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Sample records for b-value apparent diffusion-weighted

  1. [Diagnostic efficiency of decline rate of signal intensity and apparent diffusion coefficient with different b values for differentiating benign and malignant breast lesions on diffusion-weighted 3.0T magnetic resonance imaging].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jing; Liu, Wanhua; Ye, Yuanyuan; Wang, Rui; Li, Fengfang; Peng, Chengyu

    2014-06-17

    To investigate the diagnostic efficiency of decline rate of signal intensity and apparent diffusion coefficient with different b values for differentiating benign and malignant breast lesions on diffusion-weighted 3.0 T magnetic resonance imaging. A total of 152 patients with 162 confirmed histopathologically breast lesions (85 malignant and 77 benign) underwent 3.0 T diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. Four b values (0, 400, 800 and 1 000 s/mm²) were used. The signal intensity and ADC values of breast lesions were measured respectively. The signal intensity decline rate (SIDR) and apparent diffusion coefficient decline rate (ADCDR) were calculated respectively. SIDR = (signal intensity of lesions with low b value-signal intensity of lesions with high b value)/signal intensity of lesions with low b value, ADCDR = (ADC value of lesions with low b value-ADC value of lesions with high b value) /ADC value of lesions with low b value. The independent sample t-test was employed for statistical analyses and the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve for evaluating the diagnosis efficiency of SIDR and ADCDR values. Significant differences were observed in SIDR between benign and malignant breast lesions with b values of 0-400, 400-800 and 800-1 000 s/mm². The sensitivities of SIDR for differentiating benign and malignant breast lesions were 61.2%, 68.2% and 67.1%, the specificities 74.0%, 85.7% and 67.5%, the diagnosis accordance rates 67.3%, 76.5% and 67.3%, the positive predictive values 72.2%, 84.1% and 69.5% and the negative predictive values 63.3%, 71.0% and 65.0% respectively. Significant differences were observed in ADCDR between benign and malignant breast lesions with b values of 400-800 s/mm² and 800-1 000 s/mm². The sensitivities of SDR for differentiating benign and malignant breast lesions were 80.0% and 65.9%, the specificities 72.7% and 65.0%, the diagnostic accordance rates 76.5% and 65.4%, the positive predictive values 76.4% and 67

  2. Diffusion-weighted imaging of the abdomen: Impact of b-values on texture analysis features.

    PubMed

    Becker, Anton S; Wagner, Matthias W; Wurnig, Moritz C; Boss, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to systematically assess the impact of the b-value on texture analysis in MR diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) of the abdomen. In eight healthy male volunteers, echo-planar DWI sequences at 16 b-values ranging between 0 and 1000 s/mm(2) were acquired at 3 T. Three different apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps were computed (0, 750/100, 390, 750 s/mm(2) /all b-values). Texture analysis of rectangular regions of interest in the liver, kidney, spleen, pancreas, paraspinal muscle and subcutaneous fat was performed on DW images and the ADC maps, applying 19 features computed from the histogram, grey-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) and grey-level run-length matrix (GLRLM). Correlations between b-values and texture features were tested with a linear and an exponential model; the best fit was determined by the smallest sum of squared residuals. Differences between the ADC maps were assessed with an analysis of variance. A Bonferroni-corrected p-value less than 0.008 (=0.05/6) was considered statistically significant. Most GLCM and GLRLM-derived texture features (12-18 per organ) showed significant correlations with the b-value. Four texture features correlated significantly with changing b-values in all organs (p < 0.008). Correlation coefficients varied between 0.7 and 1.0. The best fit varied across different structures, with fat exhibiting mostly exponential (17 features), muscle mostly linear (12 features) and the parenchymatous organs mixed feature alterations. Two GLCM features showed significant variability in the different ADC maps. Several texture features vary systematically in healthy tissues at different b-values, which needs to be taken into account if DWI data with different b-values are analyzed. Histogram and GLRLM-derived texture features are stable on ADC maps computed from different b-values.

  3. Optimization of b-value distribution for biexponential diffusion-weighted MR imaging of normal prostate.

    PubMed

    Jambor, Ivan; Merisaari, Harri; Aronen, Hannu J; Järvinen, Jukka; Saunavaara, Jani; Kauko, Tommi; Borra, Ronald; Pesola, Marko

    2014-05-01

    To determine the optimal b-value distribution for biexponential diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) of normal prostate using both a computer modeling approach and in vivo measurements. Optimal b-value distributions for the fit of three parameters (fast diffusion Df, slow diffusion Ds, and fraction of fast diffusion f) were determined using Monte-Carlo simulations. The optimal b-value distribution was calculated using four individual optimization methods. Eight healthy volunteers underwent four repeated 3 Tesla prostate DWI scans using both 16 equally distributed b-values and an optimized b-value distribution obtained from the simulations. The b-value distributions were compared in terms of measurement reliability and repeatability using Shrout-Fleiss analysis. Using low noise levels, the optimal b-value distribution formed three separate clusters at low (0-400 s/mm2), mid-range (650-1200 s/mm2), and high b-values (1700-2000 s/mm2). Higher noise levels resulted into less pronounced clustering of b-values. The clustered optimized b-value distribution demonstrated better measurement reliability and repeatability in Shrout-Fleiss analysis compared with 16 equally distributed b-values. The optimal b-value distribution was found to be a clustered distribution with b-values concentrated in the low, mid, and high ranges and was shown to improve the estimation quality of biexponential DWI parameters of in vivo experiments. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Analysis of Multiple B-Value Diffusion-Weighted Imaging in Pediatric Acute Encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    Tachibana, Yasuhiko; Aida, Noriko; Niwa, Tetsu; Nozawa, Kumiko; Kusagiri, Kouki; Mori, Kana; Endo, Kazuo; Obata, Takayuki; Inoue, Tomio

    2013-01-01

    Acute encephalopathy is a disease group more commonly seen in children. It is often severe and has neurological sequelae. Imaging is important for early diagnosis and prompt treatment to ameliorate an unfavorable outcome, but insufficient sensitivity/specificity is a problem. To overcome this, a new value (fraction of high b-pair (FH)) that could be processed from clinically acceptable MR diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) with three different b-values was designed on the basis of a two-compartment model of water diffusion signal attenuation. The purpose of this study is to compare FH with the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) regarding the detectability of pediatric acute encephalopathy. We retrospectively compared the clinical DWI of 15 children (1–10 years old, mean 2.34, 8 boys, 7 girls) of acute encephalopathy with another 16 children (1–11 years old, mean 4.89, 9 boys, 7 girls) as control. A comparison was first made visually by mapping FH on the brain images, and then a second comparison was made on the basis of 10 regions of interest (ROIs) set on cortical and subcortical areas of each child. FH map visually revealed diffusely elevated FH in cortical and subcortical areas of the patients with acute encephalopathy; the changes seemed more diffuse in FH compared to DWI. The comparison based on ROI revealed elevated mean FH in the cortical and subcortical areas of the acute encephalopathy patients compared to control with significant difference (P<0.05). Similar findings were observed even in regions where the findings of DWI were slight. The reduction of mean ADC was significant in regions with severe findings in DWI, but it was not constant in the areas with slighter DWI findings. The detectability of slight changes of cortical and subcortical lesions in acute encephalopathy may be superior in FH compared to ADC. PMID:23755112

  5. Impact of measurement parameters on apparent diffusion coefficient quantification in diffusion-weighted-magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Holger; Gatidis, Sergios; Schwenzer, Nina F; Martirosian, Petros

    2015-01-01

    The scope of this work was to systematically evaluate the reproducibility of diffusion-weighted imaging and the impact of b values used for apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) calculation as well as the echo time (TE) on the resulting ADC in phantom studies. We attempted to find a minimum upper b value needed for reliable ADC measurements. In addition, we were able to investigate these impacts not only for different diffusivities but also for different T2 relaxation times. The influence of different b values on ADC calculations for different organs was also assessed in a volunteer study. Diffusion-weighted imaging of a phantom consisting of 16 compartments with combinations of 4 different diffusivities and 4 different T2 relaxation times was conducted 5 times using 11 b values (0-1000 s/mm) and 5 different TEs. Apparent diffusion coefficient was calculated from the 16 compartment regions of interest using 42 different combinations of b values. Reproducibility of ADC was assessed from the coefficient of variation of the 5 measurements. The ADC stability was determined from a voxel-based coefficient of variation (CVsta) and the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) to find the minimum upper b values for a reliable ADC quantification. The influence of TE on ADC quantification was assessed for 9 different b value combinations. The influence of 9 different b value combinations on ADC was evaluated by a region of interest analysis of 7 organs in 12 volunteers. The found coefficient of variation was between 10.2% and 1.4%, decreasing with increasing upper b value and increasing diffusivities. Accordingly, CVsta and SNR showed the same trend. Using an upper b value of 600 s/mm gives already reliable ADC results showing a maximum CVsta of 7.5%, whereas an upper b value of 1000 s/mm revealed a maximum CVsta of 5.5%. Values of ADC reduced with increasing upper b value in phantom as well as in human data. Apparent diffusion coefficient also reduced with increasing TE and tended to

  6. Hypercellularity Components of Glioblastoma Identified by High b-Value Diffusion-Weighted Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Pramanik, Priyanka P.; Parmar, Hemant A.; Mammoser, Aaron G.; Junck, Larry R.; Kim, Michelle M.; Tsien, Christina I.; Lawrence, Theodore S.; Cao, Yue

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: Use of conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for target definition may expose glioblastomas (GB) to inadequate radiation dose coverage of the nonenhanced hypercellular subvolume. This study aimed to develop a technique to identify the hypercellular components of GB by using high b-value diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and to investigate its relationship with the prescribed 95% isodose volume (PDV) and progression-free survival (PFS). Methods and Materials: Twenty-one patients with GB underwent chemoradiation therapy post-resection and biopsy. Radiation therapy (RT) treatment planning was based upon conventional MRI. Pre-RT DWIs were acquired in 3 orthogonal directions with b-values of 0, 1000, and 3000 s/mm{sup 2}. Hypercellularity volume (HCV) was defined on the high b-value (3000 s/mm{sup 2}) DWI by a threshold method. Nonenhanced signified regions not covered by the Gd-enhanced gross tumor volume (GTV-Gd) on T1-weighted images. The PDV was used to evaluate spatial coverage of the HCV by the dose plan. Association between HCV and PFS or other clinical covariates were assessed using univariate proportional hazards regression models. Results: HCVs and nonenhanced HCVs varied from 0.58 to 67 cm{sup 3} (median: 9.8 cm{sup 3}) and 0.15 to 60 cm{sup 3} (median: 2.5 cm{sup 3}), respectively. Fourteen patients had incomplete dose coverage of the HCV, 6 of whom had >1 cm{sup 3} HCV missed by the 95% PDV (range: 1.01-25.4 cm{sup 3}). Of the 15 patients who progressed, 5 progressed earlier, within 6 months post-RT, and 10 patients afterward. Pre-RT HCVs within recurrent GTVs-Gd were 78% (range: 65%-89%) for the 5 earliest progressions but lower, 53% (range: 0%-85%), for the later progressions. HCV and nonenhanced HCV were significant negative prognostic indicators for PFS (P<.002 and P<.01, respectively). The hypercellularity subvolume not covered by the 95% PDV was a significant negative predictor for PFS (P<.05). Conclusions: High b-value DWI

  7. Accuracy of high b-value diffusion-weighted MRI for prostate cancer detection: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Godley, Keith Craig; Syer, Tom Joseph; Toms, Andoni Paul; Smith, Toby Oliver; Johnson, Glyn; Cameron, Donnie; Malcolm, Paul Napier

    2017-01-01

    Background The diagnostic accuracy of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) to detect prostate cancer is well-established. DWI provides visual as well as quantitative means of detecting tumor, the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC). Recently higher b-values have been used to improve DWI's diagnostic performance. Purpose To determine the diagnostic performance of high b-value DWI at detecting prostate cancer and whether quantifying ADC improves accuracy. Material and Methods A comprehensive literature search of published and unpublished databases was performed. Eligible studies had histopathologically proven prostate cancer, DWI sequences using b-values ≥ 1000 s/mm(2), less than ten patients, and data for creating a 2 × 2 table. Study quality was assessed with QUADAS-2 (Quality Assessment of diagnostic Accuracy Studies). Sensitivity and specificity were calculated and tests for statistical heterogeneity and threshold effect performed. Results were plotted on a summary receiver operating characteristic curve (sROC) and the area under the curve (AUC) determined the diagnostic performance of high b-value DWI. Results Ten studies met eligibility criteria with 13 subsets of data available for analysis, including 522 patients. Pooled sensitivity and specificity were 0.59 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.57-0.61) and 0.92 (95% CI, 0.91-0.92), respectively, and the sROC AUC was 0.92. Subgroup analysis showed a statistically significant ( P = 0.03) improvement in accuracy when using tumor visual assessment rather than ADC. Conclusion High b-value DWI gives good diagnostic performance for prostate cancer detection and visual assessment of tumor diffusion is significantly more accurate than ROI measurements of ADC.

  8. Diffusion-weighted single-shot echo planar MR imaging of normal human prostate using different b values.

    PubMed

    Shi, Haojun; Kong, Xiangquan; Feng, Gansheng; Xu, Haibo; Liu, Dingxi; Yu, Qun

    2008-12-01

    This study examined the effect of different b values on diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWI) of human prostate by using single-shot spin echo echo planar imaging (SE-EPI) sequences, observed the normal appearances and measured apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values in anatomical regions of normal prostate. Twenty-four healthy volunteers (mean age: 32 y) were studied by using a 1.5T system with a phased array surface multicoil. Two kinds of single-shot SE-EPI sequence were used to perform DWI in the prostate in volunteers, with five b values being 0, 30, 300, 500 to 1000 s/mm(2). The image quality with different imaging parameters was analyzed and the ADC values in anatomical regions of normal prostate were measured. DWI of prostate was successfully obtained in all volunteers. The images were of good quality, without artifacts containing pixels within the prostate. The contrast was good between the different anatomical regions of the prostatic gland, i.e., the peripheral zone (PZ), which exhibited higher signal intensity, and the central gland (CG). Signal intensity contrast was related to the magnitude of b values. The ADC values in PZ and CG were (1.27+/-0.22)x10(-3) mm(2)/s and (1.01+/-0.17)x10(-3) mm(2)/s, respectively. The ADC values were found to be significantly higher in PZ than in CG (P<0.05, paired t-test). Significant differences were found between the slice-selecting component and both the read-out and phase-encoding components of the ADC values. It is concluded that SE-EPI is a suitable DWI sequence for human prostate. The contrast between PZ and CG is good when b values are low, while the diffusion and ADC values are accurate when b values are high. ADC values are higher in PZ than in CG in normal prostate. Diffusional anisotropy is present in normal prostatic tissue.

  9. Automated prostate cancer detection using T2-weighted and high-b-value diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    Kwak, Jin Tae; Xu, Sheng; Wood, Bradford J.; Turkbey, Baris; Choyke, Peter L.; Pinto, Peter A.; Wang, Shijun; Summers, Ronald M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The authors propose a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system for prostate cancer to aid in improving the accuracy, reproducibility, and standardization of multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Methods: The proposed system utilizes two MRI sequences [T2-weighted MRI and high-b-value (b = 2000 s/mm2) diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI)] and texture features based on local binary patterns. A three-stage feature selection method is employed to provide the most discriminative features. The authors included a total of 244 patients. Training the CAD system on 108 patients (78 MR-positive prostate cancers and 105 benign MR-positive lesions), two validation studies were retrospectively performed on 136 patients (68 MR-positive prostate cancers, 111 benign MR-positive lesions, and 117 MR-negative benign lesions). Results: In distinguishing cancer from MR-positive benign lesions, an area under receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.83 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.76–0.89] was achieved. For cancer vs MR-positive or MR-negative benign lesions, the authors obtained an AUC of 0.89 AUC (95% CI: 0.84–0.93). The performance of the CAD system was not dependent on the specific regions of the prostate, e.g., a peripheral zone or transition zone. Moreover, the CAD system outperformed other combinations of MRI sequences: T2W MRI, high-b-value DWI, and the standard apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) map of DWI. Conclusions: The novel CAD system is able to detect the discriminative texture features for cancer detection and localization and is a promising tool for improving the quality and efficiency of prostate cancer diagnosis. PMID:25979032

  10. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging of the pancreas: optimizing b-value for visualization of pancreatic adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Fukukura, Yoshihiko; Shindo, Toshikazu; Hakamada, Hiroto; Takumi, Koji; Umanodan, Tomokazu; Nakajo, Masanori; Kamimura, Kiyoshisa; Umanodan, Aya; Ideue, Junnichi; Yoshiura, Takashi

    2016-10-01

    To determine the optimal b-value of 3.0-T diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) for visualizing pancreatic adenocarcinomas Fifty-five patients with histologically confirmed pancreatic adenocarcinoma underwent DWI with different b-values (b = 500, 1000, 1500, and 2000 s/mm(2)) at 3.0 T. For each b-value, we retrospectively evaluated DWI findings of pancreatic adenocarcinomas (clear hyperintensity relative to the surrounding pancreas, hyperintensity with an unclear distal border, and isointensity) and image quality, and measured tumour-to-pancreas signal intensity (SI) ratios. DWI findings, image quality, and tumour-to-pancreas SI ratios were compared between the four b-values. There was a significantly higher incidence of tumours showing clear hyperintensity on DWI with b-value of 1500 s/mm(2) than on that with b-value of 1000 s/mm(2) (P < 0.001), and on DWI with b-value of 1000 s/mm(2) than on that with b-value of 500 s/mm(2) (P < 0.001). The tumour-to-distal pancreas SI ratio was higher with b-value of 1500 s/mm(2) than with b-value of 1000 s/mm(2) (P < 0.001), and with b-value of 1000 s/mm(2) than with b-value of 500 s/mm(2) (P < 0.001). A lower image quality was obtained at increasing b-values (P < 0.001); the lowest scores were observed with b-value of 2000 s/mm(2). The use of b = 1500 s/mm(2) for 3.0-T DWI can improve the delineation of pancreatic adenocarcinomas. • Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) has been used for diagnosing pancreatic adenocarcinoma • The techniques for DWI, including the choice of b-values, vary considerably • DWI often fails to delineate pancreatic adenocarcinomas because of hyperintense pancreas • DWI with a higher b-value can improve the tumour delineation • The lowest image quality was obtained on DWI with b-value = 2000 s/mm (2).

  11. Assessment of Liver Fibrosis with Diffusion-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging Using Different b-values in Chronic Viral Hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Kocakoc, Ercan; Bakan, Ayse Ahsen; Poyrazoglu, Orhan Kursat; Dagli, Adile Ferda; Gul, Yeliz; Cicekci, Mehtap; Bahcecioglu, Ibrahim Halil

    2015-01-01

    To examine the effectiveness of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values and to compare the reliability of different b-values in detecting and identifying significant liver fibrosis. There were 44 patients with chronic viral hepatitis (CVH) in the study group and 30 healthy participants in the control group. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) was performed before the liver biopsy in patients with CVH. The values of ADC were measured with 3 different b-values (100, 600, 1,000 s/mm2). In addition, liver fibrosis was classified using the modified Ishak scoring system. Liver fibrosis stages and ADC values were compared using areas under the receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve. The study group's mean ADC value was not statistically significantly different from the control group's mean ADC value at b = 100 s/mm2 (3.69 ± 0.5 × 10-3 vs. 3.7 ± 0.3 × 10-3 mm2/s) and b = 600 s/mm2 (2.40 ± 0.3 × 10-3 vs. 2.5 ± 0.5 × 10-3 mm2/s). However, the study group's mean ADC value (0.99 ± 0.3 × 10-3 mm2/s) was significantly lower than that of the control group (1.2 ± 0.1 × 10-3 mm2/s) at b = 1,000 s/mm2. With b = 1,000 s/mm2 and the cutoff ADC value of 0.0011 mm2/s for the diagnosis of liver fibrosis, the mean area under the ROC curve was 0.702 ± 0.07 (p = 0.0015). For b = 1,000 s/mm2 and the cutoff ADC value of 0.0011 mm2/s to diagnose significant liver fibrosis (Ishak score = 3), the mean area under the ROC curve was 0.759 ± 0.07 (p = 0.0001). Measurement of ADC values by DWI was effective in detecting liver fibrosis and accurately identifying significant liver fibrosis when a b-value of 1,000 s/mm2 was used. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Diffusion-Weighted Imaging with Two Different b-Values in Detection of Solid Focal Liver Lesions.

    PubMed

    Yang, Da-wei; Wang, Ke-yang; Yao, Xun; Ye, Hui-yi; Jiang, Tao; Liu, Yuan; Gao, Jia-yin; Chen, Min; Zhou, Cheng; Yang, Zheng-han

    2016-01-01

    One hundred and eighty-two consecutive patients with suspected liver disease were recruited to receive diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) with two different b-values, in comparison with T2-weighted imaging (T2WI). The detection rate of three MR sequences in solid focal liver lesions (FLLs) and subgroup analyses were performed. Our prospective study found that DWI600 was equivalent to DWI100 and T2WI for the detection of solid FLLs overall but was significantly more accurate in the detection of malignant solid FLLs and lesions larger than 10 mm.

  13. Determination of the appropriate b value and number of gradient directions for high-angular-resolution diffusion-weighted imaging.

    PubMed

    Tournier, J-Donald; Calamante, Fernando; Connelly, Alan

    2013-12-01

    High-angular-resolution diffusion-weighted imaging (HARDI) is one of the most common MRI acquisition schemes for use with higher order models of diffusion. However, the optimal b value and number of diffusion-weighted (DW) directions for HARDI are still undetermined, primarily as a result of the large number of available reconstruction methods and corresponding parameters, making it impossible to identify a single criterion by which to assess performance. In this study, we estimate the minimum number of DW directions and optimal b values required for HARDI by focusing on the angular frequency content of the DW signal itself. The spherical harmonic (SH) series provides the spherical analogue of the Fourier series, and can hence be used to examine the angular frequency content of the DW signal. Using high-quality data acquired along 500 directions over a range of b values, we estimate that SH terms above l = 8 are negligible in practice for b values up to 5000 s/mm(2), implying that a minimum of 45 DW directions is sufficient to fully characterise the DW signal. l > 0 SH terms were found to increase as a function of b value, levelling off at b = 3000 s/mm(2), suggesting that this value already provides the highest achievable angular resolution. In practice, it is recommended to acquire more than the minimum of 45 DW directions to avoid issues with imperfections in the uniformity of the DW gradient directions and to meet signal-to-noise requirements of the intended reconstruction method. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Use of high b value diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging in acute encephalopathy/encephalitis during childhood.

    PubMed

    Tsubouchi, Yoshiko; Itamura, Shinji; Saito, Yoshiaki; Yamashita, Eijiro; Shinohara, Yuki; Okazaki, Tetsuya; Ohno, Koyo; Nishimura, Yoko; Oguri, Masayoshi; Maegaki, Yoshihiro

    2017-08-21

    To determine the use of high b value diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in the diagnosis and assessment of acute febrile encephalopathy/encephalitis in childhood. We enrolled 22 children, for whom we examined DWI with b=1000s/mm(2), DWI with b=3000s/mm(2), and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) map with b=1000 during the acute phase of febrile encephalopathy/encephalitis. Clinical diagnoses included acute encephalopathy with biphasic seizures and late reduced diffusion (AESD; n=6), clinically mild encephalopathy/encephalitis with a reversible splenial lesion (MERS; n=6), and herpes simplex virus encephalitis (HSE; n=3), unclassified acute encephalopathy/acute encephalitis (n=2); acute encephalitis with refractory, repetitive partial seizures (AERRPS; n=1); other encephalopathy (n=1); infarction (n=1); head injury (n=1); or mitochondrial myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes (n=1). The diagnostic quality of brain lesions was compared between b=1000 and b=3000 DWI images by visual inspection. In addition, we attempted a quantitative assessment using apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value and an index of signal intensity (SI) ratio, defined as the mean SI at the affected lesion divided by the mean SI at the pons. High intensity lesions were either visible only on b=3000 DWI (n=5; 2 AESD, 1 MERS, 1 HSE, and 1 unclassifiable encephalopathy) or more effectively identified on b=3000 DWI than on b=1000 DWI (n=17). The outcome of the former five subjects was favorable, without motor or intellectual sequelae. The mean SI ratio of b=3000 was significantly greater than that of b=1000 in AESD and MERS subgroups as well as in all 22 subjects. Mean ADC values were lower in the AESD and MERS than that in the HSE subgroups. We concluded that b=3000 DWI was superior to b=1000 DWI in detecting abnormal lesions in acute encephalopathy/encephalitis during childhood. Copyright © 2017 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B

  15. A quantitative evaluation of diffusion-weighted MR imaging of focal hepatic lesions by using an optimal b-value for differentiation of malignant and benign tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jae-Seung; Im, In-Chul; Kang, Su-Man; Goo, Eun-Hoe; Kim, Kwang

    2013-12-01

    In this study, we aimed to determine an optimized b-value for the characterization of focal hepatic lesions (malignant and benign tumors) and to perform a quantitative analysis of the results. To achieve this, we obtained diffusion-weighted images (DWIs) from 30 focal hepatic disease patients (liver metastasis: 20 patients, and liver hemangioma: 10 patients) by using a 1.5 T MR system and varying the b-value from 0 through 200. The experimental results revealed that at a b-value of 50, the DWIs of the lesions showed high signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs; SN R liver_meta . = 229.83 ± 19.08, SNR liver_hema . = 241.66 ± 29.02), high contrast-to-noise ratios (CNRs; CN R liver_meta . = 39.66 ± 3.87, C N R liver_hema . = 142.55 ± 12.97) and low signal intensities of the apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs; ADC liver_meta . = 1.40 × 10-3 ± 0.29, ADC liver_hema . = 2.55 × 10-3 ± 0.92). The focal hepatic lesions were clearly depicted, with DW images and ADC maps corresponding well. Thus, we could present an optimized b-value ( b = 50) for the characterization of focal hepatic lesions. Additionally, the ADC values of liver lesions were found to be useful in differentiating benign from malignant tumors.

  16. Prognostic relevance of apparent diffusion coefficient obtained by diffusion-weighted MRI in pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Kurosawa, Jo; Tawada, Katsunobu; Mikata, Rintaro; Ishihara, Takeshi; Tsuyuguchi, Toshio; Saito, Masayoshi; Shimofusa, Ryota; Yoshitomi, Hideyuki; Ohtsuka, Masayuki; Miyazaki, Masaru; Yokosuka, Osamu

    2015-12-01

    Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) is utilized as a method of oncologic imaging for predicting treatment outcomes. This study explored the role of DW-MRI in the treatment of patients with resected pancreatic cancer by comparing apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values with clinicopathological findings and survival rates. Records of 54 patients in whom DW-MRI at 1.5T was performed (b values: 0 and 1000 mm(2) /s) before macroscopically curative resection were analyzed. ADC values were then calculated and compared with clinicopathological factors including age, gender, serum carcinoembryonic antigen levels, serum carbohydrate antigen 19-9 levels, lymph node metastasis, primary tumoral location, size, differentiation, resectability, and pT stage. A survival analysis of clinicopathological factors and ADC values was performed using the Kaplan-Meier method, and the results were evaluated with the log-rank test. Prognostic significance was assessed using the Cox proportional hazard model. Significant associations were found between tumor differentiation and ADC values (P = 0.001). In a univariate analysis of overall survival, tumor differentiation (P = 0.037) and ADC values (P = 0.002) were identified as significant prognostic factors. However, age, gender, carcinoembryonic antigen levels, carbohydrate antigen 19-9 levels, lymph node metastasis, primary tumoral location, size, resectability, and pT stage were not associated with overall survival. In a multivariate analysis of overall survival, only ADC values were identified as significant prognostic factors (hazard ratio 2.293, 95% confidence interval 1.147-4.585, P = 0.019). ADC values were found to be associated with prognosis in patients with resected pancreatic cancer. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Fetal lung apparent diffusion coefficient measurement using diffusion-weighted MRI at 3 Tesla: Correlation with gestational age.

    PubMed

    Afacan, Onur; Gholipour, Ali; Mulkern, Robert V; Barnewolt, Carol E; Estroff, Judy A; Connolly, Susan A; Parad, Richard B; Bairdain, Sigrid; Warfield, Simon K

    2016-12-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of using diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) to assess the fetal lung apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) at 3 Tesla (T). Seventy-one pregnant women (32 second trimester, 39 third trimester) were scanned with a twice-refocused Echo-planar diffusion-weighted imaging sequence with 6 different b-values in 3 orthogonal diffusion orientations at 3T. After each scan, a region-of-interest (ROI) mask was drawn to select a region in the fetal lung and an automated robust maximum likelihood estimation algorithm was used to compute the ADC parameter. The amount of motion in each scan was visually rated. When scans with unacceptable levels of motion were eliminated, the lung ADC values showed a strong association with gestational age (P < 0.01), increasing dramatically between 16 and 27 weeks and then achieving a plateau around 27 weeks. We show that to get reliable estimates of ADC values of fetal lungs, a multiple b-value acquisition, where motion is either corrected or considered, can be performed. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2016;44:1650-1655. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  18. Reducing the influence of b-value selection on diffusion-weighted imaging of the prostate: evaluation of a revised monoexponential model within a clinical setting

    PubMed Central

    Mazaheri, Yousef; Vargas, Hebert Alberto; Akin, Oguz; Goldman, Debra A.; Hricak, Hedvig

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To compare the accuracy of standard and revised monoexponential models of diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DW-MRI) data for differentiating malignant from benign prostate tissue, using surgical pathology as the reference standard. Materials and Methods The institutional review board waived informed consent for this HIPAA-compliant, retrospective study of 46 patients (median age=61 years; range: 42–85 years) who underwent DW-MRI between May and December 2008 before radical prostatectomy for biopsy-proven prostate cancer, had no prior treatment, and had whole-mount step-section pathology maps available showing at least one peripheral zone (PZ) lesion >0.1 cm3. DW-MRI data were obtained for b-values of 0, 400, and 700 s/mm2. Apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) were estimated from PZ regions of interest (ROIs) on b=0, 700 and b=0, 400 s/mm2 images, using a standard monoexponential model. The true diffusion coefficent (D) and perfusion fraction (f) were measured using a revised monoexponential model incorporating all three b-values. Areas under receiver operating characteristic curves (AUCs) were calculated to assess the accuracy of individual parameters and a logistic regression model combining D and f (D+f) in distinguishing malignant ROIs; P<0.05 denoted significance. Results ADC400 (AUC=0.81, p<0.0001), ADC700 (AUC=0.79, p<0.0001), D (AUC=0.71, p=0.0001) and D+f distinguished malignant from benign ROIs (AUC=0.82, p<0.0001), but f did not (AUC=0.56, p=0.28); D+f was significantly more accurate than D (p=0.016) but not more accurate than ADC400 (p=0.26) or ADC700 (p=0.12). Conclusion The true diffusion coefficient provides an additional DW-MRI parameter for distinguishing prostate cancer that is less influenced than the ADC by b-value selection. PMID:22069141

  19. [The effect of the surroundings to the apparent diffusion coefficient on diffusion weighted imaging].

    PubMed

    Yamatani, Yuya; Doi, Tsukasa; Shimizu, Kozo; Nogi, Akihiro

    2010-10-20

    Diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) is now widely used in magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the head and body. Moreover, the Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value is often used for the differential diagnosis of the tumor. However, the effect of the surroundings on the ADC value has not been reported. In this study, we used the phantom completely sealed up to measure the change in the ADC value depending on the surroundings material. The results showed that the ADC value decreased according to the density of superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) in the surroundings. Clinically, hemorrhage or iron deposit around the tumor may affect the ADC value of the tumor and result in under-estimation.

  20. Diffusion weighted imaging and apparent diffusion coefficient in 3 tesla magnetic resonance imaging of breast lesions.

    PubMed

    Caivano, Rocchina; Villonio, Antonio; D' Antuono, Felice; Gioioso, Matilde; Rabasco, Paola; Iannelli, Giancarlo; Zandolino, Alexis; Lotumolo, Antonella; Dinardo, Giuseppina; Macarini, Luca; Guglielmi, Giuseppe; Cammarota, Aldo

    2015-05-01

    To evaluate the utility of diffusion-weighted-imaging (DWI) and apparent-diffusion-coefficient (ADC) in a 3T magnetic-resonance-imaging (MRI) study of breast cancer. In particular, the study aims to classify ADC-values according to histology either for benign or malignant lesions. 110 Breast MRI with MRI-DWI sequences and quantitative evaluation of the ADC were retrospectively reviewed. Results obtained with MRI-DWI and with biopsy were analyzed and ADC values were compared to histological results. MRI showed a 95.5% sensitivity and a 83.7% specificity. The mean ADC values of benign and malignant lesions were 2.06 ± 0.19 and 1.03 ± 0.07 mm(2)/s, respectively (p < .05). DWI and ADC-values could help distinguishing malignant and benign breast masses.

  1. Diffusion-weighted imaging in the prostate: an apparent diffusion coefficient comparison of half-Fourier acquisition single-shot turbo spin-echo and echo planar imaging.

    PubMed

    Babourina-Brooks, Ben; Cowin, Gary J; Wang, Deming

    2012-02-01

    Prostate cancer detection using diffusion-weighted imaging is highly affected by the accuracy of the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values in an image. Echo planar imaging (EPI) is a fast sequence commonly used for diffusion imaging but has inherent magnetic susceptibility and chemical shift artefacts associated. A diffusion sequence that is less affected by these artefacts is therefore advantageous. The half-Fourier acquisition single-shot turbo spin-echo (HASTE) sequence was chosen. The diffusion sequences were compared in image quality, repeatability of the ADC value and the effect on the ADC value with varied b values. Eight volunteers underwent three scans of each sequence, on a 1.5-T Siemens system, using b values of 0, 150, 300, 450, 600, 750, 900 and 1000 s/mm(2). ADC maps were created to address the reproducibility of the ADC value when using two b values compared to eight b values. The ADC value using all b values with the HASTE sequence gave the best performance in all tested categories. Both sequences gave significantly different ADC mean values for two b values compared to when using eight b values (P<.05) suggesting larger error is present when using two b values. HASTE was shown to be an improvement over EPI in terms of repeatability, signal variation within a region of interest and standard deviation over the volunteer set. The improved accuracy of the ADC value in the HASTE sequence makes it potentially a more sensitive tumor detection technique.

  2. Comparison and Optimization of 3.0 T Breast Images Quality of Diffusion-Weighted Imaging with Multiple B-Values.

    PubMed

    Han, Xiaowei; Li, Junfeng; Wang, Xiaoyi

    2017-04-01

    Breast 3.0 T magnetic resonance diffusion-weighted imaging (MR-DWI) of benign and malignant lesions were obtained to measure and calculate the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), signal intensity ratio (SIR), and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of lesions at different b-values. The variation patterns of SNR and SIR were analyzed with different b-values and the images of DWI were compared at four different b-values with higher image quality. The effect of SIR on the differential diagnostic efficiency of benign and malignant lesions was compared using receiver operating characteristic curves to provide a reference for selecting the optimal b-value. A total of 96 qualified patients with 112 lesions and 14 patients with their contralateral 14 normal breasts were included in this study. The single-shot echo planar imaging sequence was used to perform the DWI and a total of 13 b-values were used: 0, 50, 100, 200, 400, 600, 800, 1000, 1200, 1500, 1800, 2000, and 2500 s/mm(2). On DWI, the suitable regions of interest were selected. The SNRs of normal breasts (SNRnormal), SNRlesions, SIR, and CNR of benign and malignant lesions were measured on DWI with different b-values and calculated. The variation patterns of SNR, SIR, and CNR values on DWI for normal breasts, benign lesions, and malignant lesions with different b-values were analyzed by using Pearson correlation analysis. The SNR and SIR of benign and malignant lesions with the same b-values were compared using t-tests. The diagnostic efficiencies of SIR with different b-values for benign and malignant lesions were evaluated using receiver operating characteristic curves. Breast DWI had higher CNR for b-values ranging from 600 to 1200 s/mm(2). It had the best CNR at b = 1000 s/mm(2) for the benign lesions and at b = 1200 s/mm(2) for the malignant lesions. The signal intensity and SNR values of normal breasts decreased with increasing b-values, with a negative correlation (r = -0.945, P < 0.01). The mean

  3. Diffusion-weighted imaging of normal fibroglandular breast tissue: influence of microperfusion and fat suppression technique on the apparent diffusion coefficient.

    PubMed

    Baron, Paul; Dorrius, Monique D; Kappert, Peter; Oudkerk, Matthijs; Sijens, Paul E

    2010-05-01

    The influence of microperfusion and fat suppression technique on the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values obtained with diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) of normal fibroglandular breast tissue was investigated. Seven volunteers (14 breasts) were scanned using diffusion weighting factors (b values) up to 1600 s/mm(2) and the four different fat suppression techniques: STIR, fat saturation, SPAIR, and Water Excitation. The relationship between the logarithmic DW attenuation curves and b was linear for b values up to 600 s/mm(2) (R(2) > 0.999). Small differences were noted between the ADC values obtained with the various fat suppression methods, especially at the higher b values. Water Excitation had the highest mean SNR, exceeding STIR (p = 0.03) though not significantly different from fat saturation and SPAIR. In conclusion, the ADC of fibroglandular breast tissue is not influenced by microperfusion and Water Excitation is recommended because it yielded the best SNR values. These factors may be crucial in the differentiation between benign and malignant lesions.

  4. Diffusion-weighted imaging and apparent diffusion coefficient evaluation of herpes simplex encephalitis and Japanese encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Sawlani, Vijay

    2009-12-15

    The aim of the study was to evaluate (a) the role of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values in differentiating necrotising herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) and non-necrotising Japanese encephalitis (JE) and (b) to correlate the ADC values with the duration of illness. Forty-five confirmed cases of encephalitis (38 patients with JE and 7 patients with HSE) underwent MR imaging. IgM antibody capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (IgM MAC-ELISA) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests were performed in cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) sample to confirm the diagnosis of JE and HSE respectively. MRI findings were recorded in terms of site of involvement, extent of lesions, visibility of each lesion on T2W, DWI and FLAIR sequences and ADC calculations. To observe the changes in ADC with duration of illness, patients with JE and HSE were regrouped on the basis of time since clinical presentation. Mean of the ADC value in each patient was noted and subjected for statistical analysis. In HSE lesions there was a significant restricted diffusion with low average ADC values observed in acute stage and facilitated diffusion with high average ADC values observed in chronic stage. Whereas JE lesions did not show restricted diffusion and significant low ADC values in acute stage, though facilitated diffusion and high ADC values were observed in chronic stage. The diffusion abnormality and conspicuity of lesions on DWI may be different in various acute encephalitis (HSE and JE). The ADC values are different in the acute stages of HSE and JE reflecting the difference in the degree of diffusability of water molecule. These observations may suggest that there may be an abundance of cytotoxic oedema in HSE and paucity of cytotoxic oedema in JE, in acute stage.

  5. Diffusion-weighted MRI of epithelial ovarian cancers: correlation of apparent diffusion coefficient values with histologic grade and surgical stage.

    PubMed

    Oh, Ji-Won; Rha, Sung Eun; Oh, Soon Nam; Park, Michael Yong; Byun, Jae Young; Lee, Ahwon

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this article is to correlate the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values of epithelial ovarian cancers with histologic grade and surgical stage. We enrolled 43 patients with pathologically proven epithelial ovarian cancers for this retrospective study. All patients underwent preoperative pelvic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) including diffusion-weighted images with b value of 0 and 1000 s/mm2 at 3.0-T unit. The mean ADC values of the solid portion of the tumor were measured and compared among different histologic grades and surgical stages. The mean ADC values of epithelial ovarian cancers differed significantly between grade 1 (well-differentiated) and grade 2 (moderately-differentiated) (P=0.013) as well as between grade 1 and grade 3 (poorly-differentiated) (P=0.01); however, no statistically significant difference existed between grade 2 and grade 3 (P=0.737). The receiver-operating characteristic analysis indicated that a cutoff ADC value of less than or equal to 1.09×10(-3)mm2/s was associated with 94.4% sensitivity and 85.7% specificity in distinguishing grade 1 and grade 2/3 cancer. The difference in mean ADC values was statistically significant for early stage (FIGO stage I) and advanced stage (FIGO stage II-IV) cancer (P=0.011). The interobserver agreement for the mean ADC values of epithelial ovarian cancers was excellent. The mean ADC values of the solid portion of epithelial ovarian cancers negatively correlated to histologic grade and surgical stage. The mean ADC values may be useful imaging biomarkers for assessment of tumor grade of epithelial ovarian cancer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Correlation between apparent diffusion coefficient value on diffusion-weighted MR imaging and Gleason score in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Wu, X; Reinikainen, P; Vanhanen, A; Kapanen, M; Vierikko, T; Ryymin, P; Hyödynmaa, S; Kellokumpu-Lehtinen, P-L

    2017-01-01

    To investigate whether diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) correlates with prostate cancer aggressiveness and further to compare the diagnostic performance of ADC and normalized ADC (nADC: normalized to non-tumor tissue). Thirty pre-treatment patients (mean age, 69years; range: 59-78years) with prostate cancer underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examination, including DWI with three b values: 50, 400, and 800s/mm(2). Both ADC and nADC were correlated with the Gleason score obtained through transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy. The tumor minimum ADC (ADCmin: the lowest ADC value within tumor) had an inverse correlation with the Gleason score (r=-0.43, P<0.05), and it was lower in patients with Gleason score 3+4 than in those with Gleason score 3+3 (0.54±0.11×10(3)mm(2)/s vs. 0.64±0.12×10(-3)mm(2)/s, P<0.05). Both the nADCmin and nADCmean correlated with the Gleason score (r=-0.52 and r=-0.55, P<0.01; respectively), and they were lower in patients with Gleason score 3+4 than those with Gleason score 3+3 (P<0.01; respectively). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis showed that the area under the ROC curve was 0.765, 0.818, or 0.833 for the ADCmin, nADCmin, or nADCmean; respectively, in differentiating between Gleason score 3+4 and 3+3 tumors. Tumor ADCmin, nADCmin, and nADCmean are useful markers to predict the aggressiveness of prostate cancer. Copyright © 2016 Éditions françaises de radiologie. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Additional Value of Diffusion-Weighted Imaging to Evaluate Prognostic Factors of Breast Cancer: Correlation with the Apparent Diffusion Coefficient.

    PubMed

    Park, Eun Kyung; Cho, Kyu Ran; Seo, Bo Kyoung; Woo, Ok Hee; Cho, Sung Bum; Bae, Jeoung Won

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease with diverse prognoses. The main prognostic determinants are lymph node status, tumor size, histological grade, and biological factors, such as hormone receptors, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), Ki-67 protein levels, and p53 expression. Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) can be used to measure the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) that provides information related to tumor cellularity and the integrity of the cell membranes. The goal of this study was to evaluate whether ADC measurements could provide information on the prognostic factors of breast cancer. A total of 71 women with invasive breast cancer, treated consecutively, who underwent preoperative breast MRIs with DWI at 3.0 Tesla and subsequent surgery, were prospectively included in this study. Each DWI was acquired with b values of 0 and 1000 s/mm(2). The mean ADC values of the lesions were measured, including the entire lesion on the three largest sections. We performed histopathological analyses for the tumor size, lymph node status, histological grade, hormone receptors, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), Ki-67, p53, and molecular subtypes. The associations with the ADC values and prognostic factors of breast cancer were evaluated using the independent-samples t test and the one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). A low ADC value was associated with lymph node metastasis (P < 0.01) and with high Ki-67 protein levels (P = 0.03). There were no significant differences in the ADC values among the histological grade (P = 0.48), molecular subtype (P = 0.51), tumor size (P = 0.46), and p53 protein level (P = 0.62). The pre-operative use of the 3.0 Tesla DWI could provide information about the lymph node status and tumor proliferation for breast cancer patients, and could help determine the optimal treatment plan.

  8. Liver lobe-based magnetic resonance diffusion-weighted imaging using multiple b values in patients with hepatitis B-related liver cirrhosis: association with the liver disease severity according to the Child-Pugh class

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Hong-Jie; Zhou, Li; Zhang, Xiao-Ming; Liu, Jun; Chen, Tian-Wu; Zeng, Nan-Lin; Wang, Dan; Li, Jie; Huang, Yu-Cheng; Tang, Yu-Lian; Hu, Jiani

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the associations of liver lobe-based magnetic resonance diffusion-weighted imaging findings using multiple b values with the presence and Child-Pugh class of cirrhosis in patients with hepatitis B. METHODS: Seventy-four cirrhotic patients with hepatitis B and 25 healthy volunteers underwent diffusion-weighted imaging using b values of 0, 500, 800 and 1000 sec/mm2. The apparent diffusion coefficients of individual liver lobes for b(0,500), b(0,800) and b(0,1000) were derived from the signal intensity averaged across images obtained using b values of 0 and 500 sec/mm2, 0 and 800 sec/mm2, or 0 and 1000 sec/mm2, respectively, and were statistically analyzed to evaluate cirrhosis. RESULTS: The apparent diffusion coefficients for b(0,500), b(0,800) and b(0,1000) inversely correlated with the Child-Pugh class in the left lateral liver lobe, the left medial liver lobe, the right liver lobe and the caudate lobe (r=–0.35 to –0.60, all p<0.05), except for the apparent diffusion coefficient for b(0,1000) in the left medial liver lobe (r=–0.17, p>0.05). Among these parameters, the apparent diffusion coefficient for b(0,500) in the left lateral liver lobe best differentiated normal from cirrhotic liver, with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.989. The apparent diffusion coefficient for b(0,800) in the right liver lobe best distinguished Child-Pugh class A from B–C and A–B from C, with areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.732 and 0.747, respectively. CONCLUSION: Liver lobe-based apparent diffusion coefficients for b(0,500) and b(0,800) appear to be associated with the presence and Child-Pugh class of liver cirrhosis. PMID:26222818

  9. Evaluation of different mathematical models and different b-value ranges of diffusion-weighted imaging in peripheral zone prostate cancer detection using b-value up to 4500 s/mm2

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Zhaoyan; Min, Xiangde; Margolis, Daniel J. A.; Duan, Caohui; Chen, Yuping; Sah, Vivek Kumar; Chaudhary, Nabin; Li, Basen; Ke, Zan; Zhang, Peipei; Wang, Liang

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the diagnostic performance of different mathematical models and different b-value ranges of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in peripheral zone prostate cancer (PZ PCa) detection. Methods Fifty-six patients with histologically proven PZ PCa who underwent DWI-magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using 21 b-values (0–4500 s/mm2) were included. The mean signal intensities of the regions of interest (ROIs) placed in benign PZs and cancerous tissues on DWI images were fitted using mono-exponential, bi-exponential, stretched-exponential, and kurtosis models. The b-values were divided into four ranges: 0–1000, 0–2000, 0–3200, and 0–4500 s/mm2, grouped as A, B, C, and D, respectively. ADC, , D*, f, DDC, α, Dapp, and Kapp were estimated for each group. The adjusted coefficient of determination (R2) was calculated to measure goodness-of-fit. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was performed to evaluate the diagnostic performance of the parameters. Results All parameters except D* showed significant differences between cancerous tissues and benign PZs in each group. The area under the curve values (AUCs) of ADC were comparable in groups C and D (p = 0.980) and were significantly higher than those in groups A and B (p< 0.05 for all). The AUCs of ADC and Kapp in groups B and C were similar (p = 0.07 and p = 0.954), and were significantly higher than the other parameters (p< 0.001 for all). The AUCs of ADC in group D was slightly higher than Kapp (p = 0.002), and both were significantly higher than the other parameters (p< 0.001 for all). Conclusions ADC derived from conventional mono-exponential high b-value (3200 s/mm2) models is an optimal parameter for PZ PCa detection. PMID:28199367

  10. Differentiation of Low- and High-Grade Pediatric Brain Tumors with High b-Value Diffusion-weighted MR Imaging and a Fractional Order Calculus Model

    PubMed Central

    Sui, Yi; Wang, He; Liu, Guanzhong; Damen, Frederick W.; Wanamaker, Christian; Li, Yuhua

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To demonstrate that a new set of parameters (D, β, and μ) from a fractional order calculus (FROC) diffusion model can be used to improve the accuracy of MR imaging for differentiating among low- and high-grade pediatric brain tumors. Materials and Methods The institutional review board of the performing hospital approved this study, and written informed consent was obtained from the legal guardians of pediatric patients. Multi-b-value diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) imaging was performed in 67 pediatric patients with brain tumors. Diffusion coefficient D, fractional order parameter β (which correlates with tissue heterogeneity), and a microstructural quantity μ were calculated by fitting the multi-b-value diffusion-weighted images to an FROC model. D, β, and μ values were measured in solid tumor regions, as well as in normal-appearing gray matter as a control. These values were compared between the low- and high-grade tumor groups by using the Mann-Whitney U test. The performance of FROC parameters for differentiating among patient groups was evaluated with receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Results None of the FROC parameters exhibited significant differences in normal-appearing gray matter (P ≥ .24), but all showed a significant difference (P < .002) between low- (D, 1.53 μm2/msec ± 0.47; β, 0.87 ± 0.06; μ, 8.67 μm ± 0.95) and high-grade (D, 0.86 μm2/msec ± 0.23; β, 0.73 ± 0.06; μ, 7.8 μm ± 0.70) brain tumor groups. The combination of D and β produced the largest area under the ROC curve (0.962) in the ROC analysis compared with individual parameters (β, 0.943; D,0.910; and μ, 0.763), indicating an improved performance for tumor differentiation. Conclusion The FROC parameters can be used to differentiate between low- and high-grade pediatric brain tumor groups. The combination of FROC parameters or individual parameters may serve as in vivo, noninvasive, and quantitative imaging markers for classifying

  11. Diffusion-weighted quantitative MRI of pleural abnormalities: Intra- and interobserver variability in the apparent diffusion coefficient measurements.

    PubMed

    Priola, Adriano Massimiliano; Priola, Sandro Massimo; Gned, Dario; Giraudo, Maria Teresa; Brundu, Maria; Righi, Luisella; Veltri, Andrea

    2017-09-01

    To assess intra- and interobserver variability in the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) measurements of pleural abnormalities. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging was performed in 34 patients to characterize pleural abnormalities, with a 1.5T unit at b values of 0/150/500/800 sec/mm(2) . In two sessions held 3 months apart, on perfusion-free ADC maps, two independent readers measured the ADC of pleural abnormalities (two readings for each reader in each case) using different methods of region-of-interest (ROI) positioning. In three methods, freehand ROIs were drawn within tumor boundaries to encompass the entire lesion on one or more axial slices (whole tumor volume [WTV], three slices observer-defined [TSOD], single-slice [SS]), while in two methods one or more ROIs were placed on the more restricted areas (multiple small round ROI [MSR], one small round ROI [OSR]). Measurement variability between readings by each reader (intraobserver repeatability) and between readers in first reading (interobserver repeatability) were assessed using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and coefficient of variation (CoV). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed to compare ADC values between the different methods. The measurement time of each case for all methods in first reading was recorded and compared between methods and readers. All methods demonstrated good (MSR, OSR) and excellent (WTV, TSOD, SS) intra- and interreader agreement, with best and worst repeatability in WTV (lower ICC, 0.977; higher CoV, 3.5%) and OSR (lower ICC, 0.625; higher CoV, 22.8%), respectively. The lower 95% confidence interval of ICC resulted in fair to moderate agreement for OSR (up to 0.379) and in excellent agreement for WTV, TSV, and SS (up to 0.918). ADC values of OSR and MSR were significantly lower compared to other methods (P < 0.001). The OSR and SS required less measurement time (10 and 21/22 sec, respectively) compared to the others (P < 0.0001), while the WTV required

  12. Intravoxel incoherent motion model–based analysis of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging with 3 b-values for response assessment in locoregional therapy of hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Mürtz, Petra; Penner, Arndt-Hendrik; Pfeiffer, Anne-Kristina; Sprinkart, Alois M; Pieper, Claus C; König, Roy; Block, Wolfgang; Schild, Hans H; Willinek, Winfried A; Kukuk, Guido M

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to evaluate an intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) model–based analysis of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) for assessing the response of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) to locoregional therapy. Patients and methods Respiratory-gated DWI (b=0, 50, and 800 s/mm2) was retrospectively analyzed in 25 patients who underwent magnetic resonance imaging at 1.5 T before and 6 weeks following the first cycle of transarterial chemoembolization therapy, transarterial ethanol-lipiodol embolization therapy, and transarterial radioembolization therapy. In addition to the determination of apparent diffusion coefficient, ADC(0,800), an estimation of the diffusion coefficient, D′, and the perfusion fraction, f′, was performed by using a simplified IVIM approach. Parameters were analyzed voxel-wise. Tumor response was assessed in a central slice by using a region of interest (ROI) covering the whole tumor. HCCs were categorized into two groups, responders and nonresponders, according to tumor size changes on first and second follow ups (if available) and changes of contrast-enhanced region on the first follow up. Results In total, 31 HCCs were analyzed: 17 lesions were assigned to responders and 14 were to nonresponders. In responders, ADC(0,800) and D′ were increased after therapy by ~30% (P=0.00004) and ~42% (P=0.00001), respectively, whereas f′ was decreased by ~37% (P=0.00094). No significant changes were found in nonresponders. Responders and nonresponders were better differentiated by changes in D′ than by changes in ADC(0,800) (area under the curve =0.878 vs 0.819 or 0.714, respectively). Conclusion In patients with HCCs undergoing embolization therapy, diffusion changes were better reflected by D′ than by conventional ADC(0,800), which is influenced by counteracting perfusion changes as assessed by f′. PMID:27799790

  13. Diffusion-weighted imaging in the head and neck region: usefulness of apparent diffusion coefficient values for characterization of lesions.

    PubMed

    Şerifoğlu, İsmail; Oz, İbrahim İlker; Damar, Murat; Tokgöz, Özlem; Yazgan, Ömer; Erdem, Zuhal

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate the role of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values calculated from diffusion-weighted imaging for head and neck lesion characterization in daily routine, in comparison with histopathological results. Ninety consecutive patients who underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at a university hospital for diagnosis of neck lesions were included in this prospective study. Diffusion-weighted echo-planar MRI was performed on a 1.5 T unit with b factor of 0 and 1000 s/mm2 and ADC maps were generated. ADC values were measured for benign and malignant whole lesions seen in daily practice. The median ADC value of the malignant tumors and benign lesions were 0.72×10-3 mm2/s, (range, 0.39-1.51×10-3 mm2/s) and 1.17×10-3 mm2/s, (range, 0.52-2.38×10-3 mm2/s), respectively, with a significant difference between them (P < 0.001). A cutoff ADC value of 0.98×10-3 mm2/s was used to distinguish between benign and malignant lesions, yielding 85.3% sensitivity and 78.6% specificity. The median ADC value of lymphomas (0.44×10-3 mm2/s; range, 0.39-0.58×10-3 mm2/s) was significantly smaller (P < 0.001) than that of squamous cell carcinomas (median ADC value 0.72×10-3 mm2/s; range, 0.65-1.06×10-3 mm2/s). There was no significant difference between median ADC values of inflammatory (1.13×10-3 mm2/s; range, 0.85-2.38×10-3 mm2/s) and noninflammatory benign lesions (1.26×10-3 mm2/s; range, 0.52-2.33×10-3 mm2/s). Diffusion-weighted imaging and the ADC values can be used to differentiate and characterize benign and malignant head and neck lesions.

  14. Diffusion-weighted imaging in the head and neck region: usefulness of apparent diffusion coefficient values for characterization of lesions

    PubMed Central

    Şerifoğlu, İsmail; Oz, İbrahim İlker; Damar, Murat; Tokgöz, Özlem; Yazgan, Ömer; Erdem, Zuhal

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE We aimed to evaluate the role of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values calculated from diffusion-weighted imaging for head and neck lesion characterization in daily routine, in comparison with histopathological results. METHODS Ninety consecutive patients who underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at a university hospital for diagnosis of neck lesions were included in this prospective study. Diffusion-weighted echo-planar MRI was performed on a 1.5 T unit with b factor of 0 and 1000 s/mm2 and ADC maps were generated. ADC values were measured for benign and malignant whole lesions seen in daily practice. RESULTS The median ADC value of the malignant tumors and benign lesions were 0.72×10−3 mm2/s, (range, 0.39–1.51×10−3 mm2/s) and 1.17×10−3 mm2/s, (range, 0.52–2.38×10−3 mm2/s), respectively, with a significant difference between them (P < 0.001). A cutoff ADC value of 0.98×10−3 mm2/s was used to distinguish between benign and malignant lesions, yielding 85.3% sensitivity and 78.6% specificity. The median ADC value of lymphomas (0.44×10−3 mm2/s; range, 0.39–0.58×10−3 mm2/s) was significantly smaller (P < 0.001) than that of squamous cell carcinomas (median ADC value 0.72×10−3 mm2/s; range, 0.65–1.06×10−3 mm2/s). There was no significant difference between median ADC values of inflammatory (1.13×10−3 mm2/s; range, 0.85–2.38×10−3 mm2/s) and noninflammatory benign lesions (1.26×10−3 mm2/s; range, 0.52–2.33×10−3 mm2/s). CONCLUSION Diffusion-weighted imaging and the ADC values can be used to differentiate and characterize benign and malignant head and neck lesions. PMID:25910284

  15. Thin-section diffusion-weighted imaging of the infratentorium in patients with acute cerebral ischemia without apparent lesion on conventional diffusion-weighted imaging.

    PubMed

    Sorimachi, Takatoshi; Ito, Yasushi; Morita, Kenichi; Fujii, Yukihiko

    2008-03-01

    False-negative diffusion-weighted (DW) imaging findings are often encountered during the acute stage of cerebral ischemia. The types of acute ischemia most likely to be missed by conventional DW imaging, and the utility of additional thin-section DW imaging of the infratentorium were investigated in 192 consecutive patients admitted within 24 hours of the onset of ischemic symptoms. If 6-mm section DW imaging at admission showed no obvious lesion, additional 3-mm section DW imaging of the infratentorium was performed. Six-mm section DW imaging failed to demonstrate ischemic lesion in 32 patients; 18 patients with transient ischemic attack (TIA), 13 with infratentorial infarction, and one with supratentorial infarction. Three-mm section DW imaging revealed the ischemic lesions in 12 of these 32 patients. Most patients with negative 6-mm section DW imaging findings at admission suffered from either infratentorial infarction or TIA. If 6-mm section DW imaging shows no ischemic lesion, 3-mm section DW imaging of the infratentorium is considered to be useful for detection of the lesion.

  16. Diffusion weighted imaging for the differentiation of breast tumors: From apparent diffusion coefficient to high order diffusion tensor imaging.

    PubMed

    Teruel, Jose R; Goa, Pål E; Sjøbakk, Torill E; Østlie, Agnes; Fjøsne, Hans E; Bathen, Tone F

    2016-05-01

    To compare "standard" diffusion weighted imaging, and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) of 2(nd) and 4(th) -order for the differentiation of malignant and benign breast lesions. Seventy-one patients were imaged at 3 Tesla with a 16-channel breast coil. A diffusion weighted MRI sequence including b = 0 and b = 700 in 30 directions was obtained for all patients. The image data were fitted to three different diffusion models: isotropic model - apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), 2(nd) -order tensor model (the standard model used for DTI) and a 4(th) -order tensor model, with increased degrees of freedom to describe anisotropy. The ability of the fitted parameters in the different models to differentiate between malignant and benign tumors was analyzed. Seventy-two breast lesions were analyzed, out of which 38 corresponded to malignant and 34 to benign tumors. ADC (using any model) presented the highest discriminative ability of malignant from benign tumors with a receiver operating characteristic area under the curve (AUC) of 0.968, and sensitivity and specificity of 94.1% and 94.7% respectively for a 1.33 × 10(-3) mm(2) /s cutoff. Anisotropy measurements presented high statistical significance between malignant and benign tumors (P < 0.001), but with lower discriminative ability of malignant from benign tumors than ADC (AUC of 0.896 and 0.897 for fractional anisotropy and generalized anisotropy respectively). Statistical significant difference was found between generalized anisotropy and fractional anisotropy for cancers (P < 0.001) but not for benign lesions (P = 0.87). While anisotropy parameters have the potential to provide additional value for breast applications as demonstrated in this study, ADC exhibited the highest differentiation power between malignant and benign breast tumors. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. A study of the relationship between gender/age and apparent diffusion coefficient values in spleen of healthy adults using diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    Nazarlou, Ali Kiani; Abdolmohammadi, Jamil

    2015-01-01

    Background: Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) systems are very effective in detecting strokes, and they also have shown significant promise in the detection of fibrosis and cirrhosis of the liver. However, such systems have the disadvantages of poor reproducibility and noise, which can diminish the accuracy of the apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) provided by the DWI process. The main aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the age and gender of healthy adults in terms of the ADC values of the spleen measured by DWI. Methods: Sixty-nine subjects selected for this study from people who were referred to the Tabesh Medical Imaging Center in Tabriz, Iran, in 2013. Each subject underwent echo-planar DWI for her or his ADC values of the spleen with b-values of 50, 400, and 800 s/mm2, and the resulting ADC values were evaluated. Results: No significant differences were observed in ADC values of the spleen among the female and male participants or those from various ages (P>0.05). Conclusions: Based on the findings of this study, it was concluded that the effect of age and gender on the spleen’s ADC values can be omitted from the spleen-diagnosis procedure. In other words, the spleen’s ADC values are not related to the age or the gender of healthy adults. PMID:26052412

  18. Intraobserver and interobserver variability in the calculation of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) from diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) of breast tumours.

    PubMed

    Petralia, G; Bonello, L; Summers, P; Preda, L; Malasevschi, A; Raimondi, S; Di Filippi, R; Locatelli, M; Curigliano, G; Renne, G; Bellomi, M

    2011-04-01

    This study evaluated intraobserver and interobserver variability in the measurement of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values in breast carcinomas. Twenty-eight patients with solid breast lesions >10 mm underwent conventional contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and diffusion-weighted MRI (DW-MRI). Two observers (expert and trainee) segmented the lesion from the surrounding breast tissue on DW images with high b-value (1,000 s/mm(2)). This analysis was repeated by the expert reader after 6 months. Volumes were analysed to obtain mean, median and standard deviation (SD) of the ADC values. Interobserver and intraobserver variation was analysed using the Bland-Altman graph. All lesions were breast carcinomas, with a mean ADC value of 1.07 × 10(-3) mm(2)/s. The mean of the differences was 0.012 × 10(-3) mm(2)/s, corresponding to an intraobserver variability of 1.1% (limits of agreement: -5%/+8%). The mean interobserver difference was 0.022 × 10(-3) mm(2)/s, corresponding to an interobserver variability of 2% (limits of agreement: -9%/+14%). We found a low intraobserver and interobserver variability in calculating ADC in breast carcinomas, which supports its potential use in routine clinical practice.

  19. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging of upper abdominal organs at different time points: Apparent diffusion coefficient normalization using a reference organ.

    PubMed

    Song, Ji Soo; Kwak, Hyo Sung; Byon, Jung Hee; Jin, Gong Yong

    2017-05-01

    To compare the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of upper abdominal organs acquired at different time points, and to investigate the usefulness of normalization. We retrospectively evaluated 58 patients who underwent three rounds of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging including diffusion-weighted imaging of the upper abdomen. MR examinations were performed using three different 3.0 Tesla (T) and one 1.5T systems, with variable b value combinations and respiratory motion compensation techniques. The ADC values of the upper abdominal organs from three different time points were analyzed, using the ADC values of the paraspinal muscle (ADCpsm ) and spleen (ADCspleen ) for normalization. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) and comparison of dependent ICCs were used for statistical analysis. The ICCs of the original ADC and ADCpsm showed fair to substantial agreement, while ADCspleen showed substantial to almost perfect agreement. The ICC of ADCspleen of all anatomical regions showed less variability compared with that of the original ADC (P < 0.005). Normalized ADC using the spleen as a reference organ significantly decreased variability in measurement of the upper abdominal organs in different MR systems at different time points and could be regarded as an imaging biomarker for future multicenter, longitudinal studies. 5 J. MAGN. RESON. IMAGING 2017;45:1494-1501. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  20. Quantification of diffusion-weighted images (DWI) and apparent diffusion coefficient maps (ADC) in the detection of acute stroke

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tulipano, P. Karina; Millar, William S.; Imielinska, Celina; Liu, Xin; Rosiene, Joel; D'Ambrosio, Anthony L.

    2006-03-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is an imaging modality that is used in the management and diagnosis of acute stroke. Common MR imaging techniques such as diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) and apparent diffusion coefficient maps (ADC) are used routinely in the diagnosis of acute infarcts. However, advances in radiology information systems and imaging protocols have led to an overload of image information that can be difficult to manage and time consuming. Automated techniques to assist in the identification of acute ischemic stroke can prove beneficial to 1) the physician by providing a mechanism for early detection and 2) the patient by providing effective stroke therapy at an early stage. We have processed DW images and ADC maps using a novel automated Relative Difference Map (RDM) method that was tailored to the identification and delineation of the stroke region. Results indicate that the technique can delineate regions of acute infarctions on DW images and ADC maps. A formal evaluation of the RDM algorithm was performed by comparing accuracy measurements between 1) expert generated ground truths with the RDM delineated DWI infarcts and 2) RDM delineated DWI infarcts with RDM delineated ADC infarcts. The accuracy measurements indicate that the RDM delineated DWI infarcts are comparable to the expert generated ground truths. The true positive volume fraction value (TPVF), between RDM delineated DWI and ADC infarcts, is nonzero for all cases with an acute infarct while the value for non-acute cases remains zero.

  1. Short-term reproducibility of apparent diffusion coefficient estimated from diffusion-weighted MRI of the prostate.

    PubMed

    Sadinski, Meredith; Medved, Milica; Karademir, Ibrahim; Wang, Shiyang; Peng, Yahui; Jiang, Yulei; Sammet, Steffen; Karczmar, Gregory; Oto, Aytekin

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of the study is to determine short-term reproducibility of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) estimated from diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance (DW-MR) imaging of the prostate. Fourteen patients with biopsy-proven prostate cancer were studied under an Institutional Review Board-approved protocol. Each patient underwent two, consecutive and identical DW-MR scans on a 3T system. ADC values were calculated from each scan and a deformable registration was performed to align corresponding images. The prostate and cancerous regions of interest (ROIs) were independently analyzed by two radiologists. The prostate volume was analyzed by sextant. Per-voxel absolute and relative percentage variations in ADC were compared between sextants. Per-voxel and per-ROI variations in ADC were calculated for cancerous ROIs. Per-voxel absolute difference in ADC in the prostate ranged from 0 to 1.60 × 10(-3) mm(2)/s (per-voxel relative difference 0% to 200%, mean 10.5%). Variation in ADC was largest in the posterior apex (0% to 200%, mean 11.6%). Difference in ADC variation between sextants was not statistically significant. Cancer ROIs' per-voxel variation in ADC ranged from 0.001 × 10(-3) to 0.841 × 10(-3) mm(2)/s (0% to 67.4%, mean 11.2%) and per-ROI variation ranged from 0 to 0.463 × 10(-3) mm(2)/s (mean 0.122 × 10(-3) mm(2)/s). Variation in ADC within the human prostate is reasonably small, and is on the order of 10%.

  2. Short-term reproducibility of apparent diffusion coefficient estimated from diffusion-weighted MRI of the prostate

    PubMed Central

    Sadinski, Meredith; Medved, Milica; Karademir, Ibrahim; Wang, Shiyang; Peng, Yahui; Jiang, Yulei; Sammet, Steffen; Karczmar, Gregory; Oto, Aytekin

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of the study is to determine short-term reproducibility of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) estimated from diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance (DW-MR) imaging of the prostate. Methods Fourteen patients with biopsy-proven prostate cancer were studied under an Institutional Review Board-approved protocol. Each patient underwent two, consecutive and identical DW-MR scans on a 3T system. ADC values were calculated from each scan and a deformable registration was performed to align corresponding images. The prostate and cancerous regions of interest (ROIs) were independently analyzed by two radiologists. The prostate volume was analyzed by sextant. Per-voxel absolute and relative percentage variations in ADC were compared between sextants. Per-voxel and per-ROI variations in ADC were calculated for cancerous ROIs. Results Per-voxel absolute difference in ADC in the prostate ranged from 0 to 1.60 × 10−3 mm2/s (per-voxel relative difference 0% to 200%, mean 10.5%). Variation in ADC was largest in the posterior apex (0% to 200%, mean 11.6%). Difference in ADC variation between sextants was not statistically significant. Cancer ROIs’ per-voxel variation in ADC ranged from 0.001 × 10−3 to 0.841 × 10−3 mm2/s (0% to 67.4%, mean 11.2%) and per-ROI variation ranged from 0 to 0.463 × 10−3 mm2/s (mean 0.122 × 10−3 mm2/s). Conclusions Variation in ADC within the human prostate is reasonably small, and is on the order of 10%. PMID:25805558

  3. Diffusion-weighted imaging of hepatocellular carcinomas: a retrospective analysis of correlation between apparent diffusion coefficients and histological grade.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yanhua; Wang, Haiyi; Ma, Lu; Zhang, Xiaojing; Yu, Guo; Li, Jie; Ye, Huiyi

    2016-08-01

    To define correlations between the pathological grades of hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) and apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) derived using breath-holding diffusion-weighted imaging (BH-DWI). We retrospectively evaluated 94 patients (105 lesions) with pathologically proved HCC who underwent hepatic DWI on a 3.0-T MR platform. HCCs were divided into five groups: well-differentiated (n = 10), well-to-moderately differentiated (n = 11), moderately differentiated (n = 51), moderately to poorly differentiated (n = 20), and poorly differentiated (n = 13) groups. The ADCs of carcinomas across different histological grades were compared by one-way analysis of variance. Spearman's rank correlation test was used to analyze correlations between the degree of histopathological differentiation and ADC. Results were corrected for multiple comparisons using the Bonferroni correction. The BH technique yielded ADC values that differed significantly by the extent of differentiation (F = 8.392, p < 0.001). A significant negative correlation was found between the extent of differentiation and ADCs (r = -0.462, p < 0.001). The mean ADC values of poorly differentiated HCCs were significantly lower than the well-, well-to-moderately, moderately, and moderately to poorly differentiated HCCs (p values were <0.001, <0.001, 0.003, and 0.031, respectively). ADC values obtained with BH-DWI may be of importance to non-invasively predict HCC tumor differentiation, and the extent of histological HCC differentiation was inversely correlated with ADC values.

  4. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging of the normal pancreas: reproducibility and variations of apparent diffusion coefficient measurement at 1.5- and 3.0-Tesla.

    PubMed

    Barral, M; Soyer, P; Ben Hassen, W; Gayat, E; Aout, M; Chiaradia, M; Rahmouni, A; Luciani, A

    2013-04-01

    To evaluate reproducibility and variations in apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) measurement in normal pancreatic parenchyma at 1.5- and 3.0-Tesla and determine if differences may exist between the four pancreatic segments. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging of the pancreas was performed at 1.5-Tesla in 20 patients and at 3.0-Tesla in other 20 patients strictly matched for gender and age using the same b values (0, 400 and 800s/mm(2)). Two independent observers placed regions of interest within the four pancreatic segments to measure ADC at both fields. Intra- and inter-observer agreement in ADC measurement was assessed using Bland-Altman analysis and comparison between ADC values obtained at both fields using non-parametrical tests. There were no significant differences in ADC between repeated measurements and between ADC obtained at 1.5-Tesla and those at 3.0-Tesla. The 95% limits of intra-observer agreement between ADC were 2.3%-22.7% at 1.5-Tesla and 1%-24.2% at 3.0-Tesla and those for inter-observer agreement between 1.9%-14% at 1.5-Tesla and 8%-25% at 3.0-Tesla. ADC values were similar in all pancreatic segments at 3.0-T whereas the tail had lower ADC at 1.5-Tesla. ADC measurement conveys high degrees of intra- and inter-observer reproducibility. ADC have homogeneous distribution among the four pancreatic segments at 3.0-Tesla. Copyright © 2012 Éditions françaises de radiologie. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Early Changes in Apparent Diffusion Coefficient From Diffusion-Weighted MR Imaging During Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Sung Yoon; Kim, Chan Kyo; Park, Byung Kwan; Park, Won; Park, Hee Chul; Han, Deok Hyun; Kim, Bohyun

    2012-06-01

    Purpose: To investigate the feasibility of diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI) as an early and reproducible change indicator in patients receiving radiotherapy for prostate cancer (PC). Methods and Materials: Eight consecutive patients with biopsy-proven PC underwent DWI at 3T. All patients who received external-beam radiotherapy had four serial MR scans, as follows: before therapy (PreTx); after 1 week of therapy (PostT1); after 3 weeks of therapy (PostT2); and 1 month after the completion of therapy (PostT3). At each time, the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) was measured in tumors and normal tissues. For reproducibility of the ADC measurement, five patients also had two separate pretreatment DWI scans at an interval of <2 weeks. Serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels were evaluated at the same time as MR scans. Results: Thirteen tumors (peripheral zone = 10; transition zone = 3) were found. The mean ADC values for the tumors from PreTx to PostT3 were 0.86, 1.03, 1.15, and 1.26 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s in sequence, respectively. Compared with PreTx, PostT1 (p = 0.005), PostT2 (p = 0.003), and PostT3 (p < 0.001) showed a significant increase in ADC values. The mean ADC values of the benign tissues from PreTx to PostT3 were 1.60, 1.58, 1.47, and 1.46 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s in sequence, respectively. Reproducibility of ADC measurements was confirmed with a mean difference in ADC of -0.04 in peripheral zone and -0.017 in transition zone between two separate pretreatment MR scans. The mean PSA levels from PreTx to PostT3 were 9.05, 9.18, 9.25, and 4.11 ng/mL in sequence, respectively. Conclusions: DWI, as a reproducible biomarker, has the potential to evaluate the early therapeutic changes of PC to radiotherapy.

  6. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging in cancer: Reported apparent diffusion coefficients, in-vitro and in-vivo reproducibility

    PubMed Central

    Jafar, Maysam M; Parsai, Arman; Miquel, Marc E

    2016-01-01

    There is considerable disparity in the published apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values across different anatomies. Institutions are increasingly assessing repeatability and reproducibility of the derived ADC to determine its variation, which could potentially be used as an indicator in determining tumour aggressiveness or assessing tumour response. In this manuscript, a review of selected articles published to date in healthy extra-cranial body diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging is presented, detailing reported ADC values and discussing their variation across different studies. In total 115 studies were selected including 28 for liver parenchyma, 15 for kidney (renal parenchyma), 14 for spleen, 13 for pancreatic body, 6 for gallbladder, 13 for prostate, 13 for uterus (endometrium, myometrium, cervix) and 13 for fibroglandular breast tissue. Median ADC values in selected studies were found to be 1.28 × 10-3 mm2/s in liver, 1.94 × 10-3 mm2/s in kidney, 1.60 × 10-3 mm2/s in pancreatic body, 0.85 × 10-3 mm2/s in spleen, 2.73 × 10-3 mm2/s in gallbladder, 1.64 × 10-3 mm2/s and 1.31 × 10-3 mm2/s in prostate peripheral zone and central gland respectively (combined median value of 1.54×10-3 mm2/s), 1.44 × 10-3 mm2/s in endometrium, 1.53 × 10-3 mm2/s in myometrium, 1.71 × 10-3 mm2/s in cervix and 1.92 × 10-3 mm2/s in breast. In addition, six phantom studies and thirteen in vivo studies were summarized to compare repeatability and reproducibility of the measured ADC. All selected phantom studies demonstrated lower intra-scanner and inter-scanner variation compared to in vivo studies. Based on the findings of this manuscript, it is recommended that protocols need to be optimised for the body part studied and that system-induced variability must be established using a standardized phantom in any clinical study. Reproducibility of the measured ADC must also be assessed in a volunteer population, as variations are far more significant in vivo compared

  7. Correlation of human papillomavirus status with apparent diffusion coefficient of diffusion-weighted MRI in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Driessen, Juliette P; van Bemmel, Alexander J M; van Kempen, Pauline M W; Janssen, Luuk M; Terhaard, Chris H J; Pameijer, Frank A; Willems, Stefan M; Stegeman, Inge; Grolman, Wilko; Philippens, Marielle E P

    2016-04-01

    Identification of prognostic patient characteristics in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is of great importance. Human papillomavirus (HPV)-positive HNSCCs have favorable response to (chemo)radiotherapy. Apparent diffusion coefficient, derived from diffusion-weighted MRI, has also shown to predict treatment response. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the correlation between HPV status and apparent diffusion coefficient. Seventy-three patients with histologically proven HNSCC were retrospectively analyzed. Mean pretreatment apparent diffusion coefficient was calculated by delineation of total tumor volume on diffusion-weighted MRI. HPV status was analyzed and correlated to apparent diffusion coefficient. Six HNSCCs were HPV-positive. HPV-positive HNSCC showed significantly lower apparent diffusion coefficient compared to HPV-negative. This correlation was independent of other patient characteristics. In HNSCC, positive HPV status correlates with low mean apparent diffusion coefficient. The favorable prognostic value of low pretreatment apparent diffusion coefficient might be partially attributed to patients with a positive HPV status. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck 38: E613-E618, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. [Correlation between the mRNA expression of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 and apparent diffusion coefficient on diffusion-weighted imaging in rats' liver fibrosis].

    PubMed

    Zhan, Yuefu; Liang, Xianwen; Han, Xiangjun; Chen, Jianqiang; Zhang, Shufang; Tan, Shun; Li, Qun; Wang, Xiong; Liu, Fan

    2017-02-28

    To explore the correlation between the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and mRNA expression of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) in different stages of liver fibrosis in rats.
 Methods: A model of liver fibrosis in rats was established by intraperitoneal injection of high-fat diet combined with porcine serum. After drug administration for 4 weeks, 48 rats served as a model group and 12 rats served as a control group, then they underwent diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) scanning. The value of ADC was calculated at b value=800 s/mm2. The rats were sacrificed and carried out pathologic examination after DWI scanning immediately. The mRNA expression of TIMP-1 was detected by real time-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The rats of hepatic fibrosis were also divided into a S0 group (n=4), a S1 group (n=11), a S2 group (n=12), a S3 group (n=10), and a S4 group (n=9) according to their pathological stage. The value of ADC and the expression of TIMP-1 mRNA among the different stage groups of liver fibrosis were compared, and the correlation between ADC and the TIMP-1 mRNA were analyzed.
 Results: The ADC value and the TIMP-1 mRNA expression were significantly different between the control group and the liver fibrosis group (F=46.54 and 53.87, P<0.05). There were significant differences in the value of ADC between every two groups (all P<0.05), except the control group vs the S1 group, the S1 group vs the S2 group, and the S2 group vs the S3 group (all P>0.05). For the comparison of TIMP-1 mRNA, there was no significant difference between the S1 group and the S2 group, the S3 group and the S4 group (both P>0.05). There were significant differences among the rest of the groups (all P<0.05). Rank correlation analysis showed that there was a negative correlation between the ADC value and the TIMP-1 mRNA expression (r=-0.76, P<0.01).
 Conclusion: When the value of ADC decreases in the progress of rats' liver fibrosis, the mRNA expression of TIMP-1

  9. Diagnostic Value of Diffusion-weighted Imaging and Apparent Diffusion Coefficient Values in the Differentiation of Breast Lesions, Histpathologic Subgroups and Correlatıon with Prognostıc Factors using 3.0 Tesla MR.

    PubMed

    Akın, Yasin; Uğurlu, M Ümit; Kaya, Handan; Arıbal, Erkin

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and diffusion-weighted imaging in differentiating benign from malignant breast lesions, histopathologic subtypes of breast tumors, and to find a correlation with prognostic factors using 3T MR. A total of 165 patients aged between 16 and 78 years with 181 histopathologically-verifed breast lesions were enrolled in this study. A 3T MR system and bilateral phased array breast coil was used. Diffusion-weighted imaging was performed with spin echo "echo planar" with "b" values: 50, 400, and 800 seconds/mm(2). ADC values were calculated for normal fibroglandular tissue and breast lesions. ADC values of independent groups were compared using Student's t-test. ROC analysis was used to find a threshold ADC value in the differentiation of lesions. The mean ADC values were 1.35±0.16 × 10(-3) mm(2)/s for normal fibroglandular tissue, 1.41±0.24 × 10(-3) mm(2)/s for benign breast lesions and 0.83±0.19 × 10(-3) mm(2)/s for malignant breast lesions. The AUC with ROC analysis was 0.945 and the threshold for ADC was 1.08 × 10(-3) mm(2)/s with a sensitivity and specificity of 92% and 92%, respectively. The threshold value for ADC ratio was 0.9 with 96% sensitivity and 89% specificity. The mean ADC of malignant breast lesions was statistically lower for benign lesions (p<0.01). We found no correlation between the mean ADC values and ER-PR receptor, Her2, and Ki-67 values. Diffusion-weighted imaging has high diagnostic value with high sensitivity and specificity in differentiating malignant and benign breast lesions.

  10. Added value of high-b-value (b = 3000 s/mm2) diffusion-weighted imaging at 3 T in relation to fluid-attenuated inversion recovery images for the evaluation of cortical lesions in inflammatory brain diseases.

    PubMed

    Iwashita, Koya; Hirai, Toshinori; Kitajima, Mika; Shigematsu, Yoshinori; Uetani, Hiroyuki; Iryo, Yasuhiko; Azuma, Minako; Hayashida, Eri; Ando, Yukio; Murakami, Ryuji; Yamashita, Yasuyuki

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine how the gray-to-white matter contrast in healthy subjects changes on high-b-value diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) acquired at 3 T and evaluate whether high-b-value DWI at 3 T is useful for the detection of cortical lesions in inflammatory brain diseases. Ten healthy volunteers underwent DWI at b = 1000, 2000, 3000, 4000, and 5000 s/mm(2) on a 3-T MRI unit. On DW images, 1 radiologist performed region-of-interest measurements of the signal intensity of 8 gray matter structures. The gray-to-white matter contrast ratio (GWCR) was calculated. Ten patients with inflammatory cortical lesions were also included. All patients underwent conventional MRI and DWI at b = 1000 and 3000 s/mm(2). Using a 4-point grading system, 2 radiologists independently assessed the presence of additional information on DW images compared with fluid-attenuated inversion recovery images. Interobserver agreement was assessed by κ statistics. In the healthy subjects, the b value increased as the GWCR decreased in all evaluated gray matter structures. On DW images acquired at b = 3000 s/mm(2), mean GWCR was less than 1.0 in 7 of 8 structures. For both reviewers, DWI at b = 3000 s/mm(2) yielded significantly more additional information than did DWI at b = 1000 s/mm(2) (P < 0.05). Interobserver agreement for DWI at b = 1000 s/mm(2) and b = 3000 s/mm(2) was fair (κ = 0.35) and excellent (κ = 1.0), respectively. At 3-T DWI, the gray-to-white matter contrast in most gray matter structures reverses at b = 3000 s/mm. In the evaluation of cortical lesions in patients with inflammatory brain diseases, 3-T DWI at b = 3000 s/mm was more useful than b = 1000 s/mm(2).

  11. Estimation of optimal b-value sets for obtaining apparent diffusion coefficient free from perfusion in non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Karki, Kishor; Hugo, Geoffrey D; Ford, John C; Olsen, Kathryn M; Saraiya, Siddharth; Groves, Robert; Weiss, Elisabeth

    2015-10-21

    The purpose of this study was to determine optimal sets of b-values in diffusion-weighted MRI (DW-MRI) for obtaining monoexponential apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) close to perfusion-insensitive intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) model ADC (ADCIVIM) in non-small cell lung cancer. Ten subjects had 40 DW-MRI scans before and during radiotherapy in a 1.5 T MRI scanner. Respiratory triggering was applied to the echo-planar DW-MRI with TR ≈ 4500 ms, TE  =  74 ms, eight b-values of 0-1000 μs μm(-2), pixel size  =  1.98 × 1.98 mm(2), slice thickness  =  6 mm, interslice gap  =  1.2 mm, 7 axial slices and total acquisition time ≈6 min. One or more DW-MRI scans together covered the whole tumour volume. Monoexponential model ADC values using various b-value sets were compared to reference-standard ADCIVIM values using all eight b-values. Intra-scan coefficient of variation (CV) of active tumour volumes was computed to compare the relative noise in ADC maps. ADC values for one pre-treatment DW-MRI scan of each of the 10 subjects were computed using b-value pairs from DW-MRI images synthesized for b-values of 0-2000 μs μm(-2) from the estimated IVIM parametric maps and corrupted by various Rician noise levels. The square root of mean of squared error percentage (RMSE) of the ADC value relative to the corresponding ADCIVIM for the tumour volume of the scan was computed. Monoexponential ADC values for the b-value sets of 250 and 1000; 250, 500 and 1000; 250, 650 and 1000; 250, 800 and 1000; and 250-1000 μs μm(-2) were not significantly different from ADCIVIM values (p > 0.05, paired t-test). Mean error in ADC values for these sets relative to ADCIVIM were within 3.5%. Intra-scan CVs for these sets were comparable to that for ADCIVIM. The monoexponential ADC values for other sets-0-1000; 50-1000; 100-1000; 500-1000; and 250 and 800 μs μm(-2) were significantly different from the ADCIVIM values. From Rician noise

  12. Estimation of optimal b-value sets for obtaining apparent diffusion coefficient free from perfusion in non-small cell lung cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karki, Kishor; Hugo, Geoffrey D.; Ford, John C.; Olsen, Kathryn M.; Saraiya, Siddharth; Groves, Robert; Weiss, Elisabeth

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine optimal sets of b-values in diffusion-weighted MRI (DW-MRI) for obtaining monoexponential apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) close to perfusion-insensitive intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) model ADC (ADCIVIM) in non-small cell lung cancer. Ten subjects had 40 DW-MRI scans before and during radiotherapy in a 1.5 T MRI scanner. Respiratory triggering was applied to the echo-planar DW-MRI with \\text{TR}≈ 4500 ms, TE  =  74 ms, eight b-values of 0-1000 μs μm-2, pixel size  =  1.98× 1.98 mm2, slice thickness  =  6 mm, interslice gap  =  1.2 mm, 7 axial slices and total acquisition time ≈6 min. One or more DW-MRI scans together covered the whole tumour volume. Monoexponential model ADC values using various b-value sets were compared to reference-standard ADCIVIM values using all eight b-values. Intra-scan coefficient of variation (CV) of active tumour volumes was computed to compare the relative noise in ADC maps. ADC values for one pre-treatment DW-MRI scan of each of the 10 subjects were computed using b-value pairs from DW-MRI images synthesized for b-values of 0-2000 μs μm-2 from the estimated IVIM parametric maps and corrupted by various Rician noise levels. The square root of mean of squared error percentage (RMSE) of the ADC value relative to the corresponding ADCIVIM for the tumour volume of the scan was computed. Monoexponential ADC values for the b-value sets of 250 and 1000; 250, 500 and 1000; 250, 650 and 1000; 250, 800 and 1000; and 250-1000 μs μm-2 were not significantly different from ADCIVIM values (p>0.05 , paired t-test). Mean error in ADC values for these sets relative to ADCIVIM were within 3.5%. Intra-scan CVs for these sets were comparable to that for ADCIVIM. The monoexponential ADC values for other sets—0-1000 50-1000 100-1000 500-1000 and 250 and 800 μs μm-2 were significantly different from the ADCIVIM values. From Rician noise simulation

  13. Applicable apparent diffusion coefficient of an orthotopic mouse model of gastric cancer by improved clinical MRI diffusion weighted imaging

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jia; Zhang, Xiao-Peng; Li, Xiao-Ting; Tang, Lei; Cui, Yong; Zhang, Xiao-Yan; Sun, Ying-Shi

    2014-01-01

    In vivo imaging studies in animal models are hindered by variables that contribute to poor image quality and measurement reliability. As such we sought to improve the diffusion coefficient (ADC) of an orthotopic mouse model of gastric cancer in diffusion-weighted images (DWI) using alginate moulding and Ultrasonic coupling medium. BGC-823 human gastric cancer cells were subcutaneously injected into the abdomen of nude mice and 1 mm3 primary tumour was orthotopically transplanted. Alginate and coupling medium were applied to the mice and MRI (T2 and DWI) was performed for 6 weeks. Regions of interest (ROI) were drawn and liver and tumour ADC were evaluated. Using alginate moulding, the mean quality total score of DW imaging was 8.53; however, in control animals this value was 5.20 (p < 0.001). The coefficient of variation of ADC of liver in experimental and control groups were 0.071 and 0.270 (p < 0.001), respectively, suggesting this method may be helpful for DWI studies of important human diseases such as gastric cancer. PMID:25123166

  14. SU-F-303-13: Initial Evaluation of Four Dimensional Diffusion- Weighted MRI (4D-DWI) and Its Effect On Apparent Diffusion Coefficient (ADC) Measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Y; Yin, F; Czito, B; Bashir, M; Palta, M; Cai, J; Zhong, X; Dale, B

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Diffusion-weighted imaging(DWI) has been shown to have superior tumor-to-tissue contrast for cancer detection.This study aims at developing and evaluating a four dimensional DWI(4D-DWI) technique using retrospective sorting method for imaging respiratory motion for radiotherapy planning,and evaluate its effect on Apparent Diffusion Coefficient(ADC) measurement. Materials/Methods: Image acquisition was performed by repeatedly imaging a volume of interest using a multi-slice single-shot 2D-DWI sequence in the axial planes and cine MRI(served as reference) using FIESTA sequence.Each 2D-DWI image were acquired in xyz-diffusion-directions with a high b-value(b=500s/mm2).The respiratory motion was simultaneously recorded using bellows.Retrospective sorting was applied in each direction to reconstruct 4D-DWI.The technique was evaluated using a computer simulated 4D-digital human phantom(XCAT),a motion phantom and a healthy volunteer under an IRB-approved study.Motion trajectories of regions-of-interests(ROI) were extracted from 4D-DWI and compared with reference.The mean motion trajectory amplitude differences(D) between the two was calculated.To quantitatively analyze the motion artifacts,XCAT were controlled to simulate regular motion and the motions of 10 liver cancer patients.4D-DWI,free-breathing DWI(FB- DWI) were reconstructed.Tumor volume difference(VD) of each phase of 4D-DWI and FB-DWI from the input static tumor were calculated.Furthermore, ADC was measured for each phase of 4D-DWI and FB-DWI data,and mean tumor ADC values(M-ADC) were calculated.Mean M-ADC over all 4D-DWI phases was compared with M-ADC calculated from FB-DWI. Results: 4D-DWI of XCAT,the motion phantom and the healthy volunteer demonstrated the respiratory motion clearly.ROI D values were 1.9mm,1.7mm and 2.0mm,respectively.For motion artifacts analysis,XCAT 4D-DWI images show much less motion artifacts compare to FB-DWI.Mean VD for 4D-WDI and FB-DWI were 8.5±1.4% and 108±15

  15. Prostate cancer detection among readers with different degree of experience using ultra-high b-value diffusion-weighted Imaging: Is a non-contrast protocol sufficient to detect significant cancer?

    PubMed

    Hausmann, D; Aksöz, N; von Hardenberg, J; Martini, T; Westhoff, N; Buettner, S; Schoenberg, S O; Riffel, P

    2017-08-10

    To evaluate the accuracy of a T2-weighted (T2w) - and a parallel transmit zoomed b = 2000 s/mm2 (b2000) - diffusion-weighted imaging sequence among three readers with different degrees of experience for prostate cancer (Pca) detection. Ninety-three patients with suspected Pca were enrolled. For b2000 a two-dimensional spatially-selective RF pulse using an echo-planar transmit trajectory was applied, and the field of view (FOV) was reduced to one-third. All three readers (Reader A: 7, B 4 and C <1 years of experience in prostate MRI) independently evaluated b2000 with regard to the presence of suspicious lesions that displayed increased signal. The results were compared to histopathology obtained by real-time MR/ultrasound fusion and systematic biopsy. In 62 patients Pca was confirmed. One significant Pca (Gleason score (GS) 7b) was missed by Reader C. Overall, sensitivity/specificity/positive predictive value/negative predictive value were 90/71/86/79% for Reader A, 87/84/92/76% for Reader B and 85/74/87/72% for Reader C, respectively. Detection rates for significant Pca (GS >7a) were 100/100/94% for Readers A/B/C, respectively. Inter-reader agreement was generally good (Kappa A/B: 0.8; A/C: 0.82; B/C: 0.74). B2000 in combination with a T2w could be useful to detect clinically significant Pca. • Significant prostate cancer using zoomed ultra-high b-value DWI was detected. • Diagnostic performance among readers with different degrees of experience was good. • mp- MRI of the prostate using a comprehensive non-contrast protocol is clinically feasible.

  16. Relationship between Gleason score and apparent diffusion coefficients of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging in prostate cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae Heon; Kim, Chan Kyo; Park, Byung Kwan; Jeon, Hwang Gyun; Jeong, Byung Chang; Seo, Seong Il; Lee, Hyun Moo; Choi, Han Yong; Jeon, Seong Soo

    2016-01-01

    Introduction We assessed the correlation between the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and pathological Gleason score (GS) of prostate cancer patients. Methods A total of 125 patients who underwent multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging before radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer were included in this study. ADC values were compared with different GS. We used receiver operating characteristic analysis and determined the ADC cutoff value to differentiate tumours with a GS of 6 from those with a GS ≥7. Results We identified 34 patients (27.2%) with a GS of 6; 33 patients (26.4%) with a GS of 7; 22 patients (17.6%) with a GS of 8; and 36 patients (28.8%) with a GS of ≥9. The mean ADC value for disease with a GS of 6 was 0.914 ± 0.161 ×10−3 mm2/s; GS of 7: 0.741 ± 0.164 ×10−3 mm2/s; GS of 8: 0.679 ± 0.130 ×10−3 mm2/s; and GS of ≥9: 0.593 ± 0.089 ×10−3 mm2/s. An ADC value of 0.830 ×10−3mm2/s was the best cutoff value to identify prostate cancer with a GS of 6. Conclusions We observed an inverse relationship between GS and ADC value. Moreover, a cutoff ADC value may help differentiate disease with a GS of 6 from disease with a GS ≥7. PMID:28096922

  17. Assessment and quantification of sources of variability in breast apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) measurements at diffusion weighted imaging.

    PubMed

    Giannotti, E; Waugh, S; Priba, L; Davis, Z; Crowe, E; Vinnicombe, S

    2015-09-01

    Apparent Diffusion Coefficient (ADC) measurements are increasingly used for assessing breast cancer response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy although little data exists on ADC measurement reproducibility. The purpose of this work was to investigate and characterise the magnitude of errors in ADC measures that may be encountered in such follow-up studies- namely scanner stability, scan-scan reproducibility, inter- and intra- observer measures and the most reproducible measurement of ADC. Institutional Review Board approval was obtained for the prospective study of healthy volunteers and written consent acquired for the retrospective study of patient images. All scanning was performed on a 3.0-T MRI scanner. Scanner stability was assessed using an ice-water phantom weekly for 12 weeks. Inter-scan repeatability was assessed across two scans of 10 healthy volunteers (26-61 years; mean: 44.7 years). Inter- and intra-reader analysis repeatability was measured in 52 carcinomas from clinical patients (29-70 years; mean: 50.0 years) by measuring the whole tumor ADC value on a single slice with maximum tumor diameter (ADCS) and the ADC value of a small region of interest (ROI) on the same slice (ADCmin). Repeatability was assessed using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) and coefficients of repeatability (CoR). Scanner stability contributed 6% error to phantom ADC measurements (0.071×10(-3)mm(2)/s; mean ADC=1.089×10(-3)mm(2)/s). The measured scan-scan CoR in the volunteers was 0.122×10(-3)mm(2)/s, contributing an error of 8% to the mean measured values (ADCscan1=1.529×10(-3)mm(2)/s; ADCscan2=1.507×10(-3)mm(2)/s). Technical and clinical observers demonstrated excellent intra-observer repeatability (ICC>0.9). Clinical observer CoR values were marginally better than technical observer measures (ADCS=0.035×10(-3)mm(2)/s vs. 0.097×10(-3)mm(2)/s; ADCmin=0.09×10(-3)mm(2)/s vs. 0.114×10(-3)mm(2)/s). Inter-reader ICC values were good 0.864 (ADCS) and fair 0.677 (ADCmin

  18. Differential Diagnosis of Benign and Malignant Breast Tumors Using Apparent Diffusion Coefficient Value Measured Through Diffusion-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    PubMed

    Qu, Rong-Feng; Guo, Dong-Rui; Chang, Zhe-Xing; Meng, Jie; Sun, Yan; Hao, Shu-Hong; Shi, Guang; Sun, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value measurement of nodes in diffusion-weighted imaging was widely used in differentiating different types of human tumors. The aim of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the clinical value of ADC measurement through diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) in the differential diagnosis of benign and malignant breast tumors. Relevant studies were identified through computer-based search of databases, which were supplemented through manual search strategies. Case-control studies were selected in adherence with our strict inclusion and exclusion criteria. Statistical analysis was conducted using Stata 12.0 statistical software (StataCorp, College Station, Tex). Our database searches initially retrieved 602 studies (320 studies in Chinese and 282 studies in English), and 31 studies (18 studies in English and 13 studies in Chinese) were eventually selected for meta-analysis. These 31 case-control studies included a total of 926 normal breast tissues and 2323 breast tumors (911 benign tumors and 1412 malignant tumors). Our meta-analysis showed that ADC values measured through DW-MRI were higher in benign breast tumors compared with malignant breast tumors, and this difference was statistically significant. In addition, the ADC values in the normal breast tissues were markedly higher than the benign breast tumors, which were also at a statistically significant level. Consistent with these observations, the ADC values in the normal breast tissues were significantly higher when compared with the values found in the malignant breast tumors. Our data strongly support the conclusion that the ADC value measured through DW-MRI is an important radiographic index for differential diagnosis of benign and malignant breast tumors and is critical to our assessment of the internal structure of tumors.

  19. Solid bone tumors of the spine: Diagnostic performance of apparent diffusion coefficient measured using diffusion-weighted MRI using histology as a reference standard.

    PubMed

    Pozzi, Grazia; Albano, Domenico; Messina, Carmelo; Angileri, Salvatore Alessio; Al-Mnayyis, Asma'a; Galbusera, Fabio; Luzzati, Alessandro; Perrucchini, Giuseppe; Scotto, Gennaro; Parafioriti, Antonina; Zerbi, Alberto; Sconfienza, Luca Maria

    2017-07-29

    To assess the diagnostic performance of mean apparent diffusion coefficient (mADC) in differentiating benign from malignant bone spine tumors, using histology as a reference standard. Conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences have good reliability in evaluating spinal bone tumors, although some features of benign and malignant cancers may overlap, making the differential diagnosis challenging. In all, 116 patients (62 males, 54 females; mean age 59.5 ± 14.1) with biopsy-proven spinal bone tumors were studied. Field strength/sequences: 1.5T MR system; T1 -weighted turbo spin-echo (repetition time / echo time [TR/TE], 500/13 msec; number of excitations [NEX], 2; slice thickness, 4 mm), T2 -weighted turbo spin-echo (TR/TE, 4100/102 msec; NEX, 2; slice thickness, 4 mm), short tau inversion recovery (TR/TE, 4800/89 msec; NEX, 2; slice thickness, 4 mm, IT, 140 msec), axial spin-echo echo-planar diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) (TR/TE 5200/72 msec; slice thickness 5 mm; field of view, 300; interslice gap, 1.5 mm; NEX, 6; echo-planar imaging factor, 96; no parallel imaging) with b-values of 0 and 1000 s/mm², and 3D fat-suppressed T1 -weighted gradient-recalled-echo (TR/TE, 500/13 msec; slice thickness, 4 mm) after administration of 0.2 ml/kg body weight gadolinum-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid. Two readers manually drew regions of interest on the solid portion of the lesion (hyperintense on T2 -weighted images, hypointense on T1 -weighted images, and enhanced after gadolinium administration on fat-suppressed T1 -weighted images) to calculate mADC. Histology was used as the reference standard. Tumors were classified into malignant primary tumors (MPT), bone metastases (BM), or benign primary tumors (BPT). Statistical tests: Nonnormality of distribution was tested with the Shapiro-Wilk test. The Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U-test with Bonferroni correction were used. Sensitivity and specificity of the mADC values for BM, MPT, and

  20. WE-G-18C-02: Estimation of Optimal B-Value Set for Obtaining Apparent Diffusion Coefficient Free From Perfusion in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Karki, K; Hugo, G; Ford, J; Saraiya, S; Weiss, E; Olsen, K; Groves, R

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Diffusion-weighted MRI (DW-MRI) is increasingly being investigated for radiotherapy planning and response assessment. Selection of a limited number of b-values in DW-MRI is important to keep geometrical variations low and imaging time short. We investigated various b-value sets to determine an optimal set for obtaining monoexponential apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) close to perfusion-insensitive intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) model ADC (ADCIVIM) in nonsmall cell lung cancer. Methods: Seven patients had 27 DW-MRI scans before and during radiotherapy in a 1.5T scanner. Respiratory triggering was applied to the echo-planar DW-MRI with TR=4500ms approximately, TE=74ms, pixel size=1.98X1.98mm{sub 2}, slice thickness=4–6mm and 7 axial slices. Diffusion gradients were applied to all three axes producing traceweighted images with eight b-values of 0–1000μs/μm{sup 2}. Monoexponential model ADC values using various b-value sets were compared to ADCIVIM using all b-values. To compare the relative noise in ADC maps, intra-scan coefficient of variation (CV) of active tumor volumes was computed. Results: ADCIVIM, perfusion coefficient and perfusion fraction for tumor volumes were in the range of 880-1622 μm{sup 2}/s, 8119-33834 μm{sup 2}/s and 0.104–0.349, respectively. ADC values using sets of 250, 800 and 1000; 250, 650 and 1000; and 250–1000μs/μm{sup 2} only were not significantly different from ADCIVIM(p>0.05, paired t-test). Error in ADC values for 0–1000, 50–1000, 100–1000, 250–1000, 500–1000, and three b-value sets- 250, 500 and 1000; 250, 650 and 1000; and 250, 800 and 1000μs/μm{sup 2} were 15.0, 9.4, 5.6, 1.4, 11.7, 3.7, 2.0 and 0.2% relative to the reference-standard ADCIVIM, respectively. Mean intrascan CV was 20.2, 20.9, 21.9, 24.9, 32.6, 25.8, 25.4 and 24.8%, respectively, whereas that for ADCIVIM was 23.3%. Conclusion: ADC values of two 3 b-value sets

  1. Evaluation of Free Breathing Versus Breath Hold Diffusion Weighted Imaging in Terms Apparent Diffusion Coefficient (ADC) and Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) Values for Solid Abdominal Organs

    PubMed Central

    Herek, Duygu; Karabulut, Nevzat; Kocyıgıt, Ali; Yagcı, Ahmet Baki

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Our aim was to compare the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values of normal abdominal parenchymal organs and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) measurements in the same patients with breath hold (BH) and free breathing (FB) diffusion weighted imaging (DWI). Material/Methods Forty-eight patients underwent both BH and FB DWI. Spherical region of interest (ROI) was placed on the right hepatic lobe, spleen, pancreas, and renal cortices. ADC values were calculated for each organ on each sequence using an automated software. Image noise, defined as the standard deviation (SD) of the signal intensities in the most artifact-free area of the image background was measured by placing the largest possible ROI on either the left or the right side of the body outside the object in the recorded field of view. SNR was calculated using the formula: SNR=signal intensity (SI)(organ)/standard deviation (SD)(noise). Results There were no statistically significant differences in ADC values of the abdominal organs between BH and FB DWI sequences (p>0.05). There were statistically significant differences between SNR values of organs on BH and FB DWIs. SNRs were found to be better on FB DWI than BH DWI (p<0.001). Conclusions Free breathing DWI technique reduces image noise and increases SNR for abdominal examinations. Free breathing technique is therefore preferable to BH DWI in the evaluation of abdominal organs by DWI. PMID:27822326

  2. Diffusion weighted MR and apparent diffusion coefficient measurement in classification and characterization of noncystic focal liver lesions: does a clinical role exist?

    PubMed

    Mungai, Francesco; Morone, Mario; Villanacci, Alberta; Bondioni, Maria Pia; Mazzoni, Lorenzo Nicola; Grazioli, Luigi; Colagrande, Stefano

    2014-07-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the clinical role of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) analysis in noncystic focal liver lesion (FLL) classification/characterization.Six hundred liver magnetic resonances with multi-b (b = 50, 400, 800 s/mm) diffusion-weighted imaging (DwI) were retrospectively reviewed. Mean ADC was measured in 388 lesions (195 benign and 193 malignant) excluding internal necrotic areas. Cystic benign lesions were excluded from analysis. Sensitivity and specificity in distinguishing benign from malignant lesions were calculated. Analysis of variance was performed to detect differences among subgroups of solid lesions.Mean ADC of malignant lesions was 0.980 × 10 mm/s, significantly (P < 0.05) lower than mean ADC of benign lesions (1.433 × 10 mm/s). Applying an ADC cutoff of 1.066 × 10 mm/s, specificity and sensitivity for malignancy were respectively 86.6% and 73.6%. Of all lesions, >1/3 (39.5%) presented values lower than 1 × 10 mm/s, with 90.0% chance of malignancy. Above 1.5 × 10 mm/s (about 20% of all lesions) chance of malignancy was 9.5%.DwI cannot assist in noncystic FLL characterization, but can help in FLL classification in about half the cases.

  3. Time course of diffusion weighted image and apparent diffusion coefficient in acute spinal cord infarction: A case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Takeshita, Sho; Ogata, Toshiyasu; Mera, Hidekazu; Tsugawa, Jun; Fukae, Jiro; Tsuboi, Yoshio

    2016-05-31

    An 80-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with acute onset of flaccid paraplegia and sensory and urinary disturbances that developed soon after acute pain in her lower back and leg. Neurological examination revealed, severe flaccid paraplegia, bladder and rectal disturbances and dissociated sensory loss below the level of L1 spinal cord segment. MR imaging with T2 weighted imaging (T2WI) and diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) on day 2 showed hyper signal intensity in the spinal cord at the vertebral level of L1 while initial apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) showed decreased signal intensity in the lesion. We diagnosed spinal cord infarction, and anticoagulant and neuroprotective agents were administrated. Serial MRI findings revealed that the DWI signal of the lesion attenuated with time, and pseudo-normalization of the ADC occurred approximately 1 month after onset. These findings were similar to those seen in brain infarction. Our patient demonstrated serial MRI changes of spinal cord infarction showing anterior spinal cord syndrome.

  4. Diffusion weighted imaging of the normal breast: reproducibility of apparent diffusion coefficient measurements and variation with menstrual cycle and menopausal status.

    PubMed

    O'Flynn, Elizabeth A M; Morgan, Veronica A; Giles, Sharon L; deSouza, Nandita M

    2012-07-01

    To establish the reproducibility of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) measurements in normal fibroglandular breast tissue and to assess variation in ADC values with phase of the menstrual cycle and menopausal status. Thirty-one volunteers (13 premenopausal, 18 postmenopausal) underwent magnetic resonance twice (interval 11-22 days) using diffusion-weighted MRI. ADC(total) and a perfusion-insensitive ADC(high) (omitting b = 0) were calculated. Reproducibility and inter-observer variability of mean ADC values were assessed. The difference in mean ADC values between the two phases of the menstrual cycle and the postmenopausal breast were evaluated. ADC(total) and ADC(high) showed good reproducibility (r% = 17.6, 22.4). ADC(high) showed very good inter-observer agreement (kappa = 0.83). The intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were 0.93 and 0.91. Mean ADC values were significantly lower in the postmenopausal breast (ADC(total) 1.46 ± 0.3 × 10(-3) mm(2)/s, ADC(high) 1.33 ± 0.3 × 10(-3) mm(2)/s) compared with the premenopausal breast (ADC(total) 1.84 ± 0.26 × 10(-3) mm(2)/s, ADC(high) 1.77 ± 0.26 × 10(-3) mm(2)/s; both P < 0.001). No significant difference was seen in ADC values in relation to menstrual cycle (ADC(total) P = 0.2, ADC(high) P = 0.24) or between postmenopausal women taking or not taking oestrogen supplements (ADC(total) P = 0.6, ADC(high) P = 0.46). ADC values in fibroglandular breast tissue are reproducible. Lower ADC values within the postmenopausal breast may reduce diffusion-weighted contrast and have implications for accurately detecting tumours. • ADC values from fibroglandular breast tissue are measured reproducibly by multiple observers. • Mean ADC values were significantly lower in postmenopausal than premenopausal breast tissue. • Mean ADC values did not vary significantly with menstrual cycle. • Low postmenopausal ADC values may hinder tumour detection

  5. Diffusion Weighted Imaging for Differentiating Benign from Malignant Orbital Tumors: Diagnostic Performance of the Apparent Diffusion Coefficient Based on Region of Interest Selection Method.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiao-Quan; Hu, Hao; Su, Guo-Yi; Liu, Hu; Shi, Hai-Bin; Wu, Fei-Yun

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the differences in the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) measurements based on three different region of interest (ROI) selection methods, and compare their diagnostic performance in differentiating benign from malignant orbital tumors. Diffusion-weighted imaging data of sixty-four patients with orbital tumors (33 benign and 31 malignant) were retrospectively analyzed. Two readers independently measured the ADC values using three different ROIs selection methods including whole-tumor (WT), single-slice (SS), and reader-defined small sample (RDSS). The differences of ADC values (ADC-ROIWT, ADC-ROISS, and ADC-ROIRDSS) between benign and malignant group were compared using unpaired t test. Receiver operating characteristic curve was used to determine and compare their diagnostic ability. The ADC measurement time was compared using ANOVA analysis and the measurement reproducibility was assessed using Bland-Altman method and intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC). Malignant group showed significantly lower ADC-ROIWT, ADC-ROISS, and ADC-ROIRDSS than benign group (all p < 0.05). The areas under the curve showed no significant difference when using ADC-ROIWT, ADC-ROISS, and ADC-ROIRDSS as differentiating index, respectively (all p > 0.05). The ROISS and ROIRDSS required comparable measurement time (p > 0.05), while significantly shorter than ROIWT (p < 0.05). The ROISS showed the best reproducibility (mean difference ± limits of agreement between two readers were 0.022 [-0.080-0.123] × 10(-3) mm(2)/s; ICC, 0.997) among three ROI methods. Apparent diffusion coefficient values based on the three different ROI selection methods can help to differentiate benign from malignant orbital tumors. The results of measurement time, reproducibility and diagnostic ability suggest that the ROISS method are potentially useful for clinical practice.

  6. Prognostic Value of Diffusion-Weighted Imaging (DWI) Apparent Diffusion Coefficient (ADC) in Patients with Hyperacute Cerebral Infarction Receiving rt-PA Intravenous Thrombolytic Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Sui, Hai-Jing; Yan, Cheng-Gong; Zhao, Zhen-Guo; Bai, Qing-Ke

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to investigate the potential value of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in the prognosis of patients with hyperacute cerebral infarction (HCI) receiving intravenous thrombolytic therapy with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA). Material/Methods From June 2012 to June 2015, 58 cases of HCI (<6 h) undergoing rt-PA intravenous thrombolytic therapy (thrombolysis group) and 70 cases of HCI (<6 h) undergoing conventional antiplatelet and anticoagulant therapy (control group) in the same period were collected. DWI was conducted on all the subjects, and ADC maps were generated with Functool software to quantify ADC value. The clinical outcomes of HCI patients were observed for 3 months, and prognostic factors were analyzed. Results Before thrombolysis treatment, the lesion area presented high signal intensity on DWI map and low signal intensity on ADC map, and gradually weakened signal intensity on DWI map and gradually enhanced signal intensity on ADC map were observed after thrombolysis. The ADC values of the thrombolysis group were significantly higher than those of the control group after treatment (24 h, 7 d, 30 d, and 90 d) (all P<0.05), and the ADC and rADC values in the thrombolysis group gradually increased over time (all P<0.05). Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score, baseline rADC value, and stroke history were the independent factors for the prognosis of HIC patients with thrombolysis (all P<0.05). Conclusions The values of ADC and rADC may provide guidance in the prognosis of HCI patients receiving rt-PA, and the baseline rADC value is the protective factor for the prognosis of HCI patients receiving rt-PA. PMID:27864581

  7. Role of diffusion-weighted imaging, apparent diffusion coefficient and correlation with hepatobiliary phase findings in the differentiation of hepatocellular carcinoma from dysplastic nodules in cirrhotic liver.

    PubMed

    Inchingolo, Riccardo; De Gaetano, Anna Maria; Curione, Davide; Ciresa, Marzia; Miele, Luca; Pompili, Maurizio; Vecchio, Fabio Maria; Giuliante, Felice; Bonomo, Lorenzo

    2015-04-01

    To investigate the utility of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and the correlation with hepatobiliary phase (delayed phase imaging, DPI) findings in the differentiation of cirrhotic hepatocellular nodules. Forty-three patients with 53 pathology-proven nodules (29 hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs), 13 high-grade (HGDNs) and 11 low-grade dysplastic nodules (LGDNs); mean size 2.17 cm, range 1-4 cm), who underwent liver MRI with DWI and DPI sequences, were retrospectively reviewed. Lesions were classified as hypointense, isointense, or hyperintense relative to the adjacent liver parenchyma. ADC of each nodule, of the surrounding parenchyma, and lesion-to-liver ratio were calculated. Hyperintensity versus iso/hypointensity on DWI, hypointensity versus iso/hyperintensity on DPI, and the mean lesion-to-liver ratio showed a statistically significant difference both between HCCs versus DNs and between "HCCs + HGDNs" versus LGDNs (p < 0.05); sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy for the diagnosis of "HCCs + HGDNs" were 96.8 %, 100 %, 97.4 % respectively when combining hyperintensity on DWI and hypointensity on DPI, and 90.9 %, 81.0 %, 83.6 % respectively when lesion-to-liver ratio was <0.95. Hyperintensity on DWI, especially in association with hypointensity on DPI, and low lesion-to-liver ratios should raise the suspicion of HCC, or at least of HGDN, thus helping the characterization of atypically enhancing lesions. • Usefulness of DWI and ADC is shown in differential diagnosis of cirrhotic nodules. • Correlation of DWI with DPI improves differential diagnosis of cirrhotic nodules. • Characterization of atypically enhancing lesions becomes more confident.

  8. Value of diffusion-weighted MRI and apparent diffusion coefficient measurements for predicting the response of locally advanced rectal cancer to neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Iannicelli, Elsa; Di Pietropaolo, Marco; Pilozzi, Emanuela; Osti, Mattia Falchetto; Valentino, Maria; Masoni, Luigi; Ferri, Mario

    2016-10-01

    The aim of our study was to assess the performance value of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the restaging of locally advanced rectal cancer after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (CRT) and in the identification of good vs. poor responders to neoadjuvant therapy. A total of 34 patients with locally advanced rectal cancer underwent MRI prior to and after CRT. T stage and tumor regression grade (TRG) on post-CRT MRI was compared with the pathological staging ypT and TRG. Tumor volume and the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) were measured using diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) before and after neoadjuvant CRT; the percentage of tumor volume reduction and the change of ADC (ΔADC) was also calculated. ADC parameters and the percentage of tumor volume reduction were correlated to histopathological results. The diagnostic performance of ADC and volume reduction to assess tumor response was evaluated by calculating the area under the ROC curve and the optimal cut-off values. A significant correlation between the T stage and the TRG defined in DW-MRI after CRT and the ypT and the TRG observed on the surgical specimens was found (p = 0.001; p < 0.001). The mean post-CRT ADC and ΔADC in responder patients was significantly higher compared to non-responder ones (p = 0.001; p = 0.01). Furthermore, the mean post-CRT ADC values were significantly higher in tumors with T-downstage (p = 0.01). DW-MRI may have a significant role in the restaging and in the evaluation of post-CRT response of locally advanced rectal cancer. Quantitative analysis of DWI through ADC map may result in a promising noninvasive tool to evaluate the response to therapy.

  9. Apparent diffusion coefficient by diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging as a sole biomarker for staging and prognosis of gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Giganti, Francesco; Ambrosi, Alessandro; Chiari, Damiano; Orsenigo, Elena; Esposito, Antonio; Mazza, Elena; Albarello, Luca; Staudacher, Carlo; Del Maschio, Alessandro; De Cobelli, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    Objective To investigate the role of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) from diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) when applied to the 7th TNM classification in the staging and prognosis of gastric cancer (GC). Methods Between October 2009 and May 2014, a total of 89 patients with non-metastatic, biopsy proven GC underwent 1.5T DW-MRI, and then treated with radical surgery. Tumor ADC was measured retrospectively and compared with final histology following the 7th TNM staging (local invasion, nodal involvement and according to the different groups — stage I, II and III). Kaplan-Meier curves were also generated. The follow-up period is updated to May 2016. Results Median follow-up period was 33 months and 45/89 (51%) deaths from GC were observed. ADC was significantly different both for local invasion and nodal involvement (P<0.001). Considering final histology as the reference standard, a preoperative ADC cut-off of 1.80×10–3 mm2/s could distinguish between stages I and II and an ADC value of ≤1.36×10–3 mm2/s was associated with stage III (P<0.001). Kaplan-Meier curves demonstrated that the survival rates for the three prognostic groups were significantly different according to final histology and ADC cut-offs (P<0.001). Conclusions ADC is different according to local invasion, nodal involvement and the 7th TNM stage groups for GC, representing a potential, additional prognostic biomarker. The addition of DW-MRI could aid in the staging and risk stratification of GC. PMID:28536490

  10. Inter-observer variation and diagnostic efficacy of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) measurements obtained by diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in small renal masses.

    PubMed

    Ponhold, Lothar; Javor, Domagoj; Heinz-Peer, Gertraud; Sevcenco, Sabina; Hofstetter, Martin; Baltzer, Pascal Andreas

    2016-08-01

    Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) is increasingly used to diagnose renal lesion subtypes. Especially in small renal masses, identification of less aggressive tumor types is of clinical interest, as active surveillance strategies can be applied. To evaluate the inter-observer variation and diagnostic efficacy of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) measurements obtained by DWI in small renal masses ≤4 cm (SRM). This retrospective IRB-approved study included 39 patients (46 SRM: 12 benign, 34 malignant). All underwent a 3 T DWI of SRM prior to surgery. Two radiologists independently analyzed all imaging data by three measurements. Limits of agreement, intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC), group comparisons by t-tests, and ROC analysis were performed. Reliability of ADC measurements was very high with an ICC of >0.9 for both observers. Inter-rater reliability was high with an ICC of 0.82. Limits of agreement for average ADC values between both observers were -23.5% to 38.3% with a mean difference of 7.5% between both observers. No significant differences were found between benign and malignant lesions (P value Observer 1: 0.362, Observer 2: 0.622). Papillary carcinoma showed lower ADC values compared to non-papillary carcinoma (P value Observer 1: 0.008, Observer 2: 0.012). Consequently, ROC analysis revealed a significant (P < 0.001, respectively) area under the ROC curve of 0.853 (Observer 1) and 0.837 (Observer 2) without significant differences between both readers (P = 0.772). ADC measurements of SRM at 3 T show a high reproducibility and differentiate papillary from non-papillary carcinoma subtypes. However, measurement variability may limit the application of fixed ADC thresholds for lesion diagnosis. © The Foundation Acta Radiologica 2015.

  11. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging of solid and cystic lesions of the pancreas.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi; Miller, Frank H; Chen, Zongming E; Merrick, Laura; Mortele, Koenraad J; Hoff, Frederick L; Hammond, Nancy A; Yaghmai, Vahid; Vahid, Yaghmai; Nikolaidis, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is increasingly used in the detection and characterization of pancreatic lesions. Diffusion-weighted imaging may provide additional information to radiologists evaluating patients who have cystic or solid neoplasms of the pancreas. Because of greater freedom of motion of water molecules in fluid-rich environments, simple cysts in the pancreas have higher signal intensity on diffusion-weighted images with a b value of 0 sec/mm2 and lower signal intensity on high-b-value images. High apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values can be obtained on ADC maps because of the T2 “shine-through” effect. In contrast, solid neoplasms of the pancreas show increased signal intensity relative to the pancreas on diffusion-weighted images with a b value of 0 sec/mm2 and relatively high signal intensity on high-b-value images. Diffusion-weighted imaging can help detect solid pancreatic neoplasms with extremely dense cellularity or extracellular fibrosis by demonstrating significantly low ADC values, and these neoplasms may be better detected on diffusion-weighted MR images because of better contrast, although the resolution is generally worse. However, diffusion-weighted imaging may not be capable of helping definitively characterize solid lesions as inflammatory or neoplastic because of an overlap in ADC values between the two types. For example, it is difficult to distinguish poorly differentiated pancreatic adenocarcinoma from mass-forming pancreatitis at diffusion-weighted imaging because of similarly low ADC values attributed to dense fibrosis.

  12. Diagnostic and prognostic value of pretreatment SUV in 18F-FDG/PET in breast cancer: comparison with apparent diffusion coefficient from diffusion-weighted MR imaging.

    PubMed

    Baba, Shingo; Isoda, Takuro; Maruoka, Yasuhiro; Kitamura, Yoshiyuki; Sasaki, Masayuki; Yoshida, Tsuyoshi; Honda, Hiroshi

    2014-05-01

    In oncology, the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) measured by diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWI) and the standardized uptake value (SUV) from (18)F-FDG PET have similar clinical applications. The purpose of this study was to assess the correlation between the ADC and SUV and compare their potential in the diagnosis and prediction of prognosis in breast tumors. Seventy-nine female patients (age range, 19-69 y; average, 49.1 y) with 83 pathologically proven breast tumors were recruited. The diagnoses consisted of 70 malignant breast tumors (65 cases of invasive ductal carcinoma, 1 of medullary carcinoma, 1 of mucinous carcinoma, 1 of squamous cell carcinoma, and 2 of micropapillary carcinoma) and 13 benign breast tumors (4 cases of fibroadenoma, 4 of mastopathy, 3 of adenosis with atypia, and 2 of benign phyllodes tumor). All patients underwent mammary gland MR imaging with DWI and (18)F-FDG PET within a 2-wk interval. The patients' ADCs and SUVs were measured within the tumor by DWI and (18)F-FDG PET, respectively. For the malignant tumors, we evaluated the relationships among ADC, SUV, histopathologic appearance, and long-term prognosis. A significant difference (P < 0.05) was observed in both parameters (ADC and SUV) between the benign and malignant breast tumors, and the difference was more significant when we introduced a new parameter, SUV/ADC. There was a weak inverse correlation between ADC and SUV (r = -0.36; P = 0.06) among the total tumors; however, this correlation was not significant within the group of malignant tumors. High SUV was found to correlate with larger tumor size, higher nuclear grade, and the triple-negative hormonal receptor profile. High ADC was revealed to be correlated with negative progesterone receptor and positive human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 profile. Higher SUVs also showed a correlation with poor prognosis. No correlation was seen between ADC and prognosis. Both SUV and ADC are helpful parameters in differentiating

  13. Apparent diffusion coefficient normalization of normal liver: Will it improve the reproducibility of diffusion-weighted imaging at different MR scanners as a new biomarker?

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jie; Zhang, Jie; Gao, Jia-Yin; Li, Jin-Ning; Yang, Da-Wei; Chen, Min; Zhou, Cheng; Yang, Zheng-Han

    2017-01-01

    Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) measurement in diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) has been reported to be a helpful biomarker for detection and characterization of lesion. In view of the importance of ADC measurement reproducibility, the aim of this study was to probe the variability of the healthy hepatic ADC values measured at 3 MR scanners from different vendors and with different field strengths, and to investigate the reproducibility of normalized ADC (nADC) value with the spleen as the reference organ. Thirty enrolled healthy volunteers received DWI with GE 1.5T, Siemens 1.5T, and Philips 3.0T magnetic resonance (MR) systems on liver and spleen (session 1) and were imaged again after 10 to 14 days using only GE 1.5T MR and Philips 3.0T MR systems (session 2). Interscan agreement and reproducibility of ADC measurements of liver and the calculated nADC values (ADCliver/ADCspleen) were statistically evaluated between 2 sessions. In session 1, ADC and nADC values of liver were evaluated for the scanner-related variability by 2-way analysis of variance and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs). Coefficients of variation (CVs) of ADCs and nADCs of liver were calculated for both 1.5 and 3.0-T MR system. Interscan agreement and reproducibility of ADC measurements of liver and related nADCs between 2 sessions were found to be satisfactory with ICC values of 0.773 to 0.905. In session 1, the liver nADCs obtained from different scanners were consistent (P = 0.112) without any significant difference in multiple comparison (P = 0.117 to >0.99) by using 2-way analysis of variance with post-hoc analysis of Bonferroni method, although the liver ADCs varied significantly (P < 0.001). nADCs measured by 3 scanners were in good interscanner agreements with ICCs of 0.685 to 0.776. The mean CV of nADCs of both 1.5T MR scanners (9.6%) was similar to that of 3.0T MR scanner (8.9%). ADCs measured at 3 MR scanners with different field strengths and vendors could

  14. Histogram analysis of apparent diffusion coefficient map of diffusion-weighted MRI in endometrial cancer: a preliminary correlation study with histological grade.

    PubMed

    Woo, Sungmin; Cho, Jeong Yeon; Kim, Sang Youn; Kim, Seung Hyup

    2014-12-01

    Until now, several investigators have explored the value of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) for the preoperative tumor grading of endometrial cancer. However, the diagnostic value of DWI with quantitative analysis of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) has been controversial. To explore the role of histogram analysis of ADC maps based on entire tumor volume in determining the grade of endometrial cancer. This study was IRB-approved with waiver of informed consent. Thirty-three patients with endometrial cancer underwent DWI (b = 0, 600, 1000 s/mm(2)), and corresponding ADC maps were acquired. Regions of interest (ROIs) were drawn on all slices of the ADC map in which the tumor was visualized including areas of necrosis to derive volume-based histographic ADC data. Histogram parameters (5th-95th percentiles, mean, standard deviation, skewness, kurtosis) were correlated with histological grade using one-way ANOVA with Tukey-Kramer test for post hoc comparisons, and were compared between high (grade 3) and low (grades 1/2) grade using Student t-test. ROC curve analysis was performed to determine the optimum threshold value for each parameter, and their corresponding sensitivity and specificity. The standard deviation, quartile, 75th, 90th, and 95th percentiles of ADC showed significant differences between grades (P ≤ 0.03 for all) and between high and low grades (P ≤ 0.024 for all). There were no significant correlations between tumor grade and other parameters. ROC curve analysis yielded sensitivities and specificities of 75% and 96%, 62.5% and 92%, 100% and 52%, 100% and 72%, and 100% and 88%, using standard deviation, quartile, 75th, 90th, and 95th percentiles for determining high grade with corresponding areas under the curve (AUCs) of 0.787, 0.792, 0.765, 0.880, and 0.925, respectively. Histogram analysis of ADC maps based on entire tumor volume can be useful for predicting the histological grade of endometrial cancer. The 90th and 95th

  15. Tubo-Ovarian Abscess (with/without Pseudotumor Area) Mimicking Ovarian Malignancy: Role of Diffusion-Weighted MR Imaging with Apparent Diffusion Coefficient Values

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tingting; Li, Wenhua; Wu, Xiangru; Yin, Bing; Chu, Caiting; Ding, Ming; Cui, Yanfen

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess the added value of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) with apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values compared to MRI, for characterizing the tubo-ovarian abscesses (TOA) mimicking ovarian malignancy. Materials and Methods Patients with TOA (or ovarian abscess alone; n = 34) or ovarian malignancy (n = 35) who underwent DWI and MRI were retrospectively reviewed. The signal intensity of cystic and solid component of TOAs and ovarian malignant tumors on DWI and the corresponding ADC values were evaluated, as well as clinical characteristics, morphological features, MRI findings were comparatively analyzed. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis based on logistic regression was applied to identify different imaging characteristics between the two patient groups and assess the predictive value of combination diagnosis with area under the curve (AUC) analysis. Results The mean ADC value of the cystic component in TOA was significantly lower than in malignant tumors (1.04 ± 0 .41 × 10−3 mm2/s vs. 2.42 ± 0.38 × 10−3 mm2/s; p < 0.001). The mean ADC value of the enhanced solid component in 26 TOAs was 1.43 ± 0.16×10−3mm2/s, and 46.2% (12 TOAs; pseudotumor areas) showed significantly higher signal intensity on DW-MRI than in ovarian malignancy (mean ADC value 1.44 ± 0.20×10−3 mm2/s vs.1.18 ± 0.36 × 10−3 mm2/s; p = 0.043). The combination diagnosis of ADC value and dilated tubal structure achieved the best AUC of 0.996. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and accuracy of MRI vs. DWI with ADC values for predicting TOA were 47.1%, 91.4%, 84.2%, 64%, and 69.6% vs. 100%, 97.1%, 97.1%, 100%, and 98.6%, respectively. Conclusions DW-MRI is superior to MRI in the assessment of TOA mimicking ovarian malignancy, and the ADC values aid in discriminating the pseudotumor area of TOA from the solid portion of ovarian malignancy. PMID:26894926

  16. [Early prediction of the injured regions in neonatal brain with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy by diffusion weighted imaging and measuring their apparent diffusion coefficient].

    PubMed

    Cai, Qing; Xue, Xin-dong; Fu, Jian-hua; Liu, Chun-li; Xuan, Zhe; Zhang, Lei

    2011-05-01

    To elucidate that diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) can be used to predict the injured regions of neonatal brain with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) in the early phase of injury, and to measure the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values in the multiple regions of the brain. The participants in this study were twenty-six infants with HIE from neonatology ward hospitalized between July 2006 and July 2009. Nineteen patients had severe HIE, and seven had moderate HIE. DWI and conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were performed for each case within the first 72 hrs. The ADC values of eight regions of interest (ROIs) were measured in ten cases with severe HIE (ADC values group). ROIs included posterior limb of internal capsule (PLIC), ventrolateral thalami, basal ganglia, perirolandic cortex, occipital cortex, centrum semiovale, brainstem, and frontal white matter. Twelve neonates were enrolled as the control subjects. During the first 72 hrs, the conventional MRI of 26 patients showed subarachnoid hemorrhage in 5, subdural hemorrhage in 2, and mild high signal intensity in the cortex of only one patient. In the 19 cases with severe HIE, abnormal signal intensities were seen in ventrolateral thalami and perirolandic cortex of 17 patients (89%), and the remaining 2 infants showed abnormal cortex and subcortical white matter. In 7 cases with moderate HIE, 4 had abnormal signal intensity in the cortex and subcortical white matter, 2 had abnormal periventricular white matter, and only one showed abnormal signal intensity in the ventrolateral thalami and perirolandic cortex. In the ADC values group, the average ADC values of posterior limb of internal capsule (PLIC), ventrolateral thalami, basal ganglia, perirolandic cortex, occipital cortex, centrum semiovale, brainstem, and frontal white matter respectively were 0.68 (0.56 - 0.88), 0.73 ± 0.13, 0.67 ± 0.11, 0.78 ± 0.22, 0.90 ± 0.16, 0.87 ± 0.21, 0.73 ± 0.19, 1.32 ± 0.22 × 10(-3) mm(2)/S. In the

  17. Renal cell carcinoma: applicability of the apparent coefficient of the diffusion-weighted estimated by MRI for improving their differential diagnosis, histologic subtyping, and differentiation grade.

    PubMed

    Mytsyk, Yulian; Dutka, Ihor; Borys, Yuriy; Komnatska, Iryna; Shatynska-Mytsyk, Iryna; Farooqi, Ammad Ahmad; Gazdikova, Katarina; Caprnda, Martin; Rodrigo, Luis; Kruzliak, Peter

    2017-02-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) represents the most common malignant epithelial neoplasm of the kidney. Accurate assessment of the renal masses, defining the histologic subtype and the grade of differentiation of the tumor, is vital to ensure an adequate case management as well as for staging and prognosis. Recently, diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) tends to be increasingly appealing for the clinicians as an imaging procedure of choice for the diagnosis and staging of the RCC, which is predetermined by several advantages over CT. The goal of the survey was to assess the applicability of the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of the DWI MRI for the differential diagnostics, histologic subtyping, and defining the grade of differentiation of the RCC. The study enrolled 288 adult patients with renal lesions: 188 patients with solid RCC-126 patients with clear cell subtype (ccRCC), 32 patients with papillary RCC (pRCC), 30 patients with chromophobe RCC (chRCC); 27 patient with cystic form or RCC (Bosniak cyst, category IV); 32 patients with renal angiomyolipoma (AML); 25 patients with renal oncocytoma (OC); and 16 patients with the renal abscess (AB). In total, 245 lesions were pathologically verified. As a reference, 19 healthy volunteers were included into the study. All patients underwent MRI of the kidneys, involving DWI with subsequent evaluation of the ADC. There was a reliable difference (p < 0.05) in mean ADC values between the normal renal parenchyma (NRP), solid RCC of different histologic subtypes and grades, cystic RCC, and benign renal lesions. The mean ADC values obtained in the result of the study were (×10(-3) mm(2)/s): 2.47 ± 0.12 in NRP, 1.63 ± 0.29 in all solid RCCs, 1.82 ± 0.22 in solid ccRCC (1.92 ± 0.11-Fuhrman grade I, 1.84 ± 0.14-Fuhrman grade II, 1.79 ± 0.10-Fuhrman grade III, 1.72 ± 0.06-Fuhrman grade IV), 1.61 ± 0.07 in pRCC, 1.46 ± 0.09 in chRCC, 2.68 ± 0.11 in cystic RCC, 2.13

  18. Use of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging to distinguish between lung cancer and focal inflammatory lesions: a comparison of intravoxel incoherent motion derived parameters and apparent diffusion coefficient.

    PubMed

    Deng, Yu; Li, Xinchun; Lei, Yongxia; Liang, Changhong; Liu, Zaiyi

    2016-11-01

    Background Using imaging techniques to diagnose malignant and inflammatory lesions in the lung can be challenging. Purpose To compare intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) analysis in their ability to discriminate lung cancer from focal inflammatory lung lesions. Material and Methods Thirty-eight patients with lung masses were included: 30 lung cancers and eight inflammatory lesions. Patients were imaged with 3.0T MRI diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) using 10 b values (range, 0-1000 s/mm(2)). Tissue diffusivity ( D), pseudo-diffusion coefficient ( D*), and perfusion fraction ( f) were calculated using segmented biexponential analysis. ADC (total) was calculated with monoexponential fitting of the DWI data. D, D*, f, and ADC were compared between lung cancer and inflammatory lung lesions. Receiver operating characteristic analysis was performed for all DWI parameters. Results The ADC was significantly higher for inflammatory lesions than for lung cancer ([1.21 ± 0.20] × 10(-3) mm(2)/s vs. [0.97 ± 0.15] × 10(-3) mm(2)/s; P = 0.004). By IVIM, f was found to be significantly higher in inflammatory lesions than lung cancer ([46.10 ± 12.92] % vs. [29.29 ± 10.89] %; P = 0.005). There was no difference in D and D* between lung cancer and inflammatory lesions ( P = 0.747 and 0.124, respectively). f showed comparable diagnostic performance with ADC in differentiating lung cancer from inflammatory lung lesions, with areas under the curve of 0.833 and 0.826, sensitivity 80.0% and 73.3%, and specificity 75.0% and 87.5%, respectively. Conclusion The IVIM parameter f value provides comparable diagnostic performance with ADC and could be used as a surrogate marker for differentiating lung cancer from inflammatory lesions.

  19. Diffusion-weighted MRI evaluation of breast cancer extension.

    PubMed

    Long-Hua, Qiu; Qin, Xiao; Wen-Tao, Yang; Feng, Tang; Kun-Wei, Shen; Bin, Wu; Ya-Jia, Gu

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the feasibility of using diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWI) to accurately measure breast cancer extension. The extensions of 59 breast lesions were investigated on DW images and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps and compared to the pathological exams. Three groups were observed: accurate, overdiagnosis, and false negative. There were no significant differences seen in accurate or false-negative group when b was 500 and 1000 s/mm(2) when two lesions in the overdiagnosis group at both b values. DWI and the ADC value have potential for evaluating cancer extension. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Diffusion-weighted imaging and apparent diffusion coefficient values versus contrast-enhanced MR imaging in the identification and characterisation of acute pyelonephritis.

    PubMed

    Faletti, Riccardo; Cassinis, Maria Carla; Fonio, Paolo; Grasso, Angela; Battisti, Giacomo; Bergamasco, Laura; Gandini, Giovanni

    2013-12-01

    To compare contrast-enhanced (CEMR) and diffusion-weighted (DWI) magnetic resonance imaging in diagnosing acute pyelonephritis (APN) and to assess ADC measurement reliability in differentiating among normal renal parenchyma, APN and abscesses. Eighty-eight patients (80 women, mean age 36.5 years) with clinical suspicion of APN were retrospectively reviewed. An experienced observer quantified lesions with a score ranging from 0 to 3. DWI and CEMR were compared on the basis of the assigned score, total examination number (88) and on presence (36)/absence (52) of abscesses. ADC values, calculated at the healthy parenchyma, APN and abscessed were compared to each other. Agreement between CEMR and DWI was 94.3 % (83/88 patients; P < 0.05). In the APN group, DWI was awarded the highest visibility score compared to CEMR (P = 0.05), while in the abscess group CEMR had the highest score (P = 0.04). The difference between ADC values of the APN-healthy parenchyma and abscess-APN groups was significant (P < 0.05). The area under the ROC curve of ADC values of the APN-healthy and abscess-APN groups were found to be 0.94 (95 % CI; cutoff value = 2) and 0.78 (95 % CI; cutoff value = 1.2) respectively. Diffusion-weighted imaging appears reliable in the diagnosis and follow-up of acute pyelonephritis and could provide a reasonable alternative to contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging.

  1. Accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging in differentiating between benign and malignant vertebral lesions: role of diffusion-weighted imaging, in-phase/opposed-phase imaging and apparent diffusion coefficient.

    PubMed

    Martel Villagrán, J; Bueno Horcajadas, Á; Pérez Fernández, E; Martín Martín, S

    2015-01-01

    To determine the ability of MRI to distinguish between benign and malignant vertebral lesions. We included 85 patients and studied a total of 213 vertebrae (both pathologic and normal). For each vertebra, we determined whether the lesion was hypointense in T1-weighted sequences and whether it was hyperintense in STIR and in diffusion-weighted sequences. We calculated the in-phase/out-of-phase quotient and the apparent diffusion coefficient for each vertebra. We combined parameters from T1-weighted, diffusion-weighted, and STIR sequences to devise a formula to distinguish benign from malignant lesions. The group comprised 60 (70.6%) women and 25 (29.4%) men with a mean age of 67±13.5 years (range, 33-90 y). Of the 85 patients, 26 (30.6%) had a known primary tumor. When the lesion was hypointense on T1-weighted sequences, hyperintense on STIR and diffusion-weighted sequences, and had a signal intensity quotient greater than 0.8, the sensitivity was 97.2%, the specificity was 90%, and the diagnostic accuracy was 91.2%. If the patient had a known primary tumor, these values increased to 97.2%, 99.4%, and 99%, respectively. Benign lesions can be distinguished from malignant lesions if we combine the information from T1-weighted, STIR, and diffusion-weighted sequences together with the in-phase/out-of-phase quotient of the lesion detected in the vertebral body on MRI. Copyright © 2013 SERAM. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Diffusion-weighted J-resolved spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Landheer, Karl; Schulte, Rolf; Geraghty, Ben; Hanstock, Christopher; Chen, Albert P; Cunningham, Charles H; Graham, Simon J

    2017-10-01

    To develop a novel diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance spectroscopy (DW-MRS) technique in conjunction with J-resolved spatially localized spectroscopy (JPRESS) to measure the apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) of brain metabolites beyond N-acetylaspartic acid (NAA), creatine (Cr), and choline (Cho) at 3T. This technique will be useful to probe tissue microstructures in vivo, as the various metabolites have different physiological characteristics. Two JPRESS spectra were collected (high b-value and low b-value), and the ADCs of 16 different metabolites were estimated. Two analysis pipelines were developed: 1) a 2D pipeline that uses ProFit software to extract ADCs from metabolites not typically accessible at 3T and 2) a 1D pipeline that uses TARQUIN software to extract the metabolite concentrations from each line in the 2D dataset, allowing for scaling as well as validation. The ADCs of 16 different metabolites were estimated from within six subjects in parietal white matter. There was excellent agreement between the results obtained from the 1D and 2D pipelines for NAA, Cr, and Cho. The proposed technique provided consistent estimates for the ADCs of NAA, Cr, Cho, glutamate + glutamine, and myo-inositol in all subjects and additionally glutathione and scyllo-inositol in all but one subject. Magn Reson Med 78:1235-1245, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  3. DIFFUSION-WEIGHTED IMAGING OF THE LIVER: TECHNIQUES AND APPLICATIONS

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Sara; Dyvorne, Hadrien; Cui, Yong; Taouli, Bachir

    2014-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Diffusion weighted MRI (DWI) is a technique that assesses the cellularity, tortuosity of the extracellular/extravascular space and cell membrane density based upon differences in water proton mobility in tissues. The strength of the diffusion weighting is reflected by the b-value. DWI using several b-values enables quantification of the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC). DWI is increasingly employed in liver imaging for multiple reasons: it can add useful qualitative and quantitative information to conventional imaging sequences, it is acquired relatively quickly, it is easily incorporated into existing clinical protocols, and it is a non-contrast technique. DWI is useful for focal liver lesion detection and characterization, for the assessment of post-treatment tumor response and for evaluation of diffuse liver disease. ADC quantification can be used to characterize lesions as cystic/necrotic or solid and for predicting tumor response to therapy. Advanced diffusion methods such as IVIM (intravoxel incoherent motion) may have potential for detection, staging and evaluation of the progression of liver fibrosis and for liver lesion characterization. The lack of standardization of DWI technique including choice of b-values and sequence parameters has somewhat limited its widespread adoption. PMID:25086935

  4. Diffusion-weighted 19F-MRI of lung periphery: Influence of pressure and air-SF6 composition on apparent diffusion coefficients.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Cabello, Jesús; Pérez-Sánchez, José Manuel; Pérez de Alejo, Rigoberto; Rodríguez, Ignacio; González-Mangado, Nicolás; Peces-Barba, Germán; Cortijo, Manuel

    2005-08-25

    Lung functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become a reality using different inert hyperpolarized gases, such as 3He and 129Xe, which have provided an extraordinary boost in lung imaging and has also attracted interest to other chemically inert gaseous contrast agents. In this context, we have recently demonstrated the first diffusion-weighted images using thermally polarized inhaled sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) in small animals. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether or not the diffusion coefficient of this fluorinated gas is sensitive to pulmonary structure, gas concentration and air pressure in the airways. Diffusion coefficients of SF6 (both pure and in air mixtures) measured in vitro at different pressures and 20 degrees C showed an excellent agreement with theoretical values. Measurements of diffusion coefficients were also performed in vivo and post-mortem on healthy rats, achieving satisfactory signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs), and SF6 gas was found to be in an almost completely restricted diffusion regime in the lung, i.e., the transport by molecular diffusion is delayed by collisions with barriers such as the alveolar septa. This observed low diffusivity means that this gas will be less sensitive to structural changes in the lungs than other magnetic resonance sensitive gas such as 3He, particularly at human scale. However, it is still possible that SF6 plays a role since it opens a new structural window. Thus, the interest of researchers in delimiting the important limiting technical factors that makes this process very challenging is obvious. Among them, T2 relaxation is very fast, so gradient systems with very fast switching rate and probably large radiofrequency (RF) power and high field systems will be needed for hexafluoride to be used in human studies.

  5. Diagnostic Value of Diffusion-weighted Imaging and Apparent Diffusion Coefficient Values in the Differentiation of Breast Lesions, Histpathologic Subgroups and Correlatıon with Prognostıc Factors using 3.0 Tesla MR

    PubMed Central

    Akın, Yasin; Uğurlu, M. Ümit; Kaya, Handan; Arıbal, Erkin

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and diffusion-weighted imaging in differentiating benign from malignant breast lesions, histopathologic subtypes of breast tumors, and to find a correlation with prognostic factors using 3T MR. Materials and Methods A total of 165 patients aged between 16 and 78 years with 181 histopathologically-verifed breast lesions were enrolled in this study. A 3T MR system and bilateral phased array breast coil was used. Diffusion-weighted imaging was performed with spin echo “echo planar” with “b” values: 50, 400, and 800 seconds/mm2. ADC values were calculated for normal fibroglandular tissue and breast lesions. ADC values of independent groups were compared using Student’s t-test. ROC analysis was used to find a threshold ADC value in the differentiation of lesions. Results The mean ADC values were 1.35±0.16 × 10−3 mm2/s for normal fibroglandular tissue, 1.41±0.24 × 10−3 mm2/s for benign breast lesions and 0.83±0.19 × 10−3 mm2/s for malignant breast lesions. The AUC with ROC analysis was 0.945 and the threshold for ADC was 1.08 × 10−3 mm2/s with a sensitivity and specificity of 92% and 92%, respectively. The threshold value for ADC ratio was 0.9 with 96% sensitivity and 89% specificity. The mean ADC of malignant breast lesions was statistically lower for benign lesions (p<0.01). We found no correlation between the mean ADC values and ER-PR receptor, Her2, and Ki-67 values. Conclusion Diffusion-weighted imaging has high diagnostic value with high sensitivity and specificity in differentiating malignant and benign breast lesions.

  6. Apparent diffusion coefficient with higher b-value correlates better with viable cell count quantified from the cavity of brain abscess.

    PubMed

    Tomar, V; Yadav, A; Rathore, R K S; Verma, S; Awasthi, R; Bharadwaj, V; Ojha, B K; Prasad, K N; Gupta, R K

    2011-12-01

    DWI by using higher b-values provides tissue diffusivity with less T2 shinethrough effect. VCD in the abscess cavity correlates with ADC values. The purpose of this study was to investigate which b-value-derived ADC correlates better with VCD. Thirty patients with brain abscess underwent conventional MR imaging and DWI with b = 1000, 2000, and 3000 s/mm(2) on a 3T MR imaging scanner. ADC values were quantified by placing regions of interest inside the abscess cavity in all sections where the lesion was apparent on coregistered ADC maps derived from different b-values. VCD was measured on pus aspirated. An increase in b-value was associated with a decrease in ADC values in normal parenchyma as well as in the abscess cavity. The most significant negative correlation of VCD was observed with b = 3000 s/mm(2) (r = -0.98, P = .01). VCD in the abscess cavity can be best assessed at b = 3000 s/mm(2) secondary to the reduction in the T2 shinethrough effect. DWI with b = 3000 s/mm(2) is of promising value in the assessment of the therapeutic response of brain abscess.

  7. Quantified analysis of histological components and architectural patterns of gleason grades in apparent diffusion coefficient restricted areas upon diffusion weighted MRI for peripheral or transition zone cancer locations.

    PubMed

    Helfrich, Olivier; Puech, Philippe; Betrouni, Nacim; Pinçon, Claire; Ouzzane, Adil; Rizk, Jérome; Marcq, Gauthier; Randazzo, Marco; Durand, Matthieu; Lakroum, Said; Leroy, Xavier; Villers, Arnauld

    2017-04-06

    To quantify and compare the histological components and architectural patterns of Gleason grades in cancerous areas with restriction on apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps. Twelve consecutive cases with 14 separate ADC restriction areas, positive for cancer in the peripheral zone (PZ) and transition zone (TZ) were included. All had 3 Tesla MRI and radical prostatectomy. Ten regions of interest (ROIs) within and outside the 14 ADC restriction areas positive for cancer were selected. For each ROI, we performed quantitative analysis of (a) prostate benign and malignant histological component surface ratios, including stroma, glands, epithelium, lumen, cellular nuclei; (b) percent of Gleason grades and measures of ADC values. Means of histological components according to ADC restriction for cancerous area were compared with analyses of variance with repeated measures. Independent predictors of the probability of cancer were median epithelium/ROI ratio (P = 0.001) and nuclei/ROI ratio (P = 0.03). Independent predictors of the probability of ADC restriction were malignant glands/ROI and luminal space/ROI (P < 0.0001). Effect of malignant glands/ROI area was different according to the localization of the ROI (P = 0.03). We observed an overall difference between the means for all of the histological components for the comparison of true positive and false negative (P < 0.0001), except for the percent of Gleason grade 4 (P = 0.18). In TZ cancers, a predominant grade 3 pattern was associated with low ADC values. In PZ cancers, a predominant grade 4 pattern was associated with low ADC values. Determinants of low ADC were high ratio of malignant glands/ROI area which may be seen in Gleason grades 3 or 4 cancers. 3 J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2017. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  8. Physiological Background of Differences in Quantitative Diffusion-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging Between Acute Malignant and Benign Vertebral Body Fractures: Correlation of Apparent Diffusion Coefficient With Quantitative Perfusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging Using the 2-Compartment Exchange Model.

    PubMed

    Geith, Tobias; Biffar, Andreas; Schmidt, Gerwin; Sourbron, Steven; Dietrich, Olaf; Reiser, Maximilian; Baur-Melnyk, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) in vertebral bone marrow of benign and malignant fractures is related to the volume of the interstitial space, determined with dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) magnetic resonance imaging. Patients with acute benign (n = 24) and malignant (n = 19) vertebral body fractures were examined at 1.5 T. A diffusion-weighted single-shot turbo-spin-echo sequence (b = 100 to 600 s/mm) and DCE turbo-FLASH sequence were evaluated. Regions of interest were manually selected for each fracture. Apparent diffusion coefficient was determined with a monoexponential decay model. The DCE magnetic resonance imaging concentration-time curves were analyzed using a 2-compartment tracer-kinetic model. Apparent diffusion coefficient showed a significant positive correlation with interstitial volume in the whole study population (Pearson r = 0.66, P < 0.001), as well as in the malignant (Pearson r = 0.64, P = 0.004) and benign (Pearson r = 0.52, P = 0.01) subgroup. A significant correlation between ADC and the permeability-surface area product could be observed when analyzing the whole study population (Spearman rs = 0.40, P = 0.008), but not when separately examining the subgroups. Plasma flow showed a significant correlation with ADC in benign fractures (Pearson r = 0.23, P = 0.03). Plasma volume did not show significant correlations with ADC. The results support the hypothesis that the ADC of a lesion is inversely correlated to its cellularity. This explains previous observations that ADC is reduced in more malignant lesions.

  9. An intravoxel oriented flow model for diffusion-weighted imaging of the kidney.

    PubMed

    Hilbert, Fabian; Bock, Maximilian; Neubauer, Henning; Veldhoen, Simon; Wech, Tobias; Bley, Thorsten Alexander; Köstler, Herbert

    2016-10-01

    By combining intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) we introduce a new diffusion model called intravoxel oriented flow (IVOF) that accounts for anisotropy of diffusion and the flow-related signal. An IVOF model using a simplified apparent flow fraction tensor (IVOFf ) is applied to diffusion-weighted imaging of human kidneys. The kidneys of 13 healthy volunteers were examined on a 3 T scanner. Diffusion-weighted images were acquired with six b values between 0 and 800 s/mm(2) and 30 diffusion directions. Diffusivity and flow fraction were calculated for different diffusion models. The Akaike information criterion was used to compare the model fit of the proposed IVOFf model to IVIM and DTI. In the majority of voxels the proposed IVOFf model with a simplified apparent flow fraction tensor performs better than IVIM and DTI. Mean diffusivity is significantly higher in DTI compared with models that account for the flow-related signal. The fractional anisotropy of diffusion is significantly reduced when flow fraction is considered to be anisotropic. Anisotropy of the apparent flow fraction tensor is significantly higher in the renal medulla than in the cortex region. The IVOFf model describes diffusion-weighted data in the human kidney more accurately than IVIM or DTI. The apparent flow fraction in the kidney proved to be anisotropic.

  10. Diffusion-weighted imaging and (18) F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography in breast cancer: Correlation of the apparent diffusion coefficient and maximum standardized uptake values with prognostic factors.

    PubMed

    Karan, Belgin; Pourbagher, Aysin; Torun, Nese

    2016-06-01

    To evaluate the correlations between the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value and the standardized uptake value (SUV) with prognostic factors in breast cancer. Seventy women with invasive breast cancer (56 cases of invasive ductal carcinoma, four of mixed ductal and lobular invasive carcinoma, three of lobular invasive carcinoma, two of micropapillary carcinoma, and one each of mixed ductal and mucinous carcinoma, mucinous carcinoma, medullary carcinoma, metaplastic carcinoma, and tubular carcinoma) were included in this study. All patients underwent presurgical breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) at 1.5T and whole-body (18) F-fluorodeoxyglucose ((18) F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) / computed tomography (CT). For all invasive breast cancers and invasive ductal carcinomas, we assessed the relationships among ADC, SUV, and pathological prognostic factors. Both the median ADC value and maximum SUV (SUVmax) were significantly associated with vascular invasion (P = 0.008 and P = 0.026, respectively). SUVmax was also significantly correlated with tumor size (P = 0.001), histological grade (P = 0.001), lymph node status (P = 0.0015), estrogen receptor status (P = 0.010), and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 status (P = 0.020), whereas ADC values were not. The correlation between the ADC and SUVmax was not significant (P = 0.356; R = -0.112). Mucinous carcinoma showed high ADC and relatively low SUVmax. Medullary carcinoma showed low ADC and high SUVmax. When we evaluated the relationships among ADC, SUVmax, and prognostic factors in the 56 invasive ductal carcinomas, our statistical results were not significantly changed, except SUVmax was also significantly associated with progesterone receptor status (P = 0.034), but not lymph node status. SUVmax may be valuable for predicting the prognosis of breast cancer. Both ADC and SUVmax are useful to predict vascular invasion. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2016

  11. Detection of prostate cancer with magnetic resonance imaging: optimization of T1-weighted, T2-weighted, dynamic-enhanced T1-weighted, diffusion-weighted imaging apparent diffusion coefficient mapping sequences and MR spectroscopy, correlated with biopsy and histopathological findings.

    PubMed

    Aydin, Hasan; Kizilgöz, Volkan; Tatar, Idil Güneş; Damar, Cağri; Ugan, Ali Riza; Paker, Irem; Hekimoğlu, Baki

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to optimize and predict the most efficient magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences; T1-weighted (T1W), T2-weighted (T2W), dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) T1W, diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) mapping sequences and proton MR spectroscopy (H-MRS) for the detection of prostate cancer. After institutional review board approval and informed consent taken from all the patients, 40 patients with prostate cancer were included in this research. Two readers independently evaluated the results of T1W, T2W, DCE T1W, and DWI-ADC mapping sequences and proton H-MRS for the depiction of prostate cancer. Reference standard was the transrectal ultrasonography-guided biopsy and the surgical histopathological results. Statistical analysis was assessed by the Fisher exact t test, Wilcoxon signed rank test, variance analysis test with kappa (κ) values and receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve for ADC values, choline (Cho)/citrate (Cit) and Cho+creatine (Cre)/Cit ratios for each observer. Based on both readers' results, sensitivity declined to 31% and specificity to 75% for the T1W sequence, sensitivity declined to 43% and specificity to 67% for the DCE T1W sequence, sensitivity declined to 46% and specificity to 68% for the T2W sequence, sensitivity declined to 29% and specificity to 82% for the DWI-ADC mapping; and specificity was 49% for the Cho/Cit and Cho+Cre/Cit ratios, sensitivity was 69% for the Cho/Cit ratio, and sensitivity was 70% for the Cho+Cre/Cit ratio for H-MRS. The T2W sequence and H-MRS presented significant statistical differences for the depiction of prostatic cancer (P < 0.05), the most efficient sequence to detect prostatic cancer was H-MRS: Cho+Cre/Cit and Cho/Cit ratios. Instead of using either sequences alone owing to low sensitivity and specificity rates, combined use of MRI techniques could easily improve the detection and staging of prostate cancer.

  12. Predicting Treatment Response of Colorectal Cancer Liver Metastases to Conventional Lipiodol-Based Transarterial Chemoembolization Using Diffusion-Weighted MR Imaging: Value of Pretreatment Apparent Diffusion Coefficients (ADC) and ADC Changes Under Therapy.

    PubMed

    Lahrsow, Maximilian; Albrecht, Moritz H; Bickford, Matthew W; Vogl, Thomas J

    2017-06-01

    To use absolute pretreatment apparent diffusion coefficients (ADC) derived from diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWI) to predict response to repetitive cTACE for unresectable liver metastases of colorectal carcinoma (CRLM) at 1 and 3 months after start of treatment. Fifty-five metastases in 34 patients were examined with DWI prior to treatment and 1 month after initial cTACE. Treatment was performed in 4-week intervals. Response was evaluated at 1 and 3 months after start of therapy. Metastases showing a decrease of ≥30% in axial diameter were classified as responding lesions. One month after initial cTACE, seven lesions showed early response. There was no significant difference in absolute pretreatment ADC values between responding and non-responding lesions (p = 0.94). Three months after initial cTACE, 17 metastases showed response. There was a significant difference (p = 0.021) between absolute pretreatment ADC values of lesions showing response (median 1.08 × 10(-3) mm(2)/s) and no response (median 1.30 × 10(-3) mm(2)/s). Pretreatment ADC showed fair diagnostic value to predict response (AUC 0.7). Lesions showing response at 3 months also revealed a significant increase in ADC between measurements before treatment and at one month after initial cTACE (p < 0.001). Applying an increase in ADC of 12.17%, response at 3 months after initial cTACE could be predicted with a sensitivity and specificity of 77 and 74%, respectively (AUC 0.817). Furthermore, there was a strong and significant correlation (r = 0.651, p < 0.001) between percentage change in size after third cTACE and percentage change in ADC. In patients with CRLM, ADC measurements are potential biomarkers for assessing response to cTACE.

  13. Noise estimation from averaged diffusion weighted images: Can unbiased quantitative decay parameters assist cancer evaluation?

    PubMed Central

    Dikaios, Nikolaos; Punwani, Shonit; Hamy, Valentin; Purpura, Pierpaolo; Rice, Scott; Forster, Martin; Mendes, Ruheena; Taylor, Stuart; Atkinson, David

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Multiexponential decay parameters are estimated from diffusion-weighted-imaging that generally have inherently low signal-to-noise ratio and non-normal noise distributions, especially at high b-values. Conventional nonlinear regression algorithms assume normally distributed noise, introducing bias into the calculated decay parameters and potentially affecting their ability to classify tumors. This study aims to accurately estimate noise of averaged diffusion-weighted-imaging, to correct the noise induced bias, and to assess the effect upon cancer classification. Methods A new adaptation of the median-absolute-deviation technique in the wavelet-domain, using a closed form approximation of convolved probability-distribution-functions, is proposed to estimate noise. Nonlinear regression algorithms that account for the underlying noise (maximum probability) fit the biexponential/stretched exponential decay models to the diffusion-weighted signal. A logistic-regression model was built from the decay parameters to discriminate benign from metastatic neck lymph nodes in 40 patients. Results The adapted median-absolute-deviation method accurately predicted the noise of simulated (R2 = 0.96) and neck diffusion-weighted-imaging (averaged once or four times). Maximum probability recovers the true apparent-diffusion-coefficient of the simulated data better than nonlinear regression (up to 40%), whereas no apparent differences were found for the other decay parameters. Conclusions Perfusion-related parameters were best at cancer classification. Noise-corrected decay parameters did not significantly improve classification for the clinical data set though simulations show benefit for lower signal-to-noise ratio acquisitions. PMID:23913479

  14. Diffusion Weighted MRI by Spatiotemporal Encoding: Analytical Description and In Vivo Validations

    PubMed Central

    Solomon, Eddy; Shemesh, Noam; Frydman, Lucio

    2016-01-01

    Diffusion-Weighted (DW) MRI is a powerful modality for studying microstructure in normal and pathological tissues. DW MRI, however, is of limited use in regions suffering from large magnetic field or chemical shift heterogeneities. Spatio-temporal encoding (SPEN) is a single-scan imaging technique that can deliver its information with a remarkable insensitivity to field inhomogeneities; this study explores the use of diffusion-weighted SPEN (dSPEN) MRI as an alternative for acquiring this kind of information. Owing to SPEN’s combined use of gradients and radiofrequency-swept pulses, spatially-dependent diffusion weightings arise in these sequences that are not present in conventional k-space DW MRI. In order to account for these phenomena an analytical formalism is presented that extends Stejskal & Tanner’s and Karlicek & Lowe’s work, to derive the b-values arising upon taking into account the effects of adiabatic pulses, of imaging as well as diffusion gradients, and of cross-terms between them. Excellent agreement is found between the new features predicted by these analytical and numerical derivations, and SPEN diffusion experiments in phantoms and in anisotropic ex vivo systems. Examinations of apparent diffusion coefficients in human breast volunteers also verify the advantages of the new methods in vivo, which exhibit substantial robustness vis-à-vis comparable DW echo planar imaging. PMID:23562003

  15. Hybrid Multidimensional T2 and Diffusion-Weighted MRI for Prostate Cancer Detection

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shiyang; Peng, Yahui; Medved, Milica; Yousuf, Ambereen N.; Ivancevic, Marko K.; Karademir, Ibrahim; Jiang, Yulei; Antic, Tatjana; Sammet, Steffen; Oto, Aytekin; Karczmar, Gregory S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To study the dependence of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and T2 on echo time (TE) and b-value, respectively, in normal prostate and prostate cancer, using two-dimensional MRI sampling, referred to as “hybrid multidimensional imaging.” Materials and Methods The study included 10 patients with biopsy-proven prostate cancer who underwent 3 Tesla prostate MRI. Diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI) data were acquired at b = 0, 750, and 1500 s/mm2. For each b-value, data were acquired at TEs of 47, 75, and 100 ms. ADC and T2 were measured as a function of b-value and TE, respectively, in 15 cancer and 10 normal regions of interest (ROIs). The Friedman test was used to test the significance of changes in ADC as a function of TE and of T2 as a function of b-value. Results In normal prostate ROIs, the ADC at TE of 47 ms is significantly smaller than ADC at TE of 100 ms (P = 0.0003) and T2 at b-value of 0 s/mm2 is significantly longer than T2 at b-value of 1500 s/mm2 (P = 0.001). In cancer ROIs, average ADC and T2 values do not change as a function of TE and b-value, respectively. However, in many cancer pixels, there are large decreases in the ADC as a function of TE and large increases in T2 as a function of b-value. Cancers are more conspicuous in ADC maps at longer TEs. Conclusion Parameters derived from hybrid imaging that depend on coupled/associated values of ADC and T2 may improve the accuracy of MRI in diagnosing prostate cancer. PMID:23908146

  16. Enhanced Diffusion Weighting Generated by Selective Adiabatic Pulse Trains

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Ziqi; Bartha, Robert

    2007-01-01

    A theoretical description and experimental validation of the enhanced diffusion weighting generated by selective adiabatic full passage (AFP) pulse trains is provided. Six phantoms (Ph-1 to Ph-6) were studied on a 4T Varian/Siemens whole body MRI system. Phantoms consisted of 2.8 cm diameter plastic tubes containing a mixture of 10 μm ORGASOL polymer beads and 2 mM Gd-DTPA dissolved in 5% agar (Ph-1) or nickel(II) ammonium sulphate hexahydrate doped (56.3 mM – 0.8 mM) water solutions (Ph-2 to Ph-6). A customized localization by adiabatic selective refocusing (LASER) sequence containing slice selective AFP pulse trains and pulsed diffusion gradients applied in the phase encoding direction was used to measure 1H2O diffusion. The b-value associated with the LASER sequence was derived using the Bloch-Torrey equation. The apparent diffusion coefficients measured by LASER were comparable to those measured by a conventional pulsed gradient spin-echo (PGSE) sequence for all phantoms. Image signal intensity increased in Ph-1 and decreased in Ph-2 – Ph-6 as AFP pulse train length increased while maintaining a constant echo-time. These experimental results suggest that such AFP pulse trains can enhance contrast between regions containing microscopic magnetic susceptibility variations and homogeneous regions in which dynamic dephasing relaxation mechanisms are dominant. PMID:17600741

  17. Liver diffusion-weighted MR imaging: the tower of Babel?

    PubMed

    Guiu, Boris; Cercueil, Jean-Pierre

    2011-03-01

    There is a growing amount of literature regarding diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) of the liver. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) was introduced in 1986 and is used extensively in studies. However, methods for calculating ADC vary considerably and the value of the ADC strongly depends on the b values chosen for its calculation. Indeed, the ADC incorporates the effects of both diffusion and perfusion, which can vary independently. Since signal attenuation as a function of b follows a bi-exponential pattern, other diffusion/perfusion coefficients can be calculated using DWI, and these may provide more meaningful measurements than the ADC. The absence of standardization for both the terminology and the methodology in DWI of the liver makes it difficult for readers to understand the technique used and strongly limits comparisons between studies. Here, we review the main principles of DWI of the liver, the limits of the ADC, and the exciting capabilities of multi-parametric DWI. We also insisted on the need for a common language for DWI of the liver.

  18. Technique of diffusion weighted imaging and its application in stroke

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Enzhong; Tian, Jie; Han, Ying; Wang, Huifang; Li, Wu; He, Huiguang

    2003-05-01

    To study the application of diffusion weighted imaging and image post processing in the diagnosis of stroke, especially in acute stroke, 205 patients were examined by 1.5 T or 1.0 T MRI scanner and the images such as T1, T2 and diffusion weighted images were obtained. Image post processing was done with "3D Med System" developed by our lab to analyze data and acquire the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) map. In acute and subacute stage of stroke, the signal in cerebral infarction areas changed to hyperintensity in T2- and diffusion-weighted images, normal or hypointensity in T1-weighted images. In hyperacute stage, however, the signal was hyperintense just in the diffusion weighted imaes; others were normal. In the chronic stage, the signal in T1- and diffusion-weighted imaging showed hypointensity and hyperintensity in T2 weighted imaging. Because ADC declined obviously in acute and subacute stage of stroke, the lesion area was hypointensity in ADC map. With the development of the disease, ADC gradually recovered and then changed to hyperintensity in ADC map in chronic stage. Using diffusion weighted imaging and ADC mapping can make a diagnosis of stroke, especially in the hyperacute stage of stroke, and can differentiate acute and chronic stroke.

  19. [Diffusion-weighted MRI of the prostate].

    PubMed

    Mueller-Lisse, U G; Mueller-Lisse, U L; Zamecnik, P; Schlemmer, H-P W; Scherr, M K

    2011-03-01

    Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) can complement MRI of the prostate in the detection and localization of prostate cancer, particularly after previous negative biopsy. A total of 13 original reports and 2 reviews published in 2010 demonstrate that prostate cancer can be detected by DWI due to its increased cell density and decreased diffusiveness, either qualitatively in DWI images or quantitatively by means of the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC). In the prostate, the ADC is influenced by the strength of diffusion weighting, localization (peripheral or transitional zone), presence of prostatitis or hemorrhage and density and differentiation of prostate cancer cells. Mean differences between healthy tissue of the peripheral zone and prostate cancer appear to be smaller for ADC than for the (choline + creatine)/citrate ratio in MR spectroscopy. Test quality parameters vary greatly between different studies but appear to be slightly better for combined MRI and DWI than for MRI of the prostate alone. Clinical validation of DWI of the prostate requires both increased technical conformity and increased numbers of patients in clinical studies.

  20. [Diffusion weighted MR: principles and clinical use in selected brain diseases].

    PubMed

    Nistri, M; Mascalchi, M; Moretti, M; Tessa, C; Politi, L S; Orlandi, I; Pellicanò, G; Villari, N

    2000-12-01

    To define the principles and technical bases of diffusion weighted MR imaging of the brain and report our experience in the evaluation of selected brain disorders including age-related ischemic white matter changes (leukoaraiosis), neoplastic and infective cysts and wallerian degeneration. Between May 1999 and June 2000 we examined seventeen patients: 10 patients with leukoaraiosis and deterioration of cognitive and motor function, 5 patients with focal cystic lesions (one anaplastic astrocytoma, one glioblastoma, one metastasis from squamous cell lung carcinoma, one pyogenic abscess and one case with cerebral tubercolosis) and 2 patients with wallerian degeneration (one with post-hemorrhagic degeneration of right corticospinal tract and one with post-traumatic degeneration of left optic tract). All patients underwent a standard cranial MR examination including SE T1-, proton density, T2-weighted, FLAIR and diffusion weighted images. Post-contrast T1-weighted sequences were also obtained in the patients with cystic lesions. Diffusion weighted images were acquired with double shot echoplanar sequences. Diffusion sensitizing gradient along the x, y and z axes and b values ranging 800 to 1200 s/mm2 were used. For each slice a set of three orthogonal diffusion "anisotropic" images, an "isotropic" image and a standard T2-weighted image were reconstructed. Postprocessing included generation of the apparent diffusion coefficient maps and of the "trace" image that reflects pixel by pixel the diffusional properties of water particles only. Values of mean diffusivity within regions of interest were computed in the "trace" image and compared with those obtained in contralateral brain areas. In patients with leukoaraiosis the diffusivity in posterior periventricular white matter was compared with that measured in 10 age-matched control subjects without leukoaraiosis. In patients with leukoaraiosis the areas of increased periventricular signal intensity on T2-weighted images

  1. The role of diffusion-weighted examination in non-polyploid gallbladder malignancies: A preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Solak, Aynur; Solak, Ilhami; Genç, Berhan; Sahin, Neslin

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the diagnostic value of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging in gallbladder malignancies, which are typically diagnosed during surgery because the radiologic findings are similar to those of cholecystitis-caused diffuse thickening of the gallbladder wall. Seven patients with gallbladder malignancies and nine patients with benign gallbladder pathology were included in this study. In one of the patients with a malignancy, a lesion was determined on the porcelain gallbladder; in another patient, acute myeloblastic leukemia had infiltrated the gallbladder, causing the diffuse wall thickening. Five subjects had a primary malignant gallbladder. The view of the bladder wall was evaluated visually in increasing b values. Apparent diffusion coefficient measurements were obtained from at least three sites of the bladder wall in each patient, and the results of the measurements were analyzed after comparing the malignant and benign groups. In the malignant group, the results of the radiological outcomes were compared with histological examinations. In the benign group, cholecystitis was diagnosed by observing normalization of the bladder wall thickening via surgery or medical treatment. There was a statistically significant difference in apparent diffusion coefficient levels between the malignant group, which caused diffuse thickening of the gallbladder wall, and the benign group (Student t test, p<0.01). According to this preliminary study, observation of distinct brightness of the gallbladder wall in diffusion-weighted examination with a high b value is a significant finding in terms of diffuse gallbladder malignancy. A value below the 0.86 mm 2 /sn cut-off was significant for malignancy in apparent diffusion coefficient mapping.

  2. Assessment of Activity of Crohn Disease by Diffusion-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xue-hua; Sun, Can-hui; Mao, Ren; Zhang, Zhong-wei; Jiang, Xiao-song; Pui, Margaret H.; Chen, Min-hu; Li, Zi-ping

    2015-01-01

    Abstract To assess the diagnostic efficacy of diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWI) for evaluating inflammatory activity in patients with Crohn's disease (CD). A total of 47 CD patients underwent MR enterography (MRE) and DWI using 3 b values of 50, 400, and 800 s/mm.2 Apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) of inflamed and normal bowel wall were calculated. The conventional MRE findings and DWI signal intensities were qualitatively scored from 0 to 3. The correlation between Crohn disease activity index (CDAI) and both ADCs and magnetic resonance imaging scores was analyzed. Receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis was used to determine the diagnostic accuracy of CD activity. Of the 47 patients, 25 were active CD (CDAI≥150) and 22 were inactive (CDAI<150). Diffusion-weighted MR imaging and MRE + DWI scores of active CD were significantly higher than that of inactive CD (both P < 0.001). Apparent diffusion coefficients in inflamed segments of active CD were lower than that of inactive CD (P < 0.001). The DWI scores (r = 0.74, P < 0.001), ADCs (r = −0.71, P < 0.001), MRE scores (r = 0.54, P < 0.001), and MRE + DWI scores (r = 0.66, P < 0.001) were all correlated with CDAI. The areas under the receiver-operating characteristics curves for ADCs, DWI scores, MRE scores, and MRE + DWI scores ranged from 0.83 to 0.98. The threshold ADC value of 1.17 × 10−3 mm2/s allowed differentiation of active from inactive CD with 100% sensitivity and 88% specificity. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging and ADC correlated with CD activity, and had excellent diagnostic accuracy for differentiating active from inactive CD. PMID:26512584

  3. Assessment of Activity of Crohn Disease by Diffusion-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    PubMed

    Li, Xue-Hua; Sun, Can-Hui; Mao, Ren; Zhang, Zhong-Wei; Jiang, Xiao-Song; Pui, Margaret H; Chen, Min-Hu; Li, Zi-Ping

    2015-10-01

    To assess the diagnostic efficacy of diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWI) for evaluating inflammatory activity in patients with Crohn's disease (CD). A total of 47 CD patients underwent MR enterography (MRE) and DWI using 3 b values of 50, 400, and 800 s/mm. Apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) of inflamed and normal bowel wall were calculated. The conventional MRE findings and DWI signal intensities were qualitatively scored from 0 to 3. The correlation between Crohn disease activity index (CDAI) and both ADCs and magnetic resonance imaging scores was analyzed. Receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis was used to determine the diagnostic accuracy of CD activity. Of the 47 patients, 25 were active CD (CDAI≥150) and 22 were inactive (CDAI<150). Diffusion-weighted MR imaging and MRE + DWI scores of active CD were significantly higher than that of inactive CD (both P < 0.001). Apparent diffusion coefficients in inflamed segments of active CD were lower than that of inactive CD (P < 0.001). The DWI scores (r = 0.74, P < 0.001), ADCs (r = -0.71, P < 0.001), MRE scores (r = 0.54, P < 0.001), and MRE + DWI scores (r = 0.66, P < 0.001) were all correlated with CDAI. The areas under the receiver-operating characteristics curves for ADCs, DWI scores, MRE scores, and MRE + DWI scores ranged from 0.83 to 0.98. The threshold ADC value of 1.17 × 10 mm/s allowed differentiation of active from inactive CD with 100% sensitivity and 88% specificity. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging and ADC correlated with CD activity, and had excellent diagnostic accuracy for differentiating active from inactive CD.

  4. Intravoxel incoherent motion diffusion-weighted MR imaging in assessing and characterizing solitary pulmonary lesions

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Qi; Deng, Ying-Shi; Zhou, Jia-Xuan; Yu, Yu-Dong; Bao, Ying-Ying; Lei, Qiang; Chen, Hou-Jin; Peng, Ya-Hui; Mei, Ying-Jie; Zeng, Qing-Si; Li, Xin-Chun

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the potential of intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) diffusion-weighted MR imaging in assessing solitary pulmonary lesions (SPLs). Sixty-two patients with pathologically confirmed SPLs, including 51 and 11 cases of malignant and benign lesions, respectively, were assessed. Diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) with 13 b values was used to derive apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and IVIM parameters, including true diffusion coefficient (D), pseudo-diffusion coefficient (D*), and perfusion fraction (f). Our results showed that, there was an excellent inter-observer agreement on the measurements of D and ADC between observers (inter-class correlation coefficient, ICC = 0.902 and 0.884, respectively). Meanwhile, f and D* showed good and substantial reproducibility (ICC = 0.787 and 0.623, respectively). D and ADC of malignant lesions were significantly lower than those of benign lesions (both P ≤ 0.001), while similar values were obtained in both groups for D* and f (both P > 0.05). In receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, D showed the highest area under curve (AUC) for distinguishing malignant from benign lesions, followed by ADC. Accompanying signs of SPLs have specific features on IVIM maps. In conclusion, IVIM provides functional information in characterizing SPLs which is helpful to differential diagnosis. D and ADC have a significantly higher diagnostic value than f and D*. PMID:28225064

  5. Intravoxel incoherent motion diffusion-weighted MR imaging in assessing and characterizing solitary pulmonary lesions.

    PubMed

    Wan, Qi; Deng, Ying-Shi; Zhou, Jia-Xuan; Yu, Yu-Dong; Bao, Ying-Ying; Lei, Qiang; Chen, Hou-Jin; Peng, Ya-Hui; Mei, Ying-Jie; Zeng, Qing-Si; Li, Xin-Chun

    2017-02-22

    This study aimed to investigate the potential of intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) diffusion-weighted MR imaging in assessing solitary pulmonary lesions (SPLs). Sixty-two patients with pathologically confirmed SPLs, including 51 and 11 cases of malignant and benign lesions, respectively, were assessed. Diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) with 13 b values was used to derive apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and IVIM parameters, including true diffusion coefficient (D), pseudo-diffusion coefficient (D*), and perfusion fraction (f). Our results showed that, there was an excellent inter-observer agreement on the measurements of D and ADC between observers (inter-class correlation coefficient, ICC = 0.902 and 0.884, respectively). Meanwhile, f and D* showed good and substantial reproducibility (ICC = 0.787 and 0.623, respectively). D and ADC of malignant lesions were significantly lower than those of benign lesions (both P ≤ 0.001), while similar values were obtained in both groups for D* and f (both P > 0.05). In receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, D showed the highest area under curve (AUC) for distinguishing malignant from benign lesions, followed by ADC. Accompanying signs of SPLs have specific features on IVIM maps. In conclusion, IVIM provides functional information in characterizing SPLs which is helpful to differential diagnosis. D and ADC have a significantly higher diagnostic value than f and D*.

  6. Diffusion-weighted and conventional MR imaging findings of neuroaxonal dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Sener, R Nuri

    2004-08-01

    Neuroaxonal dystrophy is a rare progressive disorder of childhood characterized by mental deterioration and seizures. The diffusion-weighted and conventional MR imaging findings are reported for six cases. Six patients aged 19 months to 9 years with proved neuroaxonal dystrophy (one with the infantile form, five juvenile forms) underwent imaging at 1.5 T. Echo-planar diffusion-weighted images were acquired with a trace imaging sequence in five patients and with a three-gradient protocol (4000/110) in one. Images obtained with a b value of 1000 s/mm2 and corresponding apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps were studied. ADCs from lesion sites and normal regions (pons and temporal and occipital lobes) were evaluated. A hyperintense cerebellum (a characteristic of the disease) was evident on fluid-attenuated inversion recovery images in all cases. Four patients had associated cerebral changes. Diffusion-weighted images, especially ADC maps, showed an elevated diffusion pattern in the cerebellum in the five juvenile cases (normal images at b = 1000 s/mm2, ADCs of 1.30-2.60 x 10(-3) mm2/s). A restricted diffusion pattern was evident in the infantile case (hyperintensity at b = 1000 s/mm2, low ADCs of 0.44-0.55 x 10(-3) mm2/s). ADCs were normal in the pons and temporal and occipital lobes (0.64-1.00 x 10(-3) mm2/s). An elevated cerebellar diffusion pattern is a predominant feature of juvenile neuroaxonal dystrophy. Coexistent elevated and restricted diffusion patterns were evident in different brain regions in different forms of the disease. Dystrophic axons likely account the restricted diffusion, whereas spheroid formation (swelling) and abnormal myelination result in elevated diffusion.

  7. Differential diagnosis of benign and malignant breast masses using diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Min, Qinghua; Shao, Kangwei; Zhai, Lulan; Liu, Wei; Zhu, Caisong; Yuan, Lixin; Yang, Jun

    2015-02-07

    Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) is different from conventional diagnostic methods and has the potential to delineate the microscopic anatomy of a target tissue or organ. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the value of DW-MRI in the diagnosis of benign and malignant breast masses, which would help the clinical surgeon to decide the scope and pattern of operation. A total of 52 female patients with palpable solid breast masses received breast MRI scans using routine sequences, dynamic contrast-enhanced imaging, and diffusion-weighted echo-planar imaging at b values of 400, 600, and 800 s/mm(2), respectively. Two regions of interest (ROIs) were plotted, with a smaller ROI for the highest signal and a larger ROI for the overall lesion. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values were calculated at three different b values for all detectable lesions and from two different ROIs. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and positive likelihood ratio of DW-MRI were determined for comparison with histological results. A total of 49 (49/52, 94.2%) lesions were detected using DW-MRI, including 20 benign lesions (two lesions detected in the same patient) and 29 malignant lesions. Benign lesion had a higher mean ADC value than their malignant counterparts, regardless of b value. According to the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, the smaller-range ROI was more effective in differentiation between benign and malignant lesions. The area under the ROC curve was the largest at a b value of 800 s/mm(2). With a threshold ADC value at 1.23 × 10(-3) mm(2)/s, DW-MRI achieved a sensitivity of 82.8%, specificity of 90.0%, positive predictive value of 92.3%, and positive likelihood ratio of 8.3 for differentiating benign and malignant lesions. DW-MRI is an accurate diagnostic tool for differentiation between benign and malignant breast lesions, with an optimal b value of 800 s/mm(2). A smaller-range ROI focusing on the

  8. Correlation of diffusion-weighted MRI with whole mount radical prostatectomy specimens.

    PubMed

    Van As, N; Charles-Edwards, E; Jackson, A; Jhavar, S; Reinsberg, S; Desouza, N; Dearnaley, D; Bailey, M; Thompson, A; Christmas, T; Fisher, C; Corbishley, C; Sohaib, S

    2008-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of benign central gland (bCG), benign peripheral zone (bPZ) and cancer using diffusion-weighted MRI and whole mount specimens. 11 patients with biopsy-proven prostate cancer underwent diffusion-weighted MRI prior to radical prostatectomy. A single-shot echo planar image technique was used with b-values of 0 s mm(-2), 300 s mm(-2), 500 s mm(-2) and 800 s mm(-2). Whole mount specimens were compared with ADC maps. Areas of cancer, bCG and bPZ were identified, and regions of interest were drawn on ADC maps. Mean ADC values were recorded for all regions of interest, and paired t-tests were performed to compare mean values. Cancer was outlined in nine patients. In two patients, the tumours were too small to correlate with images; bCG was identified in 11 patients and bPZ was identified in 10 patients. Mean ADC values for bCG, bPZ and cancer were, 1.5 x 10(-3) mm(2) s(-1) (standard error (SE) = 0.04), 1.7 x 10(-3) mm(2) s(-1) (SE = 0.1), and 1.3 x 10(-3) mm(2) s(-1) (SE = 0.09), respectively. The most significant difference between benign tissue and cancer existed at b-values of 0-300 s mm(-2) (bCG vs cancer: mean difference = 0. 29, p = 0.001, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.17-0.41; bPZ vs cancer: mean difference = 0.34, p = 0.003, 95% CI = 0.18-0.61). In conclusion, we have confirmed, using whole mount verification, a significant difference in the ADC between benign tissue and cancer.

  9. Diffusion weighted imaging: Technique and applications

    PubMed Central

    Baliyan, Vinit; Das, Chandan J; Sharma, Raju; Gupta, Arun Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) is a method of signal contrast generation based on the differences in Brownian motion. DWI is a method to evaluate the molecular function and micro-architecture of the human body. DWI signal contrast can be quantified by apparent diffusion coefficient maps and it acts as a tool for treatment response evaluation and assessment of disease progression. Ability to detect and quantify the anisotropy of diffusion leads to a new paradigm called diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). DTI is a tool for assessment of the organs with highly organised fibre structure. DWI forms an integral part of modern state-of-art magnetic resonance imaging and is indispensable in neuroimaging and oncology. DWI is a field that has been undergoing rapid technical evolution and its applications are increasing every day. This review article provides insights in to the evolution of DWI as a new imaging paradigm and provides a summary of current role of DWI in various disease processes. PMID:27721941

  10. Apparent diffusion coefficient measurements in diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging of the anterior mediastinum: inter-observer reproducibility of five different methods of region-of-interest positioning.

    PubMed

    Priola, Adriano Massimiliano; Priola, Sandro Massimo; Parlatano, Daniela; Gned, Dario; Giraudo, Maria Teresa; Giardino, Roberto; Ferrero, Bruno; Ardissone, Francesco; Veltri, Andrea

    2017-04-01

    To investigate inter-reader reproducibility of five different region-of-interest (ROI) protocols for apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) measurements in the anterior mediastinum. In eighty-one subjects, on ADC mapping, two readers measured the ADC using five methods of ROI positioning that encompassed the entire tissue (whole tissue volume [WTV], three slices observer-defined [TSOD], single-slice [SS]) or the more restricted areas (one small round ROI [OSR]), multiple small round ROI [MSR]). Inter-observer variability was assessed with interclass correlation coefficient (ICC), coefficient of variation (CoV), and Bland-Altman analysis. Nonparametric tests were performed to compare the ADC between ROI methods. The measurement time was recorded and compared between ROI methods. All methods showed excellent inter-reader agreement with best and worst reproducibility in WTV and OSR, respectively (ICC, 0.937/0.874; CoV, 7.3 %/16.8 %; limits of agreement, ±0.44/±0.77 × 10(-3) mm(2)/s). ADC values of OSR and MSR were significantly lower compared to the other methods in both readers (p < 0.001). The SS and OSR methods required less measurement time (14 ± 2 s) compared to the others (p < 0.0001), while the WTV method required the longest measurement time (90 ± 56 and 77 ± 49 s for each reader) (p < 0.0001). All methods demonstrate excellent inter-observer reproducibility with the best agreement in WTV, although it requires the longest measurement time. • All ROI protocols show excellent inter-observer reproducibility. • WTV measurements provide the most reproducible ADC values. • ROI size and positioning influence ADC measurements in the anterior mediastinum. • ADC values of OSR and MSR are significantly lower than other methods. • OSR and WTV methods require the shortest and longest measurement time, respectively.

  11. Characterization of spinal cord white matter by suppressing signal from hindered space. A Monte Carlo simulation and an ex vivo ultrahigh-b diffusion-weighted imaging study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sapkota, Nabraj; Yoon, Sook; Thapa, Bijaya; Lee, YouJung; Bisson, Erica F.; Bowman, Beth M.; Miller, Scott C.; Shah, Lubdha M.; Rose, John W.; Jeong, Eun-Kee

    2016-11-01

    Signal measured from white matter in diffusion-weighted imaging is difficult to interpret because of the heterogeneous structure of white matter. Characterization of the white matter will be straightforward if the signal contributed from the hindered space is suppressed and purely restricted signal is analyzed. In this study, a Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) of water diffusion in white matter was performed to understand the behavior of the diffusion-weighted signal in white matter. The signal originating from the hindered space of an excised pig cervical spinal cord white matter was suppressed using the ultrahigh-b radial diffusion-weighted imaging. A light microscopy image of a section of white matter was obtained from the excised pig cervical spinal cord for the MCS. The radial diffusion-weighted signals originating from each of the intra-axonal, extra-axonal, and total spaces were studied using the MCS. The MCS predicted that the radial diffusion-weighted signal remains almost constant in the intra-axonal space and decreases gradually to about 2% of its initial value in the extra-axonal space when the b-value is increased to 30,000 s /mm2 . The MCS also revealed that the diffusion-weighted signal for a b-value greater than 20,000 s /mm2 is mostly from the intra-axonal space. The decaying behavior of the signal-b curve obtained from ultrahigh-b diffusion-weighted imaging (bmax ∼ 30,000 s /mm2) of the excised pig cord was very similar to the decaying behavior of the total signal-b curve synthesized in the MCS. A mono-exponential plus constant fitting of the signal-b curve obtained from a white matter pixel estimated the values of constant fraction and apparent diffusion coefficient of decaying fraction as 0.32 ± 0.05 and (0.16 ± 0.01) × 10-3 mm2/s, respectively, which agreed well with the results of the MCS. The signal measured in the ultrahigh-b region (b > 20,000 s/mm2) is mostly from the restricted (intra-axonal) space. Integrity and intactness of the axons

  12. Characterization of spinal cord white matter by suppressing signal from hindered space. A Monte Carlo simulation and an ex vivo ultrahigh-b diffusion-weighted imaging study.

    PubMed

    Sapkota, Nabraj; Yoon, Sook; Thapa, Bijaya; Lee, YouJung; Bisson, Erica F; Bowman, Beth M; Miller, Scott C; Shah, Lubdha M; Rose, John W; Jeong, Eun-Kee

    2016-11-01

    Signal measured from white matter in diffusion-weighted imaging is difficult to interpret because of the heterogeneous structure of white matter. Characterization of the white matter will be straightforward if the signal contributed from the hindered space is suppressed and purely restricted signal is analyzed. In this study, a Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) of water diffusion in white matter was performed to understand the behavior of the diffusion-weighted signal in white matter. The signal originating from the hindered space of an excised pig cervical spinal cord white matter was suppressed using the ultrahigh-b radial diffusion-weighted imaging. A light microscopy image of a section of white matter was obtained from the excised pig cervical spinal cord for the MCS. The radial diffusion-weighted signals originating from each of the intra-axonal, extra-axonal, and total spaces were studied using the MCS. The MCS predicted that the radial diffusion-weighted signal remains almost constant in the intra-axonal space and decreases gradually to about 2% of its initial value in the extra-axonal space when the b-value is increased to 30,000s/mm(2). The MCS also revealed that the diffusion-weighted signal for a b-value greater than 20,000s/mm(2) is mostly from the intra-axonal space. The decaying behavior of the signal-b curve obtained from ultrahigh-b diffusion-weighted imaging (bmax∼30,000s/mm(2)) of the excised pig cord was very similar to the decaying behavior of the total signal-b curve synthesized in the MCS. A mono-exponential plus constant fitting of the signal-b curve obtained from a white matter pixel estimated the values of constant fraction and apparent diffusion coefficient of decaying fraction as 0.32±0.05 and (0.16±0.01)×10(-3)mm(2)/s, respectively, which agreed well with the results of the MCS. The signal measured in the ultrahigh-b region (b>20,000s/mm(2)) is mostly from the restricted (intra-axonal) space. Integrity and intactness of the axons can be

  13. Value of 3 Tesla diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging for assessing liver fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Papalavrentios, Lavrentios; Sinakos, Emmanouil; Chourmouzi, Danai; Hytiroglou, Prodromos; Drevelegas, Konstantinos; Constantinides, Manos; Drevelegas, Antonios; Talwalkar, Jayant; Akriviadis, Evangelos

    2015-01-01

    Limited data are available regarding the role of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), particularly the new generation 3 Tesla technology, and especially diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in predicting liver fibrosis. The aim of our pilot study was to assess the clinical performance of the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of liver parenchyma for the assessment of liver fibrosis in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). 18 patients with biopsy-proven NAFLD underwent DWI with 3 Tesla MRI. DWI was performed with single-shot echo-planar technique at b values of 0-500 and 0-1000 s/mm(2). ADC was measured in four locations in the liver and the mean ADC value was used for analysis. Staging of fibrosis was performed according to the METAVIR system. The median age of patients was 52 years (range 23-73). The distribution of patients in different fibrosis stages was: 0 (n=1), 1 (n=7), 2 (n=1), 3 (n=5), 4 (n=4). Fibrosis stage was poorly associated with ADC at b value of 0-500 s/mm(2) (r= -0.30, P=0.27). However it was significantly associated with ADC at b value of 0-1000 s/mm(2) (r= -0.57, P=0.01). For this b value (0-1000 s/mm(2)) the area under receiver-operating characteristic curve was 0.93 for fibrosis stage ≥3 and the optimal ADC cut-off value was 1.16 ×10(-3) mm(2)/s. 3 Tesla DWI can possibly predict the presence of advanced fibrosis in patients with NAFLD.

  14. Generalized MAGSTE with bipolar diffusion-weighting gradient pulses.

    PubMed

    Finsterbusch, Jürgen

    2009-08-01

    The generalized magic asymmetric gradient stimulated echo (generalized MAGSTE) sequence compensates background gradient cross-terms and can be adjusted to asymmetric timing boundary conditions which for instance are present in echo-planar MR imaging. However, its efficiency is not optimal because one of the two diffusion-weighting gradients applied in each interval usually must have a reduced amplitude to ensure the desired cross-term compensation. In this work, a modification of generalized MAGSTE is investigated where this gradient pulse is replaced by two gradient pulses with full amplitude but opposite polarities. It is shown that with these bipolar gradients (i) the sequence retains the cross-term compensation capability for an appropriate choice of the gradient pulse durations and (ii) the diffusion-weighting efficiency is improved, i.e. higher k and b values can be achieved without prolonging the echo time. These results are confirmed in MR imaging experiments on phantoms and in vivo in the human brain at 3T using spin-echo and echo-planar MR imaging. In the examples shown, the b value could be increased between about 30% and 200% when using the bipolar gradient pulses. Thus, bipolar gradients may help to improve the applicability of the generalized MAGSTE sequence.

  15. A time-efficient acquisition protocol for multipurpose diffusion-weighted microstructural imaging at 7 Tesla.

    PubMed

    Sepehrband, Farshid; O'Brien, Kieran; Barth, Markus

    2017-02-12

    Several diffusion-weighted MRI techniques have been developed and validated during the past 2 decades. While offering various neuroanatomical inferences, these techniques differ in their proposed optimal acquisition design, preventing clinicians and researchers benefiting from all potential inference methods, particularly when limited time is available. This study reports an optimal design that enables for a time-efficient diffusion-weighted MRI acquisition scheme at 7 Tesla. The primary audience of this article is the typical end user, interested in diffusion-weighted microstructural imaging at 7 Tesla. We tested b-values in the range of 700 to 3000 s/mm(2) with different number of angular diffusion-encoding samples, against a data-driven "gold standard." The suggested design is a protocol with b-values of 1000 and 2500 s/mm(2) , with 25 and 50 samples, uniformly distributed over two shells. We also report a range of protocols in which the results of fitting microstructural models to the diffusion-weighted data had high correlation with the gold standard. We estimated minimum acquisition requirements that enable diffusion tensor imaging, higher angular resolution diffusion-weighted imaging, neurite orientation dispersion, and density imaging and white matter tract integrity across whole brain with isotropic resolution of 1.8 mm in less than 11 min. Magn Reson Med, 2017. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  16. Diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging in the diagnosis of parotid masses. Preliminary results

    PubMed Central

    Yologlu, Zeynel; Aydin, Hasan; Alp, Nalan A.; Aribas, Bilgin K.; Kizilgoz, Volkan; Arda, Kemal

    2016-01-01

    Objective To demonstrate the diagnostic potentials of MRI, diffusion weighted imaging (DWI), and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) mapping in the detection of parotid masses correlated to the histopathological results. Methods Study design was retrospective. Fifteen patients with parotid gland masses were included as the study group and contralateral normal parotis glands of same patients were taken as the control group. Patients with bilateral parotid gland tumors were excluded, 7 right-sided and 8 left-sided parotid masses were included in the research. The study took place at the Department of Radiology, Ankara, Turkey, between May 2012 and September 2014. Results Apparent diffusion coefficient measurements of 15 parotis tumors in 1000 and 750 sec/mm2 b-values with comparison to the contralateral normal gland parenchyma were demonstrated. Neurofibromas was predicted as the highest, and lipomas as the lowest ADC values. Pleomorphic adenomas, Warthin’s tumor, and normal parotid parenchyma indicate significant statistical differences from each other on the basis of mean ADC values (p<0.05). Conclusion The DWI and ADC mapping of parotis gland could aid in the differential diagnosis of benign and malignant masses. PMID:27874161

  17. 3-D residual eddy current field characterisation: applied to diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Kieran; Daducci, Alessandro; Kickler, Nils; Lazeyras, Francois; Gruetter, Rolf; Feiweier, Thorsten; Krueger, Gunnar

    2013-08-01

    Clinical use of the Stejskal-Tanner diffusion weighted images is hampered by the geometric distortions that result from the large residual 3-D eddy current field induced. In this work, we aimed to predict, using linear response theory, the residual 3-D eddy current field required for geometric distortion correction based on phantom eddy current field measurements. The predicted 3-D eddy current field induced by the diffusion-weighting gradients was able to reduce the root mean square error of the residual eddy current field to ~1 Hz. The model's performance was tested on diffusion weighted images of four normal volunteers, following distortion correction, the quality of the Stejskal-Tanner diffusion-weighted images was found to have comparable quality to image registration based corrections (FSL) at low b-values. Unlike registration techniques the correction was not hindered by low SNR at high b-values, and results in improved image quality relative to FSL. Characterization of the 3-D eddy current field with linear response theory enables the prediction of the 3-D eddy current field required to correct eddy current induced geometric distortions for a wide range of clinical and high b-value protocols.

  18. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging in monitoring rectal cancer response to neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Barbaro, Brunella; Vitale, Renata; Valentini, Vincenzo; Illuminati, Sonia; Vecchio, Fabio M; Rizzo, Gianluca; Gambacorta, Maria Antonietta; Coco, Claudio; Crucitti, Antonio; Persiani, Roberto; Sofo, Luigi; Bonomo, Lorenzo

    2012-06-01

    To prospectively monitor the response in patients with locally advanced nonmucinous rectal cancer after chemoradiotherapy (CRT) using diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. The histopathologic finding was the reference standard. The institutional review board approved the present study. A total of 62 patients (43 men and 19 women; mean age, 64 years; range, 28-83) provided informed consent. T(2)- and diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging scans (b value, 0 and 1,000 mm(2)/s) were acquired before, during (mean 12 days), and 6-8 weeks after CRT. We compared the median apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) between responders and nonresponders and examined the associations with the Mandard tumor regression grade (TRG). The postoperative nodal status (ypN) was evaluated. The Mann-Whitney/Wilcoxon two-sample test was used to evaluate the relationships among the pretherapy ADCs, extramural vascular invasion, early percentage of increases in ADCs, and preoperative ADCs. Low pretreatment ADCs (<1.0 × 10(-3)mm(2)/s) were correlated with TRG 4 scores (p = .0011) and associated to extramural vascular invasion with ypN+ (85.7% positive predictive value for ypN+). During treatment, the mean percentage of increase in tumor ADC was significantly greater in the responders than in the nonresponders (p < .0001) and a >23% ADC increase had a 96.3% negative predictive value for TRG 4. In 9 of 16 complete responders, CRT-related tumor downsizing prevented ADC evaluations. The preoperative ADCs were significantly different (p = .0012) between the patients with and without downstaging (preoperative ADC ≥1.4 × 10(-3)mm(2)/s showed a positive and negative predictive value of 78.9% and 61.8%, respectively, for response assessment). The TRG 1 and TRG 2-4 groups were not significantly different. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging seems to be a promising tool for monitoring the response to CRT. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Diffusion-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Monitoring Rectal Cancer Response to Neoadjuvant Chemoradiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Barbaro, Brunella; Vitale, Renata; Valentini, Vincenzo; Illuminati, Sonia; Vecchio, Fabio M.; Rizzo, Gianluca; Gambacorta, Maria Antonietta; Coco, Claudio; Crucitti, Antonio; Persiani, Roberto; Sofo, Luigi; Bonomo, Lorenzo

    2012-06-01

    Purpose: To prospectively monitor the response in patients with locally advanced nonmucinous rectal cancer after chemoradiotherapy (CRT) using diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. The histopathologic finding was the reference standard. Methods and Materials: The institutional review board approved the present study. A total of 62 patients (43 men and 19 women; mean age, 64 years; range, 28-83) provided informed consent. T{sub 2}- and diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging scans (b value, 0 and 1,000 mm{sup 2}/s) were acquired before, during (mean 12 days), and 6-8 weeks after CRT. We compared the median apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) between responders and nonresponders and examined the associations with the Mandard tumor regression grade (TRG). The postoperative nodal status (ypN) was evaluated. The Mann-Whitney/Wilcoxon two-sample test was used to evaluate the relationships among the pretherapy ADCs, extramural vascular invasion, early percentage of increases in ADCs, and preoperative ADCs. Results: Low pretreatment ADCs (<1.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3}mm{sup 2}/s) were correlated with TRG 4 scores (p = .0011) and associated to extramural vascular invasion with ypN+ (85.7% positive predictive value for ypN+). During treatment, the mean percentage of increase in tumor ADC was significantly greater in the responders than in the nonresponders (p < .0001) and a >23% ADC increase had a 96.3% negative predictive value for TRG 4. In 9 of 16 complete responders, CRT-related tumor downsizing prevented ADC evaluations. The preoperative ADCs were significantly different (p = .0012) between the patients with and without downstaging (preoperative ADC {>=}1.4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3}mm{sup 2}/s showed a positive and negative predictive value of 78.9% and 61.8%, respectively, for response assessment). The TRG 1 and TRG 2-4 groups were not significantly different. Conclusion: Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging seems to be a promising

  20. [Utility of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging in severe focal traumatic brain injuries].

    PubMed

    Prieto-Valderrey, F; Muñiz-Montes, J R; López-García, J A; Villegas-Del Ojo, J; Málaga-Gil, J; Galván-García, R

    2013-01-01

    To describe the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) in a series of severe traumatic brain injuries, their clinical and outcome features, and possible implications. A descriptive, observational case-series study was carried out. Patients with severe traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) admitted to the ICU were subjected to MRI study using a 1.5 T scanner. Diffusion-weighted images (DWMR) were obtained using the following echo-planar pulse sequence: TR 10000 ms, TE 126.9 ms, with b values 1000 s/mm2 in the three spatial dimensions. Combining the three sets of images, an isotropic image conforming a map of the mean ADCs was obtained. DWMR was performed in 23 patients with severe TBI admitted to the ICU between 2001 and 2004. In the MR images we selected 26 regions of interest (ROIs) where ADC was recorded. We observed a clear increase in diffusion in non-treated space-occupying lesions versus other types of injuries and the normal values. A poorer outcome was recorded in patients with lower ADC values. Mean ADC in the lesions was greater than the normal values and greater in contusions than in other types of injuries, as an expression of extracellular edema. ADCs were decreased in patients with a poor outcome, suggesting an association between ischemia and the patient prognosis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier España, S.L. and SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  1. The role of diffusion weighted MR imaging for differentiation between Graves' disease and Hashimoto thyroiditis.

    PubMed

    Ozturk, T; Bozgeyik, Z; Ozturk, F; Burakgazi, G; Akyol, M; Coskun, S; Ozkan, Y; Ogur, E

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWMRI) for differentation between Graves' disease and Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Fifty patients (27 Graves diseases and 23 Hashimoto thyroiditis) and twenty healthy volunteers were examined using T1, T2 and DWMRI. The patients were diagnosed on the basis of physical findings and the results of thyroid function tests and serological tests. Circular ROIs were positioned on the bilateral thyroid lobes and isthmus. All measurements were repeated three different b values including 100, 600 and 1000 s/mm2 in all cases. ADC (Apparent diffusion coefficient) maps were calculated automatically with the MR system. Mean ADC values were 2.93 × 10-3, 1.97 × 10-3 and 1.62 × 10-3 mm2/s in the healthy volunteers; 3.47 × 10-3, 2.25 × 10-3 and 1.64 × 10-3 mm2/s in Graves' disease; 2.53 × 10-3, 1.76 × 10-3, 1.28 × 10-3 mm2/s in Hashimoto thyroiditis for b100, b600 and b1000, respectively. The ADC values of the Graves diseases were higher than healty volunteers and Hashimoto thyroiditis. ADC values were statistically significant for differentation between Hashimoto thyroiditis and Graves' disease all b values (p < 0.05). DWMRI is fast sequence and does not require contrast agent. Quantitative assessment of the lesion is possible using ADC map. So, DWMRI may be useful differentiation of the Hashimoto thyroiditis and Graves' disease.

  2. A Clustering Algorithm for Liver Lesion Segmentation of Diffusion-Weighted MR Images

    PubMed Central

    Jha, Abhinav K.; Rodríguez, Jeffrey J.; Stephen, Renu M.; Stopeck, Alison T.

    2010-01-01

    In diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging, accurate segmentation of liver lesions in the diffusion-weighted images is required for computation of the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of the lesion, the parameter that serves as an indicator of lesion response to therapy. However, the segmentation problem is challenging due to low SNR, fuzzy boundaries and speckle and motion artifacts. We propose a clustering algorithm that incorporates spatial information and a geometric constraint to solve this issue. We show that our algorithm provides improved accuracy compared to existing segmentation algorithms. PMID:21151837

  3. Role of respiratory-triggered diffusion-weighted MRI in the assessment of pleural disease

    PubMed Central

    Chiesa, Fabio; Del Prato, Alberto; Tagliafico, Alberto; Rosenberg, Ilan; Canessa, Pier Aldo; Pinelli, Valentina; Villa, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the correlation between apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values and histopathological features in a cohort of patients with suspected malignant pleural disease. Methods: We evaluated 56 consecutive patients undergoing a chest MRI examination for clinical suspicion of malignant pleural disease; all patients underwent thoracoscopic biopsy for histological assessment. All MRI examinations were performed with a 1.5-T scanner using a dedicated protocol, including a respiratory-triggered diffusion-weighted sequence with three b-values (0, 100 and 750). The ADC values were calculated, and a statistical analysis was performed. Results: The average ADC value in non-neoplastic pleural disease (NNPD) resulted in 1.84 ± 0.37 × 10−3 mm2 s−1, whereas we obtained an average value of 0.96 ± 0.19 × 10−3 mm2 s−1 in epitheliod, of 0.76 ± 0.33 × 10−3 mm2 s−1 in biphasic and of 0.67 ± 0.2 × 10−3 mm2 s−1 in sarcomatoid pleural mesotheliomas. Histology revealed the presence of malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) in 44 patients, chronic pleuritis in 8 patients and atypical mesothelial hyperplasia in 4 patients. Statistical analysis showed a significant difference between NNPD and MPM (p < 0.001) and between epithelioid and sarcomatoid MPM subtypes (p = 0.0004), whereas biphasic MPMs showed a wide range of overlapping with the other groups. Conclusion: We observed a statistically significant difference between NNPD, epitheliod and sarcomatoid subtypes of MPM regarding ADC values. Advances in knowledge: Our study confirmed previous data regarding distribution of ADC values in pleural disease using a respiratory-triggered diffusion-weighted technique that allowed us to minimize motion artefacts and to reduct acquisition time. PMID:27302493

  4. Magnetic resonance imaging of prostate cancer: diffusion-weighted imaging in comparison with sextant biopsy.

    PubMed

    Yamamura, Jin; Salomon, Georg; Buchert, Ralph; Hohenstein, Arne; Graessner, Joachim; Huland, Hartwig; Graefen, Markus; Adam, Gerhard; Wedegaertner, Ulrike

    2011-01-01

    To retrospectively evaluate the impact of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) on the detection of prostate cancer in comparison with sextant biopsy. Fifty patients with clinical suspicion of prostate cancer underwent a combined endorectal-body-phased array magnetic resonance imaging examination at a 1.5 T magnetic resonance imaging (Siemens, Erlangen, Germany). The DWI was performed using b values of 50, 400, 800 s/mm. The prostate was divided into sextants, including the apex, the middle aspect, and the base for the left and right sides, separately. Regions of interest were placed in the peripheral zone of each sextant to evaluate the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values. The results of the DWI were compared side by side with the findings of the histological examination of endorectal sonographically guided sextant biopsy. The sensitivity and specificity of ADC for the identification of the tumor tissue were computed for variable discrimination thresholds to evaluate its receiver operating characteristic. An association between ADC and Gleason score was tested for both the whole study group and on an individual basis using the nonparametric Spearman ρ test and the Pearson correlation, respectively. Histopathology identified tumor tissue in 21 (42%) of the 50 patients. The ADC value was 1.65 ± 0.32 mm/s 10 in normal tissue and 0.96 ± 0.24 mm/s 10 in tumor tissue (mean ± 1 SD). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.966. Using the discrimination threshold 1.21 mm/s 10, for example, the ADC value provided a sensitivity of 0.92 and a specificity of 0.93. There was a highly significant negative correlation between the ADC value and the Gleason score in the tumor-positive tissue probes (n = 62, ρ = -0.405, P = 0.001) in the whole study group. On the individual patient basis, the Pearson correlation revealed a mean coefficient of r = -0.89 (SD ± 0.12) with a P < 0.001. Diffusion-weighted imaging of the prostate can be used to

  5. Diffusion-weighted imaging findings in hemolytic uremic syndrome with central nervous system involvement.

    PubMed

    Toldo, Irene; Manara, Renzo; Cogo, Paola; Sartori, Stefano; Murer, Luisa; Battistella, Pier Antonio; Laverda, Anna Maria

    2009-02-01

    Hemolytic uremic syndrome is a multisystem disease that can affect central nervous system in up to 50% of cases. Central nervous system involvement can be clinically severe and its pathogenesis is not yet fully understood. Various magnetic resonance imaging findings, on conventional sequences, documenting the involvement of deep gray-matter structures, have been described. Diffusion-weighted imaging features of brain lesions have been reported only in 2 cases, but the potential role of this technique has not been considered yet. We describe a 19-month-old child affected by hemolytic uremic syndrome with basal ganglia lesions documented by diffusion-weighted imaging, with a 42-day neuroradiological follow-up and a 6-month clinical follow-up. In our case, diffusion-weighted imaging was more sensible in detecting the affected brain areas compared to T1, suggesting that reduced apparent diffusion coefficient values in the acute phase could reliably identify irreversible brain lesions in hemolytic uremic syndrome patients.

  6. Denoising Diffusion-Weighted Magnitude MR Images using Rank and Edge Constraints

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Fan; Babacan, S. Derin; Haldar, Justin P.; Weiner, Michael W.; Schuff, Norbert; Liang, Zhi-Pei

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To improve signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for diffusion-weighted MR images. Methods A new method is proposed for denoising diffusion-weighted magnitude images. The proposed method formulates the denoising problem as an maximum a posteriori estimation problem based on Rician/noncentral χ likelihood models, incorporating an edge prior and a low-rank model. The resulting optimization problem is solved efficiently using a half-quadratic method with an alternating minimization scheme. Results The performance of the proposed method has been validated using simulated and experimental data. Diffusion-weighted images and noisy data were simulated based on the diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) model and Rician/noncentral χ distributions. The simulation study (with known gold standard) shows substantial improvements in SNR and diffusion tensor es-timation after denoising. In-vivo diffusion imaging data at different b-values were acquired. Based on the experimental data, qualitative improvement in image quality and quantitative im-provement in diffusion tensor estimation were demonstrated. Additionally, the proposed method is shown to outperform one of the state-of-the-art non-local means based denoising algorithms, both qualitatively and quantitatively. Conclusion The SNR of diffusion-weighted images can be effectively improved with rank and edge constraints, resulting in an improvement in diffusion parameter estimation accuracy. PMID:23568755

  7. Real valued diffusion-weighted imaging using decorrelated phase filtering.

    PubMed

    Sprenger, Tim; Sperl, Jonathan I; Fernandez, Brice; Haase, Axel; Menzel, Marion I

    2017-02-01

    Because of the intrinsic low signal-to-noise ratio in diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), magnitude processing often causes an overestimation of the signal's amplitude. This results in low-estimation accuracy of diffusion models and reduced contrast because of a superposition of the image signal and the noise floor. We adopt a new phase correction (PC) technique that yields real valued diffusion data while maintaining a Gaussian noise distribution. We conduct simulations of the noise propagation in the echo-planar imaging reconstruction chain to determine the spatial noise correlation in the image. Using the correlation pattern, optimized filter kernels are derived to estimate the true phase of the signal in each voxel. Furthermore, we adopt an outlier detection technique to replace the real value by the magnitude in case of substantial signal loss resulting from incorrect PC. The benefits of our method are demonstrated on Monte Carlo simulations, DWI data acquired from healthy volunteer experiments, estimated parameters of the diffusion kurtosis imaging model, and the model-free diffusion spectrum imaging technique. The improved PC approach significantly reduces the noise bias and only slightly increases the sensitivity to local phase variations. PC can enhance the usefulness of higher b-values, allowing deeper insights into tissue microstructure. Magn Reson Med 77:559-570, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  8. A comparative quantitative analysis of magnetic susceptibility artifacts in echo planar and PROPELLER diffusion-weighted images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Jae-Hwan; Lee, Hae-Kag; Yang, Han-Joon; Lee, Gui-Won; Park, Yong-Soon; Chung, Woon-Kwan

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the authors investigated whether periodically-rotated overlapping parallel lines with enhanced reconstruction (PROPELLER) diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) can remove magnetic susceptibility artifacts and compared apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values for PROPELLER DWI and the common echo planar (EP) DWI. Twenty patients that underwent brain MRI with a metal dental implant were selected. A 3.0T MR scanner was then used to obtain EP DWI, PROPELLER DWI, and corresponding apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps for a b-value of 0 and 1,000 s/mm2. The frequencies of magnetic susceptibility artifacts in four parts of the brain (bilateral temporal lobes, pons, and orbit) were selected. In the ADC maps, we measured the ADC values of both sides of the temporal lobe and the pons. According to the study results, the frequency of magnetic susceptibility artifacts in PROPELLER DW images was lower than it was in EP DW images. In ADC maps, the ADC values of the bilateral temporal lobes and the pons were all higher in PROPELLER ADC maps than in EP ADC maps. Our findings show that when a high-field MRI machine is used, magnetic susceptibility artifacts can distort anatomical structures and produce high-intensity signals. Furthermore, our findings suggest that in many cases, PROPELLER DWI would be helpful in terms of achieving a correct diagnosis.

  9. Diffusion kurtosis imaging of the liver at 3 Tesla: in vivo comparison to standard diffusion-weighted imaging.

    PubMed

    Budjan, Johannes; Sauter, Elke A; Zoellner, Frank G; Lemke, Andreas; Wambsganss, Jens; Schoenberg, Stefan O; Attenberger, Ulrike I

    2017-01-01

    Background Functional techniques like diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) are gaining more and more importance in liver magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) is an advanced technique that might help to overcome current limitations of DWI. Purpose To evaluate DKI for the differentiation of hepatic lesions in comparison to conventional DWI at 3 Tesla. Material and Methods Fifty-six consecutive patients were examined using a routine abdominal MR protocol at 3 Tesla which included DWI with b-values of 50, 400, 800, and 1000 s/mm(2). Apparent diffusion coefficient maps were calculated applying a standard mono-exponential fit, while a non-Gaussian kurtosis fit was used to obtain DKI maps. ADC as well as Kurtosis-corrected diffusion ( D) values were quantified by region of interest analysis and compared between lesions. Results Sixty-eight hepatic lesions (hepatocellular carcinoma [HCC] [n = 25]; hepatic adenoma [n = 4], cysts [n = 18]; hepatic hemangioma [HH] [n = 18]; and focal nodular hyperplasia [n = 3]) were identified. Differentiation of malignant and benign lesions was possible based on both DWI ADC as well as DKI D-values ( P values were in the range of 0.04 to < 0.0001). Conclusion In vivo abdominal DKI calculated using standard b-values is feasible and enables quantitative differentiation between malignant and benign liver lesions. Assessment of conventional ADC values leads to similar results when using b-values below 1000 s/mm(2) for DKI calculation.

  10. Relationship between pretreatment FDG-PET and diffusion-weighted MRI biomarkers in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    de Jong, Antoinette; Kwee, Thomas C; de Klerk, John MH; Adam, Judit A; de Keizer, Bart; Fijnheer, Rob; Kersten, Marie José; Ludwig, Inge; Jauw, Yvonne WS; Zijlstra, Josée M; den Bos, Indra C Pieters - Van; Stoker, Jaap; Hoekstra, Otto S; Nievelstein, Rutger AJ

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the correlation between the 18F-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) standardized uptake value (SUV) and the diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) in newly diagnosed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Pretreatment FDG-PET and diffusion-weighted MRI of 21 patients with histologically proven DLBCL were prospectively analyzed. In each patient, maximum, mean and peak standardized uptake value (SUV) was measured in the lesion with visually highest FDG uptake and in the largest lesion. Mean ADC (ADCmean, calculated with b-values of 0 and 1000 s/mm2) was measured in the same lesions. Correlations between FDG-PET metrics (SUVmax, SUVmean, SUVpeak) and ADCmean were assessed using Pearson’s correlation coefficients. In the lesions with visually highest FDG uptake, no significant correlations were found between the SUVmax, SUVmean, SUVpeak and the ADCmean (P=0.498, P=0.609 and P=0.595, respectively). In the largest lesions, there were no significant correlations either between the SUVmax, SUVmean, SUVpeak and the ADCmean (P=0.992, P=0.843 and P=0.894, respectively). The results of this study indicate that the glycolytic rate as measured by FDG-PET and changes in water compartmentalization and water diffusion as measured by the ADC are independent biological phenomena in newly diagnosed DLBCL. Further studies are warranted to assess the complementary roles of these different imaging biomarkers in the evaluation and follow-up of DLBCL. PMID:24795837

  11. Diffusion-weighted MRI in neuro-oncology.

    PubMed

    Baehring, Joachim M; Fulbright, Robert K

    2012-11-01

    Diffusion-weighted MRI (DW-MRI) provides image contrast dependent on the molecular movement of water. It has been most widely used in the diagnosis of cytotoxic edema secondary to acute cerebral ischemia, but has also proven useful in assessing tumor cellularity and grade, abscess formation, cysts and various forms of white matter disorders. Furthermore, DW-MRI is used to generate maps of subcortical white matter tracts and their relationship to structural brain lesions that may serve for preoperative planning and intraoperative guidance. We provide a comprehensive review of current practical applications of DW-MRI in the diagnosis and treatment of primary brain tumors, metastases and nonmetastatic neurologic complications of cancer. A detailed description of diffusion tensor imaging is beyond the scope of this review. We performed a comprehensive search of the PubMed database of the USA National Library of Medicine with use of various combinations of the following search terms: diffusion-weighted imaging, apparent diffusion coefficient, diffusion tensor imaging, diffusion tensor, brain, tumor, glioblastoma, lymphoma, primary CNS lymphoma, stroke, cancer, abscess, leukoencephalopathy, methotrexate, fluorouracil, capecitabine. We identified original articles and well-documented case reports of DW-MRI applications in patients with primary brain neoplasms, metastases and nonmetastatic neurologic complications that we judged to be of high impact on the field. We largely selected publications from the past 10 years, but did not exclude commonly referenced and highly regarded older publications. We also searched the reference lists of articles identified by this search strategy and selected those we judged relevant. Review articles are cited to provide readers with more details and more references than can be covered here.

  12. Diffusion-weighted MRI in the characterization of pleural effusions.

    PubMed

    Inan, Nagihan; Arslan, Arzu; Akansel, Gür; Arslan, Zeliha; Elemen, Levent; Eleman, Levent; Demirci, Ali

    2009-03-01

    To evaluate the value of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in the differential diagnosis of pleural effusions. 58 pleural effusions (21 transudative, 37 exudative) were included in this prospective study. Single-shot echo-planar spin echo DWI was performed with two b factors (500 and 1000 s/mm (2)), and apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) were calculated. On diffusion- weighted (DW) trace images, signal intensity (SI) of the pleural effusions was visually compared to the SI of the paraspinal muscles with the use of a 3-point scale: 0: isointense, 1: moderately hyperintense, 2: significantly hyperintense. For quantitative evaluation, effusion- to-paraspinal muscle SI ratios, and ADCs of the effusions were compared between the groups. On visual evaluation, most of the transudative effusions were isointense, while most of the exudative effusions were hyperintense on DWI with b factors of 500 and 1000 s/mm (2). Quantitatively, with a b factor of 500 and 1000 s/mm(2), effusion-to-paraspinal muscle SI ratios of the exudative effusions were significantly higher than those of transudative effusions. The ADCs of the exudative effusions were significantly lower than those of transudative effusions (mean ADC was 3.3 x 10 (-3)+/- 0.7 mm(2)/s for exudative effusions, and 3.7 x 10 (-3)+/-0.3 mm(2)/s for transudative effusions). Setting the cutoff value at 3.6 x 10(-3), ADC had a sensitivity of 71% and a specificity of 63% for differentiating transudative from exudative effusions. DWI may help in the differential diagnosis of pleural effusions.

  13. Diffusion weighted vertical gradient and spin echo.

    PubMed

    Engström, Mathias; Bammer, Roland; Skare, Stefan

    2012-12-01

    In this work, diffusion weighting and parallel imaging is combined with a vertical gradient and spin echo data readout. This sequence was implemented and evaluated on healthy volunteers using a 1.5 and a 3 T whole-body MR system. As the vertical gradient and spin echo trajectory enables a higher k-space velocity in the phase-encoding direction than single-shot echo planar imaging, the geometrical distortions are reduced. When combined with parallel imaging such as generalized autocalibrating partially parallel acquisition, the geometric distortions are reduced even further, while also keeping the minimum echo time reasonably low. However, this combination of a diffusion preparation and multiple refocusing pulses during the vertical gradient and spin echo readout, generally violates the Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill condition, which leads to interferences between echo pathways. To suppress the stimulated echo pathway, refocusing pulses with a sharper slice profiles and an odd/even crusher variation scheme were implemented and evaluated. Being a single-shot acquisition technique, the reconstructed images are robust to rigid-body head motion and spatially varying brain motion, both of which are common sources of artifacts in diffusion MRI.

  14. Quality control of diffusion weighted images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhexing; Wang, Yi; Gerig, Guido; Gouttard, Sylvain; Tao, Ran; Fletcher, Thomas; Styner, Martin

    2010-03-01

    Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) has become an important MRI procedure to investigate the integrity of white matter in brain in vivo. DTI is estimated from a series of acquired Diffusion Weighted Imaging (DWI) volumes. DWI data suffers from inherent low SNR, overall long scanning time of multiple directional encoding with correspondingly large risk to encounter several kinds of artifacts. These artifacts can be too severe for a correct and stable estimation of the diffusion tensor. Thus, a quality control (QC) procedure is absolutely necessary for DTI studies. Currently, routine DTI QC procedures are conducted manually by visually checking the DWI data set in a gradient by gradient and slice by slice way. The results often suffer from low consistence across different data sets, lack of agreement of different experts, and difficulty to judge motion artifacts by qualitative inspection. Additionally considerable manpower is needed for this step due to the large number of images to QC, which is common for group comparison and longitudinal studies, especially with increasing number of diffusion gradient directions. We present a framework for automatic DWI QC. We developed a tool called DTIPrep which pipelines the QC steps with a detailed protocoling and reporting facility. And it is fully open source. This framework/tool has been successfully applied to several DTI studies with several hundred DWIs in our lab as well as collaborating labs in Utah and Iowa. In our studies, the tool provides a crucial piece for robust DTI analysis in brain white matter study.

  15. 3T diffusion-weighted MRI of the thyroid gland with reduced distortion: preliminary results

    PubMed Central

    Nagala, S; Priest, A N; McLean, M A; Jani, P; Graves, M J

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Single-shot diffusion-weighted (DW) echo planar imaging (EPI), which is commonly used for imaging the thyroid, is characterised by severe blurring and distortion. The objectives of this work were: 1, to show that a reduced-field of view (r-FOV) DW EPI technique can improve image quality; and 2, to investigate the effect of different reconstruction strategies on the resulting apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs). Methods: We implemented a single-shot, r-FOV DW EPI technique with a two-dimensional radiofrequency excitation pulse for DW imaging of the thyroid at 3T. Images were reconstructed using root sum of squares (SOS) and an optimal-B1 reconstruction (OBR). Phantom and in vivo experiments were performed to compare r-FOV and conventional full-FOV DW EPI with root SOS and OBR. Results: r-FOV with OBR substantially improved image quality at 3T. In phantoms, r-FOV gave more accurate ADCs than full-FOV. In vivo r-FOV always gave lower ADC values with respect to the full-FOV technique irrespective of the reconstruction used and whether only two or multiple b-values were used to compute the ADCs. Conclusion: r-FOV DW EPI can reduce image blurring and distortion at the expense of a low signal-to-noise ratio. OBR is a promising reconstruction technique for accurate ADC measurements in lower signal-to-noise ratio regimes, although further studies are needed to characterise its performance. Advances in knowledge: DW imaging of the thyroid at 3T could potentially benefit from r-FOV acquisition strategies, such as the r-FOV DW EPI technique proposed in this paper. PMID:23770539

  16. Role of diffusion-weighted MRI in acute pyelonephritis: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Rathod, Santosh B; Kumbhar, Sachin S; Nanivadekar, Avinash; Aman, Kumar

    2015-02-01

    Imaging is vital in diagnosis of complicated pyelonephritis and has been traditionally performed by computed tomography (CT). However, CT with contrast agents cannot be performed in patients with renal failure. Diffusion-weighted (DW) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has the potential to overcome this disadvantage. To prospectively evaluate the accuracy of quantitative apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values to differentiate nephritis from renal abscesses in patients with pyelonephritis. Forty-two patients with clinical and laboratory diagnosis of pyelonephritis underwent CT and DW MRI examinations. Diffusion images were obtained by using a non-breath-hold, single-shot echo-planar sequence with b values of 0, 600, and 1000 s/mm(2). Circular regions of interest were places on areas of nephritis, normal renal parenchyma, and renal abscesses as localized by CT and DW MRI images to obtain the ADC values of each of these regions. The ADC values of these three different tissue types were statistically compared using the one-way analysis of variance test for statistical significance. A P value <0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. For the diagnosis of pyelonephritis, DW MRI had a higher sensitivity of 95.3% as compared to that of non-contrast CT (66.7%) and contrast-enhanced CT (88.1%). Areas of nephritis had significantly lower ADC values (P < 0.001) than the normal renal cortical parenchyma. Also, renal abscesses had significantly lower ADC values (P < 0.001) than areas of nephritis. However, CT is more useful for the diagnosis of renal calculi and emphysematous pyelonephritis. ADC values derived from the diffusion sequence have significantly lower values in renal abscesses than in areas of nephritis. © The Foundation Acta Radiologica 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  17. Diffusion-Weighted MRI of Malignant versus Benign Portal Vein Thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Jhii-Hyun; Cho, Eun-Suk; Chung, Jae-Joon; Kim, Joo Hee; Kim, Ki Whang

    2016-01-01

    Objective To validate the diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI) for differentiation of benign from malignant portal vein thrombosis. Materials and Methods The Institutional Review Board approved this retrospective study and waived informed consent. A total of 59 consecutive patients (52 men and 7 women, aged 40–85 years) with grossly defined portal vein thrombus (PVT) on hepatic MRI were retrospectively analyzed. Among them, liver cirrhosis was found in 45 patients, and hepatocellular carcinoma in 47 patients. DWI was performed using b values of 50 and 800 sec/mm2 at 1.5-T unit. A thrombus was considered malignant if it enhanced on dynamic CT or MRI; otherwise, it was considered bland. There were 18 bland thrombi and 49 malignant thrombi in 59 patients, including 8 patients with simultaneous benign and malignant PVT. Mean apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) of benign and malignant PVTs were compared by using Mann-Whitney U test. Diagnostic accuracy was evaluated using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. Results The mean ADC ± standard deviation of bland and malignant PVT were 1.00 ± 0.39 × 10-3 mm2/sec and 0.92 ± 0.25 × 10-3 mm2/sec, respectively; without significant difference (p = 0.799). The area under ROC curve for ADC was 0.520. An ADC value of > 1.35 × 10-3 mm2/sec predicted bland PVT with a specificity of 94.6% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 84.9–98.9%) and a sensitivity of 22.2% (95% CI: 6.4–47.6%), respectively. Conclusion Due to the wide range and considerable overlap of the ADCs, DWI cannot differentiate the benign from malignant thrombi efficiently. PMID:27390544

  18. Role of diffusion-weighted imaging in differentiating benign and malignant pediatric abdominal tumors.

    PubMed

    Gawande, Rakhee S; Gonzalez, Gabriel; Messing, Solomon; Khurana, Aman; Daldrup-Link, Heike E

    2013-07-01

    Solid malignant tumors are more highly cellular than benign lesions and hence have a restricted diffusion of water molecules. To evaluate whether diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWI) can differentiate between benign and malignant pediatric abdominal tumors. We retrospectively analyzed DWI scans of 68 consecutive children with 39 benign and 34 malignant abdominal masses. To calculate the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps and ADC values, we used 1.5-T sequences at TR/TE/b-value of 5,250-7,500/54-64/b = 0, 500 and 3-T sequences at 3,500-4,000/66-73/b = 0, 500, 800. ADC values were compared between benign and malignant and between data derived at 1.5 tesla (T) and at 3 tesla magnetic field strength, using the Mann-Whitney-Wilcoxon test, ANOVA and a receiver operating curve (ROC) analysis. There was no significant difference in ADC values obtained at 1.5 T and 3 T (P = 0.962). Mean ADC values (× 10(-3) mm(2)/s) were 1.07 for solid malignant tumors, 1.6 for solid benign tumors, 2.9 for necrotic portions of malignant tumors and 3.1 for cystic benign lesions. The differences between malignant and benign solid tumors were statistically significant (P = 0.000025). ROC analysis revealed an optimal cut-off ADC value for differentiating malignant and benign solid tumors as 1.29 with excellent inter-observer reliability (alpha score 0.88). DWI scans and ADC values can contribute to distinguishing between benign and malignant pediatric abdominal tumors.

  19. Separation of extra- and intracellular metabolites using hyperpolarized 13C diffusion weighted MR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koelsch, Bertram L.; Sriram, Renuka; Keshari, Kayvan R.; Leon Swisher, Christine; Van Criekinge, Mark; Sukumar, Subramaniam; Vigneron, Daniel B.; Wang, Zhen J.; Larson, Peder E. Z.; Kurhanewicz, John

    2016-09-01

    This work demonstrates the separation of extra- and intracellular components of glycolytic metabolites with diffusion weighted hyperpolarized 13C magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Using b-values of up to 15,000 s mm-2, a multi-exponential signal response was measured for hyperpolarized [1-13C] pyruvate and lactate. By fitting the fast and slow asymptotes of these curves, their extra- and intracellular weighted diffusion coefficients were determined in cells perfused in a MR compatible bioreactor. In addition to measuring intracellular weighted diffusion, extra- and intracellular weighted hyperpolarized 13C metabolites pools are assessed in real-time, including their modulation with inhibition of monocarboxylate transporters. These studies demonstrate the ability to simultaneously assess membrane transport in addition to enzymatic activity with the use of diffusion weighted hyperpolarized 13C MR. This technique could be an indispensible tool to evaluate the impact of microenvironment on the presence, aggressiveness and metastatic potential of a variety of cancers.

  20. Interpolation of diffusion weighted imaging datasets.

    PubMed

    Dyrby, Tim B; Lundell, Henrik; Burke, Mark W; Reislev, Nina L; Paulson, Olaf B; Ptito, Maurice; Siebner, Hartwig R

    2014-12-01

    Diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) is used to study white-matter fibre organisation, orientation and structural connectivity by means of fibre reconstruction algorithms and tractography. For clinical settings, limited scan time compromises the possibilities to achieve high image resolution for finer anatomical details and signal-to-noise-ratio for reliable fibre reconstruction. We assessed the potential benefits of interpolating DWI datasets to a higher image resolution before fibre reconstruction using a diffusion tensor model. Simulations of straight and curved crossing tracts smaller than or equal to the voxel size showed that conventional higher-order interpolation methods improved the geometrical representation of white-matter tracts with reduced partial-volume-effect (PVE), except at tract boundaries. Simulations and interpolation of ex-vivo monkey brain DWI datasets revealed that conventional interpolation methods fail to disentangle fine anatomical details if PVE is too pronounced in the original data. As for validation we used ex-vivo DWI datasets acquired at various image resolutions as well as Nissl-stained sections. Increasing the image resolution by a factor of eight yielded finer geometrical resolution and more anatomical details in complex regions such as tract boundaries and cortical layers, which are normally only visualized at higher image resolutions. Similar results were found with typical clinical human DWI dataset. However, a possible bias in quantitative values imposed by the interpolation method used should be considered. The results indicate that conventional interpolation methods can be successfully applied to DWI datasets for mining anatomical details that are normally seen only at higher resolutions, which will aid in tractography and microstructural mapping of tissue compartments.

  1. Motion Compensated Abdominal Diffusion Weighted MRI by Simultaneous Image Registration and Model Estimation (SIR-ME).

    PubMed

    Kurugol, Sila; Freiman, Moti; Afacan, Onur; Domachevsky, Liran; Perez-Rossello, Jeannette M; Callahan, Michael J; Warfield, Simon K

    2015-01-01

    Non-invasive characterization of water molecule's mobility variations by quantitative analysis of diffusion-weighted MRI (DW-MRI) signal decay in the abdomen has the potential to serve as a biomarker in gastrointestinal and oncological applications. Accurate and reproducible estimation of the signal decay model parameters is challenging due to the presence of respiratory, cardiac, and peristalsis motion. Independent registration of each b-value image to the b-value=0 s/mm(2) image prior to parameter estimation might be sub-optimal because of the low SNR and contrast difference between images of varying b-value. In this work, we introduce a motion-compensated parameter estimation framework that simultaneously solves image registration and model estimation (SIR-ME) problems by utilizing the interdependence of acquired volumes along the diffusion weighting dimension. We evaluated the improvement in model parameters estimation accuracy using 16 in-vivo DW-MRI data sets of Crohn's disease patients by comparing parameter estimates obtained using the SIR-ME model to the parameter estimates obtained by fitting the signal decay model to the acquired DW-MRI images. The proposed SIR-ME model reduced the average root-mean-square error between the observed signal and the fitted model by more than 50%. Moreover, the SIR-ME model estimates discriminate between normal and abnormal bowel loops better than the standard parameter estimates.

  2. Diffusion weighted MRI by spatiotemporal encoding: Analytical description and in vivo validations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solomon, Eddy; Shemesh, Noam; Frydman, Lucio

    2013-07-01

    Diffusion-weighted (DW) MRI is a powerful modality for studying microstructure in normal and pathological tissues. The accuracy derived from DW MRI depends on the acquisition of quality images, and on a precise assessment of the b-values involved. Conventional DW MRI tends to be of limited use in regions suffering from large magnetic field or chemical shift heterogeneities, which severely distort the MR images. In this study we propose novel sequences based on SPatio-temporal ENcoding (SPEN), which overcome such shortcomings owing to SPEN's inherent robustness to offsets. SPEN, however, relies on the simultaneous application of gradients and radiofrequency-swept pulses, which may impart different diffusion weightings along the spatial axes. These will be further complicated in DW measurements by the diffusion-sensitizing gradients, and will in general lead to complex, spatially-dependent b-values. This study presents a formalism for analyzing these diffusion-weighted SPEN (dSPEN) data, which takes into account the concomitant effects of adiabatic pulses, of the imaging as well as diffusion gradients, and of the cross-terms between them. These analytical b-values derivations are subject to experimental validations in phantom systems and ex vivo spinal cords. Excellent agreement is found between the theoretical predictions and these dSPEN experiments. The ensuing methodology is then demonstrated by in vivo mapping of diffusion in human breast - organs where conventional k-space DW acquisition methods are challenged by both field and chemical shift heterogeneities. These studies demonstrate the increased robustness of dSPEN vis-à-vis comparable DW echo planar imaging, and demonstrate the value of this new methodology for medium- or high-field diffusion measurements in heterogeneous systems.

  3. The existence of biexponential signal decay in magnetic resonance diffusion-weighted imaging appears to be independent of compartmentalization.

    PubMed

    Schwarcz, Attila; Bogner, Peter; Meric, Philippe; Correze, Jean-Loup; Berente, Zoltan; Pál, József; Gallyas, Ferenc; Doczi, Tamas; Gillet, Brigitte; Beloeil, Jean-Claude

    2004-02-01

    It is generally believed that the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) changes measured by diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in brain pathologies are related to alterations in the water compartments. The aim of this study was to elucidate the role of compartmentalization in DWI via biexponential analysis of the signal decay due to diffusion. DWI experiments were performed on mouse brain over an extended range of b-values (up to 10,000 mm(-2) s) under intact, global ischemic, and cold-injury conditions. DWI was additionally applied to centrifuged human erythrocyte samples with a negligible extracellular space. Biexponential signal decay was found to occur in the cortex of the intact mouse brain. During global ischemia, in addition to a drop in the ADC in both components, a shift from the volume fraction of the rapidly diffusing component to the slowly diffusing one was observed. In cold injury, the biexponential signal decay was still present despite the electron-microscopically validated disintegration of the membranes. The biexponential function was also applicable for fitting of the data obtained on erythrocyte samples. The results suggest that compartmentalization is not an essential feature of biexponential decay in diffusion experiments. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Intravoxel incoherent motion diffusion-weighted MR imaging of breast cancer: association with histopathological features and subtypes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yunju; Ko, Kyounglan; Kim, Daehong; Min, Changki; Kim, Sungheon G; Joo, Jungnam; Park, Boram

    2016-07-01

    To evaluate the associations between intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM)-derived parameters and histopathological features and subtypes of breast cancer. Pre-operative MRI from 275 patients with unilateral breast cancer was analyzed. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and IVIM parameters [tissue diffusion coefficient (Dt), perfusion fraction (fp) and pseudodiffusion coefficient] were obtained from cancer and normal tissue using diffusion-weighted imaging with b-values of 0, 30, 70, 100, 150, 200, 300, 400, 500 and 800 s mm(-2). We then compared the IVIM parameters of tumours with different histopathological features and subtypes. The ADC and Dt were lower and fp was higher in cancers than in normal tissues (p < 0.001). The Dt was lower in high Ki-67 cancer than in low Ki-67 cancer (p = 0.019), whereas ADC showed no significant difference (p = 0.309). Luminal B [human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-negative] cancer showed lower ADC (p = 0.003) and Dt (p = 0.001) than other types. We found low tissue diffusivity in high Ki-67 cancer and luminal B (HER2-negative) cancer using IVIM imaging. Low tissue diffusivity is more clearly shown in high Ki-67 tumours and luminal B (HER2-negative) tumours with the IVIM model.

  5. [Breast MRI: the usefulness of diffusion-weighted sequences for differentiating between benign and malignant lesions].

    PubMed

    Barceló, J; Vilanova, J C; Albanell, J; Ferrer, J; Castañer, F; Viejo, N; Argelaguet, M

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of diffusion-weighted MRI sequences and of the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) to differentiate between benign and malignant breast lesions. We prospectively studied 88 patients (aged 31 to 79 years) with 94 lesions (80 malignant and 14 benign) who were referred for preoperative local staging. All patients underwent dynamic MRI examination after intravenous contrast administration and a diffusion-weighted sequence with ADC calculation. The results obtained at diffusion-weighted imaging were correlated with those obtained at histological examination. The mean value of the ADC for malignant lesions (1.12+/-0.25x10(-3)mm(2)/s) was significantly lower (p<0.001) than for benign lesions (1.61+/-0.52x10(-3)mm(2)/s). No significant differences in ADC values were found between the different subtypes of invasive carcinomas or between intraductal carcinoma and invasive carcinoma (p>0.05). Using an ADC lower than 0.95x10(-3)mm(2)/s as a threshold for malignancy, the sensitivity is 52% and the specificity is 100%. Diffusion-weighted sequences provide additional information in breast MRI that is useful for differentiating between benign and malignant lesions, thus improving the specificity of the technique.

  6. Diagnosis of pericardial cysts using diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging: A case series

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Congenital pericardial cysts are benign lesions that arise from the pericardium during embryonic development. The diagnosis is based on typical imaging features, but atypical locations and signal magnetic resonance imaging sequences make it difficult to exclude other lesions. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging is a novel method that can be used to differentiate tissues based on their restriction to proton diffusion. Its use in differentiating pericardial cysts from other pericardial lesions has not yet been described. Case presentation We present three cases (a 51-year-old Caucasian woman, a 66-year-old Caucasian woman and a 77-year-old Caucasian woman) with pericardial cysts evaluated with diffusion-weighted imaging using cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. Each lesion demonstrated a high apparent diffusion coefficient similar to that of free water. Conclusion This case series is the first attempt to investigate the utility of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging in the assessment of pericardial cysts. Diffusion-weighted imaging may be a useful noninvasive diagnostic tool for pericardial cysts when conventional imaging findings are inconclusive. PMID:21943086

  7. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging in musculoskeletal diseases: current concepts.

    PubMed

    Dallaudière, B; Lecouvet, F; Vande Berg, B; Omoumi, P; Perlepe, V; Cerny, M; Malghem, J; Larbi, A

    2015-04-01

    MR imaging is currently regarded as a pivotal technique for the assessment of a variety of musculoskeletal conditions. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWI) is a relatively recent sequence that provides information on the degree of cellularity of lesions. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value provides information on the movement of water molecules outside the cells. The literature contains many studies that have evaluated the role of DWI in musculoskeletal diseases. However, to date they yielded conflicting results on the use and the diagnostic capabilities of DWI in the area of musculoskeletal diseases. However, many of them have showed that DWI is a useful technique for the evaluation of the extent of the disease in a subset of musculoskeletal cancers. In terms of tissue characterization, DWI may be an adjunct to the more conventional MR imaging techniques but should be interpreted along with the signal of the lesion as observed on conventional sequences, especially in musculoskeletal cancers. Regarding the monitoring of response to therapy in cancer or inflammatory disease, the use of ADC value may represent a more reliable additional tool but must be compared to the initial ADC value of the lesions along with the knowledge of the actual therapy.

  8. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging in cystic renal masses

    PubMed Central

    Balyemez, Fikret; Aslan, Ahmet; Inan, Ibrahim; Ayaz, Ercan; Karagöz, Vildan; Özkanli, Sıdıka Şeyma; Acar, Murat

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: We aimed to introduce the diagnostic value of diffusion-weighted (DWI) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for distinguishing benign and malignant renal cystic masses. Methods: Abdominal DWI-MRIs of patients with Bosniak categories 2F, 3, and 4 cystic renal masses were evaluated retrospectively. Cystic masses were assigned as benign or malignant according to histopathological or followup MRI findings and compared with apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values. Results: There were 30 patients (18 males and 12 females, mean age was 59.23 ± 12.08 years [range 38–83 years]) with cystic renal masses (eight Bosniak category 2F, 12 Bosniak category 3, 10 Bosniak category 4). Among them, 14 cysts were diagnosed as benign and 16 as malignant by followup imaging or histopathological findings. For the malignant lesions, the mean ADC values were lower than for benign lesions (p=0.001). An ADC value of ≤2.28 ×10−6 mm2/s or less had a sensitivity of 75% and a specificity of 92.86% for detecting malignancy. Conclusions: ADC can improve the diagnostic performance of MRI in the evaluation of complex renal cysts when used together with conventional MRI sequences. PMID:28163806

  9. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging of the normal fetal lung.

    PubMed

    Balassy, Csilla; Kasprian, Gregor; Brugger, Peter C; Csapo, Bence; Weber, Michael; Hörmann, Marcus; Bankier, Alexander; Bammer, Roland; Herold, Christian J; Prayer, Daniela

    2008-04-01

    To quantify apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) changes in fetuses with normal lungs and to determine whether ADC can be used in the assessment of fetal lung development. In 53 pregnancies (20-37th weeks of gestation), we measured ADC on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in the apical, middle, and basal thirds of the right lung. ADCs were correlated with gestational age. Differences between the ADCs were assessed. Fetal lung volumes were measured on T2-weighted sequences and correlated with ADCs and with age. ADCs were 2.13 +/- 0.44 microm(2)/ms (mean +/- SD) in the apex, 1.99 +/- 0.42 microm(2)/ms (mean +/- SD) in the middle third, and 1.91 +/- 0.41 microm(2)/ms (mean +/- SD) in the lung base. Neither the individual ADC values nor average ADC values showed a significant correlation with gestational age or with lung volumes. Average ADCs decreased significantly from the lung apex toward the base. Individual ADCs showed little absolute change and heterogeneity. Lung volumes increased significantly during gestation. We have not been able to identify a pattern of changes in the ADC values that correlate with lung maturation. Furthermore, the individual, gravity-related ADC changes are subject to substantial variability and show nonuniform behavior. ADC can therefore not be used as an indicator of lung maturity.

  10. Diffusion-weighted imaging to assess treatment response in a child with trilateral retinoblastoma.

    PubMed

    Bonci, Gregory A; Rosenblum, Marc K; Gilheeney, Stephen W; Dunkel, Ira J; Holodny, Andrei I

    2013-09-01

    Trilateral retinoblastoma (TRb) is a rare condition in which children with bilateral retinoblastoma develop primary midline intracranial neuroblastic tumors. The intracranial lesions are difficult to follow after treatment due to residual mass-like enhancement that may represent persistent tumor or treated disease. We highlight a case where close evaluation of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) characteristics accurately depicted the extent of treated disease versus residual tumor after chemotherapy.

  11. Continuous saturation EPI with diffusion weighting at 3.0 T.

    PubMed

    Francis, S T; Gowland, P A; Bowtell, R W

    1999-11-01

    This paper presents a steady-state method of arterial spin labelling using continuous saturation in conjunction with echo-planar imaging (EPI), which has been implemented at 3 T. The continuous saturation technique has the advantage of having high sensitivity compared to transient labelling techniques, when long repetition times are used. It is also easy to implement and requires minimal data to be acquired for quantitation. Like other arterial spin labelling techniques, continuous saturation is potentially prone to overestimation of perfusion rates due to the effect of tagged blood in vessels within the image slice. Using a simple model of the vasculature, the degree of diffusion weighting required to suppress the arterial signal has been determined, with the results indicating that a value of 2 s/mm2 is adequate. Histogram analysis of the experimental data has been used to evaluate the effect of diffusion weighting. Using a b-value of 2 s/mm2, the mean perfusion-related signal change in grey matter on continuous saturation was found to be 1.5 +/- 0.2%, yielding a mean perfusion rate of 87 +/- 9 ml/100 g/min. Brain activation studies using the diffusion weighted continuous saturation technique gave a mean increase in perfusion of 36 +/- 12% in activated motor cortex.

  12. Evaluation of efficacy of transcatheter arterial chemoembolization for hepatocellular carcinoma using magnetic resonance diffusion-weighted imaging

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xiao-Ming; Wang, Jun-Feng; Ji, Jian-Song; Chen, Ming-Gao; Song, Jian-Gang

    2017-01-01

    Although the efficacy of transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) has been recommended as first-line therapy for nonsurgical patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), it is difficult to accurately predict the efficacy of TACE. Therefore, this study evaluated the efficacy of TACE for HCC using magnetic resonance (MR) diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI). A total of 84 HCC patients who received initial TACE were selected and assigned to the stable group (n=39) and the progressive group (n=45). Before TACE treatment, a contrast-enhanced MR scan and DWI (b=300, 600, and 800 s/mm2) were performed on all patients. The modified response evaluation criteria in solid tumors were used for evaluation of tumor response. Receiver operating characteristic curve was employed to predict the value of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) for TACE efficacy. The ADC values of HCC patients in the progressive group were higher than those in the stable group at different b-values (b=300, 600, and 800 s/mm2) before TACE treatment. The area under the curve of ADC values with b-values of 300, 600, and 800 s/mm2 were 0.693, 0.724, and 0.746; the threshold values were 1.94×10−3 mm2/s, 1.28×10−3 mm2/s, and 1.20×10−3 mm2/s; the sensitivity values were 55.6%, 77.8%, and 73.3%; and the specificity values were 82.1%, 61.5%, and 71.8%, respectively. Our findings indicate that the ADC values of MR-DWI may accurately predict the efficacy of TACE in the treatment of HCC patients. PMID:28352195

  13. Detection of targeted perfluorocarbon nanoparticle binding using 19F diffusion weighted MR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Waters, Emily A; Chen, Junjie; Yang, Xiaoxia; Zhang, Huiying; Neumann, Robert; Santeford, Andrea; Arbeit, Jeffrey; Lanza, Gregory M; Wickline, Samuel A

    2008-11-01

    Real-time detection of targeted contrast agent binding is challenging due to background signal from unbound agent. (19)F diffusion weighted MR spectroscopy (DWS) could selectively detect binding of angiogenesis-targeted perfluorocarbon nanoparticles in vivo. Transgenic K14-HPV16 mice with epidermal squamous carcinomas exhibiting up-regulated neovasculature were used, with nontransgenic littermates as controls. Mice were treated with alpha(v)beta(3)-integrin targeted perfluorocarbon nanoparticles. (19)F DWS (b-values from 0 to 16,000 s/mm(2)) was performed on mouse ears in vivo at 11.74 Tesla. Progressive decay of (19)F signal with increased diffusion weighting at low b-values (< 1500 s/mm(2)) was observed in ears of both K14-HPV16 and control mice, demonstrating suppression of background (19)F signal from unbound nanoparticles in the blood. Much of the (19)F signal from ears of K14-HPV16 mice persisted at high b-values, indicating a stationary signal source, reflecting abundant nanoparticle binding to angiogenesis. (19)F signal in controls decayed completely at high b-values (> 1500 s/mm(2)), reflecting a moving signal source due to absence of angiogenesis (no binding sites). Estimated ADCs of nanoparticles in K14-HPV16 and control mice were 33.1 +/- 12.9 microm(2)/s and 19563 +/- 5858 microm(2)/s (p < 0.01). In vivo (19)F DWS can be used for specific detection of bound perfluorocarbon nanoparticles by selectively suppressing background (19)F signal from nanoparticles flowing in blood.

  14. On a fractional order calculus model in diffusion weighted breast imaging to differentiate between malignant and benign breast lesions detected on X-ray screening mammography.

    PubMed

    Bickelhaupt, Sebastian; Steudle, Franziska; Paech, Daniel; Mlynarska, Anna; Kuder, Tristan Anselm; Lederer, Wolfgang; Daniel, Heidi; Freitag, Martin; Delorme, Stefan; Schlemmer, Heinz-Peter; Laun, Frederik Bernd

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate a fractional order calculus (FROC) model in diffusion weighted imaging to differentiate between malignant and benign breast lesions in breast cancer screening work-up using recently introduced parameters (βFROC, DFROC and μFROC). This retrospective analysis within a prospective IRB-approved study included 51 participants (mean 58.4 years) after written informed consent. All patients had suspicious screening mammograms and indication for biopsy. Prior to biopsy, full diagnostic contrast-enhanced MRI examination was acquired including diffusion-weighted-imaging (DWI, b = 0,100,750,1500 s/mm2). Conventional apparent diffusion coefficient Dapp and FROC parameters (βFROC, DFROC and μFROC) as suggested further indicators of diffusivity components were measured in benign and malignant lesions. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) were calculated to evaluate the diagnostic performance of the parameters. 29/51 patients histopathologically revealed malignant lesions. The analysis revealed an AUC for Dapp of 0.89 (95% CI 0.80-0.98). For FROC derived parameters, AUC was 0.75 (0.60-0.89) for DFROC, 0.59 (0.43-0.75) for βFROC and 0.59 (0.42-0.77) for μFROC. Comparison of the AUC curves revealed a significantly higher AUC of Dapp compared to the FROC parameters DFROC (p = 0.009), βFROC (p = 0.003) and μFROC (p = 0.001). In contrast to recent description in brain tumors, the apparent diffusion coefficient Dapp showed a significantly higher AUC than the recently proposed FROC parameters βFROC, DFROC and μFROC for differentiating between malignant and benign breast lesions. This might be related to the intrinsic high heterogeneity within breast tissue or to the lower maximal b-value used in our study.

  15. Clinically silent choroid plexus cyst: evaluation by diffusion-weighted MRI.

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, Toshibumi; Moritani, Toshio; Hiwatashi, Akio; Numaguchi, Yuji; Wang, Henry Z; Westesson, Per-Lennart A; Sugihara, Shuji; Matsusue, Eiji; Fujii, Shinya; Ohama, Eisaku; Ogawa, Toshihide

    2005-04-01

    We retrospectively reviewed diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance images of 57 patients with a choroid plexus cyst diagnosed by contrast-enhanced T1-weighted imaging. All the cysts appeared to represent incidental findings. Thirty-eight of 57 patients had bilateral cysts and 19 had unilateral ones. On diffusion-weighted images, 78 of 95 cysts showed homogeneously high signal intensity, 12 showed focal high signal areas, and 5 had no portion with a high signal. The apparent diffusion coefficient of the high signal areas in the cysts was (1.46+/-0.14) x10(-3) mm(2)/s, intermediate between the apparent diffusion coefficients of cerebrospinal fluid and cerebral white matter, (3.15+/-0.67) x10(-3) and (0.79+/-0.22) x10(-3) mm(2)/s, respectively. Pathological correlation was available in one case, showing high signal intensity areas in the glomera of the choroid plexuses in the lateral ventricles on diffusion-weighted images corresponding to gelatinous cysts with highly proteinaceous content.

  16. Conductivity tensor imaging of the brain using diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekino, Masaki; Yamaguchi, Kikuo; Iriguchi, Norio; Ueno, Shoogo

    2003-05-01

    Conductivity tensor images of the rat brain were obtained by a method based on diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Diffusion-weighted images were acquired by a 4.7 T MRI system with motion probing gradients (MPGs) applied in three directions. Conductivities in each MPG direction were calculated from the fast component of the apparent diffusion coefficient and the fraction of the fast component, and two-dimensional conductivity tensor was estimated. Regions of interest (ROIs) were selected in the cortex and the corpus callosum. The mean conductivities in each ROI were 0.014 S/m and 0.018 S/m, respectively. The corpus callosum exhibited higher conductivity anisotropy resulting from anisotropic tissue structures such as axons and dendrites.

  17. Diffusion-weighted MRI for differentiating Wilms tumor from neuroblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Aslan, Mine; Aslan, Ahmet; Habibi, Hatice Arıöz; Uçar, Ayşe Kalyoncu; Özmen, Evrim; Bakan, Selim; Kuruğoğlu, Sebuh; Adaletli, İbrahim

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE Wilms tumor (WT) and neuroblastoma (NB) are the most common pediatric abdominal malignant neoplasms of the kidney and adrenal gland. Differentiating them from each other is essential since their treatments are different. Here, we aimed to show the diffusion characteristics of WT and NB for differentiation. METHODS Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) of 17 histopathologically diagnosed lesions (10 NB and 7 WT in 8 female and 9 male patients) was evaluated retrospectively. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value for each tumor was calculated using region-of-interest (ROI) measurements by two observers. The mean ADC values were compared, and receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve analysis was performed. Intraclass correlation was evaluated for the reliability of ADC measurement. RESULTS The mean ADC values measured by two observers were 0.787±0.09 ×10−3 mm2/s and 0.768±0.08 ×10−3 mm2/s for WT, and 0.524±0.16 ×10−3 mm2/s and 0.529±0.16 ×10−3 mm2/s for NB, respectively (P = 0.006 and P = 0.011). Intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.955. Utilizing ROC curve analysis, a cutoff ADC value of ≤0.645 ×10−3 mm2/s was obtained to differentiate NB from WT. CONCLUSION ADC values of NBs were significantly lower than WT with a perfect interobserver agreement. We suggest that DWI may have a role in differentiating the two tumors. PMID:28830846

  18. Diffusion-weighted MRI for differentiating Wilms tumor from neuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Aslan, Mine; Aslan, Ahmet; Arıöz Habibi, Hatice; Kalyoncu Uçar, Ayşe; Özmen, Evrim; Bakan, Selim; Kuruğoğlu, Sebuh; Adaletli, İbrahim

    2017-01-01

    Wilms tumor (WT) and neuroblastoma (NB) are the most common pediatric abdominal malignant neoplasms of the kidney and adrenal gland. Differentiating them from each other is essential since their treatments are different. Here, we aimed to show the diffusion characteristics of WT and NB for differentiation. Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) of 17 histopathologically diagnosed lesions (10 NB and 7 WT in 8 female and 9 male patients) was evaluated retrospectively. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value for each tumor was calculated using region-of-interest (ROI) measurements by two observers. The mean ADC values were compared, and receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve analysis was performed. Intraclass correlation was evaluated for the reliability of ADC measurement. The mean ADC values measured by two observers were 0.787±0.09 ×10-3 mm2/s and 0.768±0.08 ×10-3 mm2/s for WT, and 0.524±0.16 ×10-3 mm2/s and 0.529±0.16 ×10-3 mm2/s for NB, respectively (P = 0.006 and P = 0.011). Intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.955. Utilizing ROC curve analysis, a cutoff ADC value of ≤0.645 ×10-3 mm2/s was obtained to differentiate NB from WT. ADC values of NBs were significantly lower than WT with a perfect interobserver agreement. We suggest that DWI may have a role in differentiating the two tumors.

  19. Prognostic Value of Brain Diffusion Weighted Imaging After Cardiac Arrest

    PubMed Central

    Wijman, Christine A.C.; Mlynash, Michael; Caulfield, Anna Finley; Hsia, Amie W.; Eyngorn, Irina; Bammer, Roland; Fischbein, Nancy; Albers, Gregory W.; Moseley, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Objective Outcome prediction is challenging in comatose post-cardiac arrest survivors. We assessed the feasibility and prognostic utility of brain diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI) during the first week. Methods Consecutive comatose post-cardiac arrest patients were prospectively enrolled. MRI data of patients who met predefined specific prognostic criteria were used to determine distinguishing ADC thresholds. Group 1: death at 6 months and absent motor response or absent pupillary reflexes or bilateral absent cortical responses at 72 hours, or vegetative at 1 month. Group 2A: Glasgow outcome scale (GOS) score of 4 or 5 at 6 months. Group 2B: GOS of 3 at 6 months. The percentage of voxels below different apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) thresholds was calculated at 50 × 10−6 mm2/sec intervals. Results Overall, 86% of patients underwent MR imaging. Fifty-one patients with 62 brain MRIs were included in the analyses. Forty patients met the specific prognostic criteria. The percentage of brain volume with an ADC value below 650–700 × 10−6 mm2/sec best differentiated between group 1 and groups 2A and 2B combined (p<0.001), while the 400–450 × 10−6 mm2/sec threshold best differentiated between groups 2A and 2B (p=0.003). The ideal time window for prognostication using DWI was between 49 to 108 hours after the arrest. When comparing MRI in this time window with the 72 hour neurological examination MRI improved the sensitivity for predicting poor outcome by 38% while maintaining 100% specificity (p=0.021). Interpretation Quantitative DWI in comatose post-cardiac arrest survivors holds great promise as a prognostic adjunct. PMID:19399889

  20. Can diffusion-weighted imaging serve as a biomarker of fibrosis in pancreatic adenocarcinoma?

    PubMed

    Hecht, Elizabeth M; Liu, Michael Z; Prince, Martin R; Jambawalikar, Sachin; Remotti, Helen E; Weisberg, Stuart W; Garmon, Donald; Lopez-Pintado, Sara; Woo, Yanghee; Kluger, Michael D; Chabot, John A

    2017-08-01

    To assess the relationship between diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM)-derived quantitative parameters (apparent diffusion coefficient [ADC], perfusion fraction [f], Dslow , diffusion coefficient [D], and Dfast , pseudodiffusion coefficient [D*]) and histopathology in pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PAC). Subjects with suspected surgically resectable PAC were prospectively enrolled in this Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA)-compliant, Institutional Review Board-approved study. Imaging was performed at 1.5T with a respiratory-triggered echo planar DWI sequence using 10 b values. Two readers drew regions of interest (ROIs) over the tumor and adjacent nontumoral tissue. Monoexponential and biexponential fits were used to derive ADC2b , ADCall , f, D, and D*, which were compared to quantitative histopathology of fibrosis, mean vascular density, and cellularity. Two biexponential IVIM models were investigated and compared: 1) nonlinear least-square fitting based on the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm, and 2) linear fit using a fixed D* (20 mm(2) /s). Statistical analysis included Student's t-test, Pearson correlation (P < 0.05 was considered significant), intraclass correlation, and coefficients of variance. Twenty subjects with PAC were included in the final cohort. Negative correlation between D and fibrosis (Reader 2: r = -0.57 P = 0.01; pooled P = -0.46, P = 0.04) was observed with a trend toward positive correlation between f and fibrosis (r = 0.44, P = 0.05). ADC2b was significantly lower in PAC with dense fibrosis than with loose fibrosis ADC2b (P = 0.03). Inter- and intrareader agreement was excellent for ADC, D, and f. In PAC, D negatively correlates with fibrosis, with a trend toward positive correlation with f suggesting both perfusion and diffusion effects contribute to stromal desmoplasia. ADC2b is significantly lower in tumors with dense fibrosis and may serve as a

  1. Prospective motion correction of segmented diffusion weighted EPI.

    PubMed

    Herbst, Michael; Zahneisen, Benjamin; Knowles, Benjamin; Zaitsev, Maxim; Ernst, Thomas

    2015-12-01

    Recently, a new algorithm was introduced to combine segments of under-sampled diffusion weighted data using multiplexed sensitivity encoding. While the algorithm provides good results in cooperative volunteers, motion during the data acquisition is not accounted for. In this work, the continuous prospective motion correction of a segmented diffusion weighted acquisition is combined with multiplexed sensitivity encoding. Simulations investigate the influence of motion on the reconstruction. Additionally, the change in coil sensitivities due to patient motion is taken into consideration. Finally, in vivo experiments display the effects of motion and its prospective correction on high resolution diffusion weighted imaging. Inconsistencies of the imaging plane lead to artifacts and blurring in the reconstructed dataset. Additionally, motion during the diffusion weighting period can lead to substantial image artifacts and signal dropouts. The change in coil sensitivities shows minor effect for the simulated range of motion (5°). Prospective motion correction is shown to improve image quality in the case of large motion (5°) and to reliably correct for small motion (1°). The combination of prospective motion correction and multiplexed sensitivity encoding allows for high resolution diffusion weighted imaging even in the presence of substantial head motion. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging in thymic epithelial tumors: correlation with World Health Organization classification and clinical staging.

    PubMed

    Abdel Razek, Ahmed Abdel Khalek; Khairy, Mohamed; Nada, Nadia

    2014-10-01

    To assess thymic epithelial tumors with diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Informed consent from patients and institutional review board approval were obtained. Prospective study was conducted on 30 consecutive patients (21 men and nine women; age range, 35-71 years) with thymic epithelial tumors. They underwent true fast imaging with steady-state precession and single-shot echo-planar diffusion-weighted MR imaging of the mediastinum with b values of 0, 400, and 800 sec/mm(2). Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of the thymic epithelial tumors was calculated by the same observer at two settings and was correlated with World Health Organization classification and clinical staging. There was significant difference in longest diameter (P = .001) and necrotic part of the tumor (P = .014) between low-risk thymoma, high-risk thymoma, and thymic carcinoma. Mean ADC value of both readings of thymic epithelial tumors (n = 30) was 1.24 × 10(-3) mm(2)/sec and 1.22 × 10(-3) mm(2)/sec, with good intraobserver agreement (κ = 0.732). There was significant difference in both readings (P = .01 and .20) of low-risk thymoma (1.30 × 10(-3) mm(2)/sec and 1.29 × 10(-3) mm(2)/sec), high-risk thymoma (1.16 × 10(-3) mm(2)/sec and 1.14 × 10(-3) mm(2)/sec), and thymic carcinoma (1.18 × 10(-3) mm(2)/sec and 1.06 × 10(-3) mm(2)/sec). Cutoff ADC values of both readings used to differentiate low-risk thymoma from high-risk thymoma and thymic carcinoma were 1.25 and 1.22 × 10(-3) mm(2)/sec with area under the curve of 0.804 and 0.851, respectively. There was significant difference in both readings of ADC value of early (stage I, II) and advanced stages (stage III, IV) of thymic epithelial tumors (P = .006 and .005, respectively). ADC value is a noninvasive, reliable, and reproducible imaging parameter that may help to assess and characterize thymic epithelial tumors. © RSNA, 2014.

  3. Equivalent cross-relaxation rate imaging and diffusion weighted imaging for early prediction of response to bevacizumab-containing treatment in colorectal liver metastases-preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Matsushima, Shigeru; Sato, Takeshi; Nishiofuku, Hideyuki; Sato, Yozo; Murata, Shinichi; Kinosada, Yasutomi; Era, Seiichi; Inaba, Yoshitaka

    To evaluate and compare the usefulness of equivalent cross-relaxation rate (ECR) imaging (ECRI) and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in the early prediction of the response of bevacizumab-containing treatments of colorectal liver metastases. Seven patients received bevacizumab-containing treatments for colorectal liver metastases. Serial magnetic resonance imaging was performed to evaluate responses before and 2 weeks after starting chemotherapy. In the ECRI, we adopted the off-resonance technique for preferential saturation of immobile protons to evaluate the ECR values. A single saturation transfer pulse frequency was used at a frequency of 3.5 ppm downfield from the water resonance. In the DWI, the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value commonly used with two b-values was acquired by using diffusion weightings of 0 and 800 s/mm(2). The region of interest of the metastatic lesions in the liver was separately measured by ECRI and DWI. Tumor response was assessed by response evaluation criteria in solid tumors criteria 8 weeks after starting chemotherapy. In this study, we had four responders and three nonresponders. There was a significant difference in the pretreatment ECR values between the responders and nonresponders (P=.01); there was no significant difference in the ADC values between the two groups. Analysis of the percentage difference between the pretreatment and post-treatment values, termed as percentage change, showed that there were no significant differences in the percentage change of the ADC values between both groups; however, the percentage change in the ECR value was significantly greater for the responders than for the nonresponders (-41.6%±17.1% vs. -12.9%±6.9%, respectively; P=.04). The pretreatment ECR value and percentage change of the ECR value 2 weeks after starting chemotherapy were useful parameters in the early prediction of response to bevacizumab-containing treatment in colorectal liver metastases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier

  4. Detection of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma with diffusion weighted MRI after (chemo)radiotherapy: Correlation between radiologic and histopathologic findings

    SciTech Connect

    Vandecaveye, Vincent; Keyzer, Frederik de; Nuyts, Sandra; Deraedt, Karen; Dirix, Piet; Hamaekers, Pascal; Vander Poorten, Vincent; Delaere, Pierre; Hermans, Robert . E-mail: Robert.Hermans@uzleuven.be

    2007-03-15

    Purpose: To investigate the value of diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) in differentiating persistent or recurrent head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) from nontumoral postradiotherapeutic alterations. Methods and Materials: In 26 patients with suspicion of persistent or recurrent HNSCC, MRI of the head and neck was performed, including routine turbo spin-echo (TSE) sequences and an additional echo-planar DW-MRI sequence, using a large range of b-values (0-1000 s/mm{sup 2}). Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps were calculated. In the suspect areas at the primary site and in the suspect lymph nodes, signal intensity was measured on the native b0 and b1000 images and ADC values were calculated for these tissues. The same was done for surrounding irradiated normal tissue. Imaging results were correlated to histopathology. Results: Signal intensity on native b0 images was significantly lower for HNSCC than for nontumoral postradiotherapeutic tissue (p < 0.0001), resulting in a sensitivity of 66.2%, specificity of 60.8%, and accuracy of 62.4%. Signal intensity on native b1000 images was significantly higher for HNSCC than for nontumoral tissue (p < 0.0001), resulting in a sensitivity of 71.6%, specificity of 71.3%, and accuracy of 71.4%. ADC values were significantly lower for HNSCC than for nontumoral tissue (p < 0.0001), resulting in a sensitivity of 94.6%, specificity of 95.9%, and accuracy of 95.5%. When compared with computed tomography, TSE-MRI and fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography, DW-MRI yielded fewer false-positive results in persistent primary site abnormalities and in persistent adenopathies, and aided in the detection of subcentimetric nodal metastases. Conclusions: Diffusion weighted-MRI accurately differentiates persistent or recurrent HNSCC from nontumoral tissue changes after (chemo)radiotherapy.

  5. Differentiation of Reactive and Tumor Metastatic Lymph Nodes with Diffusion-weighted and SPIO Enhanced MRI

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Fan; Zhu, Lei; Huang, Xinglu; Niu, Gang; Chen, Siouan

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Determination of lymphatic metastasis is of great importance for both treatment planning and patient prognosis. We aim to distinguish tumor metastatic lymph nodes (TLNs) and reactive lymph nodes (RLNs) with diffusion-weighted and superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Materials and methods Ipsilateral popliteal lymph node metastasis or lymphadenitis model was established by hock injection of either luciferase-expressing 4T1 murine breast cancer cells or Complete Freund Adjuvant (CFA) in male Balb/C mice. At different time points after inoculation, bioluminescence imaging, T2-weighted, diffusion-weighted and SPIO enhanced MRI were performed. Imaging findings were confirmed by histopathological staining. Results Size enlargement was observed in both TLNs and RLNs. At day 28, TLNs showed strong bioluminescence signal and bigger size than RLNs (p < 0.01). At early stages up to day 21, both TLNs and RLNs appeared homogeneous on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI). At day 28, TLNs showed heterogeneous apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) map with significantly higher average ADC value of 0.41 ± 0.03 × 10−3 mm2/s than that of RLNs (0.34 ± 0.02 10−3 mm2/s, p < 0.05). On SPIO enhanced MRI, both TLNs and RLNs showed distinct T2 signal reduction at day 21 after inoculation. At day 28, TLNs demonstrated partial uptake of the iron oxide particles, which was confirmed by Prussian blue staining. Conclusions Both diffusion-weighted and SPIO enhanced MRI can distinguish tumor metastatic lymph nodes from reactive lymph nodes. However, neither method is able to detect tumor metastasis to the draining lymph nodes at early stages. PMID:22588595

  6. Differentiating Sensitivity of Post-Stimulus Undershoot under Diffusion Weighting: Implication of Vascular and Neuronal Hierarchy

    PubMed Central

    Harshbarger, Todd B.; Song, Allen W.

    2008-01-01

    The widely used blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) signal during brain activation, as measured in typical fMRI methods, is composed of several distinct phases, the last of which, and perhaps the least understood, is the post-stimulus undershoot. Although this undershoot has been consistently observed, its hemodynamic and metabolic sources are still under debate, as evidences for sustained blood volume increases and metabolic activities have been presented. In order to help differentiate the origins of the undershoot from vascular and neuronal perspectives, we applied progressing diffusion weighting gradients to investigate the BOLD signals during visual stimulation. Three distinct regions were established and found to have fundamentally different properties in post-stimulus signal undershoot. The first region, with a small but focal spatial extent, shows a clear undershoot with decreasing magnitude under increasing diffusion weighting, which is inferred to represent intravascular signal from larger vessels with large apparent diffusion coefficients (ADC), or high mobility. The second region, with a large continuous spatial extent in which some surrounds the first region while some spreads beyond, also shows a clear undershoot but no change in undershoot amplitude with progressing diffusion weighting. This would indicate a source based on extravascular and small vessel signal with smaller ADC, or lower mobility. The third region shows no significant undershoot, and is largely confined to higher order visual areas. Given their intermediate ADC, it would likely include both large and small vessels. Thus the consistent observation of this third region would argue against a vascular origin but support a metabolic basis for the post-stimulus undershoot, and would appear to indicate a lack of sustained metabolic rate likely due to a lower oxygen metabolism in these higher visual areas. Our results are the first, to our knowledge, to suggest that the post

  7. Acoustic-noise-optimized diffusion-weighted imaging.

    PubMed

    Ott, Martin; Blaimer, Martin; Grodzki, David M; Breuer, Felix A; Roesch, Julie; Dörfler, Arnd; Heismann, Björn; Jakob, Peter M

    2015-12-01

    This work was aimed at reducing acoustic noise in diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWI) that might reach acoustic noise levels of over 100 dB(A) in clinical practice. A diffusion-weighted readout-segmented echo-planar imaging (EPI) sequence was optimized for acoustic noise by utilizing small readout segment widths to obtain low gradient slew rates and amplitudes instead of faster k-space coverage. In addition, all other gradients were optimized for low slew rates. Volunteer and patient imaging experiments were conducted to demonstrate the feasibility of the method. Acoustic noise measurements were performed and analyzed for four different DWI measurement protocols at 1.5T and 3T. An acoustic noise reduction of up to 20 dB(A) was achieved, which corresponds to a fourfold reduction in acoustic perception. The image quality was preserved at the level of a standard single-shot (ss)-EPI sequence, with a 27-54% increase in scan time. The diffusion-weighted imaging technique proposed in this study allowed a substantial reduction in the level of acoustic noise compared to standard single-shot diffusion-weighted EPI. This is expected to afford considerably more patient comfort, but a larger study would be necessary to fully characterize the subjective changes in patient experience.

  8. Differentiation of central lung cancer from atelectasis: comparison of diffusion-weighted MRI with PET/CT.

    PubMed

    Yang, Rui-Meng; Li, Long; Wei, Xin-Hua; Guo, Yong-Mei; Huang, Yun-Hai; Lai, Li-Sha; Chen, A-Mei; Liu, Guo-Shun; Xiong, Wei-Feng; Luo, Liang-Ping; Jiang, Xin-Qing

    2013-01-01

    Prospectively assess the performance of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) for differentiation of central lung cancer from atelectasis. 38 consecutive lung cancer patients (26 males, 12 females; age range: 28-71 years; mean age: 49 years) who were referred for thoracic MR imaging examinations were enrolled. MR examinations were performed using a 1.5-T clinical scanner and scanning sequences of T1WI, T2WI, and DWI. Cancers and atelectasis were measured by mapping of the apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) obtained with a b-value of 500 s/mm(2). PET/CT and DW-MR allowed differentiation of tumor and atelectasis in all 38 cases, but T2WI did not allow differentiation in 9 cases. Comparison of conventional T2WI and DW-MRI indicated a higher contrast noise ratio of the central lung carcinoma than the atelectasis by DW-MRI. ADC maps indicated significantly lower mean ADC in the central lung carcinoma than in the atelectasis (1.83±0.58 vs. 2.90±0.26 mm(2)/s, p<0.0001). ADC values of small cell lung carcinoma were significantly greater than those from squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma (p<0.0001 for both). DW-MR imaging provides valuable information not obtained by conventional MR and may be useful for differentiation of central lung carcinoma from atelectasis. Future developments may allow DW-MR imaging to be used as an alternative to PET-CT in imaging of patients with lung cancer.

  9. Differentiation of Central Lung Cancer from Atelectasis: Comparison of Diffusion-Weighted MRI with PET/CT

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Rui-Meng; Li, Long; Wei, Xin-Hua; Guo, Yong-Mei; Huang, Yun-Hai; Lai, Li-Sha; Chen, A-Mei; Liu, Guo-Shun; Xiong, Wei-Feng; Luo, Liang-Ping; Jiang, Xin-Qing

    2013-01-01

    Objective Prospectively assess the performance of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) for differentiation of central lung cancer from atelectasis. Materials and Methods 38 consecutive lung cancer patients (26 males, 12 females; age range: 28–71 years; mean age: 49 years) who were referred for thoracic MR imaging examinations were enrolled. MR examinations were performed using a 1.5-T clinical scanner and scanning sequences of T1WI, T2WI, and DWI. Cancers and atelectasis were measured by mapping of the apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) obtained with a b-value of 500 s/mm2. Results PET/CT and DW-MR allowed differentiation of tumor and atelectasis in all 38 cases, but T2WI did not allow differentiation in 9 cases. Comparison of conventional T2WI and DW-MRI indicated a higher contrast noise ratio of the central lung carcinoma than the atelectasis by DW-MRI. ADC maps indicated significantly lower mean ADC in the central lung carcinoma than in the atelectasis (1.83±0.58 vs. 2.90±0.26 mm2/s, p<0.0001). ADC values of small cell lung carcinoma were significantly greater than those from squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma (p<0.0001 for both). Conclusions DW-MR imaging provides valuable information not obtained by conventional MR and may be useful for differentiation of central lung carcinoma from atelectasis. Future developments may allow DW-MR imaging to be used as an alternative to PET-CT in imaging of patients with lung cancer. PMID:23593186

  10. Can diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging of clear cell renal carcinoma predict low from high nuclear grade tumors.

    PubMed

    Parada Villavicencio, Carolina; Mc Carthy, Robert J; Miller, Frank H

    2017-04-01

    To assess the diagnostic performance of the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) in predicting the Fuhrman nuclear grading of clear cell renal cell carcinomas (ccRCC). A total of 129 patients who underwent partial and radical nephrectomies with pathology-proven ccRCC were retrospectively evaluated. Histopathological characteristics and nuclear grades were analyzed. In addition, conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features were assessed in consensus by two radiologists to discriminate nuclear grading. ADC values were obtained from a region of interest (ROI) measurement in the ADC maps calculated from diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) using b values of 50, 500, and 800 s/mm(2). The threshold values for predicting and differentiating low-grade cancers (Fuhrman I-II) from high grade (Fuhrman III-IV) was obtained using binary logistic regression. The ADC cut-off value for differentiating low- and high-grade tumors was determined using classification analysis. Significant associations (P < 0.001) were found between nuclear grading, conventional MR features, and DWI. Hemorrhage, necrosis, perirenal fat invasion, enhancement homogeneity, and cystic component were identified as independent predictors of tumor grade. High-grade ccRCC had significantly lower mean ADC values compared to low-grade tumors. An ADC cut-off value of 1.6 × 10(-3) mm(2)/s had an optimal predictive percentage of 65.5% for low-grade tumors above this threshold and 81% for high-grade ccRCC below this threshold. Overall predictive accuracy was 70.5%. The addition of ADC values to a model based on MRI conventional features demonstrates increased sensitivity and high specificity improving the distinguishing accuracy between both high-grade and low-grade ccRCC.

  11. Pediatric abdominal masses: diagnostic accuracy of diffusion weighted MRI.

    PubMed

    Kocaoglu, Murat; Bulakbasi, Nail; Sanal, Hatice T; Kismet, Erol; Caliskan, Bahadir; Akgun, Veysel; Tayfun, Cem

    2010-06-01

    To retrospectively identify apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values of pediatric abdominal mass lesions, to determine whether measured ADC of the lesions and signal intensity on diffusion-weighted (DW) images allow discrimination between benign and malignant mass lesions. Approval for this retrospective study was obtained from the institutional review board. Children with abdominal mass lesions, who were examined by DW magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were included in this study. DW MR images were obtained in the axial plane by using a non breath-hold single-shot spin-echo sequence on a 1.5-T MR scanner. ADCs were calculated for each lesion. ADC values were compared with Mann-Whitney U test. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was performed to determine cut-off values for ADC. The results of visual assessment on b800 images and ADC map images were compared with chi-square test. Thirty-one abdominal mass lesions (16 benign, 15 malignant) in 26 patients (15 girls, 11 boys, ranging from 2 days to 17 years with 6.9 years mean) underwent MRI. Benign lesions had significantly higher ADC values than malignant ones (P < .001). The mean ADCs of malignant lesions were 0.84 +/- 1.7x10(-3) mm2/s, while the mean ADCs of the benign ones were 2.28 +/- 1.00x10(-3) mm2/s. With respect to cutoff values of ADC: 1.11x10(-3) mm2/s, sensitivity and negative predictive values were 100%, specificity was 78.6% and positive predictive value was 83.3%. For b800 and ADC map images, there were statistically significant differences on visual assessment. All malignant lesions had variable degrees of high signal intensity whereas eight of the 16 benign ones had low signal intensities on b800 images (P < .001). On ADC map images, all malignant lesions were hypointense and most of the benign ones (n=11, 68.7%) were hyperintense (P < .001). DW imaging can be used for reliable discrimination of benign and malignant pediatric abdominal mass lesions based on considerable differences in

  12. Measuring Restriction Sizes Using Diffusion Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Melanie

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews a new concept in magnetic resonance as applied to cellular and biological systems. Diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging can be used to infer information about restriction sizes of samples being measured. The measurements rely on the apparent diffusion coefficient changing with diffusion times as measurements move from restricted to free diffusion regimes. Pulsed gradient spin echo (PGSE) measurements are limited in the ability to shorten diffusion times and thus are limited in restriction sizes which can be probed. Oscillating gradient spin echo (OGSE) measurements could provide shorter diffusion times so smaller restriction sizes could be probed. PMID:25114548

  13. Atypical pyogenic brain abscess evaluation by diffusion-weighted imaging: diagnosis with multimodality MR imaging.

    PubMed

    Ozbayrak, Mustafa; Ulus, Ozden Sila; Berkman, Mehmet Zafer; Kocagoz, Sesin; Karaarslan, Ercan

    2015-10-01

    Whether a brain abscess is apparent by imaging depends on the stage of the abscess at the time of imaging, as well as the etiology of the infection. Because conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is limited in its ability to distinguish brain abscesses from necrotic tumors, advanced techniques are required. The management of these two disease entities differs and can potentially affect the clinical outcome. We report a case having atypical imaging features of a pyogenic brain abscess on advanced MRI, in particular, on diffusion-weighted and perfusion imaging, in a patient with osteosarcoma undergoing chemotherapy.

  14. Diffusion-prepared stimulated-echo turbo spin echo (DPsti-TSE): An eddy current-insensitive sequence for three-dimensional high-resolution and undistorted diffusion-weighted imaging.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qinwei; Coolen, Bram F; Versluis, Maarten J; Strijkers, Gustav J; Nederveen, Aart J

    2017-03-13

    In this study, we present a new three-dimensional (3D), diffusion-prepared turbo spin echo sequence based on a stimulated-echo read-out (DPsti-TSE) enabling high-resolution and undistorted diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI). A dephasing gradient in the diffusion preparation module and rephasing gradients in the turbo spin echo module create stimulated echoes, which prevent signal loss caused by eddy currents. Near to perfect agreement of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values between DPsti-TSE and diffusion-weighted echo planar imaging (DW-EPI) was demonstrated in both phantom transient signal experiments and phantom imaging experiments. High-resolution and undistorted DPsti-TSE was demonstrated in vivo in prostate and carotid vessel wall. 3D whole-prostate DWI was achieved with four b values in only 6 min. Undistorted ADC maps of the prostate peripheral zone were obtained at low and high imaging resolutions with no change in mean ADC values [(1.60 ± 0.10) × 10(-3) versus (1.60 ± 0.02) × 10(-3)  mm(2) /s]. High-resolution 3D DWI of the carotid vessel wall was achieved in 12 min, with consistent ADC values [(1.40 ± 0.23) × 10(-3)  mm(2) /s] across different subjects, as well as slice locations through the imaging volume. This study shows that DPsti-TSE can serve as a robust 3D diffusion-weighted sequence and is an attractive alternative to the traditional two-dimensional DW-EPI approaches.

  15. Basal ganglia intensity indices and diffusion weighted imaging in manganese-exposed welders

    PubMed Central

    Criswell, Susan R; Perlmutter, Joel S; Huang, John L; Golchin, Nima; Flores, Hubert P; Hobson, Angela; Aschner, Michael; Erikson, Keith M; Checkoway, Harvey; Racette, Brad A

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Manganese exposure leads to diffuse cerebral metal deposition with the highest concentration in the globus pallidus associated with increased T1-weighted MRI signal. T1 signal intensity in extra-pallidal basal ganglia (caudate and putamen) has not been studied in occupationally exposed workers. Diffusion weighted imaging is a non-invasive measure of neuronal damage and may provide a quantification of neurotoxicity associated with welding and manganese exposure. This study investigated extra-pallidal T1 basal ganglia signal intensity as a marker of manganese exposure and basal ganglia diffusion weighted imaging abnormalities as a potential marker of neurotoxicity. Methods A 3T MR case:control imaging study was performed on 18 welders and 18 age- and gender-matched controls. Basal ganglia regions of interest were identified for each subject. T1-weighted intensity indices and apparent diffusion coefficients were generated for each region. Results All regional indices were higher in welders than controls (p≤0.05). Combined basal ganglia (ρ=0.610), caudate (ρ=0.645), anterior (ρ=0.595) and posterior putamen (ρ=0.511) indices were more correlated with exposure than pallidal (ρ=0.484) index. Welder apparent diffusion coefficient values were lower than controls for globus pallidus (p=0.03) and anterior putamen (p=0.004). Conclusions Welders demonstrated elevated T1 indices throughout the basal ganglia. Combined basal ganglia, caudate and putamen indices were more correlated with exposure than pallidal index suggesting more inclusive basal ganglia sampling results in better exposure markers. Elevated indices were associated with diffusion weighted abnormalities in the pallidum and anterior putamen suggesting neurotoxicity in these regions. PMID:22447645

  16. SNR dependence of optimal parameters for apparent diffusion coefficient measurements.

    PubMed

    Saritas, Emine U; Lee, Jin H; Nishimura, Dwight G

    2011-02-01

    Optimizing the diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) parameters (i.e., the b-value and the number of image averages) to the tissue of interest is essential for producing high-quality apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps. Previous investigation of this optimization was performed assuming Gaussian noise statistics for the ADC map, which is only valid for high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) imaging. In this work, the true statistics of the noise in ADC maps are derived, followed by an optimization of the DWI parameters as a function of the imaging SNR. Specifically, it is demonstrated that the optimum b-value is a monotonically increasing function of the imaging SNR, which converges to the optimum b-value from previously proposed approaches for high-SNR cases, while exhibiting a significant deviation from this asymptote for low-SNR situations. Incorporating the effects of T(2) weighting further increases the SNR dependence of the optimal parameters. The proposed optimization scheme is particularly important for high-resolution DWI, which intrinsically suffers from low SNR and therefore cannot afford the use of the conventional high b-values. Comparison scans were performed for high-resolution DWI of the spinal cord, demonstrating the improvements in the resulting images and the ADC maps achieved by this method.

  17. Whole lung morphometry with 3D multiple b-value hyperpolarized gas MRI and compressed sensing.

    PubMed

    Chan, Ho-Fung; Stewart, Neil J; Parra-Robles, Juan; Collier, Guilhem J; Wild, Jim M

    2017-05-01

    To demonstrate three-dimensional (3D) multiple b-value diffusion-weighted (DW) MRI of hyperpolarized (3) He gas for whole lung morphometry with compressed sensing (CS). A fully-sampled, two b-value, 3D hyperpolarized (3) He DW-MRI dataset was acquired from the lungs of a healthy volunteer and retrospectively undersampled in the ky and kz phase-encoding directions for CS simulations. Optimal k-space undersampling patterns were determined by minimizing the mean absolute error between reconstructed and fully-sampled (3) He apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps. Prospective three-fold, undersampled, 3D multiple b-value (3) He DW-MRI datasets were acquired from five healthy volunteers and one chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patient, and the mean values of maps of ADC and mean alveolar dimension (LmD ) were validated against two-dimensional (2D) and 3D fully-sampled (3) He DW-MRI experiments. Reconstructed undersampled datasets showed no visual artifacts and good preservation of the main image features and quantitative information. A good agreement between fully-sampled and prospective undersampled datasets was found, with a mean difference of +3.4% and +5.1% observed in mean global ADC and LmD values, respectively. These differences were within the standard deviation range and consistent with values reported from healthy and COPD lungs. Accelerated CS acquisition has facilitated 3D multiple b-value (3) He DW-MRI scans in a single breath-hold, enabling whole lung morphometry mapping. Magn Reson Med 77:1916-1925, 2017. © 2016 The Authors Magnetic Resonance in Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. © 2016 The Authors Magnetic Resonance in Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals

  18. WE-G-BRD-01: Diffusion Weighted MRI for Response Assessment of Inoperable Lung Tumors for Patients Undergoing SBRT Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Tyagi, N; Wengler, K; Yorke, E; Hunt, M; Deasy, J; Rimner, A

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate early changes in tumor Apparent Diffusion Coefficients derived from diffusion weighted (DW)-MRI of lung cancer patients undergoing SBRT, as a possible early predictor of treatment response. Methods: DW-MRI scans were performed in this prospective phase I IRB-approved study of inoperable lung tumors at various time-points during the course of SBRT treatments. Axial DW scan using multi b-values ranging from 0–1000 s/mm{sup 2} were acquired in treatment position on a 3T Philips MR scanner during simulation, one hour after the first fraction (8 Gy), after a total of 5 fractions (40 Gy) and 4 weeks after SBRT delivery. A monoexponential model based on a least square fit from all b values was performed on a pixel-by-pixel basis and ADC was calculated. GTVs drawn on 4DCT for planning were mapped on the T2w MRI (acquired at exhale) after deformable registration. These volumes were then mapped on DWI scan for ADC calculation after rigid registration between the anatomical scan and diffusion scan. T2w scan on followup time points were deformably registered to the pretreatment T2 scan. Results: The first two patients in this study were analyzed. Median ADC values were 1.48, 1.48, 1.62 and 1.83 (10{sup −3}×) mm{sup 2}/s at pretreatment, after 8 Gy, after 40 Gy and 4 weeks posttreatment for the first patient and 1.57, 1.53, 1.66 and 1.72 (10{sup −3}×) mm{sup 2}/s for the second patient. ADC increased more significantly after 4 weeks of treatment rather than immediately post treatment, implying that late ADC value may be a better predictor of tumor response for SBRT treatment. The fraction of tumor pixels at high ADC values increased at 4 weeks post treatment. Conclusion: The observed increase in ADC values before the end of radiotherapy may be a surrogate for tumor response, but further patient accrual will be necessary to determine its value.

  19. Isotropic anomalous filtering in Diffusion-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    PubMed

    da S Senra Filho, Antonio Carlos; Jinzenji Duque, Juliano; Murta Junior, Luiz Otávio

    2013-01-01

    Noise is inherent to Diffusion-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging (DWI) and noise reduction methods are necessary. Although process based on classical diffusion is one of the most used approaches for digital image, anomalous diffusion has the potential for image enhancement and it has not been tested for DWI noise reduction. This study evaluates Anomalous Diffusion (AD) filter as DWI enhancement method. The proposed method was applied to magnetic resonance diffusion weighted images (DW-MRI) with different noise levels. Results show better performance for anomalous diffusion when compared to classical diffusion approach. The proposed method has shown potential in DWI enhancement and can be an important process to improve quality in DWI for neuroimage-based diagnosis.

  20. Comparative analysis of isotropic diffusion weighted imaging sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vellmer, Sebastian; Stirnberg, Rüdiger; Edelhoff, Daniel; Suter, Dieter; Stöcker, Tony; Maximov, Ivan I.

    2017-02-01

    Visualisation of living tissue structure and function is a challenging problem of modern imaging techniques. Diffusion MRI allows one to probe in vivo structures on a micrometer scale. However, conventional diffusion measurements are time-consuming procedures, because they require several measurements with different gradient directions. Considerable time savings are therefore possible by measurement schemes that generate an isotropic diffusion weighting in a single shot. Multiple approaches for generating isotropic diffusion weighting are known and have become very popular as useful tools in clinical research. Thus, there is a strong need for a comprehensive comparison of different isotropic weighting approaches. In the present work we introduce two new sequences based on simple (co)sine modulations and compare their performance to established q-space magic-angle spinning sequences and conventional DTI, using a diffusion phantom assembled from microcapillaries and in vivo experiments at 7 T. The advantages and disadvantages of all compared schemes are demonstrated and discussed.

  1. [The clinical application of diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging to acute cerebrovascular disorders].

    PubMed

    Chu, B C; Miyasaka, K

    1998-09-01

    Diffusion is a measure of motion freedom and is a sensitive parameter to characterize the tissue at the microscopic level. The methods of measuring in vivo diffusion by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have been based mainly on the addition of two motion-probing gradients (MPG) to the spin echo sequence to produce signal attenuation for the spins moving at random. The resultant MR images reflect the intravoxel incoherent motions (IVIM), which contain both water molecule diffusion and perfusion in the capillary network, and can be quantified by an apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC). Diffusion weighted MRI, acquired from IVIM MR imaging by the addition of the very strong MPG predicate water diffusion and anisotropy. High signal or reduced ADC can be observed in case of the slower diffusion. The anisotropy depends upon the orientation of the subjects and the gradients. Greater signal attenuation (faster diffusion) can be observed when the relative orientation of white matter tracts to the MPG is parallel as compared to that obtained with a perpendicular alignment. This anisotropy may preclude the detection or delineation of an ischemic lesion. Diffusion tensor trace has been designated to eliminate this anisotropy effect. In ischemic animal models, low signal (fast diffusion) and high signal (slow diffusion) have been noted in the vasogenic edema and cytotoxic edema, respectively. High signal appears only in case of cerebral blood flow below 15-20 ml/100 g per minute, a value identical to the threshold of tissue at high energetic metabolism and ion homeostasis. ADC value decreases following the cerebral vessel occlusion, or remains unchanged when collateral circulation develops. It has been speculated that reduction in ADC reflects the water shift from extracellular space to intracellular space due to the membrane permeability and/or intracellular osmolality increase. These results suggest that diffusion weighted MRI correlates well with the cell metabolism, and

  2. Pyogenic and non-pyogenic spinal infections: emphasis on diffusion-weighted imaging for the detection of abscesses and pus collections

    PubMed Central

    Kim, J; Capizzano, A A; Kirby, P; Kademian, J; Sato, Y

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of spinal infections has increased in the past two decades, owing to the increasing number of elderly patients, immunocompromised conditions, spinal surgery and instrumentation, vascular access and intravenous drug use. Conventional MRI is the gold standard for diagnostic imaging; however, there are still a significant number of misdiagnosed cases. Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) with a b-value of 1000 and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps provide early and accurate detection of abscess and pus collection. Pyogenic infections are classified into four types of extension based on MRI and DWI findings: (1) epidural/paraspinal abscess with spondylodiscitis, (2) epidural/paraspinal abscess with facet joint infection, (3) epidural/paraspinal abscess without concomitant spondylodiscitis or facet joint infection and (4) intradural abscess (subdural abscess, purulent meningitis and spinal cord abscess). DWI easily detects abscesses and demonstrates the extension, multiplicity and remote disseminated infection. DWI is often a key image in the differential diagnosis. Important differential diagnoses include epidural, subdural or subarachnoid haemorrhage, cerebrospinal fluid leak, disc herniation, synovial cyst, granulation tissue, intra- or extradural tumour and post-surgical fluid collections. DWI and the ADC values are affected by susceptibility artefacts, incomplete fat suppression and volume-averaging artefacts. Recognition of artefacts is essential when interpreting DWI of spinal and paraspinal infections. DWI is not only useful for the diagnosis but also for the treatment planning of pyogenic and non-pyogenic spinal infections. PMID:24999081

  3. Comparison of non-Gaussian and Gaussian diffusion models of diffusion weighted imaging of rectal cancer at 3.0 T MRI

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Guangwen; Wang, Shuangshuang; Wen, Didi; Zhang, Jing; Wei, Xiaocheng; Ma, Wanling; Zhao, Weiwei; Wang, Mian; Wu, Guosheng; Zhang, Jinsong

    2016-01-01

    Water molecular diffusion in vivo tissue is much more complicated. We aimed to compare non-Gaussian diffusion models of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) including intra-voxel incoherent motion (IVIM), stretched-exponential model (SEM) and Gaussian diffusion model at 3.0 T MRI in patients with rectal cancer, and to determine the optimal model for investigating the water diffusion properties and characterization of rectal carcinoma. Fifty-nine consecutive patients with pathologically confirmed rectal adenocarcinoma underwent DWI with 16 b-values at a 3.0 T MRI system. DWI signals were fitted to the mono-exponential and non-Gaussian diffusion models (IVIM-mono, IVIM-bi and SEM) on primary tumor and adjacent normal rectal tissue. Parameters of standard apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), slow- and fast-ADC, fraction of fast ADC (f), α value and distributed diffusion coefficient (DDC) were generated and compared between the tumor and normal tissues. The SEM exhibited the best fitting results of actual DWI signal in rectal cancer and the normal rectal wall (R2 = 0.998, 0.999 respectively). The DDC achieved relatively high area under the curve (AUC = 0.980) in differentiating tumor from normal rectal wall. Non-Gaussian diffusion models could assess tissue properties more accurately than the ADC derived Gaussian diffusion model. SEM may be used as a potential optimal model for characterization of rectal cancer. PMID:27934928

  4. Magnetic resonance diffusion-weighted imaging: extraneurological applications.

    PubMed

    Colagrande, S; Carbone, S F; Carusi, L M; Cova, M; Villari, N

    2006-04-01

    Diffusion-weighted (Dw) imaging has for a number of years been a diagnostic tool in the field of neuroradiology, yet only since the end of the 1990s, with the introduction of echoplanar imaging (EPI) and the use of sequences capable of performing diffusion studies during a single breath hold, has it found diagnostic applications at the level of the abdomen. The inherent sensitivity to motion and the magnetic susceptibility of Dw sequences nonetheless still create problems in the study of the abdomen due to artefacts caused by the heartbeat and intestinal peristalsis, as well as the presence of various parenchymal-gas interfaces. With regard to focal liver lesions, a review of the literature reveals that Dw imaging is able to differentiate lesions with high water content (cysts and angiomas) from solid lesions. With regard to the latter, although there are differences between benign forms [focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH), adenoma] and malignant forms [metastasis, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)] in their apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) in the average values for histological type, there is a significant overlap in values when lesions are assessed individually, with the consequent problem of their correct identification. One promising aspect is the possibility of quantifying the degree of fibrosis in patients with chronic liver disease and cirrhosis given that the deposit of collagen fibres "restricts" the motion of water molecules and therefore reduces ADC values. However, even in this field, studies can only be considered preliminary and far from real clinical applications. The retroperitoneum is less affected by motion artefacts and similarly deserves the attention of Dw imaging. Here it is possible to differentiate mucin-producing tumours of the pancreas from pseudocystic forms on the basis of ADC values even though the limited spatial resolution of Dw imaging does not enable the identification of small lesions. Dw imaging may be applied to the study of the

  5. Whole body MRI: Improved Lesion Detection and Characterization With Diffusion Weighted Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Attariwala, Rajpaul; Picker, Wayne

    2013-01-01

    Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) is an established functional imaging technique that interrogates the delicate balance of water movement at the cellular level. Technological advances enable this technique to be applied to whole-body MRI. Theory, b-value selection, common artifacts and target to background for optimized viewing will be reviewed for applications in the neck, chest, abdomen, and pelvis. Whole-body imaging with DWI allows novel applications of MRI to aid in evaluation of conditions such as multiple myeloma, lymphoma, and skeletal metastases, while the quantitative nature of this technique permits evaluation of response to therapy. Persisting signal at high b-values from restricted hypercellular tissue and viscous fluid also permits applications of DWI beyond oncologic imaging. DWI, when used in conjunction with routine imaging, can assist in detecting hemorrhagic degradation products, infection/abscess, and inflammation in colitis, while aiding with discrimination of free fluid and empyema, while limiting the need for intravenous contrast. DWI in conjunction with routine anatomic images provides a platform to improve lesion detection and characterization with findings rivaling other combined anatomic and functional imaging techniques, with the added benefit of no ionizing radiation. PMID:23960006

  6. A Simplified Approach to Measure the Effect of the Microvasculature in Diffusion-weighted MR Imaging Applied to Breast Tumors: Preliminary Results.

    PubMed

    Teruel, Jose R; Goa, Pål E; Sjøbakk, Torill E; Østlie, Agnes; Fjøsne, Hans E; Bathen, Tone F

    2016-11-01

    Purpose To evaluate the relative change of the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) at low- and medium-b-value regimens as a surrogate marker of microcirculation, to study its correlation with dynamic contrast agent-enhanced (DCE) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging-derived parameters, and to assess its potential for differentiation between malignant and benign breast tumors. Materials and Methods Ethics approval and informed consent were obtained. From May 2013 to June 2015, 61 patients diagnosed with either malignant or benign breast tumors were prospectively recruited. All patients were scanned with a 3-T MR imager, including diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and DCE MR imaging. Parametric analysis of DWI and DCE MR imaging was performed, including a proposed marker, relative enhanced diffusivity (RED). Spearman correlation was calculated between DCE MR imaging and DWI parameters, and the potential of the different DWI-derived parameters for differentiation between malignant and benign breast tumors was analyzed by dividing the sample into equally sized training and test sets. Optimal cut-off values were determined with receiver operating characteristic curve analysis in the training set, which were then used to evaluate the independent test set. Results RED had a Spearman rank correlation of 0.61 with the initial area under the curve calculated from DCE MR imaging. Furthermore, RED differentiated cancers from benign tumors with an overall accuracy of 90% (27 of 30) on the test set with 88.2% (15 of 17) sensitivity and 92.3% (12 of 13) specificity. Conclusion This study presents promising results introducing a simplified approach to assess results from a DWI protocol sensitive to the intravoxel incoherent motion effect by using only three b values. This approach could potentially aid in the differentiation, characterization, and monitoring of breast pathologies. (©) RSNA, 2016 Online supplemental material is available for this article.

  7. Noninvasive Evaluation of Trunk Muscle Recruitment after Trunk Exercises using Diffusion-weighted MR Imaging.

    PubMed

    Yanagisawa, Osamu; Matsunaga, Naoto; Okubo, Yu; Kaneoka, Koji

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated trunk muscle recruitment in abdominal and back exercises with magnetic resonance (MR) diffusion-weighted imaging. Twelve men performed bent-knee sit-up, crunch, trunk lateral flexion, and trunk extension exercises. We obtained axial diffusion-weighted images of the trunk before and after each exercise using a 1.5-tesla MR system, calculated apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values from the right and left rectus abdominis, lateral abdominal, psoas major, quadratus lumborum, and intrinsic back muscles to evaluate the activity of these muscles during each exercise, and compared ADC values before and after exercise using a paired t-test. The ADCs of the rectus abdominis (right, +19.1%; left, +11.7%), lateral abdominal (right, +15.5%; left, +14.1%), and psoas major (right, +14.8%; left, +15.9%) muscles on both sides increased after the bent-knee sit-up (P < 0.01). The ADCs of the rectus abdominis (right, +16.8%; left, +10.2%) and lateral abdominal (right, +8.4%; left, +7.0%) muscles on both sides increased after the crunch exercise (P < 0.01). Trunk lateral flexion resulted in increased ADC on only the right side of all of the muscles (rectus abdominis, +12.3%; lateral abdominal muscles, +20.3%; quadratus lumborum, +17.1%; intrinsic back muscles, +12.0%; psoas major, +15.4%) (P < 0.01). The ADCs of the lateral abdominal (right, +5.2%; left, +5.6%), quadratus lumborum (right, +6.0%; left, +3.0%), and intrinsic back (right, +13.2%; left, +14.6%) muscles on both sides were elevated after trunk extension (right lateral abdominal muscles and left quadratus lumborum, P < 0.05; other muscles, P < 0.01). Diffusion-weighted imaging reveals the recruitment patterns of superficial and deep trunk muscles in abdominal and back exercises through exercise-induced activation in intramuscular water movement.

  8. Effects of equilibrium exchange on diffusion-weighted NMR signals: the diffusigraphic "shutter-speed".

    PubMed

    Lee, Jing-Huei; Springer, Charles S

    2003-03-01

    A general picture is presented of the implications for diffusion-weighted NMR signals of the parsimonious two-site-exchange (2SX) paradigm. In particular, it is shown that the diffusigraphic "shutter-speed," tau(-1) identical with |q(2)(D(A) - D(B))|, is a useful concept. The "wave-number" q has its standard definition (given in the text), and D(A) and D(B) are the apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) of molecules in the two "sites," A and B, if there is no exchange between them. At low gradient strengths (center of q-space), tau(-1) is less than rate constants for intercompartmental water molecule exchange in most tissue cases. Thus, the exchange reaction appears fast. However, q is increased during the course of most experiments and, as it is, the shutter-speed becomes "faster" and the exchange reaction, the kinetics of which do not change, appears to slow down. This causes a multiexponential behavior in the diffusion-weighting dimension, b, which also has its standard definition. This picture is found to be in substantial agreement with a number of different experimental observations. It is applied here to literature (1)H(2)O data from a yeast cell suspension and from the human and the rat brain. Since the equilibrium transcytolemmal water exchange reaction appears to be in the fast-exchange-limit at small b, the initial slope represents the weighted-average of the ADCs of intra- and extracellular water. Of course, in tissue the former is in the significant majority. Furthermore, a consideration of reasonable values for the other 2SX parameters suggests that, for resting brain tissue, the intracellular water ADC may be larger than the extracellular water ADC. There are some independent inferences of this, which would have ramifications for many applications of diffusion-weighted MRI.

  9. WE-G-18C-09: Separating Perfusion and Diffusion Components From Diffusion Weighted MRI of Rectum Tumors Based On Intravoxel Incoherent Motion (IVIM) Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Tyagi, N; Wengler, K; Mazaheri, Y; Hunt, M; Deasy, J; Gollub, M

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Pseudodiffusion arises from the microcirculation of blood in the randomly oriented capillary network and contributes to the signal decay acquired using a multi-b value diffusion weighted (DW)-MRI sequence. This effect is more significant at low b-values and should be properly accounted for in apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) calculations. The purpose of this study was to separate perfusion and diffusion component based on a biexponential and a segmented monoexponential model using IVIM analysis Methods. The signal attenuation is modeled as S(b) = S0[(1−f)exp(−bD) + fexp(−bD*)]. Fitting the biexponetial decay leads to the quantification of D, the true diffusion coefficient, D*, the pseudodiffusion coefficient, and f, the perfusion fraction. A nonlinear least squares fit and two segmented monoexponential models were used to derive the values for D, D*,‘and f. In the segmented approach b = 200 s/mm{sup 2} was used as the cut-off value for calculation of D. DW-MRI's of a rectum cancer patient were acquired before chemotherapy, before radiation therapy (RT), and 4 weeks into RT and were investigated as an example case. Results: Mean ADC for the tumor drawn on the DWI cases was 0.93, 1.0 and 1.13 10{sup −3}×mm{sup 2}/s before chemotherapy, before RT and 4 weeks into RT. The mean (D.10{sup −3} × mm{sup 2}/s, D* 10{sup −3} × mm{sup 2}/s, and f %) based on biexponential fit was (0.67, 18.6, and 27.2%), (0.72, 17.7, and 28.9%) and (0.83,15.1, and 30.7%) at these time points. The mean (D, D* f) based on segmented fit was (0.72, 10.5, and 12.1%), (0.72, 8.2, and 17.4%) and (.82, 8.1, 16.5%) Conclusion: ADC values are typically higher than true diffusion coefficients. For tumors with significant perfusion effect, ADC should be analyzed at higher b-values or separated from the perfusion component. Biexponential fit overestimates the perfusion fraction because of increased sensitivity to noise at low b-values.

  10. In Vivo Assessment of Ductal Carcinoma in Situ Grade: A Model Incorporating Dynamic Contrast-enhanced and Diffusion-weighted Breast MR Imaging Parameters

    PubMed Central

    Partridge, Savannah C.; DeMartini, Wendy B.; Gutierrez, Robert L.; Allison, Kimberly H.; Peacock, Sue; Lehman, Constance D.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a model incorporating dynamic contrast material–enhanced (DCE) and diffusion-weighted (DW) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging features to differentiate high-nuclear-grade (HNG) from non-HNG ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) in vivo. Materials and Methods: This HIPAA-compliant study was approved by the institutional review board and requirement for informed consent was waived. A total of 55 pure DCIS lesions (19 HNG, 36 non-HNG) in 52 women who underwent breast MR imaging at 1.5 T with both DCE and DW imaging (b = 0 and 600 sec/mm2) were retrospectively reviewed. The following lesion characteristics were recorded or measured: DCE morphology, DCE maximum lesion size, peak initial enhancement at 90 seconds, worst-curve delayed enhancement kinetics, apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) at DW imaging with b values of 0 and 600 sec/mm2, and T2 signal effects (measured with CNR at b = 0 sec/mm2). Univariate and stepwise multivariate logistic regression modeling was performed to identify MR imaging features that optimally discriminated HNG from non-HNG DCIS. Discriminative abilities of models were compared by using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). Results: HNG lesions exhibited larger mean maximum lesion size (P = .02) and lower mean CNR for images with b value of 600 sec/mm2 (P = .004), allowing discrimination of HNG from non-HNG DCIS (AUC = 0.71 for maximum lesion size, AUC = 0.70 for CNR at b = 600 sec/mm2). Differences in CNR for images with b value of 0 sec/mm2 (P = .025) without corresponding differences in ADC values were observed between HNG and non-HNG lesions. Peak initial enhancement was the only kinetic variable to approach significance (P = .05). No differences in lesion morphology (P = .11) or worst-curve delayed enhancement kinetics (P = .97) were observed. A multivariate model combining CNR for images with b value of 600 sec/mm2 and maximum lesion size most significantly

  11. High volcanic seismic b-values: Real or artefacts?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, Nick; Bell, Andrew; Main, Ian G.

    2015-04-01

    The b-value of the Gutenberg-Richter distribution quantifies the relative proportion of large to small magnitude earthquakes in a catalogue, in turn related to the population of fault rupture areas and the average slip or stress drop. Accordingly the b-value is an important parameter to consider when evaluating seismic catalogues as it has the potential to provide insight into the temporal or spatial evolution of the system, such as fracture development or changes in the local stress regime. The b-value for tectonic seismicity is commonly found to be close to 1, whereas much higher b-values are frequently reported for volcanic and induced seismicity. Understanding these differences is important for understanding the processes controlling earthquake occurrence in different settings. However, it is possible that anomalously high b-values could arise from small sample sizes, under-estimated completeness magnitudes, or other poorly applied methodologies. Therefore, it is important to establish a rigorous workflow for analyzing these datasets. Here we examine the frequency-magnitude distributions of volcanic earthquake catalogues in order to determine the significance of apparently high b-values. We first derive a workflow for computing the completeness magnitude of a seismic catalogue, using synthetic catalogues of varying shape, size, and known b-value. We find the best approach involves a combination of three methods: 'Maximum Curvature', 'b-value stability', and the 'Goodness-of-Fit test'. To calculate a reliable b-value with an error ≤0.25, the maximum curvature method is preferred for a 'sharp-peaked' discrete distribution. For a catalogue with a broader peak the b-value stability method is the most reliable with the Goodness-of-Fit test being an acceptable backup if the b-value stability method fails. We apply this workflow to earthquake catalogues from El Hierro (2011-2013) and Mt Etna (1999-2013) volcanoes. In general, we find the b-value to be equal to or

  12. Diffusion-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging to Evaluate Major Salivary Gland Function Before and After Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Dirix, Piet Keyzer, Frederik de; Vandecaveye, Vincent; Stroobants, Sigrid; Hermans, Robert; Nuyts, Sandra

    2008-08-01

    Purpose: To evaluate diffusion-weighted (DW)-MRI as a noninvasive tool to investigate major salivary gland function before and after radiotherapy (RT) for head and neck cancer (HNC). Methods and Materials: DW-MRI was performed in 8 HNC patients before and after parotid-sparing RT (mean dose to the contralateral parotid gland <26 Gy). A DW sequence was performed once at rest and then repeated continuously during salivary stimulation. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps for both parotid and submandibular glands were calculated. Findings were compared with salivary gland scintigraphy. Results: Before RT, the mean ADC value at rest was significantly lower in the parotid than in the submandibular glands. During the first 5 min of stimulation, the ADC value of the salivary glands showed a decrease, followed by a steady increase until a peak ADC, significantly higher than the baseline value, was reached after a median of 17 min. The baseline ADC value at rest was significantly higher after RT than before RT in the nonspared salivary glands but not in the spared parotid glands. In the contralateral parotid glands, the same response was seen as before RT. This pattern was completely lost in the nonspared glands. These results corresponded with remaining or loss of salivary function, respectively, as confirmed by salivary gland scintigraphy. Conclusions: Diffusion-weighted-MRI allows noninvasive evaluation of functional changes in the major salivary glands after RT and is a promising tool for investigating radiation-induced xerostomia.

  13. Controversies of diffusion weighted imaging in the diagnosis of brain death.

    PubMed

    Luchtmann, Michael; Bernarding, Johannes; Beuing, Oliver; Kohl, Jana; Bondar, Imre; Skalej, Martin; Firsching, Raimund

    2013-10-01

    Imaging techniques as confirmatory tests may add safety to the diagnosis of brain death, but are partly not accepted either because they are too invasive, such as conventional arterial angiography, or because there is still lack of evidence of its reliability, such as magnetic resonance angiography. In this study the reliability of diffusion weighted imaging for the diagnosis of brain death was evaluated according in terms of its sensitivity and specificity. The apparent diffusion coefficients (ADC) of 18 brain dead patients were registered from 14 distinct brain areas. The mean ADC values of the brain dead patients were compared with normal controls of physiological ADC values of unaffected brain tissue. Despite a highly significant decrease of the mean ADC value in 16 patients, two patients showed mean ADC values that were within normal physiological range. An explanation may be the pseudonormalization of ADC values seen in stroke patients that depends on the time of the onset of the brain damage. We conclude, diffusion-weighted imaging may provide additional information on damage of the brain tissue but is not a practicable confirmatory test for the reliable diagnosis of brain death.

  14. Preliminary study of diffusion-weighted imaging and magnetic resonance spectroscopy imaging in Kimura disease.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jie; Tang, Zuohua; Feng, Xiaoyuan; Zeng, Wenjiao; Tang, Weijun; Wu, Lingjie; Jin, Lixin

    2014-11-01

    In this study, we evaluated the value of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopy imaging (MRSI) combined with computed tomography (CT) and conventional MR imaging (MRI) in the diagnosis of Kimura disease (KD). The clinical data and CT and MRI findings of 5 patients with KD proven by histopathologic examination were retrospectively reviewed. Diffusion-weighted imaging and MRSI were performed at 1.5 T in 3 patients with KD. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values and the choline/creatine ratio of the lesions were compared with those of the contralateral normal parotid glands. All imaging results were compared with histopathologic findings. The typical features of KD were subcutaneous lesions, continuously infiltrative parotid lesions with or without intraparotid lymphadenopathies, and reactive cervical lymphadenopathies on CT and conventional MRI. On DWI, the ADC values of all subcutaneous and infiltrative parotid lesions were higher compared to those of normal parotid glands, and the ADC values of reactive lymphadenopathies were lower compared to both. The choline/creatine levels of subcutaneous and infiltrative parotid lesions were slightly higher than those of normal parotid glands. In conclusion, DWI and MRSI offer valuable information that may be characteristic of KD, which can highly suggest the diagnosis of KD when combined with morphological imaging.

  15. [Effect of vibration caused by time-varying magnetic fields on diffusion-weighted MRI].

    PubMed

    Ogura, Akio; Maeda, Fumie; Miyai, Akira; Hayashi, Kohji; Hongoh, Takaharu

    2006-04-20

    Diffusion-weighted images (DWIs) with high b-factor in the body are often used to detect and diagnose cancer at MRI. The echo planar imaging (EPI) sequence and high motion probing gradient pulse are used at diffusion weighted imaging, causing high table vibration. The purpose of this study was to assess whether the diffusion signal and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values are influenced by this vibration because of time-varying magnetic fields. Two DWIs were compared. In one, phantoms were fixed on the MRI unit's table transmitting the vibration. In the other, phantoms were supported in air, in the absence of vibration. The phantoms called "solution phantoms" were made from agarose of a particular density. The phantoms called "jelly phantoms" were made from agarose that was heated. The diffusion signal and ADC value of each image were compared. The results showed that the signal of DWI units using the solution phantom was not affected by vibration. However, the signal of DWI and ADC were increased in the low-density jelly phantom as a result of vibration, causing the jelly phantom to vibrate. The DWIs of vibrating regions such as the breast maybe be subject to error. A countermeasure seems to be to support the region adequately.

  16. Spatially constrained incoherent motion method improves diffusion-weighted MRI signal decay analysis in the liver and spleen

    PubMed Central

    Taimouri, Vahid; Afacan, Onur; Perez-Rossello, Jeannette M.; Callahan, Michael J.; Mulkern, Robert V.; Warfield, Simon K.; Freiman, Moti

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the effect of the spatially constrained incoherent motion (SCIM) method on improving the precision and robustness of fast and slow diffusion parameter estimates from diffusion-weighted MRI in liver and spleen in comparison to the independent voxel-wise intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) model. Methods: We collected diffusion-weighted MRI (DW-MRI) data of 29 subjects (5 healthy subjects and 24 patients with Crohn’s disease in the ileum). We evaluated parameters estimates’ robustness against different combinations of b-values (i.e., 4 b-values and 7 b-values) by comparing the variance of the estimates obtained with the SCIM and the independent voxel-wise IVIM model. We also evaluated the improvement in the precision of parameter estimates by comparing the coefficient of variation (CV) of the SCIM parameter estimates to that of the IVIM. Results: The SCIM method was more robust compared to IVIM (up to 70% in liver and spleen) for different combinations of b-values. Also, the CV values of the parameter estimations using the SCIM method were significantly lower compared to repeated acquisition and signal averaging estimated using IVIM, especially for the fast diffusion parameter in liver (CVIV IM = 46.61 ± 11.22, CVSCIM = 16.85 ± 2.160, p < 0.001) and spleen (CVIV IM = 95.15 ± 19.82, CVSCIM = 52.55 ± 1.91, p < 0.001). Conclusions: The SCIM method characterizes fast and slow diffusion more precisely compared to the independent voxel-wise IVIM model fitting in the liver and spleen. PMID:25832079

  17. Value of diffusion-weighted imaging when added to magnetic resonance enterographic evaluation of Crohn disease in children.

    PubMed

    Shenoy-Bhangle, Anuradha S; Nimkin, Katherine; Aranson, Thomas; Gee, Michael S

    2016-01-01

    MR enterography is increasingly utilized for noninvasive evaluation of disease activity in young patients with Crohn disease and has great impact on clinical management. Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) is a rapid MR imaging technique that measures molecular diffusion of water and is sensitive to the inflammatory process; however, its value to MR enterography has not been rigorously evaluated. To determine whether the addition of DWI to MR enterography is helpful in evaluating Crohn disease activity in young patients when compared to a histological reference. In this single-institution retrospective study, we searched an imaging database for the period January 2010 to December 2012 to identify patients age 19 years and younger who had MR enterography with diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI). We used an electronic medical record search to identify those who had MR enterography and colonoscopy performed within 28 days of each other. All MR enterography scans were performed on a 1.5-T or 3-T clinical MR scanner with phased-array torso coil configuration using standard pulse sequences as well as axial DWI with b values of 50, 400 and 800. Bowel segments were evaluated for disease activity based on standard MR enterography sequences; in addition, segmental apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values were calculated based on DWI. Histological reference for disease activity was based on assessment for mucosal inflammatory changes on endoscopic biopsy. MR enterography and DWI evaluation were performed in a blinded fashion with respect to histological results. We included imaging of 78 bowel segments from 27 patients (mean age 14.5 ± 3.02 years) with known Crohn disease in the study. The mean ADC for bowel segments with active disease was 1.56 ± 0.7 × 10(3) mm(2)/s compared with 2.58 ± 1.4 × 10(3) mm(2)/s for segments without active disease, a difference that was statistically significant (P < 0.01, Student's t-test). Using a threshold value of 2

  18. Limitations and Prospects for Diffusion-Weighted MRI of the Prostate

    PubMed Central

    Bourne, Roger; Panagiotaki, Eleftheria

    2016-01-01

    Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) is the most effective component of the modern multi-parametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) scan for prostate pathology. DWI provides the strongest prediction of cancer volume, and the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) correlates moderately with Gleason grade. Notwithstanding the demonstrated cancer assessment value of DWI, the standard measurement and signal analysis methods are based on a model of water diffusion dynamics that is well known to be invalid in human tissue. This review describes the biophysical limitations of the DWI component of the current standard mpMRI protocol and the potential for significantly improved cancer assessment performance based on more sophisticated measurement and signal modeling techniques. PMID:27240408

  19. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging in patients with prostate cancer treated with radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Iannelli, Giancarlo; Caivano, Rocchina; Rago, Luciana; Simeon, Vittorio; Lotumolo, Antonella; Rabasco, Paola; Villonio, Antonio; Gioioso, Matilde; Mastrangelo, Pietro; Barchetti, Flavio; Panebianco, Valeria; Macarini, Luca; Guglielmi, Giuseppe; Cammarota, Aldo

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the utility of a multiparametric 3T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study using diffusion-weighted images (DWI) for the assessment of prostate cancer before and after radiotherapy (RT). A total of 34 patients, who received a histologic diagnosis of prostate adenocarcinoma, underwent MRI examination before and after local RT for the assessment of response to treatment. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values were calculated and compared. Before RT, DWI shows pathologic restriction of signal, while after RT pathologic restriction of signal was reduced or disappeared. The ADC values were significantly increased after therapy (p<0.05). The use of DWI with ADC measurements may be an imaging biomarker in the assessment of prostate cancer.

  20. Maple syrup urine disease: diffusion-weighted MRI findings during acute metabolic encephalopathic crisis.

    PubMed

    Kilicarslan, Rukiye; Alkan, Alpay; Demirkol, Demet; Toprak, Huseyin; Sharifov, Rasul

    2012-07-01

    Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is caused by a genetic defect of branched-chain amino acids, which include leucine, isoleucine and valine. We report diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) findings in a newborn child with MSUD who presented with acute metabolic encephalopathic crisis. DWI (b = 1,000 s/mm(2)) showed high signal localized within the myelinated white matter (WM) areas including the cerebellar white matter, pons, bulbus, cerebral peduncles, lentiform nucleus, posterior limbs of the internal capsules, corona radiata and bilateral perirolandic cortex. The apparent diffusion coefficient values of these regions were markedly low in the affected areas. The presence of these findings was considered cytotoxic or intramyelinic edema evidenced by restricted water diffusion. In conclusion, our findings suggest that during the acute phase and early encephalopathic crisis stage of MSUD, DWI can demonstrate the involvement of myelinated WM in newborns.

  1. Brain Magnetic Resonance with Negative Diffusion-Weighted Imaging: Does It Preclude Acute Stroke Diagnosis?

    PubMed

    Aragão Homem, Catarina; Fonseca, Ana Catarina; Geraldes, Ruth; Pinho e Melo, Teresa

    2015-09-01

    Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) sequences and correlative apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps is a very sensitive way to detect acute ischemic stroke. Cases of negative MRI-DWI on acute phase of ischemic stroke are uncommon, and most of them are reported in single small-sized lesions, which in most cases are below the technical spatial resolution and in patients imaged shortly after the symptoms start. The few published cases of territorial ischemic stroke with negative DWI affect exclusively one vascular territory. We report the case of an ischemic stroke involving 2 different arteries of the posterior circulation, with a negative DWI/ADC brain MRI 18 hours after time-last-seen-well. We also suggest a possible explanation regarding the mechanism of false-negative diffusion MRI on ischemic stroke. Copyright © 2015 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Diffusion-weighted and diffusion-tensor imaging of normal and diseased uterus

    PubMed Central

    Kara Bozkurt, Duygu; Bozkurt, Murat; Nazli, Mehmet Ali; Mutlu, Ilhan Nahit; Kilickesmez, Ozgur

    2015-01-01

    Owing to technical advances and improvement of the software, diffusion weighted imaging and diffusion tensor imaging (DWI and DTI) greatly improved the diagnostic value of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the pelvic region. These imaging sequences can exhibit important tissue contrast on the basis of random diffusion (Brownian motion) of water molecules in tissues. Quantitative measurements can be done with DWI and DTI by apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and fractional anisotropy (FA) values respectively. ADC and FA values may be changed by various physiological and pathological conditions providing additional information to conventional MRI. The quantitative DWI assists significantly in the differentiation of benign and malignant lesions. It can demonstrate the microstructural architecture and celluler density of the normal and diseased uterine zones. On the other hand, DWI and DTI are useful for monitoring the treatment outcome of the uterine lesions. In this review, we discussed advantages of DWI and DTI of the normal and diseased uterus. PMID:26217454

  3. Functional multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging of the kidneys using blood oxygen level dependent and diffusion-weighted sequences.

    PubMed

    Giannarini, Gianluca; Kessler, Thomas M; Roth, Beat; Vermathen, Peter; Thoeny, Harriet C

    2014-08-01

    Little data are available on noninvasive magnetic resonance imaging based assessment of renal function during upper urinary tract obstruction. We determined whether functional multiparametric kidney magnetic resonance imaging could monitor the treatment response in cases of acute unilateral upper urinary tract obstruction. Between January 2008 and January 2010, 18 patients with acute unilateral upper urinary tract obstruction due to calculi were prospectively enrolled to undergo kidney magnetic resonance imaging with conventional, blood oxygen level dependent and diffusion-weighted sequences upon emergency hospital admission and after release of obstruction. We assessed functional imaging parameters of obstructed and contralateral unobstructed kidneys derived from blood oxygen level dependent (apparent spin relaxation rate) and diffusion-weighted (total apparent diffusion coefficient, pure diffusion coefficient and perfusion fraction) sequences during acute upper urinary tract obstruction and after its release. During acute obstruction the apparent spin relaxation rate and perfusion fraction were lower in the cortex (p=0.020 and 0.031) and medulla (p=0.012 and 0.190, respectively) of obstructed kidneys compared to contralateral unobstructed kidneys. After obstruction release the apparent spin relaxation rate and perfusion fraction increased in the cortex (p=0.016 and 0.004) and medulla (p=0.071 and 0.044, respectively) of formerly obstructed kidneys to values similar to those in contralateral kidneys. Total apparent diffusion coefficient and pure diffusion coefficient values did not significantly differ between obstructed and contralateral unobstructed kidneys during or after obstruction. In our patients with acute unilateral upper urinary tract obstruction due to calculi functional kidney magnetic resonance imaging using blood oxygen level dependent and diffusion-weighted sequences enabled us to monitor pathophysiological changes in obstructed kidneys during

  4. Chemotherapy response evaluation in a mouse model of gastric cancer using intravoxel incoherent motion diffusion-weighted MRI and histopathology

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Jin; Wang, Yi; Zhang, Chun-Fang; Wang, He; Wu, Wei-Zhen; Pan, Feng; Hong, Nan; Deng, Jie

    2017-01-01

    AIM To determine the role of intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) diffusion-weighted (DW) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using a bi-exponential model in chemotherapy response evaluation in a gastric cancer mouse model. METHODS Mice bearing MKN-45 human gastric adenocarcinoma xenografts were divided into four treated groups (TG1, 2, 3 and 4, n = 5 in each group) which received Fluorouracil and Calcium Folinate and a control group (CG, n = 7). DW-MRI scans with 14 b-values (0-1500 s/mm2) were performed before and after treatment on days 3, 7, 14 and 21. Fast diffusion component (presumably pseudo-perfusion) parameters including the fast diffusion coefficient (D*) and fraction volume (fp), slow diffusion coefficient (D) and the conventional apparent diffusion coefficients (ADC) were calculated by fitting the IVIM model to the measured DW signals. The median changes from the baseline to each post-treatment time point for each measurement (ΔADC, ΔD* and Δfp) were calculated. The differences in the median changes between the two groups were compared using the mixed linear regression model by the restricted maximum likelihood method shown as z values. Histopathological analyses including Ki-67, CD31, TUNEL and H&E were conducted in conjunction with the MRI scans. The median percentage changes were compared with the histopathological analyses between the pre- and post-treatment for each measurement. RESULTS Compared with the control group, D* in the treated group decreased significantly (ΔD*treated% = -30%, -34% and -20%, with z = -5.40, -4.18 and -1.95. P = 0.0001, 0.0001 and 0.0244) and fp increased significantly (Δfptreated% = 93%, 113% and 181%, with z = 4.63, 5.52, and 2.12, P = 0.001, 0.0001 and 0.0336) on day 3, 7 and 14, respectively. Increases in ADC in the treated group were higher than those in the control group on days 3 and 14 (z = 2.44 and 2.40, P = 0.0147 and P = 0.0164). CONCLUSION Fast diffusion measurements derived from the bi-exponential IVIM model

  5. Thoracic Splenosis after a Gunshot: Diffusion-Weighted MRI Findings

    PubMed Central

    Tutar, Onur; Bakan, Selim; Samanci, Cesur; Nurili, Fuat; Sayman, Haluk Burcak; Akman, Canan

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Intrathoracic splenosis is a rare condition resulting from concomitant rupture of the spleen and left hemidiaphragm after a traumatic event involving the spleen and the diaphragma and is defined as autotransplantation of splenic tissue in thorax. Case Report The aim of this study was to present a case report of a combined intrathoracic and subcutaneous splenosis in a patient 19 years after penetrating trauma. She has left dorsal side pain and routine chest roentgenogram shows pleural nodular masses. The patient was referred to us for radiologic work up. Conclusions The MRI scans revealed the intrathoracic and subcutan masses as mainly hypointense on T1-weighted images and hyperintense on T2-weighted images and significant restriction in diffusion-weighted images. Scintigraphy revealed abnormal hot spots in subcutaneous tissue and diaphragmatic pleura of the left hemithorax. PMID:25745523

  6. Diffusion-Weighted Images Superresolution Using High-Order SVD.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xi; Yang, Zhipeng; Hu, Jinrong; Peng, Jing; He, Peiyu; Zhou, Jiliu

    2016-01-01

    The spatial resolution of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) is limited by several physical and clinical considerations, such as practical scanning times. Interpolation methods, which are widely used to enhance resolution, often result in blurred edges. Advanced superresolution scanning acquires images with specific protocols and long acquisition times. In this paper, we propose a novel single image superresolution (SR) method which introduces high-order SVD (HOSVD) to regularize the patch-based SR framework on DWI datasets. The proposed method was implemented on an adaptive basis which ensured a more accurate reconstruction of high-resolution DWI datasets. Meanwhile, the intrinsic dimensional decreasing property of HOSVD is also beneficial for reducing the computational burden. Experimental results from both synthetic and real DWI datasets demonstrate that the proposed method enhances the details in reconstructed high-resolution DWI datasets and outperforms conventional techniques such as interpolation methods and nonlocal upsampling.

  7. Diffusion-Weighted Images Superresolution Using High-Order SVD

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zhipeng; Hu, Jinrong; Peng, Jing; He, Peiyu

    2016-01-01

    The spatial resolution of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) is limited by several physical and clinical considerations, such as practical scanning times. Interpolation methods, which are widely used to enhance resolution, often result in blurred edges. Advanced superresolution scanning acquires images with specific protocols and long acquisition times. In this paper, we propose a novel single image superresolution (SR) method which introduces high-order SVD (HOSVD) to regularize the patch-based SR framework on DWI datasets. The proposed method was implemented on an adaptive basis which ensured a more accurate reconstruction of high-resolution DWI datasets. Meanwhile, the intrinsic dimensional decreasing property of HOSVD is also beneficial for reducing the computational burden. Experimental results from both synthetic and real DWI datasets demonstrate that the proposed method enhances the details in reconstructed high-resolution DWI datasets and outperforms conventional techniques such as interpolation methods and nonlocal upsampling. PMID:27635150

  8. Diffusion-weighted imaging of the liver: Current applications

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Kazuhiro; Tajima, Yu; Harada, Taiyo L

    2016-01-01

    Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) of the liver can be performed using most commercially available machines and is currently accepted in routine sequence. This sequence has some potential as an imaging biomarker for fibrosis, tumor detection/characterization, and following/predicting therapy. To improve reliability including accuracy and reproducibility, researchers have validated this new technique in terms of image acquisition, data sampling, and analysis. The added value of DWI in contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging was established in the detection of malignant liver lesions. However, some limitations remain in terms of lesion characterization and fibrosis detection. Furthermore, the methodologies of image acquisition and data analysis have been inconsistent. Therefore, researchers should make every effort to not only improve accuracy and reproducibility but also standardize imaging parameters. PMID:27928467

  9. Diffusion Weighted Image Denoising Using Overcomplete Local PCA

    PubMed Central

    Manjón, José V.; Coupé, Pierrick; Concha, Luis; Buades, Antonio; Collins, D. Louis; Robles, Montserrat

    2013-01-01

    Diffusion Weighted Images (DWI) normally shows a low Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) due to the presence of noise from the measurement process that complicates and biases the estimation of quantitative diffusion parameters. In this paper, a new denoising methodology is proposed that takes into consideration the multicomponent nature of multi-directional DWI datasets such as those employed in diffusion imaging. This new filter reduces random noise in multicomponent DWI by locally shrinking less significant Principal Components using an overcomplete approach. The proposed method is compared with state-of-the-art methods using synthetic and real clinical MR images, showing improved performance in terms of denoising quality and estimation of diffusion parameters. PMID:24019889

  10. Extended T2-IVIM model for correction of TE dependence of pseudo-diffusion volume fraction in clinical diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jerome, N. P.; d'Arcy, J. A.; Feiweier, T.; Koh, D.-M.; Leach, M. O.; Collins, D. J.; Orton, M. R.

    2016-12-01

    The bi-exponential intravoxel-incoherent-motion (IVIM) model for diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI) fails to account for differential T 2 s in the model compartments, resulting in overestimation of pseudodiffusion fraction f. An extended model, T2-IVIM, allows removal of the confounding echo-time (TE) dependence of f, and provides direct compartment T 2 estimates. Two consented healthy volunteer cohorts (n  =  5, 6) underwent DWI comprising multiple TE/b-value combinations (Protocol 1: TE  =  62-102 ms, b  =  0-250 mm-2s, 30 combinations. Protocol 2: 8 b-values 0-800 mm-2s at TE  =  62 ms, with 3 additional b-values 0-50 mm-2s at TE  =  80, 100 ms scanned twice). Data from liver ROIs were fitted with IVIM at individual TEs, and with the T2-IVIM model using all data. Repeat-measures coefficients of variation were assessed for Protocol 2. Conventional IVIM modelling at individual TEs (Protocol 1) demonstrated apparent f increasing with longer TE: 22.4  ±  7% (TE  =  62 ms) to 30.7  ±  11% (TE  =  102 ms) T2-IVIM model fitting accounted for all data variation. Fitting of Protocol 2 data using T2-IVIM yielded reduced f estimates (IVIM: 27.9  ±  6%, T2-IVIM: 18.3  ±  7%), as well as T 2  =  42.1  ±  7 ms, 77.6  ±  30 ms for true and pseudodiffusion compartments, respectively. A reduced Protocol 2 dataset yielded comparable results in a clinical time frame (11 min). The confounding dependence of IVIM f on TE can be accounted for using additional b/TE images and the extended T2-IVIM model.

  11. Extended T2-IVIM model for correction of TE dependence of pseudo-diffusion volume fraction in clinical diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Jerome, N P; d'Arcy, J A; Feiweier, T; Koh, D-M; Leach, M O; Collins, D J; Orton, M R

    2016-12-21

    The bi-exponential intravoxel-incoherent-motion (IVIM) model for diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI) fails to account for differential T 2 s in the model compartments, resulting in overestimation of pseudodiffusion fraction f. An extended model, T2-IVIM, allows removal of the confounding echo-time (TE) dependence of f, and provides direct compartment T 2 estimates. Two consented healthy volunteer cohorts (n  =  5, 6) underwent DWI comprising multiple TE/b-value combinations (Protocol 1: TE  =  62-102 ms, b  =  0-250 mm(-2)s, 30 combinations. Protocol 2: 8 b-values 0-800 mm(-2)s at TE  =  62 ms, with 3 additional b-values 0-50 mm(-2)s at TE  =  80, 100 ms; scanned twice). Data from liver ROIs were fitted with IVIM at individual TEs, and with the T2-IVIM model using all data. Repeat-measures coefficients of variation were assessed for Protocol 2. Conventional IVIM modelling at individual TEs (Protocol 1) demonstrated apparent f increasing with longer TE: 22.4  ±  7% (TE  =  62 ms) to 30.7  ±  11% (TE  =  102 ms); T2-IVIM model fitting accounted for all data variation. Fitting of Protocol 2 data using T2-IVIM yielded reduced f estimates (IVIM: 27.9  ±  6%, T2-IVIM: 18.3  ±  7%), as well as T 2  =  42.1  ±  7 ms, 77.6  ±  30 ms for true and pseudodiffusion compartments, respectively. A reduced Protocol 2 dataset yielded comparable results in a clinical time frame (11 min). The confounding dependence of IVIM f on TE can be accounted for using additional b/TE images and the extended T2-IVIM model.

  12. Differentiation of prostatitis and prostate cancer by using diffusion-weighted MR imaging and MR-guided biopsy at 3 T.

    PubMed

    Nagel, Klaas N A; Schouten, Martijn G; Hambrock, Thomas; Litjens, Geert J S; Hoeks, Caroline M A; ten Haken, Bennie; Barentsz, Jelle O; Fütterer, Jurgen J

    2013-04-01

    To determine if prostatitis and prostate cancer (PCa) can be distinguished by using apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) on magnetic resonance (MR) images, with specimens obtained at MR-guided biopsy as the standard of reference. The need for institutional review board approval and informed consent was waived. MR-guided biopsies were performed in 130 consecutive patients with cancer-suspicious regions (CSRs) on multiparametric MR images obtained at 3 T. In this retrospective study, 88 patients met the inclusion criteria. During the biopsy procedure, an axial diffusion-weighted sequence was performed and ADC maps were generated (repetition time msec/echo time msec, 2000/67; section thickness, 4 mm; in-plane resolution, 1.8 × 1.8 mm; and b values of 0, 100, 500, and 800 sec/mm(2)). Subsequently, a confirmation image with the needle left in situ was acquired and projected on the ADC map. The corresponding ADCs at the biopsy location were compared with the histopathologic outcomes of the biopsy specimens. Linear mixed-model regression analyses were used to test for ADC differences between the histopathologic groups. The study included 116 biopsy specimens. Median ADCs of normal prostate tissue, prostatitis, low-grade PCa (Gleason grade components 2 or 3), and high-grade PCa (Gleason grade components 4 or 5) were 1.22 × 10(-3) mm(2)/sec (standard deviation, ± 0.21), 1.08 × 10(-3) mm(2)/sec (± 0.18), 0.88 × 10(-3) mm(2)/sec (± 0.15), and 0.88 × 10(-3) mm(2)/sec (± 0.13), respectively. Although the median ADCs of biopsy specimens with prostatitis were significantly higher compared with low- and high-grade PCa (P < .001), there is a considerable overlap between the tissue types. Diffusion-weighted imaging is a noninvasive technique that shows differences between prostatitis and PCa in both the peripheral zone and central gland, although its usability in clinical practice is limited as a result of significant overlap in ADCs. RSNA, 2013

  13. Model-based denoising in diffusion-weighted imaging using generalized spherical deconvolution.

    PubMed

    Sperl, Jonathan I; Sprenger, Tim; Tan, Ek T; Menzel, Marion I; Hardy, Christopher J; Marinelli, Luca

    2017-02-28

    Diffusion MRI often suffers from low signal-to-noise ratio, especially for high b-values. This work proposes a model-based denoising technique to address this limitation. A generalization of the multi-shell spherical deconvolution model using a Richardson-Lucy algorithm is applied to noisy data. The reconstructed coefficients are then used in the forward model to compute denoised diffusion-weighted images (DWIs). The proposed method operates in the diffusion space and thus is complementary to image-based denoising methods. We demonstrate improved image quality on the DWIs themselves, maps of neurite orientation dispersion and density imaging, and diffusional kurtosis imaging (DKI), as well as reduced spurious peaks in deterministic tractography. For DKI in particular, we observe up to 50% error reduction and demonstrate high image quality using just 30 DWIs. This corresponds to greater than fourfold reduction in scan time if compared to the widely used 140-DWI acquisitions. We also confirm consistent performance in pathological data sets, namely in white matter lesions of a multiple sclerosis patient. The proposed denoising technique termed generalized spherical deconvolution has the potential of significantly improving image quality in diffusion MRI. Magn Reson Med, 2017. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  14. Diffusional anisotropy of the human brain assessed with diffusion-weighted MR: Relation with normal brain development and aging

    SciTech Connect

    Nomura, Toshiyuki; Sakuma, Hajime; Takeda, Kan; Tagami, Tomoyasu; Okuda, Yasuyuki; Nakagawa, Tsuyoshi )

    1994-02-01

    To analyze diffusional anisotropy in frontal and occipital white matter of human brain quantitatively as a function of age by using diffusion-weighted MR imaging. Ten neonates (<1 month), 13 infants (1-10 months), 9 children (1-11 years), and 16 adults (20-79 years) were examined. After taking axial spin-echo images of the brain, diffusion-sensitive gradients were added parallel or perpendicular to the orientation of nerve fibers. The apparent diffusion coefficient parallel to the nerve fibers (0) and that perpendicular to the fibers (90) were computed. The anisotropic ratio (90/0) was calculated as a function of age. Anisotropic ratios of frontal white matter were significantly larger in neonates as compared with infants, children, or adults. The ratios showed rapid decrease until 6 months and thereafter were identical in all subjects. In the occipital lobe, the ratios were also greater in neonates, but the differences from other age groups were not so prominent as in the frontal lobe. Comparing anisotropic ratios between frontal and occipital lobes, a significant difference was observed only in neonates. Diffusion-weighted images demonstrated that the myelination process starts earlier in the occipital lobe than in the frontal lobe. The changes of diffusional anisotropy in white matter are completed within 6 months after birth. Diffusion-weighted imaging provides earlier detection of brain myelination compared with the conventional T1- and T2-weighted images. 18 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Ultrahigh b-values MRI in normal human prostate: Initial research on reproducibility and age-related differences.

    PubMed

    Shi, Changzheng; Zhang, Dong; Xiao, Zeyu; Wang, Li; Ma, Rong; Chen, Hanwei; Luo, Liangping

    2017-09-01

    To investigate the reproducibility of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) with ultrahigh b-values, and analyze the age-related differences in normal prostates. In all, 67 healthy participants were divided into three age groups (group A, 15-30 years; group B, 31-50 years; group C, ≥51 years), and underwent DWI scanning twice with 15 b-factors from 0 to 3000 at 3.0T. Triexponential fits were applied to calculate the molecular diffusion coefficient (D), the pseudo-diffusion coefficient (D*), the ultrahigh apparent diffusion coefficient (ADCuh ), and perfusion fraction (f). The interobserver and short-term interscan reproducibility were evaluated, and the change in these parameters with age were assessed. The D, ADCuh , and f values presented good to excellent reproducibility. With increasing age, a trend of increasing D values was observed, with significant difference in both peripheral zone (PZ, P = 0.01) and central gland (CG, P = 0.01) of normal prostate tissue. The f value increased in the CG beginning at 50 years of age while the ADCuh value decreased in the PZ after 50 years of age; all of them showed significant differences between groups A and C and groups B and C (P = 0.01/0.01). The D, ADCuh , and f values have good to excellent reproducibility in the normal prostate, and these values change with age. The ultrahigh b-values magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can provide additional information (ADCuh ), which is different from the IVIM (intravoxel incoherent motion)-derived parameters. 1 Technical Efficacy: Stage 2 J. MAGN. RESON. IMAGING 2017;46:801-812. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  16. Whole-Body Diffusion-Weighted Imaging in Chronic Recurrent Multifocal Osteomyelitis in Children

    PubMed Central

    Leclair, Nadine; Thörmer, Gregor; Sorge, Ina; Ritter, Lutz; Schuster, Volker; Hirsch, Franz Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Objective Chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis/ chronic non-bacterial osteomyelitis (CRMO/ CNO) is a rare auto-inflammatory disease and typically manifests in terms of musculoskeletal pain. Because of a high frequency of musculoskeletal disorders in children/ adolescents, it can be quite challenging to distinguish CRMO/ CNO from nonspecific musculosketetal pain or from malignancies. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the visibility of CRMO lesions in a whole-body diffusion-weighted imaging (WB-DWI) technique and its potential clinical value to better characterize MR-visible lesions. Material and Methods Whole-body imaging at 3T was performed in 16 patients (average: 13 years) with confirmed CRMO. The protocol included 2D Short Tau Inversion Recovery (STIR) imaging in coronal and axial orientation as well as diffusion-weighted imaging in axial orientation. Visibility of lesions in DWI and STIR was evaluated by two readers in consensus. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) was measured for every lesion and corresponding reference locations. Results A total of 33 lesions (on average 2 per patient) visible in STIR and DWI images (b = 800 s/mm2 and ADC maps) were included, predominantly located in the long bones. With a mean value of 1283 mm2/s in lesions, the ADC was significantly higher than in corresponding reference regions (782 mm2/s). By calculating the ratio (lesion to reference), 82% of all lesions showed a relative signal increase of 10% or higher and 76% (25 lesions) showed a signal increase of more than 15%. The median relative signal increase was 69%. Conclusion This study shows that WB-DWI can be reliably performed in children at 3T and predominantly, the ADC values were substantially elevated in CRMO lesions. WB-DWI in conjunction with clinical data is seen as a promising technique to distinguish benign inflammatory processes (in terms of increased ADC values) from particular malignancies. PMID:26799970

  17. Diffusion-weighted imaging in the characterization of focal liver lesions: efficacy of visual assessment.

    PubMed

    Battal, Bilal; Kocaoglu, Murat; Akgun, Veysel; Karademir, Ibrahim; Deveci, Salih; Guvenc, Inanc; Bulakbasi, Nail

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the value of visual assessment of signal intensities on b800 diffusion-weighted images and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps in differentiation of benign and malignant focal liver lesions (FLLs). Approval for this retrospective study was obtained from the institutional review board. One hundred forty-three FLLs in 65 patients (38 women, 27 men; mean age, 50.8 years) underwent magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) with a respiratory-triggered single-shot echo-planar imaging sequence. Focal liver lesions were evaluated visually according to the signal intensities on b800 and ADC map images, and ADC values were also calculated. The conventional MR imaging, follow-up imaging findings, and histopathologic data were regarded as gold standard. Normal distribution was assessed with Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. The accuracies of visual assessment and ADC values in differentiating benign and malignant FLLs were assessed with the Student t test, and threshold values were determined with receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. By using a cutoff value of 1.21 × 10⁻³ mm²/s, ADC had a sensitivity of 100%, a specificity of 89.3%, and an accuracy of 92.3% in the discrimination of malignant FLLs. With the visual assessment of the DWIs and ADC maps, malignant lesions were differentiated from benign ones, with 100% sensitivity, 92.2% specificity, and 94.4% accuracy. Although some benign lesions were interpreted as malignant, no malignant lesion was determined as benign in visual assessment. Most FLLs are benign ones such as hemangiomas and cysts, which can be readily and practically characterized only by using visual assessment of DWIs without requiring time-consuming conventional and dynamic contrast-enhanced imaging sequences. Some benign lesions that are falsely interpreted as malignant can be further characterized by using conventional and contrast-enhanced MR studies.

  18. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging to predict response of hepatocellular carcinoma to chemoembolization

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Johnathan C; Naik, Neel K; Lewandowski, Robert J; Deng, Jie; Mulcahy, Mary F; Kulik, Laura M; Sato, Kent T; Ryu, Robert K; Salem, Riad; Larson, Andrew C; Omary, Reed A

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To investigate whether intra-procedural diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging can predict response of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) during transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE). METHODS: Sixteen patients (15 male), aged 59 ± 11 years (range: 42-81 years) underwent a total of 21 separate treatments for unresectable HCC in a hybrid magnetic resonance/interventional radiology suite. Anatomical imaging and diffusion-weighted imaging (b = 0, 500 s/mm2) were performed on a 1.5-T unit. Tumor enhancement and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC, mm2/s) values were assessed immediately before and at 1 and 3 mo after TACE. We calculated the percent change (PC) in ADC values at all time points. We compared follow-up ADC values to baseline values using a paired t test (α = 0.05). RESULTS: The intra-procedural sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values (%) for detecting a complete or partial 1-mo tumor response using ADC PC thresholds of ±5%, ±10%, and ±15% were 77, 67, 91, and 40; 54, 67, 88, and 25; and 46, 100, 100, and 30, respectively. There was no clear predictive value for the 3-mo follow-up. Compared to baseline, the immediate post-procedure and 1-mo mean ADC values both increased; the latter obtaining statistical significance (1.48 ± 0.29 mm2/s vs 1.65 ± 0.35 × 10-3 mm2/s, P < 0.014). CONCLUSION: Intra-procedural ADC changes of > 15% predicted 1-mo anatomical HCC response with the greatest accuracy, and can provide valuable feedback at the time of TACE. PMID:20593501

  19. Differentiating locally recurrent rectal cancer from scar tissue: Value of diffusion-weighted MRI.

    PubMed

    Grosu, Sergio; Schäfer, Arnd-Oliver; Baumann, Tobias; Manegold, Philipp; Langer, Mathias; Gerstmair, Axel

    2016-07-01

    To determine a cut-off apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value distinguishing local recurrence from scar tissue in patients with rectal cancer treated with complete surgical tumour removal. 72 patients were retrospectively included. Patients underwent 1.5T MRI including multiplanar T2-weighted turbo-spin-echo sequences (TSE) and axial single-shot epi-diffusion-weighted sequences (EPSE). Two independent observers measured mean tumour and scar tissue ADCs by manually drawing regions of interest (ROIs). The t-test and ROC analysis were used for comparison and determining an optimal discrimination threshold. As reference standard histopathological results were used in 23 patients (32%) and clinical follow-up in 49 patients (68%). Recurrent rectal cancer was found in 30 patients (4 female, 26 male, median age 63.13 years) and treatment related changes such as scar tissue in 42 patients (11 female, 31 male, median age 63.67 years). The mean ADC value of tumour recurrence was 1.02×10(-3)mm(2)/s (0.63-1.44×10(-3)mm(2)/s) and of scar tissue 1.77×10(-3)mm(2)/s (1.11-2.41×10(-3)mm(2)/s) showing a statistically significant difference (p<0.001). The cut-off ADC value was 1.34×10(-3)mm(2)/s with a sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of 93%, 91%, and 92% respectively. Diffusion weighted MRI allows for the differentiation of tumour recurrence from scar tissue after surgical resection of rectal cancer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Volume Measurement by Diffusion-Weighted Imaging in Cervical Cancer.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Shinya; Iwata, Naoki; Inoue, Chie; Mukuda, Naoko; Fukunaga, Takeru; Ogawa, Toshihide

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this paper was to evaluate the validity of tumor volume measurement using diffusion-weighted (DW) imaging in cervical cancer. In this retrospective study, 22 patients, who underwent preoperative 3.0 T MR examinations with DW imaging were evaluated. Tumor volume measurement by oblique axial (short axis to the uterine cervix) T2-weighted imaging was performed by manually outlining the tumor on the monitor. The area of tumor in each slice was multiplied by the slice profile (slice thickness plus intersection gap), and the total tumor volume was calculated by summation of these obtained volumes. Meanwhile, one experienced radiological technologist generated three-dimensional DW images of cervical cancer using a volume-rendering algorithm at a computer workstation, and tumor volume was automatically calculated in the workstation. Analysis via the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and Bland-Altman plots were used to assess the validity and reliability of these methods. Between tumor volumes measured by T2-weighted imaging methods and DW imaging methods, the ICC was excellent (0.962). The 95% limits of agreement of volume measurement were -52.7 and 35.7 mL (mean difference, -8.5 mL). In regards to intra-observer variability, the ICC was excellent (0.963). The 95% limits of agreement of volume measurement were -42.2 and 47.4 mL (mean difference, 2.6 mL). DW imaging can be used to measure cervical cancer volume.

  1. Large deformation diffeomorphic registration of diffusion-weighted imaging data.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Pei; Niethammer, Marc; Shen, Dinggang; Yap, Pew-Thian

    2014-12-01

    Registration plays an important role in group analysis of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) data. It can be used to build a reference anatomy for investigating structural variation or tracking changes in white matter. Unlike traditional scalar image registration where spatial alignment is the only focus, registration of DWI data requires both spatial alignment of structures and reorientation of local signal profiles. As such, DWI registration is much more complex and challenging than scalar image registration. Although a variety of algorithms has been proposed to tackle the problem, most of them are restricted by the diffusion model used for registration, making it difficult to fit to the registered data a different model. In this paper we describe a method that allows any diffusion model to be fitted after registration for subsequent multifaceted analysis. This is achieved by directly aligning DWI data using a large deformation diffeomorphic registration framework. Our algorithm seeks the optimal coordinate mapping by simultaneously considering structural alignment, local signal profile reorientation, and deformation regularization. Our algorithm also incorporates a multi-kernel strategy to concurrently register anatomical structures at different scales. We demonstrate the efficacy of our approach using in vivo data and report detailed qualitative and quantitative results in comparison with several different registration strategies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Large deformation diffeomorphic registration of diffusion-weighted images.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Pei; Niethammer, Marc; Shen, Dinggang; Yap, Pew-Thian

    2012-01-01

    Registration of Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) data emerges as an important topic in magnetic resonance (MR) image analysis. As existing methods are often designed for specific diffusion models, it is difficult to fit to the registered data different models other than the one used for registration. In this paper we describe a diffeomorphic registration algorithm for DWI data in a large deformation setting. Our method generates spatially normalized DWI data and it is thus possible to fit various diffusion models after registration for comparison purposes. Our algorithm includes (1) a reorientation component, where each diffusion profile (DWI signal as a function on a unit sphere) is decomposed, reoriented and recomposed to form the orientation-corrected DWI profile, and (2) a large deformation diffeomorphic registration component to ensure one-to-one mapping in a large-structural-variation scenario. In addition our algorithm uses a geodesic shooting mechanism to avoid the huge computational resources that are needed to register high-dimensional vector-valued data. We also incorporate into our algorithm a multi-kernel strategy where anatomical structures at different scales are considered simultaneously during registration. We demonstrate the efficacy of our method using in vivo data.

  3. Large deformation diffeomorphic registration of diffusion-weighted imaging data

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Pei; Niethammer, Marc; Shen, Dinggang; Yap, Pew-Thian

    2014-01-01

    Registration plays an important role in group analysis of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) data. It can be used to build a reference anatomy for investigating structural variation or tracking changes in white matter. Unlike traditional scalar image registration where spatial alignment is the only focus, registration of DWI data requires both spatial alignment of structures and reorientation of local signal profiles. As such, DWI registration is much more complex and challenging than scalar image registration. Although a variety of algorithms has been proposed to tackle the problem, most of them are restricted by the zdiffusion model used for registration, making it difficult to fit to the registered data a different model. In this paper we describe a method that allows any diffusion model to be fitted after registration for subsequent multifaceted analysis. This is achieved by directly aligning DWI data using a large deformation diffeomorphic registration framework. Our algorithm seeks the optimal coordinate mapping by simultaneously considering structural alignment, local signal profile reorientation, and deformation regularization. Our algorithm also incorporates a multi-kernel strategy to concurrently register anatomical structures at different scales. We demonstrate the efficacy of our approach using in vivo data and report detailed qualitative and quantitative results in comparison with several different registration strategies. PMID:25106710

  4. New methods in Diffusion Weighted and Diffusion Tensor Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Bammer, Roland; Holdsworth, Samantha J.; Veldhuis, Wouter B.; Skare, Stefan T.

    2009-01-01

    Synopsis Considerable strides have been made by countless individual researchers in diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) to push DWI from an experimental tool – limited to a few institutions with specialized instrumentation – to a powerful tool used routinely for diagnostic imaging. Despite its current success, the field of DWI constantly evolves and progress has been made on several fronts, awaiting adoption by vendors and clinical users to bring in the next generation of DWI. These developments are primarily comprised of improved robustness against patient and physiologic motion, increased spatial resolution, new biophysical and tissue models, and new clinical applications for DWI. This article aims to provide a succinct overview of some of these new developments and a description of some of the major challenges associated with DWI. Trying to understand some of these challenges is helpful not only to the technically savvy MRI user, but also to radiologists who are interested in the potential strengths and weaknesses of these techniques, what is in the “diffusion pipeline”, and in how to interpret artifacts on DWI scans. PMID:19406353

  5. The diagnostic value of 1.5-T diffusion-weighted MR imaging in detecting 5 to 10 mm metastatic cervical lymph nodes of nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Guan Qiao; Yang, Jun; Liu, Li Dong; Su, Dan Ke; Wang, Duo Ping; Zhao, Sheng Fa; Liao, Zhi Ling

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of the study was to prospectively assess the diagnostic accuracy of 1.5 T diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) for 5 to 10 mm metastatic cervical lymph nodes of patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). All patients with histopathologically confirmed NPC underwent DWI with 2 b values of 0 and 800 s/mm2 were enrolled. The shortest axial diameter and mean apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value were recorded when lymph nodes with a shortest axial diameter from 5 to 10 mm were measured. The correlation between the pathological diagnoses and mean ADC values in the benign and metastatic lymph nodes were compared using the Z test. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was performed to evaluate the diagnostic performance of DWI. Three hundred fourteen nodes of 52 patients with NPC consisted of 46.5% (146/314) metastatic lymph nodes and 53.5% (168/314) benign lymph nodes. The mean ADC value (×10–3 mm2/s) of benign lymph nodes was (1.110 ± 0.202), which was significantly higher than that of metastatic nodes (0.878 ± 0.159) (P < 0.05). The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value, accuracy for differentiating metastatic from benign lymph nodes using a cutoff ADC value of 0.924 × 10–3 mm2/s was 83.56%, 82.74%, 80.79%, 85.28%, and 82.80%, respectively. The area under the ROC curve was 0.851 (95% confidence intervals: 0.807–0.889). This study demonstrated that DWI is helpful in detecting 5 to 10 mm metastatic lymph nodes of patients with NPC. PMID:27512841

  6. Intravoxel Incoherent Motion MR Imaging in the Head and Neck: Correlation with Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MR Imaging and Diffusion-Weighted Imaging.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiao Quan; Choi, Young Jun; Sung, Yu Sub; Yoon, Ra Gyoung; Jang, Seung Won; Park, Ji Eun; Heo, Young Jin; Baek, Jung Hwan; Lee, Jeong Hyun

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the correlation between perfusion- and diffusion-related parameters from intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) and those from dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging (DCE-MRI) and diffusion-weighted imaging in tumors and normal muscles of the head and neck. We retrospectively enrolled 20 consecutive patients with head and neck tumors with MR imaging performed using a 3T MR scanner. Tissue diffusivity (D), pseudo-diffusion coefficient (D(*)), and perfusion fraction (f) were derived from bi-exponential fitting of IVIM data obtained with 14 different b-values in three orthogonal directions. We investigated the correlation between D, f, and D(*) and model-free parameters from the DCE-MRI (wash-in, Tmax, Emax, initial AUC60, whole AUC) and the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value in the tumor and normal masseter muscle using a whole volume-of-interest approach. Pearson's correlation test was used for statistical analysis. No correlation was found between f or D(*) and any of the parameters from the DCE-MRI in all patients or in patients with squamous cell carcinoma (p > 0.05). The ADC was significantly correlated with D values in the tumors (p < 0.001, r = 0.980) and muscles (p = 0.013, r = 0.542), despite its significantly higher value than D. The difference between ADC and D showed significant correlation with f values in the tumors (p = 0.017, r = 0.528) and muscles (p = 0.003, r = 0.630), but no correlation with D(*) (p > 0.05, respectively). Intravoxel incoherent motion shows no significant correlation with model-free perfusion parameters derived from the DCE-MRI but is feasible for the analysis of diffusivity in both tumors and normal muscles of the head and neck.

  7. Intravoxel incoherent motion diffusion-weighted MRI at 3.0 T differentiates malignant breast lesions from benign lesions and breast parenchyma.

    PubMed

    Bokacheva, Louisa; Kaplan, Jennifer B; Giri, Dilip D; Patil, Sujata; Gnanasigamani, Merlin; Nyman, C Gregory; Deasy, Joseph O; Morris, Elizabeth A; Thakur, Sunitha B

    2014-10-01

    To study the differentiation of malignant breast lesions from benign lesions and fibroglandular tissue (FGT) using apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) parameters. This retrospective study included 26 malignant and 14 benign breast lesions in 35 patients who underwent diffusion-weighted MRI at 3.0T and nine b-values (0-1000 s/mm(2) ). ADC and IVIM parameters (perfusion fraction fp , pseudodiffusion coefficient Dp , and true diffusion coefficient Dd ) were determined in lesions and FGT. For comparison, IVIM was also measured in 16 high-risk normal patients. A predictive model was constructed using linear discriminant analysis. Lesion discrimination based on ADC and IVIM parameters was assessed using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) and area under the ROC curve (AUC). In FGT of normal subjects, fp was 1.1 ± 1.1%. In malignant lesions, fp (6.4 ± 3.1%) was significantly higher than in benign lesions (3.1 ± 3.3%, P = 0.0025) or FGT (1.5 ± 1.2%, P < 0.001), and Dd ((1.29 ± 0.28) × 10(-3) mm(2) /s) was lower than in benign lesions ((1.56 ± 0.28) × 10(-3) mm(2) /s, P = 0.011) or FGT ((1.86 ± 0.34) × 10(-3) mm(2) /s, P < 0.001). A combination of Dd and fp provided higher AUC for discrimination between malignant and benign lesions (0.84) or FGT (0.97) than ADC (0.72 and 0.86, respectively). The IVIM parameters provide accurate identification of malignant lesions. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Intravoxel Incoherent Motion MR Imaging in the Head and Neck: Correlation with Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MR Imaging and Diffusion-Weighted Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xiao Quan; Choi, Young Jun; Sung, Yu Sub; Yoon, Ra Gyoung; Jang, Seung Won; Park, Ji Eun; Heo, Young Jin; Baek, Jung Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the correlation between perfusion- and diffusion-related parameters from intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) and those from dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging (DCE-MRI) and diffusion-weighted imaging in tumors and normal muscles of the head and neck. Materials and Methods We retrospectively enrolled 20 consecutive patients with head and neck tumors with MR imaging performed using a 3T MR scanner. Tissue diffusivity (D), pseudo-diffusion coefficient (D*), and perfusion fraction (f) were derived from bi-exponential fitting of IVIM data obtained with 14 different b-values in three orthogonal directions. We investigated the correlation between D, f, and D* and model-free parameters from the DCE-MRI (wash-in, Tmax, Emax, initial AUC60, whole AUC) and the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value in the tumor and normal masseter muscle using a whole volume-of-interest approach. Pearson's correlation test was used for statistical analysis. Results No correlation was found between f or D* and any of the parameters from the DCE-MRI in all patients or in patients with squamous cell carcinoma (p > 0.05). The ADC was significantly correlated with D values in the tumors (p < 0.001, r = 0.980) and muscles (p = 0.013, r = 0.542), despite its significantly higher value than D. The difference between ADC and D showed significant correlation with f values in the tumors (p = 0.017, r = 0.528) and muscles (p = 0.003, r = 0.630), but no correlation with D* (p > 0.05, respectively). Conclusion Intravoxel incoherent motion shows no significant correlation with model-free perfusion parameters derived from the DCE-MRI but is feasible for the analysis of diffusivity in both tumors and normal muscles of the head and neck. PMID:27587952

  9. The Therapeutic Response of Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors to Imatinib Treatment Assessed by Intravoxel Incoherent Motion Diffusion-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging with Histopathological Correlation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chunfang; Wang, He; Cheng, Jin; Wu, Weizhen; Hong, Nan; Wang, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To exploit the intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) diffusion-weighted (DW) MRI when evaluating the therapeutic response of gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) to Imatinib in a mouse model. Materials and Methods Mice with xenografts bearing cells from the GIST-T1 cell line were randomly divided into a treated group receiving Imatinib and a control group. DWMRI scans with 14 b-values (0–1500 s/mm2) were performed before and after treatment (days 1, 3 and 7). IVIM related parameters perfusion fractions (fp) and perfusion-related diffusion coefficients (D*) and the conventional apparent diffusion coefficients (ADC) were calculated by fitting the DWMRI signal decay. The mean changes from baseline to each post-treatment time point for each measurement (ΔADC, Δfp and ΔD*) were calculated. The differences of mean changes between the two groups were tested for statistical significance. Histopathological analyses including Ki-67, CD31, TUNEL and H&E were conducted in conjunction with the MRI scans. Results Increases in ADC of the treated group were higher than those of the control group after treatment, whereas statistical significances were not observed. Compared to the control group, D* in the treated group decreased significantly (ΔD*treated = -41%, -49%, and -49% with P = 0.0001, 0.0001 and 0.0001), and fp increased significantly (Δfptreated = 79%, 82% and 110%, with P = 0.001, 0.0001 and P = 0.0007) on days 1, 3 and 7 after treatment. Histopathological analyses demonstrated different tumor tissue characteristics between the treated and control groups. Conclusion IVIM measurements may serve as more sensitive imaging biomarkers than ADC when assessing GIST response to Imatinib as early as one day after treatment. PMID:27911930

  10. Diffusion-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging Early After Chemoradiotherapy to Monitor Treatment Response in Head-and-Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Vandecaveye, Vincent; Dirix, Piet; De Keyzer, Frederik; Op de Beeck, Katya; Vander Poorten, Vincent; Hauben, Esther; Lambrecht, Maarten; Nuyts, Sandra; Hermans, Robert

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: To evaluate diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) for assessment of treatment response in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) three weeks after the end of chemoradiotherapy (CRT). Methods and Materials: Twenty-nine patients with HNSCC underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) prior to and 3 weeks after CRT, including T{sub 2}-weighted and pre- and postcontrast T{sub 1}-weighted sequences and an echo-planar DWI sequence with six b values (0 to 1,000 s/mm{sup 2}), from which the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) was calculated. ADC changes 3 weeks posttreatment compared to baseline ( Increment ADC) between responding and nonresponding primary lesions and adenopathies were correlated with 2 years locoregional control and compared with a Mann-Whitney test. In a blinded manner, the Increment ADC was compared to conventional MRI 3 weeks post-CRT and the routinely implemented CT, on average 3 months post-CRT, which used size-related and morphological criteria. Positive and negative predictive values (PPV and NPV, respectively) were compared between the Increment ADC and anatomical imaging. Results: The Increment ADC of lesions with later tumor recurrence was significantly lower than lesions with complete remission for both primary lesions (-2.3% {+-} 0.3% vs. 80% {+-} 41%; p < 0.0001) and adenopathies (19.9% {+-} 32% vs. 63% {+-} 36%; p = 0.003). The Increment ADC showed a PPV of 89% and an NPV of 100% for primary lesions and a PPV of 70% and an NPV of 96% for adenopathies per neck side. DWI improved PPV and NPV compared to anatomical imaging. Conclusion: DWI with the Increment ADC 3 weeks after concluding CRT for HNSCC allows for early assessment of treatment response.

  11. Role of diffusion weighted imaging in diagnosis of post transplant lymphoproliferative disorders: Case reports and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Singh, A.; Das, C. J.; Gupta, A. K.; Bagchi, S.

    2016-01-01

    Post transplant lymphoproliferative disorder include a spectrum of conditions occurring in immunosuppressed post transplant recipients, lymphoma being the most ominous. 18F-fludeoxyglucose positron emission tomography with computed tomography CT) is the current imaging gold standard for lymphoma imaging as it allows both morphological and functional assessment. CT and/or conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are used for morphological evaluation in transplant recipients. Integrating diffusion weighted imaging with apparent diffusion coefficient analysis in MRI protocol enhances its sensitivity and may prove invaluable in response assessment in transplant recipients. PMID:27194838

  12. [High resolution diffusion-weighted imaging for characterising nasopharyngeal carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Wang, Y; Wang, G J; Ye, Y; Lu, Y T; Wu, W H; Li, S L

    2017-05-09

    Objective: To evaluate the characteristics of high resolution diffusion-weighted imaging(DWI) using readout segmentation of long variable echo trains (RESOLVE ) for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Methods: A total of 131 with newly diagnosed NPC patients from the 5th Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University were included in this study from October 2013 to April 2016.DWI using RESOLVE technique was performed. The signal intensity (SI(lesion)), and mean(ADC(mean)), maximum(ADC(max)), minimum (ADC(min))ADCs of NPC were calculated. The signal intensity (SI(normal))and ADC (ADC(normal))of normal nasopharyngeal tissue were calculated. These quantitative parameters of NPC and normal nasopharyngeal tissue were compared.Statistical difference of ADC(mean), ADC(max) and ADC(min) between the clinical tumor stages were assessed. Results: On the DWI, all NPCs were clearly shown as high signal intensity relative to the surrounding normal nasopharyngeal structure(F=70.019, P=0.000). The ADC(mean)(F=20.442, P=0.000), ADC(max)(F=35.374, P=0.000), ADC(min)(F=61.534, P=0.000) in the carcinoma were significantly lower compared with that of normal nasopharyngeal structure. There was no statistically significant difference of ADC(mean), ADC(max) and ADC(min) (P>0.05)in different clinical stages of NPC. Conclusion: NPC can be clearly detected by RESOLVE-DWI, but the ADC(mean), ADC(max) and ADC(min) can not be used for differentiating the clinical stage of NPC.

  13. Volume Measurement by Diffusion-Weighted Imaging in Cervical Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Fujii, Shinya; Iwata, Naoki; Inoue, Chie; Mukuda, Naoko; Fukunaga, Takeru; Ogawa, Toshihide

    2017-01-01

    Background The aim of this paper was to evaluate the validity of tumor volume measurement using diffusion-weighted (DW) imaging in cervical cancer. Methods In this retrospective study, 22 patients, who underwent preoperative 3.0 T MR examinations with DW imaging were evaluated. Tumor volume measurement by oblique axial (short axis to the uterine cervix) T2-weighted imaging was performed by manually outlining the tumor on the monitor. The area of tumor in each slice was multiplied by the slice profile (slice thickness plus intersection gap), and the total tumor volume was calculated by summation of these obtained volumes. Meanwhile, one experienced radiological technologist generated three-dimensional DW images of cervical cancer using a volume-rendering algorithm at a computer workstation, and tumor volume was automatically calculated in the workstation. Analysis via the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and Bland-Altman plots were used to assess the validity and reliability of these methods. Results Between tumor volumes measured by T2-weighted imaging methods and DW imaging methods, the ICC was excellent (0.962). The 95% limits of agreement of volume measurement were –52.7 and 35.7 mL (mean difference, –8.5 mL). In regards to intra-observer variability, the ICC was excellent (0.963). The 95% limits of agreement of volume measurement were –42.2 and 47.4 mL (mean difference, 2.6 mL). Conclusion DW imaging can be used to measure cervical cancer volume. PMID:28701894

  14. Diffusion-Weighted Imaging and Diagnosis of Transient Ischemic Attack

    PubMed Central

    Brazzelli, Miriam; Chappell, Francesca M; Miranda, Hector; Shuler, Kirsten; Dennis, Martin; Sandercock, Peter A G; Muir, Keith; Wardlaw, Joanna M

    2014-01-01

    Objective Magnetic resonance (MR) diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) is sensitive to small acute ischemic lesions and might help diagnose transient ischemic attack (TIA). Reclassification of patients with TIA and a DWI lesion as “stroke” is under consideration. We assessed DWI positivity in TIA and implications for reclassification as stroke. Methods We searched multiple sources, without language restriction, from January 1995 to July 2012. We used PRISMA guidelines, and included studies that provided data on patients presenting with suspected TIA who underwent MR DWI and reported the proportion with an acute DWI lesion. We performed univariate random effects meta-analysis to determine DWI positive rates and influencing factors. Results We included 47 papers and 9,078 patients (range = 18–1,693). Diagnosis was by a stroke specialist in 26 of 47 studies (55%); all studies excluded TIA mimics. The pooled proportion of TIA patients with an acute DWI lesion was 34.3% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 30.5–38.4, range = 9–67%; I2 = 89.3%). Larger studies (n > 200) had lower DWI-positive rates (29%; 95% CI = 23.2–34.6) than smaller (n < 50) studies (40.1%; 95% CI = 33.5–46.6%; p = 0.035), but no other testable factors, including clinician speciality and time to scanning, reduced or explained the 7-fold DWI-positive variation. Interpretation The commonest DWI finding in patients with definite TIA is a negative scan. Available data do not explain why ⅔ of patients with definite specialist-confirmed TIA have negative DWI findings. Until these factors are better understood, reclassifying DWI-positive TIAs as strokes is likely to increase variance in estimates of global stroke and TIA burden of disease. ANN NEUROL 2014;75:67–76 PMID:24085376

  15. Intravoxel incoherent motion diffusion-weighted imaging for monitoring chemotherapeutic efficacy in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Song, Xiao-Li; Kang, Heoung Keun; Jeong, Gwang Woo; Ahn, Kyu Youn; Jeong, Yong Yeon; Kang, Yang Joon; Cho, Hye Jung; Moon, Chung Man

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To assess intravoxel incoherent motion diffusion-weighted imaging (IVIM-DWI) for monitoring early efficacy of chemotherapy in a human gastric cancer mouse model. METHODS: IVIM-DWI was performed with 12 b-values (0-800 s/mm2) in 25 human gastric cancer-bearing nude mice at baseline (day 0), and then they were randomly divided into control and 1-, 3-, 5- and 7-d treatment groups (n = 5 per group). The control group underwent longitudinal MRI scans at days 1, 3, 5 and 7, and the treatment groups underwent subsequent MRI scans after a specified 5-fluorouracil/calcium folinate treatment. Together with tumor volumes (TV), the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and IVIM parameters [true water molecular diffusion coefficient (D), perfusion fraction (f) and pseudo-related diffusion coefficient (D*)] were measured. The differences in those parameters from baseline to each measurement (ΔTV%, ΔADC%, ΔD%, Δf% and ΔD*%) were calculated. After image acquisition, tumor necrosis, microvessel density (MVD) and cellular apoptosis were evaluated by hematoxylin-eosin (HE), CD31 and terminal-deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining respectively, to confirm the imaging findings. Mann-Whitney test and Spearman's correlation coefficient analysis were performed. RESULTS: The observed relative volume increase (ΔTV%) in the treatment group were significantly smaller than those in the control group at day 5 (ΔTVtreatment% = 19.63% ± 3.01% and ΔTVcontrol% = 83.60% ± 14.87%, P = 0.008) and day 7 (ΔTVtreatment% = 29.07% ± 10.01% and ΔTVcontrol% = 177.06% ± 63.00%, P = 0.008). The difference in ΔTV% between the treatment and the control groups was not significant at days 1 and 3 after a short duration of treatment. Increases in ADC in the treatment group (ΔADC%treatment, median, 30.10% ± 18.32%, 36.11% ± 21.82%, 45.22% ± 24.36%) were significantly higher compared with the control group (ΔADC%control, median, 4.98% ± 3.39%, 6.26% ± 3

  16. Diffusion Weighted MRI and MRS to Differentiate Radiation Necrosis and Recurrent Disease in Gliomas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ewell, Lars

    2006-03-01

    A difficulty encountered in the diagnosis of patients with gliomas is the differentiation between recurrent disease and Radiation Induced Necrosis (RIN). Both can appear as ‘enhancing lesions’ on a typical T2 weighted MRI scan. Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS) and Diffusion Weighted MRI (DWMRI) have the potential to be helpful regarding this differentiation. MRS has the ability to measure the concentration of brain metabolites, such as Choline, Creatin and N- Acetyl Aspartate, the ratios of which have been shown to discriminate between RIN and recurrent disease. DWMRI has been linked via a rise in the Apparent Diffusion Coefficient (ADC) to successful treatment of disease. Using both of these complimentary non-invasive imaging modalities, we intend to initiate an imaging protocol whereby we will study how best to combine metabolite ratios and ADC values to obtain the most useful information in the least amount of scan time. We will look for correlations over time between ADC values, and MRS, among different sized voxels.

  17. Diffusion-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Evaluation of Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kantarci, Mecit; Yuce, Ihsan; Yalcin, Ahmet; Yildirgan, M. Ilhan; Cayir, Kerim; Eren, Suat; Atamanalp, S. Selcuk

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the role of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) in the diagnosis of gastric tumors and discuss the diagnostic importance and potential use of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) measurements. Materials and Methods: Beginning in March 2009, DW-MRI was added to the routine abdominal and pelvic MR examination for all patients imaged at our institution. A total of 21 patients (12 men and 9 women; mean age 55±6.3SD, range: 39–74 years) with known gastric malignancy were referred to our MR unit. All MRI examinations were performed using a 1.5-T MRI scanner (Magnetom Avanto, Siemens Healthcare). The evaluation of the DW-MRI examinations was made by radiologists’ consensus. Changes in the signal intensity of the lesions were determined by their appearance in images at b=50, 400, and 800 s/mm2 and in ADC maps. Results were compared with histopathological findings. Results: All of the gastric tumors in this study showed high signal intensity in DW-MRI and low signal intensity in ADC maps. Mean ADC values for gastric tumor and normal gastric wall were 0.892±0.23 SD mm2/s and 1.453±0.35 SD mm2/s respectively. The mean ADC values of gastric tumors were significantly lower than that of the normal gastric wall. Conclusion: DW-MRI and ADC values together can successfully differentiate gastric tumors from normal gastric wall. PMID:25610124

  18. Integrative Diffusion-Weighted Imaging and Radiogenomic Network Analysis of Glioblastoma multiforme

    PubMed Central

    Heiland, Dieter Henrik; Simon-Gabriel, Carl Philipp; Demerath, Theo; Haaker, Gerrit; Pfeifer, Dietmar; Kellner, Elias; Kiselev, Valerij G.; Staszewski, Ori; Urbach, Horst; Weyerbrock, Astrid; Mader, Irina

    2017-01-01

    In the past, changes of the Apparent Diffusion Coefficient in glioblastoma multiforme have been shown to be related to specific genes and described as being associated with survival. The purpose of this study was to investigate diffusion imaging parameters in combination with genome-wide expression data in order to obtain a comprehensive characterisation of the transcriptomic changes indicated by diffusion imaging parameters. Diffusion-weighted imaging, molecular and clinical data were collected prospectively in 21 patients. Before surgery, MRI diffusion metrics such as axial (AD), radial (RD), mean diffusivity (MD) and fractional anisotropy (FA) were assessed from the contrast enhancing tumour regions. Intraoperatively, tissue was sampled from the same areas using neuronavigation. Transcriptional data of the tissue samples was analysed by Weighted Gene Co-Expression Network Analysis (WGCNA) thus classifying genes into modules based on their network-based affiliations. Subsequent Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) identified biological functions or pathways of the expression modules. Network analysis showed a strong association between FA and epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition (EMT) pathway activation. Also, patients with high FA had a worse clinical outcome. MD correlated with neural function related genes and patients with high MD values had longer overall survival. In conclusion, FA and MD are associated with distinct molecular patterns and opposed clinical outcomes. PMID:28266556

  19. Reduction of Diffusion-Weighted Imaging Contrast of Acute Ischemic Stroke at Short Diffusion Times.

    PubMed

    Baron, Corey Allan; Kate, Mahesh; Gioia, Laura; Butcher, Kenneth; Emery, Derek; Budde, Matthew; Beaulieu, Christian

    2015-08-01

    Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) of tissue water is a sensitive and specific indicator of acute brain ischemia, where reductions of the diffusion of tissue water are observed acutely in the stroke lesion core. Although these diffusion changes have been long attributed to cell swelling, the precise nature of the biophysical mechanisms remains uncertain. The potential cause of diffusion reductions after stroke was investigated using an advanced DWI technique, oscillating gradient spin-echo DWI, that enables much shorter diffusion times and can improve specificity for alterations of structure at the micron level. Diffusion measurements in the white matter lesions of patients with acute ischemic stroke were reduced by only 8% using oscillating gradient spin-echo DWI, in contrast to a 37% decrease using standard DWI. Neurite beading has recently been proposed as a mechanism for the diffusion changes after ischemic stroke with some ex vivo evidence. To explore whether beading could cause such differential results, simulations of beaded cylinders and axonal swelling were performed, yielding good agreement with experiment. Short diffusion times result in dramatically reduced diffusion contrast of human stroke. Simulations implicate a combination of neuronal beading and axonal swelling as the key structural changes leading to the reduced apparent diffusion coefficient after stroke. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  20. Diffusion-weighted whole-body MRI for evaluation of early response in multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Lacognata, C; Crimì, F; Guolo, A; Varin, C; De March, E; Vio, S; Ponzoni, A; Barilà, G; Lico, A; Branca, A; De Biasi, E; Gherlinzoni, F; Scapin, V; Bissoli, E; Berno, T; Zambello, R

    2017-10-01

    To evaluate the modifications of the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) in myelomatous lesions before and after induction treatment and the correlation with patient response to therapy according to International Myeloma Working Group (IMWG) criteria. A homogeneous group of 18 patients with a diagnosis of symptomatic multiple myeloma who underwent whole-body MRI with diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI-MRI) before and after bortezomib-based induction chemotherapy were evaluated prospectively. Quantitative analysis of ADC maps of myelomatous lesions was performed with the following pattern types: focal pattern, diffuse pattern (moderate and severe), and "salt and pepper" pattern. Lesions were evaluated by quantitative image analysis including measurement of the mean ADC in three measurements. Imaging results were compared to laboratory results as the clinical reference standard. A statistically significant increase in ADC values were found in the lesions of patients that responded to treatment. Interestingly, focal lesions showed a strongly significant increase in ADC values in responders, whereas no significant variation in ADC value in non-focal lesions (diffuse pattern and "salt and peppers" pattern) between responders and non-responders group was demonstrated. DWI-MRI could provide additional quantitative information useful in monitoring early therapy response according to ADC changes of focal lesions. Copyright © 2017 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. On the least-square estimation of parameters for statistical diffusion weighted imaging model.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Jing; Zhang, Qinwei

    2013-01-01

    Statistical model for diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) has been proposed for better tissue characterization by introducing a distribution function for apparent diffusion coefficients (ADC) to account for the restrictions and hindrances to water diffusion in biological tissues. This paper studies the precision and uncertainty in the estimation of parameters for statistical DWI model with Gaussian distribution, i.e. the position of distribution maxima (Dm) and the distribution width (σ), by using non-linear least-square (NLLS) fitting. Numerical simulation shows that precise parameter estimation, particularly for σ, imposes critical requirements on the extremely high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of DWI signal when NLLS fitting is used. Unfortunately, such extremely high SNR may be difficult to achieve for the normal setting of clinical DWI scan. For Dm and σ parameter mapping of in vivo human brain, multiple local minima are found and result in large uncertainties in the estimation of distribution width σ. The estimation error by using NLLS fitting originates primarily from the insensitivity of DWI signal intensity to distribution width σ, as given in the function form of the Gaussian-type statistical DWI model.

  2. Clinical utility of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging in the assessment of ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Lutsep, H L; Albers, G W; DeCrespigny, A; Kamat, G N; Marks, M P; Moseley, M E

    1997-05-01

    Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) detects small changes in water diffusion that occur in ischemic brain. This study evaluated the clinical usefulness of a phase-navigated spin-echo DWI sequence compared with T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (T2W MRI) in patients with cerebral ischemia and assessed apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and T2-weighted imaging (T2WI) changes over time. ADC values and T2 ratios of image intensity were measured from the region of ischemia and from the corresponding contralateral brain region. The clinical histories of patients with DWI scans obtained over the course of 1 year were reviewed to ascertain whether DWI aided in clinical diagnosis or management. Of 103 scans obtained a mean of 10.4 days after symptom onset, DWI detected six lesions not seen on T2WI and discriminated two new infarcts from old lesions. DWI was most useful within 48 hours of the ictus. The evolution of ADC values and T2 ratios was evaluated in 26 cases with known symptom onset times. ADC values were low at less than 1 week after stroke onset and became elevated at chronic time points. T2 ratios were near normal acutely, increasing thereafter. DWI was superior to T2W MRI in detecting acute stroke, whereas both techniques assisted in determining lesion age.

  3. Anomalous diffusion of brain metabolites evidenced by diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance spectroscopy in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Marchadour, Charlotte; Brouillet, Emmanuel; Hantraye, Philippe; Lebon, Vincent; Valette, Julien

    2012-01-01

    Translational displacement of molecules within cells is a key process in cellular biology. Molecular motion potentially depends on many factors, including active transport, cytosol viscosity and molecular crowding, tortuosity resulting from cytoskeleton and organelles, and restriction barriers. However, the relative contribution of these factors to molecular motion in the cytoplasm remains poorly understood. In this work, we designed an original diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance spectroscopy strategy to probe molecular motion at subcellular scales in vivo. This led to the first observation of anomalous diffusion, that is, dependence of the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) on the diffusion time, for endogenous intracellular metabolites in the brain. The observed increase of the ADC at short diffusion time yields evidence that metabolite motion is characteristic of hindered random diffusion rather than active transport, for time scales up to the dozen milliseconds. Armed with this knowledge, data modeling based on geometrically constrained diffusion was performed. Results suggest that metabolite diffusion occurs in a low-viscosity cytosol hindered by ∼2-μm structures, which is consistent with known intracellular organization. PMID:22929443

  4. Assessment of allograft function using diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging in kidney transplant patients.

    PubMed

    Kaul, Anupma; Sharma, Raj Kumar; Gupta, Rakesh Kumar; Lal, Hira; Yadav, Abhishek; Bhadhuria, Dharmendra; Prasad, Narayan; Gupta, Amit

    2014-11-01

    Developing a non-invasive method such as diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWMRI) could be used as a feasible and reproducible modality in the differential diagnosis of allograft dysfunction. We assessed the functional status of the renal allograft by DWMRI and its applicability in assessment of graft dysfunction on all end-stage renal transplant patients who attained normal renal function on the 7th day post-transplantation. Follow-up imaging of the recipient allograft was performed at the end of 90 and 180 days and in case of graft dysfunction. Kidney biopsies were performed to correlate with the corresponding MRI. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps of the cortex and medulla were obtained by studying the DWMRI. The ADC values were significantly lower in the medulla compared with the cortex in normal donor kidneys and normally functioning transplanted kidneys, while they decreased significantly when rejection occurred. The reduction in ADC values occurred both in the cortex and in the medulla, and correlated with the degree of rejection on the kidney biopsies. The ADC values increased significantly during the recovery from rejection. We conclude that DWMRI can be beneficial in the diagnosis and follow-up of transplant patients during acute rejection.

  5. Diffusion-weighted MRI as a predictor of extracapsular extension in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chan Kyo; Park, Sung Yoon; Park, Jung Jae; Park, Byung Kwan

    2014-03-01

    The objective of our study was to evaluate the value of the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) from diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) as a predictor of extracapsular extension (ECE) in patients with localized prostate cancer. Enrolled in this study were 167 patients who underwent preoperative DWI at 3 T followed by surgery. Univariate and multivariate analyses including clinical variables (serum prostate-specific antigen level, biopsy-based Gleason score, clinical stage, greatest percentage of cancer in all biopsy cores, and presence of perineural invasion) and tumor ADC data were performed for predicting ECE. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was also performed to investigate the diagnostic performance of the clinical variables and tumor ADC for predicting ECE. Histopathologic results indicated that 23 (13.8%) patients had ECE. At univariate analysis, tumor ADC, biopsy-based Gleason score, the presence of perineural invasion, and greatest percentage of cancer in all biopsy cores were associated with ECE (p<0.05). Multivariate analysis revealed that the greatest percentage of cancer in all biopsy cores (p=0.001), biopsy-based Gleason score (p=0.015), and tumor ADC (p=0.032) were independent predictors of ECE. For predicting ECE, the area under the curve (AUC) of tumor ADC was 0.771, which is the second best AUC of all the variables evaluated. As an imaging biomarker, tumor ADC may have potential for predicting ECE before surgery in patients with prostate cancer. Further studies investigating this possibility are warranted.

  6. Recurrence and metastasis of lung cancer demonstrate decreased diffusion on diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Usuda, Katsuo; Sagawa, Motoyasu; Motomo, Nozomu; Ueno, Masakatsu; Tanaka, Makoto; Machida, Yuichiro; Maeda, Sumiko; Matoba, Munetaka; Tonami, Hisao; Ueda, Yoshimichi; Sakuma, Tsutomu

    2014-01-01

    Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) is reported to be useful for detecting malignant lesions. The purpose of this study is to clarify characteristics of imaging, detection rate and sensitivity of DWI for recurrence or metastasis of lung cancer. A total of 36 lung cancer patients with recurrence or metastasis were enrolled in this study. While 16 patients underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT) and positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT), 17 underwent MRI and CT, and 3 underwent MRI and PET-CT. Each recurrence or metastasis showed decreased diffusion, which was easily recognized in DWI. The detection rate for recurrence or metastasis was 100% (36/36) in DWI, 89% (17/19) in PET-CT and 82% (27/33) in CT. Detection rate of DWI was significantly higher than that of CT (p=0.0244) but not significantly higher than that of PET-CT (p=0.22). When the optimal cutoff value of the apparent diffusion coefficient value was set as 1.70?10-3 mm2/sec, the sensitivity of DWI for diagnosing recurrence or metastasis of lung cancer was 95.6%. DWI is useful for detection of recurrence and metastasis of lung cancer.

  7. Enhancement of fiber orientation distribution reconstruction in diffusion-weighted imaging by single channel blind source separation.

    PubMed

    Jing, Min; McGinnity, T Martin; Coleman, Sonya; Zhang, Huaizhong; Fuchs, Armin; Kelso, J A Scott

    2012-02-01

    In diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), reliable fiber tracking results rely on the accurate reconstruction of the fiber orientation distribution function (fODF) in each individual voxel. For high angular resolution diffusion imaging (HARDI), deconvolution-based approaches can reconstruct the complex fODF and have advantages in terms of computational efficiency and no need to estimate the number of distinct fiber populations. However, HARDI-based methods usually require relatively high b-values and a large number of gradient directions to produce good results. Such requirements are not always easy to meet in common clinical studies due to limitations in MRI facilities. Moreover, most of these approaches are sensitive to noise. In this study, we propose a new framework to enhance the performance of the spherical deconvolution (SD) approach in low angular resolution DWI by employing a single channel blind source separation (BSS) technique to decompose the fODF initially estimated by SD such that the desired fODF can be extracted from the noisy background. The results based on numerical simulations and two phantom datasets demonstrate that the proposed method achieves better performance than SD in terms of robustness to noise and variation in b-values. In addition, the results show that the proposed method has the potential to be applied to low angular resolution DWI which is commonly used in clinical studies. © 2011 IEEE

  8. Relationship between diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging and histological tumor grading of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Nakanishi, Mitsuru; Chuma, Makoto; Hige, Shuhei; Omatsu, Tokuhiko; Yokoo, Hideki; Nakanishi, Kazuaki; Kamiyama, Toshiya; Kubota, Kanako; Haga, Hironori; Matsuno, Yoshihiro; Onodera, Yuya; Kato, Mototsugu; Asaka, Masahiro

    2012-04-01

    Intrahepatic and extrahepatic recurrence remains a significant problem for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The aim of this study was to determine the usefulness of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) for histological tumor grading and preoperative prediction of early HCC recurrence within 6 months of operation. A total of 44 patients who had undergone hepatic resection for HCC (50 nodules) were reviewed retrospectively. DWI was performed within 30 days before hepatectomy, and apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) were measured using 2 methods: mean ADC and minimum-spot ADC. Relationships between ADCs and histological differentiation and between ADCs and early recurrence of HCC were analyzed. Mean ADC was significantly lower in poorly differentiated HCC (n=18, 1.07±0.15×10(-3) mm2/s) than in moderately differentiated HCC (n=29, 1.29±0.21×10(-3) mm2/s; P<.05). Minimum-spot ADC was significantly lower in poorly differentiated HCC (n=18, 0.69±0.19×10(-3) mm2/s) than in well-differentiated HCC (n=3, 1.15±0.10×10(-3) mm2; P<.01) or in moderately differentiated HCC (n=29, 0.98±0.18×10(-3) mm2/s; P<.0001). Of 34 patients who were able to be observed for >6 months after resection, 9 showed early recurrence. Minimum-spot ADC was significantly lower in patients with early recurrence (n=9, 0.64±0.24×10(-3) mm2/s) than in patients without early recurrence (n=25, 0.88±0.19×10(-3) mm2/s; P<.05). On multivariate analysis, minimum-spot ADC was a significant risk factor for early recurrence (P<.05). Quantitative measurement of ADC of HCC with magnetic resonance diffusion weighted imaging is a promising functional imaging tool in the prediction of histological grade and early recurrence before treatment.

  9. Evaluation of Psoas Major and Quadratus Lumborum Recruitment Using Diffusion-Weighted Imaging Before and After 5 Trunk Exercises.

    PubMed

    Imai, Atsushi; Okubo, Yu; Kaneoka, Koji

    2017-02-01

    Study Design Controlled laboratory study, with a pretest-posttest design. Background Diffusion-weighted imaging is a noninvasive magnetic resonance imaging technique that can be used to assess the recruitment of the psoas major (PM) and quadratus lumborum (QL). The recruitment of these muscles during trunk exercises has not been evaluated. Objective To evaluate the diffusion of water movement in several trunk muscles using diffusion-weighted imaging before and after specific trunk exercises and thereby to understand the level of recruitment of each muscle during each exercise. Methods Nine healthy male participants performed the right side bridge, knee raise, and 3 front bridges, including the hand-knee, elbow-knee, and elbow-toe bridges. Diffusion-weighted imaging was performed before and after each exercise. After scanning, the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) map was constructed, and ADC values of the rectus abdominis, lateral abdominal muscles, QL, PM, and back muscles were calculated. Results The right PM following the elbow-toe bridge demonstrated the largest increase in ADC values, a change significantly greater than that demonstrated by the hand-knee bridge (P<.001) and side bridge (P = .002) exercises. The ADC change in the right QL following the side bridge exercise was significantly larger than that of other exercises (P<.008). Conclusion Of the 5 exercises investigated, the elbow-toe bridge and side bridge exercises elicit the greatest recruitment of the PM and QL, respectively. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2017;47(2):108-114. Epub 5 Nov 2016. doi:10.2519/jospt.2017.6730.

  10. Distinction Between Recurrent Glioma and Radiation Injury Using Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy in Combination With Diffusion-Weighted Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Zeng, Q.-S. . E-mail: nanwushan@yahoo.com; Li, C.-F.; Liu Hong; Zhen, J.-H.; Feng, D.-C.

    2007-05-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to explore the diagnostic effectiveness of magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopy with diffusion-weighted imaging on the evaluation of the recurrent contrast-enhancing areas at the site of treated gliomas. Methods and Materials: In 55 patients who had new contrast-enhancing lesions in the vicinity of the previously resected and irradiated high-grade gliomas, two-dimensional MR spectroscopy and diffusion-weighted imaging were performed. Spectral data for N-acetylaspartate (NAA), choline (Cho), creatine (Cr), lipid (Lip), and lactate (Lac) were analyzed in conjunction with the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) in all patients. Diagnosis of these lesions was assigned by means of follow-up or histopathology. Results: The Cho/NAA and Cho/Cr ratios were significantly higher in recurrent tumor than in regions of radiation injury (p < 0.01). The ADC value and ADC ratios (ADC of contrast-enhancing lesion to matching structure in the contralateral hemisphere) were significantly higher in radiation injury regions than in recurrent tumor (p < 0.01). With MR spectroscopic data, two variables (Cho/NAA and Cho/Cr ratios) were shown to differentiate recurrent glioma from radiation injury, and 85.5% of total subjects were correctly classified into groups. However, with discriminant analysis of MR spectroscopy imaging plus diffusion-weighted imaging, three variables (Cho/NAA, Cho/Cr, and ADC ratio) were identified and 96.4% of total subjects were correctly classified. There was a significant difference between the diagnostic accuracy of the two discriminant analyses (Chi-square = 3.96, p = 0.046). Conclusion: Using discriminant analysis, this study found that MR spectroscopy in combination with ADC ratio, rather than ADC value, can improve the ability to differentiate recurrent glioma and radiation injury.

  11. Diffusion-weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging as a Novel Imaging Modality in Assessing Treatment Response in Necrotizing Otitis Externa.

    PubMed

    Cherko, Matthew; Nash, Robert; Singh, Arvind; Lingam, Ravi Kumar

    2016-07-01

    To report our initial experience of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) as a novel imaging tool for assessing and monitoring treatment response in necrotizing otitis externa (NOE). Seven adults with a diagnosis of NOE on both clinical and computed tomography (CT) criteria who were subsequently monitored with at least two echoplanar DW-MRI investigations were included in this retrospective longitudinal observational study. Patients underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), including echoplanar diffusion-weighted sequences, within 2 weeks of diagnosis of NOE to determine the extent of infection and to provide a baseline scan for monitoring response to treatment. Repeated imaging was undertaken after the agreed initial course of antimicrobial therapy was completed. The primary outcome measure for complete treatment response was complete resolution of high inflammatory signal on the DW-MRI apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) map. This was correlated to clinical, biochemical, and other MRI measures of disease resolution. Baseline DW-MRI was carried out in all but one patient within 2 weeks of the initial diagnostic CT scan. Patients had between one and three further DW-MRI scans, at a mean interval of 4.4 months from the initial scan (range, 2-8 months). The decision to terminate or continue therapy correlated with ADC signal findings on DW-MRI in all cases. In comparison, conventional MRI sequences performed less well, as there was some degree of persistent residual soft tissue changes in all cases.

  12. Efficient and precise calculation of the b-matrix elements in diffusion-weighted imaging pulse sequences.

    PubMed

    Zubkov, Mikhail; Stait-Gardner, Timothy; Price, William S

    2014-06-01

    Precise NMR diffusion measurements require detailed knowledge of the cumulative dephasing effect caused by the numerous gradient pulses present in most NMR pulse sequences. This effect, which ultimately manifests itself as the diffusion-related NMR signal attenuation, is usually described by the b-value or the b-matrix in the case of multidirectional diffusion weighting, the latter being common in diffusion-weighted NMR imaging. Neglecting some of the gradient pulses introduces an error in the calculated diffusion coefficient reaching in some cases 100% of the expected value. Therefore, ensuring the b-matrix calculation includes all the known gradient pulses leads to significant error reduction. Calculation of the b-matrix for simple gradient waveforms is rather straightforward, yet it grows cumbersome when complexly shaped and/or numerous gradient pulses are introduced. Making three broad assumptions about the gradient pulse arrangement in a sequence results in an efficient framework for calculation of b-matrices as well providing some insight into optimal gradient pulse placement. The framework allows accounting for the diffusion-sensitising effect of complexly shaped gradient waveforms with modest computational time and power. This is achieved by using the b-matrix elements of the simple unmodified pulse sequence and minimising the integration of the complexly shaped gradient waveform in the modified sequence. Such re-evaluation of the b-matrix elements retains all the analytical relevance of the straightforward approach, yet at least halves the amount of symbolic integration required. The application of the framework is demonstrated with the evaluation of the expression describing the diffusion-sensitizing effect, caused by different bipolar gradient pulse modules.

  13. Efficient and precise calculation of the b-matrix elements in diffusion-weighted imaging pulse sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zubkov, Mikhail; Stait-Gardner, Timothy; Price, William S.

    2014-06-01

    Precise NMR diffusion measurements require detailed knowledge of the cumulative dephasing effect caused by the numerous gradient pulses present in most NMR pulse sequences. This effect, which ultimately manifests itself as the diffusion-related NMR signal attenuation, is usually described by the b-value or the b-matrix in the case of multidirectional diffusion weighting, the latter being common in diffusion-weighted NMR imaging. Neglecting some of the gradient pulses introduces an error in the calculated diffusion coefficient reaching in some cases 100% of the expected value. Therefore, ensuring the b-matrix calculation includes all the known gradient pulses leads to significant error reduction. Calculation of the b-matrix for simple gradient waveforms is rather straightforward, yet it grows cumbersome when complexly shaped and/or numerous gradient pulses are introduced. Making three broad assumptions about the gradient pulse arrangement in a sequence results in an efficient framework for calculation of b-matrices as well providing some insight into optimal gradient pulse placement. The framework allows accounting for the diffusion-sensitising effect of complexly shaped gradient waveforms with modest computational time and power. This is achieved by using the b-matrix elements of the simple unmodified pulse sequence and minimising the integration of the complexly shaped gradient waveform in the modified sequence. Such re-evaluation of the b-matrix elements retains all the analytical relevance of the straightforward approach, yet at least halves the amount of symbolic integration required. The application of the framework is demonstrated with the evaluation of the expression describing the diffusion-sensitizing effect, caused by different bipolar gradient pulse modules.

  14. Rocky Mountain spotted fever: 'starry sky' appearance with diffusion-weighted imaging in a child.

    PubMed

    Crapp, Seth; Harrar, Dana; Strother, Megan; Wushensky, Curtis; Pruthi, Sumit

    2012-04-01

    We present a case of Rocky Mountain spotted fever encephalitis in a child imaged utilizing diffusion-weighted MRI. Although the imaging and clinical manifestations of this entity have been previously described, a review of the literature did not reveal any such cases reported in children utilizing diffusion-weighted imaging. The imaging findings and clinical history are presented as well as a brief review of this disease.

  15. Novel Diffusion-Weighted MRI for High-Grade Prostate Cancer Detection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-10-01

    1 1 AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0346 TITLE: Novel Diffusion-Weighted MRI for High-Grade Prostate Cancer Detection PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Novel Diffusion-Weighted MRI for High-Grade Prostate Cancer Detection 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-15-1...therapy, and reduce biopsies needed on surveillance of indolent disease. 15. SUBJECT TERMS FROC, Prostate Cancer, MRI , Diffusion 16. SECURITY

  16. Diffusion-Weighted Imaging of Traumatic Optic Neuropathy: Diagnosis and Predicting the Prognosis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    AFRL-SA-WP-SR-2014-0004 Diffusion-Weighted Imaging of Traumatic Optic Neuropathy : Diagnosis and Predicting the Prognosis...Diffusion-Weighted Imaging of Traumatic Optic Neuropathy : Diagnosis and Predicting the Prognosis 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c...Skills Institute C-STARS Baltimore 2510 Fifth St. Wright-Patterson AFB, OH 45433-7913 8 . PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER AFRL-SA

  17. Investigation of field and diffusion time dependence of the diffusion-weighted signal at ultrahigh magnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Kunz, Nicolas; Sizonenko, Stéphane V; Hüppi, Petra S; Gruetter, Rolf; van de Looij, Yohan

    2013-10-01

    Over the last decade, there has been a significant increase in the number of high-magnetic-field MRI magnets. However, the exact effect of a high magnetic field strength (B0 ) on diffusion-weighted MR signals is not yet fully understood. The goal of this study was to investigate the influence of different high magnetic field strengths (9.4 T and 14.1 T) and diffusion times (9, 11, 13, 15, 17 and 24 ms) on the diffusion-weighted signal in rat brain white matter. At a short diffusion time (9 ms), fractional anisotropy values were found to be lower at 14.1 T than at 9.4 T, but this difference disappeared at longer diffusion times. A simple two-pool model was used to explain these findings. The model describes the white matter as a first hindered compartment (often associated with the extra-axonal space), characterized by a faster orthogonal diffusion and a lower fractional anisotropy, and a second restricted compartment (often associated with the intra-axonal space), characterized by a slower orthogonal diffusion (i.e. orthogonal to the axon direction) and a higher fractional anisotropy. Apparent T2 relaxation time measurements of the hindered and restricted pools were performed. The shortening of the pseudo-T2 value from the restricted compartment with B0 is likely to be more pronounced than the apparent T2 changes in the hindered compartment. This study suggests that the observed differences in diffusion tensor imaging parameters between the two magnetic field strengths at short diffusion time may be related to differences in the apparent T2 values between the pools. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Effect of region of interest on interobserver variance in apparent diffusion coefficient measures.

    PubMed

    Bilgili, Yasemin; Unal, Birsen

    2004-01-01

    Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values derived from diffusion-weighted MR imaging are useful measurements for assessment of cellular alterations in pathologic conditions of the brain. In this study, two radiologists independently quantitated ADCs and region-of interest sizes in prespecified locations of human brain to test interobserver ADC variance and the effect of varying ROI sizes on ADC differences. Twenty-seven patients with normal MR findings underwent diffusion-weighted imaging (b value = 1000 s/mm(2)) on a 1.5-T system. Two radiologists independently placed two ROI areas of 22 +/- 5 mm(2) and 62 +/- 6 mm(2) (former area inside the latter area) at different sites of the brain (centrum semiovale, frontal white matter, nucleus caudatus, putamen, thalamus, substantia nigra, red nucleus, and pons) from trace images. Differences in ADC measurement obtained from each region of the brain for each radiologist and the size of each ROI were compared statistically. Mean ADC of prespecified areas of brain ranged between 0.673 and 0.818 mm(2)/s x10(-3). Interobserver variance was significant in some of the specified areas (centrum semiovale, frontal white matter, pons, substantia nigra, and red nucleus). Varying ROI sizes at the pons, substantia nigra, and red nucleus yielded statistically different ADC values. ADC values are found to be unreliable for use in assessing brain disease in some specified areas of the brain owing to interobserver variance and different ROI sizes.

  19. Challenges in determining b value in the Northwest Geysers

    SciTech Connect

    Saltiel, S.; Boyle, K.; Majer, E.

    2011-02-01

    Past analyses of the Gutenberg-Richter b-value in the Geysers and other geothermal settings have revealed a deviation from the assumed linear relationship in log space between magnitude and the number of earthquakes. In this study of the Northwest Geysers, we found a gently-sloping discontinuity in the b-value curve. This is especially apparent when comparing the least-squares fit (LSQ) of the curve to the fit obtained by the maximum likelihood estimation (MLE), a widely-respected method of analyzing magnitude-frequency relationships. This study will describe the assumptions made when using each of these two methods and will also explore how they can be used in conjunction to investigate the characteristics of the observed b-value curve. To understand whether slope-fit differences in the LSQR and MLE methods is due to physical properties of the system or due to artifacts from errors in sampling, it is extremely important to consider the catalog completeness, magnitude bin size, number of events, and differences in source mechanisms for the events comprising the study volume. This work will hopefully lead to informative interpretations of frequency-magnitude curves for the Northwest Geysers, a geothermal area of ongoing high-volume coldwater injection and steam production. Through this statistical investigation of the catalog contents, we hope to better understand the dominant source mechanisms and the role of injected fluids in the creation of seismic clustering around nearly 60 wells of varying depths and injection volumes.

  20. Diagnostic Performance of Diffusion-weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Bone Malignancy

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Li-Peng; Cui, Long-Biao; Zhang, Xin-Xin; Cao, Jing; Chang, Ning; Tang, Xing; Qi, Shun; Zhang, Xiao-Liang; Yin, Hong; Zhang, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Current state-of-the-art nuclear medicine imaging methods (such as PET/CT or bone scintigraphy) may have insufficient sensitivity for predicting bone tumor, and substantial exposure to ionizing radiation is associated with the risk of secondary cancer development. Diffusion-weighted MRI (DW-MRI) is radiation free and requires no intravenous contrast media, and hence is more suitable for population groups that are vulnerable to ionizing radiation and/or impaired renal functions. This meta-analysis was conducted to investigate whether whole-body DW-MRI is a viable means in differentiating bone malignancy. Medline and Embase databases were searched from their inception to May 2015 without language restriction for studies evaluating DW-MRI for detection of bone lesions. Methodological quality was assessed by the quality assessment of diagnostic studies (QUADAS-2) instrument. Sensitivities, specificities, diagnostic odds ratio (DOR), and areas under the curve (AUC) were used as measures of the diagnostic accuracy. We combined the effects by using the random-effects mode. Potential threshold effects and publication bias were investigated. We included data from 32 studies with 1507 patients. The pooled sensitivity, specificity, and AUC were 0.95 (95% CI, 0.90–0.97), 0.92 (95% CI, 0.88–0.95), and 0.98 on a per-patient basis, and they were 0.91 (95% CI, 0.87–0.94), 0.94 (95% CI, 0.90–0.96), and 0.97 on a per-lesion basis. In subgroup analysis, there is no statistical significance found in the sensitivity and specificity of using DWI only and DWI combined with other morphological or functional imaging sequence in both basis (P > 0.05). A b value of 750 to 1000 s/mm2 enables higher AUC and DOR for whole-body imaging purpose when compared with other values in both basis either (P < 0.01). The ROC space did not show a curvilinear trend of points and a threshold effect was not observed. According to the Deek's plots, there was no publication bias on

  1. Diffusion-weighted imaging improves outcome prediction in pediatric traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Galloway, Nicholas R; Tong, Karen A; Ashwal, Stephen; Oyoyo, Udochukwu; Obenaus, André

    2008-10-01

    Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and consequent apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps have been used for lesion detection and as a predictor of outcome in adults with traumatic brain injury (TBI), but few studies have been reported in children. We evaluated the role of DWI and ADC for outcome prediction after pediatric TBI (n=37 TBI; n=10 controls). Fifteen regions of interest (ROIs) were manually drawn on ADC maps that were grouped for analysis into peripheral gray matter, peripheral white matter, deep gray and white matter, and posterior fossa. All ROIs excluded areas that appeared abnormal on T2-weighted images (T2WI). Acute injury severity was measured using the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score, and 6-12-month outcomes were assessed using the Pediatric Cerebral Performance Category Scale (PCPCS) score. Patients were categorized into five groups: (1) controls; (2) all TBI patients; (3) mild/moderate TBI with good outcomes; (4) severe TBI with good outcomes; and (5) severe TBI with poor outcomes. ADC values in the peripheral white matter were significantly reduced in children with severe TBI with poor outcomes (72.8+/-14.4x10(-3) mm2/sec) compared to those with severe TBI and good outcomes (82.5+/-3.8x10(-3) mm2/sec; p<0.05). We also found that the average total brain ADC value alone had the greatest ability to predict outcome and could correctly predict outcome in 84% of cases. Assessment of DWI and ADC values in pediatric TBI is useful in evaluating injury, particularly in brain regions that appear normal on conventional imaging. Early identification of children at high risk for poor outcome may assist in aggressive clinical management of pediatric TBI patients.

  2. Diffusion weighted MR imaging and proton MR spectroscopy findings of central neurocytoma with pathological correlation.

    PubMed

    Tlili-Graiess, Kalthoum; Mama, Nadia; Arifa, Nadia; Kadri, Khaled; Hasni, Ibtissem; Krifa, Hedi; Mokni, Moncef

    2014-10-01

    Three cases of histopathologically confirmed central neurocytoma (CN) are presented, emphasizing diagnostic imaging issues: conventional magnetic resonance imaging with Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) findings of CN. Patients age ranged from 17 to 32 years, Imaging include a CT scan and MR examination with DWI and proton MRS on a 1.5-T system. DWI and subsequent apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) were obtained in all. Single voxel MRS was performed prior to surgery using a point resolved spectroscopy sequence (PRESS) with short 35 ms and long echotime (TE) 144 ms, associated with a two-dimensional chemical Shift Imaging (2D-CSI) with 144 ms TE (one case). Histopathological examination included immunostaining with synaptophysin. With the long TE, a variable amount of glycine with markedly increased choline, very small to almost complete loss of N-acetylaspartate and creatine, and inverted triplet of alanine-lactate were observed in all three patients. Increased glutamate and glutamine complex (Glx) was also observed in all with short TE. DWI demonstrated variable low ADC which appeared well correlated with the tumor signal intensity and cell density: the most homogeneous and highly dense cellular tumor with increased nucleus to cytoplasm ratio demonstrated the lower ADC. Histological pattern was typical in two cases and demonstrated an oligodendroglioma-like pattern in one case. Positivity for synaptophysin confirmed the neuronal origin in all. The demonstration within an intraventricular tumor of both glycine and alanine on MRS along with high choline, bulky Glx and restricted diffusion appear diagnostic of CN. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Cerebral Effects of Targeted Temperature Management Methods Assessed by Diffusion-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    PubMed

    Grejs, Anders Morten; Gjedsted, Jakob; Pedersen, Michael; Birke-Sørensen, Hanne; Rauff-Mortensen, Andreas; Andersen, Kristian Kjær; Kirkegaard, Hans

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this randomized porcine study was to compare surface targeted temperature management (TTM) to endovascular TTM evaluated by cerebral diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI): apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), and by intracerebral/intramuscular microdialysis. It is well known that alteration in the temperature affects ADC, but the relationship between cerebral ADC values and the cooling method per se has not been established. Eighteen anesthetized 60-kg female swine were hemodynamically and intracerebrally monitored and subsequently subjected to a baseline MRI. The animals were then randomized into three groups: (1) surface cooling (n = 6) at 33.5°C using EMCOOLSpad(®), (2) endovascular cooling (n = 6) at 33.5°C using an Icy(®) cooling catheter with the CoolGard 3000(®), or (3) control (n = 6) at 38.5°C using a Bair Hugger™. The swine were treated with TTM for 6 hours followed by a second MRI examination, including ADC. Blood and microdialysate were sampled regularly throughout the experiment, and glucose, lactate, pyruvate, glycerol, and the lactate/pyruvate ratio did not differ among groups, neither intracerebrally nor intramuscularly. Surface cooling yielded a significantly lower median ADC than endovascular cooling: 714 (634; 804) × 10(-6) mm(2)/s versus 866 (828; 927) × 10(-6) mm(2)/s, (p < 0.05). The surface cooling ADC was lowered to a range usually attributed to cytotoxic edema and these low values could not be explained solely by the temperature effect per se. To what extent the ADC is fully reversible at rewarming is unknown and the clinical implications should be further investigated in clinical studies.

  4. Intravoxel incoherent motion diffusion-weighted MR imaging of gliomas: efficacy in preoperative grading.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yu-Chuan; Yan, Lin-Feng; Wu, Lang; Du, Pang; Chen, Bao-Ying; Wang, Liang; Wang, Shu-Mei; Han, Yu; Tian, Qiang; Yu, Ying; Xu, Tian-Yong; Wang, Wen; Cui, Guang-Bin

    2014-12-01

    The preoperative grading of gliomas, which is critical for guiding therapeutic strategies, remains unsatisfactory. We aimed to retrospectively assess the efficacy of intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in the grading of gliomas. Forty-two newly diagnosed glioma patients underwent conventional MR imaging, DWI, and contrast-enhanced MR imaging. Parameters of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), slow diffusion coefficient (D), fast diffusion coefficient (D*), and fraction of fast ADC (f) were generated. They were tested for differences between low- and high-grade gliomas based on one-way ANOVA. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analyses were conducted to determine the optimal thresholds as well as the sensitivity and specificity for grading. ADC, D, and f were higher in the low-grade gliomas, whereas D* tended to be lower (all P<0.05). The AUC, sensitivity, specificity and the cutoff value, respectively, for differentiating low- from high-grade gliomas for ADC, D and f, and differentiating high- from low-grade gliomas for D* were as follows: ADC, 0.926, 100%, 82.8%, and 0.7 × 10(-3) mm(2)/sec; D, 0.942, 92.3%, 86.2%, and 0.623 × 10(-3) mm(2)/sec; f, 0.902, 92.3%, 86.2%, and 35.3%; D*, 0.798, 79.3%, 84.6%, and 0.303 × 10(-3) mm(2)/sec. The IVIM DWI demonstrates efficacy in differentiating the low- from high-grade gliomas.

  5. Quantitative diffusion weighted MRI: a functional biomarker of nodal disease in Hodgkin lymphoma?

    PubMed

    Punwani, Shonit; Prakash, Vineet; Bainbridge, Alan; Taylor, Stuart A; Bandula, Steven; Olsen, Oystein E; Hain, Sharon F; Shankar, Ananth; Daw, Stephen; Humphries, Paul

    2010-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between MRI Apparent Diffusion Coefficient (ADC) and PET Standardized Uptake Value (SUV) measurements in pediatric Hodgkin lymphoma. Sixteen patients (mean age 15.4 yrs, 8 male) with proven Hodgkin lymphoma were recruited and staged using PET-CT, anatomical MRI and additional 1.5T diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) prior to and following chemotherapy. Pre-treatment lymph nodes and anatomically paired post-treatment residual tissue located on MRI were matched to the corresponding PET-CT. Region of interest (ROI) analysis was used to extract quantitative measurements. Mean ADC (ADC(mean)) and maximum SUV (SUV(max)) were recorded and correlation assessed using Spearman statistics. Fifty-three ROIs were sampled. Pre- and post-treatment ADC(mean) ranged from 0.77 × 10(−3) to 1.79 × 10(−3) (median 1.15 × 10(−3) mm(2)s(−1)) and 1.08 × 10(−3) to 3.18 ×10(−3) (median 1.88 × 10(−3) mm(2)s(−1)), and SUV(max) from 2.60 to 25.4 (median 8.85 mg/ml) and 1.00 to 3.50 mg/ml (median 1.90 mg/ml). Median post-treatment ADC(mean) was higher, and median SUV(max) lower than pretreatment values (p < 0.0001). There was an inverse correlation between pre-treatment ADC(mean) and SUV(max) (p = 0.005) and between fractional change ([post-treatment – pre-treatment]/pre-treatment)in ADC(mean) and SUV(max) (p =0.002). Our results confirm a strong reciprocal relationship between nodal ADC(mean) and SUV(max) in Hodgkin lymphoma;supporting the potential application of quantitative DWI as a functional biomarker of disease.

  6. Utility of diffusion-weighted imaging to assess hepatocellular carcinoma viability following transarterial chemoembolization.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Zheng; Li, Wen-Tao; Ye, Xiao-Dan; Peng, Wei-Jun; Xiao, Xiang-Sheng

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate whether diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) can be used to assess hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) viability following transarterial chemoembolization (TACE). A total of 41 consecutive patients were treated according to chemoembolization protocols. The follow-up was performed between six and eight weeks post-chemoembolization by multidetector computed tomography [or enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)] and DW-MRI on the same day. The presence of any residual tumor and the extent of tumor necrosis were evaluated according to the European Association for the Study of the Liver. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values of the entire area of the treated mass and the vital and necrotic tumor tissues were recorded. Correlation coefficients were also calculated to compare the percentage of necrosis with ADC values. The mean ADC values of the necrotic and vital tumor tissues were 2.22±0.31×10(-3) mm(2)/sec and 1.42±0.25×10(-3) mm(2)/sec, respectively (Mann-Whitney U test, P<0.001). The results from the receiver operating characteristic analysis showed that the threshold ADC value was 1.84×10(-3) mm(2)/sec with 92.3% sensitivity and 100% specificity for identifying the necrotic tumor tissues. A significant linear regression correlation was identified between the ADC value of the entire area of the treated mass and the extent of tumor necrosis (r=0.58; P<0.001). In conclusion, DWI can be used to assess HCC viability following TACE.

  7. Cardiac diffusion-weighted MR imaging in recent, subacute, and chronic myocardial infarction: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Laissy, Jean-Pierre; Gaxotte, Virginia; Ironde-Laissy, Elisabeth; Klein, Isabelle; Ribet, Aurélie; Bendriss, Ahmed; Chillon, Sylvie; Schouman-Claeys, Elisabeth; Steg, P Gabriel; Serfaty, Jean-Michel

    2013-12-01

    To investigate the clinical feasibility of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) to detect recent myocardial infarction (MI) and to differentiate it from subacute and chronic MI, with late-gadolinium enhancement (LGE) sequence as reference. Furthermore, to measure variation of the myocardial apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) according to the age of MI. Seventy-four MI patients were separated in 3 groups. Group A included 34 recent (< 8 days) MI patients; group B, 22 subacute (9-90 days) MI patients; group C, 18 chronic (> 90 days) MI patients; a fourth group (group D) included 24 controls. DWI and LGE images were acquired on a 1.5T system. DWI and LGE matched images were assessed visually by two blinded observers for hyperintense areas in corresponding segments. Qualitative assessment of DWI compared with LGE images yielded a sensitivity of 97% and a specificity of 61%/14% to differentiate recent from chronic/subacute MI, respectively. The absolute ADCs (recent 0.00632 ± 0.00037 mm(2) /s, subacute 0.00639 ± 0.00035 mm(2) /s, chronic 0.00743 ± 0.00056 mm(2) /s, remote or normal 0.00895 ± 0.00019 mm(2) /s) and relative ADCs were significantly different between groups (P < 0.001) except between recent and subacute MIs. DWI is a sensitive technique to diagnose recent MI. DWI MR sequences could help differentiate recent from chronic MI. From these preliminary results, one should expect DWI to be used in the triage of emergency patients with atypical chest pain, to clarify if an MI is present or not in just a few minutes. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Detection of electroporation-induced membrane permeabilization states in the brain using diffusion-weighted MRI

    PubMed Central

    Mahmood, Faisal; Hansen, Rasmus H.; Agerholm-Larsen, Birgit; Gissel, Hanne; Ibsen, Per

    2015-01-01

    Background Tissue permeabilization by electroporation (EP) is a promising technique to treat certain cancers. Non-invasive methods for verification of induced permeabilization are important, especially in deep-seated cancers. In this study we evaluated diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) as a quantitative method for detecting EP-induced membrane permeabilization of brain tissue using a rat brain model. Material and methods Fifty-four anesthetized Sprague-Dawley male rats were electroporated in the right hemisphere, using different voltage levels to induce no permeabilization (NP), transient membrane permeabilization (TMP), and permanent membrane permeabilization (PMP), respectively. DW-MRI was acquired 5 minutes, 2 hours, 24 hours and 48 hours after EP. Histology was performed for validation of the permeabilization states. Tissue content of water, Na+, K+, Ca2+, and extracellular volume were determined. The Kruskal-Wallis test was used to compare the DW-MRI parameters, apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and kurtosis, at different voltage levels. The two-sample Mann- Whitney test with Holm's Bonferroni correction was used to identify pairs of significantly different groups. The study was approved by the Danish Animal Experiments Inspectorate. Results and conclusion Results showed significant difference in the ADC between TMP and PMP at 2 hours (p < 0.001) and 24 hours (p < 0.05) after EP. Kurtosis was significantly increased both at TMP (p < 0.05) and PMP (p < 0.001) 5 minutes after EP, compared to NP. Kurtosis was also significantly higher at 24 hours (p < 0.05) and 48 hours (p < 0.05) at PMP compared to NP. Physiological parameters indicated correlation with the permeabilization states, supporting the DW-MRI findings. We conclude that DW-MRI is capable of detecting EP-induced permeabilization of brain tissue and to some extent of differentiating NP, TMP and PMP using appropriate scan timing. PMID:25591820

  9. Temporal and spatial profile of brain diffusion-weighted MRI after cardiac arrest

    PubMed Central

    Mlynash, M.; Campbell, D.M.; Leproust, E.M.; Fischbein, N.J.; Bammer, R.; Eyngorn, I.; Hsia, A.W.; Moseley, M.; Wijman, C.A.C.

    2010-01-01

    Background and Purpose Diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI) of the brain is a promising technique to help predict functional outcome in comatose survivors of cardiac arrest. We aimed to evaluate prospectively the temporal-spatial profile of brain apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) changes in comatose survivors during the first 8 days after cardiac arrest. Methods ADC values were measured by two independent and blinded investigators in predefined brain regions in 18 good and 15 poor outcome patients with 38 brain MRIs, and compared with 14 normal controls. The same brain regions were also assessed qualitatively by two other independent and blinded investigators. Results In poor outcome patients, cortical structures, in particular the occipital and temporal lobes, and the putamen exhibited the most profound ADC reductions, which were noted as early as 1.5 days and reached nadir between 3 to 5 days after the arrest. Conversely, when compared to normal controls, good outcome patients exhibited increased diffusivity, in particular in the hippocampus, temporal and occipital lobes, and corona radiata. By the qualitative MRI readings, one or more cortical gray matter structures were read as moderately-to-severely abnormal in all poor outcome patients imaged beyond 54 hours after the arrest, but not in the three patients imaged earlier. Conclusions Brain DWI changes in comatose post-cardiac arrest survivors in the first week after the arrest are region- and time-dependent and differ between good and poor outcome patients. With the increasing use of MRI in this context, it is important to be aware of these relationships. PMID:20595666

  10. Diffusion-weighted imaging in extracranial head and neck schwannomas: A distinctive appearance

    PubMed Central

    Das, Abanti; Bhalla, Ashu S; Sharma, Raju; Kumar, Atin; Thakar, Alok; Goyal, Ankur

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the diffusion weighted (DW) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of the extracranial schwannomas of head and neck. Materials and Methods: The MRI (including DWI) of 12 patients with pathologically proven head and neck schwannomas (4 men, 8 women, with mean age of 32.6 years; age range 16–50 years) were retrospectively evaluated. Images were analyzed for signal intensity and morphology on conventional sequences followed by the qualitative evaluation of DW images (DWI) and measurement of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values. Results: Majority of the tumors were located in the parapharyngeal space (8/12). All but one showed heterogeneous appearance, with 10 tumors showing scattered areas of hemorrhage. Eight out of 12 tumors showed intensely hyperintense core surrounded by intermediate signal intensity peripheral rim (reverse target sign) on T2-weighted (T2W) images. On DWI, these eight tumors showed a distinctive appearance, resembling target sign on trace DWI and reverse target on ADC map. Out of the remaining four tumors, one showed uniformly restricted diffusion whereas three showed free diffusion. Mean ADC value in the central area of free diffusion was 2.277 × 10−3 mm2/s (range of 1.790 × 10 −3 to 2.605 × 10−3 mm2/s) whereas in the peripheral area was 1.117 × 10−3 mm2/s (range of 0.656 × 10−3 to 1.701 × 10−3 mm2/s). Rest of the schwannomas showing free diffusion had a mean ADC value of 1.971 × 10−3 mm2/s. Conclusion: Majority of the head and neck schwannomas showed a characteristic appearance of free diffusion in the centre and restricted diffusion in the periphery of the mass. PMID:27413271

  11. Investigations on the efficiency of cardiac-gated methods for the acquisition of diffusion-weighted images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunes, Rita G.; Jezzard, Peter; Clare, Stuart

    2005-11-01

    Diffusion-weighted images are inherently very sensitive to motion. Pulsatile motion of the brain can give rise to artifactual signal attenuation leading to over-estimation of the apparent diffusion coefficients, even with snapshot echo planar imaging. Such miscalculations can result in erroneous estimates of the principal diffusion directions. Cardiac gating can be performed to confine acquisition to the quiet portion of the cycle. Although effective, this approach leads to significantly longer acquisition times. On the other hand, it has been demonstrated that pulsatile motion is not significant in regions above the corpus callosum. To reduce acquisition times and improve the efficiency of whole brain cardiac-gated acquisitions, the upper slices of the brain can be imaged during systole, reserving diastole for those slices most affected by pulsatile motion. The merits and disadvantages of this optimized approach are investigated here, in comparison to a more standard gating method and to the non-gated approach.

  12. [The clinical application of hydrogen magnetic resonance spectroscopy combining with diffusion weight imaging in brain gliomas grading].

    PubMed

    Xu, Shengsheng; Ouyang, Yu; Luo, Tianyou; Zeng, Yongming; Zhou, Xiangping; Xiao, Jiahe

    2011-06-01

    The present study was aimed to investigate the function of diffusion weight imaging (DWI) combining with magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) in the grading of brain gliomas. 12 cases low grade and 17 cases high grade of brain gliomas patients were examined with DWI and MRS, with all tumors confirmed by pathology in advance. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values, their corresponding metabolite ratios of Cho/Cr, Cho/NAA and tumor cellularities of tumor solid enhanced parts were measured. The ratios of Cho/Cr and Cho/NAA and their corresponding ADC values had significant differences between their high and low grade gliomas values, respectively. The ADC values demonstrated a negative correlation with Cho/Cr, Cho/NAA, and a significant negative correlated with Cho/Cr. And the ADC values demonstrated strong negative correlations with tumor cellularities. DWI combining with MRS could provide more valuable information in evaluating gliomas grading.

  13. Effects of b-value and number of gradient directions on diffusion MRI measures obtained with Q-ball imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schilling, Kurt G.; Nath, Vishwesh; Blaber, Justin; Harrigan, Robert L.; Ding, Zhaohua; Anderson, Adam W.; Landman, Bennett A.

    2017-02-01

    High-angular-resolution diffusion-weighted imaging (HARDI) MRI acquisitions have become common for use with higher order models of diffusion. Despite successes in resolving complex fiber configurations and probing microstructural properties of brain tissue, there is no common consensus on the optimal b-value and number of diffusion directions to use for these HARDI methods. While this question has been addressed by analysis of the diffusion-weighted signal directly, it is unclear how this translates to the information and metrics derived from the HARDI models themselves. Using a high angular resolution data set acquired at a range of b-values, and repeated 11 times on a single subject, we study how the b-value and number of diffusion directions impacts the reproducibility and precision of metrics derived from Q-ball imaging, a popular HARDI technique. We find that Q-ball metrics associated with tissue microstructure and white matter fiber orientation are sensitive to both the number of diffusion directions and the spherical harmonic representation of the Q-ball, and often are biased when under sampled. These results can advise researchers on appropriate acquisition and processing schemes, particularly when it comes to optimizing the number of diffusion directions needed for metrics derived from Q-ball imaging.

  14. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of diffusion-weighted imaging of gestational trophoblastic disease: Can it predict progression of molar pregnancy to persistent form of disease?

    PubMed

    Sefidbakht, Sepideh; Hosseini, Fatemeh; Bijan, Bijan; Hamedi, Bahareh; Azizi, Tayyebeh

    2017-03-01

    To describe the diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) appearance of gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD) and to determine its apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values. To evaluate the feasibility of DWI to predict progression of hydatidiform mole (HM) to persistent disease. During a period of 6 months, women with preliminary diagnosis of GTD, based on ultrasound and ßhCG levels, underwent 1.5T MRI (T2 high-resolution and DWI; b values 50, 400, 800; sagittal and perpendicular to the endometrium; and T1, T2 Turbo Spin Echo [TSE] axial images). Patients were followed for 6-12 months to monitor progression to persistent form of the disease. ADC values and image characteristics were compared between HM and persistent neoplasia and between GTD and non-molar pregnancy using Mann-Whitney U and Fisher's exact tests, respectively. Among the 23 studied patients, 19 (83%) were classified as molar and 4 (17%) as non-molar, based on pathology reports. After 6-12 months of follow-up, 5 (26%) cases progressed to persistent disease and 14 (74%) cases were benign HM. There was no significant difference between ADC values for HM (1.93±0.33×10(-3)mm(2)/s) and persistent neoplasia (2.03±0.28×10(-3)mm(2)/s) (P=0.69). The ADC of non-molar pregnancies was (0.96±0.46×10(-3)mm(2)/s), which was significantly different from GTD (1.96 ±0.32×10(-3)mm(2)/s) (P=0.001). Heterogeneous snowstorm appearance, focal intratumoral hemorrhage, myometrial contraction, and prominent myometrial vascularity were more common in GTD compared to non-molar pregnancy (P<0.05). Heterogeneous snowstorm appearance, focal intratumoral hemorrhage, myometrial contraction, and prominent myometrial vascularity are among the imaging characteristics of GTD. We cannot use ADC values to predict progression to persistent disease. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Value of Diffusion-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Prediction and Early Assessment of Response to Neoadjuvant Radiochemotherapy in Rectal Cancer: Preliminary Results

    SciTech Connect

    Lambrecht, Maarten; Vandecaveye, Vincent; De Keyzer, Frederik; Roels, Sarah; Penninckx, Freddy; Van Cutsem, Eric; Filip, Claus; Haustermans, Karin

    2012-02-01

    Purpose: To evaluate diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) for response prediction before and response assessment during and early after preoperative radiochemotherapy (RCT) for locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC). Methods and Materials: Twenty patients receiving RCT for LARC underwent MRI including DWI before RCT, after 10-15 fractions and 1 to 2 weeks before surgery. Tumor volume and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC; b-values: 0-1000 s/mm{sup 2}) were determined at all time points. Pretreatment tumor ADC and volume, tumor ADC change ( Increment ADC), and volume change ( Increment V) between pretreatment and follow-up examinations were compared with histopathologic findings after total mesorectal excision (pathologic complete response [pCR] vs. no pCR, ypT0-2 vs. ypT3-4, T-downstaging or not). The discriminatory capability of pretreatment tumor ADC and volume, Increment ADC, and Increment V for the detection of pCR was compared with receiver operating characteristics analysis. Results: Pretreatment ADC was significantly lower in patients with pCR compared with patients without (in mm{sup 2}/s: 0.94 {+-} 0.12 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3} vs. 1.19 {+-} 0.22 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3}, p = 0.003), yielding a sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 86% for detection of pCR. The volume reduction during and after RCT was significantly higher in patients with pCR compared with patients without (in %: {Delta}V{sub during}: -62 {+-} 16 vs. -33 {+-} 16, respectively, p = 0.015; and {Delta}V{sub post}: -86 {+-} 12 vs. -60 {+-} 21, p = 0.012), yielding a sensitivity of 83% and specificity of 71% for the {Delta}V{sub during} and, respectively, 83% and 86% for the {Delta}V{sub post}. The Increment ADC during ({Delta}ADC{sub during}) and after RCT ({Delta}ADC{sub post}) showed a significantly higher value in patients with pCR compared with patients without (in %: {Delta}ADC{sub during}: 72 {+-} 14 vs. 16 {+-} 12, p = 0.0006; and {Delta}ADC{sub post}: 88

  16. Functional imaging in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma: correlation of PET/CT and diffusion-weighted imaging at 3 Tesla.

    PubMed

    Fruehwald-Pallamar, Julia; Czerny, Christian; Mayerhoefer, Marius E; Halpern, Benjamin S; Eder-Czembirek, Christina; Brunner, Markus; Schuetz, Matthias; Weber, Michael; Fruehwald, Laura; Herneth, Andreas M

    2011-06-01

    The purposes of this study were: (a) to prospectively assess the correlation between apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values and maximum standardized uptake values (SUVmax) in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (SCC); and (b) to assess ADC and SUVmax values in relation to different tumour grades and stages in our patient population. The study group comprised 31 consecutive patients with biopsy-proven head and neck squamous cell carcinoma who were examined using a 3T MRI scanner with a 16-channel head and neck coil. In addition to routine sequences, axial (DWIBS) and sagittal (DW-EPI) diffusion-weighted sequences were obtained using b-values of 0 mm(2)/s and 800 mm(2)/s. The ADC maps were calculated automatically. The ADC values of the tumours were measured with three regions of interest (ROIs) of standard size, and an ROI covering the entire tumour. In all patients, contrast-enhanced, whole-body (18)F-FDG PET/CT was performed within 2 weeks of the MRI examination. SUVmax was measured for every tumour using a 3-D freehand ROI that covered the entire tumour. Two-way repeated measures ANOVA was used for group comparisons. The Spearman rank correlation test was performed for ADC values. Mean ADC values in the 31 SCC were 0.902 (± 0.134) with a ROI of standard size, and 0.928 (± 0.160) with the large ROI measurements on the axial DWIBS sequence. The ADC values of the tumours were significantly higher when measured with the sagittal DW-EPI sequence: 1.051 (± 0.211) and 1.082 (± 0.208). We observed no significant differences in ADC values and SUVmax between the various T stages or histological grades of the tumours. SUVmax values (26.5 ± 12) did not correlate with ADC values on DWIBS or EPI. There is no correlation between the FDG uptake and the ADC value in head and neck SCC. The three different tumour grades and four tumour stages present in our study population could not be differentiated based on ADC values or SUV.

  17. Apparent diffusion coefficient of normal adrenal glands*

    PubMed Central

    Teixeira, Sara Reis; Elias, Paula Condé Lamparelli; Leite, Andrea Farias de Melo; de Oliveira, Tatiane Mendes Gonçalves; Muglia, Valdair Francisco; Elias Junior, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess the feasibility and reliability of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) measurements of normal adrenal glands. Materials and methods This was a retrospective study involving 32 healthy subjects, divided into two groups: prepubertal (PreP, n = 12), aged from 2 months to 12.5 years (4 males; 8 females); and postpubertal (PostP, n = 20), aged from 11.9 to 61 years (5 males; 15 females). Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) sequences were acquired at a 1.5 T scanner using b values of 0, 20, 500, and 1000 s/mm2. Two radiologists evaluated the images. ADC values were measured pixel-by-pixel on DW-MRI scans, and automatic co-registration with the ADC map was obtained. Results Mean ADC values for the right adrenal glands were 1.44 × 10-3 mm2/s for the PreP group and 1.23 × 10-3 mm2/s for the PostP group, whereas they were 1.58 × 10-3 mm2/s and 1.32 × 10-3 mm2/s, respectively, for the left glands. ADC values were higher in the PreP group than in the PostP group (p < 0.05). Agreement between readers was almost perfect (intraclass correlation coefficient, 0.84-0.94; p < 0.05). Conclusion Our results demonstrate the feasibility and reliability of performing DW-MRI measurements of normal adrenal glands. They could also support the feasibility of ADC measurements of small structures. PMID:28057963

  18. Apparent diffusion coefficient of normal adrenal glands.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Sara Reis; Elias, Paula Condé Lamparelli; Leite, Andrea Farias de Melo; de Oliveira, Tatiane Mendes Gonçalves; Muglia, Valdair Francisco; Elias Junior, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    To assess the feasibility and reliability of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) measurements of normal adrenal glands. This was a retrospective study involving 32 healthy subjects, divided into two groups: prepubertal (PreP, n = 12), aged from 2 months to 12.5 years (4 males; 8 females); and postpubertal (PostP, n = 20), aged from 11.9 to 61 years (5 males; 15 females). Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) sequences were acquired at a 1.5 T scanner using b values of 0, 20, 500, and 1000 s/mm(2). Two radiologists evaluated the images. ADC values were measured pixel-by-pixel on DW-MRI scans, and automatic co-registration with the ADC map was obtained. Mean ADC values for the right adrenal glands were 1.44 × 10(-3) mm(2)/s for the PreP group and 1.23 × 10(-3) mm(2)/s for the PostP group, whereas they were 1.58 × 10(-3) mm(2)/s and 1.32 × 10(-3) mm(2)/s, respectively, for the left glands. ADC values were higher in the PreP group than in the PostP group (p < 0.05). Agreement between readers was almost perfect (intraclass correlation coefficient, 0.84-0.94; p < 0.05). Our results demonstrate the feasibility and reliability of performing DW-MRI measurements of normal adrenal glands. They could also support the feasibility of ADC measurements of small structures.

  19. Cerebral infarction: time course of signal intensity changes on diffusion-weighted MR images.

    PubMed

    Burdette, J H; Ricci, P E; Petitti, N; Elster, A D

    1998-09-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the time course of signal intensity changes on diffusion-weighted MR images after cerebral infarction. Echoplanar diffusion-weighted MR images were obtained at 1.5 T in 212 patients referred for suspected cerebral infarction over a 6-month period. Of those patients, 85 met strict criteria for inclusion in this study: final clinical diagnosis of stroke, reliable timing of clinical ictus by history, and neurologic symptoms persisting longer than 48 hr after onset. Using adjacent or contralateral normal brain for comparison, diffusion-weighted images were visually analyzed retrospectively to evaluate for abnormalities in signal intensity. Because three patients were scanned on two occasions and five patients had two anatomically separable infarctions, 93 reliably dated brain lesions were analyzed. Diffusion-weighted images showed abnormal findings in 13 (100%) of 13 lesions less than 1 day old, 46 (96%) of 48 lesions 1-4 days old, 16 (94%) of 17 lesions 5-9 days old, three (60%) of five lesions 10-14 days old, and zero (0%) of 10 lesions more than 14 days old. Abnormal signal intensity was present on all diffusion-weighted MR studies obtained in patients within 24 hr of acute cerebral infarction and in up to 94% of patients scanned during the first 2 weeks after ictus. The percentage of abnormal diffusion studies declined with time, and no signal intensity abnormality was seen in stroke patients scanned more than 2 weeks after symptom onset.

  20. High b-value diffusion imaging of dementia: application to vascular dementia and alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Mayzel-Oreg, Orna; Assaf, Yaniv; Gigi, Ariela; Ben-Bashat, Dafna; Verchovsky, Ruth; Mordohovitch, M; Graif, M; Hendler, Talma; Korczyn, Amos; Cohen, Yoram

    2007-06-15

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Vascular Dementia (VaD) are the most common types of dementia and are progressive diseases affecting millions of people. Despite the high sensitivity of MRI to neurological disorders it has not thus far been found to be specific for the detection of either of these pathologies. In the present study high b-value q-space diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI) was applied to VaD and AD. Controls (N=4), VaD patients (N=8) and AD patients (N=6) were scanned with high b-value DWI, which emphasizes the water component which exhibits restricted diffusion. VaD patients were found to present major WM loss while, in AD, the major pathology found was GM changes, as expected. Also, WM changes in VaD and AD were of a different pattern, more specific to frontal and temporal areas in AD and more widespread in VaD. This pattern of WM changes may be utilized as a diagnosis criterion. Conventional diffusion tensor imaging did not show significant changes between either of the groups and controls. These results demonstrate the potential of high b-value DWI in the diagnosis of dementia.

  1. Demonstration of Non-Gaussian Restricted Diffusion in Tumor Cells Using Diffusion Time-Dependent Diffusion-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging Contrast

    PubMed Central

    Hope, Tuva R.; White, Nathan S.; Kuperman, Joshua; Chao, Ying; Yamin, Ghiam; Bartch, Hauke; Schenker-Ahmed, Natalie M.; Rakow-Penner, Rebecca; Bussell, Robert; Nomura, Natsuko; Kesari, Santosh; Bjørnerud, Atle; Dale, Anders M.

    2016-01-01

    The diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) technique enables quantification of water mobility for probing microstructural properties of biological tissue and has become an effective tool for collecting information about the underlying pathology of cancerous tissue. Measurements using multiple b-values have indicated biexponential signal attenuation, ascribed to “fast” (high ADC) and “slow” (low ADC) diffusion components. In this empirical study, we investigate the properties of the diffusion time (Δ)-dependent components of the diffusion-weighted (DW) signal in a constant b-value experiment. A xenograft gliobastoma mouse was imaged using Δ = 11 ms, 20 ms, 40 ms, 60 ms, and b = 500–4000 s/mm2 in intervals of 500 s/mm2. Data were corrected for EPI distortions, and the Δ-dependence on the DW-signal was measured within three regions of interest [intermediate- and high-density tumor regions and normal-appearing brain (NAB) tissue regions]. In this study, we verify the assumption that the slow decaying component of the DW-signal is non-Gaussian and dependent on Δ, consistent with restricted diffusion of the intracellular space. As the DW-signal is a function of Δ and is specific to restricted diffusion, manipulating Δ at constant b-value (cb) provides a complementary and direct approach for separating the restricted from the hindered diffusion component. We found that Δ-dependence is specific to the tumor tissue signal. Based on an extended biexponential model, we verified the interpretation of the diffusion time-dependent contrast and successfully estimated the intracellular restricted ADC, signal volume fraction, and cell size within each ROI. PMID:27532028

  2. Functional localization of the human color center by decreased water displacement using diffusion-weighted fMRI.

    PubMed

    Williams, Rebecca J; Reutens, David C; Hocking, Julia

    2015-11-01

    Decreased water displacement following increased neural activity has been observed using diffusion-weighted functional MRI (DfMRI) at high b-values. The physiological mechanisms underlying the diffusion signal change may be unique from the standard blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) contrast and closer to the source of neural activity. Whether DfMRI reflects neural activity more directly than BOLD outside the primary cerebral regions remains unclear. Colored and achromatic Mondrian visual stimuli were statistically contrasted to functionally localize the human color center Area V4 in neurologically intact adults. Spatial and temporal properties of DfMRI and BOLD activation were examined across regions of the visual cortex. At the individual level, DfMRI activation patterns showed greater spatial specificity to V4 than BOLD. The BOLD activation patterns were more prominent in the primary visual cortex than DfMRI, where activation was localized to the ventral temporal lobe. Temporally, the diffusion signal change in V4 and V1 both preceded the corresponding hemodynamic response, however the early diffusion signal change was more evident in V1. DfMRI may be of use in imaging applications implementing cognitive subtraction paradigms, and where highly precise individual functional localization is required.

  3. Whole-body diffusion-weighted MRI: tips, tricks, and pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Koh, Dow-Mu; Blackledge, Matthew; Padhani, Anwar R; Takahara, Taro; Kwee, Thomas C; Leach, Martin O; Collins, David J

    2012-08-01

    We examine the clinical impetus for whole-body diffusion-weighted MRI and discuss how to implement the technique with clinical MRI systems. We include practical tips and tricks to optimize image quality and reduce artifacts. The interpretative pitfalls are enumerated, and potential challenges are highlighted. Whole-body diffusion-weighted MRI can be used for tumor staging and assessment of treatment response. Meticulous technique and knowledge of potential interpretive pitfalls will help to avoid mistakes and establish this modality in radiologic practice.

  4. Extrapolation-Based References Improve Motion and Eddy-Current Correction of High B-Value DWI Data: Application in Parkinson's Disease Dementia.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Markus; Szczepankiewicz, Filip; van Westen, Danielle; Hansson, Oskar

    2015-01-01

    Conventional motion and eddy-current correction, where each diffusion-weighted volume is registered to a non diffusion-weighted reference, suffers from poor accuracy for high b-value data. An alternative approach is to extrapolate reference volumes from low b-value data. We aim to compare the performance of conventional and extrapolation-based correction of diffusional kurtosis imaging (DKI) data, and to demonstrate the impact of the correction approach on group comparison studies. DKI was performed in patients with Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD), and healthy age-matched controls, using b-values of up to 2750 s/mm2. The accuracy of conventional and extrapolation-based correction methods was investigated. Parameters from DTI and DKI were compared between patients and controls in the cingulum and the anterior thalamic projection tract. Conventional correction resulted in systematic registration errors for high b-value data. The extrapolation-based methods did not exhibit such errors, yielding more accurate tractography and up to 50% lower standard deviation in DKI metrics. Statistically significant differences were found between patients and controls when using the extrapolation-based motion correction that were not detected when using the conventional method. We recommend that conventional motion and eddy-current correction should be abandoned for high b-value data in favour of more accurate methods using extrapolation-based references.

  5. Extrapolation-Based References Improve Motion and Eddy-Current Correction of High B-Value DWI Data: Application in Parkinson’s Disease Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Nilsson, Markus; Szczepankiewicz, Filip; van Westen, Danielle; Hansson, Oskar

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Conventional motion and eddy-current correction, where each diffusion-weighted volume is registered to a non diffusion-weighted reference, suffers from poor accuracy for high b-value data. An alternative approach is to extrapolate reference volumes from low b-value data. We aim to compare the performance of conventional and extrapolation-based correction of diffusional kurtosis imaging (DKI) data, and to demonstrate the impact of the correction approach on group comparison studies. Methods DKI was performed in patients with Parkinson’s disease dementia (PDD), and healthy age-matched controls, using b-values of up to 2750 s/mm2. The accuracy of conventional and extrapolation-based correction methods was investigated. Parameters from DTI and DKI were compared between patients and controls in the cingulum and the anterior thalamic projection tract. Results Conventional correction resulted in systematic registration errors for high b-value data. The extrapolation-based methods did not exhibit such errors, yielding more accurate tractography and up to 50% lower standard deviation in DKI metrics. Statistically significant differences were found between patients and controls when using the extrapolation-based motion correction that were not detected when using the conventional method. Conclusion We recommend that conventional motion and eddy-current correction should be abandoned for high b-value data in favour of more accurate methods using extrapolation-based references. PMID:26528541

  6. [Importance of diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging at differentiation of cholesteatoma and granulation tissue in patients with chronic suppurative otitis media].

    PubMed

    Tuzcu, Göksel; Yardımcı, Aytül Hande; Turna, Önder; Göner, Reyyan Elif; Acıoğlu, Engin

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to report the significance of echo-planar diffusion-weighted imaging (EP-DWI) in preoperative magnetic resonance imaging of patients with surgically corrected cholesteatoma and granulation tissue according to DWI and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values. Ninety-one patients (52 males, 39 females; mean age 40.7±15.8 years; range 3 to 77 years) who admitted to radiology clinic of our hospital between December 2009 and May 2011 with a pre-diagnosis of chronic otitis media with primary acquired cholesteatoma and assessed preoperatively in our clinic by ear magnetic resonance imaging and DWI were included in the study. Diffusion-weighted imaging results were compared with operative findings and pathology results. Patients were retrospectively evaluated using picture archiving and communication system. Diffusion-weighted imaging and ADC images were examined qualitatively and quantitatively. Ninety-one patients suspected of cholesteatoma were operated. According to the results of operations, 50 patients had cholesteatoma and 41 patients had granulation tissue. The mean DWI values of patients with cholesteatoma were significantly higher than patients with granulation tissue (p<0.05). The mean ADC values of patients with cholesteatoma were significantly lower than patients with granulation tissue (p<0.05). The sensitivity and specificity of EP-DWI in detection of cholesteatoma were 97.6% and 92.0%, respectively. Echo-planar diffusion-weighted imaging by using ADC and DWI is a valuable tool with high sensitivity and specificity rates in detecting cholesteatoma particularly bigger than 5 mm and in differentiating them from other pathologies.

  7. Diffusion-Weighted Imaging with Dual-Echo Echo-Planar Imaging for Better Sensitivity to Acute Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Holdsworth, S.J.; Yeom, K.W.; Antonucci, M.U.; Andre, J.B.; Rosenberg, J.; Aksoy, M.; Straka, M.; Fischbein, N.J.; Bammer, R.; Moseley, M.E.; Zaharchuk, G.; Skare, S.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Parallel imaging facilitates the acquisition of echo-planar images with a reduced TE, enabling the incorporation of an additional image at a later TE. Here we investigated the use of a parallel imaging–enhanced dual-echo EPI sequence to improve lesion conspicuity in diffusion-weighted imaging. MATERIALS AND METHODS Parallel imaging–enhanced dual-echo DWI data were acquired in 50 consecutive patients suspected of stroke at 1.5T. The dual-echo acquisition included 2 EPI for 1 diffusion-preparation period (echo 1 [TE = 48 ms] and echo 2 [TE = 105 ms]). Three neuroradiologists independently reviewed the 2 echoes by using the routine DWI of our institution as a reference. Images were graded on lesion conspicuity, diagnostic confidence, and image quality. The apparent diffusion coefficient map from echo 1 was used to validate the presence of acute infarction. Relaxivity maps calculated from the 2 echoes were evaluated for potential complementary information. RESULTS Echo 1 and 2 DWIs were rated as better than the reference DWI. While echo 1 had better image quality overall, echo 2 was unanimously favored over both echo 1 and the reference DWI for its high sensitivity in detecting acute infarcts. CONCLUSIONS Parallel imaging–enhanced dual-echo diffusion-weighted EPI is a useful method for evaluating lesions with reduced diffusivity. The long TE of echo 2 produced DWIs that exhibited superior lesion conspicuity compared with images acquired at a shorter TE. Echo 1 provided higher SNR ADC maps for specificity to acute infarction. The relaxivity maps may serve to complement information regarding blood products and mineralization. PMID:24763417

  8. In vivo cardiac diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging: quantification of normal perfusion and diffusion coefficients with intravoxel incoherent motion imaging.

    PubMed

    Delattre, Benedicte M A; Viallon, Magalie; Wei, Hongjiang; Zhu, Yuemin M; Feiweier, Thorsten; Pai, Vinay M; Wen, Han; Croisille, Pierre

    2012-11-01

    Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and the introduction of the intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) model have provided a unique method for evaluating perfusion and diffusion within a tissue without the need for a contrast agent. Despite its relevance, cardiac DWI has thus far been limited by low b values because of signal loss induced by physiological motion. The goal of this study was to develop a methodology for estimating IVIM parameters of in vivo cardiac magnetic resonance imaging using an efficient DWI acquisition framework. This was achieved by investigating various acquisition strategies (principal component analysis [PCA] filtering and temporal maximum intensity projection [PCATMIP] and single trigger delay [TD]) and fitting methods. Simulations were performed on a synthetic dataset of diffusion-weighted signal intensity (SI) to determine the fitting method that would yield IVIM parameters with the greatest accuracy. The required number of b values to correctly estimate IVIM parameters was also investigated. Breath-hold DWI scans were performed for 12 volunteers to collect several TD values during diastole. Thirteen b values ranging from 0 to 550 s/mm were used. The IVIM parameters derived using the data from all the acquired TDs (PCATMIP technique) were compared with those derived using a single acquisition performed at an optimized diastolic time point (1TD). The main result of this study was that PCATMIP, when combined with a fitting model that accounted for T1 and T2 relaxation, provided IVIM parameters with less variability. However, an acquisition performed with 1 optimized diastolic TD provided results that were as good as those provided using PCATMIP if the R-R variability during the acquisition was sufficiently low (± 5%). Furthermore, the use of only 9 b values (that could be acquired in 2 breath-holds), instead of 13 b values (requiring 3 breath-holds), was sufficient to determine the IVIM parameters. This study demonstrates that IVIM is

  9. Comparison of qualitative and quantitative evaluation of diffusion-weighted MRI and chemical-shift imaging in the differentiation of benign and malignant vertebral body fractures.

    PubMed

    Geith, Tobias; Schmidt, Gerwin; Biffar, Andreas; Dietrich, Olaf; Dürr, Hans Roland; Reiser, Maximilian; Baur-Melnyk, Andrea

    2012-11-01

    The objective of our study was to compare the diagnostic value of qualitative diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), quantitative DWI, and chemical-shift imaging in a single prospective cohort of patients with acute osteoporotic and malignant vertebral fractures. The study group was composed of patients with 26 osteoporotic vertebral fractures (18 women, eight men; mean age, 69 years; age range, 31 years 6 months to 86 years 2 months) and 20 malignant vertebral fractures (nine women, 11 men; mean age, 63.4 years; age range, 24 years 8 months to 86 years 4 months). T1-weighted, STIR, and T2-weighted sequences were acquired at 1.5 T. A DW reverse fast imaging with steady-state free precession (PSIF) sequence at different delta values was evaluated qualitatively. A DW echo-planar imaging (EPI) sequence and a DW single-shot turbo spin-echo (TSE) sequence at different b values were evaluated qualitatively and quantitatively using the apparent diffusion coefficient. Opposed-phase sequences were used to assess signal intensity qualitatively. The signal loss between in- and opposed-phase images was determined quantitatively. Two-tailed Fisher exact test, Mann-Whitney test, and receiver operating characteristic analysis were performed. Sensitivities, specificities, and accuracies were determined. Qualitative DW-PSIF imaging (delta = 3 ms) showed the best performance for distinguishing between benign and malignant fractures (sensitivity, 100%; specificity, 88.5%; accuracy, 93.5%). Qualitative DW-EPI (b = 50 s/mm(2) [p = 1.00]; b = 250 s/mm(2) [p = 0.50]) and DW single-shot TSE imaging (b = 100 s/mm(2) [p = 1.00]; b = 250 s/mm(2) [p = 0.18]; b = 400 s/mm(2) [p = 0.18]; b = 600 s/mm(2) [p = 0.39]) did not indicate significant differences between benign and malignant fractures. DW-EPI using a b value of 500 s/mm(2) (p = 0.01) indicated significant differences between benign and malignant vertebral fractures. Quantitative DW-EPI (p = 0.09) and qualitative opposed-phase imaging (p = 0

  10. Clear Depiction of Inflammatory Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm with Diffusion-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Orta Kilickesmez, Kadriye; Kilickesmez, Ozgur

    2010-04-15

    We report the case of an inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm incidentally detected clearly with diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) during the examination of a patient with myelofibrosis with myeloid metaplasia that later converted to acute myeloid leukemia. DW-MRI revealed a hyperintense halo surrounding the abdominal aorta with aneurysmatic dilatation, establishing the diagnosis.

  11. Tensor Based Representation and Analysis of Diffusion-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Images

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barmpoutis, Angelos

    2009-01-01

    Cartesian tensor bases have been widely used to model spherical functions. In medical imaging, tensors of various orders can approximate the diffusivity function at each voxel of a diffusion-weighted MRI data set. This approximation produces tensor-valued datasets that contain information about the underlying local structure of the scanned tissue.…

  12. Super-resolution reconstruction of diffusion parameters from diffusion-weighted images with different slice orientations.

    PubMed

    Van Steenkiste, Gwendolyn; Jeurissen, Ben; Veraart, Jelle; den Dekker, Arnold J; Parizel, Paul M; Poot, Dirk H J; Sijbers, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Diffusion MRI is hampered by long acquisition times, low spatial resolution, and a low signal-to-noise ratio. Recently, methods have been proposed to improve the trade-off between spatial resolution, signal-to-noise ratio, and acquisition time of diffusion-weighted images via super-resolution reconstruction (SRR) techniques. However, during the reconstruction, these SRR methods neglect the q-space relation between the different diffusion-weighted images. An SRR method that includes a diffusion model and directly reconstructs high resolution diffusion parameters from a set of low resolution diffusion-weighted images was proposed. Our method allows an arbitrary combination of diffusion gradient directions and slice orientations for the low resolution diffusion-weighted images, optimally samples the q- and k-space, and performs motion correction with b-matrix rotation. Experiments with synthetic data and in vivo human brain data show an increase of spatial resolution of the diffusion parameters, while preserving a high signal-to-noise ratio and low scan time. Moreover, the proposed SRR method outperforms the previous methods in terms of the root-mean-square error. The proposed SRR method substantially increases the spatial resolution of MRI that can be obtained in a clinically feasible scan time. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Tensor Based Representation and Analysis of Diffusion-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Images

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barmpoutis, Angelos

    2009-01-01

    Cartesian tensor bases have been widely used to model spherical functions. In medical imaging, tensors of various orders can approximate the diffusivity function at each voxel of a diffusion-weighted MRI data set. This approximation produces tensor-valued datasets that contain information about the underlying local structure of the scanned tissue.…

  14. Efficacy of HGF carried by ultrasound microbubble-cationic nano-liposomes complex for treating hepatic fibrosis in a bile duct ligation rat model, and its relationship with the diffusion-weighted MRI parameters.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shou-hong; Wen, Kun-ming; Wu, Wei; Li, Wen-yan; Zhao, Jian-nong

    2013-12-01

    Hepatic fibrosis is a major consequence of liver aggression. Finding novel ways for counteracting this damaging process, and for evaluating fibrosis with a non-invasive imaging approach, represent important therapeutic and diagnostic challenges. Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is an anti-fibrosis cell growth factor that induces apoptosis in activated hepatic stellate cells, reduces excessive collagen deposition, and stimulates hepatocyte regeneration. Thus, using HGF in gene therapy against liver fibrosis is an attractive approach. The aims of the present study were: (i) to explore the efficacy of treating liver fibrosis using HGF expression vector carried by a novel ultrasound microbubble delivery system; (ii) to explore the diagnostic interest of diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI-MRI) in evaluating liver fibrosis. We established a rat model of hepatic fibrosis. The rats were administered HGF linked to novel ultrasound micro-bubbles. Progression of hepatic fibrosis was evaluated by histopathology, hydroxyproline content, and DWI-MRI to determine the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC). Our targeted gene therapy produced a significant anti-fibrosis effect, as shown by liver histology and significant reduction of hydroxyproline content. Moreover, using DWI-MRI, the b value (diffusion gradient factor) was equal to 300s/mm(2), and the ADC values significantly decreased as the severity of hepatic fibrosis increased. Using this methodology, F0-F2 could be distinguished from F3 and F4 (P<0.01). This is the first in vivo report of using an ultrasound microbubble-cationic nano-liposome complex for gene delivery. The data indicate that, this approach is efficient to counteract the fibrosis process. DWI-MRI appears a promising imaging technique for evaluating liver fibrosis.

  15. Diffusion weighted imaging and diffusion tensor imaging in the evaluation of transplanted kidneys.

    PubMed

    Palmucci, Stefano; Cappello, Giuseppina; Attinà, Giancarlo; Foti, Pietro Valerio; Siverino, Rita Olivia Anna; Roccasalva, Federica; Piccoli, Marina; Sinagra, Nunziata; Milone, Pietro; Veroux, Massimiliano; Ettorre, Giovanni Carlo

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the relation between renal indexes and functional MRI in a population of kidney transplant recipients who underwent MR with diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) of the transplanted graft. Study population included 40 patients with single kidney transplant. The patients were divided into 3 groups, on the basis of creatinine clearance (CrCl) values calculated using Cockcroft-Gault formula: group A, including patients with normal renal function (CrCl ≥ 60 mL/min); group B, which refers to patients with moderate renal impairment (CrCl > 30 but <60 mL/min); and, finally, group C, which means severe renal deterioration (CrCl ≤ 30 mL/min). All patients were investigated with a 1.5 Tesla MRI scanner, acquiring DWI and DTI sequences. A Mann-Whitney U test was adopted to compare apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) and fractional anisotropy (FA) measurements between groups. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were created for prediction of normal renal function (group A) and renal failure (group C). Pearson correlation was performed between renal clearance and functional imaging parameter (ADC and FA), obtained for cortical and medullar regions. Mann-Whitney U test revealed a highly significant difference (p < 0.01) between patients with low CrCl (group C) and normal CrCl (group A) considering both medullar ADC and FA and cortical ADC. Regarding contiguous groups, the difference between group B and C was highly significant (p < 0.01) for medullar ADC and significant (p < 0.05) for cortical ADC and medullar FA. No difference between these groups was found considering cortical FA. Analyzing groups A and B, we found a significant difference (p < 0.05) for medullar both ADC and FA, while no difference was found for cortical ADC and FA. Strongest Pearson correlation was found between CrCl and medullar ADC (r = 0.65). For predicting normal renal function or severe renal

  16. Spectrum of the posterior inferior cerebellar artery territory infarcts. Clinical-diffusion-weighted imaging correlates.

    PubMed

    Kumral, Emre; Kisabay, Ayşin; Ataç, Ceyla; Calli, Cem; Yunten, Nilgun

    2005-01-01

    The clinical, etiological and stroke mechanisms are defined well before but the detailed clinical and etiologic mechanisms regarding to all clinical spectrum of posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) infarcts were not systematically studied by diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI). Seventy-four patients with PICA territory ischemic lesion proved by DWI with decreased apparent diffusion coefficient and FLAIR (fluid attenuation inversion recovery) included in our Registry, corresponding to 2% of 3,650 patients with ischemic stroke, were studied. The presence of steno-occlusive lesions in the posterior circulation were sought by magnetic resonance angiography, and reviewed with a three-dimensional rotating cineangiographic method. We found six subgroups of PICA territory infarcts according clinico-topographical relationship: (1) 9 patients with lesion in the territory lateral branch of PICA; (2) 23 patients with an infarct in the territory of medial branch of PICA; (3) 9 patients with a lesion involving both medial and lateral branches of the PICA; (4) 9 patients with cortical infarcts at the boundary zones either between medial and lateral branches of the PICA or between PICA and m/l superior cerebellar artery (SCA); (5) 10 patients with a lesion at the deep boundary zones either between medial and lateral PICA, or between PICA and medial/lateral SCA; (6)14 patients with concomitant multiple lesions in the PICA and in other vertebrobasilar artery territories. The main cause of PICA infarcts was extracranial large-artery disease in 30 patients (41%) patients, cardioembolism and in situ branch disease in 15 patients (20%) each. Multiple PICA territory lesions on DWI were not uncommon and could be caused by multiple emboli originating from break-up of atherosclerotic plaque in the subclavian/innominate-vertebral arterial system. DWI findings of single or multiple small lesions could account for some cases with transient and subtle cerebellar symptoms which have been

  17. Diffusion weighted imaging and diffusion tensor imaging in the evaluation of transplanted kidneys

    PubMed Central

    Palmucci, Stefano; Cappello, Giuseppina; Attinà, Giancarlo; Foti, Pietro Valerio; Siverino, Rita Olivia Anna; Roccasalva, Federica; Piccoli, Marina; Sinagra, Nunziata; Milone, Pietro; Veroux, Massimiliano; Ettorre, Giovanni Carlo

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study is to investigate the relation between renal indexes and functional MRI in a population of kidney transplant recipients who underwent MR with diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) of the transplanted graft. Method Study population included 40 patients with single kidney transplant. The patients were divided into 3 groups, on the basis of creatinine clearance (CrCl) values calculated using Cockcroft-Gault formula: group A, including patients with normal renal function (CrCl ≥ 60 mL/min); group B, which refers to patients with moderate renal impairment (CrCl > 30 but <60 mL/min); and, finally, group C, which means severe renal deterioration (CrCl ≤ 30 mL/min). All patients were investigated with a 1.5 Tesla MRI scanner, acquiring DWI and DTI sequences. A Mann–Whitney U test was adopted to compare apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) and fractional anisotropy (FA) measurements between groups. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were created for prediction of normal renal function (group A) and renal failure (group C). Pearson correlation was performed between renal clearance and functional imaging parameter (ADC and FA), obtained for cortical and medullar regions. Results Mann–Whitney U test revealed a highly significant difference (p < 0.01) between patients with low CrCl (group C) and normal CrCl (group A) considering both medullar ADC and FA and cortical ADC. Regarding contiguous groups, the difference between group B and C was highly significant (p < 0.01) for medullar ADC and significant (p < 0.05) for cortical ADC and medullar FA. No difference between these groups was found considering cortical FA. Analyzing groups A and B, we found a significant difference (p < 0.05) for medullar both ADC and FA, while no difference was found for cortical ADC and FA. Strongest Pearson correlation was found between CrCl and medullar ADC (r = 0.65). For predicting normal renal

  18. MR elastography and diffusion-weighted imaging of ex vivo prostate cancer: quantitative comparison to histopathology.

    PubMed

    Sahebjavaher, Ramin S; Nir, Guy; Gagnon, Louis O; Ischia, Joseph; Jones, Edward C; Chang, Silvia D; Yung, Andrew; Honarvar, Mohammad; Fazli, Ladan; Goldenberg, S Larry; Rohling, Robert; Sinkus, Ralph; Kozlowski, Piotr; Salcudean, Septimiu E

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this work was (1) to develop a magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) system for imaging of the ex vivo human prostate and (2) to assess the diagnostic power of mono-frequency and multi-frequency MRE and diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) alone and combined as correlated with histopathology in a patient study. An electromagnetic driver was designed specifically for MRE studies in small-bore MR scanners. Ex vivo prostate specimens (post-fixation) of 14 patients who underwent radical prostatectomy were imaged with MRE at 7 T (nine cases had DWI). In six patients, the MRE examination was performed at three frequencies (600, 800, 1000 Hz) to extract the power-law exponent Gamma. The images were registered to wholemount pathology slides marked with the Gleason score. The areas under the receiver-operator-characteristic curves (AUC) were calculated. The methods were validated in a phantom study and it was demonstrated that (i) the driver does not interfere with the acquisition process and (ii) the driver can generate amplitudes greater than 100 µm for frequencies less than 1 kHz. In the quantitative study, cancerous tissue with Gleason score at least 3 + 3 was distinguished from normal tissue in the peripheral zone (PZ) with an average AUC of 0.75 (Gd ), 0.75 (Gl ), 0.70 (Gamma-Gd ), 0.68 (apparent diffusion coefficient, ADC), and 0.82 (Gd  + Gl  + ADC). The differentiation between PZ and central gland was modest for Gd (p < 0.07), Gl (p < 0.06) but not significant for Gamma (p < 0.2). A correlation of 0.4 kPa/h was found between the fixation time of the prostate specimen and the stiffness of the tissue, which could affect the diagnostic power results. DWI and MRE may provide complementary information; in fact MRE performed better than ADC in distinguishing normal from cancerous tissue in some cases. Multi-frequency (Gamma) analysis did not appear to improve the results. However, in light of the effect of tissue fixation, the

  19. Role of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging in differentiating malignancies from benign ovarian tumors

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Xinhua; Zhang, Hongbin; Meng, Shuang; Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Chuge

    2015-01-01

    Objective: We conducted a case-control study to evaluate the diagnostic values of computed tomography (CT) and diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) in differentiating malignancies from benign ovarian tumors and a meta-analysis to further confirm our results on DW-MRI. Methods: Totally 64 patients pathologically confirmed as ovarian cancer were included in this study. CT scan and DWI-MRI were performed and analyzed to get compared with pathological results, thereby assessing their accuracy, sensitivity and specificity. Meta-analysis was conducted by database searching and strict eligibility criteria, using STATA 12.0 (Stata Corp, College Station, TX, USA) software. Results: The accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value for diagnosis of ovarian cancer in CT were 81.82%, 84.48%, 76.67%, 87.50% and 71.88%, respectively; those in DW-MRI were 89.77%, 93.10%, 83.33%, 91.53% and 86.21%, respectively. The Kappa coefficient of DW-MRI (K = 0.771) compared with pathological results was higher than CT (K = 0.602). The average apparent diffusion coefficient values of DW-MRI in diagnosis of benign and malignant ovarian tumors suggested statistically significant difference (1.325 ± 0.269×10-3 mm2/s vs. 0.878 ± 0.246×10-3 mm2/s, P < 0.001). Meta-analysis results showed that the combined sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio, negative likelihood ratio and diagnostic odds ratio of DW-MRI in discriminating benign versus malignant ovarian tumors were 0.93, 0.88, 7.70, 0.08 and 101.24, respectively. The area under the summary receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.95. Conclusions: Both CT and DW-MRI were of great diagnostic value in differentiating malignancies from benign ovarian tumors, while DW-MRI was superior to CT with higher accuracy, sensitivity and specificity. PMID:26884905

  20. Diffusion Weighted MR Imaging of Breast and Correlation of Prognostic Factors in Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Kızıldağ Yırgın, İnci; Arslan, Gözde; Öztürk, Enis; Yırgın, Hakan; Taşdemir, Nihat; Gemici, Ayşegül Akdoğan; Kabul, Fatma Çelik; Kaya, Eyüp

    2016-05-01

    Through Diffusion Weighted Imaging (DWI), information related to early molecular changes, changes in the permeability of cell membranes, and early morphologic and physiologic changes such as cell swelling can be obtained. We investigated the correlation between the prognostic factors of breast cancer and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) in DWI sequences of malignant lesions. Retrospective cross-sectional study. Patients who were referred to our clinic between September 2012 and September 2013, who underwent dynamic breast MRI before or after biopsy and whose biopsy results were determined as malignant, were included in our study. Before the dynamic analysis, DWI sequences were taken. ADC relationship with all prognostic factors was investigated. Pearson correlation test was used to compare the numerical data, while Spearman correlation and Fisher exact tests were used to compare the categorical data. The advanced relationships were evaluated with linear regression analysis and univariate analysis. The efficiency of the parameters was evaluated using ROC analysis. The significance level (P) was accepted as 0.05. In total, 41 female patients with an average age of 49.4 years (age interval 21-77) and 44 lesions were included into the study. In the Pearson correlation test, no statistically significant difference was determined between ADC and the patient's age and tumor size. In the Spearman correlation test, a statistically significant difference was determined between nuclear grade (NG) and ADC (r=-0.424, p=0.04); no statistically significant correlation was observed between the other prognostic factors with each other and ADC values. In the linear regression analysis, the relationship of NG with ADC was found to be more significant alone than when comparing all parameters (corrected r2=0.196, p=0.005). Further evaluations between the NG and ADC correlation were carried out with ROC analysis. A statistically significant difference was determined when NG 1

  1. Image quality and diagnostic performance of free-breathing diffusion-weighted imaging for hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Takayama, Yukihisa; Nishie, Akihiro; Asayama, Yoshiki; Ishigami, Kousei; Kakihara, Daisuke; Ushijima, Yasuhiro; Fujita, Nobuhiro; Shirabe, Ken; Takemura, Atsushi; Honda, Hiroshi

    2017-05-18

    To retrospectively evaluate the diagnostic performance of free-breathing diffusion-weighted imaging (FB-DWI) with modified imaging parameter settings for detecting hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs). Fifty-one patients at risk for HCC were scanned with both FB-DWI and respiratory-triggered DWI with the navigator echo respiratory-triggering technique (RT-DWI). Qualitatively, the sharpness of the liver contour, the image noise and the chemical shift artifacts on each DWI with b-values of 1000 s/mm(2) were independently evaluated by three radiologists using 4-point scoring. We compared the image quality scores of each observer between the two DWI methods, using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Quantitatively, we compared the signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) of the liver parenchyma and lesion-to-nonlesion contrast-to-noise ratios (CNRs) after measuring the signal intensity on each DWI with a b-factor of 1000 s/mm(2). The average SNRs and CNRs between the two DWI methods were compared by the paired t-test. The detectability of HCC on each DWI was also analyzed by three radiologists. The detectability provided by the two DWI methods was compared using McNemar's test. For all observers, the averaged image quality scores of FB-DWI were: Sharpness of the liver contour [observer (Obs)-1, 3.08 ± 0.81; Obs-2, 2.98 ± 0.73; Obs-3, 3.54 ± 0.75], those of the distortion (Obs-1, 2.94 ± 0.50; Obs-2, 2.71 ± 0.70; Obs-3, 3.27 ± 0.53), and the chemical shift artifacts (Obs-1, 3.38 ± 0.60; Obs-2, 3.15 ± 1.07; Obs-3, 3.21 ± 0.85). The averaged image quality scores of RT-DWI were: Sharpness of the liver contour (Obs-1, 2.33 ± 0.65; Obs-2, 2.37 ± 0.74; Obs-3, 2.75 ± 0.81), distortion (Obs-1, 2.81 ± 0.56; Obs-2, 2.25 ± 0.74; Obs-3, 2.96 ± 0.71), and the chemical shift artifacts (Obs-1, 2.92 ± 0.59; Obs-2, 2.21 ± 0.85; Obs-3, 2.77 ± 1.08). All image quality scores of FB-DWI were significantly higher than those of RT-DWI (P < 0.05). The average SNR of the normal liver parenchyma by

  2. Can high seismic b-values be explained solely by poorly applied methodology?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, Nick; Bell, Andrew; Main, Ian

    2015-04-01

    The b-value of the Gutenberg-Richter distribution quantifies the relative proportion of large to small magnitude earthquakes in a catalogue, in turn related to the population of fault rupture areas and the average slip or stress drop. Accordingly the b-value is an important parameter to consider when evaluating seismic catalogues as it has the potential to provide insight into the temporal or spatial evolution of the system, such as fracture development or changes in the local stress regime. The b-value for tectonic seismicity is commonly found to be close to 1, whereas much higher b-values are frequently reported for volcanic and induced seismicity. Understanding these differences is important for understanding the processes controlling earthquake occurrence in different settings. However, it is possible that anomalously high b-values could arise from small sample sizes, under-estimated completeness magnitudes, or other poorly applied methodologies. Therefore, it is important to establish a rigorous workflow for analyzing these datasets. Here we examine the frequency-magnitude distributions of volcanic earthquake catalogues in order to determine the significance of apparently high b-values. We first derive a workflow for computing the completeness magnitude of a seismic catalogue, using synthetic catalogues of varying shape, size, and known b-value. We find the best approach involves a combination of three methods: 'Maximum Curvature', 'b-value stability', and the 'Goodness-of-Fit test'. To calculate a reliable b-value with an error ≤0.25, the maximum curvature method is preferred for a 'sharp-peaked' discrete distribution. For a catalogue with a broader peak the b-value stability method is the most reliable with the Goodness-of-Fit test being an acceptable backup if the b-value stability method fails. We apply this workflow to earthquake catalogues from El Hierro (2011-2013) and Mt Etna (1999-2013) volcanoes. In general, we find the b-value to be equal to or

  3. Large Deformation Diffeomorphic Registration of Diffusion-Weighted Images with Explicit Orientation Optimization*

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Pei; Niethammer, Marc; Shen, Dinggang; Yap, Pew-Thian

    2014-01-01

    We seek to compute a diffeomorphic map between a pair of diffusion-weighted images under large deformation. Unlike existing techniques, our method allows any diffusion model to be fitted after registration for subsequent multifaceted analysis. This is achieved by directly aligning the diffusion-weighted images using a large deformation diffeomorphic registration framework formulated from an optimal control perspective. Our algorithm seeks the optimal coordinate mapping by simultaneously considering structural alignment, local fiber reorientation, and deformation regularization. Our algorithm also incorporates a multi-kernel strategy to concurrently register anatomical structures of different scales. We demonstrate the efficacy of our approach using in vivo data and report on detailed qualitative and quantitative results in comparison with several different registration strategies. PMID:24579120

  4. Large deformation diffeomorphic registration of diffusion-weighted images with explicit orientation optimization.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Pei; Niethammer, Marc; Shen, Dinggang; Yap, Pew-Thian

    2013-01-01

    We seek to compute a diffeomorphic map between a pair of diffusion-weighted images under large deformation. Unlike existing techniques, our method allows any diffusion model to be fitted after registration for subsequent multifaceted analysis. This is achieved by directly aligning the diffusion-weighted images using a large deformation diffeomorphic registration framework formulated from an optimal control perspective. Our algorithm seeks the optimal coordinate mapping by simultaneously considering structural alignment, local fiber reorientation, and deformation regularization. Our algorithm also incorporates a multi-kernel strategy to concurrently register anatomical structures of different scales. We demonstrate the efficacy of our approach using in vivo data and report on detailed qualitative and quantitative results in comparison with several different registration strategies.

  5. The design of anisotropic diffusion phantoms for the validation of diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fieremans, Els; DeDeene, Yves; Delputte, Steven; Özdemir, Mahir S.; Achten, Eric; Lemahieu, Ignace

    2008-10-01

    Diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging offers a non-invasive tool to explore the three-dimensional structure of brain white matter in clinical practice. Anisotropic diffusion hardware phantoms are useful for the quantitative validation of this technique. This study provides guidelines on how to manufacture anisotropic fibre phantoms in a reproducible way and which fibre material to choose to obtain a good quality of the diffusion weighted images. Several fibre materials are compared regarding their effect on the diffusion MR measurements of the water molecules inside the phantoms. The diffusion anisotropy influencing material properties are the fibre density and diameter, while the fibre surface relaxivity and magnetic susceptibility determine the signal-to-noise ratio. The effect on the T2-relaxation time of water in the phantoms has been modelled and the diffusion behaviour inside the fibre phantoms has been quantitatively evaluated using Monte Carlo random walk simulations.

  6. The Efficiency of Diffusion Weighted MRI and MR Spectroscopy On Breast MR Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Altay, Canan; Balcı, Pınar

    2014-01-01

    The main purpose of breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in radiologically routine is to establish an imaging protocol that will create high quality images with a short period of time. Fort this purpose, an imaging protocol should include a conventional breast MRI and contrast enhanced sequences. Proton MR spectroscopy (MRS) and diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) are important MR techniques for evaluation to complicated breast lesions. In this article, we will evaluate that technical properties of the MRS and DWI as additional MR imaging.

  7. Diffeomorphic susceptibility artifact correction of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance images.

    PubMed

    Ruthotto, L; Kugel, H; Olesch, J; Fischer, B; Modersitzki, J; Burger, M; Wolters, C H

    2012-09-21

    Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging is a key investigation technique in modern neuroscience. In clinical settings, diffusion-weighted imaging and its extension to diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) are usually performed applying the technique of echo-planar imaging (EPI). EPI is the commonly available ultrafast acquisition technique for single-shot acquisition with spatial encoding in a Cartesian system. A drawback of these sequences is their high sensitivity against small perturbations of the magnetic field, caused, e.g., by differences in magnetic susceptibility of soft tissue, bone and air. The resulting magnetic field inhomogeneities thus cause geometrical distortions and intensity modulations in diffusion-weighted images. This complicates the fusion with anatomical T1- or T2-weighted MR images obtained with conventional spin- or gradient-echo images and negligible distortion. In order to limit the degradation of diffusion-weighted MR data, we present here a variational approach based on a reference scan pair with reversed polarity of the phase- and frequency-encoding gradients and hence reversed distortion. The key novelty is a tailored nonlinear regularization functional to obtain smooth and diffeomorphic transformations. We incorporate the physical distortion model into a variational image registration framework and derive an accurate and fast correction algorithm. We evaluate the applicability of our approach to distorted DTI brain scans of six healthy volunteers. For all datasets, the automatic correction algorithm considerably reduced the image degradation. We show that, after correction, fusion with T1- or T2-weighted images can be obtained by a simple rigid registration. Furthermore, we demonstrate the improvement due to the novel regularization scheme. Most importantly, we show that it provides meaningful, i.e. diffeomorphic, geometric transformations, independent of the actual choice of the regularization parameters.

  8. Diffeomorphic susceptibility artifact correction of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruthotto, L.; Kugel, H.; Olesch, J.; Fischer, B.; Modersitzki, J.; Burger, M.; Wolters, C. H.

    2012-09-01

    Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging is a key investigation technique in modern neuroscience. In clinical settings, diffusion-weighted imaging and its extension to diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) are usually performed applying the technique of echo-planar imaging (EPI). EPI is the commonly available ultrafast acquisition technique for single-shot acquisition with spatial encoding in a Cartesian system. A drawback of these sequences is their high sensitivity against small perturbations of the magnetic field, caused, e.g., by differences in magnetic susceptibility of soft tissue, bone and air. The resulting magnetic field inhomogeneities thus cause geometrical distortions and intensity modulations in diffusion-weighted images. This complicates the fusion with anatomical T1- or T2-weighted MR images obtained with conventional spin- or gradient-echo images and negligible distortion. In order to limit the degradation of diffusion-weighted MR data, we present here a variational approach based on a reference scan pair with reversed polarity of the phase- and frequency-encoding gradients and hence reversed distortion. The key novelty is a tailored nonlinear regularization functional to obtain smooth and diffeomorphic transformations. We incorporate the physical distortion model into a variational image registration framework and derive an accurate and fast correction algorithm. We evaluate the applicability of our approach to distorted DTI brain scans of six healthy volunteers. For all datasets, the automatic correction algorithm considerably reduced the image degradation. We show that, after correction, fusion with T1- or T2-weighted images can be obtained by a simple rigid registration. Furthermore, we demonstrate the improvement due to the novel regularization scheme. Most importantly, we show that it provides meaningful, i.e. diffeomorphic, geometric transformations, independent of the actual choice of the regularization parameters.

  9. Real Diffusion-Weighted MRI Enabling True Signal Averaging and Increased Diffusion Contrast

    PubMed Central

    Eichner, Cornelius; Cauley, Stephen F; Cohen-Adad, Julien; Möller, Harald E; Turner, Robert; Setsompop, Kawin; Wald, Lawrence L

    2015-01-01

    This project aims to characterize the impact of underlying noise distributions on diffusion-weighted imaging. The noise floor is a well-known problem for traditional magnitude-based diffusion-weighted MRI (dMRI) data, leading to biased diffusion model fits and inaccurate signal averaging. Here, we introduce a total-variation-based algorithm to eliminate shot-to-shot phase variations of complex-valued diffusion data with the intention to extract real-valued dMRI datasets. The obtained real-valued diffusion data are no longer superimposed by a noise floor but instead by a zero-mean Gaussian noise distribution, yielding dMRI data without signal bias. We acquired high-resolution dMRI data with strong diffusion weighting and, thus, low signal-to-noise ratio. Both the extracted real-valued and traditional magnitude data were compared regarding signal averaging, diffusion model fitting and accuracy in resolving crossing fibers. Our results clearly indicate that real-valued diffusion data enables idealized conditions for signal averaging. Furthermore, the proposed method enables unbiased use of widely employed linear least squares estimators for model fitting and demonstrates an increased sensitivity to detect secondary fiber directions with reduced angular error. The use of phase-corrected, real-valued data for dMRI will therefore help to clear the way for more detailed and accurate studies of white matter microstructure and structural connectivity on a fine scale. PMID:26241680

  10. Adaptive smoothing of multi-shell diffusion weighted magnetic resonance data by msPOAS

    PubMed Central

    Becker, S.M.A.; Tabelow, K.; Mohammadi, S.; Weiskopf, N.; Polzehl, J.

    2014-01-01

    We present a novel multi-shell position-orientation adaptive smoothing (msPOAS) method for diffusion weighted magnetic resonance data. Smoothing in voxel and diffusion gradient space is embedded in an iterative adaptive multiscale approach. The adaptive character avoids blurring of the inherent structures and preserves discontinuities. The simultaneous treatment of all q-shells improves the stability compared to single-shell approaches such as the original POAS method. The msPOAS implementation simplifies and speeds up calculations, compared to POAS, facilitating its practical application. Simulations and heuristics support the face validity of the technique and its rigorousness. The characteristics of msPOAS were evaluated on single and multi-shell diffusion data of the human brain. Significant reduction in noise while preserving the fine structure was demonstrated for diffusion weighted images, standard DTI analysis and advanced diffusion models such as NODDI. MsPOAS effectively improves the poor signal-to-noise ratio in highly diffusion weighted multi-shell diffusion data, which is required by recent advanced diffusion micro-structure models. We demonstrate the superiority of the new method compared to other advanced denoising methods. PMID:24680711

  11. Extension of the double-wave-vector diffusion-weighting experiment to multiple concatenations.

    PubMed

    Finsterbusch, Jürgen

    2009-06-01

    Experiments involving two diffusion-weightings in a single acquisition, so-called double- or two-wave-vector experiments, have recently been applied to measure the microscopic anisotropy in macroscopically isotropic samples or to estimate pore or compartment sizes. These informations are derived from the signal modulation observed when varying the wave vectors' orientations. However, the modulation amplitude can be small and, for short mixing times between the two diffusion-weightings, decays with increased gradient pulse lengths which hampers its detectability on whole-body MR systems. Here, an approach is investigated that involves multiple concatenations of the two diffusion-weightings in a single experiment. The theoretical framework for double-wave-vector experiments of fully restricted diffusion is adapted and the corresponding tensor approach recently presented for short mixing times extended and compared to numerical simulations. It is shown that for short mixing times (i) the extended tensor approach well describes the signal behavior observed for multiple concatenations and (ii) the relative amplitude of the signal modulation increases with the number of concatenations. Thus, the presented extension of the double-wave-vector experiment may help to improve the detectability of the signal modulations observed for short mixing times, in particular on whole-body MR systems with their limited gradient amplitudes.

  12. Real diffusion-weighted MRI enabling true signal averaging and increased diffusion contrast.

    PubMed

    Eichner, Cornelius; Cauley, Stephen F; Cohen-Adad, Julien; Möller, Harald E; Turner, Robert; Setsompop, Kawin; Wald, Lawrence L

    2015-11-15

    This project aims to characterize the impact of underlying noise distributions on diffusion-weighted imaging. The noise floor is a well-known problem for traditional magnitude-based diffusion-weighted MRI (dMRI) data, leading to biased diffusion model fits and inaccurate signal averaging. Here, we introduce a total-variation-based algorithm to eliminate shot-to-shot phase variations of complex-valued diffusion data with the intention to extract real-valued dMRI datasets. The obtained real-valued diffusion data are no longer superimposed by a noise floor but instead by a zero-mean Gaussian noise distribution, yielding dMRI data without signal bias. We acquired high-resolution dMRI data with strong diffusion weighting and, thus, low signal-to-noise ratio. Both the extracted real-valued and traditional magnitude data were compared regarding signal averaging, diffusion model fitting and accuracy in resolving crossing fibers. Our results clearly indicate that real-valued diffusion data enables idealized conditions for signal averaging. Furthermore, the proposed method enables unbiased use of widely employed linear least squares estimators for model fitting and demonstrates an increased sensitivity to detect secondary fiber directions with reduced angular error. The use of phase-corrected, real-valued data for dMRI will therefore help to clear the way for more detailed and accurate studies of white matter microstructure and structural connectivity on a fine scale. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. In Vivo Magnetization Transfer and Diffusion-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging Detects Thrombus Composition in a Mouse Model of Deep Vein Thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Prakash; Modarai, Bijan; Smith, Alberto; Botnar, René M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Deep vein thrombosis remains a major health problem necessitating accurate diagnosis. Thrombolysis is associated with significant morbidity and is effective only for the treatment of unorganized thrombus. We tested the feasibility of in vivo magnetization transfer (MT) and diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging to detect thrombus organization in a murine model of deep vein thrombosis. Methods and Results Deep vein thrombosis was induced in the inferior vena cava of male BALB/C mice. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed at days 1, 7, 14, 21, and 28 after thrombus induction using MT, diffusion-weighted, inversion-recovery, and T1-mapping protocols. Delayed enhancement and T1 mapping were repeated 2 hours after injection of a fibrin contrast agent. Finally, excised thrombi were used for histology. We found that MT and diffusion-weighted imaging can detect histological changes associated with thrombus aging. MT rate (MTR) maps and percentage of MT rate (%MTR) allowed visualization and quantification of the thrombus protein content, respectively. The %MTR increased with thrombus organization and was significantly higher at days 14, 21, and 28 after thrombus induction (days 1, 7, 14, 21, 28: %MTR=2483±451, 2079±1210, 7029±2490, 10 295±4356, 32 994±25 449; Panova<0.05). There was a significant positive correlation between the %MTR and the histological protein content of the thrombus (r=0.70; P<0.05). The apparent diffusion coefficient was lower in erythrocyte-rich and collagen-rich thrombus (0.72±0.10 and 0.69±0.05 [×10−3 mm2/s]). Thrombus at days 7 and 14 had the highest apparent diffusion coefficient values (0.95±0.09 and 1.10±0.18 [×10−3 mm2/s]). Conclusions MT and diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging sequences are promising for the staging of thrombus composition and could be useful in guiding medical intervention. PMID:23564561

  14. The influence of gender on 'tissue at risk' in acute stroke: A diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging study in a rat model of focal cerebral ischaemia.

    PubMed

    Baskerville, Tracey A; Macrae, I Mhairi; Holmes, William M; McCabe, Christopher

    2016-02-01

    This is the first study to assess the influence of sex on the evolution of ischaemic injury and penumbra. Permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion was induced in male (n = 9) and female (n = 10) Sprague-Dawley rats. Diffusion-weighted imaging was acquired over 4 h and infarct determined from T2 images at 24 h post-permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion. Penumbra was determined retrospectively from serial apparent diffusion coefficient lesions and T2-defined infarct. Apparent diffusion coefficient lesion volume was significantly smaller in females from 0.5 to 4 h post permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion as was infarct volume. Penumbral volume, and its loss over time, was not significantly different despite the sex difference in acute and final lesion volumes.

  15. Simultaneous Multislice Diffusion-Weighted Imaging of the Kidney: A Systematic Analysis of Image Quality.

    PubMed

    Kenkel, David; Barth, Borna K; Piccirelli, Marco; Filli, Lukas; Finkenstädt, Tim; Reiner, Cäcilia S; Boss, Andreas

    2017-03-01

    The aims of this study were to implement a protocol for simultaneous multislice (SMS) accelerated diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) of the kidneys and to perform a systematic analysis of image quality of the data sets. Ten healthy subjects and 5 patients with renal masses underwent DWI of the kidney in this prospective institutional review board-approved study on a 3 T magnetic resonance scanner. Simultaneous multislice DWI echo-planar sequences (acceleration factors [AFs] 2 and 3) were compared with conventional echo-planar DWI as reference standard for each acquisition scheme. The following 3 acquisition schemes were applied: comparison A, with increased number of acquisitions at constant scan time; comparison B, with reduction of acquisition time; and comparison C, with increased slice resolution (constant acquisition time, increasing number of slices). Interreader reliability was analyzed by calculating the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Qualitative image quality features were evaluated by 2 independent radiologists on a 5-point Likert scale. Quantification accuracy of the apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) and signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) were assessed by region of interest analysis. Furthermore, lesion conspicuity in the 5 patients was assessed using a 5-point Likert scale by 2 independent radiologists. Interreader agreement was substantial with an ICC of 0.68 for the overall image quality and an ICC of 0.73 for the analysis of artifacts. In comparison A, AF2 resulted in increased SNR (P < 0.05) by 21% at stable image quality scores (image quality: P = 0.76, artifacts: P = 0.21). In comparison B, applying AF2, the scan time could be reduced by 46% without significant reduction in qualitative image quality scores (P = 0.059) or SNR (P = 0.126). In comparison C, slice resolution could be improved by 28% using AF2 with stable image quality scores and SNR. In general, AF3 resulted in reduced image quality and SNR. Significantly reduced ADC values

  16. Diffusion-Weighted Imaging in Meningioma: Prediction of Tumor Grade and Association with Histopathological Parameters.

    PubMed

    Surov, Alexey; Gottschling, Sebastian; Mawrin, Christian; Prell, Julian; Spielmann, Rolf Peter; Wienke, Andreas; Fiedler, Eckhard

    2015-12-01

    To analyze diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) findings of meningiomas and to compare them with tumor grade, cell count, and proliferation index and to test a possibility of use of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) to differentiate benign from atypical/malignant tumors. Forty-nine meningiomas were analyzed. DWI was done using a multislice single-shot echo-planar imaging sequence. A polygonal region of interest was drawn on ADC maps around the margin of the lesion. In all lesions, minimal ADC values (ADCmin) and mean ADC values (ADCmean) were estimated. Normalized ADC (NADC) was calculated in every case as a ratio ADCmean meningioma/ADCmean white matter. All meningiomas were surgically resected and analyzed histopathologically. The tumor proliferation index was estimated on Ki-67 antigen-stained specimens. Cell density was calculated. Collected data were evaluated by means of descriptive statistics. Analyses of ADC/NADC values were performed by means of two-sided t tests. The mean ADCmean value was higher in grade I meningiomas in comparison to grade II/III tumors (0.96 vs 0.80 × 10(-3) mm(2)s(-1), P = .006). Grade II/III meningiomas showed lower NADC values in comparison to grade I tumors (1.05 vs 1.26, P = .015). There was no significant difference in ADCmin values between grade I and II/III tumors (0.69 vs 0.63 × 10(-3) mm(2)s(-1), P = .539). The estimated cell count varied from 486 to 2091 (mean value, 1158.20 ± 333.74; median value, 1108). There were no significant differences in cell count between grade I and grade II/III tumors (1163.93 vs 1123.86 cells, P = .77). The mean level of the proliferation index was 4.78 ± 5.08%, the range was 1% to 18%, and the median value was 2%. The proliferation index was statistically significant higher in grade II/III meningiomas in comparison to grade I tumors (15.43% vs 3.00%, P = .001). Ki-67 was negatively associated with ADCmean (r = -0.61, P < .001) and NADC (r = -0.60, P < .001). No significant correlations between

  17. Anisotropic diffusion of metabolites in peripheral nerve using diffusion weighted magnetic resonance spectroscopy at ultra-high field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellegood, Jacob; McKay, Ryan T.; Hanstock, Chris C.; Beaulieu, Christian

    2007-01-01

    Although the diffusivity and anisotropy of water has been investigated thoroughly in ordered axonal systems (i.e., nervous tissue), there have been very few studies on the directional dependence of diffusion of metabolites. In this study, the mean apparent diffusion coefficient (Trace/3 ADC) and fractional anisotropy (FA) values of the intracellular metabolites N-acetyl aspartate (NAA), creatine and phosphocreatine (tCr), choline (Cho), taurine (Tau), and glutamate and glutamine (Glx) were measured parallel and perpendicular to the length of excised frog sciatic nerve using a water suppressed, diffusion-weighted, spin-echo pulse sequence at 18.8 T. The degree of anisotropy (FA) of NAA (0.41 ± 0.09) was determined to be less than tCr (0.59 ± 0.07) and Cho (0.61 ± 0.11), which is consistent with previously reported human studies of white matter. In contrast, Glx diffusion was found to be almost isotropic with an FA value of 0.20 ± 0.06. The differences of FA between the metabolites is most likely due to their differing micro-environments and could be beneficial as an indicator of compartment specific changes with disease, information not readily available with water diffusion.

  18. Quantitative Evaluation of Growth Plates around the Knees of Adolescent Soccer Players by Diffusion-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Krajnc, Zmago; Rupreht, Mitja; Drobnič, Matej

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To quantitatively evaluate growth plates around the knees in adolescent soccer players utilizing the diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWI). Methods. The knees and adjacent growth plates of eleven 14-year-old male soccer players were evaluated by MRI before (end of season's summer break) and after two months of intense soccer training. MRI evaluation was conducted in coronal plane by PD-FSE and DWI. All images were screened for any major pathological changes. Later, central growth plate surface area (CGPSA) was measured and the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values were calculated in two most central coronal slices divided into four regions: distal femur medial (DFM), distal femur lateral (DFL), proximal tibia medial (PTM), and proximal tibia lateral (PTL). Results. No gross pathology was diagnosed on MRI. CGPSA was not significantly reduced: DFM 278 versus 272, DFL 265 versus 261, PTM 193 versus 192, and PTL 214 versus 210. ADC decrease was statistically significant only for PTM: DFM 1.27 versus 1.22, DFL 1.37 versus 1.34, PTM 1.13 versus 1.03 (p = 0.003), and PTL 1.28 versus 1.22. Conclusions. DWI measurements indicate increased cellularity in growth plates around knees in footballers most prominent in PTM after intense training. No detectable differences on a standard PD-FSE sequence were observed. PMID:26693482

  19. [Examination of upper abdominal region in high spatial resolution diffusion-weighted imaging using 3-Tesla MRI].

    PubMed

    Terada, Masaki; Matsushita, Hiroki; Oosugi, Masanori; Inoue, Kazuyasu; Yaegashi, Taku; Anma, Takeshi

    2009-03-20

    The advantage of the higher signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (3-Tesla) has the possibility of contributing to the improvement of high spatial resolution without causing image deterioration. In this study, we compared SNR and the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value with 3-Tesla as the condition in the diffusion-weighted image (DWI) parameter of the 1.5-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (1.5-Tesla) and we examined the high spatial resolution images in the imaging method [respiratory-triggering (RT) method and breath free (BF) method] and artifact (motion and zebra) in the upper abdominal region of DWI at 3-Tesla. We have optimized scan parameters based on phantom and in vivo study. As a result, 3-Tesla was able to obtain about 1.5 times SNR in comparison with the 1.5-Tesla, ADC value had few differences. Moreover, the RT method was effective in correcting the influence of respiratory movement in comparison with the BF method, and image improvement by the effective acquisition of SNR and reduction of the artifact were provided. Thus, DWI of upper abdominal region was a useful sequence for the high spatial resolution in 3-Tesla.

  20. Diffusion-weighted imaging-based probabilistic segmentation of high- and low-proliferative areas in high-grade gliomas

    PubMed Central

    Fritzsche, Klaus H.; Thieke, Christian; Klein, Jan; Parzer, Peter; Weber, Marc-André; Stieltjes, Bram

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) derived from diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) correlates inversely with tumor proliferation rates. High-grade gliomas are typically heterogeneous and the delineation of areas of high and low proliferation is impeded by partial volume effects and blurred borders. Commonly used manual delineation is further impeded by potential overlap with cerebrospinal fluid and necrosis. Here we present an algorithm to reproducibly delineate and probabilistically quantify the ADC in areas of high and low proliferation in heterogeneous gliomas, resulting in a reproducible quantification in regions of tissue inhomogeneity. We used an expectation maximization (EM) clustering algorithm, applied on a Gaussian mixture model, consisting of pure superpositions of Gaussian distributions. Soundness and reproducibility of this approach were evaluated in 10 patients with glioma. High- and low-proliferating areas found using the clustering correspond well with conservative regions of interest drawn using all available imaging data. Systematic placement of model initialization seeds shows good reproducibility of the method. Moreover, we illustrate an automatic initialization approach that completely removes user-induced variability. In conclusion, we present a rapid, reproducible and automatic method to separate and quantify heterogeneous regions in gliomas. PMID:22487677

  1. Task-based evaluation of segmentation algorithms for diffusion-weighted MRI without using a gold standard.

    PubMed

    Jha, Abhinav K; Kupinski, Matthew A; Rodríguez, Jeffrey J; Stephen, Renu M; Stopeck, Alison T

    2012-07-07

    In many studies, the estimation of the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of lesions in visceral organs in diffusion-weighted (DW) magnetic resonance images requires an accurate lesion-segmentation algorithm. To evaluate these lesion-segmentation algorithms, region-overlap measures are used currently. However, the end task from the DW images is accurate ADC estimation, and the region-overlap measures do not evaluate the segmentation algorithms on this task. Moreover, these measures rely on the existence of gold-standard segmentation of the lesion, which is typically unavailable. In this paper, we study the problem of task-based evaluation of segmentation algorithms in DW imaging in the absence of a gold standard. We first show that using manual segmentations instead of gold-standard segmentations for this task-based evaluation is unreliable. We then propose a method to compare the segmentation algorithms that does not require gold-standard or manual segmentation results. The no-gold-standard method estimates the bias and the variance of the error between the true ADC values and the ADC values estimated using the automated segmentation algorithm. The method can be used to rank the segmentation algorithms on the basis of both the ensemble mean square error and precision. We also propose consistency checks for this evaluation technique.

  2. Task-based evaluation of segmentation algorithms for diffusion-weighted MRI without using a gold standard

    PubMed Central

    Jha, Abhinav K.; Kupinski, Matthew A.; Rodríguez, Jeffrey J.; Stephen, Renu M.; Stopeck, Alison T.

    2012-01-01

    In many studies, the estimation of the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of lesions in visceral organs in diffusion-weighted (DW) magnetic resonance images requires an accurate lesion-segmentation algorithm. To evaluate these lesion-segmentation algorithms, region-overlap measures are used currently. However, the end task from the DW images is accurate ADC estimation, and the region-overlap measures do not evaluate the segmentation algorithms on this task. Moreover, these measures rely on the existence of gold-standard segmentation of the lesion, which is typically unavailable. In this paper, we study the problem of task-based evaluation of segmentation algorithms in DW imaging in the absence of a gold standard. We first show that using manual segmentations instead of gold-standard segmentations for this task-based evaluation is unreliable. We then propose a method to compare the segmentation algorithms that does not require gold-standard or manual segmentation results. The no-gold-standard method estimates the bias and the variance of the error between the true ADC values and the ADC values estimated using the automated segmentation algorithm. The method can be used to rank the segmentation algorithms on the basis of both accuracy and precision. We also propose consistency checks for this evaluation technique. PMID:22713231

  3. Predicting response to neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy in locally advanced rectal cancer: diffusion-weighted 3 Tesla MR imaging.

    PubMed

    Jung, Se Hee; Heo, Suk Hee; Kim, Jin Woong; Jeong, Yong Yeon; Shin, Sang Soo; Soung, Min-Gyu; Kim, Heong Rok; Kang, Heoung Keun

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) on 3 Tesla (T) MR imaging to predict the tumor response to neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy (CRT) in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer. Thirty-five patients who underwent neoadjuvant CRT and subsequent surgical resection were included. Tumor volume was measured on T2-weighted MR images before and after neoadjuvant CRT and the percentage of tumor volume reduction was calculated. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value was measured on the DWI before and after neoadjuvant CRT, and the change of ADC (Δ ADC) was calculated. The histopathologic response was categorized either as a responder to CRT or as a nonresponder. The relationship between the ADC parameters and the percentage of tumor volume reduction or histopathologic response was then evaluated. There was a significant correlation between tumor volume reduction and pre-CRT ADC and Δ ADC, respectively (r = -0.352, r = 0.615). Pre-CRT ADC of the histopathologic responders was significantly lower than that of the histopathologic nonresponders (P = 0.034). Δ ADC of the histopathologic responders was significantly higher than that of the histopathologic nonresponders (P < 0.005). DWI on 3T MR imaging may be a promising technique for helping to predict and monitor the treatment response to neoadjuvant CRT in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Role of diffusion-weighted imaging for detecting bone marrow infiltration in skull in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Cao, Weiguo; Liang, Changhong; Gen, Yungan; Wang, Chen; Zhao, Cailei; Sun, Longwei

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to determine whether diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) with apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) measurement can detect skull bone marrow infiltration in newly diagnosed acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) children before therapy and normalization in complete remission after treatment. Fifty-one newly diagnosed acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) patients and 30 healthy age-matched subjects were included. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans were reviewed, and skull marrow ADC values were compared before treatment and in complete remission after therapy. Skull marrow infiltration, manifested with abnormal DWI signals, was present in 37 patients (72.5%) before treatment. Of these, 23 (62.2%) showed scattered signal abnormalities and 14 (37.8%) showed a uniform abnormal signal pattern. Compared with the control group, ADC was significantly decreased in patients with ALL. DWI signal intensity and ADC normalized in patients with complete remission. DWI is a useful and noninvasive tool for detecting skull infiltration in ALL children before treatment and normalization at complete remission after therapy, and it is superior to conventional MRI in terms of conspicuity of these lesions. DWI could be used as an MRI biomarker for evaluation of treatment in ALL children.

  5. Role of diffusion-weighted imaging for detecting bone marrow infiltration in skull in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Weiguo; Liang, Changhong; Gen, Yungan; Wang, Chen; Zhao, Cailei; Sun, Longwei

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE We aimed to determine whether diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) with apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) measurement can detect skull bone marrow infiltration in newly diagnosed acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) children before therapy and normalization in complete remission after treatment. METHODS Fifty-one newly diagnosed acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) patients and 30 healthy age-matched subjects were included. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans were reviewed, and skull marrow ADC values were compared before treatment and in complete remission after therapy. RESULTS Skull marrow infiltration, manifested with abnormal DWI signals, was present in 37 patients (72.5%) before treatment. Of these, 23 (62.2%) showed scattered signal abnormalities and 14 (37.8%) showed a uniform abnormal signal pattern. Compared with the control group, ADC was significantly decreased in patients with ALL. DWI signal intensity and ADC normalized in patients with complete remission. CONCLUSION DWI is a useful and noninvasive tool for detecting skull infiltration in ALL children before treatment and normalization at complete remission after therapy, and it is superior to conventional MRI in terms of conspicuity of these lesions. DWI could be used as an MRI biomarker for evaluation of treatment in ALL children. PMID:27763327

  6. Intravoxel Incoherent Motion Diffusion Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Differentiation Between Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma and Lymphoma at the Primary Site

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xiao-Ping; Hou, Jing; Li, Fei-Ping; Wang, Hui; Hu, Ping-Sheng; Bi, Feng; Wang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of the study was to investigate the utility of intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) for differentiating nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) from lymphoma. Methods Intravoxel incoherent motion–based parameters including the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), pure diffusion coefficient (D), pseudodiffusion coefficient (D*), perfusion fraction (f), and fD* (the product of D* and f) were retrospectively compared between 102 patients (82 with NPC, 20 with lymphoma) who received pretreatment IVIM DWI. Results Compared with lymphoma, NPC exhibited higher ADC, D, D*, fD* values (P < 0.001) and f value (P = 0.047). The optimal cutoff values (area under the curve, sensitivity, and specificity, respectively) for distinguishing the 2 tumors were as follows: ADC value of 0.761 × 10−3 mm2/s (0.781, 93.90%, 55.00%); D, 0.66 × 10−3 mm2/s (0.802, 54.88%, 100.00%); D*, 7.89 × 10−3 mm2/s (0.898, 82.93%, 85.00%); f, 0.29 (0.644, 41.46%, 95.00%); and fD*, 1.99 × 10−3 mm2/s (0.960, 85.37%, 100.00%). Conclusions Nasopharyngeal carcinoma exhibits different IVIM-based imaging features from lymphoma. Intravoxel incoherent motion DWI is useful for differentiating lymphoma from NPC. PMID:26953769

  7. Evaluation of Fat Suppression of Diffusion-weighted Imaging Using Section Select Gradient Reversal Technique on 3 T Breast MRI.

    PubMed

    Takemori, Daichi; Kimura, Daisuke; Yamada, Eiji; Higashida, Mitsuji

    2016-07-01

    This study evaluates fat suppression of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) using section select gradient reversal (SSGR) technique in clinical images on 3 T breast MRI. A total of 20 patients with breast cancer were examined at a Philips Ingenia 3 T MRI. We acquired DWI with SPAIR, SSGR-SPAIR, STIR, and SSGR-STIR. We evaluated contrast between the fat region and lesion, the coefficient of variance (CV) of the fat region and the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of normal breast tissue and lesion. The contrast between the fat region and lesion was improved with SSGR technique. The CV of the fattest region did not have any significant difference in SPAIR technique (p>0.05), but it was significantly decreased in the STIR technique using SSGR technique (p<0.05). Positive correlation was observed in ADC value between SPAIR and other fat suppression techniques (SSGR-SPAIR, STIR, SSGR-STIR). DWI using SSGR technique was suggested to be effective on 3 T breast MRI.

  8. Molecular imaging of water binding state and diffusion in breast cancer using diffuse optical spectroscopy and diffusion weighted MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, So Hyun; Yu, Hon; Su, Min-Ying; Cerussi, Albert E.; Tromberg, Bruce J.

    2012-07-01

    Tissue water content and molecular microenvironment can provide important intrinsic contrast for cancer imaging. In this work, we examine the relationship between water optical spectroscopic features related to binding state and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-measured water diffusion dynamics. Broadband diffuse optical spectroscopic imaging (DOSI) and MR images were obtained from eight patients with locally-advanced infiltrating ductal carcinomas (tumor size=5.5±3.2 cm). A DOSI-derived bound water index (BWI) was compared to the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of diffusion weighted (DW) MRI. BWI and ADC were positively correlated (R=0.90, p-value=0.003) and BWI and ADC both decreased as the bulk water content increased (R=-0.81 and -0.89, respectively). BWI correlated inversely with tumor size (R=-0.85, p-value=0.008). Our results suggest underlying sensitivity differences between BWI and ADC to water in different tissue compartments (e.g., extracellular vs cellular). These data highlight the potential complementary role of DOSI and DW-MRI in providing detailed information on the molecular disposition of water in breast tumors. Because DOSI is a portable technology that can be used at the bedside, BWI may provide a low-cost measure of tissue water properties related to breast cancer biology.

  9. Rim sign in breast lesions on diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging: diagnostic accuracy and clinical usefulness.

    PubMed

    Kang, Bong Joo; Lipson, Jafi Alyssa; Planey, Katie RoseMary; Zackrisson, Sophia; Ikeda, Debra M; Kao, Jennifer; Pal, Sunita; Moran, Catherine J; Daniel, Bruce Lewis

    2015-03-01

    To investigate the diagnostic accuracy and clinical usefulness of the rim sign in breast lesions observed in diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI). The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of 98 pathologically confirmed lesions (62 malignant and 36 benign) in 84 patients were included. Five breast radiologists were asked to independently review the breast MRI results, to grade the degree of high peripheral signal, the "rim sign," in the DWI, and to confirm the mean apparent diffusion coefficient (ADCmean ) values. We analyzed the diagnostic accuracy and compared the consensus (when ≥ 4 of 5 independent reviewers agreed) results of the rim sign with the ADCmean values. Additionally, we evaluated the correlation between the dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE)-MRI morphologic appearance and DWI rim sign. According to the consensus results, the rim sign in DWI was observed on 59.7% of malignant lesions and 19.4% of benign lesions. The sensitivity, specificity, and area under the curve (AUC) value for the rim sign in DWI were 59.7%, 80.6%, and 0.701, respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, and AUC value for the ADCmean value (criteria ≤ 1.46 × 10(-3) mm(2) /sec) were 82.3%, 63.9%, and 0.731, respectively. Based on consensus, no correlation was observed between the DCE-MRI and DWI rim signs. In DWI, a high-signal rim is a valuable morphological feature for improving specificity in DWI. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Diagnostic value of ADC in patients with prostate cancer: influence of the choice of b values.

    PubMed

    Thörmer, Gregor; Otto, Josephin; Reiss-Zimmermann, Martin; Seiwerts, Matthias; Moche, Michael; Garnov, Nikita; Franz, Toni; Do, Minh; Stolzenburg, Jens-Uwe; Horn, Lars-Christian; Kahn, Thomas; Busse, Harald

    2012-08-01

    To evaluate the influence of the choice of b values on the diagnostic value of the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) for detection and grading of prostate cancer (PCa). Forty-one patients with biopsy-proven PCa underwent endorectal 3-T MRI before prostatectomy. Different combinations of b values (0-800 s/mm(2)) were used to calculate four representative ADC maps. Mean ADCs of tumours and non-malignant tissue were determined. Tumour appearance on different ADC maps was rated by three radiologists as good, fair or poor by assigning a visual score (VS) of 2, 1 or 0, respectively. Differences in the ADC values with the choice of b values were analysed using one-way ANOVA. Choice of b values had a highly (P < 0.001) significant influence on the absolute ADC in each tissue. Maps using b = [50, 800] and [0, 800] were rated best (VS= 1.6 ± 0.3) and second best (1.1 ± 0.3, P < 0.001), respectively. For low-grade carcinomas (Gleason score ≤ 6, 13/41 patients), only the former choice received scores better than fair (VS = 1.4 ± 0.3). Mean tumour ADCs showed significant negative correlation (Spearman's ρ -0.38 to -0.46, P < 0.05) with Gleason score. Absolute ADC values strongly depend on the choice of b values and therefore should be used with caution for diagnostic purposes. A minimum b value greater than zero is recommended for ADC calculation to improve the visual assessment of PCa in ADC maps. • Absolute ADC values are highly dependent on the choice of b values. • Absolute ADC thresholds should be used carefully to predict tumour aggressiveness. • Subjective ratings of ADC maps involving b = 0 s/mm ( 2 ) are poor to fair. • Minimum b value greater than 0 s/mm ( 2 ) is recommended for ADC calculation.

  11. Endometrial Cancer: Combined MR Volumetry and Diffusion-weighted Imaging for Assessment of Myometrial and Lymphovascular Invasion and Tumor Grade.

    PubMed

    Nougaret, Stephanie; Reinhold, Caroline; Alsharif, Shaza S; Addley, Helen; Arceneau, Jocelyne; Molinari, Nicolas; Guiu, Boris; Sala, Evis

    2015-09-01

    To investigate magnetic resonance (MR) volumetry of endometrial tumors and its association with deep myometrial invasion, tumor grade, and lymphovascular invasion and to assess the value of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) histographic analysis of the whole tumor volume for prediction of tumor grade and lymphovascular invasion. The institutional review board approved this retrospective study; patient consent was not required. Between May 2010 and May 2012, 70 women (mean age, 64 years; range, 24-91 years) with endometrial cancer underwent preoperative MR imaging, including axial oblique and sagittal T2-weighted, dynamic contrast material-enhanced, and diffusion-weighted imaging. Volumetry of the tumor and uterus was performed during the six sequences, with manual tracing of each section, and the tumor volume ratio (TVR) was calculated. ADC histograms were generated from pixel ADCs from the whole tumor volume. The threshold of TVR associated with myometrial invasion was assessed by using receiver operating characteristic curves. An independent sample Mann Whitney U test was used to compare differences in ADCs, skewness, and kurtosis between tumor grade and the presence of lymphovascular invasion. No significant difference in tumor volume and TVR was found among the six MR imaging sequences (P = .95 and .86, respectively). A TVR greater than or equal to 25% allowed prediction of deep myometrial invasion with sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 93% (area under the curve, 0.96; 95% confidence interval: 0.86, 0.99) at axial oblique diffusion-weighted imaging. A TVR of greater than or equal to 25% was associated with grade 3 tumors (P = .0007) and with lymphovascular invasion (P < .0001). There was no significant difference in the ADCs between grades 1 and 2 tumors (P > .05). The minimum, 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, and 90th percentile ADCs were significantly lower in grade 3 tumors than in grades 1 and 2 tumors (P < .02). The combination of whole tumor volume and ADC

  12. Endometrial Cancer: Combined MR Volumetry and Diffusion-weighted Imaging for Assessment of Myometrial and Lymphovascular Invasion and Tumor Grade

    PubMed Central

    Reinhold, Caroline; Alsharif, Shaza S.; Addley, Helen; Arceneau, Jocelyne; Molinari, Nicolas; Guiu, Boris; Sala, Evis

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To investigate magnetic resonance (MR) volumetry of endometrial tumors and its association with deep myometrial invasion, tumor grade, and lymphovascular invasion and to assess the value of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) histographic analysis of the whole tumor volume for prediction of tumor grade and lymphovascular invasion. Materials and Methods The institutional review board approved this retrospective study; patient consent was not required. Between May 2010 and May 2012, 70 women (mean age, 64 years; range, 24–91 years) with endometrial cancer underwent preoperative MR imaging, including axial oblique and sagittal T2-weighted, dynamic contrast material–enhanced, and diffusion-weighted imaging. Volumetry of the tumor and uterus was performed during the six sequences, with manual tracing of each section, and the tumor volume ratio (TVR) was calculated. ADC histograms were generated from pixel ADCs from the whole tumor volume. The threshold of TVR associated with myometrial invasion was assessed by using receiver operating characteristic curves. An independent sample Mann Whitney U test was used to compare differences in ADCs, skewness, and kurtosis between tumor grade and the presence of lymphovascular invasion. Results No significant difference in tumor volume and TVR was found among the six MR imaging sequences (P = .95 and .86, respectively). A TVR greater than or equal to 25% allowed prediction of deep myometrial invasion with sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 93% (area under the curve, 0.96; 95% confidence interval: 0.86, 0.99) at axial oblique diffusion-weighted imaging. A TVR of greater than or equal to 25% was associated with grade 3 tumors (P = .0007) and with lymphovascular invasion (P < .0001). There was no significant difference in the ADCs between grades 1 and 2 tumors (P > .05). The minimum, 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, and 90th percentile ADCs were significantly lower in grade 3 tumors than in grades 1 and 2 tumors (P < .02

  13. A longitudinal study of patients with cirrhosis treated with L-ornithine L-aspartate, examined with magnetization transfer, diffusion-weighted imaging and magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Grover, Vijay P B; McPhail, Mark J W; Wylezinska-Arridge, Marzena; Crossey, Mary M E; Fitzpatrick, Julie A; Southern, Louise; Saxby, Brian K; Cook, Nicola A; Cox, I Jane; Waldman, Adam D; Dhanjal, Novraj S; Bak-Bol, Aluel; Williams, Roger; Morgan, Marsha Y; Taylor-Robinson, Simon D

    2017-02-01

    The presence of overt hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is associated with structural, metabolic and functional changes in the brain discernible by use of a variety of magnetic resonance (MR) techniques. The changes in patients with minimal HE are less well documented. Twenty-two patients with well-compensated cirrhosis, seven of whom had minimal HE, were examined with cerebral 3 Tesla MR techniques, including T1- and T2-weighted, magnetization transfer and diffusion-weighted imaging and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy sequences. Studies were repeated after a 4-week course of oral L-ornithine L-aspartate (LOLA). Results were compared with data obtained from 22 aged-matched healthy controls. There was no difference in mean total brain volume between patients and controls at baseline. Mean cerebral magnetization transfer ratios were significantly reduced in the globus pallidus and thalamus in the patients with cirrhosis irrespective of neuropsychiatric status; the mean ratio was significantly reduced in the frontal white matter in patients with minimal HE compared with healthy controls but not when compared with their unimpaired counterparts. There were no significant differences in either the median apparent diffusion coefficients or the mean fractional anisotropy, calculated from the diffusion-weighted imaging, or in the mean basal ganglia metabolite ratios between patients and controls. Psychometric performance improved in 50 % of patients with minimal HE following LOLA, but no significant changes were observed in brain volumes, cerebral magnetization transfer ratios, the diffusion weighted imaging variables or the cerebral metabolite ratios. MR variables, as applied in this study, do not identify patients with minimal HE, nor do they reflect changes in psychometric performance following LOLA.

  14. Assessment of the residual tumour of colorectal liver metastases after chemotherapy: diffusion-weighted MR magnetic resonance imaging in the peripheral and entire tumour.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Mathilde; Ronot, Maxime; Doblas, Sabrina; Giraudeau, Céline; Van Beers, Bernard; Belghiti, Jacques; Paradis, Valérie; Vilgrain, Valérie

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the value of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in detecting residual tumours (RTs) in colorectal liver metastases (CLMs) following chemotherapy, with a focus on tumour periphery. From January 2009-January 2012, 57 patients who underwent liver resection for CLMs with preoperative MRI (<3 months) including DWI were retrospectively included. CLMs were classified into three response groups on pathology: (1) major histological (MHR, RTs ≤ 10 %), (2) partial histological (PHR, RT = 10-49 %), and (3) no histological (NHR, RT ≥ 50 %). On DWI, regions of interest (ROIs) were drawn around the entire tumour and tumour periphery. Apparent diffusion (ADC) and pure diffusion (D) coefficients were calculated using a monoexponential fit, and compared using Kruskal-Wallis test on a lesion-per-lesion analysis. 111 CLMs were included. Fourteen (12.5 %), 42 (38 %) and 55 (49.5 %) CLMs presented a MHR, PHR and NHR, respectively. ADC and D of the peripheral ROIs were significantly higher in the MHR group (P = 0.013/P = 0.013). ADC and D from the entire tumour were not significantly different among the groups (P = 0.220/P = 0.103). In CLM treated with chemotherapy, ADC and D values from the entire tumour are not related to the degree of RT, while peripheral zone diffusion parameters could help identify metastases with MHR. Peripheral ADC and D of CLMs were higher with major pathological responses. Global ADC and D of CLMs were not different according to residual tumour. Diffusion-weighted images of CLM periphery could be an interesting biomarker of MHR. Diffusion-weighted images could be used to help tailor treatment.

  15. Diffusion-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Therapy Response Monitoring and Early Treatment Prediction of Photothermal Therapy.

    PubMed

    Fu, Guifeng; Zhu, Lei; Yang, Kai; Zhuang, Rongqiang; Xie, Jin; Zhang, Fan

    2016-03-02

    Photothermal therapy (PTT) as a relatively new cancer treatment method has attracted worldwide attention. Previous research on PTT has focused on its therapy efficiency and selectivity. The early prognosis of PTT, which is pivotal for the assessment of the treatment and the therapy stratification, however, has been rarely studied. In the present study, we investigated diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) as a tool for therapy monitoring and early prognosis of PTT. To this end, we injected PEGylated graphene oxide (GO-PEG) or iron oxide deposited graphene oxide (GO-IONP-PEG) to 4T1 tumor models and irradiated the tumors at different drug-light intervals to induce PTT. For GO-IONP-PEG injected animals, we also included therapy arms where an external magnetic field was applied to the tumors to improve the delivery of the nanoparticle transducers. DW-MRI was performed at different time points after PTT and the tumor apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) were analyzed and compared. Our studies show that photothermal agents, magnetic guidance, and drug-light intervals can all affect PTT treatment efficacy. Impressively, ADC value changes at early time points after PTT (less than 48 h) were found to be well-correlated with tumor growth suppression that was apparent days or weeks later. The changes were most sensitive to conditions that can extend the survival for more than 4 weeks, in which cases the 48 h ADC values were increased by more than 80%. These studies demonstrate for the first time that DW-MRI can be an accurate prognosis tool for PTT, suggesting an important role it can play in the future PTT evaluation and clinical translation of the modality.

  16. Towards higher sensitivity and stability of axon diameter estimation with diffusion-weighted MRI.

    PubMed

    Sepehrband, Farshid; Alexander, Daniel C; Kurniawan, Nyoman D; Reutens, David C; Yang, Zhengyi

    2016-03-01

    Diffusion-weighted MRI is an important tool for in vivo and non-invasive axon morphometry. The ActiveAx technique utilises an optimised acquisition protocol to infer orientationally invariant indices of axon diameter and density by fitting a model of white matter to the acquired data. In this study, we investigated the factors that influence the sensitivity to small-diameter axons, namely the gradient strength of the acquisition protocol and the model fitting routine. Diffusion-weighted ex. vivo images of the mouse brain were acquired using 16.4-T MRI with high (Gmax of 300 mT/m) and ultra-high (Gmax of 1350 mT/m) gradient strength acquisitions. The estimated axon diameter indices of the mid-sagittal corpus callosum were validated using electron microscopy. In addition, a dictionary-based fitting routine was employed and evaluated. Axon diameter indices were closer to electron microscopy measures when higher gradient strengths were employed. Despite the improvement, estimated axon diameter indices (a lower bound of ~ 1.8 μm) remained higher than the measurements obtained using electron microscopy (~1.2 μm). We further observed that limitations of pulsed gradient spin echo (PGSE) acquisition sequences and axonal dispersion could also influence the sensitivity with which axon diameter indices could be estimated. Our results highlight the influence of acquisition protocol, tissue model and model fitting, in addition to gradient strength, on advanced microstructural diffusion-weighted imaging techniques. © 2016 The Authors. NMR in Biomedicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. © 2016 The Authors. NMR in Biomedicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Distortion correction of echo-planar diffusion-weighted images of uterine cervix.

    PubMed

    deSouza, Nandita M; Orton, Matthew; Downey, Kate; Morgan, Veronica A; Collins, David J; Giles, Sharon L; Payne, Geoffrey S

    2016-05-01

    To investigate the clinical utility of the reverse gradient algorithm in correcting distortions in diffusion-weighted images of the cervix and for increasing diagnostic performance. Forty-one patients ages 25-72 years (mean 40 ± 11 years) with suspected or early stage cervical cancer were imaged at 3T using an endovaginal coil. T2 -weighted (W) and diffusion-weighted images with right and left phase-encode gradient directions were obtained coronal to the cervix (b = 0, 100, 300, 500, 800 s mm(-2) ). Differences in angle of the endocervical canal to the x-axis between T2 W and right-gradient, left-gradient, and corrected images were measured. Uncorrected and corrected images were assessed for diagnostic performance when viewed together with T2 W images by two independent observers against subsequent histology. The angles of the endocervical canal relative to the x-axis were significantly different between the T2 W images and the right-gradient images (P = 0.007), approached significance for left-gradient images (P = 0.055), and were not significantly different after correction (P = 0.95). Corrected images enabled a definitive diagnosis in 34% (n = 14) of patients classified as equivocal on uncorrected images. Tumor volume in this subset was 0.18 ± 0.44 cm(3) (mean ± SD; sensitivity of detection 100% [8/8], specificity 50% [3/6] for an experienced observer). Correction did not improve diagnostic performance for the less-experienced observer. Distortion-corrected diffusion-weighted images improved correspondence with T2 W images and diagnostic performance in a third of cases. © 2015 The Authors Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  18. Metastatic meningioma: The role of whole‑body diffusion-weighted imaging

    PubMed Central

    Cabada, Teresa; Bermejo, Rebeca; Bacaicoa, Carmen; Martínez-Peñuela, Ana

    2011-01-01

    We report the case of a 74-year-old male patient with a completely resected anaplastic meningioma who developed multiple metastases two years later (subcutaneous tissue near the surgical area, cervical lymph nodes, lung, pleura and bones). The primary tumor and all of the metastases showed a significant restricted diffusion. Whole‑body diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) was performed for assessment of the metastases. This case demonstrated the usefulness of this technique in screening extracranial metastases in patients with malignant meningiomas. PMID:22866153

  19. Diffusion-Weighted Imaging Outside the Brain: Consensus Statement From an ISMRM-Sponsored Workshop

    PubMed Central

    Taouli, Bachir; Beer, Ambros J.; Chenevert, Thomas; Collins, David; Lehman, Constance; Matos, Celso; Padhani, Anwar R.; Rosenkrantz, Andrew B.; Shukla-Dave, Amita; Sigmund, Eric; Tanenbaum, Lawrence; Thoeny, Harriet; Thomassin-Naggara, Isabelle; Barbieri, Sebastiano; Corcuera-Solano, Idoia; Orton, Matthew; Partridge, Savannah C.; Koh, Dow-Mu

    2016-01-01

    The significant advances in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) hardware and software, sequence design, and postprocessing methods have made diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) an important part of body MRI protocols and have fueled extensive research on quantitative diffusion outside the brain, particularly in the oncologic setting. In this review, we summarize the most up-to-date information on DWI acquisition and clinical applications outside the brain, as discussed in an ISMRM-sponsored symposium held in April 2015. We first introduce recent advances in acquisition, processing, and quality control; then review scientific evidence in major organ systems; and finally describe future directions. PMID:26892827

  20. The use of diffusion weighted imaging to evaluate pathology outside the brain parenchyma in neuroimaging studies.

    PubMed

    Benjamin, Philip; Khan, Faraan; MacKinnon, Andrew D

    2017-04-01

    Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) has transformed the radiological assessment of a variety of cerebral pathologies, in particular acute stroke. In neuroimaging studies, DWI can also be used to evaluate pathology outside the brain parenchyma, although it is sometimes underutilized for this purpose. In this pictorial review, the principles of DWI are outlined, and 13 cases of abnormal diffusion outside the brain parenchyma are illustrated in order to show DWI as a useful sequence for the evaluation of the following recommended review areas: the dural venous sinuses, internal carotid arteries, meninges, ventricles, cavernous sinus and orbits, skull base and lymph nodes.

  1. Evaluation of axillary lymph nodes by diffusion-weighted MRI using ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide in patients with breast cancer: initial clinical experience.

    PubMed

    Nakai, Go; Matsuki, Mitsuru; Harada, Tomoaki; Tanigawa, Nobuhiko; Yamada, Takashi; Barentsz, Jelle; Narumi, Yoshifumi

    2011-09-01

    To investigate the diagnostic performance and clinical feasibility of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide (USPIO) in the evaluation of axillary lymph nodes (ALNs) in patients with breast cancer. Sixteen patients with known breast cancer underwent 1.5 T MRI. Axial diffusion-weighted images (DWIs) and conventional T1- and T2*-weighted images (CIs) were acquired before and 24-36 hours after intravenous administration of USPIO. Detection of ALNs was evaluated on DWIs in comparison with CIs. The apparent diffusion coefficient values (ADCvs) of the nonmetastatic and metastatic nodes in precontrast DWIs were determined. The diagnostic performance of DWI using USPIO was compared with that of CIs using USPIO with pathological correlation. Out of a total of 286 ALNs, 216/286 (76%) nodes were detected on DWIs and 238/286 (83%) on CIs. The differences in the ADCvs between metastatic and nonmetastatic nodes were not significant (P = 0.06). Sensitivity of CIs and DWIs using USPIO were respectively 70% and 83%, specificity 98% and 98%, and overall accuracy 93% and 95%. Although the detection on DWIs of ALNs in patients with breast cancer was inferior compared to CIs, the sensitivity and accuracy of DWIs using USPIO were superior in the diagnosis of ALNs metastasis. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Non-local means variants for denoising of diffusion-weighted and diffusion tensor MRI.

    PubMed

    Wiest-Daesslé, Nicolas; Prima, Sylvain; Coupé, Pierrick; Morrissey, Sean Patrick; Barillot, Christian

    2007-01-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DT-MRI) is very sensitive to corrupting noise due to the non linear relationship between the diffusion-weighted image intensities (DW-MRI) and the resulting diffusion tensor. Denoising is a crucial step to increase the quality of the estimated tensor field. This enhanced quality allows for a better quantification and a better image interpretation. The methods proposed in this paper are based on the Non-Local (NL) means algorithm. This approach uses the natural redundancy of information in images to remove the noise. We introduce three variations of the NL-means algorithms adapted to DW-MRI and to DT-MRI. Experiments were carried out on a set of 12 diffusion-weighted images (DW-MRI) of the same subject. The results show that the intensity based NL-means approaches give better results in the context of DT-MRI than other classical denoising methods, such as Gaussian Smoothing, Anisotropic Diffusion and Total Variation.

  3. A Fast Algorithm for Denoising Magnitude Diffusion-Weighted Images with Rank and Edge Constraints

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Fan; Liu, Ding; Song, Zhuang; Schuff, Norbert; Liang, Zhi-Pei

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To accelerate denoising of magnitude diffusion-weighted images subject to joint rank and edge constraints. Methods We extend a previously proposed majorize-minimize (MM) method for statistical estimation that involves noncentral χ distributions and joint rank and edge constraints. A new algorithm is derived which decomposes the constrained noncentral χ denoising problem into a series of constrained Gaussian denoising problems each of which is then solved using an efficient alternating minimization scheme. Results The performance of the proposed algorithm has been evaluated using both simulated and experimental data. Results from simulations based on ex vivo data show that the new algorithm achieves about a factor of 10 speed up over the original Quasi-Newton based algorithm. This improvement in computational efficiency enabled denoising of large data sets containing many diffusion-encoding directions. The denoising performance of the new efficient algorithm is found to be comparable to or even better than that of the original slow algorithm. For an in vivo high-resolution Q-ball acquisition, comparison of fiber tracking results around hippocampus region before and after denoising will also be shown to demonstrate the denoising effects of the new algorithm. Conclusion The optimization problem associated with denoising noncentral χ distributed diffusion-weighted images subject to joint rank and edge constraints can be solved efficiently using an MM-based algorithm. PMID:25733066

  4. Segmented simultaneous multi-slice diffusion weighted imaging with generalized trajectories.

    PubMed

    Herbst, Michael; Deng, Weiran; Ernst, Thomas; Stenger, V Andrew

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this work is to develop and evaluate a single framework for the use of Cartesian and non-Cartesian segmented trajectories for rapid and robust simultaneous multislice (SMS) diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) at 3 Telsa (T). A generalized SMS approach with intrinsic phase navigation using Multiplexed Sensitivity Encoding (MUSE) was developed. Segmented blipped-controlled aliasing in parallel imaging echo planar imaging (EPI) and z-gradient modulated spiral trajectories were examined using SMS DWI scans at 3T with a 32-channel head coil. The generalized SMS MUSE reconstruction framework was successful in significantly reducing artifacts for all trajectories. A DWI brain volume with a 67.5-mm height, 1.5-mm isotropic resolution, and 90 diffusion weightings was obtained in a scan time of 6 minutes. The MUSE technique can be generalized to allow for reconstruction of both Cartesian and non-Cartesian segmented trajectories. Magn Reson Med 78:1476-1481, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  5. Automatic segmentation of brain infarction in diffusion-weighted MR images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wu; Tian, Jie

    2003-05-01

    It is important to detect the site and size of infarction volume in stroke patients. An automatic method for segmenting brain infarction lesion from diffusion weighted magnetic resonance (MR) images of patients has been developed. The method uses an integrated approach which employs image processing techniques based on anisotropic filters and atlas-based registration techniques. It is a multi-stage process, involving first images preprocessing, then global and local registration between the anatomical brain atlas and the patient, and finally segmentation of infarction volume based on region splitting and merging and multi-scale adaptive statistical classification. The proposed multi-scale adaptive statistical classification model takes into account spatial, intensity gradient, and contextual information of the anatomical brain atlas and the patient. Application of the method to diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) scans of twenty patients with clinically determined infarction was carried out. It shows that the method got a satisfied segmentation even in the presence of radio frequency (RF) inhomogeneities. The results were compared with lesion delineations by human experts, showing the identification of infarction lesion with accuracy and reproducibility.

  6. A fast algorithm for denoising magnitude diffusion-weighted images with rank and edge constraints.

    PubMed

    Lam, Fan; Liu, Ding; Song, Zhuang; Schuff, Norbert; Liang, Zhi-Pei

    2016-01-01

    To accelerate denoising of magnitude diffusion-weighted images subject to joint rank and edge constraints. We extend a previously proposed majorize-minimize method for statistical estimation that involves noncentral χ distributions to incorporate joint rank and edge constraints. A new algorithm is derived which decomposes the constrained noncentral χ denoising problem into a series of constrained Gaussian denoising problems each of which is then solved using an efficient alternating minimization scheme. The performance of the proposed algorithm has been evaluated using both simulated and experimental data. Results from simulations based on ex vivo data show that the new algorithm achieves about a factor of 10 speed up over the original Quasi-Newton-based algorithm. This improvement in computational efficiency enabled denoising of large datasets containing many diffusion-encoding directions. The denoising performance of the new efficient algorithm is found to be comparable to or even better than that of the original slow algorithm. For an in vivo high-resolution Q-ball acquisition, comparison of fiber tracking results around hippocampus region before and after denoising will also be shown to demonstrate the denoising effects of the new algorithm. The optimization problem associated with denoising noncentral χ distributed diffusion-weighted images subject to joint rank and edge constraints can be solved efficiently using a majorize-minimize-based algorithm. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Segmentation of Hyperacute Cerebral Infarcts Based on Sparse Representation of Diffusion Weighted Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaodong; Jing, Shasha; Gao, Peiyi; Xue, Jing; Su, Lu; Li, Weiping; Ren, Lijie

    2016-01-01

    Segmentation of infarcts at hyperacute stage is challenging as they exhibit substantial variability which may even be hard for experts to delineate manually. In this paper, a sparse representation based classification method is explored. For each patient, four volumetric data items including three volumes of diffusion weighted imaging and a computed asymmetry map are employed to extract patch features which are then fed to dictionary learning and classification based on sparse representation. Elastic net is adopted to replace the traditional L0-norm/L1-norm constraints on sparse representation to stabilize sparse code. To decrease computation cost and to reduce false positives, regions-of-interest are determined to confine candidate infarct voxels. The proposed method has been validated on 98 consecutive patients recruited within 6 hours from onset. It is shown that the proposed method could handle well infarcts with intensity variability and ill-defined edges to yield significantly higher Dice coefficient (0.755 ± 0.118) than the other two methods and their enhanced versions by confining their segmentations within the regions-of-interest (average Dice coefficient less than 0.610). The proposed method could provide a potential tool to quantify infarcts from diffusion weighted imaging at hyperacute stage with accuracy and speed to assist the decision making especially for thrombolytic therapy. PMID:27746825

  8. Follow-up of acute pyelonephritis: what causes the diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging recovery to lag clinical recovery?

    PubMed

    Faletti, Riccardo; Gatti, Marco; Bassano, Serena; Finocchietti, Daniela; Fiore, Stefano; Colla, Loredana; Bergamasco, Laura; Cassinis, Maria Carla; Fonio, Paolo

    2017-06-28

    To analyze with diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) the evolution and progress to resolution of acute pyelonephritis (APN) foci over a period of 3 months after onset. 30 women (age 22-51 years) with clinical, laboratory (white blood cell and C-reactive protein), and DW-MRI (4b-values 0, 50, 600, 1000 s/mm(2)) diagnosis of APN were prospectively enrolled. Two double-blinded radiologists evaluated the number of APN foci, and for each of them dimension (D), absolute diffusion coefficient (ADC), and its ratio R to the ADC of unaffected parenchyma. Signature of radiological recovery was focus no longer visible (DW-) and ADC of its site not inferior to the ADC of the unaffected parenchyma, i.e., R ≥ 0.9. Clinical and DW-MRI follow-ups (FU) were performed at 1 and 3 months. At the acute stage (t 0), 187 APN foci were found, with ADC0 = 1.3 ± 0.2 × 10(-3) mm(2)/s, R 0 = 0.65 ± 0.12, and D 0 = 14 ± 7.5 mm. By the 1-month FU (t 1), all patients had no symptoms and physiological laboratory values; despite this, only 80 (43%) foci were solved, increasing to 138 (74%) by at the 3-month FU. The ROC curve (AUC ≥ 0.80) identified R 0 ≤ 0.6 and D 0 > 15 mm as forecast of slow radiologic resolution. About 80% of foci unsolved at 1 month but with R 1 ≥ 0.8 and D 1 ≤ 10 mm reached solution at 3 months. DW-MRI recovery of APN foci does not always coincide with clinical recovery. The evolution of an APN focus is shaped by its initial values R 0 and D 0. About half of the foci still visible at 1 month reached radiological resolution in the two following months.

  9. Hepatocellular carcinoma with central scar on gadoxetic acid-enhanced and diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Han, Sol Bee; Kim, Young Kon; Min, Ji Hye; Ha, Sang Yun; Jeong, Woo Kyung; Lee, Won Jae

    2017-01-01

    Background Central scars are rarely reported in conventional hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The presence of central scars on imaging might lead to erroneous diagnosis of hepatic tumors. Purpose To determine imaging features of HCC with central scars on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) including gadoxetic acid-enhanced and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI). Material and Methods Fifty-one patients with 51 surgically confirmed HCCs with central scars (fibrotic scar: n = 50; myxoid scar: n = 1; range = 1.2-15 cm; mean = 3.7 cm) underwent liver MRI that consisted of T1- and T2-weighted (T2W) imaging, gadoxetic acid-enhanced arterial, portal, 3-min late phase, and 20-min hepatobiliary phase (HBP), and DWI. Two reviewers evaluated morphology, signal intensity, and enhancement features of tumors and central scars for each image and reached consensus. Results Lobulated contour was seen for 30 tumors (58.8%); the rest were round or oval masses. Central scars (range = 0.2-6.0 cm; mean = 0.9 cm) were most commonly seen as defects within hyperenhancement on arterial phase images (n = 47, 92.2%), bright (n = 28, 54.9%) or dark areas (n = 15, 29.4%) on T2W imaging, areas of central darkness on high b-value DWI (b = 800) (n = 31, 60.8%), and/or central enhancement on HBP (n = 36, 70.6%), mimicking a target appearance. Tumor capsule was seen in 35 (39 pathology, 74.5%) and intratumoral septum in 35 (41 pathology, 78.4%) tumors on gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI. Conclusion Non-fibrolamellar HCC may show central scar. HCC with central scar mimics cholangiocarcinoma by showing a target appearance on HBP and DWI. Tumor capsule and intratumoral septum might be useful for characterizing HCC with central scar.

  10. Nonenhancing peritumoral hyperintense lesion on diffusion-weighted imaging in glioblastoma: a novel diagnostic and specific prognostic indicator.

    PubMed

    Kolakshyapati, Manish; Adhikari, Rupendra B; Karlowee, Vega; Takayasu, Takeshi; Nosaka, Ryo; Amatya, Vishwa J; Takeshima, Yukio; Akiyama, Yuji; Sugiyama, Kazuhiko; Kurisu, Kaoru; Yamasaki, Fumiyuki

    2017-03-31

    OBJECTIVE Glioblastoma differentials include intracranial tumors, like malignant lymphomas and metastatic brain tumors with indiscernible radiological characteristics. The purpose of this study was to identify a distinct radiological feature for the preoperative differentiation of glioblastoma from its differentials, which include malignant lymphomas and metastatic brain tumors. METHODS Preoperative MR images, including diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) studies (b = 1000 and 4000 sec/mm(2)), obtained in patients with newly diagnosed malignant tumor, were analyzed retrospectively after receiving approval from the institutional review board. Sixty-four patients with histologically confirmed glioblastoma, 32 patients with malignant lymphoma, and 46 patients with brain metastases were included. The presence of a nonenhancing peritumoral DWI high lesion (NePDHL, i.e., hyperintense lesion in a nonenhancing peritumoral area on DWI) was confirmed in both DWI sequences. Gray matter lesions were excluded. Lesions were termed "definite" if present within 3 cm of the hyperintense tumor border with a signal intensity ratio ≥ 30% when compared with the contralateral normal white matter in both sequences. Discriminant analysis between the histological diagnosis and the presence of Definite-NePDHL was performed, as well as Kaplan-Meier survival analysis incorporating the existence of Definite-NePDHL. RESULTS In 25% of glioblastoma patients, Definite-NePDHL was present, while it was conspicuously absent in patients with malignant lymphoma and metastatic brain tumors. The specificity and positive predictive value were 100%. In the glioblastoma subset, a higher preoperative Karnofsky Performance Scale score (p = 0.0028), high recursive partitioning analysis class (p = 0.0006), and total surgical removal (p = 0.0012) were associated with better median overall survival. Patients with Definite-NePDHL had significantly early local (p = 0.0467) and distant/dissemination recurrence (p < 0

  11. MR mammography using diffusion-weighted imaging in evaluating breast cancer: a correlation with proliferation index.

    PubMed

    Molinari, Cristina; Clauser, Paola; Girometti, Rossano; Linda, Anna; Cimino, Elisa; Puglisi, Fabio; Zuiani, Chiara; Bazzocchi, Massimo

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate whether the variation of the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values obtained with DWI can predict elevated levels of Ki67 proliferation index and aggressive subtypes in patients with breast cancer. Breast MRI studies of 115 patients (mean age 57.3 years, range 36-81 years) with a biopsy-proven breast cancers were evaluated in this retrospective IRB-approved study. Examinations were performed on a 1.5 T magnet and included a Single-Shot Echoplanar DWI sequence with b values of 0 and 1000 s/mm(2). For each target lesion, ADC was measured. ADC values were compared considering Ki67 status (≥20 % or <20 %), histology, grade (G1, G2 or G3) and clinical-pathological classification (Luminal A, Luminal B HER2-positive, Luminal B HER-2 negative, HER-2 enriched and Triple Negative). Mann-Whitney U test and Kruskal-Wallis test were used for comparisons and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were obtained. Inter- and intra-reader variability was evaluated in a subset of 40 patients, using interclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and Bland-Altman plots. Of 115 lesions, 53 (46.1 %) were assessed as Ki67 positive and 62 (53.9 %) as Ki67 negative. ADC values were significantly (p < 0.0001) lower in Ki67-positive patients (median 0.86 × 10(-3) mm(2)/s; interquartile range 0.75-0.92) compared to Ki67-negative (median 1.03 × 10(-3) mm(2)/s; interquartile range 0.92-1.13). Median ADC was also lower in G2 and G3 cancer and in the Luminal B Her2-negative subtype (p = 0.0015). No differences were found when evaluating histology. ROC curve showed a sensitivity and specificity of 83.0 and 66.1 %, respectively, when using a cutoff of 0.95 s/mm(2) to differentiate Ki67-positive from Ki67-negative cancers. Inter- and intra-reader variability was moderate (ICC = 0.623; ICC = 0.548, respectively). No systematic differences were identified with Bland-Altman plots. Lower ADC values are associated with elevated Ki67 proliferation index and more

  12. Perianal Fistula With and Without Abscess: Assessment of Fistula Activity Using Diffusion-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    PubMed

    Bakan, Selim; Olgun, Deniz Cebi; Kandemirli, Sedat Giray; Tutar, Onur; Samanci, Cesur; Dikici, Suleyman; Simsek, Osman; Rafiee, Babak; Adaletli, Ibrahim; Mihmanli, Ismail

    2015-10-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is highly accurate for the depiction of both the primary tract of fistula and abscesses, in patients with perianal disease. In addition, MRI can be used to evaluate the activity of fistulas, which is a significant factor for determining the therapeutic strategy. This study aimed to determine the usefulness of diffusion-weighted (DW) MRI for assessing activity and visibility of perianal fistula. Fifty-three patients with 56 perianal fistulas were included in the current retrospective study. The T2-weighted imaging (T2WI) and DWMRI were performed and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values of fistulas were measured. Fistulas were classified into two groups: only perianal fistulas and fistulas accompanied by abscess. Fistulas were also classified into two groups, based on clinical findings: positive inflammatory activity (PIA) and negative inflammatory activity (NIA). Mean ADC value (mm(2)/s) of PIA group was significantly lower than that of NIA group, regarding lesions in patients with abscess-associated fistulas (1.371 × 10(-3) ± 0.168 × 10(-3) vs. 1.586 × 10(-3) ± 0.136 × 10(-3); P = 0.036). No statistically significant difference was found in mean ADC values between PIA and NIA groups, in patients with only perianal fistulas (P = 0.507). Perianal fistula visibility was greater with combined evaluation of T2WI and DWMRI than with T2WI, for two reviewers (P = 0.046 and P = 0.014). The DWMRI is a useful technique for evaluating activity of fistulas with abscess. Perianal fistula visibility is greater with combined T2WI and DWMRI than T2WI alone.

  13. Colon tumor growth and antivascular treatment in mice: complementary assessment with MR elastography and diffusion-weighted MR imaging.

    PubMed

    Jugé, Lauriane; Doan, Bich-Thuy; Seguin, Johanne; Albuquerque, Miguel; Larrat, Benoît; Mignet, Nathalie; Chabot, Guy G; Scherman, Daniel; Paradis, Valérie; Vilgrain, Valérie; Van Beers, Bernard E; Sinkus, Ralph

    2012-08-01

    To investigate the potential value of magnetic resonance (MR) elastography and diffusion-weighted (DW) MR imaging in the detection of microstructural changes of murine colon tumors during growth and antivascular treatment. The study was approved by the regional ethics committee for animal care. Sixty Balb-C mice, bearing ectopic and orthotopic colon tumors, were monitored for 3 weeks with high-resolution T2-weighted MR imaging, three-dimensional steady-state MR elastography, and DW MR imaging at 7 T. The same imaging protocol was performed 24 hours after injection of combretastatin A4 phosphate (CA4P) in 12 mice. The absolute value of the complex shear modulus (|G*|) and the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) were measured in the viable zones of tumors and compared with microvessel density (MVD), cellularity, and micronecrosis by using the Pearson correlation coefficient. During tumor growth, |G*| increase was correlated with MVD (r = 0.70 [P = .08] and r = 0.78 [P = .002], for both the ectopic and orthotopic models, respectively). Moreover, the ectopic tumors displayed decreased ADC, which correlated with increased cellularity (r = 0.77, P = .04), whereas no changes in ADC and cellularity were observed in orthotopic tumors. After CA4P administration, |G*| decreased in the ectopic model (P < .0001), similar to the MVD evolution (P = .03), whereas no significant changes in |G*| (P = .7) and MVD (P = .6) were observed in the orthotopic model. ADC increased in both models (P = .047 and P = .01 for the ectopic and the orthotopic models, respectively) in relation to increased micronecrosis. Imaging of mechanical properties and diffusivity provide complementary information during tumor growth and regression that are respectively linked to vascularity and tumor cell alterations, including cellularity and micronecrosis.

  14. QIN DAWG Validation of Gradient Nonlinearity Bias Correction Workflow for Quantitative Diffusion-Weighted Imaging in Multicenter Trials

    PubMed Central

    Malyarenko, Dariya I.; Wilmes, Lisa J.; Arlinghaus, Lori R.; Jacobs, Michael A.; Huang, Wei; Helmer, Karl G.; Taouli, Bachir; Yankeelov, Thomas E.; Newitt, David; Chenevert, Thomas L.

    2017-01-01

    Previous research has shown that system-dependent gradient nonlinearity (GNL) introduces a significant spatial bias (nonuniformity) in apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps. Here, the feasibility of centralized retrospective system-specific correction of GNL bias for quantitative diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in multisite clinical trials is demonstrated across diverse scanners independent of the scanned object. Using corrector maps generated from system characterization by ice-water phantom measurement completed in the previous project phase, GNL bias correction was performed for test ADC measurements from an independent DWI phantom (room temperature agar) at two offset locations in the bore. The precomputed three-dimensional GNL correctors were retrospectively applied to test DWI scans by the central analysis site. The correction was blinded to reference DWI of the agar phantom at magnet isocenter where the GNL bias is negligible. The performance was evaluated from changes in ADC region of interest histogram statistics before and after correction with respect to the unbiased reference ADC values provided by sites. Both absolute error and nonuniformity of the ADC map induced by GNL (median, 12%; range, −35% to +10%) were substantially reduced by correction (7-fold in median and 3-fold in range). The residual ADC nonuniformity errors were attributed to measurement noise and other non-GNL sources. Correction of systematic GNL bias resulted in a 2-fold decrease in technical variability across scanners (down to site temperature range). The described validation of GNL bias correction marks progress toward implementation of this technology in multicenter trials that utilize quantitative DWI. PMID:28105469

  15. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging of fetal lung maturation in sheep: effect of prenatal cortisone administration on ADC values.

    PubMed

    Much, Chressen Catharina; Schoennagel, Björn Phillip; Yamamura, Jin; Buchert, Ralph; Kooijman, Hendrik; Schätzle, Anne-Kathrin; Adam, Gerhard; Wedegaertner, Ulrike

    2013-07-01

    To assess changes in diffusion properties in the fetal lung after cortisone administration with diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in fetal sheep. DWI was performed on 11 pregnant sheep with singleton pregnancies on a 1.5-T MRI scanner. Four animals received cortisone injections before baseline imaging. Seven animals served as controls. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) was measured on DWI in the fetal lungs by two independent readers. The Pearson test was used to correlate ADC and gestational age. A t-test was performed to compare differences in ADC values at the baseline and follow-up images within and between groups. Inter-rater reliability was calculated. In the cortisone group, ADC values increased about 10 % between the baseline and follow-up images (P = 0.039). Comparing the cortisone and control groups, ADC values of the baseline images did not differ; whereas in the follow-up imaging, ADC values were significantly higher in the cortisone group (P = 0.024). Lung ADC values did not correlate with gestational age (P = 0.970). Inter-rater reliability was high (0.970, P = 0.000). In this experimental model, MR-DWI can detect cortisone-induced changes in diffusion properties of the fetal lung. • Corticosteroids are frequently administered antenatally to prevent fetal lung immaturity at birth • DWI can detect changes in the fetal lung after corticosteroid administration • Changes can be detected as early as 5 days after treatment • Fetal MRI may offer a non-invasive method of monitoring lung maturation.

  16. Topographic distribution and characteristics of normal gastric regional lymph nodes on diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Mao, Yun; Hedgire, Sandeep S; Liao, Gang; Lv, Fajin; Li, Yongmei; Li, Qi; Wang, Ziwei

    2016-02-01

    Current lack of recognition of normal gastric regional lymph nodes (GRLNs) and inherent defect of morphological imaging limit the accuracy of preoperative nodal (N) staging of gastric cancer. To map the distribution of normal GRLNs and evaluating the characteristics of GRLNs with diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in healthy population. Forty-nine enrolled healthy volunteers were divided into two age groups and underwent conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and DWI examinations. The characteristics of GRLNs in 14 regional stations, including short axis diameter (SD), short-to-long axis diameter ratio (SLR), signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), were recorded and compared between age groups and among different stations. The normal GRLNs were mainly distributed in station 7 in both age groups, followed by stations 3, 8, and 9. The SLR was lower in the young group than in the old group (P = 0.034) while SD, SNR, CNR, and ADC were significantly higher in the young group compared to the old group, P = 0.045, 0.041, 0.037, and 0.042, respectively. SD was different among stations in both age groups (P = 0.002, 0.001), especially bigger in station 8, and the SNRs and CNRs of stations 8 and 9 were relatively high in the old group (P = 0.031, 0.035), while there was no difference in ADC value. Better understanding of the appearances of normal GRLNs on conventional MRI and DWI may help to build more appropriate imaging criteria for GRLN assessment in gastric cancer. © The Foundation Acta Radiologica 2015.

  17. Quantification of inflammatory activity in patients with Crohn's disease using diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) in MR enteroclysis and MR enterography.

    PubMed

    Stanescu-Siegmund, Nora; Nimsch, Yessica; Wunderlich, Arthur P; Wagner, Martin; Meier, Reinhard; Juchems, Markus S; Beer, Meinrad; Schmidt, Stefan A

    2017-03-01

    Background Individual studies have demonstrated the potential of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI-MRI) for identifying inflamed bowel segments. However, these studies were conducted with rather small patient cohorts and in most cases by means of MR enterography only. Purpose To demonstrate the feasibility of detecting inflamed bowel segments in a large collective of patients with Crohn's disease using DWI in MR enteroclysis and MR enterography and to compare the results of both techniques, also considering clinical parameters by means of the Harvey-Bradshaw Index (HBI). Material and Methods Ninety-six patients underwent MRI enteroclysis and 35 patients MR enterography, both with additional DWI. The HBI as well as apparent diffusion coefficients (ADC) in areas of inflamed and normal bowel wall were determined. Thus resulting in 208 bowel segments that were visualized and subsequently statistically analyzed. Results There were no significant differences in ADC values in MR enteroclysis and MR enterography ( P = 0.383 in inflammation, P = 0.223 in normal wall). Areas of inflammation showed statistically highly significant lower ADC values than areas of normal bowel wall ( P < 0.001). An ADC threshold of 1.56 × 10(-3 )mm(2)/s can distinguish between normal and inflamed bowel segments with a sensitivity of 97.4% and a specificity of 99.2%. A highly significant correlation could be shown between ADC and HBI values ( P = 0.001). Conclusion DWI-MRI facilitates recognition of inflamed bowel segments in patients with Crohn's disease and the ADC values show an excellent correlation to the HBI. There were no significant differences in ADC values in MR enteroclysis and MR enterography. An ADC threshold of 1.56 × 10(-3 )mm(2)/s differentiates between normal and inflamed bowel wall.

  18. A reliability assessment of constrained spherical deconvolution-based diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging in individuals with chronic stroke.

    PubMed

    Snow, Nicholas J; Peters, Sue; Borich, Michael R; Shirzad, Navid; Auriat, Angela M; Hayward, Kathryn S; Boyd, Lara A

    2016-01-15

    Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) is commonly used to assess white matter properties after stroke. Novel work is utilizing constrained spherical deconvolution (CSD) to estimate complex intra-voxel fiber architecture unaccounted for with tensor-based fiber tractography. However, the reliability of CSD-based tractography has not been established in people with chronic stroke. Establishing the reliability of CSD-based DW-MRI in chronic stroke. High-resolution DW-MRI was performed in ten adults with chronic stroke during two separate sessions. Deterministic region of interest-based fiber tractography using CSD was performed by two raters. Mean fractional anisotropy (FA), apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), tract number, and tract volume were extracted from reconstructed fiber pathways in the corticospinal tract (CST) and superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF). Callosal fiber pathways connecting the primary motor cortices were also evaluated. Inter-rater and test-retest reliability were determined by intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs). ICCs revealed excellent reliability for FA and ADC in ipsilesional (0.86-1.00; p<0.05) and contralesional hemispheres (0.94-1.00; p<0.0001), for CST and SLF fibers; and excellent reliability for all metrics in callosal fibers (0.85-1.00; p<0.05). ICC ranged from poor to excellent for tract number and tract volume in ipsilesional (-0.11 to 0.92; p≤0.57) and contralesional hemispheres (-0.27 to 0.93; p≤0.64), for CST and SLF fibers. Like other select DW-MRI approaches, CSD-based tractography is a reliable approach to evaluate FA and ADC in major white matter pathways, in chronic stroke. Future work should address the reproducibility and utility of CSD-based metrics of tract number and tract volume. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Immunochemotherapy with Intensive Consolidation for Primary CNS Lymphoma: A Pilot Study and Prognostic Assessment by Diffusion-Weighted MRI

    PubMed Central

    Wieduwilt, Matthew J.; Valles, Francisco; Issa, Samar; Behler, Caroline M.; Hwang, James; McDermott, Michael; Treseler, Patrick; O’Brien, Joan; Shuman, Marc A.; Cha, Soonmee; Damon, Lloyd E.; Rubenstein, James L.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose We evaluated a novel therapy for primary central nervous system (CNS) lymphoma (PCNSL) using induction immunochemotherapy with high-dose methotrexate, temozolomide and rituximab (MT-R) followed by intensive consolidation with infusional etoposide and high-dose cytarabine (EA). In addition, we evaluated the prognostic value of the minimum apparent diffusion coefficient (ADCmin) derived from diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) in patients treated with this regimen. Experimental Design Thirty-one patients (median age, 61; median KPS, 60) received induction with methotrexate every 14 days for 8 planned cycles. Rituximab was administered the first 6 cycles and temozolomide administered on odd-numbered cycles. Patients with responsive or stable CNS disease received EA consolidation. Pretreatment DW-MRI was used to calculate the ADCmin of contrast-enhancing lesions. Results The complete response rate for MT-R induction was 52%. At a median follow-up of 79 months, the 2-year progression-free and overall survival were 45% and 58%, respectively. For patients receiving EA consolidation, the 2-year progression-free and overall survival were 78% and 93%, respectively. EA consolidation was also effective in an additional 3 patients who presented with synchronous CNS and systemic lymphoma. Tumor ADCmin <384 × 10−6 mm2/s was significantly associated with shorter progression-free and overall survival. Conclusions MT-R induction was effective and well-tolerated. MT-R followed by EA consolidation yielded progression-free and overall survival outcomes comparable to regimens using chemotherapy followed by whole-brain radiotherapy consolidation but without evidence of neurotoxicity. Tumor ADCmin derived from DW-MRI provided better prognostic information for PCNSL patients treated with the MTR-EA regimen than established clinical risk scores. PMID:22228634

  20. Differentiation between Graves' disease and painless thyroiditis by diffusion-weighted imaging, thyroid iodine uptake, thyroid scintigraphy and serum parameters.

    PubMed

    Meng, Zhaowei; Zhang, Guizhi; Sun, Haoran; Tan, Jian; Yu, Chunshun; Tian, Weijun; Li, Weidong; Yang, Zhiqiang; Zhu, Mei; He, Qing; Zhang, Yujie; Han, Shugao

    2015-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) in diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), thyroid radioactive iodine uptake (RAIU), thyroid scintigraphy and thyrotropin receptor antibody (TRAb) levels in the differential diagnosis between Graves' disease (GD) and painless thyroiditis (PT). A total of 102 patients with GD and 37 patients with PT were enrolled in the study. DWI was obtained with a 3.0-T magnetic resonance scanner, and ADC values were calculated. RAIU and thyroid scintigraphy were performed. Tissue samples were obtained from patients with GD (6 cases) following thyroidectomy, and from patients with PT (2 cases) following biopsy. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were drawn, optimal cut-off values were selected, and the sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) were assessed. It was found that the ADC, TRAb and RAIU were significantly higher in GD than in PT (P<0.05). ROC curves showed areas under the curves for RAIU, ADC and TRAb that were >0.900. RAIU was the reference method. Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, PPV and NPV were 96.078, 91.892, 95.000, 97.059 and 89.474% for ADC, and 88.235, 75.676, 84.892, 90.909 and 70.000% for TRAb, after the optimal thresholds of 1.837×10(-3) mm(2)/sec and 1.350 IU/ml were determined respectively. Histopathology showed that tissue cellularity in PT was much higher than in GD due to massive lymphocytic infiltration. The results of the present study indicate that RAIU, ADC and TRAb are of diagnostic value for differentiating between GD and PT. DWI has great potential for thyroid pathophysiological imaging because it reflects differences in tissue cellularity between GD and PT.

  1. Diffusion-weighted imaging of breast tumours at 3 Tesla and 7 Tesla: a comparison.

    PubMed

    Gruber, S; Minarikova, L; Pinker, K; Zaric, O; Chmelik, M; Strasser, B; Baltzer, P; Helbich, T; Trattnig, S; Bogner, W

    2016-05-01

    To compare bilateral diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWI) at 3 T and 7 T in the same breast tumour patients. Twenty-eight patients were included in this IRB-approved study (mean age 56 ± 16 years). Before contrast-enhanced imaging, bilateral DWI with b = 0 and 850 s/mm(2) was performed in 2:56 min (3 T) and 3:48 min (7 T), using readout-segmented echo planar imaging (rs-EPI) with a 1.4 × 1.4 mm(2) (3 T)/0.9 × 0.9 mm(2) (7 T) in-plane resolution. Apparent diffusion coefficients (ADC), signal-to-noise (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratios (CNR) were assessed. Twenty-eight lesions were detected (18 malignant, 10 benign). CNR and SNR were comparable at both field strengths (p > 0.3). Mean ADC values at 7 T were 4-22% lower than at 3 T (p ≤ 0.03). An ADC threshold of 1.275 × 10(-3) mm(2)/s resulted in a diagnostic specificity of 90% at both field strengths. The sensitivity was 94% and 100% at 3 T and 7 T, respectively. 7-T DWI of the breast can be performed with 2.4-fold higher spatial resolution than 3 T, without significant differences in SNR if compared to 3 T. • 7 T provides a 2.4-fold higher resolution in breast DWI than 3 T • 7 T DWI has a high diagnostic accuracy comparable to that at 3 T • At 7 T malignant lesions had 22 % lower ADC than at 3 T (p < 0.001).

  2. Feasibility study of reduced field of view diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging in head and neck tumors.

    PubMed

    Vidiri, Antonello; Minosse, Silvia; Piludu, Francesca; Curione, Davide; Pichi, Barbara; Spriano, Giuseppe; Marzi, Simona

    2017-03-01

    Background Reduced field of view (rFOV) imaging may be used to improve the quality of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in the head and neck (HN) region. Purpose To evaluate the feasibility of rFOV-DWI in patients affected by HN tumors, through a comparison with conventional full FOV (fFOV) DWI. Material and Methods Twenty-two patients with histologically-proven malignant or benign tumors of the head and neck were included in a retrospective study. All patients underwent pre-treatment magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies including rFOV-DWI and fFOV-DWI. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value distributions inside tumor and muscle were derived and the mean, standard deviation (SD), and kurtosis were calculated. Image distortion was quantitatively and qualitatively evaluated, as well as the capability of lesion identification. The Wilcoxon test was used to compare all variables. Agreements between the ADC estimations were assessed by Bland-Altman plots. Results Image distortion and lesion identification scores were both higher for rFOV-DWI compared to fFOV-DWI. A reduction in ADC values with rFOV-DWI emerged for both lesion and muscle, with a mean percentage difference in ADC of 6.2% in the lesions and 24.9% in the muscle. The difference in SD of ADC was statistically significant in the lesions, indicating a higher ADC homogeneity for rFOV DWI ( P = 0.005). Conclusion The application of rFOV DWI in patients affected by HN tumors is feasible and promising, based on both qualitative and quantitative analyses. This technique has potential for improving the diagnostic accuracy of fFOV-DWI for the study of specific tumoral areas.

  3. Diffusion-weighted MRI as a potential imaging biomarker reflecting the metastatic potential of upper urinary tract cancer

    PubMed Central

    Uchida, Y; Kobayashi, S; Koga, F; Ishioka, J; Satoh, S; Ishii, C; Tanaka, H; Matsuoka, Y; Numao, N; Saito, K; Masuda, H; Fujii, Y; Kihara, K

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the role of diffusion-weighted MRI (DW-MRI) as an imaging biomarker for upper urinary tract cancer (UUTC) that has already metastasized or will metastasize soon. Methods: 61 patients clinically diagnosed with UUTC were prospectively enrolled in this study. All the patients underwent MRI, including DW-MRI, prior to any interventions. Correlations between apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and other clinicopathological variables, including metastasis-free survival, were analysed. Results: Median follow-up period was 938 days. Of the 61 patients, 12 had any metastases at the initial diagnosis. 11 patients developed metastases during the follow-up period. These 23 patients were categorized as “Metastatic”. Of the remaining 38 patients, 35 with a follow-up period longer than 400 days were categorized as “Localized”. ADC was significantly lower in the Metastatic category than in the Localized (p = 0.0002) category. Multivariate analysis of pre-operative variables identified ADC (cut-off value, 1.08 × 10−3 mm2 s−1) and clinical T stage based on T2 weighted MRI as an independent predictive factor of metastatic UUTC. 46 patients without any metastases during the initial diagnosis were stratified into a high-risk group (16 patients with low ADC and clinical T3–4) and a low-risk group (30 patients with high ADC or clinical Ta-2). The 3-year metastasis-free survivals were 45% and 93%, respectively. Conclusion: In the current study, UUTC with lower ADC value is more likely to have metastatic potential. Incorporating ADC with clinical T stage helps to differentiate metastatic UUTC at the initial diagnosis. Advances in knowledge: DW-MRI is a potential imaging biomarker reflecting metastatic propensity of UUTC. PMID:25074719

  4. Diffusion-weighted MR neurography of extremity nerves with unidirectional motion-probing gradients at 3 T: feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lianxin; Wang, Guangbin; Yang, Linlin; Wu, Lebin; Lin, Xiangtao; Chhabra, Avneesh

    2013-05-01

    The objective of our study was to show the feasibility and performance of diffusion-weighted MR neurography (MRN) of extremity nerves with unidirectional motion-probing gradients at 3 T. Forty-seven healthy volunteers and 10 patients underwent diffusion-weighted MRN of extremity nerves with unidirectional motion-probing gradients (anterior-posterior direction only) on a 3-T unit. Images were displayed using a maximum-intensity-projection technique. Two radiologists blindly and independently evaluated the imaging quality of extremity nerves on diffusion-weighted MRN images using a 4-point grading scale, with 4 indicating excellent quality and 1 indicating poor quality, and evaluated the relation of the lesion to adjacent nerves in patients. In volunteers, the long trajectories of major extremity nerves, including the radial, median, ulnar, sciatic, tibial, and common peroneal nerves, could be visualized 3D on diffusion-weighted MRN images. The mean imaging quality scores of all nerves for observers 1 and 2 were 3.68 ± 0.70 (SD) and 3.70 ± 0.66, respectively. Interobserver agreement was good (κ = 0.774). In patients, there was no discrepancy in imaging quality scores between observers. Scores of all nerves were 2-4 except in two patients with neurofibromatosis and one patient who underwent imaging soon after surgery. The extent of the lesions and the relationship of the lesions to the adjacent nerves were clearly depicted on diffusion-weighted MRN images of all patients. This preliminary study shows that 3-T diffusion-weighted MRN with unidirectional motion-probing gradients is feasible for 3D visualization of major extremity nerves. Diffusion-weighted MRN may enable nerve depiction and allow assessment of the anatomic relationship between lesions with diffusion restriction and adjacent nerves.

  5. Diffusion-weighted imaging in patients with acute brain ischemia at 3 T: current possibilities and future perspectives comparing conventional echoplanar diffusion-weighted imaging and fast spin echo diffusion-weighted imaging sequences using BLADE (PROPELLER).

    PubMed

    Fries, Peter; Runge, Val M; Kirchin, Miles A; Stemmer, Alto; Naul, L Gill; Wiliams, Kenneth D; Reith, Wolfgang; Bücker, Arno; Schneider, Günther

    2009-06-01

    To compare diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) based on a fast spin echo (FSE) sequence using BLADE (PROPELLER) with conventional DWI-echoplanar imaging (EPI) techniques at 3 T and to demonstrate the influence of hardware developments on signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) with these techniques using 12- and 32-channel head coils. Fourteen patients with brain ischemia were evaluated with DWI using EPI and FSE BLADE sequences, with a 12-channel head coil, in the axial plane and 1 additional plane (either sagittal or coronal). SNR and CNR were calculated from region-of-interest measurements. Scans were evaluated in a blinded fashion by 2 experienced neuroradiologists. SNR of both DWI techniques was evaluated in 12 healthy volunteers using different parallel imaging (PI) factors (for the EPI sequence) and both the 12- and 32-channel coils. DWI-BLADE sequences acquired with the 12-channel coil revealed a significant reduction in SNR (mean +/- SD) of ischemic lesions (SNR(lesion) [5.0 +/- 2.5]), normal brain (SNR(brain) [3.0 +/- 1.9]), and subsequently in CNR (3.0 +/- 1.8) as compared with the DWI-EPI sequence (SNR(lesion) [9.3 +/- 5.2], SNR(brain) [7.7 +/- 3.5], CNR [6.1 +/- 2.8], P < 0.001). Despite this reduction in SNR and CNR, the blinded read revealed a marked preference for the DWI-BLADE sequence, or equality between the sequences, in the majority of patients because lesion detection was degraded by susceptibility artifacts on axial DWI-EPI scans in 14% to 43% of cases (but in no instance with the DWI-BLADE sequence). In particular, preference for the DWI-BLADE sequence or equality between the 2 techniques for lesion detection in the brainstem and cerebellum was observed. On some DWI-BLADE scans, in the additional plane, radial-like artifacts degraded lesion detection.In volunteers, SNR was significantly improved using the 32-channel coil, irrespective of scan technique. Comparing DWI-EPI acquired with the 12-channel coil (iPAT = 2) to DWI-BLADE acquired with the 32-channel

  6. Detection and characterization of small focal hepatic lesions (≤2.5 cm in diameter): a comparison of diffusion-weighted images before and after administration of gadoxetic acid disodium at 3.0T.

    PubMed

    Song, Kyoung Doo; Kim, Young Kon; Lee, Won Jae; Lee, Min Woo; Park, Min Jung; Hwang, Jiyoung; Lee, Mi Hee

    2012-06-01

    As diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) is routinely incorporated into the standard clinical protocol, it is clinically relevant to determine whether DWI after gadoxetic acid is comparable to pre-contrast DWI, with regard to the detection and characterization of focal liver lesions. To compare DWI before and after administration of gadoxetic acid in the detection and characterization of small (≤2.5 cm) focal hepatic lesions. One hundred and fifty-eight patients with 237 focal hepatic lesions (≤2.5 cm) (124 HCCs, 50 metastases, 2 cholangiocarcinomas, 43 hemangiomas, and 18 cysts) were included. DWIs were obtained before and after administration of gadoxetic acid. Non-breath-hold DWI was performed with b values of 0, 100, and 800 s/mm(2). Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), lesion-liver contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), and apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) of the liver and lesion were calculated. Lesion detection with each DWI was evaluated with alternative free-response receiver-operating characteristic analysis by two observers. The sensitivity of the characterization of focal hepatic lesions as solid (malignancy) or non-solid (benignity) with each DWI was calculated using a five-point confidence scale. Inter-observer agreement regarding lesion detection and characterization was evaluated using kappa statistics. SNRs of the liver on post-contrast DWI were significantly lower than on unenhanced DWI at b = 800 s/mm(2) (P < 0.05). SNRs, CNRs, and ADCs of focal hepatic lesions were not significantly different between two DWIs (P > 0.05). The diagnostic accuracy (Az) for lesion detection and the sensitivity for lesion characterization did not show significant difference between two DWIs (P > 0.05). With regard to the detection and characterization of focal hepatic lesions, the kappa values for two DWIs indicated good and excellent inter-observer agreement, respectively. Gadoxetic acid-enhanced DWI showed comparable diagnostic capability to unenhanced DWI for the detection

  7. Methanol-induced toxic optic neuropathy with diffusion weighted MRI findings.

    PubMed

    Tanrivermis Sayit, Asli; Aslan, Kerim; Elmali, Muzaffer; Gungor, Inci

    2016-12-01

    We report a 52-year-old man with methanol intoxication who showed optic nerve damage as assessed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). He was admitted to the hospital with blurred vision after the consumption of alcohol (600-700 ml of cologne). He was treated with intravenous ethanol, NaHCO3 and hemodialysis. On admission, a brain and orbital MRI was performed. Bilateral mild contrast enhancement was detected on the contrast-enhanced images in the retrobulbar segment of the optic nerves (RBONs). Also, diffusion-weighted images showed restricted diffusion in the RBONs. Diagnosis was considered as methanol-induced optic neuropathy based on the MRI findings of the optic nerves.

  8. Echo planar diffusion-weighted imaging: possibilities and considerations with 12- and 32-channel head coils.

    PubMed

    Morelli, John N; Saettele, Megan R; Rangaswamy, Rajesh A; Vu, Lan; Gerdes, Clint M; Zhang, Wei; Ai, Fei

    2012-01-01

    Interest in clinical brain magnetic resonance imaging using 32-channel head coils for signal reception continues to increase. The present investigation assesses possibilities for improving diffusion-weighted image quality using a 32-channel in comparison to a conventional 12-channel coil. The utility of single-shot (ss) and an approach to readout-segmented (rs) echo planar imaging (EPI) are examined using both head coils. Substantial image quality improvements are found with rs-EPI. Imaging with a 32-channel head coil allows for implementation of greater parallel imaging acceleration factors or acquisition of scans at a higher resolution. Specifically, higher resolution imaging with rs-EPI can be achieved by increasing the number of readout segments without increasing echo-spacing or echo time to the degree necessary with ss-EPI - a factor resulting in increased susceptibility artifact and reduced signal-to-noise with the latter.

  9. Asymptomatic choroid plexus cysts in the lateral ventricles: an incidental finding on diffusion-weighted MRI.

    PubMed

    Cakir, B; Karakas, H M; Unlu, E; Tuncbilek, N

    2002-10-01

    We assessed the role of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in the detection of choroid plexus cysts. We reviewed more than 1000 patients who had undergone MRI in a 1-year period. We reviewed echo-planar DWI with b=1000 s/mm(2), acquired at 1.0 tesla, for any difference in signal intensity which might indicate choroid plexus cysts. On conventional images, all cystic lesions were isointense with cerebrospinal fluid, and 72 cysts could not be identified. On DWI, 90 rounded high-signal foci were detected in 58 patients; 64 cysts were bilateral. Focal ventricular expansion due to large cysts was observed in nine cases. DWI were found to show choroid plexus cysts undetected within the cerebrospinal fluid on conventional images.

  10. Comparison of stroke infarction between CT perfusion and diffusion weighted imaging: preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abd. Rahni, Ashrani Aizzuddin; Arka, Israna Hossain; Chellappan, Kalaivani; Mukari, Shahizon Azura; Law, Zhe Kang; Sahathevan, Ramesh

    2016-03-01

    In this paper we present preliminary results of comparison of automatic segmentations of the infarct core, between that obtained from CT perfusion (based on time to peak parameter) and diffusion weighted imaging (DWI). For each patient, the two imaging volumes were automatically co-registered to a common frame of reference based on an acquired CT angiography image. The accuracy of image registration is measured by the overlap of the segmented brain from both images (CT perfusion and DWI), measured within their common field of view. Due to the limitations of the study, DWI was acquired as a follow up scan up to a week after initial CT based imaging. However, we found significant overlap of the segmented brain (Jaccard indices of approximately 0.8) and the percentage of infarcted brain tissue from the two modalities were still fairly highly correlated (correlation coefficient of approximately 0.9). The results are promising with more data needed in future for clinical inference.

  11. Sensitivity of Diffusion-Weighted STEAM MRI and EPI-DWI to Infratentorial Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Hohenhaus, Marc; Kunze, Claudia; Schmidt, Wolf; Brunecker, Peter; Villringer, Kersten; Merboldt, Klaus-Dietmar; Frahm, Jens; Fiebach, Jochen B.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To assess the sensitivity of stimulated echo acquisition mode diffusion weighted imaging (STEAM-DWI) to ischemic stroke in comparison to echo-planar imaging diffusion weighted imaging (EPI-DWI) in the infratentorial compartment. Methods Fifty-seven patients presenting with clinical features of infratentorial stroke underwent STEAM-DWI, high-resolution EPI-DWI (HR-DWI, 2.5 mm slice thickness) and low-resolution EPI-DWI (LR-DWI, 5 mm slice thickness). Four readers assessed the presence of ischemic lesions and artifacts. Agreement between sequences and interobserver agreement on the presence of ischemia were calculated. The sensitivities of the DWI sequences were calculated in 45 patients with a confirmed diagnosis of infratentorial stroke. Results Median time from symptom onset to imaging was 24 hours. STEAM-DWI agreed with LR-DWI in 89.5% of cases (kappa = 0.72, p<0.0001) and with HR-DWI in 89.5% of cases (kappa = 0.68, p<0.0001). STEAM-DWI showed fewer intraparenchymal artifacts (1/57) than HR-DWI (44/57) and LR-DWI (41/57). Ischemia was visible in 87% of cases for LR-DWI, 93% of cases for HR-DWI, and 89% of cases for STEAM-DWI. Interobserver agreement was good for STEAM-DWI (kappa = 0.62, p<0.0001). Conclusions Compared to the best currently available MR sequence for detecting ischemia (HR-DWI), STEAM-DWI shows fewer artifacts and a similar sensitivity to infratentorial stroke. PMID:27529697

  12. Evaluation of Angiographic and Technical Aspects of Carotid Stenting with Diffusion-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Blasel, Stella Hattingen, Elke; Berkefeld, Joachim; Kurre, Wiebke; Morawe, Gerald; Zanella, Friedhelm; Rochemont, Richard Du Mesnil de

    2009-07-15

    The detection of clinically silent ischemic lesions on postprocedural diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance images has become a preferred method for the description of embolic risks. The purpose of this single-center study was to evaluate whether diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) could determine material related or technical risk factors of filter-protected carotid stenting. Eighty-four patients with symptomatic severe ({>=}60%) carotid artery stenoses received filter-protected carotid stenting. Standard DWI (b = 1000) was performed within 48 h before and after carotid stenting. The occurrence and load of new postinterventional DWI lesions were assessed. Multivariate analysis was performed to determine risk factors associated with DWI lesions, with emphasis on technical factors such as use of different access devices (guiding catheter method vs. long carotid sheath method), type of stent (open-cell nitinol stent vs. closed-cell Wallstent), and protective device (filters with 80-{mu}m vs. 110-120-{mu}m pore size). Markers for generalized atherosclerosis and for degree and site of stenosis were assessed to allow comparison of adequate risk profiles. Access, protective device, and stent type were not significantly associated with new embolic DWI lesions when we compared patients with equivalent risk profiles (long carotid sheath method 48% [11 of 23] vs. guiding catheter method 44% [27 of 61], Wallstent 47% [15 of 32] vs. nitinol stent 44% [23 of 52], and small pore size filter 61% [11 of 18] vs. large pore size filter 41% [27 of 66]). Single-center DWI studies with a moderate number of cases are inadequate for proper assessment of the embolic risk of technical- or material-related risk factors in carotid stenting. Larger multicenter studies with more cases are needed.

  13. Automatic quantification of ischemic injury on diffusion-weighted MRI of neonatal hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Keelin; van der Aa, Niek E; Negro, Simona; Groenendaal, Floris; de Vries, Linda S; Viergever, Max A; Boylan, Geraldine B; Benders, Manon J N L; Išgum, Ivana

    2017-01-01

    A fully automatic method for detection and quantification of ischemic lesions in diffusion-weighted MR images of neonatal hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) is presented. Ischemic lesions are manually segmented by two independent observers in 1.5 T data from 20 subjects and an automatic algorithm using a random forest classifier is developed and trained on the annotations of observer 1. The algorithm obtains a median sensitivity and specificity of 0.72 and 0.99 respectively. F1-scores are calculated per subject for algorithm performance (median = 0.52) and observer 2 performance (median = 0.56). A paired t-test on the F1-scores shows no statistical difference between the algorithm and observer 2 performances. The method is applied to a larger dataset including 54 additional subjects scanned at both 1.5 T and 3.0 T. The algorithm findings are shown to correspond well with the injury pattern noted by clinicians in both 1.5 T and 3.0 T data and to have a strong relationship with outcome. The results of the automatic method are condensed to a single score for each subject which has significant correlation with an MR score assigned by experienced clinicians (p < 0.0001). This work represents a quantitative method of evaluating diffusion-weighted MR images in neonatal HIE and a first step in the development of an automatic system for more in-depth analysis and prognostication.

  14. Whole-body diffusion-weighted MR image stitching and alignment to anatomical MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceranka, Jakub; Polfliet, Mathias; Lecouvet, Frederic; Michoux, Nicolas; Vandemeulebroucke, Jef

    2017-02-01

    Whole-body diffusion-weighted (WB-DW) MRI in combination with anatomical MRI has shown a great poten- tial in bone and soft tissue tumour detection, evaluation of lymph nodes and treatment response assessment. Because of the vast body coverage, whole-body MRI is acquired in separate stations, which are subsequently combined into a whole-body image. However, inter-station and inter-modality image misalignments can occur due to image distortions and patient motion during acquisition, which may lead to inaccurate representations of patient anatomy and hinder visual assessment. Automated and accurate whole-body image formation and alignment of the multi-modal MRI images is therefore crucial. We investigated several registration approaches for the formation or stitching of the whole-body image stations, followed by a deformable alignment of the multi- modal whole-body images. We compared a pairwise approach, where diffusion-weighted (DW) image stations were sequentially aligned to a reference station (pelvis), to a groupwise approach, where all stations were simultaneously mapped to a common reference space while minimizing the overall transformation. For each, a choice of input images and corresponding metrics was investigated. Performance was evaluated by assessing the quality of the obtained whole-body images, and by verifying the accuracy of the alignment with whole-body anatomical sequences. The groupwise registration approach provided the best compromise between the formation of WB- DW images and multi-modal alignment. The fully automated method was found to be robust, making its use in the clinic feasible.

  15. Measurement and modeling of diffusion time dependence of apparent diffusion coefficient and fractional anisotropy in prostate tissue ex vivo.

    PubMed

    Bourne, Roger; Liang, Sisi; Panagiotaki, Eleftheria; Bongers, Andre; Sved, Paul; Watson, Geoffrey

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure and model the diffusion time dependence of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and fractional anisotropy (FA) derived from conventional prostate diffusion-weighted imaging methods as used in recommended multiparametric MRI protocols. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was performed at 9.4 T with three radical prostatectomy specimens, with diffusion times in the range 10-120 ms and b-values 0-3000 s/mm(2) . ADC and FA were calculated from DTI measurements at b-values of 800 and 1600 s/mm(2) . Independently, a two-component model (restricted isotropic plus Gaussian anisotropic) was used to synthesize DTI data, from which ADC and FA were predicted and compared with the measured values. Measured ADC and FA exhibited a diffusion time dependence, which was closely predicted by the two-component model. ADC decreased by about 0.10-0.15 μm(2) /ms as diffusion time increased from 10 to 120 ms. FA increased with diffusion time at b-values of 800 and 1600 s/mm(2) but was predicted to be independent of diffusion time at b = 3000 s/mm(2) . Both ADC and FA exhibited diffusion time dependence that could be modeled as two unmixed water pools - one having isotropic restricted dynamics, and the other unrestricted anisotropic dynamics. These results highlight the importance of considering and reporting diffusion times in conventional ADC and FA calculations and protocol recommendations, and inform the development of improved diffusion methods for prostate cancer imaging. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Assessment of non-Gaussian diffusion with singly and doubly stretched biexponential models of diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI) signal attenuation in prostate tissue.

    PubMed

    Hall, Matt G; Bongers, Andre; Sved, Paul; Watson, Geoffrey; Bourne, Roger M

    2015-04-01

    Non-Gaussian diffusion dynamics was investigated in the two distinct water populations identified by a biexponential model of diffusion in prostate tissue. Diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI) signal attenuation was measured ex vivo in two formalin-fixed prostates at 9.4 T with diffusion times Δ = 10, 20 and 40 ms, and b values in the range 0.017-8.2 ms/µm(2) . A conventional biexponential model was compared with models in which either the lower diffusivity component or both of the components of the biexponential were stretched. Models were compared using Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC) and a leave-one-out (LOO) test of model prediction accuracy. The doubly stretched (SS) model had the highest LOO prediction accuracy and lowest AIC (highest information content) in the majority of voxels at Δ = 10 and 20 ms. The lower diffusivity stretching factor (α2 ) of the SS model was consistently lower (range ~0.3-0.9) than the higher diffusivity stretching factor (α1 , range ~0.7-1.1), indicating a high degree of diffusion heterogeneity in the lower diffusivity environment, and nearly Gaussian diffusion in the higher diffusivity environment. Stretched biexponential models demonstrate that, in prostate tissue, the two distinct water populations identified by the simple biexponential model individually exhibit non-Gaussian diffusion dynamics.

  17. Is quantitative diffusion-weighted MRI a valuable technique for the detection of changes in kidneys after extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy?

    PubMed Central

    Hocaoglu, Elif; Inci, Ercan; Aydin, Sibel; Cesme, Dilek Hacer; Kalfazade, Nadir

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the capability and the reliability of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in the changes of kidneys occurring after extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) treatment for renal stones. Materials and Methods A total of 32 patients who underwent ESWL treatment for renal stone disease between June and December 2011 were enrolled in this prospective study. Color Doppler ultrasonography (CDUS) and DWI were performed before and within 24 hours after ESWL. DWI was obtained with b factors of 0, 500 and 1000 s/mm2 at 1.5 T MRI. Each of Resistive index (RI) and ADC values were calculated from the three regions of renal upper, middle and lower zones for both of the affected and contralateral kidneys. Paired sample t test was used for statistical analyses. Results After ESWL, the treated kidneys had statistically significant lower ADC values in all different regions compared with previous renal images. The best discriminative parameter was signal intensity with a b value of 1000 s/mm2. The changes of DWI after ESWL were noteworthy in the middle of the treated kidney (p<0.01). There were no significant difference between RI values in all regions of treated and contralateral kidneys before and after treatment with ESWL (p>0.05). Conclusion DWI is a valuable technique enables the detection of changes in DWI after ESWL treatment that may provide useful information in prediction of renal damage by shock waves, even CDUS is normal. PMID:25928520

  18. Segmentation and quantification of ischemic lesions on DWI images with different b-value at high magnetic field (3.0T)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wu; Tian, Jie; Dai, Jianping

    2004-04-01

    Diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) is the gold standard for imaging of acute stroke. Today, high-field systems operating at 3T become increasingly available in clinical settings. But, with b-value increasing, lesion SNR of DWI image descends, and anisotropy increases significantly. Aim of the study is to develop an automatic volumetric measure method of ischemic lesions on diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) images at high magnetic field, without the disturbance of anisotropy. Using a home-built interactive platform, we rated SNR and anisotropy. The extent of anisotropy was evaluated by the intensity ratio of white matter versus gray matter. Based on this knowledge, we developed an automatic segmentation method, involving firstly non-linear anisotropic diffusion filtering, secondly expert pieces of information applied to determine the scopes of parameters according to different b-value, and finally multi-scale adaptive statistical classification with intensity inhomogeneity correction. Results of the automatic segmentation are compared with lesion delineations by experts, showing the rapid identification of ischemic lesion with accuracy and reproducibility, even in the presence of radio frequency (RF) inhomogeneity. There has been considerable interest in using DWI at 3T to detect ischemic lesion in stroke patients. The proposed method is promising for rapid, accurate, and quantitatively diagnosis of ischemic stroke.

  19. In vivo and ex vivo measurements of the mean ADC values of lipid necrotic core and hemorrhage obtained from diffusion weighted imaging in human atherosclerotic plaques.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seong-Eun; Treiman, Gerald S; Roberts, John A; Jeong, Eun-Kee; Shi, Xianfeng; Hadley, J Rock; Parker, Dennis L

    2011-11-01

    To determine the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values of lipid and hemorrhage in atherosclerotic plaque in human carotid arteries in vivo and compare the values obtained from ex vivo carotid endarterectomy specimens. In vivo diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) of carotid plaques was performed using a 2D single shot Interleaved Multislice Inner Volume Diffusion Weighted Echo Planar Imaging (2D ss-IMIV DWEPI) on 8 subjects who subsequently underwent carotid endarterectomy. A total of 32 slices used to construct the ADC maps were reviewed for the measurement of the mean ADC values in vessel wall, hemorrhage, and lipid necrotic core. The 8 endarterectomy specimens were scanned using by three-dimensional ms-IV-DWEPI. After the ADC maps were created, the mean ADC values in the same locations selected for in vivo values were calculated. The mean ADC values obtained from in vivo DWI in normal vessel wall, lipid rich core, and hemorrhage were 1.27 ± 0.16, 0.38 ± 0.1, and 0.98 ± 0.25 × 10(-3) mm(2)/s, respectively. The mean ADC values in ex vivo lipid necrotic core, and hemorrhage were 0.33 ± 0.08, 1.28 ± 0.10 × 10(-3) mm(2)/s, respectively. These components mean ADC values obtained from in vivo and ex vivo ADC maps were compared. ADC values of the carotid plaque components in vivo are consistent with values obtained from ex vivo endarterectomy specimens. The ability to obtain consistent plaque ADC values in vivo indicates that this technique could be an integral part of the basis for plaque component identification in conjunction with other MRI techniques. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Dynamic Susceptibility Contrast Perfusion-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Diffusion-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Differentiating Recurrent Head and Neck Cancer From Postradiation Changes.

    PubMed

    Abdel Razek, Ahmed Abdel Khalek; Gaballa, Gada; Ashamalla, Germin; Alashry, Mohamed Saad; Nada, Nadia

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC) perfusion-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and diffusion-weighted MR imaging in differentiating recurrent head and neck cancer from postradiation changes. A prospective study was done on 41 patients with head and neck cancer after radiotherapy who underwent diffusion-weighted MR imaging, DSC perfusion-weighted MR imaging, and routine postcontrast MR imaging. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) map and time signal intensity curve of the lesion were created. The ADC value, DSC percentage (DSC%), and contrast enhancement percentage of the lesion were calculated. The final diagnosis was done with biopsy. There was significant difference (P = 0.001) in ADC between recurrent cancer (0.94 ± 0.16 × 10mm/s) and postradiation changes (1.37 ± 0.12 × 10mm/s). There was significant difference (P = 0.001) in DSC% of recurrent cancer (30.9% ± 5.16%) and postradiation changes (12.1% ± 3.06%). Selection of ADC equal to or less than 1.07 × 10mm/s and DSC% greater than 16.6% to predict recurrence have areas under the curve of 0.822 and 0.900 and accuracy of 92.7% and 95.1%, respectively. Combination of ADC and DSC% has are under the curve of 0.992 and accuracy of 97.6%. Combined ADC and DSC% are noninvasive imaging parameters that can play a role in the differentiation of recurrent head and neck cancer from postradiation changes.

  1. FDG-MicroPET and Diffusion-Weighted MR Image Evaluation of Early Changes After Radiofrequency Ablation in Implanted VX2 Tumors in Rabbits

    SciTech Connect

    Ohira, Tomohiro Okuma, Tomohisa; Matsuoka, Toshiyuki; Wada, Yasuhiro; Nakamura, Kenji; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi; Inoue, Yuichi

    2009-01-15

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the early changes after radiofrequency ablation (RFA) in VX2 rabbit tumors implanted into the back muscles by diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and {sup 18}F-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography ({sup 18}F-FDG PET). Percutaneous CT-guided RFA was conducted in seven rabbits with implanted VX2 tumors. VX2 tumors on the other side were untreated and served as the control. MR imaging was performed with a clinical 1.5-T instrument 2 days after RFA, and FDG-PET, using a high-resolution PET scanner for small animals, was obtained 3 days after the procedure. The mean apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values and radioactivity count of untreated and ablated tumors were calculated. Untreated VX2 tumors showed hyperintensity on T1-, T2-, and diffusion-weighted MR images, ring-enhanced on contrast-enhanced T1-weighted imaging, and ring-shaped FDG accumulation on FDG-PET. Ablated VX2 tumors showed slight hyperintensity on T1-, T2-, and diffusion-weighed images, slight enhancement on contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images, and low accumulation on FDG-PET. The ADC value of ablated VX2 tumors (1.52 {+-} 0.24 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s) was significantly higher than that of untreated tumors (1.09 {+-} 0.12 x 10{sup -3}; p < 0.05). The tumor/muscle ratio of ablated tumors (0.5 {+-} 0.3) was significantly lower than that of untreated tumors (11.6 {+-} 3.2; p < 0.05). Histopathological examination confirmed the lack of viable tumor cells in the ablated lesions. The results indicate that both ADC value and FDG-PET are potentially useful markers for monitoring the early effects of RFA.

  2. Volcanic Seismicity - The Power of the b-value

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Main, I. G.; Roberts, N.; Bell, A. F.

    2016-12-01

    The Gutenberg-Richter `b-value' is commonly used in volcanic eruption forecasting to infer material or mechanical properties from earthquake distributions. It is `well known' that the b-value tends to be high or very high for volcanic earthquake populations relative to b = 1 for those of tectonic earthquakes, and that b varies significantly with time during periods of unrest. Subject to suitable calibration the b-value also allows us to quantify and characterise earthquake distributions of both ancient and currently-active populations, as a measure of the frequency-size distribution of source rupture area or length. Using a new iterative sampling method (Roberts et al. 2016), we examine data from the El Hierro seismic catalogue during a period of unrest in 2011-2013, and quantify the resulting uncertainties. The results demonstrate commonly-applied methods of assessing uncertainty in b-value significantly underestimate the total uncertainty, particularly when b is high. They also show clear multi-modal behaviour in the evolution of the b-value. Individual modes are relatively stable in time, but the most probable b-value intermittently switches between modes, one of which is similar to that of tectonic seismicity, and some are genuinely higher within the total error. A key benefit of this approach is that it is able to resolve different b-values associated with contemporaneous processes, even in the case where some generate high rates of events for short durations and others low rates for longer durations. These characteristics that are typical for many volcanic processes. Secondly, we use a range field observations from the exhumed extinct magma chamber on the Isle of Rum, NW Scotland, to infer an equivalent a b-value for the `frozen' fracture system that would have been active at the time of volcanism 65Ma ago. Using measurements from millimetre-scale fractures to lineation's on satellite imagery over 100m in length, we estimate b=1.8, significantly greater than

  3. Evaluation of three inverse problem models to quantify skin microcirculation using diffusion-weighted MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cordier, G.; Choi, J.; Raguin, L. G.

    2008-11-01

    Skin microcirculation plays an important role in diseases such as chronic venous insufficiency and diabetes. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can provide quantitative information with a better penetration depth than other noninvasive methods, such as laser Doppler flowmetry or optical coherence tomography. Moreover, successful MRI skin studies have recently been reported. In this article, we investigate three potential inverse models to quantify skin microcirculation using diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI), also known as q-space MRI. The model parameters are estimated based on nonlinear least-squares (NLS). For each of the three models, an optimal DWI sampling scheme is proposed based on D-optimality in order to minimize the size of the confidence region of the NLS estimates and thus the effect of the experimental noise inherent to DWI. The resulting covariance matrices of the NLS estimates are predicted by asymptotic normality and compared to the ones computed by Monte-Carlo simulations. Our numerical results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed models and corresponding DWI sampling schemes as compared to conventional approaches.

  4. Robust optimal design of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance experiments for skin microcirculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, J.; Raguin, L. G.

    2010-10-01

    Skin microcirculation plays an important role in several diseases including chronic venous insufficiency and diabetes. Magnetic resonance (MR) has the potential to provide quantitative information and a better penetration depth compared with other non-invasive methods such as laser Doppler flowmetry or optical coherence tomography. The continuous progress in hardware resulting in higher sensitivity must be coupled with advances in data acquisition schemes. In this article, we first introduce a physical model for quantifying skin microcirculation using diffusion-weighted MR (DWMR) based on an effective dispersion model for skin leading to a q-space model of the DWMR complex signal, and then design the corresponding robust optimal experiments. The resulting robust optimal DWMR protocols improve the worst-case quality of parameter estimates using nonlinear least squares optimization by exploiting available a priori knowledge of model parameters. Hence, our approach optimizes the gradient strengths and directions used in DWMR experiments to robustly minimize the size of the parameter estimation error with respect to model parameter uncertainty. Numerical evaluations are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach as compared to conventional DWMR protocols.

  5. Diffusion-weighted imaging and the skeletal system: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Yao, K; Troupis, J M

    2016-11-01

    Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) is a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequence that has a well-established role in neuroimaging, and is increasingly being utilised in other clinical contexts, including the assessment of various skeletal disorders. It utilises the variability of Brownian motion of water molecules; the differing patterns of water molecular diffusion in various biological tissues help determine the contrast obtained in DWI. Although early research on the clinical role of DWI focused mainly on the field of neuroimaging, there are now more studies demonstrating the promising role DWI has in the diagnosis and monitoring of various osseous diseases. DWI has been shown to be useful in assessing a patient's skeletal tumour burden, monitoring the post-chemotherapy response of various bony malignancies, detecting hip ischaemia in patients with Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease, as well as determining the quality of repaired articular cartilage. Despite its relative successes, DWI has several limitations, including its limited clinical value in differentiating chondrosarcomas from benign bone lesions, as well as osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures from compression fractures due to malignancy. This literature review aims to provide an overview of the recent developments in the use of DWI in imaging the skeletal system, and to clarify the role of DWI in assessing various osseous diseases. Copyright © 2016 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Robust nonparametric segmentation of infarct lesion from diffusion-weighted MR images.

    PubMed

    Hevia-Montiel, Nidiyare; Jiménez-Alaniz, Juan Ramón; Medina-Bañuelos, Verónica; Yáñez-Suárez, Oscar; Rosso, Charlotte; Samson, Yves; Baillet, Sylvain

    2007-01-01

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is increasingly used for the diagnosis and monitoring of neurological disorders. In particular Diffusion-Weighted MRI (DWI) is highly sensitive in detecting early cerebral ischemic changes in acute stroke. Cerebral infarction lesion segmentation from DWI is accomplished in this work by applying nonparametric density estimation. The quality of the class boundaries is improved by including an edge confidence map, that is the confidence of truly being in the presence of a border between adjacent regions. The adjacency graph, that is constructed with the label regions, is analyzed and pruned to merge adjacent regions. The method was applied to real images, keeping all parameters constant throughout the process for each data set. The combination of region segmentation and edge detection proved to be a robust automatic technique of segmentation from DWI images of cerebral infarction regions in acute ischemic stroke. In a comparison with the reference infarct lesions segmentation, the automatic segmentation presented a significant correlation (r=0.935), and an average Tanimoto index of 0.538.

  7. Characterizing the distribution of anisotropic micro-structural environments with diffusion-weighted imaging (DIAMOND).

    PubMed

    Scherrer, Benoit; Schwartzman, Armin; Taquet, Maxime; Prabhu, Sanjay P; Sahin, Mustafa; Akhondi-Asl, Alireza; Warfield, Simon K

    2013-01-01

    Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) enables investigation of the brain microstructure by probing natural barriers to diffusion in tissues. In this work, we propose a novel generative model of the DW signal based on considerations of the tissue microstructure that gives rise to the diffusion attenuation. We consider that the DW signal can be described as the sum of a large number of individual homogeneous spin packets, each of them undergoing local 3-D Gaussian diffusion represented by a diffusion tensor. We consider that each voxel contains a number of large scale microstructural environments and describe each of them via a matrix-variate Gamma distribution of spin packets. Our novel model of DIstribution of Anisotropic MicrOstructural eNvironments in DWI (DIAMOND) is derived from first principles. It enables characterization of the extra-cellular space, of each individual white matter fascicle in each voxel and provides a novel measure of the microstructure heterogeneity. We determine the number of fascicles at each voxel with a novel model selection framework based upon the minimization of the generalization error. We evaluate our approach with numerous in-vivo experiments, with cross-testing and with pathological DW-MRI. We show that DIAMOND may provide novel biomarkers that captures the tissue integrity.

  8. A novel tensor distribution model for the diffusion-weighted MR signal✩

    PubMed Central

    Jian, Bing; Vemuri, Baba C.; Özarslan, Evren; Carney, Paul R.; Mareci, Thomas H.

    2008-01-01

    Diffusion MRI is a non-invasive imaging technique that allows the measurement of water molecule diffusion through tissue in vivo. The directional features of water diffusion allow one to infer the connectivity patterns prevalent in tissue and possibly track changes in this connectivity over time for various clinical applications. In this paper, we present a novel statistical model for diffusion-weighted MR signal attenuation which postulates that the water molecule diffusion can be characterized by a continuous mixture of diffusion tensors. An interesting observation is that this continuous mixture and the MR signal attenuation are related through the Laplace transform of a probability distribution over symmetric positive definite matrices. We then show that when the mixing distribution is a Wishart distribution, the resulting closed form of the Laplace transform leads to a Rigaut-type asymptotic fractal expression, which has been phenomenologically used in the past to explain the MR signal decay but never with a rigorous mathematical justification until now. Our model not only includes the traditional diffusion tensor model as a special instance in the limiting case, but also can be adjusted to describe complex tissue structure involving multiple fiber populations. Using this new model in conjunction with a spherical deconvolution approach, we present an efficient scheme for estimating the water molecule displacement probability functions on a voxel-by-voxel basis. Experimental results on both simulations and real data are presented to demonstrate the robustness and accuracy of the proposed algorithms. PMID:17570683

  9. A retrospective analysis of negative diffusion-weighted image results in patients with acute cerebral infarction

    PubMed Central

    Zuo, Lian; Zhang, Yue; Xu, Xiahong; Li, Ying; Bao, Huan; Hao, Junjie; Wang, Xin; Li, Gang

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to investigate the clinicoradiologic determinants of negative diffusion-weighted image (DWI) results in patients with acute cerebral infarction (ACI). The medical records were reviewed of ACI patients. Patients were divided to the DWI positive and negative group. Positive DWI was used as independent variable and patients' clinicoradiologic factors were used as co-variables for multivariate logistic regression analysis. 349 patients received initial cerebral MRI within 72 hours of admission. Lacunar infarction was most common (42.1%) followed by posterior circulation infarction (30.1%) and partial anterior circulation infarction (18.1%). The majority of the patients (72.2%) had an NIHSS score of less than 5 at admission. 316 patients (90.54%) were positive on initial DWI. Patients with smoking, initial SBP ≥ 140 or DBP ≥ 90 mmHg, initial fasting plasma glucose (FPG) ≥7.0 mmol/L, initial MRI from onset of disease >1 d and anterior circulation infarction were liable to show positive DWI. Furthermore, DWI negative patients had significantly lower NIHSS scores (IQR 0,1,2) than DWI positive patients (IQR 1,2,4) (P = 0.000) at two weeks post onset of acute cerebral infarction. In conclusion, multiple clinicoradiologic factors are associated with negative and positive DWI and further delineation of these factors is required in future prospective studies. PMID:25777182

  10. PCLR: Phase-Constrained Low-Rank Model for Compressive Diffusion-Weighted MRI

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Kai; Zhou, Weifeng; Hu, Xiaoping

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This work develops a compressive sensing approach for diffusion-weighted (DW) MRI. Methods A phase-constrained low-rank (PCLR) approach was developed using the image coherence across the DW directions for efficient compressive DW MRI, while accounting for drastic phase changes across the DW directions, possibly as a result of eddy current, and rigid and non-rigid motions. In PCLR, a low-resolution phase estimation was used for removing phase inconsistency between DW directions. In our implementation, GRAPPA was incorporated for better phase estimation while allowing higher undersampling factor. An efficient and easy-to-implement image reconstruction algorithm, consisting mainly of partial Fourier update and singular value decomposition, was developed for solving PCLR. Results The error measures based on diffusion-tensor-derived metrics and tractography indicated that PCLR, with its joint reconstruction of all DW images using the image coherence, outperformed the frame-independent reconstruction through zero-padding FFT. Furthermore, using GRAPPA for phase estimation, PCLR readily achieved a 4-fold undersampling. Conclusion The PCLR is developed and demonstrated for compressive DW MRI. A 4-fold reduction in k-space sampling could be readily achieved without substantial degradation of reconstructed images and diffusion tensor measures, making it possible to significantly reduce the data acquisition in DW MRI and/or improve spatial and angular resolutions. PMID:24327553

  11. Layer-specific diffusion weighted imaging in human primary visual cortex in vitro.

    PubMed

    Kleinnijenhuis, Michiel; Zerbi, Valerio; Küsters, Benno; Slump, Cornelis H; Barth, Markus; van Cappellen van Walsum, Anne-Marie

    2013-10-01

    One of the most prominent characteristics of the human neocortex is its laminated structure. The first person to observe this was Francesco Gennari in the second half the 18th century: in the middle of the depth of primary visual cortex, myelinated fibres are so abundant that he could observe them with bare eyes as a white line. Because of its saliency, the stria of Gennari has a rich history in cyto- and myeloarchitectural research as well as in magnetic resonance (MR) microscopy. In the present paper we show for the first time the layered structure of the human neocortex with ex vivo diffusion weighted imaging (DWI). To achieve the necessary spatial and angular resolution, primary visual cortex samples were scanned on an 11.7 T small-animal MR system to characterize the diffusion properties of the cortical laminae and the stria of Gennari in particular. The results demonstrated that fractional anisotropy varied over cortical depth, showing reduced anisotropy in the stria of Gennari, the inner band of Baillarger and the deepest layer of the cortex. Orientation density functions showed multiple components in the stria of Gennari and deeper layers of the cortex. Potential applications of layer-specific diffusion imaging include characterization of clinical abnormalities, cortical mapping and (intra)cortical tractography. We conclude that future high-resolution in vivo cortical DWI investigations should take into account the layer-specificity of the diffusion properties.

  12. New paradigm to assess brain cell morphology by diffusion-weighted MR spectroscopy in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Palombo, Marco; Ligneul, Clémence; Najac, Chloé; Le Douce, Juliette; Flament, Julien; Escartin, Carole; Hantraye, Philippe; Brouillet, Emmanuel; Bonvento, Gilles; Valette, Julien

    2016-01-01

    The brain is one of the most complex organs, and tools are lacking to assess its cellular morphology in vivo. Here we combine original diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopy acquisition and novel modeling strategies to explore the possibility of quantifying brain cell morphology noninvasively. First, the diffusion of cell-specific metabolites is measured at ultra-long diffusion times in the rodent and primate brain in vivo to observe how cell long-range morphology constrains metabolite diffusion. Massive simulations of particles diffusing in synthetic cells parameterized by morphometric statistics are then iterated to fit experimental data. This method yields synthetic cells (tentatively neurons and astrocytes) that exhibit striking qualitative and quantitative similarities with histology (e.g., using Sholl analysis). With our approach, we measure major interspecies difference regarding astrocytes, whereas dendritic organization appears better conserved throughout species. This work suggests that the time dependence of metabolite diffusion coefficient allows distinguishing and quantitatively characterizing brain cell morphologies noninvasively. PMID:27226303

  13. Diffusion weighted MRI imaging and MES detection in the assessment of stroke origin.

    PubMed

    Droste, Dirk W; Knapp, Jan; Freund, Michael; Nágy, Ildikó; Schulte, Volker; Schomacher, Guido; Csiba, László; Ringelstein, E Bernd

    2007-07-01

    This study compares the additional benefit of diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI) and microembolus detection by transcranial Doppler ultrasonography (TCD) in the assessment of stroke etiology. Fifty-five acute anterior circulation stroke or TIA patients were investigated by both cranial DWI and bilateral TCD of the middle cerebral arteries (1 hour). In one of the 13 patients without acute ischemic lesions visualized on DWI, microembolic signal (MES) detection was positive. However, in 33 out of 44 patients without MES, DWI revealed at least one lesion. In two patients with unilateral territorial infarction and otherwise normal cardiovascular work-up, bilateral MES were found thus localizing the embolic source into the aortic arch or the heart. In a further patient with a dissection, the occurrence of contralateral MES raised doubts on a dissection to be the cause of the infarct. There is a contribution of both techniques to the understanding of stroke etiology. The impact of DWI is, however, superior to that of MES detection. Longer TCD recording times may diminish this discrepancy.

  14. Usefulness of Diffusion-Weighted Imaging in the Localization of Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Kajihara, Hiroo; Hayashida, Yoshiko; Murakami, Ryuji Katahira, Kazuhiro; Nishimura, Ryuichi; Hamada, Yasuyuki; Kitani, Kousuke; Kitaoka, Mitsuhiko; Suzuki, Yasuko; Kitajima, Mika; Hirai, Toshinori; Morishita, Shoji; Awai, Kazuo; Yamashita, Yasuyuki

    2009-06-01

    Purpose: Advances in high-precision radiation therapy techniques for patients with prostate cancer permit selective escalation of the radiation dose delivered to the dominant intraprostatic lesion and improve the therapeutic ratio. We evaluated the value of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) for dominant intraprostatic lesion assessment. Methods and Materials: The study population consisted of 23 patients with early prostate cancer. Before undergoing total prostatectomy, they were evaluated by means of magnetic resonance imaging, including DWI. T2-weighted imaging (T2WI) with and without DWI were retrospectively assessed by six independent observers. Imaging findings were compared with pathologic results from whole prostate specimens on a lesion-by-lesion basis. Results: Pathologic study identified 43 lesions in 23 patients. On magnetic resonance imaging, the six observers correctly identified 11-22 of 43 lesions (sensitivity, 26-51%) on T2WI alone and 20-31 (sensitivity, 47-72%) on T2WI plus DWI. Positive predictive values were 42-73% on T2WI alone and 58-80% on T2WI plus DWI. For all observers, detection was higher on combined T2WI and DWI than on T2WI alone. Conclusion: Because the addition of DWI to T2WI improves the detectability of prostate cancer, DWI may offer a promising new approach for radiation therapy planning.

  15. Computer-assisted delineation of cerebral infarct from diffusion-weighted MRI using Gaussian mixture model.

    PubMed

    Nag, Manas Kumar; Koley, Subhranil; China, Debarghya; Sadhu, Anup Kumar; Balaji, Ravikanth; Ghosh, Siddharth; Chakraborty, Chandan

    2017-04-01

    Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) is a widely used medical imaging modality for diagnosis and monitoring of cerebral stroke. The identification of exact location of stroke lesion helps in perceiving its characteristics, an essential part of diagnosis and treatment planning. This task is challenging due to the typical shape of the stroke lesion. This paper proposes an efficient method for computer-aided delineation of stroke lesions from DWI images. Proposed methodology comprises of three steps. At the initial step, image contrast has been improved by applying fuzzy intensifier leading to the better visual quality of the stroke lesion. In the following step, a two-class (stroke lesion area vs. non-stroke lesion area) segmentation technique based on Gaussian mixture model has been designed for the localization of stroke lesion. To eliminate the artifacts which would appear during segmentation process, a binary morphological post-processing through area operator has been defined for exact delineation of the lesion area. The performance of the proposed methodology has been compared with the manually delineated images (ground truth) obtained from different experts, individually. Quantitative evaluation with respect to various performance measures (such as dice coefficient, Jaccard score, and correlation coefficient) shows the efficient performance of the proposed technique.

  16. PCLR: phase-constrained low-rank model for compressive diffusion-weighted MRI.

    PubMed

    Gao, Hao; Li, Longchuan; Zhang, Kai; Zhou, Weifeng; Hu, Xiaoping

    2014-11-01

    This work develops a compressive sensing approach for diffusion-weighted (DW) MRI. A phase-constrained low-rank (PCLR) approach was developed using the image coherence across the DW directions for efficient compressive DW MRI, while accounting for drastic phase changes across the DW directions, possibly as a result of eddy current, and rigid and nonrigid motions. In PCLR, a low-resolution phase estimation was used for removing phase inconsistency between DW directions. In our implementation, GRAPPA (generalized autocalibrating partial parallel acquisition) was incorporated for better phase estimation while allowing higher undersampling factor. An efficient and easy-to-implement image reconstruction algorithm, consisting mainly of partial Fourier update and singular value decomposition, was developed for solving PCLR. The error measures based on diffusion-tensor-derived metrics and tractography indicated that PCLR, with its joint reconstruction of all DW images using the image coherence, outperformed the frame-independent reconstruction through zero-padding FFT. Furthermore, using GRAPPA for phase estimation, PCLR readily achieved a four-fold undersampling. The PCLR is developed and demonstrated for compressive DW MRI. A four-fold reduction in k-space sampling could be readily achieved without substantial degradation of reconstructed images and diffusion tensor measures, making it possible to significantly reduce the data acquisition in DW MRI and/or improve spatial and angular resolutions. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Features of brain magnetic resonance imaging diffusion-weighted images of aortogenic embolic stroke.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Jun-Ichiro; Yasaka, Masahiro; Wakugawa, Yoshiyuki; Ogata, Toshiyasu; Makihara, Noriko; Ito, Shoichi; Kuwabara, Satoshi; Okada, Yasushi

    2014-01-01

     The features of acute aortogenic embolic stroke on magnetic resonance diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) have not been fully elucidated, so we compared patients with acute aortogenic embolic stroke and those with acute cardioembolic stroke.  This study included 40 consecutive patients with acute aortogenic embolic stroke, and 40 age- and sex-matched patients with acute cardioembolic stroke. The diagnosis of aortogenic embolic stroke was made when patients met 5 criteria: (1)acute neurologic event lasting >24h; (2) positive signals on DWI; (3) atherosclerotic lesions ≥3.5-mm thick at the aortic arch on transesophageal echocardiography; (4) neuroradiologic features suggesting embolic stroke, such as lesions involving the brain cortex or the re-opening phenomenon of previously occluded vessels on Magnetic Resonance Angiography (MRA); and (5) absence of other embolic sources, including heart disease and carotid stenosis. The number, site, and maximal diameter of the infarct lesions on DWI were compared between the aortogenic and cardiogenic groups. The aortogenic patients more frequently had ≥3 lesions (25.0% vs. 2.5%, P<0.01), lesions with a maximal diameter <30mm (77.5% vs. 20.0%, P< 0.001), and vertebrobasilar system lesions (55.0% vs. 10.0%, P< 0.001) than the cardiogenic patients.  Acute aortogenic embolic stroke is characterized by multiple (≥3) and small lesions, and involvement of the vertebrobasilar system. 

  18. Detection of peritoneal dissemination in gynecological malignancy: evaluation by diffusion-weighted MR imaging.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Shinya; Matsusue, Eiji; Kanasaki, Yoshiko; Kanamori, Yasunobu; Nakanishi, Junko; Sugihara, Shuji; Kigawa, Junzo; Terakawa, Naoki; Ogawa, Toshihide

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the usefulness of diffusion-weighted (DW) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in detecting peritoneal dissemination in cases of gynecological malignancy. We retrospectively analyzed MR images obtained from 26 consecutive patients with gynecological malignancy. Peritoneal dissemination was histologically diagnosed in 15 of the 26 patients after surgery. We obtained DW images and half-Fourier single-shot turbo-spin-echo images in the abdomen and pelvis, and then generated fusion images. Coronal maximum-intensity-projection images were reconstructed from the axial source images. Reader interpretations were compared with the laparotomy findings in the surgical records. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to represent the presence of peritoneal dissemination. In addition, the sensitivity and specificity were calculated. DW imaging depicted the tumors in 14 of 15 patients with peritoneal dissemination as abnormal signal intensity. ROC analysis yielded Az values of 0.974 and 0.932 for the two reviewers. The mean sensitivity and specificity were 90 and 95.5%. DW imaging plays an important role in the diagnosis and therapeutic management of patients with gynecological malignancy.

  19. An adaptive diffusion-weighted whole-body magnetic resonance imaging scheme using the multistation approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Yeji

    2016-02-01

    Whole-body diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) is a useful tool in oncology, which enables fast screening of disseminated tumors, lymph nodes or abscesses in the body. Multistation magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or continuously moving table (CMT) MRI can be performed to overcome the limited field of view (FOV) of the magnet bore in whole-body DWI. Although CMT-MRI is regarded as a more advanced form of whole-body MRI, it cannot be widely used because most of the available MR systems are not equipped with the required hardware/software to perform CMT. Thus, optimizing the multistation approach for whole-body DWI, which is more widely available and easier to perform with the existing MR systems, is worthwhile. To improve the quality of DW images acquired with the multistation approach, we used different combinations of the built-in body RF coil and the phased-array surface RF coils for reception of the signals in whole-body DWI in this work. If different coils are selectively used in the extended FOV and appropriate reconstruction algorithms are exploited, the screening ability of whole-body DWI can be improved while minimizing the patient's discomfort and the artifacts due to physiological motions.

  20. Investigation of Vibration Induced Artifact in Clinical Diffusion-Weighted Imaging of Pediatric Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Berl, Madison M.; Walker, Lindsay; Modi, Pooja; Irfanoglu, M. Okan; Sarlls, Joelle; Nayak, Amritha; Pierpaoli, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    It has been reported that mechanical vibrations of the MRI scanner could produce spurious signal dropouts in diffusion-weighted images resulting in artifactual anisotropy in certain regions of the brain with red appearance in the Directionally Encoded Color maps. We performed a review of the frequency of this artifact across pediatric studies, noting differences by scanner manufacturer, acquisition protocol, as well as weight and position of the subject. We also evaluated the ability of automated and quantitative methods to detect this artifact. We found that the artifact may be present in over 50% of data in certain protocols and is not limited to one scanner manufacturer. While a specific scanner had the highest incidence, low body weight and positioning were also associated with appearance of the artifact for both scanner types evaluated, making children potentially more susceptible than adults. Visual inspection remains the best method for artifact identification. Software for automated detection showed very low sensitivity (10%). The artifact may present inconsistently in longitudinal studies. We discuss a published case report that has been widely cited and used as evidence to set policy about diagnostic criteria for determining vegetative state. That report attributed longitudinal changes in anisotropy to white matter plasticity without considering the possibility that the changes were caused by this artifact. Our study underscores the need to check for the presence of this artifact in clinical studies, analyzes circumstances for when it may be more likely to occur, and suggests simple strategies to identify and potentially avoid its effects. PMID:26350492

  1. Advantage of Adding Diffusion Weighted Imaging to Routine MRI Examinations in the Diagnostics of Scrotal Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Algebally, Ahmed Mohamed; Tantawy, Hazim Ibrahim; Yousef, Reda Ramadan Hussein; Szmigielski, Wojciech; Darweesh, Adham

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background The purpose of the study is to identify the diagnostic value of adding diffusion weighted images (DWI) to routine MRI examinations of the scrotum. Material/Methods The study included 100 testes of 50 patients with a unilateral testicular disease. Fifty normal contralateral testes were used as a control group. All patients underwent conventional MRI and DWI examinations of the scrotum. The results of MRI and DWI of the group of patients treated surgically were correlated with histopathological findings. The MRI and DWI results of non-surgical cases were correlated with the results of clinical, laboratory and other imaging studies. Comparison of the ADC value of normal and pathological tissues was carried out followed by a statistical analysis. Results There was a significant difference between ADC values of malignant testicular lesions and normal testicular tissues as well as benign testicular lesions (P=0.000). At a cut-off ADC value of ≤0.99, it had a sensitivity of 93.3%, specificity of 90%, positive predictive value of 87.5%, and negative predictive value of 94.7% in the characterization of intratesticular masses. Conclusions Inclusion of DWI to routine MRI has a substantial value in improving diagnosis in patients with scrotal lesions and consequently can reduce unnecessary radical surgical procedures in these patients. PMID:26491491

  2. Gradient preemphasis calibration in diffusion-weighted echo-planar imaging.

    PubMed

    Papadakis, N G; Martin, K M; Pickard, J D; Hall, L D; Carpenter, T A; Huang, C L

    2000-10-01

    This article describes a method which enables fast and objective pulse-sequence-specific preemphasis calibration, using standard pulse sequences and system hardware. The method is based on a k-space measurement technique, and has been applied to single-shot, diffusion-weighted, spin-echo, echo-planar imaging (DW-SE-EPI), which is particularly sensitive to eddy-current-induced image distortions. The efficiency of the technique was demonstrated not only by the reduction of eddy-current fields to a negligible level using full preemphasis compensation, but also by the fact that adjustment of the slow time-base alone sufficed for the practical elimination of image distortions in the DW-SE-EPI images and the subsequent diffusion tensor maps (in a phantom and a human brain). By seeking to eliminate directly the effect of eddy-current-induced phase shifts during the EPI data collection, the method is free of the complications and restrictions associated with other eddy-current correction techniques for DW-SE-EPI (such as acquisition of additional calibration scans, intense postprocessing, extensive pulse-sequence modifications), making their use redundant.

  3. [Application of brain diffusion-weighted imaging performed using readout segmentation of long variable echo trains].

    PubMed

    Ishida, Go; Oishi, Makoto; Morii, Ken; Hasegawa, Kenji; Saito, Akihiko; Sato, Mitsuya; Takizawa, Osamu; Murata, Katsutoshi; Porter, D A; Matsuzawa, Hitoshi; Fujii, Yukihiko

    2015-01-01

    We report the preliminary use of the readout segmentation of long variable echo trains(RESOLVE)sequence, a novel magnetic resonance(MR)scanning technique based on a readout segmented echo planar imaging(EPI)strategy. RESOLVE enables high-resolution diffusion-weighted imaging(DWI)by minimizing susceptibility distortions and T2* blurring. The software for this sequence was provided by Siemens AG, Germany. Previously, we determined appropriate sequence parameters to obtain sufficiently high-resolution images through phantom studies. Then, we applied the sequence to some clinical cases with neurological disorders and analyzed the RESOLVE-DWI data with diffusion tensor imaging(DTI)techniques. In this article, we report clinical application of the RESOLVE sequence in two cases, one with cerebellar infarction and one with an intracranial epidermoid cyst. In both cases, RESOLVE-DWI clearly exposed structures that were obscured or severely distorted by artifacts on usual single-shot EPI-DWI. DTI analyses for RESOLVE-DWI data provided detailed information about fiber tracts and cranial nerves.

  4. Fast and accurate simulations of diffusion-weighted MRI signals for the evaluation of acquisition sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rensonnet, Gaëtan; Jacobs, Damien; Macq, Benoît.; Taquet, Maxime

    2016-03-01

    Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) is a powerful tool to probe the diffusion of water through tissues. Through the application of magnetic gradients of appropriate direction, intensity and duration constituting the acquisition parameters, information can be retrieved about the underlying microstructural organization of the brain. In this context, an important and open question is to determine an optimal sequence of such acquisition parameters for a specific purpose. The use of simulated DW-MRI data for a given microstructural configuration provides a convenient and efficient way to address this problem. We first present a novel hybrid method for the synthetic simulation of DW-MRI signals that combines analytic expressions in simple geometries such as spheres and cylinders and Monte Carlo (MC) simulations elsewhere. Our hybrid method remains valid for any acquisition parameters and provides identical levels of accuracy with a computational time that is 90% shorter than that required by MC simulations for commonly-encountered microstructural configurations. We apply our novel simulation technique to estimate the radius of axons under various noise levels with different acquisition protocols commonly used in the literature. The results of our comparison suggest that protocols favoring a large number of gradient intensities such as a Cube and Sphere (CUSP) imaging provide more accurate radius estimation than conventional single-shell HARDI acquisitions for an identical acquisition time.

  5. High angular resolution diffusion-weighted imaging in mild traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Mohammadian, Mehrbod; Roine, Timo; Hirvonen, Jussi; Kurki, Timo; Ala-Seppälä, Henna; Frantzén, Janek; Katila, Ari; Kyllönen, Anna; Maanpää, Henna-Riikka; Posti, Jussi; Takala, Riikka; Tallus, Jussi; Tenovuo, Olli

    2017-01-01

    We sought to investigate white matter abnormalities in mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) using diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI). We applied a global approach based on tract-based spatial statistics skeleton as well as constrained spherical deconvolution tractography. DW-MRI was performed on 102 patients with mTBI within two months post-injury and 30 control subjects. A robust global approach considering only the voxels with a single-fiber configuration was used in addition to global analysis of the tract skeleton and probabilistic whole-brain tractography. In addition, we assessed whether the microstructural parameters correlated with age, time from injury, patient's outcome and white matter MRI hyperintensities. We found that whole-brain global approach restricted to single-fiber voxels showed significantly decreased fractional anisotropy (FA) (p = 0.002) and increased radial diffusivity (p = 0.011) in patients with mTBI compared with controls. The results restricted to single-fiber voxels were more significant and reproducible than those with the complete tract skeleton or the whole-brain tractography. FA correlated with patient outcomes, white matter hyperintensities and age. No correlation was observed between FA and time of scan post-injury. In conclusion, the global approach could be a promising imaging biomarker to detect white matter abnormalities following traumatic brain injury.

  6. Support Vector Machine Classification of Major Depressive Disorder Using Diffusion-Weighted Neuroimaging and Graph Theory

    PubMed Central

    Sacchet, Matthew D.; Prasad, Gautam; Foland-Ross, Lara C.; Thompson, Paul M.; Gotlib, Ian H.

    2015-01-01

    Recently, there has been considerable interest in understanding brain networks in major depressive disorder (MDD). Neural pathways can be tracked in the living brain using diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI); graph theory can then be used to study properties of the resulting fiber networks. To date, global abnormalities have not been reported in tractography-based graph metrics in MDD, so we used a machine learning approach based on “support vector machines” to differentiate depressed from healthy individuals based on multiple brain network properties. We also assessed how important specific graph metrics were for this differentiation. Finally, we conducted a local graph analysis to identify abnormal connectivity at specific nodes of the network. We were able to classify depression using whole-brain graph metrics. Small-worldness was the most useful graph metric for classification. The right pars orbitalis, right inferior parietal cortex, and left rostral anterior cingulate all showed abnormal network connectivity in MDD. This is the first use of structural global graph metrics to classify depressed individuals. These findings highlight the importance of future research to understand network properties in depression across imaging modalities, improve classification results, and relate network alterations to psychiatric symptoms, medication, and comorbidities. PMID:25762941

  7. Support vector machine classification of major depressive disorder using diffusion-weighted neuroimaging and graph theory.

    PubMed

    Sacchet, Matthew D; Prasad, Gautam; Foland-Ross, Lara C; Thompson, Paul M; Gotlib, Ian H

    2015-01-01

    Recently, there has been considerable interest in understanding brain networks in major depressive disorder (MDD). Neural pathways can be tracked in the living brain using diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI); graph theory can then be used to study properties of the resulting fiber networks. To date, global abnormalities have not been reported in tractography-based graph metrics in MDD, so we used a machine learning approach based on "support vector machines" to differentiate depressed from healthy individuals based on multiple brain network properties. We also assessed how important specific graph metrics were for this differentiation. Finally, we conducted a local graph analysis to identify abnormal connectivity at specific nodes of the network. We were able to classify depression using whole-brain graph metrics. Small-worldness was the most useful graph metric for classification. The right pars orbitalis, right inferior parietal cortex, and left rostral anterior cingulate all showed abnormal network connectivity in MDD. This is the first use of structural global graph metrics to classify depressed individuals. These findings highlight the importance of future research to understand network properties in depression across imaging modalities, improve classification results, and relate network alterations to psychiatric symptoms, medication, and comorbidities.

  8. A study of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging in men with untreated localised prostate cancer on active surveillance.

    PubMed

    van As, Nicholas J; de Souza, Nandita M; Riches, Sophie F; Morgan, Veronica A; Sohaib, Sayid A; Dearnaley, David P; Parker, Chris C

    2009-12-01

    Markers that predict the behaviour of localised prostate cancer are needed to identify patients that require treatment. We have analysed the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) generated from diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) with respect to repeat biopsy findings and time to radical treatment in patients in a prospective study of active surveillance. Some 86 men recruited between 2002 and 2006 were followed for a median of 29 mo. Patients had clinical stage T1/T2a N0/Nx M0/Mx adenocarcinoma of the prostate, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level<15 ng/ml, Gleason score≤7, primary Gleason grade≤3, and positive biopsy cores (pbc)≤50%. All patients had DW-MRI in addition to standard MRI sequences. Tumour regions of interest (ROIs) were identified using T2-weighted fast-spin echo images as focal areas of restricted diffusion. Univariate analyses including all clinical variables and tumour ADC data were performed with respect to repeat biopsy findings and time to radical treatment. Receiver operating curves (ROC) compared predictive variables. Patients in the study had a median age of 66 yr and a median initial PSA level of 6.7 ng/ml. Some 39 patients (45%) received deferred radical treatment, and 34 patients (40%) had adverse histology on repeat biopsy. According to univariate analysis, tumour ADC was a significant predictor of both adverse repeat biopsy findings (p<0.0001; hazard ratio [HR]: 1.3; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.1-1.6), and time to radical treatment (p<0.0001; HR: 1.5; 95% CI: 1.2-1.8). ROC curves for ADC showed an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.7 for prediction of adverse repeat biopsy findings and an AUC of 0.83 for prediction of radical treatment. In patients with low-risk, localised disease, tumour ADC on DW-MRI may be a useful marker of prostate cancer progression and may help to identify patients who stand to benefit from radical treatment. This possibility warrants further study.

  9. Diffusion measurement of intraplaque hemorrhage and intramural hematoma using diffusion weighted MRI at 3T in cervical artery.

    PubMed

    Yao, Bin; Yang, Li; Wang, Guangbin; Shi, Honglu; Wang, Shanshan; Li, Huihua; Chen, Weibo; Chan, Queenie

    2016-10-01

    To assess the difference between carotid haemorrhagic plaque and non-haemorrhagic plaque by using diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and to evaluate carotid intraplaque haemorrhage (IPH) and intramural hematoma (IMH) of cervical artery dissection with apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) measurement. Fifty-one symptomatic patients underwent 3.0-T carotid MR imaging, including conventional sequences, three-dimensional (3D) magnetization-prepared rapid acquisition gradient-echo (MPRAGE) sequence, and DWI. Thirty-nine patients with carotid plaque and eight patients with IMH of cervical artery dissection were finally included. The groups of hemorrhagic plaque, non-hemorrhagic plaque and IMH were divided according to 3D MPRAGE sequence. ADC values of different groups were measured, and t tests were performed. The mean ADC values of hemorrhagic plaques, non-hemorrhagic plaque and IMH were (1.284 ± 0.327) × 10(-3)mm(2)/s, (1.766 ± 0.477) × 10(-3)mm(2)/s, and (0.563 ± 0.119) × 10(-3)mm(2)/s, respectively. The mean ADC values of hemorrhagic and non-hemorrhagic regions in the hemorrhagic plaque group were (0.985 ± 0.376) × 10(-3)mm(2)/s and (1.480 ± 0.465) × 10(-3)mm(2)/s, respectively. The differences between the hemorrhagic plaque and non-hemorrhagic plaque, hemorrhagic region and non-hemorrhagic region in hemorrhagic plaque, and the hemorrhagic region in the hemorrhagic plaque and IMH of artery dissection were significant (P < 0.05). DWI may be a useful complement to conventional MR imaging for identifying haemorrhage of carotid plaques and differentiate IMHs from IPH. • ADC values of IPH are lower than the plaque without IPH. • DWI might be a useful complement to identify IPH. • IMH may be differentiated from IPH by using DWI.

  10. Quantification of fibrosis in infarcted swine hearts by ex vivo late gadolinium-enhancement and diffusion-weighted MRI methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pop, Mihaela; Ghugre, Nilesh R.; Ramanan, Venkat; Morikawa, Lily; Stanisz, Greg; Dick, Alexander J.; Wright, Graham A.

    2013-08-01

    Many have speculated that MRI signal characteristics can be used to identify regions of heterogeneous infarct associated with an arrhythmogenic substrate; however, direct evidence of this relationship is limited. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the remodelling characteristics of fibrosis by means of histology and high-resolution MR imaging. For this purpose, we performed whole-mount histology in heart samples (n = 9) collected from five swine at six weeks post-infarction and compared the extent of fibrosis in the infarcted areas delineated in these histological images with that obtained ex vivo by MRI using late gadolinium-enhancement (LGE) and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) methods. All MR images were obtained at a submillimetre resolution (i.e., voxel size of 0.6×0.6×1.2 mm3). Specifically, in the histology images, we differentiated moderate fibrosis (consisting of a mixture of viable and non-viable myocytes, known as border zone, BZ) from severe fibrosis (i.e., the dense scar). Correspondingly, tissue heterogeneities in the MR images were categorized by a Gaussian mixture model into healthy, BZ and scar. Our results showed that (a) both MRI methods were capable of qualitatively distinguishing sharp edges between dense scar and healthy tissue from regions of heterogeneous BZ; (b) the BZ and dense scar areas had intermediate-to-high increased values of signal intensity in the LGE images and of apparent diffusion coefficient in the DWI, respectively. In addition, as demonstrated by the Picrosirius Red and immunohistochemistry stains, the viable bundles in the BZ were clearly separated by thin collagen strands and had reduced expression of Cx43, whereas the core scar was composed of dense fibrosis. A quantitative analysis demonstrated that the comparison between BZ/scar extent in LGE and DWI to the corresponding areas identified in histology yielded very good correlations (i.e., for the scar identified by LGE, R2 was 0.96 compared to R2 = 0.93 for the

  11. Diffusion-Weighted MR Enterography to Monitor Bowel Inflammation after Medical Therapy in Crohn's Disease: A Prospective Longitudinal Study.

    PubMed

    Huh, Jimi; Kim, Kyung Jo; Park, Seong Ho; Park, So Hyun; Yang, Suk-Kyun; Ye, Byong Duk; Park, Sang Hyoung; Han, Kyunghwa; Kim, Ah Young

    2017-01-01

    To prospectively evaluate the performance of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) to monitor bowel inflammation after medical therapy for Crohn's disease (CD). Before and following 1-2 years of medical therapy, between October 2012 and May 2015, 18 randomly selected adult CD patients (male:female, 13:5; mean age ± SD, 25.8 ± 7.9 years at the time of enrollment) prospectively underwent MR enterography (MRE) including DWI (b = 900 s/mm(2)) and ileocolonoscopy. Thirty-seven prospectively defined index lesions (one contiguous endoscopy-confirmed inflamed area chosen from each inflamed anatomical bowel segment; 1-4 index lesions per patient; median, 2 lesions) were assessed on pre- and post-treatment MRE and endoscopy. Visual assessment of treatment responses on DWI in 4 categories including complete remission and reduced, unchanged or increased inflammation, and measurements of changes in apparent diffusion coefficient (ΔADC), i.e., pre-treatment-post-treatment, were performed by 2 independent readers. Endoscopic findings and CD MRI activity index (CDMI) obtained using conventional MRE served as reference standards. ΔADC significantly differed between improved (i.e., complete remission and reduced inflammation) and unimproved (i.e., unchanged or increased inflammation) lesions: mean ± SD (× 10(-3) mm(2)/s) of -0.65 ± 0.58 vs. 0.06 ± 0.15 for reader 1 (p = 0.022) and -0.68 ± 0.56 vs. 0.10 ± 0.26 for reader 2 (p = 0.025). DWI accuracy for diagnosing complete remission or improved inflammation ranged from 76% (28/37) to 84% (31/37). A significant negative correlation was noted between ΔADC and ΔCDMI for both readers with correlation coefficients of -0.438 and -0.461, respectively (p < 0.05). DWI is potentially a feasible tool to monitor quantitatively and qualitatively bowel inflammation of CD after medical treatment.

  12. Inter- and Intra-Observer Repeatability of Quantitative Whole-Body, Diffusion-Weighted Imaging (WBDWI) in Metastatic Bone Disease.

    PubMed

    Blackledge, Matthew D; Tunariu, Nina; Orton, Matthew R; Padhani, Anwar R; Collins, David J; Leach, Martin O; Koh, Dow-Mu

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative whole-body diffusion-weighted MRI (WB-DWI) is now possible using semi-automatic segmentation techniques. The method enables whole-body estimates of global Apparent Diffusion Coefficient (gADC) and total Diffusion Volume (tDV), both of which have demonstrated considerable utility for assessing treatment response in patients with bone metastases from primary prostate and breast cancers. Here we investigate the agreement (inter-observer repeatability) between two radiologists in their definition of Volumes Of Interest (VOIs) and subsequent assessment of tDV and gADC on an exploratory patient cohort of nine. Furthermore, each radiologist was asked to repeat his or her measurements on the same patient data sets one month later to identify the intra-observer repeatability of the technique. Using a Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) estimation method provided full posterior probabilities of repeatability measures along with maximum a-posteriori values and 95% confidence intervals. Our estimates of the inter-observer Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICCinter) for log-tDV and median gADC were 1.00 (0.97-1.00) and 0.99 (0.89-0.99) respectively, indicating excellent observer agreement for these metrics. Mean gADC values were found to have ICCinter = 0.97 (0.81-0.99) indicating a slight sensitivity to outliers in the derived distributions of gADC. Of the higher order gADC statistics, skewness was demonstrated to have good inter-user agreement with ICCinter = 0.99 (0.86-1.00), whereas gADC variance and kurtosis performed relatively poorly: 0.89 (0.39-0.97) and 0.96 (0.69-0.99) respectively. Estimates of intra-observer repeatability (ICCintra) demonstrated similar results: 0.99 (0.95-1.00) for log-tDV, 0.98 (0.89-0.99) and 0.97 (0.83-0.99) for median and mean gADC respectively, 0.64 (0.25-0.88) for gADC variance, 0.85 (0.57-0.95) for gADC skewness and 0.85 (0.57-0.95) for gADC kurtosis. Further investigation of two anomalous patient cases revealed that a very small

  13. Acute pyelonephritis in transplanted kidneys: can diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging be useful for diagnosis and follow-up?

    PubMed

    Faletti, Riccardo; Cassinis, Maria Carla; Gatti, Marco; Giglio, Jacopo; Guarnaccia, Carla; Messina, Marina; Bergamasco, Laura; Fonio, Paolo

    2016-03-01

    To assess reliability of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) in the management of acute pyelonephritis (APN) foci in transplanted kidneys. In the 2012-2014 period, 24 kidney-transplanted patients underwent MR screening for clinical suspicion of APN. Two readers independently analyzed all images, establishing presence and location of APN foci. The 22 patients who were positive at the MR exam constituted the study population. For each patient the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) was measured in the APN foci and in three sites of the healthy parenchyma (case-control comparison). The data were matched to the laboratory measurements for white blood cell, C-reactive protein, and serum creatinine. Forty-six APN foci were found in 22/24 patients. At the acute stage, the difference in ADC between healthy parenchyma and APN foci was significant (2.06 ± 0.16 vs. 1.43 ± 0.32 × 10(-3) mm(2)/s; p < 0.0001). The performance of ADC as APN indicator was tested by the receiving operating characteristics (ROC) curve: the area under curve AUC = 0.99 witnessed an excellent discriminatory ability, with threshold APN/normal parenchyma 1.9 × 10(-3) mm(2)/s. At the 1-month follow-up 43/46 APN foci were no longer visible, with ADC values significantly higher than at the acute stage; all laboratory data were physiological, with WBC significantly reduced from the acute phase (5.2 ± 1.6 × 10(9)/L vs. 10.6 ± 4.8 × 10(9)/L; p < 0.0001). The other 3 patients underwent further therapy and exams, including a third MR. DW-MRI with ADC measurement seems to be a reliable tool in diagnosing and monitoring APN foci in transplanted kidneys, with clinical impact on patient management.

  14. Diffusion-Weighted MR Enterography to Monitor Bowel Inflammation after Medical Therapy in Crohn's Disease: A Prospective Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Huh, Jimi; Kim, Kyung Jo; Park, So Hyun; Yang, Suk-Kyun; Ye, Byong Duk; Park, Sang Hyoung; Han, Kyunghwa; Kim, Ah Young

    2017-01-01

    Objective To prospectively evaluate the performance of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) to monitor bowel inflammation after medical therapy for Crohn's disease (CD). Materials and Methods Before and following 1–2 years of medical therapy, between October 2012 and May 2015, 18 randomly selected adult CD patients (male:female, 13:5; mean age ± SD, 25.8 ± 7.9 years at the time of enrollment) prospectively underwent MR enterography (MRE) including DWI (b = 900 s/mm2) and ileocolonoscopy. Thirty-seven prospectively defined index lesions (one contiguous endoscopy-confirmed inflamed area chosen from each inflamed anatomical bowel segment; 1–4 index lesions per patient; median, 2 lesions) were assessed on pre- and post-treatment MRE and endoscopy. Visual assessment of treatment responses on DWI in 4 categories including complete remission and reduced, unchanged or increased inflammation, and measurements of changes in apparent diffusion coefficient (ΔADC), i.e., pre-treatment–post-treatment, were performed by 2 independent readers. Endoscopic findings and CD MRI activity index (CDMI) obtained using conventional MRE served as reference standards. Results ΔADC significantly differed between improved (i.e., complete remission and reduced inflammation) and unimproved (i.e., unchanged or increased inflammation) lesions: mean ± SD (× 10-3 mm2/s) of -0.65 ± 0.58 vs. 0.06 ± 0.15 for reader 1 (p = 0.022) and -0.68 ± 0.56 vs. 0.10 ± 0.26 for reader 2 (p = 0.025). DWI accuracy for diagnosing complete remission or improved inflammation ranged from 76% (28/37) to 84% (31/37). A significant negative correlation was noted between ΔADC and ΔCDMI for both readers with correlation coefficients of -0.438 and -0.461, respectively (p < 0.05). Conclusion DWI is potentially a feasible tool to monitor quantitatively and qualitatively bowel inflammation of CD after medical treatment. PMID:28096726

  15. Prediction of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumour grade with MR imaging features: added value of diffusion-weighted imaging.

    PubMed

    Lotfalizadeh, Emad; Ronot, Maxime; Wagner, Mathilde; Cros, Jérôme; Couvelard, Anne; Vullierme, Marie-Pierre; Allaham, Wassim; Hentic, Olivia; Ruzniewski, Philippe; Vilgrain, Valérie

    2017-04-01

    To evaluate the value of MR imaging including diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) for the grading of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours (pNET). Between 2006 and 2014, all resected pNETs with preoperative MR imaging including DWI were included. Tumour grading was based on the 2010 WHO classification. MR imaging features included size, T1-w, and T2-w signal intensity, enhancement pattern, apparent (ADC) and true diffusion (D) coefficients. One hundred and eight pNETs (mean 40 ± 33 mm) were evaluated in 94 patients (48 women, 51 %, mean age 52 ± 12). Fifty-five (51 %), 42 (39 %), and 11 (10 %) tumours were given the following grades (G): G1, G2, and G3. Mean ADC and D values were significantly lower as grade increased (ADC: 2.13 ± 0.70, 1.78 ± 0.72, and 0.86 ± 0.22 10(-3) mm(2)/s, and D: 1.92 ± 0.70, 1.75 ± 0.74, and 0.82 ± 0.19 10(-3) mm(2)/s G1, G2, and G3, all p < 0.001). A higher grade was associated with larger sized tumours (p < 0.001). The AUROC of ADC and D to differentiate G3 and G1-2 were 0.96 ± 0.02 and 0.95 ± 0.02. Optimal cut-off values for the identification of G3 were 1.19 10(-3) mm(2)/s for ADC (sensitivity 100 %, specificity 92 %) and 1.04 10(-3) mm(2)/s for D (sensitivity 82 %, specificity 92 %). Morphological/functional MRI features of pNETS depend on tumour grade. DWI is useful for the identification of high-grade tumours. • Morphological and functional MRI features of pNETs depend on tumour grade. • Their combination has a high predictive value for grade. • All pNETs should be explored by MR imaging including DWI. • DWI is helpful for identification of high-grade and poorly-differentiated tumours.

  16. Role of Diffusion-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Predicting Sensitivity to Chemoradiotherapy in Muscle-Invasive Bladder Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshida, Soichiro; Koga, Fumitaka; Kobayashi, Shuichiro; Ishii, Chikako; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Hajime; Komai, Yoshinobu; Saito, Kazutaka; Masuda, Hitoshi; Fujii, Yasuhisa; Kawakami, Satoru; Kihara, Kazunori

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: In chemoradiation (CRT)-based bladder-sparing approaches for muscle invasive bladder cancer (MIBC), patients who respond favorably to induction CRT enjoy the benefits of bladder preservation, whereas nonresponders do not. Thus, accurate prediction of CRT sensitivity would optimize patient selection for bladder-sparing protocols. Diffusion-weighted MRI (DW-MRI) is a functional imaging technique that quantifies the diffusion of water molecules in a noninvasive manner. We investigated whether DW-MRI predicts CRT sensitivity of MIBC. Methods and Materials: The study cohort consisted of 23 MIBC patients (cT2/T3 = 7/16) who underwent induction CRT consisting of radiotherapy to the small pelvis (40 Gy) with two cycles of cisplatin (20 mg/day for 5 days), followed by partial or radical cystectomy. All patients underwent DW-MRI before the initiation of treatment. Associations of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values with CRT sensitivity were analyzed. The proliferative potential of MIBC was also assessed by analyzing the Ki-67 labeling index (LI) in pretherapeutic biopsy specimens. Results: Thirteen patients (57%) achieved pathologic complete response (pCR) to CRT. These CRT-sensitive MIBCs showed significantly lower ADC values (median, 0.63 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s; range, 0.43-0.77) than CRT-resistant (no pCR) MIBCs (median, 0.84 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s; range, 0.69-1.09; p = 0.0003). Multivariate analysis identified ADC value as the only significant and independent predictor of CRT sensitivity (p < 0.0001; odds ratio per 0.001 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s increase, 1.03; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.08). With a cutoff ADC value at 0.74 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s, sensitivity/specificity/accuracy in predicting CRT sensitivity was 92/90/91%. Ki-67 LI was significantly higher in CRT-sensitive MIBCs (p = 0.0005) and significantly and inversely correlated with ADC values ({rho} = -0.67, p = 0

  17. Acoustic Emission, b-values and Foliation Plane Anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sehizadeh, Mahdi; Nasseri, Mohammad H.; Ye, Sheng; Young, R. Paul

    2016-04-01

    The b-value and D-value are two parameters related to size and distance distribution of earthquakes. There are many different factors affecting b-value such as stress state, thermal gradients, focal mechanism and heterogeneity. For example, the literature shows that the b-value changes systematically with respect to the focal mechanism. In laboratory experiments, foliation planes introduce a weakness in samples and can be considered as a potential for rupture or pre-existing faults, so they may exhibit similar relationships. The D-value defines the degree of clustering of earthquakes and would be expected to have a defined relationship with respect to the anisotropy. Using a unique facility in the Rock Fracture Dynamics laboratory at the University of Toronto, three sets of polyaxial experiments have been performed on cubic samples with foliation planes systematically oriented at different angles to the principal stress direction. During these tests, samples were loaded under controlled true-triaxial stress conditions until they failed or had severe damage and acoustic emission events were recorded using 18 sensors around the samples. The paper describes how the combination of stress state and foliation planes affects the b-value and D-value under laboratory conditions.

  18. [Application of diffusion-weighted intravoxel incoherent motion imaging in diagnosis of renal cell carcinoma subtypes].

    PubMed

    Cong, X Y; Chen, Y; Zhang, J; Yu, X D; Ye, F; Yu, W J; Zhang, M M; Ouyang, H; Zhao, X M

    2016-06-23

    To evaluate the value of parameters derived from intravoxel incoherent motion diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging in differentiating histopathological subtypes of renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Between May 2014 and December 2015, a total of 69 patients who were surgically and pathologically diagnosed as renal cell carcinoma were recruited for the study. We examined 61 clear cell RCC (ccRCC), and 8 non-clear cell carcinoma (non-ccRCC, including 7 chromophobe RCC and 1 papillary RCC). All the ccRCC were divided into well differentiated group (n=46), moderately differentiated group (n=8), and poorly differentiated group (n=7). In addition to routine renal magnetic resonance imaging examination performed on a 3.0-Tesla MR system, all patients were imaged with axial intravoxel incoherent motion diffusion-weighted imaging. Using biexponential model, we calculated the diffusion coefficient (D), pseudodiffusion coefficient (D(*)), and perfusion fraction (f). The D and f values of the ccRCC were higher (each P<0.05) than that for non-ccRCC [D (1.29±0.30)×10(-3)mm(2)/s, D(*) (42.92±20.21)×10(-3)mm(2)/s, and f (35.71±6.61)% versus D (0.78±0.23)×10(-3)mm(2)/s, D(*) (32.60±11.33)×10(-3)mm(2)/s, and f (21.52±8.44)% ]. In the well differentiated group of ccRCC, we found D of (1.36±0.29)×10(-3)mm(2)/s, D(*) (38.39±18.51)×10(-3)mm(2)/s, and f (36.40±6.96)%. The D, D(*,) f values of moderately differentiated lesions were (1.10±0.24)×10(-3)mm(2)/s, (59.90±20.23)×10(-3) mm(2)/s, and (32.88±4.02)%, respectively, those of the poorly differentiated group were (1.03±0.16)×10(-3)mm(2)/s, (53.28±18.74)×10(-3)mm(2)/s, and (34.42±6.21)%. The well differentiated group of ccRCC showed a higher D value than the moderately differentiated and poorly differentiated groups (each P<0.05). D(*) values were significantly lower for the well differentiated group than for the moderately differentiated group (P<0.05). The sensitivity and specificity of D values were 90

  19. Relationship between cortex and pulvinar abnormalities on diffusion-weighted imaging in status epilepticus.

    PubMed

    Nakae, Yoshiharu; Kudo, Yosuke; Yamamoto, Ryoo; Dobashi, Yuichi; Kawabata, Yuichi; Ikeda, Shingo; Yokoyama, Mutsumi; Higashiyama, Yuichi; Doi, Hiroshi; Johkura, Ken; Tanaka, Fumiaki

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the pattern of magnetic resonance diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) findings in status epilepticus in terms of clinical characteristics. Participants comprised 106 patients with status epilepticus who were admitted to our hospital and underwent DWI. Forty-five patients (42.5 %) showed abnormal findings on DWI and were divided into two groups, comprising 26 patients (24.5 %) with cortex lesions alone and 19 patients (17.9 %) with cortex and pulvinar lesions in the same hemisphere. A long duration of status epilepticus (>120 min) tended to be more prevalent among patients with cortex and pulvinar lesions (57.9 %) than among patients with cortex lesions alone (30.8 %) by univariate and multivariate analyses. Todd's palsy tended to be more frequent in patients with abnormalities on DWI (24/45, 53.3 %) than in patients with normal DWI (21/61, 34.4 %). Six of the 26 patients with cortex lesions alone (23.1 %) had taken anti-epileptic drugs before the attack compared to none of the 19 patients with both cortex and pulvinar lesions. The trend toward a longer duration of status epilepticus in patients with both cortex and pulvinar lesions favors a spreading pattern of seizure discharge from cortex to pulvinar via cortico-pulvinar pathways, and anti-epileptic drugs might, to some extent, prevent spreading of seizure discharge from cortex to pulvinar. In addition, existence of high-intensity areas on DWI at the onset of epilepsy may be a predictive factor for the occurrence of Todd's palsy.

  20. Diffusion weighted imaging for the differential diagnosis of benign vs. malignant ovarian neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Meng, Xiang-Fu; Zhu, Shi-Cai; Sun, Shao-Juan; Guo, Ji-Cai; Wang, Xue

    2016-06-01

    In order to assess the diagnostic accuracy of diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) in differentiating between benign and malignant ovarian neoplasms, a systemic meta-analysis was conducted. Relevant studies were retrieved from scientific literature databases, including the PubMed, Wiley, EBSCO, Ovid, Web of Science, Wanfang, China National Knowledge Infrastructure and VIP databases. Following a multi-step screening and study selection process, the relevant data was extracted for use in the present study. Statistical analyses were performed using Meta-disc software version 1.4 and STATA statistical software version 12.0. A total of 285 articles were retrieved from the database searches. Following a careful screening process, 10 case-control studies were selected for the present meta-analysis. The 10 studies investigated the efficacy of DWI in diagnosing ovarian neoplasms, and included a combined total of 1,159 subjects, of which 559 patients had malignant lesions and 600 had benign lesions. The results showed that the pooled sensitivity, pooled specificity, pooled positive likelihood ratio, pooled negative likelihood ratio, pooled diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) and area under the curve of the summary receiver operating characteristics curve of DWI for differentiating between benign and malignant ovarian neoplasms were 0.93, 0.89, 7.58, 0.10, 85.33 and 0.95, respectively. A subgroup analysis based on ethnicity revealed no significant difference between Asians and Caucasians. Another subgroup analysis by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) type showed that the DORs for GE Healthcare Life Sciences and Siemens AG machines were 100.76 [95% confidence interval (CI), 65.28-155.53] and 30.85 (95% CI, 10.40-91.53), respectively; this indicates that the diagnostic efficiency of the GE Healthcare Life Sciences MRI is superior compared with the Siemens AG MRI. The DWI