructively distilled wood turpentine. 160.9 Section... REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES General § 160.9 Destructively distilled wood turpentine. The designation “destructively distilled wood turpentine” shall refer to the kind of spirits of...

  20. 7 CFR 160.9 - Destructively distilled wood turpentine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Destructively distilled wood turpentine. 160.9 Section... REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES General § 160.9 Destructively distilled wood turpentine. The designation “destructively distilled wood turpentine” shall refer to the kind of spirits of...

  1. 27 CFR 19.669 - Distilled spirits taxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Distilled spirits taxes. 19.669 Section 19.669 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... Taxes § 19.669 Distilled spirits taxes. (a) Proprietors may withdraw distilled spirits free of tax...

  2. 27 CFR 1.60 - Use of distilled spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... of Distilled Spirits and Wine Uses Regarded As Industrial § 1.60 Use of distilled spirits. The following uses of distilled spirits are regarded as “industrial” and will be excluded from any application... (including use in making analysis or test at such hospital, blood bank, or sanitarium), or at...

  3. 40 CFR 721.9635 - Terpene residue distillates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Terpene residue distillates. 721.9635... Substances § 721.9635 Terpene residue distillates. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as terpene residue distillates (PMN...

  4. 40 CFR 721.9635 - Terpene residue distillates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Terpene residue distillates. 721.9635... Substances § 721.9635 Terpene residue distillates. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as terpene residue distillates (PMN...

  5. 40 CFR 721.9635 - Terpene residue distillates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Terpene residue distillates. 721.9635... Substances § 721.9635 Terpene residue distillates. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as terpene residue distillates (PMN...

  6. 40 CFR 721.9635 - Terpene residue distillates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Terpene residue distillates. 721.9635... Substances § 721.9635 Terpene residue distillates. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as terpene residue distillates (PMN...

  7. 27 CFR 27.31 - Warehouse receipts covering distilled spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Warehouse receipts... BEER Dealer Registration and Recordkeeping § 27.31 Warehouse receipts covering distilled spirits. The sale of warehouse receipts for distilled spirits is equivalent to the sale of distilled...

  8. Coaltar fractionation with a wide range of fractions. 3. Removal of high-boiling fractions from coaltar distillate

    SciTech Connect

    Gogoleva, T.Ya.; Krasulya, M.A.; Achkasova, G.G.; Butsinskaya, L.I.

    1992-12-31

    The high-boiling fractions of coaltar include the anthracene, phenanthrene-carbazole, fluoranthene, pyrene and chrysene cuts. At present, the anthracene fraction, containing 6.3-9.4% anthracene, is taken directly from the coaltar in single-column tube stills, whereas the phenanthrene-carbazole fractions are a by-product in the production of high-grade anthracene by the acetone process. Coke-oven plants in other countries do not recover the fluoranthene fraction from coaltar. There are known methods of recovering technical fluoranthene from the II-nd anthracene fraction or pitch distillates. The pyrene fraction is recovered from heavy pitch distillates containing up to 8% pyrene, or from a mixture of these distillates and pitch tar. The chrysene fraction, containing 9.8% chrysene, can be recovered from the pyrene fraction first taken from pitch distillates. However, there is no published information on the yields and qualities of the various high-boiling fractions obtainable from different feedstocks, and what few data there are relate to the 1960s-1970s. The purpose of this work was to recover narrow high-boiling cuts from the >290 {degrees}centigrade residue which was recovered from a coal tar distillate. 6 refs., 3 tabs.

  9. Columns in Clay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leenhouts, Robin

    2010-01-01

    This article describes a clay project for students studying Greece and Rome. It provides a wonderful way to learn slab construction techniques by making small clay column capitols. With this lesson, students learn architectural vocabulary and history, understand the importance of classical architectural forms and their influence on today's…

  10. A Column Dispersion Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corapcioglu, M. Y.; Koroglu, F.

    1982-01-01

    Crushed glass and a Rhodamine B solution are used in a one-dimensional optically scanned column experiment to study the dispersion phenomenon in porous media. Results indicate that the described model gave satisfactory results and that the dispersion process in this experiment is basically convective. (DC)

  11. Gas chromatography of volatile fatty acids. Method involving separation from biological material by vacuum distillation.

    PubMed

    Tyler, J E; Dibdin, G H

    1975-02-19

    A method is described for the quantitation of C2-C5 volatile fatty acids present in biological tissues. It involved recovery of the acids from their biological matrix by vacuum micro-distillation at room temperature, followed by gas phase separation of aqueous solutions on orthophosphoric acid-modified Phasepak Q columns. The subsequent gas chromatographic procedure resolved iso from normal isomers and showed a linear response for each volatile acid over the range 10-400 ng. There was no evidence of ghosting, isomer peak broadening, or peak tailing. Relative molar response values were shown to be linear with carbon number for all the volatile fatty acids studied.

  12. Ethyl carbamate in cachaça (Brazilian sugarcane spirit): Extended survey confirms simple mitigation approaches in pot still distillation.

    PubMed

    Nóbrega, Ian C C; Pereira, José A P; Paiva, José E; Lachenmeier, Dirk W

    2011-08-01

    In 2009, we reported an association between low levels of ethyl carbamate (EC) in pot still cachaças from Paraíba State, Brazil, and distillation in copper pot stills equipped with cooled columns. To strengthen these observations, we extended our study to Pernambuco State and assessed 13 pot still and 20 column still cachaça brands. An EC range from <40 to 532μg/l was found; 18 brands exceeded the Brazilian limit (150μg/l), 89% of which were column still types. Mean EC concentration of pot still cachaças was very low (64μg/l), and was well below the Paraíba study (220μg/l). An on-site investigation of pot still distilleries associated with <40μg/l brands showed a connection to differences in the distillation apparatus. Maximising distillation reflux ratios in the ascending parts and minimising exposure to copper in the descending parts (through the use of stainless steel) can reduce EC, and also avoid copper contamination. PMID:25214121

  13. Ethyl carbamate in cachaça (Brazilian sugarcane spirit): Extended survey confirms simple mitigation approaches in pot still distillation.

    PubMed

    Nóbrega, Ian C C; Pereira, José A P; Paiva, José E; Lachenmeier, Dirk W

    2011-08-01

    In 2009, we reported an association between low levels of ethyl carbamate (EC) in pot still cachaças from Paraíba State, Brazil, and distillation in copper pot stills equipped with cooled columns. To strengthen these observations, we extended our study to Pernambuco State and assessed 13 pot still and 20 column still cachaça brands. An EC range from <40 to 532μg/l was found; 18 brands exceeded the Brazilian limit (150μg/l), 89% of which were column still types. Mean EC concentration of pot still cachaças was very low (64μg/l), and was well below the Paraíba study (220μg/l). An on-site investigation of pot still distilleries associated with <40μg/l brands showed a connection to differences in the distillation apparatus. Maximising distillation reflux ratios in the ascending parts and minimising exposure to copper in the descending parts (through the use of stainless steel) can reduce EC, and also avoid copper contamination.

  14. Entanglement distillation in circuit quantum electrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oppliger, Markus; Heinsoo, Johannes; Salathe, Yves; Potocnik, Anton; Mondal, Mintu; Wallraff, Andreas; Paraoanu, Gheorghe Sorin

    Entanglement is an essential resource for quantum information processing, such as quantum error correction, quantum teleportation and quantum communication. Such algorithms perform optimally with maximally entangled states. In practice entangled quantum states are very fragile due to a wide range of decoherence mechanisms. When two parties share degraded entangled states they are still able to generate an entangled state with higher fidelity using local operations and classical communication. This process is commonly referred to as entanglement distillation. Here we demonstrate distillation of highly entangled Bell states from two copies of less entangled states on a four transmon qubit device realized in the circuit-QED architecture. We characterize the output state for different degrees of entanglement at the input with quantum state tomography. A clear improvement of the entanglement measures is observed at the output.

  15. Temperature polarization coefficients in membrane distillation

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez-Diez, L.; Vazquez-Gonzalez, M.I.; Florido-Diaz, F.J.

    1998-04-01

    Membrane distillation is a membrane process in which two liquid phases at different temperatures are separated by a microporous hydrophobic membrane. The membrane plays the role of a physical support for the vapor-liquid interface. The aim of this paper is to study pure water transport by membrane distillation through a PTFE flat membrane. The dependence of the phenomenon on average temperature and recirculation rate at the membrane sides is investigated. The influence of these operating conditions on water transport is discussed by taking into account mass and heat transfer within the membrane and the adjoining liquid phases. The concept of temperature polarization is introduced into the transport equations and shown to be important in the interpretation of the experimental results.

  16. Microfluidic distillation chip for methanol concentration detection.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yao-Nan; Liu, Chan-Chiung; Yang, Ruey-Jen; Ju, Wei-Jhong; Fu, Lung-Ming

    2016-03-17

    An integrated microfluidic distillation system is proposed for separating a mixed ethanol-methanol-water solution into its constituent components. The microfluidic chip is fabricated using a CO2 laser system and comprises a serpentine channel, a boiling zone, a heating zone, and a cooled collection chamber filled with de-ionized (DI) water. In the proposed device, the ethanol-methanol-water solution is injected into the microfluidic chip and driven through the serpentine channel and into the collection chamber by means of a nitrogen carrier gas. Following the distillation process, the ethanol-methanol vapor flows into the collection chamber and condenses into the DI water. The resulting solution is removed from the collection tank and reacted with a mixed indicator. Finally, the methanol concentration is inversely derived from the absorbance measurements obtained using a spectrophotometer. The experimental results show the proposed microfluidic system achieves an average methanol distillation efficiency of 97%. The practicality of the proposed device is demonstrated by detecting the methanol concentrations of two commercial fruit wines. It is shown that the measured concentration values deviate by no more than 3% from those obtained using a conventional bench top system.

  17. Attractor mechanism as a distillation procedure

    SciTech Connect

    Levay, Peter; Szalay, Szilard

    2010-07-15

    In a recent paper it was shown that for double extremal static spherical symmetric BPS black hole solutions in the STU model the well-known process of moduli stabilization at the horizon can be recast in a form of a distillation procedure of a three-qubit entangled state of a Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger type. By studying the full flow in moduli space in this paper we investigate this distillation procedure in more detail. We introduce a three-qubit state with amplitudes depending on the conserved charges, the warp factor, and the moduli. We show that for the recently discovered non-BPS solutions it is possible to see how the distillation procedure unfolds itself as we approach the horizon. For the non-BPS seed solutions at the asymptotically Minkowski region we are starting with a three-qubit state having seven nonequal nonvanishing amplitudes and finally at the horizon we get a Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state with merely four nonvanishing ones with equal magnitudes. The magnitude of the surviving nonvanishing amplitudes is proportional to the macroscopic black hole entropy. A systematic study of such attractor states shows that their properties reflect the structure of the fake superpotential. We also demonstrate that when starting with the very special values for the moduli corresponding to flat directions the uniform structure at the horizon deteriorates due to errors generalizing the usual bit flips acting on the qubits of the attractor states.

  18. Catalytic hydroprocessing of petroleum and distillates

    SciTech Connect

    Oballa, M.C.; Shih, S.S.

    1994-12-31

    There is a strong push for the processing of heavy oils, bitumen and/or residue, which carries with it some problems. These are connected with obtaining state-of-the-art technologies at reasonable capital and operating costs to the refiner. Then there are problems associated with choosing the best catalyst--one specially designed to lower considerably the high content of heteroatoms (S, N, O) and metals (V, Ni, Fe). To address the above considerations, engineers and scientists working in the processing of petroleum and distillates from different parts of the world presented papers covering different facets of residue upgrading and distillate hydrotreating. This book is a compilation of most of the papers presented in the five sessions of the symposium. The editors have broadly classified the papers in terms of content into the following four categories: catalyst deactivation; upgrading of heavy oils and residue; hydrotreating of distillates; and general papers. All papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  19. Distillation Designs for the Lunar Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boul, Peter J.; Lange,Kevin E.; Conger, Bruce; Anderson, Molly

    2010-01-01

    Gravity-based distillation methods may be applied to the purification of wastewater on the lunar base. These solutions to water processing are robust physical separation techniques, which may be more advantageous than many other techniques for their simplicity in design and operation. The two techniques can be used in conjunction with each other to obtain high purity water. The components and feed compositions for modeling waste water streams are presented in conjunction with the Aspen property system for traditional stage distillation. While the individual components for each of the waste streams will vary naturally within certain bounds, an analog model for waste water processing is suggested based on typical concentration ranges for these components. Target purity levels for recycled water are determined for each individual component based on NASA s required maximum contaminant levels for potable water Optimum parameters such as reflux ratio, feed stage location, and processing rates are determined with respect to the power consumption of the process. Multistage distillation is evaluated for components in wastewater to determine the minimum number of stages necessary for each of 65 components in humidity condensate and urine wastewater mixed streams.

  20. Secret key distillation from shielded two-qubit states

    SciTech Connect

    Bae, Joonwoo

    2010-05-15

    The quantum states corresponding to a secret key are characterized using the so-called private states, where the key part consisting of a secret key is shielded by the additional systems. Based on the construction, it was shown that a secret key can be distilled from bound entangled states. In this work, I consider the shielded two-qubit states in a key-distillation scenario and derive the conditions under which a secret key can be distilled using the recurrence protocol or the two-way classical distillation, advantage distillation together with one-way postprocessing. From the security conditions, it is shown that a secret key can be distilled from bound entangled states in a much wider range. In addition, I consider the case that in which white noise is added to quantum states and show that the classical distillation protocol still works despite a certain amount of noise although the recurrence protocol does not.

  1. Improved micromachined column design and fluidic interconnects for programmed high-temperature gas chromatography separations.

    PubMed

    Gaddes, David; Westland, Jessica; Dorman, Frank L; Tadigadapa, Srinivas

    2014-07-01

    This work focuses on the development and experimental evaluation of micromachined chromatographic columns for use in a commercial gas chromatography (GC) system. A vespel/graphite ferrule based compression sealing technique is presented using which leak-proof fluidic interconnection between the inlet tubing and the microchannel was achieved. This sealing technique enabled separation at temperatures up to 350°C on a μGC column. This paper reports the first high-temperature separations in microfabricated chromatographic columns at these temperatures. A 2m microfabricated column using a double Archimedean spiral design with a square cross-section of 100μm×100μm has been developed using silicon microfabrication techniques. The microfabricated column was benchmarked against a 2m 100μm diameter commercial column and the performance between the two columns was evaluated in tests performed under identical conditions. High temperature separations of simulated distillation (ASTM2887) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (EPA8310) were performed using the μGC column in temperature programmed mode. The demonstrated μGC column along with the high temperature fixture offers one more solution toward potentially realizing a portable μGC device for the detection of semi-volatile environmental pollutants and explosives without the thermal limitations reported to date with μGC columns using epoxy based interconnect technology. PMID:24866564

  2. Improved micromachined column design and fluidic interconnects for programmed high-temperature gas chromatography separations.

    PubMed

    Gaddes, David; Westland, Jessica; Dorman, Frank L; Tadigadapa, Srinivas

    2014-07-01

    This work focuses on the development and experimental evaluation of micromachined chromatographic columns for use in a commercial gas chromatography (GC) system. A vespel/graphite ferrule based compression sealing technique is presented using which leak-proof fluidic interconnection between the inlet tubing and the microchannel was achieved. This sealing technique enabled separation at temperatures up to 350°C on a μGC column. This paper reports the first high-temperature separations in microfabricated chromatographic columns at these temperatures. A 2m microfabricated column using a double Archimedean spiral design with a square cross-section of 100μm×100μm has been developed using silicon microfabrication techniques. The microfabricated column was benchmarked against a 2m 100μm diameter commercial column and the performance between the two columns was evaluated in tests performed under identical conditions. High temperature separations of simulated distillation (ASTM2887) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (EPA8310) were performed using the μGC column in temperature programmed mode. The demonstrated μGC column along with the high temperature fixture offers one more solution toward potentially realizing a portable μGC device for the detection of semi-volatile environmental pollutants and explosives without the thermal limitations reported to date with μGC columns using epoxy based interconnect technology.

  3. 11. TIMBER COLUMN AND CAST IRON COLUMN CAP IN FIFTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. TIMBER COLUMN AND CAST IRON COLUMN CAP IN FIFTH FLOOR WAREHOUSE SPACE. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Commercial & Industrial Buildings, Becker-Hazelton Company Warehouse, 280 Iowa Street, Dubuque, Dubuque County, IA

  4. Improved automatic steam distillation combined with oscillation-type densimetry for determining alcoholic strength in spirits and liqueurs.

    PubMed

    Lachenmeier, Dirk W; Plato, Leander; Suessmann, Manuela; Di Carmine, Matthew; Krueger, Bjoern; Kukuck, Armin; Kranz, Markus

    2015-01-01

    The determination of the alcoholic strength in spirits and liqueurs is required to control the labelling of alcoholic beverages. The reference methodology prescribes a distillation step followed by densimetric measurement. The classic distillation using a Vigreux rectifying column and a West condenser is time consuming and error-prone, especially for liqueurs that may have problems with entrainment and charring. For this reason, this methodology suggests the use of an automated steam distillation device as alternative. The novel instrument comprises an increased steam power, a redesigned geometry of the condenser and a larger cooling coil with controllable flow, compared to previously available devices. Method optimization applying D-optimal and central composite designs showed significant influence of sample volume, distillation time and coolant flow, while other investigated parameters such as steam power, receiver volume, or the use of pipettes or flasks for sample measurement did not significantly influence the results. The method validation was conducted using the following settings: steam power 70 %, sample volume 25 mL transferred using pipettes, receiver volume 50 mL, coolant flow 7 L/min, and distillation time as long as possible just below the calibration mark. For four different liqueurs covering the typical range of these products between 15 and 35 % vol, the method showed an adequate precision, with relative standard deviations below 0.4 % (intraday) and below 0.6 % (interday). The absolute standard deviations were between 0.06 % vol and 0.08 % vol (intraday) and between 0.07 % vol and 0.10 % vol (interday). The improved automatic steam distillation devices offer an excellent alternative for sample cleanup of volatiles from complex matrices. A major advantage are the low costs for consumables per analysis (only distilled water is needed). For alcoholic strength determination, the method has become more rugged than before, and there are only

  5. Improved automatic steam distillation combined with oscillation-type densimetry for determining alcoholic strength in spirits and liqueurs.

    PubMed

    Lachenmeier, Dirk W; Plato, Leander; Suessmann, Manuela; Di Carmine, Matthew; Krueger, Bjoern; Kukuck, Armin; Kranz, Markus

    2015-01-01

    The determination of the alcoholic strength in spirits and liqueurs is required to control the labelling of alcoholic beverages. The reference methodology prescribes a distillation step followed by densimetric measurement. The classic distillation using a Vigreux rectifying column and a West condenser is time consuming and error-prone, especially for liqueurs that may have problems with entrainment and charring. For this reason, this methodology suggests the use of an automated steam distillation device as alternative. The novel instrument comprises an increased steam power, a redesigned geometry of the condenser and a larger cooling coil with controllable flow, compared to previously available devices. Method optimization applying D-optimal and central composite designs showed significant influence of sample volume, distillation time and coolant flow, while other investigated parameters such as steam power, receiver volume, or the use of pipettes or flasks for sample measurement did not significantly influence the results. The method validation was conducted using the following settings: steam power 70 %, sample volume 25 mL transferred using pipettes, receiver volume 50 mL, coolant flow 7 L/min, and distillation time as long as possible just below the calibration mark. For four different liqueurs covering the typical range of these products between 15 and 35 % vol, the method showed an adequate precision, with relative standard deviations below 0.4 % (intraday) and below 0.6 % (interday). The absolute standard deviations were between 0.06 % vol and 0.08 % vol (intraday) and between 0.07 % vol and 0.10 % vol (interday). The improved automatic steam distillation devices offer an excellent alternative for sample cleanup of volatiles from complex matrices. A major advantage are the low costs for consumables per analysis (only distilled water is needed). For alcoholic strength determination, the method has become more rugged than before, and there are only

  6. High octane gasoline and distillates from oxygenates

    SciTech Connect

    Harandi, M.N.; Owen, H.

    1988-11-29

    This patent describes an integrated process for the conversion of methanol to high octane gasoline and distillate, comprising the steps of: (a) contacting oxygenated hydrocarbon feed with solid conversion catalyst in a conversion zone with oxygenate conversion conditions to produce an effluent stream comprising a major portion of olefinic hydrocarbons wherein the catalyst has a moderately low Bronsted acid activity; (b) fractionating the effluent stream to produce olefinic hydrocarbon streams comprising, first C/sub 2/-olefinic stream, second C/sub 3/ olefinic stream, third C/sub 4/ and C/sub 5/ olefinic stream, fourth C/sub 6/ and C/sub 7/ olefinic stream and fifth C/sub 8/ + olefinic stream; (c) passing the second C/sub 3/ olefinic stream and the fourth C/sub 6/ and C/sub 7/ olefinic stream to an olefins oligomerization zone under oligomerization conditions in contact with medium pore size selective zeolite catalyst whereby C/sub 5/ + gasoline and distillate are produced; (d) passing a hydrocarbon feedstream comprising a portion of step (c) C/sub 5/ + gasoline, step (b) third C/sub 4/ and C/sub 5/ olefinic hydrocarbon stream in conjunction with a methanol feedstream to an etherification zone in contact with an acid etherification catalyst under etherification conditions to produce a mixture of high octane either-rich gasoline; (e) recovering a stream comprising unreacted methanol and C/sub 4/ and C/sub 5/ hydrocarbons and a stream comprising ether-rich gasoline; (f) passing step (e) stream comprising unreacted methanol and C/sub 4/ and C/sub 5/ hydrocarbons to step (c) oligomerization zone for conversion to gasoline and distillate.

  7. Technique of ethanol food grade production with batch distillation and dehydration using starch-based adsorbent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widjaja, Tri; Altway, Ali; Ni'mah, Hikmatun; Tedji, Namira; Rofiqah, Umi

    2015-12-01

    Development and innovation of ethanol food grade production are becoming the reasearch priority to increase economy growth. Moreover, the government of Indonesia has established regulation for increasing the renewable energy as primary energy. Sorghum is cerealia plant that contains 11-16% sugar that is optimum for fermentation process, it is potential to be cultivated, especially at barren area in Indonesia. The purpose of this experiment is to learn about the effect of microorganisms in fermentation process. Fermentation process was carried out batchwise in bioreactor and used 150g/L initial sugar concentration. Microorganisms used in this experiment are Zymomonas mobilis mutation (A3), Saccharomyces cerevisiae and mixed of Pichia stipitis. The yield of ethanol can be obtained from this experiment. For ethanol purification result, distillation process from fermentation process has been done to search the best operation condition for efficiency energy consumption. The experiment for purification was divided into two parts, which are distillation with structured packing steel wool and adsorption (dehydration) sequencely. In distillation part, parameters evaluation (HETP and pressure drop) of distillation column that can be used for scale up are needed. The experiment was operated at pressure of 1 atm. The distillation stage was carried out at 85 °C and reflux ratio of 0.92 with variety porosities of 20%, 40%, and 60%. Then the adsorption process was done at 120°C and two types of adsorbent, which are starch - based adsorbent with ingredient of cassava and molecular sieve 3A, were used. The adsorption process was then continued to purify the ethanol from impurities by using activated carbon. This research shows that the batch fermentation process with Zymomonas mobilis A3 obtain higher % yield of ethanol of 40,92%. In addition to that, for purification process, the best operation condition is by using 40% of porosity of stuctured packing steel wool in distillation

  8. Distillation by repeated measurements: Continuous spectrum case

    SciTech Connect

    Bellomo, Bruno; Compagno, Giuseppe; Nakazato, Hiromichi; Yuasa, Kazuya

    2010-12-15

    Repeated measurements on one part of a bipartite system strongly affect the other part that is not measured, the dynamics of which is regulated by an effective contracted evolution operator. When the spectrum of this operator is discrete, the nonmeasured system is driven into a pure state, irrespective of the initial state, provided that the spectrum satisfies certain conditions. We show here that, even in the case of continuous spectrum, an effective distillation can occur under rather general conditions. We confirm it by applying our formalism to a simple model.

  9. Energy conservation in distillation: A technology applications manual

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-05-01

    Distillation is the most widely practiced technique for separating mixtures of chemical species, but it is an energy intensive process. A 10 percent reduction in distillation energy consumption would effect a significant savings. On a national basis, this would be an annual savings of 200 trillion Btu, or the equivalent of 36.5 million barrels of oil per year. Technology to achieve these savings in distillation energy is available and measures are presented to assist process engineers in technical and economic analysis of the energy conservation measures most suitable for particular distillation applications. The manual catalogs all of the energy conservation options applicable to distillation and the options by the investment required; describes in detail the options having a significant potential to reduce distillation energy requirements economically; provides guidelines that will allow the plant engineer to quickly screen each option for his application; and provides short cut calculation procedures for use in a preliminary economic analysis of promising options.

  10. Energy conservation in distillation: a technology applications manual

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-05-01

    Distillation is the most widely practiced technique for separating mixtures of chemical species, but it is an energy intensive process. A 10% reduction in distillation energy consumption would effect a significant savings. On a national basis this would be an annual savings of 200 trillion Btu, or the equivalent of 36.5 million barrels of oil per year. Technology to achieve these savings in distillation energy is available and measures are presented to assist process engineers in technical and economic analysis of the energy conservation measures most suitable for particular distillation applications. The manual catalogs all of the energy conservation options applicable to distillation and the options by the investment required; describes in detail the options having a significant potential to reduce distillation energy requirements economically; provides guidelines that will allow the plant engineer to quickly screen each option for his application; and provides short-cut calculation procedures for use in a preliminary economic analysis of promising options.

  11. Cascade Distillation Subsystem Development: Early Results From the Exploration Life Support Distillation Technology Comparison Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callahan, Michael R.; Patel, Vipul; Pickering, Karen D.

    2009-01-01

    In 2009, the Cascade Distillation Subsystem (CDS) wastewater processor (Honeywell International, Torrance, CA) was assessed in the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Exploration Life Support (ELS) distillation comparison test. The purpose of the test was to collect data to support down-selection and development of a primary distillation technology for application in a lunar outpost water recovery system. The CDS portion of the comparison test was conducted between May 6 and August 19, 2009. The system was challenged with two pretreated test solutions, each intended to represent a feasible wastewater generated in a surface habitat. The 30-day equivalent wastewater loading volume for a crew of four was processed for each wastewater solution. Test Solution 1 consisted of a mixed stream containing human-generated urine and humidity condensate. Test Solution 2 contained the addition of human-generated hygiene wastewater to the solution 1 waste stream components. Approximately 1500 kg of total wastewater was processed through the CDS during testing. Respective recoveries per solution were 93.4 +/- 0.7 and 90.3 +/- 0.5%. The average specific energy of the system was calculated to be less than 130 W-hr/kg. The following paper provides detailed information and data on the performance of the CDS as challenged per the ELS distillation comparison test.

  12. Cascade Distillation Subsystem Development: Early Results from the Exploration Life Support Distillation Technology Comparison Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callahan, Michael R.; Patel, Vipul; Pickering, Karen D.

    2010-01-01

    In 2009, the Cascade Distillation Subsystem (CDS) wastewater processor (Honeywell International, Torrance, California) was assessed in the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Exploration Life Support (ELS) distillation comparison test. The purpose of the test was to collect data to support down-selection and development of a primary distillation technology for application in a lunar outpost water recovery system. The CDS portion of the comparison test was conducted between May 6 and August 19, 2009. The system was challenged with two pretreated test solutions, each intended to represent a feasible wastewater generated in a surface habitat. The 30-day equivalent wastewater loading volume for a crew of four was intended to be processed for each wastewater solution. Test Solution 1 consisted of a mixed stream containing human-generated urine and humidity condensate. Test Solution 2 contained the addition of human-generated hygiene wastewater to the solution 1 waste stream components. Approximately 1500 kg of total wastewater was processed through the CDS during testing. Respective recoveries per solution were 93.4 +/- 0.7 and 90.3 +/- 0.5 percent. The average specific energy of the system during testing was calculated to be less than 120 W-hr/kg. The following paper provides detailed information and data on the performance of the CDS as challenged per the ELS distillation comparison test.

  13. Drum drying performance of condensed distillers solubles and comparison to performance of modified condensed distillers solubles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Condensed distillers solubles (CDS) is a viscous, syrupy co-product of ethanol production from corn; CDS exhibits strong recalcitrance to drying due to its chemical composition, which includes a substantial amount of glycerol. The objectives of this study were to determine the drum drying performan...

  14. Vapor compression distiller and membrane technology for water revitalization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashida, A.; Mitani, K.; Ebara, K.; Kurokawa, H.; Sawada, I.; Kashiwagi, H.; Tsuji, T.; Hayashi, S.; Otsubo, K.; Nitta, K.

    1987-01-01

    Water revitalization for a space station can consist of membrane filtration processes and a distillation process. Water recycling equipment using membrane filtration processes was manufactured for ground testing. It was assembled using commercially available components. Two systems for the distillation are studied: one is absorption type thermopervaporation cell and the other is a vapor compression distiller. Absorption type thermopervaporation, able to easily produce condensed water under zero gravity, was investigated experimentally and through simulated calculation. The vapor compression distiller was studied experimentally and it offers significant energy savings for evaporation of water.

  15. Vapor compression distiller and membrane technology for water revitalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashida, A.; Mitani, K.; Ebara, K.; Kurokawa, H.; Sawada, I.; Kashiwagi, H.; Tsuji, T.; Hayashi, S.; Otsubo, K.; Nitta, K.

    Water revitalization for a space station can consist of membrane filtration processes and a distillation process. Water recycling equipment using membrane filtration processes was manufactured for ground testing. It was assembled using commercially available components. Two systems for the distillation are studied; one is an absorption type thermopervaporation cell and the other is a vapor compression distiller. Absorption type thermopervaporation able to easily produce condensed water under zero gravity was investigated experimentally and through simulated calculation. The vapor compression distiller was studied experimentally and it offers significant energy savings for evaporation of water.

  16. Vapor compression distiller and membrane technology for water revitalization.

    PubMed

    Ashida, A; Mitani, K; Ebara, K; Kurokawa, H; Sawada, I; Kashiwagi, H; Tsuji, T; Hayashi, S; Otsubo, K; Nitta, K

    1987-01-01

    Water revitalization for a space station can consist of membrane filtration processes and a distillation process. Water recycling equipment using membrane filtration processes was manufactured for ground testing. It was assembled using commercially available components. Two systems for the distillation are studied; one is an absorption type thermopervaporation cell and the other is a vapor compression distiller. Absorption type thermopervaporation able to easily produce condensed water under zero gravity was investigated experimentally and through simulated calculation. The vapor compression distiller was studied experimentally and it offers significant energy savings for evaporation of water. PMID:11537274

  17. Tomographic quantum cryptography: equivalence of quantum and classical key distillation.

    PubMed

    Bruss, Dagmar; Christandl, Matthias; Ekert, Artur; Englert, Berthold-Georg; Kaszlikowski, Dagomir; Macchiavello, Chiara

    2003-08-29

    The security of a cryptographic key that is generated by communication through a noisy quantum channel relies on the ability to distill a shorter secure key sequence from a longer insecure one. For an important class of protocols, which exploit tomographically complete measurements on entangled pairs of any dimension, we show that the noise threshold for classical advantage distillation is identical with the threshold for quantum entanglement distillation. As a consequence, the two distillation procedures are equivalent: neither offers a security advantage over the other.

  18. Local Gaussian operations can enhance continuous-variable entanglement distillation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Shengli; Loock, Peter van

    2011-12-15

    Entanglement distillation is a fundamental building block in long-distance quantum communication. Though known to be useless on their own for distilling Gaussian entangled states, local Gaussian operations may still help to improve non-Gaussian entanglement distillation schemes. Here we show that by applying local squeezing operations both the performance and the efficiency of existing distillation protocols can be enhanced. We find that such an enhancement through local Gaussian unitaries can be obtained even when the initially shared Gaussian entangled states are mixed, as, for instance, after their distribution through a lossy-fiber communication channel.

  19. Engineering-Scale Distillation of Cadmium for Actinide Recovery

    SciTech Connect

    J.C. Price; D. Vaden; R.W. Benedict

    2007-10-01

    During the recovery of actinide products from spent nuclear fuel, cadmium is separated from the actinide products by a distillation process. Distillation occurs in an induction-heated furnace called a cathode processor capable of processing kilogram quantities of cadmium. Operating parameters have been established for sufficient recovery of the cadmium based on mass balance and product purity. A cadmium distillation rate similar to previous investigators has also been determined. The development of cadmium distillation for spent fuel treatment enhances the capabilities for actinide recovery processes.

  20. Membrane distillation employed for separation of water isotopic compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Chmielewski, A.G.; Zakrzewska-Trznadel, G.

    1995-04-01

    An attempt to apply membrane distillation (MD) for the enrichment of waste isotopic compounds was made. The process was conducted as a direct-contact MD with flat-sheet microporous, hydrophobic polytetrafluorethylene (PTFE) membranes in the temperature range 323-353K. The distillate condensation was carried out directly into a stream of cooling water. The comparison between calculated Rayleigh distillation curves and the results of permeation experiments demonstrated the MD process to be more efficient than simple distillation for enrichment of the heavy isotopes in water.

  1. Ethanol production by vapor compression distillation

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, G.S.

    1981-01-01

    The goal of this project is to develop and demonstrate a one gallon per hour vapor compression distillation unit for fuel ethanol production that can be profitably manufactured and economically operated by individual family units. Vapor compression distillation is already an industrially accepted process and this project's goal is to demonstrate that it can be done economically on a small scale. Theoretically, the process is independent of absolute pressure. It is only necessary that the condenser be at higher pressure than the evaporator. By reducing the entire process to a pressure of approximately 0.1 atmosphere, the evaporation and condensation can occur at near ambient temperature. Even though this approach requires a vacuum pump, and thus will not represent the final cost effective design, it does not require preheaters, high temperature materials, or as much insulation as if it were to operate a near ambient pressure. Therefore, the operation of the ambient temperature unit constitutes the first phase of this project. Presently, the ambient temperature unit is fully assembled and has begun testing. So far it has successfully separated ethanol from a nine to one diluted input solution. However the production rate has been very low.

  2. Potential for cogeneration in distillation. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Mix, T.W.

    1983-02-01

    Distillation represents a major consumer of energy in the United States and is a good sump for a cogeneration facility because it represents a condensing load. The potential for cogeneration in the distillation industries (chemical plants and oil refineries) is evaluated based on discussions with knowledgeable individuals in major chemical and petroleum refining companies, in architect/engineer firms and in utilities,as well as on a review of the literature. The total potential for cogeneration in that time frame in which the price of gas and oil escalates to three to four times the price of coal is estimated as ranging from 2600 to 3750 MW in the petroleum refining industry, is estimated as 900 MW in the electrochemical industry, and as 2440 MW in the remainder of the chemical industry. Gas turbine/waste heat boiler cogeneration systems are projected as being installed in California, gas turbine with combined cycle systems are seen as being installed in the electrochemical industry, and coal-fired back-pressure steam turbine cogeneration systems are seen as being installed in the remainder of the chemical and petroleum refinery installations. The Texas Gulf coast area is seen as having the largest potential for cogeneration, but significant potential exists in California as well. Coal is seen as the dominant cogeneration fuel and the average cogeneration plant size is projected as large, with over 500,000 labs/hr of steam flow and more than 50 MW cogenerated electric power.

  3. Nitric acid recycling and copper nitrate recovery from effluent.

    PubMed

    Jô, L F; Marcus, R; Marcelin, O

    2014-01-01

    The recycling of nitric acid and copper nitrate contained in an industrial effluent was studied. The experiments conducted on such a medium showed that the presence of copper nitrate significantly improves nitric acid-water separation during distillation in an azeotropic medium. At the temperature of the azeotrope, however, this metal salt starts to precipitate, making the medium pasty, thus inhibiting the nitric acid extraction process. The optimisation of parameters such as column efficiency and adding water to the boiler at the azeotrope temperature are recommended in this protocol in order to collect the various components while avoiding the formation of by-products: NOx compounds. Thus, the absence of column, along with the addition of a small volume of water at a temperature of 118 °C, significantly increases the yield, allowing 94 % nitric acid to be recovered at the end of the process, along with the residual copper nitrate. The resulting distillate, however, is sufficiently dilute to not be used as is. Rectification is required to obtain concentrated nitric acid at 15 mol·l(-1), along with a weakly acidic distillate from the distillation front. This latter is quenched using potassium hydroxide and is used as a fertiliser solution for horticulture or sheltered market gardening. This process thus allows complete recycling of all the medium's components, including that of the distillate resulting from the nitric acid rectification operation. PMID:24627202

  4. SPIRAL CONTACTOR FOR SOLVENT EXTRACTION COLUMN

    DOEpatents

    Cooley, C.R.

    1961-06-13

    The patented extraction apparatus includes a column, perforated plates extending across the column, liquid pulse means connected to the column, and an imperforate spiral ribbon along the length of the column.

  5. Why Hexagonal Basalt Columns?

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Martin; Anderssohn, Robert; Bahr, Hans-Achim; Weiß, Hans-Jürgen; Nellesen, Jens

    2015-10-01

    Basalt columns with their preferably hexagonal cross sections are a fascinating example of pattern formation by crack propagation. Junctions of three propagating crack faces rearrange such that the initial right angles between them tend to approach 120°, which enables the cracks to form a pattern of regular hexagons. To promote understanding of the path on which the ideal configuration can be reached, two periodically repeatable models are presented here involving linear elastic fracture mechanics and applying the principle of maximum energy release rate. They describe the evolution of the crack pattern as a transition from rectangular start configuration to the hexagonal pattern. This is done analytically and by means of three-dimensional finite element simulation. The latter technique reproduces the curved crack path involved in this transition.

  6. Why Hexagonal Basalt Columns?

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Martin; Anderssohn, Robert; Bahr, Hans-Achim; Weiß, Hans-Jürgen; Nellesen, Jens

    2015-10-01

    Basalt columns with their preferably hexagonal cross sections are a fascinating example of pattern formation by crack propagation. Junctions of three propagating crack faces rearrange such that the initial right angles between them tend to approach 120°, which enables the cracks to form a pattern of regular hexagons. To promote understanding of the path on which the ideal configuration can be reached, two periodically repeatable models are presented here involving linear elastic fracture mechanics and applying the principle of maximum energy release rate. They describe the evolution of the crack pattern as a transition from rectangular start configuration to the hexagonal pattern. This is done analytically and by means of three-dimensional finite element simulation. The latter technique reproduces the curved crack path involved in this transition. PMID:26550724

  7. Buckling of a holey column.

    PubMed

    Pihler-Puzović, D; Hazel, A L; Mullin, T

    2016-09-14

    We report the results from a combined experimental and numerical investigation of buckling in a novel variant of an elastic column under axial load. We find that including a regular line of centred holes in the column can prevent conventional, global, lateral buckling. Instead, the local microstructure introduced by the holes allows the column to buckle in an entirely different, internal, mode in which the holes are compressed in alternate directions, but the column maintains the lateral reflection symmetry about its centreline. The internal buckling mode can be accommodated within a smaller external space than the global one; and it is the preferred buckling mode over an intermediate range of column lengths for sufficiently large holes. For very short or sufficiently long columns a modification of the classical, global, lateral buckling is dominant. PMID:27501288

  8. Compact electron beam focusing column

    SciTech Connect

    Persaud, Arun; Leung, Ka-Ngo; Reijonen, Jani

    2001-07-13

    A novel design for an electron beam focusing column has been developed at LBNL. The design is based on a low-energy spread multicusp plasma source which is used as a cathode for electron beam production. The focusing column is 10 mm in length. The electron beam is focused by means of electrostatic fields. The column is designed for a maximum voltage of 50 kV. Simulations of the electron trajectories have been performed by using the 2-D simulation code IGUN and EGUN. The electron temperature has also been incorporated into the simulations. The electron beam simulations, column design and fabrication will be discussed in this presentation.

  9. Omniphobic Membrane for Robust Membrane Distillation

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, SH; Nejati, S; Boo, C; Hu, YX; Osuji, CO; Ehmelech, M

    2014-11-01

    In this work, we fabricate an omniphobic microporous membrane for membrane distillation (MD) by modifying a hydrophilic glass fiber membrane with silica nanoparticles followed by surface fluorination and polymer coating. The modified glass fiber membrane exhibits an anti-wetting property not only against water but also against low surface tension organic solvents that easily wet a hydrophobic polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) membrane that is commonly used in MD applications. By comparing the performance of the PTFE and omniphobic membranes in direct contact MD experiments in the presence of a surfactant (sodium dodecyl sulfate, SDS), we show that SDS wets the hydrophobic PTFE membrane but not the omniphobic membrane. Our results suggest that omniphobic membranes are critical for MD applications with feed waters containing surface active species, such as oil and gas produced water, to prevent membrane pore wetting.

  10. Determination of lithium in rocks by distillation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fletcher, M.H.

    1949-01-01

    A method for the quantitative extraction and recovery of lithium from rocks is based on a high temperature volatilization procedure. The sample is sintered with a calcium carbonate-calcium chloride mixture at 1200?? C. for 30 minutes in a platinum ignition tube, and the volatilization product is collected in a plug of Pyrex glass wool in a connecting Pyrex tube. The distillate, which consists of the alkali chlorides with a maximum of 5 to 20 mg. of calcium oxide and traces of a few other elements, is removed from the apparatus by dissolving in dilute hydrochloric acid and subjected to standard analytiaal procedures. The sinter residues contained less than 0.0005% lithium oxide. Lithium oxide was recovered from synthetic samples with an average error of 1.1%.

  11. 27 CFR 19.565 - Shortages of bottled distilled spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Shortages of bottled distilled spirits. 19.565 Section 19.565 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Losses and Shortages Shortages § 19.565 Shortages of bottled...

  12. Modeling the flow properties of distillers dried grains with solubles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) are an excellent source of energy, minerals, and bypass protein for ruminants, and are also used in monogastric rations as well. With the remarkable growth of the US fuel ethanol industry in the past decade, large quantities of distillers grains are now b...

  13. 27 CFR 29.53 - Identification of distilling apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... distilling apparatus. 29.53 Section 29.53 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... Identification of distilling apparatus. (a) General. Each still or condenser manufactured will be identified by... serial number for the apparatus. (b) Marking requirements. The apparatus will be identified in a...

  14. 27 CFR 29.53 - Identification of distilling apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... distilling apparatus. 29.53 Section 29.53 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... Identification of distilling apparatus. (a) General. Each still or condenser manufactured will be identified by... serial number for the apparatus. (b) Marking requirements. The apparatus will be identified in a...

  15. Multilevel distillation of magic states for quantum computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Cody

    2013-03-01

    We develop a procedure for distilling magic states used in universal quantum computing which requires substantially fewer resources than prior schemes. Our distillation circuit is based on a family of concatenated quantum codes with a transversal Hadamard operation which can distill the eigenstate of the Hadamard operator. A crucial result of this design is that low-fidelity magic states can be consumed to purify high-fidelity magic states to even higher fidelity, which we call ``multilevel distillation.'' We show numerically that there exist multilevel protocols such that the average number of magic states consumed to distill from error rate ɛin = 0 . 01 to ɛout in the range 10-5 to 10-40 is about 14log10 (1 /ɛout) - 40 ; the efficiency of multilevel distillation dominates all other reported protocols when distilling Hadamard magic states from initial infidelity 0.01 to any final infidelity below 10-7. These methods are an important advance for magic-state distillation circuits in high-performance quantum computing.

  16. Teaching and Learning Distillation in Chemistry Laboratory Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Keulen, Hanno; And Others

    Distillation in the chemistry laboratory is an essential part of a practicing chemists' and a chemistry educators' work. Nevertheless, regardless of the degree of importance in each of the aforementioned professions, few educational studies on teaching and learning distillation exist. In an effort to rectify this oversight, the Department of…

  17. Teaching and Learning Distillation in Chemistry Laboratory Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keulen, Hanno van; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Investigated the problems chemistry majors have with learning distillation concepts in traditional chemistry laboratory courses. Reports that students take the generalized concepts at face value, construct decontextualized concepts for distillation, and cannot interpret their observations or make reasoned decisions based on the theoretical…

  18. Distillation time effect on lavender essential oil yield and composition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lavender (Lavandula angustifolia Mill.) is one of the most widely grown essential oil crops in the world. Commercial extraction of lavender oil is done using steam distillation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the length of the distillation time (DT) on lavender essential o...

  19. Distillation purification and radon assay of liquid xenon

    SciTech Connect

    Takeuchi, Yasuo

    2005-09-08

    We succeeded to reduce the Kr contamination in liquid xenon by a factor of 1/1000 with a distillation system in Kamioka mine. Then, the remaining radioactivities (Radon and Kr) in purified liquid xenon were measured with the XMASS prototype detector. In this talk, the distillation system and the remaining internal radioactivity levels are reported.

  20. A Hydration of an Alkyne Illustrating Steam and Vacuum Distillation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasacz, J. P.; Badding, V. G.

    1982-01-01

    Reports on the conversion 2,5-dimethylhexyne-2,5-diol(I) to 2,2,5,5-tetramethyltetrahydrofuran-3-one(II) using aqueous mercuric sulfate without the use of acid. The experiment has been successfully performed in introductory organic chemistry laboratories demonstrating alkyne hydration, steam distillation, vacuum distillation, drying of organic…

  1. 27 CFR 19.32 - Experimental distilled spirits plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... spirits plants. 19.32 Section 19.32 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Administrative and... distilled spirits plants. (a) General. The appropriate TTB officer may authorize the establishment...

  2. 27 CFR 19.32 - Experimental distilled spirits plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... spirits plants. 19.32 Section 19.32 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Administrative and... distilled spirits plants. (a) General. The appropriate TTB officer may authorize the establishment...

  3. 27 CFR 19.65 - Experimental distilled spirits plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... spirits plants. 19.65 Section 19.65 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions Activities Not Subject to This Part § 19.65 Experimental distilled spirits plants....

  4. Solar pond driven distillation and power production system

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, D.H.; Leboeuf, C.M.; Waddington, D.

    1981-01-01

    A solar pond driven distillation and power production system is described. The storage layer of the solar pond serves as the holding tank for the concentrated brine effluent from the distillation process as well as the collector and storage medium for solar energy used to heat incoming salty river water. 4 refs.

  5. Distillate Fuel Oil Assessment for Winter 1996-1997

    EIA Publications

    1997-01-01

    This article describes findings of an analysis of the current low level of distillate stocks which are available to help meet the demand for heating fuel this winter, and presents a summary of the Energy Information Administration's distillate fuel oil outlook for the current heating season under two weather scenarios.

  6. 27 CFR 26.211 - Warehouse receipts covering distilled spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Warehouse receipts... and Recordkeeping § 26.211 Warehouse receipts covering distilled spirits. The sale of warehouse..., warehouse receipts for distilled spirits stored in warehouses, or elsewhere, must register and keep...

  7. 27 CFR 26.45 - Warehouse receipts covering distilled spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Warehouse receipts... Recordkeeping § 26.45 Warehouse receipts covering distilled spirits. The sale of warehouse receipts for... distilled spirits into the United States from Puerto Rico who sells, or offers for sale, warehouse...

  8. 45. MAIN MEETING ROOM COLUMNS. Ends of gallery columns identified ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    45. MAIN MEETING ROOM COLUMNS. Ends of gallery columns identified at the time of removal for transfer to the George School for re-erection. The stamp reads, 'REMOVED FROM 12th ST. MTG HSE PHILA 1972'. - Twelfth Street Meeting House, 20 South Twelfth Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  9. Dorsal column stimulator applications

    PubMed Central

    Yampolsky, Claudio; Hem, Santiago; Bendersky, Damián

    2012-01-01

    Background: Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) has been used to treat neuropathic pain since 1967. Following that, technological progress, among other advances, helped SCS become an effective tool to reduce pain. Methods: This article is a non-systematic review of the mechanism of action, indications, results, programming parameters, complications, and cost-effectiveness of SCS. Results: In spite of the existence of several studies that try to prove the mechanism of action of SCS, it still remains unknown. The mechanism of action of SCS would be based on the antidromic activation of the dorsal column fibers, which activate the inhibitory interneurons within the dorsal horn. At present, the indications of SCS are being revised constantly, while new applications are being proposed and researched worldwide. Failed back surgery syndrome (FBSS) is the most common indication for SCS, whereas, the complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is the second one. Also, this technique is useful in patients with refractory angina and critical limb ischemia, in whom surgical or endovascular treatment cannot be performed. Further indications may be phantom limb pain, chronic intractable pain located in the head, face, neck, or upper extremities, spinal lumbar stenosis in patients who are not surgical candidates, and others. Conclusion: Spinal cord stimulation is a useful tool for neuromodulation, if an accurate patient selection is carried out prior, which should include a trial period. Undoubtedly, this proper selection and a better knowledge of its underlying mechanisms of action, will allow this cutting edge technique to be more acceptable among pain physicians. PMID:23230533

  10. Simulated distillation of petroleum and coal-derived products by packed capillary supercritical fluid chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Robson, M.; Johnson, B.R.; Mitchell, S.C.

    1995-12-31

    The advantages of simulated distillation (SD) of petroleum compounds by super-critical fluid chromatography (SFC) over high temperature gas chromatography (HTGC) are well recognised. Most of the research performed using this technique has employed conventional open tubular columns but the use of packed capillary columns which offer high sample capacities, greater efficiency of separation and a shorter analysis time has recently received much attention. Previous work at Leeds using a variety of column packings (C{sub 1}-C{sub 18} alkyl groups bonded to silica) has demonstrated that high molecular weight hydrocarbons with boiling points up to 800{degrees}C can be successfully eluted with pure CO{sub 2} as a mobile phase. However, the high compositional variability of coal-derived samples increases the difficulty of SD-SFC of coal fractions as compared to petroleum derived fractions. In this study, a number of coal samples have been investigated to determine the suitability of packed capillary SD-SFC for heavy coal products.

  11. An Undergraduate Column Chromatography Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danot, M.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Background information, list of materials needed, and procedures used are provided for an experiment designed to introduce undergraduate students to the theoretical and technical aspects of column chromatography. The experiment can also be shortened to serve as a demonstration of the column chromatography technique. (JN)

  12. Mush Column Magma Chambers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsh, B. D.

    2002-12-01

    Magma chambers are a necessary concept in understanding the chemical and physical evolution of magma. The concept may well be similar to a transfer function in circuit or time series analysis. It does what needs to be done to transform source magma into eruptible magma. In gravity and geodetic interpretations the causative body is (usually of necessity) geometrically simple and of limited vertical extent; it is clearly difficult to `see' through the uppermost manifestation of the concentrated magma. The presence of plutons in the upper crust has reinforced the view that magma chambers are large pots of magma, but as in the physical representation of a transfer function, actual magma chambers are clearly distinct from virtual magma chambers. Two key features to understanding magmatic systems are that they are vertically integrated over large distances (e.g., 30-100 km), and that all local magmatic processes are controlled by solidification fronts. Heat transfer considerations show that any viable volcanic system must be supported by a vertically extensive plumbing system. Field and geophysical studies point to a common theme of an interconnected stack of sill-like structures extending to great depth. This is a magmatic Mush Column. The large-scale (10s of km) structure resembles the vertical structure inferred at large volcanic centers like Hawaii (e.g., Ryan et al.), and the fine scale (10s to 100s of m) structure is exemplified by ophiolites and deeply eroded sill complexes like the Ferrar dolerites of the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica. The local length scales of the sill reservoirs and interconnecting conduits produce a rich spectrum of crystallization environments with distinct solidification time scales. Extensive horizontal and vertical mushy walls provide conditions conducive to specific processes of differentiation from solidification front instability to sidewall porous flow and wall rock slumping. The size, strength, and time series of eruptive behavior

  13. Steam distillation effect and oil quality change during steam injection

    SciTech Connect

    Lim, K.T.; Ramey, H.J. Jr.; Brigham, W.E.

    1992-01-01

    Steam distillation is an important mechanism which reduces residual oil saturation during steam injection. It may be the main recovery mechanism in steamflooding of light oil reservoirs. As light components are distilled the residual (initial) oil, the residuum becomes heavier. Mixing the distilled components with the initial oil results in a lighter produced oil. A general method has been developed to compute steam distillation yield and to quantify oil quality changes during steam injection. The quantitative results are specific because the California crude data bank was used. But general principles were followed and calculations were based on information extracted from the DOE crude oil assay data bank. It was found that steam distillation data from the literature can be correlated with the steam distillation yield obtained from the DOE crude oil assays. The common basis for comparison was the equivalent normal boiling point. Blending of distilled components with the initial oil results in API gravity changes similar to those observed in several laboratory and field operations.

  14. On the performance of a cascade crossflow air stripping column

    SciTech Connect

    Akiyama, Y.; Valsaraj, K.T.; Wetzel, D.M.; Harrison, D.P.

    1996-10-01

    The cascade crossflow packed column is an innovative design that offers the separation advantages of countercurrent flow while avoiding flooding limitations. Liquid and gas cross-sectional flow areas and path length in contact with packing may be controlled independently. These features are illustrated by studying the air stripping of methylene chloride (MeCl), 1,2-dichloroethane (1,2-DCA), and methyl ethyl ketone (MEK). Stripping efficiencies in the cascade crossflow column were generally slightly smaller than in countercurrent flow at equal liquid and gas flow rates. However larger gas-to-liquid ratios were possible in crossflow, permitting larger maximum stripping efficiencies to be attained. The experimental mass transfer coefficients were smaller than predicted by the Onda correlation. Modifications to the gas-phase Onda correlation are proposed that reduce the magnitude of the average deviation between experiment and prediction for 40 tests to about 12%. Experimental values of 38 of 40 tests were within {+-}30% of modified Onda correlation predictions. Additional applications for the cascade crossflow concept are suggested, such as vacuum distillation columns and trickle-bed reactors, which require low pressure drop and/or large gas-to-liquid ratios.

  15. Determination of the separation efficiencies of a single-stage cryogenic distillation setup to remove krypton out of xenon by using a 83mKr tracer method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosendahl, S.; Brown, E.; Cristescu, I.; Fieguth, A.; Huhmann, C.; Lebeda, O.; Murra, M.; Weinheimer, C.

    2015-11-01

    The separation of krypton and xenon is of particular importance for the field of direct dark matter search with liquid xenon detectors. The intrinsic contamination of the xenon with radioactive 85Kr makes a significant background for these kinds of low count-rate experiments and has to be removed beforehand. This can be achieved by cryogenic distillation, a technique widely used in industry, using the different vapor pressures of krypton and xenon. In this paper, we present an investigation on the separation performance of a single stage distillation system using a radioactive 83mKr-tracer method. The separation characteristics under different operation conditions are determined for very low concentrations of krypton in xenon at the level of 83mKr/Xe = 1.9 ṡ 10-15, demonstrating, that cryogenic distillation in this regime is working. The observed separation is in agreement with the expectation from the different volatilities of krypton and xenon. This cryogenic distillation station is the first step on the way to a multi-stage cryogenic distillation column for the next generation of direct dark matter experiment XENON1T.

  16. Determination of the separation efficiencies of a single-stage cryogenic distillation setup to remove krypton out of xenon by using a (83m)Kr tracer method.

    PubMed

    Rosendahl, S; Brown, E; Cristescu, I; Fieguth, A; Huhmann, C; Lebeda, O; Murra, M; Weinheimer, C

    2015-11-01

    The separation of krypton and xenon is of particular importance for the field of direct dark matter search with liquid xenon detectors. The intrinsic contamination of the xenon with radioactive (85)Kr makes a significant background for these kinds of low count-rate experiments and has to be removed beforehand. This can be achieved by cryogenic distillation, a technique widely used in industry, using the different vapor pressures of krypton and xenon. In this paper, we present an investigation on the separation performance of a single stage distillation system using a radioactive (83m)Kr-tracer method. The separation characteristics under different operation conditions are determined for very low concentrations of krypton in xenon at the level of (83m)Kr/Xe = 1.9 ⋅ 10(-15), demonstrating, that cryogenic distillation in this regime is working. The observed separation is in agreement with the expectation from the different volatilities of krypton and xenon. This cryogenic distillation station is the first step on the way to a multi-stage cryogenic distillation column for the next generation of direct dark matter experiment XENON1T.

  17. Determination of the separation efficiencies of a single-stage cryogenic distillation setup to remove krypton out of xenon by using a (83m)Kr tracer method.

    PubMed

    Rosendahl, S; Brown, E; Cristescu, I; Fieguth, A; Huhmann, C; Lebeda, O; Murra, M; Weinheimer, C

    2015-11-01

    The separation of krypton and xenon is of particular importance for the field of direct dark matter search with liquid xenon detectors. The intrinsic contamination of the xenon with radioactive (85)Kr makes a significant background for these kinds of low count-rate experiments and has to be removed beforehand. This can be achieved by cryogenic distillation, a technique widely used in industry, using the different vapor pressures of krypton and xenon. In this paper, we present an investigation on the separation performance of a single stage distillation system using a radioactive (83m)Kr-tracer method. The separation characteristics under different operation conditions are determined for very low concentrations of krypton in xenon at the level of (83m)Kr/Xe = 1.9 ⋅ 10(-15), demonstrating, that cryogenic distillation in this regime is working. The observed separation is in agreement with the expectation from the different volatilities of krypton and xenon. This cryogenic distillation station is the first step on the way to a multi-stage cryogenic distillation column for the next generation of direct dark matter experiment XENON1T. PMID:26628169

  18. Multilevel distillation of magic states for quantum computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Cody

    2013-04-01

    We develop a procedure for distilling magic states used in universal quantum computing that requires substantially fewer initial resources than prior schemes. Our distillation circuit is based on a family of concatenated quantum codes that possess a transversal Hadamard operation, enabling each of these codes to distill the eigenstate of the Hadamard operator. A crucial result of this design is that low-fidelity magic states can be consumed to purify other high-fidelity magic states to even higher fidelity, which we call multilevel distillation. When distilling in the asymptotic regime of infidelity ɛ→0 for each input magic state, the number of input magic states consumed on average to yield an output state with infidelity O(ɛ2r) approaches 2r+1, which comes close to saturating the conjectured bound in another investigation [Bravyi and Haah, Phys. Rev. APLRAAN1050-294710.1103/PhysRevA.86.052329 86, 052329 (2012)]. We show numerically that there exist multilevel protocols such that the average number of magic states consumed to distill from error rate ɛin=0.01 to ɛout in the range 10-5-10-40 is about 14log10(1/ɛout)-40; the efficiency of multilevel distillation dominates all other reported protocols when distilling Hadamard magic states from initial infidelity 0.01 to any final infidelity below 10-7. These methods are an important advance for magic-state distillation circuits in high-performance quantum computing and provide insight into the limitations of nearly resource-optimal quantum error correction.

  19. Synthesis and optimization of integrated chemical processes

    SciTech Connect

    Barton, Paul I.; Evans, Lawrence B.

    2002-04-26

    This is the final technical report for the project titled ''Synthesis and optimization of integrated chemical processes''. Progress is reported on novel algorithms for the computation of all heteroazeotropic compositions present in complex liquid mixtures; the design of novel flexible azeotropic separation processes using middle vessel batch distillation columns; and theory and algorithms for sensitivity analysis and numerical optimization of hybrid discrete/continuous dynamic systems.

  20. Improved waste water vapor compression distillation technology. [for Spacelab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, K. L.; Nuccio, P. P.; Reveley, W. F.

    1977-01-01

    The vapor compression distillation process is a method of recovering potable water from crewman urine in a manned spacecraft or space station. A description is presented of the research and development approach to the solution of the various problems encountered with previous vapor compression distillation units. The design solutions considered are incorporated in the preliminary design of a vapor compression distillation subsystem. The new design concepts are available for integration in the next generation of support systems and, particularly, the regenerative life support evaluation intended for project Spacelab.

  1. Novel adsorption distillation hybrid scheme for propane/propylene separation

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, R.; Golden, T.C.; White, T.R.; Rokicki, A. )

    1992-12-01

    A novel adsorption-distillation hybrid scheme is proposed for propane/propylene separation. The suggested scheme has potential for saving up to [approximately]50% energy and [approximately]15-30% in capital costs as compared with current technology. The key concept of the proposed scheme is to separate olefins from alkanes by adsorption and then separate individual olefins and alkanes by simple distillation, thereby eliminating energy intensive and expensive olefin-alkane distillation. A conceptual flow schematic for the proposed hybrid scheme and potential savings are outlined.s

  2. Post column derivatisation analyses review. Is post-column derivatisation incompatible with modern HPLC columns?

    PubMed

    Jones, Andrew; Pravadali-Cekic, Sercan; Dennis, Gary R; Shalliker, R Andrew

    2015-08-19

    Post Column derivatisation (PCD) coupled with high performance liquid chromatography or ultra-high performance liquid chromatography is a powerful tool in the modern analytical laboratory, or at least it should be. One drawback with PCD techniques is the extra post-column dead volume due to reaction coils used to enable adequate reaction time and the mixing of reagents which causes peak broadening, hence a loss of separation power. This loss of efficiency is counter-productive to modern HPLC technologies, -such as UHPLC. We reviewed 87 PCD methods published from 2009 to 2014. We restricted our review to methods published between 2009 and 2014, because we were interested in the uptake of PCD methods in UHPLC environments. Our review focused on a range of system parameters including: column dimensions, stationary phase and particle size, as well as the geometry of the reaction loop. The most commonly used column in the methods investigated was not in fact a modern UHPLC version with sub-2-micron, (or even sub-3-micron) particles, but rather, work-house columns, such as, 250 × 4.6 mm i.d. columns packed with 5 μm C18 particles. Reaction loops were varied, even within the same type of analysis, but the majority of methods employed loop systems with volumes greater than 500 μL. A second part of this review illustrated briefly the effect of dead volume on column performance. The experiment evaluated the change in resolution and separation efficiency of some weak to moderately retained solutes on a 250 × 4.6 mm i.d. column packed with 5 μm particles. The data showed that reaction loops beyond 100 μL resulted in a very serious loss of performance. Our study concluded that practitioners of PCD methods largely avoid the use of UHPLC-type column formats, so yes, very much, PCD is incompatible with the modern HPLC column. PMID:26343427

  3. Vacuum membrane distillation: Experiments and modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Bandini, S.; Saavedra, A.; Sarti, G.C.

    1997-02-01

    Vacuum membrane distillation is a membrane-based separation process considered here to remove volatile organic compounds from aqueous streams. Microporous hydrophobic membranes are used to separate the aqueous stream from a gas phase kept under vacuum. The evaporation of the liquid stream takes place on one side of the membrane, and mass transfer occurs through the vapor phase inside the membrane. The role of operative conditions on the process performance is widely investigated in the case of dilute binary aqueous mixtures containing acetone, ethanol, isopropanol, ethylacetate, methylacetate, or methylterbutyl ether. Temperature, composition, flow rate of the liquid feed, and pressure downstream the membrane are the main operative variables. Among these, the vacuum-side pressure is the major design factor since it greatly affects the separation efficiency. A mathematical model description of the process is developed, and the results are compared with the experiments. The model is finally used to predict the best operative conditions in which the process can work for the case of benzene removal from waste waters.

  4. Entanglement of assistance and multipartite state distillation

    SciTech Connect

    Smolin, John A.; Verstraete, Frank; Winter, Andreas

    2005-11-15

    We find that the asymptotic entanglement of assistance of a general bipartite mixed state is equal to the smaller of its two local entropies. Our protocol gives rise to the asymptotically optimal Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) pair distillation procedure for a given tripartite pure state, and we show that it actually yields EPR and Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) states; in fact, under a restricted class of protocols, which we call ''one-way broadcasting,'' the GHZ rate is shown to be optimal. This result implies a capacity theorem for quantum channels where the environment helps transmission by broadcasting the outcome of an optimally chosen measurement. We discuss generalizations to m parties and show (for m=4) that the maximal amount of entanglement that can be localized between two parties is given by the smallest entropy of a group of parties of which the one party is a member, but not the other. This gives an explicit expression for the asymptotic localizable entanglement and shows that any nontrivial ground state of a spin system can be used as a perfect quantum repeater if many copies are available in parallel. Finally, we provide evidence that any unital channel is asymptotically equivalent to a mixture of unitaries and any general channel to a mixture of partial isometries.

  5. Ethanol distillation from waste potato starch. Final report, October 1, 1982-September 30, 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Shull, H.E.

    1983-10-17

    The objective of the project was to investigate the economic feasibility of converting potato waste to fuel alcohol. The source of potato starch was Troyer Farms Potato Chips. Experimental work was carried out at both the laboratory scale and the larger pilot scale batch operation at a decommissioned waste water treatment building on campus. The laboratory scale work was considerably more extensive than originally planned, resulting in a much improved scientific work. The pilot scale facility has been completed and operated successfully. In contrast, the analysis of the economic feasibility of commercial production has not yet been completed. The project was brought to a close with the successful demonstration of the fermentation and distillation using the large scale facilities described previously. Two batches of mash were cooked using the procedures established in support of the laboratory scale work. One of the batches was fermented using the optimum values of the seven controlled factors as predicted by the laboratory scale application of the Box-Wilson design. The other batch was fermented under conditions derived out of Mr. Rouse's interpretation of his long sequence of laboratory results. He was gratified to find that his commitment to the Box-Wilson experiments was justified. The productivity of the Box-Wilson design was greater. The difference between the performance of the two fermentors (one stirred, one not) has not been established yet. Both batches were then distilled together, demonstrating the satisfactory performance of the column still. 4 references.

  6. Self-regenerating column chromatography

    DOEpatents

    Park, Woo K.

    1995-05-30

    The present invention provides a process for treating both cations and anions by using a self-regenerating, multi-ionic exchange resin column system which requires no separate regeneration steps. The process involves alternating ion-exchange chromatography for cations and anions in a multi-ionic exchange column packed with a mixture of cation and anion exchange resins. The multi-ionic mixed-charge resin column works as a multi-function column, capable of independently processing either cationic or anionic exchange, or simultaneously processing both cationic and anionic exchanges. The major advantage offered by the alternating multi-function ion exchange process is the self-regeneration of the resins.

  7. Membrane augmented distillation to separate solvents from water

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Yu; Baker, Richard W.; Daniels, Rami; Aldajani, Tiem; Ly, Jennifer H.; Alvarez, Franklin R.; Vane, Leland M.

    2012-09-11

    Processes for removing water from organic solvents, such as ethanol. The processes include distillation to form a rectified overhead vapor, compression of the rectified vapor, and treatment of the compressed vapor by two sequential membrane separation steps.

  8. Interior. Distillation apparatus used for extracting small test amounts of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior. Distillation apparatus used for extracting small test amounts of latex from plant fiber. - Thomas A. Edison Laboratories, Building No. 2, Main Street & Lakeside Avenue, West Orange, Essex County, NJ

  9. Heat Integrated Distillation through Use of Microchannel Technology

    SciTech Connect

    2004-09-01

    This factsheet describes a research project whose goal is to develop a breakthrough distillation process using Microchannel Process Technology (MPT) to integrate heat transfer and separation into a single unit operation.

  10. 27 CFR 30.1 - Gauging of distilled spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... correcting hydrometer indications at temperatures between 0 and 100 degrees Fahrenheit to true proof. If distilled spirits contain dissolved solids, temperature correction of the hydrometer reading by the use...

  11. 27 CFR 30.1 - Gauging of distilled spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... correcting hydrometer indications at temperatures between 0 and 100 degrees Fahrenheit to true proof. If distilled spirits contain dissolved solids, temperature correction of the hydrometer reading by the use...

  12. 27 CFR 30.1 - Gauging of distilled spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... correcting hydrometer indications at temperatures between 0 and 100 degrees Fahrenheit to true proof. If distilled spirits contain dissolved solids, temperature correction of the hydrometer reading by the use...

  13. 27 CFR 30.1 - Gauging of distilled spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... correcting hydrometer indications at temperatures between 0 and 100 degrees Fahrenheit to true proof. If distilled spirits contain dissolved solids, temperature correction of the hydrometer reading by the use...

  14. 27 CFR 30.1 - Gauging of distilled spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... correcting hydrometer indications at temperatures between 0 and 100 degrees Fahrenheit to true proof. If distilled spirits contain dissolved solids, temperature correction of the hydrometer reading by the use...

  15. Propagating plasma discontinuity in a tube immersed in distilled water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Jian; Tang, Jingfeng; Wei, Liqiu; Zhang, Nan; Wang, Youyin; Yu, Daren

    2016-04-01

    In a dielectric tube partially surrounded by distilled water, a propagating discontinuity is observed in a cold argon plasma jet at atmospheric pressure in both the laminar and turbulent flow regimes. Through electrical and optical diagnostics, the mechanism of formation for this phenomenon is investigated. Results show that the strong polarization of the distilled water, the constraint from the electric field (or a sufficiently high electric field), and the transport of the active species are in combination responsible for the propagating plasma discontinuity. Indeed, smaller surface areas of the tube surrounded by distilled water, shorter distances between the distilled water and the ground electrodes, as well as larger gas flow rates can together make the discontinuous discharge channel appear more readily. In particular, when the flow switches from laminar to turbulent, the plasma behavior of the discontinuity no longer depends on the gas flow rate. This is mostly attributed to the extreme instability of turbulence which further suppresses the transport of active species.

  16. 27 CFR 19.651 - Liability for distilled spirits tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Production of Vinegar by the... removed from, the premises of a vinegar plant in violation of law or regulations. (26 U.S.C. 5505)...

  17. 27 CFR 19.651 - Liability for distilled spirits tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Production of Vinegar by the... removed from, the premises of a vinegar plant in violation of law or regulations. (26 U.S.C. 5505)...

  18. 27 CFR 19.651 - Liability for distilled spirits tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Production of Vinegar by the... removed from, the premises of a vinegar plant in violation of law or regulations. (26 U.S.C. 5505)...

  19. 27 CFR 19.651 - Liability for distilled spirits tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Production of Vinegar by the... removed from, the premises of a vinegar plant in violation of law or regulations. (26 U.S.C. 5505)...

  20. 27 CFR 28.280 - Distilled spirits and wines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... departure of the aircraft, and the brand, kind, and quantity of distilled spirits or wines. Where the... shall be retained by the airline. (Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control...

  1. Interferometric distillation and determination of unknown two-qubit entanglement

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.-S. B.; Sim, H.-S.

    2009-05-15

    We propose a scheme for both distilling and quantifying entanglement, applicable to individual copies of an arbitrary unknown two-qubit state. It is realized in a usual two-qubit interferometry with local filtering. Proper filtering operation for the maximal distillation of the state is achieved by erasing single-qubit interference, and then the concurrence of the state is determined directly from the visibilities of two-qubit interference. We compare the scheme with full state tomography.

  2. Asymptotic relation between Bell-inequality violations and entanglement distillability

    SciTech Connect

    Kwon, Younghun

    2010-11-15

    We investigate the asymptotic relation between violations of the Mermin-Belinskii-Klyshko inequality and the entanglement distillability of multipartite entangled states, as the number of parties increases. We in particular consider noisy multiqubit GHZ and so-called Duer states in the Mermin-Belinskii-Klyshko inequality, and show that, in the asymptotic limit of the number of parties, the violation of the inequality implies the distillability in almost all bipartitions.

  3. Mass transfer in countercurrent packed columns: Application to supercritical CO[sub 2] extraction of terpenes

    SciTech Connect

    Simoes, P.C.; Matos, H.A.; Carmelo, P.J.; Gomes de Azevedo, E.; Nunes da Ponte, M. . Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia)

    1995-02-01

    Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) is an alternative separation method to more conventional processes such as liquid extraction and distillation. However, up to now, few works have been devoted to the investigation of the efficiency of countercurrent packed columns under supercritical conditions from a mass transfer point of view. Mass transfer in a countercurrent column, filled with structured gauze packing, was measured for the separation of a mixture of terpenes (d-limonene/1,8-cineole) by supercritical carbon dioxide, at 313 and 318 K and pressures up to 9 MPa. The extraction efficiency was determined in terms of the overall mass transfer coefficient. Operating lines for this process had an appreciable curvature due to a high miscibility of the two contacting phases. The real slope of these lines had to be estimated. Available mass transfer models for packed columns predicted efficiencies diverging to a great extent from the experimental results.

  4. LIQUID-LIQUID EXTRACTION COLUMNS

    DOEpatents

    Thornton, J.D.

    1957-12-31

    This patent relates to liquid-liquid extraction columns having a means for pulsing the liquid in the column to give it an oscillatory up and down movement, and consists of a packed column, an inlet pipe for the dispersed liquid phase and an outlet pipe for the continuous liquid phase located in the direct communication with the liquid in the lower part of said column, an inlet pipe for the continuous liquid phase and an outlet pipe for the dispersed liquid phase located in direct communication with the liquid in the upper part of said column, a tube having one end communicating with liquid in the lower part of said column and having its upper end located above the level of said outlet pipe for the dispersed phase, and a piston and cylinder connected to the upper end of said tube for applying a pulsating pneumatic pressure to the surface of the liquid in said tube so that said surface rises and falls in said tube.

  5. Honeywell Cascade Distiller System Performance Testing Interim Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callahan, Michael R.; Sargusingh, Miriam

    2014-01-01

    The ability to recover and purify water through physiochemical processes is crucial for realizing long-term human space missions, including both planetary habitation and space travel. Because of their robust nature, distillation systems have been actively pursued as one of the technologies for water recovery. The Cascade Distillation System (CDS) is a vacuum rotary distillation system with potential for greater reliability and lower energy costs than existing distillation systems. The CDS was previously under development through Honeywell and NASA. In 2009, an assessment was performed to collect data to support down-selection and development of a primary distillation technology for application in a lunar outpost water recovery system. Based on the results of this testing, an expert panel concluded that the CDS showed adequate development maturity, TRL-4, together with the best product water quality and competitive weight and power estimates to warrant further development. The Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Water Recovery Project (WRP) worked to address weaknesses identified by The Panel; namely bearing design and heat pump power efficiency. Testing at the NASA-JSC Advanced Exploration System Water Laboratory (AES Water Lab) using a prototype Cascade Distillation Subsystem (CDS) wastewater processor (Honeywell International, Torrance, Calif.) with test support equipment and control system developed by Johnson Space Center was performed to evaluate performance of the system with the upgrades. The CDS will also have been challenged with ISS analog waste streams and a subset of those being considered for Exploration architectures. This paper details interim results of the AES WRP CDS performance testing.

  6. Toxicity of petroleum hydrocarbon distillates to soil organisms.

    PubMed

    Cermak, Janet H; Stephenson, Gladys L; Birkholz, Detlef; Wang, Zhendi; Dixon, D George

    2010-12-01

    Canadian standards for petroleum hydrocarbons in soil are based on four distillate ranges (F1, C6-C10; F2, >C10-C16; F3, >C16-C34; and F4, >C34). Concerns have arisen that the ecological soil contact standards for F3 may be overly conservative. Oil distillates were prepared and characterized, and the toxicity of F3 and two subfractions, F3a (>C16-C23) and F3b (>C23-C34), to earthworms (Eisenia andrei), springtails (Orthonychiurus folsomi), and northern wheatgrass (Elymus lanceolatus), as well as the toxicity of F2 to earthworms, was determined. Clean soil was spiked with individual distillates and measured concentrations were determined for select tests. Results agree with previous studies with these distillates. Reported toxicities of crude and petroleum products to invertebrates were generally comparable to that of F3 and F3a. The decreasing order of toxicity was F3a > F3 > F3b with invertebrates, and F3a > F3b > F3 with plants. The toxicities of F3a and F3b were not sufficiently different to recommend regulating hydrocarbons based on these distillate ranges. The results also suggest that test durations may be insufficient for determining toxicity of higher distillate ranges, and that the selection of species and endpoints may significantly affect interpretation of toxicity test results. PMID:20836068

  7. Toxicity of petroleum hydrocarbon distillates to soil organisms.

    PubMed

    Cermak, Janet H; Stephenson, Gladys L; Birkholz, Detlef; Wang, Zhendi; Dixon, D George

    2010-12-01

    Canadian standards for petroleum hydrocarbons in soil are based on four distillate ranges (F1, C6-C10; F2, >C10-C16; F3, >C16-C34; and F4, >C34). Concerns have arisen that the ecological soil contact standards for F3 may be overly conservative. Oil distillates were prepared and characterized, and the toxicity of F3 and two subfractions, F3a (>C16-C23) and F3b (>C23-C34), to earthworms (Eisenia andrei), springtails (Orthonychiurus folsomi), and northern wheatgrass (Elymus lanceolatus), as well as the toxicity of F2 to earthworms, was determined. Clean soil was spiked with individual distillates and measured concentrations were determined for select tests. Results agree with previous studies with these distillates. Reported toxicities of crude and petroleum products to invertebrates were generally comparable to that of F3 and F3a. The decreasing order of toxicity was F3a > F3 > F3b with invertebrates, and F3a > F3b > F3 with plants. The toxicities of F3a and F3b were not sufficiently different to recommend regulating hydrocarbons based on these distillate ranges. The results also suggest that test durations may be insufficient for determining toxicity of higher distillate ranges, and that the selection of species and endpoints may significantly affect interpretation of toxicity test results.

  8. 75 FR 23318 - WTO Dispute Settlement Proceeding Regarding Philippines-Taxes on Distilled Spirits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-03

    ... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE WTO Dispute Settlement Proceeding Regarding Philippines--Taxes on Distilled Spirits... issue. The Philippines taxes distilled spirits at rates that differ depending on the product from which the spirit is distilled. The Philippines taxes distilled spirits made from certain materials that...

  9. Quantitative ester analysis in cachaca and distilled spirits by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS).

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Eduardo S P; Cardoso, Daniel R; Franco, Douglas W

    2008-07-23

    An analytical procedure for the separation and quantification of ethyl acetate, ethyl butyrate, ethyl hexanoate, ethyl lactate, ethyl octanoate, ethyl nonanoate, ethyl decanoate, isoamyl octanoate, and ethyl laurate in cachaca, rum, and whisky by direct injection gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was developed. The analytical method is simple, selective, and appropriated for the determination of esters in distilled spirits. The limit of detection ranged from 29 (ethyl hexanoate) to 530 (ethyl acetate) microg L(-1), whereas the standard deviation for repeatability was between 0.774% (ethyl hexanoate) and 5.05% (isoamyl octanoate). Relative standard deviation values for accuracy vary from 90.3 to 98.5% for ethyl butyrate and ethyl acetate, respectively. Ethyl acetate was shown to be the major ester in cachaca (median content of 22.6 mg 100 mL(-1) anhydrous alcohol), followed by ethyl lactate (median content of 8.32 mg 100 mL(-1) anhydrous alcohol). Cachaca produced in copper and hybrid alembic present a higher content of ethyl acetate and ethyl lactate than those produced in a stainless-steel column, whereas cachaca produced by distillation in a stainless-steel column present a higher content of ethyl octanoate, ethyl decanoate, and ethyl laurate. As expected, ethyl acetate is the major ester in whiskey and rum, followed by ethyl lactate for samples of rum. Nevertheless, whiskey samples exhibit ethyl lactate at contents lower or at the same order of magnitude of the fatty esters.

  10. Hollow Fibers Structured Packings in Olefin/Paraffin Distillation: Apparatus Scale-Up and Long-Term Stability

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Dali; Le, Loan; Martinez, Ronald; Morrison, Malcolm

    2013-06-21

    Following the conceptual demonstration of high separation efficiency and column capacity obtained in olefin/paraffin distillation using hollow fiber structured packings (HFSPs) in a bench scale (J. Membr. Sci.2006, 2007, and 2010), we scaled-up this process with a 10-fold increase in the internal flow rate and a 3-fold increase in the module length. We confirmed that the HFSPs technology gives high separation efficiency and column capacity in iso-/n-butane distillation for 18 months. We systematically investigated the effects of packing density, concentration of light component, reflux ratio, and module age on the separation efficiency and operating stability. The comprehensive characterizations using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) were carried out to probe the changes in the morphological, thermal, and mechanical properties of polypropylene (PP) hollow fibers over the aging process. Our results suggest that after a long-term exposure to light hydrocarbon environments at ≤70 °C the morphological and mechanical properties of the PP polymer do not degrade significantly in a propane/propylene and iso-/n-butane environment.

  11. Hollow Fibers Structured Packings in Olefin/Paraffin Distillation: Apparatus Scale-Up and Long-Term Stability

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Yang, Dali; Le, Loan; Martinez, Ronald; Morrison, Malcolm

    2013-06-21

    Following the conceptual demonstration of high separation efficiency and column capacity obtained in olefin/paraffin distillation using hollow fiber structured packings (HFSPs) in a bench scale (J. Membr. Sci.2006, 2007, and 2010), we scaled-up this process with a 10-fold increase in the internal flow rate and a 3-fold increase in the module length. We confirmed that the HFSPs technology gives high separation efficiency and column capacity in iso-/n-butane distillation for 18 months. We systematically investigated the effects of packing density, concentration of light component, reflux ratio, and module age on the separation efficiency and operating stability. The comprehensive characterizations using scanningmore » electron microscopy (SEM), Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) were carried out to probe the changes in the morphological, thermal, and mechanical properties of polypropylene (PP) hollow fibers over the aging process. Our results suggest that after a long-term exposure to light hydrocarbon environments at ≤70 °C the morphological and mechanical properties of the PP polymer do not degrade significantly in a propane/propylene and iso-/n-butane environment.« less

  12. Quantitative ester analysis in cachaca and distilled spirits by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS).

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Eduardo S P; Cardoso, Daniel R; Franco, Douglas W

    2008-07-23

    An analytical procedure for the separation and quantification of ethyl acetate, ethyl butyrate, ethyl hexanoate, ethyl lactate, ethyl octanoate, ethyl nonanoate, ethyl decanoate, isoamyl octanoate, and ethyl laurate in cachaca, rum, and whisky by direct injection gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was developed. The analytical method is simple, selective, and appropriated for the determination of esters in distilled spirits. The limit of detection ranged from 29 (ethyl hexanoate) to 530 (ethyl acetate) microg L(-1), whereas the standard deviation for repeatability was between 0.774% (ethyl hexanoate) and 5.05% (isoamyl octanoate). Relative standard deviation values for accuracy vary from 90.3 to 98.5% for ethyl butyrate and ethyl acetate, respectively. Ethyl acetate was shown to be the major ester in cachaca (median content of 22.6 mg 100 mL(-1) anhydrous alcohol), followed by ethyl lactate (median content of 8.32 mg 100 mL(-1) anhydrous alcohol). Cachaca produced in copper and hybrid alembic present a higher content of ethyl acetate and ethyl lactate than those produced in a stainless-steel column, whereas cachaca produced by distillation in a stainless-steel column present a higher content of ethyl octanoate, ethyl decanoate, and ethyl laurate. As expected, ethyl acetate is the major ester in whiskey and rum, followed by ethyl lactate for samples of rum. Nevertheless, whiskey samples exhibit ethyl lactate at contents lower or at the same order of magnitude of the fatty esters. PMID:18570431

  13. Distillation of multipartite entanglement by local filtering operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yi-Sheng; Xing, Hai-Bo; Yang, Ming; Yang, Qing; Song, Wei; Cao, Zhuo-Liang

    2014-06-01

    In this work, we study how to distill two typical multipartite entangled noisy states, the amplitude-damped W state and the amplitude-damped Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state. Unlike the currently existing multipartite entanglement purification schemes, our scheme is a single-copy-based scheme, i.e., only one noisy state is needed in each distillation round, and the complicated multilateral controlled-not (cnot) operations are replaced by measurements of local positive-operator-valued measures (POVMs). The results show that local POVM measurements on one copy of the noisy state can project the initial state onto a new state with higher entanglement and nonlocality. In this scheme, although the final state can violate the multipartite Bell inequality, the corresponding initial noisy state does not violate it, which means that this distillation scheme can reveal the hidden genuine multipartite nonlocality of these initial states. For the case of the amplitude-damped W state, if the POVM parameters are appropriately chosen, the fidelity of the output state can approach 1.0 for all the initial states with fidelity bigger than zero. So this single-copy-based multipartite entanglement distillation scheme has a wide range of distillable fidelities, and it is much simpler than the two-copy- or multiple-copy-based schemes. Furthermore, if the POVM measurement is carried out only on some member qubits rather than all of them, the distillation scheme can succeed too, which will greatly decrease the implementation complexity of the scheme. So this multipartite entanglement distillation scheme may be implementable in some physical system.

  14. Pollution attenuation by soils receiving cattle slurry after passage of a slurry-like feed solution. Column experiments.

    PubMed

    Núñez-Delgado, Avelino; López-Períago, Eugenio; Diaz-Fierros-Viqueira, Francisco

    2002-09-01

    Designing soil filtration systems or vegetated filter strips as a means of attenuating water pollution should take into account soil purging capacity. Here we report data on laboratory column trials used to investigate the capacity of a Hortic Anthrosol to attenuate contamination due to downward leaching from cattle slurry applied at the surface. The columns comprised 900 g of soil to a depth of about 20-25 cm, and had been used previously in an experiment involving passage of at least 5 pore volumes of an ion-containing cattle slurry-like feed solution. For the present experiments, the columns were first washed through with distilled water (simulating resting and rain falling after passage of the feed solution), and then received a single slurry dose equivalent to about 300 m3 ha(-1). The columns were then leached with distilled water, with monitoring of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and ion contents in outflow. The results indicated that the pollution-neutralising capacity of the soil was still high but clearly lower than in the earlier experiments with the feed solution. Furthermore, the time-course of COD showed that organic acids were leached through the column even more rapidly than chloride (often viewed as an inert tracer) enhancing the risk of heavy metals leaching and subsequent water pollution. Resting and alternate use of different soil-plant buffer zones would increase the lifespan of purging systems that use soil like the here studied one.

  15. FRACTIONATING COLUMN PRODUCT COLLECTOR CONTROL

    DOEpatents

    Paxson, G.D. Jr.

    1964-03-10

    Means for detecting minute fluid products from a chemical separation column and for advancing a collector tube rack in order to automatically separate and collect successive fractionated products are described. A charge is imposed on the forming drops at the column orifice to create an electric field as the drop falls in the vicinity of a sensing plate. The field is detected by an electrometer tube coupled to the plate causing an output signal to actuate rotation of a collector turntable rack, thereby positioning new collectors under the orifice. The invention provides reliable automatic collection independent of drop size, rate of fall, or chemical composition. (AEC)

  16. Fluid Phase Topology of Benzene + Cyclohexane + 1-Propanol at 101.3 kPa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrade, R. S.; Iglesias, M.

    2015-07-01

    Isobaric vapor-liquid equilibria for the benzene + cyclohexane + 1-propanol ternary mixture were experimentally investigated at atmospheric pressure. Data were tested and considered thermodynamically consistent by means of the McDermott and Ellis method. The experimental results showed that this ternary mixture is completely miscible and exhibits three binary minimum homogeneous azeotropes and a ternary minimum azeotrope at the studied conditions. Satisfactory results were obtained for correlation of equilibrium compositions with the UNIQUAC equation and also for prediction with the UNIFAC method. In both cases, low root-mean-square deviations of the vapor mole fraction and temperature were calculated. The capability of 1-propanol as a modified distillation agent at atmospheric conditions is discussed in terms of thermodynamic topological analysis. However, because of the complex topology of the ternary mixture, it leads to a distillation scheme with two columns specifying ternary azeotrope recycling and difficult operation. Thus, this compound is not recommended as a separation agent for the binary benzene + cyclohexane azeotrope.

  17. Production and composition of cider spirits distilled in "alquitara".

    PubMed

    Madrera, Roberto Rodríguez; Valles, Belén Suarez; Hevia, Ana García; Fernandez, Ovidio García; Tascón, Norman Fernandez; Alonso, Juan José Mangas

    2006-12-27

    The capacity of alquitara (a traditional distillation system) to produce cider brandies is evaluated. To do so, the chemical composition of 12 fractions obtained during the distillation process and the cider brandies obtained from five ciders were analyzed (alcohol strength, methanol, volatile substances, furfural, and metals), taking into account European and Spanish legislation. During the course of distillation, an important increase in methanol, furfural, 2-phenylethanol, and metals in the last fractions was observed, while fusel oils were more abundant in the first fractions collected. Only acetaldehyde behaved differently, showing a minimum concentration in the middle fractions that might be explained by its formation on the surface of alquitara. On the other hand, the final distillates obtained by means of this method complied with the considered regulations. Worth highlighting in this regard are the low levels of a potential toxin such as methanol, as well as the detection of a constant ratio for methanol, ethanol, and fusel oil for the pairs of cider/spirits analyzed, which could be interpreted as an indication of good uniformity in the distillation system and method, thus guaranteeing product quality. PMID:17177532

  18. FRACTIONAL DISTILLATION SEPARATION OF PLUTONIUM VALUES FROM LIGHT ELEMENT VALUES

    DOEpatents

    Cunningham, B.B.

    1957-12-17

    A process is described for removing light element impurities from plutonium. It has been found that plutonium contaminated with impurities may be purified by converting the plutonium to a halide and purifying the halide by a fractional distillation whereby impurities may be distilled from the plutonium halide. A particularly effective method includes the step of forming a lower halide such as the trior tetrahalide and distilling the halide under conditions such that no decomposition of the halide occurs. Molecular distillation methods are particularly suitable for this process. The apparatus may comprise an evaporation plate with means for heating it and a condenser surface with means for cooling it. The condenser surface is placed at a distance from the evaporating surface less than the mean free path of molecular travel of the material being distilled at the pressure and temperature used. The entire evaporating system is evacuated until the pressure is about 10/sup -4/ millimeters of mercury. A high temperuture method is presented for sealing porous materials such as carbon or graphite that may be used as a support or a moderator in a nuclear reactor. The carbon body is subjected to two surface heats simultaneously in an inert atmosphere; the surface to be sealed is heated to 1500 degrees centigrade; and another surface is heated to 300 degrees centigrade, whereupon the carbon vaporizes and flows to the cooler surface where it is deposited to seal that surface. This method may be used to seal a nuclear fuel in the carbon structure.

  19. High pressure hydrocracking of vacuum gas oil to middle distillates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lahiri, C. R.; Biswas, Dipa

    1986-05-01

    Hydrocracking of heavier petroleum fractions into lighter ones is of increasing importance today to meet the huge demand, particularly for gasoline and middle distillates. Much work on hydrocracking of a gas oil range feed stock to mainly gasoline using modified zeolite catalyst-base exchanged with metals (namely Ni, Pd, Mo, etc.) has been reported. In India, however, present demand is for a maximum amount of middle distillate. The present investigation was therefore aimed to maximize the yield of middle distillate (140-270°C boiling range) by hydrocracking a vacuum gas oil (365-450°C boiling range) fraction from an Indian Refinery at high hydrogen pressure and temperature. A zeolite catalyst-base exchanged with 4.5% Ni was chosen for the reaction. A high pressure batch reactor with a rocking arrangement was used for the study. No pretreatment of the feed stock for sulphur removal applied as the total sulphur in the feed was less than 2%. The process variables studied for the maximum yield of the middle distillate were temperature 300-450°C, pressure 100-200 bar and residence period 1-3 h at the feed to catalyst ratio of 9.3 (wt/wt). The optimum conditions for the maximum yield of 36% middle distillate of the product were: temperature 400°C, pressure 34.5 bar (initially) and residence period 2 h. A carbon balance of 90-92% was found for each run.

  20. The demand for distilled spirits: an empirical investigation.

    PubMed

    McCornac, D C; Filante, R W

    1984-03-01

    Economic and social factors that explain variations in the consumption of distilled spirits among political jurisdictions are examined. Particular emphasis is placed on the economic roles of price and the unemployment rate. Using multivariate-analysis regression, equations are estimated for three separate time periods of 1970-1975. In addition, a pooled cross-sectional time-series analysis is undertaken for the entire time period. The dependent variable is the apparent per capita consumption of distilled spirits. The independent variables include price, availability and socioeconomic factors that determine consumption patterns. The results indicate that the price elasticity of demand for distilled spirits inelastic, and implies that a 1% change in price will result in a less than 1% change in the amount purchased, everything else being equal. A rise in price will increase total revenue. Thus, a tax increase on the commodity will generate an increase in tax revenue. The unemployment rate is shown to have a significant impact on the consumption of distilled spirits. The results suggest that further study into the relationship between unemployment and the consumption of distilled spirits is desirable.

  1. Structural definition of synthetic fuels: H-coal distillates

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, C.E.; Perry, M.B.; White, C.M.; Gibbon, G.A.; Retcofsky, H.L.

    1986-01-01

    This work describes the progress made on a Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center research project titled ''Structural Definition of Synthetic Fuels.'' An H-Coal product consisting of a blend of ''light'' and ''heavy'' oils was distilled into 50/sup 0/F boiling cuts. Mid-boiling temperature, specific gravity, molecular weight by several techniques, refractive index, and viscosity were determined for each H-Coal distillate. Structural parameters for each 50/sup 0/F distillate cut were elucidated from nuclear magnetic resonance and low-voltage, high-resolution mass spectrometric analyses. Preparative liquid chromatography was used to obtain functionality enriched fractions of saturates, aromatics, acids, and bases from the H-Coal distillates. Several correlations have been found from these extensive data sets and are discussed and interpreted in terms of findings from previous investigations. The potential for developing mathematical models relating the aromaticity from nuclear magnetic resonance results and the structural parameter, Z, from mass spectrometry with the inspection properties of the H-Coal pseudocomponents is demonstrated. Average chemical structures for each distillate are proposed based on the analytical results. 25 refs., 17 figs., 13 tabs.

  2. Integrated staged conversion of methanol to gasoline and distillate

    SciTech Connect

    Harandi, M.N.; Owen, H.

    1990-02-06

    This patent describes an integrated fluidized bed process for the conversion of C{sub 1}-C{sub 5} oxygenate feedstock to olefinic gasoline range hydrocarbons and heavier distillate range hydrocarbons. It comprises: contacting the C{sub 1}-C{sub 5} oxygenate feedstock with shape selective medium pore metallosilicate catalyst in an oxygenate to light olefins conversion zone under oxygenate to light olefins conversion conditions whereby an effluent stream comprising C{sub 2}+ olefins is produced; cooling the effluent stream and passing the effluent stream to an olefins to gasoline conversion zone in contact with shape selective medium pore metallosilicate catalyst under olefins to gasoline conversion conditions whereby C{sub 2}+ olefins are converted to gasoline comprising C{sub 5}+ olefinic hydrocarbons; introducing the C{sub 5}+ hydrocarbons into an olefins to gasoline and heavier distillate range hydrocarbons conversion zone at increased pressure under olefins to gasoline and heavier distillate range hydrocarbon conversion conditions in contact with shape selective medium pore metallosilicate catalyst whereby olefinic gasoline and heavier distillate range hydrocarbons are produced without recycling C{sub 3}-C{sub 4} hydrocarbons to the olefins to gasoline and heavier distillate range hydrocarbons conversion zone.

  3. Theoretical and experimental studies on air gap membrane distillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, G. L.; Zhu, C.; Cheung, C. S.; Leung, C. W.

    Air gap membrane distillation (AGMD) is an innovative membrane separation technique for pure water extraction from aqueous solutions. In this study, both theoretical and experimental investigations are carried out on AGMD of different aqueous solutions, namely, tap water, salted water, dyed solutions, acid solutions, and alkali solutions. A simple mechanistic model of heat and mass transfer associated with AGMD is developed. Simple relationships of permeate flux, total heating or cooling load and thermal efficiency of AGMD with respect to the membrane distillation temperature difference are obtained. Effects of solution concentration and the width of the air gap in AGMD are analyzed. In the experimental study, the experiments were conducted using 1m PTFE membrane with a membrane distillation temperature difference up to 55∘C. The AGMD system yields a permeate flux of pure water of up to 28kg/m2h. Direct comparison of the experimental results with the proposed modeling predictions shows a fairly good match.

  4. Direct contact membrane distillation of sugar aqueous solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Izquierdo-Gil, M.A.; Garcia-Payo, M.C.; Fernandez-Pineda, C.

    1999-06-01

    Results are given from direct contact membrane distillation, using tangential flows to the membrane, with sugar aqueous solutions. Several effects on the distillation process are examined: flow rate through the cell, nature of the feed solutions, initial concentrations of the feed solutions, average temperature, and temperature difference. On the basis of enthalpy flux conservation in the different regions, various systems of equations are proposed for the estimation of the interfacial temperatures. Based on the known temperatures of the liquid-vapor interfaces, the experimental distillate fluxes for several sets are fitted to the gas stagnant film diffusion model to obtain the effective diffusion coefficients of the water vapor-air mixture, D{sub ef}, and the results are analyzed.

  5. A principal component analysis of transmission spectra of wine distillates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogovaya, M. V.; Sinitsyn, G. V.; Khodasevich, M. A.

    2014-11-01

    A chemometric method of decomposing multidimensional data into a small-sized space, the principal component method, has been applied to the transmission spectra of vintage Moldovan wine distillates. A sample of 42 distillates aged from four to 7 years from six producers has been used to show the possibility of identifying a producer in a two-dimensional space of principal components describing 94.5% of the data-matrix dispersion. Analysis of the loads into the first two principal components has shown that, in order to measure the optical characteristics of the samples under study using only two wavelengths, it is necessary to select 380 and 540 nm, instead of the standard 420 and 520 nm, to describe the variability of the distillates by one principal component or 370 and 520 nm to describe the variability by two principal components.

  6. Vacuum membrane distillation by microchip with temperature gradient.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yaopeng; Kato, Shinji; Anazawa, Takanori

    2010-04-01

    A multilayered microchip (25 x 95 mm) used for vacuum distillation is designed, fabricated and tested by rectification of a water-methanol mixture. The polymer chip employs a cooling channel to generate a temperature gradient along a distillation channel below, which is separated into a channel (72 microm deep) for liquid phase and a channel (72 microm deep) for vapor phase by an incorporated microporous poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE) membrane. The temperature gradient is controlled by adjusting hotplate temperature and flow rate of cooling water to make the temperatures in the stripping section higher than the increasing boiling points of the water-enriched liquids and the temperatures in the rectifying section lower than the decreasing dew points of the methanol-enriched vapors. The effects of temperature gradient, feed composition, feed flow rate and membrane pore size on the micro distillation are also investigated. A theoretical plate number up to 1.8 is achieved at the optimum conditions. PMID:20300677

  7. Sudden death of distillability in qutrit-qutrit systems

    SciTech Connect

    Song Wei; Zhu Shiliang; Chen Lin

    2009-07-15

    We introduce the concept of distillability sudden death, i.e., free entangled states can evolve into nondistillable (bound entangled or separable) states in finite time under local noise. We describe the phenomenon through a specific model of local dephasing noise and compare the behavior of states in terms of the Bures fidelity. Then we propose a few methods to avoid distillability sudden death of states under (general) local dephasing noise so that free entangled states can be robust against decoherence. Moreover, we find that bound entangled states are unstable in the limit of infinite time.

  8. Noisy processing and distillation of private quantum States.

    PubMed

    Renes, Joseph M; Smith, Graeme

    2007-01-12

    We provide a simple security proof for prepare and measure quantum key distribution protocols employing noisy processing and one-way postprocessing of the key. This is achieved by showing that the security of such a protocol is equivalent to that of an associated key distribution protocol in which, instead of the usual maximally entangled states, a more general private state is distilled. In addition to a more general target state, the usual entanglement distillation tools are employed (in particular, Calderbank-Shor-Steane-like codes), with the crucial difference that noisy processing allows some phase errors to be left uncorrected without compromising the privacy of the key.

  9. Teleportation capability, distillability, and nonlocality on three-qubit states

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Soojoon; Joo, Jaewoo; Kim, Jaewan

    2007-07-15

    In this paper, we consider teleportation capability, distillability, and nonlocality on three-qubit states. In order to investigate some relations among them, we first find the explicit formulas of the quantities about the maximal teleportation fidelity on three-qubit states. We show that if any three-qubit state is useful for three-qubit teleportation then the three-qubit state is distillable into a Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state, and that if any three-qubit state violates a specific form of Mermin inequality then the three-qubit state is useful for three-qubit teleportation.

  10. Entanglement distillation by dissipation and continuous quantum repeaters.

    PubMed

    Vollbrecht, Karl Gerd H; Muschik, Christine A; Cirac, J Ignacio

    2011-09-16

    Even though entanglement is very vulnerable to interactions with the environment, it can be created by purely dissipative processes. Yet, the attainable degree of entanglement is profoundly limited in the presence of noise sources. We show that distillation can also be realized dissipatively, such that a highly entangled steady state is obtained. The schemes put forward here display counterintuitive phenomena, such as improved performance if noise is added to the system. We also show how dissipative distillation can be employed in a continuous quantum repeater architecture, in which the resources scale polynomially with the distance.

  11. Effect of feeding goats with distilled and non-distilled thyme leaves (Thymus zygis subp. gracilis) on milk and cheese properties.

    PubMed

    Boutoial, Khalid; García, Victor; Rovira, Silvia; Ferrandini, Eduardo; Abdelkhalek, Oussama; López, María Belén

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of feeding goats with distilled and non-distilled thyme leaves (Thymus zygis subsp. gracilis) on the physicochemical composition and technological properties of pasteurised goat milk, and on the physicochemical composition, phenolic content, oxidative stability, microbiology, sensory and texture profile of Murcia al Vino goat cheese. One group of goats was fed the basal diet (control), the second and third groups were fed with different levels of distilled (10 and 20%) or non-distilled (3·75 and 7·5%) thyme leaves. Goat milk physicochemical composition was significantly affected by the substitution of 7·5% of basal goat diet with non-distilled thyme leaves (increase in fat, protein, dry matter and PUFA content), while goat milk clotting time was increased significantly by the introduction of 20% distilled thyme leaves, which reduces its technological suitability. Microbiology, sensory and texture profiles were not affected by the introduction of distilled thyme leaves. The introduction of distilled and non-distilled thyme leaves as an alternative feed to diet can lead to an inhibition of lipids oxidation. The introduction of distilled and non-distilled thyme leaves into goat's diet can be successfully adopted as a strategy to reduce feeding costs and to take advantage of the waste from the production of essential oils, minimising waste removing costs and the environmental impact.

  12. Effect of feeding goats with distilled and non-distilled thyme leaves (Thymus zygis subp. gracilis) on milk and cheese properties.

    PubMed

    Boutoial, Khalid; García, Victor; Rovira, Silvia; Ferrandini, Eduardo; Abdelkhalek, Oussama; López, María Belén

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of feeding goats with distilled and non-distilled thyme leaves (Thymus zygis subsp. gracilis) on the physicochemical composition and technological properties of pasteurised goat milk, and on the physicochemical composition, phenolic content, oxidative stability, microbiology, sensory and texture profile of Murcia al Vino goat cheese. One group of goats was fed the basal diet (control), the second and third groups were fed with different levels of distilled (10 and 20%) or non-distilled (3·75 and 7·5%) thyme leaves. Goat milk physicochemical composition was significantly affected by the substitution of 7·5% of basal goat diet with non-distilled thyme leaves (increase in fat, protein, dry matter and PUFA content), while goat milk clotting time was increased significantly by the introduction of 20% distilled thyme leaves, which reduces its technological suitability. Microbiology, sensory and texture profiles were not affected by the introduction of distilled thyme leaves. The introduction of distilled and non-distilled thyme leaves as an alternative feed to diet can lead to an inhibition of lipids oxidation. The introduction of distilled and non-distilled thyme leaves into goat's diet can be successfully adopted as a strategy to reduce feeding costs and to take advantage of the waste from the production of essential oils, minimising waste removing costs and the environmental impact. PMID:24124730

  13. Transport of rimsulfuron and its metabolites in soil columns

    PubMed

    Martins; Mermoud

    1999-02-01

    This paper presents a study on degradation, sorption and transport of the sulfonylurea herbicide rimsulfuron and its major metabolites in alluvial soil columns. The formulation of rimsulfuron was found to strongly affect its degradability. Hydrolysis of pure rimsulfuron takes place rapidly in distilled water (t(1/2)=2.2 days) or indeed instantaneously in alkaline solution. The formulated rimsulfuron (Titus, 25% rimsulfuron, Du Pont De Nemours) is more persistent in alluvial soil suspensions (t(1/2)=7.5 days). The study of sorption of Titus and its two major metabolites (1 and 2) revealed that these three chemicals are potentially highly mobile in the studied soil: in suspension distribution coefficients of 0.0028, 0.125 and 0.149 cm3 g(-1) were obtained respectively. Given the instability of rimsulfuron in alkaline solutions, the pH effect was evaluated with metabolite 2 in water saturated Fontainebleau sand columns at pH 6, 8 and 10. Transport was found to be strongly dependent on pH; a linear relationship was obtained between pH and the retardation factor or the dispersion coefficient. In alluvial soil columns, rimsulfuron from Titus was found to be very mobile (R=1.2) and rapidly degraded into metabolites 1 and 2, which were transported at a similar velocity. Nevertheless, the risks of groundwater contamination by rimsulfuron seem very low, as it is rapidly degraded under dynamic conditions (t(1,2)=1.4 days). On the other hand the relatively stable metabolite 2 seems likely to persist in the soil and to be transported to the groundwater. Special attention should thus be given to this compound at least as long as its harmlessness is not demonstrated.

  14. Beam Studies with Electron Columns

    SciTech Connect

    Shiltsev, V.; Valishev, A.; Kuznetsov, G.; Kamerdzhiev, V.; Romanov, A.; /Novosibirsk, IYF

    2009-04-01

    We report preliminary results of experimental studies of 'electron columns' in the Tevatron and in a specialized test setup. In the Tevatron, a beam of 150 GeV protons ionizes residual gas and ionization electrons are stored in an electrostatic trap immersed into strong longitudinal magnetic field. Shifts of proton betatron frequencies are observed. In the test setup, we observe effects pointing to accumulation and escape of ionization electrons.

  15. 27 CFR 1.60 - Use of distilled spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... of the term “nonindustrial use.” The use of distilled spirits: (a) Free of tax by, and for the use of..., or the District of Columbia, for nonbeverage purposes; or (b) Free of tax for nonbeverage purposes....C. 501(a), or for the use of any scientific university or college of learning; (2) For...

  16. Purification of radioactive wastes by low temperature evaporation (membrane distillation)

    SciTech Connect

    Chmielewski, A.G.; Harasimowicz, M.; Zakrzewska-Trznadel, G.

    1997-01-01

    A method of radioactive waste concentration by membrane distillation is presented. Water flow through a hydrophobic membrane results from the temperature gradient between membrane surfaces which are in contact with two waste streams, warm and cold. A transport of water from the warm to the cold stream occurs and radionuclides and other impurities are concentrated in the warm stream (retentate).

  17. Water Fluxes in Polymeric Membranes for Desalination via Membrane Distillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mannella, G. A.; Brucato, V.; La Carrubba, V.

    2010-06-01

    Membrane distillation is an emerging technique for seawater desalination. Hydrophobic polymeric membranes are used to separate the solute-free water vapour from the hot solution. Vapour fluxes of commercial polymeric membranes were measured in various conditions, i.e. natural and forced convection and vacuum. Vapour fluxes were also predicted with models and compared with experimentals. Higher fluxes were recorded in vacuum conditions.

  18. Magic state distillation protocols with noisy Clifford gates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, Peter

    2013-03-01

    A promising approach to universal fault-tolerant quantum computation is to implement the non-universal group of Clifford gates, and to achieve universality by adding the ability to prepare high-fidelity copies of certain ``magic states''. By applying state distillation protocols, many noisy copies of a magic state ancilla can be purified into a smaller number of clean copies which are arbitrarily close to the perfect state, using only Clifford operations. In practice, the Clifford gates themselves will be noisy, which can limit the efficiency of state distillation and put a floor on the achievable fidelity with the desired state. Recently, a number of new state distillation protocols have been proposed that have the potential to reduce the required resource overhead. I analyze these protocols and explore the tradeoffs between these different approaches to magic state distillation when noisy Clifford gates are taken into account. Supported in part by IARPA under contract D11PC20165, by NSF under Grant No. PHY-0803371, by DOE under Grant No. DE-FG03-92-ER40701, and by NSA/ARO under Grant No. W911NF-09-1-0442.

  19. Corn Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles (DDGS): Opportunities and Challenges

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn-based ethanol in the U.S. has dramatically increased in recent years; so has the quantity of associated coproducts. Nonfermentable components are removed from the process as whole stillage, centrifuged to remove water – which is then evaporated to produce condensed distillers solubles (CDS), a...

  20. New salt production dries distillate streams, eliminates haze

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, J.W.

    1996-04-15

    A new formulation of calcium chloride has proven effective at drying distillate streams in commercial refineries. The product can be used at lower temperatures than rock salt, increasing its drying effectiveness. In addition, the problem of bridging, commonly associated with calcium chloride dryers, is eliminated. Three case studies illustrate the product`s uses and benefits.

  1. 27 CFR 1.60 - Use of distilled spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Use of distilled spirits. 1.60 Section 1.60 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BASIC PERMIT REQUIREMENTS UNDER THE FEDERAL ALCOHOL ADMINISTRATION...

  2. Fractional Distillation of Air and Other Demonstrations with Condensed Gases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver-Hoyo, Maria; Switzer, William L., III; Eierman, Robert

    2005-01-01

    The learning objectives of the fractional distillation of air and other demonstrations includes observing N2, O2, CO2 and H2O in air, studying the fractional separation of components based on boiling point differences and so on. The materials, reagent and equipment preparation, experimental procedures, hazards of the demonstration are also…

  3. EXTERIOR VIEW, THE SA WETSIDE BUILDING (ALSO KNOWN AS DISTILLATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EXTERIOR VIEW, THE SA WETSIDE BUILDING (ALSO KNOWN AS DISTILLATION BUILDING OR SOLVAY TOWERS BUILDING) THE HEART OF THE SOLVAY PROCESS. VIEW LOOKING EAST. THIS BUILDING WAS BUILT IN 1954 TO REPLACE A SIMILAR STRUCTURE BUILT CIRCA 1907. - Solvay Process Company, SA Wetside Building, Between Willis & Milton Avenue, Solvay, Onondaga County, NY

  4. Optimal distillation of three-qubit W states

    SciTech Connect

    Yildiz, Ali

    2010-07-15

    Some of the asymmetric three-qubit W states are used for perfect teleportation, superdense coding, and quantum-information splitting. We present the protocols for the optimal distillation of the asymmetric as well as the symmetric W states from a single copy of any three-qubit W class pure state.

  5. Distillation device supplies cesium vapor at constant pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Basiulis, A.; Shefsiek, P. K.

    1968-01-01

    Distillation apparatus in the form of a U tube supplies small amounts of pure cesium vapor at constant pressure to a thermionic converter. The upstream leg of the U tube is connected to a vacuum pump to withdraw noncondensable impurities, the bottom portion serves as a reservoir for the liquid cesium.

  6. Distillation and detection of SO2 using a microfluidic chip.

    PubMed

    Ju, Wei-Jhong; Fu, Lung-Ming; Yang, Ruey-Jen; Lee, Chia-Lun

    2012-02-01

    A miniaturized distillation system is presented for separating sulfurous acid (H(2)SO(3)) into sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) and water (H(2)O). The major components of the proposed system include a microfluidic distillation chip, a power control module, and a carrier gas pressure control module. The microfluidic chip is patterned using a commercial CO(2) laser and comprises a serpentine channel, a heating zone, a buffer zone, a cooling zone, and a collection tank. In the proposed device, the H(2)SO(3) solution is injected into the microfluidic chip and is separated into SO(2) and H(2)O via an appropriate control of the distillation time and temperature. The gaseous SO(2) is then transported into the collection chamber by the carrier gas and is mixed with DI water. Finally, the SO(2) concentration is deduced from the absorbance measurements obtained using a spectrophotometer. The experimental results show that a correlation coefficient of R(2) = 0.9981 and a distillation efficiency as high as 94.6% are obtained for H(2)SO(3) solutions with SO(2) concentrations in the range of 100-500 ppm. The SO(2) concentrations of two commercial red wines are successfully detected using the developed device. Overall, the results presented in this study show that the proposed system provides a compact and reliable tool for SO(2) concentration measurement purposes.

  7. VIEW LOOKING EAST, SA WETSIDE (DISTILLATION BUILDING) ON THE RIGHT, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW LOOKING EAST, SA WETSIDE (DISTILLATION BUILDING) ON THE RIGHT, STD (SODA TOWER DRYERS?), SA DRYSIDE ON RIGHT. BEHIND STD BUILDING IS SHD BUILDING (SODA HORIZONTAL DRYERS?) THE ENTIRE DRYING COMPLEX WAS KNOWN AS THE DRYSIDE. - Solvay Process Company, SA Wetside Building, Between Willis & Milton Avenue, Solvay, Onondaga County, NY

  8. Using Mathematica to Teach Process Units: A Distillation Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasteiro, Maria G.; Bernardo, Fernando P.; Saraiva, Pedro M.

    2005-01-01

    The question addressed here is how to integrate computational tools, namely interactive general-purpose platforms, in the teaching of process units. Mathematica has been selected as a complementary tool to teach distillation processes, with the main objective of leading students to achieve a better understanding of the physical phenomena involved…

  9. Instrumentation for potentiostatic corrosion studies with distilled water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loess, R. E.; Youngdahl, C. A.

    1969-01-01

    Corrosion is studied potentiostatically in the corroding environment of distilled water with an instrument that measures the potential of the corroding specimen immediately after interruption of the polarizing current. No current is flowing. The process permits compensation for IR drops when potentiostatic control is used in high resistance systems.

  10. Distillation of granulated scrap tires in a pilot plant.

    PubMed

    López, Félix A; Centeno, Teresa A; Alguacil, Francisco José; Lobato, Belén

    2011-06-15

    This paper reports the pyrolytic treatment of granulated scrap tires (GST) in a pilot distillation unit at moderate temperature (550°C) and atmospheric pressure, to produce oil, char and gas products. Tire-derived oil is a complex mixture of organic C(5)-C(24) compounds, including a very large proportion of aromatic compounds. This oil has a high gross calorific value (∼ 43 MJ kg(-1)) and N and S contents of 0.4% and 0.6%, respectively, falling within the specifications of certain heating fuels. The distillation gas is composed of hydrocarbons; methane and n-butane are the most abundant, investing the distillation gas with a very high gross calorific value (∼ 68 MJ Nm(-3)). This gas is transformed into electric power by a co-generation turbine. The distillation char is mostly made of carbon but with significant inorganic impurities (∼ 12 wt%). The quality of the solid residue of the process is comparable to that of some commercial chars. The quantity of residual solids, and the qualities of the gas, liquid and solid fractions, are similar to those obtained by conventional pyrolytic treatments of waste tires. However, the simplicity of the proposed technology and its low investment costs make it a very attractive alternative.

  11. Solar pond-driven distillation and power production system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, D.; Leboeuf, C. M.; Waddington, D.

    1981-12-01

    A solar pond driven distillation and power production system is described. The storage layer of the solar pond serves as the holding tank for the concentrated brine effluent from the distillation process as well as the collector and storage medium for solar energy used to heat incoming salty river water. Steam from the distillation process expands through a turbine/generator combination to provide power for the water circulation and vacuum pumps of the system. Water from the surface mixed layer of the pond is used to condense the steam. The closely integrated distillation and power production system converts an incoming stream of brackish or saline water into an outlet stream of the required purity. Salt and power are also products of the system. A thermodynamic analysis of the energy and mass balances of the system was performed and a performance model of the system is developed. This model is used to compute the requirements for desalting several saline tributaries of the Colorado River.

  12. A solar pond driven distillation and power production system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, D. H.; Leboeuf, C. M.; Waddington, D.

    In this paper a solar pond driven distillation and power production system is described. The storage layer of the solar pond serves as the holding tank for the concentrated brine effluent from the distillation process as well as the collector and storage medium for solar energy used to heat incoming salty river water. Steam from the distillation process expands through a turbine/generator combination to provide power for the water circulation and vacuum pumps of the system. Water from the surface mixed layer of the pond is used to condense the steam. The closely integrated distillation and power production system converts an incoming stream of brackish or saline water into an outlet stream of the required purity. Salt and power are also products of the system. A thermodynamic analysis of the energy and mass balances of the system has been performed and a performance model of the system has been developed. This has been used to size the system for the application of desalting saline tributaries of the Colorado River.

  13. Novel configurations of solar distillation system for potable water production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riahi, A.; Yusof, K. W.; Sapari, N.; Singh, B. S.; Hashim, A. M.

    2013-06-01

    More and more surface water are polluted with toxic chemicals. Alternatively brackish and saline water are used as feed water to water treatment plants. Expensive desalination process via reverse osmosis or distillation is used in the plants. Thus, this conventional desalination is not suitable for low and medium income countries. A cheaper method is by solar distillation. However the rate of water production by this method is generally considered low. This research attempts to enhance water production of solar distillation by optimizing solar capture, evaporation and condensation processes. Solar radiation data was captured in several days in Perak, Malaysia. Three kinds of experiments were done by fabricating triangular solar distillation systems. First type was conventional solar still, second type was combined with 50 Watt solar photovoltaic panel and 40 Watt Dc heater, while third type was integrated with 12 Volt Solar battery and 40 Watt Dc heater. The present investigation showed that the productivity of second and third systems were 150% and 480% of the conventional still type, respectively. The finding of this research can be expected to have wide application in water supply particularly in areas where fresh surface water is limited.

  14. Distilling Stakeholder Input for Program Evaluation Priority Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obrecht, Michael

    1999-01-01

    Describe the role of an expert panel in setting priorities for evaluative work. An expert panel with high credibility inside and outside the organization that is at arms length to both the organization and external stakeholders can bypass many communications filters and provide a distilled and clear reading of stakeholder concerns. (SLD)

  15. Estimating the effect of fermentation yeast on distillers grains protein

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) is the key co-product of bio-ethanol production from grains. Major factors affecting its quality and market values include protein quantity (concentration) and quality (amino acid composition). Yet, the effect of fermentation yeast on DDGS quality has no...

  16. Solar pond-driven distillation and power production system

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, D.H.; Leboeuf, C.M.; Waddington, D.

    1981-12-01

    A solar pond-driven distillation and power production system is described. The storage layer of the solar pond serves as the holding tank for the concentrated brine effluent from the distillation process as well as the collector and storage medium for solar energy used to heat incoming salty river water. Steam from the distillation process expands through a turbine/generator combination to provide power for the water circulation and vacuum pumps of the system. Water from the surface mixed layer of the pond is used to condense the steam. The closely integrated distillation and power production system converts an incoming stream of brackish or saline water into an outlet stream of the required purity. Salt and power are also products of the system. A thermodyanamic analysis of the energy and mass balances of the system has been performed and a performance model of the system has been developed. This model was used to compute the requirements for desalting several saline tributaries of the Colorado River.

  17. 27 CFR 28.280 - Distilled spirits and wines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... for Use on Aircraft § 28.280 Distilled spirits and wines. When an airline desires to withdraw... delivered to the airline which shall retain both copies until the return of the flight. In case any of the... custody, appropriate notation made on both copies of the requisition retained by the airline and one...

  18. Temperature programmable microfabricated gas chromatography column

    DOEpatents

    Manginell, Ronald P.; Frye-Mason, Gregory C.

    2003-12-23

    A temperature programmable microfabricated gas chromatography column enables more efficient chemical separation of chemical analytes in a gas mixture by the integration of a resistive heating element and temperature sensing on the microfabricated column. Additionally, means are provided to thermally isolate the heated column from their surroundings. The small heat capacity and thermal isolation of the microfabricated column improves the thermal time response and power consumption, both important factors for portable microanalytical systems.

  19. 29 CFR 1926.755 - Column anchorage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) General requirements for erection stability. (1) All columns shall be anchored by a minimum of 4 anchor rods (anchor bolts). (2) Each column anchor rod (anchor bolt) assembly, including the column-to-base... of anchor rods (anchor bolts). (1) Anchor rods (anchor bolts) shall not be repaired, replaced...

  20. 29 CFR 1926.755 - Column anchorage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Column anchorage. 1926.755 Section 1926.755 Labor... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Steel Erection § 1926.755 Column anchorage. (a) General requirements for erection stability. (1) All columns shall be anchored by a minimum of 4...