Lenell, Amy; Friesen, Carol A; Hormuth, Laura
Well Babies at Walgreens is a unique community-based corporate partnership program that offers breastfeeding support by a lactation professional in a private room at the pharmacy. Walgreens is a community pharmacy chain with more than 8000 locations in the United States, Puerto Rico, and the US Virgin Islands. The primary goal of Well Babies is to support breastfeeding women using a model that is expandable to other Walgreens pharmacy sites. The Well Babies program offers drop-in services, with a professional consultation by a lactation consultant and baby weight check, if desired. Well Babies creators are developing a business plan for Walgreens and a toolkit that would help other stores implement the program. An additional goal is to improve continuity of care for breastfeeding by engaging pharmacists as vital members of the health care team. Offering breastfeeding support at a pharmacy improves access and encourages support persons to attend while simultaneously allowing the family to complete other errands. This initiative included education for pharmacists to improve the recommendations they make for breastfeeding mothers and to improve awareness among pharmacists of the benefits associated with breastfeeding and the need to preserve the breastfeeding relationship. The first drop-in location opened in April 2012. Grant funding from the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, awarded to the Indiana State Department of Health, made it possible to open a second drop-in location in June 2013. Future plans include developing an employee lactation program and expanding Well Babies at Walgreens at other store locations. © The Author(s) 2015.
For the baby's clothes you will need: One-piece sleepers (4 to 6). Gown-types are the easiest for changing diapers and cleaning baby up. Mittens for the baby's hands to keep them from ... daytime outfits that snap (easiest for changing diapers ...
Fagniez, P-L; Loriau, J; Tayar, C
Scientific advances during the last decades regarding potential intervention on embryos arouse many questions in society to prepare the ground concerning the limits that should be set for these practices. For the first time in 1994, a parliamentary proceeding allowed the definition of a French model of bioethics through laws of the same name. These laws, among others, authorized in a well and strictly defined setting the practice of preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD). Because of technical progress concerning PGD, new questions arose, especially concerning the accomplishment of designer babies. The French Chamber of Representatives came in with a new law that banishes the concept of designer babies and replaces it with another concept: double hope babies, in French "bébé du double espoir". A first hope of a pregnancy giving birth to a healthy child and the second being that this child conceived with the aid of PGD could help treat an elder brother. Because of the issuing of two specific laws in a ten years interval, France occupies a privileged place in a Europe where bioethical issues continue to be debated, particularly PGD.
this paper explores changing messages about place of birth offered to women by Mother and Baby magazine, a UK publication aimed at a general readership DESIGN: the research uses an historical perspective to explore changing messages about place of birth in Mother and Baby magazine between 1956-1992. It analyses the content and medium of the magazine through a narrative and semiotic approach. the UK between the mid-1950s and 1990s. The period was a time of significant change in the maternity services, at both a philosophical and organisational level with a move towards hospital rather than home birth and a dominant discourse which privileged medical models of care over social ones. producers and consumers of Mother and Baby magazine FINDINGS: Mother and Baby moved from an assumption of home birth to a focus on hospital birth, reflecting national changes in policy. The magazine moved from a social to a risk focused medical view of birth, with an emphasis on the safety of the baby and the sacrifice of the mother. These changes can be traced through both the organisation and the language of content between 1956 and 1992. However, home birth was always offered to readers as a viable, if increasingly niche, option. This reflected the magazine's need to appeal to its readers as consumers; both in consumption of the magazine and of maternity care. the evidence suggests that Mother and Baby magazine mirrored elements of the prevailing policy discourse around place of birth. However, it always gave space to other narratives. In doing so it reminds us of the complexity about how messages about labour and birth are told and received. It gives insight into ways in which the media lead and reflect change and the impact this might have on decision making by women. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Feldman, S. Shirley; Nash, Sharon Churnin
Interest in babies was assessed in 30 high school seniors and 32 college freshmen. Measures varied from passive perceptual responses to pictures, to behavioral reactions to a live baby in the presence and in the absence of an adult. (JMB)
Ishikawa, Chihiro; Shiga, Takashi
Tactile stimulation is an important factor in mother-infant interactions. Many studies on both human and animals have shown that tactile stimulation during the neonatal period has various beneficial effects in the subsequent growth of the body and brain. In particular, massage is often applied to preterm human babies as “touch care”, because tactile stimulation together with kinesthetic stimulation increases body weight, which is accompanied by behavioral development and the changes of endocrine and neural conditions. Among them, the elevation of insulin-like growth factor-1, catecholamine, and vagus nerve activity may underlie the body weight gain. Apart from the body weight gain, tactile stimulation has various effects on the nervous system and endocrine system. For example, it has been reported that tactile stimulation on human and animal babies activates parasympathetic nervous systems, while suppresses the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenalcortical (HPA) axis, which may be related to the reduction of emotionality, anxiety-like behavior, and pain sensitivity. In addition, animal experiments have shown that tactile stimulation improves learning and memory. Facilitation of the neuronal activity and the morphological changes including the hippocampal synapse may underlie the improvement of the learning and memory. In conclusion, it has been strongly suggested that tactile stimulation in early life has beneficial effects on body, brain structure and function, which are maintained throughout life.
Kovacova, Jana; Kocourek, Vladimir; Kohoutkova, Jana; Lansky, Miroslav; Hajslova, Jana
Apples represent the main component of most fruit-based baby food products. Since not only fruit from organic farming, but also conventionally grown fruit is used for baby food production, the occurrence of pesticide residues in the final product is of high concern. To learn more about the fate of these hazardous compounds during processing of contaminated raw material, apples containing altogether 21 pesticide residues were used for preparation of a baby food purée both in the household and at industrial scale (in the baby food production facility). Within both studies, pesticide residues were determined in raw apples as well as in final products. Intermediate product and by-product were also analysed during the industrial process. Determination of residues was performed by a sensitive multi-detection analytical method based on liquid or gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. The household procedure involved mainly the cooking of unpeeled apples, and the decrease of residues was not extensive enough for most of the studied pesticides; only residues of captan, dithianon and thiram dropped significantly (processing factors less than 0.04). On the other hand, changes in pesticide levels were substantial for all tested pesticides during apple processing in the industrial baby food production facility. The most important operation affecting the reduction of residues was removal of the by-products after pulping (rest of the peel, stem, pips etc.), while subsequent sterilisation has an insignificant effect. Also in this case, captan, dithianon and thiram were identified as pesticides with the most evident decrease of residues.
Crossland, D S; Richmond, S; Hudson, M; Smith, K; Abu-Harb, M
Midwives once used serial weighing to highlight lactation problems, but this is now discouraged for the fear of undermining maternal confidence. To explore weight changes in healthy newborn term babies, to gain information to aid interpretation of such measurements and to construct a centile chart for those exclusively breastfed during the first 2 weeks. Two hundred ninety-nine mothers weighed their baby daily using the same electronic scales. In 46 cases, three or more consecutive measurements were omitted leaving 253 series to evaluate, of which 111 were exclusively breastfed. Breastfed babies lost a mean 6.4% of birthweight (95% CI: 5.5-7.3%) before starting to gain, and 54% took more than 8 days to regain birthweight. Artificially fed babies lost less (3.7%, 95% CI: 2.7-4.7%), but 39% had not regained their birthweight by 8 days. Once birthweight was regained, average gain was about 1% of birthweight per day in both breast- and artificially-fed babies. Measurements less than 5 days apart predicted average weight gain poorly. Feeding problems should be considered if weight is not increasing by 6 days, but some healthy babies take 17 days to regain their birthweight.
Knickman, James R; Snell, Emily K
Objective To assess the coming challenges of caring for large numbers of frail elderly as the Baby Boom generation ages. Study Setting A review of economic and demographic data as well as simulations of projected socioeconomic and demographic patterns in the year 2030 form the basis of a review of the challenges related to caring for seniors that need to be faced by society. Study Design A series of analyses are used to consider the challenges related to caring for elders in the year 2030: (1) measures of macroeconomic burden are developed and analyzed, (2) the literatures on trends in disability, payment approaches for long-term care, healthy aging, and cultural views of aging are analyzed and synthesized, and(3)simulations of future income and assets patterns of the Baby Boom generation are developed. Principal Findings The economic burden of aging in 2030 should be no greater than the economic burden associated with raising large numbers of baby boom children in the 1960s. The real challenges of caring for the elderly in 2030 will involve: (1) making sure society develops payment and insurance systems for long-term care that work better than existing ones, (2) taking advantage of advances in medicine and behavioral health to keep the elderly as healthy and active as possible, (3) changing the way society organizes community services so that care is more accessible, and (4) altering the cultural view of aging to make sure all ages are integrated into the fabric of community life. Conclusions To meet the long-term care needs of Baby Boomers, social and public policy changes must begin soon. Meeting the financial and social service burdens of growing numbers of elders will not be a daunting task if necessary changes are made now rather than when Baby Boomers actually need long-term care. PMID:12236388
Reich, Stephanie M.; Penner, Emily K.; Duncan, Greg J.; Auger, Anamarie
Research has found corporal punishment to have limited effectiveness in altering child behavior and the potential to produce psychological and cognitive damage. Pediatric professionals have advocated reducing, if not eliminating its use. Despite this, it remains a common parenting practice in the U.S. Using a three-group randomized design, this study explored whether embedding educational information about typical child development and effective parenting in baby books could alter new mothers’ attitudes about their use of corporal punishment. Low-income, ethnically diverse women (n = 167) were recruited during their third trimester of pregnancy and followed until their child was 18 months old. Findings from home-based data collection throughout this period suggest that educational baby books compared with non-educational baby books or no books can reduce new mothers’ support for the use of corporal punishment (respective effect sizes = .67 and .25) and that these effects are greater for African-American mothers (effect size = .75 and .57) and those with low levels of educational attainment (high school diploma, GED or less) (effect sizes = 0.78 and .49). Given their low cost and ease of implementation, baby books offer a promising way to change new mothers’ attitudes and potentially reduce the use of corporal punishment with infants and toddlers. PMID:22391417
Reich, Stephanie M; Penner, Emily K; Duncan, Greg J; Auger, Anamarie
Research has found corporal punishment to have limited effectiveness in altering child behavior and the potential to produce psychological and cognitive damage. Pediatric professionals have advocated reducing, if not eliminating its use. Despite this, it remains a common parenting practice in the US. Using a three-group randomized design, this study explored whether embedding educational information about typical child development and effective parenting in baby books could alter new mothers' attitudes about their use of corporal punishment. Low-income, ethnically diverse women (n=167) were recruited during their third trimester of pregnancy and followed until their child was 18 months old. Findings from home-based data collection throughout this period suggest that educational baby books compared with non-educational baby books or no books can reduce new mothers' support for the use of corporal punishment (respective effect sizes=.67 and .25) and that these effects are greater for African-American mothers (effect sizes=.75 and .57) and those with low levels of educational attainment (high school diploma, GED, or less) (effect sizes=.78 and .49). Given their low cost and ease of implementation, baby books offer a promising way to change new mothers' attitudes and potentially reduce the use of corporal punishment with infants and toddlers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Johnston, Trisha; Coory, Michael
The perinatal mortality rate among Indigenous Australians is still double that of the rest of the community. The aim of our study was to estimate the extent to which increased risk of low birthweight and preterm birth among Indigenous babies in Queensland account for their continuing mortality excess. If a large proportion of excess deaths can be explained by the unfavourable birthweight and gestational age distribution of Indigenous babies, then that would suggest that priority should be given to implementing primary health care interventions to reduce the risk of low birthweight and preterm birth (eg, interventions to reduce maternal smoking or genitourinary infections). Conversely, if only a small proportion is explained by birthweight and gestational age, then other strategies might need to be considered such as improving access to high-quality hospital care around the time of confinement. Population-based, descriptive study of perinatal mortality rates among Indigenous and non-Indigenous babies, in Queensland, stratified by birthweight and gestational age. Indigenous babies are twice as likely to die as their non-Indigenous counterparts (rate ratio1998-2002: 2.01; 95%ci 1.77, 2.28). However, within separate strata of birth weight and gestational age, Indigenous and non-Indigenous rates are similar. The Mantel-Haenszel rate ratio adjusted for birth weight and gestational age was 1.13 (0.99, 1.28). This means that most of the excess mortality in Indigenous babies is largely due to their unfavourable birth weight and gestational-age distributions. If Indigenous babies had the same birth weight and gestational age distribution as their non-Indigenous counterparts, then the relative disparity would be reduced by 87% and 20 fewer Indigenous babies would die in Queensland each year. Our results suggest that Indigenous mothers at high risk of poor outcome (for example those Indigenous mothers in preterm labour) have good access to high quality medical care around the
Schofield, Deborah J; Beard, John R
To examine the effect of demographic change on employment patterns for general practitioners, medical specialists and nurses since 1986, and to compare their patterns of retirement. Secondary analysis of previously unpublished Australian Bureau of Statistics Census data for the years 1986, 1991, 1996 and 2001. Age distribution of GPs, specialists and nursing workforce; attrition rates as GPs, specialists and nurses left the workforce; and hours worked according to age group. The age profile of the GP, specialist and nursing workforce has aged since 1986 (P < 0.001), with the "baby boomer" generation making up more than half the workforce in 2001. A large proportion of GPs continued to work beyond the traditional retirement age of 65 years, with nurses retiring at a younger age than doctors (P < 0.001). All GP cohorts worked fewer hours in 2001 than they did in 1986 (P < 0.001), with "generation X" GPs working fewer hours than the baby boomers did at the same age (P < 0.001). Attrition of baby boomer clinicians will place unprecedented pressure on the medical workforce, and policy makers face a critical challenge to ensure workforce needs are met over the next 20 years. Policies and incentives to encourage ongoing employment among older clinicians, albeit at reduced hours, are crucial if the Australian health workforce is to be adequate to meet the growing community demand of the 21st century.
... anemia, prevalent among African Americans. 8 Great Information Sources About Baby and You 1. medlineplus.gov —"Teenage Pregnancy" and a vast array of other accessible information on pregnancy from the National Library of Medicine. 2. www.kidshealth.org —"Exercising During ...
Fingerman, Karen L; Pillemer, Karl A; Silverstein, Merril; Suitor, J Jill
As Baby Boomers enter late life, relationships with family members gain importance. This review article highlights two aspects of their intergenerational relationships: (a) caregiving for aging parents and (b) interactions with adult children in the context of changing marital dynamics. The researchers describe three studies: (a) the Within Family Differences Study (WFDS) of mothers aged 65-75 and their multiple grown children (primarily Baby Boomers) ongoing since 2001; (b) the Family Exchanges Study (FES) of Baby Boomers aged 42-60, their spouses, parents, and multiple grown children ongoing since 2008; and (c) the Longitudinal Study of Generations (LSoG) of 351 three-generation families started when the Baby Boomers were teenagers in 1971, with interviews every 3-5 years from 1985 to 2005. These studies show that the Baby Boomers in midlife navigate complex intergenerational patterns. The WFDS finds aging parents differentiate among Baby Boomer children in midlife, favoring some more than others. The FES shows that the Baby Boomers are typically more involved with their children than with their aging parents; Boomers' personal values, family members' needs, and personal rewards shape decisions about support. The LSoG documents how divorce and remarriage dampen intergenerational obligations in some families. Moreover, loosening cultural norms have weakened family bonds in general. Reviews of these studies provide insights into how the Baby Boomers may negotiate caregiving for aging parents as well as the likelihood of family care they will receive when their own health declines in the future.
Kopanidis, Foula Z; Robinson, Linda J; Reid, Mike
The transition into retirement is an important life phase that presents significant challenges in respect to well-being, lifestyle, and consumption choices. This article examines the consumption context of housing after retirement, in particular for the low-resourced cohort of single baby boomer women. Utilizing an extended Theory of Planned Behavior model, we examine the relationship between intention and actual behavior, in this case financial advice seeking, as an important component of the psychological preparedness of single female baby boomer women. Our analysis showed both Australian and UK single baby boomer women display different behaviors in terms of seeking advice and their mental preparedness to adjust to a change in their living arrangements. The findings are discussed in terms of their implications for policy and further research.
Feijen, Michelle M W; Claessens, Edith A W M Habets; Dovens, Anke J Leenders; Vles, Johannes S; van der Hulst, Rene R W J
Plagiocephaly was diagnosed in a baby aged 4 months and brachycephaly in a baby aged 5 months. Positional or deformational plagio- or brachycephaly is characterized by changes in shape and symmetry of the cranial vault. Treatment options are conservative and may include physiotherapy and helmet therapy. During the last two decades the incidence of positional plagiocephaly has increased in the Netherlands. This increase is due to the recommendation that babies be laid on their backs in order to reduce the risk of sudden infant death syndrome. We suggest the following: in cases of positional preference of the infant, referral to a physiotherapist is indicated. In cases of unacceptable deformity of the cranium at the age 5 months, moulding helmet therapy is a possible treatment option.
Tin, W.; Wariyar, U.; Hey, E.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the changing prognosis for babies of less than 28 weeks' gestation. DESIGN: A prospective, collaborative, population based survey. SETTING: The former Northern Regional Health Authority. SUBJECTS: All the births between 1983 and 1994 at 22 to 27 completed weeks' gestation to women normally resident in the region. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Miscarriage, stillbirth, death in the first year of life, and disability in survivors. RESULTS: There were 479070 registered births in the study period. No baby of 22 weeks' gestation survived; only eight (4%) of the 197 babies of 23 weeks who were alive at the onset of labour survived for a year-a proportion that did not change during the study period. Survival among other babies of less than 28 weeks improved progressively between 1983-6 and 1991-4, but administration of artificial surfactant to babies requiring ventilation from mid-1990 was associated with further improvement in survival only in those over 25 weeks' gestation. Babies of 24 weeks required three times as much high dependency care per survivor as babies of 27 weeks (76 v 26 days). The rate of severe disability in the one year survivors of less than 26 weeks' gestation (30/123; 24%) was similar to that seen in the sampled survivors of 26 and 27 weeks (29/108; 27%); the proportion disabled did not change significantly during the study period. All the children born in 1983, 1987, and 1991 were later reassessed in greater detail: 10% (13/136) seemed destined for a continuing life of total dependency. CONCLUSIONS: Gestation, if accurately assessed, can give a woman facing very preterm delivery a clear indication of the prognosis for her baby and help her judge the appropriateness of accepting obstetric intervention and sustained perinatal support. PMID:9006468
Fingerman, Karen L.; Pillemer, Karl A.; Silverstein, Merril; Suitor, J. Jill
Purpose: As Baby Boomers enter late life, relationships with family members gain importance. This review article highlights two aspects of their intergenerational relationships: (a) caregiving for aging parents and (b) interactions with adult children in the context of changing marital dynamics. Design and Methods: The researchers describe three studies: (a) the Within Family Differences Study (WFDS) of mothers aged 65–75 and their multiple grown children (primarily Baby Boomers) ongoing since 2001; (b) the Family Exchanges Study (FES) of Baby Boomers aged 42–60, their spouses, parents, and multiple grown children ongoing since 2008; and (c) the Longitudinal Study of Generations (LSoG) of 351 three-generation families started when the Baby Boomers were teenagers in 1971, with interviews every 3–5 years from 1985 to 2005. Results: These studies show that the Baby Boomers in midlife navigate complex intergenerational patterns. The WFDS finds aging parents differentiate among Baby Boomer children in midlife, favoring some more than others. The FES shows that the Baby Boomers are typically more involved with their children than with their aging parents; Boomers’ personal values, family members’ needs, and personal rewards shape decisions about support. The LSoG documents how divorce and remarriage dampen intergenerational obligations in some families. Moreover, loosening cultural norms have weakened family bonds in general. Implications: Reviews of these studies provide insights into how the Baby Boomers may negotiate caregiving for aging parents as well as the likelihood of family care they will receive when their own health declines in the future. PMID:22250130
Gupta, Bhaskar; El Amin, Eisa
Objectives Infection is a frequent and important cause of morbidity and mortality in neonatal units all over the world. Over the years, there has been a shift in the microorganisms responsible for neonatal septicemia. This study aims to analyze the changing patterns of blood borne organisms in the neonatal unit. Methods This retrospective study was undertaken at the neonatal intensive care unit of Khoula Hospital in Muscat, Sultanate of Oman to analyze the incidence of blood borne sepsis and its changing pattern from 1997-2000. Results Out of a total 2181 admissions to the neonatal intensive care unit, 71 (3.25%) babies had positive blood culture. A reduction in the incidence of blood borne sepsis with changing patterns of organisms was seen over the period of four years with incidence of Group B Streptococcus declining from 34% in 1997-1998 to 17.8% in 1999-2000 and the incidence of CONS (Staphylococcus epidermidis) increasing from 20% in 1997-1998 to 35% in 1999-2000. Conclusion Overall, due to survival and prolonged hospitalization of extremely low birth weight babies who need frequent invasive procedures, and the use of powerful antibiotics, the incidence of Staphylococcus epidermidis which was previously thought to be non pathogenic has increased over the years in neonatal intensive care units. PMID:22125709
CORRÊA, Camila de Castro; PAULETO, Adriana Regina Colombo; FERRARI, Deborah Viviane; BERRETIN-FELIX, Giédre
Education mediated by technology facilitates the access to information and can reach more people, including a broader range of socio-economic groups and ages, and at a low-cost. The website "Babies Portal - Speech-Language Pathology/Audiology and Dentistry" (http://portaldosbebes.fob.usp.br) was developed to provide parents with information on communication procedure disorders and oral health, enabling them to prevent and identify any changes in development early while looking for the best treatment. Objective: The objective is to describe the development and evaluation of the content pertaining to the oral functions featured in the "Babies Portal". Methods: The first stage consisted of a literature review, development/selection of illustrations and an evaluation of the possible external links that could be available. In the second stage, 10 speech-language and hearing pathologists (group A) and five parents of babies (group B) evaluated the website via an online form, which included ethical and personal information and questions about the quality, technical information and comparative prior knowledge acquired after the access. In the first stage, there was the construction of five sections ("The Oral Functions", "Breastfeeding", "Food", "Pacifier, baby bottle and finger sucking" and "Breath") based on scientific studies, presenting objective information, content links prepared by the Ministry of Health and a Dentistry section in the "Babies Portal" website. Videos, static and dynamic images were also distributed throughout the sections. Results: Regarding the second stage, 90% of all speech-language and hearing pathologists judged a good/excellent quality for all sections and classified the technical quality as very good. By their turn, 88% of the parents (group B) reported that the website helped or helped very much in understanding the contents, and 80% rated the quality as good or excellent. Conclusions: Five sections concerning the oral functions were
Khan, Mahjabeen; Akram, Durre Samin
To determine changes in the breastfeeding practices of mothers after receiving counseling on 'Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding' as defined by the Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative comparing baby friendly hospitals (BFHs) and non-baby-friendly hospitals in Sindh, Pakistan. The observational study was conducted from June 2007 to June 2009 in randomly selected baby-friendly and non-baby-friendly hospitals of Sindh, Pakistan. Non-probability purposive sampling was employed.The maternity staff was trained on 'Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding.'The changes in breastfeeding practices were analysed by SPSS version 15. A total of 236 women were included in the study. Of them, 196 (83.05%) were from baby-friendly hospitals and 40 (16.94%) from non-baby-friendly hospitals. Besides, 174 (88.7%) mothers in baby-friendly hospitals and 5 (12.5%) in non-baby-friendly hospitals during antenatal care received counseling by healthcare providers.There was an increase in breastfeeding practice up to 194 (98.97%) in the first category compared to 12 (30%) in the other category. Counseling under the Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative improved breastfeeding practices up to 98.97% in baby-friendly compared to non-baby-friendly hospitals.
Bahanshal, Soha; Coughlin, Steven; Liu, Benyuan
Poor birth outcomes in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) have been found to be partially due to missed prenatal appointments as well as lack of knowledge of healthy pregnancy behaviors. The objectives are to summarize birth outcomes and the antenatal care system in KSA, summarize research related to the US Text4Baby mobile health program, and outline the development of an Arabic version of the Text4baby app, For You and Your Baby (4YYB). First, birth outcomes, health care access, and smartphone usage among Saudi Arabian women are reviewed. Next, the current evidence behind Text4Baby is described. Finally, a plan to develop and test 4YYB is proposed. In the plan, studies will need to be conducted to determine the effectiveness of 4YYB in educating pregnant Saudi women on healthy knowledge and behaviors. This will create an evidence base behind 4YYB before it is launched as a full-scale public health effort in KSA. The KSA offers public medical services but remaining challenges include poor birth outcomes and health care access barriers. An estimated 73% to 84% of Saudi women of child-bearing age use smartphone social media apps. A total of 13 published articles on Text4Baby were identified and reviewed. Due to design limitations, the studies provide only limited evidence about the effectiveness of the program in increasing healthy pregnancy knowledge and behaviors. To be useful for Saudi women, the educational messages in 4YYB will need to be translated from English to Arabic and tailored for cultural norms. Developing the 4YYB Arabic-language app for use by pregnant Saudi Arabian women based on Text4Baby is a viable approach, but a rigorous study design is needed to determine its effectiveness in improving healthy pregnancy knowledge and behaviors. ©Soha Bahanshal, Steven Coughlin, Benyuan Liu. Originally published in JMIR Research Protocols (http://www.researchprotocols.org), 28.02.2017.
Powell, T. Hennessy; Hecimovic, Anton
The author reviews quality of life arguments proposed in Baby Doe cases involving severely handicapped infants and views quality of life in terms of six dimensions: educability, relationships, residence, access, technology, and medical considerations. (CL)
In this paper wormholes defined on a Minkowski signature manifold are considered, both at the classical and quantum levels. It is argued that causality in quantum gravity may best be imposed by restricting the functional integral to include only causal Lorentzian spacetimes. Subject to this assumption, one can put very tight constraints on the quantum behavior of wormholes, their cousins the baby universes, and topology-changing processes in general. Even though topology-changing processes are tightly constrained, this still allows very interesting geometrical (rather than topological) effects. In particular, the laboratory construction of baby universes is not prohibited provided that the ``umbilical cord'' is never cut. Methods for relaxing these causality constraints are also discussed.
Mankiw, N G; Weil, D N
This paper explores the impact of demographic changes on the housing market in the US, 1st by reviewing the facts about the Baby Boom, 2nd by linking age and housing demand using census data for 1970 and 1980, 3rd by computing the effect of demand on price of housing and on the quantity of residential capital, and last by constructing a theoretical model to plot the predictability of the jump in demand caused by the Baby Boom. The Baby Boom in the U.S. lasted from 1946-1964, with a peak in 1957 when 4.3 million babies were born. In 1980 19.7% of the population were aged 20-30, compared to 13.3% in 1960. Demand for housing was modeled for a given household from census data, resulting in the finding that demand rises sharply at age 20-30, then declines after age 40 by 1% per year. Thus between 1970 and 1980 the real value of housing for an adult at any given age jumped 50%, while the real disposable personal income per capita rose 22%. The structure of demand is such that the swelling in the rate of growth in housing demand peaked in 1980, with a rate of 1.66% per year. Housing demand and real price of housing were highly correlated and inelastic. If this relationship holds in the future, the real price of housing should fall about 3% per year, or 47% by 2007. The theoretical model, a variation of the Poterba model, ignoring inflation and taxation, suggests that fluctuations in prices caused by changes in demand are not foreseen by the market, even though they are predictable in principle 20 years in advance. As the effects of falling housing prices become apparent, there may be a potential for economic instability, but people may be induced to save more because their homes will no longer provide the funds for retirement.
... prefold diapers) a container of warm water and cotton balls (for babies with sensitive skin) or a ... ability to roll. Wiping Using the wet washcloth, cotton balls, or baby wipes, gently wipe your baby ...
... ASKED QUESTIONS FAQ029 LABOR, DELIVERY, AND POSTPARTUM CARE Breastfeeding Your Baby • How long should I breastfeed my baby? • How does breastfeeding benefit my baby? • How does breastfeeding benefit me? • ...
Lindgren, H; Malm, M C; Rådestad, I
When a baby has died during pregnancy, the first encounter between mother and child occurs when the baby is already dead. Despair, emptiness, and grief characterize the encounter, which is also a gradual farewell to the child and the planned future for the family. This study describes mothers' experiences of the farewell of their stillborn baby at discharge from hospital. Twenty-three mothers from different parts of Sweden, who suffered stillbirth, were interviewed. Semi-structured questions were used and the replies were analyzed using content analysis. The mothers describe the separation from the child when leaving hospital as unnatural and that the separation ruins the motherhood they felt during pregnancy. Five categories were identified: unnatural to leave the baby; going home empty-handed; access to the child; security and insecurity in the separation; to let go. The overarching theme that we recognized from these responses we have formulated as: You don't leave your baby. Leaving the baby at the hospital goes against the biological instinct to care for and protect the offspring. Routines for a dignified goodbye including designating a deputy guardian into whose arms the mother can place the baby can help to facilitate the separation. The possibility of leaving the baby in the arms of someone known to the parents should be an option for parents who choose to take farewell of the child at the hospital. The place and time for the farewell should be decided on by the parents, taking the baby home for a personal farewell could be an alternative.
... for Educators Search English Español Bringing Your Baby Home KidsHealth / For Parents / Bringing Your Baby Home What's ... recall your baby's seemingly endless crying episodes. The Home Front Introducing your baby to others at home ...
... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Baby corn and baby carrots from Zambia. 319.56-43... § 319.56-43 Baby corn and baby carrots from Zambia. (a) Immature, dehusked “baby” sweet corn (Zea mays L..., which is a field, where the corn has been grown must have been inspected at least once during the...
Healthy Lifestyle Infant and toddler health Is it safe to hold a baby in a baby sling? Answers from Jay L. Hoecker, M.D. A baby sling — a one-shouldered baby ... sling's weight minimum before placing your newborn in it. Keep your baby's airways unobstructed. Make sure your ...
Abolyan, Lyubov V
The objective was to evaluate implementation of the WHO/UNICEF "Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding" as defined by the Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative in eight maternity hospitals in the Moscow region. Four maternity hospitals had been certified Baby- Friendly Hospitals (BFHs), the experimental group; and four maternity hospitals Not-as-Yet Baby Friendly, the control group (NBFHs). Maternal interviews and infant breastfeeding rates were the primary outcomes of the study. In total, 741 healthy postpartum women from the experimental and control group were interviewed: 383 and 358, respectively. Interviews were conducted over 5 months, from May to July 2004. In addition, an assessment of levels and trends in breastfeeding for the period of 1998 to 2003 was made for the area served by the BFHs and the NBFHs. Analyses of the questionnaires completed by the mothers found a positive effect of BFH practice on a number of parameters, such as an increased rate of in-hospital exclusive breastfeeding, mothers' decisions concerning planned duration of breastfeeding, mothers' and babies' health, and maternal knowledge about the necessary measures in BFHs. Mothers appreciated baby-friendly changes, such as rooming-in, breastfeeding on baby's demand, and taking care of their babies by themselves. The successful initiation of breastfeeding in the BFHs was shown to favor the promotion of breastfeeding among 1-year-old babies in the experimental areas. However, there were some shortcomings in the BFHs: frequent use of labor anesthesia; insufficient placing of newborns on the mother's abdomen, rooming-in, and initiating breastfeeding immediately; and a short length of "skin-to-skin" contact (<30 minutes). The women in BFHs also observed the use of feeding bottles and dummies, and experienced some problems with breast health. BFH practices can increase breastfeeding rates as well as maternal satisfaction. However, shortcomings in the training and support for mothers, and limited
Gregg, Deborah J; Dennison, Barbara A; Restina, Kyle
Community-based lactation support groups help improve breastfeeding duration by offering practical peer and professional help and counseling through the sharing of information and experiences in a relaxed setting. The objective of this project, funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, was to establish at least 5 Baby Cafés in organizations that reach low-income women living in a high-need, racially/ethnically diverse, urban county with 1 of the lowest rates of breastfeeding initiation, exclusivity, and duration in New York. The New York State Department of Health partnered with the P(2) Collaborative of Western New York and United Way of Buffalo & Erie County's Healthy Start Healthy Future for All Coalition to facilitate the recruitment of 11 community-based agencies in Erie County, New York, to provide and/or enhance breastfeeding support. Six organizations were funded to establish licensed Baby Cafés, which provided skilled, free-of-charge, drop-in lactation support and counseling to mothers at easily accessible locations. The organizations provided staff training and staffing at the Baby Cafés, established coordinated hours of operation between all locations, and jointly marketed their services. Collectively, the 6 Baby Cafés provided 11 drop-in sessions per week. During the 7-month start-up time, mothers/babies made 276 visits and they averaged 75 visits per month, representing at least 150 clients. After the funding ended, 5 organizations continued to support and staff the Baby Cafés whereas 1 organization added another Baby Café. Future evaluation is needed to determine their effect on breastfeeding exclusivity and duration. © The Author(s) 2015.
... by-color guide for newborns: Black or dark green. After birth, a baby's first bowel movements are ... of baby poop is known as meconium. Yellow-green. As the baby begins digesting breast milk, meconium ...
Neuman, Susan B.; Kaefer, Tanya; Pinkham, Ashley; Strouse, Gabrielle
Targeted to children as young as 3 months old, there is a growing number of baby media products that claim to teach babies to read. This randomized controlled trial was designed to examine this claim by investigating the effects of a best-selling baby media product on reading development. One hundred and seventeen infants, ages 9 to 18 months,…
Lavender, Tina; Furber, Christine; Campbell, Malcolm; Victor, Suresh; Roberts, Ian; Bedwell, Carol; Cork, Michael J
Some national guidelines recommend the use of water alone for napkin cleansing. Yet, there is a readiness, amongst many parents, to use baby wipes. Evidence from randomised controlled trials, of the effect of baby wipes on newborn skin integrity is lacking. We conducted a study to examine the hypothesis that the use of a specifically formulated cleansing wipe on the napkin area of newborn infants (<1 month) has an equivalent effect on skin hydration when compared with using cotton wool and water (usual care). A prospective, assessor-blinded, randomised controlled equivalence trial was conducted during 2010. Healthy, term babies (n=280), recruited within 48 hours of birth, were randomly assigned to have their napkin area cleansed with an alcohol-free baby wipe (140 babies) or cotton wool and water (140 babies). Primary outcome was change in hydration from within 48 hours of birth to 4 weeks post-birth. Secondary outcomes comprised changes in trans-epidermal water loss, skin surface pH and erythema, presence of microbial skin contaminants/irritants at 4 weeks and napkin dermatitis reported by midwife at 4 weeks and mother during the 4 weeks. Complete hydration data were obtained for 254 (90.7 %) babies. Wipes were shown to be equivalent to water and cotton wool in terms of skin hydration (intention-to-treat analysis: wipes 65.4 (SD 12.4) vs. water 63.5 (14.2), p=0.47, 95% CI -2.5 to 4.2; per protocol analysis: wipes 64.6 (12.4) vs. water 63.6 (14.3), p=0.53, 95% CI -2.4 to 4.2). No significant differences were found in the secondary outcomes, except for maternal-reported napkin dermatitis, which was higher in the water group (p=0.025 for complete responses). Baby wipes had an equivalent effect on skin hydration when compared with cotton wool and water. We found no evidence of any adverse effects of using these wipes. These findings offer reassurance to parents who choose to use baby wipes and to health professionals who support their use. Current Controlled Trials
Hey, E. N.; Katz, G.; O'Connell, Bridget
1. One hundred and seventeen healthy new-born babies weighing between 0·9 and 4·8 kg at delivery have been studied during the first ten days of life, and sixteen of these babies have been studied serially for 6 weeks after birth. The babies lay supine in a draught-free environment (air speed 4-5 cm/sec) of moderate humidity. The operative temperature was between 26 and 38° C for the babies who were studied naked. 2. Total non-evaporative heat loss was calculated from simultaneous measurements of oxygen consumption, evaporative water loss and the concomitant change in mean body temperature. 3. Approximately 10% of the total body surface area was in contact with the mattress or floor. Conductive heat loss accounted for only about 5% of all non-evaporative heat loss when the naked baby was lying on a thick foam mattress, but for as much as 25% when the baby was lying in a water-jacketed chamber with a floor of clear plastic ∼ 5 mm thick. 4. Insulation to heat loss by convection and radiation varied with environmental temperature. Total specific insulation was low in a warm environment when the naked baby vasodilated, and rose by between 16 and 25% to a maximum in an environment of 31° C. It decreased significantly when the baby became physically active in environments with a temperature less than this. 5. Total specific insulation in an environment of 31° C varied with body size: it averaged 0·156° C.m2.hr/kcal in seven naked babies weighing 0·9-1·2 kg, rose to 0·190° C.m2.hr/kcal in twelve babies weighing 1·8-2·2 kg, and averaged 0·201° C.m2.hr/kcal in the thirty-four babies who weighed over 3 kg. Tissue insulation accounted for 23% of this total specific insulation in the smaller babies, and about 28% of the total in babies weighing over 3 kg. 6. Clothing ten babies in a vest, napkin and long cotton nightdress increased the total specific insulation by an average of 0·23° C.m2.hr/kcal. PMID:5503276
Katsova, M. M.; Livshits, M. A.; Mishenina, T. V.; Nizamov, B. A.
An analysis of the X-ray radiation of G-stars shows that the youngest fast rotating stars are characterized by saturation of activity, but part of stars demonstrate the solar-type activity, starting from rotational periods of 1.4 days. This type of activity, the level of which is determined by the rate of axial rotation, includes the formation of spots, flares and etc; first, activity is irregular, and only then there are conditions for the formation of cycles. The Kepler data show that stars of the same spectral type demonstrate two activity levels. This bimodality of different distributions of stars, change in a character of cycles and a level of Жiзнь i Bceлeннaya flare activity are evidences for an evolution of activity versus the age. By the nature of activity, we call conditionally G-dwarfs with rotation periods from 1 day to 5-6 days by the term "the Baby Sun" (the maximal number of these stars has Prot = 3 d), and we refer G-stars with Prot from 10 to 18 days to "the Young Suns". Ages of the main amount of the Baby Sun are around 200-600 Myr and the Young Sun are of about 1-2 Gyr. The Baby Suns are characterized by enhanced lithium content. We estimate the quasi-stationary X-ray and farultraviolet radiation of the outer atmosphere of the Baby Sun. From the GALEX data we obtain the FUV flux in the range 1350-1750 A for this kind of stars at the distance of 1 AU is 12.8 ± 4.2 erg/(cm^2 c), that exceeds the FUV-flux of the contemporary Sun by more than 6 times. The Kepler data demonstrate that the superflares happen more often namely on the Baby Suns. Our estimate is that superflares of the total energies 10^35 erg occur on the Baby Sun of about one per year.
Gasparyan, Armen Yuri; Ayvazyan, Lilit; Kitas, George D
The article reflects on open access as a strategy of changing the quality of science communication globally. Successful examples of open-access journals are presented to highlight implications of archiving in open digital repositories for the quality and citability of research output. Advantages and downsides of gold, green, and hybrid models of open access operating in diverse scientific environments are described. It is assumed that open access is a global trend which influences the workflow in scholarly journals, changing their quality, credibility, and indexability.
... of SCD are: Sickle cell anemia (also called hemoglobin SS). Hemoglobin is the part of red blood cells that ... one sickle cell gene change from each parent. Hemoglobin SC. This condition is caused when a baby ...
This article investigates the approaches of the various discourses operating in the water sector and how they address the issues of scarcity and equitable access under projected climate change impacts. Little synergy exists between the different approaches dealing with these issues. Whilst being a sustainable development and water resources management issue, a holistic view of access, scarcity and the projected impacts of climate change is not prevalent in these discourses. The climate change discourse too does not adequately bridge the gap between these issues. The projected impacts of climate change are likely to exacerbate the problems of scarcity and equitable access unless appropriate adaptation strategies are adopted and resilience is built. The successful delivery of accessible water services under projected climate change impacts therefore lies with an extension of the adaptive water management approach to include equitable access as a key driver.
... page. Saving Just a moment, please. You've saved this page It's been added to your dashboard . ... health educators. GO Your baby's shots Learn about vaccines that help keep baby healthy. GO News Moms ...
... Quality Collaboratives Launch Prematurity research centers What is team science? More than 75 years of solving problems ... to our health educators. GO On your baby's team Meet the people caring for your baby in ...
... of swallowing too much air while crying. Some theories suggest that colic happens when food moves too ... baby's digestive system or is incompletely digested. Other theories are that colic is due to a baby's ...
Feldman-Winter, Lori; Procaccini, Diane; Merewood, Anne
In June 2010, the Communities Putting Prevention to Work program (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) funded a New Jersey (NJ) Office on Nutrition and Fitness, Department of Health and Senior Services project to reduce obesity and increase exclusive breastfeeding by increased implementation of the Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative in the state of NJ. At baseline, NJ had no Baby-Friendly hospitals and no hospital was using an infant feeding policy that conformed to standards required by Baby-Friendly USA for designation. To create a model infant feeding policy that would be adaptable for use at multiple NJ hospitals preparing for Baby-Friendly designation. Project consultants created a policy based on existent policies from the American Academy of Pediatrics, the Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine, certified Baby-Friendly hospitals, and guidance from Baby-Friendly USA. This policy was submitted to Baby-Friendly USA, the US body responsible for Baby-Friendly designation. Baby-Friendly USA requested changes; after adaptations, the policy was made available to targeted NJ hospitals via a statewide portal. The hospitals made relevant adaptations for their setting, and those that were ready submitted the policy during the Baby-Friendly designation process. The policy was acceptable to Baby-Friendly USA. A collaborative initiative can use a single breastfeeding policy template as an aid toward Baby-Friendly designation. Such work streamlines the process and saves time and resources.
Fingerman, Karen L.; Pillemer, Karl A.; Silverstein, Merril; Suitor, J. Jill
Purpose: As Baby Boomers enter late life, relationships with family members gain importance. This review article highlights two aspects of their intergenerational relationships: (a) caregiving for aging parents and (b) interactions with adult children in the context of changing marital dynamics. Design and Methods: The researchers describe three…
... baby. Sometimes your baby may awaken because of gas — simply picking your little one up to burp ... a day of continued crying) might also have gas from swallowing too much air during crying spells, ...
Potharst, Eva S; Aktar, Evin; Rexwinkel, Marja; Rigterink, Margo; Bögels, Susan M
Many mothers experience difficulties after the birth of a baby. Mindful parenting may have benefits for mothers and babies, because it can help mothers regulate stress, and be more attentive towards themselves and their babies, which may have positive effects on their responsivity. This study examined the effectiveness of Mindful with your baby , an 8-week mindful parenting group training for mothers with their babies. The presence of the babies provides on-the-spot practicing opportunities and facilitates generalization of what is learned. Forty-four mothers with their babies (0-18 months), who were referred to a mental health clinic because of elevated stress or mental health problems of the mother, infant (regulation) problems, or mother-infant interaction problems, participated in 10 groups, each comprising of three to six mother-baby dyads. Questionnaires were administered at pretest, posttest, 8-week follow-up, and 1-year follow-up. Dropout rate was 7%. At posttest, 8-week follow-up, and 1-year follow-up, a significant improvement was seen in mindfulness, self-compassion, mindful parenting, (medium to large effects), as well as in well-being, psychopathology, parental confidence, responsivity, and hostility (small to large effects). Parental stress and parental affection only improved at the first and second follow-ups, respectively (small to medium effects), and maternal attention and rejection did not change. The infants improved in their positive affectivity (medium effect) but not in other aspects of their temperament. Mindful with your baby is a promising intervention for mothers with babies who are referred to mental health care because of elevated stress or mental health problems, infant (regulation) problems, or mother-infant interaction problems.
Pannor, R; Baran, A; Sorosky, A D
The fact that adoption records may be opened by court decree to enable adoptees to have access to identifying information about their birth parents makes it incumbent upon those concerned with adoption practices to study the impact of this on adoptees, adoptive parents, birth parents, and professional practice. This paper reports on research addressed to the attitudes and feelings of birth parents years after they relinquished babies for adoption.
This research explores the maternal and career progression decisions of different generations of women professors in Canada. Nineteen women, interviewed in-depth, reveal how they carefully plan childbearing and childrearing experiences around their demanding work schedules, by having May babies or posttenure babies. Results demonstrate the need…
Many women quit smoking when they become pregnant. However, about 40 percent start smoking again 6 months after they have their baby. Quitting smoking has benefits for you and your baby that last longer than the 9 months of your pregnancy.
... a Member Home Resources & Services Professional Resource Baby Brain Map Mar 17, 2016 The Brain Map was adapted in 2006 by ZERO TO ... supports Adobe Flash Player. To view the Baby Brain Map, please visit this page on a browser ...
LeRouge, Cynthia; Van Slyke, Craig; Seale, Deborah; Wright, Kevin
As they age, baby boomers (born 1946-1964) will have increasing medical needs and are likely to place large demand on health care resources. Consumer health technologies may help stem rising health care needs and costs by improving provider-to-patient communication, health monitoring, and information access and enabling self-care. Research has not explored the degree to which baby boomers are ready for, or are currently embracing, specific consumer health technologies This study explores how baby boomers' readiness to use various technologies for health purposes compares to other segments of the adult population. The goals of the study are to (1) examine what technologies baby boomers are ready to use for health purposes, (2) investigate barriers to baby boomers' use of technology for health purposes, and (3) understand whether readiness for and barriers to baby boomers' use of consumer health technologies differ from those of other younger and older consumers. Data were collected via a survey offered to a random sample of 3000 subscribers to a large pharmacy benefit management company. Respondents had the option to complete the survey online or by completing a paper-based version of the survey. Data from 469 respondents (response rate 15.63%) were analyzed, including 258 baby boomers (aged 46-64 years), 72 younger (aged 18-45 years), and 139 older (age >64 years) participants. Baby boomers were found to be similar to the younger age group, but significantly more likely than the older age group to be ready to use 5 technologies for health purposes (health information websites, email, automated call centers, medical video conferencing, and texting). Baby boomers were less ready than the younger age group to adopt podcasts, kiosks, smartphones, blogs, and wikis for health care purposes. However, baby boomers were more likely than older adults to use smartphones and podcasts for health care purposes. Specific adoption barriers vary according to the technology. Baby
Background As they age, baby boomers (born 1946-1964) will have increasing medical needs and are likely to place large demand on health care resources. Consumer health technologies may help stem rising health care needs and costs by improving provider-to-patient communication, health monitoring, and information access and enabling self-care. Research has not explored the degree to which baby boomers are ready for, or are currently embracing, specific consumer health technologies This study explores how baby boomers’ readiness to use various technologies for health purposes compares to other segments of the adult population. Objective The goals of the study are to (1) examine what technologies baby boomers are ready to use for health purposes, (2) investigate barriers to baby boomers’ use of technology for health purposes, and (3) understand whether readiness for and barriers to baby boomers’ use of consumer health technologies differ from those of other younger and older consumers. Methods Data were collected via a survey offered to a random sample of 3000 subscribers to a large pharmacy benefit management company. Respondents had the option to complete the survey online or by completing a paper-based version of the survey. Results Data from 469 respondents (response rate 15.63%) were analyzed, including 258 baby boomers (aged 46-64 years), 72 younger (aged 18-45 years), and 139 older (age >64 years) participants. Baby boomers were found to be similar to the younger age group, but significantly more likely than the older age group to be ready to use 5 technologies for health purposes (health information websites, email, automated call centers, medical video conferencing, and texting). Baby boomers were less ready than the younger age group to adopt podcasts, kiosks, smartphones, blogs, and wikis for health care purposes. However, baby boomers were more likely than older adults to use smartphones and podcasts for health care purposes. Specific adoption
... baby syndrome. Information from the National Library of Medicine’s MedlinePlus Child Abuse × What research is being done? The National ... baby syndrome. Information from the National Library of Medicine’s MedlinePlus Child Abuse See More About Research The National Institute ...
Out, Jennifer W.; Lafreniere, Kathryn D.
Examined the effectiveness of Baby Think It Over (BTIO), an infant simulation program that seeks to modify attitudes toward teen pregnancy and teen parenting. After experiencing BTIO, teens in the intervention group were more likely to accurately access their personal risk for an unplanned pregnancy than were teens in the comparison group. (Author)
Gattinoni, Luciano; Pesenti, Antonio
The "baby lung" concept originated as an offspring of computed tomography examinations which showed in most patients with acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome that the normally aerated tissue has the dimensions of the lung of a 5- to 6-year-old child (300-500 g aerated tissue). The respiratory system compliance is linearly related to the "baby lung" dimensions, suggesting that the acute respiratory distress syndrome lung is not "stiff" but instead small, with nearly normal intrinsic elasticity. Initially we taught that the "baby lung" is a distinct anatomical structure, in the nondependent lung regions. However, the density redistribution in prone position shows that the "baby lung" is a functional and not an anatomical concept. This provides a rational for "gentle lung treatment" and a background to explain concepts such as baro- and volutrauma. From a physiological perspective the "baby lung" helps to understand ventilator-induced lung injury. In this context, what appears dangerous is not the V(T)/kg ratio but instead the V(T)/"baby lung" ratio. The practical message is straightforward: the smaller the "baby lung," the greater is the potential for unsafe mechanical ventilation.
Rice, Neil E; Lang, Iain A; Henley, William; Melzer, David
The baby-boom generation is entering retirement. Having experienced unprecedented prosperity and improved medical technology, they should be the healthiest generation ever. We compared prevalence of disease and risk factors at ages 50-61 years in baby boomers with the preceding generation and attributed differences to period or cohort effects. Data were from the Health Survey for England (HSE) from 1994 to 2007 (n = 48,563). Logistic regression models compared health status between birth cohorts. Age-period-cohort models identified cohort and period effects separately. Compared to the wartime generation, the baby-boomer group was heavier (3.02 kg; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.42-3.63; p < 0.001) and reported more diagnoses of hypertension (odds ratio [OR] = 1.48; CI, 1.27-1.72; p < 0.001), diabetes (OR = 1.71; CI, 1.37-2.12; p < 0.001), and mental illness (OR = 1.90; CI, 1.54-2.53; p < 0.001). Baby boomers reported fewer heart attacks (OR = 0.61; CI, 0.47-0.79; p < 0.001) and had lower measured blood pressures (systolic -9.51 mmHg; CI, -8.7 to -10.31; p <0.001; diastolic, -2.5 mmHg; CI, -1.99 to -3.01; p < 0.001). Higher diagnosed mental disorder prevalence was attributable to a cohort effect (prevalence for 1935-1939 cohort, 2.5%, vs.1950-1954 cohort, 4.7%), whereas changes in diagnoses of diabetes and hypertension and measured body mass index were primarily period effects. English baby boomers are moving toward retirement with improved cardiovascular health. However, the baby-boomer cohort has a higher prevalence of mental illness diagnoses and shows no improvement in self-rated health compared to the wartime birth cohort. There remains substantial scope to reduce health risks and future disability.
Background There is evidence that exposure to passive smoking in general, and in babies in particular, is an important cause of morbimortality. Passive smoking is related to an increased risk of pediatric diseases such as sudden death syndrome, acute respiratory diseases, worsening of asthma, acute-chronic middle ear disease and slowing of lung growth. The objective of this article is to describe the BIBE study protocol. The BIBE study aims to determine the effectiveness of a brief intervention within the context of Primary Care, directed to mothers and fathers that smoke, in order to reduce the exposure of babies to passive smoking (ETS). Methods/Design Cluster randomized field trial (control and intervention group), multicentric and open. Subject: Fathers and/or mothers who are smokers and their babies (under 18 months) that attend pediatric services in Primary Care in Catalonia. The measurements will be taken at three points in time, in each of the fathers and/or mothers who respond to a questionnaire regarding their baby's clinical background and characteristics of the baby's exposure, together with variables related to the parents' tobacco consumption. A hair sample of the baby will be taken at the beginning of the study and at six months after the initial visit (biological determination of nicotine). The intervention group will apply a brief intervention in passive smoking after specific training and the control group will apply the habitual care. Discussion Exposure to ETS is an avoidable factor related to infant morbimortality. Interventions to reduce exposure to ETS in babies are potentially beneficial for their health. The BIBE study evaluates an intervention to reduce exposure to ETS that takes advantage of pediatric visits. Interventions in the form of advice, conducted by pediatric professionals, are an excellent opportunity for prevention and protection of infants against the harmful effects of ETS. Trial Registration Clinical Trials.gov Identifier
... § 319.56-43 Baby corn and baby carrots from Zambia. (a) Immature, dehusked “baby” sweet corn (Zea mays L... consignments only. (b) Immature “baby” carrots (Daucus carota L. ssp. sativus) for consumption measuring 10 to...
Daniels, Lisa; Heath, Anne-Louise M; Williams, Sheila M; Cameron, Sonya L; Fleming, Elizabeth A; Taylor, Barry J; Wheeler, Ben J; Gibson, Rosalind S; Taylor, Rachael W
In 2002, the World Health Organization recommended that the age for starting complementary feeding should be changed from 4 to 6 months of age to 6 months. Although this change in age has generated substantial debate, surprisingly little attention has been paid to whether advice on how to introduce complementary foods should also be changed. It has been proposed that by 6 months of age most infants will have developed sufficient motor skills to be able to feed themselves rather than needing to be spoon-fed by an adult. This has the potential to predispose infants to better growth by fostering better energy self-regulation, however no randomised controlled trials have been conducted to determine the benefits and risks of such a "baby-led" approach to complementary feeding. This is of particular interest given the widespread use of "Baby-Led Weaning" by parents internationally. The Baby-Led Introduction to SolidS (BLISS) study aims to assess the efficacy and acceptability of a modified version of Baby-Led Weaning that has been altered to address potential concerns with iron status, choking and growth faltering. The BLISS study will recruit 200 families from Dunedin, New Zealand, who book into the region's only maternity hospital. Parents will be randomised into an intervention (BLISS) or control group for a 12-month intervention with further follow-up at 24 months of age. Both groups will receive the standard Well Child care provided to all parents in New Zealand. The intervention group will receive additional parent contacts (n = 8) for support and education on BLISS from before birth to 12 months of age. Outcomes of interest include body mass index at 12 months of age (primary outcome), energy self-regulation, iron and zinc intake and status, diet quality, choking, growth faltering and acceptability to parents. This study is expected to provide insight into the feasibility of a baby-led approach to complementary feeding and the extent to which this method of
Suh, Hyewon; Porter, John R; Racadio, Robert; Sung, Yi-Chen; Kientz, Julie A
To help reach populations of children without consistent Internet access or medical care, we designed and implemented Baby Steps Text, an automated text message-based screening tool. We conducted preliminary user research via storyboarding and prototyping with target populations and then developed a fully functional system. In a one-month deployment study, we evaluated the feasibility of Baby Steps Text with fourteen families. During a one-month study, 13 out of 14 participants were able to learn and use the response structure (yielding 2.88% error rate) and complete a child development screener entirely via text messages. All post-study survey respondents agreed Baby Steps Text was understandable and easy to use, which was also confirmed through post-study interviews. Some survey respondents expressed liking Baby Steps Text because it was easy, quick, convenient to use, and delivered helpful, timely information. Our initial deployment study shows text messaging is a feasible tool for supporting parents in tracking and monitoring their child's development.
Maybe you quit smoking during your pregnancy. Or maybe you struggled and weren’t able to stay quit. Now that your baby is here, trying to stay away from smoking is still important. That’s because the chemicals in smoke can make it harder for your baby to grow like he or she should.
Engel-Smothers, Holly; Heim, Susan M.
With more than 100 billion neurons that would stretch more than 60,000 miles, a newborn baby's brain is quite phenomenal! These neurons must generally form connections within the first eight months of a baby's life to foster optimal brain growth and lifelong learning. Mommies, daddies, and caregivers are extremely vital to ensuring babies reach…
... infants - feeding; Diet - age appropriate - babies and infants; Breastfeeding - babies and infants; Formula feeding - babies and infants ... You can see milk leaking or dripping while nursing. Your baby starts to gain weight; about 4 ...
Kubwabo, C; Kosarac, I; Stewart, B; Gauthier, B R; Lalonde, K; Lalonde, P J
Human exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) has recently received special attention. It has been shown that exposure to BPA may occur through the consumption of beverages or foods that have been in contact with polycarbonate (PC) plastic containers or epoxy resins in food packaging. A BPA migration study was conducted using a variety of plastic containers, including polycarbonate baby bottles, non-PC baby bottles, baby bottle liners, and reusable PC drinking bottles. Water was used to simulate migration into aqueous and acidic foods; 10% ethanol solution to simulate migration to low- and high-alcoholic foods; and 50% ethanol solution to simulate migration to fatty foods. By combining solid-phase extraction, BPA derivatization and analysis by GC-EI/MS/MS, a very low detection limit at the ng l(-1) level was obtained. Migration of BPA at 40 degrees C ranged from 0.11 microg l(-1) in water incubated for 8 h to 2.39 microg l(-1) in 50% ethanol incubated for 240 h. Residual BPA leaching from PC bottles increased with temperature and incubation time. In comparison with the migration observed from PC bottles, non-PC baby bottles and baby bottle liners showed only trace levels of BPA. Tests for leachable lead and cadmium were also conducted on glass baby bottles since these represent a potential alternative to plastic bottles. No detectable lead or cadmium was found to leach from the glass. This study indicated that non-PC plastic baby bottles, baby bottle liners and glass baby bottles might be good alternatives for polycarbonate bottles.
Nystad, Wenche; Håberg, Siri E; London, Stephanie J; Nafstad, Per; Magnus, Per
To estimate the effect of baby swimming in the first 6 months of life on respiratory diseases from 6 to 18 months. We used data from The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) conducted by the Norwegian Institute of Public Health in children born between 1999 and 2005 followed from birth to the age of 18 months (n = 30,870). Health outcomes: lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI), wheeze and otitis media between 6 and 18 months of age. baby swimming at the age of 6 months. The effect of baby swimming was estimated by logistic regression analysis adjusting for potential confounders. About 25% of the children participated in baby swimming. The prevalence of LRTI was 13.3%, wheeze 40.0% and otitis media 30.4%. Children who were baby swimming were not more likely to have LRTI, to wheeze or to have otitis media. However, children with atopic mothers who attended baby swimming had an increased risk of wheeze, adjusted odds ratios (aOR) 1.24 (95% CI 1.11, 1.39), but not LRTI or otitis media. This was also the case for children without respiratory diseases before 6 months aOR 1.08 (95%CI 1.02-1.15). Baby swimming may be related to later wheeze. However, these findings warrant further investigation.
... is a severe form of head injury caused by the baby's brain rebounding inside of the baby's skull when shaken. In this injury there is bruising of the brain, swelling, pressure, and bleeding (intracerebral hemorrhage). This can easily lead ...
Brown, Wendy J; Hockey, Richard; Dobson, Annette J
Women often blame weight gain in early adulthood on having a baby. The aim was to estimate the weight gain attributable to having a baby, after disentangling the effects of other factors that influence weight change at this life stage. A longitudinal study of a randomly selected cohort of 6458 Australian women, aged 18-23 years in 1996, was conducted. Self-report mailed surveys were completed in 1996, 2000, 2003, and 2006, and data were analyzed in 2008. On average, women gained weight at the rate of 0.93% per year (95% CI=0.89, 0.98) or 605 g/year (95% CI=580, 635) for a 65-kg woman. Over the 10-year study period, partnered women with one baby gained almost 4 kg more, and those with a partner but no baby gained 1.8 kg more, than unpartnered childless women (after adjustment for other significant factors: initial BMI and age; physical activity, sitting time, energy intake (2003); education level, hours in paid work, and smoking). Having a baby has a marked effect on 10-year weight gain, but there is also an effect attributable to getting married or living with a partner. Social and lifestyle as well as energy balance variables should be considered when developing strategies to prevent weight gain in young adult women. Copyright 2010 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
... feeding, please see our CPF booklet and video series, Feeding Your Baby . An infant born with a cleft lip and/or palate should be ready to eat solid foods at the same time as any other baby. Foods should be offered ...
Mefodiev, A. V.; Kudenko, Yu. G.; Mineev, O. V.; Khotjantsev, A. N.
The main objective of the Baby-MIND detector (Magnetized Iron Neutrino Detector) is the study of muon charge identification efficiency for muon momenta from 0.3 to 5 GeV/ c. This paper presents the results of measurement of the Baby-MIND parameters.
... the baby. This can seem scary to new parents. They are not hurting the baby. Some tubes and wires are connected to monitors. They check the baby's breathing, heart rate, blood pressure, and temperature at all times. A tube through ...
Boju, Sangeetha Lakshmi; Gopi Krishna, Muddu; Uppala, Rajani; Chodavarapu, Praneeta; Chodavarapu, Ravikumar
In routine practice, 4-6 h of kangaroo mother care (KMC) is adopted. Many mothers feel the duration impracticable. In 86 preterm babies, pre and post 1 h KMC changes in heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (RR), axillary temperature and SpO(2) are measured, in each baby. Postnatal age at the time of the study is 7.7 ± 5.2 days. Significant changes observed are decrease in mean HR by 3 bpm, RR by 3 min(-1) and increase in mean axillary temperature by 0.4 F and SpO(2) by 1.1%. In SGA babies, post KMC decrease in mean HR by 5 bpm, increase in mean axillary temperature by 0.6 F and SpO(2) by 2.1% are significant. In female babies, post KMC decrease in mean RR by 6 min(-1) and increase mean axillary temperature by 0.3 F and SpO(2) by 1.5% are significant. We conclude that preterm babies are benefited by 1 h KMC. SGA and female preterm babies showed different and greater response.
Lin, Tzu-Chen; Lai, Yu-Hung; Guo, Su-Er; Liu, Chin-Fang; Tsai, Jer-Chia; Guo, How-Ran; Hsu, Hsin-Tien
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of chilled/un-chilled baby oil therapy for treating uremic pruritus in haemodialysis patients. Uremic pruritus affects 50-90% of haemodialysis patients, which makes it one of the most common medical problems in this population. Pruritus can cause skin infection, desquamation, pathological skin change, sleep disorder, anxiety, depression and social dysfunction. A prospective, pretest-post-test quasi-experimental design was used. Haemodialysis patients with uremic pruritus were recruited and randomly assigned to one of three groups: experimental group 1 (chilled baby oil treatment; n = 30), experimental group 2 (un-chilled baby oil treatment; n = 31) and a control group (routine care only; n = 32). Participants in experimental group 1 and experimental group 2 were treated with chilled and un-chilled baby oil, respectively, for 15 minutes at least once daily for three weeks. The control group received no intervention other than standard care. Data collection included demographic data and itch severity. Medical records were also reviewed. The baseline characteristics of subjects in this study were as follows: 59% were male, mean age was 61·88 (SD 12·7) years, mean duration of haemodialysis was 5·31 years, mean duration of uremic pruritus was 40·58 (SD 37·8) months and mean intensity of uremic pruritus was mild. The anti-pruritic effects were significantly larger in subjects treated with either chilled or un-chilled baby oil than in those who received routine care. Anti-pruritic effects did not significantly differ between experimental group 1 and experimental group 2. The study confirmed that, for relieving pruritus in haemodialysis patients, either chilled or un-chilled baby oil is as effective as moisturising lotions and cooling soothing agents. Applying baby oil is a simple, safe, inexpensive and easily administered treatment for itchy skin in haemodialysis patients. By preventing or reducing uremic
... decides which tests are required. Ask your baby’s health care provider which tests your baby will have. If your baby has ... state requires different tests, so ask your baby’s health care provider which tests your baby will have. You also can visit ...
Golden, Janet; Weiner, Lynn
This article examines American baby books from the late nineteenth through the twentieth century. Baby books are ephemeral publications—formatted with one or more printed pages for recording developmental, health, and social information about infants and often including personal observations, artifacts such as photographs or palm prints, medical and other prescriptive advice, and advertisements. For historians they serve as records of the changing social and cultural worlds of infancy, offering insights into the interplay of childrearing practices and larger social movements.Baby books are a significant historical source both challenging and supporting current historiography, and they illustrate how medical, market and cultural forces shaped the ways babies were cared for and in turn how their won behavior shaped family lives. A typology of baby books includes the lavishly illustrated keepsake books of the late nineteenth century, commercial and public health books of the twentieth century, and on-line records of the present day. Themes that emerge over time include those of scientific medicine and infant psychology, religion and consumerism. The article relies on secondary literature and on archival sources including the collections of the UCLA Louise M. Darling Biomedical Library as well as privately held baby books.
Hahn, Matthew W; Bentley, R Alexander
In the social sciences, there is currently no consensus on the mechanism by which cultural elements come and go in human society. For elements that are value-neutral, an appropriate null model may be one of random copying between individuals in the population. We show that the frequency distributions of baby names used in the United States in each decade of the twentieth century, for both males and females, obey a power law that is maintained over 100 years even though the population is growing, names are being introduced and lost every decade and large changes in the frequencies of specific names are common. We show that these distributions are satisfactorily explained by a simple process in which individuals randomly copy names from each other, a process that is analogous to the infinite-allele model of population genetics with random genetic drift. By its simplicity, this model provides a powerful null hypothesis for cultural change. It further explains why a few elements inevitably become highly popular, even if they have no intrinsic superiority over alternatives. Random copying could potentially explain power law distributions in other cultural realms, including the links on the World Wide Web. PMID:12952655
Sweet, Linda; Darbyshire, Philip
to explore fathers' experiences of the breast feeding of their very-low-birthweight preterm babies from birth to 12 months of age. a qualitative study using interpretive phenomenology. Data were collected via longitudinal in-depth individual interviews. publicly funded tertiary level hospital, Australia. a purposive sample of 17 Australian parents took part in the broader study. This paper reports on data from the seven participant fathers. this paper explores the discursive changes in fathers' accounts of their perspectives on and support of the breast feeding of their preterm baby. The fathers' accounts highlight their marked influence on breast feeding, their ambivalent experiences related to breast feeding and their struggle in negotiating a parenting role related to baby feeding. this study highlights the role and influence that fathers of preterm babies have on breast feeding, and explores the tensions and paradoxes inherent in promoting the ideology of breast feeding while valuing the practice of bottle feeding. this study highlights the need to encourage and involve fathers in breast-feeding education including the impact of bottle feeding on breast-feeding outcomes. The active and positive contribution that fathers make towards preterm breast feeding should be acknowledged and encouraged.
Honig, Alice Sterling
Language is a great communication system. Through language, humans can express logical reasoning, grief, happiness, wishes, descriptions, and a rich array of feelings and ideas. Every baby deserves the gift of language power! In this article, the author discusses how babies build language skills and presents activities to help babies build…
Tursz, Anne; Cook, Jon Mark
The frequency of and risk factors for shaken baby syndrome remain poorly documented for several reasons: the real number of "benign" cases of shaken baby syndrome are not known; information sources used are diverse, there have been changes over time in the definition of this pathology and few population-based epidemiological studies are available. Estimate the frequency of fatal shaken baby syndrome and determine its risk factors through research carried out on fatal cases in three regions of France while comparing them to data from international publications. A retrospective epidemiological study of all cases of fatal shaken baby syndrome affecting infants younger than 1 year of age who were examined by the courts during a 5-year period in a defined geographical area. Shaken baby syndrome cases were compared with infanticide cases for risk factors and a comparison was made of family characteristics with those of the general population. Thirty-seven cases of shaken baby syndrome were recorded (a rate of 2.9 for 100,000 live births). As in other studies, we found a strong predominance of male victims (78%), young age (median age: 4 months) and a high rate of prematurity (22%). Conversely, results on family educational and socioeconomical levels differ from those reported in numerous studies. Parent perpetrators of shaken baby syndrome belong to higher social classes than those of other types of homicide and socially reflect the population they come from. Our study suggests 1) that epidemiological studies on shaken baby syndrome should include both medical and judicial information sources and 2) that primary prevention strategies (especially in maternity wards) should target all social classes.
Feldman, S. Shirley; Nash, Sharon Churnin
Interest in babies was studied in 120 young adult males and females belonging to four stages of life: cohabiting singles, childless-married couples, expecting first child, and parents of an infant. Measures included responsivity to an unfamiliar baby, interest in pictures of babies, and a sex-role self-concept inventory. (Author/JMB)
Green, Janet; Darbyshire, Philip; Adams, Anne; Jackson, Debra
Improved life sustaining technology in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) has resulted in an increased probability of survival in extremely premature babies. Miracle baby stories in the popular press are a regular occurrence and these reports are often the first source from which the general public learn about extremely premature babies. The research from which this paper is drawn sought to explore the care-giving and ethical dilemmas of neonatal nurses when caring for extremely premature babies 24 weeks gestation and less. This current paper aims to outline the views of neonatal nurses on miracle baby stories in the media. Data were collected via a questionnaire to 760 Australian neonatal nurses with 414 returned, representing a response rate of 54.4%. Narrative was collected from semi-structured interviews with 24 experienced neonatal nurses in NSW, Australia. A qualitative approach utilising thematic analysis was utilised to analyse the data. The theme the myth of the miracle baby is seen as generating myths and unrealistic expectations on the part of vulnerable families and the public. Neonatal nurses, as the primary caregivers for tiny babies and their families, viewed popular media publications with suspicion, believing published reports to be incomplete, inaccurate and biased towards the positive. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
... Size Email Print Share Protecting Your Baby from RSV Page Content Article Body RSV is the most ... Your Baby's Chances of Developing a More Serious RSV Infection: Having people wash their hands with warm ...
... but the process of getting your baby to sleep during the day can be just the opposite. ... It takes awhile for newborns to develop a sleep schedule. During the first month, babies usually sleep ...
... Quality Collaboratives Launch Prematurity research centers What is team science? More than 75 years of solving problems ... to our health educators. GO On your baby's team Meet the people caring for your baby in ...
Karliner, Marek; Hen, Itay
We discuss one of the most interesting phenomena exhibited by baby skyrmions - breaking of rotational symmetry. The topics we will deal with here include the appearance of rotational symmetry breaking in the static solutions of baby Skyrme models, both in flat as well as in curved spaces, the zero-temperature crystalline structure of baby skyrmions, and finally, the appearance of spontaneous breaking of rotational symmetry in rotating baby skyrmions.
... Baby Healthy. Washington, DC: National Maternal and Child Oral Health Resource Center. A Healthy Smile for Your Baby: ... Healthy © 2009 by the National Maternal and Child Oral Health Resource Center, Georgetown University. Fourth printing. This publication ...
Segal, Marilyn M.
This easy-to-read manual for parents describes what a baby learns in the first year of life and suggests specific things parents or caregivers can do to encourage a baby to use his body, senses, and mind to communicate. Each chapter is concerned with 1 month of the infant's life and includes sections on (1) Baby's Viewpoint (discussion of the…
... Adjust your baby's position if you need to. FOOTBALL HOLD Use the football hold if you had a C-section. This ... large breasts or flat nipples also like the football hold. Hold your baby like a football. Tuck ...
Stone, Nicole; Ingham, Roger; Gibbins, Katie
"Where do babies come from?" "Why do boys have willies?" "What does gay mean?" Probably all parents have faced such "innocent" questions from young children, and many have found them challenging to answer. Access to sexuality education at an early age is frequently considered controversial; however, there…
... Search English Español Your Baby's Growth: 5 Months KidsHealth / For Parents / Your Baby's Growth: 5 Months What's ... the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on KidsHealth® is for educational purposes only. For specific medical ...
... Search English Español Your Baby's Growth: 3 Months KidsHealth / For Parents / Your Baby's Growth: 3 Months What's ... the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on KidsHealth® is for educational purposes only. For specific medical ...
Honig, Alice Sterling
By three to four months of age, most babies placed on their tummies on a safe, warm surface push down with their arms and raise their chests, so that they can turn their heads to look about at the world around them. By five months, babies stretch both feet and hands upward in order to swipe at interesting mobiles placed overhead. At seven to nine…
Gordon, Ira J.
This non-technical book for parents discusses aspects of child care and family relations from the time of the baby's conception through the first year of its life, emphasizing ways of developing effective parent-child interaction. Topics covered include: preparing emotionally and physically for a baby; ways to "get to know" the baby during the…
Miller, R. H.
OBJECTIVES: To summarize evidence from peer-reviewed literature on access to care for vulnerable HMO enrollee populations; to discuss the potential effect of recent HMO and physician organization changes on access to care and its measurement. STUDY DESIGN: Review and summary of peer-reviewed literature for two HMO populations: those with chronic conditions and diseases, and those subject to discrimination due to income, color, or ethnic background. I also reviewed and summarized literature on three major changes in capitated organizations (HMOs and capitated physician organizations) that could affect access to care for vulnerable populations, and summarized findings from healthcare manager interviews conducted for several recent research projects on health system change. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Although mixed, there are enough negative results to raise some concerns about access to care for HMO enrollees with chronic conditions and diseases. Several emerging organizational changes have the potential to change access to care for the vulnerable HMO enrollees. The shift in cost-cutting from fragmented clinical management of specific services at a point in time toward more integrated clinical management of all services for specific types of patients across time may improve access to care, as may increased efforts to attract and retain HMO enrollees. The increased importance of capitated provider organizations within the health system may restrict access in some ways, and expand access in others. CONCLUSIONS: Organizational changes can affect both access to care and its measurement. More research is needed on the effects of these changes on access to care and quality of care. For researchers examining access to care for vulnerable HMO enrollee populations, these changes create challenges to determine the most appropriate measures of access to care, and the most appropriate organizations and organizational characteristics to measure. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE
... direction under section 104(b) of the CPSIA.\\1\\ Section 104(c) specifies that the crib standards will cover...-Size Baby Cribs, but with several changes that strengthen the standard. 2. Section 104(c) of the CPSIA... 104 of the CPSIA. Section 104(c)(2) of the CPSIA states that the section applies to any person that...
Though many objections can be levelled against the idea of the practice of genetic intervention to produce 'designer babies', upon examination they are shown to hinge on features which concern parental intentions towards their children, rather than features specific to the means involved. These intentions may be pursued by a variety of social practices which may, though need not, involve a measure of 'traditional' genetic selection (i.e. in terms of the identity and characteristics of the reproducing partners). This paper reviews a number of these objections and, by parity of reasoning, rejects their claim to count specifically or decisively against genetic intervention in pursuit of 'designer babies'. Rejecting these objections does not lead to the endorsement of 'designing babies, but it shows that any unease must be grounded elsewhere and defended by other arguments.
This article explores health-based activism on the part of the US 'parents of preemies' movement, a mutual-help network mobilized around babies born precariously early and acutely dependent upon life-support incubators. The movement articulates two meta-agendas for parental empowerment: (1) the quest to access/exercise greater participatory inclusivity vis-à-vis the preterm baby within the biomedical domain; and, (2) the quest to secure/command greater representational authority over the preterm baby within the public domain. Seen in terms of the erosion of the status quo, it can be argued that the movement's tangible and intangible aims to chip away at these traditions have been softly revolutionary: heralding new working partnerships between medical practitioners and patients' families; radical shifts in the technological consciousness and competences of preemie parents; and cyborg changes in conventional categories of the person. Yet, seen in terms of a normative order of things, it can be argued that the movement has largely and willingly been "co/operated": meaning that it has been "cooperative," but equally "co-opted" and "operated into" the disciplinary trajectory of neonatal medicine as well as the historical march of biopolitics with its governance of the collective body populous. From this critical perspective, the movement qua social movement thus itself might be considered incubated--cocooned, gestated, disciplined--and brought into existence by the very powers and hegemonic (patriarchal) machinery that viable resistance might struggle to govern instead of serve.
Swanson, Vivien; Nicol, Helen; McInnes, Rhona; Cheyne, Helen; Mactier, Helen; Callander, Elizabeth
Developing maternal self-efficacy offsets negative psychological consequences of premature birth, improving maternal well-being. We investigated women's experiences in a neonatal unit (NNU) in Scotland in semistructured interviews with 19 primiparous mothers of preterm babies. We explored their experience of preterm birth and development of self-efficacy in infant feeding behaviors, identifying emergent and a priori themes. Women reported experiencing loss and biographical disruption in relation to mothering, loss of autonomy, and searching for normality after premature birth. Providing breast milk symbolized embodied contact with their baby and increased maternal confidence. They developed motivation, knowledge, and perseverance and perceived success from positive feedback, primarily from their baby and health professionals' support and encouragement. Women actively constructed opportunities to develop ownership, control, and confidence in relation to interactions with their baby. We linked sources of self-efficacy with potential behavior change techniques to be used in practice to improve maternal confidence in the NNU.
‘Baby Blues’ is a new highbush blueberry from the U.S. Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service (USDA-ARS) breeding program in Corvallis, OR, released in cooperation with Oregon State University’s Agricultural Experiment Station. ‘Baby Blues’ is a vigorous, high-yielding, very small-f...
Lewis, Linda A; Lathi, Ruth B; Crochet, Patrice; Nezhat, Camran
The objective of this study was to compare the postoperative infection rates between patients receiving either povidone-iodine (PI) or baby shampoo vaginal preparations before gynecologic surgery. Cohort study (Canadian Task Force classification II-2). University referral center for gynecologic endoscopy. All patients underwent minimally invasive gynecologic surgery including hysteroscopy or laparoscopy. The agents used for vaginal preparation were either baby shampoo in a 1:1 dilution with sterile normal saline solution or PI 7.5% scrub solution. Charts were reviewed for evidence of infection within 30 days of surgery (symptoms of urinary tract infection, abdominal or vaginal wound infections, temperature > 100.4 degrees F, and fungal or bacterial vaginitis). A total of 249 cases were collected; 96 subjects underwent surgery before the change to baby shampoo and 153 subjects after. Both groups were well matched for the types of surgery performed, age, risk factors for postoperative infections, and the postoperative diagnosis. The infection rates were 14/96 (14.6%) with PI preparation versus 18/153 (11.8%) with baby shampoo (p = .52). Baby shampoo should be studied as an alternative to PI because it is a nonirritating, inexpensive mild detergent. This preliminary study suggests that baby shampoo is as effective as PI in preventing postoperative infection.
Lee, S J; Nelson, L P; Lin, J; Tom, F; Brown, R S; Jones, J A
We are constantly reminded of the exploding elderly population and the increasing demand to meet their needs. But do we fully understand and appreciate the impact that this fastest-growing segment of the population will have upon our profession? Whether we realize it or not, today's dental student is training for tomorrow's elderly baby boomer. The baby boomer generation is 76 million strong, representing 19 years worth of births spanning from 1946-1964. That makes the oldest baby boomer 55 years old and the youngest 37 years old. What does this all mean? That from 2011-2030, the age group of 65 years of age and older will make up approximately 22% of the population, vastly changing our patient population, not to mention a significant increase in patient load. The future holds promise for not only a busy career, but also potentially a financially rewarding one as well. To some extent, we are all going to be geriatric clinicians. There is little doubt that there will be a great demand for services in restorative dentistry, prosthodontic dentistry, endodontics, periodontics, oral surgery, and perhaps orthodontics. As the baby boomers benefited from fluoride and sanitation, more people have been able to maintain their dentition and health into their older years. Dental students graduating today will be only beginning the prime of their careers as the baby boomers make their introduction in full force in the year 2011.
Mueller, Joanne; Sherr, Lorraine
Although infant abandonment is a historical problem, we know remarkably little about the conditions or effects of abandonment to guide evidence driven policies. This paper briefly reviews the existing international evidence base with reference to potential mental health considerations before mapping current UK guidelines and procedures, and available incidence data. Limitations arising from these findings are discussed with reference to international practice, and interpreted in terms of future pathways for UK policy. A systematic approach was utilized to gather available data on policy information and statistics on abandoned babies in the UK. A review of the limited literature indicates that baby abandonment continues to occur, with potentially wide-ranging mental health ramifications for those involved. However, research into such consequences is lacking, and evidence with which to understand risk factors or motives for abandonment is scarce. International approaches to the issue remain controversial with outcomes unclear. Our systematic search identified that no specific UK policy relating to baby abandonment exists, either nationally or institutionally. This is compounded by a lack of accurate of UK abandonment statistics. Data that does exist is not comprehensive and sources are incompatible, resulting in an ambiguous picture of UK baby abandonment. Available literature indicates an absence of clear provision, policy and research on baby abandonment. Based on current understanding of maternal and child mental health issues likely to be involved in abandonment, existing UK strategy could be easily adapted to avoid the 'learning from scratch' approach. National policies on recording and handling of baby abandonments are urgently needed, and future efforts should be concentrated on establishing clear data collection frameworks to inform understanding, guide competent practice and enable successfully targeted interventions.
Makinde, Olusesan Ayodeji; Makinde, Olufunmbi Olukemi; Olaleye, Olalekan; Brown, Brandon; Odimegwu, Clifford O
The practice of reproductive medicine in Nigeria is facing new challenges with the proliferation of 'baby factories'. Baby factories are buildings, hospitals or orphanages that have been converted into places for young girls and women to give birth to children for sale on the black market, often to infertile couples, or into trafficking rings. This practice illegally provides outcomes (children) similar to surrogacy. While surrogacy has not been well accepted in this environment, the proliferation of baby factories further threatens its acceptance. The involvement of medical and allied health workers in the operation of baby factories raises ethical concerns. The lack of a properly defined legal framework and code of practice for surrogacy makes it difficult to prosecute baby factory owners, especially when they are health workers claiming to be providing services to clients. In this environment, surrogacy and other assisted reproductive techniques urgently require regulation in order to define when ethico-legal lines have been crossed in providing surrogacy or surrogacy-like services. Copyright © 2015 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hey, E. N.; Katz, G.
1. Rectal temperature and skin temperatures were measured in twenty-eight naked babies weighing 1·1-4·5 kg, lying supine in environments of 25-31 °C when air speed was 4-7 cm/sec. The ratio of external insulation to internal or tissue insulation for the whole body averaged 2·7 but varied inversely with body weight; the ratio was higher than this on the trunk, and five times lower than this on the hand and foot. The mean ratio rose threefold when environmental temperature was increased to 34-35° C. 2. Direct measurements of heat flow from the back of a hand placed in a water jacket maintained at 32° C were made in thirty-three babies. Heat loss averaged 3 kcal/m2.hr.° C at low environmental temperature, but the loss was often rather less than this in the first 24 hr of life. Heat loss from the hand increased three- to fourfold, during exposure to an environment of 35° C. 3. When babies more than 48 hr old were exposed to an environment of 34-35° C, heat loss from the hand only increased when rectal temperature reached between 36·6 and 37·3° C; a slightly higher rectal temperature was usually reached before heat loss rose in babies less than 24 hr old. 4. Similar methods were used to study specific tissue insulation in three babies with congenital defects of the brain who lacked evidence of temperature control. No changes in insulation were detected in these three babies following changes in environmental temperature. 5. It is concluded that the range and pattern of control that can be exerted over the specific thermal insulation of the tissues is essentially the same in babies 2-20 days old as it is in adult life. PMID:5499741
Vestal, K W
Nurses who work in a maternity setting must define their role in terms of the families for whom they care. Care of the childbearing family includes the social, cultural, and economic environment in which the new baby and his family are a part. The postpartum period is an ideal time for the primary nurse fo influence the care of the baby and family in a way that supports their unique family system. The nurse who utilizes this opportunity to care for the family can contribute positively to the start of a new member of society. The interactional system of the infant and family can be viewed as a mutually dependent dyad that is best supported by consistent and knowledgeable nursing care. It is no longer reasonable to deny such care to maternity clients. Family-centered care has been shown to be successful in a variety of hospital maternity settings, improving care for the mother-baby dyad and promoting cost-effective staffing. The process of proposing such a change is challenging. Obstacles to change can be overcome and, although painful, they often lead to clearer definition of the proposal. Nursing must provide the impetus to sound family-centered care. The alternatives are no longer acceptable to consumers, and fragmented nursing care is seldom satisfying to nurses. There is much to be gained by fulfilling the true sense of family-centered postpartum care.
Gilkerson, Linda; Hofherr, Jennifer; Heffron, Mary Claire; Sims, Jennifer Murphy; Jalowiec, Barbara; Bromberg, Stacey R.; Paul, Jennifer J.
Erikson Institute Fussy Baby Network[R] (FBN) developed an approach to engaging parents around their urgent concerns about their baby's crying, sleeping, or feeding in a way which builds their longer-term capacities as parents. This approach, called the FAN, is now in place in new Fussy Baby Network programs around the country and is being infused…
Martis, Ruth; Ho, Jacqueline J; Crowther, Caroline A
Evidence-based practice (EBP) can provide appropriate care for women and their babies; however implementation of EBP requires health professionals to have access to knowledge, the ability to interpret health care information and then strategies to apply care. The aim of this survey was to assess current knowledge of evidence-based practice, information seeking practices, perceptions and potential enablers and barriers to clinical practice change among maternal and infant health practitioners in South East Asia. Questionnaires about IT access for health information and evidence-based practice were administered during August to December 2005 to health care professionals working at the nine hospitals participating in the South East Asia Optimising Reproductive and Child Health in Developing countries (SEA-ORCHID) project in Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand and The Philippines. The survey was completed by 660 staff from six health professional groups. Overall, easy IT access for health care information was available to 46% of participants. However, over a fifth reported no IT access was available and over half of nurses and midwives never used IT health information. Evidence-based practice had been heard of by 58% but the majority did not understand the concept. The most frequent sites accessed were Google and PubMed. The Cochrane Library had been heard of by 47% of whom 51% had access although the majority did not use it or used it less than monthly. Only 27% had heard of the WHO Reproductive Health Library and 35% had been involved in a clinical practice change and were able to identify enablers and barriers to change. Only a third of participants had been actively involved in practice change with wide variation between the countries. Willingness to participate in professional development workshops on evidence-based practice was high. This survey has identified the need to improve IT access to health care information and health professionals' knowledge of evidence
Martis, Ruth; Ho, Jacqueline J; Crowther, Caroline A
Background Evidence-based practice (EBP) can provide appropriate care for women and their babies; however implementation of EBP requires health professionals to have access to knowledge, the ability to interpret health care information and then strategies to apply care. The aim of this survey was to assess current knowledge of evidence-based practice, information seeking practices, perceptions and potential enablers and barriers to clinical practice change among maternal and infant health practitioners in South East Asia. Methods Questionnaires about IT access for health information and evidence-based practice were administered during August to December 2005 to health care professionals working at the nine hospitals participating in the South East Asia Optimising Reproductive and Child Health in Developing countries (SEA-ORCHID) project in Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand and The Philippines. Results The survey was completed by 660 staff from six health professional groups. Overall, easy IT access for health care information was available to 46% of participants. However, over a fifth reported no IT access was available and over half of nurses and midwives never used IT health information. Evidence-based practice had been heard of by 58% but the majority did not understand the concept. The most frequent sites accessed were Google and PubMed. The Cochrane Library had been heard of by 47% of whom 51% had access although the majority did not use it or used it less than monthly. Only 27% had heard of the WHO Reproductive Health Library and 35% had been involved in a clinical practice change and were able to identify enablers and barriers to change. Only a third of participants had been actively involved in practice change with wide variation between the countries. Willingness to participate in professional development workshops on evidence-based practice was high. Conclusion This survey has identified the need to improve IT access to health care information and health
Wilson, A L; Witzke, D B; Volin, A
Discussion concerning spoiling a baby frequently takes place in pediatric-care settings and may occur without a clear understanding of how parents define the word "spoil" when baby care is discussed. This study presents data from 531 parents asked to respond to a questionnaire on spoiling babies. The majority of mothers and fathers believe a baby can be spoiled, but considerable variation exists in perceptions of how this takes place, what a spoiled baby is like, and the present and future effects of spoiling. The younger and less educated parents have more rigid and negative views about the effects of spoiling babies.
Procaccini, Diane; Curley, Ann L Cupp; Goldman, Martha
It is accepted that newborns lose weight in the first few days of life. Baby-Friendly practices that support breastfeeding may affect newborn weight loss. The objective of this study were: 1) To determine whether Baby-Friendly practices are associated with term newborn weight loss day 0-2 in three feeding categories (exclusively breastfed, mixed formula fed and breastfed, and formula fed). 2) To determine whether Baby-Friendly practices increase exclusive breast feeding rates in different ethnic populations. This was a retrospective case-control study. Term newborn birth weight, neonatal weights days 0-2, feeding type, type of birth, and demographic information were collected for 1,000 births for the year before Baby-Friendly designation (2010) and 1,000 in 2013 (after designation). Ultimately 683 in the first group and 518 in the second met the inclusion criteria. Mean weight loss decreased day 0-2 for infants in all feeding types after the initiation of Baby-Friendly practices. There was a statistically significant effect of Baby-Friendly designation on weight loss for day 0-2 in exclusively breastfed infants (p < 0.01) after controlling for birth weight. Exclusive breast feeding increased in all ethnic groups after Baby-Friendly practices were put in place. There was a decrease in mean weight loss day 0-2 regardless of feeding type after Baby-Friendly designation. Exclusive breast feeding increased in the presence of Baby-Friendly practices.
Lee, Eunyoung; Yun, Jongbok; Ha, Jaehyoun; Park, Byung Cheol; Park, Gyeong Hun; Kim, Hak Rim; Hong, Seung Phil; Kim, Kyu Bong; Kim, Myung Hwa
Assessment of exposure to cosmetic products via the skin is important for evaluating the risks associated with the use of these products. However, few exposure studies have been conducted with babies, particularly in Asia. The aim of our study was to assess the exposure to selected cosmetic products in babies under the age of 36 months, over both winter and summer months. We evaluated exposure for seven cosmetic baby care products identified in a previous web-based survey as being commonly used by Korean parents. Parents were instructed to use their baby's products as per their usual habit, recording usage for each product on a daily basis over a 14-day period. Products were weighed at the start and completion of the study, with the change in weight used to determine the total amount of product used. Descriptive statistics for daily exposure were calculated. In this study, daily exposure for different products was influenced by sex, age groups and seasons. Of specific note, 3.51% of the lotion in a wet wipe was transferred to the skin. In conclusion, we provide baseline exposure data for baby products, with exposure being based on parents' usual use of the products. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
... many hours does your baby sleep during the day? At night? How often do you feed your baby? If you're breast-feeding, are you having any trouble? How many diapers does your baby wet and soil in a day? How active is your baby? Are you including ...
Emeagwali, N. Susan
A 2005 MetLife Foundation/Civic Ventures New Face of Work Survey found that many baby boomers are eager to make career changes that can launch a new chapter in their working lives while they make social contribution. The survey found that 50 percent of Americans age 50 to 70 want jobs that contribute to the greater good. It found that more than 53…
Benoit, Britney; Semenic, Sonia
To explore manager, educator, and clinical leader perceptions of barriers and facilitators to implementing Baby-Friendly practice in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Qualitative, descriptive design. Two university-affiliated level-III NICUs in Canada. A purposive sample of 10 medical and nursing managers, nurse educators, lactation consultants, and neonatal nurse practitioners. In-depth, semistructured interviews transcribed and analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Participants valued breastfeeding and family-centered care yet identified numerous contextual barriers to Baby-Friendly care including infant health status, parent/infant separation, staff workloads and work patterns, gaps in staff knowledge and skills, and lack of continuity of breastfeeding support. Facilitators included breastfeeding education, breastfeeding champions, and interprofessional collaboration. Despite identifying numerous barriers, participants recognized the potential value of expanding the Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI) to the NICU setting. Recommendations include promoting BFHI as a facilitator of family-centered care, interdisciplinary staff education, increasing access to lactation consultants, and establishing a group of NICU champions dedicated to BFHI implementation. © 2014 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.
Konerman, Monica A; Thomson, Mary; Gray, Kristen; Moore, Meghan; Choxi, Hetal; Seif, Elizabeth; Lok, Anna S F
Despite effective treatment for chronic hepatitis C, deficiencies in diagnosis and access to care preclude disease elimination. Screening of baby boomers remains low. The aims of this study were to assess the impact of an electronic health record-based prompt on hepatitis C virus (HCV) screening rates in baby boomers in primary care and access to specialty care and treatment among those newly diagnosed. We implemented an electronic health record-based "best practice advisory" (BPA) that prompted primary care providers to perform HCV screening for patients seen in primary care clinic (1) born between 1945 and 1965, (2) who lacked a prior diagnosis of HCV infection, and (3) who lacked prior documented anti-HCV testing. The BPA had associated educational materials, order set, and streamlined access to specialty care for newly diagnosed patients. Pre-BPA and post-BPA screening rates were compared, and care of newly diagnosed patients was analyzed. In the 3 years prior to BPA implementation, 52,660 baby boomers were seen in primary care clinics and 28% were screened. HCV screening increased from 7.6% for patients with a primary care provider visit in the 6 months prior to BPA to 72% over the 1 year post-BPA. Of 53 newly diagnosed patients, all were referred for specialty care, 11 had advanced fibrosis or cirrhosis, 20 started treatment, and 9 achieved sustained virologic response thus far. Implementation of an electronic health record-based prompt increased HCV screening rates among baby boomers in primary care by 5-fold due to efficiency in determining needs for HCV screening and workflow design. Streamlined access to specialty care enabled patients with previously undiagnosed advanced disease to be cured. This intervention can be easily integrated into electronic health record systems to increase HCV diagnosis and linkage to care. (Hepatology 2017;66:1805-1813). © 2017 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.
Robison, Steve G
Giving recommended immunizations during sick visits for minor and acute illness such as acute otitis media has long been an American Academy of Pediatrics/Advisory Committee on Immunization Practice recommendation. An addition to the American Academy of Pediatrics policy in 2010 advised considering whether giving immunizations at the sick visit would discourage making up missed well-baby visits. This study quantifies the potential tradeoff between sick-visit immunizations and well-baby visits. This study was a retrospective cohort analysis with a case-control component of sick visits for acute otitis media that supplanted normal well-baby visits at age 2, 4, or 6 months. Infants were stratified for sick-visit immunization, no sick-visit immunization but quick makeup well-baby visits, or no sick-visit immunizations or quick makeup visits. Immunization rates and well-baby visit rates were assessed through 24 months of age. For 1060 study cases, no significant difference was detected in immunization rates or well-baby visits through 24 months of age between those with or without sick-visit immunizations. Thirty-nine percent of infants without a sick-visit shot failed to return for a quick makeup well-baby visit; this delayed group was significantly less likely to be up-to-date for immunizations (relative risk: 0.66) and had fewer well-baby visits (mean: 3.8) from 2 through 24 months of age compared with those with sick-visit shots (mean: 4.7). The substantial risk that infants will not return for a timely makeup well-baby visit after a sick visit should be included in any consideration of whether to delay immunizations.
Wartella, Ellen; Richert, Rebekah A.; Robb, Michael B.
Baby media have exploded in the past decade, and children younger than 2 are showing increased use of these baby media. This paper examines the historical evidence of babies' use of television since the 1950s as well as the various factors that have given rise to the current increase in screen media for babies. We also consider the ubiquitous role…
Cohain, Judy Slome
Techniques for turning a term breech baby are 1). External cephalic version (ECV) using hands and ultrasound only; 2). Acupuncture point stimulation, by needle or moxibustion; 3). Chiropractic "Webster" technique; 4). Hypnotherapy; and 5). Special exercises. Fifty % of breech fetuses at 34 weeks will turn by themselves to head down by 38 weeks. Therefore, to be considered effective, a technique for turning breech must turn the baby and keep it turned more than 50% of the time. Only ECV with an experienced practitioner has been documented to have a greater than 50% success rate at 37 weeks; in 95% of cases the head stays down. Most women experience the fetus turning by hand as quick but very painful. "Unstable lie" is sometimes used as a baseless excuse for inducing labor after the baby turns from breech to head down. (firstname.lastname@example.org).
Reisinger, Kostan W; de Vaan, Loes; Kramer, Boris W; Wolfs, Tim G A M; van Heurn, L W Ernest; Derikx, Joep P M
The incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is higher in formula-fed babies than in breast-fed babies, which may be caused by breast-feeding-induced gut maturation. The effect of breast-feeding on gut maturation has been widely studied in animal models. This study aimed to assess the effects of breast-feeding on intestinal maturation in prematurely born babies by evaluating postnatal changes in urinary intestinal fatty acid binding protein (I-FABP) levels, a specific enterocyte marker. Gut maturation in 40 premature babies (<37 weeks of gestation) without gastrointestinal morbidity was studied, of whom 21 were exclusively breast-fed and 19 were formula-fed infants. Urinary I-FABP levels as the measure of gut maturation were measured at 5, 12, 19, and 26 days after birth. In breast-fed infants, there was a significant increase in median urinary I-FABP levels between 5 and 12 days after birth (104 [78-340] pg/mL to 408 [173-1028] pg/mL, P = 0.002), whereas I-FABP concentration in formula-fed infants increased between 12 and 19 days after birth (105 [44-557] pg/mL, 723 [103-1670] pg/mL, P = 0.004). Breast-fed babies had significantly higher median urinary I-FABP levels at postnatal day 12 (P = 0.01). The time course of the postnatal increase in urinary I-FABP levels reflecting gut maturation was significantly delayed in formula-fed babies, suggesting a delayed physiological response in formula-fed compared with breast-fed infants.
Fonseca, Luciana Mara Monti; Dias, Danielle Monteiro Vilela; Góes, Fernanda Dos Santos Nogueira; Seixas, Carlos Alberto; Scochi, Carmen Gracinda Silvan; Martins, José Carlos Amado; Rodrigues, Manuel Alves
The present study aimed to describe the development process of a serious game that enables users to evaluate the respiratory process in a preterm infant based on an emotional design model. The e-Baby serious game was built to feature the simulated environment of an incubator, in which the user performs a clinical evaluation of the respiratory process in a virtual preterm infant. The user learns about the preterm baby's history, chooses the tools for the clinical evaluation, evaluates the baby, and determines whether his/her evaluation is appropriate. The e-Baby game presents phases that contain respiratory process impairments of higher or lower complexity in the virtual preterm baby. Included links give the user the option of recording the entire evaluation procedure and sharing his/her performance on a social network. e-Baby integrates a Clinical Evaluation of the Preterm Baby course in the Moodle virtual environment. This game, which evaluates the respiratory process in preterm infants, could support a more flexible, attractive, and interactive teaching and learning process that includes simulations with features very similar to neonatal unit realities, thus allowing more appropriate training for clinical oxygenation evaluations in at-risk preterm infants. e-Baby allows advanced user-technology-educational interactions because it requires active participation in the process and is emotionally integrated.
Garcia, Giancarlo A; Nguyen, Christine V; Yonkers, Marc A; Tao, Jeremiah P
Baby shampoo is used as an alternative surgical skin preparation, but the evidence supporting its use is scarce with no descriptions of efficacy in the periocular region. The authors compare the efficacy of baby shampoo, povidone-iodine (PI, Betadine) and isopropyl alcohol (IA) in reducing eyelid skin bacterial load. Prospective, randomized, comparative, and interventional trial. Bacterial load on adult, human eyelid skin was quantitated before and after cleansing with 1) dilute baby shampoo, 2) 10% PI, or 3) 70% IA. Paired skin swabs were collected from a 1 cm area of the upper eyelid of subjects before and after a standardized surgical scrub technique. Samples were cultured on 5% sheep blood agar for 24 hours. The number of colony forming units (CFU) was assessed and bacterial load per square centimeter of eyelid skin was quantified. Baseline and postcleansing samples were assessed from 42 eyelids of 42 subjects (n = 14 for each of baby shampoo, PI, and IA). Before cleansing, similar amounts of bacterial flora were grown from all specimens (median log CFU/cm = 2.04 before baby shampoo, 2.01 before PI, 2.11 before IA; p > 0.05). All 3 cleansing agents significantly reduced the bacterial load (p < 0.01 for each). There was no statistically significant difference in postcleansing bacterial load between the 3 cleansing agents (median log CFU/cm = 0.48 after baby shampoo, 0.39 after PI, 0.59 after IA; p > 0.05). Change from baseline in bacterial load was statistically similar for all 3 agents (median reduction in log CFU/cm = 1.28 with baby shampoo, 1.57 with PI, 1.40 with IA; p > 0.05). These corresponded to bacterial load reductions of 96.3%, 96.6%, and 98.4% for baby shampoo, PI, and IA, respectively. Baby shampoo achieved comparable diminution in eyelid skin bacterial load to PI or IA. These data suggest baby shampoo may be an effective preoperative cleansing agent.
2008-01-01NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Surface Stereo Imager took this image on Sol 11 (June 5, 2008), the eleventh day after landing. It shows the trenches dug by Phoenix's Robotic Arm. The trench on the left is informally called 'Dodo' and was dug as a test. The trench on the right is informally called 'Baby Bear.' The sample dug from Baby Bear will be delivered to the Phoenix's Thermal and Evolved-Gas Analyzer, or TEGA. The Baby Bear trench is 9 centimeters (3.1 inches) wide and 4 centimeters (1.6 inches) deep. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.
Bacon, C J; Bell, S A; Clulow, E E; Beattie, A B
Details of room temperature, clothing, and bedding used by night and by day and in winter and in summer were recorded for 649 babies aged 8 to 26 weeks. Room temperature at night was significantly related to outside temperature and duration of heating. Total insulation was significantly related to outside temperature and to minimum room temperature, but there was wide variation in insulation at the same room temperature. High levels of insulation for a given room temperature were found particularly at night and in winter, and were associated with the use of thick or doubled duvets and with swaddling. At least half the babies threw off some or all of their bedding at night, and at least a quarter sweated. Younger mothers and mothers in the lower social groups put more bedclothes over their babies, and the latter also kept their rooms warmer. Many mothers kept their babies warmer during infections. PMID:2039255
This book provides fathers with specific developmental theory and practical skills and advice concerning how babies grow and what they need from fathers from the time they are born until they turn 18 months. Each chapter provides information and theory on age appropriate play activities and specific information on a baby's growth and developmental…
Worsley, Anthony; Wang, Wei C; Hunter, Wendy
The purpose of this study was to examine baby boomers' food shopping behaviours and to investigate their relationships with demographics and personal values. A questionnaire concerning food shopping behaviours, personal values and demographics was mailed to a random sample of 2975 people aged 40-70 years in Victoria, Australia. Usable questionnaires of 1031 were obtained. Structural equation modelling was employed for data analyses. The analyses revealed that demographics and personal values influenced shopping behaviours via different pathways among male and female baby boomers. For example, self-direction positively impacted on shopping planning for men but negatively influenced price minimization for women. Among women only, age was positively related to shopping planning and negatively to price minimization. Thus, both personal values and demographics influenced baby boomers' shopping behaviours. Since values are more likely to be amenable to change than demographics, segmentation of the population via value orientations would facilitate targeted interventions to promote healthy food shopping. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Honig, Alice Sterling
It is important to understand that babies differ in temperament. Some are sensationally exuberant and loud. Others are more withdrawn and quiet. Babies also differ in tempo and style. Some eat with gusto. Others deliberately scoop a bit of cooked cereal onto a spoon and slowly munch on their food. Helping a baby learn to modulate voice tones means…
Junior League of St. Paul, MN.
Shaken baby syndrome describes the serious injuries that can occur when a very young child is severely or violently shaken, causing the brain to move back and forth inside the skull. The syndrome usually originates when a parent or other caregiver shakes a baby out of anger or frustration, often because the baby would not stop crying or…
... Improvement Act of 2008 (``CPSIA'') requires the United States Consumer Product Safety Commission (``CPSC'' or... CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION 16 CFR Parts 1508 and 1509 [CPSC Docket No. CPSC-2010-0075] Revocation of Requirements for Full-Size Baby Cribs and Non-Full- Size Baby Cribs AGENCY: Consumer Product...
... best when fed more often and on a demand schedule. They tend to tire quickly during the ... with a combination of breast- and bottle-feeding. Breast-Feeding Your Baby If your baby is diagnosed with ...
Poulos, Stacy; Nightingale, Demetra Smith
By the end of 2005, the oldest baby boomers will begin turning 60. Although baby boomers have generally done better than any previous generation in terms of income and education, not all baby boomers have been successful. As baby boomers age, the total economically disadvantaged population will increase. Consequently, over the next decade, the…
... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Breastfeeding FAQs: Sleep - Yours and Your Baby's KidsHealth / For ... to sleep sooner. My baby falls asleep while nursing. What can I do? Newborns often fall asleep ...
Edmunds, Kim; Searles, Andrew; Neville, Johanna; Ling, Rod; McCalman, Janya; Mein, Jacki
The Baby Basket initiative was developed by Apunipima Cape York Health Council (ACYHC) to address poor maternal and child health (MCH) in Cape York, the northernmost region of Queensland. While positive outcomes for Indigenous MCH programs are reported in the literature, few studies have a strong evidence base or employ a sound methodological approach to evaluation. The aim of the cost study is to identify the resources required to deliver the Baby Basket program in the remote communities of Cape York. It represents an initial step in the economic evaluation of the Apunipima Baby Basket program. The aim of this study was to report whether the current program represents an effective use of scarce resources. The cost study was conducted from the perspective of the health providers and reflects the direct resources required to deliver the Baby Basket program to 170 women across 11 communities represented by ACYHC. A flow diagram informed by interviews with ACYHC staff, administrative documents and survey feedback was used to map the program pathway and measure resource use. Monetary values, in 2013 Australian dollars, were applied to the resources used to deliver the Baby Basket program for one year. The total cost of delivering the Baby Basket progam to 170 participants in Cape York was $148,642 or approximately, $874 per participant. The analysis allowed for the cost of providing the Baby Baskets to remote locations and the time for health workers to engage with women and thereby encourage a relationship with the health service. Routinely collected data showed improved engagement between expectant women and the health service during the life of the program. The Apunipima Baby Basket cost study identifies the resources required to deliver this program in remote communities of Cape York and provides a framework that will support prospective data collection of more specific outcome data, for future cost-effectiveness analyses and cost-benefit analyses. An investment of
... Current Issue Past Issues Special Section: Focus on Communication Can Baby Hear? Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table ... to the National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders (NIDCD). Prior to this, the average age ...
... comfort in knowing that the drone of the engines usually limits how far a crying baby can ... the tympanic membrane, or ear drum. Experiencing a difference in pressure across this membrane causes a sensation ...
... Basics: Health Benefits What are the benefits of breastfeeding? Breastfeeding gives you and your baby time to ... Basics: Common Questions If you are worried about breastfeeding, you aren't alone. It's normal to have ...
... meat, poultry, seafood, and eggs Pets, such as dogs, cats, turtles, snakes, birds, and lizards. Soil Washing ... Not able to keep anything down due to vomiting In these cases, take your baby to a ...
... Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-48 Conditions governing the entry of baby squash and baby courgettes from... fly traps with an approved protein bait must be placed inside the greenhouses at a density of four... fly traps with an approved protein bait must be placed inside a buffer area 500 meters wide around the...
... Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-48 Conditions governing the entry of baby squash and baby courgettes from... fly traps with an approved protein bait must be placed inside the greenhouses at a density of four... fly traps with an approved protein bait must be placed inside a buffer area 500 meters wide around the...
... bit first. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends sponge baths until the umbilical cord stump falls off — ... week or two. To give your baby a sponge bath, you'll need: A warm place with ...
Semenic, Sonia; Childerhose, Janet E; Lauzière, Julie; Groleau, Danielle
Despite growing evidence for the positive impact of the Baby-Friendly Initiative (BFI) on breastfeeding outcomes, few studies have investigated the barriers and facilitators to the implementation of Baby-Friendly practices that can be used to improve uptake of the BFI at the local or country levels. This integrative review aimed to identify and synthesize information on the barriers, facilitators, and recommendations related to the BFI from the international, peer-reviewed literature. Thirteen databases were searched using the keywords Baby Friendly, Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative, BFI, BFHI, Ten Steps, implementation, adoption, barriers, facilitators, and their combinations. A total of 45 English-language articles from 16 different countries met the inclusion criteria for the review. Data analysis was guided by Cooper's five stages of integrative research review. Using a multiple intervention program framework, findings were categorized into sociopolitical, organizational-level, and individual-level barriers and facilitators to implementing the BFI, as well as intra-, inter-, and extraorganizational recommendations for strengthening BFI implementation. A wide variety of obstacles and potential solutions to BFI implementation were identified. Findings suggest some priority issues to address when pursuing Baby-Friendly designation, including the endorsements of both local administrators and governmental policy makers, effective leadership of the practice change process, health care worker training, the marketing influence of formula companies, and integrating hospital and community health services. Framing the BFI as a complex, multilevel, evidence-based change process and using context-focused research implementation models to guide BFI implementation efforts may help identify effective strategies for promoting wider adoption of the BFI in health services.
Gillespie, Linda; Parlakian, Rebecca
This article reminds infant care teachers of the ways thoughtful interactions between adults and very young children teach babies and toddlers who they are as individuals. "When teachers take the time to respond respectfully and thoughtfully, babies and young children learn and thrive."
Reby, David; Levréro, Florence; Gustafsson, Erik; Mathevon, Nicolas
Despite widespread evidence that gender stereotypes influence human parental behavior, their potential effects on adults' perception of babies' cries have been overlooked. In particular, whether adult listeners overgeneralize the sex dimorphism that characterizes the voice of adult speakers (men are lower-pitched than women) to their perception of babies' cries has not been investigated. We used playback experiments combining natural and re-synthesised cries of 3 month-old babies to investigate whether the interindividual variation in the fundamental frequency (pitch) of cries affected adult listeners' identification of the baby's sex, their perception the baby's femininity and masculinity, and whether these biases interacted with their perception of the level of discomfort expressed by the cry. We show that low-pitched cries are more likely to be attributed to boys and high-pitched cries to girls, despite the absence of sex differences in pitch. Moreover, low-pitched boys are perceived as more masculine and high-pitched girls are perceived as more feminine. Finally, adult men rate relatively low-pitched cries as expressing more discomfort when presented as belonging to boys than to girls. Such biases in caregivers' responses to babies' cries may have implications on children's immediate welfare and on the development of their gender identity.
Dahiya, Neha; Garg, Suneela
The UK was the first country to legalise mitochondrial donation in October 2015 (1). In 2016, the first three-parent baby was born in Mexico (2) and the US Food and Drug Administration declared that further research on mitochondrial donation is ethically permissible (3). It has now become an important issue, raising as it does, the spectre of "genetically modified designer babies".
As family-centered care has become the expected standard, many facilities follow the mother-baby model, in which care is provided to both a woman and her newborn in the same room by the same nurse. My facility employed a traditional model of nursing care, which was not evidence-based or financially sustainable. After implementing the mother-baby model, we experienced an increase in exclusive breastfeeding rates at hospital discharge, increased patient satisfaction, improved staff productivity and decreased salary costs, all while the number of births increased. Our change was successful because it was guided by the use of quality improvement tools, change theory and evidence-based practice models. © 2015 AWHONN.
Alexander, Randell C.; Smith, Wilbur L.
Discusses the history, epidemiology, biomechanics, diagnosis, treatment, outcomes, long-term management, and prevention of shaken baby syndrome. It presents medical-legal issues as well as a discussion of programs aimed at prevention of physical abuse. (Author/DB)
Martín-Muñoz, M F; Pineda, F; García Parrado, G; Guillén, D; Rivero, D; Belver, T; Quirce, S
Food allergy is a rare disorder among breastfeeding babies. Our aim was to identify responsible allergens in human milk. We studied babies developing allergic symptoms at the time they were breastfeeding. Skin prick tests (SPT) were performed with breast milk and food allergens. Specific IgE was assessed and IgE Immunoblotting experiments with breast milk were carried out to identify food allergens. Clinical evolution was evaluated after a maternal free diet. Five babies had confirmed breast milk allergy. Peanut, white egg and/or cow's milk were demonstrated as the hidden responsible allergens. No baby returned to develop symptoms once mother started a free diet. Three of these babies showed tolerance to other food allergens identified in human milk. A maternal free diet should be recommended only if food allergy is confirmed in breastfed babies.
Baby massage has become increasingly popular in the West among parents and healthcare practitioners alike, with numerous studies continuing to hail the benefits of taking time to massage and bond with your baby. Newborn and infant massage is of particular interest to midwives in their primary role, helping families to bond and heal the pain of traumatic births, but now many midwives are offering baby massage sessions privately in their spare time also. Here's the low down.
Pouokam, Guy Bertrand; Ajaezi, Godwin Chukwuebuka; Mantovani, Alberto; Orisakwe, Orish Ebere; Frazzoli, Chiara
The plasticizer Bisphenol A (BPA) is banned in baby bottles in many industrialized countries due to safety concerns. We provide a pilot view on the potential BPA exposure of bottle-fed children in sub-Saharan Africa through an enquiry on availability, accessibility and affordability of plastic baby bottles, usage pattern, and risk perception. An observational survey was conducted in a randomized group of vending sites (34 pharmacies; 87 shops and markets), in three cities (Yaoundé, Foumbot, Bafoussam) in Cameroon (two regions), and in two cities (Lagos, Port Harcourt) in Nigeria (two states). Interviews in vending sites and group discussions were conducted with 248 mothers. Cameroon and Nigeria showed a largely comparable situation. Plastic baby bottles are largely imported from industrialized countries, where a label indicates the presence/absence of BPA. In pharmacies most plastic baby bottles are labeled as BPA-free, whereas most bottles sold in shops are not BPA-free. BPA-containing bottles are more accessible and affordable, due to sale in common shops and lower costs. The meaning of the label BPA-free is unknown to both vendors and customers: the BPA issue is also largely unknown to policy makers and media and no regulation exists on food contact materials. The wide availability of BPA-containing baby bottles, lack of information and usage patterns (e.g. temperature and duration of heating) suggest a likely widespread exposure of African infants. Possible usage recommendations to mitigate exposure are indicated. Risk communication to policy makers, sellers and citizens is paramount to raise awareness and to oppose possible dumping from countries where BPA-containing materials are banned. Our pilot study points out relevant global health issues such as the capacity building of African communities on informed choices and usage of baby products, and the exploitation of international knowledge by African scientists and risk managers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B
It has recently been demonstrated that the matrix material plays a major role for the physical behavior of self-assembled InP/GaInP quantum dots. As the "intrinsically" n-type GaInP matrix fills the quantum dot with electrons the spectral behavior of the dot dramatically changes. For the larger, fully developed dots, the charging gives rise to several broad lines. With an external bias it is possible to reduce the electron population of the dot. For smaller dots, baby dots, we show the possibility of dramatically changing the appearance of the dot spectrum by a precise tuning of the size of the quantum dot. When the dot is small enough it is uncharged and the spectrum is very similar to other material systems, whereas a slightly larger dot is charged and the number of lines is dramatically increased. We present high spectral resolution photoluminescence measurements of individual InP/GaInP baby-dots and k\\cdotp calculations including direct and exchange interactions.
Lu, Zxy-Yann Jane; Lin, Wan-Shiuan
Healthcare providers recognize the important role played by attachment theory in explaining the close relationship between mental health and social behavior in mothers and their children. This paper uses attachment theory in a socio-cultural context to ascertain the mechanism by which baby slings/carriers, a new technology, produced and reproduced the scientific motherhood. It further applies a social history of technology perspective to understand how baby carriers and attachment theory are socially constructed and historically contingent on three major transformations. These transformations include the use of attachment theory-based baby carriers to further scientific motherhood; the use of baby slings/carriers to further the medicalization of breastfeeding and enhance mother-infant attachment; and the use of baby slings/carriers to transform woman's identities by integrating scientific motherhood, independence and fashion. Implications for nursing clinical policy are suggested.
Antonova, M.; et al.
Baby MIND is a magnetized iron neutrino detector, with novel design features, and is planned to serve as a downstream magnetized muon spectrometer for the WAGASCI experiment on the T2K neutrino beam line in Japan. One of the main goals of this experiment is to reduce systematic uncertainties relevant to CP-violation searches, by measuring the neutrino contamination in the anti-neutrino beam mode of T2K. Baby MIND is currently being constructed at CERN, and is planned to be operational in Japan in October 2017.
Pérez-Hernández, M; Hernández-González, M; Hidalgo-Aguirre, R M; Amezcua-Gutiérrez, C; Guevara, M A
Women who adopt babies show caring behaviors and respond to stimuli from their infants just as biological mothers do, but several studies have shown that the cerebral functionality of biological mothers (BM) and adoptive mothers (AM) changes in relation to the type and emotional mean of the stimuli they receive from their babies. The complex perception and processing of different stimuli with emotional content (such as those emitted by babies) require functional synchronization among different cortical and subcortical brain areas. To determine whether the degree of functional synchronization between cortices varies when they perceive such stimuli, this study characterized the degree of cortical electroencephalographic (EEG) synchronization (correlation) among prefrontal, temporal and parietal areas in BM, AM and non-mothers while listening to a recording of a baby crying. BM showed a decreased EEG synchronization between the prefrontal and temporal cortices that may indicate a decrease in the modulatory control that the former exerts on the posterior cortices, and could be associated with deeper emotional involvement and increased sensitivity to the baby crying. The AM, in contrast, had higher degree of EEG synchronization between cortical areas in both hemispheres, likely associated with a greater modulation of the affective information of the crying baby, which allowed them to perceive it as less unpleasant. These data enrich our knowledge of the neurofunctional changes involved in motherhood, and of the neural processes that allow mothers (biological and adoptive) to be sensitive to their infants' cues and respond appropriately. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Baird, Stephen L.
"Designer babies" is a term used by journalists and commentators--not by scientists--to describe several different reproductive technologies. These technologies have one thing in common: they give parents more control over what their offspring will be like. Designer babies are made possible by progress in three fields: (1) Advanced…
Blind Childrens Center, Los Angeles, CA.
This booklet presents suggestions for parents to promote their visually impaired infant's motor development. It is pointed out that babies with serious visual loss often prefer their world to be constant and familiar and may resist change (including change in position); therefore, it is important that a wide range of movement activities be…
The Center for Remote Sensing of Ice Sheets (CReSIS) has developed an outreach program based on hands-on activities called "Ice, Ice, Baby". These lessons are designed to teach the science principles of displacement, forces of motion, density, and states of matter. These properties are easily taught through the interesting topics of glaciers, icebergs, and sea level rise in K-8 classrooms. The activities are fun, engaging, and simple enough to be used at science fairs and family science nights. Students who have participated in "Ice, Ice, Baby" have successfully taught these to adults and students at informal events. The lessons are based on education standards which are available on our website www.cresis.ku.edu. This presentation will provide information on the activities, survey results from teachers who have used the material, and other suggested material that can be used before and after the activities.
Gellerson, Daphne; Hornsby, Paige P; Lowenhaupt, Stephanie A; Bressler, Colleen J; Burns, Whitney R; Friedman, Caroline F; Vaughn, Natalie H; Marshall, Stephanie P; Marshall, Trisha L; Park, Jennie; Kellams, Ann
This study surveyed the prevalence of bottle versus breastfeeding graphic images on products marketed for pregnant mothers and young children available for purchase in national chain stores. This was a product survey/content analysis. Eighteen national chain stores located in a 10-mile radius of Charlottesville, VA were visited. In total, 2,670 individual items in 11 categories of baby shower and baby gift merchandise (shower invitations, greeting cards, gift wrap, shower decorations, baby dolls, baby books, infant clothing, bibs, nursery decorations, baby blankets, and disposable diapers) were assessed. The main outcome measures were prevalences of baby bottle and breastfeeding graphic images. Baby bottle images were found on products in eight of the 11 categories of items surveyed. Thirty-five percent of baby dolls were marketed with a baby bottle. The prevalence of bottle images on items in all other categories, however, was low. Of the 2,670 items surveyed, none contained a breastfeeding image. The low prevalence of baby bottle images on commonly purchased baby gift and baby shower items is encouraging. However, the absence of breastfeeding images and the relatively high prevalence of baby dolls marketed with a baby bottle demonstrate that breastfeeding is not portrayed as the physiologic norm on these products. Product designers should explore ways to promote breastfeeding, consumers should make informed choices in product selection, and advocacy groups should promote guidelines for these products.
Kim, Heejung; Lee, Sangeun; Cheon, Jooyoung; Hong, Soyun; Chang, Mido
Baby boomers' position in the caregiving context is shifting from caregiver to care recipient as the population ages. While the unique characteristics of baby boomer caregivers are well established in caregiving literature, there is limited information about the next caregiving group after the baby boomers. In this study, the sociodemographic and caregiving-related characteristics of the two generations are compared and specific factors contributing to caregiver burden between baby boomer and post baby boomer caregivers are identified. This cross-sectional and correlational study used secondary analysis of data from the National Alliance for Caregiving and the American Association of Retired Persons. A structured online survey was conducted in 2014 with randomly selected samples (n = 1069) in the United States focusing on sociodemographics, caregiving-related characteristics, and burden of care. Descriptive statistics, multivariate linear regression analyses, and Steiger's Z-test were used to identify group differences in multivariate factors related to caregiver burden in two generational groups. Baby boomers and post baby boomers experienced caregiver burden to a similar degree. Caregiving-related factors are more likely to increase burden of care than sociodemographics in both groups. Caregiving without choice and spending longer hours on caregiving tasks were common factors that increased the burden in both generational groups (all p values < 0.01). However, post baby boomer caregivers reported additional challenges, such as unemployment during caregiving, the dual responsibility of both adult and child care, and a family relationship with the care recipient. Due to the aging population of baby boomers, post baby boomers encounter different challenges related to caregiving burden, which is often considered an additional workload in their life course. Current policy and program tailored to baby boomers should be re-designed to meet the different needs of
Goode, Marsha; Broesamle, Barbara
Describes nine-day residential camp for Michigan teenage mothers/babies to enhance personal growth and develop responsible social skills. Outlines goals, pre-camp planning, staff, activities, evaluation. Reports 31 teen moms (ages 13-21) and 35 babies attended in 1986. Indicates participants were in therapy, experienced abuse, had low self-esteem,…
Elliot, Enid; Gonzalez-Mena, Janet
Self-regulation is a complex process that involves coordinating various systems of the body and mind, including feelings. It's not only about emotions but also about cognition. Self-regulation has an impact on social development, influencing how babies and toddlers get along with others. Through self-regulation, babies and toddlers learn to pay…
Mason, Mary Ann; Goulden, Marc
Even though women make up nearly half of the PhD population, they are not advancing at the same rate as men to the upper ranks of the professoriate; many are dropping out of the race. Our first "Do Babies Matter?" article, published in the November-December 2002 issue of Academe, examined the effect of family formation on academic careers. It was…
Honig, Alice Sterling
Babies thrive on security. In early months, secure feelings stem from being warm, cuddled closely, and comfortable in their tummies (and in having clean bottoms!). In this article, the author discusses how to soothe infants and toddlers. The strategies to help ease babies' distress are described. Some of the recommended strategies include: (1) to…
... sufficient samples of the product, or samples that are identical in all material respects to the product. The... 1220, Safety Standards for Full-Size Baby Cribs and Non-Full- Size Baby Cribs. A true copy, in English... assessment bodies seeking accredited status must submit to the Commission copies, in English, of their...
Chiu, Karen; Tonkin, Shirley L; Gunn, Alistair J; McIntosh, Christine C
Two reports of infants found dead after sleeping in baby hammocks have raised international concern about the safety of infant hammocks. We therefore tested whether hammock sleep affected oxygenation in infants, when they were at an age of high risk of sudden, unexpected infant death. Healthy, full-term 4- to 8-week-old infants were randomised to sleep either in a commercially available hammock (n = 14) or a standard bassinet (n = 9), and sleep state, oxygen desaturation (a fall in peripheral haemoglobin oxygen saturation (SpO2 ) ≥ 4%, for ≥ 4 sec from baseline to nadir), apnoea and hypopnoea, and mean SpO2 were analysed. There was no significant difference in mean SpO2 (both 98.5%) or rate of oxygen desaturation events between the hammock and the bassinet cot (mean ± SD, 24 ± 20 vs. 28 ± 23 events per hour), but infants slept less in the hammock (59 ± 31 vs. 81 ± 34 min, p < 0.02). When correctly used, the hammock sleep position did not compromise the upper airway of sleeping infants. The significance of shorter duration of sleep in the hammocks is unclear. These findings should not be applied to all baby hammocks, nor to older babies, particularly once the infant can roll. Given that it is not possible to predict when an infant will be able to roll, we strongly recommend that hammocks should not be used for unsupervised sleep. ©2014 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
This article describes a project related to babies undertaken by preschoolers in a university-affiliated child care center in the Midwest. Following a description of the class, the author discusses the three phases of the project. Photographs taken during the project are included throughout the article. The article concludes with the author's…
... Environment? Babies Need Tummy Time! FAQs Myths and Facts Campaign Materials Explore the Campaign Key Moments in Campaign History Outreach Activities The Science of SIDS and Safe Infant Sleep Collaborators and ...
Sanz, Teresa; Menendez, Javier; Rosique, Teresa
The present study contributes to the understanding of gross motor development in babies with Down's syndrome. Also, it facilitates the comprehension of the efficiency of the early motor stimulation as well as of beginning it as early as possible. We worked with two groups of babies with Down's syndrome, beginning the early motor training in each…
Hadden, D R
The concept of prediabetes has come to the fore again with the worldwide epidemic of Type 2 diabetes. The careful observations of W. P. U. Jackson and his colleagues in Cape Town, South Africa 50 years ago still deserve attention. Maternal hyperglycaemia cannot be the only cause of fetal macrosomia, and the pathophysiological reason for the unexplained stillbirth in late diabetic pregnancy still eludes us. The biochemical concepts of 'facilitated anabolism' and 'accelerated starvation' were developed by Freinkel as explanations of the protective mechanisms for the baby during the stresses of pregnancy. Some of these nutritional stresses may also occur in the particular form of early childhood malnutrition known in Africa as kwashiorkor, where subcutaneous fat deposition, carbohydrate intolerance, islet hyperplasia and sudden death may follow a period of excess carbohydrate and deficient protein intake. Different feeding practices in different parts of the world make comparisons uncertain, but there is evidence for insulin resistance in both the macrosomic fetus of the hyperglycaemic mother and in the child with established kwashiorkor. These adaptive changes in early development may play both a physiological and a pathological role. Worldwide studies of hyperglycaemia in pregnancy are gradually establishing acceptable diagnostic criteria, appropriate screening procedures and an evidence base for treatment. Nevertheless the challenge of prediabetes and the big baby is still with us--in Jackson's words--'diabetes mellitus is a fascinating condition-the more we know about it the less we understand it'.
... and fragrances that can irritate skin. Note: Cloth diapers do need to be separated from your regular laundry because harsh detergents can cause diaper rash . Wash these with mild baby detergent in ...
Ackerman, Paul J; Boyle, Timothy; Smalyukh, Ivan I
Skyrmions are topologically protected continuous field configurations that cannot be smoothly transformed to a uniform state. They behave like particles and give origins to the field of skyrmionics that promises racetrack memory and other technological applications. Unraveling the non-equilibrium behavior of such topological solitons is a challenge. We realize skyrmions in a chiral liquid crystal and, using numerical modeling and polarized video microscopy, demonstrate electrically driven squirming motion. We reveal the intricate details of non-equilibrium topology-preserving textural changes driving this behavior. Direction of the skyrmion's motion is robustly controlled in a plane orthogonal to the applied field and can be reversed by varying frequency. Our findings may spur a paradigm of soliton dynamics in soft matter, with a rich interplay between topology, chirality, and orientational viscoelasticity.A skyrmion is a topological object originally introduced to model elementary particles and a baby skyrmion is its two-dimensional counterpart which can be realized as a defect in liquid crystals. Here the authors show that an electric field can drive uniform motion of baby skyrmions in liquid crystals.
Wanka, Anna; Kolland, Franz; Psihoda, Sophie
Research indicates that the so-called baby boomer generation (the population born after World War II) exhibits worrying health trends. Taking age-cohort effects into account, it is still unclear how the mechanisms concerning stress and health function and how the distribution of stressors, stress mediators and stress effects on health differ between generations. The article approaches stress from a generational perspective asking: which are the stressors the baby boomer generation is facing? Under which conditions and with which resources is exposure to stressors harmful to health? Is there an accumulation of stress in later working life? In the course of the project "Wellbeing", a quantitative online survey was carried out in selected commercial enterprises and public institutions in four project partner countries. The results for Austrian participants are presented in this article. Employees of the baby boomer generation are exposed to both time-related and social stressors at the workplace and a high percentage of respondents expressed symptoms of physical and psychological stress. Stress mediators, such as agency-based coping strategies and social resources at the workplace could buffer these stressors; however, stressors and stress mediators are significantly correlated creating a "triple whammy" effect (i.e. exposure to stressors, lack of social resources and restricted coping), which particularly affects older male baby boomers. Social support buffers the negative effects of a limited health and lower education for female baby boomers, which supports the buffering hypothesis of social convoy theory, whereas male baby boomers lack the resources to effectively cope with work stress.
... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Cerebral Palsy Checklist: Babies & Preschoolers KidsHealth / For Parents / Cerebral Palsy Checklist: Babies & Preschoolers What's in this article? Step ...
Reilly, Nicole; Turner, Gemma; Taouk, Jamilie; Austin, Marie-Paule
This paper reports on the acceptability, experience of participation and the immediate impact on maternal mood state of group singing sessions, introduced as a routine component of a mother-baby unit (MBU) treatment programme. Data was collected from 27 women who participated in the pilot programme. Results showed that implementation of a singing intervention in this setting is positively appraised by women and is associated with positive changes in self-reported mood state from pre- to post-session. Key facilitators and barriers to the success of the programme and directions for future research are discussed.
Duncan, David F; Nicholson, Thomas; White, John B; Bradley, Dana Burr; Bonaguro, John
Between now and 2030, the number of adults aged 65 and older in the United States will almost double, from around 37 million to more than 70 million, an increase from 12% of the U.S. population to almost 20%. It was long held that, with only a few isolated exceptions, substance abuse simply did not exist among this population. In light of the impact of the baby boom generation, this assumption may no longer be valid. The authors examined admissions of persons 55 years and older (n = 918,955) from the Treatment Episode Data Set (1998-2006). Total admissions with a primary drug problem with alcohol have remained relatively stable over this time. Admissions for problems with a primary drug other than alcohol have shown a steady and substantial increase. Clearly, data from the Treatment Episode Data Set indicate a coming wave of older addicts whose primary problem is not alcohol. The authors suspect that this wave is led primarily by the continuing emergence of the baby boomer generation.
... choking and those with little nutritional value. Choking Hazards Parents and caregivers can help prevent choking by ... the baby during eating. Foods that are choking hazards include: pieces of raw vegetables or hard fruits ...
... preterm babies with a minimum birth weight of 2000 grams (about 4 lbs., 6 oz.) be treated ... immunization schedule. If birth weight is less than 2000 g, the AAP recommends administering the hepatitis B ...
... occurs in babies when the pores of the sweat glands become blocked. This happens most often when ... weather is hot or humid. As your infant sweats, little red bumps, and possibly tiny blisters, form ...
Borgi, Marta; Cogliati-Dezza, Irene; Brelsford, Victoria; Meints, Kerstin; Cirulli, Francesca
The baby schema concept was originally proposed as a set of infantile traits with high appeal for humans, subsequently shown to elicit caretaking behavior and to affect cuteness perception and attentional processes. However, it is unclear whether the response to the baby schema may be extended to the human-animal bond context. Moreover, questions remain as to whether the cute response is constant and persistent or whether it changes with development. In the present study we parametrically manipulated the baby schema in images of humans, dogs, and cats. We analyzed responses of 3-6 year-old children, using both explicit (i.e., cuteness ratings) and implicit (i.e., eye gaze patterns) measures. By means of eye-tracking, we assessed children's preferential attention to images varying only for the degree of baby schema and explored participants' fixation patterns during a cuteness task. For comparative purposes, cuteness ratings were also obtained in a sample of adults. Overall our results show that the response to an infantile facial configuration emerges early during development. In children, the baby schema affects both cuteness perception and gaze allocation to infantile stimuli and to specific facial features, an effect not simply limited to human faces. In line with previous research, results confirm human positive appraisal toward animals and inform both educational and therapeutic interventions involving pets, helping to minimize risk factors (e.g., dog bites).
... Videos for Educators Search English Español Your Baby's Hearing, Vision, and Other Senses: 7 Months KidsHealth / For Parents / Your Baby's Hearing, Vision, and Other Senses: 7 Months Print en ...
... Videos for Educators Search English Español Your Baby's Hearing, Vision, and Other Senses: 11 Months KidsHealth / For Parents / Your Baby's Hearing, Vision, and Other Senses: 11 Months Print en ...
Schofield, D J; Page, S L; Lyle, D M; Walker, T J
To compare the impact of ageing on the GP and nursing rural and city workforce. Cohort analysis of Australian Bureau of Statistics census data. The data was used to examine the age distribution of the city and rural GP and nursing workforce; patterns of attrition for those 50 years and over; and the impact of changes in working hours. The rural GP and nursing workforce is significantly older than their city counterparts (p<0.001) with the 'baby boomer' generation making up 52% of city GPs but 59% of rural GPs in 2001. While a large proportion of city and rural GPs continued to work past the age of 65 years, rural GPs left the workforce at a significantly younger age than city doctors (p<0.001). Rural nurses are older than their city peers (p<0.001) but retire at an older age than city nurses (p<0.001). In 1986, a significantly higher proportion of rural GPs in all age cohorts worked more than 41 hours per week compared with their city counterparts (p<0.001). By 2001, rural 'generation X' GPs were no more likely to work long hours than those in the city (p<0.001). However, significantly more rural than city 'baby boomers' continued to work long hours. Rural GPs are retiring faster than city GPs and strategies to attract rural GPs and nurses will be critical to ensure adequate rural health care and that current rural workforce shortage do not worsen.
Elfer, Peter; Page, Jools
The last 30 years have seen a significant increase in babies attending nursery, with corresponding questions about the aims and organisation of practice. Research broadly agrees on the importance of emotionally consistent, sensitive and responsive interactions between staff and babies. Policy objectives for nursery and expectations of parents and…
... uterus. One option is to rest in the child’s pose for 10 to 15 minutes. A second option is to gently rock back and forth on your hands and knees. You also can make circles with your pelvis to promote activity. Music: Certain sounds may appeal to your baby. Place ...
Elfer, Peter; Page, Jools
The last 30 years have seen a significant increase in babies attending nursery, with corresponding questions about the aims and organisation of practice. Research broadly agrees on the importance of emotionally consistent, sensitive and responsive interactions between staff and babies. Policy objectives for nursery and expectations of parents and staff give rise to different and sometimes conflicting aims for such interactions; for example attachments to staff, peer interactions or early learning. Research shows marked variations of pedagogy aims and organisation with babies in nurseries in different national and cultural contexts. It also demonstrates variation between nurseries in similar contexts and between staff in their beliefs and values about work with babies. This paper reports on an exploratory study of the beliefs, aspirations and approaches of eight managers concerning pedagogy with babies in two similar English local authorities. These managers spoke of the importance of being responsive to the concerns and priorities of parents, whilst being sensitive to the demands of the work on their staff. The main finding was of the contradictions and confusions managers felt were inherent in the work, arising from both conflicting policy objectives and personal beliefs and aspirations; sometimes their own and sometimes those of individual staff and parents. Urban, Vandenbroeck, Van Laere, Lazzari, and Peeters' [(2012). Towards competent systems in early childhood education and care. Implications for policy and practice. European Journal of Education , 47 (4), 508-526.] concept of the 'competent system' is used to recommend a grounded approach to the development of a more culturally, socially and individually responsive pedagogy with babies than appears to exist at present.
Elfer, Peter; Page, Jools
The last 30 years have seen a significant increase in babies attending nursery, with corresponding questions about the aims and organisation of practice. Research broadly agrees on the importance of emotionally consistent, sensitive and responsive interactions between staff and babies. Policy objectives for nursery and expectations of parents and staff give rise to different and sometimes conflicting aims for such interactions; for example attachments to staff, peer interactions or early learning. Research shows marked variations of pedagogy aims and organisation with babies in nurseries in different national and cultural contexts. It also demonstrates variation between nurseries in similar contexts and between staff in their beliefs and values about work with babies. This paper reports on an exploratory study of the beliefs, aspirations and approaches of eight managers concerning pedagogy with babies in two similar English local authorities. These managers spoke of the importance of being responsive to the concerns and priorities of parents, whilst being sensitive to the demands of the work on their staff. The main finding was of the contradictions and confusions managers felt were inherent in the work, arising from both conflicting policy objectives and personal beliefs and aspirations; sometimes their own and sometimes those of individual staff and parents. Urban, Vandenbroeck, Van Laere, Lazzari, and Peeters' [(2012). Towards competent systems in early childhood education and care. Implications for policy and practice. European Journal of Education, 47(4), 508–526.] concept of the ‘competent system’ is used to recommend a grounded approach to the development of a more culturally, socially and individually responsive pedagogy with babies than appears to exist at present. PMID:26692633
... Every year, there are thousands of sleep-related deaths among babies. View large image and text description ... 2AZh9Bn Supporting research to better understand sleep-related deaths and strategies to improve safe sleep practices. Healthcare ...
Adam, C.; Wereszczynski, A.
A new type of gauged BPS baby Skyrme model is presented, where the derivative term is just the Schroers current (i.e., gauge invariant and conserved version of the topological current) squared. This class of models has a topological bound saturated for solutions of the pertinent Bogomolnyi equations supplemented by a so-called superpotential equation. In contrast to the gauged BPS baby Skyrme models considered previously, the superpotential equation is linear and, hence, completely solvable. Furthermore, the magnetic flux is quantized in units of 2 π , which allows, in principle, to define this theory on a compact manifold without boundary, unlike all gauged baby Skyrme models considered so far.
Glocker, Melanie L; Langleben, Daniel D; Ruparel, Kosha; Loughead, James W; Valdez, Jeffrey N; Griffin, Mark D; Sachser, Norbert; Gur, Ruben C
Ethologist Konrad Lorenz defined the baby schema ("Kindchenschema") as a set of infantile physical features, such as round face and big eyes, that is perceived as cute and motivates caretaking behavior in the human, with the evolutionary function of enhancing offspring survival. The neural basis of this fundamental altruistic instinct is not well understood. Prior studies reported a pattern of brain response to pictures of children, but did not dissociate the brain response to baby schema from the response to children. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging and controlled manipulation of the baby schema in infant faces, we found that baby schema activates the nucleus accumbens, a key structure of the mesocorticolimbic system mediating reward processing and appetitive motivation, in nulliparous women. Our findings suggest that engagement of the mesocorticolimbic system is the neurophysiologic mechanism by which baby schema promotes human caregiving, regardless of kinship.
Bachleda, Amelia R.; Thompson, Ross A.
Babies think differently than adults, and understanding how they think can help us see their explosive brain growth in everyday behavior. Infants learn language faster than adults do, use statistics to understand how the world works, and even reason about the minds of others. But these achievements can be hidden by their poor self-regulatory…
Craig, J W; Glick, C; Phillips, R; Hall, S L; Smith, J; Browne, J
Family involvement is a key to realize the potential for long-lasting positive effects on physical, cognitive and psychosocial development of all babies, including those in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Family-centered developmental care (FCDC) recognizes the family as vital members of the NICU health-care team. As such, families are integrated into decision-making processes and are collaborators in their baby's care. Through standardized use of FCDC principles in the NICU, a foundation is constructed to enhance the family's lifelong relationship with their child and optimize development of the baby. Recommendations are made for supporting parental roles as caregivers of their babies in the NICU, supporting NICU staff participation in FCDC and creating NICU policies that support this type of care. These recommendations are designed to meet the basic human needs of all babies, the special needs of hospitalized babies and the needs of families who are coping with the crisis of having a baby in the NICU. PMID:26597804
King, Dana E; Xiang, Jun; Brown, Alexander
The dietary habits of baby boomers (people born between 1946 and 1964) undoubtedly will have a substantial impact on their future health; however, dietary information regarding the intake of key chronic disease-related nutrients is lacking for this generation. The objective of this study was to compare the dietary intake of key chronic disease-related nutrients of the baby boomer generation with the previous generation of middle-aged adults. National cross-sectional study comparison analyzing data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) including NHANES III (1988-1994) and the NHANES for 2007-2010, focused on adult respondents ages 46 to 64 years who were not institutionalized at the time of each survey. The two cohorts were compared with regard to dietary intake of key nutritional components. The main outcome measures were intake of total calories, sodium, cholesterol, fat, fruits, vegetables, vitamin C, water, and fiber. The baby boomers' average daily intake of nutrients exceeded that of the previous generation of middle-aged adults for total calories (2118/1999), total fat (82/76 g), sodium (3513/3291 mg), and cholesterol (294/262 g; all P < 0.001). The intake of vitamin C (105/89 g), water (1208/1001 g), and vegetables (199/229 g) was less than that of the previous generation (P < 0.001), and the dietary intake of fruit and fiber was unchanged. In regression analyses, dietary changes remained significant after controlling for age, race, sex, and socioeconomic status (all P < 0.01). The study findings document higher dietary intake of key chronic disease-related nutrients along with reduced vegetable intake among baby boomers compared with the previous generation of middle-aged adults. These findings are indicative of a diet that may contribute to increased rates of chronic disease among individuals in this age group.
King, Dana E.; Xiang, Jun; Brown, Alexander
Objectives The dietary habits of baby boomers (people born between 1946 and 1964) undoubtedly will have a substantial impact on their future health; however, dietary information regarding the intake of key chronic disease–related nutrients is lacking for this generation. The objective of this study was to compare the dietary intake of key chronic disease–related nutrients of the baby boomer generation with the previous generation of middle-aged adults. Methods National cross-sectional study comparison analyzing data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) including NHANES III (1988–1994) and the NHANES for 2007–2010, focused on adult respondents ages 46 to 64 years who were not institutionalized at the time of each survey. The two cohorts were compared with regard to dietary intake of key nutritional components. The main outcome measures were intake of total calories, sodium, cholesterol, fat, fruits, vegetables, vitamin C, water, and fiber. Results The baby boomers’ average daily intake of nutrients exceeded that of the previous generation of middle-aged adults for total calories (2118/1999), total fat (82/76 g), sodium (3513/3291 mg), and cholesterol (294/262 g; all P < 0.001). The intake of vitamin C (105/89 g), water (1208/1001 g), and vegetables (199/229 g) was less than that of the previous generation (P < 0.001), and the dietary intake of fruit and fiber was unchanged. In regression analyses, dietary changes remained significant after controlling for age, race, sex, and socioeconomic status (all P < 0.01). Conclusions The study findings document higher dietary intake of key chronic disease–related nutrients along with reduced vegetable intake among baby boomers compared with the previous generation of middle-aged adults. These findings are indicative of a diet that may contribute to increased rates of chronic disease among individuals in this age group. PMID:24945165
Shah, Parag K; Narendran, Venkatapathy; Kalpana, Narendran
To describe aggressive posterior retinopathy of prematurity (APROP) in a subset of premature babies, having gestational age (GA) of ≥28 weeks and birth weight (BW) of ≥1000 g. Retrospective observational case series. Case records of 99 babies, who were diagnosed to have APROP between July 2002 and October 2010 were reviewed. Fundus fluorescein angiography (FFA) was carried out in 19 babies. The mean GA was 31.7 weeks (range 28-35 weeks) and mean BW was 1572 g (range 1000-2310 g). All these babies received supplemental unblended oxygen 3 days or longer after birth. Of the 52 babies who had an eye exam in the neonatal intensive care unit prior to discharge, 35 babies had loss of vascularised retina from zone II to zone I and four babies from zone III to zone I, when examined as an outpatient. FFA revealed large geographic areas of vaso-obliteration (more than 30 disc areas) posterior to the shunt vessels within vascularised retina. Features of severe capillary bed loss in the vascularised retina were seen in our cases. Oxygen could be a precipitating factor in causing this retinopathy of prematurity in large babies.
... for intimate relationships and foster a sense of security and positive self-esteem . And parents' responsiveness to an infant's signals can affect the child's social and cognitive development. Why Is Bonding Important? Bonding is essential for a baby. Studies of ...
Garcia, Nancy L; McMulkin, Mark L; Tompkins, Bryan J; Caskey, Paul M; Mader, Shelley L; Baird, Glen O
To investigate the effect of treated clubfoot disorder on gross motor skill level measured by the Alberta Infant Motor Scale (AIMS). Fifty-two babies participated: 26 were treated for idiopathic clubfoot (12 with the Ponseti treatment method, 9 with the French physical therapy technique, and 5 with a combination of both methods); 26 were babies who were typically developing and without medical diagnoses. The AIMS was administered at 3-month intervals. No significant differences in AIMS scores were found between the clubfoot and control groups at 3 and 6 months, but at 9 and 12 months the clubfoot group scored significantly lower. Babies who were typically developing were significantly more likely to be walking at 12 months than babies with clubfoot. Treated clubfoot was associated with a mild delay in attainment of gross motor skills at 9 and 12 months of age.
Wang, Xiaoya; Luo, Renzhong; Wen, Ruijin; Chen, Qian; Zhou, Jialin; Zou, Yu
To discuss the characteristics of auditory brainstem response in preterm very low birth weight (VLBW) babies and to investigate the correlations between the ABR and clinical characteristics. Fifty-nine VLBW babies (118 ears) were enrolled in the study and 30 term normal babies as the control group. Tympanometry, acoustic reflex, DPOAE, ABR were obtained in all the babies. The prevalence of hearing loss in VLBW babies was higher than normal term babies and babies with perinatal complications higher than those without perinatal complications. There was no correlations between ABR threshold and gestational age, birth weight, postconceptional age, negative correlations between wave I, III and V latencies I - III, III - V and I - V intervals and postconceptional age. Wave I and V latencies, I - III and III - V intervals differed significantly between the two groups. The perinatal complications were the most important causes of the hearing loss in preterm VLBW babies than the gestational age and birth weight. There was a high prevalence of peripheral hearing loss in the preterm VLBW babies. Combining OAE and automated ABR should be applied for hearing screening. Regular follow-up was very important in all the preterm VLBW neonatal.
Well-established international entertainment firms such as Disney and Fisher-Price are joining new start-up firms such as Baby Einstein to create a 'Baby' market of products (including toys, games and videos) specifically targeted at children aged 0-3 years. Despite its novelty, the "Baby" market mirrors older markets that…
Crépin, Anne-Sophie; Karcher, Michael; Gascard, Jean-Claude
This introduction to the special issue presents an overview of the wide range of results produced during the European Union project Arctic Climate Change, Economy and Society (ACCESS). This project assessed the main impacts of climate change on Arctic Ocean's geophysical variables and how these impending changes could be expected to impact directly and indirectly on socio-economic activities like transportation, marine sea food production and resource exploitation. Related governance issues were examined. These results were used to develop several management tools that can live on beyond ACCESS. In this article, we synthesize most of the project results in the form of tentative responses to questions raised during the project. By doing so, we put the findings of the project in a broader perspective and introduce the contributions made in the different articles published in this special issue.
Khokhar, Anita; Goyal, Parveen K.; Thakur, O. P.; Sreenivas, K.
The structure and ferroelectric properties of excess bismuth doped barium bismuth titanate BaBi4+δTi4O15 (δ = 2 - 10 wt.%)) ceramics prepared by solid-state reaction method have been investigated. X-ray diffraction (XRD) confirms the formation of a single phase material with a change in the orthorhombic distortion with varying excess of bismuth content. There is no change in the phase transition temperature (Tm) while the relaxor behaviour has been modified significantly with excess of bismuth doping. Saturated hysteresis loops with high remnant polarization (Pr ~ 12.5 µC/cm2), low coercive fields (Ec ~ 26 kV/cm) are measured and a high piezoelectric coefficient (d33 ~ 29 pC/N) is achieved in poled BaBi4Ti4O15 ceramics prepared with up to 8 wt.% of excess bismuth oxide. The improvement in the ferroelectric properties with increase in the excess bismuth content in BaBi4Ti4O15 ceramics has been explained in terms of changing oxygen vacancy concentration and structural relaxation. Tunable ferroelectric materials can be obtained by manipulating the doping amount of excess bismuth.
KULKARNI, R.; PRESLEY, R. J.; LUSHER, J. M.; SHAPIRO, A. D.; GILL, J. C.; MANCO-JOHNSON, M.; KOERPER, M. A.; ABSHIRE, T. C.; DIMICHELE, D.; HOOTS, W. K.; MATHEW, P.; NUGENT, D. J.; GERAGHTY, S.; EVATT, B. L.; SOUCIE, J. M.
Aim To describe the prevalence and complications in babies ≤2 years with haemophilia. Methods We used a standardized collection tool to obtain consented data on eligible babies aged ≤2 years with haemophilia enrolled in the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Universal Data Collection System surveillance project at US Hemophilia Treatment Centers (HTCs). Results Of 547 babies, 82% had haemophilia A, and 70% were diagnosed within one month of birth. Diagnosis was prompted by known maternal carrier status (40%), positive family history (23%), bleeding (35%) and unknown 2%; 81% bled during the first two years. The most common events were bleeding (circumcision, soft tissue, oral bleeding) and head injury. There were 46 episodes of intracranial haemorrhage (ICH) in 37 babies (7%): 18 spontaneous, 14 delivery related, 11 traumatic, 2 procedure related and 1 unknown cause. Of the 176 central venous access devices (CVADs) in 148 (27%) babies, there were 137 ports, 22 surgically inserted central catheters and 20 peripherally inserted central catheters. Ports had the lowest complication rates. Inhibitors occurred in 109 (20%) babies who experienced higher rates of ICH (14% vs. 5%; P = 0.002), CVAD placement (61% vs. 19%; P < 0.001) and CVAD complications (44% vs. 26%; P < 0.001). The most common replacement therapy was recombinant clotting factor concentrates. Conclusion Bleeding events in haemophilic babies ≤2 years were common; no detectable difference in the rates of ICH by the mode of delivery was noted. Neonatal factor exposure did not affect the inhibitor rates. Minor head trauma, soft tissue and oropharyngeal bleeding were the leading indications for treatment. PMID:27813214
Salmi, Petja; Sutcliffe, Paul
The aloof baby Skyrme model is a (2+1)-dimensional theory with solitons that are lightly bound. It is a low-dimensional analogue of a similar Skyrme model in (3+1)- dimensions, where the lightly bound solitons have binding energies comparable to nuclei. A previous study of static solitons in the aloof baby Skyrme model revealed that multi-soliton bound states have a cluster structure, with constituents that preserve their individual identities due to the short-range repulsion and long-range attraction between solitons. Furthermore, there are many different local energy minima that are all well-described by a simple binary species particle model. In this paper wemore » present the first results on soliton dynamics in the aloof baby Skyrme model. Numerical field theory simulations reveal that the lightly bound cluster structure results in a variety of exotic soliton scattering events that are novel in comparison to standard Skyrmion scattering. A dynamical version of the binary species point particle model is shown to provide a good qualitative description of the dynamics.« less
Salmi, Petja; Sutcliffe, Paul
The aloof baby Skyrme model is a (2+1)-dimensional theory with solitons that are lightly bound. It is a low-dimensional analogue of a similar Skyrme model in (3+1)-dimensions, where the lightly bound solitons have binding energies comparable to nuclei. A previous study of static solitons in the aloof baby Skyrme model revealed that multi-soliton bound states have a cluster structure, with constituents that preserve their individual identities due to the short-range repulsion and long-range attraction between solitons. Furthermore, there are many different local energy minima that are all well-described by a simple binary species particle model. In this paper we present the first results on soliton dynamics in the aloof baby Skyrme model. Numerical field theory simulations reveal that the lightly bound cluster structure results in a variety of exotic soliton scattering events that are novel in comparison to standard Skyrmion scattering. A dynamical version of the binary species point particle model is shown to provide a good qualitative description of the dynamics.
Studies real household income after the birth of a baby reporting median child care expenses were zero in first and $6 in fourth quarter; mean expenses in fourth quarter were $210. Fertility rate of women aged 18-44 without high school education who had baby in 1988 was 87, compared to 63 for women with college degree. (LB)
Delgado, Rigoberto I; Gill, Sara L
This article focuses on the costs of opening and running a Baby Café. A Baby Café is an intervention that focuses on providing peer-to-peer support for breastfeeding mothers. Research aim: This study aimed to estimate the costs of establishing and running a Baby Café. The authors used a microcosting approach to identifying costs using the case of a Baby Café located in San Antonio, Texas, and modeled after other existing cafés in the United States. They also used extensive literature review and conducted an informal interview with a manager of an existing Baby Café in the United States to validate our cost data. The cost analysis was done from the provider perspective. Costs of starting a Baby Café were $36,000, whereas annual operating costs totaled $47,000. Total discounted costs for a 5-year period amounted to $250,000, resulting in a cost per Baby Café session of $521 and cost per mother of $104. Varying the number of sessions per week and number of mothers attending each session, the discounted cost per Baby Café session ranged between $460 and $740 and the cost per mother varied between $65 and $246. These findings can be used by policy makers and organizations to evaluate local resource requirements for starting a Baby Café. Further research is needed to evaluate the effectiveness of this intervention against other breastfeeding promoting initiatives.
Scales, Charles D; Moul, Judd W; Curtis, Lesley H; Elkin, Eric P; Hughes, M E; Carroll, Peter R
Baby Boomers (those born in 1946 to 1964) are thought to place a high value on quality of life, and have a higher propensity to consume healthcare services than previous generations. We sought to characterize prostate cancer (CaP) presentation among this group, and determine whether treatment patterns differ between Baby Boomers and the preceding generation. We defined two birth cohorts: men born in 1927 to 1945 (pre-Boomers) and Baby Boomers. Our study cohort included men less than 65 years old, diagnosed with CaP between 1999 and 2003 (Baby Boomers, n = 812; pre-Boomers, n = 1843). We compared the two groups for clinical presentation, sociodemographics, and primary treatment, controlling for age effects. The primary endpoint was selection of radical prostatectomy as primary treatment. Most Baby Boomers were diagnosed with stage T1 disease (466, 61%), biopsy Gleason sums less than 7 (572, 73%), and prostate-specific antigen levels of 4.1 to 10.0 (509, 66%). This presentation was not clinically different from pre-Boomers. Baby Boomers had higher socioeconomic status than pre-Boomers. On multivariate analysis, Baby Boomers were more likely to undergo radical prostatectomy as primary therapy (odds ratio [OR] 1.63, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.13 to 2.35). Controlling for age effects, however, there were no significant differences in treatment choice (OR 0.86, 95% CI 0.40 to 1.87) or sociodemographics between these groups. Differences in CaP presentation and treatment between Baby Boomers and pre-Boomers may be related to age at diagnosis rather than innate differences in behavior. As more Baby Boomers are diagnosed with CaP, further research will be required to characterize this generation's impact on CaP care.
Makinde, Olusesan Ayodeji; Olaleye, Olalekan; Makinde, Olufunmbi Olukemi; Huntley, Svetlana S; Brown, Brandon
Baby factories and baby harvesting are relatively new terms that involve breeding, trafficking, and abuse of infants and their biological mothers. Since it was first described in a United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization report in Nigeria in 2006, several more baby factories have been discovered over the years. Infertile women are noted to be major patrons of these baby factories due to the stigmatization of childless couples in Southern Nigeria and issues around cultural acceptability of surrogacy and adoption. These practices have contributed to the growth in the industry which results in physical, psychological, and sexual violence to the victims. Tackling baby factories will involve a multifaceted approach that includes advocacy and enacting of legislation barring baby factories and infant trafficking and harsh consequences for their patrons. Also, programs to educate young girls on preventing unwanted pregnancies are needed. Methods of improving awareness and acceptability of adoption and surrogacy and reducing the administrative and legal bottlenecks associated with these options for infertile couples should be explored to diminish the importance of baby factories. © The Author(s) 2015.
Chetty, Adrian A; Prasad, Surendra
Commercial baby foods are an easy alternative to home-made meals especially for working parents in a nuclear family therefore it is imperative to determine the nitrate and nitrite content in commercially available baby foods varieties marketed in Fiji. A total of 108 baby food samples were analyzed for nitrate and nitrite using our standardized flow injection analysis (FIA) technique with colorimetric detection technique employing sulfanilamide and N-(1-naphthyl)ethylenediamine dihydrochloride as color reagents where the samples throughput was 38 h(-1). The commercial baby food varieties chosen comprised of vegetables, cereals, fruits and milk. The study shows that the nitrate content of the baby foods studied ranges from 2.10 to 220.67 mg kg(-1) whereas the nitrite content ranges from 0.44 to 3.67 mg kg(-1). Typical recoveries of spiked nitrate residues ranged from 92% to 106%. The study shows that the average nitrate content of commercially available baby foods in Fiji descends below the maximum level proposed by the European Union Legislation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
LeRouge, Cynthia M.; Tao, Donghua; Ohs, Jennifer; Lach, Helen W.; Jupka, Keri; Wray, Ricardo
“Baby Boomers” (adults born between the years of 1946 and 1964) make up the largest segment of the population in many countries, including the United States (about 78 million Americans) . As Baby Boomers reach retirement age and beyond, many will have increasing medical needs and thus demand more health care resources that will challenge the healthcare system. Baby Boomers will likely accelerate the movement toward patient self-management and prevention efforts. Consumer Health Information Technologies (CHIT) hold promise for empowering health consumers to take an active role in health maintenance and disease management, and thus, have the potential to address Baby Boomers' health needs. Such innovations require changes in health care practice and processes that take into account Baby Boomers' personal health needs, preferences, health culture, and abilities to use these technologies. Without foundational knowledge of barriers and opportunities, Baby Boomers may not realize the potential of these innovations for improving self-management of health and health outcomes. However, research to date has not adequately explored the degree to which Baby Boomers are ready to embrace consumer health information technology and how their unique subcultures affect adoption and diffusion. This position paper describes an ecological conceptual framework for understanding and studying CHIT aimed at satisfying the personal health needs of Baby Boomers. We explore existing literature to provide a detailed depiction of our proposed conceptual framework, which focuses characteristics influencing Baby Boomers and their Personal Health Information Management (PHIM) and potential information problems. Using our ecological framework as a backdrop, we provide insight and implications for future research based on literature and underlying theories represented in our model. PMID:29546084
LeRouge, Cynthia M; Tao, Donghua; Ohs, Jennifer; Lach, Helen W; Jupka, Keri; Wray, Ricardo
"Baby Boomers" (adults born between the years of 1946 and 1964) make up the largest segment of the population in many countries, including the United States (about 78 million Americans) . As Baby Boomers reach retirement age and beyond, many will have increasing medical needs and thus demand more health care resources that will challenge the healthcare system. Baby Boomers will likely accelerate the movement toward patient self-management and prevention efforts. Consumer Health Information Technologies (CHIT) hold promise for empowering health consumers to take an active role in health maintenance and disease management, and thus, have the potential to address Baby Boomers' health needs. Such innovations require changes in health care practice and processes that take into account Baby Boomers' personal health needs, preferences, health culture, and abilities to use these technologies. Without foundational knowledge of barriers and opportunities, Baby Boomers may not realize the potential of these innovations for improving self-management of health and health outcomes. However, research to date has not adequately explored the degree to which Baby Boomers are ready to embrace consumer health information technology and how their unique subcultures affect adoption and diffusion. This position paper describes an ecological conceptual framework for understanding and studying CHIT aimed at satisfying the personal health needs of Baby Boomers. We explore existing literature to provide a detailed depiction of our proposed conceptual framework, which focuses characteristics influencing Baby Boomers and their Personal Health Information Management (PHIM) and potential information problems. Using our ecological framework as a backdrop, we provide insight and implications for future research based on literature and underlying theories represented in our model.
"Bring Your Baby to the Danforth Museum of Art" is a program for mothers. Unlike other museum programs that focus on the needs of children, Bring Your Baby caters to the intellectual interests of the adult parent. Parents learn about artworks, play with babies in a beautiful environment, and socialize with other families. The program is…
This brief article articulates that the solution to the declining birthrate in Japan is to change the corporate culture and societal values and begin putting the family first. At the present rate of fertility decline, Japan could well have just over 67 million total population in another 100 years, which is 50% of the present total. In 1990, the Finance Minister tried to convince Japanese couples to have more babies by abandoning policies that led women to higher education. The implication is that women would then want to stay at home and have babies. The prosperity of the late 1980s and early 1990s did not encourage higher fertility. The likely reason for low fertility is the male-dominated, corporate culture where male workers leave home early in the morning and work till late at night. Wives are left to care for children and maintain a full-time job. The total fertility rate (TFR) was 3.65 in 1950 and 1.39 in 1998. Both Germany and Italy have lower fertility but higher rates of immigration. The decline in the TFR is responsible for many of the current economic policies. New taxes were introduced in 1997 to pay for social security of the aged, and then the economy stalled. Life expectancies continue to rise. The elderly are a larger proportion of total population than children aged under 15 years. Women marry late, and the divorce rate is high.
Salera-Vieira, Jean; Zembo, Cynthia T
The protection that breast-feeding affords both mother and infant against acute and chronic illness is well documented. The grassroots, public health, and governmental supports for breast-feeding have influenced changes in maternal and newborn care. History indicates that the additional influence has come in the form of governmental workshops and initiatives, professional organizations, as well as The Joint Commission. This includes the influence that the Baby-Friendly® Hospital Initiative and the Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding have had on infant care throughout the years. The requirements that hospitals must follow to implement all, or some, of the Ten Steps lead to change in care that not only increases breast-feeding rates but also leads to health improvements. This article reviews how an upward trend in the adoption of Baby-Friendly practices to support breast-feeding impacts infant care.
Khadra-Eid, J; Baudet, D; Fourny, M; Sellier, E; Brun, C; François, P
Baby bottle tooth decay is a severe form of early childhood caries. This study aims to elaborate a screening tool for at risk children in order to facilitate primary prevention. A case-control study was conducted among children suffering from baby bottle tooth decay and children with no dental caries. Cases were children aged 5 years or less at diagnosis who experienced at least four caries with one or more affecting maxillary incisors. Controls were children matched for age and sex. Parents were interviewed by phone about their child's exposure to potential risk factors. We included 88 children suffering from baby bottle tooth decay and 88 children with no dental caries. In multivariate analysis, low social class (OR 6.39 [95% CI, 1.45-28.11]), prolonged bottle feeding or bedtime feeding (OR 153.2 [95% CI, 11.77-1994.96]), and snacking (OR 5.94 [95% CI, 1.35-26.2]) were significantly associated with baby bottle tooth decay. Regular dental visits were a significant protecting factor (OR 0.13 [95% CI, 0.02-0.77]). A score was developed using these significant risk factors and tested on the survey population. The mean score was 13/20 for cases and 4/20 for controls. These results are in accordance with the literature, except for brushing teeth, which was not significantly associated with baby bottle tooth decay in our study. A screening scale with a score of 20 points was proposed. Future validation is required. Pediatricians and general practitioners should encourage parents to change their habits. Copyright Â© 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Rourke, Leslie; Godwin, Marshall; Rourke, James; Pearce, Sarah; Bean, Joyce
Background The Rourke Baby Record (RBR) – – is a freely available evidence-based structured form for child health surveillance from zero to five years. Family physicians/general practitioners (FP/GPs) doing office based well-baby care in three Ontario Canada cities (London, Ottawa, and Toronto) were randomly sampled to study the prevalence and utility of the RBR and documentation of well-baby visits. Methods Database with telephone confirmation was conducted to assess the prevalence of use of the RBR. Study Part 1: Questionnaire mailed to a random sample of 100 RBR users. Outcome measures were utility of, helpfulness of, and suggestions for the RBR. Descriptive analysis was employed. Study Part 2: Retrospective chart review of well-baby visits by 38 FP/GPs using student t-tests and factor analysis. Outcome measures were well-baby visit documentation of growth, nutrition, safety issues, developmental milestones, physical examination, and overall comprehensiveness. Results The RBR was used by 78.5% (402/512) of successfully contacted FP/GPs who did well-baby care in these 3 cities. Study Part 1: Questionnaire respondents (N = 41/100) used the RBR in several ways, and found it most helpful for assessing healthy child development, charting/recording the visits, managing time effectively, addressing parent concerns, identifying health problems, and identifying high risk situations. The RBR was seen to be least helpful as a tool for managing or for referring identified health problems. Study Part 2: Charts from a total of 1,378 well-baby visits on 176 children were audited. Well-baby care provided by the 20 FP/GPs who used the RBR compared to that by the 18 non-users was statistically more likely to include documentation of type of feeding (p = 0.023), discussion of safety issues (p < 0.001), assessment of development (p = 0.001), and overall comprehensiveness (p < 0.001). Well-baby care provided by the RBR users compared to that by the non-users was not more likely
Rourke, Leslie; Godwin, Marshall; Rourke, James; Pearce, Sarah; Bean, Joyce
The Rourke Baby Record (RBR) - http://www.rourkebabyrecord.ca - is a freely available evidence-based structured form for child health surveillance from zero to five years. Family physicians/general practitioners (FP/GPs) doing office based well-baby care in three Ontario Canada cities (London, Ottawa, and Toronto) were randomly sampled to study the prevalence and utility of the RBR and documentation of well-baby visits. Database with telephone confirmation was conducted to assess the prevalence of use of the RBR. Study Part 1: Questionnaire mailed to a random sample of 100 RBR users. Outcome measures were utility of, helpfulness of, and suggestions for the RBR. Descriptive analysis was employed. Study Part 2: Retrospective chart review of well-baby visits by 38 FP/GPs using student t-tests and factor analysis. Outcome measures were well-baby visit documentation of growth, nutrition, safety issues, developmental milestones, physical examination, and overall comprehensiveness. The RBR was used by 78.5% (402/512) of successfully contacted FP/GPs who did well-baby care in these 3 cities. Study Part 1: Questionnaire respondents (N = 41/100) used the RBR in several ways, and found it most helpful for assessing healthy child development, charting/recording the visits, managing time effectively, addressing parent concerns, identifying health problems, and identifying high risk situations. The RBR was seen to be least helpful as a tool for managing or for referring identified health problems. Study Part 2: Charts from a total of 1,378 well-baby visits on 176 children were audited. Well-baby care provided by the 20 FP/GPs who used the RBR compared to that by the 18 non-users was statistically more likely to include documentation of type of feeding (p = 0.023), discussion of safety issues (p < 0.001), assessment of development (p = 0.001), and overall comprehensiveness (p < 0.001). Well-baby care provided by the RBR users compared to that by the non-users was not more likely
Liddle, Mitzi-Jane E; Bradley, Ben S; Mcgrath, Andrew
Empathy is an important competence in our social world, a motivator of prosocial behavior, and thought to develop throughout the second year of life. The current study examined infants' responses to naturalistic peer distress to explore markers of empathy and prosocial behavior in young babies. Seventeen 8-month-old infants participated in a repeated measures design using the "babies-in-groups" paradigm, with maternal presence as the independent variable. Significant differences were found between response types: Gaze was the standard response to infant distress, followed by socially directed behaviors and affect, with self-distress rarely occurring. Maternal presence was not found to impact the nature or frequency of babies' responses to peer distress. During distress episodes, babies looked preferentially at the distressed peer, then other mothers, and least to their own mother. Data revealed that infant responses to peer distress resulted in a successful cessation of that distress episode over one third of the time. Case studies are provided to illustrate the quantitative data. The results provided evidence of empathic concern and prosocial behavior in the first year of life, and provoke a challenge to developmental theories of empathy. © 2015 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.
Appleton, Jane V; Harris, Margaret; Kelly, Cat; Huppe, Irmgard
'Think Baby' is an innovative online learning resource which has been developed to help student health visitors (and other specialist community public health nurses) build their skills in observing and assessing mother-infant interactions. The project's development and pilot work was funded by a small grant from the Higher Education Academy. It builds on the findings of the team's previous research, which found health visitors' initial training had left them ill-prepared to assess the intricacies of mother-infant relationships. The 'Think Baby' project sought to develop online training resources for student health visitors using video footage of mothers and babies to illustrate different types of interactions. A small group of student health visitors were engaged in reviewing and evaluating the materials and considering their acceptability. Once developed, the materials were piloted with student health visitors from three universities, community practice teachers and a health visitor academic, and they were then adapted for wider roll out. 'Think Baby' enables student health visitors to develop their core skills in assessment, which is really important in identifying when early help and support are needed for mothers and infants.
Gathwala, Geeta; Singh, Bir; Balhara, Bharti
To determine whether Kangaroo mother care (KMC) facilitates mother baby attachment in low birth weight infants. Over 16 month period 110 neonates were randomized into kangaroo mother care group and control group using a random number table. The kangaroo group was subjected to Kangaroo mother care for at least 6 hours per day. The babies also received kangaroo care after shifting out from NICU and at home. The control group received standard care (incubator or open care system). After 3 months followup, structured maternal interview was conducted to assess attachment between mothers and their babies. Mean birth weight was 1.69 +/- 0.11 Kg in KMC group compared to 1.690 +/- 0.12 Kg in control group (p>0.05). Mean gestational age was 35.48 +/- 1.20 week in KMC group and 35.04+/-1.09 week in the control group (p>0.05). KMC was initiated at a mean age of 1.72+/-0.45 days. The duration of KMC in first month was 10.21+/-1.50 hour, in the 2nd month was 10.03+/-1.57 hour and in the 3rd month was 8.97+/-1.37 hours. The duration of hospital stay was significantly shorter in the KMC group (3.56+/-0.57 days) compared to control group (6.80+/-1.30 days). The total attachment score (24.46+/-1.64) in the KMC group was significantly higher than that obtained in control group (18.22+/-1.79, p< 0.001). In KMC group, mother was more often the main caretaker of the baby. Mothers were significantly more involved in care taking activities like bathing, diapering, sleeping with their babies and spent more time beyond usual care taking. They went out without their babies less often and only for unavoidable reasons. They derived greater pleasure from their babies. KMC facilitates mother baby attachment in low birth weight infants.
... Hepatitis B. Can doctors prevent a baby from getting Hepatitis B? Yes. Babies born to women with Hepatitis B get two shots soon after birth. One is the first dose of the Hepatitis ... prevent the baby from getting Hepatitis B. The shots work best when they ...
... Release Thursday, June 1, 2017 Baby teeth link autism and heavy metals, NIH study suggests Cross-section ... Sinai Health System Baby teeth from children with autism contain more toxic lead and less of the ...
Walters, Russel M; Anim-Danso, Emmanuel; Amato, Stephanie M; Capone, Kimberly A; Mack, M Catherine; Telofski, Lorena S; Mays, David A
Background Hard water is associated with atopic dermatitis (eczema). We wanted to determine if a baby cleanser and its individual components altered free ionized calcium (Ca2+) in a simulated hard water baby bath. For these studies, an in vitro determination of free Ca2+ in a simulated hard water baby bath, and an in vivo exploratory study of free Ca2+ absorption into skin from hard water were performed. Methods Free Ca2+ was measured with an ion-sensitive electrode in vitro in hard water (100–500 ppm, Ca2+) before and after addition of the cleanser and/or its components. In an exploratory study, absorption of Ca2+ into skin from hard water was determined in three female participants (aged 21–29 years). Results At an in-use dilution of 1%, the test cleanser reduced free Ca2+ from ~500 ppm to <200 ppm; a 10% in-use dilution bound virtually all free Ca2+. The anionic surfactant component contributed the most to this effect. In the exploratory in vivo study, we measured a reduction of ~15% in free Ca2+ from simulated hard water over 10 minutes. Conclusion Baby cleansers can bind free Ca2+ and reduce the effective water hardness of bath water. Reducing the amount of free Ca2+ in the water will reduce the availability of the ion for binding to the skin. Altering or reducing free Ca2+ concentrations in bath water may be an important parameter in creating the ideal baby bath. PMID:27789967
Kowalkowski, Marc A.; Zupancic, John A. F.; Pietz, Kenneth; Richardson, Peter; Draper, David; Hysong, Sylvia J.; Thomas, Eric J.; Petersen, Laura A.; Gould, Jeffrey B.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: NICUs vary in the quality of care delivered to very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. NICU performance on 1 measure of quality only modestly predicts performance on others. Composite measurement of quality of care delivery may provide a more comprehensive assessment of quality. The objective of our study was to develop a robust composite indicator of quality of NICU care provided to VLBW infants that accurately discriminates performance among NICUs. METHODS: We developed a composite indicator, Baby-MONITOR, based on 9 measures of quality chosen by a panel of experts. Measures were standardized, equally weighted, and averaged. We used the California Perinatal Quality Care Collaborative database to perform across-sectional analysis of care given to VLBW infants between 2004 and 2010. Performance on the Baby-MONITOR is not an absolute marker of quality but indicates overall performance relative to that of the other NICUs. We used sensitivity analyses to assess the robustness of the composite indicator, by varying assumptions and methods. RESULTS: Our sample included 9023 VLBW infants in 22 California regional NICUs. We found significant variations within and between NICUs on measured components of the Baby-MONITOR. Risk-adjusted composite scores discriminated performance among this sample of NICUs. Sensitivity analysis that included different approaches to normalization, weighting, and aggregation of individual measures showed the Baby-MONITOR to be robust (r = 0.89–0.99). CONCLUSIONS: The Baby-MONITOR may be a useful tool to comprehensively assess the quality of care delivered by NICUs. PMID:24918221
Ashcroft, Jennifer; Haberichter, Mareike; Krusch, Steffen
We develop a one-parameter family of static baby Skyrme models that do not require a potential term to admit topological solitons. This is a novel property as the standard baby Skyrme model must contain a potential term in order to have stable soliton solutions, though the Skyrme model does not require this. Our new models satisfy an energy bound that is linear in terms of the topological charge and can be saturated in an extreme limit. They also satisfy a virial theorem that is shared by the Skyrme model. We calculate the solitons of our new models numerically and observe that their form depends significantly on the choice of parameter. In one extreme, we find compactons while at the other there is a scale invariant model in which solitons can be obtained exactly as solutions to a Bogomolny equation. We provide an initial investigation into these solitons and compare them with the baby Skyrmions of other models.
King, Dana E.; Xiang, Jun; Kulshreshtha, Ambar
Objectives The objective of this study was to assess the cardiovascular health status of baby boomers with diabetes mellitus (DM) in comparison to the same-age population with DM 10 years previously. Methods The study was conducted in baby boomers with DM using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2009–2012 compared with NHANES 1999–2002. Cardiovascular health metrics were derived from the American Heart Association’s Life’s Simple 7. The primary outcome was the comparison of the proportion of individuals with each characteristic, including healthy diet, healthy weight, not smoking, exercising regularly, and maintaining an optimal level of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), cholesterol, and blood pressure. Results Current baby boomers with DM (NHANES 2009–2012) had more obesity (70.9% vs 58.8%; P = 0.009) and a lower proportion of ideal physical activity (20.9% vs 31.7%; P = 0.01) than people of the same age 10 years ago; fewer than 1% adhere to an ideal healthy diet. Current baby boomers more often had ideal cholesterol (59.4% vs 47.2; P = 0.01) and reached an ideal HbA1c (51.0% vs 43.4%; P = 0.047). Blood pressure control, adherence to ideal diet, and smoking rates were not significantly different from 10 years ago. In logistic regression analyses controlling for likely confounders, baby boomers persisted in having more obesity and exercising less often, and reaching an ideal cholesterol level more often (P < 0.01). Conclusions Although improving in cholesterol and HbA1c, baby boomers demonstrated worsening in several key cardiovascular health indicators, particularly obesity and physical activity. PMID:27255090
Anandalakshmy, P N; Mittal, S
In India, a simple scoring method was used to select winners at 18 well-baby shows over the last five years in low-income areas of Kotla Mubarakpur and Gautam Nagar, in the Rajeev Gandhi Resettlement Colony, in jhuggi jhopri clusters around the All Institute of Medical Sciences (AAIMS) in New Delhi, and in the Bangladeshi refugee colony (Kidwai Nagar). The parameters used to select ideal babies were parents' age at marriage and educational status, mother's age at first birth, number of living children in relation to marriage duration, immunization status of living children, birth interval, contraceptive use, and routine criteria on general health and hygiene. Winners were chosen among infants, toddlers (1-2 years), and preschool children (2-5). Health promotional activities, maternal and child health (MCH) services, and family planning (FP) services were featured at the health camps where the well-baby shows occurred. 60-90 children and 100-2000 couples participated in the well-baby shows. Health workers explained to parents of children with a poor score why their children had a poor score. At the health camps, parents adopted FP methods and had their children immunized, regardless of score, so as to improve their score for the next show and to win prizes. The well-baby scores improved over time (24.64-31.2 for Kotla Mubarakpur, 19-24.6 for Gautam Nagar, 20.9-22.4 for Rajeev Gandhi, 20.6-23.6 for AIIMS jhuggi, and 13.6-21.4 for Kidwai Nagar). A weekly clinic operating in Kotla Mubarakpur accounted for the high initial mean score. Gautam Nagar had only periodic health services. A weekly mobile health van provided services in the Rajeev Gandhi colony. Door to door contacts were conducted in the jhuggi jhopri clusters to promote MCH/FP services. The scoring method reinforced integration of MCH/FP services. It allowed local health workers to make rapid analyses and MCH decision making. It also served as a tool to monitor the efficacy of local MCH/FP services.
... they leave the hospital for home. Retinopathy of Prematurity (ROP) What It Is: ROP is an eye ... sometimes seen in preterm babies include anemia of prematurity (a low red blood cell count) and heart ...
... first feeding. In fact, the initial phase of breastfeeding is a learning process for both mother and baby. Some newborns show little initial interest in nursing. Fortunately, newborns do not need much fluid, and ...
Cardone, Ida; Gilkerson, Linda; Wechsler, Nick
"Teenagers and Their Babies" is a self-study and preparation guide for paraprofessional home-based visitors to engage expectant and new parents in an exploration of their baby's development and their expectations for parenthood. The guide includes service interventions--strategies, techniques, and activities--for home visitors and doulas to use…
Puac-Polanco, Victor; Keyes, Katherine M; Li, Guohua
Motorcyclists are known to be at substantially higher risk per mile traveled of dying from crashes than car occupants. In 2014, motorcycling made up less than 1 % of person-miles traveled but 13 % of the total mortality from motor-vehicle crashes in the United States. We assessed the cohort effect of the baby-boomers (i.e., those born between 1946 and 1964) in motorcycle crash mortality from 1975 to 2014 in the United States. Using mortality data for motorcycle occupants from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System, we performed an age-period-cohort analysis using the multiphase method and the intrinsic estimator method. Baby-boomers experienced the highest mortality rates from motorcycle crashes at age 20-24 years and continued to experience excess mortality after age 40 years. After removing the effects of age and period, the estimated mortality risk from motorcycle crashes for baby-boomers was 48 % higher than that of the referent cohort (those born between 1930 and 1934, rate ratio 1.48; 95 % CI: 1.01, 2.18). Results from the multiphase method and the intrinsic estimator method were consistent. The baby-boomers have experienced significantly higher mortality from motorcycle crashes than other birth cohorts. To reduce motorcycle crash mortality, intervention programs specifically tailored for the baby-boomer generation are warranted.
Weindling, A M; Hawkins, J M; Coombes, M A; Stringer, J
A high incidence of group B streptococcal disease of the newborn in West Berkshire led to a prospective study of the condition. Cultures taken from 1090 babies shortly after birth showed that 65 (6%) were colonised with the streptococcus. Thirty of these babies were assigned to group 1. Bacteriological samples were taken from babies and mothers at birth and at four, eight, and 12 weeks, and also from fathers and siblings. Fifty uncolonised babies and their families were similarly studied and served as controls (group 2). In group 1,28 of the 30 mothers and 14 of the 28 fathers examined were colonised by group B streptococci. In group 2 the streptococci were isolated from three babies, 12 mothers, and 11 out of 45 fathers during follow-up. These findings suggest that group B streptococci are carried predominantly in the lower gastrointestinal and genitourinary tracts. Most families are lightly colonised, but in others maternal colonisation is stable and heavy and the incidence of paternal colonisation high. Results of serotyping suggest that sexual transmission occurs, which may explain the difficulty in eradicating the organism during pregnancy. PMID:6799041
Cunningham, DiAnne H.
Scope and method of study. This descriptive case study was designed to describe the critical issues surrounding Baby Boomers and their motivations to attend community college, in addition to their perceptions of learning and curriculum needs. Additionally the study explored what these Baby Boomers plan to do after completing their courses and…
Church, Martha Jo; And Others
Written especially for grieving mothers whose babies have died, this booklet offers an overview of stages and experiences through which bereaved parents commonly pass. Specifically, the text is intended to give comfort to bereaved parents, offer insight into the grieving process, and provide thoughts on leave-taking ceremonies. The first section…
Karol, Susan; Tah, Tina; Kenon, Clifton; Meyer, Jenna; Yazzie, Jeannette; Stephens, Celissa; Merewood, Anne
The Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI) increases exclusive breastfeeding. Breastfeeding protects against obesity and diabetes, conditions to which American Indians and Alaska Natives are particularly prone. As part of the First Lady'sLet's Move! in Indian Countryinitiative, the US Department of Health and Human Services' Indian Health Service (IHS) began implementing the BFHI in 2011. The IHS administers 13 US birthing hospitals. There are 5 tribally administered hospitals in the lower 48 states that receive IHS funding, and the IHS encouraged them to seek Baby-Friendly designation also. In the 13 federally administered hospitals, the IHS implemented a Baby-Friendly infant feeding policy, extensive clinician training, and Baby-Friendly compatible medical records. All hospitals also became compliant with the World Health Organization's International Code of Marketing of Breast-Milk Substitutes. Strategies and solutions were shared systemwide via webinars and conference calls. Quality improvement methods, technical assistance, and site visits assisted with the implementation process. Between 2011 and December 2014, 100% (13 of 13) of IHS federally administered hospitals gained Baby-Friendly designation. The first Baby-Friendly hospitals in Arizona, New Mexico, North Dakota, Oklahoma, and South Dakota were all IHS sites; 6% of all US Baby-Friendly hospitals are currently IHS hospitals. One tribal site has also been Baby-Friendly designated and 3 of the 5 remaining tribally administered hospitals in the lower 48 states are pursuing Baby-Friendly status. Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative implementation systemwide is possible in a US government agency serving a high-risk, underprivileged population. Other systems looking to implement the BFHI can learn from the IHS model. © International Lactation Consultant Association 2015.
Glynn, Peter A R
The paper by Trypuc, MacLeod and Hudson provides a timely and important overview of methods to sustain provincial wait time strategies. The emphasis on accountability for patient access to timely care throughout the healthcare system comes through strongly--as it should. These accountabilities are made "real" through purchase service agreements. Physician-hospital relationships are a fundamental aspect of this accountability. This commentary suggests the inclusion of two additional supporting tools in addition to those cited by the authors of the lead paper--quality monitoring and the use of industrial engineering techniques for queue management and patient flow analysis. Strong and persistent leadership of patient access strategies will ensure sustainable change.
Kahlert, Maureen V.
This paper discusses the impact of the Baby Boomer generation on public libraries. The paper has five main objectives: (1) to provide a statistical and demographic profile of the Baby Boomers at the local, state, and national levels within Australia; (2) to provide characteristics of the Baby Boomer generation; (3) to present comparative results…
Merrill, Sarah; Britt, Donna
The authors discuss three steps to helping babies with transitions: observe, ask, and respond (OAR). They advise teachers about how to ask a family questions about their baby and how to give the family suggestions to alleviate the baby's stress, without offending family members. This column includes a list of recommended resources. (Contains 7…
Moore, Charles Guy
Presenting the Baby Boom (1946-1965) as both a potential social problem and opportunity for American leadership, this monograph discusses the following aspects of this population concern: (1) its immediate and long-term impact on career opportunities for those college graduates who make up the baby boom generation; (2) its impact on those whose…
Gilkerson, Linda; Gray, Larry; Mork, Nancy
The authors document the conceptualization, over time, of "fussy baby syndrome" and the establishment of a Fussy Baby Clinic. Excessive infant crying (commonly called colic) typically subsides in the first 3 months but may set up a cycle of parent-infant distress. Families studied felt a high degree of emotional stress and physical exhaustion;…
Queiruga, J. M.
In this work we investigate some features of the fermionic sector of the supersymmetric version of the baby Skyrme model. We find that, in the background of Bogomol'nyi-Prasad-Sommerfield compact baby Skyrmions, fermionic zero modes are confined to the defect core. Further, we show that, while three Supersymmetry (SUSY) generators are broken in the defect core, SUSY is completely restored outside. We study also the effect of a D-term deformation of the model. Such a deformation allows for the existence of fermionic zero modes and broken SUSY outside the compact defect.
Janari, D.; Rakhmawati, A.
Consumer's preferences and market demand are essential factors for product's success. Thus, in achieving its success, a product should have design that could fulfill consumer's expectation. Purpose of this research is accomplishing baby bag product as stipulated by Kansei. The results that represent Kanseiwords are; neat, unique, comfortable, safe, modern, gentle, elegant, antique, attractive, simple, spacious, creative, colorful, durable, stylish, smooth and strong. Identification value on significance of correlation for durable attribute is 0,000 < 0,005, which means significant to baby's bag. While the value of coefficient regression is 0,812 < 0,005, which means that durable attribute insignificant to baby's bag.The result of the baby's bag final design selectionbased on the questionnaire 3 is resulting the combination of all design. Space for clothes, diaper's space, shoulder grip, side grip, bottle's heater pocket and bottle's pocket are derived from design 1. Top grip, space for clothes, shoulder grip, and side grip are derived from design 2.Others design that were taken are, spaces for clothes from design 3, diaper's space and clothes’ space from design 4.
Glocker, Melanie L; Langleben, Daniel D; Ruparel, Kosha; Loughead, James W; Gur, Ruben C; Sachser, Norbert
Ethologist Konrad Lorenz proposed that baby schema ('Kindchenschema') is a set of infantile physical features such as the large head, round face and big eyes that is perceived as cute and motivates caretaking behavior in other individuals, with the evolutionary function of enhancing offspring survival. Previous work on this fundamental concept was restricted to schematic baby representations or correlative approaches. Here, we experimentally tested the effects of baby schema on the perception of cuteness and the motivation for caretaking using photographs of infant faces. Employing quantitative techniques, we parametrically manipulated the baby schema content to produce infant faces with high (e.g. round face and high forehead), and low (e. g. narrow face and low forehead) baby schema features that retained all the characteristics of a photographic portrait. Undergraduate students (n = 122) rated these infants' cuteness and their motivation to take care of them. The high baby schema infants were rated as more cute and elicited stronger motivation for caretaking than the unmanipulated and the low baby schema infants. This is the first experimental proof of the baby schema effects in actual infant faces. Our findings indicate that the baby schema response is a critical function of human social cognition that may be the basis of caregiving and have implications for infant-caretaker interactions.
Sachs, Magda; Dykes, Fiona; Carter, Bernie
Background Weighing breastfed babies has been the subject of some controversy as the previous international growth chart was largely based on data from infants fed infant formula. The concern that professionals may be misled by the charts into suggesting to mothers that they supplement unnecessarily was a major impetus for the World Health Organization's investment in a new growth chart. Evidence of interpretation in practice has been scant. Methods An ethnographic study was conducted in a town in the Northwest of England to investigate this issue. In the first phase, women and health visitors were observed in the well-child clinic during clinic sessions and breastfeeding group meetings. In the second phase, longitudinal interviews with 14 women were conducted. Each woman was interviewed up to three times in the first six months after the birth of her baby, with a total of 35 interviews. Results Mothers and health visitors focussed on weight gain with frequent weighing and attention to even minor fluctuations of the plotted line being evident. Women felt it important to ensure their baby's weight followed a centile, and preferred for this to be the fiftieth centile. Interventions included giving infant formula and solids as well as changing what the mother ate and drank. Women also described how they worried about their baby's weight. Little effective support by health professionals with breastfeeding technique was observed. Conclusion Babies were weighed more often than officially recommended, with weighing and plotting being at the core of each clinic visit. The plotted weight chart exerted a powerful influence on both women's and health visitors' understanding of the adequacy of breastfeeding. They appeared to rate the regular progression of weight gains along the chart centiles more highly than continued or exclusive breastfeeding. Thus weighing and visual charting of weight constituted a form of surveillance under the medical gaze, with mothers actively
The baby boom generation will place large demands on the Medicare program and the U.S. health care system. These demands may be extended by a large legal immigrant population that will become Medicare-eligible soon after the baby boom generation does. The U.S. health care system should be prepared for sustained stress from this again population.
Guberman, Nancy; Lavoie, Jean-Pierre; Blein, Laure; Olazabal, Ignace
Purpose: Many Baby Boomers are faced with the care of aging parents, as well as that of disabled or ill spouses or children. This study examines how Baby Boomers in Quebec, Canada, perceive and play their role as caregivers and how this might differ from their parents' generation. Design and methods: This was a qualitative and empirical study…
Cengiz, Mehmet Fatih; Gündüz, Cennet Pelin Boyacı
In this study, acrylamide exposure from selected cereal-based baby food samples was investigated among toddlers aged 1-3 years in Turkey. The study contained three steps. The first step was collecting food consumption data and toddlers' physical properties, such as gender, age and body weight, using a questionnaire given to parents by a trained interviewer between January and March 2012. The second step was determining the acrylamide levels in food samples that were reported on by the parents in the questionnaire, using a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method. The last step was combining the determined acrylamide levels in selected food samples with individual food consumption and body weight data using a deterministic approach to estimate the acrylamide exposure levels. The mean acrylamide levels of baby biscuits, breads, baby bread-rusks, crackers, biscuits, breakfast cereals and powdered cereal-based baby foods were 153, 225, 121, 604, 495, 290 and 36 μg/kg, respectively. The minimum, mean and maximum acrylamide exposures were estimated to be 0.06, 1.43 and 6.41 μg/kg BW per day, respectively. The foods that contributed to acrylamide exposure were aligned from high to low as bread, crackers, biscuits, baby biscuits, powdered cereal-based baby foods, baby bread-rusks and breakfast cereals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Harron, Katie; Gilbert, Ruth; Cromwell, David; van der Meulen, Jan
Linkage of longitudinal administrative data for mothers and babies supports research and service evaluation in several populations around the world. We established a linked mother-baby cohort using pseudonymised, population-level data for England. Retrospective linkage study using electronic hospital records of mothers and babies admitted to NHS hospitals in England, captured in Hospital Episode Statistics between April 2001 and March 2013. Of 672,955 baby records in 2012/13, 280,470 (42%) linked deterministically to a maternal record using hospital, GP practice, maternal age, birthweight, gestation, birth order and sex. A further 380,164 (56%) records linked using probabilistic methods incorporating additional variables that could differ between mother/baby records (admission dates, ethnicity, 3/4-character postcode district) or that include missing values (delivery variables). The false-match rate was estimated at 0.15% using synthetic data. Data quality improved over time: for 2001/02, 91% of baby records were linked (holding the estimated false-match rate at 0.15%). The linked cohort was representative of national distributions of gender, gestation, birth weight and maternal age, and captured approximately 97% of births in England. Probabilistic linkage of maternal and baby healthcare characteristics offers an efficient way to enrich maternity data, improve data quality, and create longitudinal cohorts for research and service evaluation. This approach could be extended to linkage of other datasets that have non-disclosive characteristics in common.
Albrecht, Simone; Schols, Henk A; van Zoeren, Diny; van Lingen, Richard A; Groot Jebbink, Liesbeth J M; van den Heuvel, Ellen G H M; Voragen, Alphons G J; Gruppen, Harry
So far, little is known on the fate of oligosaccharides in the colon of breast- and formula-fed babies. Using capillary electrophoresis with laser induced fluorescence detector coupled to a mass spectrometer (CE-LIF-MS(n)), we studied the fecal oligosaccharide profiles of 27 two-month-old breast-, formula- and mixed-fed preterm babies. The interpretation of the complex oligosaccharide profiles was facilitated by beforehand clustering the CE-LIF data points by agglomerative hierarchical clustering (AHC). In the feces of breast-fed babies, characteristic human milk oligosaccharide (HMO) profiles, showing genetic fingerprints known for human milk of secretors and non-secretors, were recognized. Alternatively, advanced degradation and bioconversion of HMOs, resulting in an accumulation of acidic HMOs or HMO bioconversion products was observed. Independent of the prebiotic supplementation of the formula with galactooligosaccharides (GOS) at the level used, similar oligosaccharide profiles of low peak abundance were obtained for formula-fed babies. Feeding influences the presence of diet-related oligosaccharides in baby feces and gastrointestinal adaptation plays an important role herein. Four fecal oligosaccharides, characterized as HexNAc-Hex-Hex, Hex-[Fuc]-HexNAc-Hex, HexNAc-[Fuc]-Hex-Hex and HexNAc-[Fuc]-Hex-HexNAc-Hex-Hex, highlighted an active gastrointestinal metabolization of the feeding-related oligosaccharides. Their presence was linked to the gastrointestinal mucus layer and the blood-group determinant oligosaccharides therein, which are characteristic for the host's genotype. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Aguilar Cordero, M J; Batran Ahmed, S M; Padilla López, C A; Guisado Barrilao, R; Gómez García, C
In addition to its important role in the initiation of breastfeeding, early skin-to-skin contact benefits both mothers and their babies. To inform all mothers of premature babies about the importance of skin-to-skin contact and breast-feeding in order to foment a closer bond between mother and child (development-centered care). A prospective cohort study was conducted in various hospitals on the West Bank in Palestine during 2008-2011. The universe was made up of an estimated average of 2,500 childbirths per year in each hospital. All of the subjects in the sample population of n = 252 babies had a gestational age of less than 37 GWs, and had weighed less than 2,500 grams at birth. For health reasons, they were hospitalized in neonatal care units. The results obtained showed that in Palestine, young women tend to breastfeed their babies and have skin-to-skin contact with them more often than older mothers. Once the new mothers were informed of the advantages of these practices, they showed greater interest in learning how to care for their babies in the neonatal care units. Breastfeeding premature babies as well as having skin-to-skin contact with them was made possible by informing and teaching new mothers about the advantages of this type of infant care. This research has had widespread impact and has been very well received by the female population in the country. This is the first study of its kind to be carried out in Palestine.
Thornberry, Timothy; Han, Jennifer; Thomas, Linda
IMPORTANCE: Oklahoma has one of the highest rates of infant mortality and poor birth outcomes in the U.S., particularly among minority populations. OBJECTIVES: To describe the formation and implementation of a state-led infant mortality prevention program which sought to: educate minorities about their disproportionate risk for infant mortality; improve pregnancy, infancy, and early childhood outcomes; and prevent infant mortality. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Participants completed one of many community baby shower events and were evaluated pre- and post-shower on infant mortality and well-baby knowledge. INTERVENTION: The "A Healthy Baby Begins with You" program. Main outcomes and measures. Pre- and post-intervention questionnaires assessing participant knowledge about infant mortality and willingness to share learned knowledge with others in the community. RESULTS: Preliminary results suggest that community baby showers were well-received. Respondents tended to be American Indians, non-Hispanic Whites, or Blacks/African Americans, young adults (aged 20 to 29 years), pregnant women, and mothers of grandparents of young children. Showers were successful in increasing participant knowledge of infant mortality, although these results varied by respondent race and age. Most respondents reported intent to share knowledge acquired during community baby showers with others. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Preliminary findings suggest community baby showers may increase participant knowledge, although future studies are needed to ensure effectiveness across all participant subgroups. This study documents the feasibility and acceptability of a community-based educational program targeting dissemination of infant mortality and well-child information. Barriers and future directions for research and prevention are discussed.
Harris, Deborah L; Weston, Philip J; Harding, Jane E
Routine blood glucose screening is recommended for babies at risk of neonatal hypoglycemia. However, the incidence of hypoglycemia in those screened is not well described. We sought to determine the incidence of hypoglycemia in babies identified as being at risk, and also to determine differences in incidence between at risk groups. Infants (n = 514) were recruited who were born in a tertiary hospital, ≥35 weeks gestation and identified as at risk of hypoglycemia (small, large, infant of a diabetic, late-preterm, and other). Blood glucose screening used a standard protocol and a glucose oxidase method of glucose measurement in the first 48 hours after birth. One-half of the babies (260/514, 51%) became hypoglycemic (<2.6 mM), 97 (19%) had severe hypoglycemia (≤2.0 mM), and 98 (19%) had more than 1 episode. The mean duration of an episode was 1.4 hours. Most episodes (315/390, 81%) occurred in the first 24 hours. The median number of blood glucose measurements for each baby was 9 (range 1-22). The incidence and timing of hypoglycemia was similar in all at risk groups, but babies with a total of 3 risk factors were more likely to have severe hypoglycemia. Hypoglycemia is common amongst babies recommended for routine blood glucose screening. We found no evidence that screening protocols should differ in different at risk groups, but multiple risk factors may increase severity. The significance of these hypoglycemic episodes for long-term outcome remains undetermined. Copyright © 2012 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Ertekin, Arif Aktug; Nihan Ozdemir, Nilufer; Sahinoglu, Zeki; Gursoy, Tugba; Erbil, Nazan; Kaya, Erdal
We investigated the effects of delayed and early clamping of the cord on the hematologic status of the baby at birth and at the end of second month. Umbilical cord of 74 babies were clamped in the first 30 s (Group 1) and 76 were clamped at 90-120 s (Group 2). Levels of hemoglobin, hematocrit, iron and ferritin were analyzed from the umbilical cord blood at birth and from the venous samples at the end of second month. Hemoglobin, hematocrit, iron and ferritin levels of cord blood were similar in both groups. However, their levels other than ferritin were higher in Group 2 at the end of second month. Two babies had respiratory distress and twelve neonates received phototherapy in Group 2 whereas only five neonates received phototherapy in Group 1. Term babies to whom delayed cord clamping was performed had improved hematological parameters at the end of second month. Therefore, delaying cord clamping in these babies may be a favorible approach in preventing anemia.
Hey, E. N.; O'Connell, Bridget
Oxygen consumption and heat balance have been studied in 42 clothed babies under varied environmental temperature conditions. The information obtained has made it possible to compare the thermal environment provided by an incubator with that provided by an ordinary nursery cot. Some of the merits of cots and incubators are contrasted. Resistance to heat loss in a naked newborn baby lying on a mattress in a moderately humid draught-free room is approximately 1 `clo' unit. Provision of a vest, napkin, and long nightdress increases this resistance to about 2·3 units, while wrapping the clothed baby in a flannelette sheet and covering it with 2 layers of cotton blanket increases the total resistance to 2·9 clo units. A draught-free environment of 24 °C. (75 °F.) is necessary to provide completely neutral thermal conditions for most cot-nursed babies insulated against heat loss with clothes and blankets in the first month of life, while a room temperature of up to 29 °C. (85 °F.) may be necessary to ensure comparable conditions for a baby weighing less than 1½ kg. during much of the first week of life. ImagesFIG. 1 PMID:5427847
This article challenges the notion that entropy is something to be avoided. A line of argument is presented that is accessible to those not having specialist knowledge and that offers a new perspective to those more familiar with the concept. It shows that temperature is better understood by addressing entropy. Entropy change diagrams are…
Prinn, Elizabeth, Ed.
Access is a journal published three or four times a year by Challenge for Change/Societe Nouvelle (CCSN). CCSN is an experimental program established by the Government of Canada as a cooperative effort between the National Film Board of Canada and certain of the Government's departments. Its purposes are to improve communications, create greater…
Mueller, Vannesa; Sepulveda, Amanda; Rodriguez, Sarai
Although Baby Sign is gaining in popularity, there is a scarcity of research supporting its use. The research that has been conducted is conflicting. In the current study, nine families with children ranging in age from six months to two years and five months participated in a baby sign workshop. A pre--post-test design was used to assess the…
Winefield, Helen; O'Dwyer, Lisel; Taylor, Anne
The baby boomer generation poses challenges to understand how to enhance both the well-being and the continuing workforce participation of older workers. We sought to explore the role of social relations both at work and in other domains of life, in relation to the health and well-being of the baby boomer workforce in Australia. Employed participants (n = 743) born 1946-1965 inclusive provided information about their work environment, financial security and loneliness. Regressions were used to explore the relationships of those variables to well-being (work-life interference, absenteeism, job satisfaction, life satisfaction, health and psychological distress). Social environment indicators especially supervisor support and worker loneliness reliably increased the variance explained by demographics and work demands and control, in well-being outcomes. To maintain the well-being and workforce participation of baby boomer generation workers, employers need to attend to creating worker-friendly environments. © 2016 AJA Inc.
Sauseng, W; Kerbl, R; Thaller, S; Hanzer, M; Zotter, H
Thermal stress is a risk factor for sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). Recently, baby sleeping bags have been recommended as a preventive measure against SIDS. The aim of this study was to describe in which way the use of baby sleeping bags might influence thermoregulation of sleeping infants and maybe the incidence of SIDS. Body surface temperature was recorded by use of infrared thermography in 15 infants (median age 49 days). Recordings were done twice: after sleeping for 60 min under a blanket and after sleeping for 60 min in a baby sleeping bag. Temperature was recorded and compared for defined sites of body surface. Infants' mean body surface temperature as well as core temperature after sleeping in a baby sleeping bag did not show significant differences when compared to infants sleeping under a conventional blanket. Under controlled conditions, core temperature and mean body surface temperature are comparable, equally if using a baby sleeping bag or conventional bedding. However, under the more uncontrolled conditions of baby care at home, sleeping bags might provide a more constant temperature profile, while other bedding conditions may lead to significant variations of temperature pattern. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
"No Baby Left Behind" was created to have an impact on the school readiness of children in the community today and in the future. Each year, there are an increasing number of students who have learning difficulties. Many of these problems are preventable. Accidents, poor nutrition (of the mother and/or child), drug use, alcohol use, and lack of…
Shiva, F; Ghotbi, F; Yavari, S F
A study was conducted to define the pattern of baby walker usage and the rate of walker-related injuries in infants, as well as to determine the effects of baby walkers on the start of independent walking among infants. Families of infants aged six months to two years who presented at health facility clinics in 2007 and 2008 were enrolled in the study. The study team interviewed the primary caregiver and documented the relevant data on a pre-designed questionnaire. The data of users of baby walkers was compared with that of non-users. Walkers were used by 54.5 percent of 414 infants. Their use was significantly higher in one-child families (p-value is 0.009) and in those with higher parental education levels (p-value is less than 0.001). 78.6 percent of users and 85 percent of non-users were walking by 12 months of age (p-value is 0.283); no significant difference was observed between the two groups in terms of the age at which the infants starting walking (p-value is 0.401). 76.8 percent of parents of users versus 8.2 percent of parents of non-users believed that walkers promote early walking (p-value is less than 0.001). 44.7 percent of parents of users knew that walkers can be hazardous, as compared to 22.3 percent of parents of non-users. No serious injury was reported, but 14.1 percent of infants sustained trivial walker-associated injuries. Baby walkers do not hasten independent walking and may be associated with injuries. However, it was noted that knowledge of the associated hazards has not deterred parents from using baby walkers for their infants.
Kore, Ashish; Singh, Poorva
We have studied the heterostructure of BaBi3 (superconductor) and stanene (topological insulator) with the aim of inducing topological superconductivity in stanene, due to proximity with superconductor BaBi3. The density functional theory calculations have been done for 2D structure of BaBi3 as well as for monolayer of stanene, separately. We find that compared to bulk BaBi3, the 2D bandstructure has contributions coming from both Ba and Bi atoms, unlike bulk where only Bi-p states are contributing to the bandstructure. Surface reconstruction of surface and sub-surface layer of 2D BaBi3 is also evident. The bandstructure of heterostructure of BaBi3-stanene is expected to bring out explicit features of topological superconductivity and indicating the presence of Majorana fermions.
Prinn, Elizabeth, Ed.; Henaut, Dorothy Todd, Ed.
This issue of Access, the journal issued periodically by Challenge for Change/Societe Nouvelle, contains two groups of articles. The first focuses upon the Skyriver Project, relating how a project was developed which used film and video tape as a means of helping Alaskan communities to assess their own needs and to advocate for themselves the…
Gilbert, Ruth; Cromwell, David; van der Meulen, Jan
Objective Linkage of longitudinal administrative data for mothers and babies supports research and service evaluation in several populations around the world. We established a linked mother-baby cohort using pseudonymised, population-level data for England. Design and Setting Retrospective linkage study using electronic hospital records of mothers and babies admitted to NHS hospitals in England, captured in Hospital Episode Statistics between April 2001 and March 2013. Results Of 672,955 baby records in 2012/13, 280,470 (42%) linked deterministically to a maternal record using hospital, GP practice, maternal age, birthweight, gestation, birth order and sex. A further 380,164 (56%) records linked using probabilistic methods incorporating additional variables that could differ between mother/baby records (admission dates, ethnicity, 3/4-character postcode district) or that include missing values (delivery variables). The false-match rate was estimated at 0.15% using synthetic data. Data quality improved over time: for 2001/02, 91% of baby records were linked (holding the estimated false-match rate at 0.15%). The linked cohort was representative of national distributions of gender, gestation, birth weight and maternal age, and captured approximately 97% of births in England. Conclusion Probabilistic linkage of maternal and baby healthcare characteristics offers an efficient way to enrich maternity data, improve data quality, and create longitudinal cohorts for research and service evaluation. This approach could be extended to linkage of other datasets that have non-disclosive characteristics in common. PMID:27764135
Khokhar, Anita; Goyal, Parveen K.; Thakur, O. P.; Sreenivas, K.
The structure and ferroelectric properties of Lanthanum substituted barium bismuth titanate BaBi4-xLaxTi4O15 (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.5) ceramics prepared by solid-state reaction method have been investigated. X-ray diffraction (XRD) confirms the formation of a single phase material. The distribution of lanthanum into the perovskite layers and (Bi2O2)2+ layers of BaBi4Ti4O15 ceramics have been revealed through Raman spectroscopy. At lower value of x, it is seen that La3+ ions prefer to substitute A-site Bi3+ ions in the perovskite layers while for higher x values, La3+ ions get incorporated into the (Bi2O2)2+ layers. A critical La content of x ˜ 0.2 in BaBi4-xLaxTi4O15 is seen to exhibit a large remnant polarization (Pr) with low coercive field (Ec). The improvement in the ferroelectric properties of La substituted BaBi4Ti4O15 ceramics has been explained in terms of changing oxygen vacancy concentration and structural relaxation. Tunable ferroelectric materials can be obtained by manipulating the doping amount of lanthanum ion.
Cheng, Erika R; Declercq, Eugene R; Belanoff, Candice; Stotland, Naomi E; Iverson, Ronald E
To characterize the prevalence of and factors associated with clinicians' prenatal suspicion of a large baby; and to determine whether communicating fetal size concerns to patients was associated with labor and delivery interventions and outcomes. We examined data from women without a prior cesarean who responded to Listening to Mothers III, a nationally representative survey of women who had given birth between July 2011 and June 2012 (n = 1960). We estimated the effect of having a suspected large baby (SLB) on the odds of six labor and delivery outcomes. Nearly one-third (31.2%) of women were told by their maternity care providers that their babies might be getting "quite large"; however, only 9.9% delivered a baby weighing ≥4000 g (19.7% among mothers with SLBs, 5.5% without). Women with SLBs had increased adjusted odds of medically-induced labor (AOR 1.9; 95% CI 1.4-2.6), attempted self-induced labor (AOR 1.9; 95% CI 1.4-2.7), and use of epidural analgesics (AOR 2.0; 95% CI 1.4-2.9). No differences were noted for overall cesarean rates, although women with SLBs were more likely to ask for (AOR 4.6; 95% CI 2.8-7.6) and have planned (AOR 1.8; 95% CI 1.0-4.5) cesarean deliveries. These associations were not affected by adjustment for gestational age and birthweight. Only one in five US women who were told that their babies might be getting quite large actually delivered infants weighing ≥4000 g. However, the suspicion of a large baby was associated with an increase in perinatal interventions, regardless of actual fetal size.
Lee; Koon, Hock; Shi; Luping; Zhao; Rong; Yang; Hongxin; Lim; Guan, Kian; Li; Jianming; Chong; Chong, Tow
A new elevated-confined phase-change random access memory (PCRAM) cell structure to reduce power consumption was proposed. In this proposed structure, the confined phase-change region is sitting on top of a small metal column enclosed by a dielectric at the sides. Hence, more heat can be effectively sustained underneath the phase-change region. As for the conventional structure, the confined phase-change region is sitting directly above a large planar bottom metal electrode, which can easily conduct most of the induced heat away. From simulations, a more uniform temperature profile around the active region and a higher peak temperature at the phase-change layer (PCL) in an elevated-confined structure were observed. Experimental results showed that the elevated-confined PCRAM cell requires a lower programming power and has a better scalability than a conventional confined PCRAM cell.
Seidel, Kathrin; Kahl, Johannes; Paoletti, Flavio; Birlouez, Ines; Busscher, Nicolaas; Kretzschmar, Ursula; Särkkä-Tirkkonen, Marjo; Seljåsen, Randi; Sinesio, Fiorella; Torp, Torfinn; Baiamonte, Irene
The market for processed food is rapidly growing. The industry needs methods for "processing with care" leading to high quality products in order to meet consumers' expectations. Processing influences the quality of the finished product through various factors. In carrot baby food, these are the raw material, the pre-processing and storage treatments as well as the processing conditions. In this study, a quality assessment was performed on baby food made from different pre-processed raw materials. The experiments were carried out under industrial conditions using fresh, frozen and stored organic carrots as raw material. Statistically significant differences were found for sensory attributes among the three autoclaved puree samples (e.g. overall odour F = 90.72, p < 0.001). Samples processed from frozen carrots show increased moisture content and decrease of several chemical constituents. Biocrystallization identified changes between replications of the cooking. Pre-treatment of raw material has a significant influence on the final quality of the baby food.
Gottlieb, Alma; DeLoache, Judy
Should babies sleep alone in cribs, or in bed with parents? Is talking to babies useful, or a waste of time? "A World of Babies" provides different answers to these and countless other child-rearing questions, precisely because diverse communities around the world hold drastically different beliefs about parenting. While celebrating that…
Merkow, Carla H.; Costa-Giomi, Eugenia
The distinct music genre known as baby music is based on the premise that infants benefit from music "re-orchestrated for their little ears" ("Baby Einstein Takealong Tunes". (2012). Retrieved December 11, 2012, from http://www.babyeinstein.com/en/products/product_explorer/theme/music/62350/Takealong_Tunes.html). We completed a…
Hardy, Margaret; Oprescu, Florin; Millear, Prudence; Summers, Mathew
This study draws from interviews of baby boomers (born between 1946 and 1965) enrolled in a traditional university programme. Interviews focussed on the mental, social and physical benefits of university education, exploring the aspirations of baby boomers as well as the social and academic barriers and costs they encountered. This qualitative…
Durak, M Zeki; Churey, John J; Gates, Matthew; Sacks, Gavin L; Worobo, Randy W
Foodborne illnesses associated with fresh produce continue to be a major concern as consumer demand for healthier and nonthermally processed food increases. The objective of this study was to evaluate vaporized ethyl pyruvate (EP; CAS 617-35-6) as a safe alternative antimicrobial agent for the decontamination of Escherichia coli O157:H7 on green onions and spinach. Baby spinach leaves and green onions were inoculated with a five-strain cocktail of E. coli O157:H7 (pGFP) by the dipping method. Samples were treated with concentrations of 0, 42, 105, and 420 mg/liter vaporized EP in a 2.6-liter enclosed container. The efficacy of EP vapors for reducing E. coli O157:H7((GFP)) populations on green onions and baby spinach at 4 and 10°C was monitored for 7 and 5 days, respectively. The lowest EP concentration (42 mg/liter) resulted in a 1.7-log reduction of E. coli O157:H7((GFP)) on green onions after 7 days at 4°C and a 1.9-log reduction after 5 days at 10°C (P < 0.05). In baby spinach, the same concentration resulted in 0.9-log and 1.4-log reductions (P < 0.05) of E. coli O157:H7((GFP)) after 7 days at 4°C and 5 days at 10°C, respectively. On green onions, the highest concentration of EP (420 mg/liter) reduced the population of E. coli O157:H7((GFP)) by >4.7 log CFU/g after 7 days at 4°C and 5 days at 10°C. The same concentration was also effective for reducing E. coli O157:H7((GFP)) populations in baby spinach by 4.3 log CFU/g after 7 days at 4°C and by >6.5 log CFU/g after 3 days at 10°C. Although the successful EP treatments minimally affected the sensory attributes of green onions, the treatments resulted in significant changes in the sensory attributes of baby spinach samples stored at 4 and 10°C. These results indicate that EP is an effective antimicrobial that could be used to enhance the safety of fresh produce depending on the sensory characteristics of the product.
A baby eagle perches in a nest in a tree along State Road 3 at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The center shares a border with the 140,000-acre Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge. More than 330 native and migratory bird species, 25 mammals, 117 fishes and 65 amphibians and reptiles call Kennedy and the wildlife refuge home.
Two baby eagles perch in a nest in a tree along State Road 3 at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The center shares a border with the 140,000-acre Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge. More than 330 native and migratory bird species, 25 mammals, 117 fishes and 65 amphibians and reptiles call Kennedy and the wildlife refuge home.
Lipschultz, Jeremy H.; Hilt, Michael L.; Reilly, Hugh J.
Baby boomer trends are applied in the development of a conceptual framework that offers a social systems and cultural model for future studies. While there has been considerable recent attention paid to baby boomers, the studies lack a coherent theoretical base that would allow for more advanced and continuing research. Aging baby boomers heading…
... lie; Fetal attitude; Fetal descent; Fetal station; Cardinal movements; Labor-birth canal; Delivery-birth canal ... are used to describe your baby's position and movement through the birth canal. FETAL STATION Fetal station ...
Galzote, Carlos; Thomas, Mini; Sachdev, Mukta
Ethnic differences in skin sensitivity suggest that greater emphasis be focused on understanding a product's effect in diverse populations. The irritation and/or sensitization potential of 8 baby skin care products in Indian adults were evaluated using cumulative irritation tests (CIT) and human repeat insult patch testing (HRIPT) protocols. Healthy males or females aged 18 to 65 years of Indian ethnicity were treated with each of 6 products (cream, hair oil, lotion, body wash, shampoo, and baby soap) using CIT (n = 25) and HRIPT (n = 200). Baby powder and baby oil were evaluated by CIT (n = 25) and HRIPT (n = 107) in separate studies. CITs were conducted over 14 days; HRIPTs were conducted over 10 weeks. In both CIT and HRIPT, most products were considered mild, with no irritation. Baby soap and powder elicited reactions in the HRIPT induction phase, with positive challenge phase reactions (3 subjects), but were affirmed to be nonallergenic in the rechallenge phase. In these studies, 8 baby skin care products were evaluated by both CIT and HRIPT in Indian adults. The results of the studies indicated that all of the tested products were nonallergenic and nonirritating.
J Drugs Dermatol. 2016;15(10):1244-1248.
Hoffman, Geoffrey J; Lee, Jihey; Mendez-Luck, Carolyn A
This study examines health-risk behaviors among "Baby Boomer" caregivers and non-caregivers. Data from the 2009 California Health Interview Survey of the state's non-institutionalized population provided individual-level, caregiving, and health behavior characteristics for 5,688 informal caregivers and 12,941 non-caregivers. Logistic regression models were estimated separately for four individual health-risk behaviors-smoking, sedentary behavior, and regular soda and fast-food consumption-as well as a global health-risk measure. Controlling for psychological distress and personal characteristics and social resources such as age, gender, income and education, work and marital status, and neighborhood safety, caregivers had greater odds than non-caregivers of overall negative health behavior and of smoking and regular soda and fast-food consumption. We did not observe significant differences in odds of negative behavior related to stress for spousal caregivers and caregivers in the role for longer periods of time or those providing more hours of weekly care compared with other caregivers. Our study found evidence that Baby Boomer caregivers engage in poor health behaviors that are associated with exposure to caregiving. Baby Boomer caregivers may be at risk for certain behavioral factors that are associated with disability and chronic illness.
Alzahrani, Musaed; Ratelle, Justine; Cavel, Oren; Laberge-Malo, Marie; Saliba, Issam
To evaluate hearing in children diagnosed with shaken baby syndrome. A retrospective study conducted in a pediatric tertiary care center between 2006 and 2012. Children diagnosed with shaken baby syndrome were included for hearing evaluation by conventional audiometry, distortion product otoacoustic emissions and auditory brainstem responses. Twenty-eight children were included (22 boys and 6 girls). The mean age of children at presentation was 8 months (range 1-26 months) and the mean delay before audiometric evaluation was 30 months (range 1-87 months). One child was diagnosed as having a moderate sensorineural hearing loss. The tympanic membrane mobility was normal (type A) for both ears in 22 children, one child had a reduced tympanic mobility in one ear, two children had a negative pressure, one child had a functional trans-tympanic tube and test was not performed in 2 patients. This is the first study reporting hearing loss as a possible result of shaken baby syndrome. However, further studies with larger number of children would be preferable. We recommend hearing evaluation for these children to rule out hearing loss. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
... Your Baby - العربية (Arabic) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Chinese, Simplified (Mandarin dialect) (简体中文) Expand Section Choosing ... Chinese, Simplified (Mandarin dialect)) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Chinese, Traditional (Cantonese dialect) (繁體中文) Expand Section Choosing ...
Discusses the emerging three-tiered structure (i.e., the "Baby Bells," network nodes, and information marketers) that will assume responsibility for implementing a new national information network and getting networked information to the public. The role of libraries related to networked information is also considered. (EA)
Yamada, Masayoshi; Fukuzawa, Masayuki; Kitsunezuka, Yoshiki; Kishida, Jun; Nakamori, Nobuyuki; Kanamori, Hitoshi; Sakurai, Takashi; Kodama, Souichi
In order to detect pulsation from a series of noisy ultrasound-echo moving images of a newborn baby's head for pediatric diagnosis, a digital image processing system capable of recording at the video rate and processing the recorded series of images was constructed. The time-sequence variations of each pixel value in a series of moving images were analyzed and then an algorithm based on Fourier transform was developed for the pulsation detection, noting that the pulsation associated with blood flow was periodically changed by heartbeat. Pulsation detection for pediatric diagnosis was successfully made from a series of noisy ultrasound-echo moving images of newborn baby's head by using the image processing system and the pulsation detection algorithm developed here.
Chapman, Kathy L.; Hardin-Jones, Mary; Schulte, Julie; Halter, Kelli Ann
This study compared the prelinguistic vocal development of 30 9- month-old babies with unrepaired cleft palate and age-matched peers (N=15). Fewer of the babies with cleft palate had reached the canonical babbling stage (57 percent versus 93 percent) and had smaller consonant inventories. However, syllable types and length and number of…
Honig, Alice Sterling
Using Simple strategies, caregivers can learn to effectively communicate with infants through touch. This article offers suggestions and techniques for calming squirming babies of all types and ages who seem to be unable to find a comfortable position while being held. She begins by suggesting that care givers of very small babies be patient and…
... Collaboratives Launch Prematurity research centers What is team science? More than 75 years of solving problems March ... the hind milk, which is highest in the fat calories your baby needs. Pump for a minute ...
Akin, John S; Dow, William H; Lance, Peter M; Loh, Chung-Ping A
The post-1979 period in China has seen the implementation of reforms that dismantled much of the Maoist era social welfare system and permitted a significant reallocation of society's resources. The result has been rapid but uneven economic development that has profoundly altered the environment within which consumers make health investment decisions. Many studies report significant and apparently non-random reductions in health care utilization during this period. Scholars have tended to focus on the loss of insurance coverage and the growth of fees for services in explaining such reductions. An alternative explanation is growing inequality in access to care. This possibility has not received much research attention. As a result, our understanding of the patterns of changes in health care access, and of the types of populations that have been most adversely affected, has been rather limited. This research examines the distribution of the changes in several indicators of access to health care across communities during the period 1989 to 1997. We find evidence of relatively uneven changes to these indicators. Money charges for routine services increased consistently, though this trend was less pronounced in lower-income communities. Most communities experienced reductions in travel distance to clinics but increases in distance to hospitals. There were major improvements to the quality of care in wealthier rural areas, but not in poorer villages. Wealthier villages experienced less improvement in waiting time and drug availability. These trends appear to be closely associated with changing economic circumstances during the reform era.
Davim, Rejane Marie Barbosa; Enders, Bertha Cruz; da Silva, Richardson Augusto Rosendo
This study aimed at learning about the feelings experienced by mothers while breastfeeding their premature babies in a rooming-in facility, by means of individual interviews with 33 mothers during the period of February to April 2006, at a maternity hospital in Natal/RN/Brazil. The main feelings referred by the mothers regarding their inability to breastfeed their premature babies immediately after delivery were: sorrow, guilt, disappointment, frustration, insecurity, and fear of touching, holding or harming the delicate babies while breastfeeding. However, the mother-child bond that was formed when the baby was discharged from the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit and taken to the rooming-in facility was reflected by feelings of fulfillment, pride, and satisfaction at experiencing the first breastfeeding.
... little one). What's Next? For the remainder of this year and next year, expect that your baby's growth ... Gavin, MD Date reviewed: December 2014 More on this topic for: ... and Your 8- to 12-Month-Old Your Child's Checkup: 1 Year (12 Months) Movement, Coordination, and Your 8- to ...
Blakemore, Judith E. Owen
Previous research in laboratory settings has found that preschool girls show more interest in babies than do preschool boys. To validate these findings in natural settings, 71 children at 3 and 5 years of age were observed by their parents as the children interacted with babies in their daily lives. Each child was observed with three different…
... heart for the doctor to evaluate. The sound waves can also detect blood flow throughout the baby's heart. This enables the doctor to evaluate the structure and function of the fetal heart. Who needs one? Fetal ...
Fenichel, Emily, Ed.
"Zero to Three" is a single-focus bulletin of the National Center for Infants, Toddlers, and Families providing insight from multiple disciplines on the development of infants, toddlers, and their families. Noting that America's babies and toddlers live in a world full of television sets, VCRs, computers, videogames, and interactive…
... baby against these diseases? No. Breastfeeding offers temporary immunity against some minor infections like colds, but it ... preferable to “artificial” vaccination, leading to a “natural” immunity. Some even arrange chickenpox “parties” to ensure their ...
Maudlin, Julie G.; Sandlin, Jennifer A.; Thaller, Jonel
We focus on the recently emerging "baby culture" that is fostering a curriculum of consumption and consumerism among parents-to-be and infants aged zero-to-three. To gain insight into how the cultural artifacts, practices, and trends emerging from this demographic are shaping the way we think and act in a consumer culture, we investigate…
Haynes, Carion R.
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is steadily increasing among the baby boom population. Among this population, there is a gap between knowledge and behavioral choices. HIV risk perception is multifaceted and shaped by different sociodemographic factors. Baby boomers' perception of risk and sociocognitive determinates that impact their decision…
... Adolescents.” (3) Laboratory tests associated with the well-baby and well-child routine physical examinations... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost sharing for well-baby and well-child care... well-baby and well-child care services. (a) A State may not impose copayments, deductibles, coinsurance...
Rosen, Susan; Mestas, Leonard
Prepared mainly for paraprofessional staff of the Colorado Migrant Council, this 1970 handbook, available in either English or Spanish, presents information on caring fo r the migrant child. Three sections -- Baby, Child, and Sick Child -- discuss general care and specific care for such topics as hand washing, bathing, diapering, rashes, weight,…
Long before babies understand words, they understand touch. The first experience of compassion infants receive is gentle, caring touch, which gives a strong message, especially when accompanied by eye contact and a soft tone of voice. The kind of relationship a compassionate caregiver strives to develop with an infant creates attachment, an…
Hoffman, Geoffrey J.; Lee, Jihey; Mendez-Luck, Carolyn A.
Purpose of the Study: This study examines health-risk behaviors among “Baby Boomer” caregivers and non-caregivers. Design and Methods: Data from the 2009 California Health Interview Survey of the state’s non-institutionalized population provided individual-level, caregiving, and health behavior characteristics for 5,688 informal caregivers and 12,941 non-caregivers. Logistic regression models were estimated separately for four individual health-risk behaviors—smoking, sedentary behavior, and regular soda and fast-food consumption—as well as a global health-risk measure. Results: Controlling for psychological distress and personal characteristics and social resources such as age, gender, income and education, work and marital status, and neighborhood safety, caregivers had greater odds than non-caregivers of overall negative health behavior and of smoking and regular soda and fast-food consumption. We did not observe significant differences in odds of negative behavior related to stress for spousal caregivers and caregivers in the role for longer periods of time or those providing more hours of weekly care compared with other caregivers. Implications: Our study found evidence that Baby Boomer caregivers engage in poor health behaviors that are associated with exposure to caregiving. Baby Boomer caregivers may be at risk for certain behavioral factors that are associated with disability and chronic illness. PMID:22391873
Datta, Asok K; Mandal, Syamali; Dasgupta, Anindya; Ghosh, Tarun K
The mother of a four month old female baby attended in the well baby clinic with the complaint of black staining of the diaper after few minutes of urination. The baby was born of a non consanguineous marriage, healthy and breast fed. Mother noticed that stain first at the age of two and half month. The urine when kept in a test tube for two hours turned black. Laboratory examination of urine revealed increased concentration of homogentisic acid. The patient was diagnosed as alkaptonuria. PMID:19014543
Goouch, Kathleen; Powell, Sacha
This article has emerged from a research and development project, The Baby Room, which was designed to examine how babies are cared for in daycare settings. Within the project, a form of professional development was created which designated a central space for dialogic encounter, primarily to enable the baby room practitioners who participated in…
Ojha, Rishi Kant; Singh, Saroj K; Batra, Sanjay; Sreenivas, V; Puliyel, Jacob M
ACOG states meconium stained amniotic fluid (MSAF) as one of the historical indicators of perinatal asphyxia. Thick meconium along with other indicators is used to identify babies with severe intrapartum asphyxia. Lactate creatinine ratio (L:C ratio) of 0.64 or higher in first passed urine of babies suffering severe intrapartum asphyxia has been shown to predict Hypoxic Ischaemic Encephalopathy (HIE). Literature review shows that meconium is passed in distress and thin meconium results from mixing and dilution over time, which may be hours to days. Thin meconium may thus be used as an indicator of antepartum asphyxia. We tested L:C ratios in a group of babies born through thin and thick meconium, and for comparison, in a group of babies without meconium at birth. 86 consecutive newborns, 36 to 42 weeks of gestation, with meconium staining of liquor, were recruited for the study. 52 voided urine within 6 hours of birth; of these 27 had thick meconium and 25 had thin meconium at birth. 42 others, who did not have meconium or any other signs of asphyxia at birth provided controls. Lactate and creatinine levels in urine were tested by standard enzymatic methods in the three groups. Lactate values are highest in the thin MSAF group followed by the thick MSAF and controls. Creatinine was lowest in the thin MSAF, followed by thick MSAF and controls. Normal babies had an average L:C ratio of 0.13 (+/- 0.09). L:C ratio was more among thin MSAF babies (4.3 +/- 11.94) than thick MSAF babies (0.35 +/- 0.35). Median L:C ratio was also higher in the thin MSAF group. Variation in the values of these parameters is observed to be high in the thin MSAF group as compared to other groups. L:C ratio was above the cutoff of 0.64 of Huang et al in 40% of those with thin meconium. 2 of these developed signs of HIE with convulsions (HIE Sarnat and Sarnat Stage II) during hospital stay. One had L:C Ratio of 93 and the other of 58.6. A smaller proportion (20%) of those with thick meconium
Lopez, L; Berkowitz, R J; Moss, M E; Weinstein, P
Previous studies have demonstrated that babies are at higher risk for mutans streptococci (ms) colonization if their mothers have dense salivary ms reservoirs relative to babies who have mothers with negligible salivary reservoirs. This communication provides data that identifies another potential risk factor (use of a nursing bottle at bedtime and/or naptime that contains a substrate other than water) for baby infection by ms. The study population consisted of 60 babies (28 males/32 females; mean age 15 mos; age range 12-18 mos) who were all healthy, caries free, and slept with a nursing bottle that contained a substrate other than water (NB+). Pooled maxillary incisor plaque and saliva samples were obtained and immediately placed in Reduced Transparent Fluid (RTF); they were serially diluted and plated onto Mitis Salivarius Agar plus Bacitracin (MSB) and blood agar plates within 4 hours of collection; the plates were incubated in an anaerobic environment for 48 h at 37 C and then placed for 24 h under aerobiosis prior to examination; representative ms colonies were isolated and subjected to mannitol and sorbitol fermentation tests for taxonomic verification. Plates with colony counts between 20 and 300 were utilized to determine the % of ms in each sample. Fifty one of the 60(85%) babies harbored ms in at least 1 of the 2 samples. The 95% confidence interval for the proportion of subjects with detectable levels of ms was 73%-93%. Fisher's exact test showed that babies 16-18 mos age were more likely to have detectable levels of ms than babies 12-15 mos age (p = 0.01). Levels of ms in plaque and saliva were as follows: < 0.1% (plaque 27/51, mean age 15 mos, sd 1.77; saliva 28/51, mean age 15 mos, sd 1.76); 0.1%-1.0% (plaque 4/51, mean age 14 mos, sd 1.5; saliva 6/51, mean age 15 mos, sd 1.46); > 1.0% (plaque 14/51, mean age 16 mos, sd 2.1; saliva 11/51, mean age 16 mos, sd 1.91). The density of infection did not vary by age for plaque (P = 0.32) or saliva (P = 0
...] Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Importation of Baby Squash and Baby Courgettes From Zambia AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Extension... importation of baby squash and baby courgettes from Zambia. DATES: We will consider all comments that we...
Maconochie, Heloise; McNeill, Fiona
According to the National Service Framework, children have a right to participate in the development of healthcare services and yet research suggests that young children are at risk of exclusion from user involvement initiatives. This paper outlines the findings of a participatory action research project conducted with families attending a health visitors' parent-baby group. A combination of participatory research methods were used to ascertain the infants' perspectives of the service and this led to a number of changes in terms of professional attitudes, service provision and working practices. Changes in professional attitudes included acknowledging the importance of social interaction to the children, recognising young children's views as embodied and produced within social interactions, and respecting children as active contributors and not simply as passive recipients of healthcare services. Changes in service provision resulted in redistributing resources, structures and spaces to take account of children's perspectives. Finally, reciprocity and responsiveness were seen as key components in enhancing young children's participation.
López, M I; León, N A
This report reviews the phenomenology related to the rescue and later development of the newborn babies buried in the rubble of several collapsed maternity hospitals in Mexico City during the earthquake of September 1985. We describe the rescue process as well as the impact of this process on the community. The rescued babies' development has been followed through the first 15 months of their lives and we describe our observations. We also review the implications of the emotional burdens that these babies may bear and the possible repercussions later in their development.
Gould, Gillian S; Munn, Joanne; Avuri, Sandra; Hoff, Susan; Cadet-James, Yvonne; McEwen, Andy; Clough, Alan R
Smoking prevalence in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander pregnant women is quadruple that of non-Indigenous counterparts, impacting on the health of babies and children. To explore attitudes and experiences related to prenatal tobacco smoking by Aboriginal women and household smoking, and to provide recommendations for culturally appropriate interventions. We conducted five focus groups with clients and family members of a regional NSW Aboriginal maternity service (n=18). Committees, including Aboriginal representatives, oversaw the study. We analysed transcripts with the constant comparative method and developed key categories. Categories included: social and family influences, knowing and experiencing the health effects of smoking, responses to health messages, cravings and stress, giving up and cutting down, managing smoke-free homes and cars, and community recommendations. Smoking in pregnancy and passive smoking were acknowledged as harmful for babies and children. Anti-tobacco messages and cessation advice appeared more salient when concordant with women's lived experience. Reduced cigarette consumption was reported in pregnancy. Despite smoking in the home, families were engaged in the management of environmental tobacco smoke to reduce harm to babies and children. Abstinence was difficult to initiate or maintain with the widespread use of tobacco in the social and family realm. Anti-tobacco messages and interventions should relate to Aboriginal women's experiences, improve understanding of the quitting process, support efficacy, and capitalise on the positive changes occurring in smoke-free home management. Focus group participants recommended individual, group and family approaches, and access to cessation services and nicotine replacement therapy for Aboriginal pregnant women who smoke. Copyright © 2013 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Southeastern Regional Vision for Education (SERVE), Tallahassee, FL.
This brochure for parents, in English- and Spanish-language versions, provides facts about infants' brains and offers suggestions for parents to help their baby's development by providing experiences to stimulate neural development. The facts are: (1) a baby's brain needs many different experiences to be nourished, such as being talked or sung to…
Powell, Sacha; Goouch, Kathy
This article explores the practice narratives of a group of 25 caregivers who work with babies in daycare settings in England and seeks to illustrate awareness of, resistance to and compliance with powerful discourses. It is argued that multiple voices exert an influence over baby room practice, disempowering the caregivers and reducing their…
Rothenberg, Sarah E; Jackson, Brian P; Carly McCalla, G; Donohue, Alexis; Emmons, Alison M
Rice is an important dietary source for methylmercury (MeHg), a potent neurotoxin, and inorganic arsenic (As), a human carcinogen. Rice baby cereals are a dietary source of inorganic As; however, less is known concerning MeHg concentrations in rice baby cereals and rice teething biscuits. MeHg concentrations were measured in 36 rice baby cereals, eight rice teething biscuits, and four baby cereals manufactured with oats/wheat (n = 48 total). Arsenic (As) species, including inorganic As, were determined in rice baby cereals and rice teething biscuits (n = 44/48), while total As was determined in all products (n = 48). Rice baby cereals and rice teething biscuits were on average 61 and 92 times higher in MeHg, respectively, and 9.4 and 4.7 times higher in total As, respectively, compared to wheat/oat baby cereals. For a 15-g serving of rice baby cereal, average MeHg intake was 0.0092μgday -1 (range: 0.0013-0.034μgday -1 ), while average inorganic As intake was 1.3μgday -1 (range: 0.37-2.3μgday -1 ). Inorganic As concentrations in two brands of rice baby cereal (n = 12/36 boxes of rice cereal) exceeded 100ng/g, the proposed action level from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Log 10 MeHg and inorganic As concentrations in rice baby cereals were strongly, positively correlated (Pearson's rho = 0.60, p < 0.001, n = 36). Rice-containing baby cereals and teething biscuits were a dietary source of both MeHg and inorganic As. Studies concerning the cumulative impacts of MeHg and inorganic As on offspring development are warranted. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bertholf, L; Loveless, S
Health care staffing challenges for the next few years necessitate the need to develop strategies to integrate the Generation Xer into a predominantly Baby Boomer work force. Strategies to assist Baby Boomers and Generation Xers to engage one another in constructive relationships are discussed. Misunderstanding and stereotyping create barriers that focus on differences and perceived limitations rather than identification of common thinking and focusing on strengths of each generation.
de Wilde, Jeroen A; van Buuren, Stef; Middelkoop, Barend J C
South Asian babies born in developed countries are generally lighter than babies from other ethnic groups born in the same country. While the mean birth weight of Caucasian babies in the Netherlands has increased the past decades, it is unknown if the mean birth weight of South Asian babies born in the Netherlands has increased or if the prevalence of low birth weight (LBW) or small-for-gestational-age (SGA) has decreased.The aims of this study are: 1. to investigate secular changes in mean birth weight and the prevalence of LBW and SGA in Surinamese South Asian babies, and 2. to assess differences between Surinamese South Asian and Dutch Caucasian neonates born 2006-2009. A population based study for which neonatal characteristics of 2014 Surinamese South Asian babies, born between 1974 and 2009 in the Netherlands, and 3104 Dutch Caucasian babies born 2006-2009 were obtained from well-baby clinic records. LBW was defined as a birth weight <2500 g. SGA was based on a universal population standard (the Netherlands) and three ethnic specific standards (the Netherlands, UK, Canada). In Surinamese South Asian babies from 1974 to 2009 no secular trend in mean birth weight and prevalence of LBW was found, whereas SGA prevalence decreased significantly.Surinamese South Asian babies born in 2006-2009 (2993 g; 95% CI 2959-3029 g) were 450 g lighter than Dutch Caucasian babies (3448 g; 95% CI 3429-3468 g), while LBW and SGA prevalences, based on universal standards, were three times higher. Application of ethnic specific standards from the Netherlands and the UK yielded SGA rates in Surinamese South Asian babies that were similar to Dutch. There were considerable differences between the standards used. Since 1974, although the mean birth weight of Surinamese South Asian babies remained unchanged, they gained a healthier weight for their gestational age.
Schwartz, Lita Linzer
Discusses the "Baby M" surrogate motherhood case which has produced heated debate in popular media, legal publications, and other professional journals. Summarizes arguments offered and reasoning behind actions of judiciary. (Author/ABL)
Ojha, Rishi Kant; Singh, Saroj K; Batra, Sanjay; Sreenivas, V; Puliyel, Jacob M
Background ACOG states meconium stained amniotic fluid (MSAF) as one of the historical indicators of perinatal asphyxia. Thick meconium along with other indicators is used to identify babies with severe intrapartum asphyxia. Lactate creatinine ratio (L: C ratio) of 0.64 or higher in first passed urine of babies suffering severe intrapartum asphyxia has been shown to predict Hypoxic Ischaemic Encephalopathy (HIE). Literature review shows that meconium is passed in distress and thin meconium results from mixing and dilution over time, which may be hours to days. Thin meconium may thus be used as an indicator of antepartum asphyxia. We tested L: C ratios in a group of babies born through thin and thick meconium, and for comparison, in a group of babies without meconium at birth. Methods 86 consecutive newborns, 36 to 42 weeks of gestation, with meconium staining of liquor, were recruited for the study. 52 voided urine within 6 hours of birth; of these 27 had thick meconium and 25 had thin meconium at birth. 42 others, who did not have meconium or any other signs of asphyxia at birth provided controls. Lactate and creatinine levels in urine were tested by standard enzymatic methods in the three groups. Results Lactate values are highest in the thin MSAF group followed by the thick MSAF and controls. Creatinine was lowest in the thin MSAF, followed by thick MSAF and controls. Normal babies had an average L: C ratio of 0.13 (± 0.09). L: C ratio was more among thin MSAF babies (4.3 ± 11.94) than thick MSAF babies (0.35 ± 0.35). Median L: C ratio was also higher in the thin MSAF group. Variation in the values of these parameters is observed to be high in the thin MSAF group as compared to other groups. L: C ratio was above the cutoff of 0.64 of Huang et al in 40% of those with thin meconium. 2 of these developed signs of HIE with convulsions (HIE Sarnat and Sarnat Stage II) during hospital stay. One had L: C Ratio of 93 and the other of 58.6. A smaller proportion (20
Blankenship, Kevin L; Wegener, Duane T; Murray, Renee A
Accessibility is one of the most basic structural properties of an attitude and an important factor to consider in attitude strength. Despite its importance, relatively little work has examined the role of attitude accessibility in an inter-attitudinal context, particularly as it relates to the strength of related attitudes in the network. The present research examines accessibility as a property of one attitude (toward an abstract goal or end-state, that is, a value) that might influence the strength of a different but related attitude (toward a social policy conceptually related to the value). In Study 1, a highly accessible evaluative component of a value increased resistance to change of attitudes and behavioral intentions toward a social policy related to that value. Similarly, a manipulation of value accessibility (Studies 2 and 3) led to increased resistance of attitudes and behavioral intentions toward a social policy related to that value. Implications for the role of accessibility in inter-attitudinal strength are discussed. © 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.
Castle, S.; Thomas, B.; Reager, J. T.; Swenson, S. C.; Famiglietti, J. S.
The Colorado River Basin (CRB) in the western United States is heavily managed yet remains one of the most over-allocated rivers in the world providing water across seven US states and Mexico. Future water management strategies in the CRB have employed land surface models to forecast discharges; such approaches have focused on discharge estimates to meet allocation requirements yet ignore groundwater abstractions to meet water demands. In this analysis, we illustrate the impact of changes in accessible water, which we define as the conjunctive use of both surface water reservoir storage and groundwater storage, using remote sensing observations to explore sustainable water management strategies in the CRB. We employ high resolution Landsat Thematic Mapper satellite data to detect changes in reservoir storage in the two largest reservoirs within the CRB, Lakes Mead and Powell, and the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) terrestrial water storage anomalies to isolate changes in basin-wide groundwater storage in the Upper and Lower CRB from October 2003 to December 2012. Our approach quantifies reservoir and groundwater storage within the CRB using remote sensing to provide new information to water managers to sustainably and conjunctively manage accessible water.
Duyan Camurdan, A; Ozkan, S; Yüksel, D; Pasli, F; Sahin, F; Beyazova, U
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of 'baby-friendly hospital initiative' (BFHI) on breast feeding. In the four consecutive months after BFHI in Gazi University Hospital (November 2002-February 2003), breast feeding status until the second year of life in 297 babies, born in the same hospital was compared with the values of 258 babies born before BFHI (November 2001-February 2002). The exclusive breast feeding rate in the first 6 months was higher in the babies born after BFHI. Cox regression analysis revealed that BFHI increases the duration of breast feeding 1.5 times. At the end of the second year, cumulative rate of breast feeding was higher in the group after-BFHI (p=0.0036). The rate of breast feeding was increased by BFHI implementation.
A baby's earliest relationships with the mother and father are critical in terms of the way in which their highly plastic brain develops. It is through 'mutual gaze'-that is looking at the parents'faces - that s/he learns about the range of emotions which humans experience. As a result of being talked to, touched and responded to when distressed, s/he develops social skills and emotional intelligence. Preparation for birth and beyond looks at how parents can interact with their babies both through physical care and through talking and playing.
... older children. Also, they have yet to develop immunity to many common infections. Within the first year ... lifetime. Also, some viruses don't produce lasting immunity. A common cold virus enters your baby's mouth, ...
... for a new sibling include Look at picture books about a new baby . At the very least, ... he starts asking about mom's growing "stomach." Picture books for preschoolers can be very helpful. So can ...
Auger, Anamarie; Reich, Stephanie M.; Penner, Emily K.
The impact of a baby book intervention on promoting positive reading beliefs and increasing reading frequency for low-income, new mothers (n = 167) was examined. The Baby Books Project randomly assigned low-income, first-time mothers to one of three study conditions, receiving educational books, non-educational books, or no books, during pregnancy and over the first year of parenthood. Home-based data collection occurred through pregnancy until 18 months post-partum. Mothers who received free baby books had higher beliefs about the importance of reading, the value of having resources to support reading, and the importance of verbal participation during reading. The results showed that providing any type of baby books to mothers positively influenced maternal reading beliefs, but did not increase infant-mother reading practices. Maternal reading beliefs across all three groups were significantly associated with self-reported reading frequency when children were at least 12 months of age. PMID:25264394
Beck, Melissa R; van Lamsweerde, Amanda E
In visual change detection tasks, providing a cue to the change location concurrent with the test image (post-cue) can improve performance, suggesting that, without a cue, not all encoded representations are automatically accessed. Our studies examined the possibility that post-cues can encourage the retrieval of representations stored in long-term memory (LTM). Participants detected changes in images composed of familiar objects. Performance was better when the cue directed attention to the post-change object. Supporting the role of LTM in the cue effect, the effect was similar regardless of whether the cue was presented during the inter-stimulus interval, concurrent with the onset of the test image, or after the onset of the test image. Furthermore, the post-cue effect and LTM performance were similarly influenced by encoding time. These findings demonstrate that monitoring the visual world for changes does not automatically engage LTM retrieval.
Seal, Brenda C.; DePaolis, Rory A.
Support for baby signing (BS) with hearing infants tends to converge toward three camps or positions. Those who advocate BS to advance infant language, literacy, behavioral, and cognitive development rely heavily on anecdotal evidence and social media to support their claims. Those who advocate BS as an introduction to another language, such as…
Hsu, Chen-chin; And Others
Investigated the usefulness of Carey's Revised Infant Temperament Questionnaire in the Chinese culture and used the questionnaire to assess the temperamental characteristics of Chinese babies. While the general pattern of results resembled data from Carey's American sample, differences were found, which could be interpreted in terms of response…
... the directions on the product » Dress in loose cotton clothing that covers your arms and legs Protect ... months of age • Dress your baby in loose cotton clothing that covers arms and legs How to ...
Gazmararian, Julie A; Elon, Lisa; Yang, Baiyu; Graham, Megan; Parker, Ruth
Text4baby was launched in 2010 to promote healthy pregnancies and babies by the use of text messaging. The primary objective of this study was to assess factors related to the enrollment process and reception of text4baby. A prospective cohort study was conducted in two Women, Infant and Children clinics in Atlanta (April 2010-July 2011). Randomly selected pregnant and postpartum women (n = 468) were queried on cell phone use and instructed on text4baby enrollment. Self-enrollment issues were assessed at one-week follow-up (n = 351, 75.0 %), and message reception and reading patterns at two-month follow-up (n = 209, 44.7 %). Forty-two percent of the women had some college education and 82 % had household income <=$20,000. About half attempted text4baby self-enrollment (162/351), with enrollment success more likely among women with more education (80 % with some college vs. 62 % with less education), with household income above $10,000 (61 % < $10,000 vs. 83 % $10,001-$20,000 and 76 % > $20,000), and among women living in smaller households (77 % 1-3 members vs. 58 % > 3 members) (all p < 0.001). Among the 209 participants in the final follow-up contact, >90 % reported uninterrupted reception and regular reading of messages, and 88 % planned to continue using text4baby. Results also suggested that respondents who were younger (<26 year), less educated and had lower health literacy skills were more likely to have interrupted messages. Despite substantial interest in the text4baby program in an underserved population, innovative ways to help women with significant disadvantages enroll and receive uninterrupted messages are needed.
Choi, Jeong In; Chae, Song Ji; Kim, Jung Min; Choi, Jae Chun; Park, Se Jong; Choi, Hee Ju; Bae, Hojae; Park, Hyun Jin
In recent years, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been extensively employed in food packaging systems as a potential antibacterial agent. Although proven to be highly effective, the increased number of AgNP-containing products raises concerns among consumers regarding the migration of AgNPs from the packaging material into foods, which may exert toxic effects. To address this, five baby products were chosen (baby bottle A, baby bottle B, pacifier A, pacifier B and breastmilk storage bag) to investigate AgNPs migration into three food simulants (deionised water, 4% acetic acid (w/v) and 50% ethanol (v/v)) using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). As a result, the highest level of migrated Ag was observed for 4% acetic acid in the case of baby bottle B, pacifier A, pacifier B and the breastmilk storage bag, with the detection amount ranging from 1.05-2.25 ng/mL. On the other hand, baby bottle A showed the maximum migration for 50% ethanol due to the polymer nature. Finally, a centrifugal ultrafiltration experiment was conducted to determine the fraction of dissolved Ag in acidic simulant and it was found that migrated Ag was predominantly in Ag + form, with a small fraction of non-ionic AgNPs. Thus, it has been found that the amount of migrated Ag in baby products was low; however, the migration was dependent on the type of food simulant and polymer nature.
Umachitra, G; Bhaarathidhurai
There is no doubt that disposable diapers are wonderfully convenient but are they safe for the babies? It is clear that there are also a number of potential dangers. Most of the parents are not aware of the adverse effects of this product being in contact with baby's reproductive organs 24 hours a day more than two years and the long-term effects it causes to the surroundings. Disposable diapers have been implicated by diapering proponents like leak proof polymers, super absorbent polymers and some scented chemicals which are the key factors for everything from chronic diaper rash, respiratory problems like asthma, male infertility even to testicular cancer. This article gives the detailed review of the health and other related problems in using the disposable baby diapers like cancer, liver damage, skin diseases, male infertility, birth abnormalities, respiratory problems, land fills, environmental pollution, toxic chemicals used etc.
McCauley, K M; Cross, W; Kulkarni, J
Women with serious mental illness are frequently on antipsychotic medications to maintain their mental health. During pregnancy there is much debate as to whether to continue or cease these medications. The possibility of adverse effects is of concern to clinicians and the women. This study used a case study methodology to identify the outcomes for 10 babies of women with a history of serious mental illness. The results provide further evidence in regard to women and the use of antipsychotic medications throughout pregnancy and during the first year after birth. Separation of mother and baby occurred in five of the 10 babies. This study identifies the neonatal complications for these vulnerable babies as not outside the norm for births in Australia. The high rate of mother-baby separation is of great concern and needs further longitudinal studies. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Williamson, Kirsty; Bannister, Marion; Sullivan, Jen
The article explores the concept of baby boomers as a "crossover" generation, one that embodies characteristics of previous and later generations. The context is the retirement of the baby boomers and its potential impact on the public library. Ethnographic method within a constructivist framework was used, employing the techniques of…
Srinivasan, Mythili; Hamvas, Corrine; Coplen, Douglas
To determine rates of complications after newborn circumcision by performing a retrospective chart review of patients circumcised at a well-baby nursery, neonatal intensive care units (NICU), and special care nursery (SCN) from 2007 to 2012. A total of 5129 babies (73%) were circumcised at the well-baby nursery and 1909 babies (27%) at the NICU and SCN. Forty-seven patients (0.67%, 95% CI 0.49% to 0.89%) had circumcision-related complications: 5 (0.07%) patients with acute and 42 (0.6%) with late complications. Babies in the NICU/SCN had increased odds of complication (OR 4.00, 95% CI 2.23 to 7.19) compared with those in well-baby nursery. There were increased odds of complications in babies with Caucasian ethnicity (OR 2.60, 95% CI 1.48 to 4.89) compared with African American babies and in babies with private insurance (OR 4.0, 95% CI 2.1 to 7.5) compared with nonprivate insurance. The rates of complications after newborn circumcisions were low. Babies in the NICU/SCN had increased odds of complication. © The Author(s) 2015.
Grylli, Chryssa; Brockington, Ian; Fiala, Christian; Huscsava, Mercedes; Waldhoer, Thomas; Klier, Claudia M
The aims of this study are to assess the impact of Austria's anonymous birth law from the time relevant statistical records are available and to evaluate the use of hatches versus anonymous hospital delivery. This study is a complete census of police-reported neonaticides (1975-2012) as well as anonymous births including baby hatches in Austria during 2002-2012. The time trends of neonaticide rates, anonymous births and baby hatches were analysed by means of Poisson and logistic regression model. Predicted and observed rates were derived and compared using a Bayesian Poisson regression model. Predicted numbers of neonaticides for the period of the active awareness campaign, 2002-2004, were more than three times larger than the observed number (p = 0.0067). Of the 365 women who benefitted from this legislation, only 11.5% chose to put their babies in a baby hatch. Since the law was introduced, a significant decreasing tendency of numbers of anonymous births (p = 047) was observed, while there was significant increase of neonaticide rates (p = 0.0001). The implementation of the anonymous delivery law is associated with a decrease in the number of police-reported neonaticides. The subsequent significantly decreasing numbers of anonymous births with an accompanying increase of neonaticides represents additional evidence for the effectiveness of the measure.
Science News, 1977
Data for the period September 1976 through April 1977 indicate a rise in the United States birth rate; however, the rate is still below the replacement level. It is speculated that the increase is an "echo" effect to the post-World War II baby boom which peaked in 1957. (SL)
This paper considers the area of perinatal death by focusing on the mother's experience. An argument is made for questioning whether mothers attempt to replace a dead infant. It is suggested instead that they long to mother their lost baby and as a result their new infant is mothered in the shadow of the dead baby. The term "penumbra baby" is…
Spielman, Varda; Taubman-Ben-Ari, Orit
The purpose of the study reported in this article was to examine how the unique circumstances of the birth of a premature baby affect the perception of parental self-efficacy and stress-related growth--which is the experience of positive change in one's life following stressful circumstances--among first-time parents and to examine the contribution of the parents' personal resources of self-esteem and attachment style, and their infant's temperament and medical condition, to their self-efficacy and stress-related growth. Forty-nine sets of parents of preterm babies and 50 sets of parents of full-term babies completed questionnaires about one month after the birth of their child. Parents of premature infants reported a higher level of stress-related growth than those of full-term infants, but no difference was found between them on parental self-efficacy In addition, gender differences in the dependent variables, as well as significant contributions of attachment style and self-esteem, were found. Professional guidance during pregnancy, aimed at expanding parents' knowledge and understanding of the changes they can expect to undergo, may serve to enhance the positive experience of growth in the transition to parenthood.
Schofield, D J; Fletcher, S L
The dental workforce, like the Australian population, is ageing. As the large baby boomer cohort retires dental shortages will likely increase. Australian Bureau of Statistics census data from 1986 to 2001 were used to examine ageing of the dental workforce and attrition of dentists aged 50 years and over. The number of dentists to retire was projected over the next 20 years. Since 1986, the dental workforce has aged significantly (p < 0.01). About half of the current dental workforce is projected to retire by 2026. Generation X dentists are significantly less likely to work long hours than the baby boomer cohort of dentists (p < 0.01). This is partly due to an increase in the proportion of women in the dental workforce and male Generation X dentists being less likely to work long hours (>41 per week) than male baby boomer dentists (p < 0.01). Ageing of the workforce will have an impact on dentistry later than on some other professions due to the 35 per cent of dentists who work beyond 65 years of age. Nonetheless, existing dental shortages are likely to be exacerbated over the short term by the 22 per cent of dentists projected to retire over the next 10 years.
This newspaper editorial reports that the UN Children's Fund's (UNICEF) executive director and recent US Presidential Medal of Freedom recipient believes that 1.5 million infants would survive annually if breast feeding declines worldwide were reversed. UNICEF adopted the International Code of Marketing of Breast Milk Substitutes in the World Health Assembly in 1981. The code restricts direct advertising, inadequate labels, saleswomen dressed as nurses, and promotion of free samples. The Baby Food Action Network is reported to have released a report which states that baby food companies are still donating free supplies of infant formula to hospitals. The UNICEF position is that provision of free supplies is the most important disincentive to breast feeding. 81 governments adopted the guidelines, but 41 countries have hospitals which accept free samples. 28 of these 41 countries adopted the ban. The Nestle Company, which was cited 20 years age for this practice, won the legal battle and today defies the guidelines in 22 countries, including China, Zimbabwe, and Bangladesh. A US company, Mead Johnson, uses advertising on its label that shows Beatrice Potter's Peter Rabbit being bottle fed. The International Code restricts idealization of bottle feeding. Nutrician, a large conglomerate ownership of US and European infant formula companies, brazenly advertises in the Peruvian daily newspapers with photos of baby milk boxes being donated to hospitals. Dr. Derek Jelliffe, an infant nutritionist, is credited with being the first to publicize the dangers of commercialized malnutrition 21 years ago.
... Standards of Identity or Composition § 381.157 Canned boned poultry and baby or geriatric food. (a) Canned... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Canned boned poultry and baby or geriatric food. 381.157 Section 381.157 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE...
... Standards of Identity or Composition § 381.157 Canned boned poultry and baby or geriatric food. (a) Canned... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Canned boned poultry and baby or geriatric food. 381.157 Section 381.157 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE...
Tarrant, Marie; Lok, Kris Y W; Fong, Daniel Y T; Wu, Kendra M; Lee, Irene L Y; Sham, Alice; Lam, Christine; Bai, Dorothy Li; Wong, Ka Lun; Wong, Emmy M Y; Chan, Noel P T; Dodgson, Joan E
The Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative requires hospitals to pay market price for infant formula. No studies have specifically examined the effect of hospitals paying for infant formula on breastfeeding mothers' exposure to Baby-Friendly steps. To investigate the effect of hospitals implementing a policy of paying for infant formula on new mothers' exposure to Baby-Friendly steps and examine the effect of exposure to Baby-Friendly steps on breastfeeding rates. We used a repeated prospective cohort study design. We recruited 2 cohorts of breastfeeding mother-infant pairs (n = 2470) in the immediate postnatal period from 4 Hong Kong public hospitals and followed them by telephone up to 12 months postpartum. We assessed participants' exposure to 6 Baby-Friendly steps by extracting data from the medical record and by maternal self-report. After hospitals began paying for infant formula, new mothers were more likely to experience 4 out of 6 Baby-Friendly steps. Breastfeeding initiation within the first hour increased from 28.7% to 45%, and in-hospital exclusive breastfeeding rates increased from 17.9% to 41.4%. The proportion of mothers who experienced all 6 Baby-Friendly steps increased from 4.8% to 20.5%. The risk of weaning was progressively higher among participants experiencing fewer Baby-Friendly steps. Each additional step experienced by new mothers decreased the risk of breastfeeding cessation by 8% (hazard ratio = 0.92; 95% CI, 0.89-0.95). After implementing a policy of paying for infant formula, breastfeeding mothers were exposed to more Baby-Friendly steps, and exposure to more steps was significantly associated with a lower risk of breastfeeding cessation. © The Author(s) 2015.
Royall, J; Lyon, B
Health professionals in developing countries want access to information to help them make changes in health care and contribute to medical research. However, they face challenges of technology limitations, lack of training, and, on the village level, culture and language. This report focuses on the U.S. National Library of Medicine experience with access: for the international medical/scientific community to health information which has been published by researchers in developing countries; for scientists and clinicians in developing countries to their own literature and to that of their colleagues around the world; for medical librarians who are a critical conduit for students, faculty, researchers, and, increasingly, the general public; and for the front line workers at the health center in the village at the end of the line. The fundamental question of whether or not information communication technology can make a difference in access and subsequently in health is illustrated by an anecdote regarding an early intervention in Africa in 1992. From that point, we examine programs to improve access involving malaria researchers, medical journal editors, librarians, and medical students working with local health center staff in the village. Although access is a reality, the positive change in health that the information technology intervention might produce often remains a mirage. Information and technology are not static elements in the equation for better access. They must function together, creating a dialectic in which they transform and inform one another and those whom their combination touches.
Sleed, Michelle; Baradon, Tessa; Fonagy, Peter
Mothers in prison represent a high-risk parenting population. New Beginnings is an attachment-based group intervention designed specifically for mothers and babies in prison. This cluster randomized trial examined the outcomes for 88 mothers and babies participating in the New Beginnings program and 75 dyads residing in prisons where the intervention did not take place. Outcomes were measured in terms of parental reflective functioning, the quality of parent–infant interaction, maternal depression, and maternal representations. Mothers in the control group deteriorated in their level of reflective functioning and behavioral interaction with their babies over time, whereas the mothers in the intervention group did not. There were no significant group effects on levels of maternal depression or mothers' self-reported representations of their babies over time. An attachment-based intervention may mitigate some of the risks to the quality of the parent–infant relationship for these dyads. PMID:23550526
Sharp, A M; Odds, F C; Evans, E G
Carriage and acquisition of Candida spp and Candida albicans biotypes were studied among 163 neonates and 90 staff in a neonatal intensive care and surgical unit during a 17 week period. Twenty one neonates carried yeasts in the mouth, rectum or groin when first sampled, and a further 25 were positive later. C albicans accounted for 94.7% of 431 yeast isolates from neonates but only 67.4% of 43 isolates from staff. The first isolated C albicans biotype persisted in 13 babies monitored longitudinally. Simultaneous colonisation with two Candida spp was found in 2/46 neonates and 5/33 staff. The prevalence of candida was significantly higher among babies of gestational age less than 28 weeks (65%) than those of higher gestational age (26%). Oral and/or crural candida infection was observed in 14 of the babies but none developed deep seated candidosis. Routine antifungal prophylaxis did not affect the frequency of yeasts among the neonates. PMID:1536586
The objective of this paper is to present and discuss Brazilian policy concerning actions to protect breastfeeding, especially the history, international and national background, limitations, and perspectives of the Brazilian Guidelines for the Marketing of Baby Food, Pacifiers and Bottles. The Brazilian Guidelines, which play a crucial role in protecting breastfeeding against industry marketing strategies, were based on the International Code of Marketing of Breastmilk Substitutes, proposed by the World Health Organization in 1981. The first version of the Brazilian Guidelines was released in 1988, and there were subsequent revisions in 1992 and 2001/2002. In 2006, the Guidelines became national law. However, the strides made over this period in terms of regulation have been few because the law is not always observed. Thus, it is essential that all actors involved, including government officials, manufacturers and sellers of baby food and other baby products, teaching and health professionals and their associations, international bodies, and non-governmental organizations make a commitment to enforce the current law.
Chervenak, Frank A; McCullough, Laurence B; Brent, Robert L
Advances in modern medicine invite the assumption that medicine can control human biology. There is a perilous logic that leads from expectations of medicine's control over reproductive biology to the expectation of having a perfect baby. This article proposes that obstetricians should take a preventive ethics approach to the care of pregnant women with expectations for a perfect baby. We use Nathaniel Hawthorne's classic short story, "The Birthmark," to illustrate the perils of the logic of control and perfection through science and then identify possible contemporary sources of the expectation of the perfect baby. We propose that the informed consent process should be used as a preventive ethics tool throughout the course of pregnancy to educate pregnant women about the inherent errors of human reproduction, the highly variable clinical outcomes of these errors, the limited capacity of medicine to detect these errors, and the even more limited capacity to correct them. Copyright (c) 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Cangelosi, Pamela R
As the first of the Baby Boomer generation turns 65 this year, there is rising fear that a crisis awaits related to many mental health resources. This article describes the characteristics of Baby Boomers, their future mental health needs, and the extent of the impending insufficiency of mental health resources to meet those needs. Recommendations to address the unprecedented mental health demands of this generation are presented. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.
Kamath-Rayne, B D; Josyula, S; Rule, A R L; Vasquez, J C
To evaluate changes in neonatal resuscitation and postnatal care following Helping Babies Breathe (HBB) training at a community hospital in rural Honduras. We hypothesized that HBB training would improve resuscitation and essential newborn care interventions. Direct observation and video recording of delivery room care spanned before and after an initial HBB workshop held in August 2013. Rates of essential newborn care interventions were compared in resuscitations performed by individuals who had and had not received HBB training, and run charts recording performance of newborn care practices over time were developed. Ten percent of deliveries (N=250) were observed over the study period, with 156 newborn resuscitations performed by individuals without HBB training, compared to 94 resuscitations performed by HBB trainees. After HBB training, significant improvements were seen in skin-to-skin care, breastfeeding within 60 min of age, and delayed cord clamping after 1 min (all P<0.01). More babies cared for by HBB trainees received basic neonatal resuscitation such as drying and stimulation. Run charts tracking these practices over time showed significant improvements after HBB training that were sustained during the study period, but remained below ideal goals. With improvement in drying/stimulation practices, fewer babies required bag/mask ventilation. In a rural Honduran community hospital, improvements in basic neonatal resuscitation and postnatal essential newborn care practices can be seen after HBB training. Further improvements in newborn care practices may require focused quality improvement initiatives for hospitals to sustain high quality care.
Li, Hongyan; Tan, Shan; Gao, Xiao; Xiang, Shiting; Zhang, Li; Huang, Li; Xiong, Changhui; Yan, Qiang; Lin, Ling; Li, Dimin; Yi, Juan; Yan, Yan
To explore the impact of pre-pregnancy body mass index on baby's physical growth and nutritional status. A total of 491 pairs of mother-infant were divided into 3 groups according to mother's pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI): a pre-pregnancy low BMI group (BMI<18.5 kg/m², n=93), a pre-pregnancy normal BMI group (18.5 kg/m² ≤ BMI<24.0 kg/m², n=326), and a pre-pregnancy high BMI group (BMI ≥ 24.0 kg/m², n=72). Analysis of variance of repeated measurement data and the median percentage methods were used to compare the physical growth and nutritional status of babies in different groups. Baby's weight in the high BMI group were higher than that in the normal BMI and the low BMI group (F=3.958, P=0.020). The incidence of malnutrition in the low BMI group showed a tendency to decline along with the months (χ²=5.611, P=0.018), the incidence of overweight and obesity in the high and the normal BMI groups displayed a tendency to decline along with the months (χ²=18.773, 53.248, all P<0.001). Baby in the low BMI group had higher incidence of malnutrition while baby in the high BMI group had higher incidence of overweight and obesity. Pregnancy BMI was correlated with the growth of baby. Too high or too low prepregnancy BMI exerts harmful effect on baby's weight and nutritional status. Medical workers should strengthen the education on women's pre-pregnancy to remind them keeping BMI at normal level.
Lan, Shoujen; Yen, Yeayin; Ko, Yingchin
This paper is intended to present a study of transplacental Yu-Cheng babies in Taiwan. The focus of the study is to demonstrate how a contaminated food source can affect the growth and development of permanent teeth germ in children. A sporadic outbreak of a peculiar skin disease was reported in Japan in October of 1968. An epidemiological study revealed the outbreak of this disease was caused by contaminated Kanemi rice oil. This episode of rice oil poisoned with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) was the first reported outbreak of PCB poisoning in the world. A second episode occurred in central Taiwan elevenmore » years after the Japanese episode. Registered data from the Taiwan Provincial Government Health Department reported 1,843 cases in 1980. Of this group, more than 800 women were child-bearing age and most of these women would or soon would be married and pregnant. The offsprings of these women were in danger, because it has been proven that PCB intoxication could affect the fetus. These babies, only contaminated through the placenta, are called PCB transplacental Yusho babies in Japan and PCB transplacental Yu-Cheng babies in Taiwan. Babies with PCB poisoning could have Fetal PCB syndrome (FPS) and may have retarded eruption of permanent teeth and other anomalies such as reduced numbers of teeth and abnormal shaped roots. The study of transplacental Yu-Cheng babies is an important public health issue for Taiwan. Although there may be other issues, this study focuses only on the growth and development of permanent teeth of those babies affected by PCB transplacental contamination.« less
Rusanen, E; Lahikainen, A R; Pölkki, P; Saarenpää-Heikkilä, O; Paavonen, E J
The maternal representations of an unborn baby begin to develop during pregnancy. However, the factors that moderate them are not well identified. The objective of this study was to jointly explore supportive and undermining factors in the maternal representations of an unborn baby and motherhood. Cross-sectional data comprising 1646 women studied during the third trimester of pregnancy. Maternal expectations were measured using a 12-item self-report questionnaire, Mother's Representations about an Unborn Baby. Depression, anxiety, family atmosphere and adult attachment were measured using standardised questionnaires. Statistical analysis is based on multivariate linear regression analysis. The most powerful predictors of a mother's prenatal expectations were the mother's educational status, age, closeness in adult relationships, higher levels of depressive symptoms and family atmosphere. In accordance with our hypothesis, depression was related to the mother's more negative expectations on their relationship with the unborn baby and on regularity in the baby's sleeping and eating patterns. A positive family atmosphere and the mother's ability for closeness and dependence (i.e. confidence) in adult relationships were related to more positive expectations of the mother-unborn baby relationship. On the other hand, stress, anxiety and adverse life events were not related to the mother's expectations of her unborn baby. The results may be helpful in identifying families who need early professional support and call for studies where the prenatal phase is explored as a proactive phase for the development of the child-parent relationship.
Studies of education and childhood studies in general tend to focus on the experiences and cultures of toddlers and school-age children. The experiences and cultures of babies and infants are often excluded from the scope of the studies of children. In Gilles Deleuze's (and Felix Guattari's) thinking, a child, and especially a baby or an infant,…
McChesney, Ron; McSweeney, Kendra
Given some limitations of satellite imagery for the study of land cover change, we draw attention here to a robust and often overlooked data source for use in student research: USGS topographic maps. Topographic maps offer an inexpensive, rapid, and accessible means for students to analyze land cover change over large areas. We demonstrate our…
Fonseca, Luciana Mara Monti; Aredes, Natália Del' Angelo; Dias, Danielle Monteiro Vilela; Scochi, Carmen Gracinda Silvan; Martins, José Carlos Amado; Rodrigues, Manuel Alves
To evaluate students opinion regarding e-Baby educational technology. Exploratory descriptive study in which participated a sample composed of 14 nursing Portuguese students that used e-Baby digital educational technology in an extracurricular course. To achieve the aim of the study, the data collection was realized through an opinion instrument in Likert scale including the possibility of commentaries by students. Is was also collected data of participants' characterization. Students made very satisfactory evaluations regarding the game e-Baby, varying since usability acceptation through suggestions of expansion of the game to other nursing themes. Serious game e-Baby can be considered a didactic innovation and motivator tool of learning. Besides, it demonstrates have adequate interface in design and educative function aspects, evocating intense interaction between user and computational tool.
Hallbauer, U; Grobler, J M; Niemand, I
To assess feeding methods chosen by mothers of babies who spent time in a neonatal unit. Factors influencing this decision were investigated. Descriptive study. Mothers were interviewed on the day they took their babies home. Basic demographic data on mother and baby were collected from the hospital records. The neonatal unit, Pelonomi Hospital, Bloemfontein from May 1996 to May 1998. Eighty-one mothers of babies admitted to the neonatal unit. At discharge 60% of mothers intended to breast-feed their babies exclusively the next day. The mother's decision to breast-feed her baby at home was significantly associated with her decision before delivery (P = 0.0050). Other factors positively associated with the decision to breast-feed exclusively at home were a significantly higher birth weight of the baby (P < 0.0008) and gestational age of the baby (P < 0.0005). The only hospital practice positively associated with this decision was the frequency with which mothers saw their babies during their stay in the unit (P = 0.0153). Mothers' knowledge of how to increase breast-milk supply was very poor. Infants with a lower weight and gestational age, who stayed in the unit longer, were less likely to be breast-fed after discharge from the neonatal unit. The mothers' experience in the unit did not seem to alter their choice of feeding method decided upon before delivery. This suggests that efforts to promote breast-feeding in the neonatal unit were either ineffectual or inadequate. In order to remedy this situation it is necessary to keep the mother-infant pair together (lodger mothers) and to promote breast-feeding before and after delivery. It would also be necessary to train staff in the management of lactation problems.
Chang, Acer Y C; Kanai, Ryota; Seth, Anil K
Despite accumulating evidence that perceptual predictions influence perceptual content, the relations between these predictions and conscious contents remain unclear, especially for cross-modal predictions. We examined whether predictions of visual events by auditory cues can facilitate conscious access to the visual stimuli. We trained participants to learn associations between auditory cues and colour changes. We then asked whether congruency between auditory cues and target colours would speed access to consciousness. We did this by rendering a visual target subjectively invisible using motion-induced blindness and then gradually changing its colour while presenting congruent or incongruent auditory cues. Results showed that the visual target gained access to consciousness faster in congruent than in incongruent trials; control experiments excluded potentially confounding effects of attention and motor response. The expectation effect was gradually established over blocks suggesting a role for extensive training. Overall, our findings show that predictions learned through cross-modal training can facilitate conscious access to visual stimuli. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Brase, Gary L; Brase, Sandra L
Baby fever-a visceral physical and emotional desire to have a baby-is well known in popular culture, but has not been empirically studied in psychology. Different theoretical perspectives suggest that desire for a baby is either superfluous to biological sex drives and maternal instincts, a sociocultural phenomenon unrelated to biological or evolutionary forces, or an evolved adpatation for regulating birth timing, proceptive behavior, and life history trajectories. A series of studies (involving 337 undergraduate participants and 853 participants from a general population Internet sample) found that: (a) a simple scale measure could elicit ratings of desire frequency; (b) these ratings exhibited significant sex differences; (c) this sex difference was distinct from a general desire for sexual activity; and (d) these findings generalize to a more diverse online population. Factor analyses of ratings for desire elicitors/inhibitors identified three primary factors underlying baby fever. Baby fever appears to be a real phenomenon, with an underlying multifactorial structure.
Kopelman, Loretta M
Two incompatible policies exist for guiding medical decisions for extremely premature, sick, or terminally ill infants, the Best Interests Standard and the newer, 20-year old "Baby Doe" Rules. The background, including why there were two sets of Baby Doe Rules, and their differences with the Best Interests Standard, are illustrated. Two defenses of the Baby Doe Rules are considered and rejected. The first, held by Reagan, Koop, and others, is a "right-to-life" defense. The second, held by some leaders of the American Academy of Pediatrics, is that the Baby Doe Rules are benign and misunderstood. The Baby Doe Rules should be rejected since they can thwart compassionate and individualized decision-making, undercut duties to minimize unnecessary suffering, and single out one group for treatment adults would not want for themselves. In these ways, they are inferior to the older Best Interests Standard. A "negative" analysis of the Best Interests Standard is articulated and defended for decision-making for all incompetent individuals.
Laela, Sri; Anna Keliat, Budi; Mustikasari
The parents of premature baby tend to be at risk undergoing postpartum blues and anxiety. It is due to many problems faced by postpartum mother of premature baby. This research is aim to identifying influence of thought stopping and supportive therapy of postpartum blues and anxiety parents of premature babies. This is quantitative with quasi-experiment with control group pretest-posttest design and consecutive sampling method. Sample in this research are 62 postpartum mothers of premature babies in perinatal NICU (neonatal intensive care unit). The results show that there is significant decrease of postpartum blues and anxiety (p value = 0.000) in the group that was treated by using nursing intervention, thought stopping and supportive therapy and greater significant decrease than the group that was only treated by nursing intervention. Thought stopping and supportive therapy are able to decrease postpartum blues and anxiety parents of premature babies. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Marcinkowska, Urszula; Tyrala, Kinga; Paniczek, Monika; Ledwon, Martyna; Josko-Ochojska, Jadwiga
Shaken Baby Syndrome (SBS), currently functioning as Abusive Head Trauma (AHT), is a form of violence against children mainly under 2 years of age. The number of SBS might be underestimated, as many cases of violence remain unreported. The aim of the study was evaluation of the state of knowledge of the SBS phenomenon, its scale and diagnostic methods among parents, medical staff and medical students. 639 people were examined: 39% of parents, 32,5% medical staff members and 28,5% of medical students. 82% were women. The average age was 34,9 years (SD=9,78). 70% of them had children. The research tool was an anonymous survey. The 34 questions concerned numerous aspects of violence against children as well as knowledge about SBS. According to 90% of the interviewees shaking a baby may be dangerous but 43% have ever heard about shaken baby syndrome. 'SBS is a form of violence' said 88% of respondents but 57% realize that one-time shaking can lead to death and only 19% indicated men as aggressors. 16% of medical staff members did not know how long it takes for the consequences of shaking a baby to be revealed. Majority of the medical staff members working with children have never heard about SBS. Only half of the surveyed understands the connection of shaking with vision loss or child's death. Among the long-term consequences of shaking a baby the greatest knowledge concerns emotional consequences of shaking.
Slater, Rachel; Pearson, Victoria K.; Warren, James P.; Forbes, Tina
The Open University (OU) has an established infrastructure for supporting disabled students. Historically, the thrust of this has focused on providing accessible adjustments post-production. In 2012, the OU implemented securing greater accessibility (SeGA) to raise awareness and bring about an institutional change to curriculum design so that the…
Wallois, F; Vecchierini, M-F; Héberlé, C; Walls-Esquivel, E
EEG recording techniques in early premature babies are not very different from those used for full-term neonates. Here, we emphasise the most important points: asepsis precautions, full knowledge of the clinical data and drug therapies, the fundamental role of a well-trained technician in supervising the EEG recording and monitoring the baby. The best electrode positions, the most informative montages and their standardisation between neurophysiological laboratories, are suggested. Artifact detection constitutes an important aspect of EEG signal analysis in preterm babies of less than 30 weeks. It is obviously necessary to discriminate between meaningful information and artefacts. The complexity of the signal in neonates makes artifact detection difficult. We present some characteristic features and describe some methods for eliminating them. We underline the positive aspect of some artifacts and their clinical use. We emphasise the crucial role of the technicians.
Tran, Christopher S; Liddy, Clare E; Liu, Dora M; Afkham, Amir; Keely, Erin J
To describe the impact of an eConsult service on access to endocrinologists along with its influence on changing primary care provider (PCP) course of action and referral behaviors. Established in 2011, the Champlain BASE (Building Access to Specialist Care via eConsult) service allows PCPs to access specialist care in lieu of traditional face-to-face referrals. We conducted a cross-sectional study of eConsult cases submitted to endocrinologists by PCPs between April 15, 2011 and January 31, 2015. Usage data and PCP responses to a mandatory closeout survey were analyzed to determine eConsult response times, PCP practice behavior, referral outcomes, and provider satisfaction. Each eConsult was coded according to clinical topic and question type based on established taxonomies. A total of 180 PCPs submitted 464 eConsults to endocrinology during the study period. Specialist median response time was 7 hours, with 90% of responses occurring within 3 days. PCPs received a new or additional course of action in 62% of submitted cases. An unnecessary face-to-face referral was avoided in 44% of all eConsults and in 67% of cases where the PCP initially contemplated requesting a referral. Over 95% of cases were rated at least 4 out of 5 in value for PCPs and their patients. The use of eConsult improves access to endocrinologists by providing timely, highly rated practice-changing clinical advice while reducing the need for patients to attend face-to-face office visits. BASE = Building Access to Specialist Advice through eConsult PCP = primary care physician UCSF = University of California San Francisco.
Carbaugh, Suzanne Franklin
Health care professionals involved in the care of infants are in an ideal position to identify and to educate families, the public, and other health care professionals about the risk factors, dangers, and consequences of infant shaking. The purpose of this article is to review the incidence, biomechanics, risk factors, clinical presentation, diagnosis, and prognosis of shaken baby syndrome (SBS), as well as to encourage involvement in SBS prevention through the use of a family teaching tool. Education is essential to decrease the incidence, morbidity, and mortality of SBS.
Fermilab’s first director, Robert Wilson, established the bison herd in 1969 as a symbol of the history of the Midwestern prairie and the laboratory’s pioneering research at the frontiers of particle physics. The herd remains a major attraction for families and wildlife enthusiasts. A herd of pure bison is a natural fit for a prairie ecosystem, like the kind that exists on the Fermilab site. Fermilab hosts 1,100 acres of reconstructed tall-grass prairie. A baby bison was born at Fermilab on April 20, 2017. Here is that story.
Cleminson, J; Oddie, S; Renfrew, M J; McGuire, W
Breast feeding improves important outcomes for mothers and infants. In the UK, breastfeeding rates have historically been low, particularly among socially disadvantaged young women. Although there have been gradual increases in breastfeeding initiation rates since 2000, rates of exclusive breast feeding and continuation until 6 months remain lower than those in similar countries. This review summarises the evidence for effective and cost-effective strategies to help women, particularly those in low income groups, make informed choices, overcome barriers and establish and maintain breast feeding. We describe the development and impact of the Unicef Baby Friendly Initiative, and the roles and responsibilities, and challenges and opportunities that clinicians have in promoting breast feeding and maintaining a baby-friendly culture and environment. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Brown, M. E.; Antle, J. M.; Backlund, P. W.; Carr, E. R.; Easterling, W. E.; Walsh, M.; Ammann, C. M.; Attavanich, W.; Barrett, C. B.; Bellemare, M. F.; Dancheck, V.; Funk, C.; Grace, K.; Ingram, J. S. I.; Jiang, H.; Maletta, H.; Mata, T.; Murray, A.; Ngugi, M.; Ojima, D. S.; O'Neill, B. C.; Tebaldi, C.
This paper will summarize results from the USDA report entitled 'Climate change, Global Food Security and the U.S. Food system'. The report focuses on the impact of climate change on global food security, defined as "when all people at all times have physical, social, and economic access to sufficient, safe, and nutritious food to meet their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life". The assessment brought together authors and contributors from twenty federal, academic, nongovernmental, intergovernmental, and private organizations in four countries to identify climate change effects on food security through 2100, and analyze the U.S.'s likely connections with that world. This talk will describe how climate change will likely affect food access and food utilization, and summarize how the U.S. food system contributes to global food security, and will be affected by climate change.
Suárez-Ortiz, Josué O; Cortés-Salazar, Felipe; Malagón-Carrillo, Ariadna L; López-Alonso, Verónica E; Mancilla-Díaz, Juan M; Tejas-Juárez, Juan G; Escartín-Pérez, Rodrigo E
Overeating is one of the most relevant clinical features in Binge Eating Disorder and in some obesity patients. According to several studies, alterations in the mesolimbic dopaminergic transmission produced by non-homeostatic feeding behavior may be associated with changes in the reward system similar to those produced by drugs of abuse. Although it is known that binge-eating is related with changes in dopaminergic transmission mediated by D2 receptors in the nucleus accumbens shell (NAcS), it has not been determined whether these receptors may be a potential target for the treatment of eating pathology with binge-eating. Accordingly, the aim of the present study was to evaluate whether sugar binging induced by intermittent access to a sucrose solution produced changes in the structure of feeding behavior and whether blocking D2 receptors prevented these changes. We used the intermittent access model to a 10% sucrose solution (2 h/day for 4 weeks) to induce sugar binging in Sprague Dawley female rats. Experimental subjects consumed in a 2-h period more than 50% of the caloric intake consumed by the subjects with ad-lib access to the sweetened solution without any increase in body weight or fat accumulation. Furthermore, we evaluated whether sugar binging was associated to the estrous cycle and we did not find differences in caloric intake (estrous vs. diestrus). Subsequently, we characterized the structure of feeding behavior (microstructural analysis) and the motivation for palatable food (breakpoints) of the subjects with sugar binging and found that feeding episodes had short latencies, high frequencies, as well as short durations and inter-episode intervals. The intermittent access model did not increase breakpoints, as occurred in subjects with ad-lib access to the sucrose. Finally, we evaluated the effects of D2 receptor blockade in the NAcS, and found that raclopride (18 nM) prevented the observed changes in the frequency and duration of episodes induced by
Suárez-Ortiz, Josué O.; Cortés-Salazar, Felipe; Malagón-Carrillo, Ariadna L.; López-Alonso, Verónica E.; Mancilla-Díaz, Juan M.; Tejas-Juárez, Juan G.; Escartín-Pérez, Rodrigo E.
Overeating is one of the most relevant clinical features in Binge Eating Disorder and in some obesity patients. According to several studies, alterations in the mesolimbic dopaminergic transmission produced by non-homeostatic feeding behavior may be associated with changes in the reward system similar to those produced by drugs of abuse. Although it is known that binge-eating is related with changes in dopaminergic transmission mediated by D2 receptors in the nucleus accumbens shell (NAcS), it has not been determined whether these receptors may be a potential target for the treatment of eating pathology with binge-eating. Accordingly, the aim of the present study was to evaluate whether sugar binging induced by intermittent access to a sucrose solution produced changes in the structure of feeding behavior and whether blocking D2 receptors prevented these changes. We used the intermittent access model to a 10% sucrose solution (2 h/day for 4 weeks) to induce sugar binging in Sprague Dawley female rats. Experimental subjects consumed in a 2-h period more than 50% of the caloric intake consumed by the subjects with ad-lib access to the sweetened solution without any increase in body weight or fat accumulation. Furthermore, we evaluated whether sugar binging was associated to the estrous cycle and we did not find differences in caloric intake (estrous vs. diestrus). Subsequently, we characterized the structure of feeding behavior (microstructural analysis) and the motivation for palatable food (breakpoints) of the subjects with sugar binging and found that feeding episodes had short latencies, high frequencies, as well as short durations and inter-episode intervals. The intermittent access model did not increase breakpoints, as occurred in subjects with ad-lib access to the sucrose. Finally, we evaluated the effects of D2 receptor blockade in the NAcS, and found that raclopride (18 nM) prevented the observed changes in the frequency and duration of episodes induced by
Haghshenas, Zahra; Tajziehchi, Leila; Ghavami, Fakhredin
Michelin tire baby syndrome is a rare syndrome, diagnosed clinically by multiple circumferential skin folds. Multiple noncutaneous anomalies have been described with this syndrome. We report a case of Michelin tire baby syndrome with congenital panhypopituitarism. To date, there is no report of association between these two disorders.
St Fleur, Rose; McKeever, Joyce
The concept of the nurse-physician leadership dyad incorporates the expertise of both nurses and physicians as leaders of change within health system environments. The leadership dyad model has been used traditionally in health care administrative settings to manage utilization of resources more effectively. Because the Baby-Friendly designation requires major cultural shifts in long-standing maternity care practices, an interdisciplinary approach to implementation is necessary. © 2014 AWHONN.
Vaughan, Jerry L.
The demographic context of the baby boom in the United States (1946-1964) as well as past and future impacts of this population increase are considered in this review of research. During the 18-year period, over 76,000,000 babies were born, more than the entire population of the United States in 1900. Reasons for the increase are attributed to…
Martins, Tiago; de Magalhães, Sérgio Tenreiro
The baby's crying is his most important mean of communication. The crying monitoring performed by devices that have been developed doesn't ensure the complete safety of the child. It is necessary to join, to these technological resources, means of communicating the results to the responsible, which would involve the digital processing of information available from crying. The survey carried out, enabled to understand the level of adoption, in the continental territory of Portugal, of a technology that will be able to do such a digital processing. It was used the TAM as the theoretical referential. The statistical analysis showed that there is a good probability of acceptance of such a system.
Bonchak, Jonathan G; Prouty, Megan E; de la Feld, Salma F
Personal care products marketed for babies and children are often regarded as "safe" or "gentle." However, little is known about the prevalence of contact allergens in these types of products. This study assessed the prevalence of important sensitizers in personal care products marketed for babies and children. A secondary objective of this study was to determine whether a product's cost correlates with content of sensitizing ingredients. The ingredient lists of 533 unique personal care products were analyzed for presence of fragrance, betaines, propylene glycol, methylchloroisothiazolinone, methylisothiazolinone, formaldehyde, lanolin, and neomycin. Price per ounce was determined for each product as well. Most personal care products for babies and children contain 1 or more sensitizers. Products containing more sensitizers tend to cost less than those without any sensitizing ingredients.
Sproat, Thomas; Hearn, Richard; Harigopal, Sundeep
Current resuscitation guidelines suggest that it is reasonable to consider stopping resuscitation where no heart rate (cardiac activity) has been detected for 10 min in a newborn baby from birth. We aimed to determine the mortality rate and 2-year neurodevelopmental outcome of all babies born with no heart rate before 10 min of age where resuscitation was attempted in a tertiary referral centre over a 5-year period. To identify all babies with no heart rate before age 10 min we examined two groups:▸ All babies classified as live born who received cardiac massage at birth between January 2009 and December 2013.▸ All babies classified as stillborn between January 2009 and December 2013 where attempts were made at resuscitation beyond 10 min. 87 babies received cardiac massage. 81 babies were live born and 6 were classified as stillborn. Twenty-two babies had no heart rate before 10 min of age. Eight babies survived to 2-year follow-up. 6/11 term babies survived, 2/4 babies born between 32 weeks and 37 weeks survived, and no infants born less than 32 weeks survived (n=7). Of the survivors, 5/8 had a normal neurodevelopmental outcome at 2 years' age. One patient was lost to follow-up, while the other two patients had hemiplegia. Our results add to the body of evidence suggesting that having no heart rate before 10 min of age, in term babies, may not be an appropriate prompt to discontinue resuscitation. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Rosnick, David; Baker, Dean
The collapse of the housing bubble and the resulting plunge in the stock market destroyed more than $10 trillion in household wealth. The impact was especially severe for the baby boom cohorts who are at or near retirement age. This paper uses data from the Federal Reserve Board's 2007 Survey of Consumer Finances to compare the wealth of the baby boomer cohorts just before the crash with projections of household wealth following the crash. These projections show that most baby boomers will be almost entirely dependent on their Social Security income after they stop working.
... Going to the playground Playing with their favorite toys Reading books with you Avoid telling your child ... help." For younger children, a small gift (a toy or stuffed animal) "from the baby" is often ...
... life-threatening infections. Tooth decay (called early childhood caries) is the most common chronic infectious disease of childhood. Tooth decay may also be called nursing caries or baby bottle tooth decay . Healthy dental habits ...
Kain, Victoria J
Moral distress in nursing is a prevalent theme in the literature. Although this issue has been investigated in other nursing disciplines, it has not been investigated by empirical research in the emotionally and ethically sensitive area of providing care to dying babies. Moral distress occurs when nurses are prevented from translating moral choices into moral action. The response to moral distress is anger, resentment, guilt, frustration, sorrow and powerlessness. If not addressed, self-worth may be jeopardised, affecting personal and professional relationships. A review of the literature was conducted to explore moral distress in neonatal nursing when providing care to dying babies. This literature review provides a basis for the direction of further research and hypothesis testing. Further focused research is necessary in this under-theorised area of nursing practice to clarify the significance of moral distress for neonatal nurses caring for dying babies.
Margetts, B M; Mohd Yusof, S; Al Dallal, Z; Jackson, A A
To assess differences in birth weight between all first and second generation South Asian babies born in Southampton, and trends since 1957. Retrospective, cohort study. Birth records for babies born in Southampton from 1957 to 1996 were searched to identify all babies born of South Asian origin (including from the Indian subcontinent, East Africa, and elsewhere). All information recorded in the birth record about the mother and baby was extracted. 2395 full term (>37 weeks; mean birth weight 3110; 95%CI 3092 to 3129) singleton births were identified. Detailed analysis was restricted to mothers either born in the Indian subcontinent (India, Pakistan, or Bangladesh (1435)) or United Kingdom (283). Mean birth weight and % low birth weight (<2500 g) were 3133 g (95%CI 3108 to 3157) and 7.5%, for first generation babies and 3046 g (2992 to 3099) and 11.7% for second generation babies. There was no trend over time to increased average birth weight in either first or second generation babies. Adjusting for other factors that were statistically significantly related to birth weight (gender, gestational age, mother's age, maternal weight at 15 weeks, parity, and mother's ethnic group) did not alter the trends. For that group in the UK who derive from the Indian subcontinent, average birth weight is significantly less than the national average. There has not been any increase in the average birth weight over the past 40 years, and the birth weight of babies of women who were born in the UK are no greater. The persistence of lower than desirable birth weight may result long term in higher than average rates of diabetes and heart disease in these groups.
Pikuta, Elena V.; Hoover, Richard B.; Fisher, Daniel
Microbiological analysis of several cold-preserved tissue samples from the Siberian baby mammoth known as Lyuba revealed a number of culturable bacterial strains that were grown on anaerobic media at 4 C. Lactic acid produced by LAB (lactic acid bacteria) group, usually by members of the genera Carnobacterium and Lactosphera, appears to be a wonderful preservative that prevents other bacteria from over-dominating a system. Permafrost and lactic acid preserved the body of this one-month old baby mammoth and kept it in exceptionally good condition, resulting in this mammoth being the most complete such specimen ever recovered. The diversity of novel anaerobic isolates was expressed on morphological, physiological and phylogenetic levels. Here we discuss the specifics of the isolation of new strains, differentiation from trivial contamination, and preliminary results for the characterization of cultures.
Scholl, Georges; Humblet, Marie-France; Scippo, Marie-Louise; De Pauw, Edwin; Eppe, Gauthier; Saegerman, Claude
The risk linked to furan ingestion has been assessed in previous papers for Belgian adults and children. The present paper focuses on infants consuming only ready-to-eat baby food. As there is no Belgian baby dietary database, the furan exposure assessment was carried out by using an Italian infant consumption database and Belgian contamination data. The estimated daily intake (EDI) was calculated according to a deterministic methodology. It involved 42 commercially available ready-to-eat baby food and 36 baby consumption records. The mean EDI was 1460 ng*(kg(bw)*day)⁻¹ which is 3.8 times higher than the 381 ng*(kg(bw)*day)⁻¹ reported for Belgian adults, and 3.5 times higher than the 419 ng*(kg(bw)*day)⁻¹ measured for Belgian children. To assess and characterise the risk for babies' exposure, the margin of exposure (MoE) was calculated. It highlighted that 74% of infants have a MoE < 1000, with a minimum of 140. However, these are only preliminary results as they were calculated from a very small dataset and the infant cytochrome P450 activity is significantly different compared with the adult's. Therefore, the risk linked to furan ingestion by babies should be assessed in a different manner. To this end, additional data regarding a baby diet as well as a better understanding of furan toxicity for babies are needed to characterise more accurately the risk for infants.
Vergara, Lizandra Garcia Lupi; Ribet, Lucie Elisa
A study in the educators' work station at baby nursery of NDI/UFSC, located in Florianópolis, was conducted using the Work Ergonomic Analysis methodological tool. The demand considered was the educators' physical exhaustion caused by the weight carried when taking care of the babies, the postures assumed during the labor activity and the spatial arrangement of the baby nursery. Thinking ergonomically, the spatial arrangement is directly associated to three factors: the formal aspect of the environment, the esthetic aspect including colors and finish quality and the ease of understanding involved in the baby nursery labor. By the ergonomic adequacy it is possible to assert that if were established better conditions of posture and comfort for the educators, as well as satisfactory technical and operational information to carry out the activities, greater safety and welfare would be provided to the babies, the main focus of the work.
Hoffman, Geoffrey J.; Lee, Jihey; Mendez-Luck, Carolyn A.
Purpose of the Study: This study examines health-risk behaviors among "Baby Boomer" caregivers and non-caregivers. Design and Methods: Data from the 2009 California Health Interview Survey of the state's non-institutionalized population provided individual-level, caregiving, and health behavior characteristics for 5,688 informal…
Mannan, M A; Jahan, N; Dey, S K; Uddin, M F; Ahmed, S
This prospective study was done to find out the maternal and foetal risk factors and complications during hospital stay. It was conducted in Special Care Neonatal Unit (SCANU), Department of Child Health, Bangabandhu Memorial Hospital (BBMH), University of Science and Technology Chittagong (USTC) from1st October 2001 to 30th March 2002 and cases were 35 very low birth weight (VLBW) newborns. Common complications of VLBW babies of this series were frequent apnea (40%), Septicemia (25.71%), Hypothermia (17.14%), NEC (14.28%), Convulsion (11.43%), Hyper-bilirubinaemia (8.57%), Anemia (5.71%), IVH (5.71%), RDS (2.86%), HDN (2.86%), CCF (2.86%), ARF (2.86%), either alone or in combination with other clinical conditions. Newborns 62.86% male, 37.14% female & their mortality rate were 40.91% & 38.46% respectively; Preterm 88.57% & their mortality (41.93%) were higher than term babies (25.00%); AGA 62.86%, SGA 37.14% & mortality rate of AGA babies (45.46%) were higher than of SGA (30.77%) babies. The mortality rate of VLBW infants of teen age (≤ 18 years) mothers (57.14%) & high (≥ 30 years) aged mothers (50.00%) were higher than average (19-26 yrs) maternal age mothers (33.33%). Mortality rate was higher among the babies of primi (41.67%) than multiparous (36.36%), poor socioeconomic group (53.33%) than middle class (30.00%) & mothers on irregular ANC (47.83%) than regular ANC (25.00%). It has been also noted the mortality rate of home delivered babies (50.00%) higher than institutional delivered (34.78%) babies; higher in LUCS babies (46.15%) than normal vaginal delivered babies (31.58%); higher in the babies who had antenatal maternal problem (48.15%) than no maternal problems babies (12.50%); higher in the babies who had fetal distress (50.00%) and twin (46.67%) than no foetal risk factors (28.57%) during intrauterine life; higher in the babies who had problems at admission (46.67%) than no problems (35.00%); and mortality higher in twin (46.67%) than singleton
Arnold, L D
Milk banking is alive and well in China in small in-house milk banks in Baby Friendly Hospitals, especially those where staff has had little contact with western medical training. Donor milk banking is a logical extension of Step 6 of the Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative and is a good indicator of a hospital's respect for breastfeeding and its understanding of the unique components of human milk.
Rogers, MeLisa J.
An extended career or working through planned retirement may assist baby boomers in recapturing financial losses experienced from the U.S. retirement market between 2007 and 2008. Job security, enhanced by adding value to an organization through competent performance, is an important link to the success of an extended career. Hence, baby boomers…
Mueller, Vannesa; Sepulveda, Amanda
Introduction: Baby sign language is gaining in popularity. However, research has indicated a lack of empirical research supporting its use. In addition, research suggests that baby sign training may increase stress levels in parents. Methods: Nine families with children ranging in age from six months to two years; five months participated in a…
Browne, Joy V.; Talmi, Ayelet
Infants who begin their lives in intensive care are impacted physically and socioemotionally for many months and years to come. Likewise, stressful experiences of caring for a baby hospitalized in intensive care have an impact on primary caregivers, typically the baby's parents. Infant mental health (IMH) is an expanding, evidence-based field that…
Fok, T F; Hon, K L; So, H K; Ng, P C; Wong, E; Lee, A K Y; Chang, A
To provide a database of the auricular measurements of Chinese infants born in Hong Kong. Prospective cross-sectional study. A total of 2384 healthy singleton, born consecutively at the Prince of Wales Hospital and the Union Hospital from October 1998 to September 2000, were included in the study. The range of gestation was 33-42 weeks. Measurements included ear width (EW), ear length (EL) and ear position (EP). The data show generally higher values for males in the parameters measured. When compared with previously published data for Caucasian and Jordanian term babies, Chinese babies have shorter EL. The ears were within normal position in nearly all our infants. The human ear appears to grow in a remarkably constant fashion. This study establishes the first set of gestational age-specific standard of the ear parameters for Chinese new-borns, potentially enabling early syndromal diagnosis. There are significant inter-racial differences in these ear parameters.
Jacko, Virginia A.; Mayros, Roxann; Brady-Simmons, Carol; Chica, Isabel; Moore, J. Elton
The Miami Lighthouse, in its 81 years of service to persons who are visually impaired (that is, those who are blind or have low vision), has adapted to meet the ever-changing needs of clients of all ages. To meet the significant needs of visually impaired children--more than 80% of early learning is visual (Blind Babies Foundation, 2012)--the…
Chiu, Alexander G; Palmer, James N; Woodworth, Bradford A; Doghramji, Laurel; Cohen, Michael B; Prince, Anthony; Cohen, Noam A
Symptoms of postnasal drainage and thickened mucus are commonly seen in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) recalcitrant to sinus surgery and conventional medical therapies. Chemical surfactants can act as a mucolytic by reducing water surface tension and have the potential to serve as an antimicrobial agent. Baby shampoo is an inexpensive, commercially available solution containing multiple chemical surfactants. This is an in vitro study of its antimicrobial effects on Pseudomonas biofilms with translation to a clinical study for use as an adjuvant nasal wash in patients with CRS who remain symptomatic despite adequate sinus surgery and conventional medical therapies. In vitro testing was performed to determine the optimal concentration of baby shampoo that disrupted preformed bacterial biofilms and inhibited biofilm formation. This concentration was then used in a prospective study of symptomatic post-functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS) patients who irrigated twice a day for 4 weeks. Validated outcome forms and objective smell testing was performed before and after therapy. One percent baby shampoo in normal saline was the optimal concentration for inhibition of Pseudomonas biofilm formation. Baby shampoo had no effect on the eradication of preformed Pseudomonas biofilms. Eighteen patients with CRS with an average of 2.8 surgeries were studied after irrigating with 1% baby shampoo solution. Two patients discontinued use because of minor nasal and skin irritations; 46.6% of patients experienced an overall improvement in their subjective symptoms, and 60% of patients noted improvement in specific symptoms of thickened mucus and postnasal drainage. Baby shampoo nasal irrigation has promise as an inexpensive, tolerable adjuvant to conventional medical therapies for symptomatic patients after FESS. Its greatest benefit may be in improving symptoms of thickened nasal discharge and postnasal drainage.
Aladag, Nihal; Filiz, Tuncay M; Topsever, Pinar; Gorpelioglu, Suleyman
For centuries, sunlight has been used for therapeutic purposes. Parents still sun their infants to treat neonatal jaundice, nappy rash or mostly to supply vitamin D for bone development as a consequence of health beliefs. In this study we aimed to assess knowledge and behaviour of parents about benefits of sunlight and sun protection. In this study, parents attending to governmental primary healthcare units for their children's routine vaccinations, upon their informed consent, were consecutively enrolled during one month. Data were collected by a semi-structured questionnaire. The mean age of 118 enrolled parents and their babies were 27.9 +/- 6.5 years and 8.3 +/- 5.8 months, respectively. Most of the participants were mothers (93.2%), housewives (81.4%) with an educational level of > or =6 years (71.2%). Sunlight was considered beneficial for bone development (86.4%), diaper rash (5.9%) and neonatal jaundice (12.7%). In case of neonatal jaundice 72.0% of the participants reported that they would consult a physician. Most of the participants (82.2%) were sunning their babies outdoors. Nearly half (49.7%) of them got this information from medical staff. Fifty two percent of the parents were sunning their babies before 10-11 a.m. and/or after 3 p.m. Only 13.6% of parents reported using sunscreen for their babies, and the majority of them were using sun protecting factor > or = 15. One forth of the sunscreen users was using sunscreen according to their physicians' advice. Most of the participants were aware of the benefits of sunlight; especially for bone development. However they were displaying inappropriate behaviour while sunning their babies for health reasons. More education should be given to parents about the danger of sunlight at primary health care units while advising to sun their babies, if any.
Aladag, Nihal; Filiz, Tuncay M; Topsever, Pinar; Gorpelioglu, Suleyman
Background For centuries, sunlight has been used for therapeutic purposes. Parents still sun their infants to treat neonatal jaundice, nappy rash or mostly to supply vitamin D for bone development as a consequence of health beliefs. In this study we aimed to assess knowledge and behaviour of parents about benefits of sunlight and sun protection. Methods In this study, parents attending to governmental primary healthcare units for their children's routine vaccinations, upon their informed consent, were consecutively enrolled during one month. Data were collected by a semi-structured questionnaire. Results The mean age of 118 enrolled parents and their babies were 27.9 ± 6.5 years and 8.3 ± 5.8 months, respectively. Most of the participants were mothers (93.2%), housewives (81.4%) with an educational level of ≥6 years (71.2%). Sunlight was considered beneficial for bone development (86.4%), diaper rash (5.9%) and neonatal jaundice (12.7%). In case of neonatal jaundice 72.0% of the participants reported that they would consult a physician. Most of the participants (82.2%) were sunning their babies outdoors. Nearly half (49.7%) of them got this information from medical staff. Fifty two percent of the parents were sunning their babies before 10–11 a.m. and/or after 3 p.m. Only 13.6% of parents reported using sunscreen for their babies, and the majority of them were using sun protecting factor ≥ 15. One forth of the sunscreen users was using sunscreen according to their physicians' advice. Conclusion Most of the participants were aware of the benefits of sunlight; especially for bone development. However they were displaying inappropriate behaviour while sunning their babies for health reasons. More education should be given to parents about the danger of sunlight at primary health care units while advising to sun their babies, if any. PMID:17076884
Phupoksakul, Thunyaluck; Leuangsukrerk, Manusawee; Somwangthanaroj, Anongnat; Tananuwong, Kanitha; Janjarasskul, Theeranun
The use of biodegradable polymeric materials has been proposed as an environmentally-friendly alternative to petroleum-based packaging. To extend the shelf life of food products, these bioplastics must possess appropriate barrier properties and food-package stability. In the present study, shelf life analysis of packaged baby formula in biopolymeric, multilayer film, fabricated from poly(lactide) (PLA) and whey protein isolate (WPI), PLA/WPI/PLA and PLA pouches was performed at 4-35 o C and 50-59% relative humidity. Despite the possible sorption of food components into contact PLA surfaces, the results demonstated that the transparency and barrier properties of PLA-based pouches were insignificantly changed over time (P > 0.05), although the films showed a slow rate of color change. The baby formula packaged in PLA/WPI/PLA had a delayed lipid oxidation compared to the sample in the PLA pouch, especially at a higher temperature. The application of WPI in the multilayer structure shifted the shelf life determination factor from lipid oxidation to moisture gain. The results indicate that the PLA/WPI/PLA pouch has good storage stability. The film could be used to package dry food properly at 4-35 o C and 50-59% relative humidity for an extended period of time. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.
Kv, Radha Krishna; Hemalatha, Rajkumar; Mamidi, Raja Sriswan; Jj, Babu Geddam; Balakrishna, N
India is experiencing rapidly escalating epidemics of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. High fat percent in Indian adults may have its origins at birth (Fetal origin hypothesis). Conflicting evidence from India have shown increased or similar fat mass in Indian newborn babies compared to western countries. To compare body composition of term infants with data from similar studies in India and developed countries. Cross-sectional study in newborn infants at the antenatal ward of a tertiary care hospital in South India. 626 mothers and their newborn babies. Maternal body weight and height, baby weight, length, head circumference, skin folds at three sites. Body fat, arm muscle area and arm muscle index were calculated based on known methods. Mean (SD) birth weight of newborn babies was 2.80 (0.37) kg and 43% of them were small for gestational age. Birth weight was significantly related to subscapular (r=0.445; p<0.001) and triceps (r=0.567; p<0.001) skin fold thickness. Mean (CI) Subscapular skin fold thickness and total body fat % was 3.81mm (3.74-3.97) and 10.5% (10.2-10.8). Mean total body fat % for small for gestational age (SGA) (9.57%) was significantly lower than appropriate for gestational age (AGA) babies (11.7%). The mean body fat percent in AGA infants was similar to that of studies reported on term infants of developed countries, suggesting that South Indian babies may accumulate similar fat mass with increasing birth weight and gestational age. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Isaacs, Seth; Fakhri, Samer; Luong, Amber; Whited, Chad; Citardi, Martin J
Biofilm formation has been implicated as an etiologic factor in the development of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). Nasal irrigation with surfactants including dilute baby shampoo have been proposed as an antibiofilm treatment for CRS patients. The effect of dilute baby shampoo on normal sinonasal mucosal function is unknown. Mucociliary clearance time (MCT), as measured by the time in minutes for a subject to detect a sweet taste after the application of a saccharin granules at the anterior part of the inferior turbinate, was performed before and shortly after nasal irrigation with 50 ml of 1% baby shampoo (Johnson & Johnson, New Brunswick, NJ) in 27 healthy volunteers. Mean MCTs before and after irrigation were 12.09 (±4.83 minutes) and 15.45 (±7.71 minutes) minutes, respectively. The mean difference, 3.37 minutes, was statistically significant (p = 0.031). Pre- and post-MCTs for each subject were not correlated (r = 0.324; p = 0.100). Nasal irrigations with dilute baby shampoo increase MCTs in healthy subjects. The impact of such interventions in CRS patients warrants additional investigation.
Aparicio, Maria Teresa Sanz; Balana, Javier Menendez
This study was initiated with twenty Down's syndrome babies to verify whether subjects undergoing social early stimulation would benefit from this type of treatment. An experimental study was designed with two training groups: visual or written instructions. The analyses of the results established statistically significant differences in the…
Barabach, Lynn; Ludington-Hoe, Susan M; Dowling, Donna; Lotas, Marilyn
The objective of this pilot study was to determine women's perceptions of their levels of maternal role competence at discharge from a Baby-Friendly hospital. A convenience sample of 30 women completed two self-report questionnaires: a demographic questionnaire and the Perceived Maternal Parenting Self-Efficacy scale. Women report that they perceived high levels of maternal role competence with a mean total score of 69.80 (standard deviation = 6.86) out of 80. As women experience breastfeeding in Baby-Friendly hospitals, maternal role competence may develop with appropriate support. © 2017 AWHONN, the Association of Women’s Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.
All parents want their children to grow up happy and healthy. But, did you know that smoking during pregnancy has been linked to a higher chance of having a baby with certain birth defects and health problems?
Cleveland, Lisa M; Horner, Sharon D
The admission of an infant to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) can produce significant stress for mothers and may contribute to a difficult transition following discharge. Past research has primarily focused on Caucasian women. Mexican-Americans are the fastest growing ethnic population in the U.S. with the highest fertility rate; therefore, the purpose of this grounded theory study was to gain a better understanding of the NICU experience for Mexican-American mothers. Fifteen women were recruited and data were collected through semi-structured interviews. A theoretical model, taking care of my baby, was developed. The mothers' experiences began with the unexpected event of having an infant admitted to the NICU and played out in a context that fluctuated between being supportive (making meaningful connections) or inhibitive (struggling to mother). The women developed strategies to help them take care of their babies during the NICU stay: balancing responsibilities, leaving part of me with my baby, and watching over. The process concluded in one of two ways: bringing my baby home or losing my baby. These findings offer insight for neonatal nurses who provide care for Mexican-American NICU mothers and may help inform their practice. Further research is needed with this growing population to ensure supportive nursing care and influence positive outcomes.
Margetts, B; Mohd, Y; Al, D; Jackson, A
Objective: To assess differences in birth weight between all first and second generation South Asian babies born in Southampton, and trends since 1957. Design: Retrospective, cohort study. Setting: Birth records for babies born in Southampton from 1957 to 1996 were searched to identify all babies born of South Asian origin (including from the Indian subcontinent, East Africa, and elsewhere). Main outcome measures: All information recorded in the birth record about the mother and baby was extracted. Results: 2395 full term (>37 weeks; mean birth weight 3110; 95%CI 3092 to 3129) singleton births were identified. Detailed analysis was restricted to mothers either born in the Indian subcontinent (India, Pakistan, or Bangladesh (1435)) or United Kingdom (283). Mean birth weight and % low birth weight (<2500 g) were 3133 g (95%CI 3108 to 3157) and 7.5%, for first generation babies and 3046 g (2992 to 3099) and 11.7% for second generation babies. There was no trend over time to increased average birth weight in either first or second generation babies. Adjusting for other factors that were statistically significantly related to birth weight (gender, gestational age, mother's age, maternal weight at 15 weeks, parity, and mother's ethnic group) did not alter the trends. Conclusions: For that group in the UK who derive from the Indian subcontinent, average birth weight is significantly less than the national average. There has not been any increase in the average birth weight over the past 40 years, and the birth weight of babies of women who were born in the UK are no greater. The persistence of lower than desirable birth weight may result long term in higher than average rates of diabetes and heart disease in these groups. PMID:12177085
Nakao, R M
In the Philippines, researchers followed 135 babies born between August 1985-January 1986 to determine the effects of health education on infant health. Mothers in the experimental group learned about infant care, frequent nursing, personal hygiene, waiting until 4-6 months to begin supplementary foods, and the importance of the colostrum. Those in the control group received no such education. Both groups of mothers breast fed. 65% of the babies in the control group were healthy after 1 month, 48% after 4 months, 64% after 6 months, and 25% at 1 year while 57% of those from the experimental group were healthy after 1 month, 52% after 2 months, 3% after 5 months, and non at 1 year. There was a statistical difference in mean weights between the experimental and control groups at birth, 8 and 11 months. The average weights for babies in the experimental group were in the Class II category (weight for age 25th percentile and or = 50% percentile) while the average weight for those in the control group were in the Class I category (weight for age or = 25% percentile). Babies of multigravida mothers were more likely to be in Class III and IV (both classes 50th percentile) categories than those of primigravida mothers. No experimental group 5-7 month old babies had gastroenteritis while 6.1% 5 month olds, 16.1% 6 month olds, and 17.1% 7 months old in the control group had gastroenteritis. The incidence of respiratory infections was higher among control babies than experimental babies, except at 9 months. The incidence of fever was basically the same in both groups, except 9 and 12 month old experimental babies did not have any fever. Results of this study indicate that health education on infant health contributes to a lower incidence of gastroenteritis and respiratory infections and to higher weight gains.
Nordstrand, Linda; Holmefur, Marie; Kits, Annika; Eliasson, Ann-Christin
The common assumption that early-onset intensive intervention positively affects motor development has rarely been investigated for hand function in children with unilateral cerebral palsy (CP). This retrospective study explored the possible impact of baby constraint-induced movement therapy (baby-CIMT) on hand function at two years of age. We hypothesized that baby-CIMT in the first year of life would lead to better bimanual hand use at two years of age than would not receiving baby-CIMT. The Assisting Hand Assessment (AHA) was administered at age 21 months (SD 2.4 months) in 72 children with unilateral CP, 31 of who received baby-CIMT. When dividing the children into four functional levels based on AHA, the proportional distribution differed between the groups in favour of baby-CIMT. Logistic regression analysis indicated that children in the baby-CIMT group were more likely than were children in the no baby-CIMT group to have a high functional level, even when controlling for the effect of brain lesion type (OR 5.83, 95% CI 1.44-23.56, p = 0.001). However, no difference was found between groups in the odds of having a very low functional level (OR 0.31, 95% CI 0.08-1.17, p = 0.084). The result shows that baby-CIMT at early age can have a positive effect. Children who received baby-CIMT were six times more likely to have a high functional level at two years of age than were children in the no baby-CIMT group. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Wood, Chantelle; Conner, Mark; Sandberg, Tracy; Godin, Gaston; Sheeran, Paschal
Objective The question-behaviour effect (QBE) refers to the finding that measuring behavioural intentions increases performance of the relevant behaviour. This effect has been used to change health behaviours. The present research asks why the QBE occurs and evaluates one possible mediator – attitude accessibility. Design University staff and students (N = 151) were randomly assigned to an intention measurement condition where they reported their intentions to eat healthy foods, or to one of two control conditions. Main outcome measures Participants completed a response latency measure of attitude accessibility, before healthy eating behaviour was assessed unobtrusively using an objective measure of snacking. Results Intention measurement participants exhibited more accessible attitudes towards healthy foods, and were more likely to choose a healthy snack, relative to control participants. Furthermore, attitude accessibility mediated the relationship between intention measurement and behaviour. Conclusion This research demonstrates that increased attitude accessibility may explain the QBE, extending the findings of previous research to the domain of health behaviour. PMID:24245778
Pikuta, Elena V.; Fisher, Daniel; Hoover, Richard B.
Microbiological analysis of several cold-preserved tissue samples from the Siberian baby mammoth known as Lyuba revealed a number of culturable bacterial strains that were grown on anaerobic media at 3 oC. Lactic acid produced by LAB (lactic acid bacteria) group, usually by members of the genera Carnobacterium and Lactosphera, appears to be a wonderful preservative that keeps other bacteria from colonizing a system. Permafrost and lactic acid preserved the body of this one month-old baby mammoth and kept it in exceptionally good condition, resulting in this mammoth being the most complete sample of the species ever recovered. The diversity of novel psychrophilic anaerobic isolates was expressed on morphological, physiological and phylogenetic levels. Here, we discuss the specifics of the isolation of new psychrophilic strains, differentiation from trivial contamination, and preliminary results for characterization of the cultures.
Okada, Yoshio; Pratt, Kevin; Atwood, Christopher; Mascarenas, Anthony; Reineman, Richard; Nurminen, Jussi; Paulson, Douglas
We developed a prototype of a mobile, high-resolution, multichannel magnetoencephalography (MEG) system, called babySQUID, for assessing brain functions in newborns and infants. Unlike electroencephalography, MEG signals are not distorted by the scalp or the fontanels and sutures in the skull. Thus, brain activity can be measured and localized with MEG as if the sensors were above an exposed brain. The babySQUID is housed in a moveable cart small enough to be transported from one room to another. To assess brain functions, one places the baby on the bed of the cart and the head on its headrest with MEG sensors just below. The sensor array consists of 76 first-order axial gradiometers, each with a pickup coil diameter of 6mm and a baseline of 30mm, in a high-density array with a spacing of 12-14mm center-to-center. The pickup coils are 6±1mm below the outer surface of the headrest. The short gap provides unprecedented sensitivity since the scalp and skull are thin (as little as 3-4mm altogether) in babies. In an electromagnetically unshielded room in a hospital, the field sensitivity at 1kHz was ˜17fT/√Hz. The noise was reduced from ˜400to200fT/√Hz at 1Hz using a reference cancellation technique and further to ˜40fT/√Hz using a gradient common mode rejection technique. Although the residual environmental magnetic noise interfered with the operation of the babySQUID, the instrument functioned sufficiently well to detect spontaneous brain signals from babies with a signal to noise ratio (SNR) of as much as 7.6:1. In a magnetically shielded room, the field sensitivity was 17fT/√Hz at 20Hz and 30fT/√Hz at 1Hz without implementation of reference or gradient cancellation. The sensitivity was sufficiently high to detect spontaneous brain activity from a 7month old baby with a SNR as much as 40:1 and evoked somatosensory responses with a 50Hz bandwidth after as little as four averages. We expect that both the noise and the sensor gap can be reduced further by
: The Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI) is a program developed by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) to promote breastfeeding in hospitals and birthing facilities worldwide. Since the program was launched in 1991, breastfeeding initiation, duration, and exclusivity have increased globally, a trend largely attributed to changes in hospital policies and practices brought about by the BFHI. This article provides an overview of these practices and policies, the institutional benefits of achieving BFHI certification, and the process through which health care facilities can do so. All nurses-whether they work in maternity care or another nursing specialty in a hospital, ambulatory, or community setting-can play a role in promoting societal health through their support of long-term breastfeeding as recommended by the WHO and UNICEF.
Steel, Dianne M; Gray, Marion A
The objective of this article is to review published studies to describe issues and quality of evidence surrounding assistive technology (AT) use by the baby boomer generation. As the baby boomer generation are ageing, they represent a new era for aged health care. In terms of helping this generation maintain independence, it is expected that there will be an increased demand for AT. A systematic literature search of Medline, CINAHL and Cochrane was undertaken. Selected studies were critically appraised using a previously validated tool. Inclusion criteria were: research related to AT use by a population which includes baby boomers; published in peer-reviewed journals and full-text English language articles. Studies were based in acute rehabilitation units in the USA and Australia. Frequency of use and patient satisfaction surveys were the main outcome measures. A total of 11 eligible studies were reviewed. All were cross-sectional. Many studies indicated a significant rate of AT non-use; use rates ranged from 35% to 86.5%. Numerous factors influencing use were proposed. Study quality was upper-mid range. Baby boomers will place more demand on AT in the future. There is a need for high-quality research to verify current findings and highlight AT issues specific to this generation.
Hutton, John S
The issue of electronic media use by young children is increasingly important in pediatrics, a major risk factor for numerous chronic conditions. Despite guidelines in place since 1999, screen time is on the rise, aided by new formats removing practically all barriers of use. Key drivers are technological allure, confusion about developmental readiness, and perception of educational value, fueled by potent marketing. This article describes the development of Baby Unplugged, a series of children's board books celebrating "old-school," screen-free childhood. Written by a pediatrician who also owns a children's bookstore, the books were inspired and informed by advocacy projects in the areas of media use and early literacy as a pediatric resident. They reinforce AAP Electronic Media Guidelines, notably discouraging screen-based media under 2 years old, largely by encouraging healthy, fun alternatives. Examples include Pets, Book, and Yard. Multi-sensorial exploration and parent-child engagement are emphasized in a non-prescriptive way, featuring gender and ethnic diversity and activities that are accessible and inexpensive. The author describes challenges faced by pediatricians providing anticipatory guidance for media use, given limited time and resources and the perception that we are out of touch. This is heightened by oft-deceptive marketing of screen-based products more likely to be perceived as "cool." Reach Out and Read is cited as an example of a successful, "cool" intervention, though limited to select populations. Baby Unplugged takes advocacy to the marketplace, where the screen time battle is being lost.
Jiang, Z D; Brosi, D M; Wilkinson, A R
Seventy preterm babies who were born with a birthweight <1500 g were studied with brainstem auditory evoked responses (BAER) at 37-42 wk of postconceptional age. The data were compared with those of normal term neonates to determine the prevalence of hearing impairment in preterm very low birthweight (VLBW) babies when they reached term. The BAER was recorded with click stimuli at 21 s(-1). Wave I and V latencies increased significantly (ANOVA p < 0.01 and 0.001). I-V and III-V intervals also increased significantly (p < 0.05 and 0.001). Wave V amplitude and V/I amplitude ratio did not differ significantly from those in the normal term controls. Ten of the 70 VLBW babies had a significant elevation in BAER threshold (>30 dB normal hearing level). Eleven had an increase in I-V interval (>2.5 SD above the mean in the normal controls) and one had a decrease in V/I amplitude ratio (<0.45). These results suggest that 14% (10/70) of the VLBW babies had a peripheral hearing impairment and 17% (12/70) a central impairment. Three babies had both an increase in I-V interval and an elevation in BAER threshold, suggesting that 4% (3/70) had both peripheral and central impairments. Thus, the total prevalence of hearing impairment was 27% (19/70). About one in four preterm VLBW babies has peripheral and/or central hearing impairment at term. VLBW and its associated unfavourable perinatal factors predispose the babies to hearing impairment.
... it's also OK if you miss the way things were before the baby came. If you feel left out or need some attention, tell your mom or dad. Also be sure to tell a parent if you're having trouble getting your homework done or you're not getting enough sleep. Before ...
Levín, Alicia Rut
The present article refers to the maternal function in the mother-infant early bond from Donald Winnicott's psychoanalitic point of view. This author, authorized since he was a pediatrician and a psychoanalitic doctor, was capable to see the prematurity of the human baby and the affective state of the mother function before the child's birth. The needs of the newborn and his mother far from being complementary have their specificity that make necessary to consider the holding function that is expected from the mother. This work addresses the dimension of the reality as a limit and an organizer of the psychism in the early mother-baby relationship. The author works this topic from the paradigm of the building of a space that takes place in the mutual dynamic. She analyzes the illusion and disillusion function to build a possible destiny for the maternity and in the transition of the baby to the autonomy of a new person. When it's said about "the primary", it is in the sense of the time of building the psychism. A relational time, as Winnicott says, in which when we find an infant, we will always find the maternal care.
Chandraratna, P A; Vlahovich, G; Kong, Y; Wilson, D
Clinical and echocardiographic examinations were performed on 100 clinically stable, newborn baby girls. Mitral valve prolapse was noted on the echocardiograms of seven babies. Three subjects had systolic clicks, two of whom had systolic murmurs following the click. The four other babies who had echocardiographic evidence of mitral valve prolapse had no abnormal auscultatory signs. Of the 93 babies without evidence of mitral prolapse, 91 had normal echocardiograms and auscultatory features; one was noted to have a murmur consistent with a ventricular septal defect, and another had an eccentric aortic valve on the echocardiogram which was suggestive of a bicuspid aortic valve. Serial studies on our group of subjects will yield useful information regarding the natural history of mitral valve prolapse.
Cruz, Cláudia Marchetti; Caromano, Fátima Aparecida; Gonçalves, Lia Lopes; Machado, Thais Gaiad; Voos, Mariana Callil
Little is known about learning/adherence after different baby massage teaching strategies. We compared the learning/adherence after two strategies. Twenty mothers from the group manual-course (GMC) and 20 from the group manual-orientations (GMO) received a booklet. GMC participated in a course during the third trimester. GMO received verbal instructions during the postpartum hospital stay. Multiple-choice and practical tests assessed learning (GMC: performing strokes on a doll; GMO: on the baby). Adherence was measured 3 months after childbirth. No differences were found between the groups in learning/adherence. Both teaching strategies showed similar and positive results. © 2014, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Petitto, Laura Ann; Holowka, Siobhan; Sergio, Lauren E.; Levy, Bronna; Ostry, David J.
The ''ba, ba, ba'' sound universal to babies' babbling around 7 months captures scientific attention because it provides insights into the mechanisms underlying language acquisition and vestiges of its evolutionary origins. Yet the prevailing mystery is what is the biological basis of babbling, with one hypothesis being that it is a non-linguistic…
Cooper, Grace C.
This illustrated booklet on infant growth and development from 3 to 6 months of age is part of a self-instructional curriculum on parenting and child development for school-age mothers. Physical, motor, and social-emotional development of the infant are discussed, with emphasis on possible individual differences in babies. The emotional and social…
In June, NASA plans to launch the Microwave Anisotropy Probe (MAP) to survey the ancient radiation in unprecedented detail. MAP will map slight temperature fluctuations within the microwave background that vary by only 0.00001 C across a chilly radiation that now averages 2.73 C above absolute zero. The temperature differences today point back to density differences in the fiery baby universe, in which there was a little more matter here and a little less matter there. Areas of slightly enhanced density had stronger gravity than low-density areas. The high-density areas pulled back on the background radiation, making it appear slightly cooler in those directions.
Kiessling, Florian; Perner, Josef
This study tested one hundred and nine 3- to 6-year-old children on a knowledge-ignorance task about knowledge in humans (mother, baby) and God. In their responses, participants not reliably grasping that seeing leads to knowing in humans (pre-representational) were significantly influenced by own knowledge and marginally by question format. Moreover, knowledge was attributed significantly more often to mother than baby and explained by agent-based characteristics. Of participants mastering the task for humans (representational), God was largely conceived as ignorant "man in the sky" by younger and increasingly as "supernatural agent in the sky" by older children. Evidence for egocentrism and for anthropomorphizing God lends support to an anthropomorphism hypothesis. First-time evidence for an agent-based conception of others' knowledge in pre-representational children is presented. © 2013 The Authors. Child Development © 2013 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.
Cleary, Michelle; Sayers, Jan; Bramble, Marguerite; Jackson, Debra; Lopez, Violeta
As the population ages, risk factors commonly shared by chronic degenerative disease can be exacerbated by behaviours and lifestyle choices. There is increasing evidence that those affected by chronic disease (and associated symptoms such as pain), depression and adverse behavioural and lifestyle patterns are at risk of substance misuse. This paper overviews substance use in Baby Boomers, which are defined as people aged between 52-70 years old, and the implications this may have on their mental health and well-being. We provide an overview of the characteristics of the Baby Boomer generation, their health status and what is currently known about their substance use and misuse. A strengthening of older adult mental health outpatient services is recommended to prevent and address substance use among older adults. Further research examining factors that influence substance use among this group could better inform health promotion programs targeting Baby Boomers.
Schmidt, Kayna Trombini; Terassi, Mariélli; Marcon, Sonia Silva; Higarashi, Ieda Harumi
The objective of this study was to identify the strategies used by the nursing team in the neonatal unity care of a school-hospital during the preparation of the family for the premature baby discharge. It is a descriptive study with qualitative approach. The data was collected between March and June 2011, by means of observation and semi-structured interviews. From the discourse analysis two categories appeared: Orientations and professional strategies in preparing the family for the premature baby hospital discharge and Difficulties and potentialities in the neonatal attention space. The main strategy mentioned was the family early insertion in the caring process and the stressed difficulty was the parents' absence during the child's hospital staying. The potentialities and limitations pointed out in this study revealed that the assistance process is dynamic, asking for constant correction and adequacies to effectively and wholly care for the premature baby and its family.
Towle, Dana; Callan, Deborah A; Farrel, Patricia A; Egan, Marie E; Murray, Thomas S
Contaminated nebulizers are a potential source of bacterial infection but no single method is universally accepted for disinfection. We hypothesized that baby-bottle steam sterilizers effectively disinfect home nebulizers. Home nebulizers were inoculated with the common CF respiratory pathogens methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Burkholderia cepacia, Haemophilus influenzae, mucoid and non mucoid Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. The nebulizers were swabbed for bacterial growth, treated with either the AVENT (Philips), the NUK Quick & Ready (Gerber) or DRY-POD (Camera Baby) baby bottle steam sterilizer and reswabbed for bacterial growth. All steam sterilizers were effective at disinfecting all home nebulizers. Viable bacteria were not recovered from any inoculated site after steam treatment, under any conditions tested. Steam treatment is an effective disinfection method. Additional studies are needed to confirm whether these results are applicable to the clinical setting. Copyright © 2012 European Cystic Fibrosis Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Swain, James E.; Tasgin, Esra; Mayes, Linda C.; Feldman, Ruth; Constable, R. Todd; Leckman, James F.
A range of early circumstances surrounding the birth of a child affects peripartum hormones, parental behavior and infant wellbeing. One of these factors, which may lead to postpartum depression, is the mode of delivery: vaginal delivery (VD) or cesarean section delivery (CSD). To test the hypothesis that CSD mothers would be less responsive to own baby-cry stimuli than VD mothers in the immediate postpartum period, we conducted functional magnetic resonance imaging, 2–4 weeks after delivery, of the brains of six mothers who delivered vaginally and six who had an elective CSD. VD mothers’ brains were significantly more responsive than CSD mothers’ brains to their own baby-cry in the superior and middle temporal gyri, superior frontal gyrus, medial fusiform gyrus, superior parietal lobe, as well as regions of the caudate, thalamus, hypothalamus, amygdala and pons. Also, within preferentially active regions of VD brains, there were correlations across all 12 mothers with out-of-magnet variables. These include correlations between own baby-cry responses in the left and right lenticular nuclei and parental preoccupations (r = .64, p < .05 and .67, p < .05 respectively), as well as in the superior frontal cortex and Beck depression inventory (r = .78, p < .01). First this suggests that VD mothers are more sensitive to own baby-cry than CSD mothers in the early postpartum in sensory processing, empathy, arousal, motivation, reward and habit-regulation circuits. Second, independent of mode of delivery, parental worries and mood are related to specific brain activations in response to own baby-cry. PMID:18771508
Einarsdóttir, Kristjana; Langridge, Amanda; Hammond, Geoffrey; Gunnell, Anthony S.; Haggar, Fatima A.; Stanley, Fiona J.
Background The Australian baby bonus maternity payment introduced in 2004 has been reported to have successfully increased fertility rates in Australia. We aimed to investigate the influence of the baby bonus on maternal demographics and birth characteristics in Western Australia (WA). Methods and Findings This study included 200,659 birth admissions from WA during 2001–2008, identified from administrative birth and hospital data-systems held by the WA Department of Health. We estimated average quarterly birth rates after the baby bonus introduction and compared them with expected rates had the policy not occurred. Rate and percentage differences (including 95% confidence intervals) were estimated separately by maternal demographics and birth characteristics. WA birth rates increased by 12.8% following the baby bonus implementation with the greatest increase being in mothers aged 20–24 years (26.3%, 95%CI = 22.0,30.6), mothers having their third (1.6%, 95%CI = 0.9,2.4) or fourth child (2.2%, 95%CI = 2.1,2.4), mothers living in outer regional and remote areas (32.4%, 95%CI = 30.2,34.6), mothers giving birth as public patients (1.5%, 95%CI = 1.3,1.8), and mothers giving birth in public hospitals (3.5%, 95%CI = 2.6,4.5). Interestingly, births to private patients (−4.3%, 95%CI = −4.8,−3.7) and births in private hospitals (−6.3%, 95%CI = −6.8,−5.8) decreased following the policy implementation. Conclusions The introduction of the baby bonus maternity payment may have served as an incentive for women in their early twenties and mothers having their third or fourth child and may have contributed to the ongoing pressure and staff shortages in Australian public hospitals, particularly those in outer regional and remote areas. PMID:23145010
Einarsdóttir, Kristjana; Langridge, Amanda; Hammond, Geoffrey; Gunnell, Anthony S; Haggar, Fatima A; Stanley, Fiona J
The Australian baby bonus maternity payment introduced in 2004 has been reported to have successfully increased fertility rates in Australia. We aimed to investigate the influence of the baby bonus on maternal demographics and birth characteristics in Western Australia (WA). This study included 200,659 birth admissions from WA during 2001-2008, identified from administrative birth and hospital data-systems held by the WA Department of Health. We estimated average quarterly birth rates after the baby bonus introduction and compared them with expected rates had the policy not occurred. Rate and percentage differences (including 95% confidence intervals) were estimated separately by maternal demographics and birth characteristics. WA birth rates increased by 12.8% following the baby bonus implementation with the greatest increase being in mothers aged 20-24 years (26.3%, 95%CI = 22.0,30.6), mothers having their third (1.6%, 95%CI = 0.9,2.4) or fourth child (2.2%, 95%CI = 2.1,2.4), mothers living in outer regional and remote areas (32.4%, 95%CI = 30.2,34.6), mothers giving birth as public patients (1.5%, 95%CI = 1.3,1.8), and mothers giving birth in public hospitals (3.5%, 95%CI = 2.6,4.5). Interestingly, births to private patients (-4.3%, 95%CI = -4.8,-3.7) and births in private hospitals (-6.3%, 95%CI = -6.8,-5.8) decreased following the policy implementation. The introduction of the baby bonus maternity payment may have served as an incentive for women in their early twenties and mothers having their third or fourth child and may have contributed to the ongoing pressure and staff shortages in Australian public hospitals, particularly those in outer regional and remote areas.
Wang, Yubin; Ismail, Marliya; Farid, Mohammed
Currently baby food is sterilized using retort processing that gives an extended shelf life. However, this type of heat processing leads to reduction of organoleptic and nutrition value. Alternatively, the combination of pressure and heat could be used to achieve sterilization at reduced temperatures. This study investigates the potential of pressure-assisted thermal sterilization (PATS) technology for baby food sterilization. Here, baby food (apple puree), inoculated with Bacillus subtilis spores was treated using PATS at different operating temperatures, pressures and times and was compared with thermal only treatment. The results revealed that the decimal reduction time of B. subtilis in PATS treatment was lower than that of thermal only treatment. At a similar spore inactivation, the retention of ascorbic acid of PATS-treated sample was higher than that of thermally treated sample. The results indicated that PATS could be a potential technology for baby food processing while minimizing quality deterioration.
Badley, Elizabeth M; Canizares, Mayilee; Perruccio, Anthony V; Hogg-Johnson, Sheilah; Gignac, Monique A M
POLICY POINTS: Despite beliefs that baby boomers are healthier than previous generations, we found no evidence that the health of baby boomers is substantially different from that of the previous or succeeding cohorts. The effects of increased education, higher income, and lower smoking rates on improving self-rated health were nearly counterbalanced by the adverse effect of increasing body mass index (BMI). Assumptions that baby boomers will require less health care as they age because of better education, more prosperity, and less propensity to smoke may not be realized because of increases in obesity. Baby boomers are commonly believed to be healthier than the previous generation. Using self-rated health (SRH) as an indicator of health status, this study examines the effects of age, period, and birth cohort on the trajectory of health across 4 generations: World War II (born between 1935 and 1944), older baby boomers (born between 1945 and 1954), younger baby boomers (born between 1955 and 1964), and Generation X (born between 1965 and 1974). We analyzed Canada's longitudinal National Population Health Survey 1994-2010 (n = 8,570 at baseline), using multilevel growth models to estimate the age trajectory of SRH by cohort, accounting for period and incorporating the influence of changes in education, household income, smoking status, and body mass index (BMI) on SRH over time. SRH worsened with increasing age in all cohorts. Cohort differences in SRH were modest (p = 0.034), but there was a significant period effect (p = 0.002). We found marked cohort effects for increasing education, income, and BMI, and decreasing smoking from the youngest to the oldest cohorts, which were much reduced (education and smoking) or removed (income and BMI) once period was taken into account. At the population level, multivariable analysis showed the benefits of increasing education and income and declines in smoking on the trajectory of improving SRH were almost counterbalanced by
BADLEY, ELIZABETH M; CANIZARES, MAYILEE; PERRUCCIO, ANTHONY V; HOGG-JOHNSON, SHEILAH; GIGNAC, MONIQUE AM
Policy Points Despite beliefs that baby boomers are healthier than previous generations, we found no evidence that the health of baby boomers is substantially different from that of the previous or succeeding cohorts. The effects of increased education, higher income, and lower smoking rates on improving self-rated health were nearly counterbalanced by the adverse effect of increasing body mass index (BMI). Assumptions that baby boomers will require less health care as they age because of better education, more prosperity, and less propensity to smoke may not be realized because of increases in obesity. Context Baby boomers are commonly believed to be healthier than the previous generation. Using self-rated health (SRH) as an indicator of health status, this study examines the effects of age, period, and birth cohort on the trajectory of health across 4 generations: World War II (born between 1935 and 1944), older baby boomers (born between 1945 and 1954), younger baby boomers (born between 1955 and 1964), and Generation X (born between 1965 and 1974). Methods We analyzed Canada’s longitudinal National Population Health Survey 1994-2010 (n = 8,570 at baseline), using multilevel growth models to estimate the age trajectory of SRH by cohort, accounting for period and incorporating the influence of changes in education, household income, smoking status, and body mass index (BMI) on SRH over time. Findings SRH worsened with increasing age in all cohorts. Cohort differences in SRH were modest (p = 0.034), but there was a significant period effect (p = 0.002). We found marked cohort effects for increasing education, income, and BMI, and decreasing smoking from the youngest to the oldest cohorts, which were much reduced (education and smoking) or removed (income and BMI) once period was taken into account. At the population level, multivariable analysis showed the benefits of increasing education and income and declines in smoking on the trajectory of improving SRH were
Li, Sitao; Hao, Hu; Zhou, Ping; Gao, Ping Ming; Xiao, Xin
We measured cord blood and urine 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α (8-iso-PGF2α) levels in babies of different gestational ages to determine lipid peroxidation status. Babies at gestational ages of 28-43 weeks were divided into group A (28-32 weeks), group B (33-36 weeks), group C (37-41 weeks), and group D (42-43 weeks). 8-iso-PGF2α in umbilical cord blood (UCB) at birth and urine at 6 hours after birth was and tested by ELISA. UCB and urine 8-iso-PGF2α levels in group C were 130.09 ± 31.73 pg/ml and 27.14 ± 6.73 pg/ml, respectively. UCB 8-iso-PGF2α levels in group A and B were 188.42 ± 59.34 pg/ml and 189.37 ± 68.46 pg/ml, and urine 8-iso-PGF2α were 32.14 ± 7.32 pg/ml and 30.46 ± 8.83 pg/ml, respectively. Blood and urine 8-iso-PGF2α levels in group D (post-term) were 252.01 ± 46.42 pg/ml and 44.00 ± 8.50 pg/ml. For all babies, UCB and urine iso-PGF2α levels were significantly correlated (r = 0.65, P < 0.01). We established blood and urine iso-PGF2α levels in normal full-term babies. Urine 8-iso-PGF2α levels may reflect the extent of lipid peroxidation in babies. In pre-term and post-term babies, there was evidence for increased lipid peroxidation.
... will not break if dropped. If you choose plastic, it is best to buy new bottles. Reused or hand-me-down bottles may contain bisphenol-A (BPA). The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has banned the use of BPA in baby bottles due to safety ...
This artist's conception illustrates the decline in our universe's "birth-rate" over time. When the universe was young, massive galaxies were forming regularly, like baby bees in a bustling hive. In time, the universe bore fewer and fewer "offspring," and newborn galaxies (white circles) matured into older ones more like our own Milky Way (spirals). Previously, astronomers thought that the universe had ceased to give rise to massive, young galaxies, but findings from NASA's Galaxy Evolution Explorer suggest that may not be the case. Surveying thousands of nearby galaxies with its highly sensitive ultraviolet eyes, the telescope spotted three dozen that greatly resemble youthful galaxies from billions of years ago. In this illustration, those galaxies are represented as white circles on the right, or "today" side of the timeline. The discovery not only suggests that our universe may still be alive with youth, but also offers astronomers their first close-up look at what appear to be baby galaxies. Prior to the new result, astronomers had to peer about 11 billion light-years into the distant universe to see newborn galaxies. The newfound galaxies are only about 2 to 4 billion light-years away. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA07142
2004-01-01[figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1 This artist's conception illustrates the decline in our universe's 'birth-rate' over time. When the universe was young, massive galaxies were forming regularly, like baby bees in a bustling hive. In time, the universe bore fewer and fewer 'offspring,' and newborn galaxies (white circles) matured into older ones more like our own Milky Way (spirals). Previously, astronomers thought that the universe had ceased to give rise to massive, young galaxies, but findings from NASA's Galaxy Evolution Explorer suggest that may not be the case. Surveying thousands of nearby galaxies with its highly sensitive ultraviolet eyes, the telescope spotted three dozen that greatly resemble youthful galaxies from billions of years ago. In this illustration, those galaxies are represented as white circles on the right, or 'today' side of the timeline. The discovery not only suggests that our universe may still be alive with youth, but also offers astronomers their first close-up look at what appear to be baby galaxies. Prior to the new result, astronomers had to peer about 11 billion light-years into the distant universe to see newborn galaxies. The newfound galaxies are only about 2 to 4 billion light-years away.
... might be a sudden, long, high-pitched shriek. Picking up on any patterns can help you better ... baby. Remember that it's temporary. Crying spells often peak at about six to eight weeks and then ...
Whittaker, Robyn; Matoff-Stepp, Sabrina; Meehan, Judy; Kendrick, Juliette; Jordan, Elizabeth; Stange, Paul; Cash, Amanda; Meyer, Paul; Baitty, Julie; Johnson, Pamela; Ratzan, Scott; Rhee, Kyu
Text4baby is the first free national health text messaging service in the United States that aims to provide timely information to pregnant women and new mothers to help them improve their health and the health of their babies. Here we describe the development of the text messages and the large public-private partnership that led to the national launch of the service in 2010. Promotion at the local, state, and national levels produced rapid uptake across the United States. More than 320,000 people enrolled with text4baby between February 2010 and March 2012. Further evaluations of the effectiveness of the service are ongoing; however, important lessons can be learned from its development and uptake.
Van Geertruyden, J.P.; Ssenyonga, R.; Opio, C.K.; Kaducu, J.M.; Sempa, J.B.; Colebunders, R.; Ocama, P.
Background Hepatitis B (HBV) in sub-Saharan Africa is believed to be horizontally acquired. However, because of the high HBV prevalence in northern Uganda, no hepatitis B vaccination at birth and no access to HBV immunoglobulin, we hypothesize that vertical transmission also could also play an important role. We therefore investigated the incidence of HBV among babies presenting for their first HBV vaccine dose in Gulu, Uganda. Methods We recruited mothers and their babies (at least 6-week old) presenting for their postnatal care and first HBV vaccine dose respectively. Socio-demographic and risk factors for HBV transmission were recorded. Mothers were tested for Hepatitis B core antibody (anti-HBc-IgG) and hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). HBsAg-positive sera were tested for hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) and HBV viral load (HBVDNA). Babies were tested for HBsAg at presentation and at the last immunization visit. A sample of HBsAg-negative babies were tested for HBVDNA. Incident HBV infection was defined by either a positive HBsAg or HBVDNA test. Chi-square or fisher's exact tests were utilized to investigate associations and t-tests or Wilcoxon rank-sum test for continuous differences. Results We recruited 612 mothers, median age 23 years (IQR 20–28). 53 (8.7%) were HBsAg-positive and 339 (61.5%) were anti-HBc-IgG-positive. Ten (18.9%) of the HBsAg-positive mothers were HBeAg-positive. Median HBVDNA levels of HBV-infected mothers was 5.7log (IQR 4.6–7.0) IU/mL with 9 (17.6%) having levels ≥105 IU/mL. Eighty (13.3%) mothers were HIV-infected of whom 9 (11.5%) were co-infected with HBV. No baby tested HBsAg or HBVDNA positive. Conclusion Vertical transmission does not seem to contribute substantially to the high HBV endemicity in northern Uganda. The current practice of administering the first HBV vaccine to babies in Uganda at six weeks of age may be adequate in control of HBV transmission. PMID:28434689
John, Katherine A; Cogswell, Mary E; Zhao, Lixia; Maalouf, Joyce; Gunn, Janelle P; Merritt, Robert K
Dietary data from a nationally representative survey indicate about 80% of US toddlers aged 1-3 years consume too much dietary sodium, which can influence their preference for salty foods in later life. Information on consumer attitudes can inform strategies to reduce sodium in baby and toddler foods. Data were obtained from a 2012 online survey sent to a sample of 11636 US adults aged ≥18 years enrolled in a national probability-based consumer panel; 6378 completed the survey and had non-missing responses to the question of interest, "It is important for baby and toddler foods to be low in sodium." Prevalence of agreement was estimated. Logistic regression was used to describe associations of respondent characteristics with agreement. The majority of respondents were non-Hispanic white and had a household income ≥$60,000. About 7 in 10 (68%, 95% CI: 66%-70%) respondents agreed it is important for baby or toddler foods to be low in sodium. More than 6 of 10 respondents in most subgroups agreed. Among parents with a child currently aged <2 years (N = 390), 82% agreed (95% CI: 77%-87%); the highest agreement included parents who thought sodium was very harmful to their own health (92%, 95% CI: 85%-99%) or who were watching/reducing their own sodium intake (95%, 95% CI: 90%-100%). After adjusting for sex, age, race-ethnicity, agreement was most strongly associated with being a parent of a child <2 years, thinking sodium was harmful, and watching/reducing sodium intake (adjusted odds ratios ≥ 2.5, 95% CI's ≠1.0). The majority of respondents including most parents agreed it is important for baby and toddler foods to be low in sodium, suggesting wide consumer support for strategies to lower sodium in these foods. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Storr, G B; Robinson, P
Sibling prenatal classes are a natural extension of nursing's interest and expertise in childbirth preparation for expectant couples. From parents' perspective, these classes have the potential to decrease sibling rivalry and facilitate parental coping with older children's concerns about a new baby. From a nurse educator's perspective, sibling prenatal classes offer a rich learning experience for students by providing an opportunity to integrate knowledge about pregnancy and birth with communication skills and child development knowledge.
Pogrebna, Ganna; Oswald, Andrew J; Haig, David
Using ultrasound scan data from paediatric hospitals, and the exogenous 'shock' of learning the gender of an unborn baby, the paper documents the first causal evidence that offspring gender affects adult risk-aversion. On a standard Holt-Laury criterion, parents of daughters, whether unborn or recently born, become almost twice as risk-averse as parents of sons. The study demonstrates this in longitudinal and cross-sectional data, for fathers and mothers, for babies in the womb and new-born children, and in a West European nation and East European nation. These findings may eventually aid our understanding of risky health behaviors and gender inequalities. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Ayoya, Mohamed Ag; Golden, Kate; Ngnie-Teta, Ismael; Moreaux, Marjolein D; Mamadoultaibou, Aissa; Koo, Leslie; Boyd, Erin; Beauliere, Jean Max; Lesavre, Celine; Marhone, Joseline Pierre
The 2010 earthquake in Haiti displaced about 1.5 million people, many of them into camps for internally displaced persons. It was expected that disruption of breastfeeding practices would lead to increased infant morbidity, malnutrition and mortality. Haiti's health ministry and the United Nations Children's Fund, in collaboration with local and international nongovernmental organizations, established baby tents in the areas affected by the earthquake. The tents provided a safe place for mothers to breastfeed and for non-breastfed infants to receive ready-to-use infant formula. Such a large and coordinated baby tent response in an emergency context had never been mounted before anywhere in the world. Baby tents were set up in five cities but mainly in Port-au-Prince, where the majority of Haiti's 1555 camps for displaced persons had been established. Between February 2010 and June 2012, 193 baby tents were set up; 180 499 mother-infant pairs and 52 503 pregnant women were registered in the baby tent programme. Of infants younger than 6 months, 70% were reported to be exclusively breastfed and 10% of the "mixed feeders" moved to exclusive breastfeeding while enrolled. In 2010, 13.5% of registered infants could not be breastfed. These infants received ready-to-use infant formula. Thanks to rapid programme scale-up, breastfeeding practices remained undisrupted. However, better evaluation methods and comprehensive guidance on the implementation and monitoring of baby tents are needed for future emergencies, along with a clear strategy for transitioning baby tent activities into facility and community programmes.
Zachry, Anne H; Nolan, Vikki G; Hand, Sarah B; Klemm, Susan A
Objectives This study aimed to identify predictors of cranial asymmetry. We hypothesize that among infants diagnosed with cranial asymmetry in the sampled region, there is an association between exposure to more time in baby gear and less awake time in prone and side-lying than in infants who do not present with this condition. Methods The study employed a cross sectional survey of caregivers of typically developing infants and infants diagnosed with cranial asymmetry. Results A mutivariable model reveals that caregivers of children who are diagnosed with cranial asymmetry report their children spending significantly less time in prone play than those children without a diagnosis of cranial asymmetry. Side-lying and time spent in baby gear did not attain statistical significance. Conclusions for Practice Occupational therapists, physical therapists, pediatricians, nurses and other health care professionals must provide parents with early education about the importance of varying positions and prone play in infancy and address fears and concerns that may serve as barriers to providing prone playtime.
Koo, Jae-Eun; Lee, Gwang-Uk
This study aimed to provide basic materials for resolving the problems of baby boomers, emerging as a social issue by identifying the effect of baby boomers’ participation motivation in leisure sports activities on recovery resilience and life satisfaction empirically. Using the convenience sampling method, the subjects were conducted by baby boomer’s 323 person lived in Seoul and Gyeong-in, 2012, excluding the missing question paper of 27 person. For accomplishing this purpose of the study, the survey questionnaires were used to collect data. Collected data was processed by factor analysis, reliability analysis, multiple regression, SPSS for Win V 18.0 program. From the analysis of this study, the following conclusion were obtained: First, among participation motivation factors of baby boomers in leisure sports activities, psychological stability and health pursuit had a significant effect on all factors of recovery resilience, while among motivation of personal relationships had a significant effect on the sub-factors of recovery resilience; empathy, optimism, and self-efficacy. Second, among participation motivation factors of baby boomers in leisure sports activities, psychological stability, personal relationships, and health pursuit had a significant effect on life satisfaction. PMID:24278870
Burrows, Patricia; Griffiths, Peter
Baby walkers have been a source of considerable controversy. Some people suggest developmental benefit from their use while others focus on the potential harm that stems from accidents and even suggest developmental delay. This mini-review aimed to determine if use of a baby walker delays affects the onset of walking. The Cochrane library, Embase, CINAHL and Medline were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and cohort studies, which compared the onset of walking in infants who used baby walkers with a group who did not. Two RCTs and two cohort studies were identified and available for consideration. All of the studies examined the effect of infant walkers on the onset of walking. The results of the two RCTs did not demonstrate a significant effect on the onset of walking. The cohort studies suggest that the use of infant walkers delayed the onset of walking in young children and a pooled analysis of the four studies suggested a delay of between 11 and 26 days. Although the quality of the studies was relatively poor these studies lend no support to the argument that walkers aid the development of walking. The significance of a delay of this magnitude is however unclear. Further work is required to determine whether walkers are an independent causal factor in accidents.
Bourcier De Carbon, P
This work argues that fluctuations in relative income of young adults in the US after World War II coincided with the dramatically increased fertility of the baby boom and were probably a significant determining factor in its occurrence and eventual interruption. The US total fertility rate declined rapidly in the early 20th century, from 3.8 in 1900 to 2.44 in 1929 and 2.24 in 1935-36. Fertility was below replacement level in 1932-39. Its spectacular recovery from the early 1940s culminated in the year 1957, with a total fertility rate of 3.77. Fertility declined rapidly again in the late 1960s and attained its low point in 1976, with a total fertility rate of 1.74. It has slowly increased since then, especially with the arrival of increasing numbers of high-fertility immigrants from Latin America beginning in the late 1980s. Although per capita gross national product in the US rose dramatically between 1929 and 1994, income distribution also changed, as did the relative income from wages and salaries of workers under 40 years old. From the end of World War II until the late 1950s, the wage and salary income of young workers increased more rapidly than did that of older workers, so that younger workers were at an advantage during the years of the baby boom. Young workers also benefited from federal programs such as Fulbright scholarships, home loan programs, and veterans benefits. Transfer payments for pensions and higher interest rates progressively improved the position of older workers, and younger workers faced a loss of relative income in the 1960s and 1970s that coincided with the end of the baby boom and that quite likely was a causative factor. With the progressive aging of the US population, the relative loss of income of younger workers will probably intensify and be joined by a relative loss of political power, as the proportion of the electorate in the prime childbearing years shrinks further.
Turner, Barbara J; Craig, Kathryn; Makanji, Vidhi S; Flores, Bertha E; Hernandez, Ludivina
To identify support needs of low-income baby boomers recently diagnosed with chronic hepatitis C virus infection. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force has endorsed one-time screening of all baby boomers (born 1945-1965) for hepatitis C because 75% of the estimated 2-3 million persons with chronic infection are in this age range. We hypothesised that persons diagnosed by routine screening would have significant psycho-emotional, cognitive and healthcare challenges that need to be met by collaborative care and services from nurses and other healthcare personnel. Qualitative descriptive study of data from three focus groups with predominantly minority participants (N = 16). Data were analysed using qualitative content analysis, and transcribed data were categorised by three domains in a previously developed model and a new domain identified in this study. Frequencies of unique participants' comments about each theme were calculated. Elucidated domains were as follows: (i) psycho-emotional effects due to social stigma, shame, fear and dealing with risky behaviours; (ii) social effects due to concerns about infecting others; and (iii) cognitive deficits because of poor understanding about hepatitis C virus infection and its care. A new domain related to health care emerged reflecting the following themes: poor access to care, barriers to costly treatment, and navigating complex care for comorbidities. Despite these challenges, participants strongly endorsed universal baby boomer hepatitis C virus screening. This study describes psycho-emotional and social challenges of people dealing with a hepatitis C diagnosis which are compounded by poor knowledge and barriers to supportive care. Nursing and other allied health personnel require structured support programmes to assist older persons diagnosed with hepatitis C with addressing these common challenges with the ultimate goal of achieving a cure. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
As part of a supplement entitled "Born Too Soon", this paper focuses on care of the preterm newborn. An estimated 15 million babies are born preterm, and the survival gap between those born in high and low income countries is widening, with one million deaths a year due to direct complications of preterm birth, and around one million more where preterm birth is a risk factor, especially amongst those who are also growth restricted. Most premature babies (>80%) are between 32 and 37 weeks of gestation, and many die needlessly for lack of simple care. We outline a series of packages of care that build on essential care for every newborn comprising support for immediate and exclusive breastfeeding, thermal care, and hygienic cord and skin care. For babies who do not breathe at birth, rapid neonatal resuscitation is crucial. Extra care for small babies, including Kangaroo Mother Care, and feeding support, can halve mortality in babies weighing <2000 g. Case management of newborns with signs of infection, safe oxygen management and supportive care for those with respiratory complications, and care for those with significant jaundice are all critical, and are especially dependent on competent nursing care. Neonatal intensive care units in high income settings are de-intensifying care, for example increasing use of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) and this makes comprehensive preterm care more transferable. For health systems in low and middle income settings with increasing facility births, district hospitals are the key frontier for improving obstetric and neonatal care, and some large scale programmes now include specific newborn care strategies. However there are still around 50 million births outside facilities, hence home visits for mothers and newborns, as well as women's groups are crucial for reaching these families, often the poorest. A fundamental challenge is improving programmatic tracking data for coverage and quality, and measuring disability
Woods, J R
Using data from a series of supplements to the Current Population Survey, this article presents findings on workers' coverage under employer-sponsored retirement plans in 1993, and recent trends in coverage. The analysis focuses on workers 25-54, a group that includes the baby boom generation. Among all wage and salary workers in this age range (including government employees and part-time workers), 55 percent reported participating in a retirement plan on their current primary jobs, and an additional 3 percent were covered from other jobs. After a modest decline in the early 1980's, the coverage rate has remained essentially unchanged over the past 10 years, and limited data suggest that the baby boomers are doing about as well on pension coverage as older workers at similar points in their careers. Beneath this relative stability in overall coverage, however, at least two important changes have occurred: a significant narrowing of the gender gap in coverage and a shift in types of retirement plans. Increasing numbers of workers are being covered solely by 401(k)-type plans, a development that raises new uncertainties about the form and amount of future benefits. On the other hand, limited data in this study suggest that 401(k) plans may be serving their intended purpose for the majority of workers who have them.
Zenk, Shannon N; Tarlov, Elizabeth; Wing, Coady; Matthews, Stephen A; Jones, Kelly; Tong, Hao; Powell, Lisa M
In recent years, various levels of government in the United States have adopted or discussed subsidies, tax breaks, zoning laws, and other public policies that promote geographic access to healthy food. However, there is little evidence from large-scale longitudinal or quasi-experimental research to suggest that the local mix of food outlets actually affects body mass index (BMI). We used a longitudinal design to examine whether the proximity of food outlets, by type, was associated with BMI changes between 2009 and 2014 among 1.7 million veterans in 382 metropolitan areas. We found no evidence that either absolute or relative geographic accessibility of supermarkets, fast-food restaurants, or mass merchandisers was associated with changes in an individual's BMI over time. While policies that alter only geographic access to food outlets may promote equitable access to healthy food and improve nutrition, our findings suggest they will do little to combat obesity in adults. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.
Braithwaite, Dawn O.
Finds that women embarrassed men at "coed" wedding and baby showers by teasing and causing them to look unpoised, and that men used avoidance, humor, remediation, and justification strategies. Adds a new strategy, compliance, to previous frameworks to explain males' reaction to embarrassment. Discusses the importance of context and…
Arnold, Renea; Colburn, Nell
Brain research is complicated, but its message is simple: babies are born learning and what they learn is up to us. New research on infant brain development shows that a child's experiences in the first three years of life have a distinct impact on her later development and learning. Here's why. All babies are born with one organ that is not fully…
Steyn, Erika; Poggenpoel, Marie; Myburgh, Chris
Many of the 15 million premature babies born worldwide every year survive because of advanced medical interventions. Their parents have intense experiences when their babies are in the intensive care unit (ICU), and these have an impact on their thoughts, feelings and relationships, including their relationships with their premature babies. The aim of the study was to explore and describe the lived experiences of parents of premature babies in an ICU. Research design was qualitative, exploratory, descriptive and contextual. A purposive sample of parents with premature babies in an ICU in a private hospital in Johannesburg Gauteng in South Africa was used. Eight parents, four mothers and four fathers, married and either Afrikaans or English-speaking, were included in the study. Data were collected by conducting in-depth phenomenological interviews with them and making use of field notes. Trustworthiness was ensured by implementing the strategies of credibility, transferability, dependability and confirmability. Ethical principles such as autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence and justice were adhered to throughout the research process. Thematic analyses were utilised to analyse the data. Two themes in the experiences of parents with premature babies in ICU became apparent. Parents experienced thoughts, emotions and hope while their premature babies were in the ICU as well as challenges in their relationships and these challenges influenced their experiences. Mindfulness of intensive care nurses should be facilitated so that intensive care nurses can promote the mental health of parents with premature babies in the ICU. Parents with premature babies in the ICU have thoughts and emotional experiences which include hope and they affect parents' relationships.
Whittaker, Robyn; Meehan, Judy; Jordan, Elizabeth; Stange, Paul; Cash, Amanda; Meyer, Paul; Baitty, Julie; Johnson, Pamela; Ratzan, Scott; Rhee, Kyu
Text4baby is the first free national health text messaging service in the United States that aims to provide timely information to pregnant women and new mothers to help them improve their health and the health of their babies. Here we describe the development of the text messages and the large public–private partnership that led to the national launch of the service in 2010. Promotion at the local, state, and national levels produced rapid uptake across the United States. More than 320 000 people enrolled with text4baby between February 2010 and March 2012. Further evaluations of the effectiveness of the service are ongoing; however, important lessons can be learned from its development and uptake. PMID:23078509
Lai, Ya-Ling; Hung, Chich-Hsiu; Stocker, Joel; Chan, Te-Fu; Liu, Yi
This study compares women's postpartum fatigue, baby-care activities, and maternal-infant attachment following vaginal and cesarean births in rooming-in settings. Postpartum women admitted to baby-friendly hospitals are asked to stay with their babies 24 hours a day and to breastfeed on demand regardless of the type of childbirth. The study used a descriptive cross-sectional study design. A total of 120 postpartum women were recruited from two accredited baby-friendly hospitals in southern Taiwan. Three structured questionnaires were used to collect data, on which an analysis of covariance was conducted. Women who experienced a cesarean birth had higher postpartum fatigue scores than women who had given birth vaginally. Higher postpartum fatigue scores were correlated with greater difficulty in baby-care activities, which in turn resulted in weaker maternal-infant attachment as measured in the first 2 to 3 days postpartum. Hospitals should implement rooming-in in a more flexible way by taking women's postpartum fatigue and physical functioning into consideration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Dunkley, Emma; Ashaba, Scholastic; Burns, Bridget; O'Neil, Kasey; Sanyu, Naomi; Akatukwasa, Cecilia; Kastner, Jasmine; Berry, Nicole S; Psaros, Christina; Matthews, Lynn T; Kaida, Angela
For women living with HIV (WLWH) in low- and middle-income countries, World Health Organization (WHO) infant feeding guidelines now recommend exclusive breastfeeding until six months followed by mixed feeding until 24 months, alongside lifelong maternal antiretroviral therapy (ART). These recommendations represent the sixth major revision to WHO infant feeding guidelines since 1992. We explored how WLWH in rural Uganda make infant feeding decisions in light of evolving recommendations. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 20 postpartum Ugandan WLWH accessing ART, who reported pregnancy < 2 years prior to recruitment. Interviews were conducted between February-August 2014 with babies born between March 2012-October 2013, over which time, the regional HIV treatment clinic recommended lifelong ART for all pregnant and breastfeeding women (Option B+). Content analysis was used to identify major themes. Infant feeding experiences was an emergent theme. NVivo 10 software was used to organize analyses. Among 20 women, median age was 33 years [IQR: 28-35], number of livebirths was 3 [IQR: 2-5], years on ART was 2.3 [IQR: 1.5-5.1], and 95% were virally suppressed. Data revealed that women valued opportunities to reduce postnatal transmission. However, women made infant feeding choices that differed from recommendations due to: (1) perception of conflicting recommendations regarding infant feeding; (2) fear of prolonged infant HIV exposure through breastfeeding; and (3) social and structural constraints shaping infant feeding decision-making. WLWH face layered challenges navigating evolving infant feeding recommendations. Further research is needed to examine guidance and decision-making on infant feeding choices to improve postpartum experiences and outcomes. Improved communication about changes to recommendations is needed for WLWH, their partners, community members, and healthcare providers.
Harbour, Peta; Grealish, Laurie
To investigate the health literacy of the baby boomer generation and what this means for nursing care. Nurses are encouraged to tailor information and education to the individual's level of understanding or health literacy but there may be generational differences in health literacy due to historical, social, and economic contexts. The baby boomer generation, people born between 1946 and 1966, are projected to be high users of health services as they age, therefore nurses' understanding of their health literacy characteristics is important. Integrative literature review. Database and manual searching for articles occurred in July 2017. Four articles met the criteria. Data was extracted and tabulated, and methodological-quality assessed. Three categories of relevance emerged from the analysis of study findings: social demographics may predict health literacy, navigation of the health care system is challenging with low health literacy, and mechanisms to translate information into action are unclear. While there is limited evidence to guide practice in regard to health literacy for the baby boomer generation, the emergence of the internet may confound nursing assessment of literacy: people from the baby boomer generation may appear to have higher literacy than they actually possess. Sociodemographic information may be used for initial screening for health literacy. Creative questions are recommended to overcome possible stigma associated with individual awareness of low literacy. The mechanisms for translating information into action require further investigation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Cordova, Erika; Al-Rousan, Tala; Castillo-Angeles, Manuel; Aftab, Saima; Nelson, Brett D
To evaluate the impact of a post-Helping Babies Breathe bundle of interventions on the retention of provider-level knowledge and skills. The present prospective pre-post study following a 1-day Helping Babies Breathe training of professional midwives, physicians, and nurses was conducted in Cajamarca Province, Peru between January 1 and July 31, 2017. The interventions to improve retention included structured worksite practice before every shift, weekly in-service simulated scenarios, and monthly supervised peer-to-peer abbreviated refresher trainings. Knowledge and skills were assessed before, immediately after, and 6 months after training using two validated multiple-choice knowledge test and objective structured clinical examinations (OSCEs; OSCE A and OSCE B). Data were analyzed for changes in knowledge and skills over time and to identify predictors of performance. There were 60 learners included. No significant differences were observed between assessments immediately after training and at 6-month follow-up for knowledge scores or time-to-effective-ventilation. Pass rates for OSCE B increased from 83% immediately after training to 95% at follow-up (P=0.007). The only factor associated with a reduced time to effective ventilation at 6-month follow-up was working in a hospital (P<0.001), accounting for years of training and experience. Helping Babies Breathe knowledge and skills can be retained and even improved with simple, inexpensive interventions, including supervised on-the-job and peer-to-peer training. © 2018 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.
Stout, Gwendolyn; Hardin-Jones, Mary; Chapman, Kathy L.
The aim of this study was to examine the consonant-vowel co-occurrence patterns predicted by the Frame-Content theory in 16 nine-month-old babies with unrepaired cleft palate ([plus or minus]cleft lip) and 16 age-matched non-cleft babies. Babble from these babies was phonetically transcribed and grouped according to the intrasyllabic predictions…
Background Small-for-gestational age (SGA) newborns constitute a special group of neonates who may have suffered varying degrees of intrauterine insults and deprivation. Variations in birth weight, length and Ponderal Index (PI) depend on the type and degree of intrauterine insults the babies were exposed to. The objective of the study was to determine the current prevalence of term SGA births in a Nigerian Tertiary Hospital and the current pattern of Ponderal Indices among term SGA in a population of Nigerian babies. Methods Subjects comprised of consecutive term singleton mother-baby pairs in the first 24 hours of life. It was a cross sectional study. The anthropometric parameters of each baby were recorded and the PI was also determined. Results Out of 1,052 live births during the study period (September to December, 2009), 825 were term, singleton babies. Five hundred and eight-one babies (70.4%) fall into the upper socio-economic classes 1 and II, 193 (23.4%) in the middle class and 51 (6.2%) were of the lower classes IV and V. None of the mothers indicated ingestion of alcohol or smoking of cigarette. Fifty-nine babies (7.2%) were small-for gestational age (SGA). Of the 59 SGA subjects, 26 (44.1%) were symmetrical SGA while 33 (55.9%) were asymmetrical SGA. There was no significant sex or socioeconomic predilection for either symmetrical or asymmetrical growth (p = 0.59, 0.73 respectively). Conclusion The findings showed that proportionality in SGA fetuses is a continuum, with the PI depending on the duration of intrauterine insult and the extent of its effects on weight and length before delivery. PMID:23875695
Fok, T F; Hon, K L; So, H K; Wong, E; Ng, P C; Lee, A K Y; Chang, A
To provide a database of the craniofacial measurements of Chinese infants born in Hong Kong. Prospective cross-sectional study. A total of 2371 healthy singleton, born consecutively at the Prince of Wales Hospital and the Union Hospital from June 1998 to June 2000, were included in the study. The range of gestation was 33-42 weeks. Measurements included facial width (FW), facial height (FH), nasal length (NL), nasal width (NW), and length of the philtrum (PhilL). The facial, nasal, nasofacial and nasozygomatic indices were derived. The data show generally higher values for males in the parameters measured. The various indices remained remarkably constant and did not vary significantly between the two genders or with gestation. When compared with previously published data for white people term babies, Chinese babies have similar NW but shorter philtrum length. The human face appears to grow in a remarkably constant fashion as defined by the various indices of facial proportions. This study establishes the first set of gestational age-specific standard of such craniofacial parameters for Chinese new-borns, potentially enabling early syndromal diagnosis. There are significant inter-racial differences in these craniofacial parameters.
Nunn, A; Fonseca, E Da; Gruskin, S
Brazil's large-scale, successful HIV/AIDS treatment programme is considered by many to be a model for other developing countries aiming to improve access to AIDS treatment. Far less is known about Brazil's important role in changing global norms related to international pharmaceutical policy, particularly international human rights, health and trade policies governing access to essential medicines. Prompted by Brazil's interest in preserving its national AIDS treatment policies during World Trade Organisation trade disputes with the USA, these efforts to change global essential medicines norms have had important implications for other countries, particularly those scaling up AIDS treatment. This paper analyses Brazil's contributions to global essential medicines policy and explains the relevance of Brazil's contributions to global health policy today.
Nunn, A.; Fonseca, E. Da; Gruskin, S.
Brazil's large-scale, successful HIV/AIDS treatment programme is considered by many to be a model for other developing countries aiming to improve access to AIDS treatment. Far less is known about Brazil's important role in changing global norms related to international pharmaceutical policy, particularly international human rights, health and trade policies governing access to essential medicines. Prompted by Brazil's interest in preserving its national AIDS treatment policies during World Trade Organisation trade disputes with the USA, these efforts to change global essential medicines norms have had important implications for other countries, particularly those scaling up AIDS treatment. This paper analyses Brazil's contributions to global essential medicines policy and explains the relevance of Brazil's contributions to global health policy today. PMID:19333805
Ice, Ice, Baby is a K-8 science program created by the education team at the Center for the Remote Sensing of Ice Sheets (CReSIS), an NSF-funded science and technology center headquartered at the University of Kansas. The twenty-four hands-on activities, which constitute the Ice, Ice, Baby curriculum, were developed to help students understand the role of polar ice sheets in sea level rise. These activities, presented in classrooms by CReSIS' Educational Outreach Coordinator, demonstrate many of the scientific properties of ice, including displacement and density. Student journals are utilized with each lesson as a strategy for improving students' science process skills. Journals also help the instructor identify misconceptions, assess comprehension, and provide students with a year-long science reference log. Pre- and post- assessments are given to both teachers and students before and after the program, providing data for evaluation and improvement of the Ice, Ice, Baby program. While students are actively engaged in hands-on learning about the unusual topics of ice sheets, glaciers, icebergs and sea ice, the CReSIS' Educational Coordinator is able to model best practices in science education, such as questioning and inquiry-based methods of instruction. In this way, the Ice, Ice, Baby program also serves as ongoing, in-class, professional development for teachers. Teachers are also provided supplemental activities to do with their classes between CReSIS' visits to encourage additional science lessons, reinforce concepts taught in the Ice, Ice, Baby program, and to foster teachers' progression toward more reform-based science instruction.
In August 2014, The Washington State Department of Transportation (WSDOT) changed the access : controls for the HOT (High Occupancy Toll) lanes on State Route (SR) 167. The lanes were initially designed : and implemented to allow access at only six p...
Beatty, John; Hale, Piers J
The nineteenth-century Anglican theologian Charles Kingsley was immediately impressed by Darwin's Origin of Species. Whilst many in Victorian Britain reacted against the idea of natural selection, Kingsley saw in the contingency of selection a divinely ordained imperative for human endeavour, not least the pursuit of scientific knowledge. Here, Kingsley believed, was a crucial insight into the seemingly indifferent laws of nature, one that humankind could use to elevate themselves to ever-greater heights. Kingsley chose to teach these lessons about the moral nature of evolution through 'Water Babies', one of the most charming and enduring of children's fairy tales.
Poorman, Elisabeth; Gazmararian, Julie; Elon, Lisa; Parker, Ruth
Text4baby provides educational text messages to pregnant and postpartum women and targets underserved women. The primary purpose of this study is to examine the health behaviors and cell phone usage patterns of a text4baby target population and the associations with health literacy. Pregnant and postpartum women were recruited from two Women, Infant and Children clinics in Atlanta. Women were asked about their demographics, selected pregnancy or postpartum health behaviors, and cell phone usage patterns. Health literacy skills were measured with the English version of the Newest Vital Sign. Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine health behaviors and cell usage patterns by health literacy classification, controlling for commonly accepted confounders. Four hundred sixty-eight women were recruited, and 445 completed the Newest Vital Sign. Of these, 22% had inadequate health literacy, 50% had intermediate health literacy, and 28% had adequate health literacy skills. Compared to adequate health literacy, limited literacy was independently associated with not taking a daily vitamin during pregnancy (OR 3.6, 95% CI: 1.6, 8.5) and never breastfeeding their infant (OR 1.4, 95% CI: 1.1, 1.8). The majority (69.4%) of respondents received nine or more text messages a day prior to enrollment, one in four participants (24.6%) had changed their number within the last six months, and 7.0% of study participants shared a cell phone. Controlling for potentially confounding factors, those with limited health literacy were more likely to share a cell phone than those with adequate health literacy (OR 2.57, 95% CI: 1.79, 3.69). Text4baby messages should be appropriate for low health literacy levels, especially as this population may have higher prevalence of targeted unhealthy behaviors. Text4baby and other mhealth programs targetting low health literacy populations should also be aware of the different ways that these populations use their cell phones, including: sharing
Maleville, J; Derrien, A; Boineau, D; Mollard, S; Marc-Antoine, H; Guillet, G
The authors are reporting a new case of widespread scabies in a baby. They take this opportunity to emphasize on the atypical erythematous and excoriated papular rash which sometimes may be vesicular and hyper-keratotic. This widespread eruption may mimic generalised dermatitis, pustular psoriasis and even histiocytosis X. They also underline importancy of longlasting ointment with fluorinated steroid being responsible for this widespread eruption.
The purpose of this study was to identify effective teaching methods for age 50+ baby boomer learners. The study used a mixed methods research design. The qualitative paradigm used focus group sessions and the quantitative paradigm was completed through surveys. Fifteen age 50+ baby boomer learners and 11 faculty who teach them comprised the two…
Davey, Janet; King, Chloe; Fitzpatrick, Mary
Marketers have been slow to customize their strategies for the influential consumer segment of aging baby boomers. This qualitative research provides insights on New Zealand baby boomers' perceptions of glasses as a health care product. Appearance was a dominant theme; status was not a major concern, although style and fashion were. Wearing glasses had negative associations related to aging; however, both male and female participants recognized that glasses offered improved quality of life. Data relating to the theme of expense indicated that these New Zealand baby boomers made sophisticated perceptual associations and subsequent pragmatic trade-offs between price, quality, and style.
Rowntree, Margaret R
'Freedom of sexual expression' is a slogan that has long been synonymous with the generation known as the baby boomers during the 1960s and 1970s. But does this catchphrase still have currency for the men and women in this cohort who are mostly now over the age of fifty? This paper explores the question by reporting on qualitative data from a multi-method Australian study about the influence of growing older on baby boomers' sexual expression. The sample comprised ten interview participants and fifty-seven Internet survey respondents, aged between 50 and 70 years. Following a theoretical perspective known as the sociology of emotions, the analysis of data reveals that baby boomers' emotional experiences range from constraining to liberating sexual expression, to a paradoxical combination of both. The article argues that while sexual freedom is still an important concept to baby boomers, there are new emotional dimensions to its expression, particularly in the form of comfort and confidence, that come with age. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Introduction Acute intoxication with drugs of abuse in children is often only the tip of the iceberg, actually hiding chronic exposure. Analysis using non-conventional matrices such as hair can provide long-term information about exposure to recreational drugs. Case presentation We report the case of a one-month-old Caucasian boy admitted to our pediatric emergency unit with respiratory distress and neurological abnormalities. A routine urine test was positive for opiates, suggesting an acute opiate ingestion. No other drugs of misuse, such as cocaine, cannabis, amphetamines or derivatives, were detected in the baby's urine. Subsequently, hair samples from the baby and the parents were collected to evaluate the possibility of chronic exposure to drug misuse by segmental analysis. Opiates and cocaine metabolites were detected in hair samples from the baby boy and his parents. Conclusions In light of these and previous results, we recommend hair analysis in babies and children from risky environments to detect exposure to heroin and other drug misuse, which could provide the basis for specific social and health interventions. PMID:21729296
National Inst. of Child Health and Human Development (NIH), Bethesda, MD. Office of Research Reporting.
The booklet describes the condttion known as low birth weight and suggests ways in which a mother can take precautions against its occurring in her own child. Problems and maternal factors associated with low birth weight babies are discussed, and research on the causes of prematurity and growth retardation are reviewed. (SBH)
Shoven, John B.
The baby boom generation faces added uncertainty on their investments and perhaps lower realized rates of return on all components of their retirement savings, primarily because of their large number. Effects will be felt in the Social Security system and by pension plans and private investors. Individuals, employers, pension fund managers, and…
Czajkowska-Mysłek, Anna; Leszczyńska, Joanna
Potential adverse reactions among infants and young children could appear after consumption of food containing small amounts of bioactive amines. This study presents the first assessment of biogenic amines occurrence in ready-to-eat vegetable without/with fish, meat and fruit baby products intended for the youngest consumers. The biogenic amine profiles and quantities of 6 amines were evaluated in 68 commercial baby foods produced by 10 leading manufacturers available in Poland, using HPLC-APCI-MS method. The total amine contents in analyzed products were obtained in the range of 1283-101421 ng/g. The maximum level of histamine (2375 ng/g) was found in the sample with spinach, tyramine (1667 ng/g) in fruit sample with banana, and of di- and polyamines (1263-53416 ng/g) in samples containing green peas. The results of amine analysis in baby foods indicated the presence of food ingredients which may be necessary to remove (tuna, possibly spinach) or reduce the amount added (spinach, green peas), either reduce their use by infants under 12 months of age (beef). Special attention should also be given to control the consumption of fruit baby products containing banana (higher tyramine and putrescine level). On the basis of obtained results a potential %ARfD, and the BAI were also evaluated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Berman, Phyllis W.; Goodman, Vickie
In a double-baseline design, children were observed first after being asked to take care of a baby then after watching a male or female adult demonstrate appropriate interactions with the baby. Younger and older day care children (between 30 and 63 months old) participated. (Author/RH)
Bouvier, Leon F.
This bulletin examines the baby boom, its causes, its size, and its impact on U.S. society. Nearly 42 million births occurred in the U.S. from 1955 to 1964. Several reasons are given for this baby boom which interrupted a century long fertility decline. Demographically the primary causes were more people marrying and having at least two children…
Sadeghi, Naficeh; Oveisi, Mohammad Reza; Jannat, Behrooz; Hajimahmoodi, Mannan; Behfar, Abdolazim; Behzad, Masoomeh; Norouzi, Narges; Oveisi, Morvarid; Jannat, Behzad
Apart from the breast milk, infant formula and baby weaning food have a special role in infant diet. Infants and young children are very susceptible to amount of trace elements. Copper and zinc are two elements that add in infant food. Lead and cadmium are heavy metals that enter to food chain unavoidably. DPASV is a benefit and applicable method for measurement of trace elements in food products. In this study, concentration of zinc, copper, lead and cadmium in four brands of baby food (rice and wheat based) and powder milk was analyzed with DPASV and polarograph set. Total Mean ± SE of zinc, copper, lead and cadmium in baby foods (n = 240) were 11.86 ± 1.474 mg/100g, 508.197 ± 83.154 μg/100g, 0.445 ± 0.006, 0.050 ± 0.005 mg/Kg respectively. Also these amount in powder milk (n = 240) were 3.621± 0.529 mg/100g, 403.822 ± 133.953 μg/100g, 0.007 ± 0.003, 0.060 ± 0.040 mg/Kg respectively. Zinc level in baby food type I was higher than lablled value (P = 0.030), but in other brands was not difference. Concentration of copper in all of samples was in labeled range (P > 0.05). In each four products, level of lead and cadmium were lower than the standard limit (P < 0.05). Amount of zinc and lead in baby food I, had difference versus other products. Concentration of zinc, camium in baby food type I, was higher than type II (P = 0.043, 0.001 respectively). Concentration of lead and cadmium in baby food type II, was higher than infant formulas, but are in standard limit.
Sepulcre, Jorge; Peraita, Herminia; Goni, Joaquin; Arrondo, Gonzalo; Martincorena, Inigo; Duque, Beatriz; Velez de Mendizabal, Nieves; Masdeu, Joseph C; Villoslada, Pablo
The aim of the study was to analyze lexical access strategies in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and their changes over time. We studied lexical access strategies during semantic and phonemic verbal fluency tests and also confrontation naming in a 2-year prospective cohort of 45 MS patients and 20 healthy controls. At baseline, switching lexical access strategy (both in semantic and in phonemic verbal fluency tests) and confrontation naming were significantly impaired in MS patients compared with controls. After 2 years follow-up, switching score decreased, and cluster size increased over time in semantic verbal fluency tasks, suggesting a failure in the retrieval of lexical information rather than an impairment of the lexical pool. In conclusion, these findings underline the significant presence of lexical access problems in patients with MS and could point out their key role in the alterations of high-level communications abilities in MS.
Hokororo, Adolfine; Kihunrwa, Albert F.; Kalluvya, Samuel; Changalucha, John; Fitzgerald, Daniel W; Downs, Jennifer A.
Aims In Tanzania, approximately 25% of adolescents give birth and 50% more become sexually active during adolescence. We hypothesised that reproductive health education and services for adolescent girls are inaccessible and conducted this study to gain insights into their perceptions of sexually-transmitted infections (STIs) and barriers to reproductive health service utilisation in rural Mwanza, Tanzania. Methods We conducted nine focus group among pregnant adolescents aged 15–20 years. Data was transcribed, translated, and coded for relevant themes using NVivo10 software for qualitative data analysis. Results Most participants were aware of the dangers of STIs to themselves and their unborn babies, but did not perceive themselves as at risk of acquiring STIs. They viewed condoms as ineffective for preventing STIs and pregnancies and unnecessary for those in committed relationships. Stigma, and long waiting times and lack of privacy in the clinics discouraged young females from seeking reproductive healthcare. Conclusion Reproductive healthcare for adolescent girls who are not pregnant is practically nonexistent in Tanzania. Healthcare access for pregnant young women is also limited. Targeted changes to increase clinic accessibility and to provide reproductive health education to all rather than only pregnant women have the potential to address these gaps. PMID:25473729
Cester, E A; Bloomfield, F H; Taylor, J; Smith, S; Cormack, B E
To determine whether achieving recommended protein intakes for extremely low birthweight (ELBW; birth weight <1000 g) babies, resulting in better growth, improves neurodevelopmental outcomes. A prospective cohort study of ELBW babies before and after the introduction of a new nutritional policy designed to meet international consensus protein recommendations. Forty-five children born 'before' and 42 born 'after' the policy change were assessed at 2 years' corrected age (CA). Associations between nutritional intakes, growth and neurodevelopmental outcome (Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third edition (Bayley-III), motor and sensory impairment) were assessed using univariate and multivariate analyses. Bayley-III cognitive (mean (SD) 96 (12) vs 96 (15)), motor (96 (13) vs 95 (15)) or language scores (89 (11) vs 91 (17)) were not different between the 'before' and 'after' cohorts. In the 'before' cohort, motor scores were positively associated with enteral nutrition intakes and growth velocity. Neither were sensory impairments different between groups (visual impairment 4 vs 2, hearing impairment 2 vs 0) nor was the gross motor function classification score (any cerebral palsy 2 vs 1). In this prospective cohort study, increasing intravenous and enteral protein intakes to recommended levels in the first month after birth was not associated with improved cognitive, language or motor scores or decreased sensory impairments at 2 years' CA despite significantly improved early growth and reduced postnatal faltering growth. Appropriate randomised controlled trials are needed to answer definitively whether higher early protein intakes improve neurodevelopmental outcome in this population. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Dewi, I. A.; Prastyo, A. M.; Wijana, S.
Baby java orange (Citrus sinensis) is commonly consumed as juice. Processing of baby java orange leaves organic waste which consist of the mesocarp, exocarp, seed, and wall of the orange. Therefore, it is necessary to process baby java orange waste to be valuable products. The purpose of this study was to provide added value to unutilized baby java orange waste, and to find out the pretreatment of time-delay process that maximize the yield of essential oil produced. Essential oil processing can be done by water and steam distillation. The study used randomized block design with one factor namely distillation time-delay process by air drying consisted of 4 levels i.e. the distillation delay for 2, 4, 6, and 8 days. The best treatment was determined based on the yield. The best essential oil from baby java orange waste was obtained from the treatment of distillation delay-process of 8 days. This pretreatment generated yield value of 0.63% with moisture content of 24.21%. By estimating the price of essential oil showed that this effort not only reduced the bulky organic waste but also provided potential economical value.
Janicke, Elise C; Nazareth, Michael R; Rothman, Ilene L
We report a patient with generalized smooth muscle hamartoma who presented with many of the variety of congenital anomalies that have been reported in babies with multiple symmetric circumferential rings of folded skin known as Michelin tire baby (MTB) syndrome, but our patient did not show the MTB phenotype. This constellation of findings in the absence of the MTB phenotype has not been previously reported. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Kromer, Megan E.
The booklet describes Project ABC (Any Baby Can), a model networking effort to promote coordinated services for disabled and high-risk infants in San Antonio, Texas. The model features a volunteer, grass-roots emphasis in an aggressive community awareness campaign with a long-term goal of improving the effectiveness of social services and health…
Sherer, Michael D.
This paper discusses the issues involved and presents an overall picture of attempts to censor the April 11, 1938 issue of "Life" magazine featuring a four-page spread of 35 pictures from the film "The Birth of a Baby." It examines contemporary news accounts from newspapers published in New York, Boston, Chicago, St. Louis, New…
FINKELSTEIN, EMILY S.; REID, M. CARRINGTON; KLEPPINGER, ALISON; PILLEMER, KARL; ROBISON, JULIE
A rapidly expanding number of baby boomers provide care to aging parents. This study examines associations between caregiver status and outcomes related to awareness and anticipation of future long-term care (LTC) needs using 2007 Connecticut Long-Term Care Needs Assessment survey data. Baby boomers who were adult child caregivers (n = 353) vs. baby boomers who were not (n = 1242) were more likely to anticipate some future LTC needs and to have considered certain financing strategies. Although baby boomer adult child caregivers more readily anticipate some future LTC needs, they are not taking specific actions. It is important to address the need for public education directed towards those who are currently (or have recently completed) caring for aging parents. PMID:22239280
Perrine, Cria G.; Scanlon, Kelley S.; Li, Ruowei; Odom, Erika; Grummer-Strawn, Laurence M.
Objective To describe mothers’ exclusive breastfeeding intentions and whether Baby-Friendly hospital practices are associated with achieving these intentions. Methods In the 2005–2007 Infant Feeding Practices Study II, women completed a prenatal questionnaire and approximately monthly questionnaires through 12 months. Mothers met their prenatal exclusive breastfeeding intention if their duration after the hospital stay (excluding hospital supplementation) equaled or exceeded their intention. Primary predictor variables included 6 Baby-Friendly hospital practices: breastfeeding within one hour of birth, giving only breast milk, rooming in, breastfeeding on demand, no pacifiers, and information on breastfeeding support. Results Among women who prenatally intended to exclusively breastfeed (n=1457), more than 85% intended to do so for 3 months or more. However, only 32.4% of mothers achieved their intended exclusive breastfeeding duration. Mothers who were married and multiparous were more likely to achieve their exclusive breastfeeding intention, while mothers who were obese, smoked, or had longer intended exclusive breastfeeding duration were less likely to meet their intention. Beginning breastfeeding within one hour of birth and not being given supplemental feedings or pacifiers were associated with achieving exclusive breastfeeding intention. After adjustment for all other hospital practices only not receiving supplemental feedings remained significant (aOR=2.3, 95% CI=1.8, 3.1). Conclusion The majority of mothers who intend to exclusively breastfeed are not meeting their intended duration. Increased Baby-Friendly hospital practices, particularly giving only breast milk in the hospital, may help more mothers achieve their exclusive breastfeeding intentions. PMID:22665406
Labbok, Miriam H
The World Health Organization (WHO)/UNICEF Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI) was developed to support the implementation of the Ten Steps for Successful Breastfeeding. The purpose of this study is to assess trends in the numbers facilities ever-designated "baby-friendly," to consider uptake of the new WHO/UNICEF BFHI materials, and to consider implications for future breastfeeding support. The national contacts from the 2006-2007 UNICEF BFHI update were recontacted, as were WHO and UNICEF officers worldwide, to ascertain the number of hospitals ever-designated "baby-friendly," presence of a government breastfeeding oversight committee, use of the new BFHI materials and, if yes, use of the new maternity or human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) materials. Seventy countries reporting in 2010-2011 and the updates from an additional 61 reporting in 2006-2007 (n=131, or 66% of the 198 countries) confirm that there are at least 21,328 ever-designated facilities. This is 27.5% of maternities worldwide: 8.5% of those in industrialized countries and 31% in less developed settings. In 2010, government committees were reported by 18 countries, and 34 reported using the new BFHI materials: 14 reported using the maternity care and 11 reported using the HIV materials. Rates of increase in the number of ever-certified "baby-friendly" hospitals vary by region and show some chronological correlation with trends in breastfeeding rates. Although it is not possible to attribute this increase to the BFHI alone, there is ongoing interest in Ten Steps implementation and in BFHI. The continued growth may reflect the dedication of ministries of health and national BFHI groups, as well as increasing recognition that the Ten Steps are effective quality improvement practices that increase breastfeeding and synergize with community interventions and other program efforts. With renewed interest in maternal/neonatal health, revitalization of support for Ten Steps and their effective
Weaning is the cause of much concern among first-time mothers. A milk-only diet is advised until 3-4 months of age. Health professionals should ensure the baby receives a sufficient and balanced diet during the weaning period, to meet the needs for energy and growth. Breast milk or infant formula should continue up to the age of at least one year. The weaning period is a good time to educate parents in good nutrition. A wide variety of foods should be the aim in child nutrition, but each different type needs to be started separately during weaning. Care is needed to ensure vegetarian babies receive enough proteins, vitamins and minerals (especially iron). Failure to thrive has a multitude of causes, and treatment must be that of the cause. Strictly vegan children who eat no dairy products will need added synthetic vitamin B12. Failure to thrive may be due to physical problems (eg choanal atresia), infection, vomiting, diarrhoea, anorexia, parental ignorance or poverty. Other causes include coeliac disease, cow's milk protein allergy, cystic fibrosis, severe eczema or asthma, or diabetes.
... place? With equipment designed for infants and medical staff specially trained in newborn care, the NICU is ... without having to repeatedly stick the baby. NICU staff try to make the infants' stay in the ...
... 6 MB] Read the MMWR Science Clips Hepatitis C Testing baby boomers saves lives Recommend on Facebook ... boomers got infected before the dangers of hepatitis C were well known. Anyone can get hepatitis C, ...
... post-harvest processing. A biometric sample must be drawn and examined from each consignment. Baby kiwi... identification must be maintained until the fruit is released for entry into the United States. (2) A biometric...
... post-harvest processing. A biometric sample must be drawn and examined from each consignment. Baby kiwi... identification must be maintained until the fruit is released for entry into the United States. (2) A biometric...
... post-harvest processing. A biometric sample must be drawn and examined from each consignment. Baby kiwi... identification must be maintained until the fruit is released for entry into the United States. (2) A biometric...
Scott, Callie A.; Iyer, Hari S.; Lembela Bwalya, Deophine; Bweupe, Maximillian; Rosen, Sydney B.; Scott, Nancy; Larson, Bruce A.
Background Zambia adopted Option A for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) in 2010 and announced a move to Option B+ in 2013. We evaluated the uptake, outcomes, and costs of antenatal, well-baby, and PMTCT services under routine care conditions in Zambia after the adoption of Option A. Methods We enrolled 99 HIV-infected/HIV-exposed (index) mother/baby pairs with a first antenatal visit in April-September 2011 at four study sites and 99 HIV-uninfected/HIV-unexposed (comparison) mother/baby pairs matched on site, gestational age, and calendar month at first visit. Data on patient outcomes and resources utilized from the first antenatal visit through six months postpartum were extracted from site registers. Costs in 2011 USD were estimated from the provider’s perspective. Results Index mothers presented for antenatal care at a mean 23.6 weeks gestation; 55% were considered to have initiated triple-drug antiretroviral therapy (ART) based on information recorded in site registers. Six months postpartum, 62% of index and 30% of comparison mother/baby pairs were retained in care; 67% of index babies retained had an unknown HIV status. Comparison and index mother/baby pairs utilized fewer resources than under fully guideline-concordant care; index babies utilized more well-baby resources than comparison babies. The average cost per comparison pair retained in care six months postpartum was $52 for antenatal and well-baby services. The average cost per index pair retained was $88 for antenatal, well-baby, and PMTCT services and increased to $185 when costs of triple-drug ART services were included. Conclusions HIV-infected mothers present to care late in pregnancy and many are lost to follow up by six months postpartum. HIV-exposed babies are more likely to remain in care and receive non-HIV, well-baby care than HIV-unexposed babies. Improving retention in care, guideline concordance, and moving to Option B+ will result in increased service delivery
Yajnik, Chittaranjan S
The conventional aetiological model of obesity and diabetes proposes a genetic predisposition and a precipitation by an unhealthy adult lifestyle. This hypothesis was challenged by David Barker who proposed that the intrauterine environment influences the risk of non-communicable diseases (NCDs). The original idea was based on fetal undernutrition because lower birth weight was associated with a higher risk of diabetes and heart disease. However, soon it was clear that the association was U shaped, and that the increased risk in large babies was driven by maternal obesity and diabetes. A number of human and animal studies have refined our ideas of 'fetal programming', which is now thought to be related to acquired chemical changes in DNA (methylation), histones (acetylation and other) and the role of non-coding miRNAs. Maternal nutritional disturbances are the major programming stimulus, in addition to a deranged metabolism, infections, maternal stress, extreme atmospheric temperature, etc. The first demonstration of a link between fetal 'starvation' and future ill-health was in the Dutch Hunger Winter studies. In the prospective Pune Maternal Nutrition Study, we found that small and thin Indian babies were more adipose compared to larger English babies, and their higher risk of future diabetes was reflected in higher insulin and leptin and lower adiponectin concentrations in the cord blood. This phenotype was partly related to a deranged 1-carbon metabolism due to an imbalance in vitamin B12 (low) and folate (high) nutrition, which was also related to insulin resistance in the offspring. Maternal obesity and diabetes have made an increasing contribution to childhood obesity and diabetes at a young age. This was prominently shown in Pima Indians but is now obvious in all other populations. The best window of opportunity to prevent fetal programming of NCDs is in the periconceptional period. This is the period when gametogenesis, fertilisation, implantation
McClure, Elisabeth R; Chentsova-Dutton, Yulia E; Holochwost, Steven J; Parrott, W G; Barr, Rachel
Although many relatives use video chat to keep in touch with toddlers, key features of adult-toddler interaction like joint visual attention (JVA) may be compromised in this context. In this study, 25 families with a child between 6 and 24 months were observed using video chat at home with geographically separated grandparents. We define two types of screen-mediated JVA (across- and within-screen) and report age-related increases in the babies' across-screen JVA initiations, and that family JVA usage was positively related to babies' overall attention during video calls. Babies today are immersed in a digital world where formative relationships are often mediated by a screen. Implications for both infant social development and developmental research are discussed. © 2017 The Authors. Child Development © 2017 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.
Hamman, Mary Kathryn
The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends children receive six well-baby visits between ages 1 month and 1 year, yet by age 14 months less than 10% of infants have received all six visits. Cost sharing under public and private insurance is very low. Low compliance rates despite the low cost of care suggest other factors, such as time costs, may be important. This paper examines the relationship between maternal employment and receipt of well-baby care. The Medical Expenditure Panel Survey contains rich information on use of preventive care, maternal employment, and other economic and non-economic factors that may influence care decisions. Several approaches, including a proxy variable strategy and instrumental variables analysis, are used to attempt to address the potential endogeneity of maternal employment and examine the sensitivity of findings. Findings indicate mothers who work full-time take their children to 0.18 fewer visits (or 9% fewer at the mean) than those who have quit their jobs. Mothers with employer provided paid vacation leave take their children to 0.20 more visits (or 9% more at the mean) than other working mothers. Time appears to be an important factor in determining well-baby care receipt. Policies that extend paid leave to more employed women may improve compliance with preventive care recommendations.
Three extraction methods and two detection techniques for determining pesticides in baby food were evaluated. The extraction techniques examined were supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), enhanced solvent extraction (ESE), and solid phase extraction (SPE). The detection techni...
Madani, T A; Alsaedi, S; James, L; Eldeek, B S; Jiman-Fatani, A A; Alawi, M M; Marwan, D; Cudal, M; Macapagal, M; Bahlas, R; Farouq, M
During November 2008 to January 2009, 11 babies in the neonatal intensive care (NICU) and three babies in the nursery were infected with Serratia marcescens at King Abdulaziz University Hospital in Saudi Arabia. Overall, fifteen infections were identified among 11 newborns in the NICU: septicaemia (five cases), purulent conjunctivitis (three), urinary tract infection (two), meningitis (two) and cellulitis (one). Three newborns in the nursery had three infections: purulent conjunctivitis (two cases) and omphalitis (one). Thirteen of 14 babies recovered fully but one died from S. marcescens meningitis and septicaemia. All infections were traced to intrinsically contaminated baby shampoo introduced to the units five days before the first reported case. The outbreak terminated following withdrawal of the shampoo product. Copyright © 2011 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Scholl, Marilyn Faris
Adolescent pregnancy remains a persistent societal problem. Both teenage mothers and the fathers of their babies are unprepared for parenthood and often drop out of school, take low-paying jobs, and never complete their education. Fathers of babies born to adolescent mothers are a critical but often forgotten component of the adolescent pregnancy…
Spielman, Varda; Taubman-Ben-Ari, Orit
The purpose of the study reported in this article was to examine how the unique circumstances of the birth of a premature baby affect the perception of parental self-efficacy and stress-related growth - which is the experience of positive change in one's life following stressful circumstances - among first-time parents and to examine the…
Kaartinen, Noora; Tinkanen, Helena
In Finland, the proportion of children born as a result of in vitro fertilization treatments is annually approximately 3.3%, and the percentage proportion of the population is growing. Their general somatic health status and cognitive development do not differ from spontaneously fertilized children. In vitro fertilization treatments are, however, associated with a slightly elevated risk of preterm delivery, low birth weight and structural abnormalities. The risk of childhood cancer does not appear to be increased in IVF children. The in vitro fertilization process affects the embryonic epigenome, which organizes itself during early embryonic development. These changes may influence the phenotype and health profile of the unborn child. The effect of in vitro fertilization treatments on an individual's long-term health is poorly understood, requiring prospective follow-up studies with sufficiently large datasets. In vitro fertilization treatments are the most effective way to treat infertility, and the treatments are generally safe both for the future mother and the baby being born.
Verburg, Peter H.; Ellis, Erle C.; Letourneau, Aurelien
Markets influence the global patterns of urbanization, deforestation, agriculture and other land use systems. Yet market influence is rarely incorporated into spatially explicit global studies of environmental change, largely because consistent global data are lacking below the national level. Here we present the first high spatial resolution gridded data depicting market influence globally. The data jointly represent variations in both market strength and accessibility based on three market influence indices derived from an index of accessibility to market locations and national level gross domestic product (purchasing power parity). These indices show strong correspondence with human population density while also revealing several distinct and useful relationships with other global environmental patterns. As market influence grows, the need for high resolution global data on market influence and its dynamics will become increasingly important to understanding and forecasting global environmental change.
Bartick, Melissa; Tomori, Cecília; Ball, Helen L
Concerns about bedsharing as a risk for sudden infant death syndrome and other forms of sleep-associated infant death have gained prominence as a public health issue. Cardboard "baby boxes" are increasingly promoted to prevent infant death through separate sleep, despite no proof of efficacy. However, baby boxes disrupt "breastsleeping" (breastfeeding with co-sleeping) and may undermine breastfeeding. Recommendations enforcing separate sleep are based on 20th century Euro-American social norms for solitary infant sleep and scheduled feedings via bottles of cow's milk-based formula, in contrast to breastsleeping, an evolutionary adaptation facilitating the survival of mammalian infants for millennia. Interventions that aim to prevent bedsharing, such as the cardboard baby box, fail to consider the implications of evolutionary biology or of ethnocentrism in sleep guidance. Moreover, the focus on bedsharing neglects more potent risks such as smoking, drugs, alcohol, formula feeding, and poverty. Distribution of baby boxes may divert resources and attention away from addressing these other risk factors and lead to a false sense of security wherein we overlook that sudden unexplained infant deaths also occur in solitary sleep environments. Recognizing breastsleeping as the evolutionary and cross-cultural norm entails re-evaluating our research and policy priorities, such as providing greater structural support for families, supporting breastfeeding and safe co-sleeping, investigating ways to safely minimize separation for formula-fed infants, and mitigating the potential harms of mother-infant separation when breastsleeping is disrupted. Resources would be better spent addressing such questions rather than on a feel-good solution such as the baby box. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
A baby owl, possibly a screech owl, stares at the photographer snapping its picture. The owl was found on the stairs inside Hangar G, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. It had apparently tried to fly from a nest near the ceiling but couldn't get back to it. Workers called an Audubon rescue center near Orlando, which captured it and will ensure the bird is returned to the wild when it's ready.