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Sample records for azufre elemental sobre

  1. Los Azufres silicic center (Mexico): inference of caldera structural elements from gravity, aeromagnetic, and geoelectric data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campos-Enriquez, J. O.; Gardun˜o-Monroy, V. H.

    1995-08-01

    Los Azufres geothermal field is located within a silicic volcanic complex in central Mexico. The complex is one of the major silicic centers in the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt (TMVB). Pradal and Robin (1985) first suggested the existence of the Los Azufres caldera, and Ferrari et al. (1991) recognized the existence of a collapse structure. According to Pradal and Robin this is a caldera of resurgent type. This geophysical study aims to contribute to the knowledge of the structure of the Los Azufres area. Gravity, aeromagnetic, magnetotelluric (MT) and d.c. vertical electric-resistivity soundings were analyzed. Results show that Los Azufres is a very structurally complex setting with relatively thin crust caused by the extensional tectonics characterizing this central sector of the TMVB. Faults belonging to the E-W to NE-SW (extensional neotectonics) and NW-SE (Basin and Range province) systems are observed to affect the geologic units of Los Azufres. According to our study, the Los Azufres geothermal field is located in a structural high located in the middle of a sub-circular depression delimited to the north-northeast by the Santa Ines Range, and to the southwest by the Mil Cumbres formation. The larger depression consists of two narrow, deep depressions that correspond to La Venta and to the Valley of Juarez. They are separated by the above mentioned structural high. These sub-depressions are believed to be the sites of a maximum caldera collapse, and the structural high is interpreted to be at least in part the caldera's resurgent dome. Geoelectric structure of the caldera derived from d.c. resistivity indicates that the brines of the Los Azufres geothermal system ascend along faults, both bounding and internally disrupting the structural high/resurgent dome. A reasonable correlation is observed between gravity and aeromagnetic data.

  2. Naturally occurring heavy radioactive elements in the geothermal microcosm of the Los Azufres (Mexico) volcanic complex.

    PubMed

    Abuhani, W A; Dasgupta-Schubert, N; Villaseñor, L M; García Avila, D; Suárez, L; Johnston, C; Borjas, S E; Alexander, S A; Landsberger, S; Suárez, M C

    2015-01-01

    The Los Azufres geothermal complex of central Mexico is characterized by fumaroles and boiling hot-springs. The fumaroles form habitats for extremophilic mosses and ferns. Physico-chemical measurements of two relatively pristine fumarolic microcosms point to their resemblance with the paleo-environment of earth during the Ordovician and Devonian periods. These geothermal habitats were analysed for the distribution of elemental mass fractions in the rhizospheric soil (RS), the native volcanic substrate (VS) and the sediments (S), using the new high-sensitivity technique of polarized x-ray energy dispersive fluorescence spectrometry (PEDXRF) as well as instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) for selected elements. This work presents the results for the naturally occurring heavy radioactive elements (NOHRE) Bi, Th and U but principally the latter two. For the RS, the density was found to be the least and the total organic matter content the most. Bi was found to be negligibly present in all substrate types. The average Th and U mass fractions in the RS were higher than in the VS and about equal to their average mass fractions in the S. The VS mass fraction of Th was higher, and of U lower, than the mass fractions in the earth's crust. In fact for the fumaroles of one site, the average RS mass fractions of these elements were higher than the averaged values for S (without considering the statistical dispersion). The immobilization of the NOHRE in the RS is brought about by the bio-geochemical processes specific to these extremophiles. Its effectiveness is such that despite the small masses of these plants, it compares with, or may sometimes exceed, the immobilization of the NOHRE in the S by the abiotic and aggressive chemical action of the hot-springs. These results indicate that the fumarolic plants are able to transform the volcanic substrate to soil and to affect the NOHRE mass fractions even though these elements are not plant nutrients. Mirrored back to

  3. Naturally occurring heavy radioactive elements in the geothermal microcosm of the Los Azufres (Mexico) volcanic complex.

    PubMed

    Abuhani, W A; Dasgupta-Schubert, N; Villaseñor, L M; García Avila, D; Suárez, L; Johnston, C; Borjas, S E; Alexander, S A; Landsberger, S; Suárez, M C

    2015-01-01

    The Los Azufres geothermal complex of central Mexico is characterized by fumaroles and boiling hot-springs. The fumaroles form habitats for extremophilic mosses and ferns. Physico-chemical measurements of two relatively pristine fumarolic microcosms point to their resemblance with the paleo-environment of earth during the Ordovician and Devonian periods. These geothermal habitats were analysed for the distribution of elemental mass fractions in the rhizospheric soil (RS), the native volcanic substrate (VS) and the sediments (S), using the new high-sensitivity technique of polarized x-ray energy dispersive fluorescence spectrometry (PEDXRF) as well as instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) for selected elements. This work presents the results for the naturally occurring heavy radioactive elements (NOHRE) Bi, Th and U but principally the latter two. For the RS, the density was found to be the least and the total organic matter content the most. Bi was found to be negligibly present in all substrate types. The average Th and U mass fractions in the RS were higher than in the VS and about equal to their average mass fractions in the S. The VS mass fraction of Th was higher, and of U lower, than the mass fractions in the earth's crust. In fact for the fumaroles of one site, the average RS mass fractions of these elements were higher than the averaged values for S (without considering the statistical dispersion). The immobilization of the NOHRE in the RS is brought about by the bio-geochemical processes specific to these extremophiles. Its effectiveness is such that despite the small masses of these plants, it compares with, or may sometimes exceed, the immobilization of the NOHRE in the S by the abiotic and aggressive chemical action of the hot-springs. These results indicate that the fumarolic plants are able to transform the volcanic substrate to soil and to affect the NOHRE mass fractions even though these elements are not plant nutrients. Mirrored back to

  4. Deep geothermal wells in the Los Azufres (Mexico) caldera: Volcanic basement stratigraphy based on major-element analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cathelineau, M.; Izquierdo, G.; Vázquez, G. R.; Guevara, M.

    1991-07-01

    The Los Azufres caldera (Michoacán, Mexico) is located in the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt (MVB). The pre-caldera volcanic basement consists of a 3-km-thick pile of andesitic flows, intruded and/or overlain by rhyolitic and dacitic domes and flows. The geochemistry of the volcanic layers has been investigated in three deep wells (A9, A25 and A48) down to 3.0 km. Such deep wells have given the opportunity to investigate the geochemical changes related to the hydrothermal metamorphism as well as the stratigraphy of the thick volcanic pile. Systematic analysis of major elements in cores and cuttings shows that the partial to total hydrothermal metamorphism of the series from the greenschist to the amphibolite facies produces significant geochemical changes on the whole-rock geochemistry. Gains in CO 2, H 2O and depletions in alkalis are especially observed and may be related with the crystallization of carbonates and phyllosilicates. However, the depth-concentration profiles have shown that most other elements (such as Al, Fe, Ca, Mg, P and Ti) display moderate changes due to hydrothermal alteration in comparison with their initial variations of magmatic origin. Rythmic compositional changes are observed all along the volcanic pile, with progressive changes in rock composition from basalts to dacites within four megasequences of a few hundred meters thickness. Elements rather immobile under hydrothermal conditions, such as Ti, have been especially useful for the reconstruction of magmatic sequence stratigraphy. Variations of element concentrations seem mostly due to magmatic differentiation of parental basalts which produces compositions from basaltic andesites to dacites. However, the four magmatic suites distinguished display calc-alkaline features coherent with other suites of the MVB volcanoes.

  5. Thermal extraction analysis of five Los Azufres production wells

    SciTech Connect

    Kruger, Paul; Quijano, Luis

    1995-01-26

    Thermal energy extraction from five wells supplying 5-MWe wellhead generators in three zones of the Los Azufres geothermal field has been examined from production and chemical data compiled over 14-years of operation. The data, as annual means, are useful in observing small-scale changes in reservoir performance with continuous production. The chemical components are chloride for quality control and the geothermometer elements for reservoir temperatures. The flowrate and fluid enthalpy data are used to calculate the thermal extraction rates. Integration of these data provides an estimate of the total energy extracted from the zone surrounding the well. The combined production and chemical geothermometer data are used to model the produced fluid as coming from just-penetrating wells for which the annual produced mass originates from a series of concentric hemispheric shells moving out into the reservoir. Estimates are made of the drawdown distance into the reservoir and the far-field conditions.

  6. The Los Azufres, Michoacan, Mexico, geothermal field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutierrez N., Augusto; Aumento, Fabrizio

    1982-03-01

    Fifteen deep exploratory and production wells in a 30-km 2 area have permitted the study of both the primary igneous petrology and the secondary geothermal system and its associated mineralization. The Los Azufres field lies on a complex Plio-Pleistocene succession of basalts, andesites, dacites and rhyolites, each with its associated tuffs. Recently, alkali basalt magmas have intruded the area, extruding minor lava flows. Geothermal fluids have altered all the above rocks from a minimum of 20% of the total rock volume, to a maximum of 100%, with an average 75% alteration. Multiple distinct zones of oxides, clay minerals, chlorites, calcite, quartz and epidote are discernible, together with minor amphiboles, zeolites and pyrite. There appear to have been two distinct heat sources, the first associated with the youngest rhyolitic extrusives, whilst the second, current heat source, at a considerably greater depth, may be due to a new, more basic magmatic cycle. This downward displacement is associated with a lateral, northeasterly migration of the heat source. Both geothermal systems were accompanied by temporary escapes of hot fluids along fault planes at different localities at different times, which produced localized, anomalous heat fluxes with associated mineralization superimposed onto the regional geothermal pattern.

  7. Pilot fruit drier for Los Azufres geothermal field, Michoacan, Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Lund, J.W.

    1993-02-01

    Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) has a Division in charge of the exploration of a geothermal reservoir located in Los Azufres, State of Michoacan. At present, CFE is only using the steam of the wells and rejecting the hot water that comes off associated with the steam. Based on a trip to the Los Azufres geothermal field in December of 1992, a design for a pilot geothermal fruit drier was undertaken for CFE. The details of the geothermal field and the local fruit production are detailed.

  8. Wood and fruit drying in Los Azufres geothermal field, Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Casimiro, E.; Pastrana, E.

    1996-12-31

    The main object of Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE`s) Geothermal Field at Los Azufres, is to generate geothermal electricity; however with the new politics in Mexico CFE has built a pilot project in order to profit from the geothermal residual energy and to attract national or foreign investors and convince them that direct-use of geothermal energy is an attractive feasible and economical possibility. The object of this paper is to present the CFE experiences in wood and fruit drying using geothermal energy.

  9. Hydro-geochemical and isotopic fluid evolution of the Los Azufres caldera geothermal field, Central Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Partida, E.; Viggiano-Guerra, J. C.; Pérez, R. J.

    2008-10-01

    Hydrothermal alteration at Los Azufres geothermal held is mostly propylitic showing progressive dehydration with depth, and temperature increase. The evolution of this system is inferred to be related to deep liquid water, boiling when ascending through fractures connected to the surface.

  10. Origin of rainwater acidity near the Los Azufres geothermal field, Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Verma, M.P.; Quijano, J.L.; Johnson, Chad; Gerardo, J.Y.; Arellano, V.

    2000-01-01

    The chemical and isotopic compositions of rainwater were monitored at Los Azufres geothermal field (88 MWe) and its surroundings during May - September 1995, which is the rainy season. Samples were collected from eight sites: three within the field, three in its surroundings and two sufficiently far from the field such that they have no geothermal input. The concentrations of Cl-, SO42- and NO3- were measured in about 350 samples and found to be generally <5 ppm. Chloride concentrations remained constant with time, but sulfate and nitrate concentrations decreased, which suggests a nearby industrial source for the sulfate and nitrate. A mixing model for Cl-, SO42- and ??34S also suggests an industrial source for the rainwater sulfur. The determination of pH was found to be necessary, but is not sufficient to characterize rainwater acidity. The Gran titration method was used to determine alkalinity with respect to equivalence point of H2CO3(*). Values of alkalinity were found to range from 10-4 to 10-6 eq/L, and were negative only for some samples from Vivero and Guadalajara. Thus, SO42- and NO3- are in general not in acidic form (i.e. balanced by Na+, Ca2+, etc. rather than H+). Sulfate ??34S values were about -1.5??? in Los Azufres and its surroundings, and in Morelia, but differed from the value of -0.2??? for Guadalajara. The ??34S values for H2S from the Los Azufres geothermal wells are in the range -3.4 to 0.0???. The ??34S ranges for the natural and anthropogenic sources for environmental sulfur overlap, making it difficult to differentiate between the contribution of different sources. However, a similarity of values of ??34S at Los Azufres and Morelia (85 km distant) suggest a regional source of sulfate that is not associated with geothermal emissions from Los Azufres. (C) 2000 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd on behalf of CNR.The chemical compositions of rainwater were analyzed at Los Azufres geothermal field in Spain from May-September 1995. The

  11. Initial Measurements of Petrophysical Properties on Rocks from the Los Azufres, Mexico, Geothermal Field

    SciTech Connect

    Contreras, E.; Iglesias, E.; Razo, E.

    1986-01-21

    Petrophysical properties of geothermal reservoir rocks are valuable information for many activities, including reservoir characterization, modeling, field test analysis and planning of exploitation techniques. Petrophysical data of rocks from geothermal reservoirs located in volcanic areas is in general very scarce. In particular, no petrophysical data of rocks from the Los Azufres geothermal field area has ever been published. This work presents the results of initial petrophysical studies on outcrop rocks and drill core samples from the Los Azufres geothermal field. These studies are the first part of an ongoing experimental program intended to establish a data-base about physical properties of the Los Azufres rocks, in support of the many reservoir engineering activities which require of such information. The experimental work carried out consisted of laboratory measurements of density, porosity, permeability, compressibility, thermal conductivity, thermal expansion, electrical resistivity and sonic wave velocities. Some of the experiments were aimed at investigation of the effects of temperature, pressure, saturation and other parameters on the physical properties of rocks.

  12. INITIAL CHEMICAL AND RESERVOIR CONDITIONS AT LOS AZUFRES WELLHEAD POWER PLANT STARTUP

    SciTech Connect

    Kruger, P.; Semprini, L.; Verma, S.; Barragan, R.; Molinar, R.; Aragon, A.; Ortiz, J.; Miranda, C.

    1985-01-22

    One of the major concerns of electric utilities in installing geothermal power plants is not only the longevity of the steam supply, but also the potential for changes in thermodynamic properties of the resource that might reduce the conversion efficiency of the design plant equipment. Production was initiated at Los Azufres geothermal field with wellhead generators not only to obtain electric energy at a relatively early date, but also to acquire needed information about the resource so that plans for large central power plants could be finalized. Commercial electric energy production started at Los Azufres during the summer of 1982 with five 5-MWe wellhead turbine-generator units. The wells associated with these units had undergone extensive testing and have since been essentially in constant production. The Los Azufres geothermal reservoir is a complex structural and thermodynamic system, intersected by at least 4 major parallel faults and producing geothermal fluids from almost all water to all steam. The five wellhead generators are associated with wells of about 30%, 60%, and 100% steam fraction. A study to compile existing data on the chemical and reservoir conditions during the first two years of operation has been completed. Data have been compiled on mean values of wellhead and separator pressures, steam and liquid flowrates, steam fraction, enthalpy, and pertinent chemical components. The compilation serves both as a database of conditions during the start-up period and as an initial point to observe changes with continued and increased production. Current plans are to add additional wellhead generators in about two years followed by central power plants when the data have been sufficiently evaluated for optimum plant design. During the next two years, the data acquired at the five 5-MWe wellhead generator units can be compared to this database to observe any significant changes in reservoir behavior at constant production.

  13. One Year Experience with Portable Back-Pressure Turbines in Los Azufres

    SciTech Connect

    Hiriart, Gerardo L.

    1983-12-15

    This paper contains the experience gained after one year operating five 5 MW portable, back-pressure, geothermal power plants at Los Azufres. A brief description of the field and te equipment is given. Cost figures of the whole installation and a list of what they believe are the advantages and disadvantages is also presented. The main conclusion is that the use of this type of turbogenerators is quite attractive in new undeveloped fields and also in countries with financial problems where initial capital cost investments must be kept as low as possible at the expenses of long term steam consumption.

  14. The use of air as a natural tracer infractured hydrothermal systems, Los Azufres, Mexico, case study

    SciTech Connect

    Mario Cesar Sudrez Arriaga; Hector Gutierrez Puente, Josefina Moreno Ochoa

    1991-01-01

    Injection of atmospheric air mixed with cold water has been occurring since 1982 at the Los Azufres geothermal field. Several chemical and thermodynamical evidences show that air injection into this fractured hydrothermal system could be considered as a long term natural tracer test. Nitrogen and Argon separated from the air mixture migrate, under the action of the induced injection-extraction gradient, from reinjection sectors to production zones following preferential paths closely related to high permeability conduits. A coarse numerical estimation of the average permeability tensor existing at Tejamaniles, the southern sector, explains the unsuccessful recovery of the artificial tracer tests performed in past years: the anisotropic nature of the fractured volcanic rock would demand considerably quantities of tracer in order to be detected at the producing wells, especially when fluid extraction was low. At the same time concentrations of calcium, cesium, chloride, potassium, rubidium and sodium, are increasing in the liquid produced by the oldest wells of this field's sector.

  15. Predicting thermal conductivity of rocks from the Los Azufres geothermal field, Mexico, from easily measurable properties

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, Alfonso; Contreras, Enrique; Dominquez, Bernardo A.

    1988-01-01

    A correlation is developed to predict thermal conductivity of drill cores from the Los Azufres geothermal field. Only andesites are included as they are predominant. Thermal conductivity of geothermal rocks is in general scarce and its determination is not simple. Almost all published correlations were developed for sedimentary rocks. Typically, for igneous rocks, chemical or mineral analyses are used for estimating conductivity by using some type of additive rule. This requires specialized analytical techniques and the procedure may not be sufficiently accurate if, for instance, a chemical analysis is to be changed into a mineral analysis. Thus a simple and accurate estimation method would be useful for engineering purposes. The present correlation predicts thermal conductivity from a knowledge of bulk density and total porosity, properties which provide basic rock characterization and are easy to measure. They may be determined from drill cores or cuttings, and the procedures represent a real advantage given the cost and low availability of cores. The multivariate correlation proposed is a quadratic polynomial and represents a useful tool to estimate thermal conductivity of igneous rocks since data on this property is very limited. For porosities between 0% and 25%, thermal conductivity is estimated with a maximum deviation of 22% and a residual mean square deviation of 4.62E-3 n terms of the log{sub 10}(k{rho}{sub b}) variable. The data were determined as part of a project which includes physical, thermal and mechanical properties of drill cores from Los Azufres. For the correlation, sixteen determinations of thermal conductivity, bulk density and total porosity are included. The conductivity data represent the first determinations ever made on these rocks.

  16. Vapliq hydrothermal systems, and the vertical permeability of Los Azufres, Mexico, geothermal reservoir

    SciTech Connect

    Iglesias, Eduardo R.; Arellano, Victor M.

    1988-01-01

    We identify a new category of natural hydrothermal systems intermediate between liquid- and vapor-dominated. This category is characterized by a “vapliq” vertical pressure profile, which is nearly vaporstatic in the shallower portion of the system, and nearly boiling-point-for-depth at depth. The prototype of these systems is the geothermal field of Los Azufres, Mexico. To explore the thermohydrological conditions conducent to this type of system, we propose a 1-D vertical scenario based on generally accepted conceptual models of liquid- and vapor-dominated geothermal reservoirs. We use the corresponding mass and thermal energy transport equations to establish that a necessary condition for the existence of 2-phase hydrothermal systems is that the absolute value of the vertical thermal flux must exceed Q{sub min}, a parameter that depends only on the values of the pressure and of the thermal conductivity at the boiling point of the system. The values of Q{sub min} are typically 1-4 times the average terrestrial flux. We also find that geothermal systems in which convective heat transport is accomplished by the well-known heat-pipe mechanism can exist only if the corresponding heat flux exceeds Q{sub min} and the permeability at the boiling point of the system is smaller than k{sub Bmax}, a parameter that depends only on the values of the pressure and of the thermal conductivity at the boiling point. Typical values of k{sub Bmax} are 1-3 {times} 10{sup -18} m{sup 2}, suggesting a reason for the fact that all vapor-dominated systems are associated with very-low matrix permeability formations. Applying these insights, and the mass and heat transport equations to Los Azufres, we conclude that a contrast of 1-3 orders of magnitude exists between the vertical permeability at the boiling point and that corresponding to the vapor-dominated portion of the system. We propose that similar permeability contrasts may be responsible for the characteristic composite pressure

  17. Response of the Los Azufres Geothermal Field to Four Years of 25 MW Wellhead Generation

    SciTech Connect

    Kruger, P.; Ortiz, J.; Miranda, G.; Gallardo, M.

    1987-01-20

    Production and chemical data have been compiled and analyzed on a six-month averaged basis for the first four years of electric energy generation with five 5-MW wellhead generators at the Los Azufres geothermal field. The data were evaluated with respect to the extent of observable thermal drawdown of the reservoir from 25 MW of generation in relation to the estimated capacity of the field of several hundred megawatts of power. The analysis updates the previous one compiled after the first two years of continuous production, at which time the results indicated that differences in reservoir temperature estimated from geochemical thermometers and wellhead production data were not statistically significant based on the number of data and the standard deviations. Analysis of the data after four years of operation were made for the larger number of data and smaller standard deviations. The results review the adequacy of the sampling frequency and the reliability of the measurements from statistical t-Test of the means of the first and second two-year periods. 3 figs., 5 tabs., 20 refs.

  18. Petrophysical Properties of Twenty Drill Cores from the Los Azufres, Mexico, Geothermal Field

    SciTech Connect

    Iglesias, E.R.; Contreras L., E.; Garcia G., A.; Dominquez A., Bernardo

    1987-01-20

    For this study we selected 20 drill cores covering a wide range of depths (400-3000 m), from 15 wells, that provide a reasonable coverage of the field. Only andesite, the largely predominant rock type in the field, was included in this sample. We measured bulk density, grain (solids) density, effective porosity and (matrix) permeability on a considerable number of specimens taken from the cores; and inferred the corresponding total porosity and fraction of interconnected total porosity. We characterized the statistical distributions of the measured and inferred variables. The distributions of bulk density and grain density resulted approximately normal; the distributions of effective porosity, total porosity and fraction of total porosity turned out to be bimodal; the permeability distribution resulted highly skewed towards very small (1 mdarcy) values, though values as high as 400 mdarcies were measured. We also characterized the internal inhomogeneity of the cores by means of the ratio (standard deviation/mean) corresponding to the bulk density in each core (in average there are 9 specimens per core). The cores were found to present clearly discernible inhomogeneity; this quantitative characterization will help design new experimental work and interpret currently available and forthcoming results. We also found statistically significant linear correlations between total density and density of solids, effective porosity and total density, total porosity and total density, fraction of interconnected total porosity and the inverse of the effective porosity, total porosity and effective porosity; bulk density and total porosity also correlate with elevation. These results provide the first sizable and statistically detailed database available on petrophysical properties of the Los Azufres andesites. 1 tab., 16 figs., 4 refs.

  19. Microbial diversity in Los Azufres geothermal field (Michoacán, Mexico) and isolation of representative sulfate and sulfur reducers.

    PubMed

    Brito, Elcia M S; Villegas-Negrete, Norberto; Sotelo-González, Irene A; Caretta, César A; Goñi-Urriza, Marisol; Gassie, Claire; Hakil, Florence; Colin, Yannick; Duran, Robert; Gutiérrez-Corona, Felix; Piñón-Castillo, Hilda A; Cuevas-Rodríguez, Germán; Malm, Olaf; Torres, João P M; Fahy, Anne; Reyna-López, Georgina E; Guyoneaud, Rémy

    2014-03-01

    Los Azufres spa consists of a hydrothermal spring system in the Mexican Volcanic Axis. Five samples (two microbial mats, two mud pools and one cenote water), characterized by high acidity (pH between 1 and 3) and temperatures varying from 27 to 87 °C, were investigated for their microbial diversity by Terminal-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (T-RFLP) and 16S rRNA gene library analyses. These data are the first to describe microbial diversity from Los Azufres geothermal belt. The data obtained from both approaches suggested a low bacterial diversity in all five samples. Despite their proximity, the sampling points differed by their physico-chemical conditions (mainly temperature and matrix type) and thus exhibited different dominant bacterial populations: anoxygenic phototrophs related to the genus Rhodobacter in the biomats, colorless sulfur oxidizers Acidithiobacillus sp. in the warm mud and water samples, and Lyzobacter sp.-related populations in the hot mud sample (87 °C). Molecular data also allowed the detection of sulfate and sulfur reducers related to Thermodesulfobium and Desulfurella genera. Several strains affiliated to both genera were enriched or isolated from the mesophilic mud sample. A feature common to all samples was the dominance of bacteria involved in sulfur and iron biogeochemical cycles (Rhodobacter, Acidithiobacillus, Thiomonas, Desulfurella and Thermodesulfobium genera).

  20. Heterogeneity of the Liquid Phase, and Vapor Separation in Los Azufres (Mexico) Geothermal Reservoir

    SciTech Connect

    Nieva, D.; Quijano, L.; Garfias, A.; Barragan, R.M.; Laredo, F.

    1983-12-15

    Data of chemical and isotopic composition of fluids from Los Azufres geothermal wells is interpreted in order to characterize the composition of the liquid phase, and to define the relation between this phase and fluids from steam-producing wells. Chemical and specific enthalpy data show that most wells considered are fed a mixture of steam and liquid. Thus, flashing occurs in the formation. This poses a problem on the interpretation of isotopic data, because the composition of the feeding mixture need not be representative of the composition of the liquid phase in the reservoir. Two extreme alternatives for the interpretation of isotopic data are considered. In the first alternative the composition of the total discharge is considered to be the same as that of the liquid in the reservoir. In the second alternative the feeding fluid is considered to be a mixture of the liquid phase in the reservoir and the calculated fraction of steam. In addition, this steam is assumed to separate from a much larger mass of that liquid phase at the downhole temperature. The contribution of steam is then subtracted from the total discharge to yield the composition of the liquid phase. Using data for silica concentration in total discharge and separated water, the chloride concentration in the reservoir liquid is calculated. This result is used to calculate the fraction of steam in the feeding mixture of each well. The isotopic data is then corrected as proposed for the second alternative, to yield the composition of the liquid phase. Comparison of the corrected and uncorrected isotopic values shows that the correction has an important effect only when the steam mass fraction in the feeding mixture is large (> 20%). The correction tends to reduce the dispersion of data points in a {delta} D vs {delta}{sup 18}O diagram. Points representing composition of liquid phase show an approximately linear distribution, suggesting a process of mixing of two fluids. Available data appears to

  1. Eruptive History of the Rhyolitic Guangoche Volcano, Los Azufres Volcanic Field, Central Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rangel Granados, E.; Arce, J. L.; Macias, J. L.; Layer, P. W.

    2014-12-01

    Guangoche is a rhyolitic and polygenetic volcano with a maximum elevation of 2,760 meters above sea level. It is situated to the southwest of the Los Azufres Volcanic Field (LAVF), in the central sector of the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt. Guangoche volcano is the youngest volcano described within the LAVF. It shows a horseshoe shaped crater open to the south, with a central lava dome. Its eruptive history during late Pleistocene has been intense with six explosive eruptions that consists of: 1) A southwards sector collapse of the volcano that generated a debris avalanche deposit with megablocks of heterogenous composition; 2) A plinian-type eruption that generated a pumice fall deposit and pyroclastic density currents by column collapse at 30.6 ka; 3) A plinian-type eruption "White Pumice Sequence" (29 ka) that developed a 22-km-high eruptive column, with a MDR of 7.0 x 107 kg/s (vol. = 0.53 km3); 4) A dome-destruction event, "Agua Blanca Pyroclastic Sequence" at 26.7 ka, that deposited a block-and-ash flow deposit; 5) A subplinian-plinian type eruption "Ochre Pyroclastic Sequence" (<26 ka) with an important initial phreatomagmatic phase, that generated pyroclastic density currents and pumice fallouts. The subplinian-plinian event generated a 16-km-high eruptive column, with a MDR of 1.9 x 107 kg/s, and magma volume of 0.38 km3; 6) The eruptive history ended with a subplinian eruption (<<26 ka), that generated a multilayered fall deposit, that developed a 11-km-high eruptive column, with a MDR of 2.9 x 106 kg/s and a magma volume of 0.26 km3. Volcanic activity at Guangoche volcano has been intense and future activity should not be discarded. Unfortunately, the last two events have not been dated yet. Guangoche rhyolitic magma is characterized by low-Ba contents suggesting crystal mush extraction for their genesis.

  2. Evolution of the geothermal fluids at Los Azufres, Mexico, as traced by noble gas isotopes, δ18O, δD, δ13C and 87Sr/86Sr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinti, D. L.; Castro, M. C.; Shouakar-Stash, O.; Tremblay, A.; Garduño, V. H.; Hall, C. M.; Hélie, J.-F.; Ghaleb, B.

    2013-01-01

    Isotopes of noble gases, CO2, H2O and Sr were measured in 10 geothermal wells and 8 hot springs, fumaroles and mud volcanoes at Los Azufres, the second most important geothermal field in Mexico. The aim of this study is to provide additional information on fluid circulation in the field and surrounding areas (Araró hot springs), as well as on physical processes such as boiling, steam separation and invasion of re-injected brines following over 25 years of geothermal fluid exploitation. Mantle helium dominates in fluids from the northern production zone of Marítaro, with measured 3He/4He ratios up to 7 Ra (where Ra is the atmospheric ratio of 1.386 × 10- 6). 3He/4He ratios are positively correlated with 87Sr/86Sr ratios and with δD and δ18O. These relationships suggest that Los Azufres fluids represent a mixing between primary magmatic 3He-rich fluids and groundwater currently discharging at Araró hot springs and enriched in radiogenic 4He acquired from Miocene andesites. Unusually high He ratios together with radiogenic Sr isotopic ratios suggest that thermal waters acquired mantle He from deep-seated parent magmas and radiogenic Sr possibly during their uprising through the metamorphic basement. 40Ar/36Ar ratios of 366 to 429 measured in two wells indicate either mantle-derived argon or a radiogenic 40Ar in situ component, suggesting the local presence of an older crustal fluid component in the northern part of the field. Ne, Kr and Xe are entirely of atmospheric origin, but processes of boiling, steam separation and re-injection of used brines have led to fractionation of their elemental abundances. Comparison with previous studies suggests that the boiling zone in the northern production zone is currently extending further north (Marítaro hot springs). In the southwestern productive zone, re-injected brines might account for more than 90% of the exploited fluids.

  3. Mineralogical-chemical composition and environmental risk potential of pond sediments at the geothermal field of Los Azufres, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birkle, P.; Merkel, B.

    2002-01-01

    Since 1982, estimated amounts of 9,400 t, 15,000 kg, 720 kg and 105 kg of Si, Fe, As and Cs respectively have accumulated at the bottom of 18 evaporation ponds as part of the geothermal production cycle at Los Azufres. This accumulation is caused by precipitation of brine solutes during the evaporation of 10% of the total pond water volume before its re-injection into the reservoir. Extraction experiments with pond precipitates and geochemical simulations with the PHREEQC program indicate the high solubility of most precipitates under natural environmental conditions. The comparisons with the primary brine composition indicate that less than 1% of most dissolved brine solutes, except for Co, Cu, Mn, Pb, Ag, Fe and Si, are accumulated at the pond bottom. Arsenic has maximum values of 160 mg/kg in the pond sediments, and Mo, Hg and Tl also exceed international environmental standards for contaminated soils. Elevated concentrations and the mobility potential of several metals and non-metals require the application of remediation techniques for the final disposal of the sediments in the future.

  4. Application of the Gauss theorem to the study of silicic calderas: The calderas of La Primavera, Los Azufres, and Los Humeros (Mexico)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campos-Enríquez, J. O.; Domínguez-Méndez, F.; Lozada-Zumaeta, M.; Morales-Rodríguez, H. F.; Andaverde-Arredondo, J. A.

    2005-10-01

    We explored applications (including limitations) of Gauss's theorem to the study of silicic calderas. First it enables us to determine the mass deficiency from calderas. Mass deficiency itself has also other potential applications. It enables to make qualitative comparisons between calderas. We can use the mass deficiency to test, in a quick way and as a preliminary step to a formal gravity inversion, for the feasibility of caldera types of simple geometry (i.e., piston subsidence and funnel models). This application can be done in a straightforward way, once the mass deficiency has been determined. For this purpose the mass deficiency is converted to the volume of material missing at the caldera. Subsequently, for example, this volume and the respective caldera diameter enable us to estimate the height of the cylinder fitting the piston subsidence model. If the obtained parameters are congruent with the known geology and geophysical information then the model may be considered further in the inversion of the gravity data for the detailed structure. Other simple models (i.e., the funnel model) can also be analyzed in this way. In particular, when working with a piston subsidence caldera type, the Gauss theorem enables us to estimate the caldera collapse (very difficult to obtain based on geologic information alone). These possible uses of Gauss's theorem are illustrated with the calderas of La Primavera, Los Azufres, and Los Humeros caldera (Mexico). The obtained mass deficiency from these calderas follow the linear mass deficiency-diameter trend observed for other calderas. In particular, because of their diameters and mass deficiencies, La Primavera and Krakatau calderas can be considered equiparable. This comparison is of the most importance considering that La Primavera is located in the neighbourhood of a metropolis (Guadalajara City). Since geophysical studies have already established a piston subsidence model for these calderas, we assessed Gauss's theorem

  5. Two scales of inflation at Lastarria-Cordon del Azufre volcanic complex, central Andes, revealed from ASAR-ENVISAT interferometric data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Froger, J.-L.; Remy, D.; Bonvalot, S.; Legrand, D.

    2007-03-01

    ASAR-ENVISAT Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) data collected over the Lastarria-Cordon del Azufre complex (Chile-Argentina) between March 2003 and May 2005 show the persistence of the large wavelength ground inflation revealed by Pritchard and Simons in 2002 from the analysis of ERS InSAR data [Nature 418 (2002) 167-170]. After reducing the tropospheric contribution in the interferograms using a combination of data network adjustment and analysis of MODIS images, we produced an accurate interferometric time series showing a 2 yr long temporal evolution of the ground displacements patterns. Two distinct inflating signals are detected. The main signal covers an elliptical area with a 45 km NNE-SSW major axis and a 37 km minor axis. It is correlated with a regional topographic dome. We estimated its maximum inflation rate to ˜ 2.5 cm yr - 1 . We inverted the InSAR data for a range of source geometries (spherical, prolate ellipsoids, penny-shaped cracks). The inferred source parameters for 2003-2005 period are consistent with an over-pressured reservoir at shallow to intermediate crustal depths (7-15 km), with an average volumetric rate of inflation of about 14 × 10 6 m 3 yr - 1 . In addition to this main signal a new feature highlighted by the ASAR data is short wavelength inflation (6 km wide) at the location of Lastarria volcano on the northern margin of the large wavelength signal. We explain this short wavelength signal by a spherical over-pressured source lying 1000 m below the summit of Lastarria volcano. We estimate the average volumetric rate of inflation during the observation period to be ˜ 35 × 10 3 m 3 yr - 1 . It is remarkable that both volumetric variations for the large and small inflations exhibit the same evolution during the 2003-2005 period, suggesting that both processes could be related. On the basis of the inversion results and of arguments provided by field evidences and a morpho-structural analysis of the Digital Elevation

  6. It's elemental

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Periodic Table of the elements will now have to be updated. An international team of researchers has added element 110 to the Earth's armory of elements. Though short-lived—of the order of microseconds, element 110 bottoms out the list as the heaviest known element on the planet. Scientists at the Heavy Ion Research Center in Darmstadt, Germany, made the 110-proton element by colliding a lead isotope with nickel atoms. The element, which is yet to be named, has an atomic mass of 269.

  7. Degassing of different magma batches as the main controlling factor for fumarolic fluid chemistry at the Planchón-Peteroa-Azufre Volcanic Complex (Argentina-Chile) in 2010-2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tassi, Franco; Aguilera, Felipe; Benavente, Oscar; Paonita, Antonio; Chiodini, Giovanni; Caliro, Stefano; Agusto, Mariano; Gutierrez, Francisco; Capaccioni, Bruno; Vaselli, Orlando; Caselli, Alberto

    2016-04-01

    This study presents the first geochemical data of gas discharges collected during five sampling campaigns (February 2010 to March 2015), from the NNE-oriented Planchón-Peteroa-Azufre Volcanic Complex (PPAVC), located in the Transitional Southern Volcanic Zone (TSVZ) at the border between Argentina and Chile. In 2012, the acidic gas species of the low temperature (up to 102 °C) fumaroles from the Peteroa summit showed a huge increase (SO2>CO2) with respect to the 2010-2011 period, whereas the typical hydrothermal compounds (CH4 and light hydrocarbons) decreased. Such a dramatic compositional change was apparently indicating a pulse of magmatic fluids. By contrast, the temporal evolution of the δ18O-H2O, δD-H2O, R/Ra and 13C-CO2 values suggested an enhanced fluid contribution from a shallow source. In 2014-2015, the dominant hydrothermal signature characterizing the 2010-2011 fumaroles was almost completely restored. The temporary decoupling of the chemical and isotopic parameters can only be reconciled by admitting the occurrence of a double source of magmatic fluids: a basaltic batch, controlling the fumarolic chemistry in 2010-2011 and 2014-2015, and a small, shallower dacitic batch, likely affected by a significant crustal contamination, whose contribution to the fumarolic fluid emissions achieved its maximum in 2012. It cannot be ruled out that the phreatic to phreatomagmatic eruptions (VEI ≤2) that have affected Peteroa volcano from January 2010 to July 2011 have played a significant role for the modification of the deep feeding source of the fumarolic gases. The disturbance created by the volcanic events and the related seismic activity (MW<3), possibly related to the devastating Maule earthquake occurred on February 27 2010, could have activated a silent dacitic magma batch that in 2012 imposed over that of basaltic composition. Although this scenario provides a reliable explanation for the peculiar compositional changes that affected the Peteroa

  8. Elemental ZOO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helser, Terry L.

    2003-04-01

    This puzzle uses the symbols of 39 elements to spell the names of 25 animals found in zoos. Underlined spaces and the names of the elements serve as clues. To solve the puzzle, students must find the symbols that correspond to the elemental names and rearrange them into the animals' names.

  9. Elemental health

    SciTech Connect

    Tonneson, L.C.

    1997-01-01

    Trace elements used in nutritional supplements and vitamins are discussed in the article. Relevant studies are briefly cited regarding the health effects of selenium, chromium, germanium, silicon, zinc, magnesium, silver, manganese, ruthenium, lithium, and vanadium. The toxicity and food sources are listed for some of the elements. A brief summary is also provided of the nutritional supplements market.

  10. Superheavy Elements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsang, Chin Fu

    1975-01-01

    Discusses the possibility of creating elements with an atomic number of around 114. Describes the underlying physics responsible for the limited extent of the periodic table and enumerates problems that must be overcome in creating a superheavy nucleus. (GS)

  11. Elemental Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniel, Esther Gnanamalar Sarojini; Saat, Rohaida Mohd.

    2001-01-01

    Introduces a learning module integrating three disciplines--physics, chemistry, and biology--and based on four elements: carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, and silicon. Includes atomic model and silicon-based life activities. (YDS)

  12. FUEL ELEMENT

    DOEpatents

    Bean, R.W.

    1963-11-19

    A ceramic fuel element for a nuclear reactor that has improved structural stability as well as improved cooling and fission product retention characteristics is presented. The fuel element includes a plurality of stacked hollow ceramic moderator blocks arranged along a tubular raetallic shroud that encloses a series of axially apertured moderator cylinders spaced inwardly of the shroud. A plurality of ceramic nuclear fuel rods are arranged in the annular space between the shroud and cylinders of moderator and appropriate support means and means for directing gas coolant through the annular space are also provided. (AEC)

  13. Element Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herald, Christine

    2001-01-01

    Describes a research assignment for 8th grade students on the elements of the periodic table. Students use web-based resources and a chemistry handbook to gather information, construct concept maps, and present the findings to the full class using the mode of their choice: a humorous story, a slideshow or gameboard, a brochure, a song, or skit.…

  14. Mercury, elemental

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Mercury , elemental ; CASRN 7439 - 97 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinoge

  15. Superheavy Elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, S.

    The nuclear shell model predicts that the next doubly magic shell closure beyond 208Pb is at a proton number Z=114, 120, or 126 and at a neutron number N=172 or 184. The outstanding aim of experimental investigations is the exploration of this region of spherical `SuperHeavy Elements' (SHEs). Experimental methods have been developed which allowed for the identification of new elements at production rates of one atom per month. Using cold fusion reactions which are based on lead and bismuth targets, relatively neutron-deficient isotopes of the elements from 107 to 113 were synthesized at GSI in Darmstadt, Germany, and/or at RIKEN in Wako, Japan. In hot fusion reactions of 48Ca projectiles with actinide targets more neutron-rich isotopes of the elements from 112 to 116 and even 118 were produced at the Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions (FLNR) at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR) in Dubna, Russia. Recently, part of these data which represent the first identification of nuclei located on the predicted island of SHEs were confirmed in two independent experiments. The decay data reveal that for the heaviest elements, the dominant decay mode is α emission rather than fission. Decay properties as well as reaction cross-sections are compared with results of theoretical studies. Finally, plans are presented for the further development of the experimental set-up and the application of new techniques. At a higher sensitivity, the detailed exploration of the region of spherical SHEs will be in the center of interest of future experimental work. New data will certainly challenge theoretical studies on the mechanism of the synthesis, on the nuclear decay properties, and on the chemical behavior of these heaviest atoms at the limit of stability.

  16. FUEL ELEMENT

    DOEpatents

    Fortescue, P.; Zumwalt, L.R.

    1961-11-28

    A fuel element was developed for a gas cooled nuclear reactor. The element is constructed in the form of a compacted fuel slug including carbides of fissionable material in some cases with a breeder material carbide and a moderator which slug is disposed in a canning jacket of relatively impermeable moderator material. Such canned fuel slugs are disposed in an elongated shell of moderator having greater gas permeability than the canning material wherefore application of reduced pressure to the space therebetween causes gas diffusing through the exterior shell to sweep fission products from the system. Integral fission product traps and/or exterior traps as well as a fission product monitoring system may be employed therewith. (AEC)

  17. FUEL ELEMENT

    DOEpatents

    Howard, R.C.; Bokros, J.C.

    1962-03-01

    A fueled matrlx eontnwinlng uncomblned carbon is deslgned for use in graphlte-moderated gas-cooled reactors designed for operatlon at temperatures (about 1500 deg F) at which conventional metallic cladding would ordlnarily undergo undesired carburization or physical degeneratlon. - The invention comprlses, broadly a fuel body containlng uncombined earbon, clad with a nickel alloy contalning over about 28 percent by' weight copper in the preferred embodlment. Thls element ls supporirted in the passageways in close tolerance with the walls of unclad graphite moderator materlal. (AEC)

  18. Rolling-Element Bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamrock, B. J.; Anderson, W. J.

    1983-01-01

    Rolling element bearings are a precision, yet simple, machine element of great utility. A brief history of rolling element bearings is reviewed and the type of rolling element bearings, their geometry and kinematics, as well as the materials they are made from and the manufacturing processes they involve are described. Unloaded and unlubricated rolling element bearings, loaded but unlubricated rolling element bearings and loaded and lubricated rolling element bearings are considered. The recognition and understanding of elastohydrodynamic lubrication covered, represents one of the major development in rolling element bearings.

  19. Discrete Element Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, J; Johnson, S

    2007-12-03

    The Distinct Element Method (also frequently referred to as the Discrete Element Method) (DEM) is a Lagrangian numerical technique where the computational domain consists of discrete solid elements which interact via compliant contacts. This can be contrasted with Finite Element Methods where the computational domain is assumed to represent a continuum (although many modern implementations of the FEM can accommodate some Distinct Element capabilities). Often the terms Discrete Element Method and Distinct Element Method are used interchangeably in the literature, although Cundall and Hart (1992) suggested that Discrete Element Methods should be a more inclusive term covering Distinct Element Methods, Displacement Discontinuity Analysis and Modal Methods. In this work, DEM specifically refers to the Distinct Element Method, where the discrete elements interact via compliant contacts, in contrast with Displacement Discontinuity Analysis where the contacts are rigid and all compliance is taken up by the adjacent intact material.

  20. Element by Element Abundances in Spheroidal Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worthey, Guy; Serven, Jedidiah

    2006-02-01

    Element-by-element abundances will be derived from high quality long slit KPNO 4m spectra of nearby elliptical galaxies that span the range of velocity dispersion. Analysis of these spectra will give the abundances of 18 individual elements to bring to extragalactic astronomy the same luxurious situation now enjoyed only by stellar spectroscopists. These spectra will reveal the basic element ratio behavior as a function of galaxy velocity dispersion. For example, [Mg/Fe] is seen to be enhanced in large galaxies, but not small ones. We propose to expand our purview from 2 elements (Mg and Fe) to 18 elements. This, in turn, will tie directly to chemical evolution and chemical enrichment mechanisms. As a byproduct, we also decrease the stellar population age uncertainty by about a factor of ten from today's Balmer-metal index diagram techniques.

  1. Elements of Film.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bobker, Lee R.

    A film is the successful combination of two distinct groups of elements: (1) the technical elements by which the film is made (camera, lighting, sound and editing) and (2) the esthetic elements that transform the craft into an art. This book attempts to combine the study of these elements by providing technical information about the process of…

  2. Organic Elemental Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, T. S.; Wang, C. Y.

    1984-01-01

    Presents a literature review on methods used to analyze organic elements. Topic areas include methods for: (1) analyzing carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen; (2) analyzing oxygen, sulfur, and halogens; (3) analyzing other elements; (4) simultaneously determining several elements; and (5) determing trace elements. (JN)

  3. Stress interaction at the Lazufre volcanic region, as constrained by InSAR, seismic tomography and boundary element modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikkhoo, Mehdi; Walter, Thomas R.; Lundgren, Paul; Spica, Zack; Legrand, Denis

    2016-04-01

    The Azufre-Lastarria volcanic complex in the central Andes has been recognized as a major region of magma intrusion. Both deep and shallow inflating reservoirs inferred through InSAR time series inversions, are the main sources of a multi-scale deformation accompanied by pronounced fumarolic activity. The possible interactions between these reservoirs, as well as the path of propagating fluids and the development of their pathways, however, have not been investigated. Results from recent seismic noise tomography in the area show localized zones of shear wave velocity anomalies, with a low shear wave velocity region at 1 km depth and another one at 4 km depth beneath Lastarria. Although the inferred shallow zone is in a good agreement with the location of the shallow deformation source, the deep zone does not correspond to any deformation source in the area. Here, using the boundary element method (BEM), we have performed an in-depth continuum mechanical investigation of the available ascending and descending InSAR data. We modelled the deep source, taking into account the effect of topography and complex source geometry on the inversion. After calculating the stress field induced by this source, we apply Paul's criterion (a variation on Mohr-Coulomb failure) to recognize locations that are liable for failure. We show that the locations of tensile and shear failure almost perfectly coincide with the shallow and deep anomalies as identified by shear wave velocity, respectively. Based on the stress-change models we conjecture that the deep reservoir controls the development of shallower hydrothermal fluids; a hypothesis that can be tested and applied to other volcanoes.

  4. Element-ary Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schamp, Homer W., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Describes the historic development of the periodic table from the four-element theory to the Lavoisier's table. Presents a table listing the old and new names of chemicals and the Lavoisier's table of elements. Lists two references. (YP)

  5. Trace Elements and Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pettyjohn, Wayne A.

    1972-01-01

    Summarizes the effects of arsenic, lead, zinc, mercury, and cadmium on human health, indicates the sources of the elements in water, and considers the possibility of students in high schools analyzing water for trace amounts of the elements. (AL)

  6. Orthotropic hole element

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markham, J. W.; Smith, C. V.

    1983-01-01

    A finite element was developed to adequately represent the state of stress in the region around a circular hole in orthotropic material experiencing reasonably general loading. This has been achieved through a complementary virtual work formulation of the stiffness and stress matrices for a square element with a center circular hole. The element has been incorporated into COSMIC/NASTRAN as a dummy element. Sample problems have been solved and these results are presented.

  7. Elemental Chemical Puzzlers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Nicholas C.

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides nine short chemically based puzzles or problems extensible for use with students from middle school to college. Some of these will strengthen students' recognition of individual elements and element names. Others require students to focus on the salient properties of given chemical elements.

  8. Organic Elemental Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, T. S.; Gutterson, Milton

    1980-01-01

    Reviews general developments in computerization and data processing of organic elemental analyses; carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen analyzers; procedures for determining oxygen, sulfur, and halogens, as well as other nometallic elements and organometallics. Selected papers on trace analysis of nonmetals and determination of metallic elements are…

  9. Chemistry of superheavy elements.

    PubMed

    Schädel, Matthias

    2006-01-01

    The number of chemical elements has increased considerably in the last few decades. Most excitingly, these heaviest, man-made elements at the far-end of the Periodic Table are located in the area of the long-awaited superheavy elements. While physical techniques currently play a leading role in these discoveries, the chemistry of superheavy elements is now beginning to be developed. Advanced and very sensitive techniques allow the chemical properties of these elusive elements to be probed. Often, less than ten short-lived atoms, chemically separated one-atom-at-a-time, provide crucial information on basic chemical properties. These results place the architecture of the far-end of the Periodic Table on the test bench and probe the increasingly strong relativistic effects that influence the chemical properties there. This review is focused mainly on the experimental work on superheavy element chemistry. It contains a short contribution on relativistic theory, and some important historical and nuclear aspects.

  10. Cohesive Elements for Shells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davila, Carlos G.; Camanho, Pedro P.; Turon, Albert

    2007-01-01

    A cohesive element for shell analysis is presented. The element can be used to simulate the initiation and growth of delaminations between stacked, non-coincident layers of shell elements. The procedure to construct the element accounts for the thickness offset by applying the kinematic relations of shell deformation to transform the stiffness and internal force of a zero-thickness cohesive element such that interfacial continuity between the layers is enforced. The procedure is demonstrated by simulating the response and failure of the Mixed Mode Bending test and a skin-stiffener debond specimen. In addition, it is shown that stacks of shell elements can be used to create effective models to predict the inplane and delamination failure modes of thick components. The results indicate that simple shell models can retain many of the necessary predictive attributes of much more complex 3D models while providing the computational efficiency that is necessary for design.

  11. The synthetic elements

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, D.C.

    1990-05-01

    Prior to 1940, the heaviest element known was uranium, discovered in 1789. Since that time the elements 93 through 109 have been synthesized and identified and the elements 43, 61, 85, and 87 which were missing form the periodic tables of the 1930's have been discovered. The techniques and problems involved in these discoveries and the placement of the transuranium elements in the periodic table will be discussed. The production and positive identification of elements heavier than Md (Z=101), which have very short half-lives and can only be produced an atom-at-a-time, are very difficult and there have been controversies concerning their discovery. Some of the new methods which have been developed and used in these studies will be described. The prospects for production of still heavier elements will be considered.

  12. NEUTRONIC REACTOR CONTROL ELEMENT

    DOEpatents

    Newson, H.W.

    1960-09-13

    A novel composite neutronic reactor control element is offered. The element comprises a multiplicity of sections arranged in end-to-end relationship, each of the sections having a markedly different neutron-reactive characteristic. For example, a three-section control element could contain absorber, moderator, and fuel sections. By moving such an element longitudinally through a reactor core, reactivity is decreased by the absorber, increased slightly by the moderator, or increased substantially by the fuel. Thus, control over a wide reactivity range is provided.

  13. Elemental Food for Thought

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cady, Susan

    2005-01-01

    One of the first tasks students learn in chemistry is to pronounce and spell the names of elements and learn their corresponding chemical symbols. Repetitive oral recitation is commonly used to learn this information, but games and puzzles can make this task creative, variable, and fun. Elemental Food for Thought is a puzzlelike activity that…

  14. MOLDED SEALING ELEMENT

    DOEpatents

    Bradford, B.W.; Skinner, W.J.

    1959-03-24

    Molded sealing elements suitable for use under conditions involving exposure to uranium hexafluoride vapor are described. Such sealing elements are made by subjecting graphitic carbons to a preliminary treatment with uranium hexafluoride vapor, and then incorporating polytetrafluorethylene in them. The resulting composition has good wear resistant and frictional properties and is resistant to disintegration by uranium hexafluoride over long periods of exposure.

  15. The Elements Drawing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dkeidek, Iyad M.

    2003-01-01

    Presents an educational game designed for first- or second-year high school students who have already studied themes related to the periodic table elements, such as their symbols, electronic configurations, properties, and uses. The game is designed to help students learn the symbols of the elements and their properties or uses in a fun, engaging…

  16. Automatic finite element generators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, P. S.

    1984-01-01

    The design and implementation of a software system for generating finite elements and related computations are described. Exact symbolic computational techniques are employed to derive strain-displacement matrices and element stiffness matrices. Methods for dealing with the excessive growth of symbolic expressions are discussed. Automatic FORTRAN code generation is described with emphasis on improving the efficiency of the resultant code.

  17. Movies and Literary Elements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Rodney D.

    Showing ten-minute movie clips can be an effective way to motivate students to read literature and to teach elements of fiction, namely plot, character, setting, symbol, irony, and theme. A clip from "And Then There Were None" may be used to teach various elements of plot, including conflict and the four types of conflict (man vs. man, man vs.…

  18. Proceedings of transuranium elements

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The identification of the first synthetic elements was established by chemical evidence. Conclusive proof of the synthesis of the first artificial element, technetium, was published in 1937 by Perrier and Segre. An essential aspect of their achievement was the prediction of the chemical properties of element 43, which had been missing from the periodic table and which was expected to have properties similar to those of manganese and rhenium. The discovery of other artificial elements, astatine and francium, was facilitated in 1939-1940 by the prediction of their chemical properties. A little more than 50 years ago, in the spring of 1940, Edwin McMillan and Philip Abelson synthesized element 93, neptunium, and confirmed its uniqueness by chemical means. On August 30, 1940, Glenn Seaborg, Arthur Wahl, and the late Joseph Kennedy began their neutron irradiations of uranium nitrate hexahydrate. A few months later they synthesized element 94, later named plutonium, by observing the alpha particles emitted from uranium oxide targets that had been bombarded with deuterons. Shortly thereafter they proved that is was the second transuranium element by establishing its unique oxidation-reduction behavior. The symposium honored the scientists and engineers whose vision and dedication led to the discovery of the transuranium elements and to the understanding of the influence of 5f electrons on their electronic structure and bonding. This volume represents a record of papers presented at the symposium.

  19. Trace element emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, S.A.; Erickson, T.A.; Steadman, E.N.; Zygarlicke, C.J.; Hauserman, W.B.; Hassett, D.J.

    1994-10-01

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) is carrying out an investigation that will provide methods to predict the fate of selected trace elements in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) and integrated gasification fuel cell (IGFC) systems to aid in the development of methods to control the emission of trace elements determined to be air toxics. The goal of this project is to identify the effects of critical chemical and physical transformations associated with trace element behavior in IGCC and IGFC systems. The trace elements included in this project are arsenic, chromium, cadmium, mercury, nickel, selenium, and lead. The research seeks to identify and fill, experimentally and/or theoretically, data gaps that currently exist on the fate and composition of trace elements. The specific objectives are to (1) review the existing literature to identify the type and quantity of trace elements from coal gasification systems, (2) perform laboratory-scale experimentation and computer modeling to enable prediction of trace element emissions, and (3) identify methods to control trace element emissions.

  20. Monolithic freeform element

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiontke, Sven R.

    2015-09-01

    For 10 years there has been the asphere as one of the new products to be accepted by the market. All parts of the chain design, production and measurement needed to learn how to treat the asphere and what it is helpful for. The aspheric optical element now is established and accepted as an equal optical element between other as a fast growing part of all the optical elements. Now we are focusing onto the next new element with a lot of potential, the optical freeform surface. Manufacturing results will be shown for fully tolerance optic including manufacturing, setup and optics configurations including measurement setup. The element itself is a monolith consisting of several optical surfaces that have to be aligned properly to each other. The freeform surface is measured for surface form tolerance (irregularity, slope, Zernike, PV).

  1. NUCLEAR REACTOR FUEL ELEMENT

    DOEpatents

    Wheelock, C.W.; Baumeister, E.B.

    1961-09-01

    A reactor fuel element utilizing fissionable fuel materials in plate form is described. This fuel element consists of bundles of fuel-bearing plates. The bundles are stacked inside of a tube which forms the shell of the fuel element. The plates each have longitudinal fins running parallel to the direction of coolant flow, and interspersed among and parallel to the fins are ribs which position the plates relative to each other and to the fuel element shell. The plate bundles are held together by thin bands or wires. The ex tended surface increases the heat transfer capabilities of a fuel element by a factor of 3 or more over those of a simple flat plate.

  2. Active element pattern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pozar, D. M.

    1994-08-01

    This review article will discuss the use of the active element pattern for prediction of the scan performance of large phased array antennas. The introduction and application of the concept of the active element pattern goes back at least 30 years (1) -(6) , but the subject is generally not covered in modern antenna engineering textbooks or handbooks, and many contemporary workers are unfamiliar with this simple but powerful idea. In addition, early references on this subject do not provide a rigorous discussion or derivation of the active element pattern, relying instead on a more qualitative interpretation. The purpose of this communication is to make the technique of active element patterns more accessible to antenna engineers, and to provide a new derivation of the basic active element pattern relations in terms of scattering parameters.

  3. The heaviest elements

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, D.C. Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA )

    1994-05-02

    How long does an atom need to exist before it's possible to do any meaningful chemistry on it Is it possible to learn anything at all about the reactions of an element for which no more than a few dozen atoms have ever existed simultaneously These are some of the questions colleagues in a few laboratories worldwide attempt to answer as they investigate the chemistry of the heaviest elements--elements produced one atom at a time in accelerators by bombarding radioactive targets with high-intensity beams of heavy ions. All of these elements spontaneously decay; the most stable of them have half-lives of only a few minutes, some that are less stable exist for only milliseconds. So far, no chemical studies have been performed on elements whose longest lived isotopes last only milliseconds because the difficulties of doing chemistry on this time scale under highly radioactive conditions are enormous. Over the past 10 years, however, nuclear chemists have developed new techniques or adapted existing ones to begin to probe the chemical properties of those very heavy elements that have half-lives in the range of seconds to minutes. Although the classic experiments are now nearly 40 years old, they are worth describing, as they were the first of their kind and illustrate many of the techniques that are still used and essential in studying these very short-lived, radioactive elements.

  4. Neutronic fuel element fabrication

    DOEpatents

    Korton, George

    2004-02-24

    This disclosure describes a method for metallurgically bonding a complete leak-tight enclosure to a matrix-type fuel element penetrated longitudinally by a multiplicity of coolant channels. Coolant tubes containing solid filler pins are disposed in the coolant channels. A leak-tight metal enclosure is then formed about the entire assembly of fuel matrix, coolant tubes and pins. The completely enclosed and sealed assembly is exposed to a high temperature and pressure gas environment to effect a metallurgical bond between all contacting surfaces therein. The ends of the assembly are then machined away to expose the pin ends which are chemically leached from the coolant tubes to leave the coolant tubes with internal coolant passageways. The invention described herein was made in the course of, or under, a contract with the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission. It relates generally to fuel elements for neutronic reactors and more particularly to a method for providing a leak-tight metal enclosure for a high-performance matrix-type fuel element penetrated longitudinally by a multiplicity of coolant tubes. The planned utilization of nuclear energy in high-performance, compact-propulsion and mobile power-generation systems has necessitated the development of fuel elements capable of operating at high power densities. High power densities in turn require fuel elements having high thermal conductivities and good fuel retention capabilities at high temperatures. A metal clad fuel element containing a ceramic phase of fuel intimately mixed with and bonded to a continuous refractory metal matrix has been found to satisfy the above requirements. Metal coolant tubes penetrate the matrix to afford internal cooling to the fuel element while providing positive fuel retention and containment of fission products generated within the fuel matrix. Metal header plates are bonded to the coolant tubes at each end of the fuel element and a metal cladding or can completes the fuel-matrix enclosure

  5. Injector element characterization methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, George B., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Characterization of liquid rocket engine injector elements is an important part of the development process for rocket engine combustion devices. Modern nonintrusive instrumentation for flow velocity and spray droplet size measurement, and automated, computer-controlled test facilities allow rapid, low-cost evaluation of injector element performance and behavior. Application of these methods in rocket engine development, paralleling their use in gas turbine engine development, will reduce rocket engine development cost and risk. The Alternate Turbopump (ATP) Hot Gas Systems (HGS) preburner injector elements were characterized using such methods, and the methodology and some of the results obtained will be shown.

  6. Elements of discovery.

    PubMed

    Toledo-Pereyra, Luis H

    2008-01-01

    I understand discovery as the essence of thinking man, or to paraphrase the notable French philosopher René Descartes, "I think, therefore I discover." In this study, I introduce discovery as the foundation of modern science. Discovery consists of six stages or elements, including: concept, belief, ability, support, proof, and protection. Each element is discussed within the context of the whole discovery enterprise. Fundamental tenets for understanding discovery are given throughout the paper, and a few examples illustrate the significance of some of the most important elements. I invite clinicians, researchers, and/or clinical researchers to integrate themselves into the active process of discovery. Remember--I think, therefore I discover.

  7. Elements in biological AMS

    SciTech Connect

    Vogel, J.S.; McAninch, J.; Freeman, S.

    1996-08-01

    AMS (Accelerator Mass Spectrometry) provides high detection sensitivity for isotopes whose half-lives are between 10 years and 100 million years. {sup 14}C is the most developed of such isotopes and is used in tracing natural and anthropogenic organic compounds in the Earth`s biosphere. Thirty-three elements in the main periodic table and 17 lanthanides or actinides have long lived isotopes, providing potential tracers for research in elemental biochemistry. Overlap of biologically interesting heavy elements and possible AMS tracers is discussed.

  8. Discovery of element 112

    SciTech Connect

    Hofmann, S.

    1996-12-31

    The new elements 110, 111, and 112 were synthesized and unambiguously identified in experiments at SHIP. Due to strong shell effects the dominant decay mode is not fission, but emission of alpha particles. Theoretical investigations predict that maximum shell effects should exist in nuclei near proton number 114 and neutron number 184. Measurements give hope that isotopes of element 114 close to the island of spherical Superheavy Elements could be produced by fusion reactions using {sup 118}Pb as target. systematic studies of the reaction cross-sections indicate that transfer of nucleons is the important process to initiate the fusion.

  9. NEUTRONIC REACTOR FUEL ELEMENT

    DOEpatents

    Shackleford, M.H.

    1958-12-16

    A fuel element possessing good stability and heat conducting properties is described. The fuel element comprises an outer tube formed of material selected from the group consisting of stainhess steel, V, Ti. Mo. or Zr, a fuel tube concentrically fitting within the outer tube and containing an oxide of an isotope selected from the group consisting of U/sup 235/, U/sup 233/, and Pu/sup 239/, and a hollow, porous core concentrically fitting within the fuel tube and formed of an oxide of an element selected from the group consisting of Mg, Be, and Zr.

  10. Multi-Element Airfoil System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, Travis L. (Inventor); Khorrami, Mehdi R. (Inventor); Lockard, David P. (Inventor); McKenney, Martin J. (Inventor); Atherley, Raymond D. (Inventor); Kidd, Reggie T. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A multi-element airfoil system includes an airfoil element having a leading edge region and a skin element coupled to the airfoil element. A slat deployment system is coupled to the slat and the skin element, and is capable of deploying and retracting the slat and the skin element. The skin element substantially fills the lateral gap formed between the slat and the airfoil element when the slat is deployed. The system further includes an uncoupling device and a sensor to remove the skin element from the gap based on a critical angle-of-attack of the airfoil element. The system can alternatively comprise a trailing edge flap, where a skin element substantially fills the lateral gap between the flap and the trailing edge region of the airfoil element. In each case, the skin element fills a gap between the airfoil element and the deployed flap or slat to reduce airframe noise.

  11. Rock in Its Elements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacCluskey, Thomas

    1969-01-01

    A discussion of the following musical elements of rock: rhythm, melody, harmony, and form. A impromptu analysis made at a session of the Youth Music Symposium, July 25, 1969. Remarks transcribed from tape. (Author/AP)

  12. COMPOSITE FUEL ELEMENT

    DOEpatents

    Hurford, W.J.; Gordon, R.B.; Johnson, W.A.

    1962-12-25

    A sandwich-type fuel element for a reactor is described. This fuel element has the shape of an elongated flat plate and includes a filler plate having a plurality of compartments therein in which the fuel material is located. The filler plate is clad on both sides with a thin cladding material which is secured to the filler plate only to completely enclose the fuel material in each compartment. (AEC)

  13. JACKETED FUEL ELEMENT

    DOEpatents

    Wigner, E.P.; Szilard, L.; Creutz, E.C.

    1959-02-01

    These fuel elements are comprised of a homogeneous metallic uranium body completely enclosed and sealed in an aluminum cover. The uranium body and aluminum cover are bonded together by a layer of zinc located between them. The bonding layer serves to improve transfer of heat, provides an additional protection against corrosion of the uranium by the coolant, and also localizes any possible corrosion by preventing travel of corrosive material along the surface of the fuel element.

  14. Spectral Element Agglomerate AMGe

    SciTech Connect

    Chartier, T; Falgout, R; Henson, V E; Jones, J E; Vassilevski, P S; Manteuffel, T A; McCormick, S F; Ruge, J W

    2005-05-20

    The purpose of this note is to describe an algorithm resulting from the uniting of two ideas introduced and applied elsewhere. For many problems, AMG has always been difficult due to complexities whose natures are difficult to discern from the entries of matrix A alone. Element-based interpolation has been shown to be an effective method for some of these problems, but it requires access to the element matrices on all levels. One way to obtain these has been to perform element agglomeration to form coarse elements, but in complicated situations defining the coarse degrees of freedom (dofs) is not easy. The spectral approach to coarse dof selection is very attractive due to its elegance and simplicity. The algorithm presented here combines the robustness of element interpolation, the ease of coarsening by element agglomeration, and the simplicity of defining coarse dofs through the spectral approach. As demonstrated in the numerical results, the method does yield a reasonable solver for the problems described. It can, however, be an expensive method due to the number and cost of the local, small dense linear algebra problems; making it a generally competitive method remains an area for further research.

  15. Nuclear fuel element

    DOEpatents

    Zocher, Roy W.

    1991-01-01

    A nuclear fuel element and a method of manufacturing the element. The fuel element is comprised of a metal primary container and a fuel pellet which is located inside it and which is often fragmented. The primary container is subjected to elevated pressure and temperature to deform the container such that the container conforms to the fuel pellet, that is, such that the container is in substantial contact with the surface of the pellet. This conformance eliminates clearances which permit rubbing together of fuel pellet fragments and rubbing of fuel pellet fragments against the container, thus reducing the amount of dust inside the fuel container and the amount of dust which may escape in the event of container breach. Also, as a result of the inventive method, fuel pellet fragments tend to adhere to one another to form a coherent non-fragmented mass; this reduces the tendency of a fragment to pierce the container in the event of impact.

  16. Elemental sulfur recovery process

    DOEpatents

    Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M.; Zhicheng Hu.

    1993-09-07

    An improved catalytic reduction process for the direct recovery of elemental sulfur from various SO[sub 2]-containing industrial gas streams. The catalytic process provides combined high activity and selectivity for the reduction of SO[sub 2] to elemental sulfur product with carbon monoxide or other reducing gases. The reaction of sulfur dioxide and reducing gas takes place over certain catalyst formulations based on cerium oxide. The process is a single-stage, catalytic sulfur recovery process in conjunction with regenerators, such as those used in dry, regenerative flue gas desulfurization or other processes, involving direct reduction of the SO[sub 2] in the regenerator off gas stream to elemental sulfur in the presence of a catalyst. 4 figures.

  17. Elemental sulfur recovery process

    DOEpatents

    Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, Maria; Hu, Zhicheng

    1993-01-01

    An improved catalytic reduction process for the direct recovery of elemental sulfur from various SO.sub.2 -containing industrial gas streams. The catalytic process provides combined high activity and selectivity for the reduction of SO.sub.2 to elemental sulfur product with carbon monoxide or other reducing gases. The reaction of sulfur dioxide and reducing gas takes place over certain catalyst formulations based on cerium oxide. The process is a single-stage, catalytic sulfur recovery process in conjunction with regenerators, such as those used in dry, regenerative flue gas desulfurization or other processes, involving direct reduction of the SO.sub.2 in the regenerator off gas stream to elemental sulfur in the presence of a catalyst.

  18. Elemental analysis in biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Hann, Stephan; Dernovics, Mihaly; Koellensperger, Gunda

    2015-02-01

    This article focuses on analytical strategies integrating atomic spectroscopy in biotechnology. The rationale behind developing such methods is inherently linked to unique features of the key technique in elemental analysis, which is inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry: (1) the high sensitivity and selectivity of state of the art instrumentation, (2) the possibility of accurate absolute quantification even in complex matrices, (3) the capability of combining elemental detectors with chromatographic separation methods and the versatility of the latter approach, (4) the complementarity of inorganic and organic mass spectrometry, (5) the multi-element capability and finally (6) the capability of isotopic analysis. The article highlights the most recent bio-analytical developments exploiting these methodological advantages and shows the potential in biotechnological applications.

  19. Intelligent Elements for ISHM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmalzel, John L.; Morris, Jon; Turowski, Mark; Figueroa, Fernando; Oostdyk, Rebecca

    2008-01-01

    There are a number of architecture models for implementing Integrated Systems Health Management (ISHM) capabilities. For example, approaches based on the OSA-CBM and OSA-EAI models, or specific architectures developed in response to local needs. NASA s John C. Stennis Space Center (SSC) has developed one such version of an extensible architecture in support of rocket engine testing that integrates a palette of functions in order to achieve an ISHM capability. Among the functional capabilities that are supported by the framework are: prognostic models, anomaly detection, a data base of supporting health information, root cause analysis, intelligent elements, and integrated awareness. This paper focuses on the role that intelligent elements can play in ISHM architectures. We define an intelligent element as a smart element with sufficient computing capacity to support anomaly detection or other algorithms in support of ISHM functions. A smart element has the capabilities of supporting networked implementations of IEEE 1451.x smart sensor and actuator protocols. The ISHM group at SSC has been actively developing intelligent elements in conjunction with several partners at other Centers, universities, and companies as part of our ISHM approach for better supporting rocket engine testing. We have developed several implementations. Among the key features for these intelligent sensors is support for IEEE 1451.1 and incorporation of a suite of algorithms for determination of sensor health. Regardless of the potential advantages that can be achieved using intelligent sensors, existing large-scale systems are still based on conventional sensors and data acquisition systems. In order to bring the benefits of intelligent sensors to these environments, we have also developed virtual implementations of intelligent sensors.

  20. FUEL ELEMENT CONSTRUCTION

    DOEpatents

    Simnad, M.T.

    1961-08-15

    A method of preventing diffusible and volatile fission products from diffusing through a fuel element container and contaminating reactor coolant is described. More specifically, relatively volatile and diffusible fission products either are adsorbed by or react with magnesium fluoride or difluoride to form stable, less volatile, less diffusible forms. The magnesium fluoride or difluoride is disposed anywhere inwardly from the outer surface of the fuel element container in order to be contacted by the fission products before they reach and contaminate the reactor coolant. (AEC)

  1. CONSTRUCTION OF NUCLEAR FUEL ELEMENTS

    DOEpatents

    Weems, S.J.

    1963-09-24

    >A rib arrangement and an end construction for nuclearfuel elements laid end to end in a coolant tube are described. The rib arrangement is such that each fuel element, when separated from other fuel elements, fits loosely in the coolant tube and so can easily be inserted or withdrawn from the tube. The end construction of the fuel elements is such that the fuel elements when assembled end to end are keyed against relative rotation, and the ribs of each fuel element cooperate with the ribs of the adjacent fuel elements to give the assembled fuel elements a tight fit with the coolant tube. (AEC)

  2. Movies and Literary Elements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Rodney D.

    1987-01-01

    Recommends using movie clips to stimulate students' interest in reading a novel as well as to teach elements of fiction such as plot, character, setting, symbol, irony, and theme. Describes each clip and provides study questions. Includes a listing of movies made from books. (NH)

  3. NUCLEAR REACTOR ELEMENT

    DOEpatents

    Sanz, M.C.; Scully, C.N.

    1961-06-27

    The patented fuel element is a hexagonal graphite body having an axial channel therethrough. The graphite is impregnated with uranium which is concentrated near the axial channel. Layers of tantalum nitride and tantalum carbide are disposed on the surface of the body confronting the channel.

  4. Heating element support clip

    DOEpatents

    Sawyer, William C.

    1995-01-01

    An apparatus for supporting a heating element in a channel formed in a heater base is disclosed. A preferred embodiment includes a substantially U-shaped tantalum member. The U-shape is characterized by two substantially parallel portions of tantalum that each have an end connected to opposite ends of a base portion of tantalum. The parallel portions are each substantially perpendicular to the base portion and spaced apart a distance not larger than a width of the channel and not smaller than a width of a graphite heating element. The parallel portions each have a hole therein, and the centers of the holes define an axis that is substantially parallel to the base portion. An aluminum oxide ceramic retaining pin extends through the holes in the parallel portions and into a hole in a wall of the channel to retain the U-shaped member in the channel and to support the graphite heating element. The graphite heating element is confined by the parallel portions of tantalum, the base portion of tantalum, and the retaining pin. A tantalum tube surrounds the retaining pin between the parallel portions of tantalum.

  5. Heating element support clip

    DOEpatents

    Sawyer, W.C.

    1995-08-15

    An apparatus for supporting a heating element in a channel formed in a heater base is disclosed. A preferred embodiment includes a substantially U-shaped tantalum member. The U-shape is characterized by two substantially parallel portions of tantalum that each have an end connected to opposite ends of a base portion of tantalum. The parallel portions are each substantially perpendicular to the base portion and spaced apart a distance not larger than a width of the channel and not smaller than a width of a graphite heating element. The parallel portions each have a hole therein, and the centers of the holes define an axis that is substantially parallel to the base portion. An aluminum oxide ceramic retaining pin extends through the holes in the parallel portions and into a hole in a wall of the channel to retain the U-shaped member in the channel and to support the graphite heating element. The graphite heating element is confined by the parallel portions of tantalum, the base portion of tantalum, and the retaining pin. A tantalum tube surrounds the retaining pin between the parallel portions of tantalum. 6 figs.

  6. NEUTRONIC REACTOR FUEL ELEMENT

    DOEpatents

    Picklesimer, M.L.; Thurber, W.C.

    1961-01-01

    A chemically nonreactive fuel composition for incorporation in aluminum- clad, plate type fuel elements for neutronic reactors is described. The composition comprises a mixture of aluminum and uranium carbide particles, the uranium carbide particles containing at least 80 wt.% UC/sub 2/.

  7. The Transuranium Elements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seaborg, Glenn T.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the unusual chemistry of the transuranium elements as well as their impact on the periodic table. Also considers the practical applications of transuranium isotopes, such as their use in nuclear fuel for the large-scale generation of electricity. (JN)

  8. Photovoltaic radiation detector element

    DOEpatents

    Agouridis, D.C.

    1980-12-17

    A radiation detector element is formed of a body of semiconductor material, a coating on the body which forms a photovoltaic junction therewith, and a current collector consisting of narrow metallic strips, the aforesaid coating having an opening therein in the edge of which closely approaches but is spaced from the current collector strips.

  9. TABLE OF RADIOACTIVE ELEMENTS.

    SciTech Connect

    HOLDEN,N.E.

    2001-06-29

    For those chemical elements which have no stable nuclides with a terrestrial isotopic composition, the data on radioactive half-lives and relative atomic masses for the nuclides of interest and importance have been evaluated and the recommended values and uncertainties are listed.

  10. Elements affecting runway traction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horne, W. B.

    1974-01-01

    The five basic elements affecting runway traction for jet transport aircraft operation are identified and described in terms of pilot, aircraft system, atmospheric, tire, and pavement performance factors or parameters. Where possible, research results are summarized, and means for restoring or improving runway traction for these different conditions are discussed.

  11. Senescence responsive transcriptional element

    DOEpatents

    Campisi, Judith; Testori, Alessandro

    1999-01-01

    Recombinant polynucleotides have expression control sequences that have a senescence responsive element and a minimal promoter, and which are operatively linked to a heterologous nucleotide sequence. The molecules are useful for achieving high levels of expression of genes in senescent cells. Methods of inhibiting expression of genes in senescent cells also are provided.

  12. NEUTRONIC REACTOR FUEL ELEMENT

    DOEpatents

    Stacy, J.T.

    1958-12-01

    A reactor fuel element having a core of molybdenum-uranium alloy jacketed in stainless steel is described. A barrier layer of tungsten, tantalum, molybdenum, columbium, or silver is interposed between the core and jacket to prevent formation of a low melting eutectic between uranium and the varlous alloy constituents of the stainless steel.

  13. CEDS Addresses: Rubric Elements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2015

    2015-01-01

    Common Education Data Standards (CEDS) Version 4 introduced a common data vocabulary for defining rubrics in a data system. The CEDS elements support digital representations of both holistic and analytic rubrics. This document shares examples of holistic and analytic project rubrics, available CEDS Connections, and a logical model showing the…

  14. Abundances of light elements.

    PubMed Central

    Pagel, B E

    1993-01-01

    Recent developments in the study of abundances of light elements and their relevance to cosmological nucleosynthesis are briefly reviewed. The simplest model, based on standard cosmology and particle physics and assuming homogeneous baryon density at the relevant times, continues to stand up well. PMID:11607388

  15. JACKETED REACTOR FUEL ELEMENT

    DOEpatents

    Smith, K.F.; Van Thyne, R.J.

    1958-12-01

    A fuel element is described for fast reactors comprised of a core of uranium metal containing material and a jacket around the core, the jacket consisting of from 2.5 to 15 percent of titanium, from 1 to 5 percent of niobium, and from 80 to 96.5 percent of vanadium.

  16. Senescence responsive transcriptional element

    SciTech Connect

    Campisi, J.; Testori, A.

    1999-10-12

    Recombinant polynucleotides have expression control sequences that have a senescence responsive element and a minimal promoter, and which are operatively linked to a heterologous nucleotide sequence. The molecules are useful for achieving high levels of expression of genes in senescent cells. Methods of inhibiting expression of genes in senescent cells also are provided.

  17. NEUTRONIC REACTOR FUEL ELEMENT

    DOEpatents

    Gurinsky, D.H.; Powell, R.W.; Fox, M.

    1959-11-24

    A nuclear fuel element comprising a plurality of nuclear fuel bearing strips is presented. The strips are folded along their longitudinal axes to an angle of about 60 deg and are secured at each end by ferrule to form an elongated assembly suitable for occupying a cylindrical coolant channel.

  18. Photovoltaic radiation detector element

    DOEpatents

    Agouridis, Dimitrios C.

    1983-01-01

    A radiation detector element is formed of a body of semiconductor material, a coating on the body which forms a photovoltaic junction therewith, and a current collector consisting of narrow metallic strips, the aforesaid coating having an opening therein the edge of which closely approaches but is spaced from the current collector strips.

  19. Elemental Chem Lab

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franco Mariscal, Antonio Joaquin

    2008-01-01

    This educative material uses the symbols of 45 elements to spell the names of 32 types of laboratory equipment usually found in chemical labs. This teaching material has been divided into three puzzles according to the type of the laboratory equipment: (i) glassware as reaction vessels or containers; (ii) glassware for measuring, addition or…

  20. Element-topology-independent preconditioners for parallel finite element computations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, K. C.; Alexander, Scott

    1992-01-01

    A family of preconditioners for the solution of finite element equations are presented, which are element-topology independent and thus can be applicable to element order-free parallel computations. A key feature of the present preconditioners is the repeated use of element connectivity matrices and their left and right inverses. The properties and performance of the present preconditioners are demonstrated via beam and two-dimensional finite element matrices for implicit time integration computations.

  1. Polynomial Beam Element Analysis Module

    SciTech Connect

    Ning, S. Andrew

    2013-05-01

    pBEAM (Polynomial Beam Element Analysis Module) is a finite element code for beam-like structures. The methodology uses Euler? Bernoulli beam elements with 12 degrees of freedom (3 translation and 3 rotational at each end of the element).

  2. Finite Element Analysis Code

    2006-03-08

    MAPVAR-KD is designed to transfer solution results from one finite element mesh to another. MAPVAR-KD draws heavily from the structure and coding of MERLIN II, but it employs a new finite element data base, EXODUS II, and offers enhanced speed and new capabilities not available in MERLIN II. In keeping with the MERLIN II documentation, the computational algorithms used in MAPVAR-KD are described. User instructions are presented. Example problems are included to demonstrate the operationmore » of the code and the effects of various input options. MAPVAR-KD is a modification of MAPVAR in which the search algorithm was replaced by a kd-tree-based search for better performance on large problems.« less

  3. Carbon Nanotube Memory Elements

    SciTech Connect

    Meunier, Vincent; Sumpter, Bobby G

    2010-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes are among the most cited prototypical materials for nanoelectronics and information storage devices, a dominant position that originates from their intrinsic structural and electronic properties. In this chapter we review the developments in memory elements that directly exploit the unique properties of carbon nanotubes. Fundamental operational principles and characteristics are examined for the different types of carbon nanotube-based memory devices along with the current status of experimental fabrication and scalability. These include memory elements based on carbon nanotube field-effect transistors (CNFET), nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS), and electromigration. Many of these devices show tremendous promise for providing enhanced densities, lower power requirements, more efficient read/write processes, and non-volatility of data.

  4. Production of transuranium elements

    SciTech Connect

    Wham, R.M.; Chattin, F.R.; Knauer, J.B.

    1993-12-31

    The Radiochemical Engineering Development Center (REDC) has the programmatic responsibility for the Department of Energy`s Transuranium Element Program. Principle elements from the program are einsteinium, berkelium, and fermium. Targets containing curium oxide mixed with aluminum powder are fabricated by the REDC and irradiated in the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) High Flux Isotope Reactor. Following an irradiation period of 6-12 months, targets are returned to the REDC for chemical processing. Processing operations consists of aluminum dejacketing in a caustic-nitrate solution, filtration, acid dissolution, solvent extraction, anion exchange, and finally a cation exchange to recover the actinides. The processing operations take place in heavily shielded hot cell facilities and all operations are carried out remotely. The chemistry for the separations has been well established over the 26-yr. operating life of the facility.

  5. Finite Element Analysis Code

    SciTech Connect

    Sjaardema, G.; Wellman, G.; Gartling, D.

    2006-03-08

    MAPVAR-KD is designed to transfer solution results from one finite element mesh to another. MAPVAR-KD draws heavily from the structure and coding of MERLIN II, but it employs a new finite element data base, EXODUS II, and offers enhanced speed and new capabilities not available in MERLIN II. In keeping with the MERLIN II documentation, the computational algorithms used in MAPVAR-KD are described. User instructions are presented. Example problems are included to demonstrate the operation of the code and the effects of various input options. MAPVAR-KD is a modification of MAPVAR in which the search algorithm was replaced by a kd-tree-based search for better performance on large problems.

  6. The individual element test revisited

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Militello, Carmelo; Felippa, Carlos A.

    1991-01-01

    The subject of the patch test for finite elements retains several unsettled aspects. In particular, the issue of one-element versus multielement tests needs clarification. Following a brief historical review, we present the individual element test (IET) of Bergan and Hanssen in an expanded context that encompasses several important classes of new elements. The relationship of the IET to the multielement forms A, B, and C of the patch test and to the single element test are clarified.

  7. Finite Element Analysis Code

    SciTech Connect

    Forsythe, C.; Smith, M.; Sjaardema, G.

    2005-06-26

    Exotxt is an analysis code that reads finite element results data stored in an exodusII file and generates a file in a structured text format. The text file can be edited or modified via a number of text formatting tools. Exotxt is used by analysis to translate data from the binary exodusII format into a structured text format which can then be edited or modified and then either translated back to exodusII format or to another format.

  8. OXIDATION OF TRANSURANIC ELEMENTS

    DOEpatents

    Moore, R.L.

    1959-02-17

    A method is reported for oxidizing neptunium or plutonium in the presence of cerous values without also oxidizing the cerous values. The method consists in treating an aqueous 1N nitric acid solution, containing such cerous values together with the trivalent transuranic elements, with a quantity of hydrogen peroxide stoichiometrically sufficient to oxidize the transuranic values to the hexavalent state, and digesting the solution at room temperature.

  9. Electrochemical Circuit Elements.

    PubMed

    Maier, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    The vast majority of electrochemical processes can be modelled by resistors and capacitors. These will then be, in addition to usual circuit elements, electrochemical and chemical resistors or chemical capacitors. The paper shows the significance of understanding these parameters and their connections in given systems for a variety of timely scientific examples. This rationale mirrors one of the intellectual facets, if not the most important one, of Janko Jamnik's scientific work. PMID:27640384

  10. Nuclear fuel element

    DOEpatents

    Meadowcroft, Ronald Ross; Bain, Alastair Stewart

    1977-01-01

    A nuclear fuel element wherein a tubular cladding of zirconium or a zirconium alloy has a fission gas plenum chamber which is held against collapse by the loops of a spacer in the form of a tube which has been deformed inwardly at three equally spaced, circumferential positions to provide three loops. A heat resistant disc of, say, graphite separates nuclear fuel pellets within the cladding from the plenum chamber. The spacer is of zirconium or a zirconium alloy.

  11. Trace element emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, S.A.; Erickson, T.A.; Steadman, E.N.; Zygarlicke, C.J.; Hauserman, W.B.; Hassett, D.J.

    1993-01-01

    The predicting of inorganic transformations (major and minor components) during coal combustion has long been the focus of many research programs (Zygarlicke et al., 1992; Wilemski et al., 1992; Baxter, 1992). In the program described in this paper, the predictive techniques that have been applied to combustion are being modified to predict inorganic transformations under gasification conditions. Many of the current trace element predictive techniques are based on the assumption of equilibrium conditions and not on actual kinetically constrained transformations that occur during coal utilization. The approach used in this program is to combine inorganic transformation algorithms and the thermochemical equilibrium calculations (Ramanathan et al., 1989, 1991). These techniques will be developed to predict the particle-size and composition distribution of the resulting coal ash particulate, along with the state of the vapor species at selected conditions for major, minor, and trace constituents. Many of the computer models recently to predict the evolution of major developed and minor elements during coal gasification were made possible by the development on a highly quantitative analytical technique for coal analysis, CCSEM (Steadman et al., 1990). CCSEM provides a particle-size and composition distribution for the mineral contents of a particular coal for twelve major and minor elements. These raw CCSEM data are the primary input to the newest computer models of ash formation.

  12. Sobre el estado evolutivo de β Pictoris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunini, A.; Benvenuto, O. G.

    Desde el descubrimiento de fuertes excesos infrarrojos en β Pictoris, esta estrella ha sido muy estudiada y es considerada candidata a poseer un sistema planetario propio. β Pic está rodeada de un disco asimétrico de polvo que se observa de canto y que esta vacío a distancias <= 40 AU. Esto se considera una fuerte evidencia en favor de la presencia de (al menos) un planeta gigante. Recientemente se han observado líneas de material circunestelar que se han interpretado como consecuencia de la caída de objetos cometarios sobre esta estrella. Recientemente se ha utilizado la existencia del disco de polvo para atribuir una edad corta (pre - secuencia principal) a βPic. Sin embargo, la evaporación de estos cometas provee suficiente polvo como para explicar la presencia del disco observado sin necesidad de edades cortas. En este trabajo mostramos que la comparación entre la tasa de impactos cometarios estimada en el Sistema Solar para diferentes etapas de su evolución y los datos observados en β Pic indica edades avanzadas para β Pic. Esta estimación debe tomarse con cautela ya que depende de la estructura de los sistemas planetarios. Además mostramos que, desde el punto de vista de la evolución estelar y con las incertezas presentes en la luminosidad y la temperatura efectiva, existe un continuo de edades posible para β Pic. Sin embargo, empleando los datos provenientes de los flujos cometarios encontramos que una edad prolongada es consistente con ambos tratamientos.

  13. The transuranium elements: From neptunium and plutonium to element 112

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, D.C. |

    1996-07-26

    Beginning in the 1930`s, both chemists and physicists became interested in synthesizing new artificial elements. The first transuranium element, Np, was synthesized in 1940. Over the past six decades, 20 transuranium elements have been produced. A review of the synthesis is given. The procedure of naming the heavy elements is also discussed. It appears feasible to produce elements 113 and 114. With the Berkeley Gas-filled Separator, it should be possible to reach the superheavy elements in the region of the spherical Z=114 shell, but with fewer neutrons than the N=184 spherical shell. 57 refs, 6 figs.

  14. Method of securing filter elements

    DOEpatents

    Brown, Erik P.; Haslam, Jeffery L.; Mitchell, Mark A.

    2016-10-04

    A filter securing system including a filter unit body housing; at least one tubular filter element positioned in the filter unit body housing, the tubular filter element having a closed top and an open bottom; a dimple in either the filter unit body housing or the top of the tubular filter element; and a socket in either the filter unit body housing or the top of the tubular filter element that receives the dimple in either the filter unit body housing or the top of the tubular filter element to secure the tubular filter element to the filter unit body housing.

  15. CONCENTEIC TUBULAR FUEL ELEMENT

    DOEpatents

    Wheelock, C.W.

    1960-08-16

    An improved fuel element for an organic-moderated reactor was designed that comprises an inner and an outer container tube, a plurality of spaced, concentric fuel tubes positioned between the container tubes, each of the fuel tubes comprising a core of fissionable material with cladding on the sides thereof, each of the sides having a plurality of fins, the fuel tubes and the container tubes defining annular spaces for coolant flow, and the inner container tube defining a channel for a reactor moderator.

  16. [Healthcare marketing elements].

    PubMed

    Ameri, Cinzia; Fiorini, Fulvio

    2014-01-01

    Marketing puts its foundation on a few key concepts: need-demand, product-service, satisfaction, exchange, market, or business structure manufacturing / supply. The combination of these elements allows you to build an effective marketing strategy. Crucial in this respect is to remember the Porter matrix, which shows that for a correct analysis of the relevant market is necessary to refer to the "five forces at play", ie: customers, competitors, new entrants and substitutes threat. Another key lever for proper marketing oriented approach is the continuous and constant monitoring of the application, anticipating their dissatisfactions. PMID:24777920

  17. FUEL ELEMENT CONSTRUCTION

    DOEpatents

    Zumwalt, L.R.

    1961-08-01

    Fuel elements having a solid core of fissionable material encased in a cladding material are described. A conversion material is provided within the cladding to react with the fission products to form stable, relatively non- volatile compounds thereby minimizing the migration of the fission products into the coolant. The conversion material is preferably a metallic fluoride, such as lead difluoride, and may be in the form of a coating on the fuel core or interior of the cladding, or dispersed within the fuel core. (AEC)

  18. Finite Element Analysis Code

    2005-06-26

    Exotxt is an analysis code that reads finite element results data stored in an exodusII file and generates a file in a structured text format. The text file can be edited or modified via a number of text formatting tools. Exotxt is used by analysis to translate data from the binary exodusII format into a structured text format which can then be edited or modified and then either translated back to exodusII format or tomore » another format.« less

  19. TWISTED RIBBON FUEL ELEMENT

    DOEpatents

    Breden, C.R.; Schultz, A.B.

    1961-06-01

    A reactor core formed of bundles of parallel fuel elements in the form of ribbons is patented. The fuel ribbons are twisted about their axes so as to have contact with one another at regions spaced lengthwise of the ribbons and to be out of contact with one another at locations between these spaced regions. The contact between the ribbons is sufficient to allow them to be held together in a stable bundle in a containing tube without intermediate support, while permitting enough space between the ribbon for coolant flowing.

  20. [Healthcare marketing elements].

    PubMed

    Ameri, Cinzia; Fiorini, Fulvio

    2014-01-01

    Marketing puts its foundation on a few key concepts: need-demand, product-service, satisfaction, exchange, market, or business structure manufacturing / supply. The combination of these elements allows you to build an effective marketing strategy. Crucial in this respect is to remember the Porter matrix, which shows that for a correct analysis of the relevant market is necessary to refer to the "five forces at play", ie: customers, competitors, new entrants and substitutes threat. Another key lever for proper marketing oriented approach is the continuous and constant monitoring of the application, anticipating their dissatisfactions.

  1. Finite Element Analysis Code

    SciTech Connect

    Sjaardema, G.; Forsythe, C.

    2005-05-07

    CONEX is a code for joining sequentially in time multiple exodusll database files which all represent the same base mesh topology and geometry. It is used to create a single results or restart file from multiple results or restart files which typically arise as the result of multiple restarted analyses. CONEX is used to postprocess the results from a series of finite element analyses. It can join sequentially the data from multiple results databases into a single database which makes it easier to postprocess the results data.

  2. Nuclear reactor fuel element

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Carl E.; Crouthamel, Carl E.

    1980-01-01

    A nuclear reactor fuel element is described which has an outer cladding, a central core of fissionable or mixed fissionable and fertile fuel material and a layer of oxygen gettering material on the inner surface of the cladding. The gettering material reacts with oxygen released by the fissionable material during irradiation of the core thereby preventing the oxygen from reacting with and corroding the cladding. Also described is an improved method for coating the inner surface of the cladding with a layer of gettering material.

  3. Finite Element Analysis Code

    2005-05-07

    CONEX is a code for joining sequentially in time multiple exodusll database files which all represent the same base mesh topology and geometry. It is used to create a single results or restart file from multiple results or restart files which typically arise as the result of multiple restarted analyses. CONEX is used to postprocess the results from a series of finite element analyses. It can join sequentially the data from multiple results databases intomore » a single database which makes it easier to postprocess the results data.« less

  4. Ring-laser gyroscope system using dispersive element(s)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, David D. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A ring-laser gyroscope system includes a ring-laser gyroscope (RLG) and at least one dispersive element optically coupled to the RLG's ring-shaped optical path. Each dispersive element has a resonant frequency that is approximately equal to the RLG's lasing frequency. A group index of refraction defined collectively by the dispersive element(s) has (i) a real portion that is greater than zero and less than one, and (ii) an imaginary portion that is less than zero.

  5. Element-by-element Solution Procedures for Nonlinear Structural Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, T. J. R.; Winget, J. M.; Levit, I.

    1984-01-01

    Element-by-element approximate factorization procedures are proposed for solving the large finite element equation systems which arise in nonlinear structural mechanics. Architectural and data base advantages of the present algorithms over traditional direct elimination schemes are noted. Results of calculations suggest considerable potential for the methods described.

  6. The CEBAF Element Database

    SciTech Connect

    Theodore Larrieu, Christopher Slominski, Michele Joyce

    2011-03-01

    With the inauguration of the CEBAF Element Database (CED) in Fall 2010, Jefferson Lab computer scientists have taken a step toward the eventual goal of a model-driven accelerator. Once fully populated, the database will be the primary repository of information used for everything from generating lattice decks to booting control computers to building controls screens. A requirement influencing the CED design is that it provide access to not only present, but also future and past configurations of the accelerator. To accomplish this, an introspective database schema was designed that allows new elements, types, and properties to be defined on-the-fly with no changes to table structure. Used in conjunction with Oracle Workspace Manager, it allows users to query data from any time in the database history with the same tools used to query the present configuration. Users can also check-out workspaces to use as staging areas for upcoming machine configurations. All Access to the CED is through a well-documented Application Programming Interface (API) that is translated automatically from original C++ source code into native libraries for scripting languages such as perl, php, and TCL making access to the CED easy and ubiquitous.

  7. Cohesive Zone Model User Element

    2007-04-17

    Cohesive Zone Model User Element (CZM UEL) is an implementation of a Cohesive Zone Model as an element for use in finite element simulations. CZM UEL computes a nodal force vector and stiffness matrix from a vector of nodal displacements. It is designed for structural analysts using finite element software to predict crack initiation, crack propagation, and the effect of a crack on the rest of a structure.

  8. Multi-element microelectropolishing method

    DOEpatents

    Lee, P.J.

    1994-10-11

    A method is provided for microelectropolishing a transmission electron microscopy nonhomogeneous multi-element compound foil. The foil is electrolyzed at different polishing rates for different elements by rapidly cycling between different current densities. During a first portion of each cycle at a first voltage a first element electrolyzes at a higher current density than a second element such that the material of the first element leaves the anode foil at a faster rate than the second element and creates a solid surface film, and such that the solid surface film is removed at a faster rate than the first element leaves the anode foil. During a second portion of each cycle at a second voltage the second element electrolyzes at a higher current density than the first element, and the material of the second element leaves the anode foil at a faster rate than the first element and creates a solid surface film, and the solid surface film is removed at a slower rate than the second element leaves the foil. The solid surface film is built up during the second portion of the cycle, and removed during the first portion of the cycle. 10 figs.

  9. REACTOR FUEL ELEMENTS TESTING CONTAINER

    DOEpatents

    Whitham, G.K.; Smith, R.R.

    1963-01-15

    This patent shows a method for detecting leaks in jacketed fuel elements. The element is placed in a sealed tank within a nuclear reactor, and, while the reactor operates, the element is sparged with gas. The gas is then led outside the reactor and monitored for radioactive Xe or Kr. (AEC)

  10. Multi-element microelectropolishing method

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Peter J.

    1994-01-01

    A method is provided for microelectropolishing a transmission electron microscopy nonhomogeneous multi-element compound foil. The foil is electrolyzed at different polishing rates for different elements by rapidly cycling between different current densities. During a first portion of each cycle at a first voltage a first element electrolyzes at a higher current density than a second element such that the material of the first element leaves the anode foil at a faster rate than the second element and creates a solid surface film, and such that the solid surface film is removed at a faster rate than the first element leaves the anode foil. During a second portion of each cycle at a second voltage the second element electrolyzes at a higher current density than the first element, and the material of the second element leaves the anode foil at a faster rate than the first element and creates a solid surface film, and the solid surface film is removed at a slower rate than the second element leaves the foil. The solid surface film is built up during the second portion of the cycle, and removed during the first portion of the cycle.

  11. RECONDITIONING FUEL ELEMENTS

    DOEpatents

    Brandt, H.L.

    1962-02-20

    A process is given for decanning fuel elements that consist of a uranium core, an intermediate section either of bronze, silicon, Al-Si, and uranium silicide layers or of lead, Al-Si, and uranium silicide layers around said core, and an aluminum can bonded to said intermediate section. The aluminum can is dissolved in a solution of sodium hydroxide (9 to 20 wt%) and sodium nitrate (35 to 12 wt %), and the layers of the intermediate section are dissolved in a boiling sodium hydroxide solution of a minimum concentration of 50 wt%. (AEC) A method of selectively reducing plutonium oxides and the rare earth oxides but not uranium oxides is described which comprises placing the oxides in a molten solvent of zinc or cadmium and then adding metallic uranium as a reducing agent. (AEC)

  12. Moonbeams and Elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, G. J.

    1997-10-01

    To determine how a planetary body formed and evolved, we must determine the chemical compositions of distinctive geologic regions on it. It is never possible to obtain enough samples of a planet to do this job thoroughly, so planetary scientists have searched for ways of determining chemical compositions from orbit, which would allow chemical mapping of the entire surface. A team at the University of Hawaii has developed a method to determine the amount of titanium and iron on the lunar surface from the amount of sunlight reflected at different wavelengths. Most recently, David Blewett, Paul Lucey, B. Ray Hawke (University of Hawaii), and Bradley Jolliff (Washington University in St. Louis) have used Apollo rock samples to carefully calibrate the technique, allowing surprisingly accurate measurements of iron and titanium. These two elements are especially useful in understanding the origin and geological evolution of the Moon.

  13. Photoconductive circuit element reflectometer

    DOEpatents

    Rauscher, C.

    1987-12-07

    A photoconductive reflectometer for characterizing semiconductor devices at millimeter wavelength frequencies where a first photoconductive circuit element (PCE) is biased by a direct current voltage source and produces short electrical pulses when excited into conductance by short first laser light pulses. The electrical pulses are electronically conditioned to improve the frequency related amplitude characteristics of the pulses which thereafter propagate along a transmission line to a device under test. Second PCEs are connected along the transmission line to sample the signals on the transmission line when excited into conductance by short second laser light pulses, spaced apart in time a determinable period from the first laser light pulses. Electronic filters connected to each of the second PCEs act as low-pass filters and remove parasitic interference from the sampled signals and output the sampled signals in the form of slowed-motion images of the signals on the transmission line. 4 figs.

  14. Photoconductive circuit element reflectometer

    DOEpatents

    Rauscher, Christen

    1990-01-01

    A photoconductive reflectometer for characterizing semiconductor devices at millimeter wavelength frequencies where a first photoconductive circuit element (PCE) is biased by a direct current voltage source and produces short electrical pulses when excited into conductance by short first laser light pulses. The electrical pulses are electronically conditioned to improve the frequency related amplitude characteristics of the pulses which thereafter propagate along a transmission line to a device under test. Second PCEs are connected along the transmission line to sample the signals on the transmission line when excited into conductance by short second laser light pulses, spaced apart in time a variable period from the first laser light pulses. Electronic filters connected to each of the second PCEs act as low-pass filters and remove parasitic interference from the sampled signals and output the sampled signals in the form of slowed-motion images of the signals on the transmission line.

  15. The Moon: Biogenic elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, Everett K., Jr.; Chang, Sherwood

    1992-01-01

    The specific objectives of the organic chemical exploration of the Moon involve the search for molecules of possible biological or prebiological origin. Detailed knowledge of the amount, distribution, and exact structure of organic compounds present on the Moon is extremely important to our understanding of the origin and history of the Moon and to its relationship to the history of the Earth and solar system. Specifically, such knowledge is essential for determining whether life on the Moon exists, ever did exist, or could develop. In the absence of life or organic matter, it is still essential to determine the abundance, distribution, and origin of the biogenic elements (e.g., H, C, O, N, S, P) in order to understand how the planetary environment may have influenced the course of chemical evolution. The history and scope of this effort is presented.

  16. Lithium peroxide primary element

    SciTech Connect

    Winsel, A.

    1985-03-12

    In a galvanic primary element of the system Li/H/sub 2/O/sub 2/, the aqueous cathode depolarizer H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ is fixated as a polyurethane gel. It can thereby be controlled and caused to react with anode metal in accordance with the current drain requirements. This is accomplished using a ram to press the gel toward a conductor which covers the lithium anode, which may take the form of a metal grid and/or a gas diffusion electrode. The oxygen which forms in the working layer through catalytic decomposition of hydrogen peroxide creates a gas bubble when the current is interrupted or the ram is stopped, thereby interrupting the further supply of hydrogen peroxide to the catalyst.

  17. Lithium peroxide primary element

    SciTech Connect

    Winsel, A.

    1982-05-04

    In a galvanic primary element of the system Li/H/sub 2/O/sub 2/, the aqueous cathode depolarizer H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ is fixated as a polyurethane gel. It can thereby be controlled and caused to react with the anode metal in accordance with the current drain requirements. This is accomplished using a ram to press the gel toward a conductor which covers the lithium anode, which may take the form of a metal grid and/or a gas diffusion electrode. The oxygen which forms in the working layer through catalytic decomposition of hydrogen peroxide creates a gas bubble when the current is interrupted or the ram is stopped, thereby interrupting the further supply of hydrogen peroxide to the catalyst.

  18. Nuclear fuel element

    DOEpatents

    Armijo, Joseph S.; Coffin, Jr., Louis F.

    1983-01-01

    A nuclear fuel element for use in the core of a nuclear reactor is disclosed and has a composite cladding having a substrate and a metal barrier metallurgically bonded on the inside surface of the substrate so that the metal barrier forms a shield between the substrate and the nuclear fuel material held within the cladding. The metal barrier forms about 1 to about 30 percent of the thickness of the cladding and is comprised of a low neutron absorption metal of substantially pure zirconium. The metal barrier serves as a preferential reaction site for gaseous impurities and fission products and protects the substrate from contact and reaction with such impurities and fission products. The substrate of the composite cladding is selected from conventional cladding materials and preferably is a zirconium alloy. Methods of manufacturing the composite cladding are also disclosed.

  19. Nuclear fuel element

    DOEpatents

    Armijo, Joseph S.; Coffin, Jr., Louis F.

    1980-04-29

    A nuclear fuel element for use in the core of a nuclear reactor is disclosed and has an improved composite cladding comprised of a moderate purity metal barrier of zirconium metallurgically bonded on the inside surface of a zirconium alloy tube. The metal barrier forms a shield between the alloy tube and a core of nuclear fuel material enclosed in the composite cladding. There is a gap between the cladding and the core. The metal barrier forms about 1 to about 30 percent of the thickness of the composite cladding and has low neutron absorption characteristics. The metal barrier serves as a preferential reaction site for gaseous impurities and fission products and protects the alloy tube from contact and reaction with such impurities and fission products. Methods of manufacturing the composite cladding are also disclosed.

  20. The fantastic four.. elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsili, Antonella; D'Addezio, Giuliana; Rubbia, Giuliana; Ramieri, Caterina; Todaro, Riccardo; Scipilliti, Francesca; Tosto, Eleonora

    2015-04-01

    With a "Sunday between territory and music to 'National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology," October 12, 2014 the headquarters of INGV Roma kicked off the activities of the second edition of the Week of Planet Earth. The laboratory of scientific outreach and museum activities together with volunteers of the National Civil Service have organized the whole day dedicated to the dissemination of earth sciences, involving adults and children. Especially for primary school children a laboratory was made involving three amusing activities all aimed at inspiring respect for the Earth: a theatrical representation called "The Fantastic 4... elements", a behavioral game and a nursery rhyme reading. The theater as a means of communication of science is an innovative and creative way to introduce children to important scientific concepts. The use of this methodology and simple language favoring the emotional involvement of the child facilitating learning. The main character is a child, chosen to facilitate the identification of the spectators with the protagonist, that through a fantastic journey discovers the importance of the four elements of our planet: earth, fire, air and water. As a second step, volunteers involved children in reading a nursery rhyme "the ABC to become a Friend of the Earth" inviting them to protect and respect the environment and its resources. Finally, the behavioral game gave indications about behaviors to adopt to safeguard the planet. Volunteers introduced a billboard divided into two colors, green to indicate the right behaviors and red for the wrong ones. Each child, after reading a card with indication on the behavior to adopt, had to decide if they were correct or not with respect to the environment safeguard. After listening to the children's answer, the volunteer gave the correct explanation about the appropriate behavior to adopt. At the end of the activities, each child received a certificate as "a friend of Planet Earth".

  1. Chemical characterization of element 112.

    PubMed

    Eichler, R; Aksenov, N V; Belozerov, A V; Bozhikov, G A; Chepigin, V I; Dmitriev, S N; Dressler, R; Gäggeler, H W; Gorshkov, V A; Haenssler, F; Itkis, M G; Laube, A; Lebedev, V Ya; Malyshev, O N; Oganessian, Yu Ts; Petrushkin, O V; Piguet, D; Rasmussen, P; Shishkin, S V; Shutov, A V; Svirikhin, A I; Tereshatov, E E; Vostokin, G K; Wegrzecki, M; Yeremin, A V

    2007-05-01

    The heaviest elements to have been chemically characterized are seaborgium (element 106), bohrium (element 107) and hassium (element 108). All three behave according to their respective positions in groups 6, 7 and 8 of the periodic table, which arranges elements according to their outermost electrons and hence their chemical properties. However, the chemical characterization results are not trivial: relativistic effects on the electronic structure of the heaviest elements can strongly influence chemical properties. The next heavy element targeted for chemical characterization is element 112; its closed-shell electronic structure with a filled outer s orbital suggests that it may be particularly susceptible to strong deviations from the chemical property trends expected within group 12. Indeed, first experiments concluded that element 112 does not behave like its lighter homologue mercury. However, the production and identification methods used cast doubt on the validity of this result. Here we report a more reliable chemical characterization of element 112, involving the production of two atoms of (283)112 through the alpha decay of the short-lived (287)114 (which itself forms in the nuclear fusion reaction of 48Ca with 242Pu) and the adsorption of the two atoms on a gold surface. By directly comparing the adsorption characteristics of (283)112 to that of mercury and the noble gas radon, we find that element 112 is very volatile and, unlike radon, reveals a metallic interaction with the gold surface. These adsorption characteristics establish element 112 as a typical element of group 12, and its successful production unambiguously establishes the approach to the island of stability of superheavy elements through 48Ca-induced nuclear fusion reactions with actinides.

  2. Chemical characterization of element 112.

    PubMed

    Eichler, R; Aksenov, N V; Belozerov, A V; Bozhikov, G A; Chepigin, V I; Dmitriev, S N; Dressler, R; Gäggeler, H W; Gorshkov, V A; Haenssler, F; Itkis, M G; Laube, A; Lebedev, V Ya; Malyshev, O N; Oganessian, Yu Ts; Petrushkin, O V; Piguet, D; Rasmussen, P; Shishkin, S V; Shutov, A V; Svirikhin, A I; Tereshatov, E E; Vostokin, G K; Wegrzecki, M; Yeremin, A V

    2007-05-01

    The heaviest elements to have been chemically characterized are seaborgium (element 106), bohrium (element 107) and hassium (element 108). All three behave according to their respective positions in groups 6, 7 and 8 of the periodic table, which arranges elements according to their outermost electrons and hence their chemical properties. However, the chemical characterization results are not trivial: relativistic effects on the electronic structure of the heaviest elements can strongly influence chemical properties. The next heavy element targeted for chemical characterization is element 112; its closed-shell electronic structure with a filled outer s orbital suggests that it may be particularly susceptible to strong deviations from the chemical property trends expected within group 12. Indeed, first experiments concluded that element 112 does not behave like its lighter homologue mercury. However, the production and identification methods used cast doubt on the validity of this result. Here we report a more reliable chemical characterization of element 112, involving the production of two atoms of (283)112 through the alpha decay of the short-lived (287)114 (which itself forms in the nuclear fusion reaction of 48Ca with 242Pu) and the adsorption of the two atoms on a gold surface. By directly comparing the adsorption characteristics of (283)112 to that of mercury and the noble gas radon, we find that element 112 is very volatile and, unlike radon, reveals a metallic interaction with the gold surface. These adsorption characteristics establish element 112 as a typical element of group 12, and its successful production unambiguously establishes the approach to the island of stability of superheavy elements through 48Ca-induced nuclear fusion reactions with actinides. PMID:17476264

  3. Slave finite elements: The temporal element approach to nonlinear analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gellin, S.

    1984-01-01

    A formulation method for finite elements in space and time incorporating nonlinear geometric and material behavior is presented. The method uses interpolation polynomials for approximating the behavior of various quantities over the element domain, and only explicit integration over space and time. While applications are general, the plate and shell elements that are currently being programmed are appropriate to model turbine blades, vanes, and combustor liners.

  4. Resistive hydrogen sensing element

    DOEpatents

    Lauf, Robert J.

    2000-01-01

    Systems and methods are described for providing a hydrogen sensing element with a more robust exposed metallization by application of a discontinuous or porous overlay to hold the metallization firmly on the substrate. An apparatus includes: a substantially inert, electrically-insulating substrate; a first Pd containing metallization deposited upon the substrate and completely covered by a substantially hydrogen-impermeable layer so as to form a reference resistor on the substrate; a second Pd containing metallization deposited upon the substrate and at least a partially accessible to a gas to be tested, so as to form a hydrogen-sensing resistor; a protective structure disposed upon at least a portion of the second Pd containing metallization and at least a portion of the substrate to improve the attachment of the second Pd containing metallization to the substrate while allowing the gas to contact said the second Pd containing metallization; and a resistance bridge circuit coupled to both the first and second Pd containing metallizations. The circuit determines the difference in electrical resistance between the first and second Pd containing metallizations. The hydrogen concentration in the gas may be determined. The systems and methods provide advantages because adhesion is improved without adversely effecting measurement speed or sensitivity.

  5. Vesta's Elemental Composition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prettyman, T. H.; Beck, A. W.; Feldman, W. C.; Lawrence, D. J.; McCoy, T. J.; McSween, H. Y.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Peplowski, P. N.; Raymond, C. A.; Reedy, R. C.; Russell, C. T.; Titus, T. N.; Toplis, M. J.; Yamashita, N.

    2014-01-01

    Many lines of evidence (e.g. common geochemistry, chronology, O-isotope trends, and the presence of different HED rock types in polymict breccias) indicate that the howardite, eucrite, and diogenite (HED) meteorites originated from a single parent body. Meteorite studies show that this protoplanet underwent igneous differentiation to form a metallic core, an ultramafic mantle, and a basaltic crust. A spectroscopic match between the HEDs and 4 Vesta along with a plausible mechanism for their transfer to Earth, perhaps as chips off V-type asteroids ejected from Vesta's southern impact basin, supports the consensus view that many of these achondritic meteorites are samples of Vesta's crust and upper mantle. The HED-Vesta connection was put to the test by the NASA Dawn mission, which spent a year in close proximity to Vesta. Measurements by Dawn's three instruments, redundant Framing Cameras (FC), a Visible-InfraRed (VIR) spectrometer, and a Gamma Ray and Neutron Detector (GRaND), along with radio science have strengthened the link. Gravity measurements by Dawn are consistent with a differentiated, silicate body, with a dense Fe-rich core. The range of pyroxene compositions determined by VIR overlaps that of the howardites. Elemental abundances determined by nuclear spectroscopy are also consistent with HED-compositions. Observations by GRaND provided a new view of Vesta inaccessible by telescopic observations. Here, we summarize the results of Dawn's geochemical investigation of Vesta and their implications.

  6. Elements of gas contracts

    SciTech Connect

    O`Neal, J.

    1995-12-01

    The gas marketing scene has taken on a new look from the days of the {open_quotes}Long Term{close_quotes} or {open_quotes}Life of Lease{close_quotes} Contracts. In the past natural gas was of ten sold direct from the wellhead or a producer-owned facility to a pipeline company at a flat rate price and the only parties involved were producer or seller and buyer. Today, the parties involved in the marketing process might include a gathering entity to gather gas at a central point and provide gathering, compression and/or dehydration services; multiple pipeline companies for transportation; sales representatives or marketing brokers to negotiate a sale of the available gas on a monthly basis; and purchasers or end users. New terms have also been introduced in the process such as: {open_quotes}LDC{close_quotes} (local distribution company), {open_quotes}FERC Order 636{close_quotes}, {open_quotes}Price Delivered-to-Pipeline{close_quotes} and the various {open_quotes}levels of Service{close_quotes} under Gas Sales and Purchase Agreements. Four common levels of service are: {open_quotes}Firm{close_quotes}, {open_quotes}Baseload{close_quotes}, {open_quotes}Swing{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}Baseload/Operational{close_quotes}. It is evident that current marketing plans often require a separate contract for each service or commitment. Contract contents vary greatly, but most contain the following elements.

  7. COMPARTMENTED REACTOR FUEL ELEMENT

    DOEpatents

    Cain, F.M. Jr.

    1962-09-11

    A method of making a nuclear reactor fuel element of the elongated red type is given wherein the fissionable fuel material is enclosed within a tubular metal cladding. The method comprises coating the metal cladding tube on its inside wall with a brazing alloy, inserting groups of cylindrical pellets of fissionable fuel material into the tube with spacing members between adjacent groups of pellets, sealing the ends of the tubes to leave a void space therewithin, heating the tube and its contents to an elevated temperature to melt the brazing alloy and to expand the pellets to their maximum dimensions under predetermined operating conditions thereby automatically positioning the spacing members along the tube, and finally cooling the tube to room temperature whereby the spacing disks become permanently fixed at their edges in the brazing alloy and define a hermetically sealed compartment for each fl group of fuel pellets. Upon cooling, the pellets contract thus leaving a space to accommodate thermal expansion of the pellets when in use in a reactor. The spacing members also provide lateral support for the tubular cladding to prevent collapse thereof when subjected to a reactor environment. (AEC)

  8. Lubrication of Machine Elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamrock, B. J.

    1984-01-01

    The understanding of hydrodynamic lubrication began with the classical experiments of Tower and Petrov. Reynolds used a reduced form of the Navier-Stokes equations and the continuity equation to generate a second order differential equation for the pressure in the narrow, converging gap of a bearing contact. Such a pressure enables a load to be transmitted between the surfaces with very low friction since the surfaces are completely separated by a film of fluid. In such a situation it is the physical properties of the lubricant, notably the dynamic viscosity, that dictate the behavior of the contact. The understanding of boundary lubrication is normally attributed to Hardy and Doubleday. In boundary lubrication it is the physical and chemical properties of thin films of molecular proportions and the surfaces to which they are attached that determine contact behavior. The lubricant viscosity is not an influential parameter. Research is devoted to a better understanding and more precise definition of other lubrication regimes between these extremes. One such regime, elastohydrodynamic lubrication, occurs in nonconformal contacts, where the pressures are high and the bearing surfaces deform elastically. In this situation the viscosity of the lubricant may raise considerably, and this further assists the formation of an effective fluid film. The science of these three lubrication regimes (hydrodynamic, elastohydrodynamic, and boundary) are described and the manner in which this science is used in the design of machine elements is examined.

  9. Chemistry of the superheavy elements.

    PubMed

    Schädel, Matthias

    2015-03-13

    The quest for superheavy elements (SHEs) is driven by the desire to find and explore one of the extreme limits of existence of matter. These elements exist solely due to their nuclear shell stabilization. All 15 presently 'known' SHEs (11 are officially 'discovered' and named) up to element 118 are short-lived and are man-made atom-at-a-time in heavy ion induced nuclear reactions. They are identical to the transactinide elements located in the seventh period of the periodic table beginning with rutherfordium (element 104), dubnium (element 105) and seaborgium (element 106) in groups 4, 5 and 6, respectively. Their chemical properties are often surprising and unexpected from simple extrapolations. After hassium (element 108), chemistry has now reached copernicium (element 112) and flerovium (element 114). For the later ones, the focus is on questions of their metallic or possibly noble gas-like character originating from interplay of most pronounced relativistic effects and electron-shell effects. SHEs provide unique opportunities to get insights into the influence of strong relativistic effects on the atomic electrons and to probe 'relativistically' influenced chemical properties and the architecture of the periodic table at its farthest reach. In addition, they establish a test bench to challenge the validity and predictive power of modern fully relativistic quantum chemical models.

  10. Chemistry of the superheavy elements.

    PubMed

    Schädel, Matthias

    2015-03-13

    The quest for superheavy elements (SHEs) is driven by the desire to find and explore one of the extreme limits of existence of matter. These elements exist solely due to their nuclear shell stabilization. All 15 presently 'known' SHEs (11 are officially 'discovered' and named) up to element 118 are short-lived and are man-made atom-at-a-time in heavy ion induced nuclear reactions. They are identical to the transactinide elements located in the seventh period of the periodic table beginning with rutherfordium (element 104), dubnium (element 105) and seaborgium (element 106) in groups 4, 5 and 6, respectively. Their chemical properties are often surprising and unexpected from simple extrapolations. After hassium (element 108), chemistry has now reached copernicium (element 112) and flerovium (element 114). For the later ones, the focus is on questions of their metallic or possibly noble gas-like character originating from interplay of most pronounced relativistic effects and electron-shell effects. SHEs provide unique opportunities to get insights into the influence of strong relativistic effects on the atomic electrons and to probe 'relativistically' influenced chemical properties and the architecture of the periodic table at its farthest reach. In addition, they establish a test bench to challenge the validity and predictive power of modern fully relativistic quantum chemical models. PMID:25666065

  11. NUCLEAR REACTOR FUEL ELEMENT ASSEMBLY

    DOEpatents

    Stengel, F.G.

    1963-12-24

    A method of fabricating nuclear reactor fuel element assemblies having a plurality of longitudinally extending flat fuel elements in spaced parallel relation to each other to form channels is presented. One side of a flat side plate is held contiguous to the ends of the elements and a welding means is passed along the other side of the platertransverse to the direction of the longitudinal extension of the elements. The setting and speed of travel of the welding means is set to cause penetration of the side plate with welds at bridge the gap in each channel between adjacent fuel elements with a weld-through bubble of predetermined size. The fabrication of a high strength, dependable fuel element is provided, and the reduction of distortion and high production costs are facilitated by this method. (AEC)

  12. Archaeal Extrachromosomal Genetic Elements

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Haina; Peng, Nan; Shah, Shiraz A.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Research on archaeal extrachromosomal genetic elements (ECEs) has progressed rapidly in the past decade. To date, over 60 archaeal viruses and 60 plasmids have been isolated. These archaeal viruses exhibit an exceptional diversity in morphology, with a wide array of shapes, such as spindles, rods, filaments, spheres, head-tails, bottles, and droplets, and some of these new viruses have been classified into one order, 10 families, and 16 genera. Investigation of model archaeal viruses has yielded important insights into mechanisms underlining various steps in the viral life cycle, including infection, DNA replication and transcription, and virion egression. Many of these mechanisms are unprecedented for any known bacterial or eukaryal viruses. Studies of plasmids isolated from different archaeal hosts have also revealed a striking diversity in gene content and innovation in replication strategies. Highly divergent replication proteins are identified in both viral and plasmid genomes. Genomic studies of archaeal ECEs have revealed a modular sequence structure in which modules of DNA sequence are exchangeable within, as well as among, plasmid families and probably also between viruses and plasmids. In particular, it has been suggested that ECE-host interactions have shaped the coevolution of ECEs and their archaeal hosts. Furthermore, archaeal hosts have developed defense systems, including the innate restriction-modification (R-M) system and the adaptive CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats) system, to restrict invasive plasmids and viruses. Together, these interactions permit a delicate balance between ECEs and their hosts, which is vitally important for maintaining an innovative gene reservoir carried by ECEs. In conclusion, while research on archaeal ECEs has just started to unravel the molecular biology of these genetic entities and their interactions with archaeal hosts, it is expected to accelerate in the next decade. PMID

  13. FUEL ELEMENT FOR NUCLEAR REACTORS

    DOEpatents

    Bassett, C.H.

    1961-05-16

    A fuel element particularly adapted for use in nuclear reactors of high power density is offered. It has fissionable fuel pellet segments mounted in a tubular housing and defining a central passage in the fuel element. A burnable poison element extends through the central passage, which is designed to contain more poison material at the median portion than at the end portions thereby providing a more uniform hurnup and longer reactivity life.

  14. On the equinoctial orbit elements.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broucke, R. A.; Cefola, P. J.

    1972-01-01

    This paper investigates the equinoctial orbit elements for the two-body problem, showing that the associated matrices are free from singularities for zero eccentricities and zero and ninety degree inclinations. The matrix of the partial derivatives of the position and velocity vectors with respect to the orbit elements is given explicitly, together with the matrix of inverse partial derivatives, in order to facilitate construction of the matrizant (state transition matrix) corresponding to these elements. The Lagrange and Poisson bracket matrices are also given. The application of the equinoctial orbit elements to general and special perturbations is discussed.

  15. FUEL ELEMENTS FOR NUCLEAR REACTORS

    DOEpatents

    Blainey, A.; Lloyd, H.

    1961-07-11

    A method of sheathing a tubular fuel element for a nuclear reactor is described. A low melting metal core member is centered in a die, a layer of a powdered sheathing substance is placed on the bottom of the die, the tubular fuel element is inserted in the die, the space between the tubular fuel element and the die walls and core member is filled with the same powdered sheathing substance, a layer of the same substance is placed over the fissile material, and the charge within the die is subjected to pressure in the direction of the axis of the fuel element at the sintering temperature of the protective substance.

  16. Adaptive mesh generation for edge-element finite element method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuboi, Hajime; Gyimothy, Szabolcs

    2001-06-01

    An adaptive mesh generation method for two- and three-dimensional finite element methods using edge elements is proposed. Since the tangential component continuity is preserved when using edge elements, the strategy of creating new nodes is based on evaluation of the normal component of the magnetic vector potential across element interfaces. The evaluation is performed at the middle point of edge of a triangular element for two-dimensional problems or at the gravity center of triangular surface of a tetrahedral element for three-dimensional problems. At the boundary of two elements, the error estimator is the ratio of the normal component discontinuity to the maximum value of the potential in the same material. One or more nodes are set at the middle points of the edges according to the value of the estimator as well as the subdivision of elements where new nodes have been created. A final mesh will be obtained after several iterations. Some computation results of two- and three-dimensional problems using the proposed method are shown.

  17. Element-by-element factorization algorithms for heat conduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, T. J. R.; Winget, J. M.; Park, K. C.

    1983-01-01

    Element-by-element solution strategies are developed for transient heat conduction problems. Results of numerical tests indicate the effectiveness of the procedures proposed. The small database requirements and attractive architectural features of the algorithms suggest considerable potential for solving large scale problems.

  18. 15. VIEW OF DUMMY FUEL ELEMENT ON FUEL ELEMENT HOLDER. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. VIEW OF DUMMY FUEL ELEMENT ON FUEL ELEMENT HOLDER. SHOWS AIR FORCE MAN AT EDGE OF TANK. INEL PHOTO NUMBER 65-6176, TAKEN NOVEMBER 10, 1965. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Advanced Reentry Vehicle Fusing System, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  19. Trace Elements in River Waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaillardet, J.; Viers, J.; Dupré, B.

    2003-12-01

    Trace elements are characterized by concentrations lower than 1 mg L-1 in natural waters. This means that trace elements are not considered when "total dissolved solids" are calculated in rivers, lakes, or groundwaters, because their combined mass is not significant compared to the sum of Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, H4SiO4, HCO3-, CO32-, SO42-, Cl-, and NO3-. Therefore, most of the elements, except about ten of them, occur at trace levels in natural waters. Being trace elements in natural waters does not necessarily qualify them as trace elements in rocks. For example, aluminum, iron, and titanium are major elements in rocks, but they occur as trace elements in waters, due to their low mobility at the Earth's surface. Conversely, trace elements in rocks such as chlorine and carbon are major elements in waters.The geochemistry of trace elements in river waters, like that of groundwater and seawater, is receiving increasing attention. This growing interest is clearly triggered by the technical advances made in the determination of concentrations at lower levels in water. In particular, the development of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) has considerably improved our knowledge of trace-element levels in waters since the early 1990s. ICP-MS provides the capability of determining trace elements having isotopes of interest for geochemical dating or tracing, even where their dissolved concentrations are extremely low.The determination of trace elements in natural waters is motivated by a number of issues. Although rare, trace elements in natural systems can play a major role in hydrosystems. This is particularly evident for toxic elements such as aluminum, whose concentrations are related to the abundance of fish in rivers. Many trace elements have been exploited from natural accumulation sites and used over thousands of years by human activities. Trace elements are therefore highly sensitive indexes of human impact from local to global scale. Pollution

  20. Chemical experiments with superheavy elements.

    PubMed

    Türler, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    Unnoticed by many chemists, the Periodic Table of the Elements has been extended significantly in the last couple of years and the 7th period has very recently been completed with eka-Rn (element 118) currently being the heaviest element whose synthesis has been reported. These 'superheavy' elements (also called transactinides with atomic number > or = 104 (Rf)) have been artificially synthesized in fusion reactions at accelerators in minute quantities of a few single atoms. In addition, all isotopes of the transactinide elements are radioactive and decay with rather short half-lives. Nevertheless, it has been possible in some cases to investigate experimentally chemical properties of transactinide elements and even synthesize simple compounds. The experimental investigation of superheavy elements is especially intriguing, since theoretical calculations predict significant deviations from periodic trends due to the influence of strong relativistic effects. In this contribution first experiments with hassium (Hs, atomic number 108), copernicium (Cn, atomic number 112) and element 114 (eka-Pb) are reviewed.

  1. Finite element shell instability analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Formulation procedures and the associated computer program for finite element thin shell instability analysis are discussed. Data cover: (1) formulation of basic element relationships, (2) construction of solution algorithms on both the conceptual and algorithmic levels, and (3) conduction of numerical analyses to verify the accuracy and efficiency of the theory and related programs therein are described.

  2. The Search for Heavy Elements

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    The 1994 documentary "The Search for Heavy Elements" chronicles the expansion of the periodic table through the creation at Berkeley Lab of elements heavier than uranium. The documentary features a mix of rarely-seen archival footage, historical photos, and interviews with scientists who made history, such as Glenn Seaborg and Albert Ghiorso.

  3. The Search for Heavy Elements

    SciTech Connect

    2008-04-17

    The 1994 documentary "The Search for Heavy Elements" chronicles the expansion of the periodic table through the creation at Berkeley Lab of elements heavier than uranium. The documentary features a mix of rarely-seen archival footage, historical photos, and interviews with scientists who made history, such as Glenn Seaborg and Albert Ghiorso.

  4. Chemical experiments with superheavy elements.

    PubMed

    Türler, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    Unnoticed by many chemists, the Periodic Table of the Elements has been extended significantly in the last couple of years and the 7th period has very recently been completed with eka-Rn (element 118) currently being the heaviest element whose synthesis has been reported. These 'superheavy' elements (also called transactinides with atomic number > or = 104 (Rf)) have been artificially synthesized in fusion reactions at accelerators in minute quantities of a few single atoms. In addition, all isotopes of the transactinide elements are radioactive and decay with rather short half-lives. Nevertheless, it has been possible in some cases to investigate experimentally chemical properties of transactinide elements and even synthesize simple compounds. The experimental investigation of superheavy elements is especially intriguing, since theoretical calculations predict significant deviations from periodic trends due to the influence of strong relativistic effects. In this contribution first experiments with hassium (Hs, atomic number 108), copernicium (Cn, atomic number 112) and element 114 (eka-Pb) are reviewed. PMID:21138073

  5. Radioactive elements in stellar atmospheres

    SciTech Connect

    Gopka, Vira; Yushchenko, Alexander; Goriely, Stephane; Shavrina, Angelina; Kang, Young Woon

    2006-07-12

    The identification of lines of radioactive elements (Tc, Pm and elements with 83

  6. Repetitive elements in parasitic protozoa.

    PubMed

    Clayton, Christine

    2010-01-01

    A recent paper published in BMC Genomics suggests that retrotransposition may be active in the human gut parasite Entamoeba histolytica. This adds to our knowledge of the various types of repetitive elements in parasitic protists and the potential influence of such elements on pathogenicity.

  7. Trace elements in coal ash

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Deonarine, Amrika; Kolker, Allan; Doughten, Michael W.

    2015-01-01

    In this fact sheet, the form, distribution, and behavior of trace elements of environmental interest in samples of coal fly ash were investigated in response to concerns about element mobility in the event of an ash spill. The study includes laboratory-based leaching experiments to examine the behavior of trace elements, such as arsenic (As) and chromium (Cr), in response to key environmental factors including redox conditions (degree of oxygenation), which are known to vary with depth within coal ash impoundments and in natural ecosystems. The experiments show that As dissolves from samples of coal fly ash into simulated freshwater under both oxic (highly oxygenated) and anoxic (poorly oxygenated) conditions, whereas dissolved Cr concentrations are very redox dependent. This U.S. Geological Survey research helps define the distribution of elements such as As in coal ash and shows that element mobility can vary considerably under different conditions expected in the environment.

  8. Second order tensor finite element

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oden, J. Tinsley; Fly, J.; Berry, C.; Tworzydlo, W.; Vadaketh, S.; Bass, J.

    1990-01-01

    The results of a research and software development effort are presented for the finite element modeling of the static and dynamic behavior of anisotropic materials, with emphasis on single crystal alloys. Various versions of two dimensional and three dimensional hybrid finite elements were implemented and compared with displacement-based elements. Both static and dynamic cases are considered. The hybrid elements developed in the project were incorporated into the SPAR finite element code. In an extension of the first phase of the project, optimization of experimental tests for anisotropic materials was addressed. In particular, the problem of calculating material properties from tensile tests and of calculating stresses from strain measurements were considered. For both cases, numerical procedures and software for the optimization of strain gauge and material axes orientation were developed.

  9. Chemical elements distribution in cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortega, R.

    2005-04-01

    Analysing, imaging and understanding the cellular chemistry, from macromolecules to monoatomic elements, is probably a major challenge for the scientific community after the conclusion of the genome project. In order to probe the distribution of elements in cells, especially the so-called inorganic elements, it is necessary to apply microanalytical techniques with sub-micrometer resolution and high chemical sensitivity. This paper presents the current status of chemical element imaging inside cells, and a comparison of the different analytical techniques available: nuclear microprobe, electron microprobe and electron energy loss spectroscopy, synchrotron radiation microprobe, secondary ion mass spectrometry and fluorescence microscopy methods. Examples of intracellular chemical elements distributions relevant to cancer pharmacology, medical imaging, metal carcinogenesis and neuropathology studies obtained by nuclear microprobe and other microanalytical techniques are presented.

  10. Elemental Impurities in Pharmaceutical Excipients.

    PubMed

    Li, Gang; Schoneker, Dave; Ulman, Katherine L; Sturm, Jason J; Thackery, Lisa M; Kauffman, John F

    2015-12-01

    Control of elemental impurities in pharmaceutical materials is currently undergoing a transition from control based on concentrations in components of drug products to control based on permitted daily exposures in drug products. Within the pharmaceutical community, there is uncertainty regarding the impact of these changes on manufactures of drug products. This uncertainty is fueled in part by a lack of publically available information on elemental impurity levels in common pharmaceutical excipients. This paper summarizes a recent survey of elemental impurity levels in common pharmaceutical excipients as well as some drug substances. A widely applicable analytical procedure was developed and was shown to be suitable for analysis of elements that are subject to United States Pharmacopoeia Chapter <232> and International Conference on Harmonization's Q3D Guideline on Elemental Impurities. The procedure utilizes microwave-assisted digestion of pharmaceutical materials and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for quantitative analysis of these elements. The procedure was applied to 190 samples from 31 different excipients and 15 samples from eight drug substances provided through the International Pharmaceutical Excipient Council of the Americas. The results of the survey indicate that, for the materials included in the study, relatively low levels of elemental impurities are present. PMID:26398581

  11. Terminological aspects of data elements

    SciTech Connect

    Strehlow, R.A. ); Kenworthey, W.H. Jr. ); Schuldt, R.E. )

    1991-01-01

    The creation and display of data comprise a process that involves a sequence of steps requiring both semantic and systems analysis. An essential early step in this process is the choice, definition, and naming of data element concepts and is followed by the specification of other needed data element concept attributes. The attributes and the values of data element concept remain associated with them from their birth as a concept to a generic data element that serves as a template for final application. Terminology is, therefore, centrally important to the entire data creation process. Smooth mapping from natural language to a database is a critical aspect of database, and consequently, it requires terminology standardization from the outset of database work. In this paper the semantic aspects of data elements are analyzed and discussed. Seven kinds of data element concept information are considered and those that require terminological development and standardization are identified. The four terminological components of a data element are the hierarchical type of a concept, functional dependencies, schematas showing conceptual structures, and definition statements. These constitute the conventional role of terminology in database design. 12 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Elemental Impurities in Pharmaceutical Excipients.

    PubMed

    Li, Gang; Schoneker, Dave; Ulman, Katherine L; Sturm, Jason J; Thackery, Lisa M; Kauffman, John F

    2015-12-01

    Control of elemental impurities in pharmaceutical materials is currently undergoing a transition from control based on concentrations in components of drug products to control based on permitted daily exposures in drug products. Within the pharmaceutical community, there is uncertainty regarding the impact of these changes on manufactures of drug products. This uncertainty is fueled in part by a lack of publically available information on elemental impurity levels in common pharmaceutical excipients. This paper summarizes a recent survey of elemental impurity levels in common pharmaceutical excipients as well as some drug substances. A widely applicable analytical procedure was developed and was shown to be suitable for analysis of elements that are subject to United States Pharmacopoeia Chapter <232> and International Conference on Harmonization's Q3D Guideline on Elemental Impurities. The procedure utilizes microwave-assisted digestion of pharmaceutical materials and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for quantitative analysis of these elements. The procedure was applied to 190 samples from 31 different excipients and 15 samples from eight drug substances provided through the International Pharmaceutical Excipient Council of the Americas. The results of the survey indicate that, for the materials included in the study, relatively low levels of elemental impurities are present.

  13. The Quest for New Elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gates, Jacklyn

    2013-04-01

    In 1966 Myers and Swiatecki predicted a new closed shell, centered at an element with Z=126 and A=310. In this region, now referred to as the ``Island of Stability,'' shell-effects were predicted to stabilize elements with Z 114-126 against fission, leading to predicted half-lives of years or longer and the predicted existence of so-called ``superheavy'' nuclei. By comparison, the heaviest known element at that time was rutherfordium (Rf), with Z=104 and a half-life of about one minute. Some of the theoretical calculations even predicted half-lives longer than the age of the universe, suggesting that these superheavy elements may even exist in nature. Later predictions suggested that nuclides in the Island of Stability might be produced at rates more characteristic of element with Z<=100. Initial experiments were unsuccessful in discovering superheavy nuclei in nature or at particle accelerators, leading to a concerted effort by experimentalists and theoreticians to i) improve the theoretical predictions ii) develop techniques to improve the sensitivity of experiments and iii) to progressively extend the known elements towards this region. Over the next five decades, fourteen new elements with Z>=105 and more than a hundred isotopes were discovered. Experimental sensitivies were increased by six orders of magnitude. Within the last decade, six new elements and more than fifty new isotopes with Z>=112 have been discovered. These most recent discoveries have begun to approach the edges of the Island of Stability. The nuclei exhibit longer lifetimes and higher production rates than those found in some of the lighter elements. This presentation will discuss the advances that have led us to the shores of the Island of Stability and where the field goes from here.

  14. Finite element computational fluid mechanics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, A. J.

    1983-01-01

    Finite element analysis as applied to the broad spectrum of computational fluid mechanics is analyzed. The finite element solution methodology is derived, developed, and applied directly to the differential equation systems governing classes of problems in fluid mechanics. The heat conduction equation is used to reveal the essence and elegance of finite element theory, including higher order accuracy and convergence. The algorithm is extended to the pervasive nonlinearity of the Navier-Stokes equations. A specific fluid mechanics problem class is analyzed with an even mix of theory and applications, including turbulence closure and the solution of turbulent flows.

  15. Method for detecting an element

    DOEpatents

    Blackwood, Larry G.; Reber, Edward L.; Rohde, Kenneth W.

    2007-02-06

    A method for detecting an element is disclosed and which includes the steps of providing a gamma-ray spectrum which depicts, at least in part, a test region having boundaries, and which has a small amount of the element to be detected; providing a calculation which detects the small amount of the element to be detected; and providing a moving window and performing the calculation within the moving window, and over a range of possible window boundaries within the test region to determine the location of the optimal test region within the gamma-ray spectrum.

  16. Transposable elements: The enemies within.

    PubMed

    Scarfò, Irene; Pellegrino, Elisa; Mereu, Elisabetta; Inghirami, Giorgio; Piva, Roberto

    2016-10-01

    Understanding transformation mechanisms other than genetic aberrations has recently captured the attention of cancer researchers. To date, the role of transposable elements (TEs) in tumor development remains largely undefined. However, an increasing number of studies have reported that loss of epigenetic control causes TE reactivation and consequent oncogenic transcription. Here, we discuss principal examples of TEs-driven oncogenesis. Available data suggest that long terminal repeats and long interspersed nuclear elements play a pivotal role as alternative promoters. These findings provide definitive experimental evidence that repetitive elements are a powerful underestimated force toward oncogenesis and open the possibility to new therapeutic treatments.

  17. Matrix Elements for Hylleraas CI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Frank E.

    The limitation to at most a single interelectron distance in individual configurations of a Hylleraas-type multiconfiguration wave function restricts significantly the types of integrals occurring in matrix elements for energy calculations, but even then if the formulation is not handled efficiently the angular parts of these integrals escalate to create expressions of great complexity. This presentation reviews ways in which the angular-momentum calculus can be employed to systematize and simplify the matrix element formulas, particularly those for the kinetic-energy matrix elements.

  18. Environmental research on actinide elements

    SciTech Connect

    Pinder, J.E. III; Alberts, J.J.; McLeod, K.W.; Schreckhise, R.G.

    1987-08-01

    The papers synthesize the results of research sponsored by DOE's Office of Health and Environmental Research on the behavior of transuranic and actinide elements in the environment. Separate abstracts have been prepared for the 21 individual papers. (ACR)

  19. How Certain Trace Elements Behave.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zingaro, Ralph A.

    1979-01-01

    Fluorine, selenium, tin, and arsenic are among the trace elements occurring in the environment which are considered. Emphasis is given to developing a qualitative survey of the extent and kinds of metal transformations and their resultant effects. (CS)

  20. FUEL ELEMENT FOR NUCLEAR REACTORS

    DOEpatents

    Dickson, J.J.

    1963-09-24

    A method is described whereby fuel tubes or pins are cut, loaded with fuel pellets and a heat transfer medium, sealed at each end with slotted fittings, and assembled into a rectangular tube bundle to form a fuel element. The tubes comprising the fuel element are laterally connected between their ends by clips and tabs to form a linear group of spaced parallel tubes, which receive their vertical support by resting on a grid. The advantages of this method are that it permits elimination of structural material (e.g., fuel-element cans) within the reactor core, and removal of at least one fuel pin from an element and replacement thereof so that a burnable poison may be utilized during the core lifetime. (AEC)

  1. FUEL ELEMENTS FOR NEUTRONIC REACTORS

    DOEpatents

    Foote, F.G.; Jette, E.R.

    1963-05-01

    A fuel element for a nuclear reactor is described that consists of a jacket containing a unitary core of fissionable material and a filling of a metal of the group consisting of sodium and sodium-potassium alloys. (AEC)

  2. A Rainbow of Martian Elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This graph or spectrum taken by the alpha particle X-ray spectrometer onboard the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit shows the variety of elements present in the soil at the rover's landing site. In agreement with past missions to Mars, iron and silicon make up the majority of the martian soil. Sulfur and chlorine were also observed as expected. Trace elements detected for the first time include zinc and nickel. These latter observations demonstrate the power of the alpha particle X-ray spectrometer to pick up the signatures of elements too faint to be seen before. The alpha particle X-ray spectrometer uses alpha particles and X-rays to measure the presence and abundance of all major rock-forming elements except hydrogen.

  3. Sensing device with whisker elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartmann, Mitra J. (Inventor); Solomon, Joseph H. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A sensing device includes an elongated whisker element having a flexible cantilever region and a base region where a change in moment or curvature is generated by bending of the cantilever region when it contacts an object. One or more sensor elements cooperatively associated with the whisker element provide one or more output signals that is/are representative of two orthogonal components of change in moment or curvature at the whisker base region to permit determination of object distance, fluid velocity profile, or object contour (shape) with accounting for lateral slip of the whisker element and frictional characteristics of the object. Multiple sensing devices can be arranged in arrays in a manner to sense object contour without or with adjustment for lateral slip.

  4. Essential Elements of Geologic Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Elmer James

    1988-01-01

    Described is a report outline for geologic reports. Essential elements include title; abstract; introduction; stratigraphy; petrography; geochemistry; petrology; geophysics; structural geology; geologic history; modeling; economics; conclusions; and recommendations. (Author/CW)

  5. Sensing Device with Whisker Elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartmann, Mitra J. (Inventor); Solomon, Joseph H. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A sensing device includes an elongated whisker element having a flexible cantilever region and a base region where a change in moment or curvature is generated by bending of the cantilever region when it contacts an object. One or more sensor elements cooperatively associated with the whisker element provide one or more output signals that is/are representative of two orthogonal components of change in moment or curvature at the whisker base region to permit determination of object distance, fluid velocity profile, or object contour (shape) with accounting for lateral slip of the whisker element and frictional characteristics of the object. Multiple sensing devices can be arranged in arrays in a manner to sense object contour without or with adjustment for lateral slip.

  6. Elemental ABAREX -- a user's manual.

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, A.B.

    1999-05-26

    ELEMENTAL ABAREX is an extended version of the spherical optical-statistical model code ABAREX, designed for the interpretation of neutron interactions with elemental targets consisting of up to ten isotopes. The contributions from each of the isotopes of the element are explicitly dealt with, and combined for comparison with the elemental observables. Calculations and statistical fitting of experimental data are considered. The code is written in FORTRAN-77 and arranged for use on the IBM-compatible personal computer (PC), but it should operate effectively on a number of other systems, particularly VAX/VMS and IBM work stations. Effort is taken to make the code user friendly. With this document a reasonably skilled individual should become fluent with the use of the code in a brief period of time.

  7. Polymorphisms affecting trace element bioavailability.

    PubMed

    Mathers, John C; Méplan, Catherine; Hesketh, John E

    2010-10-01

    This review outlines the nature of inter-individual variation in trace element bioavailability, focusing on genetic and epigenetic determinants. We note that pathogenic mutations responsible for dangerously high (or low) status for the micronutrient are unlikely to make large contributions to variability in bioavailability among the general population. Prospective genotyping (for variants in genes encoding selenoproteins) of participants in human studies illustrate one approach to understanding the complex interactions between genotype and trace element supply, which determine the functional bioavailability of selenium. Rapid advances in technological and bioinformatics tools; e. g., as used in Genome-Wide Association Studies, are opening new avenues for research on the genetic determinants of inter-individual variation in trace element bioavailability. This may include copy number variants in addition to the more widely studied polymorphisms. Future research on trace element bioavailability should encompass studies of epigenetic variants, including the role of non-coding (micro) RNA.

  8. Toward automatic finite element analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kela, Ajay; Perucchio, Renato; Voelcker, Herbert

    1987-01-01

    Two problems must be solved if the finite element method is to become a reliable and affordable blackbox engineering tool. Finite element meshes must be generated automatically from computer aided design databases and mesh analysis must be made self-adaptive. The experimental system described solves both problems in 2-D through spatial and analytical substructuring techniques that are now being extended into 3-D.

  9. Overcoming element erosion limitations within Lagrangian finite element codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vignjevic, Rade; Hughes, Kevin; Walker, Andrew; Taylor, Emma A.

    2001-10-01

    Lagrangian finite element methods have been used extensively in the past to study the non-linear transient behaviour of materials, ranging from crash test of cars to simulating bird strikes on planes.... However, as this type of space discretization does not allow for motion of the material through the mesh when modelling extremely large deformations, the mesh becomes highly distorted. This paper describes some limitations and applicability of this type of analysis for high velocity impacts. A method for dealing with this problem is by the erosion of elements is proposed where the main issue is the deformation of element failure strains. Results were compared with empirical perforation results and were found to be in good agreement. The results were then used to simulate high velocity impacts upon a multi-layered aluminium target, in order to predict a ballistic limit curve. LS-DYNA3D was used as the FE solver for all simulations. Meshes were generated with Truegrid.

  10. Transient finite element method using edge elements for moving conductor

    SciTech Connect

    Tani, Koji; Nishio, Takayuki; Yamada, Takashi ); Kawase, Yoshihiro . Dept. of Information Science)

    1999-05-01

    For the next generation of high speed railway systems and automobiles new braking systems are currently under development. These braking systems take into account the eddy currents, which are produced by the movement of the conductor in the magnetic field. For their optimum design, it is necessary to know the distribution of eddy currents in the moving conductor. The finite element method (FEM) is often used to simulate them. Here, transient finite element method using edge elements for moving conductor is presented. Here the magnetic vector potential is interpolated at the upwind position and the time derivative term is discretized by the backward difference method. As a result, the system matrix becomes symmetric and the ICCG method is applicable to solve the matrix. This method is used to solve an eddy current rail brake system. The results demonstrate that this approach is suitable to solve transient problems involving movement.

  11. New Perspectives on the Essential Trace Elements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frieden, Earl

    1985-01-01

    Provides a comprehensive overview of the 19 essential trace elements, examining: the concept of essentiality; evolution of these elements; possible future essential elements; the lanthanides and actinides; how essential trace elements work; the metalloenzymes; the nonmetals; iodine and the thyroid hormones; and antagonism among these elements. (JN)

  12. Eukaryotic transposable elements as mutagenic agents

    SciTech Connect

    Lambert, M.E. . Banbury Center); McDonald, J.F. ); Weinstein, I.B. )

    1988-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings on eukaryotic transposable elements as mutagenic agents. Topics covered include: overview of prokaryotic transposable elements, mutational effects of transposable element insertions, inducers/regulators of transposable element expression and transposition, genomic stress and environmental effects, and inducers/regulators of retroviral element expression.

  13. Brain trace elements and aging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hebbrecht, Geert; Maenhaut, Willy; Reuck, Jacques De

    1999-04-01

    Degenerative mechanisms involved in the aging process of the brain are to a certain extent counteracted by repair mechanisms. In both degenerative and recovery processes, trace elements are involved. The present study focused on the role of two minor (i.e., K and Ca) and six trace elements (i.e., Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Se and Rb) in the aging process. The elements were determined by PIXE in cerebral cortex and white matter, basal ganglia, brainstem and cerebellar cortex of 18 postmortem human brains, from persons without a history of neurologic or psychiatric disease who deceased between the age of 7 and 79. This age range allowed us to study the relationship between elemental concentrations and age. The most prominent findings were a concentration decrease for K and Rb and a concentration increase for the elements Ca, Fe, Zn and Se. The study supports recent findings that Ca and Fe are involved in brain degenerative processes initiated by oxygen free radicals, whereas Zn and Se are involved in immunological reactions counteracting the aging process.

  14. Relativistic Dipole Matrix Element Zeros

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lajohn, L. A.; Pratt, R. H.

    2002-05-01

    There is a special class of relativistic high energy dipole matrix element zeros (RZ), whose positions with respect to photon energy ω , only depend on the bound state l quantum number according to ω^0=mc^2/(l_b+1) (independent of primary quantum number n, nuclear charge Z, central potential V and dipole retardation). These RZ only occur in (n,l_b,j_b)arrow (ɛ , l_b+1,j_b) transitions such as ns_1/2arrow ɛ p_1/2; np_3/2arrow ɛ d_3/2: nd_5/2arrow ɛ f_5/2 etc. The nonrelativistic limit of these matrix elements can be established explicitly in the Coulomb case. Within the general matrix element formalism (such as that in [1]); when |κ | is substituted for γ in analytic expressions for matrix elements, the zeros remain, but ω^0 now becomes dependent on n and Z. When the reduction to nonrelativistic form is completed by application of the low energy approximation ω mc^2 mc^2, the zeros disappear. This nonzero behavior was noted in nonrelativistic dipole Coulomb matrix elements by Fano and Cooper [2] and later proven by Oh and Pratt[3]. (J. H. Scofield, Phys. Rev. A 40), 3054 (1989 (U. Fano and J. W. Cooper, Rev. Mod. Phys. 40), 441 (1968). (D. Oh and R. H. Pratt, Phys. Rev. A 34), 2486 (1986); 37, 1524 (1988); 45, 1583 (1992).

  15. [Oncological data elements in histopathology].

    PubMed

    Haroske, G; Kramm, T; Mörz, M; Oberholzer, M

    2010-09-01

    In order to cope with increasing demands to supply information to a variety of documentation systems outside pathology, pathologists need to set standards both for the content and the use of the information they generate. Oncological datasets based on a set vocabulary are urgently required for use both in pathology and in further processing. Data elements were defined according to German pathology report guidelines for colorectal cancers in line with ISO 11179 requirements for the relations between data element concepts and value domains, as well as for further formal conditions, which can be exported in XML together with metadata information. Tests on 100 conventionally written diagnoses showed their principal usability and an increasing degree of guideline conformity in diagnoses commensurate with training time. This set of oncological data elements is a valuable checklist tool for pathologists, enabling formatted information export for further use and saving documentation effort. PMID:20544201

  16. An external drag measuring element

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ringel, Mordechai; Levin, Daniel; Seginer, Arnan

    The accurate measurement of the axial-force component acting on small wind-tunnel models has traditionally made use of integral string balances, which eliminated many accuracy problems, such as friction and hysteresis, but also introduced interactions between the various force and moment sensing elements due to nonlinear elastic phenomena. The reduction of these interactions usually calls for complicated designs, expensive manufacturing, hard-to-handle calibration processes, and cumbersome data reduction programs. An approach is presented that is based on an external axial-force-measuring element and avoids the ill-conditioned design problems of integral balances. Other difficulties that are encountered, such as friction, misalignment, and relative motion between metric elements are considered, and their solution is examined. Calibration and test results show that the new approach duplicates and surpasses the results of much more complicated and expensive integral balances.

  17. Epochal trace elements and evolution.

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, C C; Braverman, E R

    1982-07-01

    The use of some trace elements by plants and animals during the evolutionary process has resulted in epochal changes. Noteworthy is the fact that plants (but not animals) needed boron in order to grow stems and roots as they left the seas and became anchored on land. Iodine is plentiful in sea water but rare on land. Therefore, the iodination of tyrosine provided an iodine transport mechanism which allowed for the metamorphosis and the development of warm bloodedness--a great evolutionary advantage. Zinc from clay was needed for the formation of the first primitive nucleic acids and, later, the presence of zinc in the retina provide the enhanced night vision of the nocturnal predators--a natural advantage. Hence, boron, iodine and zinc can be termed epochal trace elements. Inquiry should be directed towards the possible roles of other trace elements, which may have been epochal in evolution. PMID:7136960

  18. An Overview of Climatic Elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crutcher, H. L.; Johnson, D. L.

    2007-01-01

    This Technical Publication (TP) addresses some climatic elements with emphasis on atmospheric composition, including gas radiative characteristics. Solar radiation is discussed with considerable information on the mathematical and statistical formulae. On a worldwide basis, temperature and precipitation for the globe are discussed along with interaction in drought. Also included is the simultaneous interaction with winds, humidity, and solar radiation. Volcanology gets minimum treatment. The oceans and seas are treated in chart form along with the interrelationship of oceanic currents and El Nino and La Nina, and ENSO phenomena. Upper air circulations are discussed. Various cloud formations up to 85-95 km altitude are described. Information on tornadoes and hurricanes is also included. One section is devoted to the climate physical-chemical elements. A short discussion is given on the importance for the quality of data and/or information in descriptions of the climate. This TP presents only an overview or survey of these and other various climatic elements.

  19. Status of transuranium element production

    SciTech Connect

    King, L.J.

    1985-01-01

    The Transuranium Processing Plant at Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been the production, storage, and distribution center for the heavy-element research program of the US Department of Energy since 1966. During the past four years, annual production rates of transcurium elements have been relatively stable, averaging 34 mg of /sup 249/Bk, 369 mg of /sup 252/Cf, 1.4 mg of /sup 253/Es, and 0.7 pg of /sup 257/Fm. The extensive provisions for changing and modifying equipment have allowed continual updating of the plant to include new concepts in chemical processes and equipment design. 21 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Spent graphite fuel element processing

    SciTech Connect

    Holder, N.D.; Olsen, C.W.

    1981-07-01

    The Department of Energy currently sponsors two programs to demonstrate the processing of spent graphite fuel elements. General Atomic in San Diego operates a cold pilot plant to demonstrate the processing of both US and German high-temperature reactor fuel. Exxon Nuclear Idaho Company is demonstrating the processing of spent graphite fuel elements from Rover reactors operated for the Nuclear Rocket Propulsion Program. This work is done at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, where a hot facility is being constructed to complete processing of the Rover fuel. This paper focuses on the graphite combustion process common to both programs.

  1. Gas and humidity sensing element

    SciTech Connect

    Komine, Y.; Sawada, T.

    1984-06-26

    A gas and humidity sensing element in a single integral structure made of a base plate of apatite ceramics, on which a particular metal oxide such as tin oxide, zinc oxide, or composite oxide of titanium and niobium is provided. The sensing element has a function of sensing gas and humidity with outstanding sensitivity to bad smell gas and alcoholic gas, in which the humidity is sensed and measured by variations in electrical resistance of the apatite ceramic base plate and the bad smell gas such as hydrogen sulfide, methyl mercaptan, etc. is sensed and measured by variations in electrical resistance of the metal oxide.

  2. FUEL ELEMENT FOR NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Carney, K.G. Jr.

    1959-07-14

    A nuclear fuel element comprising a large number og wafers of fissionable material and a protective jacket having compartments holding these wafers is described. The compartments of the jacket aid the removal of heat from the wafers, keep the wafers or fragments thereof from migrating in the jacket, and permit the escape of gaseous fission products.

  3. Extrachromosomal genetic elements in Micrococcus.

    PubMed

    Dib, Julián Rafael; Liebl, Wolfgang; Wagenknecht, Martin; Farías, María Eugenia; Meinhardt, Friedhelm

    2013-01-01

    Micrococci are Gram-positive G + C-rich, nonmotile, nonspore-forming actinomycetous bacteria. Micrococcus comprises ten members, with Micrococcus luteus being the type species. Representatives of the genus play important roles in the biodegradation of xenobiotics, bioremediation processes, production of biotechnologically important enzymes or bioactive compounds, as test strains in biological assays for lysozyme and antibiotics, and as infective agents in immunocompromised humans. The first description of plasmids dates back approximately 28 years, when several extrachromosomal elements ranging in size from 1.5 to 30.2 kb were found in Micrococcus luteus. Up to the present, a number of circular plasmids conferring antibiotic resistance, the ability to degrade aromatic compounds, and osmotolerance are known, as well as cryptic elements with unidentified functions. Here, we review the Micrococcus extrachromosomal traits reported thus far including phages and the only quite recently described large linear extrachromosomal genetic elements, termed linear plasmids, which range in size from 75 kb (pJD12) to 110 kb (pLMA1) and which confer putative advantageous capabilities, such as antibiotic or heavy metal resistances (inferred from sequence analyses and curing experiments). The role of the extrachromosomal elements for the frequently proven ecological and biotechnological versatility of the genus will be addressed as well as their potential for the development and use as genetic tools. PMID:23138713

  4. Quadrilateral finite element mesh coarsening

    DOEpatents

    Staten, Matthew L; Dewey, Mark W; Benzley, Steven E

    2012-10-16

    Techniques for coarsening a quadrilateral mesh are described. These techniques include identifying a coarsening region within the quadrilateral mesh to be coarsened. Quadrilateral elements along a path through the coarsening region are removed. Node pairs along opposite sides of the path are identified. The node pairs along the path are then merged to collapse the path.

  5. New elements produced at GSI

    SciTech Connect

    Hofmann, Sigurd

    1998-12-21

    In two series of experiments at SHIP, six new elements (Z=107-112) were synthesized via fusion reactions using lead or bismuth targets and 1n-deexcitation channels. The isotopes were unambiguously identified by means of {alpha}-{alpha} correlations. Not fission, but alpha decay is the dominant decay mode. Cross-sections decrease by two orders of magnitude from bohrium (Z=107) to element 112, for which a cross-section of 1 pb was measured. Based on our results, it is likely that the production of isotopes of element 114 close to the island of spherical SuperHeavy Elements (SHE) could be achieved by fusion reactions using {sup 208}Pb targets. Systematic studies of the reaction cross-sections indicate that the transfer of nucleons is an important process for the initiation of fusion. The data allow for the fixing of a narrow energy window for the production of SHE using 1n-emission channels. The likelihood of broadening the energy window by investigation of radiative capture reactions, use of neutron deficient projectile isotopes and use of actinide targets is discussed.

  6. Superheavy Elements - Achievements and Challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Ackermann, Dieter

    2009-03-04

    The search for superheavy elements (SHE) has yielded exciting results for both the 'cold fusion' approach with reactions employing Pb and Bi targets and the ''hot fusion'' reactions with {sup 48}Ca beams on actinide targets. The most recent activities at GSI were the successful production of a more neutron rich isotope of element 112 in the reaction {sup 48}Ca+{sup 238}U confirming earlier result from FLNR, and the attempt to synthesize an isotope with Z 120 in the reaction {sup 64}Ni+{sup 238}U. Apart from the synthesis of new elements, advanced nuclear structure studies for heavy and super heavy elements promise a detailed insight in the properties of nuclear matter under the extreme conditions of high Z and A. The means are evaporation residue(ER)-{alpha}-{alpha} and -{alpha}-{gamma} coincidence techniques applied after separation of the reaction products from the beam. Recent examples of interesting physics to be discovered in this region of the chart of nuclides are the investigation of K-isomers observed for {sup 252,254}No and indicated for {sup 270}Ds. Fast chemistry and precision mass measurements deliver in addition valuable information on the fundamental properties of the SHE.

  7. Compact Fuel Element Environment Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradley, D. E.; Mireles, O. R.; Hickman, R. R.; Broadway, J. W.

    2012-01-01

    Deep space missions with large payloads require high specific impulse (I(sub sp)) and relatively high thrust to achieve mission goals in reasonable time frames. Conventional, storable propellants produce average I(sub sp). Nuclear thermal rockets (NTRs) capable of high I(sub sp) thrust have been proposed. NTR employs heat produced by fission reaction to heat and therefore accelerate hydrogen, which is then forced through a rocket nozzle providing thrust. Fuel element temperatures are very high (up to 3,000 K) and hydrogen is highly reactive with most materials at high temperatures. Data covering the effects of high-temperature hydrogen exposure on fuel elements are limited. The primary concern is the mechanical failure of fuel elements that employ high melting point metals, ceramics, or a combination (cermet) as a structural matrix into which the nuclear fuel is distributed. It is not necessary to include fissile material in test samples intended to explore high-temperature hydrogen exposure of the structural support matrices. A small-scale test bed designed to heat fuel element samples via noncontact radio frequency heating and expose samples to hydrogen for typical mission durations has been developed to assist in optimal material and manufacturing process selection without employing fissile material. This Technical Memorandum details the test bed design and results of testing conducted to date.

  8. Element material experiment by EFFU

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hashimoto, Yoshihiro; Ichikawa, Masaaki; Takei, Mitsuru; Torii, Yoshihiro; Ota, Kazuo

    1995-01-01

    National Space Development Agency of JAPAN (NASDA) is planning to perform Element Material Exposure Experiment using Exposed Facility Flyer Unit (EFFU). Several materials which will be used on JEM (Japanese Experiment Module for the space station) will be exposed. Space environment monitoring is also planned in this experiment. Several ground based tests are now being performed and getting useful data.

  9. Single element laser beam shaper

    DOEpatents

    Zhang, Shukui; Michelle D. Shinn

    2005-09-13

    A single lens laser beam shaper for converting laser beams from any spatial profile to a flat-top or uniform spatial profile. The laser beam shaper includes a lens having two aspheric surfaces. The beam shaper significantly simplifies the overall structure in comparison with conventional 2-element systems and therefore provides great ease in alignment and reduction of cost.

  10. Transposable elements for insect transformation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The germ-line of more than 35 species from five orders of insects have been genetically transformed, using vectors derived from Class II transposable elements. Initially the P and hobo vector systems developed for D. melanogaster were not applicable to other species, but four transposons found in ot...

  11. Fast acting multiple element valve

    DOEpatents

    Yang, Jefferson Y. S.; Wada, James M.

    1991-01-01

    A plurality of slide valve elements having plural axial-spaced annular parts and an internal slide are inserted into a bulkhead in a fluid conduit from a downstream side of the bulkhead, locked in place by a bayonet coupling and set screw, and project through the bulkhead into the upstream conduit. Pneumatic lines connecting the slide valve element actuator to pilot valves are brought out the throat of the valve element to the downstream side. Pilot valves are radially spaced around the exterior of the valve to permit the pneumatic lines to be made identical, thereby to minimize adverse timing tolerances in operation due to pressure variations. Ring manifolds surround the valve adjacent respective pilot valve arrangements to further reduce adverse timing tolerances due to pressure variations, the manifolds being directly connected to the respective pilot valves. Position sensors are provided the valve element slides to signal the precise time at which a slide reaches or passes through a particular point in its stroke to initiate a calibrated timing function.

  12. Dryout of BWR fuel elements

    SciTech Connect

    Reisch, Frigyes

    2006-07-01

    To increase the power output of the presently operating power reactors is a worldwide trend. One limiting factor from the safety and commercial point of views is the maximum allowable thermal load of the fuel. The findings of the presented loop experiments are that the margin to the burnout of the fuel elements can be defined by a single parameter the void. (authors)

  13. Structural Truss Elements and Forces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Troyer, Steve; Griffis, Kurt; Shackelford, Ray

    2005-01-01

    In the field of construction, most structures are supported by several groups of truss systems working together synergistically. A "truss" is a group of centered and balanced elements combined to carry a common load (Warner, 2003). Trusses provide strength against loads and forces within a structure. Though a complex field of study, structural…

  14. Infrared trace element detection system

    DOEpatents

    Bien, F.; Bernstein, L.S.; Matthew, M.W.

    1988-11-15

    An infrared trace element detection system includes an optical cell into which the sample fluid to be examined is introduced and removed. Also introduced into the optical cell is a sample beam of infrared radiation in a first wavelength band which is significantly absorbed by the trace element and a second wavelength band which is not significantly absorbed by the trace element for passage through the optical cell through the sample fluid. The output intensities of the sample beam of radiation are selectively detected in the first and second wavelength bands. The intensities of a reference beam of the radiation are similarly detected in the first and second wavelength bands. The sensed output intensity of the sample beam in one of the first and second wavelength bands is normalized with respect to the other and similarly, the intensity of the reference beam of radiation in one of the first and second wavelength bands is normalized with respect to the other. The normalized sample beam intensity and normalized reference beam intensity are then compared to provide a signal from which the amount of trace element in the sample fluid can be determined. 11 figs.

  15. Infrared trace element detection system

    DOEpatents

    Bien, Fritz; Bernstein, Lawrence S.; Matthew, Michael W.

    1988-01-01

    An infrared trace element detection system including an optical cell into which the sample fluid to be examined is introduced and removed. Also introduced into the optical cell is a sample beam of infrared radiation in a first wavelength band which is significantly absorbed by the trace element and a second wavelength band which is not significantly absorbed by the trace element for passage through the optical cell through the sample fluid. The output intensities of the sample beam of radiation are selectively detected in the first and second wavelength bands. The intensities of a reference beam of the radiation are similarly detected in the first and second wavelength bands. The sensed output intensity of the sample beam in one of the first and second wavelength bands is normalized with respect to the other and similarly, the intensity of the reference beam of radiation in one of the first and second wavelength bands is normalized with respect to the other. The normalized sample beam intensity and normalized reference beam intensity are then compared to provide a signal from which the amount of trace element in the sample fluid can be determined.

  16. Turbulence Detection and Mitigation Element

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bogue, Rod

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents viewgraphs on turbulence detection and mitigation technologies in weather accident prevention. The topics include: 1) Organization; 2) Scope of Turbulence Effort; 3) Background; 4) Turbulence Detection and Mitigation Program Metrics; 5) Approach; 6) Turbulence Team Relationships; 7) WBS Structure; 8) Deliverables; 9) TDAM Changes; 10) FY-01 Results/Accomplishments; 11) Out-year Plans; and 12) Element Status.

  17. Documentary Elements in Early Films.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanderson, Richard A.

    Focusing on documentary elements, this study examines the film content and film techniques of 681 motion pictures produced in the United States prior to 1904. Analysis of films by type, subject matter, and trends in subject matter shows that one-third of the early films are documentary in type and three-fourths of the films use subject matter of a…

  18. Low cost, lightweight fuel cell elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kindler, Andrew (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    New fuel cell elements for use in liquid feed fuel cells are provided. The elements including biplates and endplates are low in cost, light in weight, and allow high efficiency operation. Electrically conductive elements are also a part of the fuel cell elements.

  19. 47 CFR 13.203 - Examination elements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Examination elements. 13.203 Section 13.203... Examination elements. (a) A written examination (written Element) must prove that the examinee possesses the... commercial radio operator license. For each Element, the Commission shall establish through public notices...

  20. 47 CFR 13.203 - Examination elements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Examination elements. 13.203 Section 13.203... Examination elements. (a) A written examination (written Element) must prove that the examinee possesses the... commercial radio operator license. For each Element, the Commission shall establish through public notices...

  1. 47 CFR 13.203 - Examination elements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Examination elements. 13.203 Section 13.203... Examination elements. (a) A written examination (written Element) must prove that the examinee possesses the... commercial radio operator license. For each Element, the Commission shall establish through public notices...

  2. 47 CFR 13.203 - Examination elements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Examination elements. 13.203 Section 13.203... Examination elements. (a) A written examination (written Element) must prove that the examinee possesses the... commercial radio operator license. For each Element, the Commission shall establish through public notices...

  3. 49 CFR 563.7 - Data elements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Data elements. 563.7 Section 563.7 Transportation..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EVENT DATA RECORDERS § 563.7 Data elements. (a) Data elements required for all vehicles. Each vehicle equipped with an EDR must record all of the data elements listed in Table I,...

  4. The Transuranium Elements - Present Status: Nobel Lecture

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Seaborg, G. T.

    1951-12-12

    The discovery of the transuranium elements and the work done on them up to the present time are reviewed. The properties of these elements, their relationship to other elements, their place in the periodic table, and the possibility of production and identification of other transuranium elements are discussed briefly.

  5. Superheavy element flerovium (element 114) is a volatile metal.

    PubMed

    Yakushev, Alexander; Gates, Jacklyn M; Türler, Andreas; Schädel, Matthias; Düllmann, Christoph E; Ackermann, Dieter; Andersson, Lise-Lotte; Block, Michael; Brüchle, Willy; Dvorak, Jan; Eberhardt, Klaus; Essel, Hans G; Even, Julia; Forsberg, Ulrika; Gorshkov, Alexander; Graeger, Reimar; Gregorich, Kenneth E; Hartmann, Willi; Herzberg, Rolf-Dietmar; Hessberger, Fritz P; Hild, Daniel; Hübner, Annett; Jäger, Egon; Khuyagbaatar, Jadambaa; Kindler, Birgit; Kratz, Jens V; Krier, Jörg; Kurz, Nikolaus; Lommel, Bettina; Niewisch, Lorenz J; Nitsche, Heino; Omtvedt, Jon Petter; Parr, Edward; Qin, Zhi; Rudolph, Dirk; Runke, Jörg; Schausten, Brigitta; Schimpf, Erwin; Semchenkov, Andrey; Steiner, Jutta; Thörle-Pospiech, Petra; Uusitalo, Juha; Wegrzecki, Maciej; Wiehl, Norbert

    2014-02-01

    The electron shell structure of superheavy elements, i.e., elements with atomic number Z ≥ 104, is influenced by strong relativistic effects caused by the high Z. Early atomic calculations on element 112 (copernicium, Cn) and element 114 (flerovium, Fl) having closed and quasi-closed electron shell configurations of 6d(10)7s(2) and 6d(10)7s(2)7p1/2(2), respectively, predicted them to be noble-gas-like due to very strong relativistic effects on the 7s and 7p1/2 valence orbitals. Recent fully relativistic calculations studying Cn and Fl in different environments suggest them to be less reactive compared to their lighter homologues in the groups, but still exhibiting a metallic character. Experimental gas-solid chromatography studies on Cn have, indeed, revealed a metal-metal bond formation with Au. In contrast to this, for Fl, the formation of a weak bond upon physisorption on a Au surface was inferred from first experiments. Here, we report on a gas-solid chromatography study of the adsorption of Fl on a Au surface. Fl was produced in the nuclear fusion reaction (244)Pu((48)Ca, 3-4n)(288,289)Fl and was isolated in-flight from the primary (48)Ca beam in a physical recoil separator. The adsorption behavior of Fl, its nuclear α-decay product Cn, their lighter homologues in groups 14 and 12, i.e., Pb and Hg, and the noble gas Rn were studied simultaneously by isothermal gas chromatography and thermochromatography. Two Fl atoms were detected. They adsorbed on a Au surface at room temperature in the first, isothermal part, but not as readily as Pb and Hg. The observed adsorption behavior of Fl points to a higher inertness compared to its nearest homologue in the group, Pb. However, the measured lower limit for the adsorption enthalpy of Fl on a Au surface points to the formation of a metal-metal bond of Fl with Au. Fl is the least reactive element in the group, but still a metal. PMID:24456007

  6. Finite Element Vibration Analysis of Rectangular Membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, S. H.; Lin, W. J.; Leung, A. Y. T.

    2010-05-01

    Some pre-tensioned 4-node rectangular elements and 8-node triangular elements are constructed for the free vibration analysis of membranes by finite element. The shape functions are given to derive the element stiffness and mass matrices in accordance with the minimum potential energy principle. Two typical examples show that the calculation by the 4-node rectangular element is very close to the theoretical solution, and 8-node rectangular element has higher accuracy than the 4-node rectangular element. For dense grid, the result is almost consistent with the theoretical solution.

  7. FUEL ELEMENT FOR NUCLEAR REACTORS

    DOEpatents

    Bassett, C.H.

    1961-11-21

    A fuel element is designed which is particularly adapted for reactors of high power density used to generate steam for the production of electricity. The fuel element consists of inner and outer concentric tubes forming an annular chamber within which is contained fissionable fuel pellet segments, wedge members interposed between the fuel segments, and a spring which, acting with wedge members, urges said fuel pellets radially into contact against the inner surface of the outer tube. The wedge members may be a fertile material convertible into fissionable fuel material by absorbing neutrons emitted from the fissionable fuel pellet segments. The costly grinding of cylindrical fuel pellets to close tolerances for snug engagement is reduced because the need to finish the exact size is eliminated. (AEC)

  8. Self supporting heat transfer element

    DOEpatents

    Story, Grosvenor Cook; Baldonado, Ray Orico

    2002-01-01

    The present invention provides an improved internal heat exchange element arranged so as to traverse the inside diameter of a container vessel such that it makes good mechanical contact with the interior wall of that vessel. The mechanical element is fabricated from a material having a coefficient of thermal conductivity above about 0.8 W cm.sup.-1.degree. K.sup.-1 and is designed to function as a simple spring member when that member has been cooled to reduce its diameter to just below that of a cylindrical container or vessel into which it is placed and then allowed to warm to room temperature. A particularly important application of this invention is directed to a providing a simple compartmented storage container for accommodating a hydrogen absorbing alloy.

  9. Surface energies of elemental crystals.

    PubMed

    Tran, Richard; Xu, Zihan; Radhakrishnan, Balachandran; Winston, Donald; Sun, Wenhao; Persson, Kristin A; Ong, Shyue Ping

    2016-01-01

    The surface energy is a fundamental property of the different facets of a crystal that is crucial to the understanding of various phenomena like surface segregation, roughening, catalytic activity, and the crystal's equilibrium shape. Such surface phenomena are especially important at the nanoscale, where the large surface area to volume ratios lead to properties that are significantly different from the bulk. In this work, we present the largest database of calculated surface energies for elemental crystals to date. This database contains the surface energies of more than 100 polymorphs of about 70 elements, up to a maximum Miller index of two and three for non-cubic and cubic crystals, respectively. Well-known reconstruction schemes are also accounted for. The database is systematically improvable and has been rigorously validated against previous experimental and computational data where available. We will describe the methodology used in constructing the database, and how it can be accessed for further studies and design of materials. PMID:27622853

  10. Heavy Elements and Cool Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wahlgren, Glenn M.; Carpenter, Kenneth G.; Norris, Ryan P.

    2008-01-01

    We report on progress in the analysis of high-resolution near-IR spectra of alpha Orionis (M2 Iab) and other cool, luminous stars. Using synthetic spectrum techniques, we search for atomic absorption lines in the stellar spectra and evaluate the available line parameter data for use in our abundance analyses. Our study concentrates on the post iron-group elements copper through zirconium as a means of investigating the slow neutron-capture process of nucleosynthesis in massive stars and the mechanisms that transport recently processed material up into the photospheric region. We discuss problems with the atomic data and model atmospheres that need to be addressed before theoretically derived elemental abundances from pre-supernova nucleosynthesis calculations can be tested by comparison with abundances determined from observations of cool, massive stars.

  11. The Origin of the Elements

    ScienceCinema

    Murphy, Edward

    2016-07-12

    The world around us is made of atoms. Did you ever wonder where these atoms came from? How was the gold in our jewelry, the carbon in our bodies, and the iron in our cars made? In this lecture, we will trace the origin of a gold atom from the Big Bang to the present day, and beyond. You will learn how the elements were forged in the nuclear furnaces inside stars, and how, when they die, these massive stars spread the elements into space. You will learn about the origin of the building blocks of matter in the Big Bang, and we will speculate on the future of the atoms around us today.

  12. The Origin of the Elements

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, Edward

    2012-11-20

    The world around us is made of atoms. Did you ever wonder where these atoms came from? How was the gold in our jewelry, the carbon in our bodies, and the iron in our cars made? In this lecture, we will trace the origin of a gold atom from the Big Bang to the present day, and beyond. You will learn how the elements were forged in the nuclear furnaces inside stars, and how, when they die, these massive stars spread the elements into space. You will learn about the origin of the building blocks of matter in the Big Bang, and we will speculate on the future of the atoms around us today.

  13. Replacement element for automobile thermostat

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrari, W.

    1988-06-07

    This patent describes a thermostat replacement element for use in a cooling system in which a continuous stream of coolant normally flows from a radiator through a thermostat to an engine. The thermostat is mounted within a mounting cavity and permits maximum flow of coolant through the cooling system when in an open position. The replacement element comprises a disc-shaped member having a diameter substantially corresponding to the diameter of the mounting cavity. The member is provided with apertures of a predetermined size to permit flow of coolant therethrough at a rate generally corresponding to the rate of flow of coolant through the thermostat when the thermostat is in an open position.

  14. Element of an inductive coupler

    DOEpatents

    Hall, David R.; Fox, Joe

    2006-08-15

    An element for an inductive coupler in a downhole component comprises magnetically conductive material, which is disposed in a recess in annular housing. The magnetically conductive material forms a generally circular trough. The circular trough comprises an outer generally U-shaped surface, an inner generally U-shaped surface, and two generally planar surfaces joining the inner and outer surfaces. The element further comprises pressure relief grooves in at least one of the surfaces of the circular trough. The pressure relief grooves may be scored lines. Preferably the pressure relief grooves are parallel to the magnetic field generated by the magnetically conductive material. The magnetically conductive material is selected from the group consisting of soft iron, ferrite, a nickel iron alloy, a silicon iron alloy, a cobalt iron alloy, and a mu-metal. Preferably, the annular housing is a metal ring.

  15. Composite oxygen ion transport element

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Jack C.; Besecker, Charles J.; Chen, Hancun; Robinson, Earil T.

    2007-06-12

    A composite oxygen ion transport element that has a layered structure formed by a dense layer to transport oxygen ions and electrons and a porous support layer to provide mechanical support. The dense layer can be formed of a mixture of a mixed conductor, an ionic conductor, and a metal. The porous support layer can be fabricated from an oxide dispersion strengthened metal, a metal-reinforced intermetallic alloy, a boron-doped Mo.sub.5Si.sub.3-based intermetallic alloy or combinations thereof. The support layer can be provided with a network of non-interconnected pores and each of said pores communicates between opposite surfaces of said support layer. Such a support layer can be advantageously employed to reduce diffusion resistance in any type of element, including those using a different material makeup than that outlined above.

  16. Elements of Bayesian experimental design

    SciTech Connect

    Sivia, D.S.

    1997-09-01

    We consider some elements of the Bayesian approach that are important for optimal experimental design. While the underlying principles used are very general, and are explained in detail in a recent tutorial text, they are applied here to the specific case of characterising the inferential value of different resolution peakshapes. This particular issue was considered earlier by Silver, Sivia and Pynn (1989, 1990a, 1990b), and the following presentation confirms and extends the conclusions of their analysis.

  17. Photoconductive circuit element pulse generator

    DOEpatents

    Rauscher, Christen

    1989-01-01

    A pulse generator for characterizing semiconductor devices at millimeter wavelength frequencies where a photoconductive circuit element (PCE) is biased by a direct current voltage source and produces short electrical pulses when excited into conductance by short laser light pulses. The electrical pulses are electronically conditioned to improve the frequency related amplitude characteristics of the pulses which thereafter propagate along a transmission line to a device under test.

  18. Estudio muestra importancia de conversaciones tempranas sobre el cuidado en etapa final de la vida

    Cancer.gov

    Artículo sobre la importancia de hablar en forma temprana sobre el cuidado paliativo para asegurar que la atención prestada en la etapa final de la vida sea más acorde con las preferencias de los pacientes.

  19. Peridynamic Multiscale Finite Element Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Costa, Timothy; Bond, Stephen D.; Littlewood, David John; Moore, Stan Gerald

    2015-12-01

    The problem of computing quantum-accurate design-scale solutions to mechanics problems is rich with applications and serves as the background to modern multiscale science research. The prob- lem can be broken into component problems comprised of communicating across adjacent scales, which when strung together create a pipeline for information to travel from quantum scales to design scales. Traditionally, this involves connections between a) quantum electronic structure calculations and molecular dynamics and between b) molecular dynamics and local partial differ- ential equation models at the design scale. The second step, b), is particularly challenging since the appropriate scales of molecular dynamic and local partial differential equation models do not overlap. The peridynamic model for continuum mechanics provides an advantage in this endeavor, as the basic equations of peridynamics are valid at a wide range of scales limiting from the classical partial differential equation models valid at the design scale to the scale of molecular dynamics. In this work we focus on the development of multiscale finite element methods for the peridynamic model, in an effort to create a mathematically consistent channel for microscale information to travel from the upper limits of the molecular dynamics scale to the design scale. In particular, we first develop a Nonlocal Multiscale Finite Element Method which solves the peridynamic model at multiple scales to include microscale information at the coarse-scale. We then consider a method that solves a fine-scale peridynamic model to build element-support basis functions for a coarse- scale local partial differential equation model, called the Mixed Locality Multiscale Finite Element Method. Given decades of research and development into finite element codes for the local partial differential equation models of continuum mechanics there is a strong desire to couple local and nonlocal models to leverage the speed and state of the

  20. Calculation of binary phase diagrams between the actinide elements, rare earth elements, and transition metal elements

    SciTech Connect

    Selle, J E

    1992-06-26

    Attempts were made to apply the Kaufman method of calculating binary phase diagrams to the calculation of binary phase diagrams between the rare earths, actinides, and the refractory transition metals. Difficulties were encountered in applying the method to the rare earths and actinides, and modifications were necessary to provide accurate representation of known diagrams. To calculate the interaction parameters for rare earth-rare earth diagrams, it was necessary to use the atomic volumes for each of the phases: liquid, body-centered cubic, hexagonal close-packed, and face-centered cubic. Determination of the atomic volumes of each of these phases for each element is discussed in detail. In some cases, empirical means were necessary. Results are presented on the calculation of rare earth-rare earth, rare earth-actinide, and actinide-actinide diagrams. For rare earth-refractory transition metal diagrams and actinide-refractory transition metal diagrams, empirical means were required to develop values for the enthalpy of vaporization for rare earth elements and values for the constant (C) required when intermediate phases are present. Results of using the values determined for each element are presented.

  1. Implicit Space-Time Conservation Element and Solution Element Schemes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, Sin-Chung; Himansu, Ananda; Wang, Xiao-Yen

    1999-01-01

    Artificial numerical dissipation is in important issue in large Reynolds number computations. In such computations, the artificial dissipation inherent in traditional numerical schemes can overwhelm the physical dissipation and yield inaccurate results on meshes of practical size. In the present work, the space-time conservation element and solution element method is used to construct new and accurate implicit numerical schemes such that artificial numerical dissipation will not overwhelm physical dissipation. Specifically, these schemes have the property that numerical dissipation vanishes when the physical viscosity goes to zero. These new schemes therefore accurately model the physical dissipation even when it is extremely small. The new schemes presented are two highly accurate implicit solvers for a convection-diffusion equation. The two schemes become identical in the pure convection case, and in the pure diffusion case. The implicit schemes are applicable over the whole Reynolds number range, from purely diffusive equations to convection-dominated equations with very small viscosity. The stability and consistency of the schemes are analysed, and some numerical results are presented. It is shown that, in the inviscid case, the new schemes become explicit and their amplification factors are identical to those of the Leapfrog scheme. On the other hand, in the pure diffusion case, their principal amplification factor becomes the amplification factor of the Crank-Nicolson scheme.

  2. 7 CFR 29.2601 - Elements of quality and degrees of each element.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Elements of quality and degrees of each element. 29... STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Elements of Quality § 29.2601 Elements of quality and degrees of each element. Tobacco attributes or characteristics which constitute quality...

  3. 7 CFR 29.3586 - Elements of quality and degrees of each element.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Elements of quality and degrees of each element. 29... STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Elements of Quality § 29.3586 Elements of quality and degrees of each element. These standardized words or terms are used to describe...

  4. 7 CFR 29.2601 - Elements of quality and degrees of each element.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Elements of quality and degrees of each element. 29... STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Elements of Quality § 29.2601 Elements of quality and degrees of each element. Tobacco attributes or characteristics which constitute quality...

  5. 7 CFR 29.3101 - Elements of quality and degrees of each element.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Elements of quality and degrees of each element. 29... STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Elements of Quality § 29.3101 Elements of quality and degrees of each element. These standardized words or terms are used to describe...

  6. 7 CFR 29.6081 - Elements of quality and degrees of each element.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Elements of quality and degrees of each element. 29... STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Elements of Quality § 29.6081 Elements of quality and degrees of each element. These standardized words or terms are used to describe...

  7. 7 CFR 29.1101 - Elements of quality and degrees of each element.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Elements of quality and degrees of each element. 29... STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Elements of Quality § 29.1101 Elements of quality and degrees of each element. These standardized words or terms are used to describe...

  8. 7 CFR 29.2601 - Elements of quality and degrees of each element.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Elements of quality and degrees of each element. 29... STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Elements of Quality § 29.2601 Elements of quality and degrees of each element. Tobacco attributes or characteristics which constitute quality...

  9. 7 CFR 29.2351 - Elements of quality and degrees of each element.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Elements of quality and degrees of each element. 29... STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Elements of Quality § 29.2351 Elements of quality and degrees of each element. Tobacco attributes or characteristics which constitute quality...

  10. 7 CFR 29.6081 - Elements of quality and degrees of each element.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Elements of quality and degrees of each element. 29... STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Elements of Quality § 29.6081 Elements of quality and degrees of each element. These standardized words or terms are used to describe...

  11. 7 CFR 29.1101 - Elements of quality and degrees of each element.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Elements of quality and degrees of each element. 29... STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Elements of Quality § 29.1101 Elements of quality and degrees of each element. These standardized words or terms are used to describe...

  12. 7 CFR 29.3101 - Elements of quality and degrees of each element.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Elements of quality and degrees of each element. 29... STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Elements of Quality § 29.3101 Elements of quality and degrees of each element. These standardized words or terms are used to describe...

  13. 7 CFR 29.1101 - Elements of quality and degrees of each element.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Elements of quality and degrees of each element. 29... STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Elements of Quality § 29.1101 Elements of quality and degrees of each element. These standardized words or terms are used to describe...

  14. 7 CFR 29.6081 - Elements of quality and degrees of each element.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Elements of quality and degrees of each element. 29... STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Elements of Quality § 29.6081 Elements of quality and degrees of each element. These standardized words or terms are used to describe...

  15. 7 CFR 29.2351 - Elements of quality and degrees of each element.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Elements of quality and degrees of each element. 29... STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Elements of Quality § 29.2351 Elements of quality and degrees of each element. Tobacco attributes or characteristics which constitute quality...

  16. 7 CFR 29.3586 - Elements of quality and degrees of each element.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Elements of quality and degrees of each element. 29... STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Elements of Quality § 29.3586 Elements of quality and degrees of each element. These standardized words or terms are used to describe...

  17. 7 CFR 29.2351 - Elements of quality and degrees of each element.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Elements of quality and degrees of each element. 29... STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Elements of Quality § 29.2351 Elements of quality and degrees of each element. Tobacco attributes or characteristics which constitute quality...

  18. 7 CFR 29.3586 - Elements of quality and degrees of each element.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Elements of quality and degrees of each element. 29... STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Elements of Quality § 29.3586 Elements of quality and degrees of each element. These standardized words or terms are used to describe...

  19. 7 CFR 29.2351 - Elements of quality and degrees of each element.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Elements of quality and degrees of each element. 29... STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Elements of Quality § 29.2351 Elements of quality and degrees of each element. Tobacco attributes or characteristics which constitute quality...

  20. 7 CFR 29.1101 - Elements of quality and degrees of each element.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Elements of quality and degrees of each element. 29... STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Elements of Quality § 29.1101 Elements of quality and degrees of each element. These standardized words or terms are used to describe...

  1. 7 CFR 29.2351 - Elements of quality and degrees of each element.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Elements of quality and degrees of each element. 29... STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Elements of Quality § 29.2351 Elements of quality and degrees of each element. Tobacco attributes or characteristics which constitute quality...

  2. 7 CFR 29.3586 - Elements of quality and degrees of each element.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Elements of quality and degrees of each element. 29... STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Elements of Quality § 29.3586 Elements of quality and degrees of each element. These standardized words or terms are used to describe...

  3. 7 CFR 29.6081 - Elements of quality and degrees of each element.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Elements of quality and degrees of each element. 29... STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Elements of Quality § 29.6081 Elements of quality and degrees of each element. These standardized words or terms are used to describe...

  4. 7 CFR 29.3101 - Elements of quality and degrees of each element.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Elements of quality and degrees of each element. 29... STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Elements of Quality § 29.3101 Elements of quality and degrees of each element. These standardized words or terms are used to describe...

  5. 7 CFR 29.6081 - Elements of quality and degrees of each element.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Elements of quality and degrees of each element. 29... STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Elements of Quality § 29.6081 Elements of quality and degrees of each element. These standardized words or terms are used to describe...

  6. 7 CFR 29.2601 - Elements of quality and degrees of each element.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Elements of quality and degrees of each element. 29... STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Elements of Quality § 29.2601 Elements of quality and degrees of each element. Tobacco attributes or characteristics which constitute quality...

  7. 7 CFR 29.1101 - Elements of quality and degrees of each element.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Elements of quality and degrees of each element. 29... STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Elements of Quality § 29.1101 Elements of quality and degrees of each element. These standardized words or terms are used to describe...

  8. 7 CFR 29.2601 - Elements of quality and degrees of each element.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Elements of quality and degrees of each element. 29... STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Elements of Quality § 29.2601 Elements of quality and degrees of each element. Tobacco attributes or characteristics which constitute quality...

  9. 7 CFR 29.3101 - Elements of quality and degrees of each element.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Elements of quality and degrees of each element. 29... STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Elements of Quality § 29.3101 Elements of quality and degrees of each element. These standardized words or terms are used to describe...

  10. Atmospheric transport of elemental carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, A. J.; Li, Jianjun; Husain, Liaquat

    2006-02-01

    Frequent pollution episodes, defined by high SO4 (>10 μg/m3) and trace element concentrations, occur concurrently across the northeastern United States. Ten such episodes that occurred at Mayville and Whiteface Mountain in New York State (NYS) from 1983 to 2002 were chosen to investigate transport of elemental carbon (EC) from upwind emissions. The peak SO4 concentrations during these episodes at Mayville ranged from 23 to 60 μg/m3, and at Whiteface Mountain they ranged from 17.5 to 49 μg/m3. Similarly, the peak EC concentrations at Mayville ranged from 0.74 to 1.63 μg/m3, and they ranged from 0.26 to 0.89 μg/m3 at Whiteface Mountain. The HYSPLIT4 air trajectories and elemental signatures showed that the high concentrations were associated with the air masses reaching the sampling sites after traveling through the Midwest. The concentrations of EC, SO4, and Se were highly correlated during the episodes. The sector analysis using EC concentrations in 104 samples at Mayville and 162 at Whiteface Mountain showed that ˜77% of the total EC at Mayville and ˜87% at Whiteface Mountain was contributed by the upwind sources in the Midwestern United States. When airflow was from the north, the mean concentrations at Whiteface Mountain were very low, <0.03 μg EC/m3 and 0.32 μg SO4/m3. The sources close to Whiteface Mountain contributed little EC. The EC data from this site should be considered as representative of the regional EC emissions. Measurements of EC in the samples collected over two decades at Whiteface Mountain should be useful in calculating radiative forcing and testing models predicting atmospheric EC burden on the basis of emissions.

  11. Trace Elements and Chemotherapy Sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhihui; Yang, Weiping; Long, Gang; Wei, Changyuan

    2016-10-01

    Trace elements might be associated with the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and the efficacy of chemotherapy against HCC. Therefore, this study aimed to explore the association between trace elements and efficacy of chemotherapy in patients with HCC. Cancer, cancer-adjacent, and cancer-free tissues were collected intraoperatively from 55 patients with HCC between January 2001 and April 2004 at the Affiliated Tumor Hospital of Guangxi Medical University in Guangxi (China), a high HCC incidence area in the world. Trace element levels were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. In vitro sensitivity of cancer cells to five chemotherapeutic drugs (5-fluorouracil, doxorubicin, cisplatin, carboplatin, and mitomycin) was tested using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay in cancer cells from 32 patients. Zinc, copper, manganese, and selenium levels had the same gradient distribution in different liver tissues: cancer < cancer-adjacent < cancer-free tissues. Copper levels of cancer tissues were negatively correlated with body weight (r = -0.278, P = 0.027), while manganese and selenium levels were negatively correlated with age (r = -0.297, P = 0.015; r = -0.285, P = 0.018, respectively). Simple correlation analyses revealed that the carboplatin sensitivity was negatively correlated with selenium levels of cancer tissues, while doxorubicin sensitivity was negatively correlated with manganese levels (r = -0.497, P = 0.004). Partial correlation analyses showed that doxorubicin sensitivity only was negatively correlated with manganese levels (r = -0.450, P = 0.014). These results suggest that the selenium and manganese content in primary HCC tissues could influence the response of the HCC cells to carboplatin and doxorubicin. These preliminary results provide a basis for future studies. PMID:26961293

  12. Monitoring arrangement for vented nuclear fuel elements

    DOEpatents

    Campana, Robert J.

    1981-01-01

    In a nuclear fuel reactor core, fuel elements are arranged in a closely packed hexagonal configuration, each fuel element having diametrically opposed vents permitting 180.degree. rotation of the fuel elements to counteract bowing. A grid plate engages the fuel elements and forms passages for communicating sets of three, four or six individual vents with respective monitor lines in order to communicate vented radioactive gases from the fuel elements to suitable monitor means in a manner readily permitting detection of leakage in individual fuel elements.

  13. Singular plastic element: NASTRAN implementation and application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hussain, M. A.; Pu, S. L.; Lorensen, W. E.

    1977-01-01

    The elastic and plastic singularities near a crack tip are obtained from higher order isoparametric elements. This is simply accomplished by collapsing the quadrilateral element into the triangular element and by judicious choice of adjacent mid-side nodes. Specifically for the cubic element the elastic singularity is obtained by placing the mid-side nodes adjacent to the crack tip at 1/9th and 4/9th locations. The plastic singularity is constructed using the sliding node concept. These elements have been implemented in NASTRAN as user dummy elements.

  14. The Behavior of Chemical Elements in Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaschek, Carlos; Jaschek, Mercedes

    1995-06-01

    Part I. Quantitative Description of Each of 80 Chemical Elements; Part II: 1. Behaviour of molecules in stars; 2. Groups of elements; 3. Chromospheres and coronas; Part III: 1. Terminology of spectral lines; 2. Selection of stars; 3. Line identification; 4. Equivalent widths; 5. Abundances; 6. Afterthoughts; Part IV: 1. Periodic Table; 2. Elements in alphabetical order of names; 3. Elements in alphabetical order of formula; 4. Elements ordered by atomic number; 5. Abundances of chemical elements; 6. Spectral type and surface gravity as a function of luminosity class. 7. Effective temperature; References; Index.

  15. The Behavior of Chemical Elements in Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaschek, Carlos; Jaschek, Mercedes

    2009-03-01

    Part I. Quantitative Description of Each of 80 Chemical Elements; Part II: 1. Behaviour of molecules in stars; 2. Groups of elements; 3. Chromospheres and coronas; Part III: 1. Terminology of spectral lines; 2. Selection of stars; 3. Line identification; 4. Equivalent widths; 5. Abundances; 6. Afterthoughts; Part IV: 1. Periodic Table; 2. Elements in alphabetical order of names; 3. Elements in alphabetical order of formula; 4. Elements ordered by atomic number; 5. Abundances of chemical elements; 6. Spectral type and surface gravity as a function of luminosity class. 7. Effective temperature; References; Index.

  16. METHOD OF MAKING FUEL ELEMENTS

    DOEpatents

    Bean, C.H.; Macherey, R.E.

    1959-12-01

    A method is described for fabricating fuel elements, particularly for enclosing a plate of metal with a second metal by inserting the plate into an aperture of a frame of a second plate, placing a sheet of the second metal on each of opposite faces of the assembled plate and frame, purging with an inert gas the air from the space within the frame and the sheets while sealing the seams between the frame and the sheets, exhausting the space, purging the space with air, re-exhausting the spaces, sealing the second aperture, and applying heat and pressure to bond the sheets, the plate, and the frame to one another.

  17. Essential Grid Workflow Monitoring Elements

    SciTech Connect

    Gunter, Daniel K.; Jackson, Keith R.; Konerding, David E.; Lee,Jason R.; Tierney, Brian L.

    2005-07-01

    Troubleshooting Grid workflows is difficult. A typicalworkflow involves a large number of components networks, middleware,hosts, etc. that can fail. Even when monitoring data from all thesecomponents is accessible, it is hard to tell whether failures andanomalies in these components are related toa given workflow. For theGrid to be truly usable, much of this uncertainty must be elim- inated.We propose two new Grid monitoring elements, Grid workflow identifiersand consistent component lifecycle events, that will make Gridtroubleshooting easier, and thus make Grids more usable, by simplifyingthe correlation of Grid monitoring data with a particular Gridworkflow.

  18. FUEL ELEMENT FOR NUCLEAR REACTORS

    DOEpatents

    Bassett, C.H.

    1961-05-01

    A nuclear reactor fuel element comprising high density ceramic fissionable material enclosed in a tubular cladding of corrosion-resistant material is described. The fissionable material is in the form of segments of a tube which have cooperating tapered interfaces which produce outward radial displacement when the segments are urged axially together. A resilient means is provided within the tubular housing to constantly urge the fuel segments axially. This design maintains the fuel material in tight contacting engagement against the inner surface of the outer cladding tube to eliminate any gap therebetween which may be caused by differential thermal expansion between the fuel material and the material of the tube.

  19. Microgyroscope with integrated vibratory element

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tang, Tony K. (Inventor); Rodger, Damien C. (Inventor); Gutierrez, Roman C. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A microgyroscope having a suspended vertical post uses the Coriolis force to detect the rotation rate. The microgyroscope consists of a single vertical post which is the rotation rate sensing element. The vertical post is formed from the same silicon wafers as the rest of the microgyroscope. A first portion of the vertical post and the clover-leaf structure are made from a first silicon wafer. A second portion of the vertical post and the baseplate are made from a second silicon wafer. The two portions are then bonded together to from the clover-leaf gyroscope with an integrated post structure.

  20. Dual-Element Tunneling Accelerometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaiser, William J.; Kenny, Thomas W.; Rockstad, Howard K.; Reynolds, Joseph K.

    1994-01-01

    Improved micromachined tunneling accelerometer contains two deflecting transducer elements: One an elastically supported proof mass having relatively low resonant frequency; other cantilever tunneling transducer that tracks displacement of proof mass and has relatively high resonant frequency ({sup a} 10 kHz). Deflection voltage generated by circuit like described in "Wideband Feedback Circuit for Tunneling Sensor" (NPO-18866). Accelerometers of this type suited for underwater acoustic measurements, detecting vibrations associated with malfunctions in vehicles, detecting seismic signals, monitoring and controlling vibrations in structures, and other applications.

  1. Highly siderophile elements in chondrites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Horan, M.F.; Walker, R.J.; Morgan, J.W.; Grossman, J.N.; Rubin, A.E.

    2003-01-01

    The abundances of the highly siderophile elements (HSE), Re, Os, Ir, Ru, Pt and Pd, were determined by isotope dilution mass spectrometry for bulk samples of 13 carbonaceous chondrites, 13 ordinary chondrites and 9 enstatite chondrites. These data are coupled with corresponding 187Re-187Os isotopic data reported by Walker et al. [Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 2002] in order to constrain the nature and timing of chemical fractionation relating to these elements in the early solar system. The suite of chondrites examined displays considerable variations in absolute abundances of the HSE, and in the ratios of certain HSE. Absolute abundances of the HSE vary by nearly a factor of 80 among the chondrite groups, although most vary within a factor of only 2. Variations in concentration largely reflect heterogeneities in the sample aliquants. Different aliquants of the same chondrite may contain variable proportions of metal and/or refractory inclusions that are HSE-rich, and sulfides that are HSE-poor. The relatively low concentrations of the HSE in CI1 chondrites likely reflect dilution by the presence of volatile components. Carbonaceous chondrites have Re/Os ratios that are, on average, approximately 8% lower than ratios for ordinary and enstatite chondrites. This is also reflected in 187Os/188Os ratios that are approximately 3% lower for carbonaceous chondrites than for ordinary and enstatite chondrites. Given the similarly refractory natures of Re and Os, this fractionation may have occurred within a narrow range of high temperatures, during condensation of these elements from the solar nebula. Superimposed on this major fractionation are more modest movements of Re or Os that occurred within the last 0-2 Ga, as indicated by minor open-system behavior of the Re-Os isotope systematics of some chondrites. The relative abundances of other HSE can also be used to discriminate among the major classes of chondrites. For example, in comparison to the enstatite chondrites

  2. Generic element processor (application to nonlinear analysis)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanley, Gary

    1989-01-01

    The focus here is on one aspect of the Computational Structural Mechanics (CSM) Testbed: finite element technology. The approach involves a Generic Element Processor: a command-driven, database-oriented software shell that facilitates introduction of new elements into the testbed. This shell features an element-independent corotational capability that upgrades linear elements to geometrically nonlinear analysis, and corrects the rigid-body errors that plague many contemporary plate and shell elements. Specific elements that have been implemented in the Testbed via this mechanism include the Assumed Natural-Coordinate Strain (ANS) shell elements, developed with Professor K. C. Park (University of Colorado, Boulder), a new class of curved hybrid shell elements, developed by Dr. David Kang of LPARL (formerly a student of Professor T. Pian), other shell and solid hybrid elements developed by NASA personnel, and recently a repackaged version of the workhorse shell element used in the traditional STAGS nonlinear shell analysis code. The presentation covers: (1) user and developer interfaces to the generic element processor, (2) an explanation of the built-in corotational option, (3) a description of some of the shell-elements currently implemented, and (4) application to sample nonlinear shell postbuckling problems.

  3. Characterization of electrodeposited elemental boron

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, Ashish; Anthonysamy, S. Ananthasivan, K.; Ranganathan, R.; Mittal, Vinit; Narasimhan, S.V.; Vasudeva Rao, P.R.

    2008-07-15

    Elemental boron was produced through electrowinning from potassium fluoroborate dissolved in a mixture of molten potassium fluoride and potassium chloride. The characteristics of the electrodeposited boron (raw boron) as well as the water and acid-leached product (processed boron) were studied. The chemical purity, specific surface area, size distribution of particles and X-ray crystallite size of the boron powders were investigated. The morphology of the deposits was examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The chemical state of the matrix, as well as the impurity phases present in them, was established using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). In order to interpret and understand the results obtained, a thermodynamic analysis was carried out. The gas-phase corrosion in the head space as well as the chemistry behind the leaching process were interpreted using this analysis. The ease of oxidation of these powders in air was investigated using differential thermal analysis (DTA) coupled with thermogravimetry (TG). From the results obtained in this study it was established that elemental boron powder with a purity of 95-99% could be produced using a high temperature molten salt electrowinning process. The major impurities were found to be oxygen, carbon, iron and nickel.

  4. Surface energies of elemental crystals

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Richard; Xu, Zihan; Radhakrishnan, Balachandran; Winston, Donald; Sun, Wenhao; Persson, Kristin A.; Ong, Shyue Ping

    2016-01-01

    The surface energy is a fundamental property of the different facets of a crystal that is crucial to the understanding of various phenomena like surface segregation, roughening, catalytic activity, and the crystal’s equilibrium shape. Such surface phenomena are especially important at the nanoscale, where the large surface area to volume ratios lead to properties that are significantly different from the bulk. In this work, we present the largest database of calculated surface energies for elemental crystals to date. This database contains the surface energies of more than 100 polymorphs of about 70 elements, up to a maximum Miller index of two and three for non-cubic and cubic crystals, respectively. Well-known reconstruction schemes are also accounted for. The database is systematically improvable and has been rigorously validated against previous experimental and computational data where available. We will describe the methodology used in constructing the database, and how it can be accessed for further studies and design of materials. PMID:27622853

  5. Mars Surface Tunnel Element Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rucker, Michelle A.; Mary, Natalie; Howe, A. Scott; Jeffries, Sharon

    2016-01-01

    How Mars surface crews get into their ascent vehicle has profound implications for Mars surface architecture. To meet planetary protection protocols, the architecture has get Intravehicular Activity (IVA)-suited crew into a Mars Ascent Vehicle (MAV) without having to step outside into the Mars environment. Pushing EVA suit don/doff and EVA operations to an element that remains on the surface also helps to minimize MAV cabin volume, which in turn can reduce MAV cabin mass. Because the MAV will require at least seven kilograms of propellant to ascend each kilogram of cabin mass, minimal MAV mass is desired. For architectures involving more than one surface element-such as an ascent vehicle and a pressurized rover or surface habitat-a retractable tunnel is an attractive solution. Beyond addressing the immediate MAV access issue, a reusable tunnel may be useful for other surface applications once its primary mission is complete. A National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) team is studying the optimal balance between surface tunnel functionality, mass, and stowed volume as part of the Evolvable Mars Campaign (EMC). The "Minimum Functional Tunnel" is a conceptual design that performs a single function. Having established this baseline configuration, the next step is to trade design options, evaluate other applications, and explore alternative solutions.

  6. Stress-engineered optical elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spilman, Alexis Katherine Koenig

    Stress in an optical window induces very intriguing and useful polarization effects. In particular, an applied pressure creates polarization vortices which have the potential to aid in many optical imaging applications, including lithography and confocal microscopy. A particularly fascinating double focus effect is observed when a stressed window is illuminated and analyzed with circularly polarized light. A stressed window, in such an arrangement, creates an optical system with two focal points. An overview of the history of stress birefringence and the influence of polarization vortices on optical systems is introduced. Theory of stress and strain is presented and the impact of stress and strain on an optical window is explored through finite element modeling, Jones matrix analysis, theoretical simulations and experimental methods. This thesis also explores ways in which stress is applied to a transparent window, the characterization of the effect of stressed windows in both the pupil and image planes and the influence of the induced polarization vortices on imaging. A zone plate model and mean-square estimate are presented to describe a double focus effect that is observed when the stress exceeds a certain threshold. Applications of stress-induced polarization vortices as well as future work are also discussed. The development and experimental characterization of space-variant, stress birefringent optical elements is the first such effort directed toward the creation of polarization vortices.

  7. Scarcity of rare earth elements.

    PubMed

    de Boer, M A; Lammertsma, K

    2013-11-01

    Rare earth elements (REEs) are important for green and a large variety of high-tech technologies and are, therefore, in high demand. As a result, supply with REEs is likely to be disrupted (the degree of depends on the REE) in the near future. The 17 REEs are divided into heavy and light REEs. Other critical elements besides REEs, identified by the European Commission, are also becoming less easily available. Although there is no deficiency in the earth's crust of rare earth oxides, the economic accessibility is limited. The increased demand for REEs, the decreasing export from China, and geopolitical concerns on availability contributed to the (re)opening of mines in Australia and the USA and other mines are slow to follow. As a result, short supply of particularly terbium, dysprosium, praseodymium, and neodymium is expected to be problematic for at least the short term, also because they cannot be substituted. Recycling REEs from electronic waste would be a solution, but so far there are hardly any established REE recycling methods. Decreasing the dependency on REEs, for example, by identifying possible replacements or increasing their efficient use, represents another possibility.

  8. Fuel elements of thermionic converters

    SciTech Connect

    Hunter, R.L.; Gontar, A.S.; Nelidov, M.V.; Nikolaev, Yu.V.; Schulepov, L.N.

    1997-01-01

    Work on thermionic nuclear power systems has been performed in Russia within the framework of the TOPAZ reactor program since the early 1960s. In the TOPAZ in-core thermionic convertor reactor design, the fuel element`s cladding is also the thermionic convertor`s emitter. Deformation of the emitter can lead to short-circuiting and is the primary cause of premature TRC failure. Such deformation can be the result of fuel swelling, thermocycling, or increased unilateral pressure on the emitter due to the release of gaseous fission products. Much of the work on TRCs has concentrated on preventing or mitigating emitter deformation by improving the following materials and structures: nuclear fuel; emitter materials; electrical insulators; moderator and reflector materials; and gas-exhaust device. In addition, considerable effort has been directed toward the development of experimental techniques that accurately mimic operational conditions and toward the creation of analytical and numerical models that allow operational conditions and behavior to be predicted without the expense and time demands of in-pile tests. New and modified materials and structures for the cores of thermionic NPSs and new fabrication processes for the materials have ensured the possibility of creating thermionic NPSs for a wide range of powers, from tens to several hundreds of kilowatts, with life spans of 5 to 10 years.

  9. Scarcity of rare earth elements.

    PubMed

    de Boer, M A; Lammertsma, K

    2013-11-01

    Rare earth elements (REEs) are important for green and a large variety of high-tech technologies and are, therefore, in high demand. As a result, supply with REEs is likely to be disrupted (the degree of depends on the REE) in the near future. The 17 REEs are divided into heavy and light REEs. Other critical elements besides REEs, identified by the European Commission, are also becoming less easily available. Although there is no deficiency in the earth's crust of rare earth oxides, the economic accessibility is limited. The increased demand for REEs, the decreasing export from China, and geopolitical concerns on availability contributed to the (re)opening of mines in Australia and the USA and other mines are slow to follow. As a result, short supply of particularly terbium, dysprosium, praseodymium, and neodymium is expected to be problematic for at least the short term, also because they cannot be substituted. Recycling REEs from electronic waste would be a solution, but so far there are hardly any established REE recycling methods. Decreasing the dependency on REEs, for example, by identifying possible replacements or increasing their efficient use, represents another possibility. PMID:24009098

  10. Light element opacities from ATOMIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colgan, J.; Kilcrease, D. P.; Magee, N. H.; Armstrong, G. S. J.; Abdallah, J.; Sherrill, M. E.; Fontes, C. J.; Zhang, H. L.; Hakel, P.

    2013-06-01

    We present new calculations of local-thermodynamic-equilibrium (LTE) light element opacities from the Los Alamos ATOMIC code. ATOMIC is a multi-purpose code that can generate LTE or non-LTE quantities of interest at various levels of approximation. A program of work is currently underway to compute new LTE opacity data for all elements H through Zn. New opacity tables for H through Ne are complete, and a new Fe opacity table will be available soon. Our calculations, which include fine-structure detail, represent a systematic improvement over previous Los Alamos opacity calculations using the LEDCOP legacy code. Our opacity calculations incorporate atomic structure data computed from the CATS code, which is based on Cowan's atomic structure codes, and photoionization cross section data computed from the Los Alamos ionization code GIPPER. We make use of a new equation-of-state (EOS) model based on the chemical picture. ATOMIC incorporates some physics packages from LEDCOP and also includes additional physical processes, such as improved free-free cross sections and additional scattering mechanisms. In this report, we briefly discuss the physics improvements included in our new opacity calculations and present comparisons of our new opacities with other work for C, O, and Fe at selected conditions.

  11. Minor elements in Keweenawan lavas, Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cornwall, H.R.; Rose, H.J.

    1957-01-01

    The distribution of minor elements in three basaltic flows of the Keweenawan series, of Michigan, is related to differentiation in the flows. Thus, nickel is most abundant in the early differentiates; nickel, chromium, and barium are generally deficient in the pegmatites, which formed late; whereas copper, vanadium, yttrium, and other minor elements are concentrated in the pegmatites. The minor-element content of individual minerals in the Greenstone flow varies markedly from one mineral to another and seems to depend primarily on the presence or absence in the minerals of major elements for which the minor elements can substitute. Minor elements have substituted most readily for those major elements with similar ionic radii. Valence and electronegativity also seem to influence the ease of substitution. The distribution of other minor elements in copper-bearing lodes of the Michigan copper district shows no apparent relation to copper mineralization. ?? 1957.

  12. Infinite Possibilities for the Finite Element.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finlayson, Bruce A.

    1981-01-01

    Describes the uses of finite element methods in solving problems of heat transfer, fluid flow, etc. Suggests that engineers should know the general concepts and be able to apply the principles of finite element methods. (Author/WB)

  13. Removable preheater elements improve oxide induction furnace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leipold, M. H.

    1964-01-01

    Heat and corrosion resistant preheater elements are used in oxide induction furnaces to raise the temperature to the level for conducting electricity. These preheater elements are then removed and the induction coil energized.

  14. SUPG Finite Element Simulations of Compressible Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirk, Brnjamin, S.

    2006-01-01

    The Streamline-Upwind Petrov-Galerkin (SUPG) finite element simulations of compressible flows is presented. The topics include: 1) Introduction; 2) SUPG Galerkin Finite Element Methods; 3) Applications; and 4) Bibliography.

  15. Trace elements in ocean ridge basalts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kay, R. W.; Hubbard, N. J.

    1978-01-01

    A study is made of the trace elements found in ocean ridge basalts. General assumptions regarding melting behavior, trace element fractionation, and alteration effects are presented. Data on the trace elements are grouped according to refractory lithophile elements, refractory siderophile elements, and volatile metals. Variations in ocean ridge basalt chemistry are noted both for regional and temporal characteristics. Ocean ridge basalts are compared to other terrestrial basalts, such as those having La/Yb ratios greater than those of chondrites, and those having La/Yb ratios less than those of chondrites. It is found that (1) as compared to solar or chondrite ratios, ocean ridge basalts have low ratios of large, highly-charged elements to smaller less highly-charged elements, (2) ocean ridge basalts exhibit low ratios of volatile to nonvolatile elements, and (3) the transition metals Cr through Zn in ocean ridge basalts are not fractionated more than a factor of 2 or 3 from the chondritic abundance ratios.

  16. Stacked switchable element and diode combination

    DOEpatents

    Branz, Howard M.; Wang, Qi

    2006-06-27

    A device (10) comprises a semiconductor diode (12) and a switchable element (14) positioned in stacked adjacent relationship so that the semiconductor diode (12) and the switchable element (14) are electrically connected in series with one another. The switchable element (14) is switchable from a low-conductance state to a high-conductance state in response to the application of a forming voltage to the switchable element (14).

  17. Stacked Switchable Element and Diode Combination

    DOEpatents

    Branz, H. M.; Wang, Q.

    2006-06-27

    A device (10) comprises a semiconductor diode (12) and a switchable element (14) positioned in stacked adjacent relationship so that the semiconductor diode (12) and the switchable element (14) are electrically connected in series with one another. The switchable element (14) is switchable from a low-conductance state to a high-conductance state in response to the application of a forming voltage to the switchable element (14).

  18. Finite element analysis of flexible, rotating blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgee, Oliver G.

    1987-01-01

    A reference guide that can be used when using the finite element method to approximate the static and dynamic behavior of flexible, rotating blades is given. Important parameters such as twist, sweep, camber, co-planar shell elements, centrifugal loads, and inertia properties are studied. Comparisons are made between NASTRAN elements through published benchmark tests. The main purpose is to summarize blade modeling strategies and to document capabilities and limitations (for flexible, rotating blades) of various NASTRAN elements.

  19. Apuntes sobre Latinismos en Espanol (Notes on Latinisms in Spanish)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez B., L. A.

    1977-01-01

    Several Latinisms appear in Latin American Spanish, which would logically be farther from its Latin roots than Spanish in Spain. The existence of these elements and their importance as linguistic facts is analyzed here. Four words are treated: "Cliente,""cuadrar,""cuarto" and "rabula." (Text is in Spanish.) (CHK)

  20. 49 CFR 236.576 - Roadway element.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Roadway element. 236.576 Section 236.576..., Train Control and Cab Signal Systems Inspection and Tests; Roadway § 236.576 Roadway element. Roadway elements, except track circuits, including those for test purposes, shall be gaged monthly for height...

  1. 49 CFR 236.576 - Roadway element.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Roadway element. 236.576 Section 236.576..., Train Control and Cab Signal Systems Inspection and Tests; Roadway § 236.576 Roadway element. Roadway elements, except track circuits, including those for test purposes, shall be gaged monthly for height...

  2. 49 CFR 236.576 - Roadway element.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Roadway element. 236.576 Section 236.576..., Train Control and Cab Signal Systems Inspection and Tests; Roadway § 236.576 Roadway element. Roadway elements, except track circuits, including those for test purposes, shall be gaged monthly for height...

  3. 47 CFR 97.503 - Element standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Element standards. 97.503 Section 97.503... SERVICE Qualifying Examination Systems § 97.503 Element standards. A written examination must be such as... question set as follows: (a) Element 2: 35 questions concerning the privileges of a Technician...

  4. 47 CFR 97.503 - Element standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Element standards. 97.503 Section 97.503... SERVICE Qualifying Examination Systems § 97.503 Element standards. A written examination must be such as... question set as follows: (a) Element 2: 35 questions concerning the privileges of a Technician...

  5. 47 CFR 97.503 - Element standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Element standards. 97.503 Section 97.503... SERVICE Qualifying Examination Systems § 97.503 Element standards. A written examination must be such as... question set as follows: (a) Element 2: 35 questions concerning the privileges of a Technician...

  6. 21 CFR 184.1375 - Iron, elemental.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... carbonyl iron. (1) Reduced iron is prepared by reacting ground ferric oxide with hydrogen or carbon... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Iron, elemental. 184.1375 Section 184.1375 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1375 Iron, elemental. (a) Iron, elemental (CAS Reg. No....

  7. 21 CFR 184.1375 - Iron, elemental.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... carbonyl iron. (1) Reduced iron is prepared by reacting ground ferric oxide with hydrogen or carbon... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Iron, elemental. 184.1375 Section 184.1375 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1375 Iron, elemental. (a) Iron, elemental (CAS Reg. No....

  8. 21 CFR 184.1375 - Iron, elemental.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... iron is prepared by reacting ground ferric oxide with hydrogen or carbon monoxide at an elevated... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Iron, elemental. 184.1375 Section 184.1375 Food... GRAS § 184.1375 Iron, elemental. (a) Iron, elemental (CAS Reg. No. 7439-89-6) is metallic iron...

  9. 21 CFR 184.1375 - Iron, elemental.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Iron, elemental. 184.1375 Section 184.1375 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1375 Iron, elemental. (a) Iron, elemental (CAS Reg. No. 7439-89-6) is metallic iron obtained by any of the following processes: reduced iron, electrolytic iron,...

  10. 21 CFR 184.1375 - Iron, elemental.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Iron, elemental. 184.1375 Section 184.1375 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1375 Iron, elemental. (a) Iron, elemental (CAS Reg. No. 7439-89-6) is metallic iron obtained by any of the following processes: reduced iron, electrolytic iron, and...

  11. 49 CFR 236.576 - Roadway element.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Roadway element. 236.576 Section 236.576..., Train Control and Cab Signal Systems Inspection and Tests; Roadway § 236.576 Roadway element. Roadway elements, except track circuits, including those for test purposes, shall be gaged monthly for height...

  12. 19 CFR 149.3 - Data elements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Data elements. 149.3 Section 149.3 Customs Duties... (CONTINUED) IMPORTER SECURITY FILING § 149.3 Data elements. (a) Shipments intended to be entered into the... provided for in paragraph (b) of this section, the following elements must be provided for each good...

  13. 47 CFR 97.505 - Element credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Element credit. 97.505 Section 97.505... SERVICE Qualifying Examination Systems § 97.505 Element credit. (a) The administering VEs must give credit... operator license grant: Elements 2 and 3. (2) An unexpired (or expired but within the grace period...

  14. 49 CFR 236.576 - Roadway element.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Roadway element. 236.576 Section 236.576..., Train Control and Cab Signal Systems Inspection and Tests; Roadway § 236.576 Roadway element. Roadway elements, except track circuits, including those for test purposes, shall be gaged monthly for height...

  15. 47 CFR 97.503 - Element standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Element standards. 97.503 Section 97.503... SERVICE Qualifying Examination Systems § 97.503 Element standards. A written examination must be such as... question set as follows: (a) Element 2: 35 questions concerning the privileges of a Technician...

  16. 36 CFR 230.35 - FLEP elements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false FLEP elements. 230.35 Section... FORESTRY ASSISTANCE Forest Land Enhancement Program § 230.35 FLEP elements. (a) States may use FLEP funds... through the following elements: (1) Development and implementation of educational programs; (2)...

  17. 47 CFR 97.503 - Element standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Element standards. 97.503 Section 97.503... SERVICE Qualifying Examination Systems § 97.503 Element standards. A written examination must be such as... question set as follows: (a) Element 2: 35 questions concerning the privileges of a Technician...

  18. 47 CFR 97.505 - Element credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Element credit. 97.505 Section 97.505... SERVICE Qualifying Examination Systems § 97.505 Element credit. (a) The administering VEs must give credit... operator license grant: Elements 2 and 3. (2) An unexpired (or expired but within the grace period...

  19. 19 CFR 149.3 - Data elements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Data elements. 149.3 Section 149.3 Customs Duties... (CONTINUED) IMPORTER SECURITY FILING § 149.3 Data elements. (a) Shipments intended to be entered into the... provided for in paragraph (b) of this section, the following elements must be provided for each good...

  20. 36 CFR 230.35 - FLEP elements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false FLEP elements. 230.35 Section... FORESTRY ASSISTANCE Forest Land Enhancement Program § 230.35 FLEP elements. (a) States may use FLEP funds... through the following elements: (1) Development and implementation of educational programs; (2)...

  1. When We Review the Elements of Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herberholz, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Teachers can help students become more fluent and confident in creating their own art, as well as being consciously aware of the art elements--line, color, shape/form, texture, space and value--when they view the art of others. In this article, the author reviews and defines the characteristics of each element separately, basic elements that are…

  2. Trace element geochemistry of Archean volcanic rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jahn, B.-M.; Shih, C.-Y.; Murthy, V. R.

    1974-01-01

    The K, Rb, Sr, Ba and rare-earth-element contents of some Archean volcanic rocks from the Vermilion greenstone belt, northeast Minnesota, were determined by the isotopic dilution method. The characteristics of trace element abundances, supported by the field occurrences and major element chemistry, suggest that these volcanic rocks were formed in an ancient island arc system.

  3. Data Element Dictionary: Facilities. Preliminary Draft.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Charles R.

    The draft includes--(1) comments on file structure, (2) descriptions of dictionary organization and format, (3) alphabetical lists of elements, and (4) facilities related elements in dictionary form. The data element definitions in this draft are compatible with the Higher Education Facilities Classification and Inventory Procedures Manual, which…

  4. Elements of Regolith Simulant's Cost Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rickman, Douglas L.

    2009-01-01

    The cost of lunar regolith simulants is much higher than many users anticipate. After all, it is nothing more than broken rock. This class will discuss the elements which make up the cost structure for simulants. It will also consider which elements can be avoided under certain circumstances and which elements might be altered by the application of additional research and development.

  5. Element Cycles: An Environmental Chemistry Board Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pippins, Tracy; Anderson, Cody M.; Poindexter, Eric F.; Sultemeier, S. Whitney; Schultz, Linda D.

    2011-01-01

    "Element Cycles" is an activity designed to reinforce correlation of essential elements and their different forms in the ecosystem. Students are assigned essential elements to research as homework, then share results, and construct game boards with four ecosphere sections: geosphere (earth), hydrosphere (water), atmosphere (air), and biosphere…

  6. Assignment Of Finite Elements To Parallel Processors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salama, Moktar A.; Flower, Jon W.; Otto, Steve W.

    1990-01-01

    Elements assigned approximately optimally to subdomains. Mapping algorithm based on simulated-annealing concept used to minimize approximate time required to perform finite-element computation on hypercube computer or other network of parallel data processors. Mapping algorithm needed when shape of domain complicated or otherwise not obvious what allocation of elements to subdomains minimizes cost of computation.

  7. Downhole Elemental Analysis with LIBS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moreschini, Paolo; Zacny, Kris; Rickman, Doug

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we discuss a novel instrument, currently under development at Honeybee Robotics with SBIR funding from NASA. The device is designed to characterize elemental composition as a function of depth in non-terrestrial geological formations. The instrument consists of a miniaturized laser-induced breakdown spectrometer (LIBS) analyzer integrated in a 2" diameter drill string. While the drill provides subsurface access, the LIBS analyzer provides information on the elemental composition of the borehole wall. This instrument has a variety of space applications ranging from exploration of the Moon for which it was originally designed, to Mars, as well as a variety of terrestrial applications. Subsurface analysis is usually performed by sample acquisition through a drill or excavator, followed by sample preparation and subsequent sample presentation to an instrument or suite of instruments. An alternative approach consisting in bringing a miniaturized version of the instrument to the sample has many advantages over the traditional methodology, as it allows faster response, reduced probability of cross-contamination and a simplification in the sampling mechanisms. LIBS functions by focusing a high energy laser on a material inducing a plasma consisting of a small fraction of the material under analysis. Optical emission from the plasma, analyzed by a spectrometer, can be used to determine elemental composition. A triangulation sensor located in the sensor head determines the distance of the sensor from the borehole wall. An actuator modifies the position of the sensor accordingly, in order to compensate for changes due to the profile of the borehole walls. This is necessary because LIBS measurements are negatively affected by changes in the relative position of the focus of the laser with respect to the position of the sample (commonly referred to as the "lens to sample distance"). Profiling the borehole is done by adjusting the position of the sensor with a

  8. Downhole elemental analysis with LIBS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreschini, P.; Zacny, K.; Rickman, D.

    2011-12-01

    In this paper we discuss a novel instrument, currently under development at Honeybee Robotics with SBIR funding from NASA. The device is designed to characterize elemental composition as a function of depth in non-terrestrial geological formations. The instrument consists of a miniaturized LIBS analyzer integrated in a 2" diameter drill string. While the drill provides subsurface access, the LIBS analyzer provides information on the elemental composition of the borehole wall. This instrument has a variety of space applications ranging from exploration of the Moon for which it was originally designed, to Mars, as well as a variety of terrestrial applications. Subsurface analysis is usually performed by sample acquisition through a drill or excavator, followed by sample preparation and subsequent sample presentation to an instrument or suite of instruments. An alternative approach consisting in bringing a miniaturized version of the instrument to the sample has many advantages over the traditional methodology, as it allows faster response, reduced probability of cross-contamination and a simplification in the sampling mechanisms. LIBS functions by focusing a high energy laser on a material inducing a plasma consisting of a small fraction of the material under analysis. Optical emission from the plasma, analyzed by a spectrometer, can be used to determine elemental composition. A triangulation sensor located in the sensor head determines the distance of the sensor from the borehole wall. An actuator modifies the position of the sensor accordingly, in order to compensate for changes due to the profile of the borehole walls. This is necessary because LIBS measurements are negatively affected by changes in the relative position of the focus of the laser with respect to the position of the sample (commonly referred to as the "lens to sample distance"). Profiling the borehole is done by adjusting the position of the sensor with a vertical stage; a second actuator at the

  9. Super-heavy element research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oganessian, Yu Ts; Utyonkov, V. K.

    2015-02-01

    A review of the discovery and investigation of the ‘island of stability’ of super-heavy nuclei at the separator DGFRS (FLNR, JINR) in the fusion reactions of 48Ca projectiles with target nuclei 238U-249Cf is presented. The synthesis of the heaviest nuclei, their decay properties, and methods of identification are discussed. The role of shell effects in the stability of super-heavy nuclei is demonstrated by comparison of the experimental data and results of theoretical calculations. The radioactive properties of the new nuclei, the isotopes of elements 112-118 as well as of their decay products, give evidence of the significant increase of the stability of the heavy nuclei with rise of their neutron number and approaching magic number N = 184.

  10. Mars Surface Tunnel Element Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rucker, Michelle A.

    2016-01-01

    How crews get into or out of their ascent vehicle has profound implications for Mars surface architecture. Extravehicular Activity (EVA) hatches and Airlocks have the benefit of relatively low mass and high Technology Readiness Level (TRL), but waste consumables with a volume depressurization for every ingress/egress. Perhaps the biggest drawback to EVA hatches or Airlocks is that they make it difficult to keep Martian dust from being tracked back into the ascent vehicle, in violation of planetary protection protocols. Suit ports offer the promise of dust mitigation by keeping dusty suits outside the cabin, but require significant cabin real estate, are relatively high mass, and current operational concepts still require an EVA hatch to get the suits outside for the first EVA, and back inside after the final EVA. This is primarily because current designs don't provide enough structural support to protect the suits from ascent/descent loads or potential thruster plume impingement. For architectures involving more than one surface element-such as an ascent vehicle and a rover or surface habitat-a retractable tunnel is an attractive option. By pushing spacesuit don/doff and EVA operations to an element that remains on the surface, ascended vehicle mass and dust can be minimized. What's more, retractable tunnels provide operational flexibility by allowing surface assets to be re-configured or built up over time. Retractable tunnel functional requirements and design concepts being developed as part of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Evolvable Mars Campaign (EMC) work will add a new ingress/egress option to the surface architecture trade space.

  11. Chemical characterization of bohrium (element 107)

    PubMed

    Eichler; Bruchle; Dressler; Dullmann; Eichler; Gaggeler; Gregorich; Hoffman; Hubener; Jost; Kirbach; Laue; Lavanchy; Nitsche; Patin; Piguet; Schadel; Shaughnessy; Strellis; Taut; Tobler; Tsyganov; Turler; Vahle; Wilk; Yakushev

    2000-09-01

    The arrangement of the chemical elements in the periodic table highlights resemblances in chemical properties, which reflect the elements' electronic structure. For the heaviest elements, however, deviations in the periodicity of chemical properties are expected: electrons in orbitals with a high probability density near the nucleus are accelerated by the large nuclear charges to relativistic velocities, which increase their binding energies and cause orbital contraction. This leads to more efficient screening of the nuclear charge and corresponding destabilization of the outer d and f orbitals: it is these changes that can give rise to unexpected chemical properties. The synthesis of increasingly heavy elements, now including that of elements 114, 116 and 118, allows the investigation of this effect, provided sufficiently long-lived isotopes for chemical characterization are available. In the case of elements 104 and 105, for example, relativistic effects interrupt characteristic trends in the chemical properties of the elements constituting the corresponding columns of the periodic table, whereas element 106 behaves in accordance with the expected periodicity. Here we report the chemical separation and characterization of six atoms of element 107 (bohrium, Bh), in the form of its oxychloride. We find that this compound is less volatile than the oxychlorides of the lighter elements of group VII, thus confirming relativistic calculations that predict the behaviour of bohrium, like that of element 106, to coincide with that expected on the basis of its position in the periodic table.

  12. Chemical characterization of bohrium (element 107)

    PubMed

    Eichler; Bruchle; Dressler; Dullmann; Eichler; Gaggeler; Gregorich; Hoffman; Hubener; Jost; Kirbach; Laue; Lavanchy; Nitsche; Patin; Piguet; Schadel; Shaughnessy; Strellis; Taut; Tobler; Tsyganov; Turler; Vahle; Wilk; Yakushev

    2000-09-01

    The arrangement of the chemical elements in the periodic table highlights resemblances in chemical properties, which reflect the elements' electronic structure. For the heaviest elements, however, deviations in the periodicity of chemical properties are expected: electrons in orbitals with a high probability density near the nucleus are accelerated by the large nuclear charges to relativistic velocities, which increase their binding energies and cause orbital contraction. This leads to more efficient screening of the nuclear charge and corresponding destabilization of the outer d and f orbitals: it is these changes that can give rise to unexpected chemical properties. The synthesis of increasingly heavy elements, now including that of elements 114, 116 and 118, allows the investigation of this effect, provided sufficiently long-lived isotopes for chemical characterization are available. In the case of elements 104 and 105, for example, relativistic effects interrupt characteristic trends in the chemical properties of the elements constituting the corresponding columns of the periodic table, whereas element 106 behaves in accordance with the expected periodicity. Here we report the chemical separation and characterization of six atoms of element 107 (bohrium, Bh), in the form of its oxychloride. We find that this compound is less volatile than the oxychlorides of the lighter elements of group VII, thus confirming relativistic calculations that predict the behaviour of bohrium, like that of element 106, to coincide with that expected on the basis of its position in the periodic table. PMID:10993071

  13. Data transmission element for downhole drilling components

    DOEpatents

    Hall, David R.; Hall, Jr., H. Tracy; Pixton, David S.; Dahlgren, Scott; Fox, Joe; Sneddon, Cameron; Briscoe, Michael

    2006-01-31

    A robust data transmission element for transmitting information between downhole components, such as sections of drill pipe, in the presence of hostile environmental conditions, such as heat, dirt, rocks, mud, fluids, lubricants, and the like. The data transmission element components include a generally U-shaped annular housing, a generally U-shaped magnetically conductive, electrically insulating element such as ferrite, and an insulated conductor. Features on the magnetically conducting, electrically insulating element and the annular housing create a pocket when assembled. The data transmission element is filled with a polymer to retain the components within the annular housing by filling the pocket with the polymer. The polymer can bond with the annular housing and the insulated conductor but preferably not the magnetically conductive, electrically insulating element. A data transmission element is mounted within a recess proximate a mating surface of a downhole drilling component, such as a section of drill pipe.

  14. Rare earth elements: end use and recyclability

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goonan, Thomas G.

    2011-01-01

    Rare earth elements are used in mature markets (such as catalysts, glassmaking, lighting, and metallurgy), which account for 59 percent of the total worldwide consumption of rare earth elements, and in newer, high-growth markets (such as battery alloys, ceramics, and permanent magnets), which account for 41 percent of the total worldwide consumption of rare earth elements. In mature market segments, lanthanum and cerium constitute about 80 percent of rare earth elements used, and in new market segments, dysprosium, neodymium, and praseodymium account for about 85 percent of rare earth elements used. Regardless of the end use, rare earth elements are not recycled in large quantities, but could be if recycling became mandated or very high prices of rare earth elements made recycling feasible.

  15. Triangular spectral elements for incompressible fluid flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mavriplis, C.; Vanrosendale, John

    1993-01-01

    We discuss the use of triangular elements in the spectral element method for direct simulation of incompressible flow. Triangles provide much greater geometric flexibility than quadrilateral elements and are better conditioned and more accurate when small angles arise. We employ a family of tensor product algorithms for triangles, allowing triangular elements to be handled with comparable arithmetic complexity to quadrilateral elements. The triangular discretizations are applied and validated on the Poisson equation. These discretizations are then applied to the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations and a laminar channel flow solution is given. These new triangular spectral elements can be combined with standard quadrilateral elements, yielding a general and flexible high order method for complex geometries in two dimensions.

  16. Evolution of P transposable elements: sequences of Drosophila nebulosa P elements.

    PubMed Central

    Lansman, R A; Shade, R O; Grigliatti, T A; Brock, H W

    1987-01-01

    P elements have been cloned and sequenced from Drosophila nebulosa. Their sequences have diverged less than 6% from P elements of Drosophila melanogaster. However D. nebulosa P elements have nucleotide changes that close all four open reading frames found in the D. melanogaster P element. Microinjection experiments show that D. nebulosa P elements cannot provide transposase function for D. melanogaster P elements, nor are D. nebulosa P elements mobilized by the transposase provided by a D. melanogaster P factor. Three D. nebulosa P elements appear to have integrated into the same position of a complex, centromeric repeated sequence. Comparison of nucleotide sequences suggests that D. nebulosa P elements have diverged upon different pathways from a common ancestor that was 99% homologous to the P elements of D. melanogaster. PMID:2819880

  17. Probabilistic finite element analysis of a craniofacial finite element model.

    PubMed

    Berthaume, Michael A; Dechow, Paul C; Iriarte-Diaz, Jose; Ross, Callum F; Strait, David S; Wang, Qian; Grosse, Ian R

    2012-05-01

    We employed a probabilistic finite element analysis (FEA) method to determine how variability in material property values affects stress and strain values in a finite model of a Macaca fascicularis cranium. The material behavior of cortical bone varied in three ways: isotropic homogeneous, isotropic non-homogeneous, and orthotropic non-homogeneous. The material behavior of the trabecular bone and teeth was always treated as isotropic and homogeneous. All material property values for the cranium were randomized with a Gaussian distribution with either coefficients of variation (CVs) of 0.2 or with CVs calculated from empirical data. Latin hypercube sampling was used to determine the values of the material properties used in the finite element models. In total, four hundred and twenty six separate deterministic FE simulations were executed. We tested four hypotheses in this study: (1) uncertainty in material property values will have an insignificant effect on high stresses and a significant effect on high strains for homogeneous isotropic models; (2) the effect of variability in material property values on the stress state will increase as non-homogeneity and anisotropy increase; (3) variation in the in vivo shear strain values reported by Strait et al. (2005) and Ross et al. (2011) is not only due to variations in muscle forces and cranial morphology, but also due to variation in material property values; (4) the assumption of a uniform coefficient of variation for the material property values will result in the same trend in how moderate-to-high stresses and moderate-to-high strains vary with respect to the degree of non-homogeneity and anisotropy as the trend found when the coefficients of variation for material property values are calculated from empirical data. Our results supported the first three hypotheses and falsified the fourth. When material properties were varied with a constant CV, as non-homogeneity and anisotropy increased the level of variability in

  18. Transfer reactions with heavy elements

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, D.C.

    1986-04-01

    Transfer reactions for several transuranium elements are studied. (/sup 248/Cm, /sup 249/Bk, /sup 249/CF, /sup 254/Es), /sup 16,18/O, /sup 20,22/Ne, and /sup 40,48/Ca projectiles are used. The production of neutron-rich heavy actinides is enhanced by the use of neutron-rich projectiles /sup 18/O and /sup 22/Ne. The maxima of the isotopic distributions occur at only 2 to 3 mass numbers larger for /sup 48/Ca than for /sup 40/Ca reactions with /sup 248/Cm. The cross sections decrease rapidly with the number of nucleons transferred. The use of neutron-rich targets favors the production of neutron-rich isotopes. ''Cold'' heavy targets are produced. Comparisons with simple calculations of the product excitation energies assuming binary transfers indicate that the maxima of the isotopic distributions occur at the lightest product isotope for which the energy exceeds the reaction barrier. The cross sections for transfer of the same nucleon clusters appear to be comparable for a wide variety of systems. 23 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  19. Functional metamirrors using bianisotropic elements.

    PubMed

    Asadchy, V S; Ra'di, Y; Vehmas, J; Tretyakov, S A

    2015-03-01

    Conventional mirrors obey the simple reflection law that a plane wave is reflected as a plane wave, at the same angle. To engineer spatial distributions of fields reflected from a mirror, one can either shape the reflector or position some phase-correcting elements on top of a mirror surface. Here we show, both theoretically and experimentally, that full-power reflection with general control over the reflected wave phase is possible with a single-layer array of deeply subwavelength inclusions. These proposed artificial surfaces, metamirrors, provide various functions of shaped or nonuniform reflectors without utilizing any mirror. This can be achieved only if the forward and backward scattering of the inclusions in the array can be engineered independently, and we prove that it is possible using electrically and magnetically polarizable inclusions. The proposed subwavelength inclusions possess desired reflecting properties at the operational frequency band, while at other frequencies the array is practically transparent. The metamirror concept leads to a variety of applications over the entire electromagnetic spectrum, such as optically transparent focusing antennas for satellites, multifrequency reflector antennas for radio astronomy, low-profile conformal antennas for telecommunications, and nanoreflectarray antennas for integrated optics.

  20. Designing Rolling-Element Bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, James D., Jr.

    2007-01-01

    Bearing Analysis Tool (BAT) is a computer program for designing rolling-element bearings for cryogenic turbomachines. BAT provides a graphical user interface (GUI) that guides the entry of data to develop mathematical models of bearings. The GUI breaks model data into logical subsets that are entered through logic-driven input screens. The software generates a threedimensional graphical model of a bearing as the data are entered. Most dataentry errors become immediately obvious in the graphical model. BAT provides for storage of all the data on a shaft/bearing system, enabling the creation of a library of proven designs. Data from the library can be transferred to subsequent projects by use of simple cut-and-paste routines. BAT includes a library of temperature- dependent cryogenic bearing-material properties for use in the mathematical models. BAT implements algorithms that (1) enable the user to select combinations of design and/or operating-condition parameters, and then (2) automatically optimize the design by performing trade studies over all of the parameter combinations. This feature enables optimization over a large trade space in a fraction of the time taken when using prior bearingmodel software.

  1. Interstitial Functionalization in elemental Si

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiefer, Boris; Fohtung, Edwin

    Societies in the 21st century will face many challenges. Materials science and materials design will be essential to address and master some if not all of these challenges. Semiconductors are among the most important technological material classes. Properties such as electrical transport are strongly affected by defects and a central goal continues to be the reduction of defect densities as much as possible in these compounds. Here we present results of interstitial Fe doping in elemental Si using first-principles DFT calculations. The preliminary results show that Fe will only occupy octahedral interstitial sites. The analysis of the electronic structure shows that the compounds are ferromagnetic and that a bandgap opens as interstitial Fe concentrations decrease, with a possible intermittent semi-metallic phase. The formation energy for interstitial Fe is unfavorable, as expected, by ~1.5 eV but becomes favorable as the chemical potential of Fe increases. Therefore, we expect that biasing the system with an external electrical field will lead to the formation of these materials. Thus, our results show that interstitial defects can be beneficial for the design of functionalities that differ significantly from those of the host material.

  2. Functional Metamirrors Using Bianisotropic Elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asadchy, V. S.; Ra'di, Y.; Vehmas, J.; Tretyakov, S. A.

    2015-03-01

    Conventional mirrors obey the simple reflection law that a plane wave is reflected as a plane wave, at the same angle. To engineer spatial distributions of fields reflected from a mirror, one can either shape the reflector or position some phase-correcting elements on top of a mirror surface. Here we show, both theoretically and experimentally, that full-power reflection with general control over the reflected wave phase is possible with a single-layer array of deeply subwavelength inclusions. These proposed artificial surfaces, metamirrors, provide various functions of shaped or nonuniform reflectors without utilizing any mirror. This can be achieved only if the forward and backward scattering of the inclusions in the array can be engineered independently, and we prove that it is possible using electrically and magnetically polarizable inclusions. The proposed subwavelength inclusions possess desired reflecting properties at the operational frequency band, while at other frequencies the array is practically transparent. The metamirror concept leads to a variety of applications over the entire electromagnetic spectrum, such as optically transparent focusing antennas for satellites, multifrequency reflector antennas for radio astronomy, low-profile conformal antennas for telecommunications, and nanoreflectarray antennas for integrated optics.

  3. Mars Surface Tunnel Element Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rucker, Michelle A.; Jefferies, Sharon; Howe, A. Scott; Howard, Robert; Mary, Natalie; Watson, Judith; Lewis, Ruthan

    2016-01-01

    When the first human visitors on Mars prepare to return to Earth, they will have to comply with stringent planetary protection requirements. Apollo Program experience warns that opening an EVA hatch directly to the surface will bring dust into the ascent vehicle. To prevent inadvertent return of potential Martian contaminants to Earth, careful consideration must be given to the way in which crew ingress their Mars Ascent Vehicle (MAV). For architectures involving more than one surface element-such as an ascent vehicle and a pressurized rover or surface habitat-a retractable tunnel that eliminates extravehicular activity (EVA) ingress is an attractive solution. Beyond addressing the immediate MAV access issue, a reusable tunnel may be useful for other surface applications, such as rover to habitat transfer, once its primary mission is complete. A National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) team is studying the optimal balance between surface tunnel functionality, mass, and stowed volume as part of the Evolvable Mars Campaign (EMC). The study team began by identifying the minimum set of functional requirements needed for the tunnel to perform its primary mission, as this would presumably be the simplest design, with the lowest mass and volume. This Minimum Functional Tunnel then becomes a baseline against which various tunnel design concepts and potential alternatives can be traded, and aids in assessing the mass penalty of increased functionality. Preliminary analysis indicates that the mass of a single-mission tunnel is about 237 kg, not including mass growth allowance.

  4. Transuranium elements: Past, present, and future

    SciTech Connect

    Seaborg, G.T.

    1995-06-01

    In this illustrative Account the authors shall concentrate on four of these elements, chosen for their current interest or pivotal role. The story of plutonium is one of the most dramatic in the history of science, and today, plutonium is at the focus of an extraordinary dilemma. Mendelevium (element 101) has played a pivotal role in blazing the trail for the discovery of the heaviest elements on the basis of {open_quotes}one atom at a time{close_quotes} production. Seaborgium (element 106) was recently named in my honor by the discoverers and may be the last element, at least for some time, for which it will be possible to determine many chemical properties. And element 110 represents recent evidence, after a lapse of 10 years, for the discovery of a chemical element. Recent (1994) recommendations of the IUPAC Commission on the Nomenclature of Inorganic Chemistry for the renaming of elements 104-108 have met with widespread rejection. The author is using the names proposed by the acknowledged discoverers (elements 106-109) or, in the case of the disputed elements 104 and 105, the most logical names. 21 refs., 5 figs.

  5. Automated Fuel Element Closure Welding System

    SciTech Connect

    Wahlquist, D.R.

    1993-01-01

    The Automated Fuel Element Closure Welding System is a robotic device that will load and weld top end plugs onto nuclear fuel elements in a highly radioactive and inert gas environment. The system was developed at Argonne National Laboratory-West as part of the Fuel Cycle Demonstration. The welding system performs four main functions, it (1) injects a small amount of a xenon/krypton gas mixture into specific fuel elements, and (2) loads tiny end plugs into the tops of fuel element jackets, and (3) welds the end plugs to the element jackets, and (4) performs a dimensional inspection of the pre- and post-welded fuel elements. The system components are modular to facilitate remote replacement of failed parts. The entire system can be operated remotely in manual, semi-automatic, or fully automatic modes using a computer control system. The welding system is currently undergoing software testing and functional checkout.

  6. Automated Fuel Element Closure Welding System

    SciTech Connect

    Wahlquist, D.R.

    1993-03-01

    The Automated Fuel Element Closure Welding System is a robotic device that will load and weld top end plugs onto nuclear fuel elements in a highly radioactive and inert gas environment. The system was developed at Argonne National Laboratory-West as part of the Fuel Cycle Demonstration. The welding system performs four main functions, it (1) injects a small amount of a xenon/krypton gas mixture into specific fuel elements, and (2) loads tiny end plugs into the tops of fuel element jackets, and (3) welds the end plugs to the element jackets, and (4) performs a dimensional inspection of the pre- and post-welded fuel elements. The system components are modular to facilitate remote replacement of failed parts. The entire system can be operated remotely in manual, semi-automatic, or fully automatic modes using a computer control system. The welding system is currently undergoing software testing and functional checkout.

  7. Isotopic compositions of the elements, 2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Böhlke, J.K.; De Laeter, J. R.; De Bievre, P.; Hidaka, H.; Peiser, H.S.; Rosman, K.J.R.; Taylor, P.D.P.

    2005-01-01

    The Commission on Atomic Weights and Isotopic Abundances of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry completed its last review of the isotopic compositions of the elements as determined by isotope-ratio mass spectrometry in 2001. That review involved a critical evaluation of the published literature, element by element, and forms the basis of the table of the isotopic compositions of the elements (TICE) presented here. For each element, TICE includes evaluated data from the "best measurement" of the isotope abundances in a single sample, along with a set of representative isotope abundances and uncertainties that accommodate known variations in normal terrestrial materials. The representative isotope abundances and uncertainties generally are consistent with the standard atomic weight of the element A r(E) and its uncertainty U[Ar(E)] recommended by CAWIA in 2001. ?? 2005 American Institute of Physics.

  8. Visualization of higher order finite elements.

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, David C.; Pebay, Philippe Pierre; Crawford, Richard H.; Khardekar, Rahul Vinay

    2004-04-01

    Finite element meshes are used to approximate the solution to some differential equation when no exact solution exists. A finite element mesh consists of many small (but finite, not infinitesimal or differential) regions of space that partition the problem domain, {Omega}. Each region, or element, or cell has an associated polynomial map, {Phi}, that converts the coordinates of any point, x = ( x y z ), in the element into another value, f(x), that is an approximate solution to the differential equation, as in Figure 1(a). This representation works quite well for axis-aligned regions of space, but when there are curved boundaries on the problem domain, {Omega}, it becomes algorithmically much more difficult to define {Phi} in terms of x. Rather, we define an archetypal element in a new coordinate space, r = ( r s t ), which has a simple, axis-aligned boundary (see Figure 1(b)) and place two maps onto our archetypal element:

  9. Thermally conductive porous element-based recuperators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Du, Jian Hua (Inventor); Chow, Louis C (Inventor); Lin, Yeong-Ren (Inventor); Wu, Wei (Inventor); Kapat, Jayanta (Inventor); Notardonato, William U. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A heat exchanger includes at least one hot fluid flow channel comprising a first plurality of open cell porous elements having first gaps there between for flowing a hot fluid in a flow direction and at least one cold fluid flow channel comprising a second plurality of open cell porous elements having second gaps therebetween for flowing a cold fluid in a countercurrent flow direction relative to the flow direction. The thermal conductivity of the porous elements is at least 10 W/mK. A separation member is interposed between the hot and cold flow channels for isolating flow paths associated these flow channels. The first and second plurality of porous elements at least partially overlap one another to form a plurality of heat transfer pairs which transfer heat from respective ones of the first porous elements to respective ones of the second porous elements through the separation member.

  10. Domain decomposition methods for mortar finite elements

    SciTech Connect

    Widlund, O.

    1996-12-31

    In the last few years, domain decomposition methods, previously developed and tested for standard finite element methods and elliptic problems, have been extended and modified to work for mortar and other nonconforming finite element methods. A survey will be given of work carried out jointly with Yves Achdou, Mario Casarin, Maksymilian Dryja and Yvon Maday. Results on the p- and h-p-version finite elements will also be discussed.

  11. The elements of life and medicines.

    PubMed

    Chellan, Prinessa; Sadler, Peter J

    2015-03-13

    Which elements are essential for human life? Here we make an element-by-element journey through the periodic table and attempt to assess whether elements are essential or not, and if they are, whether there is a relevant code for them in the human genome. There are many difficulties such as the human biochemistry of several so-called essential elements is not well understood, and it is not clear how we should classify elements that are involved in the destruction of invading microorganisms, or elements which are essential for microorganisms with which we live in symbiosis. In general, genes do not code for the elements themselves, but for specific chemical species, i.e. for the element, its oxidation state, type and number of coordinated ligands, and the coordination geometry. Today, the biological periodic table is in a position somewhat similar to Mendeleev's chemical periodic table of 1869: there are gaps and we need to do more research to fill them. The periodic table also offers potential for novel therapeutic and diagnostic agents, based on not only essential elements, but also non-essential elements, and on radionuclides. Although the potential for inorganic chemistry in medicine was realized more than 2000 years ago, this area of research is still in its infancy. Future advances in the design of inorganic drugs require more knowledge of their mechanism of action, including target sites and metabolism. Temporal speciation of elements in their biological environments at the atomic level is a major challenge, for which new methods are urgently needed. PMID:25666066

  12. Transcriptional activity of transposable elements in maize

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Mobile genetic elements represent a high proportion of the Eukaryote genomes. In maize, 85% of genome is composed by transposable elements of several families. First step in transposable element life cycle is the synthesis of an RNA, but few is known about the regulation of transcription for most of the maize transposable element families. Maize is the plant from which more ESTs have been sequenced (more than two million) and the third species in total only after human and mice. This allowed us to analyze the transcriptional activity of the maize transposable elements based on EST databases. Results We have investigated the transcriptional activity of 56 families of transposable elements in different maize organs based on the systematic search of more than two million expressed sequence tags. At least 1.5% maize ESTs show sequence similarity with transposable elements. According to these data, the patterns of expression of each transposable element family is variable, even within the same class of elements. In general, transcriptional activity of the gypsy-like retrotransposons is higher compared to other classes. Transcriptional activity of several transposable elements is specially high in shoot apical meristem and sperm cells. Sequence comparisons between genomic and transcribed sequences suggest that only a few copies are transcriptionally active. Conclusions The use of powerful high-throughput sequencing methodologies allowed us to elucidate the extent and character of repetitive element transcription in maize cells. The finding that some families of transposable elements have a considerable transcriptional activity in some tissues suggests that, either transposition is more frequent than previously expected, or cells can control transposition at a post-transcriptional level. PMID:20973992

  13. Two-Element Transducer for Ultrasound

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lecroissette, D. H.; Heyser, R. C.

    1986-01-01

    Separation of transmitting and receiving units improves probing of deep tissue. Ultrasonic transducer has dual elements to increase depth at which sonic images are made of biological tissue. Transducer uses separate transmitting and receiving elements, and frequency response of receiving element independently designed to accommodate attenuation of higher frequencies by tissue. New transducer intended for pulse-echo ultrasonic systems in which reflected sound pulses reveal features in tissue.

  14. The elements of life and medicines.

    PubMed

    Chellan, Prinessa; Sadler, Peter J

    2015-03-13

    Which elements are essential for human life? Here we make an element-by-element journey through the periodic table and attempt to assess whether elements are essential or not, and if they are, whether there is a relevant code for them in the human genome. There are many difficulties such as the human biochemistry of several so-called essential elements is not well understood, and it is not clear how we should classify elements that are involved in the destruction of invading microorganisms, or elements which are essential for microorganisms with which we live in symbiosis. In general, genes do not code for the elements themselves, but for specific chemical species, i.e. for the element, its oxidation state, type and number of coordinated ligands, and the coordination geometry. Today, the biological periodic table is in a position somewhat similar to Mendeleev's chemical periodic table of 1869: there are gaps and we need to do more research to fill them. The periodic table also offers potential for novel therapeutic and diagnostic agents, based on not only essential elements, but also non-essential elements, and on radionuclides. Although the potential for inorganic chemistry in medicine was realized more than 2000 years ago, this area of research is still in its infancy. Future advances in the design of inorganic drugs require more knowledge of their mechanism of action, including target sites and metabolism. Temporal speciation of elements in their biological environments at the atomic level is a major challenge, for which new methods are urgently needed.

  15. Finite element formulations for compressible flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tezduyar, Tayfun E.

    1989-01-01

    Researchers started their studies on the development and application of computational methods for compressible flows. Particular attention was given to proper numerical treatment of sharp layers occurring in such problems and to general mesh generation capabilities for intricate computational geometries. Mainly finite element methods enhanced with several state-of-the art techniques (such as the streamline-upwind/Petrov-Galerkin, discontinuity capturing, adaptive implicit-explicit, and trouped element-by-element approximate factorization schemes) were employed.

  16. The elements of life and medicines

    PubMed Central

    Chellan, Prinessa; Sadler, Peter J

    2015-01-01

    Which elements are essential for human life? Here we make an element-by-element journey through the periodic table and attempt to assess whether elements are essential or not, and if they are, whether there is a relevant code for them in the human genome. There are many difficulties such as the human biochemistry of several so-called essential elements is not well understood, and it is not clear how we should classify elements that are involved in the destruction of invading microorganisms, or elements which are essential for microorganisms with which we live in symbiosis. In general, genes do not code for the elements themselves, but for specific chemical species, i.e. for the element, its oxidation state, type and number of coordinated ligands, and the coordination geometry. Today, the biological periodic table is in a position somewhat similar to Mendeleev's chemical periodic table of 1869: there are gaps and we need to do more research to fill them. The periodic table also offers potential for novel therapeutic and diagnostic agents, based on not only essential elements, but also non-essential elements, and on radionuclides. Although the potential for inorganic chemistry in medicine was realized more than 2000 years ago, this area of research is still in its infancy. Future advances in the design of inorganic drugs require more knowledge of their mechanism of action, including target sites and metabolism. Temporal speciation of elements in their biological environments at the atomic level is a major challenge, for which new methods are urgently needed. PMID:25666066

  17. Benchmarking the QUAD4/TRIA3 element

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitrof, Stephen M.; Venkayya, Vipperla B.

    1993-09-01

    The QUAD4 and TRIA3 elements are the primary plate/shell elements in NASTRAN. These elements enable the user to analyze thin plate/shell structures for membrane, bending and shear phenomena. They are also very new elements in the NASTRAN library. These elements are extremely versatile and constitute a substantially enhanced analysis capability in NASTRAN. However, with the versatility comes the burden of understanding a myriad of modeling implications and their effect on accuracy and analysis quality. The validity of many aspects of these elements were established through a series of benchmark problem results and comparison with those available in the literature and obtained from other programs like MSC/NASTRAN and CSAR/NASTRAN. Never-the-less such a comparison is never complete because of the new and creative use of these elements in complex modeling situations. One of the important features of QUAD4 and TRIA3 elements is the offset capability which allows the midsurface of the plate to be noncoincident with the surface of the grid points. None of the previous elements, with the exception of bar (beam), has this capability. The offset capability played a crucial role in the design of QUAD4 and TRIA3 elements. It allowed modeling layered composites, laminated plates and sandwich plates with the metal and composite face sheets. Even though the basic implementation of the offset capability is found to be sound in the previous applications, there is some uncertainty in relatively simple applications. The main purpose of this paper is to test the integrity of the offset capability and provide guidelines for its effective use. For the purpose of simplicity, references in this paper to the QUAD4 element will also include the TRIA3 element.

  18. Benchmarking the QUAD4/TRIA3 element

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pitrof, Stephen M.; Venkayya, Vipperla B.

    1993-01-01

    The QUAD4 and TRIA3 elements are the primary plate/shell elements in NASTRAN. These elements enable the user to analyze thin plate/shell structures for membrane, bending and shear phenomena. They are also very new elements in the NASTRAN library. These elements are extremely versatile and constitute a substantially enhanced analysis capability in NASTRAN. However, with the versatility comes the burden of understanding a myriad of modeling implications and their effect on accuracy and analysis quality. The validity of many aspects of these elements were established through a series of benchmark problem results and comparison with those available in the literature and obtained from other programs like MSC/NASTRAN and CSAR/NASTRAN. Never-the-less such a comparison is never complete because of the new and creative use of these elements in complex modeling situations. One of the important features of QUAD4 and TRIA3 elements is the offset capability which allows the midsurface of the plate to be noncoincident with the surface of the grid points. None of the previous elements, with the exception of bar (beam), has this capability. The offset capability played a crucial role in the design of QUAD4 and TRIA3 elements. It allowed modeling layered composites, laminated plates and sandwich plates with the metal and composite face sheets. Even though the basic implementation of the offset capability is found to be sound in the previous applications, there is some uncertainty in relatively simple applications. The main purpose of this paper is to test the integrity of the offset capability and provide guidelines for its effective use. For the purpose of simplicity, references in this paper to the QUAD4 element will also include the TRIA3 element.

  19. Rack for storing spent nuclear fuel elements

    DOEpatents

    Rubinstein, Herbert J.; Clark, Philip M.; Gilcrest, James D.

    1978-06-20

    A rack for storing spent nuclear fuel elements in which a plurality of aligned rows of upright enclosures of generally square cross-sectional areas contain vertically disposed fuel elements. The enclosures are fixed at the lower ends thereof to a base. Pockets are formed between confronting walls of adjacent enclosures for receiving high absorption neutron absorbers, such as Boral, cadmium, borated stainless steel and the like for the closer spacing of spent fuel elements.

  20. Directivity and spacing for the antenna elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koshy, V. K.

    1983-01-01

    The optimum design choice for the MST radar antenna was considered. The following factors are required: directivity and gain; beam width and its symmetry; sidelobe levels, near and wide angle; impedance matching; feeder network losses; polarization diversity; steerability; cost effectiveness; and maintainability. The directivity and related beam forming aspects of various antenna elements and directivity aspects when such elements are formed into an array are discussed. Array performance for important variables, in particular, the spacing of the elements is considered.

  1. Books and monographs on finite element technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noor, A. K.

    1985-01-01

    The present paper proviees a listing of all of the English books and some of the foreign books on finite element technology, taking into account also a list of the conference proceedings devoted solely to finite elements. The references are divided into categories. Attention is given to fundamentals, mathematical foundations, structural and solid mechanics applications, fluid mechanics applications, other applied science and engineering applications, computer implementation and software systems, computational and modeling aspects, special topics, boundary element methods, proceedings of symmposia and conferences on finite element technology, bibliographies, handbooks, and historical accounts.

  2. Spectral analysis method for detecting an element

    DOEpatents

    Blackwood, Larry G [Idaho Falls, ID; Edwards, Andrew J [Idaho Falls, ID; Jewell, James K [Idaho Falls, ID; Reber, Edward L [Idaho Falls, ID; Seabury, Edward H [Idaho Falls, ID

    2008-02-12

    A method for detecting an element is described and which includes the steps of providing a gamma-ray spectrum which has a region of interest which corresponds with a small amount of an element to be detected; providing nonparametric assumptions about a shape of the gamma-ray spectrum in the region of interest, and which would indicate the presence of the element to be detected; and applying a statistical test to the shape of the gamma-ray spectrum based upon the nonparametric assumptions to detect the small amount of the element to be detected.

  3. Separation of transuranium elements from irradiated targets

    SciTech Connect

    Wham, R.M.; Benker, D.E.; Felker, L.K.; Chattin, F.R.

    1993-12-31

    Aluminum targets containing curium/americium oxide are irradiated to produce the transcurium actinides einsteinium, fermium, berkelium, and californium. Recovery of recycle curium/americium and the transcurium elements involves several chemical processing steps to selectively recover those elements and remove fission products. Chemical processing steps developed at the Radiochemical Engineering Development Center (REDC) include aluminum dejacketing, solvent extraction to remove bulk impurities, solvent extraction to remove plutonium, anion exchange to partition curium and transcurium elements from the rare earths, and a second anion exchange cycle to separate americium/curium from the transcurium elements.

  4. Method of lightening radiation darkened optical elements

    DOEpatents

    Reich, Frederich R.; Schwankoff, Albert R.

    1980-01-01

    A method of lightening a radiation-darkened optical element in wich visible optical energy or electromagnetic radiation having a wavelength in the range of from about 2000 to about 20,000 angstroms is directed into the radiation-darkened optical element; the method may be used to lighten radiation-darkened optical element in-situ during the use of the optical element to transmit data by electronically separating the optical energy from the optical output by frequency filtering, data cooling, or interlacing the optic energy between data intervals.

  5. Wideband arrays with variable element sizes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shively, D. G.; Stutzman, W. L.

    1990-01-01

    A new planar array architecture based on adding half-sized elements in between the other elements in order to extend the frequency by one octave is proposed and validated. This wideband array with variable element sizes (WAVES) antenna is shown by calculations and by measurements using Archimedean spirals to be the elements necessary to maintain a simple clean mainbeam and principal plane sidelobes below about -10 dB over two octaves. In spite of using a test antenna with a simple parallel feed and no impedance matching or isolation, the agreement between predicted and measured results is good.

  6. Fractionation of elements during copper smelting

    SciTech Connect

    Germani, M.S.; Zoller, W.H.; Small, M.; Moyers, J.L.

    1981-03-01

    A recent study of the elemental composition of particulate material collected from the plumes of five copper smelters in southeastern Arizona indicated that arsenic, lead, selenium, cadmium, zinc, tungsten, indium, and other chalcophilic elements are highly enriched in the plume materials relative to the background aerosol. Enrichments are due to the volatilization of these elements during copper smelting. Significant differences in the elemental compositions of plumes from the various smelters appear to be due to differences in the feed material, smelting conditions, and equipment use by the smelters. (3 graphs, 13 references, 7 tables)

  7. Investigation of uses of holographic optical elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zech, R. G.; Latta, J. N.

    1973-01-01

    The data represent a thorough study of the aberrations and imaging properties of holographic optical elements. Principle studies include (1) the indepth experimental investigation of single holographic optical elements, (2) the verification of the accuracy of the theoretical computer-based description of hologram behavior, (3) the computer-generation of interferograms that are characteristic of a prescribed aberrated imaging condition, (4) the experimental verification of wavelength optimization, (5) the experimental determination of the space bandwidth product of single holographic optical elements as a function of bending and field angle, and (6) the first experimental study of the aberration properties of holographic optical elements constructed in very thick (750 microns) recording media.

  8. Low exchange element for nuclear reactor

    DOEpatents

    Brogli, Rudolf H.; Shamasunder, Bangalore I.; Seth, Shivaji S.

    1985-01-01

    A flow exchange element is presented which lowers temperature gradients in fuel elements and reduces maximum local temperature within high temperature gas-cooled reactors. The flow exchange element is inserted within a column of fuel elements where it serves to redirect coolant flow. Coolant which has been flowing in a hotter region of the column is redirected to a cooler region, and coolant which has been flowing in the cooler region of the column is redirected to the hotter region. The safety, efficiency, and longevity of the high temperature gas-cooled reactor is thereby enhanced.

  9. Low impedance printed circuit radiating element

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rahm, James K. (Inventor); Frankievich, Robert H. (Inventor); Martinko, John D. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A printed circuit radiating element comprises a geometrically symmetric planar area of a conducting material separated from a ground plane by a dielectric medium. The driving point of the radiating element is at the base of a notch in one side thereof so that the driving impedance is reduced from that obtained when the element is driven at its edge. Symmetrically disposed on opposite sides of an axis of symmetry of the element along which the driving point lies are two notches which restore the electrical symmetry of the radiating element thereby to suppress higher order modes. The suppression of these higher order modes results in a radiation pattern with minimal cross-polarized energy in the principal planes and high port-to-port isolation which could not be achieved with an asymmetrical element. Two driving points may be employed with the radiating element to produce a dual linearly polarized antenna and a reactive combiner or hybrid may be employed to obtain circularly-polarized radiations. The shape of the radiating element may be square, rectangular or circular, for example, in accordance with the desired characteristics. A plurality of radiating elements may be interconnected via appropriate transmission paths to form an antenna array.

  10. Development of an orthotropic hole element

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, C. V.; Markham, J. W.; Kelley, J. W.; Kathiresan, K.

    1981-01-01

    A finite element was developed which adequately represents the state of stress in the region around a circular hole in orthotropic material experiencing reasonably general loading. This was achieved with a complementary virtual work formulation of the stiffness and stress matrices for a square element with center circular hole. The assumed stress state provides zero shearing stress on the hole boundary, so the element is suitable for problems involving load transfer without friction. The element has been implemented in the NASTRAN computer program, and sample problem results are presented.

  11. Cytotype regulation by telomeric P elements in Drosophila melanogaster: interactions with P elements from M' strains.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Michael J; Niemi, Jarad B; Ryzek, Don-Felix; Lamour, Cecile; Goodman, Joseph W; Kraszkiewicz, Wojciech; Wolff, Ryan

    2007-08-01

    P strains of Drosophila are distinguished from M strains by having P elements in their genomes and also by having the P cytotype, a maternally inherited condition that strongly represses P-element-induced hybrid dysgenesis. The P cytotype is associated with P elements inserted near the left telomere of the X chromosome. Repression by the telomeric P elements TP5 and TP6 is significantly enhanced when these elements are crossed into M' strains, which, like P strains, carry P elements, but have little or no ability to repress dysgenesis. The telomeric and M' P elements must coexist in females for this enhanced repression ability to develop. However, once established, it is transmitted maternally to the immediate offspring independently of the telomeric P elements themselves. Females that carry a telomeric P element but that do not carry M' P elements may also transmit an ability to repress dysgenesis to their offspring independently of the telomeric P element. Cytotype regulation therefore involves a maternally transmissible product of telomeric P elements that can interact synergistically with products from paternally inherited M' P elements. This synergism between TP and M' P elements also appears to persist for at least one generation after the TP has been removed from the genotype. PMID:17565961

  12. EDITORIAL: King of the elements? King of the elements?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demming, Anna

    2010-07-01

    Throughout the history of science, carbon-based research has played a defining role in the development of a range of fundamental and technological fields. It was used in Avagadro's definition of the mole in the early 18th century, it provides the 'backbone' of molecules in organic compounds, and in the environmental debate currently raging in the press and international government discussions, the 'carbon footprint' has become the metric of our species' impact on our planet. Also in nanotechnology, with the discovery of various wonder materials, carbon is once again asserting its claim as king of the elements. Until the 1980s the only known forms of carbon were diamond, graphite and amorphous carbon, as in soot or charcoal. In 1985 Robert Curl, Harold Kroto and Richard Smalley reported the existence of fullerenes, spherical structures comprising hexagonal carbon rings [1], work for which they won the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 1996 [2]. The discovery of fullerenes was followed in 1991 by Sumio Ijima with the discovery of rolled graphite sheets, the carbon nanotube [3]. The discovery of these novel carbon nanostructures inspired researchers in a range of fields, largely as a result of the extraordinary capacity for investigations of these structures to reveal ever more intriguing properties. One of the fascinating properties attributed to carbon nanotubes is their phenomenal strength, with a Young's modulus of single walled carbon nanotubes approaching a terapascal [4]. Ingenious methods of harnessing this strength have since been developed, including bucky paper, a term used to refer to a mat of randomly self-entangled carbon nanotubes. Steven Crannford and Markus Buehler have recently reported a novel computational technique for probing the mechanical properties of these structures and show that the Young's modulus of bucky paper can be tuned by manipulation of the carbon nanotube type and density [5]. The electrical properties of carbon nanotubes, which depend

  13. Ecological Elements of Water Balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, X.; Fisher, S. G.; Grimm, N. B.

    2011-12-01

    In simplest terms, "water balance" can refer to the water budget in a bounded system within a specified time frame. While this mass-balance approach is important, a broader concept that includes ecological notions of balance, stability, and feedbacks is useful, especially when management goals extend to maintenance of ecological health and ecosystem integrity concomitant with water delivery. Here, we propose three ecological elements to enrich the concept of hydrologic balance. (1) A spatially explicit perspective of water and nutrient balance replaces the holistic view. For example, in fluvial landscapes, routing of water generates hydrologic connectivity via flowpaths and creates a hydrologic network. Important patches in the network include hillslopes, floodplains, riparian areas, surface channels, and hyporheic zones, each of which is characterized by unique biogeochemical processes. Different hydrologic network structures have different nutrient-removal capacities, which depend upon how their flowpaths intersect patch-specific processing. The connectivity among these patches is an important variable influencing nutrient-retention capacity of landscapes, and thereby the resulting water quality in receiving systems. (2) Temporal regime is an important component of balance. Organisms in a fluvial landscape reflect the inherent time schedule of the system, as a result of long-term interactions and adaptation to the environment. In aridland streams, the drying and flood cycle select flora whose life cycles and activities fit the hydrological regime. The existence of particular species relies on the temporal distribution of water-the input regime-more than the integral input and output balance. The match of organism life cycle and hydrologic regime is the basis for biodiversity and ecosystem functions. (3) Ecosystems are self-organized systems based on feedbacks among organisms and between organisms and the abiotic environment. They do not simply respond to

  14. Production and Identification of Transactinide Elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Münzenberg, G.; Gupta, M.

    Microscopic nuclear theories predict a region of superheavy elements (SHEs) at the next doubly magic shell closure above 208Pb. Early models locate the shell closure at Z = 114, more recent calculations place it at Z = 120. The closed neutron shell is located at N = 184. These predictions motivated the search for superheavy elements in nature and in the laboratory to explore the limits of the chart of nuclides toward its upper end. A new region of shell stabilization, centered at Z = 108 and N = 162 has been discovered. It interconnects the transuranium region and the superheavy elements. As of 2009, the heaviest element accepted by the Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry is Z = 112. The discovery of elements 113 to 116 and 118 has been reported. All of these elements have been created by the complete fusion of heavy ions. Production rates decrease to less than one atom per month for the heaviest species. Half-lives range down to below microseconds. The elements at the top of the nuclear chart have been discovered on the basis of single-atom decays after separation in-flight. The production and investigation of the transactinide elements with Z = 104 and beyond form the subject matter of this chapter. After a brief history of their discoveries and experimental methods, nuclear structure and the production of heavy elements will be discussed. The prospects for the synthesis and investigation of heavy elements using advanced technologies such as new high-current heavy-ion accelerators, radioactive beams, and ion traps will be outlined. The importance of closed nuclear shells for the existence and production of the heaviest elements will be addressed briefly.

  15. 40 CFR 721.10068 - Elemental mercury.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... of gases or liquids. Motor vehicle has the meaning found at 40 CFR 85.1703. Natural gas manometer... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Elemental mercury. 721.10068 Section... Substances § 721.10068 Elemental mercury. (a) Barometer means an instrument used in various applications...

  16. 40 CFR 721.10068 - Elemental mercury.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... of gases or liquids. Motor vehicle has the meaning found at 40 CFR 85.1703. Natural gas manometer... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Elemental mercury. 721.10068 Section... Substances § 721.10068 Elemental mercury. (a) Barometer means an instrument used in various applications...

  17. 40 CFR 721.10068 - Elemental mercury.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... applications to measure the flow rate of liquids or gases. Motor vehicle has the meaning found at 40 CFR 85... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Elemental mercury. 721.10068 Section... Substances § 721.10068 Elemental mercury. (a) Definitions. The definitions in § 721.3 apply to this...

  18. 40 CFR 721.10068 - Elemental mercury.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... of gases or liquids. Motor vehicle has the meaning found at 40 CFR 85.1703. Natural gas manometer... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Elemental mercury. 721.10068 Section... Substances § 721.10068 Elemental mercury. (a) Barometer means an instrument used in various applications...

  19. 47 CFR 10.420 - Message elements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Message elements. 10.420 Section 10.420 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL WIRELESS EMERGENCY ALERTS Alert Message Requirements § 10.420 Message elements. A WEA Alert Message processed by a Participating CMS Provider shall...

  20. 47 CFR 10.420 - Message elements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Message elements. 10.420 Section 10.420 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL WIRELESS EMERGENCY ALERTS Alert Message Requirements § 10.420 Message elements. A WEA Alert Message processed by a Participating CMS Provider shall...

  1. 42 CFR 136.105 - Project elements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... excepted from application of 45 CFR 74.15 by section 103(c) of Pub. L. 93-638. (f) Provide services at a... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Project elements. 136.105 Section 136.105 Public... Facilities and Services § 136.105 Project elements. A project supported under this subpart must: (a)...

  2. 42 CFR 51c.403 - Project elements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Project elements. 51c.403 Section 51c.403 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR COMMUNITY HEALTH SERVICES Grants for Operating Community Health Projects § 51c.403 Project elements. A project for...

  3. 42 CFR 51c.303 - Project elements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... those set forth in the most recent CSA Proverty Income Guidelines (45 CFR 1060.2) and for no discount to... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Project elements. 51c.303 Section 51c.303 Public... SERVICES Grants for Operating Community Health Centers § 51c.303 Project elements. A community...

  4. 14 CFR 271.6 - Profit element.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Profit element. 271.6 Section 271.6 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC... element. The reasonable return for a carrier for providing essential air service at an eligible...

  5. 42 CFR 56.203 - Project elements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Project elements. 56.203 Section 56.203 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR MIGRANT HEALTH SERVICES Grants for Planning and Developing Migrant Health Centers § 56.203 Project elements. A project...

  6. 42 CFR 51c.403 - Project elements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Project elements. 51c.403 Section 51c.403 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR COMMUNITY HEALTH SERVICES Grants for Operating Community Health Projects § 51c.403 Project elements. A project for...

  7. 42 CFR 56.703 - Project elements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Project elements. 56.703 Section 56.703 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR MIGRANT HEALTH SERVICES Grants for Technical Assistance § 56.703 Project elements. A project for the provision...

  8. 42 CFR 56.503 - Project elements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Project elements. 56.503 Section 56.503 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR MIGRANT HEALTH SERVICES Grants for Planning and Developing Migrant Health Programs § 56.503 Project elements. A...

  9. 42 CFR 56.703 - Project elements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Project elements. 56.703 Section 56.703 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR MIGRANT HEALTH SERVICES Grants for Technical Assistance § 56.703 Project elements. A project for the provision...

  10. 49 CFR 236.744 - Element, roadway.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Element, roadway. 236.744 Section 236.744 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Element, roadway. That portion of the roadway apparatus of automatic train stop, train control, or...

  11. 14 CFR 271.6 - Profit element.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Profit element. 271.6 Section 271.6 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC... element. The reasonable return for a carrier for providing essential air service at an eligible...

  12. 42 CFR 56.403 - Project elements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Project elements. 56.403 Section 56.403 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR MIGRANT HEALTH SERVICES Grants for Operating Migrant Health Entities § 56.403 Project elements. A project for...

  13. 49 CFR 236.744 - Element, roadway.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Element, roadway. 236.744 Section 236.744 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Element, roadway. That portion of the roadway apparatus of automatic train stop, train control, or...

  14. 42 CFR 56.303 - Project elements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... the most recent CSA Poverty Income Guidelines (42 CFR 1060.2) (except that nominal fees for service... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Project elements. 56.303 Section 56.303 Public... SERVICES Grants for Operating Migrant Health Centers § 56.303 Project elements. A migrant health...

  15. 14 CFR 24 - Profit and Loss Elements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Register citations affecting part 241 section 24, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Profit and Loss Elements Section 24 Section... Financial Reporting Requirements Section 24 Profit and Loss Elements Schedule P-1.1—Statement of...

  16. 42 CFR 56.403 - Project elements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Project elements. 56.403 Section 56.403 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR MIGRANT HEALTH SERVICES Grants for Operating Migrant Health Entities § 56.403 Project elements. A project for...

  17. 42 CFR 56.303 - Project elements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... the most recent CSA Poverty Income Guidelines (42 CFR 1060.2) (except that nominal fees for service... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Project elements. 56.303 Section 56.303 Public... SERVICES Grants for Operating Migrant Health Centers § 56.303 Project elements. A migrant health...

  18. 42 CFR 51c.303 - Project elements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... those set forth in the most recent CSA Proverty Income Guidelines (45 CFR 1060.2) and for no discount to... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Project elements. 51c.303 Section 51c.303 Public... SERVICES Grants for Operating Community Health Centers § 51c.303 Project elements. A community...

  19. 42 CFR 51c.203 - Project elements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Project elements. 51c.203 Section 51c.203 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR COMMUNITY HEALTH SERVICES Grants for Planning and Developing Community Health Centers § 51c.203 Project elements. A...

  20. 42 CFR 51c.403 - Project elements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Project elements. 51c.403 Section 51c.403 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR COMMUNITY HEALTH SERVICES Grants for Operating Community Health Projects § 51c.403 Project elements. A project for...

  1. 16 CFR 314.4 - Elements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Elements. 314.4 Section 314.4 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS STANDARDS FOR SAFEGUARDING CUSTOMER INFORMATION § 314.4 Elements. In order to develop, implement, and maintain your...

  2. 42 CFR 56.203 - Project elements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Project elements. 56.203 Section 56.203 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR MIGRANT HEALTH SERVICES Grants for Planning and Developing Migrant Health Centers § 56.203 Project elements. A project...

  3. 42 CFR 56.303 - Project elements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... the most recent CSA Poverty Income Guidelines (42 CFR 1060.2) (except that nominal fees for service... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Project elements. 56.303 Section 56.303 Public... SERVICES Grants for Operating Migrant Health Centers § 56.303 Project elements. A migrant health...

  4. 42 CFR 56.503 - Project elements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Project elements. 56.503 Section 56.503 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR MIGRANT HEALTH SERVICES Grants for Planning and Developing Migrant Health Programs § 56.503 Project elements. A...

  5. 49 CFR 236.744 - Element, roadway.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Element, roadway. 236.744 Section 236.744 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Element, roadway. That portion of the roadway apparatus of automatic train stop, train control, or...

  6. 47 CFR 10.420 - Message elements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Message elements. 10.420 Section 10.420... Requirements § 10.420 Message elements. A CMAS Alert Message processed by a Participating CMS Provider shall include five mandatory CAP elements—Event Type; Area Affected; Recommended Action; Expiration Time...

  7. 42 CFR 56.603 - Project elements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... set forth in the most recent CSA Poverty Income Guidelines (42 CFR 1060.2) (except that nominal fees... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Project elements. 56.603 Section 56.603 Public... SERVICES Grants for Operating Migrant Health Programs § 56.603 Project elements. A project for operating...

  8. 42 CFR 51c.303 - Project elements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... those set forth in the most recent CSA Proverty Income Guidelines (45 CFR 1060.2) and for no discount to... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Project elements. 51c.303 Section 51c.303 Public... SERVICES Grants for Operating Community Health Centers § 51c.303 Project elements. A community...

  9. 42 CFR 136.105 - Project elements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... excepted from application of 45 CFR 74.15 by section 103(c) of Pub. L. 93-638. (f) Provide services at a... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Project elements. 136.105 Section 136.105 Public... Facilities and Services § 136.105 Project elements. A project supported under this subpart must: (a)...

  10. 42 CFR 56.503 - Project elements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Project elements. 56.503 Section 56.503 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR MIGRANT HEALTH SERVICES Grants for Planning and Developing Migrant Health Programs § 56.503 Project elements. A...

  11. 42 CFR 51c.504 - Project elements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Project elements. 51c.504 Section 51c.504 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR COMMUNITY HEALTH SERVICES Acquisition and Modernization of Existing Buildings § 51c.504 Project elements. (a)...

  12. 16 CFR 314.4 - Elements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Elements. 314.4 Section 314.4 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS STANDARDS FOR SAFEGUARDING CUSTOMER INFORMATION § 314.4 Elements. In order to develop, implement, and maintain your...

  13. 42 CFR 51c.504 - Project elements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Project elements. 51c.504 Section 51c.504 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR COMMUNITY HEALTH SERVICES Acquisition and Modernization of Existing Buildings § 51c.504 Project elements. (a)...

  14. 42 CFR 56.603 - Project elements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... set forth in the most recent CSA Poverty Income Guidelines (42 CFR 1060.2) (except that nominal fees... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Project elements. 56.603 Section 56.603 Public... SERVICES Grants for Operating Migrant Health Programs § 56.603 Project elements. A project for operating...

  15. 42 CFR 51c.203 - Project elements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Project elements. 51c.203 Section 51c.203 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR COMMUNITY HEALTH SERVICES Grants for Planning and Developing Community Health Centers § 51c.203 Project elements. A...

  16. 42 CFR 51c.504 - Project elements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Project elements. 51c.504 Section 51c.504 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR COMMUNITY HEALTH SERVICES Acquisition and Modernization of Existing Buildings § 51c.504 Project elements. (a)...

  17. 42 CFR 56.403 - Project elements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Project elements. 56.403 Section 56.403 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR MIGRANT HEALTH SERVICES Grants for Operating Migrant Health Entities § 56.403 Project elements. A project for...

  18. 42 CFR 56.203 - Project elements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Project elements. 56.203 Section 56.203 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR MIGRANT HEALTH SERVICES Grants for Planning and Developing Migrant Health Centers § 56.203 Project elements. A project...

  19. 42 CFR 136.105 - Project elements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... excepted from application of 45 CFR 74.15 by section 103(c) of Pub. L. 93-638. (f) Provide services at a... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Project elements. 136.105 Section 136.105 Public... Facilities and Services § 136.105 Project elements. A project supported under this subpart must: (a)...

  20. 42 CFR 51c.203 - Project elements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Project elements. 51c.203 Section 51c.203 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR COMMUNITY HEALTH SERVICES Grants for Planning and Developing Community Health Centers § 51c.203 Project elements. A...

  1. 16 CFR 314.4 - Elements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Elements. 314.4 Section 314.4 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS STANDARDS FOR SAFEGUARDING CUSTOMER INFORMATION § 314.4 Elements. In order to develop, implement, and maintain your...

  2. 14 CFR 271.6 - Profit element.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Profit element. 271.6 Section 271.6 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC... element. The reasonable return for a carrier for providing essential air service at an eligible...

  3. 42 CFR 56.703 - Project elements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Project elements. 56.703 Section 56.703 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR MIGRANT HEALTH SERVICES Grants for Technical Assistance § 56.703 Project elements. A project for the provision...

  4. 42 CFR 56.603 - Project elements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... set forth in the most recent CSA Poverty Income Guidelines (42 CFR 1060.2) (except that nominal fees... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Project elements. 56.603 Section 56.603 Public... SERVICES Grants for Operating Migrant Health Programs § 56.603 Project elements. A project for operating...

  5. 14 CFR 25 - Traffic and Capacity Elements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...) Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting part 241, section 25, see the List of CFR Sections... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Traffic and Capacity Elements Section 25... Traffic Reporting Requirements Section 25 Traffic and Capacity Elements General Instructions. (a)...

  6. Lubrication of rolling-element bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, R. J.

    1980-01-01

    The lubrication of rolling element bearings is surveyed. Emphasis is on the critical design aspects related to speed, temperature, and ambient pressure environment. Types of lubrication including grease, jets, mist, wick, and through the race are discussed. The historical development, present state of technology, and the future problems of rolling element bearing lubrication are discussed.

  7. Biological trace element measurements using synchrotron radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Giauque, R.D.; Jaklevic, J.M.; Thompson, A.C.

    1985-07-01

    The feasibility of performing x-ray fluorescence trace element determinations at concentrations substantially below the ppM level for biological materials is demonstrated. Conditions for achieving optimum sensitivity were ascertained. Results achieved for five standard reference materials were, in most cases, in excellent agreement with listed values. Minimum detectable limits of 20 ppM were measured for most elements.

  8. Octupole correlations in the heavy elements

    SciTech Connect

    Chasman, R.R.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of octupole correlations on the nuclear structure of the heavy elements are discussed. The cluster model description of the heavy elements is analyzed. The relevance of 2/sup 6/-pole deformation and fast El transitions to an octupole model is considered. 30 refs., 21 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Finite-Element Composite-Analysis Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowles, David E.

    1990-01-01

    Finite Element Composite Analysis Program, FECAP, special-purpose finite-element program for analyzing behavior of composite material with microcomputer. Procedure leads to set of linear simultaneous equations relating unknown nodal displacement to applied loads. Written in HP BASIC 3.0.

  10. Phyto (in)stabilization of elements.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Donna L; Otte, Marinus L; Hopkins, David G

    2011-01-01

    The effects of plants (corn, soybean, and sunflower) and fertilizer on mobility of more than 60 elements were assessed in a greenhouse experiment. Unplanted columns with the same soil served as controls. Half the columns received fertilizer and all columns were watered at the same rate. At the end of the experiment, the columns were watered to mimic a rainstorm event such that water drained from the bases of the columns, which was collected and analyzed for element content. Soil from between the roots of the plants was also collected and the water-extractable fraction determined. It was expected that (1) more mobile elements, as measured by water extraction, would be leached from the soils at a higher rate compared to less mobile elements, (2) plants would immobilize most elements, but that some would be immobilized, and (3) that this would depend on plant species. The results led to the following conclusions: plants cause metal mobility to vary over a wide range for a specific soil and do mobilize some elements (e.g., Th) while immobilizing others (e.g., U). The effects depended on plant species for some elements. Water-extractable fractions of elements do not predict mobility. PMID:22046750

  11. 3-D Finite Element Code Postprocessor

    1996-07-15

    TAURUS is an interactive post-processing application supporting visualization of finite element analysis results on unstructured grids. TAURUS provides the ability to display deformed geometries and contours or fringes of a large number of derived results on meshes consisting of beam, plate, shell, and solid type finite elements. Time history plotting is also available.

  12. Data Element Definitions for Secondary Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Europe, Strasbourg (France). Documentation Center for Education in Europe.

    The results of the efforts of the National Federation of Science Abstracting and Indexing Services (NFSAIS) Bibliographic Citation Committee (BCC) Working Group on Data Element Definition are reported. The report contains a recommended uniform approach to the handling of bibliographic data elements. The approach is an amalgam of current practices…

  13. MODERATOR ELEMENTS FOR UNIFORM POWER NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Balent, R.

    1963-03-12

    This patent describes a method of obtaining a flatter flux and more uniform power generation across the core of a nuclear reactor. The method comprises using moderator elements having differing moderating strength. The elements have an increasing amount of the better moderating material as a function of radial and/or axial distance from the reactor core center. (AEC)

  14. Education Data Elements Dictionary, Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, James A., Ed.; Jackson, Linda M., Ed.

    The Education Data Elements Dictionary (EDED) is divided into six main subject categories and related higher educational data elements are defined and described under each area and sequenced alphabetically. In instances where compound phraseology is appropriate, the key word has been utilized to determine its placing in the alphabetical sequence.…

  15. SORPTION OF ELEMENTAL MERCURY BY ACTIVATED CARBONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The mechanisms and rate of elemental mercury (HgO) capture by activated carbons have been studied using a bench-scale apparatus. Three types of activated carbons, two of which are thermally activated (PC-100 and FGD) and one with elemental sulfur (S) impregnated in it (HGR), were...

  16. 47 CFR 97.505 - Element credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Element credit. 97.505 Section 97.505 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE Qualifying Examination Systems § 97.505 Element credit. (a) The administering VEs must give...

  17. 47 CFR 97.505 - Element credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Element credit. 97.505 Section 97.505 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE Qualifying Examination Systems § 97.505 Element credit. (a) The administering VEs must give...

  18. The Elements Go to the Movies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taarea, Dina; Thomas, Nicholas C.

    2010-01-01

    The names of many common elements have found their way into the titles of feature films: gold, silver, iron, copper, and lead, for example, appear in hundreds of movie titles. Surprisingly, perhaps, more than two dozen other elements, including iodine, cadmium, zinc, calcium, argon, chlorine, and others, have also been used in film titles. In this…

  19. Weak matrix elements for CP violation.

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, W.; Gupta, R.; Christ, N.; Fleming, G. T.; Kilcup, G.; Liu, G.; Mawhinney, R.; Sharpe, S.; Wu, L.; Bhattacharya, T.

    2001-01-01

    We present preliminary results of matrix elements of four fermion operators relevant to the determination of e and E ' / E using staggered fermions. To calculate the matrix elements relevant to CP violation in Kaon decays it is important to use a lattice formulation which preserves (some) chiral symmetry.

  20. 42 CFR 56.303 - Project elements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... the most recent CSA Poverty Income Guidelines (42 CFR 1060.2) (except that nominal fees for service... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Project elements. 56.303 Section 56.303 Public... SERVICES Grants for Operating Migrant Health Centers § 56.303 Project elements. A migrant health...

  1. 49 CFR 236.744 - Element, roadway.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Element, roadway. 236.744 Section 236.744 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Element, roadway. That portion of the roadway apparatus of automatic train stop, train control, or...

  2. Elements of Inclusion: Findings from the Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMaster, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    The Ministry of Education has set the target of 100% of New Zealand schools to be "mostly" inclusive by 2014. But what are the essential elements of inclusion? This paper explores essential core elements that allow inclusion to flourish. Based on an extensive time in the field as part of a year-long doctoral research project, these…

  3. 42 CFR 136.105 - Project elements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... excepted from application of 45 CFR 74.15 by section 103(c) of Pub. L. 93-638. (f) Provide services at a... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Project elements. 136.105 Section 136.105 Public... Facilities and Services § 136.105 Project elements. A project supported under this subpart must: (a)...

  4. 16 CFR 314.4 - Elements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Elements. 314.4 Section 314.4 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS STANDARDS FOR SAFEGUARDING CUSTOMER INFORMATION § 314.4 Elements. In order to develop, implement, and maintain your...

  5. 47 CFR 10.420 - Message elements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Message elements. 10.420 Section 10.420... Requirements § 10.420 Message elements. A CMAS Alert Message processed by a Participating CMS Provider shall include five mandatory CAP elements—Event Type; Area Affected; Recommended Action; Expiration Time...

  6. 42 CFR 56.303 - Project elements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... the most recent CSA Poverty Income Guidelines (42 CFR 1060.2) (except that nominal fees for service... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Project elements. 56.303 Section 56.303 Public... SERVICES Grants for Operating Migrant Health Centers § 56.303 Project elements. A migrant health...

  7. 42 CFR 51c.403 - Project elements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Project elements. 51c.403 Section 51c.403 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR COMMUNITY HEALTH SERVICES Grants for Operating Community Health Projects § 51c.403 Project elements. A project for...

  8. 42 CFR 56.503 - Project elements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Project elements. 56.503 Section 56.503 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR MIGRANT HEALTH SERVICES Grants for Planning and Developing Migrant Health Programs § 56.503 Project elements. A...

  9. 42 CFR 56.703 - Project elements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Project elements. 56.703 Section 56.703 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR MIGRANT HEALTH SERVICES Grants for Technical Assistance § 56.703 Project elements. A project for the provision...

  10. 42 CFR 51c.504 - Project elements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Project elements. 51c.504 Section 51c.504 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR COMMUNITY HEALTH SERVICES Acquisition and Modernization of Existing Buildings § 51c.504 Project elements. (a)...

  11. 42 CFR 51c.203 - Project elements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Project elements. 51c.203 Section 51c.203 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR COMMUNITY HEALTH SERVICES Grants for Planning and Developing Community Health Centers § 51c.203 Project elements. A...

  12. 42 CFR 136.105 - Project elements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... excepted from application of 45 CFR 74.15 by section 103(c) of Pub. L. 93-638. (f) Provide services at a... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Project elements. 136.105 Section 136.105 Public... Facilities and Services § 136.105 Project elements. A project supported under this subpart must: (a)...

  13. 42 CFR 51c.403 - Project elements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Project elements. 51c.403 Section 51c.403 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR COMMUNITY HEALTH SERVICES Grants for Operating Community Health Projects § 51c.403 Project elements. A project for...

  14. 42 CFR 56.203 - Project elements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Project elements. 56.203 Section 56.203 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR MIGRANT HEALTH SERVICES Grants for Planning and Developing Migrant Health Centers § 56.203 Project elements. A project...

  15. 42 CFR 56.603 - Project elements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... set forth in the most recent CSA Poverty Income Guidelines (42 CFR 1060.2) (except that nominal fees... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Project elements. 56.603 Section 56.603 Public... SERVICES Grants for Operating Migrant Health Programs § 56.603 Project elements. A project for operating...

  16. 42 CFR 51c.504 - Project elements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Project elements. 51c.504 Section 51c.504 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR COMMUNITY HEALTH SERVICES Acquisition and Modernization of Existing Buildings § 51c.504 Project elements. (a)...

  17. 42 CFR 56.603 - Project elements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... set forth in the most recent CSA Poverty Income Guidelines (42 CFR 1060.2) (except that nominal fees... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Project elements. 56.603 Section 56.603 Public... SERVICES Grants for Operating Migrant Health Programs § 56.603 Project elements. A project for operating...

  18. 16 CFR 314.4 - Elements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Elements. 314.4 Section 314.4 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS STANDARDS FOR SAFEGUARDING CUSTOMER INFORMATION § 314.4 Elements. In order to develop, implement, and maintain your...

  19. 14 CFR 271.6 - Profit element.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Profit element. 271.6 Section 271.6 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC... element. The reasonable return for a carrier for providing essential air service at an eligible...

  20. 42 CFR 51c.303 - Project elements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... those set forth in the most recent CSA Proverty Income Guidelines (45 CFR 1060.2) and for no discount to... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Project elements. 51c.303 Section 51c.303 Public... SERVICES Grants for Operating Community Health Centers § 51c.303 Project elements. A community...

  1. 42 CFR 51c.303 - Project elements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... those set forth in the most recent CSA Proverty Income Guidelines (45 CFR 1060.2) and for no discount to... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Project elements. 51c.303 Section 51c.303 Public... SERVICES Grants for Operating Community Health Centers § 51c.303 Project elements. A community...

  2. 14 CFR 271.6 - Profit element.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Profit element. 271.6 Section 271.6 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC... element. The reasonable return for a carrier for providing essential air service at an eligible...

  3. 42 CFR 56.403 - Project elements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Project elements. 56.403 Section 56.403 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR MIGRANT HEALTH SERVICES Grants for Operating Migrant Health Entities § 56.403 Project elements. A project for...

  4. 42 CFR 51c.203 - Project elements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Project elements. 51c.203 Section 51c.203 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR COMMUNITY HEALTH SERVICES Grants for Planning and Developing Community Health Centers § 51c.203 Project elements. A...

  5. 42 CFR 56.503 - Project elements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Project elements. 56.503 Section 56.503 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR MIGRANT HEALTH SERVICES Grants for Planning and Developing Migrant Health Programs § 56.503 Project elements. A...

  6. 47 CFR 10.420 - Message elements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Message elements. 10.420 Section 10.420... Requirements § 10.420 Message elements. A CMAS Alert Message processed by a Participating CMS Provider shall include five mandatory CAP elements—Event Type; Area Affected; Recommended Action; Expiration Time...

  7. 42 CFR 56.703 - Project elements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Project elements. 56.703 Section 56.703 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR MIGRANT HEALTH SERVICES Grants for Technical Assistance § 56.703 Project elements. A project for the provision...

  8. 49 CFR 236.744 - Element, roadway.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Element, roadway. 236.744 Section 236.744 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Element, roadway. That portion of the roadway apparatus of automatic train stop, train control, or...

  9. 42 CFR 56.403 - Project elements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Project elements. 56.403 Section 56.403 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR MIGRANT HEALTH SERVICES Grants for Operating Migrant Health Entities § 56.403 Project elements. A project for...

  10. 42 CFR 56.203 - Project elements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Project elements. 56.203 Section 56.203 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR MIGRANT HEALTH SERVICES Grants for Planning and Developing Migrant Health Centers § 56.203 Project elements. A project...

  11. Evaluation of Nonverbal Elements in Mathematics Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunzel, Martin; Binterova, Helena

    2016-01-01

    This article comments on mathematics textbooks for lower secondary schools. Authors do not focus on texts in the books but on the nonverbal elements instead. A possible system of categories which enables mapping and classifying of such elements is suggested in this article. As a result of that, it is possible to evaluate and compare the textbooks…

  12. Fiberglass honeycomb elements formed quickly and cheaply

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, R. H.

    1970-01-01

    Cookie cutter device initiates production of identical, double-contoured fiber glass elements used as shock absorbers. Three-bladed edges convert triangular honeycomb elements into hexagonal shapes which are then stamped to desired length by concave and convex dies. Sandpaper smoothing completes the process.

  13. Elements of an Effective Mentoring Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese, Susan

    2006-01-01

    There are certain elements that are common among effective mentoring programs. This article describes MENTOR, an organization that serves as a resource and advocate for youth mentoring. MENTOR developed its first mentoring Elements of Effective Practice in 1990 by working with a national panel of mentoring experts. "They are research- and…

  14. Three Elements of Self-Authorship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baxter Magolda, Marcia B.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes three distinct yet interrelated elements of self-authorship: trusting the internal voice, building an internal foundation, and securing internal commitments. These elements, which emerged from longitudinal interviews with adults in their 30s, offer insights into the complexity and cyclical nature of self-authorship as well…

  15. Conversion Between Osculating and Mean Orbital Elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guinn, Joseph; Chung, Min-Kun; Vincent, Mark

    2006-01-01

    Osculating/Mean Orbital Element Conversion (C version) (OSMEANC) is a C-language computer program that performs precise conversions between osculating and mean classical orbital elements. OSMEANC can be used for precise design of spacecraft missions and maneuvers and precise calculation of planetary orbits. The program accounts for the full complexity of gravitational fields, including aspherical and third-body effects.

  16. The Automated Logistics Element Planning System (ALEPS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwaab, Douglas G.

    1991-01-01

    The design and functions of ALEPS (Automated Logistics Element Planning System) is a computer system that will automate planning and decision support for Space Station Freedom Logistical Elements (LEs) resupply and return operations. ALEPS provides data management, planning, analysis, monitoring, interfacing, and flight certification for support of LE flight load planning activities. The prototype ALEPS algorithm development is described.

  17. Elemental Etymology: What's in a Name?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, David W.

    1985-01-01

    Examines the origin of the names (or etymologies) of the chemical elements. Includes tables listing elements: (1) with names of obscure origin; (2) named for colors; (3) named after real or mythical people; (4) named after places; (5) named after heavenly bodies; and (6) having names of miscellaneous origin. (JN)

  18. 36 CFR 230.35 - FLEP elements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false FLEP elements. 230.35 Section 230.35 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE STATE AND PRIVATE FORESTRY ASSISTANCE Forest Land Enhancement Program § 230.35 FLEP elements. (a) States may use FLEP...

  19. 36 CFR 230.35 - FLEP elements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false FLEP elements. 230.35 Section 230.35 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE STATE AND PRIVATE FORESTRY ASSISTANCE Forest Land Enhancement Program § 230.35 FLEP elements. (a) States may use FLEP...

  20. 36 CFR 230.35 - FLEP elements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false FLEP elements. 230.35 Section 230.35 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE STATE AND PRIVATE FORESTRY ASSISTANCE Forest Land Enhancement Program § 230.35 FLEP elements. (a) States may use FLEP...

  1. Microstrip antenna arrays with parasitic elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Kai-Fong

    1996-01-01

    This research was concerned with using parasitic elements to improve the bandwidth, gain and axial ratio characteristics of microstrip antennas and arrays. Significant improvements in these characteristics were obtained using stacked and coplanar parasitic elements. Details of the results are described in a total of 16 journal and 17 conference papers. These are listed in Section four of this report.

  2. 19 CFR 149.3 - Data elements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Data elements. 149.3 Section 149.3 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) IMPORTER SECURITY FILING § 149.3 Data elements. (a) Shipments intended to be entered into...

  3. 19 CFR 149.3 - Data elements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Data elements. 149.3 Section 149.3 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) IMPORTER SECURITY FILING § 149.3 Data elements. (a) Shipments intended to be entered into...

  4. 19 CFR 149.3 - Data elements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Data elements. 149.3 Section 149.3 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) IMPORTER SECURITY FILING § 149.3 Data elements. (a) Shipments intended to be entered into...

  5. The Superheavy Elements and Anti-Gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Anastasovski, Petar K.

    2004-02-04

    The essence of any propulsion concept is to overcome gravity. Anti-gravity is a natural means to achieve this. Thus, the technology to pursue anti-gravity, by using superheavy elements, may provide a new propulsion paradigm. The theory of superluminal relativity provides a hypothesis for existence of elements with atomic number up to Z = 145, some of which may possess anti-gravity properties. Analysis results show that curved space-time exists demonstrating both gravitic and anti-gravitic properties not only around nuclei but inside the nuclei as well. Two groups of elements (Z < 64 and 63 < Z <145) exist that demonstrate these capabilities. The nuclei of the first group of elements have the masses with only the property of gravity. The nuclei of the elements of the second group have the masses with both properties: gravity and anti-gravity in two different ranges of curved space-time around the nuclei.. The hypothetical element with Z = 145 is the unique among all elements whose nucleus has only anti-gravity property. It is proposed that this element be named Hawking, in honour of Stephen W. Hawking.

  6. The Superheavy Elements and Anti-Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anastasovski, Petar K.

    2004-02-01

    The essence of any propulsion concept is to overcome gravity. Anti-gravity is a natural means to achieve this. Thus, the technology to pursue anti-gravity, by using superheavy elements, may provide a new propulsion paradigm. The theory of superluminal relativity provides a hypothesis for existence of elements with atomic number up to Z = 145, some of which may possess anti-gravity properties. Analysis results show that curved space-time exists demonstrating both gravitic and anti-gravitic properties not only around nuclei but inside the nuclei as well. Two groups of elements (Z < 64 and 63 < Z <145) exist that demonstrate these capabilities. The nuclei of the first group of elements have the masses with only the property of gravity. The nuclei of the elements of the second group have the masses with both properties: gravity and anti-gravity in two different ranges of curved space-time around the nuclei.. The hypothetical element with Z = 145 is the unique among all elements whose nucleus has only anti-gravity property. It is proposed that this element be named Hawking, in honour of Stephen W. Hawking.

  7. 40 CFR 721.10068 - Elemental mercury.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Substances § 721.10068 Elemental mercury. (a) Definitions. The definitions in § 721.3 apply to this section. In addition, the following definition applies: Motor vehicle has the meaning found at 40 CFR 85.1703... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Elemental mercury. 721.10068...

  8. Damper mechanism for nuclear reactor control elements

    DOEpatents

    Taft, William Elwood

    1976-01-01

    A damper mechanism which provides a nuclear reactor control element decelerating function at the end of the scram stroke. The total damping function is produced by the combination of two assemblies, which operate in sequence. First, a tapered dashram assembly decelerates the control element to a lower velocity, after which a spring hydraulic damper assembly takes over to complete the final damping.

  9. Sputter metalization of Wolter type optical elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ledger, A. M.

    1977-01-01

    An analytical task showed that the coating thickness distribution for both internal and external optical elements coated using either electron beam or sputter sources can be made uniform and will not affect the surface figure of coated elements. Also, sputtered samples of nickel, molybdenum, iridium and ruthenium deposited onto both hot and cold substrates showed excellent adhesion.

  10. Trace Element Analysis of Biological Samples.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veillon, Claude

    1986-01-01

    Reviews background of atomic absorption spectrometry techniques. Discusses problems encountered and precautions to be taken in determining trace elements in the parts-per-billion concentration range and below. Concentrates on determining chromium in biological samples by graphite furnace atomic absorption. Considers other elements, matrices, and…

  11. Are Some Elements More Equal than Others?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rich, Ronald L.

    2005-01-01

    Squeezing of elements 57-71 and 89-103 into one box each something like footnotes is done. A periodic chart is needed that does not treat the f elements as mere footnotes, partly because some like Uranium are quite important.

  12. DISSOLUTION OF ZIRCONIUM-CONTAINING FUEL ELEMENTS

    DOEpatents

    Horn, F.L.

    1961-12-12

    Uranium is recovered from spent uranium fuel elements containing or clad with zirconium. These fuel elements are placed in an anhydrous solution of hydrogen fluoride and nitrogen dioxide. Within this system uranium forms a soluble complex and zirconium forms an insoluble complex. The uranium can then be separated, treated, and removed from solution as uranium hexafluoride. (AEC)

  13. NUCLEAR REACTOR FUEL-BREEDER FUEL ELEMENT

    DOEpatents

    Currier, E.L. Jr.; Nicklas, J.H.

    1962-08-14

    A fuel-breeder fuel element was developed for a nuclear reactor wherein discrete particles of fissionable material are dispersed in a matrix of fertile breeder material. The fuel element combines the advantages of a dispersion type and a breeder-type. (AEC)

  14. Heavy Metals and Related Trace Elements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leland, Harry V.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of heavy metals and related trace elements in the environment, covering publications of 1976-77. This review includes: (1) trace treatment in natural water and in sediments; and (2) bioaccumulation and toxicity of trace elements. A list of 466 references is presented. (HM)

  15. Element 74, the Wolfram Versus Tungsten Controversy

    SciTech Connect

    Holden,N.E.

    2008-08-11

    Two and a quarter centuries ago, a heavy mineral ore was found which was thought to contain a new chemical element called heavy stone (or tungsten in Swedish). A few years later, the metal was separated from its oxide and the new element (Z=74) was called wolfram. Over the years since that time, both the names wolfram and tungsten were attached to this element in various countries. Sixty years ago, IUPAC chose wolfram as the official name for the element. A few years later, under pressure from the press in the USA, the alternative name tungsten was also allowed by IUPAC. Now the original, official name 'wolfram' has been deleted by IUPAC as one of the two alternate names for the element. The history of this controversy is described here.

  16. Transposable elements as catalysts for chromosome rearrangements.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianbo; Yu, Chuanhe; Krishnaswamy, Lakshminarasimhan; Peterson, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Barbara McClintock first showed that transposable elements in maize can induce major chromosomal rearrangements, including duplications, deletions, inversions, and translocations. More recently, researchers have made significant progress in elucidating the mechanisms by which transposons can induce genome rearrangements. For the Ac/Ds transposable element system, rearrangements are generated when the termini of different elements are used as substrates for transposition. The resulting alternative transposition reaction directly generates a variety of rearrangements. The size and type of rearrangements produced depend on the location and orientation of transposon insertion. A single locus containing a pair of alternative transposition-competent elements can produce a virtually unlimited number of genome rearrangements. With a basic understanding of the mechanisms involved, researchers are beginning to utilize both naturally occurring and in vitro-generated configurations of transposable elements in order to manipulate chromosome structure. PMID:21181539

  17. Spectral element methods - Algorithms and architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischer, Paul; Ronquist, Einar M.; Dewey, Daniel; Patera, Anthony T.

    1988-01-01

    Spectral element methods are high-order weighted residual techniques for partial differential equations that combine the geometric flexibility of finite element methods with the rapid convergence of spectral techniques. Spectral element methods are described for the simulation of incompressible fluid flows, with special emphasis on implementation of spectral element techniques on medium-grained parallel processors. Two parallel architectures are considered; the first, a commercially available message-passing hypercube system; the second, a developmental reconfigurable architecture based on Geometry-Defining Processors. High parallel efficiency is obtained in hypercube spectral element computations, indicating that load balancing and communication issues can be successfully addressed by a high-order technique/medium-grained processor algorithm-architecture coupling.

  18. Effects of thirty elements on bone metabolism.

    PubMed

    Dermience, Michael; Lognay, Georges; Mathieu, Françoise; Goyens, Philippe

    2015-10-01

    The human skeleton, made of 206 bones, plays vital roles including supporting the body, protecting organs, enabling movement, and storing minerals. Bones are made of organic structures, intimately connected with an inorganic matrix produced by bone cells. Many elements are ubiquitous in our environment, and many impact bone metabolism. Most elements have antagonistic actions depending on concentration. Indeed, some elements are essential, others are deleterious, and many can be both. Several pathways mediate effects of element deficiencies or excesses on bone metabolism. This paper aims to identify all elements that impact bone health and explore the mechanisms by which they act. To date, this is the first time that the effects of thirty minerals on bone metabolism have been summarized. PMID:26302917

  19. Effects of thirty elements on bone metabolism.

    PubMed

    Dermience, Michael; Lognay, Georges; Mathieu, Françoise; Goyens, Philippe

    2015-10-01

    The human skeleton, made of 206 bones, plays vital roles including supporting the body, protecting organs, enabling movement, and storing minerals. Bones are made of organic structures, intimately connected with an inorganic matrix produced by bone cells. Many elements are ubiquitous in our environment, and many impact bone metabolism. Most elements have antagonistic actions depending on concentration. Indeed, some elements are essential, others are deleterious, and many can be both. Several pathways mediate effects of element deficiencies or excesses on bone metabolism. This paper aims to identify all elements that impact bone health and explore the mechanisms by which they act. To date, this is the first time that the effects of thirty minerals on bone metabolism have been summarized.

  20. Rolling Element Bearing Stiffness Matrix Determination (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Y.; Parker, R.

    2014-01-01

    Current theoretical bearing models differ in their stiffness estimates because of different model assumptions. In this study, a finite element/contact mechanics model is developed for rolling element bearings with the focus of obtaining accurate bearing stiffness for a wide range of bearing types and parameters. A combined surface integral and finite element method is used to solve for the contact mechanics between the rolling elements and races. This model captures the time-dependent characteristics of the bearing contact due to the orbital motion of the rolling elements. A numerical method is developed to determine the full bearing stiffness matrix corresponding to two radial, one axial, and two angular coordinates; the rotation about the shaft axis is free by design. This proposed stiffness determination method is validated against experiments in the literature and compared to existing analytical models and widely used advanced computational methods. The fully-populated stiffness matrix demonstrates the coupling between bearing radial, axial, and tilting bearing deflections.