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Sample records for azimuthally dependent transport

  1. Azimuthal anisotropies as stringent test for nuclear transport models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crochet, P.; Rami, F.; Donà, R.; Coffin, J. P.; Fintz, P.; Guillaume, G.; Jundt, F.; Kuhn, C.; Roy, C.; de Schauenburg, B.; Tizniti, L.; Wagner, P.; Alard, J. P.; Andronic, A.; Basrak, Z.; Bastid, N.; Belyaev, I.; Bendarag, A.; Berek, G.; Best, D.; Biegansky, J.; Buta, A.; Čaplar, R.; Cindro, N.; Dupieux, P.; Dželalija, M.; Fan, Z. G.; Fodor, Z.; Fraysse, L.; Freifelder, R. P.; Gobbi, A.; Herrmann, N.; Hildenbrand, K. D.; Hong, B.; Jeong, S. C.; Kecskemeti, J.; Kirejczyk, M.; Koncz, P.; Korolija, M.; Kotte, R.; Lebedev, A.; Leifels, Y.; Manko, V.; Moisa, D.; Mösner, J.; Neubert, W.; Pelte, D.; Petrovici, M.; Pinkenburg, C.; Reisdorf, W.; Ritman, J. L.; Sadchikov, A. G.; Schüll, D.; Seres, Z.; Sikora, B.; Simion, V.; Siwek-Wilczyńska, K.; Sodan, U.; Teh, K. M.; Trzaska, M.; Wang, G. S.; Wessels, J. P.; Wienold, T.; Wisniewski, K.; Wohlfarth, D.; Zhilin, A.; Hartnack, C.; FOPI Collaboration

    1997-02-01

    Azimuthal distributions of charged particles and intermediate mass fragments emitted in Au+Au collisions at 600 A MeV have been measured using the FOPI facility at GSI-Darmstadt. Data show a strong increase of the in-plane azimuthal anisotropy ratio with the charge of the detected fragment. Intermediate mass fragments are found to exhibit a strong momentum-space alignment with respect of the reaction plane. The experimental results are presented as a function of the polar centre-of-mass angle and over a broad range of impact parameters. They are compared to the predictions of the Isospin Quantum Molecular Dynamics model using three different parametrisations of the equation of state. We show that such highly accurate data provide stringent test for microscopic transport models and can potentially constrain separately the stiffness of the nuclear equation of state and the momentum dependence of the nuclear interaction.

  2. Polarization Dependent Azimuthal Scattering From Tilted Fibre Bragg Gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Robert Bruce

    Polarization sensitive mode coupling characteristics of tilted fibre Bragg gratings (FBGs) have been exploited to develop a number of useful devices including fibre polarimeters, gain flattening filters, spectrum analyzers, polarization dependent loss (PDL) compensators, reconfigurable optical add / drop multiplexers (ROADM), as well as interferometric, and surface plasmon based sensors. Recently it was demonstrated that a single grating structure could couple the light guided in a fibre to two azimuthally separated, polarization independent, radiated beams. However the reasons for such behaviour had not been fully explained, precluding the complete understanding, exploitation and optimization of this phenomenon. This thesis explains the mechanisms underlying such behaviour through a thorough analytical examination of an existing equation formulated with the Volume Current Method (VCM), quantifying the degree to which a tilted FBG's radiation field is directionally dependent on the phase matching characteristics of a grating's three-dimensional structure as well as the polarization dependent dipole response of the medium itself. Examination of the equation's parameter space, revealed the possibility of three-beam azimuthal responses as well, and resulted in some guidelines for the design and optimization of these devices. Experimental measurements of the out-tapped field are also provided, clearly confirming these theoretical findings and reporting the fabrication of a three-beam azimuthal response grating for the first time. Drawing upon these advances, an improved polarimeter design is proposed that samples more than four detected beams with only two tilted FBGs, theoretically resulting in average Stokes vector error reductions of roughly 20%, facilitating monitoring at lower signal to noise ratios (SNRs). Finally, this thesis undertakes an analysis and re-derivation of the VCM formulation itself, designed to expand its applicability to FBGs written with

  3. Azimuthal dependence in the gravity field induced by recent and past cryospheric forcings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yuen, David A.; Gasperini, Paolo; Sabadini, Roberto; Boschi, Enzo

    1987-01-01

    Present-day glacial activities and the current variability of the Antarctic ice volume can cause variations in the long-wavelength gravity field as a consequence of transient viscoelastic responses in the mantle. The azimuthal dependence of the secular variations of the gravitational potential are studied and it is found that the nonaxisymmetric contributions are more important for recent glacial retreats than for Pleistocene deglaciation. Changes in land-based ice covering Antarctica can be detected by monitoring satellite orbits and their sensitivity to variations in gravitational harmonic for degree l greater than 3. Resonances in satellite orbits may be useful for detecting these azimuthally-dependent gravity signals.

  4. Saturated Fluctuations and Transport in Axial, Azimuthal Hybrid Hall Thruster Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowdy, Caleb; Aley, Jacob; Fernandez, Eduardo

    2014-10-01

    Simulation studies of Hall thrusters aimed at describing the global domain typically employ hybrid schemes instead of more expensive kinetic approaches. Such simulations are generally in the radial and axial coordinates, assuming axisymmetry in order to circumvent azimuthal dynamics. Cross-field electron transport is enhanced (in an ad-hoc manner) in order to sustain the plasma and produce simulation profiles in semi-quantitative agreement with experimental measurements. In this work we present results from an axial/azimuthal hybrid fluid-PIC model of Hall thrusters that treats the azimuthal dynamics self-consistently, without employing ad-hoc transport parameters. Unlike previous simulation efforts with this model, the current work has succeeded at obtaining fully saturated states at high voltage, resolving the longest (breathing mode) timescales in the system. Equilibrium profiles and fluctuations predicted by the simulation will be presented. The latter are analyzed in terms of their frequency and propagation characteristics, as well as their contribution to transport. Linear stability theory is used to comment on the possible origin of the disturbances. Finally, the role of EXB flow shear on the potential regulation of fluctuation-induced electron transport is discussed. Caleb Dowdy, Jacob Aley and Eduardo Fernandez are supported by a grant from the II- VI Foundation.

  5. The azimuthal path of myosin V and its dependence on lever-arm length.

    PubMed

    Lewis, John H; Beausang, John F; Sweeney, H Lee; Goldman, Yale E

    2012-02-01

    Myosin V (myoV) is a two-headed myosin capable of taking many successive steps along actin per diffusional encounter, enabling it to transport vesicular and ribonucleoprotein cargos in the dense and complex environment within cells. To better understand how myoV navigates along actin, we used polarized total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy to examine angular changes of bifunctional rhodamine probes on the lever arms of single myoV molecules in vitro. With a newly developed analysis technique, the rotational motions of the lever arm and the local orientation of each probe relative to the lever arm were estimated from the probe's measured orientation. This type of analysis could be applied to similar studies on other motor proteins, as well as other proteins with domains that undergo significant rotational motions. The experiments were performed on recombinant constructs of myoV that had either the native-length (six IQ motifs and calmodulins [CaMs]) or truncated (four IQ motifs and CaMs) lever arms. Native-length myoV-6IQ mainly took straight steps along actin, with occasional small azimuthal tilts around the actin filament. Truncated myoV-4IQ showed an increased frequency of azimuthal steps, but the magnitudes of these steps were nearly identical to those of myoV-6IQ. The results show that the azimuthal deflections of myoV on actin are more common for the truncated lever arm, but the range of these deflections is relatively independent of its lever-arm length.

  6. Generalized Eddington analytical model for azimuthally dependent radiance simulation in stratified media.

    PubMed

    Marzano, Frank S; Ferrauto, Giancarlo

    2005-10-01

    A fast analytical radiative transfer model to account for propagation of unpolarized monochromatic radiation in random media with a plane-parallel geometry is presented. The model employs an Eddington-like approach combined with the delta phase-function transformation technique. The Eddington approximation is extended in a form that allows us to unfold the azimuthal dependence of the radiance field. A first-order scattering correction to the azimuth-dependent Eddington radiative model solution is also performed to improve the model accuracy for low-scattering media and flexibility with respect to use of explicit arbitrary phase functions. The first-order scattering-corrected solution, called the generalized Eddington radiative model (GERM), is systematically tested against a numerical multistream discrete ordinate model for backscattered radiance at the top of the medium. The typical mean accuracy of the GERM solution is generally better than 10% with a standard deviation of 20% for radiance calculations over a wide range of independent input optical parameters and observation angles. GERM errors are shown to be comparable with the errors due to an input parameter uncertainty of precise numerical models. The proposed model can be applied in a quite arbitrary random medium, and the results are appealing in all cases where speed, accuracy, and/or closed-form solutions are requested. Its potentials, limitations, and further extensions are discussed.

  7. Azimuthal angle- and scanning pitch-dependent colorization of metals by ultrashort laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yangbo; Qian, Jing; Bai, Feng; Wang, Zhuo; Wang, Chengwei; Fan, Wenzhong; Zhang, Yang; Zhao, Quanzhong

    2016-04-01

    We report the modification of optical properties of 304 stainless steel surfaces by femtosecond laser direct writing with different scanning pitches. Regularly arranged ripples with a spatial period of ~700 nm were obtained, rendering vivid structural colors when we illuminated the surface with white light. Diffraction spectra were generated to investigate the spectral properties of the structural colors. Results indicate that the diffraction maximum strongly depends on scanning pitch and azimuthal angle, but that the central wavelength is insensitive to both of them. The reflectance properties were also investigated. This study adds a new parameter, the scanning pitch, to the list of parameters in the production of controllable colorized metal, which may find a range of applications in color display, decoration, and so on.

  8. The Azimuthal Dependence of Outflows and Accretion Detected Using O VI Absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kacprzak, Glenn G.; Muzahid, Sowgat; Churchill, Christopher W.; Nielsen, Nikole M.; Charlton, Jane C.

    2015-12-01

    We report a bimodality in the azimuthal angle (Φ) distribution of gas around galaxies traced by O vi absorption. We present the mean Φ probability distribution function of 29 Hubble Space Telescope-imaged O vi absorbing (EW > 0.1 Å) and 24 non-absorbing (EW < 0.1 Å) isolated galaxies (0.08 \\lt z \\lt 0.67) within ˜200 kpc of background quasars. We show that equivalent width (EW) is anti-correlated with impact parameter and O vi covering fraction decreases from 80% within 50 kpc to 33% at 200 kpc. The presence of O vi absorption is azimuthally dependent and occurs between ±10°-20° of the galaxy projected major axis and within ±30° of the projected minor axis. We find higher EWs along the projected minor axis with weaker EWs along the project major axis. Highly inclined galaxies have the lowest covering fractions due to minimized outflow/inflow cross-section geometry. Absorbing galaxies also have bluer colors while non-absorbers have redder colors, suggesting that star formation is a key driver in the O vi detection rate. O vi surrounding blue galaxies exists primarily along the projected minor axis with wide opening angles while O vi surrounding red galaxies exists primarily along the projected major axis with smaller opening angles, which may explain why absorption around red galaxies is less frequently detected. Our results are consistent with a circumgalactic medium (CGM) originating from major axis-fed inflows/recycled gas and from minor axis-driven outflows. Non-detected O vi occurs between Φ = 20°-60°, suggesting that O vi is not mixed throughout the CGM and remains confined within the outflows and the disk-plane. We find low O vi covering fractions within +/- 10^\\circ of the projected major axis, suggesting that cool dense gas resides in a narrow planer geometry surrounded by diffuse O vi gas.

  9. Azimuthal inhomogeneity of turbulence structure and its impact on intermittent particle transport in linear magnetized plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Kobayashi, T.; Inagaki, S.; Sasaki, M.; Nagashima, Y.; Kasuya, N.; Fujisawa, A.; Itoh, S.-I.; Kosuga, Y.; Arakawa, H.; Yamada, T.; Miwa, Y.; Itoh, K.

    2015-11-15

    Fluctuation component in the turbulence regime is found to be azimuthally localized at a phase of the global coherent modes in a linear magnetized plasma PANTA. Spatial distribution of squared bicoherence is given in the azimuthal cross section as an indicator of nonlinear energy transfer function from the global coherent mode to the turbulence. Squared bicoherence is strong at a phase where the turbulence amplitude is large. As a result of the turbulence localization, time evolution of radial particle flux becomes bursty. Statistical features such as skewness and kurtosis are strongly modified by the localized turbulence component, although contribution to mean particle flux profile is small.

  10. Magnetic-azimuth dependence of D-layer radio reflectivity, using lightning sferics as radio transmitters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobson, A. R.; Shao, X.; Holzworth, R. H.; Lay, E. H.

    2011-12-01

    The Very Low Frequency (3-30 kHz) and Low-Frequency (30-300 kHz) radiation from lightning strokes provides a convenient intense source for studying radio propagation in the ionospheric D-region [Cheng and Cummer, 2005; Cheng et al., 2006; Cheng et al., 2007; Cummer et al., 1998; Jacobson et al., 2010; Shao and Jacobson, 2009]. In this poster we present a new study of the magnetic-azimuth dependence of D-layer radio reflectivity at relatively short ranges (r < 1000 km). This range regime is poorly adapted to a waveguide approach but is well treated by our discrete-reflection approach [Jacobson et al., 2009]. We use cloud-to-ground strokes, which are ~100X more numerous than the Narrow Bipolar Pulse sferics to which our method had previously been confined. Cheng, Z., and S. A. Cummer (2005), Broadband VLF measurements of lightning-induced ionospheric perturbations, Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L08804, doi:08810.01029/02004GL022187. Cheng, Z., S. A. Cummer, D. N. Baker, and S. G. Kanekal (2006), Nighttime D region electron density profiles and variabilities inferred from broadband measurements using VLF radio emissions from lightning, J. Geophys. Res., 111, A05302, doi:05310.01029/02005JA011308. Cheng, Z., S. A. Cummer, H.-T. Su, and R.-R. Hsu (2007), Broadband very low frequency measurement of D region ionospheric perturbations caused by lightning electromagnetic pulses, J. Geophys. Res., 112, A06318. Cummer, S. A., U. S. Inan, and T. F. Bell (1998), Ionospheric D region remote sensing using VLF radio atmospherics, Radio Sci., 33, 1781-1792. Jacobson, A. R., X. Shao, and R. H. Holzworth (2009), Full-wave reflection of lightning long-wave radio pulses from the ionospheric D-region: Numerical model, J. Geophys. Res.- Space, 114, A03303, doi:03310.01029/02008JA013642. Jacobson, A. R., R. Holzworth, and X.-M. Shao (2010), Full-wave reflection of lightning long-wave radio pulses from the ionospheric D-region: Comparison with midday observations of broadband lightning signals

  11. Study of Jet Transverse Momentum and Jet Rapidity Dependence on Dijet Azimuthal Decorrelations

    SciTech Connect

    Chakravarthula, Kiran

    2012-01-01

    In a collision experiment involving highly energetic particles such as hadrons, processes at high momentum transfers can provide information useful for many studies involving Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD). One way of analyzing these interactions is through angular distributions. In hadron-hadron collisions, the angular distribution between the two leading jets with the largest transverse momentum (pT ) is affected by the production of additional jets. While soft radiation causes small differences in the azimuthal angular distribution of the two leading jets produced in a collision event, additional hard jets produced in the event have more pronounced influence on the distribution of the two leading jets produced in the collision. Thus, the dijet azimuthal angular distribution can serve as a variable that can be used to study the transition from soft to hard QCD processes in a collision event. This dissertation presents a triple-differential study involving the azimuthal angular distribution and the jet transverse momenta, and jet rapidities of the first two leading jets. The data used for this research are obtained from proton-antiproton (p$\\bar{p}$) collisions occurring at a center of mass energy of 1.96TeV, using the DØ detector in Run II of the Tevatron Collider at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL) in Illinois, USA. Comparisons are made to perturbative QCD (pQCD) predictions at next-to-leading order (NLO).

  12. Beam Energy Dependence of the Third Harmonic of Azimuthal Correlations in Au +Au Collisions at RHIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamczyk, L.; Adkins, J. K.; Agakishiev, G.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Ahammed, Z.; Alekseev, I.; Aparin, A.; Arkhipkin, D.; Aschenauer, E. C.; Attri, A.; Averichev, G. S.; Bai, X.; Bairathi, V.; Bellwied, R.; Bhasin, A.; Bhati, A. K.; Bhattarai, P.; Bielcik, J.; Bielcikova, J.; Bland, L. C.; Bordyuzhin, I. G.; Bouchet, J.; Brandenburg, J. D.; Brandin, A. V.; Bunzarov, I.; Butterworth, J.; Caines, H.; Calderón de la Barca Sánchez, M.; Campbell, J. M.; Cebra, D.; Chakaberia, I.; Chaloupka, P.; Chang, Z.; Chatterjee, A.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chen, J. H.; Chen, X.; Cheng, J.; Cherney, M.; Christie, W.; Contin, G.; Crawford, H. J.; Das, S.; De Silva, L. C.; Debbe, R. R.; Dedovich, T. G.; Deng, J.; Derevschikov, A. A.; di Ruzza, B.; Didenko, L.; Dilks, C.; Dong, X.; Drachenberg, J. L.; Draper, J. E.; Du, C. M.; Dunkelberger, L. E.; Dunlop, J. C.; Efimov, L. G.; Engelage, J.; Eppley, G.; Esha, R.; Evdokimov, O.; Eyser, O.; Fatemi, R.; Fazio, S.; Federic, P.; Fedorisin, J.; Feng, Z.; Filip, P.; Fisyak, Y.; Flores, C. E.; Fulek, L.; Gagliardi, C. A.; Garand, D.; Geurts, F.; Gibson, A.; Girard, M.; Greiner, L.; Grosnick, D.; Gunarathne, D. S.; Guo, Y.; Gupta, S.; Gupta, A.; Guryn, W.; Hamad, A. I.; Hamed, A.; Haque, R.; Harris, J. W.; He, L.; Heppelmann, S.; Heppelmann, S.; Hirsch, A.; Hoffmann, G. W.; Horvat, S.; Huang, T.; Huang, X.; Huang, B.; Huang, H. Z.; Huck, P.; Humanic, T. J.; Igo, G.; Jacobs, W. W.; Jang, H.; Jentsch, A.; Jia, J.; Jiang, K.; Judd, E. G.; Kabana, S.; Kalinkin, D.; Kang, K.; Kauder, K.; Ke, H. W.; Keane, D.; Kechechyan, A.; Khan, Z. H.; Kikoła, D. P.; Kisel, I.; Kisiel, A.; Kochenda, L.; Koetke, D. D.; Kosarzewski, L. K.; Kraishan, A. F.; Kravtsov, P.; Krueger, K.; Kumar, L.; Lamont, M. A. C.; Landgraf, J. M.; Landry, K. D.; Lauret, J.; Lebedev, A.; Lednicky, R.; Lee, J. H.; Li, X.; Li, C.; Li, X.; Li, Y.; Li, W.; Lin, T.; Lisa, M. A.; Liu, F.; Ljubicic, T.; Llope, W. J.; Lomnitz, M.; Longacre, R. S.; Luo, X.; Ma, R.; Ma, G. L.; Ma, Y. G.; Ma, L.; Magdy, N.; Majka, R.; Manion, A.; Margetis, S.; Markert, C.; Matis, H. S.; McDonald, D.; McKinzie, S.; Meehan, K.; Mei, J. C.; Minaev, N. G.; Mioduszewski, S.; Mishra, D.; Mohanty, B.; Mondal, M. M.; Morozov, D. A.; Mustafa, M. K.; Nandi, B. K.; Nasim, Md.; Nayak, T. K.; Nigmatkulov, G.; Niida, T.; Nogach, L. V.; Noh, S. Y.; Novak, J.; Nurushev, S. B.; Odyniec, G.; Ogawa, A.; Oh, K.; Okorokov, V. A.; Olvitt, D.; Page, B. S.; Pak, R.; Pan, Y. X.; Pandit, Y.; Panebratsev, Y.; Pawlik, B.; Pei, H.; Perkins, C.; Pile, P.; Pluta, J.; Poniatowska, K.; Porter, J.; Posik, M.; Poskanzer, A. M.; Pruthi, N. K.; Putschke, J.; Qiu, H.; Quintero, A.; Ramachandran, S.; Raniwala, S.; Raniwala, R.; Ray, R. L.; Ritter, H. G.; Roberts, J. B.; Rogachevskiy, O. V.; Romero, J. L.; Ruan, L.; Rusnak, J.; Rusnakova, O.; Sahoo, N. R.; Sahu, P. K.; Sakrejda, I.; Salur, S.; Sandweiss, J.; Sarkar, A.; Schambach, J.; Scharenberg, R. P.; Schmah, A. M.; Schmidke, W. B.; Schmitz, N.; Seger, J.; Seyboth, P.; Shah, N.; Shahaliev, E.; Shanmuganathan, P. V.; Shao, M.; Sharma, A.; Sharma, B.; Sharma, M. K.; Shen, W. Q.; Shi, Z.; Shi, S. S.; Shou, Q. Y.; Sichtermann, E. P.; Sikora, R.; Simko, M.; Singha, S.; Skoby, M. J.; Smirnov, N.; Smirnov, D.; Solyst, W.; Song, L.; Sorensen, P.; Spinka, H. M.; Srivastava, B.; Stanislaus, T. D. S.; Stepanov, M.; Stock, R.; Strikhanov, M.; Stringfellow, B.; Sumbera, M.; Summa, B.; Sun, Z.; Sun, X. M.; Sun, Y.; Surrow, B.; Svirida, D. N.; Tang, Z.; Tang, A. H.; Tarnowsky, T.; Tawfik, A.; Thäder, J.; Thomas, J. H.; Timmins, A. R.; Tlusty, D.; Todoroki, T.; Tokarev, M.; Trentalange, S.; Tribble, R. E.; Tribedy, P.; Tripathy, S. K.; Tsai, O. D.; Ullrich, T.; Underwood, D. G.; Upsal, I.; Van Buren, G.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G.; Vandenbroucke, M.; Varma, R.; Vasiliev, A. N.; Vertesi, R.; Videbæk, F.; Vokal, S.; Voloshin, S. A.; Vossen, A.; Wang, F.; Wang, G.; Wang, J. S.; Wang, H.; Wang, Y.; Wang, Y.; Webb, G.; Webb, J. C.; Wen, L.; Westfall, G. D.; Wieman, H.; Wissink, S. W.; Witt, R.; Wu, Y.; Xiao, Z. G.; Xie, W.; Xie, G.; Xin, K.; Xu, Y. F.; Xu, Q. H.; Xu, N.; Xu, H.; Xu, Z.; Xu, J.; Yang, S.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Y.; Yang, C.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Q.; Ye, Z.; Ye, Z.; Yepes, P.; Yi, L.; Yip, K.; Yoo, I.-K.; Yu, N.; Zbroszczyk, H.; Zha, W.; Zhang, X. P.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, S.; Zhang, S.; Zhang, Z.; Zhang, J. B.; Zhao, J.; Zhong, C.; Zhou, L.; Zhu, X.; Zoulkarneeva, Y.; Zyzak, M.; STAR Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    We present results from a harmonic decomposition of two-particle azimuthal correlations measured with the STAR detector in Au +Au collisions for energies ranging from √{sN N }=7.7 to 200 GeV. The third harmonic v32{2 }=⟨cos 3 (ϕ1-ϕ2)⟩ , where ϕ1-ϕ2 is the angular difference in azimuth, is studied as a function of the pseudorapidity difference between particle pairs Δ η =η1-η2 . Nonzero v32{2 } is directly related to the previously observed large-Δ η narrow-Δ ϕ ridge correlations and has been shown in models to be sensitive to the existence of a low viscosity quark gluon plasma phase. For sufficiently central collisions, v32{2 } persist down to an energy of 7.7 GeV, suggesting that quark gluon plasma may be created even in these low energy collisions. In peripheral collisions at these low energies, however, v32{2 } is consistent with zero. When scaled by the pseudorapidity density of charged-particle multiplicity per participating nucleon pair, v32{2 } for central collisions shows a minimum near √{sN N }=20 GeV .

  13. Azimuthal angular dependent hysteresis loops of Fe50Mn50/Ni81Fe19 bilayers grown under a magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Hyeok-Cheol; You, Chun-Yeol; Kim, Ki-Yeon

    2016-11-01

    The azimuthal angular dependence of the vectorial hysteresis loops in the Fe50Mn50(AF)/Ni81Fe19(F) bilayer grown under a magnetic field was investigated using a combination of vectorial magneto-optic Kerr effect and model calculation. From a comparison of the experimental and calculation results, it is found that the AF easy axis is not parallel with but rotated by about 20° away from the applied magnetic field during the sample growth. Moreover, the transverse loop at the AF easy axis does not vanish but displays an open full circle (i.e., magnetization changes sign between decreasing and increasing field branches for the full hysteresis measurement). Our model calculation reveals that they are reminiscent of the non-collinear uniaxial and unidirectional anisotropies. Specifically, the angular dependence of the transverse hysteresis is well reproduced with our model calculation taking non-collinear magnetic anisotropies into account. Coercivity determined from the longitudinal loops, on the other hand, is found to be nonzero and comparatively large at all azimuthal angles. This is in stark contrast with previous results regarding FeMn/NiFe bilayers field-cooled after sample growth. Neither domain wall nor incoherent magnetic rotation in the F layer is likely to be responsible for this coercivity discrepancy between theory and experiments. Apart from the uniaxial F and unidirectional AF-F anisotropies, we suggest that the F rotatable anisotropy equivalent of 40% to 60% of the interfacial coupling energy should be taken into account to properly address the coercivity enhancement in the FeMn/NiFe bilayer grown under a magnetic field.

  14. Multistation observations of the azimuth, polarization, and frequency dependence of ELF/VLF waves generated by electrojet modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maxworth, A. S.; Gołkowski, M.; Cohen, M. B.; Moore, R. C.; Chorsi, H. T.; Gedney, S. D.; Jacobs, R.

    2015-10-01

    Modulated ionospheric heating experiments are performed with the High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program facility in Gakona, Alaska, for the purpose of generating extremely low frequency (ELF) and very low frequency (VLF) waves. Observations are made at three different azimuths from the heating facility and at distances from 37 km to 99 km. The polarization of the observed waves is analyzed in addition to amplitude as a function of modulation frequency and azimuth. Amplitude and eccentricity are observed to vary with both azimuth and distance from the heating facility. It is found that waves radiated at azimuths northwest of the facility are generated by a combination of modulated Hall and Pedersen currents, while waves observed at other azimuths are dominated by modulated Hall currents. We find no evidence for vertical currents contributing to ground observations of ELF/VLF waves. Observed amplitude peaks near multiples of 2 kHz are shown to result from vertical resonances in the Earth-ionosphere waveguide, and variations of the frequency of these resonances can be used to determine the D region ionosphere electron density profile in the vicinity of the HF heater.

  15. The cost of transportation`s oil dependence

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, D.L.

    1995-05-01

    Transportation is critical to the world`s oil dependence problem because of the large share of world oil it consumes and because of its intense dependence on oil. This paper will focus on the economic costs of transportation`s oil dependence.

  16. Observation of Charge-Dependent Azimuthal Correlations in p -Pb Collisions and Its Implication for the Search for the Chiral Magnetic Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khachatryan, V.; Sirunyan, A. M.; Tumasyan, A.; Adam, W.; Asilar, E.; Bergauer, T.; Brandstetter, J.; Brondolin, E.; Dragicevic, M.; Erö, J.; Flechl, M.; Friedl, M.; Frühwirth, R.; Ghete, V. M.; Hartl, C.; Hörmann, N.; Hrubec, J.; Jeitler, M.; König, A.; Krätschmer, I.; Liko, D.; Matsushita, T.; Mikulec, I.; Rabady, D.; Rad, N.; Rahbaran, B.; Rohringer, H.; Schieck, J.; Strauss, J.; Waltenberger, W.; Wulz, C.-E.; Dvornikov, O.; Makarenko, V.; Zykunov, V.; Mossolov, V.; Shumeiko, N.; Suarez Gonzalez, J.; Alderweireldt, S.; De Wolf, E. A.; Janssen, X.; Lauwers, J.; Van De Klundert, M.; Van Haevermaet, H.; Van Mechelen, P.; Van Remortel, N.; Van Spilbeeck, A.; Abu Zeid, S.; Blekman, F.; D'Hondt, J.; Daci, N.; De Bruyn, I.; Deroover, K.; Lowette, S.; Moortgat, S.; Moreels, L.; Olbrechts, A.; Python, Q.; Tavernier, S.; Van Doninck, W.; Van Mulders, P.; Van Parijs, I.; Brun, H.; Clerbaux, B.; De Lentdecker, G.; Delannoy, H.; Fasanella, G.; Favart, L.; Goldouzian, R.; Grebenyuk, A.; Karapostoli, G.; Lenzi, T.; Léonard, A.; Luetic, J.; Maerschalk, T.; Marinov, A.; Randle-conde, A.; Seva, T.; Vander Velde, C.; Vanlaer, P.; Vannerom, D.; Yonamine, R.; Zenoni, F.; Zhang, F.; Cimmino, A.; Cornelis, T.; Dobur, D.; Fagot, A.; Garcia, G.; Gul, M.; Khvastunov, I.; Poyraz, D.; Salva, S.; Schöfbeck, R.; Sharma, A.; Tytgat, M.; Van Driessche, W.; Yazgan, E.; Zaganidis, N.; Bakhshiansohi, H.; Beluffi, C.; Bondu, O.; Brochet, S.; Bruno, G.; Caudron, A.; De Visscher, S.; Delaere, C.; Delcourt, M.; Francois, B.; Giammanco, A.; Jafari, A.; Jez, P.; Komm, M.; Krintiras, G.; Lemaitre, V.; Magitteri, A.; Mertens, A.; Musich, M.; Nuttens, C.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Quertenmont, L.; Selvaggi, M.; Vidal Marono, M.; Wertz, S.; Beliy, N.; Aldá Júnior, W. 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M.; Fahim, A.; Khakzad, M.; Mohammadi Najafabadi, M.; Naseri, M.; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, S.; Rezaei Hosseinabadi, F.; Safarzadeh, B.; Zeinali, M.; Felcini, M.; Grunewald, M.; Abbrescia, M.; Calabria, C.; Caputo, C.; Colaleo, A.; Creanza, D.; Cristella, L.; De Filippis, N.; De Palma, M.; Fiore, L.; Iaselli, G.; Maggi, G.; Maggi, M.; Miniello, G.; My, S.; Nuzzo, S.; Pompili, A.; Pugliese, G.; Radogna, R.; Ranieri, A.; Selvaggi, G.; Silvestris, L.; Venditti, R.; Verwilligen, P.; Abbiendi, G.; Battilana, C.; Bonacorsi, D.; Braibant-Giacomelli, S.; Brigliadori, L.; Campanini, R.; Capiluppi, P.; Castro, A.; Cavallo, F. R.; Chhibra, S. S.; Codispoti, G.; Cuffiani, M.; Dallavalle, G. M.; Fabbri, F.; Fanfani, A.; Fasanella, D.; Giacomelli, P.; Grandi, C.; Guiducci, L.; Marcellini, S.; Masetti, G.; Montanari, A.; Navarria, F. L.; Perrotta, A.; Rossi, A. M.; Rovelli, T.; Siroli, G. 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A.; Uribe Estrada, C.; Morelos Pineda, A.; Krofcheck, D.; Butler, P. H.; Ahmad, A.; Ahmad, M.; Hassan, Q.; Hoorani, H. R.; Khan, W. A.; Saddique, A.; Shah, M. A.; Shoaib, M.; Waqas, M.; Bialkowska, H.; Bluj, M.; Boimska, B.; Frueboes, T.; Górski, M.; Kazana, M.; Nawrocki, K.; Romanowska-Rybinska, K.; Szleper, M.; Zalewski, P.; Bunkowski, K.; Byszuk, A.; Doroba, K.; Kalinowski, A.; Konecki, M.; Krolikowski, J.; Misiura, M.; Olszewski, M.; Walczak, M.; Bargassa, P.; Beirão Da Cruz E Silva, C.; Calpas, B.; Di Francesco, A.; Faccioli, P.; Ferreira Parracho, P. G.; Gallinaro, M.; Hollar, J.; Leonardo, N.; Lloret Iglesias, L.; Nemallapudi, M. 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I.; Henderson, C.; Rumerio, P.; West, C.; Arcaro, D.; Avetisyan, A.; Bose, T.; Gastler, D.; Rankin, D.; Richardson, C.; Rohlf, J.; Sulak, L.; Zou, D.; Benelli, G.; Berry, E.; Cutts, D.; Garabedian, A.; Hakala, J.; Heintz, U.; Hogan, J. M.; Jesus, O.; Kwok, K. H. M.; Laird, E.; Landsberg, G.; Mao, Z.; Narain, M.; Piperov, S.; Sagir, S.; Spencer, E.; Syarif, R.; Breedon, R.; Breto, G.; Burns, D.; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, M.; Chauhan, S.; Chertok, M.; Conway, J.; Conway, R.; Cox, P. T.; Erbacher, R.; Flores, C.; Funk, G.; Gardner, M.; Ko, W.; Lander, R.; Mclean, C.; Mulhearn, M.; Pellett, D.; Pilot, J.; Shalhout, S.; Smith, J.; Squires, M.; Stolp, D.; Tripathi, M.; Bravo, C.; Cousins, R.; Dasgupta, A.; Everaerts, P.; Florent, A.; Hauser, J.; Ignatenko, M.; Mccoll, N.; Saltzberg, D.; Schnaible, C.; Takasugi, E.; Valuev, V.; Weber, M.; Burt, K.; Clare, R.; Ellison, J.; Gary, J. W.; Ghiasi Shirazi, S. M. A.; Hanson, G.; Heilman, J.; Jandir, P.; Kennedy, E.; Lacroix, F.; Long, O. R.; Olmedo Negrete, M.; Paneva, M. I.; Shrinivas, A.; Si, W.; Wei, H.; Wimpenny, S.; Yates, B. R.; Branson, J. G.; Cerati, G. B.; Cittolin, S.; Derdzinski, M.; Holzner, A.; Klein, D.; Krutelyov, V.; Letts, J.; Macneill, I.; Olivito, D.; Padhi, S.; Pieri, M.; Sani, M.; Sharma, V.; Simon, S.; Tadel, M.; Vartak, A.; Wasserbaech, S.; Welke, C.; Wood, J.; Würthwein, F.; Yagil, A.; Zevi Della Porta, G.; Amin, N.; Bhandari, R.; Bradmiller-Feld, J.; Campagnari, C.; Dishaw, A.; Dutta, V.; Franco Sevilla, M.; George, C.; Golf, F.; Gouskos, L.; Gran, J.; Heller, R.; Incandela, J.; Mullin, S. D.; Ovcharova, A.; Qu, H.; Richman, J.; Stuart, D.; Suarez, I.; Yoo, J.; Anderson, D.; Apresyan, A.; Bendavid, J.; Bornheim, A.; Bunn, J.; Chen, Y.; Duarte, J.; Lawhorn, J. M.; Mott, A.; Newman, H. B.; Pena, C.; Spiropulu, M.; Vlimant, J. R.; Xie, S.; Zhu, R. Y.; Andrews, M. B.; Azzolini, V.; Ferguson, T.; Paulini, M.; Russ, J.; Sun, M.; Vogel, H.; Vorobiev, I.; Weinberg, M.; Cumalat, J. P.; Ford, W. T.; Jensen, F.; Johnson, A.; Krohn, M.; Mulholland, T.; Stenson, K.; Wagner, S. R.; Alexander, J.; Chaves, J.; Chu, J.; Dittmer, S.; Mcdermott, K.; Mirman, N.; Nicolas Kaufman, G.; Patterson, J. R.; Rinkevicius, A.; Ryd, A.; Skinnari, L.; Soffi, L.; Tan, S. M.; Tao, Z.; Thom, J.; Tucker, J.; Wittich, P.; Zientek, M.; Winn, D.; Abdullin, S.; Albrow, M.; Apollinari, G.; Banerjee, S.; Bauerdick, L. A. T.; Beretvas, A.; Berryhill, J.; Bhat, P. C.; Bolla, G.; Burkett, K.; Butler, J. N.; Cheung, H. W. K.; Chlebana, F.; Cihangir, S.; Cremonesi, M.; Elvira, V. D.; Fisk, I.; Freeman, J.; Gottschalk, E.; Gray, L.; Green, D.; Grünendahl, S.; Gutsche, O.; Hare, D.; Harris, R. M.; Hasegawa, S.; Hirschauer, J.; Hu, Z.; Jayatilaka, B.; Jindariani, S.; Johnson, M.; Joshi, U.; Klima, B.; Kreis, B.; Lammel, S.; Linacre, J.; Lincoln, D.; Lipton, R.; Liu, T.; Lopes De Sá, R.; Lykken, J.; Maeshima, K.; Magini, N.; Marraffino, J. 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M.; Bhopatkar, V.; Colafranceschi, S.; Hohlmann, M.; Noonan, D.; Roy, T.; Yumiceva, F.; Adams, M. R.; Apanasevich, L.; Berry, D.; Betts, R. R.; Bucinskaite, I.; Cavanaugh, R.; Evdokimov, O.; Gauthier, L.; Gerber, C. E.; Hofman, D. J.; Jung, K.; Kurt, P.; O'Brien, C.; Sandoval Gonzalez, I. D.; Turner, P.; Varelas, N.; Wang, H.; Wu, Z.; Zakaria, M.; Zhang, J.; Bilki, B.; Clarida, W.; Dilsiz, K.; Durgut, S.; Gandrajula, R. P.; Haytmyradov, M.; Khristenko, V.; Merlo, J.-P.; Mermerkaya, H.; Mestvirishvili, A.; Moeller, A.; Nachtman, J.; Ogul, H.; Onel, Y.; Ozok, F.; Penzo, A.; Snyder, C.; Tiras, E.; Wetzel, J.; Yi, K.; Anderson, I.; Blumenfeld, B.; Cocoros, A.; Eminizer, N.; Fehling, D.; Feng, L.; Gritsan, A. V.; Maksimovic, P.; Martin, C.; Osherson, M.; Roskes, J.; Sarica, U.; Swartz, M.; Xiao, M.; Xin, Y.; You, C.; Al-bataineh, A.; Baringer, P.; Bean, A.; Boren, S.; Bowen, J.; Bruner, C.; Castle, J.; Forthomme, L.; Kenny, R. P.; Khalil, S.; Kropivnitskaya, A.; Majumder, D.; Mcbrayer, W.; Murray, M.; Sanders, S.; Stringer, R.; Tapia Takaki, J. D.; Wang, Q.; Ivanov, A.; Kaadze, K.; Maravin, Y.; Mohammadi, A.; Saini, L. K.; Skhirtladze, N.; Toda, S.; Rebassoo, F.; Wright, D.; Anelli, C.; Baden, A.; Baron, O.; Belloni, A.; Calvert, B.; Eno, S. C.; Ferraioli, C.; Gomez, J. A.; Hadley, N. J.; Jabeen, S.; Kellogg, R. G.; Kolberg, T.; Kunkle, J.; Lu, Y.; Mignerey, A. C.; Ricci-Tam, F.; Shin, Y. H.; Skuja, A.; Tonjes, M. B.; Tonwar, S. C.; Abercrombie, D.; Allen, B.; Apyan, A.; Barbieri, R.; Baty, A.; Bi, R.; Bierwagen, K.; Brandt, S.; Busza, W.; Cali, I. A.; Demiragli, Z.; Di Matteo, L.; Gomez Ceballos, G.; Goncharov, M.; Hsu, D.; Iiyama, Y.; Innocenti, G. M.; Klute, M.; Kovalskyi, D.; Krajczar, K.; Lai, Y. S.; Lee, Y.-J.; Levin, A.; Luckey, P. D.; Maier, B.; Marini, A. C.; Mcginn, C.; Mironov, C.; Narayanan, S.; Niu, X.; Paus, C.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Salfeld-Nebgen, J.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Sumorok, K.; Tatar, K.; Varma, M.; Velicanu, D.; Veverka, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, T. W.; Wyslouch, B.; Yang, M.; Zhukova, V.; Benvenuti, A. C.; Chatterjee, R. M.; Evans, A.; Finkel, A.; Gude, A.; Hansen, P.; Kalafut, S.; Kao, S. C.; Kubota, Y.; Lesko, Z.; Mans, J.; Nourbakhsh, S.; Ruckstuhl, N.; Rusack, R.; Tambe, N.; Turkewitz, J.; Acosta, J. G.; Oliveros, S.; Avdeeva, E.; Bartek, R.; Bloom, K.; Claes, D. R.; Dominguez, A.; Fangmeier, C.; Gonzalez Suarez, R.; Kamalieddin, R.; Kravchenko, I.; Malta Rodrigues, A.; Meier, F.; Monroy, J.; Siado, J. E.; Snow, G. R.; Stieger, B.; Alyari, M.; Dolen, J.; George, J.; Godshalk, A.; Harrington, C.; Iashvili, I.; Kaisen, J.; Kharchilava, A.; Kumar, A.; Parker, A.; Rappoccio, S.; Roozbahani, B.; Alverson, G.; Barberis, E.; Hortiangtham, A.; Massironi, A.; Morse, D. M.; Nash, D.; Orimoto, T.; Teixeira De Lima, R.; Trocino, D.; Wang, R.-J.; Wood, D.; Bhattacharya, S.; Charaf, O.; Hahn, K. A.; Kubik, A.; Kumar, A.; Mucia, N.; Odell, N.; Pollack, B.; Schmitt, M. H.; Sung, K.; Trovato, M.; Velasco, M.; Dev, N.; Hildreth, M.; Hurtado Anampa, K.; Jessop, C.; Karmgard, D. J.; Kellams, N.; Lannon, K.; Marinelli, N.; Meng, F.; Mueller, C.; Musienko, Y.; Planer, M.; Reinsvold, A.; Ruchti, R.; Smith, G.; Taroni, S.; Wayne, M.; Wolf, M.; Woodard, A.; Alimena, J.; Antonelli, L.; Bylsma, B.; Durkin, L. S.; Flowers, S.; Francis, B.; Hart, A.; Hill, C.; Hughes, R.; Ji, W.; Liu, B.; Luo, W.; Puigh, D.; Winer, B. L.; Wulsin, H. W.; Cooperstein, S.; Driga, O.; Elmer, P.; Hardenbrook, J.; Hebda, P.; Lange, D.; Luo, J.; Marlow, D.; Mc Donald, J.; Medvedeva, T.; Mei, K.; Mooney, M.; Olsen, J.; Palmer, C.; Piroué, P.; Stickland, D.; Svyatkovskiy, A.; Tully, C.; Zuranski, A.; Malik, S.; Barker, A.; Barnes, V. E.; Folgueras, S.; Gutay, L.; Jha, M. K.; Jones, M.; Jung, A. W.; Miller, D. H.; Neumeister, N.; Schulte, J. F.; Shi, X.; Sun, J.; Wang, F.; Xie, W.; Parashar, N.; Stupak, J.; Adair, A.; Akgun, B.; Chen, Z.; Ecklund, K. M.; Geurts, F. J. M.; Guilbaud, M.; Li, W.; Michlin, B.; Northup, M.; Padley, B. P.; Redjimi, R.; Roberts, J.; Rorie, J.; Tu, Z.; Zabel, J.; Betchart, B.; Bodek, A.; de Barbaro, P.; Demina, R.; Duh, Y. t.; Ferbel, T.; Galanti, M.; Garcia-Bellido, A.; Han, J.; Hindrichs, O.; Khukhunaishvili, A.; Lo, K. H.; Tan, P.; Verzetti, M.; Agapitos, A.; Chou, J. P.; Contreras-Campana, E.; Gershtein, Y.; Gómez Espinosa, T. A.; Halkiadakis, E.; Heindl, M.; Hidas, D.; Hughes, E.; Kaplan, S.; Kunnawalkam Elayavalli, R.; Kyriacou, S.; Lath, A.; Nash, K.; Saka, H.; Salur, S.; Schnetzer, S.; Sheffield, D.; Somalwar, S.; Stone, R.; Thomas, S.; Thomassen, P.; Walker, M.; Delannoy, A. G.; Foerster, M.; Heideman, J.; Riley, G.; Rose, K.; Spanier, S.; Thapa, K.; Bouhali, O.; Celik, A.; Dalchenko, M.; De Mattia, M.; Delgado, A.; Dildick, S.; Eusebi, R.; Gilmore, J.; Huang, T.; Juska, E.; Kamon, T.; Mueller, R.; Pakhotin, Y.; Patel, R.; Perloff, A.; Perniè, L.; Rathjens, D.; Rose, A.; Safonov, A.; Tatarinov, A.; Ulmer, K. A.; Akchurin, N.; Cowden, C.; Damgov, J.; De Guio, F.; Dragoiu, C.; Dudero, P. R.; Faulkner, J.; Gurpinar, E.; Kunori, S.; Lamichhane, K.; Lee, S. W.; Libeiro, T.; Peltola, T.; Undleeb, S.; Volobouev, I.; Wang, Z.; Greene, S.; Gurrola, A.; Janjam, R.; Johns, W.; Maguire, C.; Melo, A.; Ni, H.; Sheldon, P.; Tuo, S.; Velkovska, J.; Xu, Q.; Arenton, M. W.; Barria, P.; Cox, B.; Goodell, J.; Hirosky, R.; Ledovskoy, A.; Li, H.; Neu, C.; Sinthuprasith, T.; Sun, X.; Wang, Y.; Wolfe, E.; Xia, F.; Clarke, C.; Harr, R.; Karchin, P. E.; Sturdy, J.; Belknap, D. A.; Buchanan, J.; Caillol, C.; Dasu, S.; Dodd, L.; Duric, S.; Gomber, B.; Grothe, M.; Herndon, M.; Hervé, A.; Klabbers, P.; Lanaro, A.; Levine, A.; Long, K.; Loveless, R.; Ojalvo, I.; Perry, T.; Pierro, G. A.; Polese, G.; Ruggles, T.; Savin, A.; Smith, N.; Smith, W. H.; Taylor, D.; Woods, N.; CMS Collaboration

    2017-03-01

    Charge-dependent azimuthal particle correlations with respect to the second-order event plane in p -Pb and PbPb collisions at a nucleon-nucleon center-of-mass energy of 5.02 TeV have been studied with the CMS experiment at the LHC. The measurement is performed with a three-particle correlation technique, using two particles with the same or opposite charge within the pseudorapidity range |η | <2.4 , and a third particle measured in the hadron forward calorimeters (4.4 <|η | <5 ). The observed differences between the same and opposite sign correlations, as functions of multiplicity and η gap between the two charged particles, are of similar magnitude in p -Pb and PbPb collisions at the same multiplicities. These results pose a challenge for the interpretation of charge-dependent azimuthal correlations in heavy ion collisions in terms of the chiral magnetic effect.

  17. Observation of Charge-Dependent Azimuthal Correlations in p-Pb Collisions and Its Implication for the Search for the Chiral Magnetic Effect.

    PubMed

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Lanaro, A; Levine, A; Long, K; Loveless, R; Ojalvo, I; Perry, T; Pierro, G A; Polese, G; Ruggles, T; Savin, A; Smith, N; Smith, W H; Taylor, D; Woods, N

    2017-03-24

    Charge-dependent azimuthal particle correlations with respect to the second-order event plane in p-Pb and PbPb collisions at a nucleon-nucleon center-of-mass energy of 5.02 TeV have been studied with the CMS experiment at the LHC. The measurement is performed with a three-particle correlation technique, using two particles with the same or opposite charge within the pseudorapidity range |η|<2.4, and a third particle measured in the hadron forward calorimeters (4.4<|η|<5). The observed differences between the same and opposite sign correlations, as functions of multiplicity and η gap between the two charged particles, are of similar magnitude in p-Pb and PbPb collisions at the same multiplicities. These results pose a challenge for the interpretation of charge-dependent azimuthal correlations in heavy ion collisions in terms of the chiral magnetic effect.

  18. Observation of charge-dependent azimuthal correlations in pPb collisions and its implication for the search for the chiral magnetic effect

    SciTech Connect

    Khachatryan, Vardan; et al.

    2016-10-02

    Charge-dependent azimuthal particle correlations with respect to the second-order event plane in pPb and PbPb collisions at a nucleon-nucleon center-of-mass energy of 5.02 TeV have been studied with the CMS experiment at the LHC. The measurement is performed with a three-particle correlation technique, using two particles with the same or opposite charge within the pseudorapidity range abs(eta)<2.4, and a third particle measured in the hadron forward calorimeters (4.4< abs(eta)<5). The observed differences between the same and opposite sign correlations, as functions of multiplicity and eta gap between the two charged particles, are of similar magnitude in pPb and PbPb collisions at the same multiplicities. These results pose a challenge for the interpretation of charge-dependent azimuthal correlations in heavy ion collisions in terms of the chiral magnetic effect.

  19. Observation of Transverse Spin-Dependent Azimuthal Correlations of Charged Pion Pairs in p↑+p at √{s }=200 GeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamczyk, L.; Adkins, J. K.; Agakishiev, G.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Ahammed, Z.; Alekseev, I.; Alford, J.; Aparin, A.; Arkhipkin, D.; Aschenauer, E. C.; Averichev, G. S.; Banerjee, A.; Bellwied, R.; Bhasin, A.; Bhati, A. K.; Bhattarai, P.; Bielcik, J.; Bielcikova, J.; Bland, L. C.; Bordyuzhin, I. G.; Bouchet, J.; Brandin, A. V.; Bunzarov, I.; Burton, T. P.; Butterworth, J.; Caines, H.; Calderón de la Barca Sánchez, M.; Campbell, J. M.; Cebra, D.; Cervantes, M. C.; Chakaberia, I.; Chaloupka, P.; Chang, Z.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chen, J. H.; Chen, X.; Cheng, J.; Cherney, M.; Christie, W.; Contin, G.; Crawford, H. J.; Das, S.; De Silva, L. C.; Debbe, R. R.; Dedovich, T. G.; Deng, J.; Derevschikov, A. A.; di Ruzza, B.; Didenko, L.; Dilks, C.; Dong, X.; Drachenberg, J. L.; Draper, J. E.; Du, C. M.; Dunkelberger, L. E.; Dunlop, J. C.; Efimov, L. G.; Engelage, J.; Eppley, G.; Esha, R.; Evdokimov, O.; Eyser, O.; Fatemi, R.; Fazio, S.; Federic, P.; Fedorisin, J.; Feng, Z.; Filip, P.; Fisyak, Y.; Flores, C. E.; Fulek, L.; Gagliardi, C. A.; Garand, D.; Geurts, F.; Gibson, A.; Girard, M.; Greiner, L.; Grosnick, D.; Gunarathne, D. S.; Guo, Y.; Gupta, S.; Gupta, A.; Guryn, W.; Hamad, A.; Hamed, A.; Haque, R.; Harris, J. W.; He, L.; Heppelmann, S.; Heppelmann, S.; Hirsch, A.; Hoffmann, G. W.; Hofman, D. J.; Horvat, S.; Huang, B.; Huang, X.; Huang, H. Z.; Huck, P.; Humanic, T. J.; Igo, G.; Jacobs, W. W.; Jang, H.; Jiang, K.; Judd, E. G.; Kabana, S.; Kalinkin, D.; Kang, K.; Kauder, K.; Ke, H. W.; Keane, D.; Kechechyan, A.; Khan, Z. H.; Kikola, D. P.; Kisel, I.; Kisiel, A.; Kochenda, L.; Koetke, D. D.; Kollegger, T.; Kosarzewski, L. K.; Kraishan, A. F.; Kravtsov, P.; Krueger, K.; Kulakov, I.; Kumar, L.; Kycia, R. A.; Lamont, M. A. C.; Landgraf, J. M.; Landry, K. D.; Lauret, J.; Lebedev, A.; Lednicky, R.; Lee, J. H.; Li, X.; Li, C.; Li, W.; Li, Z. M.; Li, Y.; Li, X.; Lisa, M. A.; Liu, F.; Ljubicic, T.; Llope, W. J.; Lomnitz, M.; Longacre, R. S.; Luo, X.; Ma, Y. G.; Ma, G. L.; Ma, L.; Ma, R.; Magdy, N.; Majka, R.; Manion, A.; Margetis, S.; Markert, C.; Masui, H.; Matis, H. S.; McDonald, D.; Meehan, K.; Minaev, N. G.; Mioduszewski, S.; Mohanty, B.; Mondal, M. M.; Morozov, D.; Mustafa, M. K.; Nandi, B. K.; Nasim, Md.; Nayak, T. K.; Nigmatkulov, G.; Nogach, L. V.; Noh, S. Y.; Novak, J.; Nurushev, S. B.; Odyniec, G.; Ogawa, A.; Oh, K.; Okorokov, V.; Olvitt, D.; Page, B. S.; Pak, R.; Pan, Y. X.; Pandit, Y.; Panebratsev, Y.; Pawlik, B.; Pei, H.; Perkins, C.; Peterson, A.; Pile, P.; Planinic, M.; Pluta, J.; Poljak, N.; Poniatowska, K.; Porter, J.; Posik, M.; Poskanzer, A. M.; Pruthi, N. K.; Putschke, J.; Qiu, H.; Quintero, A.; Ramachandran, S.; Raniwala, R.; Raniwala, S.; Ray, R. L.; Ritter, H. G.; Roberts, J. B.; Rogachevskiy, O. V.; Romero, J. L.; Roy, A.; Ruan, L.; Rusnak, J.; Rusnakova, O.; Sahoo, N. R.; Sahu, P. K.; Sakrejda, I.; Salur, S.; Sandweiss, J.; Sarkar, A.; Schambach, J.; Scharenberg, R. P.; Schmah, A. M.; Schmidke, W. B.; Schmitz, N.; Seger, J.; Seyboth, P.; Shah, N.; Shahaliev, E.; Shanmuganathan, P. V.; Shao, M.; Sharma, M. K.; Sharma, B.; Shen, W. Q.; Shi, S. S.; Shou, Q. Y.; Sichtermann, E. P.; Sikora, R.; Simko, M.; Skoby, M. J.; Smirnov, D.; Smirnov, N.; Song, L.; Sorensen, P.; Spinka, H. M.; Srivastava, B.; Stanislaus, T. D. S.; Stepanov, M.; Stock, R.; Strikhanov, M.; Stringfellow, B.; Sumbera, M.; Summa, B.; Sun, X.; Sun, Z.; Sun, X. M.; Sun, Y.; Surrow, B.; Svirida, N.; Szelezniak, M. A.; Tang, A. H.; Tang, Z.; Tarnowsky, T.; Tawfik, A. N.; Thomas, J. H.; Timmins, A. R.; Tlusty, D.; Tokarev, M.; Trentalange, S.; Tribble, R. E.; Tribedy, P.; Tripathy, S. K.; Trzeciak, B. A.; Tsai, O. D.; Ullrich, T.; Underwood, D. G.; Upsal, I.; Van Buren, G.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G.; Vandenbroucke, M.; Varma, R.; Vasiliev, A. N.; Vertesi, R.; Videbæk, F.; Viyogi, Y. P.; Vokal, S.; Voloshin, S. A.; Vossen, A.; Wang, G.; Wang, Y.; Wang, F.; Wang, Y.; Wang, H.; Wang, J. S.; Webb, J. C.; Webb, G.; Wen, L.; Westfall, G. D.; Wieman, H.; Wissink, S. W.; Witt, R.; Wu, Y. F.; Xiao, Z. G.; Xie, W.; Xin, K.; Xu, Q. H.; Xu, Z.; Xu, H.; Xu, N.; Xu, Y. F.; Yang, Q.; Yang, Y.; Yang, S.; Yang, Y.; Yang, C.; Ye, Z.; Yepes, P.; Yi, L.; Yip, K.; Yoo, I.-K.; Yu, N.; Zbroszczyk, H.; Zha, W.; Zhang, X. P.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, J. B.; Zhang, S.; Zhang, Z.; Zhao, J.; Zhong, C.; Zhou, L.; Zhu, X.; Zoulkarneeva, Y.; Zyzak, M.; STAR Collaboration

    2015-12-01

    We report the observation of transverse polarization-dependent azimuthal correlations in charged pion pair production with the STAR experiment in p↑+p collisions at RHIC. These correlations directly probe quark transversity distributions. We measure signals in excess of 5 standard deviations at high transverse momenta, at high pseudorapidities η >0.5 , and for pair masses around the mass of the ρ meson. This is the first direct transversity measurement in p +p collisions.

  20. Observation of Transverse Spin-Dependent Azimuthal Correlations of Charged Pion Pairs in p^{↑}+p at sqrt[s]=200  GeV.

    PubMed

    Adamczyk, L; Adkins, J K; Agakishiev, G; Aggarwal, M M; Ahammed, Z; Alekseev, I; Alford, J; Aparin, A; Arkhipkin, D; Aschenauer, E C; Averichev, G S; Banerjee, A; Bellwied, R; Bhasin, A; Bhati, A K; Bhattarai, P; Bielcik, J; Bielcikova, J; Bland, L C; Bordyuzhin, I G; Bouchet, J; Brandin, A V; Bunzarov, I; Burton, T P; Butterworth, J; Caines, H; Calderón de la Barca Sánchez, M; Campbell, J M; Cebra, D; Cervantes, M C; Chakaberia, I; Chaloupka, P; Chang, Z; Chattopadhyay, S; Chen, J H; Chen, X; Cheng, J; Cherney, M; Christie, W; Contin, G; Crawford, H J; Das, S; De Silva, L C; Debbe, R R; Dedovich, T G; Deng, J; Derevschikov, A A; di Ruzza, B; Didenko, L; Dilks, C; Dong, X; Drachenberg, J L; Draper, J E; Du, C M; Dunkelberger, L E; Dunlop, J C; Efimov, L G; Engelage, J; Eppley, G; Esha, R; Evdokimov, O; Eyser, O; Fatemi, R; Fazio, S; Federic, P; Fedorisin, J; Feng, Z; Filip, P; Fisyak, Y; Flores, C E; Fulek, L; Gagliardi, C A; Garand, D; Geurts, F; Gibson, A; Girard, M; Greiner, L; Grosnick, D; Gunarathne, D S; Guo, Y; Gupta, S; Gupta, A; Guryn, W; Hamad, A; Hamed, A; Haque, R; Harris, J W; He, L; Heppelmann, S; Heppelmann, S; Hirsch, A; Hoffmann, G W; Hofman, D J; Horvat, S; Huang, B; Huang, X; Huang, H Z; Huck, P; Humanic, T J; Igo, G; Jacobs, W W; Jang, H; Jiang, K; Judd, E G; Kabana, S; Kalinkin, D; Kang, K; Kauder, K; Ke, H W; Keane, D; Kechechyan, A; Khan, Z H; Kikola, D P; Kisel, I; Kisiel, A; Kochenda, L; Koetke, D D; Kollegger, T; Kosarzewski, L K; Kraishan, A F; Kravtsov, P; Krueger, K; Kulakov, I; Kumar, L; Kycia, R A; Lamont, M A C; Landgraf, J M; Landry, K D; Lauret, J; Lebedev, A; Lednicky, R; Lee, J H; Li, X; Li, C; Li, W; Li, Z M; Li, Y; Li, X; Lisa, M A; Liu, F; Ljubicic, T; Llope, W J; Lomnitz, M; Longacre, R S; Luo, X; Ma, Y G; Ma, G L; Ma, L; Ma, R; Magdy, N; Majka, R; Manion, A; Margetis, S; Markert, C; Masui, H; Matis, H S; McDonald, D; Meehan, K; Minaev, N G; Mioduszewski, S; Mohanty, B; Mondal, M M; Morozov, D; Mustafa, M K; Nandi, B K; Nasim, Md; Nayak, T K; Nigmatkulov, G; Nogach, L V; Noh, S Y; Novak, J; Nurushev, S B; Odyniec, G; Ogawa, A; Oh, K; Okorokov, V; Olvitt, D; Page, B S; Pak, R; Pan, Y X; Pandit, Y; Panebratsev, Y; Pawlik, B; Pei, H; Perkins, C; Peterson, A; Pile, P; Planinic, M; Pluta, J; Poljak, N; Poniatowska, K; Porter, J; Posik, M; Poskanzer, A M; Pruthi, N K; Putschke, J; Qiu, H; Quintero, A; Ramachandran, S; Raniwala, R; Raniwala, S; Ray, R L; Ritter, H G; Roberts, J B; Rogachevskiy, O V; Romero, J L; Roy, A; Ruan, L; Rusnak, J; Rusnakova, O; Sahoo, N R; Sahu, P K; Sakrejda, I; Salur, S; Sandweiss, J; Sarkar, A; Schambach, J; Scharenberg, R P; Schmah, A M; Schmidke, W B; Schmitz, N; Seger, J; Seyboth, P; Shah, N; Shahaliev, E; Shanmuganathan, P V; Shao, M; Sharma, M K; Sharma, B; Shen, W Q; Shi, S S; Shou, Q Y; Sichtermann, E P; Sikora, R; Simko, M; Skoby, M J; Smirnov, D; Smirnov, N; Song, L; Sorensen, P; Spinka, H M; Srivastava, B; Stanislaus, T D S; Stepanov, M; Stock, R; Strikhanov, M; Stringfellow, B; Sumbera, M; Summa, B; Sun, X; Sun, Z; Sun, X M; Sun, Y; Surrow, B; Svirida, N; Szelezniak, M A; Tang, A H; Tang, Z; Tarnowsky, T; Tawfik, A N; Thomas, J H; Timmins, A R; Tlusty, D; Tokarev, M; Trentalange, S; Tribble, R E; Tribedy, P; Tripathy, S K; Trzeciak, B A; Tsai, O D; Ullrich, T; Underwood, D G; Upsal, I; Van Buren, G; van Nieuwenhuizen, G; Vandenbroucke, M; Varma, R; Vasiliev, A N; Vertesi, R; Videbæk, F; Viyogi, Y P; Vokal, S; Voloshin, S A; Vossen, A; Wang, G; Wang, Y; Wang, F; Wang, Y; Wang, H; Wang, J S; Webb, J C; Webb, G; Wen, L; Westfall, G D; Wieman, H; Wissink, S W; Witt, R; Wu, Y F; Xiao, Z G; Xie, W; Xin, K; Xu, Q H; Xu, Z; Xu, H; Xu, N; Xu, Y F; Yang, Q; Yang, Y; Yang, S; Yang, Y; Yang, C; Ye, Z; Yepes, P; Yi, L; Yip, K; Yoo, I-K; Yu, N; Zbroszczyk, H; Zha, W; Zhang, X P; Zhang, J; Zhang, Y; Zhang, J; Zhang, J B; Zhang, S; Zhang, Z; Zhao, J; Zhong, C; Zhou, L; Zhu, X; Zoulkarneeva, Y; Zyzak, M

    2015-12-11

    We report the observation of transverse polarization-dependent azimuthal correlations in charged pion pair production with the STAR experiment in p^{↑}+p collisions at RHIC. These correlations directly probe quark transversity distributions. We measure signals in excess of 5 standard deviations at high transverse momenta, at high pseudorapidities η>0.5, and for pair masses around the mass of the ρ meson. This is the first direct transversity measurement in p+p collisions.

  1. Beam Energy Dependence of the Third Harmonic of Azimuthal Correlations in Au+Au Collisions at RHIC

    DOE PAGES

    Adamczyk, L.; Adkins, J. K.; Agakishiev, G.; ...

    2016-03-18

    In this paper, we present results from a harmonic decomposition of two-particle azimuthal correlations measured with the STAR detector in Au + Au collisions for energies ranging from √sNN = 7.7 to 200 GeV. The third harmonic vmore » $$2\\atop{3}$${ 2 } = , where Φ1 - Φ2 is the angular difference in azimuth, is studied as a function of the pseudorapidity difference between particle pairs Δη = η1-η2 . Nonzero v$$2\\atop{3}$${ 2 } is directly related to the previously observed large- Δη narrow- ΔΦ ridge correlations and has been shown in models to be sensitive to the existence of a low viscosity quark gluon plasma phase. For sufficiently central collisions, v$$2\\atop{3}$${ 2 } persist down to an energy of 7.7 GeV, suggesting that quark gluon plasma may be created even in these low energy collisions. In peripheral collisions at these low energies, however, v$$2\\atop{3}$${ 2 } is consistent with zero. Finally, when scaled by the pseudorapidity density of charged-particle multiplicity per participating nucleon pair, v$$2\\atop{3}$${ 2 } for central collisions shows a minimum near √sNN = 20 GeV .« less

  2. Beam Energy Dependence of the Third Harmonic of Azimuthal Correlations in Au+Au Collisions at RHIC.

    PubMed

    Adamczyk, L; Adkins, J K; Agakishiev, G; Aggarwal, M M; Ahammed, Z; Alekseev, I; Aparin, A; Arkhipkin, D; Aschenauer, E C; Attri, A; Averichev, G S; Bai, X; Bairathi, V; Bellwied, R; Bhasin, A; Bhati, A K; Bhattarai, P; Bielcik, J; Bielcikova, J; Bland, L C; Bordyuzhin, I G; Bouchet, J; Brandenburg, J D; Brandin, A V; Bunzarov, I; Butterworth, J; Caines, H; Calderón de la Barca Sánchez, M; Campbell, J M; Cebra, D; Chakaberia, I; Chaloupka, P; Chang, Z; Chatterjee, A; Chattopadhyay, S; Chen, J H; Chen, X; Cheng, J; Cherney, M; Christie, W; Contin, G; Crawford, H J; Das, S; De Silva, L C; Debbe, R R; Dedovich, T G; Deng, J; Derevschikov, A A; di Ruzza, B; Didenko, L; Dilks, C; Dong, X; Drachenberg, J L; Draper, J E; Du, C M; Dunkelberger, L E; Dunlop, J C; Efimov, L G; Engelage, J; Eppley, G; Esha, R; Evdokimov, O; Eyser, O; Fatemi, R; Fazio, S; Federic, P; Fedorisin, J; Feng, Z; Filip, P; Fisyak, Y; Flores, C E; Fulek, L; Gagliardi, C A; Garand, D; Geurts, F; Gibson, A; Girard, M; Greiner, L; Grosnick, D; Gunarathne, D S; Guo, Y; Gupta, S; Gupta, A; Guryn, W; Hamad, A I; Hamed, A; Haque, R; Harris, J W; He, L; Heppelmann, S; Heppelmann, S; Hirsch, A; Hoffmann, G W; Horvat, S; Huang, T; Huang, X; Huang, B; Huang, H Z; Huck, P; Humanic, T J; Igo, G; Jacobs, W W; Jang, H; Jentsch, A; Jia, J; Jiang, K; Judd, E G; Kabana, S; Kalinkin, D; Kang, K; Kauder, K; Ke, H W; Keane, D; Kechechyan, A; Khan, Z H; Kikoła, D P; Kisel, I; Kisiel, A; Kochenda, L; Koetke, D D; Kosarzewski, L K; Kraishan, A F; Kravtsov, P; Krueger, K; Kumar, L; Lamont, M A C; Landgraf, J M; Landry, K D; Lauret, J; Lebedev, A; Lednicky, R; Lee, J H; Li, X; Li, C; Li, X; Li, Y; Li, W; Lin, T; Lisa, M A; Liu, F; Ljubicic, T; Llope, W J; Lomnitz, M; Longacre, R S; Luo, X; Ma, R; Ma, G L; Ma, Y G; Ma, L; Magdy, N; Majka, R; Manion, A; Margetis, S; Markert, C; Matis, H S; McDonald, D; McKinzie, S; Meehan, K; Mei, J C; Minaev, N G; Mioduszewski, S; Mishra, D; Mohanty, B; Mondal, M M; Morozov, D A; Mustafa, M K; Nandi, B K; Nasim, Md; Nayak, T K; Nigmatkulov, G; Niida, T; Nogach, L V; Noh, S Y; Novak, J; Nurushev, S B; Odyniec, G; Ogawa, A; Oh, K; Okorokov, V A; Olvitt, D; Page, B S; Pak, R; Pan, Y X; Pandit, Y; Panebratsev, Y; Pawlik, B; Pei, H; Perkins, C; Pile, P; Pluta, J; Poniatowska, K; Porter, J; Posik, M; Poskanzer, A M; Pruthi, N K; Putschke, J; Qiu, H; Quintero, A; Ramachandran, S; Raniwala, S; Raniwala, R; Ray, R L; Ritter, H G; Roberts, J B; Rogachevskiy, O V; Romero, J L; Ruan, L; Rusnak, J; Rusnakova, O; Sahoo, N R; Sahu, P K; Sakrejda, I; Salur, S; Sandweiss, J; Sarkar, A; Schambach, J; Scharenberg, R P; Schmah, A M; Schmidke, W B; Schmitz, N; Seger, J; Seyboth, P; Shah, N; Shahaliev, E; Shanmuganathan, P V; Shao, M; Sharma, A; Sharma, B; Sharma, M K; Shen, W Q; Shi, Z; Shi, S S; Shou, Q Y; Sichtermann, E P; Sikora, R; Simko, M; Singha, S; Skoby, M J; Smirnov, N; Smirnov, D; Solyst, W; Song, L; Sorensen, P; Spinka, H M; Srivastava, B; Stanislaus, T D S; Stepanov, M; Stock, R; Strikhanov, M; Stringfellow, B; Sumbera, M; Summa, B; Sun, Z; Sun, X M; Sun, Y; Surrow, B; Svirida, D N; Tang, Z; Tang, A H; Tarnowsky, T; Tawfik, A; Thäder, J; Thomas, J H; Timmins, A R; Tlusty, D; Todoroki, T; Tokarev, M; Trentalange, S; Tribble, R E; Tribedy, P; Tripathy, S K; Tsai, O D; Ullrich, T; Underwood, D G; Upsal, I; Van Buren, G; van Nieuwenhuizen, G; Vandenbroucke, M; Varma, R; Vasiliev, A N; Vertesi, R; Videbæk, F; Vokal, S; Voloshin, S A; Vossen, A; Wang, F; Wang, G; Wang, J S; Wang, H; Wang, Y; Wang, Y; Webb, G; Webb, J C; Wen, L; Westfall, G D; Wieman, H; Wissink, S W; Witt, R; Wu, Y; Xiao, Z G; Xie, W; Xie, G; Xin, K; Xu, Y F; Xu, Q H; Xu, N; Xu, H; Xu, Z; Xu, J; Yang, S; Yang, Y; Yang, Y; Yang, C; Yang, Y; Yang, Q; Ye, Z; Ye, Z; Yepes, P; Yi, L; Yip, K; Yoo, I-K; Yu, N; Zbroszczyk, H; Zha, W; Zhang, X P; Zhang, Y; Zhang, J; Zhang, J; Zhang, S; Zhang, S; Zhang, Z; Zhang, J B; Zhao, J; Zhong, C; Zhou, L; Zhu, X; Zoulkarneeva, Y; Zyzak, M

    2016-03-18

    We present results from a harmonic decomposition of two-particle azimuthal correlations measured with the STAR detector in Au+Au collisions for energies ranging from sqrt[s_{NN}]=7.7 to 200 GeV. The third harmonic v_{3}^{2}{2}=⟨cos3(ϕ_{1}-ϕ_{2})⟩, where ϕ_{1}-ϕ_{2} is the angular difference in azimuth, is studied as a function of the pseudorapidity difference between particle pairs Δη=η_{1}-η_{2}. Nonzero v_{3}^{2}{2} is directly related to the previously observed large-Δη narrow-Δϕ ridge correlations and has been shown in models to be sensitive to the existence of a low viscosity quark gluon plasma phase. For sufficiently central collisions, v_{3}^{2}{2} persist down to an energy of 7.7 GeV, suggesting that quark gluon plasma may be created even in these low energy collisions. In peripheral collisions at these low energies, however, v_{3}^{2}{2} is consistent with zero. When scaled by the pseudorapidity density of charged-particle multiplicity per participating nucleon pair, v_{3}^{2}{2} for central collisions shows a minimum near sqrt[s_{NN}]=20  GeV.

  3. Dependence of enhanced asymmetry-induced transport on collision frequency

    SciTech Connect

    Eggleston, D. L.

    2014-07-15

    A single-particle code with collisional effects is used to study how asymmetry-induced radial transport in a non-neutral plasma depends on collision frequency. For asymmetries of the form ϕ{sub 1}(r) cos(kz) cos(ωt−lθ), two sources for the transport have been identified: resonant particles and axially trapped particles. The simulation shows that this latter type, which occurs near the radius where ω matches the azimuthal rotation frequency ω{sub R}, is usually dominant at low collision frequency ν but becomes negligible at higher ν. This behavior can be understood by noting that axially trapped particles have a lower trapping frequency than resonant particles. In the low ν (banana) regime, the radial oscillations have amplitude Δr ≈ v{sub r}/ω{sub T}, so axially trapped particles dominate, and the transport may even exceed the resonant particle plateau regime level. As ν increases, collisions start to interrupt the slower axially trapped particle oscillations, while the resonant particles are still in the banana regime, so the axially trapped particle contribution to the transport decreases. At the largest ν values, axially trapped particle transport is negligible and the observed diffusion coefficient matches that given by plateau regime resonant particle theory. Heuristic models based on these considerations give reasonable agreement with the observed scaling laws for the value of the collision frequency where axially trapped particle transport starts to decrease and for the enhancement of the diffusion coefficient produced by axially trapped particles.

  4. Azimuthal Dependence of the Ground Motion Variability from Scenario Modeling of the 2014 Mw6.0 South Napa, California, Earthquake Using an Advanced Kinematic Source Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallovič, F.

    2016-11-01

    Strong ground motion simulations require physically plausible earthquake source model. Here, I present the application of such a kinematic model introduced originally by Ruiz et al. (Geophys J Int 186:226-244, 2011). The model is constructed to inherently provide synthetics with the desired omega-squared spectral decay in the full frequency range. The source is composed of randomly distributed overlapping subsources with fractal number-size distribution. The position of the subsources can be constrained by prior knowledge of major asperities (stemming, e.g., from slip inversions), or can be completely random. From earthquake physics point of view, the model includes positive correlation between slip and rise time as found in dynamic source simulations. Rupture velocity and rise time follows local S-wave velocity profile, so that the rupture slows down and rise times increase close to the surface, avoiding unrealistically strong ground motions. Rupture velocity can also have random variations, which result in irregular rupture front while satisfying the causality principle. This advanced kinematic broadband source model is freely available and can be easily incorporated into any numerical wave propagation code, as the source is described by spatially distributed slip rate functions, not requiring any stochastic Green's functions. The source model has been previously validated against the observed data due to the very shallow unilateral 2014 Mw6 South Napa, California, earthquake; the model reproduces well the observed data including the near-fault directivity (Seism Res Lett 87:2-14, 2016). The performance of the source model is shown here on the scenario simulations for the same event. In particular, synthetics are compared with existing ground motion prediction equations (GMPEs), emphasizing the azimuthal dependence of the between-event ground motion variability. I propose a simple model reproducing the azimuthal variations of the between-event ground motion

  5. Gravity-dependent transport in industrial processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ostrach, Simon; Kamotani, Yasuhiro

    1994-01-01

    Gravity-dependent transport phenomena in various industrial processes are investigated in order to address a broader range of microgravity phenomena and to develop new applications of microgravity. A number of important topics are identified and analyzed in detail. The present article describes results on coating flow, zeolite growth, and rotating electrochemical system.

  6. Gravity-Dependent Transport in Industrial Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ostrach, Simon; Kamotani, Yasuhiro

    1996-01-01

    Gravity dependent transport phenomena in various industrial processes are investigated in order to indicate new directions for micro-gravity research that enhance the commercial success of the space program. The present article describes the commercialization possibilities of such topics associated with physicochemical transport phenomena. The topics are: coating flow, rotating electrochemical system, and convection in low Plandtl number fluids. The present study is directed to understand these phenomena, and to develop a knowledge base for their applications with emphasis to a micro-gravity environment.

  7. Dissipative time-dependent quantum transport theory.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu; Yam, Chi Yung; Chen, GuanHua

    2013-04-28

    A dissipative time-dependent quantum transport theory is developed to treat the transient current through molecular or nanoscopic devices in presence of electron-phonon interaction. The dissipation via phonon is taken into account by introducing a self-energy for the electron-phonon coupling in addition to the self-energy caused by the electrodes. Based on this, a numerical method is proposed. For practical implementation, the lowest order expansion is employed for the weak electron-phonon coupling case and the wide-band limit approximation is adopted for device and electrodes coupling. The corresponding hierarchical equation of motion is derived, which leads to an efficient and accurate time-dependent treatment of inelastic effect on transport for the weak electron-phonon interaction. The resulting method is applied to a one-level model system and a gold wire described by tight-binding model to demonstrate its validity and the importance of electron-phonon interaction for the quantum transport. As it is based on the effective single-electron model, the method can be readily extended to time-dependent density functional theory.

  8. Local Time and Geomagnetic Activity Dependence of the Distribution of ULF Wave Power on Azimuthal Mode Numbers: Observations and Test Particle Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarris, T. E.; Li, X.

    2015-12-01

    An important parameter that characterizes Ultra-Low Frequency (ULF) waves, and that is critical in correctly approximating the radial diffusion that these waves can inflict on relativistic electrons in the radiation belts, is the waves' mode number, m, which describes the azimuthal wavelength of the waves. A commonly used approximation states that all ULF wave power can be assumed to be in a single mode number, usually m=1 or m=2. We use cross-spectrogram phase-differences between multiple pairs of satellites to get an estimate of m and we find that the distribution of power in the various mode numbers can be considerably different than this approximation at times; we also find a dependence of the m-distribution of power on geomagnetic conditions and on local time, with geomagnetically active times and midnight-side magnetosphere favoring higher mode numbers. We use these results in a particle tracing simulation that includes analytic expressions for the ULF waves, and we discuss their implications for radiation belt electrons.

  9. Web life: Azimuth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2016-09-01

    Azimuth is an interesting hybrid. In part, it's the personal blog of John Carlos Baez, a mathematical physicist at the University of California, Riverside, whose current research focuses mainly on network theory.

  10. Eikonal tomography for earthquake data: surface wave azimuthal anisotropy in the western US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Y.; Ritzwoller, M.; Lin, F.

    2008-12-01

    In principle, seismic anisotropy provides powerful constraints on the deformation of crust and upper mantle. In recent years, numerous models of azimuthal anisotropy from surface wave studies have been interpreted to explain lithospheric and asthenospheric dynamics. The frequency dependence of the azimuthal anisotropy of surface waves yields information on both the lateral and vertical distributions of anisotropy. However, there is a trade-off between azimuthal anisotropy and isotropic wave speeds in traditional surface wave tomography based on large matrix inversions, which typically involve regulation, damping and smoothing. The trade-off potentially biases the direction and amplitude of azimuthal anisotropy. To overcome this problem, we use a new method of surface wave tomography based on the Eikonal equation to obtain surface wave azimuthal anisotropy. The Eikonal equation states that the gradient of a phase travel time surface constrains both the local phase speed and the direction of wave propagation when the amplitudes of seismic waves vary smoothly. In the western US, we have collected surface waves from more than 200 regional and teleseismic earthquakes with magnitudes larger than 5.0, which are recorded on the Earthscope/USArray Transportable Array (TA). We construct phase travel time surfaces for Rayleigh waves following each earthquake. We find that the variations of surface wave amplitudes are smooth compared to those of surface wave phases, which justifies applying the Eikonal equation in surface wave tomography. For each geographic location, we measure azimuthally dependent phase speed based on the phase travel time surface from each earthquake. Assembling results from all earthquakes, we statistically estimate isotropic phase speeds, azimuthal anisotropy, and their uncertainties at periods from 25 to 100 sec across the entire western US. Surface waves at these periods are mainly sensitive to a depth range from the crust to ~150 km. The resulting

  11. Centrality dependence of dihadron correlations and azimuthal anisotropy harmonics in PbPb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}=2.76$ TeV

    SciTech Connect

    Chatrchyan, Serguei; et al.

    2012-05-01

    Measurements from the CMS experiment at the LHC of dihadron correlations for charged particles produced in PbPb collisions at a nucleon-nucleon centre-of-mass energy of 2.76 TeV are presented. The results are reported as a function of the particle transverse momenta (pt) and collision centrality over a broad range in relative pseudorapidity [Delta(eta)] and the full range of relative azimuthal angle [Delta(phi)]. The observed two-dimensional correlation structure in Delta(eta) and Delta(phi) is characterised by a narrow peak at (Delta(eta), Delta(phi)) approximately (0, 0) from jet-like correlations and a long-range structure that persists up to at least |Delta(eta)| = 4. An enhancement of the magnitude of the short-range jet peak is observed with increasing centrality, especially for particles of pt around 1-2 GeV/c. The long-range azimuthal dihadron correlations are extensively studied using a Fourier decomposition analysis. The extracted Fourier coefficients are found to factorise into a product of single-particle azimuthal anisotropies up to pt approximately 3-3.5 GeV/c for at least one particle from each pair, except for the second-order harmonics in the most central PbPb events. Various orders of the single-particle azimuthal anisotropy harmonics are extracted for associated particle pt of 1-3 GeV/c, as a function of the trigger particle pt up to 20 GeV/c and over the full centrality range.

  12. Observations of the azimuthal dependence of normal mode coupling below 4 mHz at the South Pole and its nearby stations: Insights into the anisotropy beneath the Transantarctic Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Xiao Gang

    2016-08-01

    Normal mode coupling pair 0S26-0T26 and 0S27-0T27 are significantly present at the South Pole station QSPA after the 2011/03/11 Mw9.1 Tohoku earthquake. In an attempt to determine the mechanisms responsible for the coupling pairs, I first investigate mode observations at 43 stations distributed along the polar great-circle path for the earthquake and observations at 32 Antarctic stations. I rule out the effect of Earth's rotation as well as the effect of global large-scale lateral heterogeneity, but argue instead for the effect of small-scale local azimuthal anisotropy in a depth extent about 300 km. The presence of quasi-Love waveform in 2-5 mHz at QSPA and its nearby stations confirms the predication. Secondly, I analyze normal mode observations at the South Pole location after 28 large earthquakes from 1998 to 2015. The result indicates that the presence of the mode coupling is azimuthal dependent, which is related to event azimuths in -46° to -18°. I also make a comparison between the shear-wave splitting measurements of previous studies and the mode coupling observations of this study, suggesting that their difference can be explained by a case that the anisotropy responsible for the mode coupling is not just below the South Pole location but located below region close to the Transantarctic Mountains (TAM). Furthermore, more signals of local azimuthal anisotropy in normal-mode observations at QSPA and SBA, such as coupling of 0S12-0T11 and vertical polarization anomaly for 0T10, confirms the existence of deep anisotropy close to TAM, which may be caused by asthenospheric mantle flow and edge convection around cratonic keel of TAM.

  13. Study of the Beam Energy Dependence of Azimuthal Anisotropy Coefficients and Non-Flow Effects in Small System d +Au Collisions at RHIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Pengqi

    2016-09-01

    Recent measurements of azimuthal anisotropy, v_n, in collision systems such as p,d,3He +Au suggest that a quark gluon plasma (QGP) may be formed in these small systems, which would be an unexpected discovery. However, this QGP lives for a shorter time than in larger A +A systems and it is not clear how the azimuthal anisotropy signals develop. Varying the collision energy in d +Au collisions can help to answer this question. However, non-flow effects are more dominant in small systems and must be accounted for in order to draw conclusions. We will show theoretical calculations of v_2 and v_3 in d +Au using different models at several collision energies, and we will present a method based on reference fitting to estimate the non-flow component in actual measurements so that they might be better compared to the theory. (Based on work published in) Division of Nuclear Physics of the U.S. Department of Energy under Grant No. DE-FG02-00ER41152.

  14. The CU 2-D-MAX-DOAS instrument - Part 1: Retrieval of 3-D distributions of NO2 and azimuth-dependent OVOC ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortega, I.; Koenig, T.; Sinreich, R.; Thomson, D.; Volkamer, R.

    2015-06-01

    We present an innovative instrument telescope and describe a retrieval method to probe three-dimensional (3-D) distributions of atmospheric trace gases that are relevant to air pollution and tropospheric chemistry. The University of Colorado (CU) two-dimensional (2-D) multi-axis differential optical absorption spectroscopy (CU 2-D-MAX-DOAS) instrument measures nitrogen dioxide (NO2), formaldehyde (HCHO), glyoxal (CHOCHO), oxygen dimer (O2-O2, or O4), and water vapor (H2O); nitrous acid (HONO), bromine monoxide (BrO), and iodine monoxide (IO) are among other gases that can in principle be measured. Information about aerosols is derived through coupling with a radiative transfer model (RTM). The 2-D telescope has three modes of operation: mode 1 measures solar scattered photons from any pair of elevation angle (-20° < EA < +90° or zenith; zero is to the horizon) and azimuth angle (-180° < AA < +180°; zero being north); mode 2 measures any set of azimuth angles (AAs) at constant elevation angle (EA) (almucantar scans); and mode 3 tracks the direct solar beam via a separate view port. Vertical profiles of trace gases are measured and used to estimate mixing layer height (MLH). Horizontal distributions are then derived using MLH and parameterization of RTM (Sinreich et al., 2013). NO2 is evaluated at different wavelengths (350, 450, and 560 nm), exploiting the fact that the effective path length varies systematically with wavelength. The area probed is constrained by O4 observations at nearby wavelengths and has a diurnal mean effective radius of 7.0 to 25 km around the instrument location; i.e., up to 1960 km2 can be sampled with high time resolution. The instrument was deployed as part of the Multi-Axis DOAS Comparison campaign for Aerosols and Trace gases (MAD-CAT) in Mainz, Germany, from 7 June to 6 July 2013. We present first measurements (modes 1 and 2 only) and describe a four-step retrieval to derive (a) boundary layer vertical profiles and MLH of NO2; (b

  15. On the dependence of the efficiency of a 240 GHz high-power gyrotron on the displacement of the electron beam and on the azimuthal index

    SciTech Connect

    Dumbrajs, O.; Avramidis, K. A.; Franck, J.; Jelonnek, J.

    2014-01-15

    Two issues in the cavity design for a Megawatt-class, 240 GHz gyrotron are addressed. Those are first, the effect of a misaligned electron beam on the gyrotron efficiency and second, a possible azimuthal instability of the gyrotron. The aforementioned effects are important for any gyrotron operation, but could be more critical in the operation of Megawatt-class gyrotrons at frequencies above 200 GHz, which will be the anticipated requirement of DEMO. The target is to provide some basic trends to be considered during the refinement and optimization of the design. Self-consistent calculations are the base for simulations wherever possible. However, in cases for which self-consistent models were not available, fixed-field results are presented. In those cases, the conservative nature of the results should be kept in mind.

  16. Technology of optical azimuth transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Honggang; Hu, Chunsheng; Wang, Xingshu; Gao, Yang

    2012-11-01

    It often needs transfer a reference from one place to another place in aerospace and guided missile launching. At first, principles of several typical optical azimuth transmission methods are presented. Several typical methods are introduced, such as Theodolite (including gyro-theodolite) collimation method, Camera series method, Optical apparatus for azimuth method and polarization modulated light transmission method. For these typical azimuth transmission methods, their essential theories are elaborated. Then the devices, the application fields and limitations of these typical methods' are presented. Theodolite (including gyro-theodolite) collimation method is used in the ground assembly of spacecraft. Camera series method and optical apparatus for azimuth method are used in azimuth transmission between different decks of ship. Polarization modulated light transmission method is used in azimuth transmission of rocket and guided missile. At the last, the further developments of these methods are discussed.

  17. The CU 2-dimensional MAX-DOAS instrument - Part 1: Retrieval of NO2 in 3 dimensions and azimuth dependent OVOC ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortega, I.; Koenig, T.; Sinreich, R.; Thomson, D.; Volkamer, R.

    2014-11-01

    We present an innovative instrument telescope, and describe a retrieval method to probe 3-D distributions of atmospheric trace gases that are relevant to air pollution and tropospheric chemistry. The University of Colorado (CU) two dimensional (2-D) Multi-AXis-Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (CU 2D-MAX-DOAS) instrument measures nitrogen dioxide (NO2), formaldehyde (HCHO), glyoxal (CHOCHO), oxygen dimer (O2-O2, or O4) and water vapor (H2O); also nitrous acid (HONO), bromine monoxide (BrO), iodine monoxide (IO) among other gases can in principle be measured. Information about aerosols is derived through coupling with a radiative transfer model (RTM). The 2-D telescope has 3 modes of operation: (mode 1) measures solar scattered photons from any pair of elevation angle (-20° < EA < +90° or zenith; zero is to the horizon) and azimuth angle (-180° < AA < +180°; zero being North), (mode 2) measures any set of AA at constant EA (almucantar scans); and (mode 3) tracks the direct solar beam via a separate view port. Vertical profiles of trace gases are measured, and used to estimate planetary boundary layer height (PBL). Horizontal distributions are then derived using PBL and parameterization of RTM (Sinreich et al., 2013). NO2 is evaluated at different wavelengths (350, 450, and 560 nm), exploiting the fact that the effective path length varies systematically with wavelength. The area probed is constrained by O4 observations at nearby wavelengths, and has an effective radius of 7.5 to 20 km around the instrument location; i.e., up to 1250 km2 can be sampled near-instantaneously, and with high time resolution. The instrument was deployed as part of the Multi Axis DOAS Comparison campaign for Aerosols and Trace gases (MAD-CAT) in Mainz, Germany from 7 June to 6 July 2013. We present first measurements (modes 1 and 2 only) and describe a four-step retrieval to derive (a) boundary layer vertical profiles of NO2 and PBL; (b) near-surface horizontal distributions

  18. Azimuthal Spoke Propagation in Hall Effect Thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sekerak, Michael J.; Longmier, Benjamin W.; Gallimore, Alec D.; Brown, Daniel L.; Hofer, Richard R.; Polk, James E.

    2013-01-01

    Spokes are azimuthally propagating perturbations in the plasma discharge of Hall Effect Thrusters (HETs) that travel in the E x B direction and have been observed in many different systems. The propagation of azimuthal spokes are investigated in a 6 kW HET known as the H6 using ultra-fast imaging and azimuthally spaced probes. A spoke surface is a 2-D plot of azimuthal light intensity evolution over time calculated from 87,500 frames/s videos. The spoke velocity has been determined using three methods with similar results: manual fitting of diagonal lines on the spoke surface, linear cross-correlation between azimuthal locations and an approximated dispersion relation. The spoke velocity for three discharge voltages (300, 400 and 450 V) and three anode mass flow rates (14.7, 19.5 and 25.2 mg/s) yielded spoke velocities between 1500 and 2200 m/s across a range of normalized magnetic field settings. The spoke velocity was inversely dependent on magnetic field strength for low B-field settings and asymptoted at B-field higher values. The velocities and frequencies are compared to standard drifts and plasma waves such as E x B drift, electrostatic ion cyclotron, magnetosonic and various drift waves. The empirically approximated dispersion relation yielded a characteristic velocity that matched the ion acoustic speed for 5 eV electrons that exist in the near-anode and near-field plume regions of the discharge channel based on internal measurements. Thruster performance has been linked to operating mode where thrust-to-power is maximized when azimuthal spokes are present so investigating the underlying mechanism of spokes will benefit thruster operation.

  19. A Time Dependent Transport Equation Solver

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-05-01

    Using TWIGL Mesh Spacing ............. 63 11 Initial FEMP2D Flux Using 2X TWIGL Mesh Spacing ........ .. 64 12 Time Dependent Thermal Absorption...energy group, and g = G is the lowest ( thermal ) energy group. ?oo(r, E, t) the coefficient in the P approximation that phys- ically r’iDresents the total...than these MrPs. This suggest that the thermal flux calculations could be suspect. Indeed, both the FEMP2D and FMP2DT calculations showed that the

  20. Azimuthal Anisotropy of pi Production in Au+Au Collisions at s_NN = 200 GeV: Path-length Dependence of Jet-Quenching and the Role of Initial Geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Adare, A.; Awes, Terry C; Cianciolo, Vince; Efremenko, Yuri; Enokizono, Akitomo; Read Jr, Kenneth F; Silvermyr, David O; Sorensen, Soren P; Stankus, Paul W; PHENIX, Collaboration

    2010-01-01

    We have measured the azimuthal anisotropy of {pi}{sup 0} production for 1 < p{sub T} < 18 GeV/c for Au+Au collisions at {radical}s{sub NN} = 200 GeV. The observed anisotropy shows a gradual decrease for 3 {approx}< p {approx}< 7-10 GeV/c, but remains positive beyond 10 GeV/c. The magnitude of this anisotropy is underpredicted, up to at least {approx}10 GeV/c, by current perturbative QCD (PQCD) energy-loss model calculations. An estimate of the increase in anisotropy expected from initial-geometry modification due to gluon saturation effects and fluctuations is insufficient to account for this discrepancy. Calculations that implement a path-length dependence steeper than what is implied by current PQCD energy-loss models show reasonable agreement with the data.

  1. Circumpolar Method for Determining Azimuth.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-02-01

    TARGET AZIMUTH DIF FRO%! DIF FROM PoINiTING POINTING MEASURED TRUF AZ. MEANI AZ. 6399.0 381.1 382.1 -2.0 -0.4 6398.9 381.2 382.3 -1.8 -0.2 6398.2...0.46 0.10 0.54 RMS 1.54 FIGURE B91 FIELD TEST DATA 120 STATION EPG EAST TRUF AZIMUTH 376.4 MILS RETICLE (N80-90) AZIMUTH MARK GAT-4 DATE 29 JULY 81

  2. Method for determining astronomic azimuth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Alan G.; Stein, William L.

    1990-09-01

    An improved method is disclosed for fixing position of a land based target site with respect to a reference site in the natural coordinate frame comprising the steps of determining geodetic azimuth between the target site and the reference target using Global Positioning System (GPS) satellites and relative positioning survey techniques; then calculating a relationship using gravity vertical deflections; and then converting the geodetic azimuth to astronomic azimuth. This method has several advantages over conventional methods of targeting, including speed, the ability to work in all weather conditions, and improved accuracy.

  3. Flexible oligocholate foldamers as membrane transporters and their guest-dependent transport mechanism.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shiyong; Zhao, Yan

    2012-01-14

    Dimeric, trimeric, and tetrameric oligocholates with flexible 4-aminobutyroyl spacers caused the efflux of hydrophilic molecules such as carboxyfluorescein (CF) and glucose from POPC/POPG liposomes. Transport was greatly suppressed across higher-melting DPPC membranes. Lipid-mixing assays and dynamic light scattering (DLS) indicated that the liposomes were intact during the transport. Kinetic analysis supported the involvement of monomeric species in the rate-limiting step of CF transport, consistent with a carrier-based mechanism. Glucose transport, on the other hand, displayed a highly unusual zero-order dependence on the oligocholate concentration at low loading of the transporter. Different selectivity was observed in the oligocholate transporters depending on the guest involved.

  4. Post-Golgi anterograde transport requires GARP-dependent endosome-to-TGN retrograde transport.

    PubMed

    Hirata, Tetsuya; Fujita, Morihisa; Nakamura, Shota; Gotoh, Kazuyoshi; Motooka, Daisuke; Murakami, Yoshiko; Maeda, Yusuke; Kinoshita, Taroh

    2015-09-01

    The importance of endosome-to-trans-Golgi network (TGN) retrograde transport in the anterograde transport of proteins is unclear. In this study, genome-wide screening of the factors necessary for efficient anterograde protein transport in human haploid cells identified subunits of the Golgi-associated retrograde protein (GARP) complex, a tethering factor involved in endosome-to-TGN transport. Knockout (KO) of each of the four GARP subunits, VPS51-VPS54, in HEK293 cells caused severely defective anterograde transport of both glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored and transmembrane proteins from the TGN. Overexpression of VAMP4, v-SNARE, in VPS54-KO cells partially restored not only endosome-to-TGN retrograde transport, but also anterograde transport of both GPI-anchored and transmembrane proteins. Further screening for genes whose overexpression normalized the VPS54-KO phenotype identified TMEM87A, encoding an uncharacterized Golgi-resident membrane protein. Overexpression of TMEM87A or its close homologue TMEM87B in VPS54-KO cells partially restored endosome-to-TGN retrograde transport and anterograde transport. Therefore GARP- and VAMP4-dependent endosome-to-TGN retrograde transport is required for recycling of molecules critical for efficient post-Golgi anterograde transport of cell-surface integral membrane proteins. In addition, TMEM87A and TMEM87B are involved in endosome-to-TGN retrograde transport.

  5. Position-dependent effects of polylysine on Sec protein transport.

    PubMed

    Liang, Fu-Cheng; Bageshwar, Umesh K; Musser, Siegfried M

    2012-04-13

    The bacterial Sec protein translocation system catalyzes the transport of unfolded precursor proteins across the cytoplasmic membrane. Using a recently developed real time fluorescence-based transport assay, the effects of the number and distribution of positive charges on the transport time and transport efficiency of proOmpA were examined. As expected, an increase in the number of lysine residues generally increased transport time and decreased transport efficiency. However, the observed effects were highly dependent on the polylysine position in the mature domain. In addition, a string of consecutive positive charges generally had a more significant effect on transport time and efficiency than separating the charges into two or more charged segments. Thirty positive charges distributed throughout the mature domain resulted in effects similar to 10 consecutive charges near the N terminus of the mature domain. These data support a model in which the local effects of positive charge on the translocation kinetics dominate over total thermodynamic constraints. The rapid translocation kinetics of some highly charged proOmpA mutants suggest that the charge is partially shielded from the electric field gradient during transport, possibly by the co-migration of counter ions. The transport times of precursors with multiple positively charged sequences, or "pause sites," were fairly well predicted by a local effect model. However, the kinetic profile predicted by this local effect model was not observed. Instead, the transport kinetics observed for precursors with multiple polylysine segments support a model in which translocation through the SecYEG pore is not the rate-limiting step of transport.

  6. SYMTRAN - A Time-dependent Symmetric Tandem Mirror Transport Code

    SciTech Connect

    Hua, D; Fowler, T

    2004-06-15

    A time-dependent version of the steady-state radial transport model in symmetric tandem mirrors in Ref. [1] has been coded up and first tests performed. Our code, named SYMTRAN, is an adaptation of the earlier SPHERE code for spheromaks, now modified for tandem mirror physics. Motivated by Post's new concept of kinetic stabilization of symmetric mirrors, it is an extension of the earlier TAMRAC rate-equation code omitting radial transport [2], which successfully accounted for experimental results in TMX. The SYMTRAN code differs from the earlier tandem mirror radial transport code TMT in that our code is focused on axisymmetric tandem mirrors and classical diffusion, whereas TMT emphasized non-ambipolar transport in TMX and MFTF-B due to yin-yang plugs and non-symmetric transitions between the plugs and axisymmetric center cell. Both codes exhibit interesting but different non-linear behavior.

  7. Azimuthal τ-p analysis in anisotropic media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sil, Samik; Sen, Mrinal K.

    2008-11-01

    For the purpose of transversely isotropic (TI) normal moveout (NMO) correction, we propose analysis of plane wave transformed azimuthal gathers, interactively using a single azimuth data at a time and a new delay time equation (developed in this paper), which is a function of two parameters at each azimuth. Results from independently estimated multi-azimuth gathers, then, can be combined to estimate stiffness or Thomsen coefficients. Azimuthal τ-p analysis also avoids numerical ray tracing, resulting in a rapid algorithm. We demonstrate the applicability of our method using a set of P-wave synthetic seismograms from a multilayered medium, consisting of isotropic and HTI layers. Azimuth-dependent anisotropy parameters are derived by delay time fitting and NMO correction. The reflections from the bottom interface of an isotropic layer with an anisotropic overburden show apparent anisotropic traveltime behaviour, which is easily accounted for by our layer-stripping based azimuthal NMO analysis. Unlike the previous approximate HTI NMO correction equation, this equation performs better NMO correction for the HTI medium and is also applicable to the VTI medium. Presence of only two reduced parameters in the equation helps the anisotropic parameter estimation become less ambiguous.

  8. Measurement of the azimuthal angle dependence of inclusive jet yields in Pb+Pb collisions at √(sNN)=2.76 TeV with the ATLAS detector.

    PubMed

    Aad, G; Abajyan, T; Abbott, B; Abdallah, J; Abdel Khalek, S; Abdinov, O; Aben, R; Abi, B; Abolins, M; AbouZeid, O S; Abramowicz, H; Abreu, H; Abulaiti, Y; Acharya, B S; Adamczyk, L; Adams, D L; Addy, T N; Adelman, J; Adomeit, S; Adye, T; Aefsky, S; Agatonovic-Jovin, T; Aguilar-Saavedra, J A; Agustoni, M; Ahlen, S P; Ahmad, A; Ahsan, M; Aielli, G; Akesson, T P A; Akimoto, G; Akimov, A V; Alam, M A; Albert, J; Albrand, S; Alconada Verzini, M J; Aleksa, M; Aleksandrov, I N; Alessandria, F; Alexa, C; Alexander, G; Alexandre, G; Alexopoulos, T; Alhroob, M; Aliev, M; Alimonti, G; Alio, L; Alison, J; Allbrooke, B M M; Allison, L J; Allport, P P; Allwood-Spiers, S E; Almond, J; Aloisio, A; Alon, R; Alonso, A; Alonso, F; Altheimer, A; Alvarez Gonzalez, B; Alviggi, M G; Amako, K; Amaral Coutinho, Y; Amelung, C; Ammosov, V V; Amor Dos Santos, S P; Amorim, A; Amoroso, S; Amram, N; Anastopoulos, C; Ancu, L S; Andari, N; Andeen, T; Anders, C F; Anders, G; Anderson, K J; Andreazza, A; Andrei, V; Anduaga, X S; Angelidakis, S; Anger, P; Angerami, A; Anghinolfi, F; Anisenkov, A V; Anjos, N; Annovi, A; Antonaki, A; Antonelli, M; Antonov, A; Antos, J; Anulli, F; Aoki, M; Aperio Bella, L; Apolle, R; Arabidze, G; Aracena, I; Arai, Y; Arce, A T H; Arfaoui, S; Arguin, J-F; Argyropoulos, S; Arik, E; Arik, M; Armbruster, A J; Arnaez, O; Arnal, V; Artamonov, A; Artoni, G; Arutinov, D; Asai, S; Asbah, N; Ask, S; Åsman, B; Asquith, L; Assamagan, K; Astalos, R; Astbury, A; Atkinson, M; Atlay, N B; Auerbach, B; Auge, E; Augsten, K; Aurousseau, M; Avolio, G; Axen, D; Azuelos, G; Azuma, Y; Baak, M A; Bacci, C; Bach, A M; Bachacou, H; Bachas, K; Backes, M; Backhaus, M; Backus Mayes, J; Badescu, E; Bagiacchi, P; Bagnaia, P; Bai, Y; Bailey, D C; Bain, T; Baines, J T; Baker, O K; Baker, S; Balek, P; Balli, F; Banas, E; Banerjee, Sw; Banfi, D; Bangert, A; Bansal, V; Bansil, H S; Barak, L; Baranov, S P; Barber, T; Barberio, E L; Barberis, D; Barbero, M; Bardin, D Y; Barillari, T; Barisonzi, M; Barklow, T; 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Varnes, E W; Varol, T; Varouchas, D; Vartapetian, A; Varvell, K E; Vassilakopoulos, V I; Vazeille, F; Vazquez Schroeder, T; Veatch, J; Veloso, F; Veneziano, S; Ventura, A; Ventura, D; Venturi, M; Venturi, N; Vercesi, V; Verducci, M; Verkerke, W; Vermeulen, J C; Vest, A; Vetterli, M C; Vichou, I; Vickey, T; Vickey Boeriu, O E; Viehhauser, G H A; Viel, S; Vigne, R; Villa, M; Villaplana Perez, M; Vilucchi, E; Vincter, M G; Vinogradov, V B; Virzi, J; Vitells, O; Viti, M; Vivarelli, I; Vives Vaque, F; Vlachos, S; Vladoiu, D; Vlasak, M; Vogel, A; Vokac, P; Volpi, G; Volpi, M; Volpini, G; von der Schmitt, H; von Radziewski, H; von Toerne, E; Vorobel, V; Vos, M; Voss, R; Vossebeld, J H; Vranjes, N; Vranjes Milosavljevic, M; Vrba, V; Vreeswijk, M; Vu Anh, T; Vuillermet, R; Vukotic, I; Vykydal, Z; Wagner, W; Wagner, P; Wahrmund, S; Wakabayashi, J; Walch, S; Walder, J; Walker, R; Walkowiak, W; Wall, R; Waller, P; Walsh, B; Wang, C; Wang, H; Wang, H; Wang, J; Wang, J; Wang, K; Wang, R; Wang, S M; Wang, T; Wang, X; Warburton, A; Ward, C P; Wardrope, D R; Warsinsky, M; Washbrook, A; Wasicki, C; Watanabe, I; Watkins, P M; Watson, A T; Watson, I J; Watson, M F; Watts, G; Watts, S; Waugh, A T; Waugh, B M; Weber, M S; Webster, J S; Weidberg, A R; Weigell, P; Weingarten, J; Weiser, C; Weits, H; Wells, P S; Wenaus, T; Wendland, D; Weng, Z; Wengler, T; Wenig, S; Wermes, N; Werner, M; Werner, P; Werth, M; Wessels, M; Wetter, J; Whalen, K; White, A; White, M J; White, R; White, S; Whiteson, D; Whittington, D; Wicke, D; Wickens, F J; Wiedenmann, W; Wielers, M; Wienemann, P; Wiglesworth, C; Wiik-Fuchs, L A M; Wijeratne, P A; Wildauer, A; Wildt, M A; Wilhelm, I; Wilkens, H G; Will, J Z; Williams, E; Williams, H H; Williams, S; Willis, W; Willocq, S; Wilson, J A; Wilson, A; Wingerter-Seez, I; Winkelmann, S; Winklmeier, F; Wittgen, M; Wittig, T; Wittkowski, J; Wollstadt, S J; Wolter, M W; Wolters, H; Wong, W C; Wooden, G; Wosiek, B K; Wotschack, J; Woudstra, M J; Wozniak, K W; Wraight, K; Wright, M; Wrona, B; Wu, S L; Wu, X; Wu, Y; Wulf, E; Wynne, B M; Xella, S; Xiao, M; Xu, C; Xu, D; Xu, L; Yabsley, B; Yacoob, S; Yamada, M; Yamaguchi, H; Yamaguchi, Y; Yamamoto, A; Yamamoto, K; Yamamoto, S; Yamamura, T; Yamanaka, T; Yamauchi, K; Yamazaki, Y; Yan, Z; Yang, H; Yang, H; Yang, U K; Yang, Y; Yang, Z; Yanush, S; Yao, L; Yasu, Y; Yatsenko, E; Yau Wong, K H; Ye, J; Ye, S; Yen, A L; Yildirim, E; Yilmaz, M; Yoosoofmiya, R; Yorita, K; Yoshida, R; Yoshihara, K; Young, C; Young, C J S; Youssef, S; Yu, D R; Yu, J; Yu, J; Yuan, L; Yurkewicz, A; Zabinski, B; Zaidan, R; Zaitsev, A M; Zambito, S; Zanello, L; Zanzi, D; Zaytsev, A; Zeitnitz, C; Zeman, M; Zemla, A; Zenin, O; Zeniš, T; Zerwas, D; Zevi della Porta, G; Zhang, D; Zhang, H; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhang, X; Zhang, Z; Zhao, Z; Zhemchugov, A; Zhong, J; Zhou, B; Zhou, N; Zhu, C G; Zhu, H; Zhu, J; Zhu, Y; Zhuang, X; Zibell, A; Zieminska, D; Zimin, N I; Zimmermann, C; Zimmermann, R; Zimmermann, S; Zimmermann, S; Zinonos, Z; Ziolkowski, M; Zitoun, R; Zivković, L; Zobernig, G; Zoccoli, A; zur Nedden, M; Zutshi, V; Zwalinski, L

    2013-10-11

    Measurements of the variation of inclusive jet suppression as a function of relative azimuthal angle, Δφ, with respect to the elliptic event plane provide insight into the path-length dependence of jet quenching. ATLAS has measured the Δφ dependence of jet yields in 0.14 nb(-1) of √(s(NN))=2.76 TeV Pb+Pb collisions at the LHC for jet transverse momenta p(T)>45 GeV in different collision centrality bins using an underlying event subtraction procedure that accounts for elliptic flow. The variation of the jet yield with Δφ was characterized by the parameter, v(2)(jet), and the ratio of out-of-plane (Δφ~π/2) to in-plane (Δφ~0) yields. Nonzero v(2)(jet) values were measured in all centrality bins for p(T)<160 GeV. The jet yields are observed to vary by as much as 20% between in-plane and out-of-plane directions.

  9. Glycosylphosphatidylinositol-dependent secretory transport in Trypanosoma brucei.

    PubMed Central

    McDowell, M A; Ransom, D M; Bangs, J D

    1998-01-01

    We have investigated the role of glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchors in forward secretory trafficking using African trypanosomes as a model system. Soluble GPI-minus forms of variant surface glycoprotein (VSG), in which the C-terminal GPI-addition peptide signal is deleted, are secreted from transformed procyclic trypanosomes with 5-fold reduced kinetics, relative to matched GPI-anchored constructs. Cell fractionation and immunofluorescence localization studies indicate that the GPI-minus VSG reporters accumulate in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). This transport defect is specific, since overexpression of GPI-minus VSG has no effect on the rate of transport of a second soluble secretory reporter (BiPN) when co-expressed in the same cells. Two results suggest that delayed forward transport cannot be accounted for by failure to fold/assemble in the absence of a GPI anchor, thereby leading to prolonged association with ER quality-control machinery. First, no evidence was found for elevated association of GPI-minus VSG with the ER molecular chaperone, BiP. Secondly, newly synthesized GPI-minus VSG is dimerized efficiently, as judged by velocity-sedimentation analysis. GPI-dependent transport is not confined to the VSG reporters, because a similar dependence is found with another trypanosomal GPI-anchored protein, trans-sialidase. These findings suggest that GPI structures act in a positive manner to mediate efficient forward transport of some, and perhaps all, GPI-anchored proteins in the early secretory pathway of trypanosomes. Possible mechanisms for GPI-dependent transport are discussed with respect to current models of vesicular trafficking. PMID:9794811

  10. Microfluidic-Enabled Liposomes Elucidate Size-Dependent Transdermal Transport

    PubMed Central

    Junqueira, Mariana; Vreeland, Wyatt N.; Quezado, Zenaide; Finkel, Julia C.; DeVoe, Don L.

    2014-01-01

    Microfluidic synthesis of small and nearly-monodisperse liposomes is used to investigate the size-dependent passive transdermal transport of nanoscale lipid vesicles. While large liposomes with diameters above 105 nm are found to be excluded from deeper skin layers past the stratum corneum, the primary barrier to nanoparticle transport, liposomes with mean diameters between 31–41 nm exhibit significantly enhanced penetration. Furthermore, multicolor fluorescence imaging reveals that the smaller liposomes pass rapidly through the stratum corneum without vesicle rupture. These findings reveal that nanoscale liposomes with well-controlled size and minimal size variance are excellent vehicles for transdermal delivery of functional nanoparticle drugs. PMID:24658111

  11. Substrate-dependent regulation of ascorbate transport in astrocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, J.X.; Jaworski, E.M.; Kulaga, A.; Dixon, S.J. )

    1990-02-26

    Astrocytes possess a concentrative L-ascorbate (vitamin C) uptake mechanism involving a Na{sup +}-dependent L-ascorbate transporter in the plasma membrane. The present study examined the effects of ascorbate deprivation and supplementation on the activity of the transport system. Initial rates of L-ascorbate uptake were measured by incubating primary cultures of rat astrocytes with L-({sup 14}C)ascorbate for 1 minute at 37C. They observed that the maximal uptake rate, V{sub max}, rapidly (<3 hours) increased when cultured cells were deprived of L-ascorbate. There was no change in the apparent affinity (K{sub m}) of the transport system for ascorbate. V{sub max} returned to normal following addition of L-ascorbate, but not D-isoascorbate, to the medium. The authors conclude that astrocytes adapt ascorbate transport rates to changes in substrate availability. Furthermore, the data suggest that the transport system located in the astroglial plasma membrane regulates intracellular ascorbate concentration, because changes in transport rate may compensate for regional differences and temporal fluctuations in extracellular ascorbate levels.

  12. Temperature dependence of charge transport in conjugated single molecule junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huisman, Eek; Kamenetska, Masha; Venkataraman, Latha

    2011-03-01

    Over the last decade, the break junction technique using a scanning tunneling microscope geometry has proven to be an important tool to understand electron transport through single molecule junctions. Here, we use this technique to probe transport through junctions at temperatures ranging from 5K to 300K. We study three amine-terminated (-NH2) conjugated molecules: a benzene, a biphenyl and a terphenyl derivative. We find that amine groups bind selectively to undercoordinate gold atoms gold all the way down to 5K, yielding single molecule junctions with well-defined conductances. Furthermore, we find that the conductance of a single molecule junction increases with temperature and we present a mechanism for this temperature dependent transport result. Funded by a Rubicon Grant from The Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO) and the NSEC program of NSF under grant # CHE-0641523.

  13. Strain-modulation of spin-dependent transport in graphene

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, Zhen-Zhou Hou, Jin; Cheng, Yan-Fu; Li, Guan-Qiang

    2014-10-27

    We investigate strain modulation of the spin-dependent electron transport in a graphene junction using the transfer matrix method. As an analogy to optics, we define the modulation depth in the electron optics domain. Additionally, we discuss the transport properties and show that the modulation depth and the conductance depend on the spin-orbit coupling strength, the strain magnitude, the width of the strained area, and the energy of the incident electron. The conductances of the spin-down and spin-up electrons have opposite and symmetrical variations, which results in the analogous features of their modulation depths. The maximum conditions for both the modulation depth and the electron spin upset rate are also analyzed.

  14. Temperature dependent electrical transport of disordered reduced graphene oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muchharla, Baleeswaraiah; Narayanan, T. N.; Balakrishnan, Kaushik; Ajayan, Pulickel M.; Talapatra, Saikat

    2014-06-01

    We report on the simple route for the synthesis of chemically reduced graphene oxide (rGO) using ascorbic acid (a green chemical) as a reducing agent. Temperature-dependent electrical transport properties of rGO thin films have been studied in a wide range (50 K T 400 K) of temperature. Electrical conduction in rGO thin films was displayed in two different temperature regimes. At higher temperatures, Arrhenius-like temperature dependence of resistance was observed indicating a band gap dominating transport behavior. At lower temperatures, the rGO sample showed a conduction mechanism consistent with Mott's two-dimensional variable range hopping (2D-VRH). An unsaturated negative magnetoresistance (MR) was observed up to 3 T field. A decrease in negative MR at high temperatures is attributed to the phonon scattering of charge carriers.

  15. TonB-dependent outer membrane transport: going for Baroque?

    PubMed

    Wiener, Michael C

    2005-08-01

    The import of essential organometallic micronutrients (such as iron-siderophores and vitamin B(12)) across the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria proceeds via TonB-dependent outer membrane transporters (TBDTs). The TBDT couples to the TonB protein, which is part of a multiprotein complex in the plasma (inner) membrane. Five crystal structures of TBDTs illustrate clearly the architecture of the protein in energy-independent substrate-free and substrate-bound states. In each of the TBDT structures, an N-terminal hatch (or plug or cork) domain occludes the lumen of a 22-stranded beta barrel. The manner by which substrate passes through the transporter (the "hatch-barrel problem") is currently unknown. Solution NMR and X-ray crystallographic structures of various TonB domains indicate a striking structural plasticity of this protein. Thermodynamic, biochemical and bacteriological studies of TonB and TBDTs indicate further that existing structures do not yet capture critical energy-dependent and in vivo conformations of the transport cycle. The reconciliation of structural and non-structural experimental data, and the unambiguous experimental elucidation of a detailed molecular mechanism of transport are current challenges for this field.

  16. Engineering interband transport by time-dependent disorder

    SciTech Connect

    Tayebirad, Ghazal; Mannella, Riccardo; Wimberger, Sandro

    2011-09-15

    We show how the evolution of atoms in a tilted lattice can be changed and controlled by phase noise on the lattice. Dependent on the characteristic parameters of the noise, the interband transport can be either suppressed or enhanced, which is of interest for very precise control in experiments with Bose-Einstein condensates. The effect of the noise on the survival probability in the ground band is summarized in a scaling plot, stressing the universality of our results.

  17. Glial Na(+) -dependent ion transporters in pathophysiological conditions.

    PubMed

    Boscia, Francesca; Begum, Gulnaz; Pignataro, Giuseppe; Sirabella, Rossana; Cuomo, Ornella; Casamassa, Antonella; Sun, Dandan; Annunziato, Lucio

    2016-10-01

    Sodium dynamics are essential for regulating functional processes in glial cells. Indeed, glial Na(+) signaling influences and regulates important glial activities, and plays a role in neuron-glia interaction under physiological conditions or in response to injury of the central nervous system (CNS). Emerging studies indicate that Na(+) pumps and Na(+) -dependent ion transporters in astrocytes, microglia, and oligodendrocytes regulate Na(+) homeostasis and play a fundamental role in modulating glial activities in neurological diseases. In this review, we first briefly introduced the emerging roles of each glial cell type in the pathophysiology of cerebral ischemia, Alzheimer's disease, epilepsy, Parkinson's disease, Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, and myelin diseases. Then, we discussed the current knowledge on the main roles played by the different glial Na(+) -dependent ion transporters, including Na(+) /K(+) ATPase, Na(+) /Ca(2+) exchangers, Na(+) /H(+) exchangers, Na(+) -K(+) -Cl(-) cotransporters, and Na(+) - HCO3- cotransporter in the pathophysiology of the diverse CNS diseases. We highlighted their contributions in cell survival, synaptic pathology, gliotransmission, pH homeostasis, and their role in glial activation, migration, gliosis, inflammation, and tissue repair processes. Therefore, this review summarizes the foundation work for targeting Na(+) -dependent ion transporters in glia as a novel strategy to control important glial activities associated with Na(+) dynamics in different neurological disorders. GLIA 2016;64:1677-1697.

  18. Field dependent spin transport of anisotropic Heisenberg chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezania, H.

    2016-04-01

    We have addressed the static spin conductivity and spin Drude weight of one-dimensional spin-1/2 anisotropic antiferromagnetic Heisenberg chain in the finite magnetic field. We have investigated the behavior of transport properties by means of excitation spectrum in terms of a hard core bosonic representation. The effect of in-plane anisotropy on the spin transport properties has also been studied via the bosonic model by Green's function approach. This anisotropy is considered for exchange constants that couple spin components perpendicular to magnetic field direction. We have found the temperature dependence of the spin conductivity and spin Drude weight in the gapped field induced spin-polarized phase for various magnetic field and anisotropy parameters. Furthermore we have studied the magnetic field dependence of static spin conductivity and Drude weight for various anisotropy parameters. Our results show the regular part of spin conductivity vanishes in isotropic case however Drude weight has a finite non-zero value and the system exhibits ballistic transport properties. We also find the peak in the static spin conductivity factor moves to higher temperature upon increasing the magnetic field at fixed anisotropy. The static spin conductivity is found to be monotonically decreasing with magnetic field due to increase of energy gap in the excitation spectrum. Furthermore we have studied the temperature dependence of spin Drude weight for different magnetic field and various anisotropy parameters.

  19. Cation-dependent nutrient transport in shrimp digestive tract.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Tamla; Mozo, Julie; Wilson, Jennifer; Ahearn, Gregory A

    2012-02-01

    Purified epithelial brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV) were produced from the hepatopancreas of the Atlantic White shrimp, Litopeneaus setiferus, using standard methods originally developed for mammalian tissues and previously applied to other crustacean and echinoderm epithelia. These vesicles were used to study the cation dependency of sugar and amino acid transport across luminal membranes of hepatopancreatic epithelial cells. (3)H-D: -glucose uptake by BBMV against transient sugar concentration gradients occurred when either transmembrane sodium or potassium gradients were the only driving forces for sugar accumulation, suggesting the presence of a possible coupled transport system capable of using either cation. (3)H-L: -histidine transport was only stimulated by a transmembrane potassium gradient, while (3)H-L: -leucine uptake was enhanced by either a sodium or potassium gradient. These responses suggest the possible presence of a potassium-dependent transporter that accommodates either amino acid and a sodium-dependent system restricted only to L: -leucine. Uptake of (3)H-L: -leucine was significantly stimulated (P < 0.05) by several metallic cations (e.g., Zn(2+), Cu(2+), Mn(2+), Cd(2+), or Co(2+)) at external pH values of 7.0 or 5.0 (internal pH 7.0), suggesting a potential synergistic role of the cations in the transmembrane transfer of amino acids. (3)H-L: -histidine influxes (15 suptakes) were hyperbolic functions of external [zinc] or [manganese], following Michaelis-Menten kinetics. The apparent affinity constant (e.g., K (m)) for manganese was an order of magnitude smaller (K (m) = 0.22 μM Mn) than that for zinc (K (m) = 1.80 μM Zn), while no significant difference (P > 0.05) occurred between their maximal transport velocities (e.g., J (max)). These results suggest that a number of cation-dependent nutrient transport systems occur on the shrimp brush border membrane and aid in the absorption of these important dietary elements.

  20. Time-dependent density functional theory for quantum transport.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xiao; Chen, GuanHua; Mo, Yan; Koo, SiuKong; Tian, Heng; Yam, ChiYung; Yan, YiJing

    2010-09-21

    Based on our earlier works [X. Zheng et al., Phys. Rev. B 75, 195127 (2007); J. S. Jin et al., J. Chem. Phys. 128, 234703 (2008)], we propose a rigorous and numerically convenient approach to simulate time-dependent quantum transport from first-principles. The proposed approach combines time-dependent density functional theory with quantum dissipation theory, and results in a useful tool for studying transient dynamics of electronic systems. Within the proposed exact theoretical framework, we construct a number of practical schemes for simulating realistic systems such as nanoscopic electronic devices. Computational cost of each scheme is analyzed, with the expected level of accuracy discussed. As a demonstration, a simulation based on the adiabatic wide-band limit approximation scheme is carried out to characterize the transient current response of a carbon nanotube based electronic device under time-dependent external voltages.

  1. 14 CFR 171.315 - Azimuth monitor system requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Azimuth monitor system requirements. 171.315 Section 171.315 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) NAVIGATIONAL FACILITIES NON-FEDERAL NAVIGATION FACILITIES Microwave Landing...

  2. Spin Dependent Transport in Graphene Nano Ribbon Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souma, Satofumi; Ogawa, Matsuto; Yamamoto, Takahiro; Watanabe, Kazuyuki

    2009-03-01

    Graphene is now one of the promising materials for future nanoelectronics. Especially graphene nanoribbon is attracting great attention since it possesses finite bandgap opening depending on the ribbon width and the transport orientation with respect to the graphene lattice. Another interesting property seen in graphene nanoribbon is the appearance of the ``edge-spin'' polarization at the edges of the zigzag-edged graphene nanoribbon. Recently it has been shown that such edge- spin polarization can be electrically controlled to induce the half-metallic band structure in such structures, meaning the electrical controllability of the spin current in such material. Therefore, toward the realization of the graphene nanoribbon spintronics, it is now important to study the spin- dependent transport characteristics in realistic device structure based on zigzag graphene nanoribbon. Here we present our numerical study of spin transport in zigzag-edged graphene nanoribbon transistor structures [1] using spin-density functional tight-binding method. Special attention is paid to the influence of edge roughness and electrostatic doping on the spin polarization and the spin current. [1] S.Souma, M.Ogawa, T.Yamamoto, K.Watanabe, J.Comp. Electron. 7, 390 (2008).

  3. ATP-dependent substrate transport by the ABC transporter MsbA is proton-coupled

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Himansha; Velamakanni, Saroj; Deery, Michael J.; Howard, Julie; Wei, Shen L.; van Veen, Hendrik W.

    2016-01-01

    ATP-binding cassette transporters mediate the transbilayer movement of a vast number of substrates in or out of cells in organisms ranging from bacteria to humans. Current alternating access models for ABC exporters including the multidrug and Lipid A transporter MsbA from Escherichia coli suggest a role for nucleotide as the fundamental source of free energy. These models involve cycling between conformations with inward- and outward-facing substrate-binding sites in response to engagement and hydrolysis of ATP at the nucleotide-binding domains. Here we report that MsbA also utilizes another major energy currency in the cell by coupling substrate transport to a transmembrane electrochemical proton gradient. The dependence of ATP-dependent transport on proton coupling, and the stimulation of MsbA-ATPase by the chemical proton gradient highlight the functional integration of both forms of metabolic energy. These findings introduce ion coupling as a new parameter in the mechanism of this homodimeric ABC transporter. PMID:27499013

  4. PKCβ–dependent phosphorylation of the glycine transporter 1

    PubMed Central

    Vargas-Medrano, Javier; Castrejon-Tellez, Vicente; Fernando, Plenge; Ramirez, Ivan; Miranda, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    The extracellular levels of the neurotransmitter glycine in the brain are tightly regulated by the glycine transporter 1 (GlyT1) and the clearance rate for glycine depends on its rate of transport and the levels of cell surface GlyT1. Over the years, it has been shown that PKC tightly regulates the activity of several neurotransmitter transporters. In the present work, by stably expressing three N-terminus GlyT1 isoforms in porcine aortic endothelial cells and assaying for [32P]-orthophosphate metabolic labeling, we demonstrated that the isoforms GlyT1a, GlyT1b, and GlyT1c were constitutively phosphorylated, and that phosphorylation was dramatically enhanced, in a time dependent fashion, after PKC activation by phorbol ester. The phosphorylation was PKC-dependent, since pre-incubation of the cells with bisindolylmaleimide I, a selective PKC inhibitor, abolished the phorbol ester-induced phosphorylation. Blotting with specific anti-phospho-tyrosine antibodies did not yield any signal that could correspond to GlyT1 tyrosine phosphorylation, suggesting that the phosphorylation occurs at serine and/or threonine residues. In addition, a 23-40% -inhibition on Vmax was obtained by incubation with phorbol ester without a significant change on the apparent Km value. Furthermore, pre-incubation of the cells with the selective PKCα/β inhibitor Gö6976 abolished the downregulation effect of phorbol ester on uptake and phosphorylation, whereas the selective PKCβ inhibitors (PKCβ inhibitor or LY333531) prevented the phosphorylation without affecting glycine uptake, defining a specific role of classical PKC on GlyT1 uptake and phosphorylation. Taken together, these data suggest that phosphorylation that conventional PKCα/β regulates the uptake of glycine, whereas PKCβ is responsible for GlyT1 phosphorylation. PMID:21864610

  5. Temperature dependence of angular momentum transport across interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Kai; Lin, Weiwei; Chien, C. L.; Zhang, Shufeng

    2016-08-01

    Angular momentum transport in magnetic multilayered structures plays a central role in spintronic physics and devices. The angular momentum currents or spin currents are carried by either quasiparticles such as electrons and magnons, or by macroscopic order parameters such as local magnetization of ferromagnets. Based on the generic interface exchange interaction, we develop a microscopic theory that describes interfacial spin conductance for various interfaces among nonmagnetic metals, ferromagnetic insulators, and antiferromagnetic insulators. Spin conductance and its temperature dependence are obtained for different spin batteries including spin pumping, temperature gradient, and spin Hall effect. As an application of our theory, we calculate the spin current in a trilayer made of a ferromagnetic insulator, an antiferromagnetic insulator, and a nonmagnetic heavy metal. The calculated results on the temperature dependence of spin conductance quantitatively agree with the existing experiments.

  6. Conformation dependent electronic transport in a DNA double-helix

    SciTech Connect

    Kundu, Sourav Karmakar, S. N.

    2015-10-15

    We present a tight-binding study of conformation dependent electronic transport properties of DNA double-helix including its helical symmetry. We have studied the changes in the localization properties of DNA as we alter the number of stacked bases within every pitch of the double-helix keeping fixed the total number of nitrogen bases within the DNA molecule. We take three DNA sequences, two of them are periodic and one is random and observe that in all the cases localization length increases as we increase the radius of DNA double-helix i.e., number of nucleobases within a pitch. We have also investigated the effect of backbone energetic on the I-V response of the system and found that in presence of helical symmetry, depending on the interplay of conformal variation and disorder, DNA can be found in either metallic, semiconducting and insulating phases, as observed experimentally.

  7. Time-Dependent, Parallel Neutral Particle Transport Code System.

    SciTech Connect

    BAKER, RANDAL S.

    2009-09-10

    Version 00 PARTISN (PARallel, TIme-Dependent SN) is the evolutionary successor to CCC-547/DANTSYS. The PARTISN code package is a modular computer program package designed to solve the time-independent or dependent multigroup discrete ordinates form of the Boltzmann transport equation in several different geometries. The modular construction of the package separates the input processing, the transport equation solving, and the post processing (or edit) functions into distinct code modules: the Input Module, the Solver Module, and the Edit Module, respectively. PARTISN is the evolutionary successor to the DANTSYSTM code system package. The Input and Edit Modules in PARTISN are very similar to those in DANTSYS. However, unlike DANTSYS, the Solver Module in PARTISN contains one, two, and three-dimensional solvers in a single module. In addition to the diamond-differencing method, the Solver Module also has Adaptive Weighted Diamond-Differencing (AWDD), Linear Discontinuous (LD), and Exponential Discontinuous (ED) spatial differencing methods. The spatial mesh may consist of either a standard orthogonal mesh or a block adaptive orthogonal mesh. The Solver Module may be run in parallel for two and three dimensional problems. One can now run 1-D problems in parallel using Energy Domain Decomposition (triggered by Block 5 input keyword npeg>0). EDD can also be used in 2-D/3-D with or without our standard Spatial Domain Decomposition. Both the static (fixed source or eigenvalue) and time-dependent forms of the transport equation are solved in forward or adjoint mode. In addition, PARTISN now has a probabilistic mode for Probability of Initiation (static) and Probability of Survival (dynamic) calculations. Vacuum, reflective, periodic, white, or inhomogeneous boundary conditions are solved. General anisotropic scattering and inhomogeneous sources are permitted. PARTISN solves the transport equation on orthogonal (single level or block-structured AMR) grids in 1-D (slab, two

  8. Transport Properties of the Tomato Fruit Tonoplast : III. Temperature Dependence of Calcium Transport.

    PubMed

    Joyce, D C; Cramer, G R; Reid, M S; Bennett, A B

    1988-12-01

    Calcium transport into tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill, cv Castlemart) fruit tonoplast vesicles was studied. Calcium uptake was stimulated approximately 10-fold by MgATP. Two ATP-dependent Ca(2+) transport activities could be resolved on the basis of sensitivity to nitrate and affinity for Ca(2+). A low affinity Ca(2+) uptake system (K(m) > 200 micromolar) was inhibited by nitrate and ionophores and is thought to represent a tonoplast localized H(+)/Ca(2+) antiport. A high affinity Ca(2+) uptake system (K(m) = 6 micromolar) was not inhibited by nitrate, had reduced sensitivity to ionophores, and appeared to be associated with a population of low density endoplasmic reticulum vesicles that contaminated the tonoplast-enriched membrane fraction. Arrhenius plots of the temperature dependence of Ca(2+) transport in tomato membrane vesicles showed a sharp increase in activation energy at temperatures below 10 to 12 degrees C that was not observed in red beet membrane vesicles. This low temperature effect on tonoplast Ca(2+)/H(+) antiport activity could only by partially ascribed to an effect of low temperature on H(+)-ATPase activity, ATP-dependent H(+) transport, passive H(+) fluxes, or passive Ca(2+) fluxes. These results suggest that low temperature directly affects Ca(2+)/H(+) exchange across the tomato fruit tonoplast, resulting in an apparent change in activation energy for the transport reaction. This could result from a direct effect of temperature on the Ca(2+)/H(+) exchange protein or by an indirect effect of temperature on lipid interactions with the Ca(2+)/H(+) exchange protein.

  9. Seismological Detection of Azimuthal Anisotropy in the Transition Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, K.; Beghein, C.

    2010-12-01

    The goal of this research is to determine whether azimuthal anisotropy is present in the transition zone. Mineral physics data demonstrate that wadsleyite, which is likely present in the upper transition zone, is intrinsically anisotropy. However, because the detection of seismic anisotropy at these depths is challenging, its existence in the transition zone is still a matter of debate. It is, nevertheless, an important issue since it can give us insight on the style of convection in the mantle. We apply a singular value decomposition inversion method to global azimuthally anisotropic Love wave phase velocity maps in order to constrain azimuthal anisotropy down to ~1000km depth. We use 70 different modes, fundamental and overtones up to order 5, at periods between 35s and ~175s. This gives us unprecedented sensitivity to elastic parameter G, which describes the azimuthal dependence of vertically polarized shear waves. Our preliminary results show that the best data fit is generally obtained for models that display a non-negligible amount of azimuthal anisotropy in the transition zone. Uncertainties remain regarding the amplitude and the fast direction of the anisotropy, but its presence under continents appears independent of the depth parameterization or the damping applied. Under oceans, the results are less stable with respect to damping and parametrization, and display large parameters trade-offs. This could be due to inconsistencies among the data due to a poorer azimuthal data coverage in those regions. We also tested the influence of the crustal model on the local sensitivity kernels and on the resulting models of azimuthal anisotropy. Our results show that the effect of the crust on parameter G is the strongest in the top 200km, but generally negligible at larger depths.

  10. Transport lattice models of heat transport in skin with spatially heterogeneous, temperature-dependent perfusion

    PubMed Central

    Gowrishankar, TR; Stewart, Donald A; Martin, Gregory T; Weaver, James C

    2004-01-01

    Background Investigation of bioheat transfer problems requires the evaluation of temporal and spatial distributions of temperature. This class of problems has been traditionally addressed using the Pennes bioheat equation. Transport of heat by conduction, and by temperature-dependent, spatially heterogeneous blood perfusion is modeled here using a transport lattice approach. Methods We represent heat transport processes by using a lattice that represents the Pennes bioheat equation in perfused tissues, and diffusion in nonperfused regions. The three layer skin model has a nonperfused viable epidermis, and deeper regions of dermis and subcutaneous tissue with perfusion that is constant or temperature-dependent. Two cases are considered: (1) surface contact heating and (2) spatially distributed heating. The model is relevant to the prediction of the transient and steady state temperature rise for different methods of power deposition within the skin. Accumulated thermal damage is estimated by using an Arrhenius type rate equation at locations where viable tissue temperature exceeds 42°C. Prediction of spatial temperature distributions is also illustrated with a two-dimensional model of skin created from a histological image. Results The transport lattice approach was validated by comparison with an analytical solution for a slab with homogeneous thermal properties and spatially distributed uniform sink held at constant temperatures at the ends. For typical transcutaneous blood gas sensing conditions the estimated damage is small, even with prolonged skin contact to a 45°C surface. Spatial heterogeneity in skin thermal properties leads to a non-uniform temperature distribution during a 10 GHz electromagnetic field exposure. A realistic two-dimensional model of the skin shows that tissue heterogeneity does not lead to a significant local temperature increase when heated by a hot wire tip. Conclusions The heat transport system model of the skin was solved by

  11. Reprint of : Time dependent electronic transport in chiral edge channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fève, G.; Berroir, J.-M.; Plaçais, B.

    2016-08-01

    We study time dependent electronic transport along the chiral edge channels of the quantum Hall regime, focusing on the role of Coulomb interaction. In the low frequency regime, the a.c. conductance can be derived from a lumped element description of the circuit. At higher frequencies, the propagation equations of the Coulomb coupled edge channels need to be solved. As a consequence of the interchannel coupling, a charge pulse emitted in a given channel fractionalized in several pulses. In particular, Coulomb interaction between channels leads to the fractionalization of a charge pulse emitted in a given channel in several pulses. We finally study how the Coulomb interaction, and in particular the fractionalization process, affects the propagation of a single electron in the circuit. All the above-mentioned topics are illustrated by experimental realizations.

  12. Strong Surface Orientation Dependent Thermal Transport in Si Nanowires

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yanguang; Chen, Yuli; Hu, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Thermoelectrics, which convert waste heat to electricity, offer an attractive pathway for addressing an important niche in the globally growing landscape of energy demand. Research to date has focused on reducing the thermal conductivity relative to the bulk. Si nanowires (NWs) have received exceptional attention due to their low-dimensionality, abundance of availability, and high carrier mobility. From thermal transport point of view, the thermal conductivity of Si NWs strongly depends on the detailed surface structure, such as roughness and surface orientation. Here, direct molecular dynamics simulations and theoretical models are used to investigate the thermal transport in Si NWs with diverse surface orientations. Our results show that the thermal conductivity of Si NWs with different surface orientation can differ by as large as 2.7~4.2 times, which suggests a new route to boost the thermoelectric performance. Using the full spectrum theory, we find that the surface orientation, which alters the distribution of atoms on the surface and determines the degree of phonon coupling between the core and the surface, is the dominant mechanism. Furthermore, using spectral thermal conductivity, the remarkable difference in the thermal conductivity for different surface orientation is found to only stem from the phonons in the medium frequency range, with minor contribution from low and high frequency phonons. PMID:27113556

  13. Control parameter dependence of transport coefficients near the glass transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokuyama, Michio

    2013-02-01

    The master curves for transport coefficients, such as self-diffusion coefficient D, shear viscosity η, and electrical conductivity σ, near the glass transition are studied based on the fact recently proposed by the present author that the long-time self-diffusion coefficients in both fragile and strong liquids are well described by the following two types of master curves, depending on whether the control parameter is an intensive one (X) or an extensive one (Y); f(x) = (1-x)2+ɛexp[62x3+ɛ(1-x)2+ɛ] and g(y) = (1-y)2/y, where x = X/Xf and y = Y/Yf, Xf and Yf being fictive singular points to be determined. Here ɛ = 4/3 for fragile liquids and 5/3 for strong liquids. The thermodynamic function Y = h(X) is then used to relate f(x) with g(y) and vice versa. The experimental data and the simulation results for the shear viscosity and the electrical conductivity are also analyzed by using the master curves f(x) and g(y). Thus, it is shown that any transport coefficients are well described by those master curves up to the deviation point, above which all the data start to deviate from the master curves and the system becomes out of equilibrium.

  14. High temperature dependence of thermal transport in graphene foam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Man; Sun, Yi; Xiao, Huying; Hu, Xuejiao; Yue, Yanan

    2015-03-01

    In contrast to the decreased thermal property of carbon materials with temperature according to the Umklapp phonon scattering theory, highly porous free-standing graphene foam (GF) exhibits an abnormal characteristic that its thermal property increases with temperature above room temperature. In this work, the temperature dependence of thermal properties of free-standing GF is investigated by using the transient electro-thermal technique. Significant increase for thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity from ˜0.3 to 1.5 W m-1 K-1 and ˜4 × 10-5 to ˜2 × 10-4 m2 s-1 respectively is observed with temperature from 310 K to 440 K for three GF samples. The quantitative analysis based on a physical model for porous media of Schuetz confirms that the thermal conductance across graphene contacts rather than the heat conductance inside graphene dominates thermal transport of our GFs. The thermal expansion effect at an elevated temperature makes the highly porous structure much tighter is responsible for the reduction in thermal contact resistance. Besides, the radiation heat exchange inside the pores of GFs improves the thermal transport at high temperatures. Since free-standing GF has great potential for being used as supercapacitor and battery electrode where the working temperature is always above room temperature, this finding is beneficial for thermal design of GF-based energy applications.

  15. Strong Surface Orientation Dependent Thermal Transport in Si Nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yanguang; Chen, Yuli; Hu, Ming

    2016-04-01

    Thermoelectrics, which convert waste heat to electricity, offer an attractive pathway for addressing an important niche in the globally growing landscape of energy demand. Research to date has focused on reducing the thermal conductivity relative to the bulk. Si nanowires (NWs) have received exceptional attention due to their low-dimensionality, abundance of availability, and high carrier mobility. From thermal transport point of view, the thermal conductivity of Si NWs strongly depends on the detailed surface structure, such as roughness and surface orientation. Here, direct molecular dynamics simulations and theoretical models are used to investigate the thermal transport in Si NWs with diverse surface orientations. Our results show that the thermal conductivity of Si NWs with different surface orientation can differ by as large as 2.7~4.2 times, which suggests a new route to boost the thermoelectric performance. Using the full spectrum theory, we find that the surface orientation, which alters the distribution of atoms on the surface and determines the degree of phonon coupling between the core and the surface, is the dominant mechanism. Furthermore, using spectral thermal conductivity, the remarkable difference in the thermal conductivity for different surface orientation is found to only stem from the phonons in the medium frequency range, with minor contribution from low and high frequency phonons.

  16. Spin-dependent quantum transport in nanoscaled geometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heremans, Jean J.

    2011-10-01

    We discuss experiments where the spin degree of freedom leads to quantum interference phenomena in the solid-state. Under spin-orbit interactions (SOI), spin rotation modifies weak-localization to weak anti-localization (WAL). WAL's sensitivity to spin- and phase coherence leads to its use in determining the spin coherence lengths Ls in materials, of importance moreover in spintronics. Using WAL we measure the dependence of Ls on the wire width w in narrow nanolithographic ballistic InSb wires, ballistic InAs wires, and diffusive Bi wires with surface states with Rashba-like SOI. In all three systems we find that Ls increases with decreasing w. While theory predicts the increase for diffusive wires with linear (Rashba) SOI, we experimentally conclude that the increase in Ls under dimensional confinement may be more universal, with consequences for various applications. Further, in mesoscopic ring geometries on an InAs/AlGaSb 2D electron system (2DES) we observe both Aharonov-Bohm oscillations due to spatial quantum interference, and Altshuler-Aronov-Spivak oscillations due to time-reversed paths. A transport formalism describing quantum coherent networks including ballistic transport and SOI allows a comparison of spin- and phase coherence lengths extracted for such spatial- and temporal-loop quantum interference phenomena. We further applied WAL to study the magnetic interactions between a 2DES at the surface of InAs and local magnetic moments on the surface from rare earth (RE) ions (Gd3+, Ho3+, and Sm3+). The magnetic spin-flip rate carries information about magnetic interactions. Results indicate that the heavy RE ions increase the SOI scattering rate and the spin-flip rate, the latter indicating magnetic interactions. Moreover Ho3+ on InAs yields a spin-flip rate with an unusual power 1/2 temperature dependence, possibly characteristic of a Kondo system. We acknowledge funding from DOE (DE-FG02-08ER46532).

  17. Comparison of striatal dopamine transporter levels in chronic heroin-dependent and methamphetamine-dependent subjects.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Jie; Liu, Xing Dang; Han, Mei; Lv, Rong Bin; Wang, Yuan Kai; Zhang, Guang Ming; Li, Yu

    2017-01-01

    To compare the effects of heroin and methamphetamine (METH) addiction on dopamine transporters (DATs) in the same dose and duration, we assessed DAT levels in the striatum by (99m) Tc-TRODAT-1 single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) brain images in people with heroin and METH dependence. We recruited 21 healthy human controls, 23 heroin-dependent subjects and 25 METH abusers. The heroin- and METH-dependent subjects exhibited negative urine toxicology after undergoing physiological detoxification. All subjects underwent SPECT brain imaging, and specific tracer uptake ratios (SURs) were assessed bilaterally in the regions of interest. A significant SUR reduction in heroin-dependent subjects and METH-dependent subjects compared with healthy controls was found in the left striatum, right striatum, left caudate nucleus, right caudate nucleus, left putamen and right putamen. There were no significant differences in the heroin group and METH group for the left striatum, right striatum, left caudate nucleus, right caudate nucleus, left putamen and right putamen. The scores of craving, HAMA (Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale), in heroin abusers were lower than in the METH abusers. Our results show that people with heroin and METH dependence who are currently abstinent had lower DAT levels in the striatum than healthy controls. There were no differences in striatal DAT in heroin and METH users. These results suggest that chronic heroin and METH abuse appears to produce similar effects in striatal DAT in humans. METH users may have more serious craving and anxiety symptoms than heroin users with prolonged abstinence.

  18. Spin-Dependent Transport through Chiral Molecules Studied by Spin-Dependent Electrochemistry.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Prakash Chandra; Fontanesi, Claudio; Waldeck, David H; Naaman, Ron

    2016-11-15

    Molecular spintronics (spin + electronics), which aims to exploit both the spin degree of freedom and the electron charge in molecular devices, has recently received massive attention. Our recent experiments on molecular spintronics employ chiral molecules which have the unexpected property of acting as spin filters, by way of an effect we call "chiral-induced spin selectivity" (CISS). In this Account, we discuss new types of spin-dependent electrochemistry measurements and their use to probe the spin-dependent charge transport properties of nonmagnetic chiral conductive polymers and biomolecules, such as oligopeptides, L/D cysteine, cytochrome c, bacteriorhodopsin (bR), and oligopeptide-CdSe nanoparticles (NPs) hybrid structures. Spin-dependent electrochemical measurements were carried out by employing ferromagnetic electrodes modified with chiral molecules used as the working electrode. Redox probes were used either in solution or when directly attached to the ferromagnetic electrodes. During the electrochemical measurements, the ferromagnetic electrode was magnetized either with its magnetic moment pointing "UP" or "DOWN" using a permanent magnet (H = 0.5 T), placed underneath the chemically modified ferromagnetic electrodes. The spin polarization of the current was found to be in the range of 5-30%, even in the case of small chiral molecules. Chiral films of the l- and d-cysteine tethered with a redox-active dye, toludin blue O, show spin polarizarion that depends on the chirality. Because the nickel electrodes are susceptible to corrosion, we explored the effect of coating them with a thin gold overlayer. The effect of the gold layer on the spin polarization of the electrons ejected from the electrode was investigated. In addition, the role of the structure of the protein on the spin selective transport was also studied as a function of bias voltage and the effect of protein denaturation was revealed. In addition to "dark" measurements, we also describe

  19. Spin-Dependent Transport through Chiral Molecules Studied by Spin-Dependent Electrochemistry

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Conspectus Molecular spintronics (spin + electronics), which aims to exploit both the spin degree of freedom and the electron charge in molecular devices, has recently received massive attention. Our recent experiments on molecular spintronics employ chiral molecules which have the unexpected property of acting as spin filters, by way of an effect we call “chiral-induced spin selectivity” (CISS). In this Account, we discuss new types of spin-dependent electrochemistry measurements and their use to probe the spin-dependent charge transport properties of nonmagnetic chiral conductive polymers and biomolecules, such as oligopeptides, L/D cysteine, cytochrome c, bacteriorhodopsin (bR), and oligopeptide-CdSe nanoparticles (NPs) hybrid structures. Spin-dependent electrochemical measurements were carried out by employing ferromagnetic electrodes modified with chiral molecules used as the working electrode. Redox probes were used either in solution or when directly attached to the ferromagnetic electrodes. During the electrochemical measurements, the ferromagnetic electrode was magnetized either with its magnetic moment pointing “UP” or “DOWN” using a permanent magnet (H = 0.5 T), placed underneath the chemically modified ferromagnetic electrodes. The spin polarization of the current was found to be in the range of 5–30%, even in the case of small chiral molecules. Chiral films of the l- and d-cysteine tethered with a redox-active dye, toludin blue O, show spin polarizarion that depends on the chirality. Because the nickel electrodes are susceptible to corrosion, we explored the effect of coating them with a thin gold overlayer. The effect of the gold layer on the spin polarization of the electrons ejected from the electrode was investigated. In addition, the role of the structure of the protein on the spin selective transport was also studied as a function of bias voltage and the effect of protein denaturation was revealed. In addition to

  20. Spin-dependent heat transport and thermal boundary resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Taehee

    In this thesis, thermal conductivity change depending on the magnetic configurations has been studied. In order to make different magnetic configurations, we developed a spin valve structure, which has high MR ratio and low saturation field. The high MR ratio was achieved using Co/Cu multilayer and 21A or 34A thick Cu layer. The low saturation field was obtained by implementing different coercivities of the successive ferromagnetic layers. For this purpose, Co/Cu/Cu tri-layered structure was used with the thicknesses of the Co layers; 15 A and 30 A. For the thermal conductivity measurement, a three-omega method was employed with a thermally isolated microscale rod. We fabricated the microscale rod using optical lithography and MEMS process. Then the rod was wire-bonded to a chip-carver for further electrical measurement. For the thermal conductivity measurement, we built the three-omega measurement system using two lock-in amplifiers and two differential amplifiers. A custom-made electromagnet was added to the system to investigate the impact of magnetic field. We observed titanic thermal conductivity change depending on the magnetic configurations of the Co/Cu/Co multilayer. The thermal conductivity change was closely correlated with that of the electric conductivity in terms of the spin orientation, but the thermal conductivity was much more sensitive than that of the electric conductivity. The relative thermal conductivity change was 50% meanwhile that of electric resistivity change was 8.0%. The difference between the two ratios suggests that the scattering mechanism for charge and heat transport in the Co/Cu/Co multilayer is different. The Lorentz number in Weidemann-Franz law is also spin-dependent. Thermal boundary resistance between metal and dielectrics was also studied in this thesis. The thermal boundary resistance becomes critical for heat transport in a nanoscale because the thermal boundary resistance can potentially determine overall heat transport

  1. Stacking-dependent transport properties in few-layers graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lima, Matheus Paes; Padilha, José Eduardo; Pontes, Renato Borges; Fazzio, Adalberto; Silva, Antônio José Roque da

    2017-01-01

    By performing ab initio electronic structure and transport calculations, we investigated the effects of the stacking order (Bernal (AB) and rhombohedral (ABC)) as well as the number of layers, in the electronic structure and charge transport of few-layers graphene (FLG). We observed that for the ABC stack the transport properties are derived from surface states close to the Fermi level connected to dispersive states with an exponential penetration towards the inner layers, whereas for the AB stacking the transport is distributed over all layers. We present a simple model for the resistances as a function of the number of layers which contemplates the different contribution of the surface and inner layers for the transport. However, even if the stackings AB and ABC present completely different electronic and transport properties, both present the same cohesive energies, showing the absence of a thermodynamical preference for a given kind of stacking.

  2. Study on temperature-dependent carrier transport for bilayer graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yali; Li, Weilong; Qi, Mei; Li, Xiaojun; Zhou, Yixuan; Ren, Zhaoyu

    2015-05-01

    In order to investigate the temperature-dependent carrier transport property of the bilayer graphene, graphene films were synthesized on Cu foils by a home-built chemical vapor deposition (CVD) with C2H2. Samples regularity, transmittance (T) and layer number were analyzed by transmission electron microscope (TEM) images, transmittance spectra and Raman spectra. Van Der Pauw method was used for resistivity measurements and Hall measurements at different temperatures. The results indicated that the sheet resistance (Rs), carrier density (n), and mobility (μ) were 1096.20 Ω/sq, 0.75×1012 cm-2, and 7579.66 cm2 V-1 s-1 at room temperature, respectively. When the temperature increased from 0 °C to 240 °C, carrier density (n) increased from 0.66×1012 cm-2 to 1.55×1012 cm-2, sheet resistance (Rs) decreased from 1215.55 Ω/sq to 560.77 Ω/sq, and mobility (μ) oscillated around a constant value 7773.99 cm2 V-1 s-1. The decrease of the sheet resistance (Rs) indicated that the conductive capability of the bilayer graphene film increased with the temperature. The significant cause of the increase of carrier density (n) was the thermal activation of carriers from defects and unconscious doping states. Because the main influence on the carrier mobility (μ) was the lattice defect scattering and a small amount of impurity scattering, the carrier mobility (μ) was temperature-independent for the bilayer graphene.

  3. Beam Energy Dependence of the Third Harmonic of Azimuthal Correlations in Au+Au Collisions at RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Adamczyk, L.; Adkins, J. K.; Agakishiev, G.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Ahammed, Z.; Alekseev, I.; Aparin, A.; Arkhipkin, D.; Aschenauer, E. C.; Attri, A.; Averichev, G. S.; Bai, X.; Bairathi, V.; Bellwied, R.; Bhasin, A.; Bhati, A. K.; Bhattarai, P.; Bielcik, J.; Bielcikova, J.; Bland, L. C.; Bordyuzhin, I. G.; Bouchet, J.; Brandenburg, J. D.; Brandin, A. V.; Bunzarov, I.; Butterworth, J.; Caines, H.; Calderón de la Barca Sánchez, M.; Campbell, J. M.; Cebra, D.; Chakaberia, I.; Chaloupka, P.; Chang, Z.; Chatterjee, A.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chen, J. H.; Chen, X.; Cheng, J.; Cherney, M.; Christie, W.; Contin, G.; Crawford, H. J.; Das, S.; De Silva, L. C.; Debbe, R. R.; Dedovich, T. G.; Deng, J.; Derevschikov, A. A.; di Ruzza, B.; Didenko, L.; Dilks, C.; Dong, X.; Drachenberg, J. L.; Draper, J. E.; Du, C. M.; Dunkelberger, L. E.; Dunlop, J. C.; Efimov, L. G.; Engelage, J.; Eppley, G.; Esha, R.; Evdokimov, O.; Eyser, O.; Fatemi, R.; Fazio, S.; Federic, P.; Fedorisin, J.; Feng, Z.; Filip, P.; Fisyak, Y.; Flores, C. E.; Fulek, L.; Gagliardi, C. A.; Garand, D.; Geurts, F.; Gibson, A.; Girard, M.; Greiner, L.; Grosnick, D.; Gunarathne, D. S.; Guo, Y.; Gupta, S.; Gupta, A.; Guryn, W.; Hamad, A. I.; Hamed, A.; Haque, R.; Harris, J. W.; He, L.; Heppelmann, S.; Heppelmann, S.; Hirsch, A.; Hoffmann, G. W.; Horvat, S.; Huang, T.; Huang, X.; Huang, B.; Huang, H. Z.; Huck, P.; Humanic, T. J.; Igo, G.; Jacobs, W. W.; Jang, H.; Jentsch, A.; Jia, J.; Jiang, K.; Judd, E. G.; Kabana, S.; Kalinkin, D.; Kang, K.; Kauder, K.; Ke, H. W.; Keane, D.; Kechechyan, A.; Khan, Z. H.; Kikoła, D. P.; Kisel, I.; Kisiel, A.; Kochenda, L.; Koetke, D. D.; Kosarzewski, L. K.; Kraishan, A. F.; Kravtsov, P.; Krueger, K.; Kumar, L.; Lamont, M. A. C.; Landgraf, J. M.; Landry, K. D.; Lauret, J.; Lebedev, A.; Lednicky, R.; Lee, J. H.; Li, X.; Li, C.; Li, X.; Li, Y.; Li, W.; Lin, T.; Lisa, M. A.; Liu, F.; Ljubicic, T.; Llope, W. J.; Lomnitz, M.; Longacre, R. S.; Luo, X.; Ma, R.; Ma, G. L.; Ma, Y. G.; Ma, L.; Magdy, N.; Majka, R.; Manion, A.; Margetis, S.; Markert, C.; Matis, H. S.; McDonald, D.; McKinzie, S.; Meehan, K.; Mei, J. C.; Minaev, N. G.; Mioduszewski, S.; Mishra, D.; Mohanty, B.; Mondal, M. M.; Morozov, D. A.; Mustafa, M. K.; Nandi, B. K.; Nasim, Md.; Nayak, T. K.; Nigmatkulov, G.; Niida, T.; Nogach, L. V.; Noh, S. Y.; Novak, J.; Nurushev, S. B.; Odyniec, G.; Ogawa, A.; Oh, K.; Okorokov, V. A.; Olvitt, D.; Page, B. S.; Pak, R.; Pan, Y. X.; Pandit, Y.; Panebratsev, Y.; Pawlik, B.; Pei, H.; Perkins, C.; Pile, P.; Pluta, J.; Poniatowska, K.; Porter, J.; Posik, M.; Poskanzer, A. M.; Pruthi, N. K.; Putschke, J.; Qiu, H.; Quintero, A.; Ramachandran, S.; Raniwala, S.; Raniwala, R.; Ray, R. L.; Ritter, H. G.; Roberts, J. B.; Rogachevskiy, O. V.; Romero, J. L.; Ruan, L.; Rusnak, J.; Rusnakova, O.; Sahoo, N. R.; Sahu, P. K.; Sakrejda, I.; Salur, S.; Sandweiss, J.; Sarkar, A.; Schambach, J.; Scharenberg, R. P.; Schmah, A. M.; Schmidke, W. B.; Schmitz, N.; Seger, J.; Seyboth, P.; Shah, N.; Shahaliev, E.; Shanmuganathan, P. V.; Shao, M.; Sharma, A.; Sharma, B.; Sharma, M. K.; Shen, W. Q.; Shi, Z.; Shi, S. S.; Shou, Q. Y.; Sichtermann, E. P.; Sikora, R.; Simko, M.; Singha, S.; Skoby, M. J.; Smirnov, N.; Smirnov, D.; Solyst, W.; Song, L.; Sorensen, P.; Spinka, H. M.; Srivastava, B.; Stanislaus, T. D. S.; Stepanov, M.; Stock, R.; Strikhanov, M.; Stringfellow, B.; Sumbera, M.; Summa, B.; Sun, Z.; Sun, X. M.; Sun, Y.; Surrow, B.; Svirida, D. N.; Tang, Z.; Tang, A. H.; Tarnowsky, T.; Tawfik, A.; Thäder, J.; Thomas, J. H.; Timmins, A. R.; Tlusty, D.; Todoroki, T.; Tokarev, M.; Trentalange, S.; Tribble, R. E.; Tribedy, P.; Tripathy, S. K.; Tsai, O. D.; Ullrich, T.; Underwood, D. G.; Upsal, I.; Van Buren, G.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G.; Vandenbroucke, M.; Varma, R.; Vasiliev, A. N.; Vertesi, R.; Videbæk, F.; Vokal, S.; Voloshin, S. A.; Vossen, A.; Wang, F.; Wang, G.; Wang, J. S.; Wang, H.; Wang, Y.; Wang, Y.; Webb, G.; Webb, J. C.; Wen, L.; Westfall, G. D.; Wieman, H.; Wissink, S. W.; Witt, R.; Wu, Y.; Xiao, Z. G.; Xie, W.; Xie, G.; Xin, K.; Xu, Y. F.; Xu, Q. H.; Xu, N.; Xu, H.; Xu, Z.; Xu, J.; Yang, S.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Y.; Yang, C.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Q.; Ye, Z.; Ye, Z.; Yepes, P.; Yi, L.; Yip, K.; Yoo, I. -K.; Yu, N.; Zbroszczyk, H.; Zha, W.; Zhang, X. P.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, S.; Zhang, S.; Zhang, Z.; Zhang, J. B.; Zhao, J.; Zhong, C.; Zhou, L.; Zhu, X.; Zoulkarneeva, Y.; Zyzak, M.

    2016-03-18

    In this paper, we present results from a harmonic decomposition of two-particle azimuthal correlations measured with the STAR detector in Au + Au collisions for energies ranging from √sNN = 7.7 to 200 GeV. The third harmonic v$2\\atop{3}${ 2 } = , where Φ1 - Φ2 is the angular difference in azimuth, is studied as a function of the pseudorapidity difference between particle pairs Δη = η1-η2 . Nonzero v$2\\atop{3}${ 2 } is directly related to the previously observed large- Δη narrow- ΔΦ ridge correlations and has been shown in models to be sensitive to the existence of a low viscosity quark gluon plasma phase. For sufficiently central collisions, v$2\\atop{3}${ 2 } persist down to an energy of 7.7 GeV, suggesting that quark gluon plasma may be created even in these low energy collisions. In peripheral collisions at these low energies, however, v$2\\atop{3}${ 2 } is consistent with zero. Finally, when scaled by the pseudorapidity density of charged-particle multiplicity per participating nucleon pair, v$2\\atop{3}${ 2 } for central collisions shows a minimum near √sNN = 20 GeV .

  4. Relative azimuth inversion by way of damped maximum correlation estimates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ringler, A.T.; Edwards, J.D.; Hutt, C.R.; Shelly, F.

    2012-01-01

    Horizontal seismic data are utilized in a large number of Earth studies. Such work depends on the published orientations of the sensitive axes of seismic sensors relative to true North. These orientations can be estimated using a number of different techniques: SensOrLoc (Sensitivity, Orientation and Location), comparison to synthetics (Ekstrom and Busby, 2008), or by way of magnetic compass. Current methods for finding relative station azimuths are unable to do so with arbitrary precision quickly because of limitations in the algorithms (e.g. grid search methods). Furthermore, in order to determine instrument orientations during station visits, it is critical that any analysis software be easily run on a large number of different computer platforms and the results be obtained quickly while on site. We developed a new technique for estimating relative sensor azimuths by inverting for the orientation with the maximum correlation to a reference instrument, using a non-linear parameter estimation routine. By making use of overlapping windows, we are able to make multiple azimuth estimates, which helps to identify the confidence of our azimuth estimate, even when the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is low. Finally, our algorithm has been written as a stand-alone, platform independent, Java software package with a graphical user interface for reading and selecting data segments to be analyzed.

  5. Electron transport-dependent taxis in Rhodobacter sphaeroides.

    PubMed

    Gauden, D E; Armitage, J P

    1995-10-01

    Rhodobacter sphaeroides showed chemotaxis to the terminal electron acceptors oxygen and dimethyl sulfoxide, and the responses to these effectors were shown to be influenced by the relative activities of the different electron transport pathways. R. sphaeroides cells tethered by their flagella showed a step-down response to a decrease in the oxygen or dimethyl sulfoxide concentration when using them as terminal acceptors. Bacteria using photosynthetic electron transport, however, showed a step-down response to oxygen addition. Addition of the proton ionophore carbonyl cyanide 4-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone did not cause a transient behavioral response, although it decreased the electrochemical proton gradient (delta p) and increased the rate of electron transport. However, removal of the ionophore, which caused an increase in delta p and a decrease in the electron transport rate, resulted in a step-down response. Together, these data suggest that behavioral responses of R. sphaeroides to electron transport effectors are caused by changes in the rate of electron transport rather than changes in delta p.

  6. On perturbative azimuthal asymmetry at RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Rezaeian, A. H.

    2008-10-13

    We investigate the azimuthal asymmetry of partons and photons produced at the initial stage of nuclear collisions at the RHIC energy originating from quark-nucleus collisions. In our approach, the azimuthal asymmetry results from the correlation between color dipole orientation and impact parameter of the collision. The asymmetry is sensitive to the rapid variation of the nuclear density at the nuclear periphery. We either introduce the color-dipole orientation into the improved Born approximation, or model the dipole partial amplitude which satisfies available DIS data. We conclude that the azimuthal asymmetry coming from these mechanisms can be sizable.

  7. A Modified Direct-Reading Azimuth Protractor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, William C.; Pugliese, Joseph M.

    1977-01-01

    Describes the construction of a direct-reading azimuth protractor (DRAP) used for mapping fracture and joint-surface orientations in underground mines where magnetic disturbances affect typical geologic pocket transit. (SL)

  8. Unidirectional Transport Mechanism in an ATP Dependent Exporter

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters use the energy of ATP binding and hydrolysis to move a large variety of compounds across biological membranes. P-glycoprotein, involved in multidrug resistance, is the most investigated eukaryotic family member. Although a large number of biochemical and structural approaches have provided important information, the conformational dynamics underlying the coupling between ATP binding/hydrolysis and allocrite transport remains elusive. To tackle this issue, we performed molecular dynamic simulations for different nucleotide occupancy states of Sav1866, a prokaryotic P-glycoprotein homologue. The simulations reveal an outward-closed conformation of the transmembrane domain that is stabilized by the binding of two ATP molecules. The hydrolysis of a single ATP leads the X-loop, a key motif of the ATP binding cassette, to interfere with the transmembrane domain and favor its outward-open conformation. Our findings provide a structural basis for the unidirectionality of transport in ABC exporters and suggest a ratio of one ATP hydrolyzed per transport cycle. PMID:28386603

  9. Multifragment azimuthal correlation functions: Probes for reaction dynamics in collisions of intermediate energy heavy ions

    SciTech Connect

    Lacey, R.A.; Elmaani, A.; Lauret, J.; Li, T.; Bauer, W.; Craig, D.; Cronqvist, M.; Gualtieri, E.; Hannuschke, S.; Reposeur, T.; Vander Molen, A.; Westfall, G.D.; Wilson, W.K.; Winfield, J.S.; Yee, J.; Yennello, S.; Nadasen, A.; Tickle, R.S.; Norbeck, E. National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory Department of Physics, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824-1321 Department of Physics, University of Michigan at Dearborn, Dearborn, Michigan 48128 Department of Physics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-1120 Department of Physics, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 )

    1993-03-01

    Multifragment azimuthal correlation functions have been measured as a function of beam energy and impact parameter for the Ar+Sc system ([ital E]/[ital A]=35 to 115 MeV). The observed azimuthal correlation functions---which do not require corrections for dispersion of the reaction plane---exhibit strong asymmetries which are dependent on impact parameter and beam energy. Rotational collective motion and flow seem to dominate the correlation functions at low beam energies. It is proposed that multifragment azimuthal correlation functions can provide a useful probe for intermediate energy heavy ion reaction dynamics.

  10. Transverse Spin Azimuthal Asymmetries in SIDIS at COMPASS: Multidimensional Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsamyan, Bakur

    2016-02-01

    COMPASS is a high-energy physics experiment operating at the SPS at CERN. Wide physics program of the experiment comprises study of hadron structure and spectroscopy with high energy muon and hadrons beams. As for the muon-program, one of the important objectives of the COMPASS experiment is the exploration of the transverse spin structure of the nucleon via spin (in)dependent azimuthal asymmetries in single-hadron production in deep inelastic scattering of polarized leptons off transversely polarized target. For this purpose a series of measurements were made in COMPASS, using 160 GeV/c longitudinally polarized muon beam and transversely polarized 6LiD (in 2002, 2003 and 2004) and NH3 (in 2007 and 2010) targets. The experimental results obtained by COMPASS for unpolarized target azimuthal asymmetries, Sivers and Collins effects and other azimuthal observables play an important role in the general understanding of the three-dimensional nature of the nucleon. Giving access to the entire twsit-2 set of transverse momentum dependent parton distribution functions and fragmentation functions COMPASS data triggers constant theoretical interest and is being widely used in phenomenological analyses and global data fits. In this review main focus is given to the very recent results obtained by the COMPASS collaboration from first ever multi-dimensional extraction of transverse spin asymmetries.

  11. RAB-10-Dependent Membrane Transport Is Required for Dendrite Arborization.

    PubMed

    Zou, Wei; Yadav, Smita; DeVault, Laura; Nung Jan, Yuh; Sherwood, David R

    2015-01-01

    Formation of elaborately branched dendrites is necessary for the proper input and connectivity of many sensory neurons. Previous studies have revealed that dendritic growth relies heavily on ER-to-Golgi transport, Golgi outposts and endocytic recycling. How new membrane and associated cargo is delivered from the secretory and endosomal compartments to sites of active dendritic growth, however, remains unknown. Using a candidate-based genetic screen in C. elegans, we have identified the small GTPase RAB-10 as a key regulator of membrane trafficking during dendrite morphogenesis. Loss of rab-10 severely reduced proximal dendritic arborization in the multi-dendritic PVD neuron. RAB-10 acts cell-autonomously in the PVD neuron and localizes to the Golgi and early endosomes. Loss of function mutations of the exocyst complex components exoc-8 and sec-8, which regulate tethering, docking and fusion of transport vesicles at the plasma membrane, also caused proximal dendritic arborization defects and led to the accumulation of intracellular RAB-10 vesicles. In rab-10 and exoc-8 mutants, the trans-membrane proteins DMA-1 and HPO-30, which promote PVD dendrite stabilization and branching, no longer localized strongly to the proximal dendritic membranes and instead were sequestered within intracellular vesicles. Together these results suggest a crucial role for the Rab10 GTPase and the exocyst complex in controlling membrane transport from the secretory and/or endosomal compartments that is required for dendritic growth.

  12. RAB-10-Dependent Membrane Transport Is Required for Dendrite Arborization

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Wei; Yadav, Smita; DeVault, Laura; Jan, Yuh Nung; Sherwood, David R.

    2015-01-01

    Formation of elaborately branched dendrites is necessary for the proper input and connectivity of many sensory neurons. Previous studies have revealed that dendritic growth relies heavily on ER-to-Golgi transport, Golgi outposts and endocytic recycling. How new membrane and associated cargo is delivered from the secretory and endosomal compartments to sites of active dendritic growth, however, remains unknown. Using a candidate-based genetic screen in C. elegans, we have identified the small GTPase RAB-10 as a key regulator of membrane trafficking during dendrite morphogenesis. Loss of rab-10 severely reduced proximal dendritic arborization in the multi-dendritic PVD neuron. RAB-10 acts cell-autonomously in the PVD neuron and localizes to the Golgi and early endosomes. Loss of function mutations of the exocyst complex components exoc-8 and sec-8, which regulate tethering, docking and fusion of transport vesicles at the plasma membrane, also caused proximal dendritic arborization defects and led to the accumulation of intracellular RAB-10 vesicles. In rab-10 and exoc-8 mutants, the trans-membrane proteins DMA-1 and HPO-30, which promote PVD dendrite stabilization and branching, no longer localized strongly to the proximal dendritic membranes and instead were sequestered within intracellular vesicles. Together these results suggest a crucial role for the Rab10 GTPase and the exocyst complex in controlling membrane transport from the secretory and/or endosomal compartments that is required for dendritic growth. PMID:26394140

  13. Proton-dependent coniferin transport, a common major transport event in differentiating xylem tissue of woody plants.

    PubMed

    Tsuyama, Taku; Kawai, Ryo; Shitan, Nobukazu; Matoh, Toru; Sugiyama, Junji; Yoshinaga, Arata; Takabe, Keiji; Fujita, Minoru; Yazaki, Kazufumi

    2013-06-01

    Lignin biosynthesis is an essential physiological activity of vascular plants if they are to survive under various environmental stresses on land. The biosynthesis of lignin proceeds in the cell wall by polymerization of precursors; the initial step of lignin polymerization is the transportation of lignin monomers from the cytosol to the cell wall, which is critical for lignin formation. There has been much debate on the transported form of the lignin precursor, either as free monolignols or their glucosides. In this study, we performed biochemical analyses to characterize the membrane transport mechanism of lignin precursors using angiosperms, hybrid poplar (Populus sieboldii × Populus grandidentata) and poplar (Populus sieboldii), as well gymnosperms, Japanese cypress (Chamaecyparis obtusa) and pine (Pinus densiflora). Membrane vesicles prepared from differentiating xylem tissues showed clear ATP-dependent transport activity of coniferin, whereas less than 4% of the coniferin transport activity was seen for coniferyl alcohol. Bafilomycin A1 and proton gradient erasers markedly inhibited coniferin transport in hybrid poplar membrane vesicles; in contrast, vanadate had no effect. Cis-inhibition experiments suggested that this transport activity was specific for coniferin. Membrane fractionation of hybrid poplar microsomes demonstrated that transport activity was localized to the tonoplast- and endomembrane-rich fraction. Differentiating xylem of Japanese cypress exhibited almost identical transport properties, suggesting the involvement of a common endomembrane-associated proton/coniferin antiport mechanism in the lignifying tissues of woody plants, both angiosperms and gymnosperms.

  14. A thyroid hormone analog with reduced dependence on the monocarboxylate transporter 8 for tissue transport.

    PubMed

    Di Cosmo, Caterina; Liao, Xiao-Hui; Dumitrescu, Alexandra M; Weiss, Roy E; Refetoff, Samuel

    2009-09-01

    Mutations of the thyroid hormone (TH) cell membrane transporter MCT8, on chromosome-X, produce severe mental and neurological impairment in men. We generated a Mct8-deficient mouse (Mct8KO) manifesting the human thyroid phenotype. Although these mice have no neurological manifestations, they have decreased brain T(3) content and high deiodinase 2 (D2) activity, reflecting TH deprivation. In contrast and as in serum, liver T(3) content is high, resulting in increased deiodinase 1 (D1), suggesting that in this tissue TH entry is Mct8 independent. We tested the effect of 3,5-diiodothyropropionic acid (DITPA), a TH receptor agonist, for its dependence on Mct8 in Mct8KO and wild-type (Wt) mice tissues. After depletion of endogenous TH, mice were given three different doses of DITPA. Effects were compared with treatment with two doses of l-T(4). As expected, physiological doses of l-T(4) normalized serum TSH, brain D2, and liver D1 in Wt mice but not the Mct8KO mice. The higher dose of T(4) suppressed TSH in the Wt mice, normalized TSH and brain D2 in Mct8KO mice, but produced a thyrotoxic effect on liver D1 in both genotypes. In contrast DITPA produced similar effects on TSH, D2, and D1 in both Wt and Mct8KO mice. The higher dose fully normalized all measurements and other parameters of TH action. Thus, DITPA is relatively MCT8 independent for entry into the brain and corrects the TH deficit in Mct8KO mice without causing thyrotoxic effect in liver. The potential clinical utility of this analog to patients with MCT8 mutations requires further studies.

  15. Experiments on polarization-dependent transport in 3He systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Candela, D.; McAllaster, D. R.; Wei, L.-J.; Kalechofsy, N.

    1994-03-01

    Spin and momentum transport experiments are described for very dilute 3He- 4He mixtures and pure 3He brute-force polarized by a static field. Spin diffusion and rotation were observed in very dilute mixtures using a spin-wave resonance technique, and the viscosity increase due to polarization was observed using a vibrating wire. The mixture results are all well fit by the recent kinetic-equation calculations of Mullin and Jeon. Spin echoes were used to study transverse spin diffusion in pure 3He, providing the first clear evidence for polarization-induced relaxation-time anisotropy in a degenerate Fermi liquid.

  16. Strong dependence of multichannel ballistic transport on the geometric symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, M.; Park, K. W.; Lee, S.; Lee, E.-H.

    1998-01-01

    Ballistic electron transport in Aharonov-Bohm-type ring structures is investigated where the single-channel problem is nontrivially extended to the multichannel one in which the important interchannel scattering effect is considered. It is found that theS-matrix of a ring structure should reflect the geometric symmetry if the interchannel scattering effect is properly accounted for and that the symmetry relationships of theS-matrix plays a crucial role in the conductance oscillation behavior in ballistic two-dimensional rings. The magnetostatic as well as the electrostatic Aharonov-Bohm effects are studied for two ring structures of different symmetry.

  17. 32 CFR 718.3 - Transportation of dependents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., next of kin, or other person entitled to receive custody of the effects in accordance with the provisions of paragraph (d) of this section; or, upon application by such dependent, next of kin, heir or... interested persons. The net proceeds received from such sale shall be transmitted to the owner, next of...

  18. Stacking dependence of carrier transport properties in multilayered black phosphorous.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, A; Audiffred, M; Heine, T; Niehaus, T A

    2016-02-24

    We present the effect of different stacking orders on carrier transport properties of multi-layer black phosphorous. We consider three different stacking orders AAA, ABA and ACA, with increasing number of layers (from 2 to 6 layers). We employ a hierarchical approach in density functional theory (DFT), with structural simulations performed with generalized gradient approximation (GGA) and the bandstructure, carrier effective masses and optical properties evaluated with the meta-generalized gradient approximation (MGGA). The carrier transmission in the various black phosphorous sheets was carried out with the non-equilibrium green's function (NEGF) approach. The results show that ACA stacking has the highest electron and hole transmission probabilities. The results show tunability for a wide range of band-gaps, carrier effective masses and transmission with a great promise for lattice engineering (stacking order and layers) in black phosphorous.

  19. Stacking dependence of carrier transport properties in multilayered black phosphorous

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sengupta, A.; Audiffred, M.; Heine, T.; Niehaus, T. A.

    2016-02-01

    We present the effect of different stacking orders on carrier transport properties of multi-layer black phosphorous. We consider three different stacking orders AAA, ABA and ACA, with increasing number of layers (from 2 to 6 layers). We employ a hierarchical approach in density functional theory (DFT), with structural simulations performed with generalized gradient approximation (GGA) and the bandstructure, carrier effective masses and optical properties evaluated with the meta-generalized gradient approximation (MGGA). The carrier transmission in the various black phosphorous sheets was carried out with the non-equilibrium green’s function (NEGF) approach. The results show that ACA stacking has the highest electron and hole transmission probabilities. The results show tunability for a wide range of band-gaps, carrier effective masses and transmission with a great promise for lattice engineering (stacking order and layers) in black phosphorous.

  20. Structure dependent spin selectivity in electron transport through oligopeptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiran, Vankayala; Cohen, Sidney R.; Naaman, Ron

    2017-03-01

    The chiral-induced spin selectivity (CISS) effect entails spin-selective electron transmission through chiral molecules. In the present study, the spin filtering ability of chiral, helical oligopeptide monolayers of two different lengths is demonstrated using magnetic conductive probe atomic force microscopy. Spin-specific nanoscale electron transport studies elucidate that the spin polarization is higher for 14-mer oligopeptides than that of the 10-mer. We also show that the spin filtering ability can be tuned by changing the tip-loading force applied on the molecules. The spin selectivity decreases with increasing applied force, an effect attributed to the increased ratio of radius to pitch of the helix upon compression and increased tilt angles between the molecular axis and the surface normal. The method applied here provides new insights into the parameters controlling the CISS effect.

  1. The spin-dependent transport properties of zigzag α-graphyne nanoribbons and new device design

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Yun; Wang, Xia; Tao, Wei; Zhu, Si-Cong; Yao, Kai-Lun

    2016-01-01

    By performing first-principle quantum transport calculations, we studied the electronic and transport properties of zigzag α-graphyne nanoribbons in different magnetic configurations. We designed the device based on zigzag α-graphyne nanoribbon and studied the spin-dependent transport properties, whose current-voltage curves show obvious spin-polarization and conductance plateaus. The interesting transport behaviours can be explained by the transport spectra under different magnetic configurations, which basically depends on the symmetry matching of the electrodes’ bandstructures. Simultaneously, spin Seebeck effect is also found in the device. Thus, according to the transport behaviours, zigzag α-graphyne nanoribbons can be used as a dual spin filter diode, a molecule signal converter and a spin caloritronics device, which indicates that α-graphyne is a promising candidate for the future application in spintronics. PMID:27180808

  2. Water structure-dependent charge transport in proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Gascoyne, P R; Pethig, R; Szent-Györgyi, A

    1981-01-01

    Dielectric and conductivity measurements are reported for bovine serum albumin as a function of hydration. Strong evidence is found for the existence of mobile charges whose short- and long-range hopping motion strongly depends on the physical state of the protein-bound water. These charges are considered to be protons. Insights into the nature of the electrical properties of protein-methylglyoxal complexes are provided, and the possibilities for correlated proton-electron motions are outlined. PMID:6264436

  3. Azimuth DOA Estimation in Y-bend Antenna Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanudin, R.

    2016-11-01

    In smart antenna system, it is extremely crucial to estimate the direction of incoming signals in order to achieve better reception. Reliability of DOA estimation depends on several factors such as the choice of DOA algorithm, size of antenna array as well as array geometry. Therefore, it is particularly desirable to have a configuration of antenna array that could produce an accurate azimuth estimation. In this work, a new planar array is proposed to address the problem of azimuth estimation. This is achieved by having a flexible element position on the x- y plane that improves the steering vector, hence significantly enhances the accuracy of DOA estimation. Besides, a fair distribution of the antenna elements on the x-y plane also helps to eliminates estimation failure in the azimuth range between 240° and 360°. A comparison study between the proposed array and V-shape array is performed in order to gauge the performance of the proposed array in DOA estimation. Simulation results show that the proposed array has acquired better estimation resolution than V-shape array. On top of that, the proposed array has reduced estimation error in V-shape array. It is concluded that the proposed array has shown potential as an excellent choice of antenna array geometry for smart antenna system.

  4. Azimuthal-spin-wave-mode-driven vortex-core reversals

    SciTech Connect

    Yoo, Myoung-Woo; Kim, Sang-Koog

    2015-01-14

    We studied, by micromagnetic numerical calculations, asymmetric vortex-core reversals driven by the m = −1 and m = +1 azimuthal spin-wave modes' excitations in soft magnetic circular nano-disks. We addressed the similarities and differences between the asymmetric core reversals in terms of the temporal evolutions of the correlated core-motion speed, locally concentrated perpendicular gyrofield, and magnetization dip near the original vortex core. The criterion for the core reversals was found to be the magnetization dip that must reach the out-of-plane magnetization component, m{sub z} = −p, with the initial polarization p, where p = +1 (−1) for the upward (downward) core magnetization. The core-motion speed and the associated perpendicular gyrofield, variable and controllable with static perpendicular field, H{sub z}, applied perpendicularly to the disk plane, must reach their threshold values to meet the ultimate core-reversal criterion. Also, we determined the H{sub z} strength and direction dependence of the core-switching time and threshold exciting field strength required for the core reversals, whose parameters are essential in the application aspect. This work offers deeper insights into the azimuthal spin-wave-driven core-reversal dynamics as well as an efficient means of controlling the azimuthal-modes-driven core reversals.

  5. Rossby wave Green's functions in an azimuthal wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, G. M.; Duba, C. T.; Hu, Q.

    2016-05-01

    Green's functions for Rossby waves in an azimuthal wind are obtained, in which the stream-function $\\psi$ depends on $r$, $\\phi$ and $t$, where $r$ is cylindrical radius and $\\phi$ is the azimuthal angle in the $\\beta$-plane relative to the easterly direction, in which the $x$-axis points east and the $y$-axis points north. The Rossby wave Green's function with no wind is obtained using Fourier transform methods, and is related to the previously known Green's function obtained for this case, which has a different but equivalent form to the Green's function obtained in the present paper. We emphasize the role of the wave eikonal solution, which plays an important role in the form of the solution. The corresponding Green's function for a rotating wind with azimuthal wind velocity ${\\bf u}=\\Omega r{\\bf e}_\\phi$ ($\\Omega=$const.) is also obtained by Fourier methods, in which the advective rotation operator in position space is transformed to a rotation operator in ${\\bf k}$ transform space. The finite Rossby deformation radius is included in the analysis. The physical characteristics of the Green's functions are delineated and applications are discussed. In the limit as $\\Omega\\to 0$, the rotating wind Green's function reduces to the Rossby wave Green function with no wind.

  6. Azimuthally Anisotropic 3D Velocity Continuation

    DOE PAGES

    Burnett, William; Fomel, Sergey

    2011-01-01

    We extend time-domain velocity continuation to the zero-offset 3D azimuthally anisotropic case. Velocity continuation describes how a seismic image changes given a change in migration velocity. This description turns out to be of a wave propagation process, in which images change along a velocity axis. In the anisotropic case, the velocity model is multiparameter. Therefore, anisotropic image propagation is multidimensional. We use a three-parameter slowness model, which is related to azimuthal variations in velocity, as well as their principal directions. This information is useful for fracture and reservoir characterization from seismic data. We provide synthetic diffraction imaging examples to illustratemore » the concept and potential applications of azimuthal velocity continuation and to analyze the impulse response of the 3D velocity continuation operator.« less

  7. Structural Insights into the Transport Mechanism of the Human Sodium-dependent Lysophosphatidylcholine Transporter MFSD2A.

    PubMed

    Quek, Debra Q Y; Nguyen, Long N; Fan, Hao; Silver, David L

    2016-04-29

    Major facilitator superfamily domain containing 2A (MFSD2A) was recently characterized as a sodium-dependent lysophosphatidylcholine transporter expressed at the blood-brain barrier endothelium. It is the primary route for importation of docosohexaenoic acid and other long-chain fatty acids into fetal and adult brain and is essential for mouse and human brain growth and function. Remarkably, MFSD2A is the first identified major facilitator superfamily member that uniquely transports lipids, implying that MFSD2A harbors unique structural features and transport mechanism. Here, we present three three-dimensional structural models of human MFSD2A derived by homology modeling using MelB- and LacY-based crystal structures and refined by biochemical analysis. All models revealed 12 transmembrane helices and connecting loops and represented the partially outward-open, outward-partially occluded, and inward-open states of the transport cycle. In addition to a conserved sodium-binding site, three unique structural features were identified as follows: a phosphate headgroup binding site, a hydrophobic cleft to accommodate a hydrophobic hydrocarbon tail, and three sets of ionic locks that stabilize the outward-open conformation. Ligand docking studies and biochemical assays identified Lys-436 as a key residue for transport. It is seen forming a salt bridge with the negative charge on the phosphate headgroup. Importantly, MFSD2A transported structurally related acylcarnitines but not a lysolipid without a negative charge, demonstrating the necessity of a negatively charged headgroup interaction with Lys-436 for transport. These findings support a novel transport mechanism by which lysophosphatidylcholines are "flipped" within the transporter cavity by pivoting about Lys-436 leading to net transport from the outer to the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane.

  8. EP3 receptors inhibit antidiuretic-hormone-dependent sodium transport across frog skin epithelium.

    PubMed

    Rytved, K A; Nielsen, R

    1999-01-01

    We examined the effect of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) on antidiuretic hormone (ADH)-dependent Na+ transport and cAMP production in isolated frog skin epithelium. ADH caused an increase in transepithelial Na+ transport and a decrease in cellular potential, indicating an increase in apical Na+ permeability. Subsequent addition of PGE2 decreased Na+ transport and repolarised the cells. The PGE2 receptor EP1/3-selective analogue sulprostone and the PGE2 receptor EP2/3-selective analogue misoprostol were able to mimic the effect of PGE2. ADH increased cellular cAMP levels, whereas PGE2, sulprostone and misoprostol were able to reduce the ADH-dependent cAMP production. Measurements of intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) revealed that it was unaffected by both PGE2 and sulprostone. The inhibitory effect of PGE2 on ADH-dependent Na+ transport was also observed in Ca2+-depleted epithelia. We conclude that ADH stimulates transepithelial Na+ transport by increasing cellular cAMP levels, whereas PGE2 inhibits ADH-dependent Na+ transport by activating EP3-type receptors, which decrease cellular cAMP levels. We have found no evidence that [Ca2+]i is involved in the regulation of ADH-dependent Na+ transport by PGE2.

  9. Frequency dependent magneto-transport in charge transfer Co(II) complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, Bikash Kumar; Saha, Shyamal K.

    2014-09-01

    A charge transfer chelated system containing ferromagnetic metal centers is the ideal system to investigate the magneto-transport and magneto-dielectric effects due to the presence of both electronic as well as magnetic properties and their coupling. Magneto-transport properties in materials are usually studied through dc charge transport under magnetic field. As frequency dependent conductivity is an essential tool to understand the nature of carrier wave, its spatial extension and their mutual interaction, in the present work, we have investigated frequency dependent magneto-transport along with magnetization behavior in [Co2(II)-(5-(4-PhMe)-1,3,4-oxadiazole-H+-2-thiolate)5](OAc)4 metal complex to elucidate the nature of above quantities and their response under magnetic field in the transport property. We have used the existing model for ac conduction incorporating the field dependence to explain the frequency dependent magneto-transport. It is seen that the frequency dependent magneto-transport could be well explained using the existing model for ac conduction.

  10. Deterministic methods for time-dependent stochastic neutron transport

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, Randal S

    2009-01-01

    A numerical method is presented for solving the time-dependent survival probability equation in general (lD/2D/3D) geometries using the multi group SNmethod. Although this equation was first formulated by Bell in the early 1960's, it has only been applied to stationary systems (for other than idealized point models) until recently, and detailed descriptions of numerical solution techniques are lacking in the literature. This paper presents such a description and applies it to a dynamic system representative of a figurative criticality accident scenario.

  11. Temperature Dependent Electron Transport Studies for Diffuse Discharge Switching Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-06-01

    of <e>, k (<e >), for C2F6 and C3F8 at gas temperature up to 7!fu K. These results may be used to under stand the influence of elevated gas...of k (<&>) have also been performed in c3F8 as a functionaof gas temperature up to 750 R in Ar buffer gas (over the mean electron energy range 0.76...dependent electron attachment pro- cesses are negligible indicating that electron attachment to C3F8 at t hese t emperatures i s predomi- nantly dissociati

  12. Time-dependent thermoelectric transport for nanoscale thermal machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daré, A.-M.; Lombardo, P.

    2016-01-01

    We analyze an electronic nanoscale thermal machine driven by time-dependent environment: besides bias and gate voltage variations, we consider also the less prevailing time modulation of the couplings between leads and dot. We provide energy and heat current expressions in such situations, as well as expressions for the power exchanged between the dot+leads system and its outside. Calculations are made in the Keldysh nonequilibrium Green's function framework. We apply these results to design a cyclic refrigerator, circumventing the ambiguity of defining energy flows between subsystems in the case of strong coupling. For fast lead-dot coupling modulation, we observe transient currents which cannot be ascribed to charge tunneling.

  13. Temperature dependent atomic transport properties of liquid Sn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Amit B.; Bhatt, Nisarg K.; Thakore, Brijmohan Y.; Vyas, Pulastya R.; Jani, Ashwinkumar R.

    2014-02-01

    A simple analytical model for atomic motion of Tankeshwar et al. [J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 3, 3173 (1991)] is used to obtain velocity autocorrelation function (VACF) with the inter-atomic potential and the pair correlation function as required inputs for liquid Sn. For the electron-ion interaction the modified empty-core potential is used, which represents the orthogonalisation effect due to s-core states in such sp-bonded metals. Temperature dependence of structure factor is considered through temperature dependent potential parameter in the pair potential. The coherent behaviour of liquid Sn in terms of the dynamic structure factor employing viscoelastic theory has also been studied. Intrinsic temperature effect has been studied through damping term{exp}( {-{π k}_{{B}} {T}/{2k_{{F}} }{r}} ) exp (-πkBT2kFr)in the pair potential. The predicted results for VACF, cosine power spectrum, mean square displacement, diffusion and viscosity coefficients have been compared with recent available data, and a good agreement has been achieved.

  14. Temperature Dependence of Current Transport in Metal-SWNT Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daine, Robert

    Single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) have been under the microscope recently due to their incredible and unique mechanical, electrical, and optical properties, which are influenced by their chirality and diameter. Many different applications have been looked into, such as nanotechnology, electronics, and biomedical applications. Recently, it has been suggested that SWNTs may act as a tunnel between the p-n junction in a solar cell. In this thesis, the temperature dependence of the activation energy between SWNTs and metal electrodes was looked at, using a mixture of gold, aluminum and copper electrodes. Because we formed a Schottky barrier between the semiconducting SWNTs and the metal electrode, we know that the decrease in activation energy allows the electrons and holes to travel quicker and easier than at higher temperatures.

  15. Multicomponent, multi-azimuth pre-stack seismic waveform inversion for azimuthally anisotropic media using a parallel and computationally efficient non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Tao; Mallick, Subhashis

    2015-02-01

    Consideration of azimuthal anisotropy, at least to an orthorhombic symmetry is important in exploring the naturally fractured and unconventional hydrocarbon reservoirs. Full waveform inversion of multicomponent seismic data can, in principle, provide more robust estimates of subsurface elastic parameters and density than the inversion of single component (P wave) seismic data. In addition, azimuthally dependent anisotropy can only be resolved by carefully studying the multicomponent seismic displacement data acquired and processed along different azimuths. Such an analysis needs an inversion algorithm capable of simultaneously optimizing multiple objectives, one for each data component along each azimuth. These multicomponent and multi-azimuthal seismic inversions are non-linear with non-unique solutions; it is therefore appropriate to treat the objectives as a vector and simultaneously optimize each of its components such that the optimal set of solutions could be obtained. The fast non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA II) is a robust stochastic global search method capable of handling multiple objectives, but its computational expense increases with increasing number of objectives and the number of model parameters to be inverted for. In addition, an accurate extraction of subsurface azimuthal anisotropy requires multicomponent seismic data acquired at a fine spatial resolution along many source-to-receiver azimuths. Because routine acquisition of such data is prohibitively expensive, they are typically available along two or at most three azimuthal orientations at a spatial resolution where such an inversion could be applied. This paper proposes a novel multi-objective methodology using a parallelized version of NSGA II for waveform inversion of multicomponent seismic displacement data along two azimuths. By scaling the objectives prior to ranking, redefining the crowding distance as functions of the scaled objective and the model spaces, and varying

  16. Role of different scattering mechanisms on the temperature dependence of transport in graphene

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Suman; Amin, Kazi Rafsanjani; Modak, Ranjan; Singh, Amandeep; Mukerjee, Subroto; Bid, Aveek

    2015-01-01

    Detailed experimental and theoretical studies of the temperature dependence of the effect of different scattering mechanisms on electrical transport properties of graphene devices are presented. We find that for high mobility devices the transport properties are mainly governed by completely screened short range impurity scattering. On the other hand, for the low mobility devices transport properties are determined by both types of scattering potentials - long range due to ionized impurities and short range due to completely screened charged impurities. The results could be explained in the framework of Boltzmann transport equations involving the two independent scattering mechanisms. PMID:26608479

  17. Fast axonal transport of the proteasome complex depends on membrane interaction and molecular motor function.

    PubMed

    Otero, Maria G; Alloatti, Matías; Cromberg, Lucas E; Almenar-Queralt, Angels; Encalada, Sandra E; Pozo Devoto, Victorio M; Bruno, Luciana; Goldstein, Lawrence S B; Falzone, Tomás L

    2014-04-01

    Protein degradation by the ubiquitin-proteasome system in neurons depends on the correct delivery of the proteasome complex. In neurodegenerative diseases, aggregation and accumulation of proteins in axons link transport defects with degradation impairments; however, the transport properties of proteasomes remain unknown. Here, using in vivo experiments, we reveal the fast anterograde transport of assembled and functional 26S proteasome complexes. A high-resolution tracking system to follow fluorescent proteasomes revealed three types of motion: actively driven proteasome axonal transport, diffusive behavior in a viscoelastic axonema and proteasome-confined motion. We show that active proteasome transport depends on motor function because knockdown of the KIF5B motor subunit resulted in impairment of the anterograde proteasome flux and the density of segmental velocities. Finally, we reveal that neuronal proteasomes interact with intracellular membranes and identify the coordinated transport of fluorescent proteasomes with synaptic precursor vesicles, Golgi-derived vesicles, lysosomes and mitochondria. Taken together, our results reveal fast axonal transport as a new mechanism of proteasome delivery that depends on membrane cargo 'hitch-hiking' and the function of molecular motors. We further hypothesize that defects in proteasome transport could promote abnormal protein clearance in neurodegenerative diseases.

  18. Functional characterization of a Na+-dependent dicarboxylate transporter from Vibrio cholerae

    PubMed Central

    Mulligan, Christopher; Fitzgerald, Gabriel A.; Wang, Da-Neng

    2014-01-01

    The SLC13 transporter family, whose members play key physiological roles in the regulation of fatty acid synthesis, adiposity, insulin resistance, and other processes, catalyzes the transport of Krebs cycle intermediates and sulfate across the plasma membrane of mammalian cells. SLC13 transporters are part of the divalent anion:Na+ symporter (DASS) family that includes several well-characterized bacterial members. Despite sharing significant sequence similarity, the functional characteristics of DASS family members differ with regard to their substrate and coupling ion dependence. The publication of a high resolution structure of dimer VcINDY, a bacterial DASS family member, provides crucial structural insight into this transporter family. However, marrying this structural insight to the current functional understanding of this family also demands a comprehensive analysis of the transporter’s functional properties. To this end, we purified VcINDY, reconstituted it into liposomes, and determined its basic functional characteristics. Our data demonstrate that VcINDY is a high affinity, Na+-dependent transporter with a preference for C4- and C5-dicarboxylates. Transport of the model substrate, succinate, is highly pH dependent, consistent with VcINDY strongly preferring the substrate’s dianionic form. VcINDY transport is electrogenic with succinate coupled to the transport of three or more Na+ ions. In contrast to succinate, citrate, bound in the VcINDY crystal structure (in an inward-facing conformation), seems to interact only weakly with the transporter in vitro. These transport properties together provide a functional framework for future experimental and computational examinations of the VcINDY transport mechanism. PMID:24821967

  19. 2D photonic crystal and its angular reflective azimuthal spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senderakova, Dagmar; Drzik, Milan; Tomekova, Juliana

    2016-12-01

    Contemporary, attention is paid to photonic crystals, which can strongly modify light propagation through them and enable a controllable light manipulation. The contribution is focused on a sub-wavelength 2D structure formed by Al2O3 layer on silicon substrate, patterned with periodic hexagonal lattice of deep air holes. Using various laser sources of light at single wavelength, azimuthal angle dependence of the mirror-like reflected light intensity was recorded photo-electrically. The results obtained can be used to sample the band-structure of leaky modes of the photonic crystal more reliably and help us to map the photonic dispersion diagram.

  20. The temperature dependence of maltose transport in ale and lager strains of brewer's yeast

    PubMed Central

    Vidgren, Virve; Multanen, Jyri-Pekka; Ruohonen, Laura; Londesborough, John

    2010-01-01

    Lager beers are traditionally made at lower temperatures (6–14 °C) than ales (15–25 °C). At low temperatures, lager strains (Saccharomyces pastorianus) ferment faster than ale strains (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). Two lager and two ale strains had similar maltose transport activities at 20 °C, but at 0 °C the lager strains had fivefold greater activity. AGT1, MTT1 and MALx1 are major maltose transporter genes. In nine tested lager strains, the AGT1 genes contained premature stop codons. None of five tested ale strains had this defect. All tested lager strains, but no ale strain, contained MTT1 genes. When functional AGT1 from an ale strain was expressed in a lager strain, the resultant maltose transport activity had the high temperature dependence characteristic of ale yeasts. Lager yeast MTT1 and MALx1 genes were expressed in a maltose-negative laboratory strain of S. cerevisiae. The resultant Mtt1 transport activity had low temperature dependence and the Malx1 activity had high temperature dependence. Faster fermentation at low temperature by lager strains than ale strains may result from their different maltose transporters. The loss of Agt1 transporters during the evolution of lager strains may have provided plasma membrane space for the Mtt1 transporters that perform better at a low temperature. PMID:20402791

  1. A NEW MONTE CARLO METHOD FOR TIME-DEPENDENT NEUTRINO RADIATION TRANSPORT

    SciTech Connect

    Abdikamalov, Ernazar; Ott, Christian D.; O'Connor, Evan; Burrows, Adam; Dolence, Joshua C.; Loeffler, Frank; Schnetter, Erik

    2012-08-20

    Monte Carlo approaches to radiation transport have several attractive properties such as simplicity of implementation, high accuracy, and good parallel scaling. Moreover, Monte Carlo methods can handle complicated geometries and are relatively easy to extend to multiple spatial dimensions, which makes them potentially interesting in modeling complex multi-dimensional astrophysical phenomena such as core-collapse supernovae. The aim of this paper is to explore Monte Carlo methods for modeling neutrino transport in core-collapse supernovae. We generalize the Implicit Monte Carlo photon transport scheme of Fleck and Cummings and gray discrete-diffusion scheme of Densmore et al. to energy-, time-, and velocity-dependent neutrino transport. Using our 1D spherically-symmetric implementation, we show that, similar to the photon transport case, the implicit scheme enables significantly larger timesteps compared with explicit time discretization, without sacrificing accuracy, while the discrete-diffusion method leads to significant speed-ups at high optical depth. Our results suggest that a combination of spectral, velocity-dependent, Implicit Monte Carlo and discrete-diffusion Monte Carlo methods represents a robust approach for use in neutrino transport calculations in core-collapse supernovae. Our velocity-dependent scheme can easily be adapted to photon transport.

  2. The temperature dependence of maltose transport in ale and lager strains of brewer's yeast.

    PubMed

    Vidgren, Virve; Multanen, Jyri-Pekka; Ruohonen, Laura; Londesborough, John

    2010-06-01

    Lager beers are traditionally made at lower temperatures (6-14 degrees C) than ales (15-25 degrees C). At low temperatures, lager strains (Saccharomyces pastorianus) ferment faster than ale strains (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). Two lager and two ale strains had similar maltose transport activities at 20 degrees C, but at 0 degrees C the lager strains had fivefold greater activity. AGT1, MTT1 and MALx1 are major maltose transporter genes. In nine tested lager strains, the AGT1 genes contained premature stop codons. None of five tested ale strains had this defect. All tested lager strains, but no ale strain, contained MTT1 genes. When functional AGT1 from an ale strain was expressed in a lager strain, the resultant maltose transport activity had the high temperature dependence characteristic of ale yeasts. Lager yeast MTT1 and MALx1 genes were expressed in a maltose-negative laboratory strain of S. cerevisiae. The resultant Mtt1 transport activity had low temperature dependence and the Malx1 activity had high temperature dependence. Faster fermentation at low temperature by lager strains than ale strains may result from their different maltose transporters. The loss of Agt1 transporters during the evolution of lager strains may have provided plasma membrane space for the Mtt1 transporters that perform better at a low temperature.

  3. Acoustic Efficiency of Azimuthal Modes in Jet Noise Using Chevron Nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Clifford A.; Bridges, James

    2006-01-01

    The link between azimuthal modes in jet turbulence and in the acoustic sound field has been examined in cold, round jets. Chevron nozzles, however, impart an azimuthal structure on the jet with a shape dependent on the number, length and penetration angle of the chevrons. Two particular chevron nozzles, with 3 and 4 primary chevrons respectively, and a round baseline nozzle are compared at both cold and hot jet conditions to determine how chevrons impact the modal structure of the flow and how that change relates to the sound field. The results show that, although the chevrons have a large impact on the azimuthal shape of the mean axial velocity, the impact of chevrons on the azimuthal structure of the fluctuating axial velocity is small at the cold jet condition and smaller still at the hot jet condition. This is supported by results in the azimuthal structure of the sound field, which also shows little difference in between the two chevron nozzles and the baseline nozzle in the distribution of energy across the azimuthal modes measured.

  4. Characterization of loxoprofen transport in Caco-2 cells: the involvement of a proton-dependent transport system in the intestinal transport of loxoprofen.

    PubMed

    Narumi, Katsuya; Kobayashi, Masaki; Kondo, Ayuko; Furugen, Ayako; Yamada, Takehiro; Takahashi, Natsuko; Iseki, Ken

    2016-11-01

    Loxoprofen, a propionate non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), is used widely in East Asian countries. However, little is known about the transport mechanisms contributing to its intestinal absorption. The objectives of this study were to characterize the intestinal transport of loxoprofen using the human intestinal Caco-2 cell model. The transport of loxoprofen was investigated in cellular uptake studies. The uptake of loxoprofen into Caco-2 cells was pH- and concentration-dependent, and was described by a Michaelis-Menten equation with passive diffusion (Km : 4.8 mm, Vmax : 142 nmol/mg protein/30 s, and Kd : 2.2 μl/mg protein/30 s). Moreover, the uptake of loxoprofen was inhibited by a typical monocarboxylate transporter (MCT) inhibitor as well as by various monocarboxylates. The uptake of [(14) C] l-lactic acid, a typical MCT substrate, in Caco-2 cells was saturable with relatively high affinity for MCT. Because loxoprofen inhibited the uptake of [(14) C] l-lactic acid in a noncompetitive manner, it was unlikely that loxoprofen uptake was mediated by high-affinity MCT(s). Our results suggest that transport of loxoprofen in Caco-2 cells is, at least in part, mediated by a proton-dependent transport system. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Gate-dependent asymmetric transport characteristics in pentacene barristors with graphene electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Wang-Taek; Min, Misook; Jeong, Hyunhak; Kim, Dongku; Jang, Jingon; Yoo, Daekyung; Jang, Yeonsik; Kim, Jun-Woo; Yoon, Jiyoung; Chung, Seungjun; Yi, Gyu-Chul; Lee, Hyoyoung; Wang, Gunuk; Lee, Takhee

    2016-11-01

    We investigated the electrical characteristics and the charge transport mechanism of pentacene vertical hetero-structures with graphene electrodes. The devices are composed of vertical stacks of silicon, silicon dioxide, graphene, pentacene, and gold. These vertical heterojunctions exhibited distinct transport characteristics depending on the applied bias direction, which originates from different electrode contacts (graphene and gold contacts) to the pentacene layer. These asymmetric contacts cause a current rectification and current modulation induced by the gate field-dependent bias direction. We observed a change in the charge injection barrier during variable-temperature current-voltage characterization, and we also observed that two distinct charge transport channels (thermionic emission and Poole-Frenkel effect) worked in the junctions, which was dependent on the bias magnitude.

  6. Identification of a chloride ion binding site in Na+/Cl -dependent transporters.

    PubMed

    Forrest, Lucy R; Tavoulari, Sotiria; Zhang, Yuan-Wei; Rudnick, Gary; Honig, Barry

    2007-07-31

    The recent determination of the crystal structure of the leucine transporter from Aquifex aeolicus (aaLeuT) has provided significant insights into the function of neurotransmitter:sodium symporters. Transport by aaLeuT is Cl(-) independent, whereas many neurotransmitter:sodium symporters from higher organisms depend on Cl(-) ions. However, the only Cl(-) ion identified in the aaLeuT structure interacts with nonconserved residues in extracellular loops, and thus the relevance of this binding site is unclear. Here, we use calculations of pK(A)s and homology modeling to predict the location of a functionally important Cl(-) binding site in serotonin transporter and other Cl(-)-dependent transporters. We validate our model through the site-directed mutagenesis of residues predicted to coordinate the Cl(-) ion and through the observation of sequence conservation patterns in other Cl(-)-dependent transporters. The proposed site is located midway across the membrane and is formed by residues from transmembrane helices 2, 6, and 7. It is close to the Na1 sodium binding site, thus providing an explanation for the coupling of Cl(-) and Na(+) ions during transport. Other implications of the model are also discussed.

  7. Do waves carrying orbital angular momentum possess azimuthal linear momentum?

    PubMed

    Speirits, Fiona C; Barnett, Stephen M

    2013-09-06

    All beams are a superposition of plane waves, which carry linear momentum in the direction of propagation with no net azimuthal component. However, plane waves incident on a hologram can produce a vortex beam carrying orbital angular momentum that seems to require an azimuthal linear momentum, which presents a paradox. We resolve this by showing that the azimuthal momentum is not a true linear momentum but the azimuthal momentum density is a true component of the linear momentum density.

  8. Analytical solution for one-dimensional advection-dispersion transport equation with distance-dependent coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez Guerrero, J. S.; Skaggs, T. H.

    2010-08-01

    SummaryMathematical models describing contaminant transport in heterogeneous porous media are often formulated as an advection-dispersion transport equation with distance-dependent transport coefficients. In this work, a general analytical solution is presented for the linear, one-dimensional advection-dispersion equation with distance-dependent coefficients. An integrating factor is employed to obtain a transport equation that has a self-adjoint differential operator, and a solution is found using the generalized integral transform technique (GITT). It is demonstrated that an analytical expression for the integrating factor exists for several transport equation formulations of practical importance in groundwater transport modeling. Unlike nearly all solutions available in the literature, the current solution is developed for a finite spatial domain. As an illustration, solutions for the particular case of a linearly increasing dispersivity are developed in detail and results are compared with solutions from the literature. Among other applications, the current analytical solution will be particularly useful for testing or benchmarking numerical transport codes because of the incorporation of a finite spatial domain.

  9. Radiation inactivation studies on the rabbit kidney sodium-dependent glucose transporter.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, M; Malathi, P; Preiser, H; Jung, C Y

    1985-09-05

    Rabbit kidney cortical brush-border membrane vesicles were irradiated in the frozen state with increasing doses of high energy electrons from a Van de Graaff generator. Sodium-dependent D-glucose and L-alanine transport showed a simple exponential loss of activity with increasing radiation dosage. Target size calculation based on these data gives estimates of 1.0 X 10(6) daltons for the glucose transporter and 1.2 X 10(6) daltons for the alanine transporter. A highly purified glucose transport protein extracted from rabbit kidney cortex was similarly irradiated both before and after reconstitution into liposomes. The target size of this purified glucose transporter was 343,000 daltons, based on inactivation of transport. The intensity of the major 165,000-dalton sodium dodecyl sulfate-gel electrophoresis band of this preparation was decreased by radiation. The decrease in staining intensity was dose-dependent, yielding a target size of 298,000 daltons, in situ. We propose that the purified glucose transporter reconstituted into liposomes is a tetramer comprised of 85,000-dalton subunits.

  10. Interaction of PIN and PGP transport mechanisms in auxin distribution-dependent development.

    PubMed

    Mravec, Jozef; Kubes, Martin; Bielach, Agnieszka; Gaykova, Vassilena; Petrásek, Jan; Skůpa, Petr; Chand, Suresh; Benková, Eva; Zazímalová, Eva; Friml, Jirí

    2008-10-01

    The signalling molecule auxin controls plant morphogenesis via its activity gradients, which are produced by intercellular auxin transport. Cellular auxin efflux is the rate-limiting step in this process and depends on PIN and phosphoglycoprotein (PGP) auxin transporters. Mutual roles for these proteins in auxin transport are unclear, as is the significance of their interactions for plant development. Here, we have analysed the importance of the functional interaction between PIN- and PGP-dependent auxin transport in development. We show by analysis of inducible overexpression lines that PINs and PGPs define distinct auxin transport mechanisms: both mediate auxin efflux but they play diverse developmental roles. Components of both systems are expressed during embryogenesis, organogenesis and tropisms, and they interact genetically in both synergistic and antagonistic fashions. A concerted action of PIN- and PGP-dependent efflux systems is required for asymmetric auxin distribution during these processes. We propose a model in which PGP-mediated efflux controls auxin levels in auxin channel-forming cells and, thus, auxin availability for PIN-dependent vectorial auxin movement.

  11. Use of the azimuthal resistivity technique for determination of regional azimuth of transmissivity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carlson, D.

    2010-01-01

    Many bedrock units contain joint sets that commonly act as preferred paths for the movement of water, electrical charge, and possible contaminants associated with production or transit of crude oil or refined products. To facilitate the development of remediation programs, a need exists to reliably determine regional-scale properties of these joint sets: azimuth of transmissivity ellipse, dominant set, and trend(s). The surface azimuthal electrical resistivity survey method used for local in situ studies can be a noninvasive, reliable, efficient, and relatively cost-effective method for regional studies. The azimuthal resistivity survey method combines the use of standard resistivity equipment with a Wenner array rotated about a fixed center point, at selected degree intervals, which yields an apparent resistivity ellipse from which joint-set orientation can be determined. Regional application of the azimuthal survey method was tested at 17 sites in an approximately 500 km2 (193 mi2) area around Milwaukee, Wisconsin, with less than 15m (50 ft) overburden above the dolomite. Results of 26 azimuthal surveys were compared and determined to be consistent with the results of two other methods: direct observation of joint-set orientation and transmissivity ellipses from multiple-well-aquifer tests. The average of joint-set trend determined by azimuthal surveys is within 2.5?? of the average of joint-set trend determined by direct observation of major joint sets at 24 sites. The average of maximum of transmissivity trend determined by azimuthal surveys is within 5.7?? of the average of maximum of transmissivity trend determined for 14 multiple-well-aquifer tests. Copyright ?? 2010 The American Association of Petroleum Geologists/Division of Environmental Geosciences. All rights reserved.

  12. Feedback Control Of An Azimuthal Oscillation In The ExB Discharge of Hall Thrusters

    SciTech Connect

    Griswold, Martin E.; Ellison, C. L.; Raitses, Y.; Fisch, N. J.

    2012-04-06

    Feedback control of a low-frequency azimuthal wave known as a "rotating spoke" in the ExB discharge of a cylindrical Hall thruster was demonstrated. The rotating spoke is an m=1 azimuthal variation in density, electron temperature, and potential that rotates at about 10% of the local E x B electron rotation speed. It causes increased electron transport across the magnetic field and is suspected to be an ionization wave. Feedback control of this wave required special consideration because, although it causes a rotating azimuthal variation in the current density to the anode, it does not show up as a signal in the total thruster discharge current. Therefore, an extra source of information was needed to track the oscillation, which was addressed by using a special anode that was split azimuthally into four segments. The current to each segment oscillates as the rotating spoke passes over it, and feedback is accomplished by resistors connected in series with each anode segment which cause the voltage on a segment to decrease in proportion to the current through that segment. The feedback resulted in the disappearance of a coherent azimuthal wave and a decrease in the time-averaged total discharge current by up to 13.2%.

  13. Nonlinear thermoelectric response due to energy-dependent transport properties of a quantum dot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svilans, Artis; Burke, Adam M.; Svensson, Sofia Fahlvik; Leijnse, Martin; Linke, Heiner

    2016-08-01

    Quantum dots are useful model systems for studying quantum thermoelectric behavior because of their highly energy-dependent electron transport properties, which are tunable by electrostatic gating. As a result of this strong energy dependence, the thermoelectric response of quantum dots is expected to be nonlinear with respect to an applied thermal bias. However, until now this effect has been challenging to observe because, first, it is experimentally difficult to apply a sufficiently large thermal bias at the nanoscale and, second, it is difficult to distinguish thermal bias effects from purely temperature-dependent effects due to overall heating of a device. Here we take advantage of a novel thermal biasing technique and demonstrate a nonlinear thermoelectric response in a quantum dot which is defined in a heterostructured semiconductor nanowire. We also show that a theoretical model based on the Master equations fully explains the observed nonlinear thermoelectric response given the energy-dependent transport properties of the quantum dot.

  14. Size-dependent control of colloid transport via solute gradients in dead-end channels

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Sangwoo; Um, Eujin; Sabass, Benedikt; Ault, Jesse T.; Rahimi, Mohammad; Warren, Patrick B.; Stone, Howard A.

    2016-01-01

    Transport of colloids in dead-end channels is involved in widespread applications including drug delivery and underground oil and gas recovery. In such geometries, Brownian motion may be considered as the sole mechanism that enables transport of colloidal particles into or out of the channels, but it is, unfortunately, an extremely inefficient transport mechanism for microscale particles. Here, we explore the possibility of diffusiophoresis as a means to control the colloid transport in dead-end channels by introducing a solute gradient. We demonstrate that the transport of colloidal particles into the dead-end channels can be either enhanced or completely prevented via diffusiophoresis. In addition, we show that size-dependent diffusiophoretic transport of particles can be achieved by considering a finite Debye layer thickness effect, which is commonly ignored. A combination of diffusiophoresis and Brownian motion leads to a strong size-dependent focusing effect such that the larger particles tend to concentrate more and reside deeper in the channel. Our findings have implications for all manners of controlled release processes, especially for site-specific delivery systems where localized targeting of particles with minimal dispersion to the nontarget area is essential. PMID:26715753

  15. Transport, metabolism, and endosomal trafficking-dependent regulation of intestinal fructose absorption.

    PubMed

    Patel, Chirag; Douard, Veronique; Yu, Shiyan; Gao, Nan; Ferraris, Ronaldo P

    2015-09-01

    Dietary fructose that is linked to metabolic abnormalities can up-regulate its own absorption, but the underlying regulatory mechanisms are not known. We hypothesized that glucose transporter (GLUT) protein, member 5 (GLUT5) is the primary fructose transporter and that fructose absorption via GLUT5, metabolism via ketohexokinase (KHK), as well as GLUT5 trafficking to the apical membrane via the Ras-related protein-in-brain 11 (Rab11)a-dependent endosomes are each required for regulation. Introducing fructose but not lysine and glucose solutions into the lumen increased by 2- to 10-fold the heterogeneous nuclear RNA, mRNA, protein, and activity levels of GLUT5 in adult wild-type mice consuming chow. Levels of GLUT5 were >100-fold that of candidate apical fructose transporters GLUTs 7, 8, and 12 whose expression, and that of GLUT 2 and the sodium-dependent glucose transporter protein 1 (SGLT1), was not regulated by luminal fructose. GLUT5-knockout (KO) mice exhibited no facilitative fructose transport and no compensatory increases in activity and expression of SGLT1 and other GLUTs. Fructose could not up-regulate GLUT5 in GLUT5-KO, KHK-KO, and intestinal epithelial cell-specific Rab11a-KO mice. The fructose-specific metabolite glyceraldehyde did not increase GLUT5 expression. GLUT5 is the primary transporter responsible for facilitative absorption of fructose, and its regulation specifically requires fructose uptake and metabolism and normal GLUT5 trafficking to the apical membrane.

  16. Psychostimulants affect dopamine transmission through both dopamine transporter-dependent and independent mechanisms.

    PubMed

    dela Peña, Ike; Gevorkiana, Ruzanna; Shi, Wei-Xing

    2015-10-05

    The precise mechanisms by which cocaine and amphetamine-like psychostimulants exert their reinforcing effects are not yet fully defined. It is widely believed, however, that these drugs produce their effects by enhancing dopamine neurotransmission in the brain, especially in limbic areas such as the nucleus accumbens, by inducing dopamine transporter-mediated reverse transport and/or blocking dopamine reuptake though the dopamine transporter. Here, we present the evidence that aside from dopamine transporter, non-dopamine transporter-mediated mechanisms also participate in psychostimulant-induced dopamine release and contribute to the behavioral effects of these drugs, such as locomotor activation and reward. Accordingly, psychostimulants could increase norepinephrine release in the prefrontal cortex, the latter then alters the firing pattern of dopamine neurons resulting in changes in action potential-dependent dopamine release. These alterations would further affect the temporal pattern of dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens, thereby modifying information processing in that area. Hence, a synaptic input to a nucleus accumbens neuron may be enhanced or inhibited by dopamine depending on its temporal relationship to dopamine release. Specific temporal patterns of dopamine release may also be required for certain forms of synaptic plasticity in the nucleus accumbens. Together, these effects induced by psychostimulants, mediated through a non-dopamine transporter-mediated mechanism involving norepinephrine and the prefrontal cortex, may also contribute importantly to the reinforcing properties of these drugs.

  17. CALCIUM-DEPENDENT INTERACTIONS OF THE HUMAN NOREPINEPHRINE TRANSPORTER WITH SYNTAXIN 1A

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Uhna; Blakely, Randy D.

    2007-01-01

    The norepinephrine (NE) transporter (NET) terminates noradrenergic signaling by clearing released NE at synapses. The activity of NET can be rapidly regulated by depolarization and receptor activation via Ca2+ and kinase/phosphatase linked pathways. The SNARE protein syntaxin 1A (SYN1A) interacts with NET and influences transporter surface trafficking and catalytic activity. In this study, we establish a link between changes in intracellular Ca2+ and SYN1A/NET interactions. SYN1A influenced NE transport only in the presence of Ca2+ in brain cortical synaptosomes. Although NET/SYN1A associations were sensitive to manipulations of Ca2+ in CHO cells, in vitro binding experiments using purified NET and SYN1A fusion proteins demonstrated a lack of direct Ca2+ sensitivity. Disruption of NET/SYN1A interaction abolished inhibition of NE transport by phorbol ester (PMA) to activate protein kinase C (PKC), but had no effect on transport inhibition by the Ca2+ calmodulin kinase (CaMK) inhibitor KN93. Furthermore, PMA enhanced Ca2+ dependent modulation of NE transport in synaptosomes. Our data reveal roles for SYN1A in the Ca2+-dependent regulation of NET, likely reliant on regulation by PKC signaling, but independent of CaMK. PMID:17188889

  18. Evaluation of Different Strategies for Mitigating Azimuthally Asymmetric Tropospheric Delays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urquhart, Landon; Nievinski, Felipe G.; Santos, Marcelo C.

    2010-05-01

    Observations occurring at low elevation angles are beneficial for space geodetic techniques as they improve the observational geometry and redundancy of the estimated solutions. Due to horizontal variations in the Earth's neutral atmosphere, most tropospheric delay mapping functions are not capable of accurately modeling the delay at low elevation angles as they assume the Earth's atmosphere to be azimuthally symmetric. It is possible to estimate tropospheric gradient parameters to account for the bulk of the asymmetric delay, but these gradients account for only a single main direction of asymmetry, and their estimation reduces the redundancy of the solution especially for applications requiring short observation sessions. To help overcome these challenges, ray-tracing through numerical weather models (NWM) is a promising technique to model both the elevation angle- and azimuth-dependence of the tropospheric delay. We evaluate three strategies for mitigating the asymmetric tropospheric delay: (a) unaided GPS estimation; (b) NWM-aided GPS estimation; and (c) NWM-prediction (no GPS estimation). Strategy (a) consists of employing solely the GPS observations themselves to determine the tropospheric gradient parameters following the standard strategy, recommended in the updated IERS Conventions. In strategy (b) we employ a priori information provided by the NWM to constrain the direction of the delay gradient, needing to estimate only its magnitude from the GPS observations. Finally, in (c)we rely solely on the slant factors (the ratio between slant delays and zenith delay), obtained by ray-tracing in a 3D NWM. Notice that in (a) and (b) we assume the delay exhibits a single dominant direction of azimuthal asymmetry, while in (c) we make no assumptions about the nature of the asymmetries. While this work focuses on azimuthally asymmetric portion of the delay, we evaluate, en passant, the strategy of (d) constraining slant delays (or slant factors) at the observation

  19. Globally visualizing the microtubule-dependent transport behaviors of influenza virus in live cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shu-Lin; Zhang, Li-Juan; Wang, Zhi-Gang; Zhang, Zhi-Ling; Wu, Qiu-Mei; Sun, En-Ze; Shi, Yun-Bo; Pang, Dai-Wen

    2014-04-15

    Understanding the microtubule-dependent behaviors of viruses in live cells is very meaningful for revealing the mechanisms of virus infection and endocytosis. Herein, we used a quantum dots-based single-particle tracking technique to dynamically and globally visualize the microtubule-dependent transport behaviors of influenza virus in live cells. We found that the intersection configuration of microtubules can interfere with the transport behaviors of the virus in live cells, which lead to the changing and long-time pausing of the transport behavior of viruses. Our results revealed that most of the viruses moved along straight microtubules rapidly and unidirectionally from the cell periphery to the microtubule organizing center (MTOC) near the bottom of the cell, and the viruses were confined in the grid of microtubules near the top of the cell and at the MTOC near the bottom of the cell. These results provided deep insights into the influence of entire microtubule geometry on the virus infection.

  20. Hybrid Approach for the Public Transportation Time Dependent Orienteering Problem with Time Windows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, Ander; Arbelaitz, Olatz; Vansteenwegen, Pieter; Souffriau, Wouter; Linaza, Maria Teresa

    The Time Dependent Orienteering Problem with Time Windows (TDOPTW) consists of a set of locations with associated time windows and scores. Visiting a location allows to collect its score as a reward. Traveling time between locations varies depending on the leave time. The objective is to obtain a route that maximizes the obtained score within a limited amount of time. In this paper we target the use of public transportation in a city, where users may move on foot or by public transportation. The approach can also be applied to the logistic sector, for example to the multimodal freight transportation. We apply an hybrid approach to tackle the problem. Experimental results for the city of San Sebastian show we are able to obtain valid routes in real-time.

  1. Analytic solutions for colloid transport with time- and depth-dependent retention in porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leij, Feike J.; Bradford, Scott A.; Sciortino, Antonella

    2016-12-01

    Elucidating and quantifying the transport of industrial nanoparticles (e.g. silver, carbon nanotubes, and graphene oxide) and other colloid-size particles such as viruses and bacteria is important to safeguard and manage the quality of the subsurface environment. Analytic solutions were derived for aqueous and solid phase colloid concentrations in a porous medium where colloids were subject to advective transport and reversible time and/or depth-dependent retention. Time-dependent blocking and ripening retention were described using a Langmuir-type equation with a rate coefficient that respectively decreased and increased linearly with the retained concentration. Depth-dependent retention was described using a rate coefficient that is a power-law function of distance. The stream tube modeling concept was employed to extend these analytic solutions to transport scenarios with two different partitioning processes (i.e., two types of retention sites). The sensitivity of concentrations was illustrated for the various time- and/or depth-dependent retention model parameters. The developed analytical models were subsequently used to describe breakthrough curves and, in some cases, retention profiles from several published column studies that employed nanoparticle or pathogenic microorganisms. Simulations results provided valuable insights on causes for many observed complexities associated with colloid transport and retention, including: increasing or decreasing effluent concentrations with continued colloid application, delayed breakthrough, low concentration tailing, and retention profiles that are hyper-exponential, exponential, linear, or non-monotonic with distance.

  2. Analytical power series solution for contaminant transport with hyperbolic asymptotic distance-dependent dispersivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jui-Sheng; Ni, Chuen-Fa; Liang, Ching-Ping; Chiang, Chen-Chung

    2008-11-01

    SummaryA hyperbolic asymptotic function, which characterizes that the dispersivity initially increases with travel distance and eventually reaches an asymptotic value at long travel distance, is adopted and incorporated into the general advection-dispersion equation for describing scale-dependent solute transport in porous media in this study. An analytical technique for solving advection-dispersion equation with hyperbolic asymptotic distance-dependent dispersivity is presented. The analytical solution is derived by applying the extended power series method coupling with the Laplace transform. The developed analytical solution is compared with the corresponding numerical solution to evaluate its accuracy. Results demonstrate that the breakthrough curves at different locations obtained from the derived power series solution agree closely with those from the numerical solution. Moreover, breakthrough curves obtained from the hyperbolic asymptotic dispersivity model are compared with those obtained from the constant dispersivity model to scrutinize the relationship of the transport parameters derived by Mishra and Parker [Mishra, S., Parker, J.C., 1990. Analysis of solute transport with a hyperbolic scale dependent dispersion model. Hydrol. Proc. 4(1), 45-47]. The result reveals that the relationship postulated by Mishra and Parker [Mishra, S., Parker, J.C., 1990. Analysis of solute transport with a hyperbolic scale dependent dispersion model. Hydrol. Proc. 4(1), 45-47] is only valid under conditions with small dimensionless asymptotic dispersivity ( aa) and large dimensionless characteristic half length ( b).

  3. Nonlinear and frequency-dependent transport phenomena in low-dimensional conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grüner, G.

    1983-07-01

    Nonlinear and frequency-dependent electrical conductivity is more a rule than an exception in materials with highly anisotropic electronic structure. Disorder leads to localization of the electronic wave functions, and the temperature-( T), electric field-( E), and frequency (ω)-dependent transport are due to random transfer rates between localized single particle states, a process fundamentally different from band transport. Interactions lead to collective modes, represented by a periodic modulation of the charge or spin density. The charge density wave (CDW) mode is pinned by impurities, but for small pinning forces, it can be depinned by moderate electric fields, leading to nonlinear conductivity due to a sliding CDW. Both classical and quantum models account for the field and frequency dependent response; they also describe current oscillation phenomena and effects which arise when both dc and ac excitations are applied. For strong pinning the collective mode cannot be depinned at small electric field strengths, but nonlinear (soliton) excitations of the collective modes may be responsible for the nonlinear conductivity observed. In all these cases field-and frequency-dependent transport is strongly related. This feature is reproduced by various models, and therefore a detailed study of σ( T, E,ω) is called for to distinguish between the various sources of novel transport phenomena in these new types of solids.

  4. Continuous Energy, Multi-Dimensional Transport Calculations for Problem Dependent Resonance Self-Shielding

    SciTech Connect

    T. Downar

    2009-03-31

    The overall objective of the work here has been to eliminate the approximations used in current resonance treatments by developing continuous energy multi-dimensional transport calculations for problem dependent self-shielding calculations. The work here builds on the existing resonance treatment capabilities in the ORNL SCALE code system.

  5. Reward dependence is related to norepinephrine transporter T-182C gene polymorphism in a Korean population.

    PubMed

    Ham, Byung-Joo; Choi, Myoung-Jin; Lee, Heon-Jeong; Kang, Rhee-Hun; Lee, Min-Soo

    2005-06-01

    It is well established that approximately 50% of the variance in personality traits is genetic. The goal of this study was to investigate a relationship between personality traits and the T-182C polymorphism in the norepinephrine transporter gene. The participants included 115 healthy adults with no history of psychiatric disorders and other physical illness during the past 6 months. All participants were tested with the Temperament and Character Inventory and genotyped norepinephrine transporter gene polymorphism. Differences on the Temperament and Character Inventory dimensions among three groups were examined with one-way analysis of variance. Our study suggests that the norepinephrine transporter T-182C gene polymorphism is associated with reward dependence in Koreans, but the small number of study participants and their sex and age heterogeneity limits generalization of our results. Further studies are necessary with a larger number of homogeneous participants to confirm whether the norepinephrine transporter gene is related to personality traits.

  6. Accurate Prediction of Ligand Affinities for a Proton-Dependent Oligopeptide Transporter

    PubMed Central

    Samsudin, Firdaus; Parker, Joanne L.; Sansom, Mark S.P.; Newstead, Simon; Fowler, Philip W.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Membrane transporters are critical modulators of drug pharmacokinetics, efficacy, and safety. One example is the proton-dependent oligopeptide transporter PepT1, also known as SLC15A1, which is responsible for the uptake of the β-lactam antibiotics and various peptide-based prodrugs. In this study, we modeled the binding of various peptides to a bacterial homolog, PepTSt, and evaluated a range of computational methods for predicting the free energy of binding. Our results show that a hybrid approach (endpoint methods to classify peptides into good and poor binders and a theoretically exact method for refinement) is able to accurately predict affinities, which we validated using proteoliposome transport assays. Applying the method to a homology model of PepT1 suggests that the approach requires a high-quality structure to be accurate. Our study provides a blueprint for extending these computational methodologies to other pharmaceutically important transporter families. PMID:27028887

  7. Transport, metabolism, and endosomal trafficking-dependent regulation of intestinal fructose absorption

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Chirag; Douard, Veronique; Yu, Shiyan; Gao, Nan; Ferraris, Ronaldo P.

    2015-01-01

    Dietary fructose that is linked to metabolic abnormalities can up-regulate its own absorption, but the underlying regulatory mechanisms are not known. We hypothesized that glucose transporter (GLUT) protein, member 5 (GLUT5) is the primary fructose transporter and that fructose absorption via GLUT5, metabolism via ketohexokinase (KHK), as well as GLUT5 trafficking to the apical membrane via the Ras-related protein-in-brain 11 (Rab11)a-dependent endosomes are each required for regulation. Introducing fructose but not lysine and glucose solutions into the lumen increased by 2- to 10-fold the heterogeneous nuclear RNA, mRNA, protein, and activity levels of GLUT5 in adult wild-type mice consuming chow. Levels of GLUT5 were >100-fold that of candidate apical fructose transporters GLUTs 7, 8, and 12 whose expression, and that of GLUT 2 and the sodium-dependent glucose transporter protein 1 (SGLT1), was not regulated by luminal fructose. GLUT5-knockout (KO) mice exhibited no facilitative fructose transport and no compensatory increases in activity and expression of SGLT1 and other GLUTs. Fructose could not up-regulate GLUT5 in GLUT5-KO, KHK-KO, and intestinal epithelial cell-specific Rab11a-KO mice. The fructose-specific metabolite glyceraldehyde did not increase GLUT5 expression. GLUT5 is the primary transporter responsible for facilitative absorption of fructose, and its regulation specifically requires fructose uptake and metabolism and normal GLUT5 trafficking to the apical membrane.—Patel, C., Douard, V., Yu, S., Gao, N., Ferraris, R. P. Transport, metabolism, and endosomal trafficking-dependent regulation of intestinal fructose absorption. PMID:26071406

  8. Molecular and functional analysis of SDCT2, a novel rat sodium-dependent dicarboxylate transporter

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiangmei; Tsukaguchi, Hiroyasu; Chen, Xing-Zhen; Berger, Urs V.; Hediger, Matthias A.

    1999-01-01

    Kidney proximal tubule cells take up Krebs cycle intermediates for metabolic purposes and for secretion of organic anions through dicarboxylate/organic anion exchange. Alteration in reabsorption of citrate is closely related to renal stone formation. The presence of distinct types of sodium-coupled dicarboxylate transporters has been postulated on either side of the polarized epithelial membrane in the kidney proximal tubule. Using a PCR-based approach, we isolated a novel member of the sodium-dependent dicarboxylate/sulfate transporter called SDCT2. SDCT2 is a 600–amino acid residue protein that has 47–48% amino acid identity to SDCT1 and NaDC-1, previously identified in kidney and intestine. Northern analysis gave a single band of 3.3 kb for SDCT2 in kidney, liver, and brain. In situ hybridization revealed that SDCT2 is prominently expressed in kidney proximal tubule S3 segments and in perivenous hepatocytes, consistent with the sites of high-affinity dicarboxylate transport identified based on vesicle studies. A signal was also detected in the meningeal layers of the brain. SDCT2 expressed in Xenopus oocytes mediated sodium-dependent transport of di- and tricarboxylates with substrate preference for succinate rather than citrate, but excluding monocarboxylates. SDCT2, unlike SDCT1, displayed a unique pH dependence for succinate transport (optimal pH 7.5–8.5) and showed a high affinity for dimethylsuccinate, two features characteristic of basolateral transport. These data help to interpret the mechanisms of renal citrate transport, their alteration in pathophysiological conditions, and their role in the elimination of organic anions and therapeutic drugs. PMID:10207168

  9. Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide directly induces glucose transport in rat skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Snook, Laelie A; Nelson, Emery M; Dyck, David J; Wright, David C; Holloway, Graham P

    2015-08-01

    Several gastrointestinal proteins have been identified to have insulinotropic effects, including glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP); however, the direct effects of incretins on skeletal muscle glucose transport remain largely unknown. Therefore, the purpose of the current study was to examine the role of GIP on skeletal muscle glucose transport and insulin signaling in rats. Relative to a glucose challenge, a mixed glucose+lipid oral challenge increased circulating GIP concentrations, skeletal muscle Akt phosphorylation, and improved glucose clearance by ∼35% (P < 0.05). These responses occurred without alterations in serum insulin concentrations. In an incubated soleus muscle preparation, GIP directly stimulated glucose transport and increased GLUT4 accumulation on the plasma membrane in the absence of insulin. Moreover, the ability of GIP to stimulate glucose transport was mitigated by the addition of the PI 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor wortmannin, suggesting that signaling through PI3K is required for these responses. We also provide evidence that the combined stimulatory effects of GIP and insulin on soleus muscle glucose transport are additive. However, the specific GIP receptor antagonist (Pro(3))GIP did not attenuate GIP-stimulated glucose transport, suggesting that GIP is not signaling through its classical receptor. Together, the current data provide evidence that GIP regulates skeletal muscle glucose transport; however, the exact signaling mechanism(s) remain unknown.

  10. An asymptotic-preserving Lagrangian algorithm for the time-dependent anisotropic heat transport equation

    SciTech Connect

    Chacon, Luis; del-Castillo-Negrete, Diego; Hauck, Cory D.

    2014-09-01

    We propose a Lagrangian numerical algorithm for a time-dependent, anisotropic temperature transport equation in magnetized plasmas in the large guide field regime. The approach is based on an analytical integral formal solution of the parallel (i.e., along the magnetic field) transport equation with sources, and it is able to accommodate both local and non-local parallel heat flux closures. The numerical implementation is based on an operator-split formulation, with two straightforward steps: a perpendicular transport step (including sources), and a Lagrangian (field-line integral) parallel transport step. Algorithmically, the first step is amenable to the use of modern iterative methods, while the second step has a fixed cost per degree of freedom (and is therefore scalable). Accuracy-wise, the approach is free from the numerical pollution introduced by the discrete parallel transport term when the perpendicular to parallel transport coefficient ratio X /X becomes arbitrarily small, and is shown to capture the correct limiting solution when ε = X⊥L2/X1L2 → 0 (with L∥∙ L⊥ , the parallel and perpendicular diffusion length scales, respectively). Therefore, the approach is asymptotic-preserving. We demonstrate the capabilities of the scheme with several numerical experiments with varying magnetic field complexity in two dimensions, including the case of transport across a magnetic island.

  11. Biological significance of the importin-β family-dependent nucleocytoplasmic transport pathways.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Makoto; Imamoto, Naoko

    2014-07-01

    Importin-β family proteins (Imp-βs) are nucleocytoplasmic transport receptors (NTRs) that import and export proteins and RNAs through the nuclear pores. The family consists of 14-20 members depending on the biological species, and each member transports a specific group of cargoes. Thus, the Imp-βs mediate multiple, parallel transport pathways that can be regulated separately. In fact, the spatiotemporally differential expressions and the functional regulations of Imp-βs have been reported. Additionally, the biological significance of each pathway has been characterized by linking the function of a member of Imp-βs to a cellular consequence. Connecting these concepts, the regulation of the transport pathways conceivably induces alterations in the cellular physiological states. However, few studies have linked the regulation of an importin-β family NTR to an induced cellular response and the corresponding cargoes, despite the significance of this linkage in comprehending the biological relevance of the transport pathways. This review of recent reports on the regulation and biological functions of the Imp-βs highlights the significance of the transport pathways in physiological contexts and points out the possibility that the identification of yet unknown specific cargoes will reinforce the importance of transport regulation.

  12. Charge dependence of neoclassical and turbulent transport of light impurities on MAST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henderson, S. S.; Garzotti, L.; Casson, F. J.; Dickinson, D.; O'Mullane, M.; Patel, A.; Roach, C. M.; Summers, H. P.; Tanabe, H.; Valovič, M.; the MAST Team

    2015-09-01

    Carbon and nitrogen impurity transport coefficients are determined from gas puff experiments carried out during repeat L-mode discharges on the Mega-Amp Spherical Tokamak (MAST) and compared against a previous analysis of helium impurity transport on MAST. The impurity density profiles are measured on the low-field side of the plasma, therefore this paper focuses on light impurities where the impact of poloidal asymmetries on impurity transport is predicted to be negligible. A weak screening of carbon and nitrogen is found in the plasma core, whereas the helium density profile is peaked over the entire plasma radius. Both carbon and nitrogen experience a diffusivity of the order of 10 m2s-1 and a strong inward convective velocity of ˜40 m s-1 near the plasma edge, and a region of outward convective velocity at mid-radius. The measured impurity transport coefficients are consistent with neoclassical Banana-Plateau predictions within ρ ≤slant 0.4 . Quasi-linear gyrokinetic predictions of the carbon and helium particle flux at two flux surfaces, ρ =0.6 and ρ =0.7 , suggest that trapped electron modes are responsible for the anomalous impurity transport observed in the outer regions of the plasma. The model, combining neoclassical transport with quasi-linear turbulence, is shown to provide reasonable estimates of the impurity transport coefficients and the impurity charge dependence.

  13. Association between serotonin transporter gene polymorphisms and heroin dependence: a meta-analytic study

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Pao-Yen; Wu, Yi-Shan

    2016-01-01

    Background Studies have examined the association between heroin dependence and serotonin transporter gene polymorphisms but yielded inconsistent results. The purpose of current study is to determine the overall effect of these polymorphisms on the risk for heroin dependence through a meta-analytic method. Methods A meta-analysis was conducted to examine the association of heroin dependence with two common polymorphisms of serotonin transporter gene, in the promoter (5-hydroxytryptamine transporter-linked promotor region [5-httlpr]) and intron 2 (a various number tandem repeat in serotonin transporter intron 2 [STin2]). Data from studies with 5-httlpr (6 studies) and STin2 (8 studies) were synthesized by random effects model. Results In the analysis, heroin dependence was found to be significantly associated with the S allele of 5-httlpr (odds ratio [OR] =1.22, 95% confidence interval [CI] =1.08–1.41, P=0.002). The association between the S allele of 5-httlpr and heroin dependence was significant in Caucasian subjects (OR =1.37, 95% CI =1.12–1.68, P=0.003), but not in non-Caucasian subjects. On the other hand, no association with STin2 polymorphism was found (OR =1.14, 95% CI =0.91–1.42, P=0.242). Conclusion The results suggest an ethnic-specific effect of the 5-httlpr polymorphism on the risk for heroin dependence, but the influence of the genetic variance in the patients with comorbidities or intermediate phenotypes of heroin dependence needs to be further examined. PMID:27942217

  14. Azimuthally polarized cathodoluminescence from InP nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Brenny, B. J. M.; Osorio, C. I.; Polman, A.; Dam, D. van; Gómez Rivas, J.

    2015-11-16

    We determine the angle and polarization dependent emission from 1.75 µm and 2.50 µm long InP nanowires by using cathodoluminescence polarimetry. We excite the vertical wires using a 5 keV electron beam, and find that the 880 nm bandgap emission shows azimuthally polarized rings, with the number of rings depending on the wire height. The data agree well with a model in which spontaneous emission from the wire emitted into the far field interferes with emission reflected off the substrate. From the model, the depth range from which the emission is generated is found to be up to 400 nm below the top surface of the wires, well beyond the extent of the primary electron cloud. This enables a probe of the carrier diffusion length in the InP nanowires.

  15. Azimuthally polarized cathodoluminescence from InP nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brenny, B. J. M.; van Dam, D.; Osorio, C. I.; Gómez Rivas, J.; Polman, A.

    2015-11-01

    We determine the angle and polarization dependent emission from 1.75 µm and 2.50 µm long InP nanowires by using cathodoluminescence polarimetry. We excite the vertical wires using a 5 keV electron beam, and find that the 880 nm bandgap emission shows azimuthally polarized rings, with the number of rings depending on the wire height. The data agree well with a model in which spontaneous emission from the wire emitted into the far field interferes with emission reflected off the substrate. From the model, the depth range from which the emission is generated is found to be up to 400 nm below the top surface of the wires, well beyond the extent of the primary electron cloud. This enables a probe of the carrier diffusion length in the InP nanowires.

  16. Origin of azimuthal seismic anisotropy in oceanic plates and mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Thorsten W.; Conrad, Clinton P.; Schaeffer, Andrew J.; Lebedev, Sergei

    2014-09-01

    Seismic anisotropy is ubiquitous in the Earth's mantle but strongest in its thermo-mechanical boundary layers. Azimuthal anisotropy in the oceanic lithosphere and asthenosphere can be imaged by surface waves and should be particularly straightforward to relate to well-understood plate kinematics and large-scale mantle flow. However, previous studies have come to mixed conclusions as to the depth extent of the applicability of paleo-spreading and mantle flow models of anisotropy, and no simple, globally valid, relationships exist. Here, we show that lattice preferred orientation (LPO) inferred from mantle flow computations produces a plausible global background model for asthenospheric anisotropy underneath oceanic lithosphere. The same is not true for absolute plate motion (APM) models. A ˜200 km thick layer where the flow model LPO matches observations from tomography lies just below the ˜1200 °C isotherm of a half-space cooling model, indicating strong temperature-dependence of the processes that control the development of azimuthal anisotropy. We infer that the depth extent of shear, and hence the thickness of a relatively strong oceanic lithosphere, can be mapped this way. These findings for the background model, and ocean-basin specific deviations from the half-space cooling pattern, are found in all of the three recent and independent tomographic models considered. Further exploration of deviations from the background model may be useful for general studies of oceanic plate formation and dynamics as well as regional-scale tectonic analyses.

  17. CONDENSED MATTER: ELECTRONICSTRUCTURE, ELECTRICAL, MAGNETIC, AND OPTICALPROPERTIES: Time-Dependent Transport in Nanoscale Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhi-Dong; Zhang, Jin-Yu; Yu, Zhi-Ping

    2009-03-01

    A method for simulating ballistic time-dependent device transport, which solves the time-dependent Schrödinger equation using the finite difference time domain (FDTD) method together with Poisson's equation, is described in detail. The effective mass Schrödinger equation is solved. The continuous energy spectrum of the system is discretized using adaptive mesh, resulting in energy levels that sample the density-of-states. By calculating time evolution of wavefunctions at sampled energies, time-dependent transport characteristics such as current and charge density distributions are obtained. Simulation results in a nanowire and a coaxially gated carbon nanotube field-effect transistor (CNTFET) are presented. Transient effects, e.g., finite rising time, are investigated in these devices.

  18. Anomalous transport in fluid field with random waiting time depending on the preceding jump length

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hong; Li, Guo-Hua

    2016-11-01

    Anomalous (or non-Fickian) transport behaviors of particles have been widely observed in complex porous media. To capture the energy-dependent characteristics of non-Fickian transport of a particle in flow fields, in the present paper a generalized continuous time random walk model whose waiting time probability distribution depends on the preceding jump length is introduced, and the corresponding master equation in Fourier-Laplace space for the distribution of particles is derived. As examples, two generalized advection-dispersion equations for Gaussian distribution and lévy flight with the probability density function of waiting time being quadratic dependent on the preceding jump length are obtained by applying the derived master equation. Project supported by the Foundation for Young Key Teachers of Chengdu University of Technology, China (Grant No. KYGG201414) and the Opening Foundation of Geomathematics Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province, China (Grant No. scsxdz2013009).

  19. Azimuth orientation of the dragonfly (Sympetrum)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hisada, M.

    1972-01-01

    Evidence is presented of directional orientation by an alighting dragonfly relative to the azimuth of the sun. The effects of wind direction on this orientation are analyzed. It was concluded that wind does not play a major role in orientation but may have some secondary function in helping greater numbers of dragonflies face windward more often than leeward. A search was made to find the principle sensory receptor for orientation. Two possibilities, the large compound eye and the frontal ocelli, were noted; however, no conclusive evidence could be found.

  20. H(+)-dependent inorganic phosphate uptake in Trypanosoma brucei is influenced by myo-inositol transporter.

    PubMed

    Russo-Abrahão, Thais; Koeller, Carolina Macedo; Steinmann, Michael E; Silva-Rito, Stephanie; Marins-Lucena, Thaissa; Alves-Bezerra, Michele; Lima-Giarola, Naira Ligia; de-Paula, Iron Francisco; Gonzalez-Salgado, Amaia; Sigel, Erwin; Bütikofer, Peter; Gondim, Katia Calp; Heise, Norton; Meyer-Fernandes, José Roberto

    2017-04-01

    Trypanosoma brucei is an extracellular protozoan parasite that causes human African trypanosomiasis or "sleeping sickness". During the different phases of its life cycle, T. brucei depends on exogenous inorganic phosphate (Pi), but little is known about the transport of Pi in this organism. In the present study, we showed that the transport of (32)Pi across the plasma membrane follows Michaelis-Menten kinetics and is modulated by pH variation, with higher activity at acidic pH. Bloodstream forms presented lower Pi transport in comparison to procyclic forms, that displayed an apparent K0.5 = 0.093 ± 0.008 mM. Additionally, FCCP (H(+)-ionophore), valinomycin (K(+)-ionophore) and SCH28080 (H(+), K(+)-ATPase inhibitor) inhibited the Pi transport. Gene Tb11.02.3020, previously described to encode the parasite H(+):myo-inositol transporter (TbHMIT), was hypothesized to be potentially involved in the H(+):Pi cotransport because of its similarity with the Pho84 transporter described in S. cerevisiae and other trypanosomatids. Indeed, the RNAi mediated knockdown remarkably reduced TbHMIT gene expression, compromised cell growth and decreased Pi transport by half. In addition, Pi transport was inhibited when parasites were incubated in the presence of concentrations of myo-inositol that are above 300 μM. However, when expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes, two-electrode voltage clamp experiments provided direct electrophysiological evidence that the protein encoded by TbHMIT is definitely a myo-inositol transporter that may be only marginally affected by the presence of Pi. These results confirmed the presence of a Pi carrier in T. brucei, similar to the H(+)-dependent inorganic phosphate system described in S. cerevisiae and other trypanosomatids. This transport system contributes to the acquisition of Pi and may be involved in the growth and survival of procyclic forms. In summary, this work presents the first description of a Pi transport system in T. brucei.

  1. Electroosmotic transport in polyelectrolyte-grafted nanochannels with pH-dependent charge density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Guang; Das, Siddhartha

    2015-05-01

    "Smart" polyelectrolyte-grafted or "soft" nanochannels with pH-responsiveness have shown great promise for applications like manipulation of ion transport, ion sensing and selection, current rectification, and many more. In this paper, we develop a theory to study the electroosmotic transport in a polyelectrolyte-grafted (or soft) nanochannel with pH-dependent charge density. In one of our recent studies, we have identified that explicit consideration of hydrogen ion concentration is mandatory for appropriately describing the electrostatics of such systems and the resulting monomer concentration must obey a non-unique, cubic distribution. Here, we use this electrostatic calculation to study the corresponding electroosmotic transport. We establish that the effect of pH in the electroosmotic transport in polyelectrolyte-grafted nanochannels introduces two separate issues: first is the consideration of the hydrogen and hydroxyl ion concentrations in describing the electroosmotic body force, and second is the consideration of the appropriate drag force that bears the signature of this cubic monomeric distribution. Our results indicate that the strength of the electroosmotic velocity for the pH-dependent case is always smaller than that for the pH-independent case, with the extent of this difference being a function of the system parameters. Such nature of the electroosmotic transport will be extremely significant in suppressing the electroosmotic flow strength with implications in large number applications such as capillary electrophoresis induced separation, electric field mediated DNA elongation, electrophoretic DNA nanopore sequencing, and many more.

  2. Oesophageal transport of solid dosage forms depends on body position, swallowing volume and pharyngeal propulsion velocity.

    PubMed

    Osmanoglou, E; Van Der Voort, I R; Fach, K; Kosch, O; Bach, D; Hartmann, V; Strenzke, A; Weitschies, W; Wiedenmann, B; Trahms, L; Mönnikes, H

    2004-10-01

    Knowledge about transit of solid dosage forms (SDF) in the gastrointestinal tract is incomplete. Detection of magnetically marked capsules (MMC) via superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) allows monitoring of oesophageal transport of SDF with high tempospatial resolution. The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of body position, volume at swallowing, and oesophageal motility on orogastric transport of SDF. In 360 measurements we determined tempospatial characteristics of orogastric transit of SDFs by a SQUID device in six volunteers. They swallowed MMCs with various amounts of water in upright and supine position with and without simultaneous oesophageal manometry. Orogastric transit time, oesophageal transport velocity and rate of oesophageal retention of SDF depend on swallowing volume and body position at all experimental conditions. At 50 mL water bolus and in upright position, the retention rate depends on the pharyngeal propulsion velocity, and the transport velocity of MMCs in the oesophageal body are faster than the propulsive oesophageal contractions. Body position, swallowing volume and pharyngeal propulsion velocity markedly influence the oesophageal transport of SDF. They should be taken in upright body position with at least 50 mL of water to minimize entrapment in the oesophagus.

  3. Monoubiquitin-dependent endocytosis of the iron-regulated transporter 1 (IRT1) transporter controls iron uptake in plants.

    PubMed

    Barberon, Marie; Zelazny, Enric; Robert, Stéphanie; Conéjéro, Geneviève; Curie, Cathy; Friml, Jìrí; Vert, Grégory

    2011-08-09

    Plants take up iron from the soil using the iron-regulated transporter 1 (IRT1) high-affinity iron transporter at the root surface. Sophisticated regulatory mechanisms allow plants to tightly control the levels of IRT1, ensuring optimal absorption of essential but toxic iron. Here, we demonstrate that overexpression of Arabidopsis thaliana IRT1 leads to constitutive IRT1 protein accumulation, metal overload, and oxidative stress. IRT1 is unexpectedly found in trans-Golgi network/early endosomes of root hair cells, and its levels and localization are unaffected by iron nutrition. Using pharmacological approaches, we show that IRT1 cycles to the plasma membrane to perform iron and metal uptake at the cell surface and is sent to the vacuole for proper turnover. We also prove that IRT1 is monoubiquitinated on several cytosol-exposed residues in vivo and that mutation of two putative monoubiquitination target residues in IRT1 triggers stabilization at the plasma membrane and leads to extreme lethality. Together, these data suggest a model in which monoubiquitin-dependent internalization/sorting and turnover keep the plasma membrane pool of IRT1 low to ensure proper iron uptake and to prevent metal toxicity. More generally, our work demonstrates the existence of monoubiquitin-dependent trafficking to lytic vacuoles in plants and points to proteasome-independent turnover of plasma membrane proteins.

  4. Gate-voltage-dependent charge transport in multi-dispersed polymer thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Ling; Bu, Laju; Li, Dongfan; Lu, Guanghao

    2017-02-01

    In semiconductor polymers, charge transport usually occurs via hopping between localized states, which are generally multi-dispersed due to multi-dispersed chemical structures, crystallinities, and phase segregations. We report a combined modeling and experimental study to investigate gate-voltage-dependent charge transport in field-effect transistors based on multi-dispersed polymers including semiconductor:semiconductor and semiconductor:insulator blends. Film-depth-dependent charge accumulation and transport are correlated with vertical composition profiles and film-depth-dependent energetic distribution of localized states. Even low gate-voltage could accumulate charges in any depth of the films, greatly increasing charge density in some (sub-) components for effective charge transport. Therefore, neither overall high crystallinity nor molecular ordering near the semiconductor-dielectric interface is necessarily required for high field-effect mobility (μFET). This study not only proposes a model for high effective μFET recently reported in some nearly amorphous polymer films and the "bislope feature" in their transfer characteristics but also helps improve transistor performances and exploit transistor operations via manipulating charge distribution in multi-dispersed films.

  5. Charge transport calculations of organic semiconductors by the time-dependent wave-packet diffusion method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishii, Hiroyuki; Kobayashi, Nobuhiko; Hirose, Kenji

    2012-02-01

    Organic materials form crystals by relatively weak Van der Waals attraction between molecules, and thus differ fundamentally from covalently bonded semiconductors. Carriers in the organic semiconductors induce the drastic lattice deformation, which is called as polaron state. The polaron effect on the transport is a serious problem. Exactly what conduction mechanism applies to organic semiconductors has not been established. Therefore, we have investigated the transport properties using the Time-Dependent Wave-Packet Diffusion (TD-WPD) method [1]. To consider the polaron effect on the transport, in the methodology, we combine the wave-packet dynamics based on the quantum mechanics theory with the molecular dynamics. As the results, we can describe the electron motion modified by (electron-phonon mediated) time-dependent structural change. We investigate the transport property from an atomistic viewpoint and evaluate the mobility of organic semiconductors. We clarify the temperature dependence of mobility from the thermal activated behavior to the power law behavior. I will talk about these results in my presentation. [1] H. Ishii, N. Kobayashi, K. Hirose, Phys. Rev. B, 82 085435 (2010).

  6. Propagation and attenuation characteristics of azimuthal symmetric surface waves in un-magnetized plasma column

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wenqiu; Wang, Gang; Xiang, Dong; Su, Xiaobao

    2016-11-01

    Phase and attenuation properties of azimuthal symmetric surface waves are investigated analytically in an un-magnetized cylindrical plasma column based on the transcendental dispersion relation. A novel method of calculating the wave power deposition in terms of complex electric conductivity is proposed. Electron density distribution is obtained theoretically through charged particle balance theory. It is shown that the effect of the electron temperature on the dispersion curve can be neglected when kzα < 1. Both the phase/attenuation characteristics and wave energy deposition properties of the azimuthal symmetric surface wave have an evident dependence on the electron density and the electron collision frequency.

  7. Sodium dependent multivitamin transporter (SMVT): a potential target for drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Vadlapudi, Aswani Dutt; Vadlapatla, Ramya Krishna; Mitra, Ashim K

    2012-06-01

    Sodium dependent multivitamin transporter (SMVT; product of the SLC5A6 gene) is an important transmembrane protein responsible for translocation of vitamins and other essential cofactors such as biotin, pantothenic acid and lipoic acid. Hydropathy plot (Kyte-Dolittle algorithm) revealed that human SMVT protein consists of 635 amino acids and 12 transmembrane domains with both amino and carboxyl termini oriented towards the cytoplasm. SMVT is expressed in various tissues such as placenta, intestine, brain, liver, lung, kidney, cornea, retina and heart. This transporter displays broad substrate specificity and excellent capacity for utilization in drug delivery. Drug absorption is often limited by the presence of physiological (epithelial tight junctions), biochemical (efflux transporters and enzymatic degradation) and chemical (size, lipophilicity, molecular weight, charge etc.) barriers. These barriers may cause many potential therapeutics to be dropped from the preliminary screening portfolio and subsequent entry into the market. Transporter targeted delivery has become a powerful approach to deliver drugs to target tissues because of the ability of the transporter to translocate the drug to intracellular organelles at a higher rate. This review highlights studies employing SMVT transporter as a target for drug delivery to improve bioavailability and investigate the feasibility of developing SMVT targeted drug delivery systems.

  8. Using an electronic compass to determine telemetry azimuths

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cox, R.R.; Scalf, J.D.; Jamison, B.E.; Lutz, R.S.

    2002-01-01

    Researchers typically collect azimuths from known locations to estimate locations of radiomarked animals. Mobile, vehicle-mounted telemetry receiving systems frequently are used to gather azimuth data. Use of mobile systems typically involves estimating the vehicle's orientation to grid north (vehicle azimuth), recording an azimuth to the transmitter relative to the vehicle azimuth from a fixed rosette around the antenna mast (relative azimuth), and subsequently calculating an azimuth to the transmitter (animal azimuth). We incorporated electronic compasses into standard null-peak antenna systems by mounting the compass sensors atop the antenna masts and evaluated the precision of this configuration. This system increased efficiency by eliminating vehicle orientation and calculations to determine animal azimuths and produced estimates of precision (azimuth SD=2.6 deg., SE=0.16 deg.) similar to systems that required orienting the mobile system to grid north. Using an electronic compass increased efficiency without sacrificing precision and should produce more accurate estimates of locations when marked animals are moving or when vehicle orientation is problematic.

  9. Azimuthal field instability in a confined ferrofluid.

    PubMed

    Dias, Eduardo O; Miranda, José A

    2015-02-01

    We report the development of interfacial ferrohydrodynamic instabilities when an initially circular bubble of a nonmagnetic inviscid fluid is surrounded by a viscous ferrofluid in the confined geometry of a Hele-Shaw cell. The fluid-fluid interface becomes unstable due to the action of magnetic forces induced by an azimuthal field produced by a straight current-carrying wire that is normal to the cell plates. In this framework, a pattern formation process takes place through the interplay between magnetic and surface tension forces. By employing a perturbative mode-coupling approach we investigate analytically both linear and intermediate nonlinear regimes of the interface evolution. As a result, useful analytical information can be extracted regarding the destabilizing role of the azimuthal field at the linear level, as well as its influence on the interfacial pattern morphology at the onset of nonlinear effects. Finally, a vortex sheet formalism is used to access fully nonlinear stationary solutions for the two-fluid interface shapes.

  10. Molecular mechanism of ATP-dependent solute transport by multidrug resistance-associated protein 1.

    PubMed

    Chang, Xiu-bao

    2010-01-01

    Millions of new cancer patients are diagnosed each year and over half of these patients die from this devastating disease. Thus, cancer causes a major public health problem worldwide. Chemotherapy remains the principal mode to treat many metastatic cancers. However, occurrence of cellular multidrug resistance (MDR) prevents efficient killing of cancer cells, leading to chemotherapeutic treatment failure. Over-expression of ATP-binding cassette transporters, such as P-glycoprotein, breast cancer resistance protein and/or multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 (MRP1), confers an acquired MDR due to their capabilities of transporting a broad range of chemically diverse anticancer drugs across the cell membrane barrier. In this review, the molecular mechanism of ATP-dependent solute transport by MRP1 will be addressed.

  11. Grey transport acceleration method for time-dependent radiative transfer problems

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, E.

    1988-10-01

    A new iterative method for solving hte time-dependent multifrequency radiative transfer equations is described. The method is applicable to semi-implicit time discretizations that generate a linear steady-state multifrequency transport problem with pseudo-scattering within each time step. The standard ''lambda'' iteration method is shown to often converge slowly for such problems, and the new grey transport acceleration (GTA) method, based on accelerating the lambda method by employing a grey, or frequency-independent transport equation, is developed. The GTA method is shown, theoretically by an iterative Fourier analysis, and experimentally by numerical calculations, to converge significantly faster than the lambda method. In addition, the GTA method is conceptually simple to implement for general differencing schemes, on either Eulerian or Lagrangian meshes. copyright 1988 Academic Press, Inc.

  12. Zinc- and bicarbonate-dependent ZIP8 transporter mediates selenite uptake

    PubMed Central

    McDermott, Joseph R.; Geng, Xiangrong; Jiang, Lan; Gálvez-Peralta, Marina; Chen, Fei; Nebert, Daniel W.; Liu, Zijuan

    2016-01-01

    Selenite (HSeO3−) is a monovalent anion of the essential trace element and micronutrient selenium (Se). In therapeutic concentrations, HSeO3− has been studied for treating certain cancers, serious inflammatory disorders, and septic shock. Little is known, however, about HSeO3− uptake into mammalian cells; until now, no mammalian HSeO3− uptake transporter has been identified. The ubiquitous mammalian ZIP8 divalent cation transporter (encoded by the SLC39A8 gene) is bicarbonate-dependent, moving endogenous substrates (Zn2+, Mn2+, Fe2+ or Co2+) and nonessential metals such as Cd2+ into the cell. Herein we studied HSeO3− uptake in: human and mouse cell cultures, shRNA-knockdown experiments, Xenopus oocytes, wild-type mice and two transgenic mouse lines having genetically altered ZIP8 expression, and mouse erythrocytes ex vivo. In mammalian cell culture, excess Zn2+ levels and/or ZIP8 over-expression can be associated with diminished viability in selenite-treated cells. Intraperitoneal HSeO3− causes the largest ZIP8-dependent increases in intracellular Se content in liver, followed by kidney, heart, lung and spleen. In every model system studied, HSeO3− uptake is tightly associated with ZIP8 protein levels and sufficient Zn2+ and HCO3− concentrations, suggesting that the ZIP8-mediated electroneutral complex transported contains three ions: Zn2+/(HCO3−)(HSeO3−). Transporters having three different ions in their transport complex are not without precedent. Although there might be other HSeO3− influx transporters as yet undiscovered, data herein suggest that mammalian ZIP8 plays a major role in HSeO3− uptake. PMID:27166256

  13. A Novel Azimuth Super-Resolution Method by Synthesizing Azimuth Bandwidth of Multiple Tracks of Airborne Stripmap SAR Data.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Li, Jingwen; Sun, Bing; Yang, Jian

    2016-06-13

    Azimuth resolution of airborne stripmap synthetic aperture radar (SAR) is restricted by the azimuth antenna size. Conventionally, a higher azimuth resolution should be achieved by employing alternate modes that steer the beam in azimuth to enlarge the synthetic antenna aperture. However, if a data set of a certain region, consisting of multiple tracks of airborne stripmap SAR data, is available, the azimuth resolution of specific small region of interest (ROI) can be conveniently improved by a novel azimuth super-resolution method as introduced by this paper. The proposed azimuth super-resolution method synthesize the azimuth bandwidth of the data selected from multiple discontinuous tracks and contributes to a magnifier-like function with which the ROI can be further zoomed in with a higher azimuth resolution than that of the original stripmap images. Detailed derivation of the azimuth super-resolution method, including the steps of two-dimensional dechirping, residual video phase (RVP) removal, data stitching and data correction, is provided. The restrictions of the proposed method are also discussed. Lastly, the presented approach is evaluated via both the single- and multi-target computer simulations.

  14. A Novel Azimuth Super-Resolution Method by Synthesizing Azimuth Bandwidth of Multiple Tracks of Airborne Stripmap SAR Data

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yan; Li, Jingwen; Sun, Bing; Yang, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Azimuth resolution of airborne stripmap synthetic aperture radar (SAR) is restricted by the azimuth antenna size. Conventionally, a higher azimuth resolution should be achieved by employing alternate modes that steer the beam in azimuth to enlarge the synthetic antenna aperture. However, if a data set of a certain region, consisting of multiple tracks of airborne stripmap SAR data, is available, the azimuth resolution of specific small region of interest (ROI) can be conveniently improved by a novel azimuth super-resolution method as introduced by this paper. The proposed azimuth super-resolution method synthesize the azimuth bandwidth of the data selected from multiple discontinuous tracks and contributes to a magnifier-like function with which the ROI can be further zoomed in with a higher azimuth resolution than that of the original stripmap images. Detailed derivation of the azimuth super-resolution method, including the steps of two-dimensional dechirping, residual video phase (RVP) removal, data stitching and data correction, is provided. The restrictions of the proposed method are also discussed. Lastly, the presented approach is evaluated via both the single- and multi-target computer simulations. PMID:27304959

  15. Binaural Sound Localizer for Azimuthal Movement Detection Based on Diffraction

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Keonwook; Choi, Anthony

    2012-01-01

    Sound localization can be realized by utilizing the physics of acoustics in various methods. This paper investigates a novel detection architecture for the azimuthal movement of sound source based on the interaural level difference (ILD) between two receivers. One of the microphones in the system is surrounded by barriers of various heights in order to cast the direction dependent diffraction of the incoming signal. The gradient analysis of the ILD between the structured and unstructured microphone demonstrates the rotation directions as clockwise, counter clockwise, and no rotation of the sound source. Acoustic experiments with different types of sound source over a wide range of target movements show that the average true positive and false positive rates are 67% and 16%, respectively. Spectral analysis demonstrates that the low frequency delivers decreased true and false positive rates and the high frequency presents increases of both rates, overall. PMID:23112617

  16. Time-dependent density functional theory quantum transport simulation in non-orthogonal basis.

    PubMed

    Kwok, Yan Ho; Xie, Hang; Yam, Chi Yung; Zheng, Xiao; Chen, Guan Hua

    2013-12-14

    Basing on the earlier works on the hierarchical equations of motion for quantum transport, we present in this paper a first principles scheme for time-dependent quantum transport by combining time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) and Keldysh's non-equilibrium Green's function formalism. This scheme is beyond the wide band limit approximation and is directly applicable to the case of non-orthogonal basis without the need of basis transformation. The overlap between the basis in the lead and the device region is treated properly by including it in the self-energy and it can be shown that this approach is equivalent to a lead-device orthogonalization. This scheme has been implemented at both TDDFT and density functional tight-binding level. Simulation results are presented to demonstrate our method and comparison with wide band limit approximation is made. Finally, the sparsity of the matrices and computational complexity of this method are analyzed.

  17. Transport coefficients of multi-particle collision algorithms with velocity-dependent collision rules.

    PubMed

    Ihle, Thomas

    2008-06-11

    Detailed calculations of the transport coefficients of a recently introduced particle-based model for fluid dynamics with a non-ideal equation of state are presented. Excluded volume interactions are modeled by means of biased stochastic multi-particle collisions which depend on the local velocities and densities. Momentum and energy are exactly conserved locally. A general scheme to derive transport coefficients for such biased, velocity-dependent collision rules is developed. Analytic expressions for the self-diffusion coefficient and the shear viscosity are obtained, and very good agreement is found with numerical results at small and large mean free paths. The viscosity turns out to be proportional to the square root of temperature, as in a real gas. In addition, the theoretical framework is applied to a two-component version of the model, and expressions for the viscosity and the difference in diffusion of the two species are given.

  18. Orbital-cooperative spin fluctuation and orbital-dependent transport in ruthenates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arakawa, Naoya

    2014-12-01

    Unusual transport properties deviating from the Fermi liquid are observed in ruthenates near a magnetic quantum-critical point (QCP). To understand the electronic properties of the ruthenates near and away from an antiferromagnetic (AF) QCP, I study the electronic structure and magnetic and transport properties for the t2 g-orbital Hubbard model on a square lattice in fluctuation-exchange approximation including Maki-Thompson (MT) current vertex correction (CVC). The results away from the AF QCP reproduce several experimental results of Sr2RuO4 qualitatively and provide new mechanisms about the enhancement of spin fluctuation at QIC -AF≈(0.66 π ,0.66 π ) , larger mass enhancement of the dx y orbital than that of the dx z /y z orbital, and nonmonotonic temperature dependence of the Hall coefficient. Also, the results near the AF QCP explain the T -linear inplane resistivity in Sr2Ru0.075Ti0.025O4 and give an experimental test on the obtained temperature dependence of the Hall coefficient. I reveal spatial correlation including the self-energy of electrons beyond mean-field approximations is essential to determine the electronic properties of the ruthenates. I also show several ubiquitous transport properties near an AF QCP and characteristic transport properties of a multiorbital system by comparison with results of a single-orbital system near an AF QCP.

  19. Beam energy dependence of azimuthal anisotropy at RHIC-PHENIX

    SciTech Connect

    Taranenko, A.

    2012-05-15

    Recent PHENIX measurements of the elliptic ({upsilon}{sub 2}) and hexadecapole ({upsilon}{sub 4}) Fourier flow coefficients for charged hadrons as a function of transverse momentum (p{sub T}), collision centrality and particle species are presented and compared with results from the PHOBOS and STAR Collaborations respectively. The status of extensions to future PHENIX measurements at lower beam energies is also discussed.

  20. Temperature dependent spin transport properties of platinum inferred from spin Hall magnetoresistance measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, Sibylle Althammer, Matthias; Geprägs, Stephan; Opel, Matthias; Goennenwein, Sebastian T. B.; Gross, Rudolf

    2014-06-16

    We study the temperature dependence of the spin Hall magnetoresistance (SMR) in yttrium iron garnet/platinum hybrid structures via magnetization orientation dependent magnetoresistance measurements. Our experiments show a decrease of the SMR magnitude with decreasing temperature. Using the sensitivity of the SMR to the spin transport properties of the normal metal, we interpret our data in terms of a decrease of the spin Hall angle in platinum from 0.11 at room temperature to 0.075 at 10 K, while the spin diffusion length and the spin mixing conductance of the ferrimagnetic insulator/normal metal interface remain almost constant.

  1. Neutralizing antibody blocks adenovirus infection by arresting microtubule-dependent cytoplasmic transport.

    PubMed

    Smith, Jason G; Cassany, Aurelia; Gerace, Larry; Ralston, Robert; Nemerow, Glen R

    2008-07-01

    Neutralizing antibodies are commonly elicited by viral infection. Most antibodies that have been characterized block early stages of virus entry that occur before membrane penetration, whereas inhibition of late stages in entry that occurs after membrane penetration has been poorly characterized. Here we provide evidence that the neutralizing antihexon monoclonal antibody 9C12 inhibits adenovirus infection by blocking microtubule-dependent translocation of the virus to the microtubule-organizing center following endosome penetration. These studies identify a previously undescribed mechanism by which neutralizing antibodies block virus infection, a situation that may be relevant for other nonenveloped viruses that use microtubule-dependent transport during cell entry.

  2. Aquaporin-4-dependent K(+) and water transport modeled in brain extracellular space following neuroexcitation.

    PubMed

    Jin, Byung-Ju; Zhang, Hua; Binder, Devin K; Verkman, A S

    2013-01-01

    Potassium (K(+)) ions released into brain extracellular space (ECS) during neuroexcitation are efficiently taken up by astrocytes. Deletion of astrocyte water channel aquaporin-4 (AQP4) in mice alters neuroexcitation by reducing ECS [K(+)] accumulation and slowing K(+) reuptake. These effects could involve AQP4-dependent: (a) K(+) permeability, (b) resting ECS volume, (c) ECS contraction during K(+) reuptake, and (d) diffusion-limited water/K(+) transport coupling. To investigate the role of these mechanisms, we compared experimental data to predictions of a model of K(+) and water uptake into astrocytes after neuronal release of K(+) into the ECS. The model computed the kinetics of ECS [K(+)] and volume, with input parameters including initial ECS volume, astrocyte K(+) conductance and water permeability, and diffusion in astrocyte cytoplasm. Numerical methods were developed to compute transport and diffusion for a nonstationary astrocyte-ECS interface. The modeling showed that mechanisms b-d, together, can predict experimentally observed impairment in K(+) reuptake from the ECS in AQP4 deficiency, as well as altered K(+) accumulation in the ECS after neuroexcitation, provided that astrocyte water permeability is sufficiently reduced in AQP4 deficiency and that solute diffusion in astrocyte cytoplasm is sufficiently low. The modeling thus provides a potential explanation for AQP4-dependent K(+)/water coupling in the ECS without requiring AQP4-dependent astrocyte K(+) permeability. Our model links the physical and ion/water transport properties of brain cells with the dynamics of neuroexcitation, and supports the conclusion that reduced AQP4-dependent water transport is responsible for defective neuroexcitation in AQP4 deficiency.

  3. Control System of Parameters of the Azimuthal Module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plotnikova, I. V.; Galtseva, O. V.; Tchaikovskaya, O. N.; Tchekarova, S. A.

    2017-01-01

    Analytical and experimental studies of the azimuthal module of two-component vibrational micromechanical gyroscope were conducted. It is shown that the micromechanical gyroscope is a system with distributed parameters. The frequency analysis is performed using software T-Flex. The influence of mechanical disturbances on the movement of azimuthal module in the form of translational and angular oscillations is shown; the natural frequencies of the azimuth are defined.

  4. Transport efficiency of membrane-anchored kinesin-1 motors depends on motor density and diffusivity.

    PubMed

    Grover, Rahul; Fischer, Janine; Schwarz, Friedrich W; Walter, Wilhelm J; Schwille, Petra; Diez, Stefan

    2016-11-15

    In eukaryotic cells, membranous vesicles and organelles are transported by ensembles of motor proteins. These motors, such as kinesin-1, have been well characterized in vitro as single molecules or as ensembles rigidly attached to nonbiological substrates. However, the collective transport by membrane-anchored motors, that is, motors attached to a fluid lipid bilayer, is poorly understood. Here, we investigate the influence of motors' anchorage to a lipid bilayer on the collective transport characteristics. We reconstituted "membrane-anchored" gliding motility assays using truncated kinesin-1 motors with a streptavidin-binding peptide tag that can attach to streptavidin-loaded, supported lipid bilayers. We found that the diffusing kinesin-1 motors propelled the microtubules in the presence of ATP. Notably, we found the gliding velocity of the microtubules to be strongly dependent on the number of motors and their diffusivity in the lipid bilayer. The microtubule gliding velocity increased with increasing motor density and membrane viscosity, reaching up to the stepping velocity of single motors. This finding is in contrast to conventional gliding motility assays where the density of surface-immobilized kinesin-1 motors does not influence the microtubule velocity over a wide range. We reason that the transport efficiency of membrane-anchored motors is reduced because of their slippage in the lipid bilayer, an effect that we directly observed using single-molecule fluorescence microscopy. Our results illustrate the importance of motor-cargo coupling, which potentially provides cells with an additional means of regulating the efficiency of cargo transport.

  5. Intracellular dehydroascorbic acid inhibits SVCT2-dependent transport of ascorbic acid in mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Fiorani, Mara; Azzolini, Catia; Guidarelli, Andrea; Cerioni, Liana; Scotti, Maddalena; Cantoni, Orazio

    2015-09-01

    Exposure of U937 cells to low concentrations of L-ascorbic acid (AA) is associated with a prompt cellular uptake and a further mitochondrial accumulation of the vitamin. Under the same conditions, dehydroascorbic acid (DHA) uptake was followed by rapid reduction and accumulation of identical intracellular levels of AA, however, in the absence of significant mitochondrial uptake. This event was instead observed after exposure to remarkably greater concentrations of DHA. Furthermore, experiments performed in isolated mitochondria revealed that DHA transport through hexose transporters and Na(+) -dependent transport of AA were very similar. These results suggest that the different subcellular compartmentalization of the vitamin is mediated by events promoting inhibition of mitochondrial AA transport, possibly triggered by low levels of DHA. We obtained results in line with this notion in intact cells, and more direct evidence in isolated mitochondria. This inhibitory effect was promptly reversible after DHA removal and comparable with that mediated by established inhibitors, as quercetin. The results presented collectively indicate that low intracellular concentrations of DHA, because of its rapid reduction back to AA, are a poor substrate for direct mitochondrial uptake. DHA concentrations, however, appear sufficiently high to mediate inhibition of mitochondrial transport of AA/DHA-derived AA.

  6. N-Glycosylation is required for Na{sup +}-dependent vitamin C transporter functionality

    SciTech Connect

    Subramanian, Veedamali S. Marchant, Jonathan S.; Reidling, Jack C.; Said, Hamid M.

    2008-09-12

    The human sodium-dependent vitamin C transporters (hSVCT1 and hSVCT2) mediate cellular uptake of ascorbic acid. Both these transporters contain potential sites for N-glycosylation in their extracellular domains (Asn-138, Asn-144 [hSVCT1]; Asn-188, Asn-196 [hSVCT2]), however the role of N-glycosylation in transporter function is unexplored. On the basis of the result that tunicamycin decreased {sup 14}C-ascorbic acid uptake in HepG2 cells, we systematically ablated all consensus N-glycosylation sites in hSVCT1 and hSVCT2 to resolve any effects on ascorbic acid uptake, transporter expression and targeting. We show that removal of individual N-glycosylation sites significantly impairs protein expression and consequently ascorbic acid uptake for hSVCT1 mutants (N138Q is retained intracellularly) and for hSVCT2 mutants (all of which reach the cell surface). N-Glycosylation is therefore essential for vitamin C transporter functionality.

  7. Mechanism of Orientation-Dependent Asymmetric Charge Transport in Tunneling Junctions Comprising Photosystem I

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Recently, photoactive proteins have gained a lot of attention due to their incorporation into bioinspired (photo)electrochemical and solar cells. This paper describes the measurement of the asymmetry of current transport of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of the entire photosystem I (PSI) protein complex (not the isolated reaction center, RCI), on two different “director SAMs” supported by ultraflat Au substrates. The director SAMs induce the preferential orientation of PSI, which manifest as asymmetry in tunneling charge-transport. We measured the oriented SAMs of PSI using eutectic Ga–In (EGaIn), a large-area technique, and conducting probe atomic force microscopy (CP-AFM), a single-complex technique, and determined that the transport properties are comparable. By varying the temperatures at which the measurements were performed, we found that there is no measurable dependence of the current on temperature from ±0.1 to ±1.0 V bias, and thus, we suggest tunneling as the mechanism for transport; there are no thermally activated (e.g., hopping) processes. Therefore, it is likely that relaxation in the electron transport chain is not responsible for the asymmetry in the conductance of SAMs of PSI complexes in these junctions, which we ascribe instead to the presence of a large, net dipole moment present in PSI. PMID:26057523

  8. ATP-dependent calcium transport across basal plasma membranes of human placental trophoblast

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, G.J.; Kelley, L.K.; Smith, C.H.

    1987-01-01

    As a first step in understanding the cellular basis of maternal-fetal calcium transfer, the authors examined the characteristics of calcium uptake by a highly purified preparation of the syncytiotrophoblast basal (fetal facing) plasma membrane. In the presence of nanomolar concentrations of free calcium, basal membranes demonstrated substantial ATP-dependent calcium uptake. This uptake required magnesium, was not significantly affected by Na/sup +/ or K/sup +/ (50 mM), or sodium azide (10 mM). Intravesicular calcium was rapidly and completely released by the calcium ionophore rapidly and completely released by the calcium ionophore A23187. Calcium transport was significantly stimulated by the calcium-dependent regulatory protein calmodulin. Placental membrane fractions enriched in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondria also demonstrated ATP-dependent calcium uptake. In contrast to basal membrane, mitochondrial calcium uptake was completely inhibited by azide. The rate of calcium uptake was completely inhibited by azide. The rate of calcium uptake by the ER was only 20% of that of basal membranes. They conclude that the placental basal plasma membrane possesses a high-affinity calcium transport system similar to that found in plasma membranes of a variety of cell types. This transporter is situated to permit it to function in vivo in maternal-fetal calcium transfer.

  9. ATP-dependent transport of bile acid intermediates across rat liver peroxisomal membranes.

    PubMed

    Une, Mizuho; Iguchi, Yusuke; Sakamoto, Tomoko; Tomita, Takashi; Suzuki, Yasuyuki; Morita, Masashi; Imanaka, Tsuneo

    2003-08-01

    The bile acid intermediate 3alpha,7alpha,12alpha-trihydroxy-5beta-cholestanoic acid (THCA) is converted to cholic acid exclusively in peroxisomes by the oxidative cleavage of the side chain. To investigate the mechanism by which the biosynthetic intermediates of bile acids are transported into peroxisomes, we incubated THCA or its CoA ester (THC-CoA) with isolated intact rat liver peroxisomes and analyzed their oxidation products, cholic acid and 3alpha,7alpha,12alpha-trihydroxy-5beta-cholest-24-enoic acid. The oxidation of both THCA and THC-CoA was dependent on incubation time and peroxisomal proteins, and was stimulated by ATP. THC-CoA was efficiently oxidized to cholic acid and 3alpha,7alpha,12alpha-trihydroxy-5beta-cholest-24-enoic acid as compared with THCA, suggesting that THC-CoA is the preferred substrate for transport into peroxisomes. The oxidation of THC-CoA was significantly inhibited by sodium azide, verapamile, and N-ethylmaleimide. Furthermore, the stimulatory effect of ATP on the oxidation was not replaced by GTP or AMP. In addition, the ATP-dependent oxidation of THC-CoA was markedly inhibited by pretreatment of peroxisomes with proteinase K when peroxisomal matrix proteins were not degraded. These results suggest that an ATP-dependent transport system for THC-CoA exists on peroxisomal membranes.

  10. Substrate-Dependent Ligand Inhibition of the Human Organic Cation Transporter OCT2

    PubMed Central

    Belzer, Mathew; Morales, Mark; Jagadish, Bhumasamudram; Mash, Eugene A.

    2013-01-01

    Organic cation transporter 2 (OCT2) mediates the initial step in renal secretion of organic cations: uptake from the blood, across the basolateral membrane, and into the renal proximal tubule cells. Because of its potential as a target for unwanted drug-drug interactions (DDIs), considerable attention has been directed toward understanding the basis of OCT2 selectivity. These studies typically assess selectivity based on ligand inhibition profiles for OCT2-mediated transport of a probe substrate. However, little attention has been given to the potential influence of the substrate on the profile of ligand inhibition. Here we compared the IC50 values obtained for a set of structurally distinct inhibitors against OCT2-mediated transport of three structurally distinct substrates: 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP); metformin; and a novel fluorescent substrate, N,N,N-trimethyl-2-[methyl(7-nitrobenzo[c][l,2,5]oxadiazol-4-yl)amino]ethanaminium iodide (NBD-MTMA). The median IC50 value for inhibition of MPP transport was 9-fold higher than that for inhibition of metformin transport. Similarly, the median IC50 value for inhibition of MPP transport was 5-fold higher than that for NBD-MTMA transport. However, this was not a systematic difference in inhibitory efficacy; the ratio of IC50 values, MPP versus NBD-MTMA, ranged from 88-fold (ipratropium) to 0.3-fold (metformin). These data show that 1) the choice of OCT2 substrate significantly influences both quantitative and qualitative inhibitory interactions with cationic drugs; and 2) ligand interactions with OCT2 are not restricted to competition for a common ligand binding site, consistent with a binding surface characterized by multiple, possibly overlapping interaction sites. Development of predictive models of DDIs with OCT2 must take into account the substrate dependence of ligand interaction with this protein. PMID:23709117

  11. Scale-Dependent Fracture-Matrix Interactions And Their Impact on Radionuclide Transport - Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Detwiler, Russell

    2014-06-30

    Matrix diffusion and adsorption within a rock matrix are widely regarded as important mechanisms for retarding the transport of radionuclides and other solutes in fractured rock (e.g., Neretnieks, 1980; Tang et al., 1981; Maloszewski and Zuber, 1985; Novakowski and Lapcevic, 1994; Jardine et al., 1999; Zhou and Xie, 2003; Reimus et al., 2003a,b). When remediation options are being evaluated for old sources of contamination, where a large fraction of contaminants reside within the rock matrix, slow diffusion out of the matrix greatly increases the difficulty and timeframe of remediation. Estimating the rates of solute exchange between fractures and the adjacent rock matrix is a critical factor in quantifying immobilization and/or remobilization of DOE-relevant contaminants within the subsurface. In principle, the most rigorous approach to modeling solute transport with fracture-matrix interaction would be based on local-scale coupled advection-diffusion/dispersion equations for the rock matrix and in discrete fractures that comprise the fracture network (Discrete Fracture Network and Matrix approach, hereinafter referred to as DFNM approach), fully resolving aperture variability in fractures and matrix property heterogeneity. However, such approaches are computationally demanding, and thus, many predictive models rely upon simplified models. These models typically idealize fracture rock masses as a single fracture or system of parallel fractures interacting with slabs of porous matrix or as a mobile-immobile or multi-rate mass transfer system. These idealizations provide tractable approaches for interpreting tracer tests and predicting contaminant mobility, but rely upon a fitted effective matrix diffusivity or mass-transfer coefficients. However, because these fitted parameters are based upon simplified conceptual models, their effectiveness at predicting long-term transport processes remains uncertain. Evidence of scale dependence of effective matrix diffusion

  12. Independent control of polar and azimuthal anchoring.

    PubMed

    Anquetil-Deck, C; Cleaver, D J; Bramble, J P; Atherton, T J

    2013-07-01

    Monte Carlo simulation, experiment, and continuum theory are used to examine the anchoring exhibited by a nematic liquid crystal at a patterned substrate comprising a periodic array of rectangles that, respectively, promote vertical and planar alignment. It is shown that the easy axis and effective anchoring energy promoted by such surfaces can be readily controlled by adjusting the design of the pattern. The calculations reveal rich behavior: for strong anchoring, as exhibited by the simulated system, for rectangle ratios ≥2 the nematic aligns in the direction of the long edge of the rectangles, the azimuthal anchoring coefficient changing with pattern shape. In weak anchoring scenarios, however, including our experimental systems, preferential anchoring is degenerate between the two rectangle diagonals. Bistability between diagonally aligned and edge-aligned arrangement is predicted for intermediate combinations of anchoring coefficient and system length scale.

  13. Angular MET sensor for precise azimuth determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaitsev, Dmitry; Antonov, Alexander; Krishtop, Vladimir

    2016-12-01

    This paper describes using a MET-based low-noise angular motion sensor to precisely determine azimuth direction in a dynamic-scheme method of measuring Earth's rotation velocity vector. The scheme includes installing a sensor on a rotating platform so that it could scan a space and seek for the position of highest Earth's rotation vector projection on its axis. This method is very efficient provided a low-noise sensor is used. We take a low-cost angular sensor based on MET (molecular electronic transduction) technology. Sensors of this kind were originally developed for the seismic activity monitoring and are well-known for very good noise performance and high sensitivity. This approach, combined with use of special signal processing algorithms, allowed for reaching the accuracy of 0.07° for a measurement time of 200 seconds.

  14. Gestational Age-Dependent Changes in Gene Expression of Metabolic Enzymes and Transporters in Pregnant Mice

    PubMed Central

    Shuster, Diana L.; Bammler, Theo K.; Beyer, Richard P.; MacDonald, James W.; Tsai, Jesse M.; Farin, Frederico M.; Hebert, Mary F.; Thummel, Kenneth E.

    2013-01-01

    Pregnancy-induced changes in drug pharmacokinetics can be explained by changes in expression of drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters and/or normal physiology. In this study, we determined gestational age-dependent expression profiles for all metabolic enzyme and transporter genes in the maternal liver, kidney, small intestine, and placenta of pregnant mice by microarray analysis. We specifically examined the expression of genes important for xenobiotic, bile acid, and steroid hormone metabolism and disposition, namely, cytochrome P450s (Cyp), UDP-glucuronosyltranserases (Ugt), sulfotransferases (Sult), and ATP-binding cassette (Abc), solute carrier (Slc), and solute carrier organic anion (Slco) transporters. Few Ugt and Sult genes were affected by pregnancy. Cyp17a1 expression in the maternal liver increased 3- to 10-fold during pregnancy, which was the largest observed change in the maternal tissues. Cyp1a2, most Cyp2 isoforms, Cyp3a11, and Cyp3a13 expression in the liver decreased on gestation days (gd) 15 and 19 compared with nonpregnant controls (gd 0). In contrast, Cyp2d40, Cyp3a16, Cyp3a41a, Cyp3a41b, and Cyp3a44 in the liver were induced throughout pregnancy. In the placenta, Cyp expression on gd 10 and 15 was upregulated compared with gd 19. Notable changes were also observed in Abc and Slc transporters. Abcc3 expression in the liver and Abcb1a, Abcc4, and Slco4c1 expression in the kidney were downregulated on gd 15 and 19. In the placenta, Slc22a3 (Oct3) expression on gd 10 was 90% lower than that on gd 15 and 19. This study demonstrates important gestational age-dependent expression of metabolic enzyme and transporter genes, which may have mechanistic relevance to drug disposition in human pregnancy. PMID:23175668

  15. Global Upper Mantle Azimuthal Anisotropy From Probabilistic Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beghein, C.; Yuan, K.

    2014-12-01

    The new model of Yuan and Beghein (2013), hereafter YBaniSV13, is the first global model to constrain 3-D azimuthal anisotropy in the deep upper mantle. It is compatible with previous models in the uppermost 200km of the mantle, but also displays 1% anisotropy above, inside, and below the Mantle Transition Zone (MTZ). Another interesting characteristic of this model is the change in fast seismic direction detected, on average, at ~250km depth and at the MTZ boundaries. These results have important consequences for our understanding of mantle deformation and convection patterns in the mantle. It is therefore important to assess the robustness if these features. We already tested that the model does not strongly depend on the reference 1-D mantle model, on the presence of discontinuities in this reference model, or on the crustal model and Moho depth used to calculate the laterally varying partial derivatives. In this work, we apply a model space approach, the Neighborhood Algorithm (NA) of Sambridge (1999), to determine quantitative model uncertainties and parameter trade-offs. First, the NA generates an ensemble of models with a sampling density that increases toward the best fitting regions of the model space, and then performs a Bayesian appraisal of the models obtained that allows us to determine the likelihood of azimuthal anisotropy in different region of Earth's interior. Such approaches have the advantage of sampling the model null-space, and therefore provide more reliable model uncertainties than traditional inverse techniques. We use YBaniSV13 as initial model, and search the model space around it, allowing for large enough deviations to test the robustness of the anisotropy amplitude. We compare results from a model space search based on the chi-square misfit and from a model space search based on the variance reduction, which is another useful measure of data fit that is independent of data uncertainties. Preliminary results for the chi-square driven

  16. Motivation for Using Generalized Geometry in the Time Dependent Transport Code TDKENO

    SciTech Connect

    Dustin Popp; Zander Mausolff; Sedat Goluoglu

    2016-04-01

    We are proposing to use the code, TDKENO, to model TREAT. TDKENO solves the time dependent, three dimensional Boltzmann transport equation with explicit representation of delayed neutrons. Instead of directly integrating this equation, the neutron flux is factored into two components – a rapidly varying amplitude equation and a slowly varying shape equation and each is solved separately on different time scales. The shape equation is solved using the 3D Monte Carlo transport code KENO, from Oak Ridge National Laboratory’s SCALE code package. Using the Monte Carlo method to solve the shape equation is still computationally intensive, but the operation is only performed when needed. The amplitude equation is solved deterministically and frequently, so the solution gives an accurate time-dependent solution without having to repeatedly We have modified TDKENO to incorporate KENO-VI so that we may accurately represent the geometries within TREAT. This paper explains the motivation behind using generalized geometry, and provides the results of our modifications. TDKENO uses the Improved Quasi-Static method to accomplish this. In this method, the neutron flux is factored into two components. One component is a purely time-dependent and rapidly varying amplitude function, which is solved deterministically and very frequently (small time steps). The other is a slowly varying flux shape function that weakly depends on time and is only solved when needed (significantly larger time steps).

  17. Charge-transport anisotropy in black phosphorus: critical dependence on the number of layers.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Swastika; Pati, Swapan K

    2016-06-28

    Phosphorene is a promising candidate for modern electronics because of the anisotropy associated with high electron-hole mobility. Additionally, superior mechanical flexibility allows the strain-engineering of various properties including the transport of charge carriers in phosphorene. In this work, we have shown the criticality of the number of layers to dictate the transport properties of black phosphorus. Trilayer black phosphorus (TBP) has been proposed as an excellent anisotropic material, based on the transport parameters using Boltzmann transport formalisms coupled with density functional theory. The mobilities of both the electron and the hole are found to be higher along the zigzag direction (∼10(4) cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) at 300 K) compared to the armchair direction (∼10(2) cm(2) V(-1) s(-1)), resulting in the intrinsic directional anisotropy. Application of strain leads to additional electron-hole anisotropy with 10(3) fold higher mobility for the electron compared to the hole. Critical strain for maximum anisotropic response has also been determined. Whether the transport anisotropy is due to the spatial or charge-carrier has been determined through analyses of the scattering process of electrons and holes, and their recombination as well as relaxation dynamics. In this context, we have derived two descriptors (S and F(k)), which are general enough for any 2D or quasi-2D systems. Information on the scattering involving purely the carrier states also helps to understand the layer-dependent photoluminescence and electron (hole) relaxation in black phosphorus. Finally, we justify trilayer black phosphorus (TBP) as the material of interest with excellent transport properties.

  18. Azimuthal Doppler shift of absorption spectrum in optical vortex laser absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshimura, Shinji; Aramaki, Mitsutoshi; Ozawa, Naoya; Terasaka, Kenichiro; Tanaka, Masayoshi; Nagaoka, Kenichi; Morisaki, Tomohiro

    2016-10-01

    Laser spectroscopy is a powerful diagnostic tool for measuring the mean flow velocity of plasma particles. We have been developing a new laser spectroscopy method utilizing an optical vortex beam, which has helical phase fronts corresponding to the phase change in the azimuthal direction. Because of this phase change, a Doppler effect is experienced even by an atom crossing the beam vertically. The additional azimuthal Doppler shift is proportional to the topological charge of optical vortex and is inversely proportional to the distance from the beam axis in which the beam intensity is vanished by destructive interference or the phase singularity. In order to detect the azimuthal Doppler shift, we have performed a laser absorption spectroscopy experiment with the linear ECR plasma device HYPER-I. Since the azimuthal Doppler shift depends on a position in the beam cross section, the absorption spectra at various positions were reconstructed from the transmitted beam intensity measured by a beam profiler. We have observed a clear spatial dependence of the Doppler shift, which qualitatively agreed with theory. Detailed experimental results, as well as remaining issues and future prospect, will be discussed at the meeting. This study was partially supported by JAPS KAKENHI Grand Numbers 15K05365 and 25287152.

  19. Fingerprint of topological Andreev bound states in phase-dependent heat transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sothmann, Björn; Hankiewicz, Ewelina M.

    2016-08-01

    We demonstrate that phase-dependent heat currents through superconductor-topological insulator Josephson junctions provide a useful tool to probe the existence of topological Andreev bound states, even for multichannel surface states. We predict that in the tunneling regime topological Andreev bound states lead to a minimum of the thermal conductance for a phase difference ϕ =π , in clear contrast to a maximum of the thermal conductance at ϕ =π that occurs for trivial Andreev bound states in superconductor-normal-metal tunnel junctions. This opens up the possibility that phase-dependent heat transport can distinguish between topologically trivial and nontrivial 4 π modes. Furthermore, we propose a superconducting quantum interference device geometry where phase-dependent heat currents can be measured using available experimental technology.

  20. The molecular mechanism of ion-dependent gating in secondary transporters.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chunfeng; Noskov, Sergei Yu

    2013-10-01

    LeuT-like fold Na-dependent secondary active transporters form a large family of integral membrane proteins that transport various substrates against their concentration gradient across lipid membranes, using the free energy stored in the downhill concentration gradient of sodium ions. These transporters play an active role in synaptic transmission, the delivery of key nutrients, and the maintenance of osmotic pressure inside the cell. It is generally believed that binding of an ion and/or a substrate drives the conformational dynamics of the transporter. However, the exact mechanism for converting ion binding into useful work has yet to be established. Using a multi-dimensional path sampling (string-method) followed by all-atom free energy simulations, we established the principal thermodynamic and kinetic components governing the ion-dependent conformational dynamics of a LeuT-like fold transporter, the sodium/benzyl-hydantoin symporter Mhp1, for an entire conformational cycle. We found that inward-facing and outward-facing states of Mhp1 display nearly the same free energies with an ion absent from the Na2 site conserved across the LeuT-like fold transporters. The barrier separating an apo-state from inward-facing or outward-facing states of the transporter is very low, suggesting stochastic gating in the absence of ion/substrate bound. In contrast, the binding of a Na2 ion shifts the free energy stabilizing the outward-facing state and promoting substrate binding. Our results indicate that ion binding to the Na2 site may also play a key role in the intracellular thin gate dynamics modulation by altering its interactions with the transmembrane helix 5 (TM5). The Potential of Mean Force (PMF) computations for a substrate entrance displays two energy minima that correspond to the locations of the main binding site S1 and proposed allosteric S2 binding site. However, it was found that substrate's binds to the site S1 ∼5 kcal/mol more favorable than that to the

  1. Fully energy-dependent HZETRN (a galactic cosmic-ray transport code)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shinn, Judy L.; John, Sarah; Tripathi, Ram K.; Norbury, John W.; Wilson, John W.; Townsend, Lawrence W.

    1992-01-01

    For extended manned space missions, the radiation shielding design requires efficient and accurate cosmic-ray transport codes that can handle the physics processes in detail. The Langley Research Center galactic cosmic-ray transport code (HZETRN) is currently under development for such design use. The cross sections for the production of secondary nucleons in the existing HZETRN code are energy dependent only for nucleon collisions. The approximation of energy-independent, heavy-ion fragmentation cross section is now removed by implementing a mathematically simplified energy-dependent stepping formalism for heavy ions. The cross section at each computational grid is obtained by linear interpolation from a few tabulated data to minimize computing time. Test runs were made for galactic cosmic-ray transport through a liquid hydrogen shield and a water shield at solar minimum. The results show no appreciable change in total fluxes or computing time compared with energy-independent calculations. Differences in high LET (linear energy transfer) spectra are noted, however, because of the large variation in cross sections at the low-energy region. The high LET components are significantly higher in the new code and have important implications on biological risk estimates for heavy-ion exposure.

  2. Time-dependent Radial Transport of Electron Distributions Due to ECCD in DIII-D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, R. W.; Smirnov, A. P.; Prater, R.; Petty, C. C.

    2007-11-01

    The radial transport modeling capability in the CQL3D bounce-averaged Fokker-Planck collisional-rf quasilinear code[1] has been greatly improved and the self-consistent time-dependent toroidal electric field added, making the code truly a ``Fokker-Planck-Transport'' code. The time-dependent, coupled 3D Fokker-Planck equation and the Ampere-Faraday Law equation are solved for the electron distribution, f( u,θu,ρ,t ), and the toroidal loop voltage, Vloop( ρ,t ). A fully 3D, time-implicit solution of the FP equation using sparse-matrix methods[2] is coupled to a new iterative toroidal electric field solve. The DIII-D ECH experiment is in an intermediate driven regime with τtransport τslowing[3] for the EC driven electrons. Results will be reported for time-evolution of radial profiles of current density, fast electrons, and toroidal loop voltage due to EC heating and current drive in DIII-D. [1] R.W. Harvey and M.G. McCoy, IAEA TCM on Advances in Simulation and Modeling of Thermonuclear Plasmas, Montreal, 1992; USDOC NTIS No. 93002962. [2] Y. Peysson et al., Radio Frequency Power in Plasmas, 15th Topical Conference, Moran, Wyoming (2003). [3] R.W. Harvey et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 205001 (2002).

  3. Proton Gradients and Proton-Dependent Transport Processes in the Chloroplast

    PubMed Central

    Höhner, Ricarda; Aboukila, Ali; Kunz, Hans-Henning; Venema, Kees

    2016-01-01

    Proton gradients are fundamental to chloroplast function. Across thylakoid membranes, the light induced -proton gradient is essential for ATP synthesis. As a result of proton pumping into the thylakoid lumen, an alkaline stromal pH develops, which is required for full activation of pH-dependent Calvin Benson cycle enzymes. This implies that a pH gradient between the cytosol (pH 7) and the stroma (pH 8) is established upon illumination. To maintain this pH gradient chloroplasts actively extrude protons. More than 30 years ago it was already established that these proton fluxes are electrically counterbalanced by Mg2+, K+, or Cl- fluxes, but only recently the first transport systems that regulate the pH gradient were identified. Notably several (Na+,K+)/H+ antiporter systems where identified, that play a role in pH gradient regulation, ion homeostasis, osmoregulation, or coupling of secondary active transport. The established pH gradients are important to drive uptake of essential ions and solutes, but not many transporters involved have been identified to date. In this mini review we summarize the current status in the field and the open questions that need to be addressed in order to understand how pH gradients are maintained, how this is interconnected with other transport processes and what this means for chloroplast function. PMID:26973667

  4. Cell-specific ATP7A transport sustains copper-dependent tyrosinase activity in melanosomes.

    PubMed

    Setty, Subba Rao Gangi; Tenza, Danièle; Sviderskaya, Elena V; Bennett, Dorothy C; Raposo, Graça; Marks, Michael S

    2008-08-28

    Copper is a cofactor for many cellular enzymes and transporters. It can be loaded onto secreted and endomembrane cuproproteins by translocation from the cytosol into membrane-bound organelles by ATP7A or ATP7B transporters, the genes for which are mutated in the copper imbalance syndromes Menkes disease and Wilson disease, respectively. Endomembrane cuproproteins are thought to incorporate copper stably on transit through the trans-Golgi network, in which ATP7A accumulates by dynamic cycling through early endocytic compartments. Here we show that the pigment-cell-specific cuproenzyme tyrosinase acquires copper only transiently and inefficiently within the trans-Golgi network of mouse melanocytes. To catalyse melanin synthesis, tyrosinase is subsequently reloaded with copper within specialized organelles called melanosomes. Copper is supplied to melanosomes by ATP7A, a cohort of which localizes to melanosomes in a biogenesis of lysosome-related organelles complex-1 (BLOC-1)-dependent manner. These results indicate that cell-type-specific localization of a metal transporter is required to sustain metallation of an endomembrane cuproenzyme, providing a mechanism for exquisite spatial control of metalloenzyme activity. Moreover, because BLOC-1 subunits are mutated in subtypes of the genetic disease Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome, these results also show that defects in copper transporter localization contribute to hypopigmentation, and hence perhaps other systemic defects, in Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome.

  5. Cell-specific ATP7A transport sustains copper-dependent tyrosinase activity in melanosomes

    PubMed Central

    Gangi Setty, Subba Rao; Tenza, Danièle; Sviderskaya, Elena V.; Bennett, Dorothy C.; Raposo, Graça; Marks, Michael S.

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY Copper is a cofactor for many cellular enzymes and transporters1. To load onto secreted and endomembrane cuproproteins, copper is translocated from the cytosol into membrane-bound organelles by ATP7A or ATP7B transporters, the genes for which are mutated in the copper imbalance syndromes, Menkes and Wilson disease, respectively2. Endomembrane cuproproteins are thought to stably incorporate copper upon transit through the trans Golgi network (TGN), within which ATP7A3 accumulates by dynamic cycling through early endocytic compartments4. Here we show that the pigment cell-specific cuproenzyme tyrosinase acquires copper only transiently and inefficiently within the TGN of melanocytes. To catalyze melanin synthesis, tyrosinase is subsequently reloaded with copper within specialized organelles called melanosomes. Copper is supplied to melanosomes by ATP7A, a cohort of which localizes to melanosomes in a Biogenesis of Lysosome-related Organelles Complex-1 (BLOC-1)-dependent manner. These results indicate that cell type-specific localization of a metal transporter is required to sustain metallation of an endomembrane cuproenzyme, providing a mechanism for exquisite spatial control of metalloenzyme activity. Moreover, as BLOC-1 subunits are mutated in subtypes of the genetic disease, Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome (HPS), these results also show that defects in copper transporter localization contribute to hypopigmentation, and hence perhaps other systemic defects, in HPS. PMID:18650808

  6. Discriminating top-antitop resonances using azimuthal decay correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumgart, Matthew; Tweedie, Brock

    2011-09-01

    Top-antitop pairs produced in the decay of a new heavy resonance will exhibit spin correlations that contain valuable coupling information. When the tops decay, these correlations imprint themselves on the angular patterns of the final quarks and leptons. While many approaches to the measurement of top spin correlations are known, the most common ones require detailed kinematic reconstructions and are insensitive to some important spin interference effects. In particular, spin-1 resonances with mostly-vector or mostly-axial couplings to top cannot be easily discriminated from one another without appealing to mass-suppressed effects or to more model-dependent interference with continuum Standard Model production. Here, we propose to probe the structure of a resonance's couplings to tops by measuring the azimuthal angles of the tops' decay products about the production axis. These angles exhibit modulations which are typically O(0.1-1), and which by themselves allow for discrimination of spin-0 from higher spins, measurement of the CP-phase for spin-0, and measurement of the vector/axial composition for spins1and 2. For relativistic tops, the azimuthal decay angles can be well-approximated without detailed knowledge of the tops' velocities, and appear to be robust against imperfect energy measurements and neutrino reconstructions. We illustrate this point in the highly challenging dileptonic decay mode, which also exhibits the largest modulations. We comment on the relevance of these observables for testing axigluon-like models that explain the top quark A FB anomaly at the Tevatron, through direct production at the LHC.

  7. Ehrenfest-time dependence of quantum transport corrections and spectral statistics.

    PubMed

    Waltner, Daniel; Kuipers, Jack

    2010-12-01

    The Ehrenfest-time scale in quantum transport separates essentially classical propagation from wave interference and here we consider its effect on the transmission and reflection through quantum dots. In particular, we calculate the Ehrenfest-time dependence of the next-to-leading-order quantum corrections to the transmission and reflection for dc and ac transport and check that our results are consistent with current conservation relations. Looking as well at spectral statistics in closed systems, we finally demonstrate how the contributions analyzed here imply changes in the calculation, given by Brouwer [Phys. Rev. E 74, 066208 (2006)], of the next-to-leading order of the spectral form factor. Our semiclassical result coincides with the result obtained by Tian and Larkin [Phys. Rev. B 70, 035305 (2004)] by field-theoretical methods.

  8. Eigen decomposition solution to the one-dimensional time-dependent photon transport equation.

    PubMed

    Handapangoda, Chintha C; Pathirana, Pubudu N; Premaratne, Malin

    2011-02-14

    The time-dependent one-dimensional photon transport (radiative transfer) equation is widely used to model light propagation through turbid media with a slab geometry, in a vast number of disciplines. Several numerical and semi-analytical techniques are available to accurately solve this equation. In this work we propose a novel efficient solution technique based on eigen decomposition of the vectorized version of the photon transport equation. Using clever transformations, the four variable integro-differential equation is reduced to a set of first order ordinary differential equations using a combination of a spectral method and the discrete ordinates method. An eigen decomposition approach is then utilized to obtain the closed-form solution of this reduced set of ordinary differential equations.

  9. Fast Water Transport in CNTs: length dependence and entrane/exit effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walther, Jens; Koumoutsakos, Petros

    2011-11-01

    Superfast water transport in carbon nanotube (CNT) membranes has been reported in experimental studies. We use Molecular Dynamics simulations to elucidate the mechanisms of water entry, exit and transport in 2 nm -diameter hydrophobic CNTs embedded in a hydrophilic membrane matrix. We demonstrate, for the first time, that under imposed pressures of the order of 1 bar, water entry into the CNT cavity and exit from the CNT end, can occur only on pre-wetted membranes. We conduct large scale simulations for up to 500 nm long CNTs and observe a previously unseen dependence of the flow enhancement rates on the CNT length. We relate the present findings to past computational and experimental studies, we discuss previous continuum assessments for this flow and propose underlying physical mechanisms.

  10. Numerical solution of the time dependent neutron transport equation by the method of the characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talamo, Alberto

    2013-05-01

    This study presents three numerical algorithms to solve the time dependent neutron transport equation by the method of the characteristics. The algorithms have been developed taking into account delayed neutrons and they have been implemented into the novel MCART code, which solves the neutron transport equation for two-dimensional geometry and an arbitrary number of energy groups. The MCART code uses regular mesh for the representation of the spatial domain, it models up-scattering, and takes advantage of OPENMP and OPENGL algorithms for parallel computing and plotting, respectively. The code has been benchmarked with the multiplication factor results of a Boiling Water Reactor, with the analytical results for a prompt jump transient in an infinite medium, and with PARTISN and TDTORT results for cross section and source transients. The numerical simulations have shown that only two numerical algorithms are stable for small time steps.

  11. Dissipative time-dependent quantum transport theory: Quantum interference and phonon induced decoherence dynamics.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu; Yam, ChiYung; Chen, GuanHua

    2015-04-28

    A time-dependent inelastic electron transport theory for strong electron-phonon interaction is established via the equations of motion method combined with the small polaron transformation. In this work, the dissipation via electron-phonon coupling is taken into account in the strong coupling regime, which validates the small polaron transformation. The corresponding equations of motion are developed, which are used to study the quantum interference effect and phonon-induced decoherence dynamics in molecular junctions. Numerical studies show clearly quantum interference effect of the transport electrons through two quasi-degenerate states with different couplings to the leads. We also found that the quantum interference can be suppressed by the electron-phonon interaction where the phase coherence is destroyed by phonon scattering. This indicates the importance of electron-phonon interaction in systems with prominent quantum interference effect.

  12. Vectorization of the time-dependent Boltzmann transport equation: Application to deep penetration problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cobos, Agustín C.; Poma, Ana L.; Alvarez, Guillermo D.; Sanz, Darío E.

    2016-10-01

    We introduce an alternative method to calculate the steady state solution of the angular photon flux after a numerical evolution of the time-dependent Boltzmann transport equation (BTE). After a proper discretization the transport equation was converted into an ordinary system of differential equations that can be iterated as a weighted Richardson algorithm. As a different approach, in this work the time variable regulates the iteration process and convergence criteria is based on physical parameters. Positivity and convergence was assessed from first principles and a modified Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy condition was devised to guarantee convergence. The Penelope Monte Carlo method was used to test the convergence and accuracy of our approach for different phase space discretizations. Benchmarking was performed by calculation of total fluence and photon spectra in different one-dimensional geometries irradiated with 60Co and 6 MV photon beams and radiological applications were devised.

  13. Overexpression of the Auxin Binding PROTEIN1 Modulates PIN-Dependent Auxin Transport in Tobacco Cells

    PubMed Central

    Čovanová, Milada; Sauer, Michael; Rychtář, Jan; Friml, Jiří; Petrášek, Jan; Zažímalová, Eva

    2013-01-01

    Background Auxin binding protein 1 (ABP1) is a putative auxin receptor and its function is indispensable for plant growth and development. ABP1 has been shown to be involved in auxin-dependent regulation of cell division and expansion, in plasma-membrane-related processes such as changes in transmembrane potential, and in the regulation of clathrin-dependent endocytosis. However, the ABP1-regulated downstream pathway remains elusive. Methodology/Principal Findings Using auxin transport assays and quantitative analysis of cellular morphology we show that ABP1 regulates auxin efflux from tobacco BY-2 cells. The overexpression of ABP1can counterbalance increased auxin efflux and auxin starvation phenotypes caused by the overexpression of PIN auxin efflux carrier. Relevant mechanism involves the ABP1-controlled vesicle trafficking processes, including positive regulation of endocytosis of PIN auxin efflux carriers, as indicated by fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) and pharmacological manipulations. Conclusions/Significance The findings indicate the involvement of ABP1 in control of rate of auxin transport across plasma membrane emphasizing the role of ABP1 in regulation of PIN activity at the plasma membrane, and highlighting the relevance of ABP1 for the formation of developmentally important, PIN-dependent auxin gradients. PMID:23894588

  14. PIP Water Transport and Its pH Dependence Are Regulated by Tetramer Stoichiometry

    PubMed Central

    Jozefkowicz, Cintia; Sigaut, Lorena; Scochera, Florencia; Soto, Gabriela; Ayub, Nicolás; Pietrasanta, Lía Isabel; Amodeo, Gabriela; González Flecha, F. Luis; Alleva, Karina

    2016-01-01

    Many plasma membrane channels form oligomeric assemblies, and heterooligomerization has been described as a distinctive feature of some protein families. In the particular case of plant plasma membrane aquaporins (PIPs), PIP1 and PIP2 monomers interact to form heterotetramers. However, the biological properties of the different heterotetrameric configurations formed by PIP1 and PIP2 subunits have not been addressed yet. Upon coexpression of tandem PIP2-PIP1 dimers in Xenopus oocytes, we can address, for the first time to our knowledge, the functional properties of single heterotetrameric species having 2:2 stoichiometry. We have also coexpressed PIP2-PIP1 dimers with PIP1 and PIP2 monomers to experimentally investigate the localization and biological activity of each tetrameric assembly. Our results show that PIP2-PIP1 heterotetramers can assemble with 3:1, 1:3, or 2:2 stoichiometry, depending on PIP1 and PIP2 relative expression in the cell. All PIP2-PIP1 heterotetrameric species localize at the plasma membrane and present the same water transport capacity. Furthermore, the contribution of any heterotetrameric assembly to the total water transport through the plasma membrane doubles the contribution of PIP2 homotetramers. Our results also indicate that plasma membrane water transport can be modulated by the coexistence of different tetrameric species and by intracellular pH. Moreover, all the tetrameric species present similar cooperativity behavior for proton sensing. These findings throw light on the functional properties of PIP tetramers, showing that they have flexible stoichiometry dependent on the quantity of PIP1 and PIP2 molecules available. This represents, to our knowledge, a novel regulatory mechanism to adjust water transport across the plasma membrane. PMID:27028641

  15. Multi-fluid transport code modeling of time-dependent recycling in ELMy H-mode

    SciTech Connect

    Pigarov, A. Yu.; Krasheninnikov, S. I.; Rognlien, T. D.; Hollmann, E. M.; Lasnier, C. J.; Unterberg, Ezekial A

    2014-01-01

    Simulations of a high-confinement-mode (H-mode) tokamak discharge with infrequent giant type-I ELMs are performed by the multi-fluid, multi-species, two-dimensional transport code UEDGE-MB, which incorporates the Macro-Blob approach for intermittent non-diffusive transport due to filamentary coherent structures observed during the Edge Localized Modes (ELMs) and simple time-dependent multi-parametric models for cross-field plasma transport coefficients and working gas inventory in material surfaces. Temporal evolutions of pedestal plasma profiles, divertor recycling, and wall inventory in a sequence of ELMs are studied and compared to the experimental time-dependent data. Short- and long-time-scale variations of the pedestal and divertor plasmas where the ELM is described as a sequence of macro-blobs are discussed. It is shown that the ELM recovery includes the phase of relatively dense and cold post-ELM divertor plasma evolving on a several ms scale, which is set by the transport properties of H-mode barrier. The global gas balance in the discharge is also analyzed. The calculated rates of working gas deposition during each ELM and wall outgassing between ELMs are compared to the ELM particle losses from the pedestal and neutral-beam-injection fueling rate, correspondingly. A sensitivity study of the pedestal and divertor plasmas to model assumptions for gas deposition and release on material surfaces is presented. The performed simulations show that the dynamics of pedestal particle inventory is dominated by the transient intense gas deposition into the wall during each ELM followed by continuous gas release between ELMs at roughly a constant rate.

  16. Multi-fluid transport code modeling of time-dependent recycling in ELMy H-mode

    SciTech Connect

    Pigarov, A. Yu.; Krasheninnikov, S. I.; Hollmann, E. M.; Rognlien, T. D.; Lasnier, C. J.; Unterberg, E.

    2014-06-15

    Simulations of a high-confinement-mode (H-mode) tokamak discharge with infrequent giant type-I ELMs are performed by the multi-fluid, multi-species, two-dimensional transport code UEDGE-MB, which incorporates the Macro-Blob approach for intermittent non-diffusive transport due to filamentary coherent structures observed during the Edge Localized Modes (ELMs) and simple time-dependent multi-parametric models for cross-field plasma transport coefficients and working gas inventory in material surfaces. Temporal evolutions of pedestal plasma profiles, divertor recycling, and wall inventory in a sequence of ELMs are studied and compared to the experimental time-dependent data. Short- and long-time-scale variations of the pedestal and divertor plasmas where the ELM is described as a sequence of macro-blobs are discussed. It is shown that the ELM recovery includes the phase of relatively dense and cold post-ELM divertor plasma evolving on a several ms scale, which is set by the transport properties of H-mode barrier. The global gas balance in the discharge is also analyzed. The calculated rates of working gas deposition during each ELM and wall outgassing between ELMs are compared to the ELM particle losses from the pedestal and neutral-beam-injection fueling rate, correspondingly. A sensitivity study of the pedestal and divertor plasmas to model assumptions for gas deposition and release on material surfaces is presented. The performed simulations show that the dynamics of pedestal particle inventory is dominated by the transient intense gas deposition into the wall during each ELM followed by continuous gas release between ELMs at roughly a constant rate.

  17. PIP Water Transport and Its pH Dependence Are Regulated by Tetramer Stoichiometry.

    PubMed

    Jozefkowicz, Cintia; Sigaut, Lorena; Scochera, Florencia; Soto, Gabriela; Ayub, Nicolás; Pietrasanta, Lía Isabel; Amodeo, Gabriela; González Flecha, F Luis; Alleva, Karina

    2016-03-29

    Many plasma membrane channels form oligomeric assemblies, and heterooligomerization has been described as a distinctive feature of some protein families. In the particular case of plant plasma membrane aquaporins (PIPs), PIP1 and PIP2 monomers interact to form heterotetramers. However, the biological properties of the different heterotetrameric configurations formed by PIP1 and PIP2 subunits have not been addressed yet. Upon coexpression of tandem PIP2-PIP1 dimers in Xenopus oocytes, we can address, for the first time to our knowledge, the functional properties of single heterotetrameric species having 2:2 stoichiometry. We have also coexpressed PIP2-PIP1 dimers with PIP1 and PIP2 monomers to experimentally investigate the localization and biological activity of each tetrameric assembly. Our results show that PIP2-PIP1 heterotetramers can assemble with 3:1, 1:3, or 2:2 stoichiometry, depending on PIP1 and PIP2 relative expression in the cell. All PIP2-PIP1 heterotetrameric species localize at the plasma membrane and present the same water transport capacity. Furthermore, the contribution of any heterotetrameric assembly to the total water transport through the plasma membrane doubles the contribution of PIP2 homotetramers. Our results also indicate that plasma membrane water transport can be modulated by the coexistence of different tetrameric species and by intracellular pH. Moreover, all the tetrameric species present similar cooperativity behavior for proton sensing. These findings throw light on the functional properties of PIP tetramers, showing that they have flexible stoichiometry dependent on the quantity of PIP1 and PIP2 molecules available. This represents, to our knowledge, a novel regulatory mechanism to adjust water transport across the plasma membrane.

  18. Spin Dependent Transport in Si/SiGe Few-Electron Quantum Dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simmons, Christie

    2008-03-01

    Si/SiGe quantum dots are of interest for quantum information processing due in large part to the existence of spin zero isotopes of both Si and Ge. We present the results of transport measurements and integrated charge sensing in silicon double and single quantum dots.[1,2] We observe two effects arising from spin dependent transport in a double quantum dot. First, and as expected, for one direction of current flow we observe spin blockade -- the canonical example of spin-to-charge conversion in transport. In addition, when current flow is reversed, we observe a second effect: strong tails of current extend from the sharp triangular regions in which current conventionally is observed. The presence of these tails is explained by a combination of long spin relaxation times and preferential loading of an excited spin state. We also present charge-sensing measurements of single and double quantum dots using an integrated quantum point contact. The charge sensor signal from single electron tunneling is well correlated with conventional transport through the system. When the tunnel barriers are large and transport through the dot is not measurable, charge sensing remains a viable means to track charge transitions and is used to confirm individual-electron occupation in a single quantum dot. Work performed in collaboration with Nakul Shaji, Madhu Thalakulam, Levente J. Klein, H. Luo, Hua Qin, R. H. Blick, D. E. Savage, M. G. Lagally, A. J. Rimberg, R. Joynt, M. Friesen, S. N. Coppersmith, M. A. Eriksson. Work supported by ARO, LPS, NSF and DOE. (1) Shaji, N. et al. e-print arXiv:0708.0794 (2) Simmons, C. B. et al. Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 213103 (2007).

  19. Oxygen and carbon dioxide transport in time-dependent blood flow past fiber rectangular arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zierenberg, Jennifer R.; Fujioka, Hideki; Hirschl, Ronald B.; Bartlett, Robert H.; Grotberg, James B.

    2009-03-01

    The influence of time-dependent flows on oxygen and carbon dioxide transport for blood flow past fiber arrays arranged in in-line and staggered configurations was computationally investigated as a model for an artificial lung. Both a pulsatile flow, which mimics the flow leaving the right heart and passing through a compliance chamber before entering the artificial lung, and a right ventricular flow, which mimics flow leaving the right heart and directly entering the artificial lung, were considered in addition to a steady flow. The pulsatile flow was modeled as a sinusoidal perturbation superimposed on a steady flow while the right ventricular flow was modeled to accurately depict the period of flow acceleration (increasing flow) and deceleration (decreasing flow) during systole followed by zero flow during diastole. It was observed that the pulsatile flow yielded similar gas transport as compared to the steady flow, while the right ventricular flow resulted in smaller gas transport, with the decrease increasing with Re. The pressure drop across the fiber array (a measure of the resistance), work (an indicator of the work required of the right heart), and shear stress (a measure of potential blood cell activation and damage) are lowest for steady flow, followed by pulsatile flow, and then right ventricular flow. The pressure drop, work, shear stress, and Sherwood numbers (a measure of the gas transport efficiency) decrease with increasing porosity and are smaller for AR <1 as compared to AR >1 (AR is the distance between fibers in the flow direction/distance between fibers in direction perpendicular to flow), although for small porosities the Sherwood numbers are of similar magnitude. In general, for any fiber array geometry, high pressure drop, work, and shear stresses correlate with high Sherwood numbers, and low pressure drop, work, and shear stresses correlate with low Sherwood numbers creating a need for a compromise between pressure drop/work/shear stresses

  20. Monte Carlo simulation of time-dependent, transport-limited fluorescent boundary measurements in frequency domain.

    PubMed

    Pan, Tianshu; Rasmussen, John C; Lee, Jae Hoon; Sevick-Muraca, Eva M

    2007-04-01

    Recently, we have presented and experimentally validated a unique numerical solver of the coupled radiative transfer equations (RTEs) for rapidly computing time-dependent excitation and fluorescent light propagation in small animal tomography. Herein, we present a time-dependent Monte Carlo algorithm to validate the forward RTE solver and investigate the impact of physical parameters upon transport-limited measurements in order to best direct the development of the RTE solver for optical tomography. Experimentally, the Monte Carlo simulations for both transport-limited and diffusion-limited propagations are validated using frequency domain photon migration measurements for 1.0%, 0.5%, and 0.2% intralipid solutions containing 1 microM indocyanine green in a 49 cm3 cylindrical phantom corresponding to the small volume employed in small animal tomography. The comparisons between Monte Carlo simulations and the numerical solutions result in mean percent error in amplitude and the phase shift less than 5.0% and 0.7 degrees, respectively, at excitation and emission wavelengths for varying anisotropic factors, lifetimes, and modulation frequencies. Monte Carlo simulations indicate that the accuracy of the forward model is enhanced using (i) suitable source models of photon delivery, (ii) accurate anisotropic factors, and (iii) accurate acceptance angles of collected photons. Monte Carlo simulations also show that the accuracy of the diffusion approximation in the small phantom depends upon (i) the ratio d(phantom)/l(tr), where d(phantom) is the phantom diameter and l(tr) is the transport mean free path; and (ii) the anisotropic factor of the medium. The Monte Carlo simulations validates and guides the future development of an appropriate RTE solver for deployment in small animal optical tomography.

  1. Humidity dependence of charge transport through DNA revealed by silicon-based nanotweezers manipulation.

    PubMed

    Yamahata, Christophe; Collard, Dominique; Takekawa, Tetsuya; Kumemura, Momoko; Hashiguchi, Gen; Fujita, Hiroyuki

    2008-01-01

    The study of the electrical properties of DNA has aroused increasing interest since the last decade. So far, controversial arguments have been put forward to explain the electrical charge transport through DNA. Our experiments on DNA bundles manipulated with silicon-based actuated tweezers demonstrate undoubtedly that humidity is the main factor affecting the electrical conduction in DNA. We explain the quasi-Ohmic behavior of DNA and the exponential dependence of its conductivity with relative humidity from the adsorption of water on the DNA backbone. We propose a quantitative model that is consistent with previous studies on DNA and other materials, like porous silicon, subjected to different humidity conditions.

  2. Low frequency azimuthal stability of the ionization region of the Hall thruster discharge. II. Global analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Escobar, D.; Ahedo, E.

    2015-10-15

    The linear stability of the Hall thruster discharge is analysed against axial-azimuthal perturbations in the low frequency range using a time-dependent 2D code of the discharge. This azimuthal stability analysis is spatially global, as opposed to the more common local stability analyses, already afforded previously (D. Escobar and E. Ahedo, Phys. Plasmas 21(4), 043505 (2014)). The study covers both axial and axial-azimuthal oscillations, known as breathing mode and spoke, respectively. The influence on the spoke instability of different operation parameters such as discharge voltage, mass flow, and thruster size is assessed by means of different parametric variations and compared against experimental results. Additionally, simplified models are used to unveil and characterize the mechanisms driving the spoke. The results indicate that the spoke is linked to azimuthal oscillations of the ionization process and to the Bohm condition in the transition to the anode sheath. Finally, results obtained from local and global stability analyses are compared in order to explain the discrepancies between both methods.

  3. Isotopic dependence of impurity transport driven by ion temperature gradient turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Weixin; Wang, Lu; Zhuang, Ge

    2016-11-01

    Hydrogenic ion mass effects, namely, the isotopic effects on impurity transport driven by ion temperature gradient (ITG) turbulence are investigated using gyrokinetic theory. For non-trace impurities, changing from hydrogen (H) to deuterium (D), and to tritium (T) plasmas, the outward flux for lower (higher) ionized impurities or for lighter (heavier) impurities is found to decrease (increase), although isotopic dependence of the ITG linear growth rate is weak. This is mainly due to the decrease of outward (inward) convection, while the isotopic dependence of diffusion is relatively weak. In addition, the isotopic effects reduce (enhance) the impurity flux of fully ionized carbon (C6+) for weaker (stronger) magnetic shear. In the trace impurity limit, the isotopic effects are found to reduce the accumulation of high-Z tungsten (W). Moreover, the isotopic effects on the peaking factor of trace high-Z W get stronger with stronger magnetic shear.

  4. Spin-dependent electron transport in zinc- and manganese-doped adenine molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Simchi, Hamidreza; Esmaeilzadeh, Mahdi Mazidabadi, Hossein

    2014-01-28

    The spin-dependent electron transport properties of zinc- and manganese-doped adenine molecules connected to zigzag graphene leads are studied in the zero bias regime using the non-equilibrium Green's function method. The conductance of the adenine molecule increased and became spin-dependent when a zinc or manganese atom was doped into the molecules. The effects of a transverse electric field on the spin-polarization of the transmitted electrons were investigated and the spin-polarization was controlled by changing the transverse electric field. Under the presence of a transverse electric field, both the zinc- and manganese-doped adenine molecules acted as spin-filters. The maximum spin-polarization of the manganese-doped adenine molecule was greater than the molecule doped with zinc.

  5. Temperature dependent transport study of the SiOx/Ge/SiOx system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rangel-Kuoppa, Victor-Tapio; Plach, Thomas; Hernandez-Hernandez, Arturo; De Moure-Flores, Francisco; Quiñones-Galván, José G.; Hernández-Hernandez, Luis A.; Melendez-Lira, Miguel

    2013-12-01

    The transport properties of the SiOx/Ge/SiOx system are studied using the van der Pauw technique as function of temperature in the range from 35 K to 150 K for two representative samples grown by Radio Frequency sputtering under different conditions. It is found that variable range hopping conduction explains the temperature dependence of the resistivity. For both samples, the nearest neighbor hopping conduction process explains the temperature dependence of the resistivity in the range between 66 K and 150 K. For the sample with the roughest surface, Efros-Shkovskiis variable range hopping process explains better the results below 66 K, while for the other one, a combination of Motts variable range hopping in two and three dimensions explain better the results in the same temperature range.

  6. Geometric dependence of transport and universal behavior in three dimensional carbon nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Leizhi; Yin, Ming; Jaroszynski, Jan; Park, Ju-Hyun; Mbamalu, Godwin; Datta, Timir

    2016-09-01

    Carbon nanostructures with the spherical voids exhibit interesting temperature and magnetic field dependent transport properties. By increasing the void size, the structures are tuned from metallic to insulating; in addition, the magnetoresistance (MR) is enhanced. Our investigation in the magnetic fields (B) up to 18 T at temperatures (T) from 250 mK to 20 K shows that at high temperatures (T > 2 K), the MR crosses over from quadratic to a non-saturating linear dependence with increasing magnetic field. Furthermore, all MR data in this temperature regime collapse onto a single curve as a universal function of B/T, following Kohler's rule. Remarkably, the MR also exhibits orientation insensitivity, i.e., it displays a response independent of the direction on the magnetic field.

  7. Molecular origin of fast water transport in carbon nanotube membranes: superlubricity versus curvature dependent friction.

    PubMed

    Falk, Kerstin; Sedlmeier, Felix; Joly, Laurent; Netz, Roland R; Bocquet, Lydéric

    2010-10-13

    In this paper, we study the interfacial friction of water at graphitic interfaces with various topologies, water between planar graphene sheets, inside and outside carbon nanotubes, with the goal to disentangle confinement and curvature effects on friction. We show that the friction coefficient exhibits a strong curvature dependence; while friction is independent of confinement for the graphene slab, it decreases with carbon nanotube radius for water inside, but increases for water outside. As a paradigm the friction coefficient is found to vanish below a threshold diameter for armchair nanotubes. Using a statistical description of the interfacial friction, we highlight here a structural origin of this curvature dependence, mainly associated with a curvature-induced incommensurability between the water and carbon structures. These results support the recent experiments reporting fast transport of water in nanometric carbon nanotube membranes.

  8. Charge-dependent transport switching of single molecular ions in a weak polyelectrolyte multilayer.

    PubMed

    Tauzin, Lawrence J; Shuang, Bo; Kisley, Lydia; Mansur, Andrea P; Chen, Jixin; de Leon, Al; Advincula, Rigoberto C; Landes, Christy F

    2014-07-22

    The tunable nature of weak polyelectrolyte multilayers makes them ideal candidates for drug loading and delivery, water filtration, and separations, yet the lateral transport of charged molecules in these systems remains largely unexplored at the single molecule level. We report the direct measurement of the charge-dependent, pH-tunable, multimodal interaction of single charged molecules with a weak polyelectrolyte multilayer thin film, a 10 bilayer film of poly(acrylic acid) and poly(allylamine hydrochloride) PAA/PAH. Using fluorescence microscopy and single-molecule tracking, two modes of interaction were detected: (1) adsorption, characterized by the molecule remaining immobilized in a subresolution region and (2) diffusion trajectories characteristic of hopping (D ∼ 10(-9) cm(2)/s). Radius of gyration evolution analysis and comparison with simulated trajectories confirmed the coexistence of the two transport modes in the same single molecule trajectories. A mechanistic explanation for the probe and condition mediated dynamics is proposed based on a combination of electrostatics and a reversible, pH-induced alteration of the nanoscopic structure of the film. Our results are in good agreement with ensemble studies conducted on similar films, confirm a previously-unobserved hopping mechanism for charged molecules in polyelectrolyte multilayers, and demonstrate that single molecule spectroscopy can offer mechanistic insight into the role of electrostatics and nanoscale tunability of transport in weak polyelectrolyte multilayers.

  9. Constraining Data Mining with Physical Models: Voltage- and Oxygen Pressure-Dependent Transport in Multiferroic Nanostructures

    DOE PAGES

    Strelcov, Evgheni; Belianinov, Alexei; Hsieh, Ying-Hui; ...

    2015-08-27

    Development of new generation electronic devices requires understanding and controlling the electronic transport in ferroic, magnetic, and optical materials, which is hampered by two factors. First, the complications of working at the nanoscale, where interfaces, grain boundaries, defects, and so forth, dictate the macroscopic characteristics. Second, the convolution of the response signals stemming from the fact that several physical processes may be activated simultaneously. Here, we present a method of solving these challenges via a combination of atomic force microscopy and data mining analysis techniques. Rational selection of the latter allows application of physical constraints and enables direct interpretation ofmore » the statistically significant behaviors in the framework of the chosen physical model, thus distilling physical meaning out of raw data. We demonstrate our approach with an example of deconvolution of complex transport behavior in a bismuth ferrite–cobalt ferrite nanocomposite in ambient and ultrahigh vacuum environments. Measured signal is apportioned into four electronic transport patterns, showing different dependence on partial oxygen and water vapor pressure. These patterns are described in terms of Ohmic conductance and Schottky emission models in the light of surface electrochemistry. Finally and furthermore, deep data analysis allows extraction of local dopant concentrations and barrier heights empowering our understanding of the underlying dynamic mechanisms of resistive switching.« less

  10. Constraining Data Mining with Physical Models: Voltage- and Oxygen Pressure-Dependent Transport in Multiferroic Nanostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Strelcov, Evgheni; Belianinov, Alexei; Hsieh, Ying-Hui; Chu, Ying-Hao; Kalinin, Sergei V.

    2015-08-27

    Development of new generation electronic devices requires understanding and controlling the electronic transport in ferroic, magnetic, and optical materials, which is hampered by two factors. First, the complications of working at the nanoscale, where interfaces, grain boundaries, defects, and so forth, dictate the macroscopic characteristics. Second, the convolution of the response signals stemming from the fact that several physical processes may be activated simultaneously. Here, we present a method of solving these challenges via a combination of atomic force microscopy and data mining analysis techniques. Rational selection of the latter allows application of physical constraints and enables direct interpretation of the statistically significant behaviors in the framework of the chosen physical model, thus distilling physical meaning out of raw data. We demonstrate our approach with an example of deconvolution of complex transport behavior in a bismuth ferrite–cobalt ferrite nanocomposite in ambient and ultrahigh vacuum environments. Measured signal is apportioned into four electronic transport patterns, showing different dependence on partial oxygen and water vapor pressure. These patterns are described in terms of Ohmic conductance and Schottky emission models in the light of surface electrochemistry. Finally and furthermore, deep data analysis allows extraction of local dopant concentrations and barrier heights empowering our understanding of the underlying dynamic mechanisms of resistive switching.

  11. Constraining Data Mining with Physical Models: Voltage- and Oxygen Pressure-Dependent Transport in Multiferroic Nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Strelcov, Evgheni; Belianinov, Alexei; Hsieh, Ying-Hui; Chu, Ying-Hao; Kalinin, Sergei V

    2015-10-14

    Development of new generation electronic devices necessitates understanding and controlling the electronic transport in ferroic, magnetic, and optical materials, which is hampered by two factors. First, the complications of working at the nanoscale, where interfaces, grain boundaries, defects, and so forth, dictate the macroscopic characteristics. Second, the convolution of the response signals stemming from the fact that several physical processes may be activated simultaneously. Here, we present a method of solving these challenges via a combination of atomic force microscopy and data mining analysis techniques. Rational selection of the latter allows application of physical constraints and enables direct interpretation of the statistically significant behaviors in the framework of the chosen physical model, thus distilling physical meaning out of raw data. We demonstrate our approach with an example of deconvolution of complex transport behavior in a bismuth ferrite-cobalt ferrite nanocomposite in ambient and ultrahigh vacuum environments. Measured signal is apportioned into four electronic transport patterns, showing different dependence on partial oxygen and water vapor pressure. These patterns are described in terms of Ohmic conductance and Schottky emission models in the light of surface electrochemistry. Furthermore, deep data analysis allows extraction of local dopant concentrations and barrier heights empowering our understanding of the underlying dynamic mechanisms of resistive switching.

  12. Redox-Dependent Franck-Condon Blockade and Avalanche Transport in a Graphene-Fullerene Single-Molecule Transistor.

    PubMed

    Lau, Chit Siong; Sadeghi, Hatef; Rogers, Gregory; Sangtarash, Sara; Dallas, Panagiotis; Porfyrakis, Kyriakos; Warner, Jamie; Lambert, Colin J; Briggs, G Andrew D; Mol, Jan A

    2016-01-13

    We report transport measurements on a graphene-fullerene single-molecule transistor. The device architecture where a functionalized C60 binds to graphene nanoelectrodes results in strong electron-vibron coupling and weak vibron relaxation. Using a combined approach of transport spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and DFT calculations, we demonstrate center-of-mass oscillations, redox-dependent Franck-Condon blockade, and a transport regime characterized by avalanche tunnelling in a single-molecule transistor.

  13. Time dependent discrete ordinates neutron transport using distribution iteration in XYZ geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dishaw, James R.

    The distribution iteration (DI) algorithm, developed by Wager [32] and Prins [28], for solving the Boltzmann Transport Equation (BTE) has proven, with further development, to be a robust alternative to von Neumann iteration on the scattering source, aka source iteration (SI). Previous work with DI was based on the time-independent form of the transport equation. In this research, the DI algorithm was (1) Improved to provide faster, more efficient, robust convergence; (2) Extended to XYZ geometry; (3) Extended to Multigroup Energy treatment; (4) Extended to solve the time-dependent form of the Boltzmann Transport Equation. The discrete ordinates equations for approximating the BTE have been solved using SI since the discrete ordinates method was developed at Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory by 1953. However, SI is often inefficient by itself and requires an accelerator in order to produce results efficiently and reliably. The acceleration schemes that are in use in production codes are Diffusion Synthetic Acceleration (DSA) and Transport Synthetic Acceleration (TSA). DSA is ineffective for some problems, and cannot be extended to high-performance spatial quadratures. TSA is less effective than DSA and fails for some problems. Krylov acceleration has been explored in recent years, but has many parameters that require problem-dependent tuning for efficiency and effectiveness. The DI algorithm is an alternative to source iteration that, in our testing, does not require an accelerator. I developed a formal verification plan and executed it to verify the results produced by my code that implemented DI with the above features. A new, matrix albedo, boundary condition treatment was developed and implemented so that infinite-medium benchmarks could be included in the verification test suite. The DI algorithm was modified for parallel efficiency and the prior instability of the refinement sweep was corrected. The testing revealed that DI performed as well or faster than

  14. The magnetism and spin-dependent electronic transport properties of boron nitride atomic chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Yipeng; Zhang, Mengjun; Wu, Dapeng; Fu, Zhaoming; Wang, Tianxing; Jiao, Zhaoyong; Wang, Kun

    2016-07-01

    Very recently, boron nitride atomic chains were successively prepared and observed in experiments [O. Cretu et al., ACS Nano 8, 11950 (2015)]. Herein, using a first-principles technique, we study the magnetism and spin-dependent electronic transport properties of three types of BN atomic chains whose magnetic moment is 1 μB for BnNn-1, 2 μB for BnNn, and 3 μB for BnNn+1 type atomic chains, respectively. The spin-dependent electronic transport results demonstrate that the short BnNn+1 chain presents an obvious spin-filtering effect with high spin polarization ratio (>90%) under low bias voltages. Yet, this spin-filtering effect does not occur for long BnNn+1 chains under high bias voltages and other types of BN atomic chains (BnNn-1 and BnNn). The proposed short BnNn+1 chain is predicted to be an effective low-bias spin filters. Moreover, the length-conductance relationships of these BN atomic chains were also studied.

  15. Biogenesis of the crystalloid organelle in Plasmodium involves microtubule-dependent vesicle transport and assembly

    PubMed Central

    Saeed, Sadia; Tremp, Annie Z.; Dessens, Johannes T.

    2015-01-01

    Malaria parasites possess unique subcellular structures and organelles. One of these is the crystalloid, a multivesicular organelle that forms during the parasite’s development in vector mosquitoes. The formation and function of these organelles remain poorly understood. A family of six conserved and modular proteins named LCCL-lectin adhesive-like proteins (LAPs), which have essential roles in sporozoite transmission, localise to the crystalloids. In this study we analyse crystalloid formation using transgenic Plasmodium berghei parasites expressing GFP-tagged LAP3. We show that deletion of the LCCL domain from LAP3 causes retarded crystalloid development, while knockout of LAP3 prevents formation of the organelle. Our data reveal that the process of crystalloid formation involves active relocation of endoplasmic reticulum-derived vesicles to common assembly points via microtubule-dependent transport. Inhibition of microtubule-dependent cargo transport disrupts this process and replicates the LCCL domain deletion mutant phenotype in wildtype parasites. These findings provide the first clear insight into crystalloid biogenesis, demonstrating a fundamental role for the LAP family in this process, and identifying the crystalloid and its formation as potential targets for malaria transmission control. PMID:25900212

  16. Spin-Dependent Transport in Fe/GaAs(100)/Fe Vertical Spin-Valves

    PubMed Central

    Wong, P. K. Johnny; Zhang, Wen; Wu, Jing; Will, Iain G.; Xu, Yongbing; Xia, Ke; Holmes, Stuart N.; Farrer, Ian; Beere, Harvey E.; Ritchie, Dave A.

    2016-01-01

    The integration of magnetic materials with semiconductors will lead to the development of the next spintronics devices such as spin field effect transistor (SFET), which is capable of both data storage and processing. While the fabrication and transport studies of lateral SFET have attracted greatly attentions, there are only few studies of vertical devices, which may offer the opportunity for the future three-dimensional integration. Here, we provide evidence of two-terminal electrical spin injection and detection in Fe/GaAs/Fe vertical spin-valves (SVs) with the GaAs layer of 50 nanometers thick and top and bottom Fe electrodes deposited by molecular beam epitaxy. The spin-valve effect, which corresponds to the individual switching of the top and bottom Fe layers, is bias dependent and observed up to 20 K. We propose that the strongly bias- and temperature-dependent MR is associated with spin transport at the interfacial Fe/GaAs Schottky contacts and in the GaAs membranes, where balance between the barrier profiles as well as the dwell time to spin lifetime ratio are crucial factors for determining the device operations. The demonstration of the fabrication and spin injection in the vertical SV with a semiconductor interlayer is expected to open a new avenue in exploring the SFET. PMID:27432047

  17. Large Conductance Switching in a Single-Molecule Device through Room Temperature Spin-Dependent Transport.

    PubMed

    Aragonès, Albert C; Aravena, Daniel; Cerdá, Jorge I; Acís-Castillo, Zulema; Li, Haipeng; Real, José Antonio; Sanz, Fausto; Hihath, Josh; Ruiz, Eliseo; Díez-Pérez, Ismael

    2016-01-13

    Controlling the spin of electrons in nanoscale electronic devices is one of the most promising topics aiming at developing devices with rapid and high density information storage capabilities. The interface magnetism or spinterface resulting from the interaction between a magnetic molecule and a metal surface, or vice versa, has become a key ingredient in creating nanoscale molecular devices with novel functionalities. Here, we present a single-molecule wire that displays large (>10000%) conductance switching by controlling the spin-dependent transport under ambient conditions (room temperature in a liquid cell). The molecular wire is built by trapping individual spin crossover Fe(II) complexes between one Au electrode and one ferromagnetic Ni electrode in an organic liquid medium. Large changes in the single-molecule conductance (>100-fold) are measured when the electrons flow from the Au electrode to either an α-up or a β-down spin-polarized Ni electrode. Our calculations show that the current flowing through such an interface appears to be strongly spin-polarized, thus resulting in the observed switching of the single-molecule wire conductance. The observation of such a high spin-dependent conductance switching in a single-molecule wire opens up a new door for the design and control of spin-polarized transport in nanoscale molecular devices at room temperature.

  18. Spin-Dependent Transport in Fe/GaAs(100)/Fe Vertical Spin-Valves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, P. K. Johnny; Zhang, Wen; Wu, Jing; Will, Iain G.; Xu, Yongbing; Xia, Ke; Holmes, Stuart N.; Farrer, Ian; Beere, Harvey E.; Ritchie, Dave A.

    2016-07-01

    The integration of magnetic materials with semiconductors will lead to the development of the next spintronics devices such as spin field effect transistor (SFET), which is capable of both data storage and processing. While the fabrication and transport studies of lateral SFET have attracted greatly attentions, there are only few studies of vertical devices, which may offer the opportunity for the future three-dimensional integration. Here, we provide evidence of two-terminal electrical spin injection and detection in Fe/GaAs/Fe vertical spin-valves (SVs) with the GaAs layer of 50 nanometers thick and top and bottom Fe electrodes deposited by molecular beam epitaxy. The spin-valve effect, which corresponds to the individual switching of the top and bottom Fe layers, is bias dependent and observed up to 20 K. We propose that the strongly bias- and temperature-dependent MR is associated with spin transport at the interfacial Fe/GaAs Schottky contacts and in the GaAs membranes, where balance between the barrier profiles as well as the dwell time to spin lifetime ratio are crucial factors for determining the device operations. The demonstration of the fabrication and spin injection in the vertical SV with a semiconductor interlayer is expected to open a new avenue in exploring the SFET.

  19. Temperature Dependent Transport of Two-Dimensional Electrons in the Integral Quantum Hall Regime.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Hsuang-Ping

    This thesis is concerned with the temperature (T) dependent electronic transport properties of a two dimensional electron gas subject to background potential fluctuations and a perpendicular magnetic field. We have carried out an extensive temperature dependent study of the transport coefficients, in the region of an integral quantum plateau, in an In(,x)Ga(,1-x)As/InP heterostructure for 4.2K < T < 50K. By assuming a simple thermal activation picture, we demonstrate a quantitative deduction of the electron density of states. Our results indicate that there exists a significant number of states (1 x 10('10)cm(' -2)meV('-1)) even at the middle between two Landau levels, which is unexpected from model calculations based on short ranged randomness. In addition, the different T dependent behavior of (rho)(,xx) between the states in the tails and those near the center of a Landau level, indicates the existence of different electron states in a Landau level. Moreover, we have performed T dependent trans- port measurements in the transition region between two quantum plateaus, in several different materials. In the In(,x)Ga(,1-x)As/InP sample, when T(, )> 4K, the transport behavior can be attributed to the T dependent distribution function. When T(, )< 4K, our experi- mental T-driven (sigma)(,xx) vs. (sigma)(,xy) flow diagram is consistent with the pre- dicted theoretical renormalization group flow diagram, and suggests the existence of a critical point related to the localization to delocali- zation transition. However, in the GaAs/Al(,x)Ga(,1-x)As samples there is a difference in the T dependent behavior of (sigma)(,xx), between N = 1(UPARR) and 1(DARR) electrons. First, (sigma)(,xx)(1(UPARR)) decreases with decreasing T; whereas (sigma)(,xx)(1(DARR)) increases with decreasing T for 0.3K(, )< T < 4.2K. Second, (sigma)(,xx)('max) (1(DARR)) ('(TURN)) 3(sigma)(,xx)('max) (1(UPARR)) at T('(TURN))0.5K in all of our samples. These results indicate the existence of spin

  20. Crystal Phase- and Orientation-Dependent Electrical Transport Properties of InAs Nanowires.

    PubMed

    Fu, Mengqi; Tang, Zhiqiang; Li, Xing; Ning, Zhiyuan; Pan, Dong; Zhao, Jianhua; Wei, Xianlong; Chen, Qing

    2016-04-13

    We report a systematic study on the correlation of the electrical transport properties with the crystal phase and orientation of single-crystal InAs nanowires (NWs) grown by molecular-beam epitaxy. A new method is developed to allow the same InAs NW to be used for both the electrical measurements and transmission electron microscopy characterization. We find both the crystal phase, wurtzite (WZ) or zinc-blende (ZB), and the orientation of the InAs NWs remarkably affect the electronic properties of the field-effect transistors based on these NWs, such as the threshold voltage (VT), ON-OFF ratio, subthreshold swing (SS) and effective barrier height at the off-state (ΦOFF). The SS increases while VT, ON-OFF ratio, and ΦOFF decrease one by one in the sequence of WZ ⟨0001⟩, ZB ⟨131⟩, ZB ⟨332⟩, ZB ⟨121⟩, and ZB ⟨011⟩. The WZ InAs NWs have obvious smaller field-effect mobility, conductivities, and electron concentration at VBG = 0 V than the ZB InAs NWs, while these parameters are not sensitive to the orientation of the ZB InAs NWs. We also find the diameter ranging from 12 to 33 nm shows much less effect than the crystal phase and orientation on the electrical transport properties of the InAs NWs. The good ohmic contact between InAs NWs and metal remains regardless of the variation of the crystal phase and orientation through temperature-dependent measurements. Our work deepens the understanding of the structure-dependent electrical transport properties of InAs NWs and provides a potential way to tailor the device properties by controlling the crystal phase and orientation of the NWs.

  1. PET imaging of the serotonin transporter and 5HT1A receptor in alcohol dependence

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Diana; Slifstein, Mark; Gil, Roberto; Hwang, Dah-Ren; Huang, Yiyun; Perez, Audrey; Frankle, W. Gordon; Laruelle, Marc; Krystal, John; Abi-Dargham, Anissa

    2009-01-01

    Background Rodent models as well as studies in humans have suggested alterations in serotonin (5HT) innervation and transmission in early onset genetically determined or type II alcoholism. This study examines two indices of serotonergic transmission, 5HT transporter levels and 5-HT1A availability, in vivo, in type II alcoholism. This is the first report of combined tracers for pre and post-synaptic serotonergic transmission in the same alcoholic subjects and the first study of 5HT1A receptors in alcoholism. Method Fourteen alcohol dependent subjects were scanned (11 with both tracers, 1 with [11C]DASB only and two with [11C]WAY100635 only). Twelve healthy controls (HC) subjects were scanned with [11C]DASB and another 13 were scanned with [11C]WAY100635. Binding Potential (BPp, mL/cm3) and the specific to nonspecific partition coefficient (BPND, unitless) were derived for both tracers using 2 tissue compartment model and compared to HC across different brain regions. Relationships to severity of alcoholism were assessed. Results No significant differences were observed in regional BPp or BPND between patients and controls in any of the regions examined. No significant relationships were observed between regional 5HT transporter availability, 5-HT1A availability, and disease severity with the exception of a significant negative correlation between SERT and years of dependence in amygdala and insula. Conclusion This study did not find alterations in measures of 5-HT1A or 5HT transporter levels in patients with type II alcoholism. PMID:18962444

  2. Induction of Mrp3 and Mrp4 transporters during acetaminophen hepatotoxicity is dependent on Nrf2

    SciTech Connect

    Aleksunes, Lauren M. Slitt, Angela L. Maher, Jonathan M. Augustine, Lisa M. Goedken, Michael J. Chan, Jefferson Y. Cherrington, Nathan J. Klaassen, Curtis D. Manautou, Jose E.

    2008-01-01

    The transcription factor NFE2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) mediates detoxification and antioxidant gene transcription following electrophile exposure and oxidative stress. Mice deficient in Nrf2 (Nrf2-null) are highly susceptible to acetaminophen (APAP) hepatotoxicity and exhibit lower basal and inducible expression of cytoprotective genes, including NADPH quinone oxidoreductase 1 (Nqo1) and glutamate cysteine ligase (catalytic subunit, or Gclc). Administration of toxic APAP doses to C57BL/6J mice generates electrophilic stress and subsequently increases levels of hepatic Nqo1, Gclc and the efflux multidrug resistance-associated protein transporters 1-4 (Mrp1-4). It was hypothesized that induction of hepatic Mrp1-4 expression following APAP is Nrf2 dependent. Plasma and livers from wild-type (WT) and Nrf2-null mice were collected 4, 24 and 48 h after APAP. As expected, hepatotoxicity was greater in Nrf2-null compared to WT mice. Gene and protein expression of Mrp1-4 and the Nrf2 targets, Nqo1 and Gclc, was measured. Induction of Nqo1 and Gclc mRNA and protein after APAP was dependent on Nrf2 expression. Similarly, APAP treatment increased hepatic Mrp3 and Mrp4 mRNA and protein in WT, but not Nrf2-null mice. Mrp1 was induced in both genotypes after APAP, suggesting that elevated expression of this transporter was independent of Nrf2. Mrp2 was not induced in either genotype at the mRNA or protein levels. These results show that Nrf2 mediates induction of Mrp3 and Mrp4 after APAP but does not affect Mrp1 or Mrp2. Thus coordinated regulation of detoxification enzymes and transporters by Nrf2 during APAP hepatotoxicity is a mechanism by which hepatocytes may limit intracellular accumulation of potentially toxic chemicals.

  3. Length dependence of electron transport through molecular wires--a first principles perspective.

    PubMed

    Khoo, Khoong Hong; Chen, Yifeng; Li, Suchun; Quek, Su Ying

    2015-01-07

    -resonant tunneling in the systems under investigation. Calculations show that the tunneling decay constant beta is a robust quantity that does not depend on details of the contact geometry, provided that the same contact geometry is used for all molecular lengths considered. However, because conductance is sensitive to contact geometry, values of beta obtained by considering conductance values where the contact geometry is changing with the molecular junction length can be quite different. Experimentally measured values of beta in general compare well with beta obtained using DFT + Sigma and GW transport calculations, while discrepancies can be attributed to changes in the experimental contact geometries with molecular length. This review also summarizes experimental and theoretical efforts towards finding perfect molecular wires with high conductance and small beta values.

  4. Azimuthal anisotropy in U+U collisions at STAR

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Hui; Sorensen, Paul

    2014-10-06

    The azimuthal anisotropy of particle production is commonly used in high-energy nuclear collisions to study the early evolution of the expanding system. The prolate shape of uranium nuclei makes it possible to study how the geometry of the colliding nuclei affects final state anisotropies. It also provides a unique opportunity to understand how entropy is produced in heavy ion collisions. In this paper, the two- and four- particle cumulant v2 (v2{2} and v2{4}) from U+U collisions at √sNN = 193 GeV and Au+Au collisions at √sNN = 200 GeV for inclusive charged hadrons will be presented. The STAR Zero Degree Calorimeters are used to select very central collisions. Differences were observed between the multiplicity dependence of v2{2} for most central Au+Au and U+U collisions. The multiplicity dependence of v2{2} in central collisions were compared to Monte Carlo Glauber model predictions and it was seen that this model cannot explain the present results. (auth)

  5. Azimuthal anisotropy in U+U collisions at STAR

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Hui; Sorensen, Paul

    2014-10-06

    The azimuthal anisotropy of particle production is commonly used in high-energy nuclear collisions to study the early evolution of the expanding system. The prolate shape of uranium nuclei makes it possible to study how the geometry of the colliding nuclei affects final state anisotropies. It also provides a unique opportunity to understand how entropy is produced in heavy ion collisions. In this paper, the two- and four- particle cumulant v2 (v2{2} and v2{4}) from U+U collisions at √sNN = 193 GeV and Au+Au collisions at √sNN = 200 GeV for inclusive charged hadrons will be presented. The STAR Zero Degreemore » Calorimeters are used to select very central collisions. Differences were observed between the multiplicity dependence of v2{2} for most central Au+Au and U+U collisions. The multiplicity dependence of v2{2} in central collisions were compared to Monte Carlo Glauber model predictions and it was seen that this model cannot explain the present results. (auth)« less

  6. The Dependence of H-mode Energy Confinement and Transport on Collisionality in NSTX

    SciTech Connect

    Kaye, S. M.; Gerhardt, S.; Guttenfelder, W.; Maingi, R.; Bell, R. E.; Diallo, A.; LeBlanc, B. P.; Podesta, M.

    2012-11-28

    Understanding the dependence of confi nement on collisionality in tokamaks is important for the design of next-step devices, which will operate at collisionalities at least one order of magnitude lower than in present generation. A wide range of collisionality has been obtained in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) by employing two different wall conditioning techniques, one with boronization and between-shot helium glow discharge conditioning (HeGDC+B), and one using lithium evaporation (Li EVAP). Previous studies of HeGDC+B plasmas indicated a strong and favorable dependence of normalized con nement on collisionality. Discharges with lithium conditioning discussed in the present study gen- erally achieved lower collisionality, extending the accessible range of collisionality by almost an order of unity. While the confinement dependences on dimensional, engineering variables of the HeGDC+B and Li EVAP datasets differed, collisionality was found to unify the trends, with the lower collisionality lithium conditioned discharges extending the trend of increasing normalized confi nement time with decreasing collisionality when other dimension less variables were held as fi xed as possible. This increase of confi nement with decreasing collisionality was driven by a large reduction in electron transport in the outer region of the plasma. This result is consistent with gyrokinetic calculations that show microtearing and Electron Temperature Gradient modes to be more stable for the lower collisionality discharges. Ion transport, near neoclassical at high collisionality, became more anomalous at lower collisionality, possibly due to the growth of hybrid TEM/KBM modes in the outer regions of the plasma

  7. The Dependence of H-mode Energy Confinement and Transport on Collisionality in NSTX

    SciTech Connect

    Kaye, S. M.; Gerhardt, S.; Guttenfelder, W.; Maingi, R.; Bell, R. E.; Diallo, A.; LeBlanc, B. P.; Podesta, M.

    2012-11-27

    Understanding the dependence of confi nement on collisionality in tokamaks is important for the design of next-step devices, which will operate at collisionalities at least one order of magnitude lower than in present generation. A wide range of collisionality has been obtained in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) by employing two different wall conditioning techniques, one with boronization and between-shot helium glow discharge conditioning (HeGDC+B), and one using lithium evaporation (Li EVAP). Previous studies of HeGDC+B plasmas indicated a strong and favorable dependence of normalized con nement on collisionality. Discharges with lithium conditioning discussed in the present study gen- erally achieved lower collisionality, extending the accessible range of collisionality by almost an order of unity. While the confinement dependences on dimensional, engineering variables of the HeGDC+B and Li EVAP datasets differed, collisionality was found to unify the trends, with the lower collisionality lithium conditioned discharges extending the trend of increasing normalized confi nement time with decreasing collisionality when other dimension less variables were held as fi xed as possible. This increase of confi nement with decreasing collisionality was driven by a large reduction in electron transport in the outer region of the plasma. This result is consistent with gyrokinetic calculations that show microtearing and Electron Temperature Gradient modes to be more stable for the lower collisionality discharges. Ion transport, near neoclassical at high collisionality, became more anomalous at lower collisionality, possibly due to the growth of hybrid TEM/KBM modes in the outer regions of the plasma.

  8. Hyperbolic theory for pH-dependent adsorption in reactive transport in porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prigiobbe, V.; Hesse, M. A.; Bryant, S. L.

    2012-12-01

    We use the hyperbolic theory of conservation laws to analyze the transport of strontium (Sr2+) through a porous medium with surface complexation. An hydrophilic iron-oxide surface was considered where Sr2+ and hydrogen (H+) compete for the same site leading to competitive adsorption described by an pH-dependent Langmuir isotherm. Despite the importance of pH-dependent adsorption in environmental applications, the basic structure of the displacement has received little attention. In reactive transport problems with pH-dependent adsorption, one of the conservation laws is for the total hydrogen (cHtot = cH+-cOH-) in the system, also called the acidity. The presence of this equation gives rise to additional nonlinearity in the problems that distinguishes them from other competitive sorption problems where hydrogen is not involved. We analyze a 1D reactive transport model with an incompressible fluid containing H+, Sr2+, sodium (Na+), and chlorine (Cl-) flowing through a reactive porous media made of goethite. Under the assumption of overall charge balance and of only advection for Na+ and Cl-, the mathematical problem reduces to a strictly hyperbolic 3x3 system of partial dierential equations (PDEs) for cHtot, Sr2+ (cSr2+), and effective anions (ca = cCl--cNa+) which are coupled by the adsorption isotherms for H+ and Sr2+ and have the non-linearity in the accumulation terms. One characteristic field is linearly degenerate while the other two are non-genuinely nonlinear due to inflection loci in both isotherms. We derived the complete set of analytical solutions to the Riemann problem (constant initial and injected states) and described the characteristic waves that may arise, concluding that only nine combinations of a contact discontinuity with rarefactions, shocks, shock-rarefactions are possible. The composite shock-rarefaction waves arise from the inflection loci in the isotherms and are absent in classic competitive Langmuir sorption. The inflection loci divide

  9. Synthetic aperture radar images with composite azimuth resolution

    DOEpatents

    Bielek, Timothy P; Bickel, Douglas L

    2015-03-31

    A synthetic aperture radar (SAR) image is produced by using all phase histories of a set of phase histories to produce a first pixel array having a first azimuth resolution, and using less than all phase histories of the set to produce a second pixel array having a second azimuth resolution that is coarser than the first azimuth resolution. The first and second pixel arrays are combined to produce a third pixel array defining a desired SAR image that shows distinct shadows of moving objects while preserving detail in stationary background clutter.

  10. Field dependent thermoelectric properties of organic semiconductors—A tool to determine the nature of charge transport in materials exhibiting thermally activated transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendels, Dan; Tessler, Nir

    2015-03-01

    By implementing Monte Carlo simulations and employing the concept of effective temperature, we explore the effects of an applied field bias on the charge carrier statistics and Peltier coefficient in hopping systems subject to the parameter range applicable to disordered organic semiconductors. Distinct differences are found between the observed field dependences as obtained from systems in which energetic disorder is spatially correlated and those in which it is not. Considerable differences are also found between the charge carrier statistics and the Peltier coefficient's field dependence in systems in which charge is transported by bare charge carriers and systems in which it is propagated by polarons. Peltier coefficient field dependence investigations are, hence, proposed as a new tool for studying charge transport and thermoelectricity in disordered organic semiconductors and systems which exhibit thermally activated transport in general.

  11. Continuous energy, multi-dimensional discrete ordinates transport calculations for problem dependent resonance treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Zhaopeng

    In the past twenty 20 years considerable progress has been made in developing new methods for solving the multi-dimensional transport problem. However the effort devoted to the resonance self-shielding calculation has lagged, and much less progress has been made in enhancing resonance-shielding techniques for generating problem-dependent multi-group cross sections (XS) for the multi-dimensional transport calculations. In several applications, the error introduced by self-shielding methods exceeds that due to uncertainties in the basic nuclear data, and often they can be the limiting factor on the accuracy of the final results. This work is to improve the accuracy of the resonance self-shielding calculation by developing continuous energy multi-dimensional transport calculations for problem dependent self-shielding calculations. A new method has been developed, it can calculate the continuous-energy neutron fluxes for the whole two-dimensional domain, which can be utilized as weighting function to process the self-shielded multi-group cross sections for reactor analysis and criticality calculations, and during this process, the two-dimensional heterogeneous effect in the resonance self-shielding calculation can be fully included. A new code, GEMINEWTRN (Group and Energy-Pointwise Methodology Implemented in NEWT for Resonance Neutronics) has been developed in the developing version of SCALE [1], it combines the energy pointwise (PW) capability of the CENTRM [2] with the two-dimensional discrete ordinates transport capability of lattice physics code NEWT [14]. Considering the large number of energy points in the resonance region (typically more than 30,000), the computational burden and memory requirement for GEMINEWTRN is tremendously large, some efforts have been performed to improve the computational efficiency, parallel computation has been implemented into GEMINEWTRN, which can save the computation and memory requirement a lot; some energy points reducing

  12. Thermal and Wind Effects on the Azimuth Axis Tilt of the ASTE 10-m Antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ukita, Nobuharu; Ezawa, Hajime; Ikenoue, Bungo; Saito, Masao

    2007-10-01

    The azimuth axis tilt of the ASTE 10-m antenna induced by thermal and wind loadings was investigated with a dual-axis inclinometer on the azimuth axis, along with thermometers on the pedestal and yoke structures and an ultrasonic anemometer on a nearby weather station. The dependences of the inclinometer zero-point offsets against temperature of the device, temperature gradients in the pedestal and yoke structure were obtained for the measurements over 11 months during the antenna being parked at its home position (azimuth angles = ?180 degrees, an elevation angle = 60 degrees) under wind velocities < 8 m s-1. The temperature dependences of the zero-point offsets were found to be 1.24 and -0.46 arcseconds/degree, and were close to those obtained with an independent method. The azimuth axis tilts due to the temperature difference between the two opposite sides of pedestal walls were found to be about 1.1 and 1.7 arcseconds/degree, and consistent with 1.5 arcseconds/degree estimated with a simple model. The residual axis tilt of the whole samples after removal of the temperature dependences shows dependence against overturning moment estimated from the wind data. The stiffness of the antenna structures between the yoke base section and the ground was estimated to be 5.3 and 3.4 GNm/rad using the observed tilts in two directions; and were smaller than 6.0 GNm/rad from a mechanical model prediction. Based on these field experiments, we discuss the improvements and limitations of pointing performance with the inclinometer metrology system.

  13. Effective grid-dependent dispersion coefficient for conservative and reactive transport simulations in heterogeneous porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cortinez, J. M.; Valocchi, A. J.; Herrera, P. A.

    2013-12-01

    the situations where both processes are additive, an effective grid-dependent dispersion coefficient can be derived based on the concept of block-effective dispersion. We show that the proposed effective dispersion coefficient is able to reproduce dilution, mixing and reaction rates for a wide range of transport conditions similar to the ones found in many practical applications.

  14. Feedback control of an azimuthal oscillation in the E Multiplication-Sign B discharge of Hall thrusters

    SciTech Connect

    Griswold, M. E.; Ellison, C. L.; Raitses, Y.; Fisch, N. J.

    2012-05-15

    Feedback control of a low-frequency azimuthal wave known as a 'rotating spoke' in the E Multiplication-Sign B discharge of a cylindrical Hall thruster was demonstrated. The rotating spoke is an m = 1 azimuthal variation in density, electron temperature, and potential that rotates at about 10% of the local E Multiplication-Sign B electron rotation speed. It causes increased electron transport across the magnetic field and is suspected to be an ionization wave. Feedback control of this wave required special consideration because, although it causes a rotating azimuthal variation in the current density to the anode, it does not show up as a signal in the total thruster discharge current. Therefore, an extra source of information was needed to track the oscillation, which was addressed by using a special anode that was split azimuthally into four segments. The current to each segment oscillates as the rotating spoke passes over it, and feedback is accomplished by resistors connected in series with each anode segment which causes the voltage on a segment to decrease in proportion to the current through that segment. The feedback resulted in the disappearance of a coherent azimuthal wave and a decrease in the time-averaged total discharge current by up to 13.2%.

  15. The endocannabinoid transport inhibitor AM404 differentially modulates recognition memory in rats depending on environmental aversiveness

    PubMed Central

    Campolongo, Patrizia; Ratano, Patrizia; Manduca, Antonia; Scattoni, Maria L.; Palmery, Maura; Trezza, Viviana; Cuomo, Vincenzo

    2012-01-01

    Cannabinoid compounds may influence both emotional and cognitive processes depending on the level of environmental aversiveness at the time of drug administration. However, the mechanisms responsible for these responses remain to be elucidated. The present experiments investigated the effects induced by the endocannabinoid transport inhibitor AM404 (0.5–5 mg/kg, i.p.) on both emotional and cognitive performances of rats tested in a Spatial Open Field task and subjected to different experimental settings, named High Arousal (HA) and Low Arousal (LA) conditions. The two different experimental conditions influenced emotional reactivity independently of drug administration. Indeed, vehicle-treated rats exposed to the LA condition spent more time in the center of the arena than vehicle-treated rats exposed to the HA context. Conversely, the different arousal conditions did not affect the cognitive performances of vehicle-treated animals such as the capability to discriminate a spatial displacement of the objects or an object substitution. AM404 administration did not alter locomotor activity or emotional behavior of animals exposed to both environmental conditions. Interestingly, AM404 administration influenced the cognitive parameters depending on the level of emotional arousal: it impaired the capability of rats exposed to the HA condition to recognize a novel object while it did not induce any impairing effect in rats exposed to the LA condition. These findings suggest that drugs enhancing endocannabinoid signaling induce different effects on recognition memory performance depending on the level of emotional arousal induced by the environmental conditions. PMID:22454620

  16. A time-dependent neutron transport method of characteristics formulation with time derivative propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffman, Adam J.; Lee, John C.

    2016-02-01

    A new time-dependent Method of Characteristics (MOC) formulation for nuclear reactor kinetics was developed utilizing angular flux time-derivative propagation. This method avoids the requirement of storing the angular flux at previous points in time to represent a discretized time derivative; instead, an equation for the angular flux time derivative along 1D spatial characteristics is derived and solved concurrently with the 1D transport characteristic equation. This approach allows the angular flux time derivative to be recast principally in terms of the neutron source time derivatives, which are approximated to high-order accuracy using the backward differentiation formula (BDF). This approach, called Source Derivative Propagation (SDP), drastically reduces the memory requirements of time-dependent MOC relative to methods that require storing the angular flux. An SDP method was developed for 2D and 3D applications and implemented in the computer code DeCART in 2D. DeCART was used to model two reactor transient benchmarks: a modified TWIGL problem and a C5G7 transient. The SDP method accurately and efficiently replicated the solution of the conventional time-dependent MOC method using two orders of magnitude less memory.

  17. Structural phase-dependent hole localization and transport in bismuth vanadate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kweon, Kyoung E.; Hwang, Gyeong S.

    2013-05-01

    We present theoretical evidence for the phase dependence of hole localization and transport in bismuth vanadate (BiVO4). Our hybrid density-functional theory calculations predict that, in the tetragonal phase [tetragonal scheelite BiVO4 (ts-BiVO4)], an excess hole tends to localize around a BiO8 polyhedron with strong lattice distortion, whereas, in the monoclinic phase [monoclinic scheelite BiVO4 (ms-BiVO4)], it spreads over many lattice sites. The phase-dependent behavior is likely related to the higher structural stability of ms-BiVO4 than ts-BiVO4, which may suppress hole-induced lattice distortions. Our study also demonstrates that the relatively weakly localized hole in ms-BiVO4 undergoes faster diffusion compared to the case of ts-BiVO4, irrespective of the fact that the degrees of localization and mobility vary depending on the choice of exchange-correlation functional. The mobility difference may provide an explanation for the enhanced photocatalytic activity of ms-BiVO4 over ts-BiVO4 for water oxidation, considering that the increased mobility would lead to an increase in the hole current to the catalyst surface.

  18. A time-dependent neutron transport method of characteristics formulation with time derivative propagation

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, Adam J. Lee, John C.

    2016-02-15

    A new time-dependent Method of Characteristics (MOC) formulation for nuclear reactor kinetics was developed utilizing angular flux time-derivative propagation. This method avoids the requirement of storing the angular flux at previous points in time to represent a discretized time derivative; instead, an equation for the angular flux time derivative along 1D spatial characteristics is derived and solved concurrently with the 1D transport characteristic equation. This approach allows the angular flux time derivative to be recast principally in terms of the neutron source time derivatives, which are approximated to high-order accuracy using the backward differentiation formula (BDF). This approach, called Source Derivative Propagation (SDP), drastically reduces the memory requirements of time-dependent MOC relative to methods that require storing the angular flux. An SDP method was developed for 2D and 3D applications and implemented in the computer code DeCART in 2D. DeCART was used to model two reactor transient benchmarks: a modified TWIGL problem and a C5G7 transient. The SDP method accurately and efficiently replicated the solution of the conventional time-dependent MOC method using two orders of magnitude less memory.

  19. Density-dependent electron transport and precise modeling of GaN high electron mobility transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Bajaj, Sanyam Shoron, Omor F.; Park, Pil Sung; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Akyol, Fatih; Hung, Ting-Hsiang; Reza, Shahed; Chumbes, Eduardo M.; Khurgin, Jacob; Rajan, Siddharth

    2015-10-12

    We report on the direct measurement of two-dimensional sheet charge density dependence of electron transport in AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs). Pulsed IV measurements established increasing electron velocities with decreasing sheet charge densities, resulting in saturation velocity of 1.9 × 10{sup 7 }cm/s at a low sheet charge density of 7.8 × 10{sup 11 }cm{sup −2}. An optical phonon emission-based electron velocity model for GaN is also presented. It accommodates stimulated longitudinal optical (LO) phonon emission which clamps the electron velocity with strong electron-phonon interaction and long LO phonon lifetime in GaN. A comparison with the measured density-dependent saturation velocity shows that it captures the dependence rather well. Finally, the experimental result is applied in TCAD-based device simulator to predict DC and small signal characteristics of a reported GaN HEMT. Good agreement between the simulated and reported experimental results validated the measurement presented in this report and established accurate modeling of GaN HEMTs.

  20. Loss of ATP-dependent transport activity in pseudoxanthoma elasticum-associated mutants of human ABCC6 (MRP6).

    PubMed

    Iliás, Attila; Urbán, Zsolt; Seidl, Thomas L; Le Saux, Olivier; Sinkó, Emese; Boyd, Charles D; Sarkadi, Balázs; Váradi, András

    2002-05-10

    Mutations in the ABCC6 (MRP6) gene cause pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE), a rare heritable disorder resulting in the calcification of elastic fibers. In the present study a cDNA encoding a full-length normal variant of ABCC6 was amplified from a human kidney cDNA library, and the protein was expressed in Sf9 insect cells. In isolated membranes ATP binding as well as ATP-dependent active transport by ABCC6 was demonstrated. We found that glutathione conjugates, including leukotriene C(4) and N-ethylmaleimide S-glutathione (NEM-GS), were actively transported by human ABCC6. Organic anions (probenecid, benzbromarone, indomethacin), known to interfere with glutathione conjugate transport of human ABCC1 and ABCC2, inhibited the ABCC6-mediated NEM-GS transport in a specific manner, indicating that ABCC6 has a unique substrate specificity. We have also expressed three missense mutant forms of ABCC6, which have recently been shown to cause PXE. MgATP binding was normal in these proteins; ATP-dependent NEM-GS or leukotriene C(4) transport, however, was abolished. Our data indicate that human ABCC6 is a primary active transporter for organic anions. In the three ABCC6 mutant forms examined, the loss of transport activity suggests that these mutations result in a PXE phenotype through a direct influence on the transport activity of this ABC transporter.

  1. Fiber-optic gyro location of dome azimuth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuehne, John W.

    2016-07-01

    The 2.1-m Otto Struve Telescope, world's second largest in 1939, today has modern motion control and superb tracking, yet the 19-m-diameter Art Deco dome has resisted many attempts to record its azimuth electronically. Demonstrated in January 2016, a small tactical-grade fiber-optic gyro located anywhere on the rotating structure, aided by a few fiducial points to zero gyro drift, adequately locates the azimuth. The cost of a gyro is practically independent of dome size, offering an economical solution for large domes that cannot be easily encoded with conventional systems. The 100-Hz sampling is capable of revealing anomalies in the rotation rate, valuable for preventive maintenance on any dome. I describe software methods and time series analysis to integrate angular velocity to dome azimuth; transformation of telescope hour angle and declination into required dome azimuth, using a formula that accounts for a cross-axis mount inside an offset dome; and test results.

  2. Stoichiometry dependent electron transport and gas sensing properties of indium oxide nanowires.

    PubMed

    Gali, Pradeep; Sapkota, Gopal; Syllaios, A J; Littler, Chris; Philipose, U

    2013-06-07

    The effect of stoichiometry of single crystalline In2O3 nanowires on electrical transport and gas sensing was investigated. The nanowires were synthesized by vapor phase transport and had diameters ranging from 80 to 100 nm and lengths between 10 and 20 μm, with a growth direction of [001]. Transport measurements revealed n-type conduction, attributed to the presence of oxygen vacancies in the crystal lattice. As-grown In2O3 nanowires were shown to have a carrier concentration of ≈5 × 10(17) cm(-3), while nanowires that were annealed in wet O2 showed a reduced carrier concentration of less than 10(16) cm(-3). Temperature dependent conductivity measurements on the as-grown nanowires and analysis of the thermally activated Arrhenius conduction for the temperature range of 77-350 K yielded an activation energy of 0.12 eV. This is explained on the basis of carrier exchange that occurs between the surface states and the bulk of the nanowire, resulting in a depleted surface layer of thickness of the order of the Debye length (LD), estimated to be about 3-4 nm for the as-grown nanowires and about 10 times higher for the more stoichiometric nanowires. Significant changes in the electrical conductance of individual In2O3 nanowires were also observed within several seconds of exposure to NH3 and O2 gas molecules at room temperature, thus demonstrating the potential use of In2O3 nanowires as efficient miniaturized chemical sensors. The sensing mechanism is dominated by the nanowire channel conductance, and a simple energy band diagram is used to explain the change in conductivity when gas molecules adsorbed on the nanowire surface influence its electrical properties. Less stoichiometric nanowires were found to be more sensitive to oxidizing gases while more stoichiometric nanowires showed significantly enhanced response to reducing gases.

  3. The spin-dependent transport of Co-encapsulated Si nanotubes contacted with Cu electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Yan-Dong; Yan, Xiao-Hong; Xiao, Yang

    2014-02-10

    Unlike carbon nanotubes, silicon ones are hard to form. However, they could be stabilized by metal-encapsulation. Using first-principles calculations, we investigate the spin-dependent electronic transport of Co-encapsulated Si nanotubes, which are contacted with Cu electrodes. For the finite tubes, as the tube-length increases, the transmission changes from spin-unpolarized to spin-polarized. Further analysis shows that, not only the screening of electrodes on Co's magnetism but also the spin-asymmetric Co-Co interactions are the physical mechanisms. As Cu and Si are the fundamental elements in semiconductor industry, our results may throw light on the development of silicon-based spintronic devices.

  4. Dependence of the lateral ion transport on the driving frequency in nematic liquid crystal displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stojmenovik, G.; Vermael, S.; Neyts, K.; Asselt, R. van; Verschueren, A. R. M.

    2004-10-01

    The presence of ions in a liquid crystal (LC) influences the transmission characteristics of LC displays. These ions follow the electric field perpendicular to the electrodes and move back and forth under the influence of the ac field. Because of their charge, they can distort the electric field, which leads to transmission changes. Recently it was discovered that due to the LC anisotropy, ion motion parallel with the plane of the electrodes (perpendicular to the electric field) is also possible, even without lateral fields. After driving a pixel for a long time, the ions will accumulate at one pixel edge, which leads to unwanted image artifacts. In this paper, we investigate the frequency dependence of the lateral ion transport in twisted nematic liquid crystal displays at high and low ion concentrations, different ion mobilities, and LC rotational viscosities, for a fixed voltage just above the LC threshold.

  5. Prandtl-Number Dependence of Heat Transport in Laminar Horizontal Convection.

    PubMed

    Shishkina, Olga; Wagner, Sebastian

    2016-01-15

    We report the Prandtl-number (Pr) and Rayleigh-number (Ra) dependencies of the Reynolds number (Re) and mean convective heat transport, measured by the Nusselt number (Nu), in horizontal convection (HC) systems, where the heat supply and removal are provided exclusively through a lower horizontal surface of a fluid layer. For laminar HC, we find that Re∼Ra^{2/5}Pr^{-4/5}, Nu∼Ra^{1/5}Pr^{1/10} with a transition to Re∼Ra^{1/2}Pr^{-1}, Nu∼Ra^{1/4}Pr^{0} for large Pr. The results are based on direct numerical simulations for Ra from 3×10^{8} to 5×10^{10} and Pr from 0.05 to 50 and are explained by applying the Grossmann-Lohse approach [J. Fluid Mech. 407, 27 (2000)] transferred from the case of Rayleigh-Bénard convection to the case of laminar HC.

  6. Guanidinylated Neomycin Mediates Heparan Sulfate–dependent Transport of Active Enzymes to Lysosomes

    PubMed Central

    Sarrazin, Stéphane; Wilson, Beth; Sly, William S; Tor, Yitzhak; Esko, Jeffrey D

    2010-01-01

    Guanidinylated neomycin (GNeo) can transport bioactive, high molecular weight cargo into the interior of cells in a process that depends on cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans. In this report, we show that GNeo-modified quantum dots bind to cell surface heparan sulfate, undergo endocytosis and eventually reach the lysosomal compartment. An N-hydroxysuccinimide activated ester of GNeo (GNeo-NHS) was prepared and conjugated to two lysosomal enzymes, β--glucuronidase (GUS) and α--iduronidase. Conjugation did not interfere with enzyme activity and enabled binding of the enzymes to heparin-Sepharose and heparan sulfate on primary human fibroblasts. Cells lacking the corresponding lysosomal enzyme took up sufficient amounts of the conjugated enzymes to restore normal turnover of glycosaminoglycans. The high capacity of proteoglycan-mediated uptake suggests that this method of delivery might be used for enzyme replacement or introduction of foreign enzymes into cells. PMID:20442709

  7. Temperature dependent dielectric properties and ion transportation in solid polymer electrolyte for lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sengwa, R. J.; Dhatarwal, Priyanka; Choudhary, Shobhna

    2016-05-01

    Solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) film consisted of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) blend matrix with lithium tetrafluroborate (LiBF4) as dopant ionic salt and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) as plasticizer has been prepared by solution casting method followed by melt pressing. Dielectric properties and ionic conductivity of the SPE film at different temperatures have been determined by dielectric relaxation spectroscopy. It has been observed that the dc ionic conductivity of the SPE film increases with increase of temperature and also the decrease of relaxation time. The temperature dependent relaxation time and ionic conductivity values of the electrolyte are governed by the Arrhenius relation. Correlation observed between dc conductivity and relaxation time confirms that ion transportation occurs with polymer chain segmental dynamics through hopping mechanism. The room temperature ionic conductivity is found to be 4 × 10-6 S cm-1 which suggests the suitability of the SPE film for rechargeable lithium batteries.

  8. A new multidimensional, energy-dependent two-moment transport code for neutrino-hydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Just, O.; Obergaulinger, M.; Janka, H.-T.

    2015-11-01

    We present the new code ALCAR developed to model multidimensional, multienergy-group neutrino transport in the context of supernovae and neutron-star mergers. The algorithm solves the evolution equations of the zeroth- and first-order angular moments of the specific intensity, supplemented by an algebraic relation for the second-moment tensor to close the system. The scheme takes into account frame-dependent effects of the order O(v/c) as well as the most important types of neutrino interactions. The transport scheme is significantly more efficient than a multidimensional solver of the Boltzmann equation, while it is more accurate and consistent than the flux-limited diffusion method. The finite-volume discretization of the essentially hyperbolic system of moment equations employs methods well-known from hydrodynamics. For the time integration of the potentially stiff moment equations we employ a scheme in which only the local source terms are treated implicitly, while the advection terms are kept explicit, thereby allowing for an efficient computational parallelization of the algorithm. We investigate various problem set-ups in one and two dimensions to verify the implementation and to test the quality of the algebraic closure scheme. In our most detailed test, we compare a fully dynamic, one-dimensional core-collapse simulation with two published calculations performed with well-known Boltzmann-type neutrino-hydrodynamics codes and we find very satisfactory agreement.

  9. Na/sup +/-dependent transport of /sup 14/C-L-lysine across bullfrog alveolar epithelium

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, K.J.; Crandall, E.D.

    1986-03-01

    Transepithelial transport of the basic amino acid L-lysine has been studied utilizing the isolated intact bullfrog lung mounted in the Ussing chamber. Lungs were excised from doubly pithed bullfrogs and sandwiched between two hemichambers. /sup 14/C-(U)-L-lysine was added to the upstream reservoir of amphibian Ringer solution, while the tissue was short-circuited. Two lungs from the same animal were used simultaneously to determine the two opposite unidirectional fluxes. Downstream and upstream radioactivities were assayed and used to estimate the apparent permeability (P) of the labeled lysine. Results indicate that the apparent P of /sup 14/C-L-lysine measured in the alveolar (M) to the pleural (S) direction is 19.06 (+- 2.84) x 10/sup -7/ cm/s and P in the S to M direction is 3.29 (+- 0.02) x 10/sup -7/ cm/s. When the 100 mM NaCl in the bath was replaced by 110 mM choline chloride, the flux of /sup 14/C-L-lysine from the alveolar to the pleural side decreased to the same value as that in the opposite direction. The flux from the pleural to the alveolar direction in the absence of Na/sup +/ did not change. These results suggest that the alveolar epithelium exhibits Na/sup +/-dependent amino acid (L-lysine) transport in the M->S, but not in the S->M, direction.

  10. Spin-dependent transport across SrTiO3-based heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swartz, Adrian

    2015-03-01

    Identification of candidate spin-preserving materials is of crucial importance for the realization of functional spin logic devices. An oxide spin channel is particularly attractive because of the ease of epitaxial integration with other functional complex oxides, which could manipulate spins in transit. Electron-doped SrTiO3 is one emerging material where high mobility conduction has been realized at the interface between LaAlO3 and SrTiO3, as well as in more traditional semiconducting Nb-doped SrTiO3 thin films. We have investigated spin injection in both systems using a three-terminal (3T) geometry with ferromagnetic electrodes and have observed magnetoresistance commonly attributed to dephasing of an ensemble spin population (Hanle effect), with associated spin lifetimes in the range of 40-130 ps, large enough for the realization of lateral spin transport devices. However, such a picture fails to explain all the experimentally observed behavior. Further experiments indicate contributions from magnetic-field modulation of spin-dependent transport through defect states in the barrier region, suggesting that the 3T approach does not uniquely probe spin accumulation in the SrTiO3 channel.

  11. Beyond the Lorentzian Model in Quantum Transport: Energy-Dependent Resonance Broadening in Molecular Junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhenfei; Neaton, Jeffrey B.

    In quantum transport calculations, transmission functions of molecular junctions, as well as spectral functions of metal-organic interfaces, often feature peaks originating from molecular resonances. These resonance peaks are often assumed to be Lorentzian, with an energy-independent broadening function Γ. However, in the general case, the wide-band-limit breaks down, and the Lorentzian approximation is no longer valid. Here, we develop a new energy-dependent broadening function Γ (E) , based on diagonalization of non-Hermitian matrices within a non-equilbrium Green's function (NEGF) formalism. As defined, Γ (E) can describe resonances of non-Lorentzian nature and can be decomposed into components associated with the left and right leads, respectively; and it is particularly useful in understanding transport properties in terms of molecular orbitals in asymmetric junctions. We compute this quantity via an ab initio NEGF approach based on density functional theory and illustrate its utility with several junctions of experimental relevance, including recent work on rectification in Au-graphite junctions. This work is supported by the DOE, and computational resources are provided by NERSC.

  12. Redox probing study of the potential dependence of charge transport through Li2O2

    DOE PAGES

    Knudsen, Kristian B.; Luntz, Alan C.; Jensen, Søren H.; ...

    2015-11-20

    In the field of energy storage devices the pursuit for cheap, high energy density, reliable secondary batteries is at the top of the agenda. The Li–O2 battery is one of the possible technologies that, in theory, should be able to close the gap, which exists between the present state-of-the-art Li-ion technologies and the demand placed on batteries by technologies such as electrical vehicles. Here we present a redox probing study of the charge transfer across the main deposition product lithium peroxide, Li2O2, in the Li–O2 battery using outer-sphere redox shuttles. The change in heterogeneous electron transfer exchange rate as amore » function of the potential and the Li2O2 layer thickness (~depth-of-discharge) was determined using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. In addition, the attenuation of the electron transfer exchange rate with film thickness is dependent on the probing potential, providing evidence that hole transport is the dominant process for charge transfer through Li2O2 and showing that the origin of the sudden death observed upon discharge is due to charge transport limitations.« less

  13. Temperature Dependent Electrical Transport Properties of Ni-Cr and Co-Cr Binary Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Thakore, B. Y.; Khambholja, S. G.; Bhatt, N. K.; Jani, A. R.; Suthar, P. H.; Gajjar, P. N.

    2011-12-12

    The temperature dependent electrical transport properties viz. electrical resistivity and thermal conductivity of Ni{sub 10}Cr{sub 90} and Co{sub 20}Cr{sub 80} alloys are computed at various temperatures. The electrical resistivity has been calculated according to Faber-Ziman model combined with Ashcroft-Langreth partial structure factors. In the present work, to include the ion-electron interaction, we have used a well tested local model potential. For exchange-correlation effects, five different forms of local field correction functions due to Hartree (H), Taylor (T), Ichimaru and Utsumi (IU), Farid et al (F) and Sarkar et al (S) are used. The present results due to S function are in good agreement with the experimental data as compared to results obtained using other four functions. The S functions satisfy compressibility sum rule in long wave length limit more accurately as compared to T, IU and F functions, which may be responsible for better agreement of results, obtained using S function. Also, present result confirms the validity of present approach in determining the transport properties of alloys like Ni-Cr and Co-Cr.

  14. Temperature-dependent charge injection and transport in pentacene thin-film transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dong Wook; Shin, Hyunji; Park, Ji-Ho; Park, Jaehoon; Choi, Jong Sun

    2015-11-01

    The electrical characteristics of p-channel pentacene thin-film transistors (TFTs) were analyzed at different operating temperatures ranging from 253 to 353 K. An improvement in the drain current and field-effect mobility of the pentacene TFTs is observed with increasing temperature. From the Arrhenius plots of field-effect mobility extracted at various temperatures, a lower activation energy of 99.34 meV was obtained when the device is operating in the saturation region. Such observation is ascribed to the thermally activated hole transport through the pentacene grain boundaries. On the other hand, it was found that the Au/pentacene contact significantly affects the TFTs electrical characteristics in the linear region, which resulted in a higher activation energy. The activation energy based on the linear field-effect mobility, which increased from 344.61 to 444.70 meV with decreasing temperature, implies the charge-injection-limited electrical behavior of pentacene TFTs at low temperatures. The thermally induced electrical characteristic variations in pentacene TFTs can thus be studied through the temperature dependence of the charge injection and transport processes.

  15. Temperature Dependent Low Frequency Optical and DC Transport Near a Metal Insulator Transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohlman, R. S.; Epstein, A. J.; Tanner, D. B.; Ihas, G. G.; Ishiguro, T.; Kaneko, H.; Min, Y. G.; MacDiarmid, A. G.

    1996-03-01

    We report measurements of the temperature dependent far infrared (10-100 cm-1) reflectance and milliKelvin transport of highly conducting polyaniline doped with d,1-camphorsulfonic acid (PAN-CSA) and polypyrrole doped with hexafluorophosphate (PPy-PF_6). With decreasing T (to ~ 200 K), the reflectance initially increases for ω > 20 cm-1 and decreases at lower frequencies. As T is further decreased, there is a continuous reduction in the reflection. There is no indication of a gap opening at low temperatures in contrast to earlier reports for PPy-PF_6.^1 These results will be discussed along with mK magnetotransport measurements for ``metallic'' PAN-CSA samples that have a negative magnetoresistance similar to metallic PPy-PF6 ^2 and other nonmetallic samples, indicating the importance of weak localization channels for transport in highly conducting polymers. ^*Supported in part by NIST ATP 1993-01-0149 and NSF DMR-9403894. ^1K. Lee, et al., Synth. Met. 68, 287 (1995). ^2J. C. Clark, et al., Synth. Met. 69, 215 (1995).

  16. Functional characterisation of human SGLT-5 as a novel kidney-specific sodium-dependent sugar transporter.

    PubMed

    Grempler, Rolf; Augustin, Robert; Froehner, Stefanie; Hildebrandt, Tobias; Simon, Eric; Mark, Michael; Eickelmann, Peter

    2012-02-03

    Sodium glucose cotransporters (SGLT) actively catalyse carbohydrate transport across cellular membranes. Six of the 12 known SGLT family members have the capacity to bind and/or transport monosaccharides (SGLT-1 to 6); of these, all but SGLT-5 have been characterised. Here we demonstrate that human SGLT-5 is exclusively expressed in the kidney. Four splice variants were detected and the most abundant SGLT-5-mRNA was functionally characterised. SGLT-5 mediates sodium-dependent [(14)C]-α-methyl-D-glucose (AMG) transport that can be inhibited by mannose, fructose, glucose, and galactose. Uptake studies using demonstrated high capacity transport for mannose and fructose and, to a lesser extent, glucose, AMG, and galactose. SGLT-5 mediated mannose, fructose and AMG transport was weakly (μM potency) inhibited by SGLT-2 inhibitors. In summary, we have characterised SGLT-5 as a kidney mannose transporter. Further studies are warranted to explore the physiological role of SGLT-5.

  17. Understanding pseudorapidity dependence of elliptic flow in heavy-ion collisions using a transport model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasim, Md.; Esha, Roli; Huang, Huan Zhong

    2016-04-01

    A systematic study of the pseudorapidity dependence of elliptic flow parameter using transport models (e.g., a multiphase transport model, AMPT, and ultrarelativistic quantum molecular dynamics, UrQMD) has been presented. We have observed that while at mid-pseudorapidity the elliptic flow measured using the event-plane method differs significantly from that measured by actual reaction plane method, both the event-plane and reaction-plane methods give the same elliptic flow for far forward and backward pseudorapidity. This indicates that the magnitude of measured v2 around midrapidity strongly depends on the analysis method. Therefore, one should use the same procedure (as used in data analysis) in model calculations while comparing model results and experimental data. We find the shape of v2(η ) measured by the PHOBOS experiment is not reproduced by using actual v2 (i.e., measured with respect to the reaction plane) from AMPT and UrQMD models. The shape and magnitude of measured v2(η ) can be explained by the AMPT model with string-melting mode only if one uses the same procedure as used in data analysis. Magnitude of elliptic flow can be reproduced for all pseudorapidity range by taking the parton-parton interaction cross section to be 3 mb at √{sN N}=62.4 and 200 GeV. This implies that the partonic interactions are necessary to reproduce data at √{sN N}=62.4 and 200 GeV and the strength of partonic interactions at far forward and backward rapidity is as strong as at midrapidity. Both UrQMD and AMPT with default mode fail to explain the data.

  18. Association between low-activity serotonin transporter genotype and heroin dependence: behavioral and personality correlates.

    PubMed

    Gerra, G; Garofano, L; Santoro, G; Bosari, S; Pellegrini, C; Zaimovic, A; Moi, G; Bussandri, M; Moi, A; Brambilla, F; Donnini, C

    2004-04-01

    In previous studies, serotonin (5-HT) system disturbance was found involved in a variety of behavioral disorders, psychopathologies, and substance use disorders. A functional polymorphism in the promoter region of the human serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) was recently identified and the presence of the short (S) allele found to be associated with a lower level of expression of the gene, lower levels of 5-HT uptake, type 2 alcoholism, violence and suicidal behavior. In the present study, 101 heroin addicts (males, West European, Caucasians) and 101 healthy control subjects matched for race and gender, with no history of substance use disorder, have been genotyped. Aggressiveness levels were measured in both heroin addicts and controls utilizing Buss-Durkee-Hostility-Inventory (BDHI). Data about suicide attempt and violent criminal behavior in subject history have been collected. The short-short (SS) genotype frequency was significantly higher among heroin dependent individuals compared with control subjects (P = 0.025). The odds ratio for the SS genotype versus the long-long (LL) genotype frequency was 0.69, 95% Cl (0.49-0.97), when heroin addicts were compared with healthy controls. The SS genotype frequency was significantly higher among violent heroin dependent individuals compared with addicted individuals without aggressive behavior (P = 0.02). BDHI mean total scores and suspiciousness and negativism subscales scores were significantly higher in SS individuals, in comparison with LL subjects, among heroin addicts. No association was found between SS genotype and suicide history. Our data suggest that a decreased expression of the gene encoding the 5-HTT transporter, due to "S" promoter polymorphism, may be associated with an increased risk for substance use disorders, particularly in the subjects with more consistent aggressiveness and impulsiveness.

  19. Temperature-Dependent Transport of Composite Fermions at Exactly ν = 1/2 Landau Level Filling^**

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Woowon

    1996-03-01

    We have studied the temperature dependent resistivity at exactly half Landau-level filling of a high-quality two-dimensional electron system in high magnetic field^1. The low-temperature transport at ν = 1/2 Landau-level filling is well parameterized by temperature dependent impurity and phonon scattering of a Fermi liquid of composite fermions with a mass m^*. The gauge field mediated composite fermion-phonon scattering contributes a T-3-dependence to the total mobility. The effective mass of composite fermions is obtained from the temperature dependence of composite fermion-impurity scattering and is somewhat larger than the the masses derived by Shubnikov-de Haas measurements away from half-filling^2,3. The resistivity at high temperatures can be well described by a softening of the composite fermion Fermi-edge. We also observe an anomalous increase in the effective mass under increased illumination at ν = 1/2. This can be understood as either resulting from a change in the effective interaction length between electrons or from decreased fluctuations which reduces the smearing of the divergence of the mass at exactly ν = 1/2. It is remarkable that the scattering behavior around ν = 1/2 can be described in such a simple single-particle picture. ^**Work done in collaboration with S. He, H.L. Stormer, L.N. Pfeiffer, K.W. West, and K.W. Baldwin, AT&T Bell Laboratories. ^1 W. Kang, S. He, H.L. Stormer, K.W. Baldwin, L.N. Pfeiffer, and K.W. West, Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 4106 (1995). ^2H.C. Manoharan, M. Shayegan, and S.J. Klepper, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3270 (1994). ^3 R.R. Du, H.L. Stormer, D.C. Tsui, A.S. Yeh, L.N. Pfeiffer, and K.W. West, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3274 (1994).

  20. Equations of the surface harmonics method for solving time-dependent neutron transport problems and their verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyarinov, V. F.; Kondrushin, A. E.; Fomichenko, P. A.

    2013-12-01

    Time-dependent equations of the surface harmonics method (SHM) are obtained for planar one-dimensional geometry. The equations are verified by calculations of test problems from Benchmark Problem Book ANL-7416, and the capabilities and efficiency of applying the SHM for solving the time-dependent neutron transport equation in the diffusion approximation are demonstrated. The results of the work show that the implementation of the SHG for full-scale computations will make possible substantial progress in the efficient solution of time-dependent problems of neutron transport in nuclear reactors.

  1. Azimuthally Varying Noise Reduction Techniques Applied to Supersonic Jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heeb, Nicholas S.

    were 3-7dB depending on operating condition and observation angle. The fluidic enhancement of the low penetration chevrons indicated significant improvement in the overexpanded regime, with detrimental effect at higher conditions. Improvements were generally due to shock noise and turbulent mixing noise reductions caused by decreased shock strength and LSS growth inhibition. Investigation of azimuthal configurations indicated further improvements were achieved by the clustered configuration due to additional BSAN reductions caused by drastic modification of the shock cell structure due to elliptification of the jet cross section.

  2. Ultra-small-angle neutron scattering with azimuthal asymmetry.

    PubMed

    Gu, X; Mildner, D F R

    2016-06-01

    Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) measurements from thin sections of rock samples such as shales demand as great a scattering vector range as possible because the pores cover a wide range of sizes. The limitation of the scattering vector range for pinhole SANS requires slit-smeared ultra-SANS (USANS) measurements that need to be converted to pinhole geometry. The desmearing algorithm is only successful for azimuthally symmetric data. Scattering from samples cut parallel to the plane of bedding is symmetric, exhibiting circular contours on a two-dimensional detector. Samples cut perpendicular to the bedding show elliptically dependent contours with the long axis corresponding to the normal to the bedding plane. A method is given for converting such asymmetric data collected on a double-crystal diffractometer for concatenation with the usual pinhole-geometry SANS data. The aspect ratio from the SANS data is used to modify the slit-smeared USANS data to produce quasi-symmetric contours. Rotation of the sample about the incident beam may result in symmetric data but cannot extract the same information as obtained from pinhole geometry.

  3. Ultra-small-angle neutron scattering with azimuthal asymmetry

    SciTech Connect

    Gu, X.; Mildner, D. F. R.

    2016-05-16

    Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) measurements from thin sections of rock samples such as shales demand as great a scattering vector range as possible because the pores cover a wide range of sizes. The limitation of the scattering vector range for pinhole SANS requires slit-smeared ultra-SANS (USANS) measurements that need to be converted to pinhole geometry. The desmearing algorithm is only successful for azimuthally symmetric data. Scattering from samples cut parallel to the plane of bedding is symmetric, exhibiting circular contours on a two-dimensional detector. Samples cut perpendicular to the bedding show elliptically dependent contours with the long axis corresponding to the normal to the bedding plane. A method is given for converting such asymmetric data collected on a double-crystal diffractometer for concatenation with the usual pinhole-geometry SANS data. Furthermore, the aspect ratio from the SANS data is used to modify the slit-smeared USANS data to produce quasi-symmetric contours. Rotation of the sample about the incident beam may result in symmetric data but cannot extract the same information as obtained from pinhole geometry.

  4. Ultra-small-angle neutron scattering with azimuthal asymmetry

    DOE PAGES

    Gu, X.; Mildner, D. F. R.

    2016-05-16

    Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) measurements from thin sections of rock samples such as shales demand as great a scattering vector range as possible because the pores cover a wide range of sizes. The limitation of the scattering vector range for pinhole SANS requires slit-smeared ultra-SANS (USANS) measurements that need to be converted to pinhole geometry. The desmearing algorithm is only successful for azimuthally symmetric data. Scattering from samples cut parallel to the plane of bedding is symmetric, exhibiting circular contours on a two-dimensional detector. Samples cut perpendicular to the bedding show elliptically dependent contours with the long axis corresponding tomore » the normal to the bedding plane. A method is given for converting such asymmetric data collected on a double-crystal diffractometer for concatenation with the usual pinhole-geometry SANS data. Furthermore, the aspect ratio from the SANS data is used to modify the slit-smeared USANS data to produce quasi-symmetric contours. Rotation of the sample about the incident beam may result in symmetric data but cannot extract the same information as obtained from pinhole geometry.« less

  5. Ultra-small-angle neutron scattering with azimuthal asymmetry

    PubMed Central

    Gu, X.; Mildner, D. F. R.

    2016-01-01

    Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) measurements from thin sections of rock samples such as shales demand as great a scattering vector range as possible because the pores cover a wide range of sizes. The limitation of the scattering vector range for pinhole SANS requires slit-smeared ultra-SANS (USANS) measurements that need to be converted to pinhole geometry. The desmearing algorithm is only successful for azimuthally symmetric data. Scattering from samples cut parallel to the plane of bedding is symmetric, exhibiting circular contours on a two-dimensional detector. Samples cut perpendicular to the bedding show elliptically dependent contours with the long axis corresponding to the normal to the bedding plane. A method is given for converting such asymmetric data collected on a double-crystal diffractometer for concatenation with the usual pinhole-geometry SANS data. The aspect ratio from the SANS data is used to modify the slit-smeared USANS data to produce quasi-symmetric contours. Rotation of the sample about the incident beam may result in symmetric data but cannot extract the same information as obtained from pinhole geometry. PMID:27275140

  6. Twist-3 Single-Spin Asymmetry for SIDIS and its Azimuthal Structure

    SciTech Connect

    Koike, Yuji; Tanaka, Kazuhiro

    2009-08-04

    We derive the complete twist-3 single-spin-dependent cross section for semi-inclusive DIS, ep{sup {up_arrow}}{yields}e{pi}X, associated with the complete set of the twist-3 quark-gluon correlation functions in the transversely polarized nucleon, extending our previous study. The cross section consists of five independent structure functions with different azimuthal dependences, consistently with the transverse-momentum-dependent (TMD) factorization approach in the low q{sup T} region. Correspondence with the inclusive DIS limit and comparison with the TMD approach are briefly discussed.

  7. Age-Dependent Changes of Monocarboxylate Transporter 8 Availability in the Postnatal Murine Retina.

    PubMed

    Henning, Yoshiyuki; Szafranski, Karol

    2016-01-01

    The thyroid hormones (TH) triiodothyronine (T3) and its prohormone thyroxine (T4) are crucial for retinal development and function, and increasing evidence points at TH dysregulation as a cause for retinal degenerative diseases. Thus, precise regulation of retinal TH supply is required for proper retinal function, but knowledge on these mechanisms is still fragmentary. Several transmembrane transporters have been described as key regulators of TH availability in target tissues of which the monocarboxylate transporter 8 (MCT8), a high affinity transporter for T4 and T3, plays an essential role in the central nervous system. Moreover, in the embryonic chicken retina, MCT8 is highly expressed, but the postnatal availability of MCT8 in the mammalian retina was not reported to date. In the present study, spatiotemporal retinal MCT8 availability was examined in mice of different age. For this purpose, we quantified expression levels of Mct8 via Real-Time Reverse-Transcriptase PCR in mouse eyecups (C57BL/6) of juvenile and adult age groups. Additionally, age-dependent MCT8 protein levels were quantified via Western blotting and localized via immunofluorescence confocal microscopy. While no difference in Mct8 expression levels could be detected between age groups, MCT8 protein levels in juvenile animals were about two times higher than in adult animals based on Western blot analyses. Immunohistochemical analyses showed that MCT8 immunoreactivity in the eyecup was restricted to the retina and the retinal pigment epithelium. In juvenile mice, MCT8 was broadly observed along the apical membrane of the retinal pigment epithelium, tightly surrounding photoreceptor outer segments. Distinct immunopositive staining was also detected in the inner nuclear layer and the ganglion cell layer. However, in adult specimens, immunoreactivity visibly declined in all layers, which was in line with Western blot analyses. Since MCT8 was abundantly present in juvenile and about twofold lower in

  8. Age-Dependent Changes of Monocarboxylate Transporter 8 Availability in the Postnatal Murine Retina

    PubMed Central

    Henning, Yoshiyuki; Szafranski, Karol

    2016-01-01

    The thyroid hormones (TH) triiodothyronine (T3) and its prohormone thyroxine (T4) are crucial for retinal development and function, and increasing evidence points at TH dysregulation as a cause for retinal degenerative diseases. Thus, precise regulation of retinal TH supply is required for proper retinal function, but knowledge on these mechanisms is still fragmentary. Several transmembrane transporters have been described as key regulators of TH availability in target tissues of which the monocarboxylate transporter 8 (MCT8), a high affinity transporter for T4 and T3, plays an essential role in the central nervous system. Moreover, in the embryonic chicken retina, MCT8 is highly expressed, but the postnatal availability of MCT8 in the mammalian retina was not reported to date. In the present study, spatiotemporal retinal MCT8 availability was examined in mice of different age. For this purpose, we quantified expression levels of Mct8 via Real-Time Reverse-Transcriptase PCR in mouse eyecups (C57BL/6) of juvenile and adult age groups. Additionally, age-dependent MCT8 protein levels were quantified via Western blotting and localized via immunofluorescence confocal microscopy. While no difference in Mct8 expression levels could be detected between age groups, MCT8 protein levels in juvenile animals were about two times higher than in adult animals based on Western blot analyses. Immunohistochemical analyses showed that MCT8 immunoreactivity in the eyecup was restricted to the retina and the retinal pigment epithelium. In juvenile mice, MCT8 was broadly observed along the apical membrane of the retinal pigment epithelium, tightly surrounding photoreceptor outer segments. Distinct immunopositive staining was also detected in the inner nuclear layer and the ganglion cell layer. However, in adult specimens, immunoreactivity visibly declined in all layers, which was in line with Western blot analyses. Since MCT8 was abundantly present in juvenile and about twofold lower in

  9. Optical properties of the cirrus cloud ice crystals with preferred azimuthal orientation for polarization lidars with azimuthal scanning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konoshonkin, Alexander V.; Kustova, Natalia V.; Nasonov, Sergey V.; Bryukhanov, Ilia D.; Shishko, Viktor A.; Timofeev, Dmitriy N.; Borovoi, Anatoly G.

    2016-10-01

    Optical properties of the cirrus cloud ice crystals with preferred azimuthal orientation are required for current numerical models of the Earth's radiation balance. Retrieving the orientation distributions function of the crystals from a vertically pointing polarization lidar measuring the full Mueller matrix is a very complicated problem because of lake of information. Lidars with zenith scanning can be used only to retrieve the properties of horizontally oriented particles. The paper shows that if the particles have preferred azimuthal orientation, the polarization lidars with azimuthal scanning should be used. It is also shown that all the elements of the Mueller matrix give no extra information compare to the depolarization ratio. Optical properties of preferred azimuthal oriented hexagonal ice columns with size from 10 to 1000 μm for wavelengths of 0.355, 0.532 and 1.064 μm were collected as a data bank.

  10. Misorientation-angle-dependent electrical transport across molybdenum disulfide grain boundaries

    PubMed Central

    Ly, Thuc Hue; Perello, David J.; Zhao, Jiong; Deng, Qingming; Kim, Hyun; Han, Gang Hee; Chae, Sang Hoon; Jeong, Hye Yun; Lee, Young Hee

    2016-01-01

    Grain boundaries in monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides have unique atomic defect structures and band dispersion relations that depend on the inter-domain misorientation angle. Here, we explore misorientation angle-dependent electrical transport at grain boundaries in monolayer MoS2 by correlating the atomic defect structures of measured devices analysed with transmission electron microscopy and first-principles calculations. Transmission electron microscopy indicates that grain boundaries are primarily composed of 5–7 dislocation cores with periodicity and additional complex defects formed at high angles, obeying the classical low-angle theory for angles <22°. The inter-domain mobility is minimized for angles <9° and increases nonlinearly by two orders of magnitude before saturating at ∼16 cm2 V−1 s−1 around misorientation angle≈20°. This trend is explained via grain-boundary electrostatic barriers estimated from density functional calculations and experimental tunnelling barrier heights, which are ≈0.5 eV at low angles and ≈0.15 eV at high angles (≥20°). PMID:26813605

  11. Misorientation-angle-dependent electrical transport across molybdenum disulfide grain boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ly, Thuc Hue; Perello, David J.; Zhao, Jiong; Deng, Qingming; Kim, Hyun; Han, Gang Hee; Chae, Sang Hoon; Jeong, Hye Yun; Lee, Young Hee

    2016-01-01

    Grain boundaries in monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides have unique atomic defect structures and band dispersion relations that depend on the inter-domain misorientation angle. Here, we explore misorientation angle-dependent electrical transport at grain boundaries in monolayer MoS2 by correlating the atomic defect structures of measured devices analysed with transmission electron microscopy and first-principles calculations. Transmission electron microscopy indicates that grain boundaries are primarily composed of 5-7 dislocation cores with periodicity and additional complex defects formed at high angles, obeying the classical low-angle theory for angles <22°. The inter-domain mobility is minimized for angles <9° and increases nonlinearly by two orders of magnitude before saturating at ~16 cm2 V-1 s-1 around misorientation angle~20°. This trend is explained via grain-boundary electrostatic barriers estimated from density functional calculations and experimental tunnelling barrier heights, which are ~0.5 eV at low angles and ~0.15 eV at high angles (>=20°).

  12. Magnetic Resonance Microscopy of Scale Dependent Transport Phenomena and Bioactivity in Porous Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seymour, J. D.; Codd, S. L.; Romanenko, K. V.; Hornemann, J. A.; Brosten, T. R.

    2008-05-01

    Magnetic resonance microscopy (MRM) provides the ability to obtain data on the pore scale via imaging and the sample scale by bulk measurement, allowing for connection between microscale dynamics and macroscale transport phenomena. This has led to MRM techniques becoming a preeminent method for characterization of dynamics in porous media. A significant question in modeling transport in porous media is definition of the porous media structure as homogeneous (ordered) or heterogeneous (disordered)[1]. One means of defining the 'complexity' of a porous media is based on the dynamics of the system[2]. The ability of MRM to measure the time dependent statistics of the dynamics [3,4,5] provides quantification of the pre-asymptotic dynamics. The transition from preasymptotic to Gaussian transport consistent with models of homogeneous porous media is clearly visualized. Biological activity in porous media, such as microbial growth, typically manifests itself as biofilms or colonies of microbes that adhere to surfaces and are surrounded by a hydrogel of extracellular polymeric substance (EPS). The biofilm growth introduces complexity into the system structure in generation of physical pore blocking, trapping within the EPS gel, elastic interfaces due to the EPS and generation of channels in which faster flow occur. The hierarchy of length and time scales and multiple physical processes which are introduced by the biofilm growth impacts the porous media transport as reflected in the change in dynamics [6]. The transition can be modeled using statistical mechanical approaches based on continuous time random walk (CTRW) processes that generate fractional differential equations[7]. The bioactivity alters the structure of the porous media from homogeneous to heterogeneous resulting in the transition from a Gaussian to a non Gaussian subdiffusive dispersion process. References 1. M. Quintard and S. Whitaker, Transport in ordered and disordered porous media: Volume averaged

  13. Depth-variant azimuthal anisotropy in Tibet revealed by surface wave tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, Shantanu; Yuan, Xiaohui; Debayle, Eric; Tilmann, Frederik; Priestley, Keith; Li, Xueqing

    2015-06-01

    Azimuthal anisotropy derived from multimode Rayleigh wave tomography in China exhibits depth-dependent variations in Tibet, which can be explained as induced by the Cenozoic India-Eurasian collision. In west Tibet, the E-W fast polarization direction at depths <100 km is consistent with the accumulated shear strain in the Tibetan lithosphere, whereas the N-S fast direction at greater depths is aligned with Indian Plate motion. In northeast Tibet, depth-consistent NW-SE directions imply coupled deformation throughout the whole lithosphere, possibly also involving the underlying asthenosphere. Significant anisotropy at depths of 225 km in southeast Tibet reflects sublithospheric deformation induced by northward and eastward lithospheric subduction beneath the Himalaya and Burma, respectively. The multilayer anisotropic surface wave model can explain some features of SKS splitting measurements in Tibet, with differences probably attributable to the limited back azimuthal coverage of most SKS studies in Tibet and the limited horizontal resolution of the surface wave results.

  14. Measurement of azimuthal hadron asymmetries in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering off unpolarised nucleons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adolph, C.; Akhunzyanov, R.; Alexeev, M. G.; Alexandrov, Yu.; Alexeev, G. D.; Amoroso, A.; Andrieux, V.; Anosov, V.; Austregesilo, A.; Badełek, B.; Balestra, F.; Barth, J.; Baum, G.; Beck, R.; Bedfer, Y.; Berlin, A.; Bernhard, J.; Bertini, R.; Bicker, K.; Bieling, J.; Birsa, R.; Bisplinghoff, J.; Bodlak, M.; Boer, M.; Bordalo, P.; Bradamante, F.; Braun, C.; Bravar, A.; Bressan, A.; Büchele, M.; Burtin, E.; Capozza, L.; Chiosso, M.; Chung, S. U.; Cicuttin, A.; Crespo, M. L.; Curiel, Q.; Dalla Torre, S.; Dasgupta, S. S.; Dasgupta, S.; Denisov, O. Yu.; Donskov, S. V.; Doshita, N.; Duic, V.; Dünnweber, W.; Dziewiecki, M.; Efremov, A.; Elia, C.; Eversheim, P. D.; Eyrich, W.; Faessler, M.; Ferrero, A.; Filin, A.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; Fischer, H.; Franco, C.; du Fresne von Hohenesche, N.; Friedrich, J. M.; Frolov, V.; Garfagnini, R.; Gautheron, F.; Gavrichtchouk, O. P.; Gerassimov, S.; Geyer, R.; Giorgi, M.; Gnesi, I.; Gobbo, B.; Goertz, S.; Gorzellik, M.; Grabmüller, S.; Grasso, A.; Grube, B.; Guskov, A.; Guthörl, T.; Haas, F.; von Harrach, D.; Hahne, D.; Hashimoto, R.; Heinsius, F. H.; Herrmann, F.; Hinterberger, F.; Höppner, Ch.; Horikawa, N.; d'Hose, N.; Huber, S.; Ishimoto, S.; Ivanov, A.; Ivanshin, Yu.; Iwata, T.; Jahn, R.; Jary, V.; Jasinski, P.; Joerg, P.; Joosten, R.; Kabuß, E.; Kang, D.; Ketzer, B.; Khaustov, G. V.; Khokhlov, Yu. A.; Kisselev, Yu.; Klein, F.; Klimaszewski, K.; Koivuniemi, J. H.; Kolosov, V. N.; Kondo, K.; Königsmann, K.; Konorov, I.; Konstantinov, V. F.; Kotzinian, A. M.; Kouznetsov, O.; Kral, Z.; Krämer, M.; Kroumchtein, Z. V.; Kuchinski, N.; Kunne, F.; Kurek, K.; Kurjata, R. P.; Lednev, A. A.; Lehmann, A.; Levorato, S.; Lichtenstadt, J.; Maggiora, A.; Magnon, A.; Makke, N.; Mallot, G. K.; Marchand, C.; Martin, A.; Marzec, J.; Matousek, J.; Matsuda, H.; Matsuda, T.; Meshcheryakov, G.; Meyer, W.; Michigami, T.; Mikhailov, Yu. V.; Miyachi, Y.; Nagaytsev, A.; Nagel, T.; Nerling, F.; Neubert, S.; Neyret, D.; Nikolaenko, V. I.; Novy, J.; Nowak, W.-D.; Nunes, A. S.; Orlov, I.; Olshevsky, A. G.; Ostrick, M.; Panknin, R.; Panzieri, D.; Parsamyan, B.; Paul, S.; Pesek, M.; Peshekhonov, D.; Piragino, G.; Platchkov, S.; Pochodzalla, J.; Polak, J.; Polyakov, V. A.; Pretz, J.; Quaresma, M.; Quintans, C.; Ramos, S.; Reicherz, G.; Rocco, E.; Rodionov, V.; Rondio, E.; Rychter, A.; Rossiyskaya, N. S.; Ryabchikov, D. I.; Samoylenko, V. D.; Sandacz, A.; Sarkar, S.; Savin, I. A.; Sbrizzai, G.; Schiavon, P.; Schill, C.; Schlüter, T.; Schmidt, A.; Schmidt, K.; Schmieden, H.; Schönning, K.; Schopferer, S.; Schott, M.; Shevchenko, O. Yu.; Silva, L.; Sinha, L.; Sirtl, S.; Slunecka, M.; Sosio, S.; Sozzi, F.; Srnka, A.; Steiger, L.; Stolarski, M.; Sulc, M.; Sulej, R.; Suzuki, H.; Szableski, A.; Szameitat, T.; Sznajder, P.; Takekawa, S.; ter Wolbeek, J.; Tessaro, S.; Tessarotto, F.; Thibaud, F.; Uhl, S.; Uman, I.; Vandenbroucke, M.; Virius, M.; Vondra, J.; Wang, L.; Weisrock, T.; Wilfert, M.; Windmolders, R.; Wiślicki, W.; Wollny, H.; Zaremba, K.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zemlyanichkina, E.; Ziembicki, M.

    2014-09-01

    Spin-averaged asymmetries in the azimuthal distributions of positive and negative hadrons produced in deep inelastic scattering were measured using the CERN SPS longitudinally polarised muon beam at 160 GeV/c and a 6LiD target. The amplitudes of the three azimuthal modulations cos⁡ϕh, cos⁡2ϕh and sin⁡ϕh were obtained binning the data separately in each of the relevant kinematic variables x, z or pTh and binning in a three-dimensional grid of these three variables. The amplitudes of the cos⁡ϕh and cos⁡2ϕh modulations show strong kinematic dependencies both for positive and negative hadrons.

  15. Morphology effects on spin-dependent transport and recombination in polyfluorene thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Richards; van Schooten, K. J.; Malissa, H.; Joshi, G.; Jamali, S.; Lupton, J. M.; Boehme, C.

    2016-12-01

    intermediate charge-carrier pair states is dominant, while at low temperatures, additional signatures of spin-dependent charge transport through the interaction of polarons with triplet excitons are seen in the half-field resonance of a triplet spin-1 species. This additional contribution arises since triplet lifetimes are increased at lower temperatures. We tentatively conclude that spectral broadening induced by hyperfine coupling is slightly weaker in the more ordered β-phase than in the glassy phase since protons are more evenly spaced, whereas broadening effects due to spin-orbit coupling, which impacts the distribution of g -factors, appear to be somewhat more significant in the β-phase.

  16. History-dependent ion transport through conical nanopipettes and the implications in energy conversion dynamics at nanoscale interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Yan; Wang, Dengchao; Kvetny, Maksim M.; Brown, Warren; Liu, Juan; Wang, Gangli

    2014-08-20

    The dynamics of ion transport at nanostructured substrate–solution interfaces play vital roles in high-density energy conversion, stochastic chemical sensing and biosensing, membrane separation, nanofluidics and fundamental nanoelectrochemistry. Advancements in these applications require a fundamental understanding of ion transport at nanoscale interfaces. The understanding of the dynamic or transient transport, and the key physical process involved, is limited, which contrasts sharply with widely studied steady-state ion transport features at atomic and nanometer scale interfaces. Here we report striking time-dependent ion transport characteristics at nanoscale interfaces in current–potential (I–V) measurements and theoretical analyses. First, a unique non-zero I–V cross-point and pinched I–V curves are established as signatures to characterize the dynamics of ion transport through individual conical nanopipettes. Moreoever, ion transport against a concentration gradient is regulated by applied and surface electrical fields. The concept of ion pumping or separation is demonstrated via the selective ion transport against concentration gradients through individual nanopipettes. Third, this dynamic ion transport process under a predefined salinity gradient is discussed in the context of nanoscale energy conversion in supercapacitor type charging–discharging, as well as chemical and electrical energy conversion. Our analysis of the emerging current–potential features establishes the urgently needed physical foundation for energy conversion employing ordered nanostructures. The elucidated mechanism and established methodology can be generalized into broadly-defined nanoporous materials and devices for improved energy, separation and sensing applications.

  17. History-dependent ion transport through conical nanopipettes and the implications in energy conversion dynamics at nanoscale interfaces

    DOE PAGES

    Li, Yan; Wang, Dengchao; Kvetny, Maksim M.; ...

    2014-08-20

    The dynamics of ion transport at nanostructured substrate–solution interfaces play vital roles in high-density energy conversion, stochastic chemical sensing and biosensing, membrane separation, nanofluidics and fundamental nanoelectrochemistry. Advancements in these applications require a fundamental understanding of ion transport at nanoscale interfaces. The understanding of the dynamic or transient transport, and the key physical process involved, is limited, which contrasts sharply with widely studied steady-state ion transport features at atomic and nanometer scale interfaces. Here we report striking time-dependent ion transport characteristics at nanoscale interfaces in current–potential (I–V) measurements and theoretical analyses. First, a unique non-zero I–V cross-point and pinched I–Vmore » curves are established as signatures to characterize the dynamics of ion transport through individual conical nanopipettes. Moreoever, ion transport against a concentration gradient is regulated by applied and surface electrical fields. The concept of ion pumping or separation is demonstrated via the selective ion transport against concentration gradients through individual nanopipettes. Third, this dynamic ion transport process under a predefined salinity gradient is discussed in the context of nanoscale energy conversion in supercapacitor type charging–discharging, as well as chemical and electrical energy conversion. Our analysis of the emerging current–potential features establishes the urgently needed physical foundation for energy conversion employing ordered nanostructures. The elucidated mechanism and established methodology can be generalized into broadly-defined nanoporous materials and devices for improved energy, separation and sensing applications.« less

  18. Fluid transport by the cornea endothelium is dependent on buffering lactic acid efflux.

    PubMed

    Li, Shimin; Kim, Edward; Bonanno, Joseph A

    2016-07-01

    Maintenance of corneal hydration is dependent on the active transport properties of the corneal endothelium. We tested the hypothesis that lactic acid efflux, facilitated by buffering, is a component of the endothelial fluid pump. Rabbit corneas were perfused with bicarbonate-rich (BR) or bicarbonate-free (BF) Ringer of varying buffering power, while corneal thickness was measured. Perfusate was collected and analyzed for lactate efflux. In BF with no added HEPES, the maximal corneal swelling rate was 30.0 ± 4.1 μm/h compared with 5.2 ± 0.9 μm/h in BR. Corneal swelling decreased directly with [HEPES], such that with 60 mM HEPES corneas swelled at 7.5 ± 1.6 μm/h. Perfusate [lactate] increased directly with [HEPES]. Similarly, reducing the [HCO3 (-)] increased corneal swelling and decreased lactate efflux. Corneal swelling was inversely related to Ringer buffering power (β), whereas lactate efflux was directly related to β. Ouabain (100 μM) produced maximal swelling and reduction in lactate efflux, whereas carbonic anhydrase inhibition and an monocarboxylic acid transporter 1 inhibitor produced intermediate swelling and decreases in lactate efflux. Conversely, 10 μM adenosine reduced the swelling rate to 4.2 ± 0.8 μm/h and increased lactate efflux by 25%. We found a strong inverse relation between corneal swelling and lactate efflux (r = 0.98, P < 0.0001). Introducing lactate in the Ringer transiently increased corneal thickness, reaching a steady state (0 ± 0.6 μm/h) within 90 min. We conclude that corneal endothelial function does not have an absolute requirement for bicarbonate; rather it requires a perfusing solution with high buffering power. This facilitates lactic acid efflux, which is directly linked to water efflux, indicating that lactate flux is a component of the corneal endothelial pump.

  19. PKC-dependent stimulation of EAAT3 glutamate transporter does not require the integrity of actin cytoskeleton.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Massimiliano G; Rotoli, Bianca Maria; Dall'Asta, Valeria; Gazzola, Gian C; Gatti, Rita; Bussolati, Ovidio

    2006-04-01

    The activity and the membrane expression of EAAT3 glutamate transporter are stimulated upon PKC activation by phorbol esters in C6 rat glioma cells. To investigate the role of cytoskeleton in these effects, we have employed actin-perturbing toxins and found that the perturbation of actin cytoskeleton inhibits basal but not phorbol-stimulated EAAT3 activity and membrane trafficking. In the absence of phorbols, latrunculin A, a toxin that disassembles actin cytoskeleton, produced a rapid inhibition of EAAT3 activity, due to a decrease in transport V(max). The inhibitory effect was fully reversible and was not detected for other sodium dependent transport systems for amino acids. However, latrunculin did not prevent the increase in transport caused by phorbol esters and, moreover, cells pre-treated with phorbols were resistant to the inhibitory effect of the toxin on EAAT3 activity. Biotinylation experiments indicated that the inhibitory effect of latrunculin was attributable to a decreased expression of the carrier on the membrane, while the toxin did not suppress the PKC-dependent increase in EAAT3 membrane abundance. Latrunculin A effects on EAAT3 were shared by cytochalasin D, a toxin that disorganizes actin filaments with a distinct mechanism of action. On the contrary, a small, but significant, increase of EAAT3 activity was observed upon incubation with jasplakinolide, a drug that stabilizes actin microfilaments. Also jasplakinolide, however, did not hinder phorbol-dependent stimulation of aspartate transport. Colchicine, a toxin that disrupts microtubules, also lowered EAAT3 activity without preventing transport stimulation by phorbols, while microtubule stabilization by paclitaxel led to an increase in aspartate transport. It is concluded that, in C6 cells, the PKC-mediated stimulatory effects on EAAT3 are cytoskeleton-independent, while in the absence of phorbols, the transporter is partially inhibited by the disorganization of either actin microfilaments or

  20. Carbohydrate kinase (RhaK)-dependent ABC transport of rhamnose in Rhizobium leguminosarum demonstrates genetic separation of kinase and transport activities.

    PubMed

    Rivers, Damien; Oresnik, Ivan J

    2013-08-01

    In Rhizobium leguminosarum the ABC transporter responsible for rhamnose transport is dependent on RhaK, a sugar kinase that is necessary for the catabolism of rhamnose. This has led to a working hypothesis that RhaK has two biochemical functions: phosphorylation of its substrate and affecting the activity of the rhamnose ABC transporter. To address this hypothesis, a linker-scanning random mutagenesis of rhaK was carried out. Thirty-nine linker-scanning mutations were generated and mapped. Alleles were then systematically tested for their ability to physiologically complement kinase and transport activity in a strain carrying an rhaK mutation. The rhaK alleles generated could be divided into three classes: mutations that did not affect either kinase or transport activity, mutations that eliminated both transport and kinase activity, and mutations that affected transport activity but not kinase activity. Two genes of the last class (rhaK72 and rhaK73) were found to have similar biochemical phenotypes but manifested different physiological phenotypes. Whereas rhaK72 conferred a slow-growth phenotype when used to complement rhaK mutants, the rhaK73 allele did not complement the inability to use rhamnose as a sole carbon source. To provide insight to how these insertional variants might be affecting rhamnose transport and catabolism, structural models of RhaK were generated based on the crystal structure of related sugar kinases. Structural modeling suggests that both rhaK72 and rhaK73 affect surface-exposed residues in two distinct regions that are found on one face of the protein, suggesting that this protein's face may play a role in protein-protein interaction that affects rhamnose transport.

  1. Azimuthal anisotropy analysis using P-wave multiazimuth seismic data in Rock Springs Uplift, Wyoming, US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skelly, Klint T.

    Coal is an important source of energy, but combustion of coal releases a significant amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) into the atmosphere. Consequently, developing efficient carbon capture and sequestration strategies to mitigate global warming is of great practical significance. Characterization of reservoirs proposed for carbon capture and sequestration is important for efficient injection of CO2 and monitoring reservoir performance over time. The efficiency and long term effectiveness of CO2 storage is largely governed by the presence and orientation of fractures within a reservoir and its associated seal. The presence of natural fractures which can act as conduits for CO2 leakage gives rise to seismic anisotropy that is related to the fracture orientation and fracture density, and this relation can be studied through anisotropy analysis. Estimation of fracture orientation and fracture density is essential for long term CO 2 storage and monitoring. Well logs, cores and well tests provide information about stress fields and fractures at the well location but away from the well one has to rely on seismic data. Seismic-derived attributes like semblance and curvature provide useful tools for qualitative analysis of fractures, but they do not provide a direct measure of fracture orientation and fracture density. Moreover, such analyses depend on the quality of stacked seismic data. Multiazimuth seismic data, on the other hand, provide information about the variations in the seismic velocity in different azimuths and can thus provide a direct estimate of fracture orientation and fracture density. This research, which focus on the Rock Springs Uplift, Wyoming, USA, used single component (P-wave) multiazimuth seismic data and well data to create flattened angle gathers for different azimuths using prestack waveform inversion. Here, an advanced waveform technique, prestack waveform inversion, was used to obtain suitable velocities for proper offset-to-angle conversion as

  2. Charge and heat transport in soft nanosystems in the presence of time-dependent perturbations

    PubMed Central

    Perroni, Carmine Antonio; Ramaglia, Vincenzo Marigliano; Cataudella, Vittorio

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background: Soft nanosystems are electronic nanodevices, such as suspended carbon nanotubes or molecular junctions, whose transport properties are modulated by soft internal degrees of freedom, for example slow vibrational modes. Effects of the electron–vibration coupling on the charge and heat transport of soft nanoscopic systems are theoretically investigated in the presence of time-dependent perturbations, such as a forcing antenna or pumping terms between the leads and the nanosystem. A well-established approach valid for non-equilibrium adiabatic regimes is generalized to the case where external time-dependent perturbations are present. Then, a number of relevant applications of the method are reviewed for systems composed by a quantum dot (or molecule) described by a single electronic level coupled to a vibrational mode. Results: Before introducing time-dependent perturbations, the range of validity of the adiabatic approach is discussed showing that a very good agreement with the results of an exact quantum calculation is obtained in the limit of low level occupation. Then, we show that the interplay between the low frequency vibrational modes and the electronic degrees of freedom affects the thermoelectric properties within the linear response regime finding out that the phonon thermal conductance provides an important contribution to the figure of merit at room temperature. Our work has been stimulated by recent experimental results on carbon nanotube electromechanical devices working in the semiclassical regime (resonator frequencies in the megahertz range compared to an electronic hopping frequency of the order of tens of gigahertz) with extremely high quality factors. The nonlinear vibrational regime induced by the external antenna in such systems has been discussed within the non-perturbative adiabatic approach reproducing quantitatively the characteristic asymmetric shape of the current–frequency curves. Within the same set-up, we have

  3. TRANSPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Presentation outline: transport principles, effective solubility; gasoline composition; and field examples (plume diving).
    Presentation conclusions: MTBE transport follows from - phyiscal and chemical properties and hydrology. Field examples show: MTBE plumes > benzene plu...

  4. Modelling density-dependent flow and solute transport at the Lake Tutchewop saline disposal complex, Victoria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simmons, Craig T.; Narayan, Kumar A.

    1998-05-01

    Intercepted saline groundwaters and drainage effluent from irrigation are commonly stored in both natural and artificial saline disposal basins throughout the Murray-Darling Basin of Australia. Their continued use as wastewater evaporation sites requires an understanding of existing groundwater dynamics. The useful of individual basins, their sustainability and possible environmental impacts remain largely unknown. In this work, the movement of salt to the underlying groundwater system from Lake Tutchewop, a saline disposal complex in north-central Victoria, was modelled in cross-section. Due to the salinity contrast between the hypersaline basin waters and the regional groundwater, it was necessary to simulate density-dependent flow behaviour. Under certain conditions, these density-stratified systems may become unstable leading to the onset of convective behaviour, which greatly increases the movement of salt from the basin to the groundwater system. Modelled concentration profiles in the aquifer system and calculated seepage rates from the basin show that Lake Tutchewop is stable under its present operating regime. The downward movement of salt is mainly controlled by diffusion and dispersion. The calibrated model was used to assess the impact of several management scenarios using time-dependent boundary conditions for lake salinity and water levels. The influence of heterogeneous basin linings on ensuing salt flux rates is examined, and results show that increased solute transport will occur under such conditions. A sensitivity analysis performed on governing variables showed that salt fluxes were most sensitive to lake salinity levels. A solute Rayleigh number defined in terms of basin salinity and hydrogeologic parameters is seen to be an effective tool for predicting the long term behaviour of such saline disposal basins. The models and concepts developed in this work may find application in the design and management of saline disposal complexes.

  5. Swelling, NEM, and A23187 activate Cl(-)-dependent K+ transport in high-K+ sheep red cells

    SciTech Connect

    Fujise, H.; Lauf, P.K.

    1987-02-01

    In low K+ (LK) sheep red cells a significant fraction of the total ouabain-resistant (OR) K+ flux is inhibited when Cl- is replaced by other anions of the Hofmeister series except Br- (Cl(-)-dependent K+ flux). In contrast, high K+ (HK) sheep red cells in isosmotic media did not possess any significant OR Cl(-)-dependent K+ flux when Cl- was replaced by NO/sub 3/- or I-. However, exposure to hyposmotic solutions, treatment with the sulfhydryl (SH) group reagent N-ethylmaleimide (NEM) or with the bivalent metal ion (Me2+) ionophore A23187 in absence of external Me2+ caused a significant activation of Cl(-)-dependent K+ transport as measured with Rb+ as K+ congener. There was no Cl(-)-dependent Rb+ flux in A23187-treated cells when Mn2+, Mg2+, and Ca2+ were present at 1 mM concentrations, suggesting that cellular accumulation of these Me2+ is inhibitory. Similar to LK red cells, HK red cells failed to respond to A23187 when pretreated with NEM supporting the hypothesis proposed recently of a common mechanism of Cl(-)-dependent K+ transport activation. The magnitudes of the Cl(-)-dependent Rb+ fluxes in HK cells were much smaller than those elicited by identical treatments in LK red cells, and the effect of all interventions was not due to the presence of reticulocytes known to possess Cl(-)-dependent K+ transport.

  6. Three Agt1 transporters from brewer's yeasts exhibit different temperature dependencies for maltose transport over the range of brewery temperatures (0–20 °C).

    PubMed

    Vidgren, Virve; Viljanen, Kaarina; Mattinen, Laura; Rautio, Jari; Londesborough, John

    2014-06-01

    Zero-trans rates of maltose transport by brewer's yeasts exert strong control over fermentation rates and are strongly temperature-dependent over the temperature range (20–0 °C) of brewery fermentations. Three α-glucoside transporters, ScAgt1(A60) (a Saccharomyces cerevisiae version of Agt1 from an ale strain), ScAgt1-A548V (a variant of ScAgt1(A60) with a single amino acid change in a transmembrane domain), and SbAgt1 (a Saccharomyces (eu)bayanus version from a lager strain), were compared. When expressed in the same laboratory yeast, grown at 24 °C and assayed at 0, 10, and 20 °C, SbAgt1 had the lowest absolute maltose uptake activity at 20 °C but smallest temperature dependence, ScAgt1-A548V had the highest activity but greatest temperature dependence, and ScAgt1(A60) had intermediate properties. ScAgt1(A60) exhibited higher absolute rates and smaller temperature dependencies when expressed in laboratory rather than brewer's strains. Absolute rates closely reflected the amounts of GFP-tagged ScAgt1(A60) transporter in each host's plasma membrane. Growth at 15 °C instead of 24 °C decreased the absolute activities of strains expressing ScAgt1(A60) by two- to threefold. Evidently, the kinetic characteristics of at least ScAgt1(A60) depended on the nature of the host plasma membrane. However, no consistent correlation was observed between transport activities and fatty acid or ergosterol compositions.

  7. Na+ dependent glutamate transporters (EAAT1, EAAT2, and EAAT3) in primary astrocyte cultures: effect of oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Miralles, V J; Martínez-López, I; Zaragozá, R; Borrás, E; García, C; Pallardó, F V; Viña, J R

    2001-12-13

    The Na+ -dependent L-glutamate transporters EAAT1(GLAST), EAAT2 (GLT-1) and EAAT3 (EAAC1) are expressed in primary astrocyte cultures, showing that the EAAT3 transporter is not neuron-specific. The presence of these three transporters was evaluated by RT-PCR, immunoblotting, immunocytochemical techniques, and transport activity. When primary astrocyte cultures were incubated with L-buthionine-(S,R)-sulfoximine (BSO), a selective inhibitor of gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase, the GSH concentration was significantly lower than in control cultures, but the expression and amount of protein of EAAT1, EAAT2 and EAAT3 and transport of L-glutamate was unchanged. Oxidative stress was created by adding H(2)O(2) or tert.-butyl hydroperoxide (t-bOOH) to the primary astrocyte cultures and cell damage was evaluated by measuring activity of lactate dehydrogenase. Under oxidative stress, GSH levels were significantly lower than in control astrocytes; but the expression and the amount of protein of the three transporters remained unchanged. However, L-glutamate uptake was significantly lower in astrocytes under oxidative conditions when compared to controls. L-Glutamate uptake was not changed in the presence of ascorbate, but was partially recovered in the presence of DTT and GSH ethyl ester. This report emphasizes that oxidative stress and not GSH depletion alters transporter activity without changing transporter expression.

  8. Thickness dependent quantum oscillations of transport properties in topological insulator Bi2Te3 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogacheva, E. I.; Budnik, A. V.; Sipatov, A. Yu.; Nashchekina, O. N.; Dresselhaus, M. S.

    2015-02-01

    The dependences of the electrical conductivity, the Hall coefficient, and the Seebeck coefficient on the layer thickness d (d = 18-600 nm) of p-type topological insulator Bi2Te3 thin films grown by thermal evaporation in vacuum on glass substrates were obtained at room temperature. In the thickness range of d = 18-100 nm, sustained oscillations with a substantial amplitude were revealed. The observed oscillations are well approximated by a harmonic function with a period Δd = (9.5 ± 0.5) nm. At d > 100 nm, the transport coefficients practically do not change as d is increased. The oscillations of the kinetic properties are attributed to the quantum size effects due to the hole confinement in the Bi2Te3 quantum wells. The results of the theoretical calculations of Δd within the framework of a model of an infinitely deep potential well are in good agreement with the experimental results. It is suggested that the substantial amplitude of the oscillations and their sustained character as a function of d are connected with the topologically protected gapless surface states of Bi2Te3 and are inherent to topological insulators.

  9. Dissecting the Molecular Mechanism of Nucleotide-Dependent Activation of the KtrAB K+ Transporter

    PubMed Central

    Szollosi, Andras; Vieira-Pires, Ricardo S.; Teixeira-Duarte, Celso M.; Rocha, Rita; Morais-Cabral, João H.

    2016-01-01

    KtrAB belongs to the Trk/Ktr/HKT superfamily of monovalent cation (K+ and Na+) transport proteins that closely resemble K+ channels. These proteins underlie a plethora of cellular functions that are crucial for environmental adaptation in plants, fungi, archaea, and bacteria. The activation mechanism of the Trk/Ktr/HKT proteins remains unknown. It has been shown that ATP stimulates the activity of KtrAB while ADP does not. Here, we present X-ray structural information on the KtrAB complex with bound ADP. A comparison with the KtrAB-ATP structure reveals conformational changes in the ring and in the membrane protein. In combination with a biochemical and functional analysis, we uncover how ligand-dependent changes in the KtrA ring are propagated to the KtrB membrane protein and conclude that, despite their structural similarity, the activation mechanism of KtrAB is markedly different from the activation mechanism of K+ channels. PMID:26771197

  10. Morphology Dependence of the Thermal Transport Properties of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Thin Films.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Shuhei; Feng, Ya; Delacou, Clement; Inoue, Taiki; Xiang, Rong; Kometani, Reo; Chiashi, Shohei; Kauppinen, Esko; Maruyama, Shigeo

    2017-03-14

    The thermal transport properties of random-network, single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) films were assessed using Raman spectroscopy. Two types of SWNT films were investigated: single-layer and stacked. The single-layer films were fabricated by aerosol chemical vapour deposition and subsequent direct dry-deposition, while the stacked films were prepared by placing the single-layer films on top of one another. The anisotropy of the network structures of each of these films was evaluated based on the angular dependence of the optical absorbance spectra. The results show that the anisotropy of the films decreases with increasing film thickness in the case of the single-layer films, and that the film anisotropy is preserved during the stacking process. The sheet thermal conductance is proportional to the SWNT area density in the case of stacked films, but is reduced with increasing thickness in the case of single-layer films. This effect is explained by a change in the network morphology from a two-dimensional anisotropic structure to the more isotropic structure. This work demonstrated the fabrication of low-density films with high sheet thermal conductance through the stacking of thin SWNT films.

  11. A specific pharmacophore model of sodium-dependent glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Tang, Chunlei; Zhu, Xiaoyun; Huang, Dandan; Zan, Xin; Yang, Baowei; Li, Ying; Du, Xiaoyong; Qian, Hai; Huang, Wenlong

    2012-06-01

    Sodium-dependent glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) plays a pivotal role in maintaining glucose equilibrium in the human body, emerging as one of the most promising targets for the treatment of diabetes mellitus type 2. Pharmacophore models of SGLT2 inhibitors have been generated with a training set of 25 SGLT2 inhibitors using Discovery Studio V2.1. The best hypothesis (Hypo1(SGLT2)) contains one hydrogen bond donor, five excluded volumes, one ring aromatic and three hydrophobic features, and has a correlation coefficient of 0.955, cost difference of 68.76, RMSD of 0.85. This model was validated by test set, Fischer randomization test and decoy set methods. The specificity of Hypo1(SGLT2) was evaluated. The pharmacophore features of Hypo1(SGLT2) were different from the best pharmacophore model (Hypo1(SGLT1)) of SGLT1 inhibitors we developed. Moreover, Hypo1(SGLT2) could effectively distinguish selective inhibitors of SGLT2 from those of SGLT1. These results indicate that a highly predictive and specific pharmacophore model of SGLT2 inhibitors has been successfully obtained. Then Hypo1(SGLT2) was used as a 3D query to screen databases including NCI and Maybridge for identifying new inhibitors of SGLT2. The hit compounds were subsequently subjected to filtering by Lipinski's rule of five. And several compounds selected from the top ranked hits have been suggested for further experimental assay studies.

  12. Size and Charge Dependence of Ion Transport in Human Nail Plate.

    PubMed

    Baswan, Sudhir M; Li, S Kevin; LaCount, Terri D; Kasting, Gerald B

    2016-03-01

    The electrical properties of human nail plate are poorly characterized yet are a key determinate of the potential to treat nail diseases, such as onychomycosis, using iontophoresis. To address this deficiency, molar conductivities of 17 electrolytes comprising 12 ionic species were determined in hydrated human nail plate in vitro. Cation transport numbers across the nail for 11 of these electrolytes were determined by the electromotive force method. Effective ionic mobilities and diffusivities at infinite dilution for all ionic species were determined by regression analysis. The ratios of diffusivities in nail to those in solution were found to correlate inversely with the hydrodynamic radii of the ions according to a power law relationship having an exponent of -1.75 ± 0.27, a substantially steeper size dependence than observed for similar experiments in skin. Effective diffusivities of cations in nail were 3-fold higher than those of comparably sized anions. These results reflect the strong size and charge selectivity of the nail plate for ionic conduction and diffusion. The analysis implies that efficient transungual iontophoretic delivery of ionized drugs having radii upward of 5 Å (molecular weight, ca. ≥ 340 Da) will require chemical or mechanical alteration of the nail plate.

  13. Calpain-dependent disruption of nucleo-cytoplasmic transport in ALS motor neurons

    PubMed Central

    Yamashita, Takenari; Aizawa, Hitoshi; Teramoto, Sayaka; Akamatsu, Megumi; Kwak, Shin

    2017-01-01

    Nuclear dysfunction in motor neurons has been hypothesized to be a principal cause of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) pathogenesis. Here, we investigated the mechanism by which the nuclear pore complex (NPC) is disrupted in dying motor neurons in a mechanistic ALS mouse model (adenosine deaminase acting on RNA 2 (ADAR2) conditional knockout (AR2) mice) and in ALS patients. We showed that nucleoporins (Nups) that constituted the NPC were cleaved by activated calpain via a Ca2+-permeable AMPA receptor-mediated mechanism in dying motor neurons lacking ADAR2 expression in AR2 mice. In these neurons, nucleo-cytoplasmic transport was disrupted, and the level of the transcript elongation enzyme RNA polymerase II phosphorylated at Ser2 was significantly decreased. Analogous changes were observed in motor neurons lacking ADAR2 immunoreactivity in sporadic ALS patients. Therefore, calpain-dependent NPC disruption may participate in ALS pathogenesis, and inhibiting Ca2+-mediated cell death signals may be a therapeutic strategy for ALS. PMID:28045133

  14. Role of band-index-dependent transport relaxation times in anomalous Hall effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Cong; Li, Dingping; Ma, Zhongshui

    2017-01-01

    We revisit model calculations of the anomalous Hall effect (AHE) and show that, in isotropic Rashba-coupled two-dimensional electron gas with pointlike potential impurities, the full solution of the semiclassical Boltzmann equation (SBE) may differ from the widely used 1 /τ|| and 1 /τ⊥ solution [Schliemann and Loss, Phys. Rev. B 68, 165311 (2003), 10.1103/PhysRevB.68.165311]. Our approach to solving the SBE is consistent with the integral equation approach [Vyborny et al., Phys. Rev. B 79, 045427 (2009), 10.1103/PhysRevB.79.045427] but in the present case, we reduce the description to band-index-dependent transport relaxation times. When both Rashba bands are partially occupied, these are determined by solving a system of linear equations. Detailed calculations show that, for intrinsic and hybrid skew scatterings the difference between 1 /τ|| and 1 /τ⊥ and the full solution of SBE is notable for large Fermi energies. For coordinate-shift effects, the side-jump velocity acquired in the interband elastic-scattering process is shown to be more important for larger Rashba coupling and may even exceed the intraband one for the outer Rashba band. The coordinate-shift contribution to AHE in the considered case notably differs from that in the limit of smooth disorder potential analyzed before.

  15. Size and Charge Dependence of Ion Transport in Human Nail Plate

    PubMed Central

    Baswan, Sudhir M.; Li, S. Kevin; LaCount, Terri D.; Kasting, Gerald B.

    2016-01-01

    The electrical properties of human nail plate are poorly characterized, yet are a key determinate of the potential to treat nail diseases such as onychomycosis using iontophoresis. In order to address this deficiency, molar conductivities of 17 electrolytes comprising 12 ionic species were determined in hydrated human nail plate in vitro. Cation transport numbers across the nail for 11 of these electrolytes were determined by the electromotive force method. Effective ionic mobilities and diffusivities at infinite dilution for all ionic species were determined by regression analysis. The ratios of diffusivities in nail to those in solution were found to correlate inversely with the hydrodynamic radii of the ions according to a power law relationship having an exponent of −1.75 ± 0.27, a substantially steeper size dependence than observed for similar experiments in skin. Effective diffusivities of cations in nail were three-fold higher than those of comparably sized anions. These results reflect the strong size and charge selectivity of the nail plate for ionic conduction and diffusion. The analysis implies that efficient transungual iontophoretic delivery of ionized drugs having radii upwards of 5 Å (approximately MW ≥ 340 Da) will require chemical or mechanical alteration of the nail plate. PMID:26886342

  16. Nanostructures study of CNT nanofluids transport with temperature-dependent variable viscosity in a muscular tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akbar, Noreen Sher; Abid, Syed Ali; Tripathi, Dharmendra; Mir, Nazir Ahmed

    2017-03-01

    The transport of single-wall carbon nanotube (CNT) nanofluids with temperature-dependent variable viscosity is analyzed by peristaltically driven flow. The main flow problem has been modeled using cylindrical coordinates and flow equations are simplified to ordinary differential equations using long wavelength and low Reynolds' number approximation. Analytical solutions have been obtained for axial velocity, pressure gradient and temperature. Results acquired are discussed graphically for better understanding. It is observed that with an increment in the Grashof number the velocity of the governing fluids starts to decrease significantly and the pressure gradient is higher for pure water as compared to single-walled carbon nanotubes due to low density. As the specific heat is very high for pure water as compared to the multi-wall carbon nanotubes, it raises temperature of the muscles, in the case of pure water, as compared to the multi-walled carbon nanotubes. Furthermore, it is noticed that the trapped bolus starts decreasing in size as the buoyancy forces are dominant as compared to viscous forces. This model may be applicable in biomedical engineering and nanotechnology to design the biomedical devices.

  17. Dissecting the Molecular Mechanism of Nucleotide-Dependent Activation of the KtrAB K+ Transporter.

    PubMed

    Szollosi, Andras; Vieira-Pires, Ricardo S; Teixeira-Duarte, Celso M; Rocha, Rita; Morais-Cabral, João H

    2016-01-01

    KtrAB belongs to the Trk/Ktr/HKT superfamily of monovalent cation (K+ and Na+) transport proteins that closely resemble K+ channels. These proteins underlie a plethora of cellular functions that are crucial for environmental adaptation in plants, fungi, archaea, and bacteria. The activation mechanism of the Trk/Ktr/HKT proteins remains unknown. It has been shown that ATP stimulates the activity of KtrAB while ADP does not. Here, we present X-ray structural information on the KtrAB complex with bound ADP. A comparison with the KtrAB-ATP structure reveals conformational changes in the ring and in the membrane protein. In combination with a biochemical and functional analysis, we uncover how ligand-dependent changes in the KtrA ring are propagated to the KtrB membrane protein and conclude that, despite their structural similarity, the activation mechanism of KtrAB is markedly different from the activation mechanism of K+ channels.

  18. State Representation Approach for Atomistic Time-Dependent Transport Calculations in Molecular Junctions.

    PubMed

    Zelovich, Tamar; Kronik, Leeor; Hod, Oded

    2014-08-12

    We propose a new method for simulating electron dynamics in open quantum systems out of equilibrium, using a finite atomistic model. The proposed method is motivated by the intuitive and practical nature of the driven Liouville-von-Neumann equation approach of Sánchez et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 2006, 124, 214708] and Subotnik et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 2009, 130, 144105]. A key ingredient of our approach is a transformation of the Hamiltonian matrix from an atomistic to a state representation of the molecular junction. This allows us to uniquely define the bias voltage across the system while maintaining a proper thermal electronic distribution within the finite lead models. Furthermore, it allows us to investigate complex molecular junctions, including multilead configurations. A heuristic derivation of our working equation leads to explicit expressions for the damping and driving terms, which serve as appropriate electron sources and sinks that effectively "open" the finite model system. Although the method does not forbid it, in practice we find neither violation of Pauli's exclusion principles nor deviation from density matrix positivity throughout our numerical simulations of various tight-binding model systems. We believe that the new approach offers a practical and physically sound route for performing atomistic time-dependent transport calculations in realistic molecular junction models.

  19. Synaptic uptake and beyond: the sodium- and chloride-dependent neurotransmitter transporter family SLC6.

    PubMed

    Chen, Nian-Hang; Reith, Maarten E A; Quick, Michael W

    2004-02-01

    The SLC6 family is a diverse set of transporters that mediate solute translocation across cell plasma membranes by coupling solute transport to the cotransport of sodium and chloride down their electrochemical gradients. These transporters probably have 12 transmembrane domains, with cytoplasmic N- and C-terminal tails, and at least some may function as homo-oligomers. Family members include the transporters for the inhibitory neurotransmitters GABA and glycine, the aminergic transmitters norepinephrine, serotonin, and dopamine, the osmolytes betaine and taurine, the amino acid proline, and the metabolic compound creatine. In addition, this family includes a system B(0+) cationic and neutral amino acid transporter, and two transporters for which the solutes are unknown. In general, SLC6 transporters act to regulate the level of extracellular solute concentrations. In the central and the peripheral nervous system, these transporters can regulate signaling among neurons, are the sites of action of various drugs of abuse, and naturally occurring mutations in several of these proteins are associated with a variety of neurological disorders. For example, transgenic animals lacking specific aminergic transporters show profoundly disturbed behavioral phenotypes and probably represent excellent systems for investigating psychiatric disease. SLC6 transporters are also found in many non-neural tissues, including kidney, intestine, and testis, consistent with their diverse physiological roles. Transporters in this family represent attractive therapeutic targets because they are subject to multiple forms of regulation by many different signaling cascades, and because a number of pharmacological agents have been identified that act specifically on these proteins.

  20. Oxysterol generation and liver X receptor-dependent reverse cholesterol transport: not all roads lead to Rome.

    PubMed

    Pannu, Parveer S; Allahverdian, Sima; Francis, Gordon A

    2013-04-10

    Cell cholesterol metabolism is a tightly regulated process, dependent in part on activation of nuclear liver X receptors (LXRs) to increase expression of genes mediating removal of excess cholesterol from cells in the reverse cholesterol transport pathway. LXRs are thought to be activated predominantly by oxysterols generated enzymatically from cholesterol in different cell organelles. Defects resulting in slowed release of cholesterol from late endosomes and lysosomes or reduction in sterol-27-hydroxylase activity lead to specific blocks in oxysterol production and impaired LXR-dependent gene activation. This block does not appear to be compensated by oxysterol production in other cell compartments. The purpose of this review is to summarize current knowledge about oxysterol-dependent activation by LXR of genes involved in reverse cholesterol transport, and what these defects of cell cholesterol homeostasis can teach us about the critical pathways of oxysterol generation for expression of LXR-dependent genes.

  1. A new approach to time-dependent transport through an interacting quantum dot within the Keldysh formalism.

    PubMed

    Vovchenko, V; Anchishkin, D; Azema, J; Lombardo, P; Hayn, R; Daré, A-M

    2014-01-08

    The time-dependent transport through a nanoscale device consisting of a single spin-degenerate orbital with on-site Coulomb interaction, coupled to two leads, is investigated. Various gate and bias voltage time dependences are considered. The key and new point lies in the proposed way to avoid the difficulties of the usual heavy computation when dealing with two-time Green's functions within the Keldysh formalism. The time-dependent retarded dot Green's functions are evaluated, in an efficient manner within a non-canonical Hubbard I approximation. Calculations of the time-dependent current are then presented in the wide-band limit for different parameter sets. A comparison between the method and the Hartree-Fock approximation is performed as well. It is shown that the latter cannot account reliably for dynamical aspects of transport phenomena.

  2. Transparent boundary conditions for time-dependent electron transport in the R-matrix method with applications to nanostructured interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemnes, G. A.; Palici, Alexandra; Manolescu, A.

    2016-11-01

    Transparent boundary conditions for the time-dependent Schrödinger equation are implemented using the R-matrix method. The employed scattering formalism is suitable for describing open quantum systems and provides the framework for the time-dependent coherent transport. Transmission and reflection of wave functions at the edges of a finite quantum system are essential for an accurate and efficient description of the time-dependent processes on large time scales. We detail the computational method and point out the numerical advantages stemming from the open system approach based on the R-matrix formalism. The approach is used here to describe time-dependent transport across nanostructured interfaces relevant for photovoltaic applications.

  3. Mapping Phase Velocities and Azimuthal Anisotropy of Rayleigh Waves in Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, A.; Detrick, R. S.

    2002-05-01

    Using Rayleigh wave data recorded at both the HOTSPOT and the ICEMELT experiments in Iceland, we have applied the two-plane wave inversion technique and obtained phase velocities and azimuthal anisotropy from period 20 s to 100 s. The most striking feature is that the slow anomalies are generally confined beneath the Icelandic rift zones but not correlate with the plume center on the surface. Azimuthal anisotropy appears to be frequency dependent and also shows strong lateral variations especially between the western Iceland, the rift zones, and the eastern Iceland, as suggested by shear-wave splitting measurements. It is well known that tradeoffs exist between isotropic and anisotropic heterogeneity. We conducted resolution tests to estimate how robust the observed features of phase velocities and anisotropy are. Synthetic phase and amplitude data of Rayleigh waves were calculated from a typical phase velocity model that has low velocities beneath the Icelandic rift zones. Azimuthal anisotropy that uniformly distributes in the area or varies laterally by tectonic province was also included in the input models. The pattern of isotropic phase velocities with fast anomalies in the western and eastern Iceland and the slow in the rift zones is well recovered in both isotropic and anisotropic inversions. The azimuthal anisotropy larger than 1% in the input models can be largely retrieved. However, the amount of anisotropy when varying by tectonic province is not negligible in anisotropic solutions even for isotropic input models. Therefore, we suggest inverting synthetic data from the observed isotropic phase velocity models in order to detect whether the observed anisotropy reflects the real structure or the tradeoff with isotropic heterogeneity.

  4. Azimuthal Directivity of Fan Tones Containing Multiple Modes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heidelberg, Laurence J.; Sutliff, Daniel L.; Nallasamy, M.

    1997-01-01

    The directivity of fan tone noise is generally measured and plotted in the sideline or flyover plane and it is assumed that this curve is the same for all azimuthal angles. When two or more circumferential (m-order) modes of the same tone are present in the fan duct, an interference pattern develops in the azimuthal direction both in the duct and in the farfield. In this investigation two m-order modes of similar power were generated in a large low speed fan. Farfield measurements and a finite element propagation code both show substantial variations in the azimuthal direction. Induct mode measurement were made and used as input to the code. Although these tests may represent a worst case scenario, the validity of the current practice of assuming axisymmetry should be questioned.

  5. Evolution and persistence of cross-directional statistical dependence during finite-Péclet transport through a real porous medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Most, Sebastian; Bijeljic, Branko; Nowak, Wolfgang

    2016-11-01

    Transport of passive, dissolved compounds in fully-saturated complex porous media frequently exhibits non-Fickian characteristics. One of the most interesting questions is to ascertain the time scales at which it is possible to describe transport as a statistically independent process. Therefore, we study the mechanisms for evolution and then the decrease of non-Fickianity as a function of increasing time. Adopting the Lagrangian perspective, we provide a nonlinear copula analysis of advective-diffusive processes by analyzing particle trajectories in a real porous media, as provided by direct numerical simulations on the three-dimensional image of Doddington sandstone. First, we analyze the memory effects between time-consecutive particle position increments and cross dependence between longitudinal and transversal particle position increments as a function of given time increments and time lags between consecutive time increments. Second, we investigate the influence of the Péclet regime on the temporal evolution of dependence. Our main findings are: (a) Cross dependence between longitudinal and transversal particle position increments is persistent over the investigated range of time increments, even though this aspect has been neglected up to date. (b) Lower Péclet numbers lead to a weaker dependence that is, however, more persistent over time than in higher-Péclet transport regimes. We confirm that non-Fickianity comes from spatial coherence associated with heterogeneities of the velocity field that introduce cross dependence and memory into the transport process. Overall, we show that memory and cross dependence are persistent in and among all directions, that the dependence is highly-nonlinear, occurs at different temporal scales, and is dependent on the Péclet number.

  6. Two-jet astrosphere model: effect of azimuthal magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golikov, E. A.; Izmodenov, V. V.; Alexashov, D. B.; Belov, N. A.

    2017-01-01

    Opher et al., Drake, Swisdak and Opher have shown that the heliospheric magnetic field results in formation of two-jet structure of the solar wind flow in the inner heliosheath, i.e. in the subsonic region between the heliospheric termination shock (TS) and the heliopause. In this scenario, the heliopause has a tube-like topology as compared with a sheet-like topology in the most models of the global heliosphere. In this paper, we explore the two-jet scenario for a simplified astrosphere in which (1) the star is at rest with respect to the circumstellar medium, (2) radial magnetic field is neglected as compared with azimuthal component and (3) the stellar wind outflow is assumed to be hypersonic (both the Mach number and the Alfvénic Mach number are much greater than unity at the inflow boundary). We have shown that the problem can be formulated in dimensionless form, in which the solution depends only on one dimensionless parameter ε that is reciprocal of the Alfvénic Mach number at the inflow boundary. This parameter is proportional to stellar magnetic field. We present the numerical solution of the problem for various values of ε. Three first integrals of the governing ideal magnetohydrodynamic equations are presented, and we make use of them in order to get the plasma distribution in the jets. Simple relations between distances to the TS, astropause and the size of the jet are established. These relations allow us to determine the stellar magnetic field from the geometrical pattern of the jet-like astrosphere.

  7. Na+-dependent transporters mediate HCO3– salvage across the luminal membrane of the main pancreatic duct

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Min Goo; Ahn, Wooin; Choi, Joo Young; Luo, Xiang; Seo, Jeong Taeg; Schultheis, Patrick J.; Shull, Gary E.; Kim, Kyung Hwan; Muallem, Shmuel

    2000-01-01

    To study the roles of Na+-dependent H+ transporters, we characterized H+ efflux mechanisms in the pancreatic duct in wild-type, NHE2–/–, and NHE3–/– mice. The pancreatic duct expresses NHE1 in the basolateral membrane, and NHE2 and NHE3 in the luminal membrane, but does not contain NHE4 or NHE5. Basolateral Na+-dependent H+ efflux in the microperfused duct was inhibited by 1.5 μM of the amiloride analogue HOE 694, consistent with expression of NHE1, whereas the luminal activity required 50 μM HOE 694 for effective inhibition, suggesting that the efflux might be mediated by NHE2. However, disruption of NHE2 had no effect on luminal transport, while disruption of the NHE3 gene reduced luminal Na+-dependent H+ efflux by ∼45%. Notably, the remaining luminal Na+-dependent H+ efflux in ducts from NHE3–/– mice was inhibited by 50 μM HOE 694. Hence, ∼55% of luminal H+ efflux (or HCO3– influx) in the pancreatic duct is mediated by a novel, HOE 694–sensitive, Na+-dependent mechanism. H+ transport by NHE3 and the novel transporter is inhibited by cAMP, albeit to different extents. We propose that multiple Na+-dependent mechanisms in the luminal membrane of the pancreatic duct absorb Na+ and HCO3– to produce a pancreatic juice that is poor in HCO3– and rich in Cl– during basal secretion. Inhibition of the transporters during stimulated secretion aids in producing the HCO3–-rich pancreatic juice. PMID:10841524

  8. Energy-dependent uptake of benzo[a]pyrene and its cytoskeleton-dependent intracellular transport by the telluric fungus Fusarium solani.

    PubMed

    Fayeulle, Antoine; Veignie, Etienne; Slomianny, Christian; Dewailly, Etienne; Munch, Jean-Charles; Rafin, Catherine

    2014-03-01

    In screening indigenous soil filamentous fungi for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) degradation, an isolate of the Fusarium solani was found to incorporate benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) into fungal hyphae before degradation and mineralization. The mechanisms involved in BaP uptake and intracellular transport remain unresolved. To address this, the incorporation of two PAHs, BaP, and phenanthrene (PHE) were studied in this fungus. The fungus incorporated more BaP into cells than PHE, despite the 400-fold higher aqueous solubility of PHE compared with BaP, indicating that PAH incorporation is not based on a simple diffusion mechanism. To identify the mechanism of BaP incorporation and transport, microscopic studies were undertaken with the fluorescence probes Congo Red, BODIPY®493/503, and FM®4-64, targeting different cell compartments respectively fungal cell walls, lipids, and endocytosis. The metabolic inhibitor sodium azide at 100 mM totally blocked BaP incorporation into fungal cells indicating an energy-requirement for PAH uptake into the mycelium. Cytochalasins also inhibited BaP uptake by the fungus and probably its intracellular transport into fungal hyphae. The perfect co-localization of BaP and BODIPY reveals that lipid bodies constitute the intracellular storage sites of BaP in F. solani. Our results demonstrate an energy-dependent uptake of BaP and its cytoskeleton-dependent intracellular transport by F. solani.

  9. A stromal pool of TatA promotes Tat-dependent protein transport across the thylakoid membrane.

    PubMed

    Frielingsdorf, Stefan; Jakob, Mario; Klösgen, Ralf Bernd

    2008-12-05

    In chloroplasts and bacteria, the Tat (twin-arginine translocation) system is engaged in transporting folded passenger proteins across the thylakoid and cytoplasmic membranes, respectively. To date, three membrane proteins (TatA, TatB, and TatC) have been identified to be essential for Tat-dependent protein translocation in the plant system, whereas soluble factors seem not to be required. In contrast, in the bacterial system, several cytosolic chaperones were described to be involved in Tat transport processes. Therefore, we have examined whether stromal or peripherally associated membrane proteins also play a role in Tat transport across the thylakoid membrane. Analyzing both authentic precursors as well as the chimeric 16/23 protein, which allows us to study each step of the translocation process individually, we demonstrate that a soluble form of TatA is present in the chloroplast stroma, which significantly improves the efficiency of Tat-dependent protein transport. Furthermore, this soluble TatA is able to reconstitute the Tat transport properties of thylakoid membranes that are transport-incompetent due to extraction with solutions of chaotropic salts.

  10. A Barley Efflux Transporter Operates in a Na+-Dependent Manner, as Revealed by a Multidisciplinary Platform[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Nagarajan, Yagnesh; Rongala, Jay; Luang, Sukanya; Shadiac, Nadim; Sutton, Tim; Tyerman, Stephen D.; McPhee, Gordon; Voelcker, Nicolas H.; Lee, Jung-Goo

    2016-01-01

    Plant growth and survival depend upon the activity of membrane transporters that control the movement and distribution of solutes into, around, and out of plants. Although many plant transporters are known, their intrinsic properties make them difficult to study. In barley (Hordeum vulgare), the root anion-permeable transporter Bot1 plays a key role in tolerance to high soil boron, facilitating the efflux of borate from cells. However, its three-dimensional structure is unavailable and the molecular basis of its permeation function is unknown. Using an integrative platform of computational, biophysical, and biochemical tools as well as molecular biology, electrophysiology, and bioinformatics, we provide insight into the origin of transport function of Bot1. An atomistic model, supported by atomic force microscopy measurements, reveals that the protein folds into 13 transmembrane-spanning and five cytoplasmic α-helices. We predict a trimeric assembly of Bot1 and the presence of a Na+ ion binding site, located in the proximity of a pore that conducts anions. Patch-clamp electrophysiology of Bot1 detects Na+-dependent polyvalent anion transport in a Nernstian manner with channel-like characteristics. Using alanine scanning, molecular dynamics simulations, and transport measurements, we show that conductance by Bot1 is abolished by removal of the Na+ ion binding site. Our data enhance the understanding of the permeation functions of Bot1. PMID:26672067

  11. Development of a label-free assay for sodium-dependent phosphate transporter NaPi-IIb.

    PubMed

    Wong, Soo-Hang; Gao, Alice; Ward, Sabrina; Henley, Charles; Lee, Paul H

    2012-07-01

    The most widely used assay format for characterizing plasma membrane transporter activity measures accumulation of radiolabeled substrates in tissues or cells expressing the transporters. This assay format had limitations and disadvantages; therefore, there was an unmet need for development of a homogeneous, nonradioactive assay for membrane transporter proteins. In this report, the authors describe the development of a label-free homogeneous assay for the sodium-dependent phosphate transporter NaPi-IIb using the Epic system. The addition of phosphate stimulated a dynamic mass redistribution (DMR) profile unique to cells expressing NaPi-IIb but not on parental cells. This DMR profile was phosphate specific because sulfate or buffer alone did not elicit the same response. Furthermore, the DMR response observed was phosphate and sodium dependent, with Km values in the micromolar and millimolar range, respectively. A known NaPi-IIb noncompetitive inhibitor was shown to completely inhibit the phosphate-stimulated DMR response, suggesting that this observed DMR response is an NaPi-IIb-mediated cellular event. The results demonstrate that a novel label-free assay was developed for studying transporter-mediated cellular activity, and this DMR assay platform could be applicable to other membrane transporter proteins.

  12. Antibacterial drug treatment increases intestinal bile acid absorption via elevated levels of ileal apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter but not organic solute transporter α protein.

    PubMed

    Miyata, Masaaki; Hayashi, Kenjiro; Yamakawa, Hiroki; Yamazoe, Yasushi; Yoshinari, Kouichi

    2015-01-01

    Antibacterial drug treatment increases the bile acid pool size and hepatic bile acid concentration through the elevation of hepatic bile acid synthesis. However, the involvement of intestinal bile acid absorption in the increased bile acid pool size remains unclear. To determine whether intestinal bile acid absorption contributes to the increased bile acid pool in mice treated with antibacterial drugs, we evaluated the levels of bile acid transporter proteins and the capacity of intestinal bile acid absorption. Ileal apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter (ASBT) mRNA and protein levels were significantly increased in ampicillin (ABPC)-treated mice, whereas organic solute transporter α (OSTα) mRNA levels, but not protein levels, significantly decreased in mice. Similar alterations in the expression levels of bile acid transporters were observed in mice treated with bacitracin/neomycin/streptomycin. The capacity for intestinal bile acid absorption was evaluated by an in situ loop method. Increased ileal absorption of taurochenodeoxycholic acid was observed in mice treated with ABPC. These results suggest that intestinal bile acid absorption is elevated in an ASBT-dependent manner in mice treated with antibacterial drugs.

  13. Ca(2+)-dependent heat production by rat skeletal muscle in hypertonic media depends on Na(+)-Cl- co-transport stimulation.

    PubMed Central

    Chinet, A

    1993-01-01

    1. The rate of energy dissipation (E) in isolated, superfused soleus muscles from young rats was continuously measured under normosmotic and 100-mosM hyperosmotic conditions. The substantial increase of E with respect to basal level in hyperosmolarity (excess E), which is entirely dependent on the presence of extracellular sodium, was largely prevented or inhibited by bumetanide, a potent inhibitor of Na(+)-Cl- co-transport system, or by the removal of chloride from the superfusate (isethionate substitution). Bumetanide or the removal of chloride also acutely decreased basal E, by about 7%. 2. Bumetanide almost entirely suppressed the major, Ca(2+)-dependent part of excess E in hyperosmolarity, as well as the concomitant increase of 45Ca2+ efflux and small increase in resting muscle tension; in contrast, the part of excess E associated with stimulation of Na(+)-H+ exchange in hyperosmolarity was left unmodified. 3. Reduction of 22Na+ influx by bumetanide was more marked in hyperosmolarity than under control conditions, although stimulation of total 22Na+ influx by a 100-mosM stress was not statistically significant. Inhibition of Ca2+ release into the sarcoplasm using dantrolene sodium did not prevent the stimulation of bumetanide-sensitive 22Na+ influx, but rather increased it about fourfold. 4. It is concluded that the largest part of excess E in hyperosmolarity, which is Ca(2+)-dependent energy expenditure, is suppressed when steady-state stimulation of a Na(+)-Cl- co-transport system is inhibited either directly by bumetanide or the removal of extracellular chloride, or indirectly by the blocking of active Na(+)-K+ transport. How the stimulation of Na(+)-Cl- co-transport, by as little as 1 nmol s-1 (g wet muscle weight)-1 during a 100-mosM stress, enhances Ca(2+)-dependent heat by as much as 2.5 mW (g wet muscle weight)-1 remains to be clarified. PMID:8394429

  14. SAZEL: A Computer Program to Find Sun Azimuth and Elevation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-04-01

    fiSyfiORS OAO i’ECHNICAi; w LIBRARY AD AD-E400 414 TECHNICAL REPORT ARLCD-TR-79010 SAZEL A COMPUTER PROGRAM TO FIND SUN AZIMUTH AND ELEVATION...CATALOG NUMBER 4. TITLE (and Subtitle) SAZEL: A COMPUTER PROGRAM TO FIND SUN AZIMUTH AND ELEVATION 5. TYPE OF REPORT 4 PERIOD COVERED 6...and elevation of the sun are routinely determined by a navigator in the air and on the sea to find his vehicle’s di- rection and line of position

  15. Backscatter by azimuthally oriented ice crystals of cirrus clouds.

    PubMed

    Konoshonkin, Alexander; Wang, Zhenzhu; Borovoi, Anatoli; Kustova, Natalia; Liu, Dong; Xie, Chenbo

    2016-09-05

    The backscattering Mueller matrix has been calculated for the first time for the hexagonal ice columns and plates with both zenith and azimuth preferential orientations. The possibility of a vertically pointing polarization lidar measuring the full Mueller matrix for retrieving the orientation distributions of the crystals is considered. It is shown that the element m44 or, equivalently, the circular depolarization ratio distinguishes between the low and high zenith tilts of the crystals. Then, at their low or high zenith tilts, either the element m22 or m34, respectively, should be measured to retrieve the azimuth tilts.

  16. Naturally occurring and forced azimuthal modes in a turbulent jet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raman, Ganesh; Rice, Edward J.; Reshotko, Eli

    1991-01-01

    Naturally occurring instability modes in an axisymmetric jet are studied utilizing the modal frequency spectrum method. In the early evolution of the jet the axisymmetric mode was predominant, with the azimuthal modes growing quickly but dominating only after the end of the potential core. The growth of the azimuthal modes is seen nearer to the nozzle exit for the jet in the laminar boundary layer case than for the turbulent. Based on the results from these naturally occurring jet instability mode tests, target modes for efficient excitation were determined and two cases of excitation were examined.

  17. An endosomal beta COP is involved in the pH-dependent formation of transport vesicles destined for late endosomes

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    In this paper, we show that beta COP is present on endosomes and is required for the formation of vesicles which mediate transport from early to late endosomes. Both the association of beta COP to endosomal membranes as well as transport vesicle formation depend on the lumenal pH. We find that epsilon COP, but not gamma COP, is also associated to endosomes, and that this association is also lumenal pH dependent. Our data, thus, indicate that a subset of COPs is part of the mechanism regulating endosomal membrane transport, and that membrane association of these COPs is controlled by the acidic properties of early endosomes, presumably via a trans-membrane pH sensor. PMID:8601610

  18. Order- N electron transport calculations from ballistic to diffusive regimes by a time-dependent wave-packet diffusion method: Application to transport properties of carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishii, Hiroyuki; Kobayashi, Nobuhiko; Hirose, Kenji

    2010-08-01

    We present an order- N [O(N)] calculation method for the quantum electron transport of huge systems up to 80 million atoms. Based on the linear-response Kubo-Greenwood formula, we calculate the conductance through time-dependent diffusion coefficients using the time-dependent wave-packet diffusion approach, which treats the electron wave-packet motion with an O(N) and very high-speed calculation. Combining with molecular-dynamics simulations, we can study the temperature dependence of electron transport properties of materials from atomistic viewpoints from ballistic to diffusive regimes. We apply the present calculation method to transport of the carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with various lengths at various temperatures. In metallic CNTs, the mean-free paths are in good agreements with recent experiments, which reach about 500 nm at room temperature and increase up to several micrometers at low temperature. We find that the resistance increases almost linearly with temperature and takes larger values than expected in the quasiballistic regime. In semiconducting CNTs, the mobilities are affected strongly by the contacts with metallic electrodes through Schottky barriers. The mobilities are maximally 30000cm2/Vs and cut-off frequencies of 300 GHz at room temperature. These calculated results provide useful information to the design of CNT field-effect-transistor devices.

  19. Long-range azimuthal correlations in proton–proton and proton–nucleus collisions from the incoherent scattering of partons

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Guo -Liang; Bzdak, Adam

    2014-11-04

    In this study, we show that the incoherent elastic scattering of partons, as present in a multi-phase transport model (AMPT), with a modest parton–parton cross-section of σ = 1.5 – 3 mb, naturally explains the long-range two-particle azimuthal correlation as observed in proton–proton and proton–nucleus collisions at the Large Hadron Collider.

  20. Thickness dependence of transport properties of doped polycrystalline tin oxide films

    SciTech Connect

    Belanger, D.; Dickson, J.I.; Dodelet, J.P.; Lombos, B.A.

    1985-06-01

    Tin oxide films were deposited by chemical vapor deposition on borosilicate and fused silica substrates using dibutyltin diacetate (DBTD) as tin feedstock and SbC/sub 5/ or CC/sub 3/-CF/sub 3/ as dopants. The film growth rate was measured as a function of dopant/DBTD ratio, temperature, and film thickness. Scanning electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction spectra of the films were used to determine the grain sizes and the preferential orientations of the crystallites in the film as a function of film thickness. Optical and electrical properties were measured. A model is proposed to elucidate the variation of transport properties of doped SnO/sub 2/ as a function of film thickness. It could b shown with this model that the thickness dependence of the conductivity of doped SnO/sub 2/:Sb and SnO/sub 2/:F films could be analyzed in terms of carrier concentration taking into consideration deep-level compensation. The number of carriers is decreased by electron trapping at Sb(III) or Sn(II) surface states when antimony or fluorine are used as dopant, respectively. The model based on results of the literature related to a single crystal with (110) orientation is extended in this work to other crystallite orientations. The present analysis indicates that deep levels appear only on the grain boundary surfaces with (110), (211), and (301) orientations, and not on the (200) and (400) ones. The concentration of free carriers can be calculated on the basis of x-ray diffraction spectra indicating an estimate of the relative fraction of the crystallites with each orientation as a function of the film thickness. The conductivities of the films can be computed using this model and taking a single value for the electron mobility of 19 cm/sup 2/ (V-s)/sup -1/ for all film thickness and a total donor concentration of 2 x 10/sup 20/ cm/sup -3/. All the obtained experimental data can be accounted for exclusively on the basis of film-thickness dependent carrier concentration.

  1. ArgR-dependent repression of arginine and histidine transport genes in Escherichia coli K-12.

    PubMed

    Caldara, Marina; Minh, Phu Nguyen Le; Bostoen, Sophie; Massant, Jan; Charlier, Daniel

    2007-10-19

    In Escherichia coli L-arginine is taken up by three periplasmic binding protein-dependent transport systems that are encoded by two genetic loci: the artPIQM-artJ and argT-hisJQMP gene clusters. The transcription of the artJ, artPIQM and hisJQMP genes and operons is repressed by liganded ArgR, whereas argT, encoding the LAO (lysine, arginine, ornithine) periplasmic binding protein, is insensitive to the repressor. Here we characterize the repressible Esigma70 P artJ, P artP and P hisJ promoters and demonstrate that the cognate operators consist of two 18 bp ARG boxes separated by 3 bp. Determination of the energy landscape of the ArgR-operator contacts by missing contact probing and mutant studies indicated that each box of a pair contributes to complex formation in vitro and to the repressibility in vivo, but to a different extent. The organization of the ARG boxes and promoter elements in the control regions of the uptake genes is distinct from that of the arginine biosynthetic genes. The hisJQMP operon is the first member of the E. coli ArgR regulon, directly repressed by liganded ArgR, where none of the core promoter elements overlaps the ARG boxes. Single round in vitro transcription assays and DNase I footprinting experiments indicate that liganded ArgR inhibits P artJ and P artP promoter activity by steric exclusion of the RNA polymerase. In contrast, ArgR-mediated repression of P hisJ by inhibition of RNA polymerase binding appears to occur through topological changes of the promoter region.

  2. Concentration-dependent mode of interaction of angiotensin II receptor blockers with uric acid transporter.

    PubMed

    Iwanaga, Takashi; Sato, Masanobu; Maeda, Tomoji; Ogihara, Toshio; Tamai, Ikumi

    2007-01-01

    Serum uric acid (SUA) is currently recognized as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. It has been reported that an angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB), losartan, decreases SUA level, whereas other ARBs, such as candesartan, have no lowering effect. Because the renal uric acid transporter (URAT1) is an important factor controlling the SUA level, we examined the involvement of URAT1 in those differential effects of various ARBs on SUA level at clinically relevant concentrations. This study was done by using URAT1-expressing Xenopus oocytes. Losartan, pratosartan, and telmisartan exhibited cis-inhibitory effects on the uptake of uric acid by URAT1, whereas at higher concentrations, only telmisartan did, and these ARBs reduced the uptake in competitive inhibition kinetics. On the other hand, candesartan, EXP3174 [2-n-butyl-4-chloro-1-[(2'-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)biphenyl-4-yI)methyl]imidazole-5-carboxylic acid] (a major metabolite of losartan), olmesartan, and valsartan were not inhibitory. Preloading of those ARBs in the oocytes enhanced the URAT1-mediated uric acid uptake, showing a trans-stimulatory effect. The present study is a first demonstration of the differential effects of ARBs on URAT1 that some ARBs are both cis-inhibitory and trans-stimulatory, depending on concentration, whereas others exhibit either a trans-stimulatory or cis-inhibitory effect alone, which could explain the clinically observed differential effects of ARBs on SUA level. Furthermore, it was found that such differential effects of ARBs on URAT1 could be predicted from the partial chemical structures of ARBs, which will be useful information for the appropriate use and development of ARBs without an increase of SUA.

  3. Computational models for drug inhibition of the human apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xiaowan; Ekins, Sean; Raufman, Jean-Pierre; Polli, James E

    2009-01-01

    The human apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter (ASBT; SLC10A2) is the primary mechanism for intestinal bile acid reabsorption. In the colon, secondary bile acids increase the risk of cancer. Therefore, drugs that inhibit ASBT have the potential to increase the risk of colon cancer. The objectives of this study were to identify FDA-approved drugs that inhibit ASBT and to derive computational models for ASBT inhibition. Inhibition was evaluated using ASBT-MDCK monolayers and taurocholate as the model substrate. Computational modeling employed a HipHop qualitative approach, a Hypogen quantitative approach, and a modified Laplacian Bayesian modeling method using 2D descriptors. Initially, 30 compounds were screened for ASBT inhibition. A qualitative pharmacophore was developed using the most potent 11 compounds and applied to search a drug database, yielding 58 hits. Additional compounds were tested, and their K(i) values were measured. A 3D-QSAR and a Bayesian model were developed using 38 molecules. The quantitative pharmacophore consisted of one hydrogen bond acceptor, three hydrophobic features, and five excluded volumes. Each model was further validated with two external test sets of 30 and 19 molecules. Validation analysis showed both models exhibited good predictability in determining whether a drug is a potent or nonpotent ASBT inhibitor. The Bayesian model correctly ranked the most active compounds. In summary, using a combined in vitro and computational approach, we found that many FDA-approved drugs from diverse classes, such as the dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers and HMG CoA-reductase inhibitors, are ASBT inhibitors.

  4. Computational Models for Drug Inhibition of the Human Apical Sodium-dependent Bile Acid Transporter

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Xiaowan; Ekins, Sean; Raufman, Jean-Pierre; Polli, James E.

    2009-01-01

    The human apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter (ASBT; SLC10A2) is the primary mechanism for intestinal bile acid re-absorption. In the colon, secondary bile acids increase the risk of cancer. Therefore, drugs that inhibit ASBT have the potential to increase the risk of colon cancer. The objectives of this study were to identify FDA-approved drugs that inhibit ASBT and to derive computational models for ASBT inhibition. Inhibition was evaluated using ASBT-MDCK monolayers and taurocholate as the model substrate. Computational modeling employed a HipHop qualitative approach, a Hypogen quantitative approach, as well as a modified Laplacian Bayesian modeling method using 2D descriptors. Initially, 30 compounds were screened for ASBT inhibition. A qualitative pharmacophore was developed using the most potent 11 compounds and applied to search a drug database, yielding 58 hits. Additional compounds were tested and their Ki values were measured. A 3D-QSAR and a Bayesian model were developed using 38 molecules. The quantitative pharmacophore consisted of one hydrogen bond acceptor, three hydrophobic features, and five excluded volumes. Each model was further validated with two external test sets of 30 and 19 molecules. Validation analysis showed both models exhibited good predictability in determining whether a drug is a potent or non-potent ASBT inhibitor. The Bayesian model correctly ranked the most active compounds. In summary, using a combined in vitro and computational approach, we found that many FDA-approved drugs from diverse classes, such as the dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers and HMG CoA-reductase inhibitors, are ASBT inhibitors. PMID:19673539

  5. Ionic mechanisms of Ca(2+)-dependent electrolyte transport across equine sweat gland epithelium.

    PubMed

    Ko, W H; Chan, H C; Chew, S B; Wong, P Y

    1996-06-15

    1. The ionic mechanism involved in Ca(2+)-stimulated electrolyte transport in cultured equine sweat gland epithelial cells was studied using the short-circuit current (ISC) technique. 2. Microscopy revealed that the cultured cells grown on Millipore filters formed polarized monolayers with tight junctions. Monolayers exhibited a mean transepithelial resistance of 333.9 +/- 40.4 omega cm2. 3. Ca(2+)-mobilizing agents, A23187 (1 microM) or thapsigargin (0.01-1 microM), stimulated ISC while forskolin exerted little effect on the ISC. 4. Replacement of external Cl- by gluconate significantly reduced the ISC by 63% when stimulated by 0.1 microM thapsigargin. Residual ISC could be abolished (> 99%) by elimination of HCO3- from the bathing solution. 5. Basolateral addition of bumetanide (0.1 mM), ouabain (0.01 mM) and acetazolamide (45 microM) and apical addition of methyl isobutyl amiloride (MIA, 1-100 microM) all had inhibitory effects on the thapsigargin-stimulated ISC to various extents. 6. Substantial current inhibition could be obtained using 4, 4'-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulphonic acid (DIDS) and diphenylamine-2-carboxylate (DPC) in a concentration-dependent manner. 7. The K+ channel blocker barium (5 mM) was effective on both sides of the epithelium with a much larger effect on the basolateral side. 8. The inhibitory effects of acetazolamide, amiloride, MIA, DIDS and DPC on the thapsigargin-stimulated ISC were also observed when a Cl(-)-free solution was used. 9. The results provide evidence for Ca(2+)-stimulated HCO3- as well as Cl- secretion by equine sweat gland epithelium.

  6. Length-dependent thermal transport in one-dimensional self-assembly of planar π-conjugated molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Hao; Xiong, Yucheng; Zu, Fengshuo; Zhao, Yang; Wang, Xiaomeng; Fu, Qiang; Jie, Jiansheng; Yang, Juekuan; Xu, Dongyan

    2016-06-01

    This work reports a thermal transport study in quasi-one-dimensional organic nanostructures self-assembled from conjugated planar molecules via π-π interactions. Thermal resistances of single crystalline copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) and perylenetetracarboxylic diimide (PTCDI) nanoribbons are measured via a suspended thermal bridge method. We experimentally observed the deviation from the linear length dependence for the thermal resistance of single crystalline β-phase CuPc nanoribbons, indicating possible subdiffusion thermal transport. Interestingly, a gradual transition to the linear length dependence is observed with the increase of the lateral dimensions of CuPc nanoribbons. The measured thermal resistance of single crystalline CuPc nanoribbons shows an increasing trend with temperature. However, the trend of temperature dependence of thermal resistance is reversed after electron irradiation, i.e., decreasing with temperature, indicating that the single crystalline CuPc nanoribbons become `amorphous'. Similar behavior is also observed for PTCDI nanoribbons after electron irradiation, proving that the electron beam can induce amorphization of single crystalline self-assembled nanostructures of planar π-conjugated molecules. The measured thermal resistance of the `amorphous' CuPc nanoribbon demonstrates a roughly linear dependence on the nanoribbon length, suggesting that normal diffusion dominates thermal transport.This work reports a thermal transport study in quasi-one-dimensional organic nanostructures self-assembled from conjugated planar molecules via π-π interactions. Thermal resistances of single crystalline copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) and perylenetetracarboxylic diimide (PTCDI) nanoribbons are measured via a suspended thermal bridge method. We experimentally observed the deviation from the linear length dependence for the thermal resistance of single crystalline β-phase CuPc nanoribbons, indicating possible subdiffusion thermal transport

  7. Control of Arabidopsis meristem development by thioredoxin-dependent regulation of intercellular transport

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cell-to-cell transport in plants occurs through cytoplasmic channels called “plasmodesmata” and is regulated by developmental and environmental factors. Callose deposition modulates plasmodesmal transport in vivo, but little is known about the mechanisms that regulate this process. Here we report a ...

  8. Seed filling in domesticated maize and rice depends on SWEET-mediated hexose transport

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Carbohydrate import into seeds directly determines seed size and must have been increased through domestication. However, evidence for domestication of sugar translocation and the identity of seed filling transporters remained elusive. Maize ZmSWEET4c, as opposed to its sucrose-transporting homologs...

  9. ATP-dependent transport of statins by human and rat MRP2/Mrp2

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, Lucy C.J.; Hawksworth, Gabrielle M.; Weaver, Richard J.

    2013-06-01

    Multidrug resistance associated protein-2, MRP2 (human), Mrp2 (rat) are an efflux transporter, responsible for the transport of numerous endogenous and xenobiotic compounds including taurocholate, methotrexate and carboxydichlorofluorescein (CDF). The present study aims to characterise transport of statins by human and rat MRP2/Mrp2 using membrane and vesicle preparations. All statins tested (simvastatin, pravastatin, pitavastatin, fluvastatin, atorvastatin, lovastatin and rosuvastatin) stimulated vanadate-sensitive ATPase activity in membranes expressing human or rat MRP2/Mrp2, suggesting that all statins are substrates of human and rat MRP2/Mrp2. The substrate affinity (Km) of all statins for MRP2/Mrp2 was comparable and no correlation between lipophilicity (logD{sub 7.0}) and Km was seen. All statins also inhibited uptake of the fluorescent Mrp2 substrate, CDF (1 μM) into vesicles expressing human or rat MRP2/Mrp2 with similar IC{sub 50} values. Fitting of the inhibitory data to the hill slope equation, gave hill coefficients (h) of greater than one, suggesting that transport involved more than one binding site for inhibitors of MPR2 and Mrp2. We conclude that statins were transported by both human and rat MRP2/Mrp2 with similar affinity. Statins were also shown to compete with other substrates for transport by MRP2/Mrp2 and that this transport involved more than one binding site on the Mrp2/MRP2 protein. - Highlights: • We characterised MRP2 (human)/Mrp2 (rat)-mediated transport of statins. • We show statins were transported by human and rat MRP2/Mrp2. • Statins competed with a known substrate for transport by MRP2/Mrp2. • Competition involved more than one binding site on the MRP2/Mrp2 protein.

  10. Steady-state and time-dependent modelling of parallel transport in the scrape-off layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Havlíčková, E.; Fundamenski, W.; Naulin, V.; Nielsen, A. H.; Zagórski, R.; Seidl, J.; Horáček, J.

    2011-06-01

    The one-dimensional fluid code SOLF1D has been used for modelling of plasma transport in the scrape-off layer (SOL) along magnetic field lines, both in steady state and under transient conditions that arise due to plasma turbulence. The presented work summarizes results of SOLF1D with attention given to transient parallel transport which reveals two distinct time scales due to the transport mechanisms of convection and diffusion. Time-dependent modelling combined with the effect of ballooning shows propagation of particles along the magnetic field line with Mach number up to M ≈ 1 and supersonic transport when plasma-neutral interactions are not present. Asymmetric heat and particle fluxes are analysed for a case with poloidally asymmetric radial outflow (ballooning) and for a radial outflow with parallel momentum (rotation). In addition, parallel damping of the density and electron temperature calculated in SOLF1D is compared with the approximative model used in the turbulence code ESEL both for steady-state and turbulent SOL. Dynamics of the parallel transport are investigated for a simple transient event simulating the propagation of particles and energy to the targets from a blob passing across the flux tube at the outboard midplane and for more complex time-dependent data provided by ESEL.

  11. Exact Steady Azimuthal Internal Waves in the f-Plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Hung-Chu

    2017-03-01

    We present an explicit exact solution of the nonlinear governing equations with Coriolis and centripetal terms in the f-plane approximation for internal geophysical trapped waves with a uniform current near the equator. This solution describes in the Lagrangian framework azimuthal equatorial internal waves propagating westward in a stratified rotational fluid.

  12. Local Stability for an Exact Steady Purely Azimuthal Equatorial Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ionescu-Kruse, Delia; Martin, Calin Iulian

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this paper is to present a short-wavelength stability analysis of an exact steady equatorial flow which does not vary in the azimuthal direction, but has an arbitrary variation with depth. We show that for some velocity profiles of the basic flow, this flow is locally stable to short-wavelength perturbations.

  13. Radial and Azimuthal Oscillations in Halo Coronal Mass Ejections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Harim; Moon, Yong-Jae; Nakariakov, Valery

    2015-04-01

    We present the first observational detection of radial and azimuthal oscillations in full halo coronal mass ejections (HCMEs). We analyse nine HCMEs well-observed by the Large Angle and Spectrometric Coronagraph (LASCO) from February to June, 2011. Using the LASCO C3 running difference images, we estimated the instantaneous apparent speeds of the HCMEs in different radial directions from the solar disk centre. We find that the development of all these HCMEs is accompanied with quasi-periodic variations of the instantaneous radial velocity with the periods ranging from 24 to 48 minutes. The amplitudes of the instant speed variations reach about a half of the projected speeds. The amplitudes are found to anti-correlate with the periods and correlate with the HCME speed, indicating the nonlinear nature of the process. The oscillations have a clear azimuthal structure in the heliocentric polar coordinate system. The oscillations in seven events are found to be associated with distinct azimuthal wave modes with the azimuthal wave number m=1 for six events and m=2 for one event. The polarisation of the oscillations in these seven HCMEs is broadly consistent with those of their position angles with the mean difference of 42.5 degree. The oscillations may be connected with natural oscillations of the plasmoids around a dynamical equilibrium, or self-oscillatory processes, e.g. the periodic shedding of Alfvénic vortices. Our results indicate the need for advanced theory of oscillatory processes in CMEs.

  14. 14 CFR 171.313 - Azimuth performance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... rotation from the runway centerline to the respective zero-degree guidance plane. Note 4: Data Word A3 is... centerline at threshold inclined at 0.9 degree above the horizontal. (ii) A conical surface originating at the azimuth ground equipment antenna inclined at 15 degrees above the horizontal to a height of...

  15. 14 CFR 171.313 - Azimuth performance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... rotation from the runway centerline to the respective zero-degree guidance plane. Note 4: Data Word A3 is... centerline at threshold inclined at 0.9 degree above the horizontal. (ii) A conical surface originating at the azimuth ground equipment antenna inclined at 15 degrees above the horizontal to a height of...

  16. 14 CFR 171.313 - Azimuth performance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... rotation from the runway centerline to the respective zero-degree guidance plane. Note 4: Data Word A3 is... centerline at threshold inclined at 0.9 degree above the horizontal. (ii) A conical surface originating at the azimuth ground equipment antenna inclined at 15 degrees above the horizontal to a height of...

  17. 14 CFR 171.313 - Azimuth performance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... rotation from the runway centerline to the respective zero-degree guidance plane. Note 4: Data Word A3 is... centerline at threshold inclined at 0.9 degree above the horizontal. (ii) A conical surface originating at the azimuth ground equipment antenna inclined at 15 degrees above the horizontal to a height of...

  18. 14 CFR 171.313 - Azimuth performance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... rotation from the runway centerline to the respective zero-degree guidance plane. Note 4: Data Word A3 is... centerline at threshold inclined at 0.9 degree above the horizontal. (ii) A conical surface originating at the azimuth ground equipment antenna inclined at 15 degrees above the horizontal to a height of...

  19. Azimuthally acoustic logging tool to evaluate cementing quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Junqiang; Ju, Xiaodong; Qiao, Wenxiao; Men, Baiyong; Wang, Ruijia; Wu, Jinping

    2014-08-01

    An azimuthally sensitive acoustic bond tool (AABT) uses a phased arc array transmitter that can provide directionally focused radiation. The acoustic sonde consists of a phased arc array transmitter and two monopole receivers, the spaces from the transmitter being 0.91 m and 1.52 m, respectively. The transmitter includes eight transducer sub-units. By controlling the high-voltage firing signal phase for each transmitter, the radiation energy of the phased arc array transducer can be focused in a single direction. Compared with conventional monopole and dipole transmitters, the new transmitter provides cement quality evaluation with azimuthal sensitivity, which is not possible with conventional cement bond log/variable density log tools. Laboratory measurements indicate that the directivity curves for the phased arc array and those computed theoretically are consistent and show good agreement. We acquire measurements from a laboratory cistern and from the field to validate the reliability and applicability of the AABT. Results indicate that the AABT accurately evaluates the azimuthal cement quality of case-cement interfaces by imaging the amplitude of the first-arrival wave. This tool visualizes the size, position and orientation of channeling and holes. In the case of good case-cement bonding, the AABT also evaluates the azimuthal cementing quality of the cement formation interface by imaging the amplitude of formation waves.

  20. D6 PROTEIN KINASE activates auxin transport-dependent growth and PIN-FORMED phosphorylation at the plasma membrane.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Inês C R; Zourelidou, Melina; Willige, Björn C; Weller, Benjamin; Schwechheimer, Claus

    2014-06-23

    The directed cell-to-cell transport of the phytohormone auxin by efflux and influx transporters is essential for proper plant growth and development. Like auxin efflux facilitators of the PIN-FORMED (PIN) family, D6 PROTEIN KINASE (D6PK) from Arabidopsis thaliana localizes to the basal plasma membrane of many cells, and evidence exists that D6PK may directly phosphorylate PINs. We find that D6PK is a membrane-bound protein that is associated with either the basal domain of the plasma membrane or endomembranes. Inhibition of the trafficking regulator GNOM leads to a rapid internalization of D6PK to endomembranes. Interestingly, the dissociation of D6PK from the plasma membrane is also promoted by auxin. Surprisingly, we find that auxin transport-dependent tropic responses are critically and reversibly controlled by D6PK and D6PK-dependent PIN phosphorylation at the plasma membrane. We conclude that D6PK abundance at the plasma membrane and likely D6PK-dependent PIN phosphorylation are prerequisites for PIN-mediated auxin transport.

  1. Contact metal-dependent electrical transport in carbon nanotubes and fabrication of graphene nanoribbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perello, David

    In this thesis, we fabricate and characterize carbon nanotube (CNT) and graphene-based field effect transistor devices. The CNT-based work centers around the physics of metal contacts to CNT, particularly relating the work function of contact metals to carrier transport across the junction. The graphene work is motivated by the desire to utilize the high carrier mobility of graphene in field effect transistors. CNT have excellent electrical properties including high carrier mobility, large field effect switching capabilities, and a long mean free path. Absent, however is an experimentally-backed model explaining contact-metal work function, device layout, and environment effects. To fill this void, we introduce a surface-inversion channel (SIC) model based on low temperature and electrical measurements of a distinct single-walled semiconducting CNT contacted by Hf, Cr, Ti and Pd electrodes. Anomalous barrier heights and metal-contact dependent band-to-band tunneling phenomena are utilized to show that dependent upon contact work function and gate field, transport occurs either directly between the metal and CNT channel or indirectly via injection of carriers from the metal-covered CNT region to the CNT channel. The model is consistent with previously contradictory experimental results, and the methodology is simple enough to apply in other contact-dominant systems. In agreement with the initial contact theory above, we further develop a model explain Isd-Vsd tendencies in CNT FETs. Using experimental and analytical analysis, we demonstrate a relationship between the contact metal work function and electrical transport properties saturation current (Isat) and differential conductance ssd=6Isd 6Vsd in ambient exposed CNT. A single chemical vapor deposition (CVD)-grown 6 millimeter long semiconducting single-walled CNT is electrically contacted with a statistically significant number of Hf, Cr, Ti, Pd, and Ti, Au electrodes, respectively. The observed exponentially

  2. A molecular understanding of ATP-dependent solute transport by multidrug resistance-associated protein MRP1.

    PubMed

    Chang, Xiu-bao

    2007-03-01

    Over a million new cases of cancers are diagnosed each year in the United States and over half of these patients die from these devastating diseases. Thus, cancers cause a major public health problem in the United States and worldwide. Chemotherapy remains the principal mode to treat many metastatic cancers. However, occurrence of cellular multidrug resistance (MDR) prevents efficient killing of cancer cells, leading to chemotherapeutic treatment failure. Numerous mechanisms of MDR exist in cancer cells, such as intrinsic or acquired MDR. Overexpression of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) drug transporters, such as P-glycoprotein (P-gp or ABCB1), breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP or ABCG2) and/or multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP1 or ABCC1), confers an acquired MDR due to their capabilities of transporting a broad range of chemically diverse anticancer drugs. In addition to their roles in MDR, there is substantial evidence suggesting that these drug transporters have functions in tissue defense. Basically, these drug transporters are expressed in tissues important for absorption, such as in lung and gut, and for metabolism and elimination, such as in liver and kidney. In addition, these drug transporters play an important role in maintaining the barrier function of many tissues including blood-brain barrier, blood-cerebral spinal fluid barrier, blood-testis barrier and the maternal-fetal barrier. Thus, these ATP-dependent drug transporters play an important role in the absorption, disposition and elimination of the structurally diverse array of the endobiotics and xenobiotics. In this review, the molecular mechanism of ATP-dependent solute transport by MRP1 will be addressed.

  3. ATP-dependent transport of statins by human and rat MRP2/Mrp2.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Lucy C J; Hawksworth, Gabrielle M; Weaver, Richard J

    2013-06-01

    Multidrug resistance associated protein-2, MRP2 (human), Mrp2 (rat) are an efflux transporter, responsible for the transport of numerous endogenous and xenobiotic compounds including taurocholate, methotrexate and carboxydichlorofluorescein (CDF). The present study aims to characterise transport of statins by human and rat MRP2/Mrp2 using membrane and vesicle preparations. All statins tested (simvastatin, pravastatin, pitavastatin, fluvastatin, atorvastatin, lovastatin and rosuvastatin) stimulated vanadate-sensitive ATPase activity in membranes expressing human or rat MRP2/Mrp2, suggesting that all statins are substrates of human and rat MRP2/Mrp2. The substrate affinity (Km) of all statins for MRP2/Mrp2 was comparable and no correlation between lipophilicity (logD7.0) and Km was seen. All statins also inhibited uptake of the fluorescent Mrp2 substrate, CDF (1μM) into vesicles expressing human or rat MRP2/Mrp2 with similar IC50 values. Fitting of the inhibitory data to the hill slope equation, gave hill coefficients (h) of greater than one, suggesting that transport involved more than one binding site for inhibitors of MPR2 and Mrp2. We conclude that statins were transported by both human and rat MRP2/Mrp2 with similar affinity. Statins were also shown to compete with other substrates for transport by MRP2/Mrp2 and that this transport involved more than one binding site on the Mrp2/MRP2 protein.

  4. The glucose-dependent transport of L-malate in Zygosaccharomyces bailii.

    PubMed

    Baranowski, K; Radler, F

    1984-01-01

    Zygosaccharomyces bailii possesses a constitutive malic enzyme, but only small amounts of malate are decomposed when the cells ferment fructose. Cells growing anaerobically on glucose (glucose cells) decompose malate, whereas fructose cells do not. Only glucose cells show an increase in the intracellular concentration of malate when suspended in a malate-containing solution. The transport system for malate is induced by glucose, but it is repressed by fructose. The synthesis of this transport system is inhibited by cycloheximide. Of the two enantiomers L-malate is transported preferentially. The transport of malate by induced cells is not only inhibited by addition of fructose but also inactivated. This inactivation is independent of the presence of cycloheximide. The transport of malate is inhibited by uranyl ions; various other inhibitors of transport and phosphorylation were of little influence. It is assumed that the inducible protein carrier for malate operates by facilitated diffusion. Fructose cells of Z. bailii and cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae do not contain a transport system for malate.

  5. A two-dimensional, time-dependent model of suspended sediment transport and bed reworking for continental shelves

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harris, C.K.; Wiberg, P.L.

    2001-01-01

    A two-dimensional, time-dependent solution to the transport equation is formulated to account for advection and diffusion of sediment suspended in the bottom boundary layer of continental shelves. This model utilizes a semi-implicit, upwind-differencing scheme to solve the advection-diffusion equation across a two-dimensional transect that is configured so that one dimension is the vertical, and the other is a horizontal dimension usually aligned perpendicular to shelf bathymetry. The model calculates suspended sediment concentration and flux; and requires as input wave properties, current velocities, sediment size distributions, and hydrodynamic sediment properties. From the calculated two-dimensional suspended sediment fluxes, we quantify the redistribution of shelf sediment, bed erosion, and deposition for several sediment sizes during resuspension events. The two-dimensional, time-dependent approach directly accounts for cross-shelf gradients in bed shear stress and sediment properties, as well as transport that occurs before steady-state suspended sediment concentrations have been attained. By including the vertical dimension in the calculations, we avoid depth-averaging suspended sediment concentrations and fluxes, and directly account for differences in transport rates and directions for fine and coarse sediment in the bottom boundary layer. A flux condition is used as the bottom boundary condition for the transport equation in order to capture time-dependence of the suspended sediment field. Model calculations demonstrate the significance of both time-dependent and spatial terms on transport and depositional patterns on continental shelves. ?? 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Depth localized azimuthal anisotropy from SKS and P receiver functions: The Tien Shan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinnik, L. P.; Aleshin, I. M.; Kiselev, S. G.; Kosarev, G. L.; Makeyeva, L. I.

    2007-06-01

    Shear wave splitting in the seismic SKS phase provides a unique possibility to judge on deformations at depths inaccessible for direct observations. Fast S wave polarization direction in collisional belts is often parallel to the trend of the belt, although deformations of the mantle lithosphere in low-angle thrusts would lead to the fast polarization direction normal to the trend of the belt. These considerations suggested that the upper mantle in collisional belts is decoupled from the crust. However, SKS technique is notable by a poor depth resolution, and usually it assumes that the fast polarization direction is the same at any depth, which is hard to justify. Here, to investigate depth dependent azimuthal anisotropy in the mantle, we invert jointly P receiver functions and SKS particle motions at a number of seismograph stations. The technique involves azimuthal filtering of the receiver functions and provides a criterion to discriminate between the effects of azimuthal anisotropy and lateral heterogeneity of isotropic medium. A search for the optimum models is conducted with a technique similar to simulated annealing. Testing with synthetics demonstrates that this approach is robust. The results for 10 seismograph stations in the Tien Shan, the world's most active intracontinental collisional belt in Central Asia, reveal a pronounced change in the patterns of azimuthal anisotropy at a depth around 100 km. In the mantle lithosphere (at depths less than 100 km), anisotropy is relatively weak and fast wave polarization direction varies laterally in a broad range. This layer is not necessarily decoupled from the crust: its anisotropy can be a combined effect of present day thrusting and of deformations of the geologic past. In the lower layer (asthenosphere) the average azimuth of fast wave polarization is close to the trend of the belt, whereas magnitude of S wave anisotropy is stable and large (between 5 and 6 per cent). This anisotropy is a likely result of

  7. [Role of the type 3 sodium-dependent phosphate transporter in the calcification of growth plate chondrocytes].

    PubMed

    Sugita, Atsushi; Hayashibara, Tetsuyuki; Yoneda, Toshiyuki

    2006-10-01

    Phosphate is a second most abundant mineral next to calcium. The facts that hypophosphatemia is associated with the retardation of skeletal development and phosphate levels increase during endochondral ossification suggest that phosphate plays a role in cartilage differentiation. The type 3 sodium-dependent phosphate transporter (NPT3) expressed in growth plate chondrocytes transports extracellular phosphates into the cells. These phosphates are utilized for ATP synthesis, which in turn promotes apoptosis of growth plate chondrocytes through activation of the caspase signal pathways. Subsequently, matrix vesicles released from apoptotic chondrocytes accelerate calcification of chondrocytes. Our results suggest that phosphate plays a critical role in terminal differentiation of chondrocytes.

  8. L-Carnitine transport in human placental brush-border membranes is mediated by the sodium-dependent organic cation transporter OCTN2.

    PubMed

    Lahjouji, Karim; Elimrani, Ihsan; Lafond, Julie; Leduc, Line; Qureshi, Ijaz A; Mitchell, Grant A

    2004-08-01

    Maternofetal transport of l-carnitine, a molecule that shuttles long-chain fatty acids to the mitochondria for oxidation, is thought to be important in preparing the fetus for its lipid-rich postnatal milk diet. Using brush-border membrane (BBM) vesicles from human term placentas, we showed that l-carnitine uptake was sodium and temperature dependent, showed high affinity for carnitine (apparent K(m) = 11.09 +/- 1.32 microM; V(max) = 41.75 +/- 0.94 pmol.mg protein(-1).min(-1)), and was unchanged over the pH range from 5.5 to 8.5. l-Carnitine uptake was inhibited in BBM vesicles by valproate, verapamil, tetraethylammonium, and pyrilamine and by structural analogs of l-carnitine, including d-carnitine, acetyl-d,l-carnitine, and propionyl-, butyryl-, octanoyl-, isovaleryl-, and palmitoyl-l-carnitine. Western blot analysis revealed that OCTN2, a high-affinity, Na(+)-dependent carnitine transporter, was present in placental BBM but not in isolated basal plasma membrane vesicles. The reported properties of OCTN2 resemble those observed for l-carnitine uptake in placental BBM vesicles, suggesting that OCTN2 may mediate most maternofetal carnitine transport in humans.

  9. Systematic Azimuth Quadrupole and Minijet Trends from Two-Particle Correlations in Heavy-Ion Collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kettler, David

    Heavy-ion collisions at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) produce a tremendous amount of data but new techniques are necessary for a comprehensive understanding of the physics behind these collisions. We present measurements from the STAR detector of both pt-integral and pt-differential azimuth two-particle correlations on azimuth (phi) and pseudorapidity (eta) for unidentified hadrons in Au-Au collisions at a center of mass energy = 62 and 200 GeV. The azimuth correlations can be fit to extract a quadrupole component--related to conventional v2 measures--and a same-side peak. The azimuth quadrupole component is distinguished from eta-localized same-side correlations by taking advantage of the full 2D eta and phi dependence. Both pt-integral and pt-differential results are presented as functions of Au-Au centrality. We observe simple universal energy and centrality trends for the pt-integral quadrupole component. pt-differential results can be transformed to reveal quadrupole pt spectra that are nearly independent of centrality. A parametrization of the pt-differential quadrupole shows a simple pt dependence that can be factorized from the centrality and collision energy dependence above 0.75 GeV/c. Angular correlations contain jet-like structure with most-probable hadron momentum 1 GeV/c. For better comparison to RHIC data we analyze the energy scale dependence of fragmentation functions from e+-e - collisions on rapidity y. We find that replotting fragmentation functions on a normalized rapidity variable results in a compact form precisely represented by the beta distribution, its two parameters varying slowly and simply with parton energy scale Q. The resulting parameterization enables extrapolation of fragmentation functions to low Q in order to describe fragment distributions at low transverse momentum ptin heavy ion collisions at RHIC. We convert minimum-bias jet-like angular correlations to single-particle hadron yields and compare them with parton

  10. Barriers to transport in aperiodically time-dependent two-dimensional velocity fields: Nekhoroshev's theorem and "Nearly Invariant" tori

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiggins, S.; Mancho, A. M.

    2014-02-01

    In this paper we consider fluid transport in two-dimensional flows from the dynamical systems point of view, with the focus on elliptic behaviour and aperiodic and finite time dependence. We give an overview of previous work on general nonautonomous and finite time vector fields with the purpose of bringing to the attention of those working on fluid transport from the dynamical systems point of view a body of work that is extremely relevant, but appears not to be so well known. We then focus on the Kolmogorov-Arnold-Moser (KAM) theorem and the Nekhoroshev theorem. While there is no finite time or aperiodically time-dependent version of the KAM theorem, the Nekhoroshev theorem, by its very nature, is a finite time result, but for a "very long" (i.e. exponentially long with respect to the size of the perturbation) time interval and provides a rigorous quantification of "nearly invariant tori" over this very long timescale. We discuss an aperiodically time-dependent version of the Nekhoroshev theorem due to Giorgilli and Zehnder (1992) (recently refined by Bounemoura, 2013 and Fortunati and Wiggins, 2013) which is directly relevant to fluid transport problems. We give a detailed discussion of issues associated with the applicability of the KAM and Nekhoroshev theorems in specific flows. Finally, we consider a specific example of an aperiodically time-dependent flow where we show that the results of the Nekhoroshev theorem hold.

  11. Thickness-dependent transport channels in topological insulator Bi2Se3 thin films grown by magnetron sputtering

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wen Jie; Gao, Kuang Hong; Li, Zhi Qing

    2016-01-01

    We study the low-temperature transport properties of Bi2Se3 thin films grown by magnetron sputtering. A positive magnetoresistance resulting from the weak antilocalization (WAL) effect is observed at low temperatures. The observed WAL effect is two dimensional in nature. Applying the Hikami-Larkin-Nagaoka theory, we have obtained the dephasing length. It is found that the temperature dependence of the dephasing length cannot be described only by the Nyquist electron-electron dephasing, in conflict with prevailing experimental results. From the WAL effect, we extract the number of the transport channels, which is found to increase with increasing the thickness of the films, reflecting the thickness-dependent coupling between the top and bottom surface states in topological insulator. On the other hand, the electron-electron interaction (EEI) effect is observed in temperature-dependent conductivity. From the EEI effect, we also extract the number of the transport channel, which shows similar thickness dependence with that obtained from the analysis of the WAL effect. The EEI effect, therefore, can be used to analyze the coupling effect between the top and bottom surface states in topological insulator like the WAL effect. PMID:27142578

  12. C1-transport in gastric micorsomes. An ATP-dependent influx sensitive to membrane potential and to protein kinase inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Soumarmon, A; Abastado, M; Bonfils, S; Lewin, M J

    1980-12-25

    Uptakes of radioactive C1- or 1- by gastric microsomal vesicles were stimulated 2- to 8-fold by AtP. The sensitivity of those uptakes to a C1- in equilibrium OH- ionophore and to osmotic swelling suggested they were due to transport rather than to binding. The ATP effect was labile, but dithiothreitol and methanol improved its stability. The stimulation of anion transport required magnesium; GTP and UTP were less potent than ATP whereas ADP and AMP had no effect. The apparent Km for ATP was estimated to be 2 X 10(-4) M at 22 degrees C. The rate of the ATP-dependent transport showed saturation-type kinetics, with half-maximal uptake at 10 mM for I- and 15 mM for C1-. Nonradioactive C1-, I-, and SCN- competed with 125I- uptake while SO42- did not. K+ valinomycin increased the ATP-dependent C1- uptake. The thermostable inhibitor of cAMP-dependent protein kinases inhibited the effect of ATP. These results suggest the existence of an anion conductance, permeant to C1-, I-, and SCN- and nonpermeant to SO42-, which could be linked to a cAMP-dependent protein kinase.

  13. Temperature dependency of virus and nanoparticle transport and retention in saturated porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasidharan, Salini; Torkzaban, Saeed; Bradford, Scott A.; Cook, Peter G.; Gupta, Vadakattu V. S. R.

    2017-01-01

    The influence of temperature on virus (PRD1 and ΦX174) and carboxyl-modified latex nanoparticle (50 and 100 nm) attachment was examined in sand-packed columns under various physiochemical conditions. When the solution ionic strength (IS) equaled 10 and 30 mM, the attachment rate coefficient (katt) increased up to 109% (p < 0.0002) and the percentage of the sand surface area that contributed to attachment (Sf) increased up to 160% (p < 0.002) when the temperature was increased from 4 to 20 °C. Temperature effects at IS = 10 and 30 mM were also dependent on the system hydrodynamics; i.e., enhanced retention at a lower pore water velocity (0.1 m/day). Conversely, this same temperature increase had a negligible influence on katt and Sf values when IS was 1 mM or > 50 mM. An explanation for these observations was obtained from extended interaction energy calculations that considered nanoscale roughness and chemical heterogeneity on the sand surface. Interaction energy calculations demonstrated that the energy barrier to attachment in the primary minimum (∆Φa) decreased with increasing IS, chemical heterogeneity, and temperature, especially in the presence of small amounts of nanoscale roughness (e.g., roughness fraction of 0.05 and height of 20 nm in the zone of influence). Temperature had a negligible effect on katt and Sf when the IS = 1 mM because of the large energy barrier, and at IS = 50 mM because of the absence of an energy barrier. Conversely, temperature had a large influence on katt and Sf when the IS was 10 and 30 mM because of the presence of a small ∆Φa on sand with nanoscale roughness and a chemical (positive zeta potential) heterogeneity. This has large implications for setting parameters for the accurate modeling and transport prediction of virus and nanoparticle contaminants in ground water systems.

  14. Temperature-Dependent Charge Transport through Individually Contacted DNA Origami-Based Au Nanowires.

    PubMed

    Teschome, Bezu; Facsko, Stefan; Schönherr, Tommy; Kerbusch, Jochen; Keller, Adrian; Erbe, Artur

    2016-10-11

    DNA origami nanostructures have been used extensively as scaffolds for numerous applications such as for organizing both organic and inorganic nanomaterials, studying single molecule reactions, and fabricating photonic devices. Yet, little has been done toward the integration of DNA origami nanostructures into nanoelectronic devices. Among other challenges, the technical difficulties in producing well-defined electrical contacts between macroscopic electrodes and individual DNA origami-based nanodevices represent a serious bottleneck that hinders the thorough characterization of such devices. Therefore, in this work, we have developed a method to electrically contact individual DNA origami-based metallic nanowires using electron beam lithography. We then characterize the charge transport of such nanowires in the temperature range from room temperature down to 4.2 K. The room temperature charge transport measurements exhibit ohmic behavior, whereas at lower temperatures, multiple charge transport mechanisms such as tunneling and thermally assisted transport start to dominate. Our results confirm that charge transport along metallized DNA origami nanostructures may deviate from pure metallic behavior due to several factors including partial metallization, seed inhomogeneities, impurities, and weak electronic coupling among AuNPs. Besides, this study further elucidates the importance of variable temperature measurements for determining the dominant charge transport mechanisms for conductive nanostructures made by self-assembly approaches.

  15. Seismic azimuthal anisotropy in the oceanic lithosphere and asthenosphere from broadband surface wave analysis of OBS array records at 60 Ma seafloor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeo, A.; Kawakatsu, H.; Isse, T.; Nishida, K.; Sugioka, H.; Ito, A.; Shiobara, H.; Suetsugu, D.

    2016-03-01

    We analyzed seismic ambient noise and teleseismic waveforms of nine broadband ocean bottom seismometers deployed at a 60 Ma seafloor in the southeastward of Tahiti island, the South Pacific, by the Tomographic Investigation by seafloor ARray Experiment for the Society hotspot project. We first obtained one-dimensional shear wave velocity model beneath the array from average phase velocities of Rayleigh waves at a broadband period range of 5-200 s. The obtained model shows a large velocity reduction at depths between 40 and 80 km, where the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary might exist. We then estimated shear wave azimuthal anisotropy at depths of 20-100 km by measuring azimuthal dependence of phase velocities of Rayleigh waves. The obtained model shows peak-to-peak intensity of the azimuthal anisotropy of 2%-4% with the fastest azimuth of NW-SE direction both in the lithosphere and asthenosphere. This result suggests that the ancient flow frozen in the lithosphere is not perpendicular to the strike of the ancient mid-ocean ridge but is roughly parallel to the ancient plate motion at depths of 20-60 km. The fastest azimuths in the current asthenosphere are subparallel to current plate motion at depths of 60-100 km. Additional shear wave splitting analysis revealed possible perturbations of flow in the mantle by the hot spot activities and implied the presence of azimuthal anisotropy in the asthenosphere down to a depth of 190-210 km.

  16. New Exchange-Correlation Potentials for Quantum Transport and Other Non Equilibrium Processes as Described by Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-01

    Superconductivity and Superfluidity, Quantum transport, Parallel computing, and Quantum Mechanics for Modern Devices. Furthermore, he has had...transport in spin-impurity+leads geometries. This project focuses on spin-dependent transport, such as the effect of ferromagnetic leads, non

  17. ATP-dependent transport of leukotrienes B4 and C4 by the multidrug resistance protein ABCC4 (MRP4).

    PubMed

    Rius, Maria; Hummel-Eisenbeiss, Johanna; Keppler, Dietrich

    2008-01-01

    The proinflammatory mediators leukotriene (LT) B(4) and LTC(4) must be transported out of cells before they can interact with LT receptors. Previously, we identified the multidrug resistance protein ABCC1 (MRP1) as an efflux pump for LTC(4). However, the molecular basis for the efflux of LTB(4) was unknown. Here, we demonstrate that human ABCC4 mediates the ATP-dependent efflux of LTB(4) in the presence of reduced glutathione (GSH), whereby the latter can be replaced by S-methyl GSH. Transport studies were performed with inside-out membrane vesicles from V79 fibroblasts and Sf9 insect cells that contained recombinant ABCC4, with vesicles from human platelets and myelomonocytic U937 cells, which were rich in endogenous ABCC4, but ABCC1 was below detectability. Moreover, human polymorphonuclear leukocytes contained ABCC4. K(m) values for LTB(4) were 5.2 muM with vesicles from fibroblasts and 5.6 muM with vesicles from platelets. ABCC4, with its broad substrate specificity, also functioned as an ATP-dependent efflux pump for LTC(4) with a K(m) of 0.13 muM in vesicles from fibroblasts and 0.32 muM in vesicles from platelets. However, GSH was not required for the transport of this glutathionylated leukotriene. The transport of LTC(4) by ABCC4 explains its release from platelets during transcellular synthesis. ATP-dependent transport of LTB(4) and LTC(4) by ABCC4 was inhibited by several organic anions, including S-decyl GSH, sulindac sulfide, and by the LTD(4) receptor antagonists montelukast and 3-(((3-(2-(7-chloro-2-quinolinyl)ethenyl)phenyl)-((3-dimethyl-amino-3-oxopropyl)-thio)-methyl)thio)propanoic acid (MK571). Thus, as an efflux pump for the proinflammatory mediators LTB(4) and LTC(4), ABCC4 may represent a novel target for anti-inflammatory therapies.

  18. Regulation of energy partitioning and alternative electron transport pathways during cold acclimation of lodgepole pine is oxygen dependent.

    PubMed

    Savitch, Leonid V; Ivanov, Alexander G; Krol, Marianna; Sprott, David P; Oquist, Gunnar; Huner, Norman P A

    2010-09-01

    Second year needles of Lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta L.) were exposed for 6 weeks to either simulated control summer ['summer'; 25 °C/250 photon flux denisty (PFD)], autumn ('autumn'; 15°C/250 PFD) or winter conditions ('winter'; 5 °C/250 PFD). We report that the proportion of linear electron transport utilized in carbon assimilation (ETR(CO2)) was 40% lower in both 'autumn' and 'winter' pine when compared with the 'summer' pine. In contrast, the proportion of excess photosynthetic linear electron transport (ETR(excess)) not used for carbon assimilation within the total ETR(Jf) increased by 30% in both 'autumn' and 'winter' pine. In 'autumn' pine acclimated to 15°C, the increased amounts of 'excess' electrons were directed equally to 21  kPa O2-dependent and 2  kPa O2-dependent alternative electron transport pathways and the fractions of excitation light energy utilized by PSII photochemistry (Φ(PSII)), thermally dissipated through Φ(NPQ) and dissipated by additional quenching mechanism(s) (Φ(f,D)) were similar to those in 'summer' pine. In contrast, in 'winter' needles acclimated to 5 °C, 60% of photosynthetically generated 'excess' electrons were utilized through the 2  kPa O2-dependent electron sink and only 15% by the photorespiratory (21  kPa O2) electron pathway. Needles exposed to 'winter' conditions led to a 3-fold lower Φ(PSII), only a marginal increase in Φ(NPQ) and a 2-fold higher Φ(f,D), which was O2 dependent compared with the 'summer' and 'autumn' pine. Our results demonstrate that the employment of a variety of alternative pathways for utilization of photosynthetically generated electrons by Lodgepole pine depends on the acclimation temperature. Furthermore, dissipation of excess light energy through constitutive non-photochemical quenching mechanisms is O2 dependent.

  19. Use of the Azimuth Wavelength Cut-Off to Retrieve the Sea Surface Wind Speed from Sentinel 1 and COSMO-SkyMed SAR Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grieco, G.; Nirchio, F.; Montuori, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Lin, W.; Portabella, M.

    2016-08-01

    The dependency of the azimuth wavelength cut-off on the wind speed has been studied through a dataset of Sentinel-1 multi look SAR images co-located with wind speed measurements, significant wave height and mean wave direction from ECMWF operational output.A Geophysical Model Function (GMF) has been fitted and a retrieval exercise has been done comparing the results to a set of independent wind speed scatterometer measurements of the Chinese mission HY-2A. The preliminary results show that the dependency of the azimuth cut-off on the wind speed is linear only for fully developed sea states and that the agreement between the retrieved values and the measurements is good especially for high wind speed.A similar approach has been used to assess the dependency of the azimuth cut-off also for X-band COSMO-SkyMed data. The dataset is still incomplete but the preliminary results show a similar trend.

  20. Gibberellin regulates PIN-FORMED abundance and is required for auxin transport-dependent growth and development in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Willige, Björn C; Isono, Erika; Richter, René; Zourelidou, Melina; Schwechheimer, Claus

    2011-06-01

    Plants integrate different regulatory signals to control their growth and development. Although a number of physiological observations suggest that there is crosstalk between the phytohormone gibberellin (GA) and auxin, as well as with auxin transport, the molecular basis for this hormonal crosstalk remains largely unexplained. Here, we show that auxin transport is reduced in the inflorescences of Arabidopsis thaliana mutants deficient in GA biosynthesis and signaling. We further show that this reduced auxin transport correlates with a reduction in the abundance of PIN-FORMED (PIN) auxin efflux facilitators in GA-deficient plants and that PIN protein levels recover to wild-type levels following GA treatment. We also demonstrate that the regulation of PIN protein levels cannot be explained by a transcriptional regulation of the PIN genes but that GA deficiency promotes, at least in the case of PIN2, the targeting of PIN proteins for vacuolar degradation. In genetic studies, we reveal that the reduced auxin transport of GA mutants correlates with an impairment in two PIN-dependent growth processes, namely, cotyledon differentiation and root gravitropic responses. Our study thus presents evidence for a role of GA in these growth responses and for a GA-dependent modulation of PIN turnover that may be causative for these differential growth responses.

  1. Field-dependent critical state of high-Tc superconducting strip simultaneously exposed to transport current and perpendicular magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Xue, Cun; He, An; Yong, Huadong; Zhou, Youhe

    2013-12-15

    We present an exact analytical approach for arbitrary field-dependent critical state of high-T{sub c} superconducting strip with transport current. The sheet current and flux-density profiles are derived by solving the integral equations, which agree with experiments quite well. For small transport current, the approximate explicit expressions of sheet current, flux-density and penetration depth for the Kim model are derived based on the mean value theorem for integration. We also extend the results to the field-dependent critical state of superconducting strip in the simultaneous presence of applied field and transport current. The sheet current distributions calculated by the Kim model agree with experiments better than that by the Bean model. Moreover, the lines in the I{sub a}-B{sub a} plane for the Kim model are not monotonic, which is quite different from that the Bean model. The results reveal that the maximum transport current in thin superconducting strip will decrease with increasing applied field which vanishes for the Bean model. The results of this paper are useful to calculate ac susceptibility and ac loss.

  2. Constraining Upper Mantle Azimuthal Anisotropy With Free Oscillation Data (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beghein, C.; Resovsky, J. S.; van der Hilst, R. D.

    2009-12-01

    We investigate the potential of Earth's free oscillations coupled modes as a tool to constrain large-scale seismic anisotropy in the transition zone and in the bulk of the lower mantle. While the presence of seismic anisotropy is widely documented in the uppermost and the lowermost mantle, its observation at intermediate depths remains a formidable challenge. We show that several coupled modes of oscillations are sensitive to radial and azimuthal anisotropy throughout the mantle. In particular, modes of the type 0Sl-0T(l+1) have high sensitivity to shear-wave radial anisotropy and to six elastic parameters describing azimuthal anisotropy in the 200 km-1000 km depth range. The use of such data enables us thus to extend the sensitivity of traditionally used fundamental mode surface waves to depths corresponding to the transition zone and the top of the lower mantle. In addition, these modes have the potential to provide new and unique constraints on several elastic parameters to which surface waves are not sensitive. We attempted to fit degree two splitting measurements of 0Sl-0T(l+1) coupled modes using previously published isotropic and transversely isotropic mantle models, but we could not explain the entire signal. We then explored the model space with a forward modeling approach and determined that, after correction for the effect of the crust and mantle radial anisotropy, the remaining signal can be explained by the presence of azimuthal anisotropy in the upper mantle. When we allow the azimuthal anisotropy to go below 400 km depth, the data fit is slightly better and the model space search leads to better-resolved model than when we force the anisotropy to lie in the top 400 km of the mantle. Its depth extent and distribution are, however, still not well constrained by the data due to parameter tradeoffs and a limited coupled mode data set. It is thus clear that mode coupling measurements have the potential to constrain upper-mantle azimuthal anisotropy

  3. Current-direction dependence of the transport properties in single-crystalline face-centered-cubic cobalt films

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao, X.; Liang, J. H.; Chen, B. L.; Li, J. X.; Ding, Z.; Wu, Y. Z.; Ma, D. H.

    2015-07-28

    Face-centered-cubic cobalt films are epitaxially grown on insulating LaAlO{sub 3}(001) substrates by molecular beam epitaxy. Transport measurements are conducted in different current directions relative to the crystal axes. We find that the temperature dependent anisotropic magnetoresistance ratio strongly depends on the current direction. However, the anomalous Hall effect shows isotropic behavior independent of the current direction. Our results demonstrate the interplay between the current direction and the crystalline lattice in single-crystalline ferromagnetic films. A phenomenological analysis is presented to interpret the experimental data.

  4. Regulation of nitrate transport in citrus rootstocks depending on nitrogen availability.

    PubMed

    Cerezo, Miguel; Camañes, Gemma; Flors, Víctor; Primo-Millo, Eduardo; García-Agustín, Pilar

    2007-09-01

    Previously, we reported that in Citrus plants, nitrate influx through the plasmalemma of roots cells follows a biphasic pattern, suggesting the existence of at least two different uptake systems, a high and low affinity transport system (HATS and LATS, respectively). Here, we describe a novel inducible high affinity transport system (iHATS). This new nitrate transport system has a high capacity to uptake nitrate in two different Citrus rootstocks (Cleopatra mandarin and Troyer citrange). The iHATS was saturable, showing higher affinity than constitutive high affinity transport system (cHATS) to the substrate NO(3) (-). The V(max) for this saturable component iHATS was higher than cHATS, reaching similar values in both rootstocks.Additionally, we studied the regulation of root NO(3) (-) uptake mediated by both HATS (iHATS and cHATS) and LATS. In both rootstocks, cHATS is constitutive and independent of N-status. Concerning the regulation of iHATS, this system is upregulated by NO(3) (-) and down-regulated by the N status and by NO(3) (-) itself when plants are exposed to it for a longer period of time. LATS in Cleopatra mandarin and Troyer citrange rootstocks is repressed by the N-status.The use of various metabolic uncouplers or inhibitors indicated that NO(3) (-) net uptake mediated by iHATS and LATS was an active transport system in both rootstocks.

  5. Fluoride-dependent interruption of the transport cycle of a CLC Cl-/H+ antiporter.

    PubMed

    Lim, Hyun-Ho; Stockbridge, Randy B; Miller, Christopher

    2013-11-01

    Cl(-)/H(+) antiporters of the CLC superfamily transport anions across biological membranes in varied physiological contexts. These proteins are weakly selective among anions commonly studied, including Cl(-), Br(-), I(-), NO3(-) and SCN(-), but they seem to be very selective against F(-). The recent discovery of a new CLC clade of F(-)/H(+) antiporters, which are highly selective for F(-) over Cl(-), led us to investigate the mechanism of Cl(-)-over-F(-) selectivity by a CLC Cl(-)/H(+) antiporter, CLC-ec1. By subjecting purified CLC-ec1 to anion transport measurements, electrophysiological recording, equilibrium ligand-binding studies and X-ray crystallography, we show that F(-) binds in the Cl(-) transport pathway with affinity similar to Cl(-) but stalls the transport cycle. Examination of various mutant antiporters implies a 'lock-down' mechanism of F(-) inhibition, in which F(-), by virtue of its unique hydrogen-bonding chemistry, greatly retards a proton-linked conformational change essential for the transport cycle of CLC-ec1.

  6. Nuclear transport of paxillin depends on focal adhesion dynamics and FAT domains

    PubMed Central

    Sathe, Aneesh R.; Shivashankar, G. V.; Sheetz, Michael P.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The nuclear transport of paxillin appears to be crucial for paxillin function but the mechanism of transport remains unclear. Here, we show that the nuclear transport of paxillin is regulated by focal adhesion turnover and the presence of FAT domains. Focal adhesion turnover was controlled using triangular or circular fibronectin islands. Circular islands caused higher focal adhesion turnover and increased the nuclear transport of paxillin relative to triangular islands. Mutating several residues of paxillin had no effect on its nuclear transport, suggesting that the process is controlled by multiple domains. Knocking out FAK (also known as PTK2) and vinculin caused an increase in nuclear paxillin. This could be reversed by rescue with wild-type FAK but not by FAK with a mutated FAT domain, which inhibits paxillin binding. Expressing just the FAT domain of FAK not only brought down nuclear levels of paxillin but also caused a large immobile fraction of paxillin to be present at focal adhesions, as demonstrated by fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) studies. Taken together, focal adhesion turnover and FAT domains regulate the nuclear localization of paxillin, suggesting a possible role for transcriptional control, through paxillin, by focal adhesions. PMID:27068537

  7. Protonation-dependent conformational dynamics of the multidrug transporter EmrE

    PubMed Central

    Dastvan, Reza; Mishra, Smriti; Meiler, Jens; Mchaourab, Hassane S.

    2016-01-01

    The small multidrug transporter from Escherichia coli, EmrE, couples the energetically uphill extrusion of hydrophobic cations out of the cell to the transport of two protons down their electrochemical gradient. Although principal mechanistic elements of proton/substrate antiport have been described, the structural record is limited to the conformation of the substrate-bound state, which has been shown to undergo isoenergetic alternating access. A central but missing link in the structure/mechanism relationship is a description of the proton-bound state, which is an obligatory intermediate in the transport cycle. Here we report a systematic spin labeling and double electron electron resonance (DEER) study that uncovers the conformational changes of EmrE subsequent to protonation of critical acidic residues in the context of a global description of ligand-induced structural rearrangements. We find that protonation of E14 leads to extensive rotation and tilt of transmembrane helices 1–3 in conjunction with repacking of loops, conformational changes that alter the coordination of the bound substrate and modulate its access to the binding site from the lipid bilayer. The transport model that emerges from our data posits a proton-bound, but occluded, resting state. Substrate binding from the inner leaflet of the bilayer releases the protons and triggers alternating access between inward- and outward-facing conformations of the substrate-loaded transporter, thus enabling antiport without dissipation of the proton gradient. PMID:26787875

  8. Regulation of Nitrate Transport in Citrus Rootstocks Depending on Nitrogen Availability

    PubMed Central

    Cerezo, Miguel; Camañes, Gemma; Flors, Víctor; Primo-Millo, Eduardo

    2007-01-01

    Previously, we reported that in Citrus plants, nitrate influx through the plasmalemma of roots cells follows a biphasic pattern, suggesting the existence of at least two different uptake systems, a high and low affinity transport system (HATS and LATS, respectively). Here, we describe a novel inducible high affinity transport system (iHATS). This new nitrate transport system has a high capacity to uptake nitrate in two different Citrus rootstocks (Cleopatra mandarin and Troyer citrange). The iHATS was saturable, showing higher affinity than constitutive high affinity transport system (cHATS) to the substrate NO3−. The Vmax for this saturable component iHATS was higher than cHATS, reaching similar values in both rootstocks. Additionally, we studied the regulation of root NO3− uptake mediated by both HATS (iHATS and cHATS) and LATS. In both rootstocks, cHATS is constitutive and independent of N-status. Concerning the regulation of iHATS, this system is upregulated by NO3− and down-regulated by the N status and by NO3− itself when plants are exposed to it for a longer period of time. LATS in Cleopatra mandarin and Troyer citrange rootstocks is repressed by the N-status. The use of various metabolic uncouplers or inhibitors indicated that NO3− net uptake mediated by iHATS and LATS was an active transport system in both rootstocks. PMID:19516998

  9. Mammalian Glucose Transporter Activity Is Dependent upon Anionic and Conical Phospholipids*

    PubMed Central

    Hresko, Richard C.; Kraft, Thomas E.; Quigley, Andrew; Carpenter, Elisabeth P.; Hruz, Paul W.

    2016-01-01

    The regulated movement of glucose across mammalian cell membranes is mediated by facilitative glucose transporters (GLUTs) embedded in lipid bilayers. Despite the known importance of phospholipids in regulating protein structure and activity, the lipid-induced effects on the GLUTs remain poorly understood. We systematically examined the effects of physiologically relevant phospholipids on glucose transport in liposomes containing purified GLUT4 and GLUT3. The anionic phospholipids, phosphatidic acid, phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylglycerol, and phosphatidylinositol, were found to be essential for transporter function by activating it and stabilizing its structure. Conical lipids, phosphatidylethanolamine and diacylglycerol, enhanced transporter activity up to 3-fold in the presence of anionic phospholipids but did not stabilize protein structure. Kinetic analyses revealed that both lipids increase the kcat of transport without changing the Km values. These results allowed us to elucidate the activation of GLUT by plasma membrane phospholipids and to extend the field of membrane protein-lipid interactions to the family of structurally and functionally related human solute carriers. PMID:27302065

  10. Coupling Substrate and Ion Binding to Extracellular Gate of a Sodium-Dependent Aspartate Transporter

    SciTech Connect

    Boudker,O.; Ryan, R.; Yernool, D.; Shimamoto, K.; Gouaux, E.

    2007-01-01

    Secondary transporters are integral membrane proteins that catalyze the movement of substrate molecules across the lipid bilayer by coupling substrate transport to one or more ion gradients, thereby providing a mechanism for the concentrative uptake of substrates. Here we describe crystallographic and thermodynamic studies of Glt{sub Ph}, a sodium (Na{sup +})-coupled aspartate transporter, defining sites for aspartate, two sodium ions and D,L-threo-{beta}-benzyloxyaspartate, an inhibitor. We further show that helical hairpin 2 is the extracellular gate that controls access of substrate and ions to the internal binding sites. At least two sodium ions bind in close proximity to the substrate and these sodium-binding sites, together with the sodium-binding sites in another sodium-coupled transporter, LeuT, define an unwound {alpha}-helix as the central element of the ion-binding motif, a motif well suited to the binding of sodium and to participation in conformational changes that accompany ion binding and unbinding during the transport cycle.

  11. Automobile dependence in cities: An international comparison of urban transport and land use patterns with implications for sustainability

    SciTech Connect

    Kenworthy, J.R.; Laube, F.B.

    1996-07-01

    Cities around the world are subject to increasing levels of environmental impact from dependence on the automobile. In the highly auto-dependent cities of the US and Australia, this is manifested in problems such as urban sprawl and its destruction of prime farming land and natural landscapes, photochemical smog that can be primarily attributed to auto emissions. On top of the more local impacts of the automobile, the global dimension should not be forgotten. Perhaps the two most pressing issues in this regard are the oil problem and the greenhouse problem. A comparison of global cities over the period 1980 to 1990 reveals large differences in automobile dependence with implications for the future sustainability of cities in different countries. This study explores some of the underlying land use, transport, and economic reasons for these different transport patterns. It briefly reviews what the sustainability agenda means for transport and land use patterns in cities and suggests a suite of targets or goals for sustainability by which cities might measure their current directions and plans.

  12. Na+-dependent and Na+-independent betaine transport across the apical membrane of rat renal epithelium.

    PubMed

    Cano, Mercedes; Calonge, María L; Ilundáin, Anunciación A

    2015-10-01

    The low renal excretion of betaine indicates that the kidney efficiently reabsorbs the betaine filtered by the glomeruli but the mechanisms involved in such a process have been scarcely investigated. We have detected concentrative and non-concentrative betaine transport activity in brush-border membrane vesicles (BBMV) from rat renal cortex and medulla. The concentrative system is the Sodium/Imino-acid Transporter 1 (SIT1) because it is Na+- and Cl--dependent, electrogenic and is inhibited by an anti-SIT1 antibody. Its apparent affinity constant for betaine, Kt, is 1.1±0.5 mM and its maximal transport velocity, Vmax, 0.5±0.1 nmol betaine/mg protein/s. Inhibitors of the Na+/Cl-/betaine uptake are L-proline (75%) and cold betaine, L-carnitine and choline (40-60%). Neither creatine, TEA, taurine, β-alanine, GABA nor glycine significantly inhibited Na+/Cl-/betaine uptake. The non-concentrative betaine transport system is Na+- and H+-independent, electroneutral, with a Kt for betaine of 47±7 μM and a Vmax of 7.8±1 pmol betaine/mg protein/s. Its transport activity is nearly abolished by betaine, followed by L-carnitine (70-80%) and proline (40-50%), but a difference from the Na+/Cl-/betaine transport is that it is inhibited by TEA (approx. 50%) and unaffected by choline. The underlying carrier functions as an antiporter linking betaine entry into the BBMV with the efflux of either L-carnitine or betaine, an exchange unaffected by the anti-SIT1 antibody. As far as we know this is the first work reporting that betaine crosses the apical membrane of rat renal epithelium by SIT1 and by a Na+- and H+-independent transport system.

  13. Search for gyrokinetic dependencies in helium transport at Alcator C-Mod

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Kenneth; Rowan, William; Hatch, David; Bespamyatnov, Igor; Horton, Wendell

    2013-10-01

    Helium-3 and helium-4 impurity transport measurements and density profile measurements have been obtained on Alcator C-Mod in a variety of discharge conditions, using the core Charge Exchange Recombination Spectroscopy (CXRS) diagnostic. The helium concentrations range from trace (< 2 %) to large minority (~ 20 %). L-mode, H-mode, and I-mode results are included, with Ohmic heated, ICRF heated, and LH heated plasmas. Helium profiles are observed to vary with plasma current, and also change in time during ICRF shots. Linear and nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations are performed for some shots using the GENE code. Sensitivity scans are done for magnetic shear, impurity density, and other plasma parameters and transport scalings are compared with experimental results. Simulated transport flux is compared with experimentally derived D and v parameters. Supported by USDoE awards DE-FG03-96ER-54373 and DE-FC02-99ER54512.

  14. Na(+)-dependent glutamate transporters (EAAT1, EAAT2, and EAAT3) of the blood-brain barrier. A mechanism for glutamate removal.

    PubMed

    O'Kane, R L; Martínez-López, I; DeJoseph, M R; Viña, J R; Hawkins, R A

    1999-11-05

    Na(+)-dependent transporters for glutamate exist on astrocytes (EAAT1 and EAAT2) and neurons (EAAT3). These transporters presumably assist in keeping the glutamate concentration low in the extracellular fluid of brain. Recently, Na(+)-dependent glutamate transport was described on the abluminal membrane of the blood-brain barrier. To determine whether the above-mentioned transporters participate in glutamate transport of the blood-brain barrier, total RNA was extracted from bovine cerebral capillaries. cDNA for EAAT1, EAAT2, and EAAT3 was observed, indicating that mRNA was present. Western blot analysis demonstrated all three transporters were expressed on abluminal membranes, but none was detectable on luminal membranes of the blood-brain barrier. Measurement of transport kinetics demonstrated voltage dependence, K(+)-dependence, and an apparent K(m) of 14 microM (aggregate of the three transporters) at a transmembrane potential of -61 mV. Inhibition of glutamate transport was observed using inhibitors specific for EAAT2 (kainic acid and dihydrokainic acid) and EAAT3 (cysteine). The relative activity of the three transporters was found to be approximately 1:3:6 for EAAT1, EAAT2, and EAAT3, respectively. These transporters may assist in maintaining low glutamate concentrations in the extracellular fluid.

  15. Azimuthal Decorrelation of Jets Widely Separated in Rapidity

    SciTech Connect

    Abachi, S.; Abbott, B.; Abolins, M.; Acharya, B.S.; Adam, I.; Adams, D.L.; Adams, M.; Ahn, S.; Aihara, H.; Alitti, J.; Alvarez, G.; Alves, G.A.; Amidi, E.; Amos, N.; Anderson, E.W.; Aronson, S.H.; Astur, R.; Avery, R.E.; Baarmand, M.M.; Baden, A.; Balamurali, V.; Balderston, J.; Baldin, B.; Banerjee, S.; Bantly, J.; Bartlett, J.F.; Bazizi, K.; Bendich, J.; Beri, S.B.; Bertram, I.; Bezzubov, V.A.; Bhat, P.C.; Bhatnagar, V.; Bhattacharjee, M.; Bischoff, A.; Biswas, N.; Blazey, G.; Blessing, S.; Bloom, P.; Boehnlein, A.; Bojko, N.I.; Borcherding, F.; Borders, J.; Boswell, C.; Brandt, A.; Brock, R.; Bross, A.; Buchholz, D.; Burtovoi, V.S.; Butler, J.M.; Carvalho, W.; Casey, D.; Castilla-Valdez, H.; Chakraborty, D.; Chang, S.; Chekulaev, S.V.; Chen, L.; Chen, W.; Choi, S.; Chopra, S.; Choudhary, B.C.; Christenson, J.H.; Chung, M.; Claes, D.; Clark, A.R.; Cobau, W.G.; Cochran, J.; Cooper, W.E.; Cretsinger, C.; Cullen-Vidal, D.; Cummings, M.A.; Cutts, D.; Dahl, O.I.; De, K.; Demarteau, M.; Denisenko, N.; Denisov, D.; Denisov, S.P.; Diehl, H.T.; Diesburg, M.; Di Loreto, G.; Dixon, R.; Draper, P.; Drinkard, J.; Ducros, Y.; Dugad, S.R.; Edmunds, D.; Ellison, J.; Elvira, V.D.; Engelmann, R.; Eno, S.; Eppley, G.; Ermolov, P.; Eroshin, O.V.; Evdokimov, V.N.; Fahey, S.; Fahland, T.; Fatyga, M.; Fatyga, M.K.; Featherly, J.; Feher, S.; Fein, D.; Ferbel, T.; Finocchiaro, G.; Fisk, H.E.; Fisyak, Y.; Flattum, E.; Forden, G.E.; Fortner, M.; Frame, K.C.; Franzini, P.; Fuess, S.; Gallas, E.; Galyaev, A.N.; Geld, T.; Genik, R.J. II; Genser, K.; Gerber, C.E.; Gibbard, B.; Glebov, V.; Glenn, S.; Glicenstein, J.F.; Gobbi, B.; Goforth, M.; Goldschmidt, A.; Gomez, B.; Gomez, G.; Goncharov, P.I.; Gonzalez Solis, J.L.; Gordon, H.; Goss, L.T.; Graf, N.; Grannis, P.D.; Green, D.R.; Green, J.; Greenlee, H.; Griffin, G.; Grossman, N.; Grudberg, P.; Gruenendahl, S.; Gu, W.X.; Guglielmo, G.; Guida, J.A.; Guida, J.M.; Guryn, W.; Gurzhiev, S.N.; Gutierrez, P.; Gutnikov, Y.E.; Hadley, N.J.

    1996-07-01

    This study reports the first measurement of the azimuthal decorrelation between jets with pseudorapidity separation up to five units. The data were accumulated using the D0 detector during the 1992{endash}1993 collider run of the Fermilab Tevatron at {radical}{ital s}=1.8 TeV. These results are compared to next-to-leading order (NLO) QCD predictions and to two leading-log approximations (LLA) where the leading-log terms are resummed to all orders in {alpha}{sub {ital S}}. The final state jets as predicted by NLO QCD show less azimuthal decorrelation than the data. The parton showering LLA Monte Carlo HERWIG describes the data well; an analytical LLA prediction based on Balitsky-Fadin-Kuraev-Lipatov resummation shows more decorrelation than the data. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  16. Synthetic aperture radar range - Azimuth ambiguity design and constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehlis, J. G.

    1980-01-01

    Problems concerning the design of a system for mapping a planetary surface with a synthetic aperture radar (SAR) are considered. Given an ambiguity level, resolution, and swath width, the problems are related to the determination of optimum antenna apertures and the most suitable pulse repetition frequency (PRF). From the set of normalized azimuth ambiguity ratio curves, the designer can arrive at the azimuth antenna length, and from the sets of normalized range ambiguity ratio curves, he can arrive at the range aperture length or pulse repetition frequency. A procedure based on this design method is shown in an example. The normalized curves provide results for a SAR using a uniformly or cosine weighted rectangular antenna aperture.

  17. Initial state azimuthal anisotropies in small collision systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lappi, T.

    2016-12-01

    Strong multiparticle azimuthal correlations have recently been observed in high energy proton-nucleus collisions. While final state collective effects can be responsible for many of the observed effects, the domain structure in the classical color field of a high energy nucleus, naturally also leads to such multiparticle correlations. We describe recent calculations of the momentum space 2-particle cumulant azimuthal anisotropy coefficients νn { 2 }, n = 2 , 3 , 4 from fundamental representation Wilson line distributions describing the high energy nucleus. We find significant differences between Wilson lines from the MV model and from JIMWLK evolution. We also discuss the relation of this calculation to earlier work on the ridge correlation obtained in the "glasma graph" approximation, and to the "color electric field domain model."

  18. Diffraction theory for azimuthally structured Fresnel zone plate.

    PubMed

    Vierke, Thordis; Jahns, Jürgen

    2014-02-01

    A conventional Fresnel zone plate (FZP) consists of concentric rings with an alternating binary transmission of zero and one. In an azimuthally structured Fresnel zone plate (aFZP), the light transmission of the transparent zones is modulated in the azimuthal direction, too. The resulting structure is of interest for extreme ultraviolet and x-ray imaging, in particular, because of its improved mechanical stability as compared to the simple ring structure of an FZP. Here, we present an analysis of the optical performance of the aFZP based on scalar diffraction theory and show numerical results for the light distribution in the focal plane. These will be complemented by calculations of the optical transfer function.

  19. AtCCX3 is an Arabidopsis endomembrane H(+)-dependent K(+) transporter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Arabidopsis ("Arabidopsis thaliana") cation calcium exchangers (CCXs) were recently identified as a subfamily of cation transporters; however, no plant "CCXs" have been functionally characterized. Here, we show that Arabidopsis AtCCX3 (At3g14070) and AtCCX4 (At1g54115) can suppress yeast mutants...

  20. Drosophila Vision Depends on Carcinine Uptake by an Organic Cation Transporter.

    PubMed

    Chaturvedi, Ratna; Luan, Zhuo; Guo, Peiyi; Li, Hong-Sheng

    2016-03-08

    Recycling of neurotransmitters is essential for sustained neuronal signaling, yet recycling pathways for various transmitters, including histamine, remain poorly understood. In the first visual ganglion (lamina) of Drosophila, photoreceptor-released histamine is taken up into perisynaptic glia, converted to carcinine, and delivered back to the photoreceptor for histamine regeneration. Here, we identify an organic cation transporter, CarT (carcinine transporter), that transports carcinine into photoreceptors during histamine recycling. CarT mediated in vitro uptake of carcinine. Deletion of the CarT gene caused an accumulation of carcinine in laminar glia accompanied by a reduction in histamine, resulting in abolished photoreceptor signal transmission and blindness in behavioral assays. These defects were rescued by expression of CarT cDNA in photoreceptors, and they were reproduced by photoreceptor-specific CarT knockdown. Our findings suggest a common role for the conserved family of CarT-like transporters in maintaining histamine homeostasis in both mammalian and fly brains.

  1. Molecular dynamics simulations of Na+/Cl(-)-dependent neurotransmitter transporters in a membrane-aqueous system.

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, Anne Marie; Tagmose, Lena; Jørgensen, Anne Marie M; Bøgesø, Klaus P; Peters, Günther H

    2007-06-01

    We have performed molecular dynamics simulations of a homology model of the human serotonin transporter (hSERT) in a membrane environment and in complex with either the natural substrate 5-HT or the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor escitalopram. We have also included a transporter homologue, the Aquifex aeolicus leucine transporter (LeuT), in our study to evaluate the applicability of a simple and computationally attractive membrane system. Fluctuations in LeuT extracted from simulations are in good agreement with crystallographic B factors. Furthermore, key interactions identified in the X-ray structure of LeuT are maintained throughout the simulations indicating that our simple membrane system is suitable for studying the transmembrane protein hSERT in complex with 5-HT or escitalopram. For these transporter complexes, only relatively small fluctuations are observed in the ligand-binding cleft. Specific interactions responsible for ligand recognition, are identified in the hSERT-5HT and hSERT-escitalopram complexes. Our findings are in good agreement with predictions from mutagenesis studies.

  2. Coupled Factors Influencing Concentration Dependent Colloid Transport and Retention in Saturated Porous Media

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The coupled influence of input suspension concentration (Ci), ionic strength (IS) and hydrodynamics on the transport and retention of 1.1 'm carboxyl modified latex colloids in saturated quartz sand (150 'm) was investigated. Results from batch experiments and interaction energy calculations indica...

  3. A KINETIC MODEL FOR CELL DENSITY DEPENDENT BACTERIAL TRANSPORT IN POROUS MEDIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    A kinetic transport model with the ability to account for variations in cell density of the aqueous and solid phases was developed for bacteria in porous media. Sorption kinetics in the advective-dispersive-sorptive equation was described by assuming that adsorption was proportio...

  4. Azimuthal Anisotropy in U +U and Au +Au Collisions at RHIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamczyk, L.; Adkins, J. K.; Agakishiev, G.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Ahammed, Z.; Alekseev, I.; Alford, J.; Aparin, A.; Arkhipkin, D.; Aschenauer, E. C.; Averichev, G. S.; Banerjee, A.; Bellwied, R.; Bhasin, A.; Bhati, A. K.; Bhattarai, P.; Bielcik, J.; Bielcikova, J.; Bland, L. C.; Bordyuzhin, I. G.; Bouchet, J.; Brandin, A. V.; Bunzarov, I.; Burton, T. P.; Butterworth, J.; Caines, H.; Calderón de la Barca Sánchez, M.; Campbell, J. M.; Cebra, D.; Cervantes, M. C.; Chakaberia, I.; Chaloupka, P.; Chang, Z.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chen, J. H.; Chen, X.; Cheng, J.; Cherney, M.; Christie, W.; Contin, G.; Crawford, H. J.; Das, S.; De Silva, L. C.; Debbe, R. R.; Dedovich, T. G.; Deng, J.; Derevschikov, A. A.; di Ruzza, B.; Didenko, L.; Dilks, C.; Dong, X.; Drachenberg, J. L.; Draper, J. E.; Du, C. M.; Dunkelberger, L. E.; Dunlop, J. C.; Efimov, L. G.; Engelage, J.; Eppley, G.; Esha, R.; Evdokimov, O.; Eyser, O.; Fatemi, R.; Fazio, S.; Federic, P.; Fedorisin, J.; Feng, Z.; Filip, P.; Fisyak, Y.; Flores, C. E.; Fulek, L.; Gagliardi, C. A.; Garand, D.; Geurts, F.; Gibson, A.; Girard, M.; Greiner, L.; Grosnick, D.; Gunarathne, D. S.; Guo, Y.; Gupta, S.; Gupta, A.; Guryn, W.; Hamad, A.; Hamed, A.; Haque, R.; Harris, J. W.; He, L.; Heppelmann, S.; Heppelmann, S.; Hirsch, A.; Hoffmann, G. W.; Hofman, D. J.; Horvat, S.; Huang, H. Z.; Huang, B.; Huang, X.; Huck, P.; Humanic, T. J.; Igo, G.; Jacobs, W. W.; Jang, H.; Jiang, K.; Judd, E. G.; Kabana, S.; Kalinkin, D.; Kang, K.; Kauder, K.; Ke, H. W.; Keane, D.; Kechechyan, A.; Khan, Z. H.; Kikola, D. P.; Kisel, I.; Kisiel, A.; Koetke, D. D.; Kollegger, T.; Kosarzewski, L. K.; Kotchenda, L.; Kraishan, A. F.; Kravtsov, P.; Krueger, K.; Kulakov, I.; Kumar, L.; Kycia, R. A.; Lamont, M. A. C.; Landgraf, J. M.; Landry, K. D.; Lauret, J.; Lebedev, A.; Lednicky, R.; Lee, J. H.; Li, W.; Li, Y.; Li, C.; Li, Z. M.; Li, X.; Li, X.; Lisa, M. A.; Liu, F.; Ljubicic, T.; Llope, W. J.; Lomnitz, M.; Longacre, R. S.; Luo, X.; Ma, L.; Ma, R.; Ma, Y. G.; Ma, G. L.; Magdy, N.; Majka, R.; Manion, A.; Margetis, S.; Markert, C.; Masui, H.; Matis, H. S.; McDonald, D.; Meehan, K.; Minaev, N. G.; Mioduszewski, S.; Mohanty, B.; Mondal, M. M.; Morozov, D. A.; Mustafa, M. K.; Nandi, B. K.; Nasim, Md.; Nayak, T. K.; Nigmatkulov, G.; Nogach, L. V.; Noh, S. Y.; Novak, J.; Nurushev, S. B.; Odyniec, G.; Ogawa, A.; Oh, K.; Okorokov, V.; Olvitt, D. L.; Page, B. S.; Pak, R.; Pan, Y. X.; Pandit, Y.; Panebratsev, Y.; Pawlik, B.; Pei, H.; Perkins, C.; Peterson, A.; Pile, P.; Planinic, M.; Pluta, J.; Poljak, N.; Poniatowska, K.; Porter, J.; Posik, M.; Poskanzer, A. M.; Pruthi, N. K.; Putschke, J.; Qiu, H.; Quintero, A.; Ramachandran, S.; Raniwala, S.; Raniwala, R.; Ray, R. L.; Ritter, H. G.; Roberts, J. B.; Rogachevskiy, O. V.; Romero, J. L.; Roy, A.; Ruan, L.; Rusnak, J.; Rusnakova, O.; Sahoo, N. R.; Sahu, P. K.; Sakrejda, I.; Salur, S.; Sandweiss, J.; Sarkar, A.; Schambach, J.; Scharenberg, R. P.; Schmah, A. M.; Schmidke, W. B.; Schmitz, N.; Seger, J.; Seyboth, P.; Shah, N.; Shahaliev, E.; Shanmuganathan, P. V.; Shao, M.; Sharma, B.; Sharma, M. K.; Shen, W. Q.; Shi, S. S.; Shou, Q. Y.; Sichtermann, E. P.; Sikora, R.; Simko, M.; Skoby, M. J.; Smirnov, D.; Smirnov, N.; Song, L.; Sorensen, P.; Spinka, H. M.; Srivastava, B.; Stanislaus, T. D. S.; Stepanov, M.; Stock, R.; Strikhanov, M.; Stringfellow, B.; Sumbera, M.; Summa, B. J.; Sun, X.; Sun, X. M.; Sun, Z.; Sun, Y.; Surrow, B.; Svirida, D. N.; Szelezniak, M. A.; Tang, Z.; Tang, A. H.; Tarnowsky, T.; Tawfik, A. N.; Thomas, J. H.; Timmins, A. R.; Tlusty, D.; Tokarev, M.; Trentalange, S.; Tribble, R. E.; Tribedy, P.; Tripathy, S. K.; Trzeciak, B. A.; Tsai, O. D.; Ullrich, T.; Underwood, D. G.; Upsal, I.; Van Buren, G.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G.; Vandenbroucke, M.; Varma, R.; Vasiliev, A. N.; Vertesi, R.; Videbaek, F.; Viyogi, Y. P.; Vokal, S.; Voloshin, S. A.; Vossen, A.; Wang, F.; Wang, Y.; Wang, H.; Wang, J. S.; Wang, Y.; Wang, G.; Webb, G.; Webb, J. C.; Wen, L.; Westfall, G. D.; Wieman, H.; Wissink, S. W.; Witt, R.; Wu, Y. F.; Xiao, Z.; Xie, W.; Xin, K.; Xu, Y. F.; Xu, N.; Xu, Z.; Xu, Q. H.; Xu, H.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Y.; Yang, C.; Yang, S.; Yang, Q.; Ye, Z.; Yepes, P.; Yi, L.; Yip, K.; Yoo, I.-K.; Yu, N.; Zbroszczyk, H.; Zha, W.; Zhang, X. P.; Zhang, J. B.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zhang, S.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, J. L.; Zhao, F.; Zhao, J.; Zhong, C.; Zhou, L.; Zhu, X.; Zoulkarneeva, Y.; Zyzak, M.; STAR Collaboration

    2015-11-01

    Collisions between prolate uranium nuclei are used to study how particle production and azimuthal anisotropies depend on initial geometry in heavy-ion collisions. We report the two- and four-particle cumulants, v2{2 } and v2{4 }, for charged hadrons from U +U collisions at √{sNN }=193 GeV and Au +Au collisions at √{sNN}=200 GeV . Nearly fully overlapping collisions are selected based on the energy deposited by spectators in zero degree calorimeters (ZDCs). Within this sample, the observed dependence of v2{2 } on multiplicity demonstrates that ZDC information combined with multiplicity can preferentially select different overlap configurations in U +U collisions. We also show that v2 vs multiplicity can be better described by models, such as gluon saturation or quark participant models, that eliminate the dependence of the multiplicity on the number of binary nucleon-nucleon collisions.

  5. Propagation along azimuthally magnetized ferrite-loaded circular waveguides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, R. S.; Rosenbaum, F. J.

    1977-01-01

    The paper describes the modal dispersion characteristics of electromagnetic waves traveling along the azimuthally magnetized ferrite-loaded coaxial transmission line and the ferrite-loaded wire. The modal dispersion curves are used to determine the pass and stop bands of normal propagation. Boundary-value problems were solved with Bolle-Heller functions. The dispersion characteristics of transverse electric modes are presented as plots of the normalized propagation constant vs the normalized frequency.

  6. Theoretical Aspects of Azimuthal and Transverse Spin Asymmetries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulders, P. J.; Henneman, A. A.; Boer, D.

    2002-10-01

    We use Lorentz invariance and the QCD equations of motion to study the evolution of functions that appear at leading (zeroth) order in a 1/Q expansion in azimuthal asymmetries. This includes the evolution equation of the Collins fragmentation function. The moments of these functions are matrix elements of known twist two and twist three operators. We present the evolution in the large Nc limit, restricted to the non-singlet case for the chiral-even functions.

  7. Production of radially and azimuthally polarized polychromatic beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shoham, A.; Vander, R.; Lipson, S. G.

    2006-12-01

    We describe a system that efficiently provides radially or azimuthally polarized radiation from a randomly polarized source. It is constructed from two conical reflectors and a cylindrical sheet of polarizing film. Envisaged applications include a microscope illuminator for high-resolution surface plasmon resonance microscopy, illumination for high-resolution microlithography, and efficient coupling of a laser source to hollow optical fibers. The angular coherence function of light polarized by the device was measured to evaluate its usefulness for these applications.

  8. Exact Steady Azimuthal Edge Waves in Rotating Fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ionescu-Kruse, Delia

    2016-09-01

    The full problem of water waves travelling along a constant sloping beach with the shoreline parallel to the Equator, written in a moving frame with the origin at a point on the rotating Earth is introduced. An exact steady solution of this problem moving only in the azimuthal direction, with no variations in this direction, is obtained. The solution is discussed in turn in spherical coordinates, in cylindrical coordinates and in the tangent-plan approximations.

  9. AN AZIMUTHAL ASYMMETRY IN THE LkHα 330 DISK

    SciTech Connect

    Isella, Andrea; Carpenter, John M.; Ricci, Luca; Pérez, Laura M.; Andrews, Sean; Rosenfeld, Katherine

    2013-09-20

    Theory predicts that giant planets and low mass stellar companions shape circumstellar disks by opening annular gaps in the gas and dust spatial distribution. For more than a decade it has been debated whether this is the dominant process that leads to the formation of transitional disks. In this paper, we present millimeter-wave interferometric observations of the transitional disk around the young intermediate mass star LkHα 330. These observations reveal a lopsided ring in the 1.3 mm dust thermal emission characterized by a radius of about 100 AU and an azimuthal intensity variation of a factor of two. By comparing the observations with a Gaussian parametric model, we find that the observed asymmetry is consistent with a circular arc, that extends azimuthally by about 90° and emits about 1/3 of the total continuum flux at 1.3 mm. Hydrodynamic simulations show that this structure is similar to the azimuthal asymmetries in the disk surface density that might be produced by the dynamical interaction with unseen low mass companions orbiting within 70 AU from the central star. We argue that such asymmetries might lead to azimuthal variations in the millimeter-wave dust opacity and in the dust temperature, which will also affect the millimeter-wave continuum emission. Alternative explanations for the observed asymmetry that do not require the presence of companions cannot be ruled out with the existing data. Further observations of both the dust and molecular gas emission are required to derive firm conclusions on the origin of the asymmetry observed in the LkHα 330 disk.

  10. Azimuthal asymmetry in the risetime of the surface detector signals of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    DOE PAGES

    Aab, Alexander

    2016-04-07

    The azimuthal asymmetry in the risetime of signals in Auger surface detector stations is a source of information on shower development. The azimuthal asymmetry is due to a combination of the longitudinal evolution of the shower and geometrical effects related to the angles of incidence of the particles into the detectors. The magnitude of the effect depends upon the zenith angle and state of development of the shower and thus provides a novel observable, (secθ)max, sensitive to the mass composition of cosmic rays above 3 x 1018 eV. By comparing measurements with predictions from shower simulations, we find for bothmore » of our adopted models of hadronic physics (QGSJETII-04 and EPOS-LHC) an indication that the mean cosmic-ray mass increases slowly with energy, as has been inferred from other studies. However, the mass estimates are dependent on the shower model and on the range of distance from the shower core selected. Furthermore, the method has uncovered further deficiencies in our understanding of shower modelling that must be resolved before the mass composition can be inferred from (secθ)max.« less

  11. Measurements of di-hadron correlations and azimuthal anisotropies in the BES at RHIC by STAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Liao; STAR Collaboration

    2015-04-01

    The Beam Energy Scan (BES) program at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) aims to vary the temperature and baryon-chemical potential of the medium formed from heavy-ion collisions, by colliding Au nuclei at energies from 7.7 GeV to 200 GeV (center of mass energy per nucleon). In doing so, it hopes to create a map of the Quantum ChromoDynamical (QCD) phase diagram of nuclear matter, and determine at which temperature Quark Gluon Plasma (QGP) formation occurs. Spatial inhomogeneities in the initial state of the collision can create pressure gradients in the QGP, which induce anisotropies among produced particles, known as azimuthal anisotropy. These anisotropies manifest themselves as the ridge in di-hadron correlations, which has been extensively studied at the top the RHIC energies and the LHC. We will present some preliminary measurements of di-hadron correlations from√{sNN} = 7.7, 11.5, 19.6, 27 and 39 GeV BES data, and the azimuthal anisotropy parameters v2 { 2 } and v3 { 2 } obtained from the ΔηΔϕ correlation function, and compare with previous STAR results at top (or higher) RHIC energies. We will also look at the Δη gap dependence and the energy dependence of these anisotropy parameters.

  12. Azimuthal asymmetry in the risetime of the surface detector signals of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    SciTech Connect

    Aab, Alexander

    2016-04-07

    The azimuthal asymmetry in the risetime of signals in Auger surface detector stations is a source of information on shower development. The azimuthal asymmetry is due to a combination of the longitudinal evolution of the shower and geometrical effects related to the angles of incidence of the particles into the detectors. The magnitude of the effect depends upon the zenith angle and state of development of the shower and thus provides a novel observable, (secθ)max, sensitive to the mass composition of cosmic rays above 3 x 1018 eV. By comparing measurements with predictions from shower simulations, we find for both of our adopted models of hadronic physics (QGSJETII-04 and EPOS-LHC) an indication that the mean cosmic-ray mass increases slowly with energy, as has been inferred from other studies. However, the mass estimates are dependent on the shower model and on the range of distance from the shower core selected. Furthermore, the method has uncovered further deficiencies in our understanding of shower modelling that must be resolved before the mass composition can be inferred from (secθ)max.

  13. Azimuthal asymmetry in the risetime of the surface detector signals of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aab, A.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Al Samarai, I.; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Allekotte, I.; Allison, P.; Almela, A.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; Alvarez-Muñiz, J.; Alves Batista, R.; Ambrosio, M.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andrada, B.; Andringa, S.; Aramo, C.; Arqueros, F.; Arsene, N.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Aublin, J.; Avila, G.; Awal, N.; Badescu, A. M.; Baus, C.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker, K. H.; Bellido, J. A.; Berat, C.; Bertaina, M. E.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blaess, S. G.; Blanco, A.; Blazek, J.; Bleve, C.; Blümer, H.; Boháčová, M.; Boncioli, D.; Bonifazi, C.; Borodai, N.; Botti, A. M.; Brack, J.; Brancus, I.; Bretz, T.; Bridgeman, A.; Briechle, F. L.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Buitink, S.; Buscemi, M.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Caccianiga, B.; Caccianiga, L.; Cancio, A.; Candusso, M.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Castellina, A.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Chavez, A. G.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chirinos Diaz, J. C.; Chudoba, J.; Clay, R. W.; Colalillo, R.; Coleman, A.; Collica, L.; Coluccia, M. R.; Conceição, R.; Contreras, F.; Cooper, M. J.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Cronin, J.; Dallier, R.; D'Amico, S.; Daniel, B.; Dasso, S.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; de Jong, S. J.; De Mauro, G.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; De Mitri, I.; de Oliveira, J.; de Souza, V.; Debatin, J.; Deligny, O.; Dhital, N.; Di Giulio, C.; Di Matteo, A.; Díaz Castro, M. L.; Diogo, F.; Dobrigkeit, C.; Docters, W.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dorofeev, A.; dos Anjos, R. C.; Dova, M. T.; Dundovic, A.; Ebr, J.; Engel, R.; Erdmann, M.; Erfani, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Espadanal, J.; Etchegoyen, A.; Falcke, H.; Fang, K.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferguson, A. P.; Fick, B.; Figueira, J. M.; Filevich, A.; Filipčič, A.; Fratu, O.; Freire, M. M.; Fujii, T.; Fuster, A.; Gallo, F.; García, B.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Gate, F.; Gemmeke, H.; Gherghel-Lascu, A.; Ghia, P. L.; Giaccari, U.; Giammarchi, M.; Giller, M.; Głas, D.; Glaser, C.; Glass, H.; Golup, G.; Gómez Berisso, M.; Gómez Vitale, P. F.; González, N.; Gookin, B.; Gordon, J.; Gorgi, A.; Gorham, P.; Gouffon, P.; Griffith, N.; Grillo, A. F.; Grubb, T. D.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Hampel, M. R.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harrison, T. A.; Harton, J. L.; Hasankiadeh, Q.; Haungs, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heck, D.; Heimann, P.; Herve, A. E.; Hill, G. C.; Hojvat, C.; Hollon, N.; Holt, E.; Homola, P.; Hörandel, J. R.; Horvath, P.; Hrabovský, M.; Huege, T.; Insolia, A.; Isar, P. G.; Jandt, I.; Jansen, S.; Jarne, C.; Johnsen, J. A.; Josebachuili, M.; Kääpä, A.; Kambeitz, O.; Kampert, K. H.; Kasper, P.; Katkov, I.; Keilhauer, B.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Krause, R.; Krohm, N.; Kuempel, D.; Kukec Mezek, G.; Kunka, N.; Kuotb Awad, A.; LaHurd, D.; Latronico, L.; Lauscher, M.; Lautridou, P.; Lebrun, P.; Leigui de Oliveira, M. A.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Link, K.; Lopes, L.; López, R.; López Casado, A.; Lucero, A.; Malacari, M.; Mallamaci, M.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Marin, V.; Mariş, I. C.; Marsella, G.; Martello, D.; Martinez, H.; Martínez Bravo, O.; Masías Meza, J. J.; Mathes, H. J.; Mathys, S.; Matthews, J.; Matthews, J. A. J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurizio, D.; Mayotte, E.; Mazur, P. O.; Medina, C.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Mello, V. B. B.; Melo, D.; Menshikov, A.; Messina, S.; Micheletti, M. I.; Middendorf, L.; Minaya, I. A.; Miramonti, L.; Mitrica, B.; Molina-Bueno, L.; Mollerach, S.; Montanet, F.; Morello, C.; Mostafá, M.; Moura, C. A.; Müller, G.; Muller, M. A.; Müller, S.; Naranjo, I.; Navas, S.; Necesal, P.; Nellen, L.; Nelles, A.; Neuser, J.; Nguyen, P. H.; Niculescu-Oglinzanu, M.; Niechciol, M.; Niemietz, L.; Niggemann, T.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Novotny, V.; Nožka, H.; Núñez, L. A.; Ochilo, L.; Oikonomou, F.; Olinto, A.; Pakk Selmi-Dei, D.; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Papenbreer, P.; Parente, G.; Parra, A.; Paul, T.; Pech, M.; Pekala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Peña-Rodriguez, J.; Pepe, I. M.; Pereira, L. A. S.; Perrone, L.; Petermann, E.; Peters, C.; Petrera, S.; Phuntsok, J.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pieroni, P.; Pimenta, M.; Pirronello, V.; Platino, M.; Plum, M.; Porowski, C.; Prado, R. R.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Quel, E. J.; Querchfeld, S.; Quinn, S.; Rautenberg, J.; Ravel, O.; Ravignani, D.; Reinert, D.; Revenu, B.; Ridky, J.; Risse, M.; Ristori, P.; Rizi, V.; Rodrigues de Carvalho, W.; Rodriguez Rojo, J.; Rogozin, D.; Rosado, J.; Roth, M.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Saffi, S. J.; Saftoiu, A.; Salazar, H.; Saleh, A.; Salesa Greus, F.; Salina, G.; Sanabria Gomez, J. D.; Sánchez, F.; Sanchez-Lucas, P.; Santos, E. M.; Santos, E.; Sarazin, F.; Sarkar, B.; Sarmento, R.; Sarmiento-Cano, C.; Sato, R.; Scarso, C.; Schauer, M.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schmidt, D.; Scholten, O.; Schoorlemmer, H.; Schovánek, P.; Schröder, F. G.; Schulz, A.; Schulz, J.; Schumacher, J.; Sciutto, S. J.; Segreto, A.; Settimo, M.; Shadkam, A.; Shellard, R. C.; Sigl, G.; Sima, O.; Śmiałkowski, A.; Šmída, R.; Snow, G. R.; Sommers, P.; Sonntag, S.; Sorokin, J.; Squartini, R.; Stanca, D.; Stanič, S.; Stapleton, J.; Stasielak, J.; Strafella, F.; Stutz, A.; Suarez, F.; Suarez Durán, M.; Sudholz, T.; Suomijärvi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Sutherland, M. S.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Taborda, O. A.; Tapia, A.; Tepe, A.; Theodoro, V. M.; Timmermans, C.; Todero Peixoto, C. J.; Tomankova, L.; Tomé, B.; Tonachini, A.; Torralba Elipe, G.; Torres Machado, D.; Travnicek, P.; Trini, M.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Urban, M.; Valdés Galicia, J. F.; Valiño, I.; Valore, L.; van Aar, G.; van Bodegom, P.; van den Berg, A. M.; van Vliet, A.; Varela, E.; Vargas Cárdenas, B.; Varner, G.; Vasquez, R.; Vázquez, J. R.; Vázquez, R. A.; Veberič, D.; Verzi, V.; Vicha, J.; Videla, M.; Villaseñor, L.; Vorobiov, S.; Wahlberg, H.; Wainberg, O.; Walz, D.; Watson, A. A.; Weber, M.; Weindl, A.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczyński, H.; Winchen, T.; Wittkowski, D.; Wundheiler, B.; Wykes, S.; Yang, L.; Yapici, T.; Yelos, D.; Yushkov, A.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zepeda, A.; Zimmermann, B.; Ziolkowski, M.; Zong, Z.; Zuccarello, F.; Pierre Auger Collaboration

    2016-04-01

    The azimuthal asymmetry in the risetime of signals in Auger surface detector stations is a source of information on shower development. The azimuthal asymmetry is due to a combination of the longitudinal evolution of the shower and geometrical effects related to the angles of incidence of the particles into the detectors. The magnitude of the effect depends upon the zenith angle and state of development of the shower and thus provides a novel observable, (sec θ )max , sensitive to the mass composition of cosmic rays above 3 ×1018 eV . By comparing measurements with predictions from shower simulations, we find for both of our adopted models of hadronic physics (QGSJETII-04 and EPOS-LHC) an indication that the mean cosmic-ray mass increases slowly with energy, as has been inferred from other studies. However, the mass estimates are dependent on the shower model and on the range of distance from the shower core selected. Thus the method has uncovered further deficiencies in our understanding of shower modeling that must be resolved before the mass composition can be inferred from (sec θ )max.

  14. Salicylic acid transport in Ricinus communis involves a pH-dependent carrier system in addition to diffusion.

    PubMed

    Rocher, Françoise; Chollet, Jean-François; Legros, Sandrine; Jousse, Cyril; Lemoine, Rémi; Faucher, Mireille; Bush, Daniel R; Bonnemain, Jean-Louis

    2009-08-01

    Despite its important functions in plant physiology and defense, the membrane transport mechanism of salicylic acid (SA) is poorly documented due to the general assumption that SA is taken up by plant cells via the ion trap mechanism. Using Ricinus communis seedlings and modeling tools (ACD LogD and Vega ZZ softwares), we show that phloem accumulation of SA and hydroxylated analogs is completely uncorrelated with the physicochemical parameters suitable for diffusion (number of hydrogen bond donors, polar surface area, and, especially, LogD values at apoplastic pHs and Delta LogD between apoplast and phloem sap pH values). These and other data (such as accumulation in phloem sap of the poorly permeant dissociated form of monohalogen derivatives from apoplast and inhibition of SA transport by the thiol reagent p-chloromercuribenzenesulfonic acid [pCMBS]) lead to the following conclusions. As in intestinal cells, SA transport in Ricinus involves a pH-dependent carrier system sensitive to pCMBS; this carrier can translocate monohalogen analogs in the anionic form; the efficiency of phloem transport of hydroxylated benzoic acid derivatives is tightly dependent on the position of the hydroxyl group on the aromatic ring (SA corresponds to the optimal position) but moderately affected by halogen addition in position 5, which is known to increase plant defense. Furthermore, combining time-course experiments and pCMBS used as a tool, we give information about the localization of the SA carrier. SA uptake by epidermal cells (i.e. the step preceding the symplastic transport to veins) insensitive to pCMBS occurs via the ion-trap mechanism, whereas apoplastic vein loading involves a carrier-mediated mechanism (which is targeted by pCMBS) in addition to diffusion.

  15. Bicarbonate-dependent chloride transport drives fluid secretion by the human airway epithelial cell line Calu-3

    PubMed Central

    Shan, Jiajie; Liao, Jie; Huang, Junwei; Robert, Renaud; Palmer, Melissa L; Fahrenkrug, Scott C; O'Grady, Scott M; Hanrahan, John W

    2012-01-01

    Anion and fluid secretion are both defective in cystic fibrosis (CF); however, the transport mechanisms are not well understood. In this study, Cl− and HCO3− secretion was measured using genetically matched CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR)-deficient and CFTR-expressing cell lines derived from the human airway epithelial cell line Calu-3. Forskolin stimulated the short-circuit current (Isc) across voltage-clamped monolayers, and also increased the equivalent short-circuit current (Ieq) calculated under open-circuit conditions. Isc was equivalent to the HCO3− net flux measured using the pH-stat technique, whereas Ieq was the sum of the Cl− and HCO3− net fluxes. Ieq and HCO3− fluxes were increased by bafilomycin and ZnCl2, suggesting that some secreted HCO3− is neutralized by parallel electrogenic H+ secretion. Ieq and fluid secretion were dependent on the presence of both Na+ and HCO3−. The carbonic anhydrase inhibitor acetazolamide abolished forskolin stimulation of Ieq and HCO3− secretion, suggesting that HCO3− transport under these conditions requires catalysed synthesis of carbonic acid. Cl− was the predominant anion in secretions under all conditions studied and thus drives most of the fluid transport. Nevertheless, 50–70% of Cl− and fluid transport was bumetanide-insensitive, suggesting basolateral Cl− loading by a sodium–potassium–chloride cotransporter 1 (NKCC1)-independent mechanism. Imposing a transepithelial HCO3− gradient across basolaterally permeabilized Calu-3 cells sustained a forskolin-stimulated current, which was sensitive to CFTR inhibitors and drastically reduced in CFTR-deficient cells. Net HCO3− secretion was increased by bilateral Cl− removal and therefore did not require apical Cl−/HCO3− exchange. The results suggest a model in which most HCO3− is recycled basolaterally by exchange with Cl−, and the resulting HCO3−-dependent Cl− transport provides an osmotic driving force for

  16. Azimuthal seismic anisotropy in the Earth's upper mantle and the thickness of tectonic plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaeffer, A. J.; Lebedev, S.; Becker, T. W.

    2016-11-01

    Azimuthal seismic anisotropy, the dependence of seismic wave speeds on propagation azimuth, is largely due to fabrics within the Earth's crust and mantle, produced by deformation. It thus provides constraints on the distribution and evolution of deformation within the upper mantle. Here, we present a new global, azimuthally anisotropic model of the crust, upper mantle and transition zone. Two versions of this new model are computed: the rough SL2016svAr and the smooth SL2016svA. Both are constrained by a very large data set of waveform fits (˜750 000 vertical component seismogram fits). Automated, multimode waveform inversion was used to extract structural information from surface and S wave forms in broad period ranges (dominantly from 11 to 450 s, with the best global sampling in the 20-350 s range), yielding resolving power from the crust down to the transition zone. In our global tomographic inversion, regularization of anisotropy is implemented to more uniformly recover the amplitude and orientation of anisotropy, including near the poles. Our massive waveform data set, with complementary large global networks and high-density regional array data, produces improved resolution of global azimuthal anisotropy patterns. We show that regional scale variations, related to regional lithospheric deformation and mantle flow, can now be resolved by the global models, in particular in densely sampled regions. For oceanic regions, we compare quantitatively the directions of past and present plate motions and the fast-propagation orientations of anisotropy. By doing so, we infer the depth of the boundary between the rigid, high-viscosity lithosphere (preserving ancient, frozen fabric) and the rheologically weak asthenosphere (characterized by fabric developed recently). The average depth of thus inferred rheological lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) beneath the world's oceans is ˜115 km. The LAB depth displays a clear dependence on the age of the oceanic

  17. GMT azimuth bogie wheel-rail interface wear study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teran, Jose; Lindh, Cory; Morgan, Chris; Manuel, Eric; Bigelow, Bruce C.; Burgett, William S.

    2016-07-01

    Performance of the GMT azimuth drive system is vital for the operation of the telescope and, as such, all components subject to wear at the drive interface merit a high level of scrutiny for achieving a proper balance between capital costs, maintenance costs, and the risk for downtime during planned and unplanned maintenance or replacement procedures. Of particular importance is the interface between the azimuth wheels and rail, as usage frequency is high, the full weight of the enclosure must be transferred through small patches of contact, and replacement of the rail would pose a greater logistical challenge than the replacement of smaller components such as bearings and gearmotors. This study investigates tradeoffs between various wheel-rail and roller-track interfaces, including performance, complexity, and anticipated wear considerations. First, a survey of railway and overhead crane industry literature is performed and general detailing recommendations are made to minimize wear and the risk of rolling contact fatigue. Second, Adams/VI-Rail is used to simulate lifetime wear of four specific configurations under consideration for the GMT azimuth wheel-rail interface; all studied configurations are shown to be viable, and their relative merits are discussed.

  18. Crack azimuths on Europa: The G1 lineament sequence revisited

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sarid, A.R.; Greenberg, R.; Hoppa, G.V.; Brown, D.M.; Geissler, P.

    2005-01-01

    The tectonic sequence in the anti-jovian area covered by regional mapping images from Galileo's orbit E15 is determined from a study of cross-cutting relationships among lineament features. The sequence is used to test earlier results from orbit G1, based on lower resolution images, which appeared to display a progressive change in azimuthal orientation over about 90?? in a clockwise sense. Such a progression is consistent with expected stress variations that would accompany plausible non-synchronous rotation. The more recent data provide a more complete record than the G1 data did. We find that to fit the sequence into a continual clockwise change of orientation would require at least 1000?? (> 5 cycles) of azimuthal rotation. If due to non-synchronous rotation of Europa, this result implies that we are seeing back further into the tectonic record than the G1 results had suggested. The three sets of orientations found by Geissler et al. now appear to have been spaced out over several cycles, not during a fraction of one cycle. While our more complete sequence of lineament formation is consistent with non-synchronous rotation, a statistical test shows that it cannot be construed as independent evidence. Other lines of evidence do support non-synchronous rotation, but azimuths of crack sequences do not show it, probably because only a couple of cracks form in a given region in any given non-synchronous rotation period. ?? 2004 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Glucose transporter 3 is a rab11-dependent trafficking cargo and its transport to the cell surface is reduced in neurons of CAG140 Huntington's disease mice.

    PubMed

    McClory, Hollis; Williams, Dana; Sapp, Ellen; Gatune, Leah W; Wang, Ping; DiFiglia, Marian; Li, Xueyi

    2014-12-20

    Huntington's disease (HD) disturbs glucose metabolism in the brain by poorly understood mechanisms. HD neurons have defective glucose uptake, which is attenuated upon enhancing rab11 activity. Rab11 regulates numerous receptors and transporters trafficking onto cell surfaces; its diminished activity in HD cells affects the recycling of transferrin receptor and neuronal glutamate/cysteine transporter EAAC1. Glucose transporter 3 (Glut3) handles most glucose uptake in neurons. Here we investigated rab11 involvement in Glut3 trafficking. Glut3 was localized to rab11 positive puncta in primary neurons and immortalized striatal cells by immunofluorescence labeling and detected in rab11-enriched endosomes immuno-isolated from mouse brain by Western blot. Expression of dominant active and negative rab11 mutants in clonal striatal cells altered the levels of cell surface Glut3 suggesting a regulation by rab11. About 4% of total Glut3 occurred at the cell surface of primary WT neurons. HD(140Q/140Q) neurons had significantly less cell surface Glut3 than did WT neurons. Western blot analysis revealed comparable levels of Glut3 in the striatum and cortex of WT and HD(140Q/140Q) mice. However, brain slices immunolabeled with an antibody recognizing an extracellular epitope to Glut3 showed reduced surface expression of Glut3 in the striatum and cortex of HD(140Q/140Q) mice compared to that of WT mice. Surface labeling of GABAα1 receptor, which is not dependent on rab11, was not different between WT and HD(140Q/140Q) mouse brain slices. These data define Glut3 to be a rab11-dependent trafficking cargo and suggest that impaired Glut3 trafficking arising from rab11 dysfunction underlies the glucose hypometabolism observed in HD.

  20. Archaeal Binding Protein-Dependent ABC Transporter: Molecular and Biochemical Analysis of the Trehalose/Maltose Transport System of the Hyperthermophilic Archaeon Thermococcus litoralis

    PubMed Central

    Horlacher, Reinhold; Xavier, Karina B.; Santos, Helena; DiRuggiero, Jocelyne; Kossmann, Marina; Boos, Winfried

    1998-01-01

    We report the cloning and sequencing of a gene cluster encoding a maltose/trehalose transport system of the hyperthermophilic archaeon Thermococcus litoralis that is homologous to the malEFG cluster encoding the Escherichia coli maltose transport system. The deduced amino acid sequence of the malE product, the trehalose/maltose-binding protein (TMBP), shows at its N terminus a signal sequence typical for bacterial secreted proteins containing a glyceride lipid modification at the N-terminal cysteine. The T. litoralis malE gene was expressed in E. coli under control of an inducible promoter with and without its natural signal sequence. In addition, in one construct the endogenous signal sequence was replaced by the E. coli MalE signal sequence. The secreted, soluble recombinant protein was analyzed for its binding activity towards trehalose and maltose. The protein bound both sugars at 85°C with a Kd of 0.16 μM. Antibodies raised against the recombinant soluble TMBP recognized the detergent-soluble TMBP isolated from T. litoralis membranes as well as the products from all other DNA constructs expressed in E. coli. Transmembrane segments 1 and 2 as well as the N-terminal portion of the large periplasmic loop of the E. coli MalF protein are missing in the T. litoralis MalF. MalG is homologous throughout the entire sequence, including the six transmembrane segments. The conserved EAA loop is present in both proteins. The strong homology found between the components of this archaeal transport system and the bacterial systems is evidence for the evolutionary conservation of the binding protein-dependent ABC transport systems in these two phylogenetic branches. PMID:9457875

  1. Functional reconstitution of the purified phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent mannitol-specific transport system of Escherichia coli in phospholipid vesicles: coupling between transport and phosphorylation.

    PubMed Central

    Elferink, M G; Driessen, A J; Robillard, G T

    1990-01-01

    Purified mannitol-specific enzyme II (EII) from Escherichia coli was reconstituted into phospholipid vesicles with the aid of a detergent-dialysis procedure followed by a freeze-thaw sonication step. The orientation of EII in the proteoliposomes was random. The cytoplasmic moiety of the inverted EII could be removed with trypsin without effecting the integrity of the liposomal membrane. This enabled us to study the two different EII orientations independently. The population of inverted EII molecules was monitored by measuring active extrusion of mannitol after the addition of phosphoenolpyruvate, EI, and histidine-containing phosphocarrier protein (HPr) at the outside of the vesicles. The population of correctly oriented EII molecules was monitored by measuring active uptake of mannitol with internal phosphoenolpyruvate, EI, and HPr. A low rate of facilitated diffusion of mannitol via the unphosphorylated carrier could be measured. On the other hand, a high phosphorylation activity without translocation was observed at the outside of the liposomes. The kinetics of the phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent transport reaction and the nonvectorial phosphorylation reaction were compared. Transport of mannitol into the liposomes via the correctly oriented EII molecules occurred with a high affinity (Km, lower than 10 microM) and with a relatively low Vmax. Phosphorylation at the outside of the liposomes catalyzed by the inverted EII molecules occurred with a low affinity (Km of about 66 microM), while the maximal velocity was about 10 times faster than the transport reaction. The latter observation is kinetic proof for the lack of strict coupling between transport and phosphorylation in these enzymes. Images PMID:2123863

  2. Kinetic properties and Na+ dependence of rheogenic Na(+)-HCO3- co-transport in frog retinal pigment epithelium.

    PubMed Central

    la Cour, M

    1991-01-01

    1. Na(+)-HCO3- co-transport across the retinal membrane of the frog retinal pigment epithelium was studied by means of double-barrelled pH-selective microelectrodes. Transient changes in the intracellular pH were monitored in response to abrupt changes in the Na+ concentration on the retinal side of the epithelium. 2. The experiments were performed as follows. The Na(+)-HCO3- co-transport was inhibited by perfusing the retinal side of the epithelium with a Na(+)-free solution. The co-transport was then stimulated by changing the perfusate from the Na(+)-free solution to a solution which contained from 5 to 110 mM-Na+. The resulting inward Na(+)-HCO3- co-transport produced an intracellular alkalinization, the initial rate of which was used to calculate the initial rate of Na(+)-HCO3- co-transport, JHCO3-. 3. The Na+ dependence of the Na(+)-HCO3- co-transport was studied at two different values of extracellular pH (7.40 and 7.10), at constant extracellular HCO3- concentration (27.5 mM) and at two different extracellular HCO3- concentrations (27.5 mM and 55 mM) at constant extracellular pH (7.40). In these experiments, the calculated values of JHCO3- followed single Michaelis-Menten kinetics with respect to the extracellular Na+ concentration. 4. The data are consistent with a model in which the co-transporter has a single binding site for the Na+ ion with an apparent affinity constant (apparent Km) of 37 mM. The apparent affinity constant for Na+ was independent of the extracellular concentration of CO3(2-) in the range of 16-65 microM, and of the extracellular HCO3- concentration in the range 27.5-55 mM. 5. The NaCO3- ion-pair hypothesis, in which sodium binds to the co-transporter and is translocated across the cell membrane as the NaCO3- ion pair, was analysed. For stoichiometries 1:2 and 1:3 of the Na(+)-HCO3- co-transport, the NaCO3- ion-pair hypothesis was found incompatible with the data. 6. The intracellular buffer capacity as measured by the CO2 method was

  3. Rayleigh Wave Azimuthal Anisotropy Beneath Hawaii Using PLUME Ocean-Bottom Seismometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marzen, R.; Laske, G.

    2013-12-01

    Hawaii is an ideal location at which to study mantle plume dynamics because its central location on the Pacific plate enables analysis of plume-related geophysical anomalies separate from the effects of nearby plate boundaries. Previous understanding of the interaction of a proposed rising plume at Hawaii with flow patterns in the surrounding mantle was limited by a lack of data needed to perform high-resolution imaging of the anisotropic structure around the plume. Multiple geodynamical models show a parabolic flow pattern from the interaction of a rising plume with a moving plate, but the shear wave splitting of SKS waves shows a fast axis that is