Science.gov

Sample records for baby diaper machinery

  1. Safety evaluation of superabsorbent baby diapers.

    PubMed

    Kosemund, Kirstin; Schlatter, Harald; Ochsenhirt, Jennifer L; Krause, Edburga L; Marsman, Daniel S; Erasala, Geetha N

    2009-03-01

    Superabsorbent disposable baby diapers are sophisticated, well-engineered products that provide many benefits including convenience, comfort, exceptional leakage protection, improved hygiene and skin care benefits compared with cloth diapers. Safety assurance is an integral part of the diaper development process at Procter & Gamble, with the goal of ensuring safety for both caregivers and babies. A systematic, stepwise approach to safety assessment starts with a thorough evaluation of new design features and materials, using the principles of general risk assessment including, as appropriate, controlled trials to assess clinical endpoints or independent scientific review of safety data. The majority of the diaper materials are polymers that are safe and do not have inherent toxicity issues. Trace amounts of non-polymeric materials, such as colorants, are assessed based on their skin contact potential. New materials or design features are introduced in marketed products only if they have been shown to be safe under the conditions of recommended or foreseeable use. The product safety continues to be confirmed after launch by means of in-market monitoring. This article provides a broad overview of human safety exposure-based risk assessment used at Procter & Gamble for absorbent hygiene products. PMID:18992296

  2. Diaper rash

    MedlinePlus

    Dermatitis - diaper and Candida; Candida-associated diaper dermatitis; Diaper dermatitis; Dermatitis - irritant contact ... Diaper rashes are common in babies between 4 to 15 months old. They may be noticed more ...

  3. Safety evaluation of disposable baby diapers using principles of quantitative risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Rai, Prashant; Lee, Byung-Mu; Liu, Tsung-Yun; Yuhui, Qin; Krause, Edburga; Marsman, Daniel S; Felter, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Baby diapers are complex products consisting of multiple layers of materials, most of which are not in direct contact with the skin. The safety profile of a diaper is determined by the biological properties of individual components and the extent to which the baby is exposed to each component during use. Rigorous evaluation of the toxicological profile and realistic exposure conditions of each material is important to ensure the overall safety of the diaper under normal and foreseeable use conditions. Quantitative risk assessment (QRA) principles may be applied to the safety assessment of diapers and similar products. Exposure to component materials is determined by (1) considering the conditions of product use, (2) the degree to which individual layers of the product are in contact with the skin during use, and (3) the extent to which some components may be extracted by urine and delivered to skin. This assessment of potential exposure is then combined with data from standard safety assessments of components to determine the margin of safety (MOS). This study examined the application of QRA to the safety evaluation of baby diapers, including risk assessments for some diaper ingredient chemicals for which establishment of acceptable and safe exposure levels were demonstrated.

  4. Diaper Rash

    MedlinePlus

    ... skin also can develop rashes. Certain types of detergent, soaps, diapers (or dyes from diapers), or baby ... on how to best clean them. Only use detergents in the amount recommended, and run an extra ...

  5. [Evolution of disposable diapers and reduction of diaper dermatitis].

    PubMed

    Erasala, G-N; Merlay, I; Romain, C

    2007-05-01

    Keeping babies skin dry in the diaper environment, reducing leaking while increasing absorbency and preventing skin pH increase lead to provide better skin tolerance disposable diapers. During 80's, basic cellulose diapers were replaced by the introduction of absorbent gelling materials (AGM) and since 90's by microbreatheable diapers. These advances in diaper technology have contributed to the reduction of diaper dermatitis.

  6. Investigation of the amount of transdermal exposure of newborn babies to phthalates in paper diapers and certification of the safety of paper diapers.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Satoko; Katagiri, Ritsuko; Minobe, Yasushi; Kuribara, Isamu; Wada, Takeharu; Wada, Mitsuhiro; Imai, Shigeo

    2015-10-01

    A risk assessment study of seven phthalates in paper diapers for newborn babies produced in Japan was performed. The diapers were purchased and the contents of the seven phthalates were determined and estimated amounts of exposure were calculated based on the eluted rate into artificial medium of urine or sweat, average weight of infants, and frequency of use. Di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate and di-n-butyl phthalate were detected in the topsheets and determined to be 0.6 μg/g and 0.2 μg/g, respectively. The daily estimated exposure volume was calculated to be in the range of 1.86 × 10(-10)-2.98 × 10(-6) mg/kg/day as follows: content of seven phthalates in the topsheet (0.1-1 μg/g) × eluted rate of phthalates into artificial sweat (0.0006-2.4%) × weight of the topsheet of a diaper (1.5 g) × the number of diapers used per day (12 sheets) × skin absorption rate (0.005-0.1)/average body weight (2.9 kg). For hazard assessment, we used 0.2-300 mg/kg/day for the seven phthalates based on the data available at international agencies. The margin of exposure to the seven phthalates was 6.71 × 10(4)-1.99 × 10(11), indicating that the risk of exposure to phthalates from the diapers produced in Japan was negligible.

  7. Adult baby/diaper lovers: an exploratory study of an online community sample.

    PubMed

    Hawkinson, Kaitlyn; Zamboni, Brian D

    2014-07-01

    This internet-based study provided descriptive information and exploratory analyses on 1,795 male and 139 female members of the Adult Baby/Diaper Lover (ABDL) community. Based on prior research, some research questions focused on the degree to which ABDL behavior was associated with negative mood states, parental relationships, and attachment style. Based on clinical experience, a second research question focused on discerning two possible subgroups within the ABDL community: persons focused on role play behavior and persons who were primarily interested in sexual arousal in their ABDL behavior. The results showed modest support for the former research questions, but notable support for the last research question. Because of some overlap between the two hypothesized subgroups, additional subgroups may exist. Males in the ABDL community identified their ABDL interests earlier than females and these males may be more focused on sexual aspects of ABDL practices. Both males and females perceived being dominated as important in their ABDL behavior. Most participants were comfortable with their ABDL behavior and reported few problems. ABDL behavior may represent a sexual subculture that is not problematic for most of its participants. PMID:24473941

  8. Setting the Record Straight on Diaper Rash and Disposable Diapers.

    PubMed

    Clark-Greuel, Jocelyn N; Helmes, C Tucker; Lawrence, Ann; Odio, Mauricio; White, Jeffrey C

    2014-06-24

    Skin in the diapered area is continuously threatened by exposure to changes in pH levels, overhydration, mechanical friction, and fecal enzymes, making diaper rash a common occurrence among babies. Up to one third of infants may exhibit clinical symptoms of diaper rash at any time, and more than half of babies between the ages of 4 and 15 months develop diaper rash at least once in a 2-month period. Despite misperceptions that disposable diapers are related to an increase in diaper rash, the incidence of diaper dermatitis is on the decline, largely due to significant improvements in disposable diaper construction and materials. Modern-day disposable diapers are specifically designed to limit exposure to irritants in the diaper area, reduce overhydration, inhibit skin barrier compromise, and help maintain normal skin pH levels and have been thoroughly evaluated for safety and skin compatibility.

  9. Diaper area and disposable diapers.

    PubMed

    Erasala, G N; Romain, C; Merlay, I

    2011-01-01

    Since the 1960s, cloth diapers have been replaced by disposable diapers. The evolution of healthier skin in the diaper area has been demonstrated in parallel to that of disposable diapers. The improvements of disposable diapers--fit, dryness, comfort--have been based on the understanding of factors playing a role in the development of diaper dermatitis.

  10. Diapering Your Baby

    MedlinePlus

    ... KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Upsetting News Reports? What to Say Vaccines: Which ... are a few extra tips to keep in mind: Garbage should be emptied regularly (about once a ...

  11. Skin care of the diaper area.

    PubMed

    Adam, Ralf

    2008-01-01

    The skin of the diaper area has special needs for protection from the irritating effects of urine and feces and prevention of diaper dermatitis. These needs include products such as diapers that absorb the excreta, as well as products for cleansing and conditioning the skin. A number of factors play a role in development of diaper dermatitis, including prolonged exposure to excreta, alterations in skin pH or increased hydration, and changes in skin microbial flora. Recent decades have seen great improvements in our understanding of these factors and our ability to develop new and better products to protect baby skin. Better diaper designs and the development of pH-buffered baby wipes have improved the care of skin in the diaper area. Continuing research offers the promise of new products with additional benefits for caregivers and infants.

  12. [Diaper dermatitis].

    PubMed

    Fölster-Holst, R; Buchner, M; Proksch, E

    2011-09-01

    Diaper dermatitis is one of the most common skin diseases during infancy and childhood. It is a type of irritant contact eczema resulting from a complex interaction between urine and feces under occlusive conditions in combination with the hyperhydration of the stratum corneum, pressure and friction under the diaper. These conditions pave the way for Candida albicans infection, which is often associated with diaper dermatitis. The anogenital region can be involved by a variety of dermatoses, so a precise skin examination, detailed history and sometimes histologic examination are needed for a precise diagnosis. Therapeutically, frequent diaper changes and adequate skin care are most important.

  13. [Diaper dermatitis].

    PubMed

    Fölster-Holst, R; Buchner, M; Proksch, E

    2011-09-01

    Diaper dermatitis is one of the most common skin diseases during infancy and childhood. It is a type of irritant contact eczema resulting from a complex interaction between urine and feces under occlusive conditions in combination with the hyperhydration of the stratum corneum, pressure and friction under the diaper. These conditions pave the way for Candida albicans infection, which is often associated with diaper dermatitis. The anogenital region can be involved by a variety of dermatoses, so a precise skin examination, detailed history and sometimes histologic examination are needed for a precise diagnosis. Therapeutically, frequent diaper changes and adequate skin care are most important. PMID:21882101

  14. Diapering, diaper technology, and diaper area skin health.

    PubMed

    Odio, Mauricio; Thaman, Lauren

    2014-11-01

    Disposable diapers are the most common diaper care practice in Western societies today, and their use continues to increase globally. Improvements in disposable diaper technology have helped to reduce the prevalence and severity of diaper dermatitis (DD) over the course of the last few decades. This article reviews how changes in disposable diaper technology interact with the various etiological factors in DD, thus helping to improve overall diaper area skin health for children around the world.

  15. Bonding with Your Baby

    MedlinePlus

    ... KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Upsetting News Reports? What to Say Vaccines: Which ... middle-of-the-night feeding and diaper change reading or singing to baby giving the baby a ...

  16. Potential effect of diaper and cotton ball contamination on NMR- and LC/MS-based metabonomics studies of urine from newborn babies.

    PubMed

    Goodpaster, Aaron M; Ramadas, Eshwar H; Kennedy, Michael A

    2011-02-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) based metabonomics screening of urine has great potential for discovery of biomarkers for diseases that afflict newborn and preterm infants. However, urine collection from newborn infants presents a potential confounding problem due to the possibility that contaminants might leach from materials used for urine collection and influence statistical analysis of metabonomics data. In this manuscript, we have analyzed diaper and cotton ball contamination using synthetic urine to assess its potential to influence the outcome of NMR- and LC/MS-based metabonomics studies of human infant urine. Eight diaper brands were examined using the "diaper plus cotton ball" technique. Data were analyzed using conventional principal components analysis, as well as a statistical significance algorithm developed for, and applied to, NMR data. Results showed most diaper brands had distinct contaminant profiles that could potentially influence NMR- and LC/MS-based metabonomics studies. On the basis of this study, it is recommended that diaper and cotton ball brands be characterized using metabonomics methodologies prior to initiating a metabonomics study to ensure that contaminant profiles are minimal or manageable and that the same diaper and cotton ball brands be used throughout a study to minimize variation.

  17. [How I treat...diaper dermatitis].

    PubMed

    Henry, F; Thirion, L; Piérard-Franchimont, C; Letawe, C; Piérard, G E

    2006-04-01

    Diaper dermatitis is the most frequent skin disorder of the newborn. Several clinical types are distinguished. The most frequent type results from increased fragility of the newborn buttock skin when covered by diapers. According to the mechanisms involved and the severity of the dermatitis, one can distinguish the intertrigo of the chubby baby, and the so-called "W", "Y" and "red panties" types of diaper dermatitis. When the effects of occlusion are not controlled by adequate absorption by the diapers maceration of the stratum corneum occurs. As a result, degradation of the skin barrier function takes place. In addition, the value of the coefficient of friction of the skin increases with epidermal weakening to rubbing. In addition, fecal enzymes alter urines and skin. Judicious hygiene measures and a correct choice of care and diapers are mandatory. Cutaneous colonisation by microorganisms, in particular the yeasts Candida spp, is the main complication. Adequate preventive and curative measures can combat diaper dermatitis with confidence. A miconazole paste allows to improve the tribological properties of the interface between diapers and the skin. It also corrects the degradation of the skin barrier function, reduces inflammation and abates the impact of Candida spp. in the pathogenesis of the skin disorder.

  18. Diapering habits: a global perspective.

    PubMed

    Thaman, Lauren A; Eichenfield, Lawrence F

    2014-11-01

    There are tremendous variations in diapering practices, reflecting varying cultural practices and regional difference. Around the world, more than 134 million babies are born each year, a rate of 255 births per minute or 4.3 births each second. While global population growth has been steadily declining from its peak in 1963, several regions, including the Middle East and Sub-Saharan Africa, continue to maintain high birth rates. Though the essential needs of infants are largely similar, family habits and practices during early years of life vary dramatically. This article surveys data documenting variations in diaper frequency, types, and duration of use internationally, including age of toilet training. These factors may influence diaper rash and skin health of infants and young children. Much of this data was collected as part of analysis of the international commercial diaper market, evaluated and organized as part of an international initiative on Global Infant Skin Care, and presented to a panel of experts for critique and commentary in a symposium held in December, 2013. PMID:25403934

  19. Baby supplies you need

    MedlinePlus

    ... because some babies are sensitive to them. Vaseline (petroleum jelly): good to prevent diaper rash, and to ... 2014 Updated by: Cynthia D. White, MD, Fellow American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, Group Health Cooperative, ...

  20. Diaper rash (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Diaper rash may be caused by chemical irritants rather than bacterial or candidal infection. Common irritants include ammonia from the breakdown of urine, acids in the stool, and soaps used in laundering cloth diapers.

  1. Diaper industry workshop report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-05-01

    The report is the product of a one-day workshop on the diaper industry that was sponsored by the U.S. EPA. Four topics covered during the workshop were public health and safety, recycling, composting, and product life cycle analysis. The primary objective of the workshop was to identify areas within the diaper industry that need further research in order to lessen the adverse impacts that diapers have on the environment. Summaries of each of the four topics as well as summaries of discussion comments and research needs identified during the workshop are included in the report. A large number of research ideas were generated during the workshop. These ideas included determining the health risks associated with handling diapers, developing methods for improving the recyclability of plastics used in diapers, determining where diaper-related life cycle analysis should begin and end, and determining the economic viability of composting.

  2. Disposable Diapers Are OK.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poore, Patricia

    1992-01-01

    A personal account of measuring the pros and cons of disposable diaper usage leads the author to differentiate between a garbage problem and environmental problem. Concludes the disposable diaper issue is a political and economic issue with a local environmental impact and well within our abilities to manage. (MCO)

  3. Lithium Battery Diaper Ulceration.

    PubMed

    Maridet, Claire; Taïeb, Alain

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of lithium battery diaper ulceration in a 16-month-old girl. Gastrointestinal and ear, nose, and throat lesions after lithium battery ingestion have been reported, but skin involvement has not been reported to our knowledge.

  4. Clinicians Discuss Diaper Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Brucker, Mary; McGuire, Stephanie; Merrill, Lisa; Rossing, Francine; Sayaseng, Kammi

    2015-01-01

    Diaper dermatitis in infants is commonly seen by clinicians in both primary care and acute care settings. The condition can cause significant discomfort for infants and distress for their parents and caregivers. Nursing for Women's Health convened a group of nursing clinicians who work in a variety of settings to discuss the issues and challenges related to preventing and treating diaper dermatitis in both healthy term newborns and premature newborns.

  5. Experts Support Safety and Utility of Today's Diapers.

    PubMed

    Counts, Jennifer L; Helmes, C Tucker

    2014-06-24

    With the needs of both pediatricians and parents in mind and the safety of babies a top priority, continual innovations in diaper technology have produced meaningful improvements in duration of use and care for the skin, all with the reassurance of extensive safety validation. PMID:24961776

  6. Prevention of diaper dermatitis in infants--a literature review.

    PubMed

    Blume-Peytavi, Ulrike; Hauser, Matthias; Lünnemann, Lena; Stamatas, Georgios N; Kottner, Jan; Garcia Bartels, Natalie

    2014-01-01

    Diaper dermatitis (DD) is one of the most common skin conditions in neonates and infants, with a peak between the ages of 9 and 12 months. Appropriate skin care practices that support skin barrier function and protect the buttocks skin from urine and feces are supposed to be effective in the prevention of DD. Despite many recommendations for parents and caregivers on proper diaper skin care, there is no up-to-date synthesis of the available evidence to develop recommendations for DD prevention practice. Therefore we performed a systematic literature review on the efficacy of nonmedical skin care practices on the diapered area of healthy, full-term infants ages 0 to 24 months. We identified 13 studies covering skin care practices such as cleansing, bathing, and application of topical products. DD prevalence and incidence and physiologic skin parameters were used as efficacy parameters. The results of this review indicate that cleansing of the diaper area using baby wipes or water and a washcloth have comparable effects on diapered skin. Bathing with a liquid baby cleanser twice weekly seems comparable with water alone. The application of ointments containing zinc oxide or petrolatum with or without vitamin A seems to have comparable effects on DD severity. There seems to be no information on whether single skin care practices such as cleansing, bathing, and application of topical preparations can prevent DD. High-quality randomized clinical trials are needed to show the effectiveness of skin care practices for controlling and preventing DD.

  7. Frequency and severity of diaper dermatitis with use of traditional Chinese cloth diapers: observations in 3- to 9-month-old children.

    PubMed

    Liu, Na; Wang, Xuemin; Odio, Mauricio

    2011-01-01

    Chinese cloth diapers differ from disposable diapers in several respects that are central to our understanding of the etiology of diaper dermatitis (DD), yet there are no published reports on the dermatological correlates of this manner of infant care, which is prevalent among the world's second-largest pediatric population. The objective was to determine the prevalence and severity of DD in exclusive users of Chinese cloth diapers. This observational study was conducted during a single home visit to 694 Chinese children who were exclusive users of cloth diapers in five inland cities of China. During each home visit, study nurses documented the presence and severity of DD using a visual dermatological scale and conducted transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and pH measurements. Diaper dermatitis was rare in the buttocks and genital area of the children (<20%) but was common in the perianal and intertriginous regions (50-70%). TEWL and pH were mildly higher in babies with DD than in those without DD in the genital and buttocks area. Diaper dermatitis is common in children who use traditional Chinese cloth diapers, especially in the perianal and intertriginous regions.

  8. An update on diaper dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Klunk, Christopher; Domingues, Erik; Wiss, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Diaper dermatitis leads to approximately 20% of all childhood dermatology visits. There have been several technologic advances in diaper design the last several years; however, due to the unique environment of the diaper area, many children continue to suffer from a variety of dermatologic conditions of this region. Common causes include allergic contact dermatitis, irritant contact dermatitis, infection, and psoriasis. Treatments include allergen avoidance, barrier protection, parent education, and topical therapies.

  9. Diaper Need: A Change for Better Health.

    PubMed

    Porter, Sallie; Steefel, Lorraine

    2015-01-01

    Although diapers are essential for child health, nearly one in three American families cannot afford them (National Diaper Bank Network, 2013). A gap referred to as diaper need, the difference between the numbers of diapers infants require to stay clean and comfortable less the amount of diapers a family can afford without cutting back on other basic essentials, can have severe consequences for infants parents, and society. Within the context of the need for and economics of diapers, these severe consequences alert pediatric nurses to the impact they can have to bridge the diaper gap, thereby helping to alleviate diaper-related conditions and providing holistic, family-centered care.

  10. Diaper Need: A Change for Better Health.

    PubMed

    Porter, Sallie; Steefel, Lorraine

    2015-01-01

    Although diapers are essential for child health, nearly one in three American families cannot afford them (National Diaper Bank Network, 2013). A gap referred to as diaper need, the difference between the numbers of diapers infants require to stay clean and comfortable less the amount of diapers a family can afford without cutting back on other basic essentials, can have severe consequences for infants parents, and society. Within the context of the need for and economics of diapers, these severe consequences alert pediatric nurses to the impact they can have to bridge the diaper gap, thereby helping to alleviate diaper-related conditions and providing holistic, family-centered care. PMID:26201173

  11. Prevention of diaper dermatitis in infants--a literature review.

    PubMed

    Blume-Peytavi, Ulrike; Hauser, Matthias; Lünnemann, Lena; Stamatas, Georgios N; Kottner, Jan; Garcia Bartels, Natalie

    2014-01-01

    Diaper dermatitis (DD) is one of the most common skin conditions in neonates and infants, with a peak between the ages of 9 and 12 months. Appropriate skin care practices that support skin barrier function and protect the buttocks skin from urine and feces are supposed to be effective in the prevention of DD. Despite many recommendations for parents and caregivers on proper diaper skin care, there is no up-to-date synthesis of the available evidence to develop recommendations for DD prevention practice. Therefore we performed a systematic literature review on the efficacy of nonmedical skin care practices on the diapered area of healthy, full-term infants ages 0 to 24 months. We identified 13 studies covering skin care practices such as cleansing, bathing, and application of topical products. DD prevalence and incidence and physiologic skin parameters were used as efficacy parameters. The results of this review indicate that cleansing of the diaper area using baby wipes or water and a washcloth have comparable effects on diapered skin. Bathing with a liquid baby cleanser twice weekly seems comparable with water alone. The application of ointments containing zinc oxide or petrolatum with or without vitamin A seems to have comparable effects on DD severity. There seems to be no information on whether single skin care practices such as cleansing, bathing, and application of topical preparations can prevent DD. High-quality randomized clinical trials are needed to show the effectiveness of skin care practices for controlling and preventing DD. PMID:24890321

  12. Care of the Migrant Baby.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, Susan; Mestas, Leonard

    Prepared mainly for paraprofessional staff of the Colorado Migrant Council, this 1970 handbook, available in either English or Spanish, presents information on caring fo r the migrant child. Three sections -- Baby, Child, and Sick Child -- discuss general care and specific care for such topics as hand washing, bathing, diapering, rashes, weight,…

  13. Disposable diapers: a hygienic alternative.

    PubMed

    Kamat, Maithili; Malkani, Ram

    2003-11-01

    The use of disposable diapers has offered improved health care benefits. Urine and fecal matter leakage from the cloth nappies and the hand-to-mouth behavior in infants leads to many illnesses with a feco-oral mode of transmission. Also, the tender skin of the infant is more prone to nappy rash. The modern age disposable diapers, when compared to cloth nappy, have displayed a superior ability in containment of urine and feces, thereby reducing contamination and transmission of infection. Also disposable diapers contain Super Absorbent Material (SAM) that successfully reduces the incidence of nappy rash. PMID:14703226

  14. Diaper dermatitis: clinical characteristics and differential diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Coughlin, Carrie C; Eichenfield, Lawrence F; Frieden, Ilona J

    2014-11-01

    A diverse group of diseases can cause skin conditions in the diaper area including those which are directly caused by diapers or the diaper environment, some which are not directly due to, but are worsened by, the wearing of diapers, and those which are independent of the presence of the diaper or its resulting environment. Many of these conditions are limited to this area of the skin, but others extend to skin outside this area, and some are signs of systemic disease. We review many of the important causes of eruptions in the diaper area and emphasize key points in the differential diagnosis.

  15. Diaper dermatitis: a review and brief survey of eruptions of the diaper area.

    PubMed

    Scheinfeld, Noah

    2005-01-01

    Eruptions in the diaper area are the most common dermatologic problem in infancy. Such eruptions can be subdivided into primary diaper dermatitis, an acute inflammation of the skin in the diaper area with an ill-defined and multifactorial etiology, and secondary diaper dermatitis, a term which encompasses eruptions in the diaper area with defined etiologies. The most important factors in the development of primary diaper dermatitis are: (i) water/moisture, (ii) friction, (iii) urine, (iv) feces, and (v) microorganisms (sometimes). Possible treatments include minimizing diaper use and using disposable diapers, barrier creams, mild topical cortisones, and antifungal agents. A variety of other inflammatory and infectious processes can occur in the diaper area and an awareness of these secondary types of diaper dermatitis aids in the accurate diagnosis and treatment of patients.

  16. Diaper dermatitis that does not quit.

    PubMed

    Shin, Helen T

    2005-01-01

    Diaper dermatitis is one of the most common skin disorders in infants. The humid, moist environment under the diaper makes the skin more susceptible to injury from exposure to irritants particularly related to urine and feces. A gentle cleansing routine, frequent diaper changes, and a thick barrier cream help control this condition. Irritant diaper dermatitis should be distinguished from other skin conditions that may develop in this sensitive area.

  17. Go naked: diapers affect infant walking.

    PubMed

    Cole, Whitney G; Lingeman, Jesse M; Adolph, Karen E

    2012-11-01

    In light of cross-cultural and experimental research highlighting effects of childrearing practices on infant motor skill, we asked whether wearing diapers, a seemingly innocuous childrearing practice, affects infant walking. Diapers introduce bulk between the legs, potentially exacerbating infants' poor balance and wide stance. We show that walking is adversely affected by old-fashioned cloth diapers, and that even modern disposable diapers - habitually worn by most infants in the sample - incur a cost relative to walking naked. Infants displayed less mature gait patterns and more missteps and falls while wearing diapers. Thus, infants' own diapers constitute an ongoing biomechanical perturbation while learning to walk. Furthermore, shifts in diapering practices may have contributed to historical and cross-cultural differences in infant walking. PMID:23106732

  18. Modern Disposable Diaper Construction: Innovations in Performance Help Maintain Healthy Diapered Skin.

    PubMed

    Counts, Jennifer L; Helmes, C Tucker; Kenneally, Dianna; Otts, David R

    2014-06-24

    Disposable diapers today employ dramatically better fitting, less bulky, and more environmentally friendly features that deliver better performance and help provide protection for infant skin. Continuous innovations in technology and materials have resulted in new generations of disposable diapers that provide extended dryness and reduced leakage. Driven by studies on the skin's response to inherent influences, such as overhydration and irritation, the qualities of disposable diapers today present significant enhancements for skin health compared with earlier disposable versions and even cloth diapers. Over the years, these enhancements in disposable diapers have helped lead to a reduction in incidence and severity of diaper dermatitis.

  19. Modern Disposable Diaper Construction: Innovations in Performance Help Maintain Healthy Diapered Skin.

    PubMed

    Counts, Jennifer L; Helmes, C Tucker; Kenneally, Dianna; Otts, David R

    2014-06-24

    Disposable diapers today employ dramatically better fitting, less bulky, and more environmentally friendly features that deliver better performance and help provide protection for infant skin. Continuous innovations in technology and materials have resulted in new generations of disposable diapers that provide extended dryness and reduced leakage. Driven by studies on the skin's response to inherent influences, such as overhydration and irritation, the qualities of disposable diapers today present significant enhancements for skin health compared with earlier disposable versions and even cloth diapers. Over the years, these enhancements in disposable diapers have helped lead to a reduction in incidence and severity of diaper dermatitis. PMID:24961775

  20. Diagnosis and management of diaper dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Shin, Helen T

    2014-04-01

    This article presents an overview of diaper dermatitis for the pediatric community. The pathogenesis, differential diagnosis, and management of this common condition in infancy are reviewed. This information will assist in making the appropriate diagnosis and managing this irritant contact dermatitis of the diaper area. With conservative management, most cases of irritant diaper dermatitis are self-limited. When the condition persists, one must consider other diagnoses.

  1. Diaper Dermatitis: Differential Diagnosis and Management

    PubMed Central

    Kellen, Philippa E.

    1990-01-01

    Diaper dermatitis is one of the most common dermatoses occurring in infancy. It is an irritant dermatitis, in which a variety of factors act in concert to produce inflammation of the diapered skin. The differential diagnosis includes many common and some uncommon conditions. Successful treatment requires detailed instructions to caregivers regarding simple hygienic procedures and diapering practices. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2 PMID:21233927

  2. Diagnosis and management of diaper dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Shin, Helen T

    2014-04-01

    This article presents an overview of diaper dermatitis for the pediatric community. The pathogenesis, differential diagnosis, and management of this common condition in infancy are reviewed. This information will assist in making the appropriate diagnosis and managing this irritant contact dermatitis of the diaper area. With conservative management, most cases of irritant diaper dermatitis are self-limited. When the condition persists, one must consider other diagnoses. PMID:24636651

  3. The effects of diaper brands, urine volume, and time on specific gravity measurement.

    PubMed

    Gammage, D; Yarandi, H

    1993-02-01

    Nurses use urine specific gravity to assess fluid volume status in pediatric patients. Specific gravity of five leading brands of disposable diapers was measured to determine the effects of diaper brand, urine volume, time elapsed, and method of specific gravity measurement comparing the two methods of refractometry and N-Multistix SG (Ames Division, Miles Inc., Elkhart, IN). Immediately after a baby voided 20 mL of urine into any disposable diaper, the specific gravity by refractometer accurately compared with the control standard. Measurement accuracy by N-Multistix SG was only assured if Pampers (Procter & Gamble, Cincinnati, OH) were used. However, both methods were inaccurate at 4 hours with 20 mL of urine. Immediately after a baby voided 40 mL of urine into any disposable diaper, both methods were accurate when compared with the control. At 4 hours, only Pampers and Chux (Procter & Gamble, Cincinnati, OH) were accurate by refractometry, and Pampers alone was accurate by N-Multistix SG. PMID:8445512

  4. Etiology and pathophysiology of diaper dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Berg, R W

    1988-01-01

    Common diaper dermatitis is a group of skin disorders that result from attack of the skin by physical, chemical, enzymatic, and microbial factors in the diaper environment. The integrity of healthy skin is compromised by the very nature of the diaper environment, and normal intact skin therefore remains an elusive goal of current diapering practices. Moist occlusion promotes miliaria, and causes an increase in the coefficient of skin friction. Skin hydration and an increase in skin pH result in impaired barrier function, and fecal enzymes begin to attack the skin, further degrading its normal ability to cope with its environment. Skin in this weakened state is susceptible to a variety of biological, chemical, and physical insults that can cause or aggravate diaper dermatitis. These include attack of the skin by fecal enzymes and other irritants in urine and feces, mechanical abrasion, and infection by C. albicans. Diapering is unquestionably an effective and convenient way of localizing an infant's excreta. Unfortunately, infant skin was not designed to operate continuously in the resulting environment, and is frequently unable to weather this assault. However, by improving the inherently adverse relationship between diapers and diapered skin, one can have a significant effect on the incidence and severity of diaper dermatitis. A diaper that keeps skin drier will result in skin that is less permeable to irritants, supports less microbial growth, is less susceptible to chafing damage, and has less contact with irritants in urine and feces. A diaper that maintains the environment closer to the normal acidic pH of skin will promote skin that is less permeable to irritants, and reduce the irritancy of fecal enzymes. Finally, a diaper that limits the mixing and spreading of urine and feces will result in less potentiation of enzyme activity and less contact of the skin with fecal irritants. Diaper dermatitis, by definition, cannot exist in the absence of diapers

  5. [A case of diaper fetishism].

    PubMed

    Oğuz, Nihan; Uygur, Niyazi

    2005-01-01

    Some people cannot obtain satisfaction from ordinary sexual relationships; instead they prefer alternative methods. They are referred to in psychiatric terminology as paraphiliacs. Fetishism is a type of paraphilia in which a person is sexually attracted to objects and some body parts. Most fetishists do not intend to cause harm to other people, but may have problems when others become involved in the problem. Underlying personality disorders extending through childhood are thought to be the source of the etiology. Perverted people do not wish to change their behavior pattern. They never seek treatment from a therapist. Psychological issues obviously play a crucial role in determining the choice of paraphilia and the underlying meaning of the sexual acts. Psychodynamic models (object relations theory, self psychology, drive theory) can shed light on the meaning of a perversion. In this case report, a 22- year-old man with diaper fetishism is presented. When family dynamics are considered, the mother has been described as psychologically distant from her son. The fetish object was recognized during childhood at around the age of four. During puberty, the fetish object became sexually attractive. Our patient exhibited his first perverted behavior when he was six years old. Later, he could control this behavior. At the age of twelve, the perverted behavior became sexually arousing. This paper emphasizes the diaper fetishism case through the patient's past psychiatric and medical history. Diaper fetishism is discussed in the light of forensic, cognitive and psychodynamic theories. PMID:15981151

  6. Effects of breathable disposable diapers: reduced prevalence of Candida and common diaper dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Akin, F; Spraker, M; Aly, R; Leyden, J; Raynor, W; Landin, W

    2001-01-01

    Infants wearing breathable disposable diapers experienced significantly less diaper dermatitis (DD) compared to infants wearing standard, nonbreathable disposable diapers in a series of double-blind clinical trials. Severe DD, including confirmed infection with Candida albicans, was reduced by 38-50% among infants wearing highly breathable (HB) diapers. The prevalence of DD was inversely related to the breathability of the garments. The inhibitory effect of breathable diapers on the survival of Candida was further confirmed in controlled experiments with adult volunteers. A suspension of C. albicans cells was applied to delineated sites on the volar forearm. Each site was then covered by a full-thickness patch from either an HB or a standard diaper. Survival of Candida colonies was reduced by almost two-thirds in the breathable diaper-covered sites compared to the control sites. PMID:11576399

  7. Go Naked: Diapers Affect Infant Walking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Whitney G.; Lingeman, Jesse M.; Adolph, Karen E.

    2012-01-01

    In light of cross-cultural and experimental research highlighting effects of childrearing practices on infant motor skill, we asked whether wearing diapers, a seemingly innocuous childrearing practice, affects infant walking. Diapers introduce bulk between the legs, potentially exacerbating infants' poor balance and wide stance. We show that…

  8. Diaper (napkin) dermatitis: A fold (intertriginous) dermatosis.

    PubMed

    Tüzün, Yalçın; Wolf, Ronni; Bağlam, Süleyman; Engin, Burhan

    2015-01-01

    Diaper (napkin) dermatitis is an acutely presenting inflammatory irritant contact dermatitis of the diaper region. It is one of the most common dermatologic diseases in infants and children. In the past, the disease was thought to be caused by ammonia; however, a number of factors, such as friction, wetness, inappropriate skin care, microorganisms, antibiotics, and nutritional defects, are important. Diaper dermatitis commonly affects the lower parts of the abdomen, thighs, and diaper area. Involvement of skin fold regions is typical with diaper dermatitis. At the early stages of the disease, only dryness is observed in the affected area. At later stages, erythematous maceration and edema can be seen. Secondary candidal and bacterial infections can complicate the dermatitis. In the differential diagnosis of the disease, allergic contact dermatitis, intertrigo, psoriasis, atopic and seborrheic dermatitis, and the other diseases should be considered. Causes of the disease should be determined and eliminated primarily. Families need to be informed about the importance of a clean, dry diaper area and the frequency of diaper changes. The use of superabsorbent disposable diapers has decreased the incidence of the disease. Soap and alcohol-containing products should be avoided in cleaning the area. In some cases, corticosteroids and antifungal agents can be administered. If necessary, antibacterial agents and calcineurin inhibitors can also be beneficial.

  9. Diaper (napkin) dermatitis: A fold (intertriginous) dermatosis.

    PubMed

    Tüzün, Yalçın; Wolf, Ronni; Bağlam, Süleyman; Engin, Burhan

    2015-01-01

    Diaper (napkin) dermatitis is an acutely presenting inflammatory irritant contact dermatitis of the diaper region. It is one of the most common dermatologic diseases in infants and children. In the past, the disease was thought to be caused by ammonia; however, a number of factors, such as friction, wetness, inappropriate skin care, microorganisms, antibiotics, and nutritional defects, are important. Diaper dermatitis commonly affects the lower parts of the abdomen, thighs, and diaper area. Involvement of skin fold regions is typical with diaper dermatitis. At the early stages of the disease, only dryness is observed in the affected area. At later stages, erythematous maceration and edema can be seen. Secondary candidal and bacterial infections can complicate the dermatitis. In the differential diagnosis of the disease, allergic contact dermatitis, intertrigo, psoriasis, atopic and seborrheic dermatitis, and the other diseases should be considered. Causes of the disease should be determined and eliminated primarily. Families need to be informed about the importance of a clean, dry diaper area and the frequency of diaper changes. The use of superabsorbent disposable diapers has decreased the incidence of the disease. Soap and alcohol-containing products should be avoided in cleaning the area. In some cases, corticosteroids and antifungal agents can be administered. If necessary, antibacterial agents and calcineurin inhibitors can also be beneficial. PMID:26051065

  10. Disposable Diaper Absorbency: Improvements via Advanced Designs.

    PubMed

    Helmes, C Tucker; O'Connor, Robert; Sawyer, Larry; Young, Sharon

    2014-06-24

    Absorbency effectiveness in diapers has improved significantly in recent years with the advent of new ingredient combinations and advanced design features. With these features, many leading products maintain their dryness performance overnight. Considering the importance of holding liquid away from the skin, ongoing research in diaper construction focuses on strategies to increase the effectiveness to capture liquid and help avoid rewetting of infant skin. The layout and design of a disposable diaper allows for distribution of absorbency features where they can provide the optimal benefit. Clinical evidence indicates materials can keep moisture away from the skin in the diapered area, helping maintain proper skin hydration, minimizing irritation, and contributing to reduced rates of diaper rash.

  11. Case report: Diaper dermatitis presenting as pustules.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Ann T; Emerson, Ashley N; Wyatt, Julie P; Brodell, Robert T

    2014-09-01

    Diaper dermatitis is the most common dermatologic disorder of infancy. Its cause can often be determined clinically based on the clinical presentation. Primary diaper dermatitis is associated with irritants and spares the deep skin folds. Secondary diaper dermatitis is most often caused by Candida yeast overgrowth and typically presents as a well-defined area of beefy red erythema covering the diaper area and including the deep folds of skin with hallmark satellite pustules. Other causes include seborrheic dermatitis, psoriasis, acrodermatitis enteropathica, allergic contact dermatitis, Langerhans cell histiocytosis, and, in the setting of a primarily pustular eruption, bacterial folliculitis. A simple potassium hydroxide preparation (KOH) can confirm the diagnosis of candida diaper dermatitis and guide proper treatment.

  12. Disposable Diaper Absorbency: Improvements via Advanced Designs.

    PubMed

    Helmes, C Tucker; O'Connor, Robert; Sawyer, Larry; Young, Sharon

    2014-06-24

    Absorbency effectiveness in diapers has improved significantly in recent years with the advent of new ingredient combinations and advanced design features. With these features, many leading products maintain their dryness performance overnight. Considering the importance of holding liquid away from the skin, ongoing research in diaper construction focuses on strategies to increase the effectiveness to capture liquid and help avoid rewetting of infant skin. The layout and design of a disposable diaper allows for distribution of absorbency features where they can provide the optimal benefit. Clinical evidence indicates materials can keep moisture away from the skin in the diapered area, helping maintain proper skin hydration, minimizing irritation, and contributing to reduced rates of diaper rash. PMID:24961785

  13. Infections and skin diseases mimicking diaper dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Van Gysel, Dirk

    2016-07-01

    Diaper dermatitis is a common condition that often prompts parents to seek medical attention. Irritant diaper dermatitis is by far the most common cause, but numerous potentially serious diseases can present with changes of the skin in the diaper area. The differential diagnosis can include psoriasis, metabolic disorders, rare immune diseases and infection. Clinical examination can be helpful in distinguishing the underlying cause. General screening laboratory tests, as well as select testing when a specific condition is suspected, can be used to challenge or confirm the putative diagnosis.

  14. Diapers Full of?…?Pampered, Hugged, and "Luved" Babies: Teaching Ideological Criticism through Diapers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Celeste C.

    2016-01-01

    Courses: Communication Criticism, Rhetorical Criticism, Introduction to Rhetoric, Introduction to Communication, Media Studies, and Persuasion courses. Objective: The aim of this activity is to introduce and explain the method of ideological criticism through commonplace advertising.

  15. Diaper wars: Chapter six -- technology strikes back

    SciTech Connect

    Naquin, D.

    1997-10-01

    With $1.5 million in funding, including $80,000 from the Israeli Office of the Chief Scientist, Israeli and US investors developed and patented Diapactor, a self-contained unit designed to process 60 used diapers per hour, while reducing volume by 95%. The group introduced the product at WasteExpo `97, held in May in Atlanta. Its end products are pellets of commingled plastic and of cellulose pulp. The machine, about twice the size of the average family washing machine, is produced by Diatec Recycling Technologies USA, Inc. (Agoura Hills, Calif.). Diapers go in at the top of the Diapactor. The machine does the rest, opening the diaper, pumping in water, heating the material, and separating it into usable components. Since paper used for personal hygiene products must meet high standards, the resulting pulp is high grade. It can be recycled into new diapers or various paper products, including stationery. Plastic pellets, produced from the diaper`s tape and lining, can be melted down and recycled into a variety of items, including paving tiles, asphalt, and plastic fencing.

  16. Modern diaper performance: construction, materials, and safety review.

    PubMed

    Dey, Swatee; Kenneally, Dianna; Odio, Mauricio; Hatzopoulos, Ioannis

    2016-07-01

    A review of the literature on diapers and diaper rash reveals that many clinicians are unfamiliar with modern diaper construction and materials as well as diaper safety testing methods. Typical modern diapers do not contain ingredients of concern such as latex and disperse dyes, but use ingredients such as spandex and pigments with a favorable safety profile. Today's disposable diaper is a high performance product whose carefully designed layers and liners provide optimal urine and feces absorption and an ever more clothing-like and comfortable fit. This is possible due to a variety of specialized polymer materials that provide optimal absorption of urine and feces, thereby minimizing skin exposure.

  17. Modern diaper performance: construction, materials, and safety review.

    PubMed

    Dey, Swatee; Kenneally, Dianna; Odio, Mauricio; Hatzopoulos, Ioannis

    2016-07-01

    A review of the literature on diapers and diaper rash reveals that many clinicians are unfamiliar with modern diaper construction and materials as well as diaper safety testing methods. Typical modern diapers do not contain ingredients of concern such as latex and disperse dyes, but use ingredients such as spandex and pigments with a favorable safety profile. Today's disposable diaper is a high performance product whose carefully designed layers and liners provide optimal urine and feces absorption and an ever more clothing-like and comfortable fit. This is possible due to a variety of specialized polymer materials that provide optimal absorption of urine and feces, thereby minimizing skin exposure. PMID:27311782

  18. Extended Diaper Wearing: Effects on Continence in and out of the Diaper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarbox, Rachel S. F.; Williams, W. Larry; Friman, Patrick C.

    2004-01-01

    Diaper use is widespread and possibly even increasing across diverse populations in the United States, ranging from infants to very old adults. We found no reports of an experimental analysis of the effect of wearing diapers on the frequency of urinary accidents and the attainment of continence skills (e.g., urinating in the toilet). In this…

  19. Baby Your Baby with Sunscreen

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_159390.html Baby Your Baby With Sunscreen For starters, apply it at least 15 minutes ... way to protect babies is to avoid direct sun exposure, especially between 10 a.m. and 2 p. ...

  20. Diapers and underpads, Part 2: Cost outcomes.

    PubMed

    Brown, D S

    1994-01-01

    A randomized clinical trial was conducted at three acute care facilities between August and December 1993 to compare cost outcomes between patients managed with diapers or with underpads. The 166 patients were divided into five groups: polymer or nonpolymer underpads, polymer or nonpolymer diapers, and cloth underpads. Among other results, the average number of nonpolymer underpads used (3.4) compared to other products used (1.4 polymer underpads, 1.1 cloth underpads, 1.0 nonpolymer diapers, 1.0 polymer diapers) quantified nurses' perceptions that nonpolymer pads were not as effective as their polymer counterparts in absorbing incontinence. The nonpolymer underpad was, however, the least expensive of the products studied, even taking into account the volume of product used. The nonpolymer underpad group also took the most time for cleanup. The cloth underpad group consistently used all of the linen items, suggesting that complete bed changes were necessary. The polymer underpad group consistently used the least linen, suggesting that the incontinence episodes were successfully contained by the product. When all costs were combined for time (at $13.50 hourly aide wage), linen use and product type, there was a statistically significant difference between the five treatment groups (F 9.3, p < 0.0000). Total costs (product, linen and staff time) for diaper products were higher than either the polymer or cloth underpad groups. Recommendations, based on both parts 1 and 2 of this study are that the polymer diaper is the product of choice for the ambulatory patient, and the polymer underpad is the product of choice for the bedridden patient. The nonpolymer underpad should no longer have a place in incontinence management. PMID:7546107

  1. Prevention, Treatment and Parent Education for Diaper Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Merrill, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Diaper dermatitis is a common cutaneous condition characterized by an acute inflammatory eruption of the skin in the diaper area of an infant. Although this condition is relatively common, it can cause considerable pain and stress for infants and can be troublesome for their caregivers. In the United States, the frequency of diaper dermatitis is substantial and accounts for a high number of visits to health care providers. The three most common types of diaper dermatitis are chafing dermatitis, irritant contact dermatitis and diaper candidiasis. This article reviews common causes, differential diagnosis, current prevention and treatment recommendations, nursing implications and practical tips for families to utilize while caring for their infants at home.

  2. Standardized diaper care regimen: a prospective, randomized pilot study on skin barrier function and epidermal IL-1α in newborns.

    PubMed

    Garcia Bartels, Natalie; Massoudy, Lida; Scheufele, Ramona; Dietz, Ekkehart; Proquitté, Hans; Wauer, Roland; Bertin, Christiane; Serrano, José; Blume-Peytavi, Ulrike

    2012-01-01

    Adaptation of skin barrier function and interleukin-1α (IL-1α) content in diapered and nondiapered skin are poorly characterized in newborns receiving standard skin care. In a monocentric, prospective pilot study 44 healthy, full-term neonates were randomly assigned to skin care with baby wipes (n = 21) or water-moistened washcloth (n = 23) at each diaper change. Transepidermal water loss (TEWL), skin hydration, skin-pH, IL-1α, and epidermal desquamation were measured on days 2, 14, and 28 postpartum. Microbiological colonization was evaluated at baseline and on day 28. Significantly lower TEWL was found on the buttock in the group using baby wipes compared to water. IL-1α and skin hydration significantly increased and pH decreased independent of skin care regimen. IL-1α was significantly higher in diapered skin compared to nondiapered skin. Although skin care with wipes seems to stabilize TEWL better than using water, the skin condition and microbiological colonization were comparable using both cleansing procedures. Increase of epidermal IL-1α may reflect postnatal skin barrier maturation. These data suggest that neither of the two cleansing procedures harms skin barrier maturation within the first four weeks postpartum. Longer observations on larger populations could provide more insight into postnatal skin barrier maturation. PMID:22260233

  3. Jacquet erosive diaper dermatitis: a complication of adult urinary incontinence.

    PubMed

    Van, Livia; Harting, Mandy; Rosen, Ted

    2008-07-01

    Jacquet erosive diaper dermatitis is typically described as a severe irritant dermatitis of the perianal region. However, Jacquet erosive diaper dermatitis, perianal pseudoverrucous papules and nodules, and granuloma gluteale infantum/ adultorum have been regarded as discrete entities or all part of the same clinical spectrum, representing the result of chronic, severe, irritant contact dermatitis. We present a case of Jacquet erosive diaper dermatitis and a discussion of the clinical spectrum of diseases to which it belongs.

  4. [Clinical presentation and treatment of diaper dermatitis--part II].

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Juliana Dumet; Machado, Maria Cecília Rivitti; Oliveira, Zilda Najjar Prado de

    2009-01-01

    Diaper irritant contact dermatitis is the most prevalent diaper dermatitis and, probably, the most common cause of cutaneous disease in infants. Wearing diapers causes over-hydration and increase of local temperature and humidity. As a consequence, the skin becomes susceptible to friction from movement under the diaper. Occlusion, maceration and possibly Candida and bacteria may all play a role. Oils, soaps and powders can be irritants and aggravate the eruption. The best thing to do is prevention. Treatment is simple and depends on dermatitis type and severity.

  5. Autosensitisation (Autoeczematisation) reactions in a case of diaper dermatitis candidiasis.

    PubMed

    Chirac, Anca; Brzezinski, Piotr; Chiriac, Anca E; Foia, Liliana; Pinteala, Tudor

    2014-05-01

    Diaper dermatitis is the most common cutaneous diagnosis in infants. Most cases are associated with the yeast colonisation of Candida or diaper dermatitis candidiasis (DDC). It is an irritating and inflammatory acute dermatitis in the perineal and perianal areas resulting from the occlusion and irritation caused by diapers. Autoeczematization to a distant focus of dermatophyte infection very rarely presents as DDC. We present a 1-month-old boy with lesion on diaper area (gluteal area, perineum, groin and genitalia) and with clusters of pustules and vesicles on a large erythematous base over the dorsal area of both hands.

  6. Superficial Mycoses Associated with Diaper Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Bonifaz, Alexandro; Rojas, Rubí; Tirado-Sánchez, Andrés; Chávez-López, Dinora; Mena, Carlos; Calderón, Luz; María, Ponce-Olivera Rosa

    2016-10-01

    Diapers create particular conditions of moisture and friction, and with urine and feces come increased pH and irritating enzymes (lipases and proteases). Fungi can take advantage of all these factors. Candida yeasts, especially C. albicans, are responsible for the most frequent secondary infections and are isolated in more than 80 % of cases. Correct diagnosis is important for ensuring the correct prescription of topical antimycotics. Nystatin, imidazoles and ciclopirox are effective. It is important to realize there are resistant strains. Dermatophytes can infect the diaper area, with the most common agent being Epidermophyton floccosum. The clinical characteristics of dermatophytosis are different from those of candidiasis, and it can be diagnosed and treated simply. Malassezia yeasts can aggravate conditions affecting the diaper area, such as seborrheic dermatitis, atopic dermatitis, and inverse psoriasis. Additional treatment is recommended in this case, because they usually involve complement activation and increased specific IgE levels. Erythrasma is a pseudomycosis that is indistinguishable from candidiasis and may also occur in large skin folds. It is treated with topical antibacterial products and some antimycotics.

  7. Diaper dermatitis: etiology, manifestations, prevention, and management.

    PubMed

    Stamatas, Georgios N; Tierney, Neena K

    2014-01-01

    Pediatricians and parents report diaper dermatitis (DD) to be one of the most common skin diseases that affects almost every child at some point during the early months and years of life. Diapered skin is exposed to friction and excessive hydration, has a higher pH than nondiapered skin, and is repeatedly soiled with feces that contains enzymes with high irritation potential for the skin. The combination of these factors frequently results in skin damage, leading to visible erythematous lesions that can be irritating and painful to the child. Behavioral changes such as increased crying and agitation and changes in eating and sleeping patterns indicate emotional distress. Appropriate skin care can help to prevent the occurrence of DD and to speed up the healing of affected skin. This includes frequent diaper changes and aeration, gentle cleansing, and the use of a barrier cream. Mild to moderate cases usually resolve after a few days of following this routine, but the use of harsh cleaning products can exacerbate DD.

  8. Superficial Mycoses Associated with Diaper Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Bonifaz, Alexandro; Rojas, Rubí; Tirado-Sánchez, Andrés; Chávez-López, Dinora; Mena, Carlos; Calderón, Luz; María, Ponce-Olivera Rosa

    2016-10-01

    Diapers create particular conditions of moisture and friction, and with urine and feces come increased pH and irritating enzymes (lipases and proteases). Fungi can take advantage of all these factors. Candida yeasts, especially C. albicans, are responsible for the most frequent secondary infections and are isolated in more than 80 % of cases. Correct diagnosis is important for ensuring the correct prescription of topical antimycotics. Nystatin, imidazoles and ciclopirox are effective. It is important to realize there are resistant strains. Dermatophytes can infect the diaper area, with the most common agent being Epidermophyton floccosum. The clinical characteristics of dermatophytosis are different from those of candidiasis, and it can be diagnosed and treated simply. Malassezia yeasts can aggravate conditions affecting the diaper area, such as seborrheic dermatitis, atopic dermatitis, and inverse psoriasis. Additional treatment is recommended in this case, because they usually involve complement activation and increased specific IgE levels. Erythrasma is a pseudomycosis that is indistinguishable from candidiasis and may also occur in large skin folds. It is treated with topical antibacterial products and some antimycotics. PMID:27193417

  9. Diaper dermatitis: etiology, manifestations, prevention, and management.

    PubMed

    Stamatas, Georgios N; Tierney, Neena K

    2014-01-01

    Pediatricians and parents report diaper dermatitis (DD) to be one of the most common skin diseases that affects almost every child at some point during the early months and years of life. Diapered skin is exposed to friction and excessive hydration, has a higher pH than nondiapered skin, and is repeatedly soiled with feces that contains enzymes with high irritation potential for the skin. The combination of these factors frequently results in skin damage, leading to visible erythematous lesions that can be irritating and painful to the child. Behavioral changes such as increased crying and agitation and changes in eating and sleeping patterns indicate emotional distress. Appropriate skin care can help to prevent the occurrence of DD and to speed up the healing of affected skin. This includes frequent diaper changes and aeration, gentle cleansing, and the use of a barrier cream. Mild to moderate cases usually resolve after a few days of following this routine, but the use of harsh cleaning products can exacerbate DD. PMID:24224482

  10. Quantification of a contact stimulus by diapers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nomata, Takuya; Okuyama, Takeshi; Teraoka, Hiromi; Murakami, Yasuo; Miyazawa, Kiyoshi; Tanaka, Mami

    2009-12-01

    This paper describes a development of a sensor system for measurement of a contact stimulus which diapers give to infants. A polyvinyliden fluoride (PVDF) film and a strain gauge are used as the sensor receptors. The PVDF is a kind of piezoelectric material. The sensor consists of a surface contact layer, a PVDF film, a strain gauge and an aluminum plate. First, in order to investigate the sensor performance, the sensor was located on a silicone plate and the upper part of the sensor was rubbed with an acrylic artificial finger. The finger enabled the measurement to carry out at a constant speed and force. Next, the sensor was attached on an infant dummy and the sensor outputs were measured under conditions with and without diapers. By comparison of the output under two different conditions, it was confirmed that there is a clearly difference between the two conditions. It was found that the developed sensor system has the possibility to quantify a contact stimulus which diapers give infants.

  11. Quantification of a contact stimulus by diapers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nomata, Takuya; Okuyama, Takeshi; Teraoka, Hiromi; Murakami, Yasuo; Miyazawa, Kiyoshi; Tanaka, Mami

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a development of a sensor system for measurement of a contact stimulus which diapers give to infants. A polyvinyliden fluoride (PVDF) film and a strain gauge are used as the sensor receptors. The PVDF is a kind of piezoelectric material. The sensor consists of a surface contact layer, a PVDF film, a strain gauge and an aluminum plate. First, in order to investigate the sensor performance, the sensor was located on a silicone plate and the upper part of the sensor was rubbed with an acrylic artificial finger. The finger enabled the measurement to carry out at a constant speed and force. Next, the sensor was attached on an infant dummy and the sensor outputs were measured under conditions with and without diapers. By comparison of the output under two different conditions, it was confirmed that there is a clearly difference between the two conditions. It was found that the developed sensor system has the possibility to quantify a contact stimulus which diapers give infants.

  12. Atypical diaper dermatitis: contact allergy to mercapto compounds.

    PubMed

    Onken, Anna Theresa; Baumstark, Julia; Belloni, Benedetta; Ring, Johannes; Schnopp, Christina

    2011-01-01

    We present a case of allergic contact dermatitis in an 18-month-old boy caused by type-IV allergy to mercapto mix and mercaptobenzothiazole as components of the elastic border of diapers. Allergic contact dermatitis should be included in the differential diagnosis of diaper dermatitis, especially in difficult-to-treat cases or atypical clinical presentation.

  13. Smart radio-frequency identification tag for diaper moisture detection.

    PubMed

    Ziai, M A; Batchelor, John C

    2015-02-01

    A passive smart tag is described that responds to dampness in diapers once a pre-defined threshold value is reached. A high-frequency (HF) system at 13.56 MHz is used as this allows operation through water or human tissues with less absorption that would occur for an ultra-HF signal. A circular spiral coil and swelling substrate facilitate a reaction to dampness that can be detected without contact to the diaper wearer. A prototype design is simulated and measured results are provided together with a demonstration of a tag integrated into a worn diaper.

  14. Cutaneous tolerance of baby wipes by infants with atopic dermatitis, and comparison of the mildness of baby wipe and water in infant skin.

    PubMed

    Ehretsmann, C; Schaefer, P; Adam, R

    2001-09-01

    To confirm the safety and cutaneous tolerability of a new brand of baby wet wipes, we conducted the following clinical studies: (i) a double-blind in-use study in 102 infants over a period of 2 weeks, to compare skin tolerance of the wipes vs. water and a cleansing material (ii) a chamber scarification test on adults to assess the skin irritation potential of the baby wipe, and (iii) a 4-week clinical in-use study in 60 babies with atopic dermatitis, to confirm safety and skin tolerability in a sensitive skin subpopulation. In the clinical comparison with water and cleansing material, skin conditions were assessed visually for presence and severity of erythema and diaper dermatitis. The overall skin condition was not different in the group using wipes and in the group using only water and a cleansing material, indicating comparable skin mildness for both regimes. The chamber scarification test confirmed that the lotion contained in the wipe has a very low irritation potential, lower than that of a currently marketed baby wipe and comparable to that of water under occlusive patch test conditions. The good skin tolerance of the wipes was supported by the observations of a dermatologist in the clinical study in babies with atopic dermatitis. These data strongly support the suitability of the baby wipes tested in these studies for daily cleansing of the diapered area, even for infants with sensitive skin. These data also provide useful information regarding the comparative skin mildness of baby wipes and water.

  15. Nappy (diaper) rash: what else besides irritant contact dermatitis?

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Vânia Oliveira; Robl, Renata; Uber, Marjorie; Abagge, Kerstin Taniguchi; Marinoni, Leide Parolin; Presa, Juliana Gomes Loyola

    2015-08-01

    Nappy (diaper) rash is a common cutaneous disorder of infancy, and diverse dermatoses may affect this region. To perform a differential diagnosis can be challenging. We present four cases to emphasise the importance of clinical diagnosis.

  16. Nappy (diaper) rash: what else besides irritant contact dermatitis?

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Vânia Oliveira; Robl, Renata; Uber, Marjorie; Abagge, Kerstin Taniguchi; Marinoni, Leide Parolin; Presa, Juliana Gomes Loyola

    2015-08-01

    Nappy (diaper) rash is a common cutaneous disorder of infancy, and diverse dermatoses may affect this region. To perform a differential diagnosis can be challenging. We present four cases to emphasise the importance of clinical diagnosis. PMID:25368136

  17. Developing Baby Bag Design by Using Kansei Engineering Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janari, D.; Rakhmawati, A.

    2016-01-01

    Consumer's preferences and market demand are essential factors for product's success. Thus, in achieving its success, a product should have design that could fulfill consumer's expectation. Purpose of this research is accomplishing baby bag product as stipulated by Kansei. The results that represent Kanseiwords are; neat, unique, comfortable, safe, modern, gentle, elegant, antique, attractive, simple, spacious, creative, colorful, durable, stylish, smooth and strong. Identification value on significance of correlation for durable attribute is 0,000 < 0,005, which means significant to baby's bag. While the value of coefficient regression is 0,812 < 0,005, which means that durable attribute insignificant to baby's bag.The result of the baby's bag final design selectionbased on the questionnaire 3 is resulting the combination of all design. Space for clothes, diaper's space, shoulder grip, side grip, bottle's heater pocket and bottle's pocket are derived from design 1. Top grip, space for clothes, shoulder grip, and side grip are derived from design 2.Others design that were taken are, spaces for clothes from design 3, diaper's space and clothes’ space from design 4.

  18. A forgotten complication of diaper dermatitis: Granuloma gluteale infantum.

    PubMed

    Al-Faraidy, Nadya A; Al-Natour, Sahar H

    2010-05-01

    Granuloma Gluteale Infantum (GGI) is a rare condition of unclear etiology,[1] presenting as asymptomatic cherry red nodules in the diaper area appearing in the setting of primary irritant contact dermatitis.[2] A 50 day old infant with GGI is presented to emphasize that the condition may be easily missed, and that it may result from the misuse of fluorinated topical steroids used to treat a rash in the diaper area. This is the first case reported from Saudi Arabia.

  19. A forgotten complication of diaper dermatitis: Granuloma gluteale infantum

    PubMed Central

    Al-Faraidy, Nadya A.; Al-Natour, Sahar H.

    2010-01-01

    Granuloma Gluteale Infantum (GGI) is a rare condition of unclear etiology,[1] presenting as asymptomatic cherry red nodules in the diaper area appearing in the setting of primary irritant contact dermatitis.[2] A 50 day old infant with GGI is presented to emphasize that the condition may be easily missed, and that it may result from the misuse of fluorinated topical steroids used to treat a rash in the diaper area. This is the first case reported from Saudi Arabia. PMID:21359035

  20. Baby universes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strominger, Andrew

    The following sections are included: * INTRODUCTION * TOPOLOGY CHANGE AND THIRD QUANTIZATION IN 0+1 DIMENSIONS * Third Quantization of Free One-dimensional Universes * Third Quantization of Interacting One-Dimensional Universes * The Single-Universe Approximation and Dynamical Determination of Coupling Constants * The Third Quantized Uncertainty Principle * THIRD QUANTIZATION IN 3+1 DIMENSIONS * The Gauge Invariant Action * Relation to Other Formalisms * PARENT AND BABY UNIVERSES * The Hybrid Action * Baby Universe Field Operators and Spacetime Couplings * INSTANTONS-FROM QUANTUM MECHANICS TO QUANTUM GRAVITY * Quantum Mechanics * Quantum Field Theory * Quantum Gravity * Axionic Instantons * The Small Expansion Parameter * THE AXION MODEL AND THE INSTANTON APPROXIMATION * THE COSMOLOGICAL CONSTANT * The Hawking-Baum Argument * Baby Universes and Coleman's Argument * ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS * REFERENCES

  1. Possibilities of composting disposable diapers with municipal solid wastes.

    PubMed

    Colón, Joan; Ruggieri, Luz; Sánchez, Antoni; González, Aina; Puig, Ignasi

    2011-03-01

    The possibilities for the management of disposable diapers in municipal solid waste have been studied. An in-depth revision of literature about generation, composition and current treatment options for disposable diapers showed that the situation for these wastes is not clearly defined in developed recycling societies. As a promising technology, composting of diapers with source-separated organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) was studied at full scale to understand the process performance and the characteristics of the compost obtained when compared with that of composting OFMSW without diapers. The experiments demonstrated that the composting process presented similar trends in terms of evolution of routine parameters (temperature, oxygen content, moisture and organic matter content) and biological activity (measured as respiration index). In relation to the quality of both composts, it can be concluded that both materials were identical in terms of stability, maturity and phytotoxicity and showed no presence of pathogenic micro-organisms. However, compost coming from OFMSW with a 3% of disposable diapers presented a slightly higher level of zinc, which can prevent the use of large amounts of diapers mixed with OFMSW. PMID:20406752

  2. Diaper type and fecal contamination in child day care.

    PubMed

    Holaday, B; Waugh, G; Moukaddem, V E; West, J; Harshman, S

    1995-01-01

    In this study, modern all-in-one, front closure, reusable cloth diapers were compared with single-use, disposable paper diapers for their effect on fecal contamination in the child day care environment. Four licensed child day care centers were surveyed from which 1722 bacterial samples were cultured. The frequency of isolation of fecal organisms ranged from a low of 12% of the total bacterial isolates at a center using cloth diapers to a high of 46% and 45%, respectively, obtained at a center using first paper and then cloth diapers. Diaper type, cloth versus paper, when the method of application and the handling are made comparable, showed no significant difference in the frequency or the intensity of fecal contamination in child day care centers, as measured in the play/sleep area, the diaper change area, or on the hands of the care givers and children. Future studies to control microbial contamination in child day care centers should focus on effective ways of reducing contamination of sink faucets, hands of the caregivers, and hands of the children. PMID:7769542

  3. Baby massage.

    PubMed

    Carr, Helen

    2013-09-01

    Having initially trained as a nurse and then a midwife, massage for me was back to hands on care. In 1992, as part of my continuing professional development, I undertook an anatomy, physiology and massage course. My aim was to acquire skills that could benefit the mothers I cared for. My journey with baby massage began when I had my first son in 1993. At that time there were no courses or sessions on baby massage available but I did adapt some of the massage techniques I had learnt during my massage course to benefit me and my son. PMID:24163920

  4. Documentation of impaired epidermal barrier in mild and moderate diaper dermatitis in vivo using noninvasive methods.

    PubMed

    Stamatas, Georgios N; Zerweck, Charles; Grove, Gary; Martin, Katharine M

    2011-01-01

    The presence of irritants from feces and urine with the concurrent mechanical friction and occlusion creates an environment in the diapered area that renders the skin prone to diaper dermatitis. Besides being a source of discomfort to the infant, these skin irritations pose a risk of secondary infections. In this study, we used noninvasive in vivo techniques to define measurable parameters that correlate with diaper dermatitis pathophysiology. In 35 infants (16 with mild or moderate and 19 without diaper dermatitis) we compared skin of diapered areas afflicted with diaper dermatitis to lesion-free diapered sites and to skin outside the diapered area (thigh). Our findings show significantly elevated cutaneous erythema, pH, and hydration, with significantly compromised water barrier function in involved areas compared to nonlesional sites both within and outside the diapered area. Furthermore, skin pH in nonlesional diapered skin for the diaper dermatitis cohort was significantly higher compared to the nondiapered sites. These observations are consistent with the current understanding of pathological skin changes in diaper dermatitis. In this study, we demonstrate that noninvasive methods can document relevant parameters to diaper dermatitis in vivo.

  5. Documentation of impaired epidermal barrier in mild and moderate diaper dermatitis in vivo using noninvasive methods.

    PubMed

    Stamatas, Georgios N; Zerweck, Charles; Grove, Gary; Martin, Katharine M

    2011-01-01

    The presence of irritants from feces and urine with the concurrent mechanical friction and occlusion creates an environment in the diapered area that renders the skin prone to diaper dermatitis. Besides being a source of discomfort to the infant, these skin irritations pose a risk of secondary infections. In this study, we used noninvasive in vivo techniques to define measurable parameters that correlate with diaper dermatitis pathophysiology. In 35 infants (16 with mild or moderate and 19 without diaper dermatitis) we compared skin of diapered areas afflicted with diaper dermatitis to lesion-free diapered sites and to skin outside the diapered area (thigh). Our findings show significantly elevated cutaneous erythema, pH, and hydration, with significantly compromised water barrier function in involved areas compared to nonlesional sites both within and outside the diapered area. Furthermore, skin pH in nonlesional diapered skin for the diaper dermatitis cohort was significantly higher compared to the nondiapered sites. These observations are consistent with the current understanding of pathological skin changes in diaper dermatitis. In this study, we demonstrate that noninvasive methods can document relevant parameters to diaper dermatitis in vivo. PMID:21504443

  6. Comparison of stool containment in cloth and single-use diapers using a simulated infant feces.

    PubMed

    Kubiak, M; Kressner, B; Raynor, W; Davis, J; Syverson, R E

    1993-03-01

    Single-use diapers and cloth diapers with vinyl pants were compared for their relative abilities to contain stool within the diaper. Artificial feces with carbon black as an additive allowed a quantitative measure of fecal containment by image analysis in 60 infants. This method showed complete containment of feces in the diaper in 50% of the single-use diapers whereas only 10% of the cloth diapers showed complete containment. In infants where the border of the vinyl pants was used as the boundary of containment with the cloth diapers, complete containment occurred only 33% of the time. Fluorescein dye ratings for containment/leakage in 69 infants showed that 83% of single-use diapers and 30% of the cloth diapers were rated as having no or minor leakage of feces. Cultures were taken of laundered vinyl pants that had previously been used over cloth diapers to determine microbial contamination. Thirty-nine percent of the pants contained Gram-negative, lactose-fermenting bacilli indicating fecal contamination. This study comparing single-use and cloth diapers for containment of artificial feces by use of image analysis and fluorescein dye ratings showed better containment by single-use diapers. The study also raises the question of possible spread of feces-borne pathogens by the vinyl pants used over cloth diapers, particularly in a day-care center. PMID:8441572

  7. Diaper dermatitis-frequency and contributory factors in hospital attending children.

    PubMed

    Adalat, Shazia; Wall, David; Goodyear, Helen

    2007-01-01

    The incidence and prevalence of diaper dermatitis varies widely between published studies. It is a condition which causes considerable parental anxiety. To better understand the frequency of diaper dermatitis, treatment practices, and the current importance of previously identified etiologic factors, a questionnaire survey of parents who had children wearing diapers (n = 532) attending a large United Kingdom district general hospital was undertaken. At the time of survey, only 16% of the study population had diaper dermatitis. Forty-eight percent of the study population had never had an episode of diaper dermatitis. In a multivariate analysis, current diaper dermatitis was independently associated with four factors: presence of oral thrush, number of previous episodes, frequency of diaper changes, and diarrhea. Recurrent episodes of diaper dermatitis were associated with increasing age, lack of barrier cream use, current diaper rash, and frequency of diaper changes. In the majority of children with diaper dermatitis at the time of survey, treatment had been instituted in the community. Diaper dermatitis usually presents and is treated successfully outside the hospital setting and is not a common clinical problem in secondary care.

  8. Safety of Disposable Diaper Materials: Extensive Evaluations Validate Use.

    PubMed

    Dey, Swatee; Helmes, C Tucker; White, Jeffrey C; Zhou, Shaoying

    2014-06-24

    Disposable diapers are primarily composed of polymers, such as cellulose, polypropylene, polyester, and polyethylene, which are biologically inert and not bioavailable. They are used in clothes, fabrics, personal hygiene products, and other materials that are commonly in contact with the skin. Each component used throughout the production process must undergo rigorous safety evaluations and assessments and are proven to be well tolerated and safe for their intended uses. No materials are incorporated into a diaper until their safety is confirmed through robust assessments, and additional factors are integrated into the process to compensate for the uncertainty associated with extrapolating toxicity data. After a thorough assessment of the materials and final product, extensive skin compatibility evaluations are conducted as appropriate. This rigorous safety process provides reassurance that consumers can rely on the safety of these diapers.

  9. Probabilistic Monte Carlo estimation for quantitative exposure assessment of lotion transfer via baby wipes usage.

    PubMed

    Dey, Swatee; Carr, Gregory J; Li, Lijuan; Brink, Susanna; Zhou, Shaoying

    2016-08-01

    Unique aspects of childhood exposure to products need childs specific exposure data. This study developed a probabilistic exposure model for lotion transfer to diapered skin through normal use of baby wipes in children up to 48 months of age. Monte Carlo simulations used baby wipe diary data from the US, Germany and the UK, body weight data from the US, and lotion transfer data from single and multiple wipes adjusting for separate diaper changes. The models predicted a declining number of wipes used/day with a reduction in lotion transfer as age and body weight increased. Experimental testing on multiple sequential wipes used on an overlapping area showed a reduction in lotion deposition by 23.9% after the first wipe. Overall, the weighted population average over the approximate diapering period of 0-36 months across the three geographies at 50th, 90th, & 95th percentiles, were between 130, 230, 260 mg/kg/day, respectively, and 150, 270, 310 mg/kg/day depending on whether a reduction due to overlap is implemented. The statistical model represents an effective strategy to determine exposure to baby wipes lotion for exposure based risk assessment.

  10. Probabilistic Monte Carlo estimation for quantitative exposure assessment of lotion transfer via baby wipes usage.

    PubMed

    Dey, Swatee; Carr, Gregory J; Li, Lijuan; Brink, Susanna; Zhou, Shaoying

    2016-08-01

    Unique aspects of childhood exposure to products need childs specific exposure data. This study developed a probabilistic exposure model for lotion transfer to diapered skin through normal use of baby wipes in children up to 48 months of age. Monte Carlo simulations used baby wipe diary data from the US, Germany and the UK, body weight data from the US, and lotion transfer data from single and multiple wipes adjusting for separate diaper changes. The models predicted a declining number of wipes used/day with a reduction in lotion transfer as age and body weight increased. Experimental testing on multiple sequential wipes used on an overlapping area showed a reduction in lotion deposition by 23.9% after the first wipe. Overall, the weighted population average over the approximate diapering period of 0-36 months across the three geographies at 50th, 90th, & 95th percentiles, were between 130, 230, 260 mg/kg/day, respectively, and 150, 270, 310 mg/kg/day depending on whether a reduction due to overlap is implemented. The statistical model represents an effective strategy to determine exposure to baby wipes lotion for exposure based risk assessment. PMID:27184939

  11. Babies and shots

    MedlinePlus

    Babies and vaccines; Babies and immunizations; Babies and vaccinations; Chickenpox - shots; DTaP - shots; Hepatitis A - shots; Hepatitis B - shots; Hib - shots; Haemophilus influenza - shots; Influenza - shots; Meningococcal - ...

  12. Babies and heat rashes

    MedlinePlus

    Heat rashes and babies; Prickly heat rash; Red miliaria ... To avoid heat rash , keep your baby cool and dry during warm weather. Some helpful suggestions: During the hot season, dress your baby in lightweight, soft, cotton clothing. Cotton ...

  13. Breastfeeding Your Baby

    MedlinePlus

    ... ASKED QUESTIONS FAQ029 LABOR, DELIVERY, AND POSTPARTUM CARE Breastfeeding Your Baby • How long should I breastfeed my baby? • How does breastfeeding benefit my baby? • How does breastfeeding benefit me? • ...

  14. Shaken baby symptoms (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... baby syndrome is a severe form of head injury caused by the baby's brain rebounding inside of the baby's skull when shaken. In this injury there is bruising of the brain, swelling, pressure, and bleeding (intracerebral hemorrhage). This can ...

  15. Shampoo-Clay Heals Diaper Rash Faster Than Calendula Officinalis

    PubMed Central

    Adib-Hajbaghery, Mohsen; Mahmoudi, Mansoreh; Mashaiekhi, Mahdi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Diaper rash is one of the most common skin disorders of infancy and childhood. Some studies have shown that Shampoo-clay was effective to treat chronic dermatitis. Then, it is supposed that it may be effective in diaper rash; however, no published studies were found in this regard. Objectives: This study aimed to compare the effects of Shampoo-clay (S.C) and Calendula officinalis (C.O) to improve infantile diaper rash. Patients and Methods: A randomized, double blind, parallel controlled, non-inferiority trial was conducted on 60 outpatient infants referred to health care centers or pediatric clinics in Khomein city and diagnosed with diaper rash. Patients were randomly assigned into two treatment groups including S.C group (n = 30) and C.O group (n = 30) by using one to one allocation ratio. The rate of complete recovery in three days was the primary outcome. Data was collected using a checklist and analyzed using t-test, Chi-square and Fisher’s exact tests and risk ratio. Results: Totally, 93.3% of lesions in the S.C group healed in the first 6 hours, while this rate was 40% in C.O group (P < 0.001). The healing ratio for improvement in the first 6 hours was 7 times more in the S.C group. In addition, 90% of infants in the SC group and 36.7% in the C.O group were improved completely in the first 3 days (P < 0.001). Conclusions: S.C was effective to heal diaper rash, and also had faster effects compared to C.O. PMID:25414900

  16. Clinical approaches to skin cleansing of the diaper area: practice and challenges.

    PubMed

    Coughlin, Carrie C; Frieden, Ilona J; Eichenfield, Lawrence F

    2014-11-01

    Cleansing and care of the diaper area require special consideration to maintain barrier function of the skin in this area and repair the barrier when it is compromised. Diaper dermatitis occurs commonly; understanding and modification of predisposing factors are imperative for caregivers. In this paper, we review important factors in diaper area care, including skin pH, the local microbiome, irritant and allergic potential of contactants, and application of topical agents.

  17. Diplomas and Diapers: Schooling for Young Street Mothers and Their Babies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, JoAnn; Roloff, Marilee

    1994-01-01

    Describes the Crosswalk program in Spokane, Washington, which provides teenage street mothers with housing, day care, and the opportunity to attend school. Discusses the development of the program, and describes the cases of several typical teenage mothers in the program. (MDM)

  18. Exogenous Cushing syndrome: a lesson of diaper rash cream.

    PubMed

    Ho, Cindy Wei-Li; Loke, Kah Yin; Lim, Yvonne Yi-Juan; Lee, Yung Seng

    2014-01-01

    A prolonged use of topical corticosteroids can result in Cushing syndrome, though this is less common than with oral or parenteral steroids. Most pediatric cases were due to application of topical steroids for diaper dermatitis. Adverse cardiovascular effects can occur in Cushing syndrome with significant long-term morbidity and mortality, though so far there have been no reports of cardiovascular complications due to excessive usage of topical steroids. We report a 2.5-month-old boy who rapidly developed severe Cushing syndrome induced by the misuse of topical clobetasol, a very potent steroid, without a doctor's prescription as a diaper rash cream, and developed moderate left ventricular hypertrophy and pericardial effusion.

  19. Changes in infant disposable diaper weights at selected intervals post-wetting.

    PubMed

    Carlisle, Joan; Moore, Amanda; Cooper, Alyssa; Henderson, Terri; Mayfield, Debbie; Taylor, Randa; Thomas, Jennifer; Van Fleet, Laduska; Askanazi, David; Fineberg, Naomi; Sun, Yanhui

    2012-01-01

    Pediatric acute care nurses questioned the practice of weighing disposable infant diapers immediately after voiding. This study asked the research question, "Does volume of saline, diaper configuration, and/or size of diaper statistically effect changes in diaper weights over time?" The method was an experimental, laboratory model. Pre-set volumes of saline were added to disposable diapers that were then left folded or unfolded. Each diaper was weighed immediately post-wetting and re-weighed at hourly intervals for seven hours. Data were analyzed using a repeated measures analysis of variance (RMANOVA) with balanced data (F-test). Diaper weight changes over time were statistically significant for all time points and for all volumes regardless of diaper size; however, the changes in weight were small and without clinical significance. It is appropriate to weigh diapers at the end of eight hours without risk of altering subsequent fluid management of patients in open-air, non-humidified environments. This practice has led to more efficient use of nurses' time with fewer interruptions for patients and families.

  20. Changes in infant disposable diaper weights at selected intervals post-wetting.

    PubMed

    Carlisle, Joan; Moore, Amanda; Cooper, Alyssa; Henderson, Terri; Mayfield, Debbie; Taylor, Randa; Thomas, Jennifer; Van Fleet, Laduska; Askanazi, David; Fineberg, Naomi; Sun, Yanhui

    2012-01-01

    Pediatric acute care nurses questioned the practice of weighing disposable infant diapers immediately after voiding. This study asked the research question, "Does volume of saline, diaper configuration, and/or size of diaper statistically effect changes in diaper weights over time?" The method was an experimental, laboratory model. Pre-set volumes of saline were added to disposable diapers that were then left folded or unfolded. Each diaper was weighed immediately post-wetting and re-weighed at hourly intervals for seven hours. Data were analyzed using a repeated measures analysis of variance (RMANOVA) with balanced data (F-test). Diaper weight changes over time were statistically significant for all time points and for all volumes regardless of diaper size; however, the changes in weight were small and without clinical significance. It is appropriate to weigh diapers at the end of eight hours without risk of altering subsequent fluid management of patients in open-air, non-humidified environments. This practice has led to more efficient use of nurses' time with fewer interruptions for patients and families. PMID:22970489

  1. Immunizations for Preterm Babies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Prevention Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Immunizations For Preterm Babies Page Content Some parents of ... full-term and preterm babies. The hepatitis B vaccine deserves special mention. In most circumstances, the AAP ...

  2. Breastfeed Your Baby

    MedlinePlus

    ... Tips 9 of 10 sections Take Action: Vitamin D Give your baby vitamin D. Babies need vitamin D for healthy bone growth. Even if you take extra vitamin D, your breast milk won’t provide enough vitamin ...

  3. Your Colicky Baby

    MedlinePlus

    ... of swallowing too much air while crying. Some theories suggest that colic happens when food moves too ... baby's digestive system or is incompletely digested. Other theories are that colic is due to a baby's ...

  4. The Physics of Babies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shemella, Philip

    2013-03-01

    Since the 2011 birth of my daughter I have been a 100% as a stay-at-home dad and 50% researcher. My ``Routine Adventures'' in the baby universe are the subject of this fun talk that presents the unique challenges of baby physics. Topics include ``Schroedinger's Baby'' and ``The Entropy of Rice.''

  5. 6-sulfatoxymelatonin collected from infant diapers: feasibility and implications for urinary biochemical markers.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Karen A

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess feasibility and acceptability of using a diaper pad for collection of in-home infant urinary samples and to test the accuracy of diaper pad extraction for 6-sulfatoxymelatonin and creatinine, which was used to correct assay results for urinary volume. To assess feasibility and acceptability, urine samples from 20 infants were collected over a 24-hr day using a cotton pad inserted in the diaper. The accuracy of diaper pad extraction was evaluated in the laboratory using urine samples collected from 11 adult volunteers and assayed using enzyme immunosorbent assay (EIA). Urine samples were divided, one aliquot was assayed without extraction, and one aliquot was instilled into a diaper pad, extracted, and assayed. Mothers found diaper pad collection acceptable and easy to perform. Of 144 infant urinary samples obtained in the home environment, 59% were usable for assay purposes, and the remaining either were contaminated with stool or were of insufficient volume. While creatinine values from diaper pad extracted and nonextracted samples were highly correlated (r(2) = .947), those of creatinine-corrected 6-sulfatoxymelatonin were not (r(2) = .216). Diaper pad collection procedures altered 6-sulfatoxymelatonin values. Implications for measurement of urinary biochemical substances and statistical analysis are discussed. PMID:19502239

  6. Stop Disease: Diapering Procedures = Alto a las Enfermedades: Procedimientos para Cambiar Panales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Child Care Health Program, Oakland.

    In order to prevent the occurrence and spread of disease in California child care programs, this set of laminated procedure pages, in English and Spanish versions, details infant and child care procedures for safe diapering. The document delineates important rules about diapering, gives directions for making a disinfecting solution, and provides…

  7. EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT TO DIOXINS FROM THE USE OF TAMPONS AND DIAPERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure Assessment to Dioxins from the Use of Tampons and Diapers
    Michael J. DeVito and Arnold Schecter
    Abstract
    Methods: Four brands of tampons and four brands of infant diapers were analyzed for dioxin concentrations. Exposures to dioxins were modeled using parti...

  8. Effect of Topical Application of the Cream Containing Magnesium 2% on Treatment of Diaper Dermatitis and Diaper Rash in Children A Clinical Trial Study

    PubMed Central

    Nourbakhsh, Seyyed Mohammad-Kazem; Rouhi-Boroujeni, Hojjatollah; Kheiri, Maryam; Mobasheri, Mahmoud; Shirani, Majid; Ahrani, Saeedeh; Karami, Javad

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Diaper dermatitis is referred to the inflammation in outer layers of the skin in the perineal area, lower abdomen, and inner thighs. The lesions are maculopapular and usually itchy, which could cause bacterial or candida infection, and predispose the infants to penis or vaginal and urinary infection and lead to discomfort, irritability, and restlessness. The drugs which have been so far administered for this disease (topical steroids) cause special complications for the sensitive skin in this area. Magnesium (Mg) is known for its anti-inflammatory and wound-healing properties. Aim The aim of the present study was to study the effect of the cream containing Mg 2% on treatment of diaper dermatitis and diaper rash in children. Materials and Methods In this clinical trial study, 64 children aged less than two years old with diaper dermatitis referring Paediatric Ward of Hajar Hospital were randomly assigned to two groups of 32. Group one was treated with the combined cream Mg 2% and Calendula and group two with Calendula cream alone. The duration of recovery was compared between the two groups. Results The duration of recovery was significantly lower in the intervention group than the control group (p-value<0.001), but there was no significant difference in the lesions size and diapers’ number between the two groups. Conclusion Based on the finding of this study, Mg is effective on treatment of diaper dermatitis and could be used for treating diaper dermatitis and other types of dermatitis. PMID:26894161

  9. Reflex Seizures Triggered by Diaper Change in Dravet Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Subki, Ahmed H; Alasmari, Aishah S; Jan, Fadi M; Moria, Feras A; Jan, Mohammed M

    2016-07-01

    Dravet syndrome (DS) is a severe epilepsy syndrome characterized by early onset of multiple types of seizures. We report the first case of reflex seizures triggered by diaper change in a girl at 9 months old and 2 years old with a mutation in the SCN1A gene causing DS. Reflex seizures have been reported in patients with DS provoked by increased body temperature or visual stimulation. The case we report widens the spectrum of triggers causing reflex seizures in children with DS. Cortical hyperexcitability resulting from the genetic defect explains the tendency to experience such reflex seizures.

  10. Changes in skin pH after the use of baby wipes.

    PubMed

    Priestley, G C; McVittie, E; Aldridge, R D

    1996-01-01

    We recently made a double-blind safety-in-use comparison of four different brands of baby wipes using a panel of 302 infants over a period of 10 weeks. For the first two weeks, only soap and water was used to clean the babies' skin after each diaper change, and then for the eight-week test phase each baby was allocated one or other of the products for normal home use. The wipes differed in cleansing lotion formulation (emollients, preservative, pH) and fibrous composition. There were no clinically detectable differences in the effects of the wipes in terms of erythema, frequency of rashes, edema, and desquamation, but we recorded significant changes in the pH of pubic and buttock skin inside the diaper area. In particular, the brand of wipes with the lowest pH (2.8) in the lotion reduced the mean skin pH from 5.6 to 5.0 (p < 0.01), and those with a pH of 5.5 had no significant effect. Wipes of intermediate pH (3.7) gave a final skin pH of 5.4-but the downward trend was not statistically significant. These data indicate that skin pH can be depressed by such topical application, although the trial lasted only a fraction of the total time wipes might be used on each infant. Further research is necessary to evaluate the implications of these findings.

  11. Disposable swim diaper retention of Cryptosporidium-sized particles on human subjects in a recreational water setting.

    PubMed

    Amburgey, James E; Anderson, J Brian

    2011-12-01

    Cryptosporidium is a chlorine-resistant protozoan parasite responsible for the majority of waterborne disease outbreaks in recreational water venues in the USA. Swim diapers are commonly used by diaper-aged children participating in aquatic activities. This research was intended to evaluate disposable swim diapers for retaining 5-μm diameter polystyrene microspheres, which were used as non-infectious surrogates for Cryptosporidium oocysts. A hot tub recirculating water without a filter was used for this research. The microsphere concentration in the water was monitored at regular intervals following introduction of microspheres inside of a swim diaper while a human subject undertook normal swim/play activities. Microsphere concentrations in the bulk water showed that the majority (50-97%) of Cryptosporidium-sized particles were released from the swim diaper within 1 to 5 min regardless of the swim diaper type or configuration. After only 10 min of play, 77-100% of the microspheres had been released from all swim diapers tested. This research suggests that the swim diapers commonly used by diaper-aged children in swimming pools and other aquatic activities are of limited value in retaining Cryptosporidium-sized particles. Improved swim diaper solutions are necessary to efficiently retain pathogens and effectively safeguard public health in recreational water venues.

  12. The Baby Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harden, Darby L.; Verdeyen, Tasha B.

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses a project about babies undertaken by a class of children ranging in age from 2.9 years to 3.9 years old in a small Illinois town. Throughout this project, the children studied equipment and supplies needed to care for babies. They made dolls for the classroom, constructed a cradle, made observational drawings, created topic…

  13. MotherToBaby

    MedlinePlus

    ... Explore Fact Sheets 1 Check Out Our Latest Facebook Posts MotherToBaby 4 hours ago If you are ... part of your routine. If you... View on Facebook · Share MotherToBaby 2 days ago A powerful piece ...

  14. Comparison of the effect of human milk and topical hydrocortisone 1% on diaper dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Farahani, Leila Amiri; Ghobadzadeh, Maryam; Yousefi, Parsa

    2013-01-01

    Diaper dermatitis is one of the most common skin problems in infants and children, affecting between 7% and 35% of infants. This randomized clinical trial compared the efficacy of hydrocortisone 1% ointment with that of human breast milk in treating acute diaper dermatitis in infants ages 0 to 24 months. Infants with diaper rash were treated with either hydrocortisone 1% ointment (n = 70) or human breast milk (n = 71) for 7 days. Improvement in the rash from baseline was seen in both treatment groups on days 3 and 7; there was no significant difference in total rash scores on days 3 and 7. Treatment with human breast milk was as effective as hydrocortisone 1% ointment alone. Human breast milk is an effective and safe treatment for diaper dermatitis in infants.

  15. EVALUATION OF DISPOSABLE DIAPERS FOR QUANTATIVE MEASUREMENTS OF PESTICIDE METABOLITES AND CREATININE IN URINE SAMPLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project consisted of a laboratory study to evaluate an extraction and analysis method for quantifying biomarkers of pesticide exposure and creatinine in urine samples collected with commercially-available disposable diapers. For large exposure studies, such as the National ...

  16. [Composting facilities. 1. Microbiological quality of compost with special regard to disposable diapers].

    PubMed

    Jager, E; Rüden, H; Zeschmar-Lahl, B

    1994-10-01

    At three different composting facilities, co-composting of used panty diapers with an addition of 10% (weight) to the usual plant input was investigated for various hygienic and microbiological parameters. In nearly any case, a sufficient degree of germ reduction above 99.9% could be observed by determination of reduction rates of B. subtilis spores. The concentrations of "total microorganisms" ranged from 3.9 x 10(5) to 3.3 x 10(11) colony forming units per gram compost (CFU/g) in composts without and from 3.3 x 10(5) to 4.7 x 10(9) CFU/g in composts with panty diapers in the input. The concentrations of "gram-negative bacteria" ranged from 3.3 x 10(4) to 1.3 x 10(9) CFU/g (without panty diapers) resp. from 3.3 x 10(5) to 3.5 x 10(8) CFU/g (with panty diapers), the concentrations of "fecal streptococci" from 1.7 x 10(3) to 7.7 x 10(7) CFU/g (without panty diapers) resp. from 1.4 x 10(4) to 1.4 x 10(8) CFU/g (with panty diapers). Facultatively pathogenic microorganisms showed a broad variety, but no common trend in composts with and without panty diapers in the input. Statistical validity of the determination of contents of microorganisms in compost samples was guaranteed by the collection and analysis of 20 parallel samples with an average sample mass of 10 to 15 kg. From the analyzed quantitative and qualitative hygienic-microbiological parameters, it can be concluded that no negative hygienic-microbiological effects, caused by the addition of 10% (weight) of used panty diapers in the input, have to be expected. Under the aspects of epidemiologic hygiene, composting of used panty diapers together with usual input materials seems to cause no increased risks under the tested conditions. Under the aspect of consumer protection, there is no increase in the risk of infection when using compost produced with addition of panty diapers, compared to compost produced without panty diaper addition to the input. PMID:7848500

  17. Effect of diaper cream and wet wipes on skin barrier properties in infants: a prospective randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Garcia Bartels, Natalie; Lünnemann, Lena; Stroux, Andrea; Kottner, Jan; Serrano, José; Blume-Peytavi, Ulrike

    2014-01-01

    The effect of different diaper care procedures on skin barrier function in infants has been minimally investigated and may be assessed using objective methods. In a single-center, prospective trial, 89 healthy 9-month-old infants (±8 wks) were randomly assigned to three diaper care regimens: group I used water-moistened washcloths at diaper changes (n = 30), group II additionally applied diaper cream twice daily (n = 28), and group III used wet wipes and diaper cream twice daily (n = 31). Transepidermal water loss (TEWL), skin hydration (SCH), skin pH, interleukin 1α (IL-1α) levels, and microbiologic colonization were measured in diapered skin (upper outer quadrant of the buttocks), nondiapered skin (upper leg), and if diaper dermatitis (DD) occurred, using the most affected skin area at day 1 and weeks 4 and 8. Skin condition was assessed utilizing a neonatal skin condition score and diaper rash grade. On diapered skin, SCH decreased in groups II and III, whereas TEWL values were reduced in group II only. Skin pH increased in groups II and III. In general, SCH, skin pH, and IL-1α levels were higher in healthy diapered skin than in nondiapered skin. The incidence and course of DD was comparable in all groups. Areas with DD had greater TEWL and skin pH than unaffected skin areas. Infants who received diaper cream had lower SCH and TEWL and higher pH levels in the diapered area than on nondiapered skin. No correlation with the occurrence of DD was found.

  18. Bringing Your Baby Home

    MedlinePlus

    ... avoid suffocation. Chances are much better that you'll bring home a calm, contented baby if you ... by the manufacturer before the second birthday, you'll need to use a convertible seat designed for ...

  19. Shaken Baby Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Randell C.; Smith, Wilbur L.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the history, epidemiology, biomechanics, diagnosis, treatment, outcomes, long-term management, and prevention of shaken baby syndrome. It presents medical-legal issues as well as a discussion of programs aimed at prevention of physical abuse. (Author/DB)

  20. How Your Baby Grows

    MedlinePlus

    ... brain, the heart and lungs, are forming. The placenta grows in your uterus and supplies the baby ... like alcohol, cigarette smoke and drugs through the placenta, too. So don’t drink alcohol , smoke , use ...

  1. Isospinning baby Skyrmion solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battye, Richard A.; Haberichter, Mareike

    2013-12-01

    We perform full two-dimensional (2D) numerical relaxations of isospinning soliton solutions in the baby Skyrme model in which the global O(3) symmetry is broken by the 2D analogue of the pion mass term in the Skyrme model. In our calculations we explicitly allow the isospinning solitons to deform and to break the symmetries of the static configurations. We find that stable isospinning baby Skyrme solutions can be constructed numerically for all angular frequencies ω≤min⁡(μ,1), where μ is the mass parameter of the model. Stable, rotationally symmetric baby Skyrmion solutions for higher angular velocities are simply an artefact of the hedgehog approximation. Isospinning multisoliton solutions of topological charge B turn out to be unstable to break up into their B charge-1 constituents at some critical breakup frequency value. Furthermore, we find that for μ sufficiently large the rotational symmetry of charge-2 baby Skyrmions becomes broken at a critical angular frequency ω.

  2. Finger Foods for Babies

    MedlinePlus

    ... old, most babies have developed the fine motor skills — the small, precise movements — needed to pick up ... practice soon evolves into a masterful and efficient skill. Allow your child to self-feed as much ...

  3. Shaken Baby Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Funding Information Research Programs Training & Career Awards Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Shaken Baby Syndrome ... News From NINDS | Find People | Training | Research | Enhancing Diversity Careers@NINDS | FOIA | Accessibility Policy | Contact Us | Privacy ...

  4. Infants & Toddlers: "Baby Moves"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honig, Alice Sterling

    2007-01-01

    By three to four months of age, most babies placed on their tummies on a safe, warm surface push down with their arms and raise their chests, so that they can turn their heads to look about at the world around them. By five months, babies stretch both feet and hands upward in order to swipe at interesting mobiles placed overhead. At seven to nine…

  5. Baby universes revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambjørn, J.; Barkley, J.; Budd, T.; Loll, R.

    2011-11-01

    The behavior of baby universes has been an important ingredient in understanding and quantifying non-critical string theory or, equivalently, models of two-dimensional Euclidean quantum gravity coupled to matter. Within a regularized description based on dynamical triangulations, we amend an earlier conjecture by Jain and Mathur on the scaling behavior of genus-g surfaces containing particular baby universe 'necks', and perform a non-trivial numerical check on our improved conjecture.

  6. Agriculture Education. Farm Machinery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuttgart Public Schools, AR.

    This curriculum guide is designed for group instruction of secondary agricultural education students enrolled in one or two semester-long courses in farm machinery. The guide presents units of study in the following areas: (1) small gas engines, (2) job opportunities, (3) tractors, (4) engines, (5) hydraulics, (6) electrical system, (7) combine…

  7. Agriculture Power and Machinery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Tom

    This guide is intended to assist vocational agriculture teachers who are teaching secondary- or postsecondary-level courses in agricultural power and machinery. The materials presented are based on the Arizona validated occupational competencies and tasks for the following occupations: service manager, shop foreman, service technician, and tractor…

  8. On the death of a baby.

    PubMed Central

    Stinson, R; Stinson, P

    1981-01-01

    Andrew was a desperately premature baby weighing under two pounds. He died after months of "heroic' efforts in an intensive care facility. The story of his short cruel institutionalised life is a case study in the limits and excesses of modern medicine. The night he told us our son Andrew was about to die the doctor who had taken charge of him six months before also told us we were "intellectually tight' that we had "no feelings only thoughts and words and strategies'. We were "bad parents'. As the parents of a five-year-old daughter we knew the love a mother and father feels for children. Yet as Andrew's parents we were used to condemnation and insult. Andrew was a baby born 15 weeks prematurely weighing only 1lb 12oz and in a state of painful deterioration almost from the start. We wanted him to be allowed to die a natural death. Andrew's story is the story of what can happen when a baby becomes hopelessly entrapped in an intensive care unit where the machinery is more sophisticated than the code of law and ethics governing its use. The letter printed below was sent to the administrator and numerous personnel of the hospital that controlled the life and death of our son. The physician-in-chief of that hospital characterised it as a "carefully documented critique'. The letter appear here somewhat edited and abridged and the names of people and institutions have been changed all but our own. It is the personal record of what happened to our baby and to us. PMID:7205897

  9. [Babies with cranial deformity].

    PubMed

    Feijen, Michelle M W; Claessens, Edith A W M Habets; Dovens, Anke J Leenders; Vles, Johannes S; van der Hulst, Rene R W J

    2009-01-01

    Plagiocephaly was diagnosed in a baby aged 4 months and brachycephaly in a baby aged 5 months. Positional or deformational plagio- or brachycephaly is characterized by changes in shape and symmetry of the cranial vault. Treatment options are conservative and may include physiotherapy and helmet therapy. During the last two decades the incidence of positional plagiocephaly has increased in the Netherlands. This increase is due to the recommendation that babies be laid on their backs in order to reduce the risk of sudden infant death syndrome. We suggest the following: in cases of positional preference of the infant, referral to a physiotherapist is indicated. In cases of unacceptable deformity of the cranium at the age 5 months, moulding helmet therapy is a possible treatment option. PMID:19857299

  10. When Babies Scream: Why Babies Scream and What to Do

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honig, Alice Sterling

    2006-01-01

    When a baby screams, that is a signal that all is not well for the body of the baby, for her emotional well-being, and/or for the baby's relationship with the teacher. During the first year of life, infants learn that adults are in control of providing reassuring care. Adults will "make things better" when a baby's tummy feels horribly empty, when…

  11. Prenatal Surgery: Helping Babies Before Birth

    MedlinePlus

    ... About Zika & Pregnancy Prenatal Surgery: Helping Babies Before Birth KidsHealth > For Parents > Prenatal Surgery: Helping Babies Before ... A Text Size Prenatal Surgery: Helping Babies Before Birth Operating on a baby before birth may seem ...

  12. Positioning your baby for breastfeeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... Adjust your baby's position if you need to. FOOTBALL HOLD Use the football hold if you had a C-section. This ... large breasts or flat nipples also like the football hold. Hold your baby like a football. Tuck ...

  13. Health Issues of Premature Babies

    MedlinePlus

    ... because the lungs of preterm babies often lack surfactant, a liquid substance that allows the lungs to remain expanded. Treatment: Artificial surfactants can be used to treat these babies, along ...

  14. Instability in Rotating Machinery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The proceedings contain 45 papers on a wide range of subjects including flow generated instabilities in fluid flow machines, cracked shaft detection, case histories of instability phenomena in compressors, turbines, and pumps, vibration control in turbomachinery (including antiswirl techniques), and the simulation and estimation of destabilizing forces in rotating machines. The symposium was held to serve as an update on the understanding and control of rotating machinery instability problems.

  15. Boosting Your Baby's Brain Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engel-Smothers, Holly; Heim, Susan M.

    2009-01-01

    With more than 100 billion neurons that would stretch more than 60,000 miles, a newborn baby's brain is quite phenomenal! These neurons must generally form connections within the first eight months of a baby's life to foster optimal brain growth and lifelong learning. Mommies, daddies, and caregivers are extremely vital to ensuring babies reach…

  16. Bah's Baby Brother Is Born.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tapahonso, Luci

    This illustrated story, written for Native American children, stresses the importance of not drinking alcohol and taking care of oneself during pregnancy. The story centers on Bah, a young Native American girl whose mother is going to have a baby. Bah is very excited about getting a baby brother or sister and wants the baby to be healthy and…

  17. Babies Need Tummy Time

    MedlinePlus

    ... Facts ​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​ Printer-Friendly Email Page Skip sharing on social media links Babies Need Tummy Time! Page Content Tummy Time is not ...

  18. No Baby Left behind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanton, Dorothy

    2007-01-01

    "No Baby Left Behind" was created to have an impact on the school readiness of children in the community today and in the future. Each year, there are an increasing number of students who have learning difficulties. Many of these problems are preventable. Accidents, poor nutrition (of the mother and/or child), drug use, alcohol use, and lack of…

  19. Factors involved in the development of diaper-area granuloma of the aged.

    PubMed

    Isogai, Rieko; Yamada, Hidekazu

    2013-12-01

    An infant skin disease with clusters of nodules in the diaper contact area was reported as granuloma gluteale infantum. Recently, the number of elderly patients with this condition has increased, and it has been reported as diaper-area granuloma of the aged. These lesions are presumably caused by irritation from feces and urine. We observed similar cutaneous symptoms in six elderly patients, five of whom revealed clusters of nodules arranged in a circular pattern in the gluteal region presenting a peculiar clinical picture. They were all bedridden and wore cloth diapers. We speculate that wearing a cloth diaper seems to be a major factor behind this condition. Another factor was sitting during the day. A subject had lesions with nodules on the scrotum. The distribution of nodules appeared to be related to the body position and vigorous movement of the patient. In all cases, topical steroid therapies were not effective. They were all positive for bacteriuria. Chronic urinary tract infection further irritates the skin. It is necessary to reduce urine contact and keep the lesion clean.

  20. Anti-fungal resistance in candida isolated from oral and diaper rash candidiasis in neonates.

    PubMed

    Mohamadi, Jasem; Motaghi, Mahsa; Panahi, Jafar; Havasian, Mohamad Reza; Delpisheh, Ali; Azizian, Mitra; Pakzad, Iraj

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the sensitivity of Candida species isolated from oral candidiasis and diaper dermatitis infections in children. The children referring to private and public clinics in Ilam, Iran were exmined for oral candidiasis and diaper dermatitis. In this study, 248 oral candidiasis and diaper dermatitis samples were collected and cultured.Candida species were identified by using standard methods. Resistance and sensitivity to amphotericin B, nystatin, ketoconazole, fluconazole, itraconazole, clotrimazole, and posaconazole were determined using the CLSI M44-A standard disk diffusion method. From the 248 studied samples, 149 were positive for Candida, among which the Candida albicans was the most prevalent (64.4%). The resistance of different Candida species to nystatin, itraconazole, fluconazole, ketoconazole, clotrimazole, voriconazole, and posaconazole were 4, 43, 34.2, 34.9, 21.5, 6, and 6.7%, respectively. No resistance to amphotericin B was observed. Considering rather low resistance to nystatin, this drug is the best choice for oral candidiasis and diaper dermatitis.

  1. "JCE" Classroom Activity #106. Sequestration of Divalent Metal Ion by Superabsorbent Polymer in Diapers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Yueh-Huey; Lin, Jia-Ying; Lin, Li-Pin; Liang, Han; Yaung, Jing-Fun

    2010-01-01

    This activity explores an alternative use of a superabsorbent polymer known as a water absorbing material. A dilute solution of CuCl[subscript 2] is treated with a small piece of unused disposable diaper containing superabsorbent sodium polyacrylates. The polymer is used for the removal of Cu[superscript 2+] ions from the solution. The…

  2. No More Leaks: A Process-Oriented Lesson Exploring the Invention and Chemistry of Disposable Diapers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schiller, Ellen; Yezierski, Ellen

    2009-01-01

    High school chemistry can be intimidating to some students, so it is critical that we engage students in nonthreatening preparatory investigations during middle school. Based on the learning cycle model (Bybee and Landes 1990), this lesson invites students to investigate disposable diapers. As they explore the properties of sodium polyarcylate, a…

  3. Exposure assessment to dioxins from the use of tampons and diapers.

    PubMed Central

    DeVito, Michael J; Schecter, Arnold

    2002-01-01

    Over the past several years there has been concern over exposure to dioxins through the use of tampons and other sanitary products. This article describes attempts to estimate dioxin exposures from tampons and infant diapers; we then compare exposure estimates to dietary dioxin exposures. We analyzed four brands of tampons and four brands of infant diapers obtained from commercial establishments in San Francisco, California, for dioxin concentrations. We estimated exposures to dioxins on the basis of a screening level analysis that assumed all dioxins present were completely absorbed. We also estimated exposures by using a more refined analysis that incorporates partition coefficients to estimate bioavailability. None of the products contained 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, the most potent dioxin, although other dioxins were present at detectable concentrations in all samples. We observed minimal differences in the concentrations of dioxins between 100% cotton and cotton/pulp products. The refined exposure analysis indicates that exposures to dioxins from tampons are approximately 13,000-240,000 times less than dietary exposures. The refined exposure analysis showed that exposure to dioxins from the diet is more than 30,000-2,200,000 times the exposure through diapers in nursing infants. Although dioxins are found in trace amounts in both cotton and pulp sanitary products, exposure to dioxins through tampons and diapers does not significantly contribute to dioxin exposures in the United States. PMID:11781161

  4. Exposure assessment to dioxins from the use of tampons and diapers.

    PubMed

    DeVito, Michael J; Schecter, Arnold

    2002-01-01

    Over the past several years there has been concern over exposure to dioxins through the use of tampons and other sanitary products. This article describes attempts to estimate dioxin exposures from tampons and infant diapers; we then compare exposure estimates to dietary dioxin exposures. We analyzed four brands of tampons and four brands of infant diapers obtained from commercial establishments in San Francisco, California, for dioxin concentrations. We estimated exposures to dioxins on the basis of a screening level analysis that assumed all dioxins present were completely absorbed. We also estimated exposures by using a more refined analysis that incorporates partition coefficients to estimate bioavailability. None of the products contained 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, the most potent dioxin, although other dioxins were present at detectable concentrations in all samples. We observed minimal differences in the concentrations of dioxins between 100% cotton and cotton/pulp products. The refined exposure analysis indicates that exposures to dioxins from tampons are approximately 13,000-240,000 times less than dietary exposures. The refined exposure analysis showed that exposure to dioxins from the diet is more than 30,000-2,200,000 times the exposure through diapers in nursing infants. Although dioxins are found in trace amounts in both cotton and pulp sanitary products, exposure to dioxins through tampons and diapers does not significantly contribute to dioxin exposures in the United States.

  5. The effects of Bentonite and Calendula on the improvement of infantile diaper dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Adib-Hajbaghery, Mohsen; Mahmoudi, Mansoreh; Mashaiekhi, Mahdi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Diaper dermatitis is one of the most common skin disorders of infancy and childhood. The present study aimed to compare the effects of Bentonite and Calendula on the improvement of diaper dermatitis in infants. Materials and Methods: A double-blind randomized controlled trial, which was conducted on 60 out-patient infants referred to health care centers or pediatric clinics in Khomein city and diagnosed with diaper dermatitis. Data were collected by checklist and observation, and analyzed using t-test, Chi-square, and Fisher's exact test. Results: Mean (standard error) age of the total sample was 6.55 ± 0.69 months. Totally, 93.3% of lesions in the Bentonite group started its recovery in the first 6 h, while this rate was 40% in Calendula group (P < 0.001). Furthermore, 90% of infants in the Bentonite group and 36.7% in the Calendula group were improved completely in the first 3 days (P < 0.001). Conclusion: Bentonite was effective on the improvement of diaper dermatitis, and also had faster effects compared with Calendula. PMID:25097603

  6. Aloof baby Skyrmions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salmi, Petja; Sutcliffe, Paul

    2015-01-01

    We show that a suitable choice for the potential term in the two-dimensional baby Skyrme model yields solitons that have a short-range repulsion and a long-range attraction. The solitons are therefore aloof, in the sense that static multi-soliton bound states have constituents that preserve their individual identities and are sufficiently far apart that tail interactions yield small binding energies. The static multi-soliton solutions are found to have a cluster structure that is reproduced by a simple binary species particle model. In the standard three-dimensional Skyrme model of nuclei, solitons are too tightly bound and are often too symmetric, due to symmetry enhancement as solitons coalesce to form bound states. The aloof baby Skyrmion results endorse a way to resolve these issues and provides motivation for a detailed study of the related three-dimensional version of the Skyrme model.

  7. Babies and the moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toepker, Terrence P.

    2000-02-01

    ``More babies are born under a full moon than at any other time.'' Many of us have heard this assertion, and a few years ago I tried to get data that would support it. The note ``A Lesson in Curve Fitting'' by Scott Calvin (Phys. Teach. 37, 340, Sept. 1999) provoked me to pass some of the data on to readers of The Physics Teacher.

  8. "Baby rattle" pelvis dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Cormier-Daire, V; Savarirayan, R; Lachman, R S; Neidich, J A; Grace, K; Rimoin, D L; Wilcox, W R

    2001-04-15

    We report an apparently previously undescribed lethal skeletal dysplasia, clinically resembling achondrogenesis, but with distinct radiologic and chondro-osseous morphologic features. These comprise bifid distal ends of the long bones of the limbs, absent vertebral body ossification, a unique "baby rattle" pelvic configuration with tall and broad ilia, absent endochondral ossification, regions of mesenchymal cells within the resting cartilage, and abnormal mesenchymal ossification. PMID:11337746

  9. Expressing urine from a gel disposable diaper for biomonitoring using phthalates as an example.

    PubMed

    Liu, Liangpo; Xia, Tongwei; Guo, Lihua; Cao, Lanyu; Zhao, Benhua; Zhang, Jie; Dong, Sijun; Shen, Heqing

    2012-11-01

    The urinary metabolites of phthalates are well-accepted exposure biomarkers for adults and children older than 6 years but are not commonly used for infants owing to non-convenient sampling. In the light of this situation, a novel sampling method based on monitoring the urine expressed from the gel diaper was developed. The urine was expressed from the gel absorbent after mixing the absorbent with CaCl(2) and then collected by a laboratory-made device; the urinary phthalate metabolites were extracted and cleaned using a solid-phase extraction (SPE) column and analyzed with high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry / mass spectrometry. To evaluate the method's feasibility, the following factors were investigated: the proportion of CaCl(2) to gel absorbent, the urination volume variation and the target compounds' deposition bias in the diaper, the matrix blank of the different diaper brands, the storage stabilities and the recoveries of creatinine and phthalate metabolites in the expressed urine. Mono-methyl phthalate, mono-ethyl phthalate, mono-butyl phthalate, mono-benzyl phthalate, mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate and mono-2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl phthalate were involved. 70-80% of the urine can be expressed from the diaper, and the expressed spiking recoveries and the limit of detection of mono-phthalates ranged from 88.5-115% and 0.21-0.50 ng/ml. The method was applied to measure phthalate metabolites in 65 gel diaper samples from 15 infants, and the pilot data suggests the infants are commonly exposed to phthalates. In summary, the method for monitoring of infant exposure to phthalates is sound and validated, and the potential health effects from the vulnerable infants' exposure to phthalates should be concerned.

  10. 49. Machinery rooms on north tower. Facing north. Machinery rooms ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    49. Machinery rooms on north tower. Facing north. Machinery rooms contain all motors, motor controllers, and gears for operating one span, in this case, the north span. Note bell with continuous operating clapper for use as fog signals. - Henry Ford Bridge, Spanning Cerritos Channel, Los Angeles-Long Beach Harbor, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  11. [Manufactured baby food: safety expectations].

    PubMed

    Davin, L; Van Egroo, L-D; Galesne, N

    2010-12-01

    Food safety is a concern for parents of infants, and healthcare professionals are often questioned by them about this topic. Baby food European regulation ensures high levels of safety and is more rigorous than common food regulation. Maximal limit for pesticides in baby food demonstrates the high level of requirements. This limit must be below the 10 ppb detection threshold, whatever the chemical used. Other contaminants such as nitrates are also the subject of greater expectations in baby food. Food safety risks control needs a specific know-how that baby food manufacturers have acquired and experienced, more particularly by working with producers of high quality raw material.

  12. Retrospective exposure data for baby and children care products: an analysis of 48 clinical studies.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Berrada, Marie-Pierre; Gautier, Florian; Parent-Massin, Dominique; Ferret, Pierre-Jacques

    2013-07-01

    To conduct a reliable safety assessment, accurate exposure information for cosmetic products and ingredients is needed. The aim of the present retrospective study was to determine the amount per application and the daily exposure for some of the most commonly used baby cosmetic products. Consumption data from 48 clinical studies performed on 1481 babies and children (from 0 to 10 years old) were reviewed and used to conduct a probabilistic evaluation of dermal exposure. Six categories of products were reviewed: rinseoff products for hair and body; rinse-off products for the whole body; leave-on products for face and body; cleansers for face and body; diaper dermatitis treatment products; shampoos. Subjects were provided with products and recorded detailed daily usage information over a 1-4-week period, depending on the study. Products were weighed at the start and upon completion of each study in order to determine the total amount of product used. The mean, median, standard deviation and 95th percentile were calculated for daily consumption and exposure, for several age groups from 0 to 10 years old. This study provides current baby cosmetic exposure information for commonly used products which will be useful for risk assessment purposes. PMID:23562927

  13. Disposable diaper use promotes consolidated nighttime sleep and positive mother-infant interactions in Chinese 6-month-olds.

    PubMed

    Lukowski, Angela F; Liu, Xicheng; Peirano, Patricio; Odio, Mauricio; Bauer, Patricia J

    2015-06-01

    The emergence of consolidated nighttime sleep and the formation and maintenance of parent-infant relationships are 2 primary developmental achievements of the infancy period. Despite the development of a transactional model that links parenting behaviors to infant sleep, limited attention has been devoted to examining experimental manipulations of infant sleep that may impact the discrete parent-infant interactions that may form the foundation for emerging attachment relationships. In the present study, infants were randomly assigned to wear high-absorbency disposable diapers or to continue using traditional low-absorbency cloth diapers that necessitate frequent changes and associated disruptions of nighttime sleep. Parents reported on infant sleep before and during the 6-week experimental manipulation; a subset of infants also wore actigraphs. Parents and infants also participated in a parent-infant interaction task both before and near the end of the experimental manipulation. Infants who wore cloth diapers experienced more frequent sleep disruptions overall as well as a greater number of disruptions that did and did not wake the infant from sleep. Infants who wore disposable diapers were rated as experiencing more engagement and positive affect near the end of the intervention relative to infants who wore cloth diapers; mothers of infants who wore disposable diapers were rated as more engaged and sensitive near the end of the intervention relative to mothers of infants who wore cloth diapers. These findings suggest that the disposable diaper manipulation was causally related to characteristics of mother-infant interactions that may form the foundation for emerging attachment relationships.

  14. Use of hydrophilic polymers from diapers to aid the establishment of Spergularia purpurea in a mine soil.

    PubMed

    Qu, G; de Varennes, A

    2010-06-15

    We used hydrophilic polymers from diapers to aid the establishment of an indigenous plant (Spergularia purpurea (Persoon) G. Don fil.) in a soil from a pyrite mine. Lysimeters were filled with the mine soil with no amendment (control), with a polyacrylate polymer, with a polymer removed from diapers, and with shredded diapers. The establishment of a plant cover was faster in soil amended with polymer from diapers, and 85 days after sowing the soil was completely covered in all treatments except control. The concentrations of trace elements in plant shoots decreased in amended soil. The activities of soil acid phosphatase, beta-glucosidase, protease and cellulase were greatest in soil amended with the polyacrylate polymer or with polymer removed from diapers, while the application of shredded diapers leads to values that were in general intermediate between these treatments and unamended control. Basal- and substrate-induced respirations, and dehydrogenase were greatest in soil amended with polymers, but the presence of a plastic film and fibrous materials from shredded diapers prevented any improvement in these parameters compared with unamended soil. In the second experiment, we evaluated the risk of downward movement of polymers in columns of a sandy soil. Polymer from diapers, with or without Cu, was placed at a 10 cm-depth. Five leaching cycles with artificial rain took place and leachates were analyzed for organic matter and Cu. At the end of the experiment, the soil columns were sliced and each layer was analyzed separately. Some repacking of soil and polymer particles took place, but there was no indication that polymers moved to any great depth in soil columns.

  15. Disposable diaper use promotes consolidated nighttime sleep and positive mother-infant interactions in Chinese 6-month-olds.

    PubMed

    Lukowski, Angela F; Liu, Xicheng; Peirano, Patricio; Odio, Mauricio; Bauer, Patricia J

    2015-06-01

    The emergence of consolidated nighttime sleep and the formation and maintenance of parent-infant relationships are 2 primary developmental achievements of the infancy period. Despite the development of a transactional model that links parenting behaviors to infant sleep, limited attention has been devoted to examining experimental manipulations of infant sleep that may impact the discrete parent-infant interactions that may form the foundation for emerging attachment relationships. In the present study, infants were randomly assigned to wear high-absorbency disposable diapers or to continue using traditional low-absorbency cloth diapers that necessitate frequent changes and associated disruptions of nighttime sleep. Parents reported on infant sleep before and during the 6-week experimental manipulation; a subset of infants also wore actigraphs. Parents and infants also participated in a parent-infant interaction task both before and near the end of the experimental manipulation. Infants who wore cloth diapers experienced more frequent sleep disruptions overall as well as a greater number of disruptions that did and did not wake the infant from sleep. Infants who wore disposable diapers were rated as experiencing more engagement and positive affect near the end of the intervention relative to infants who wore cloth diapers; mothers of infants who wore disposable diapers were rated as more engaged and sensitive near the end of the intervention relative to mothers of infants who wore cloth diapers. These findings suggest that the disposable diaper manipulation was causally related to characteristics of mother-infant interactions that may form the foundation for emerging attachment relationships. PMID:25938711

  16. Use of hydrophilic polymers from diapers to aid the establishment of Spergularia purpurea in a mine soil.

    PubMed

    Qu, G; de Varennes, A

    2010-06-15

    We used hydrophilic polymers from diapers to aid the establishment of an indigenous plant (Spergularia purpurea (Persoon) G. Don fil.) in a soil from a pyrite mine. Lysimeters were filled with the mine soil with no amendment (control), with a polyacrylate polymer, with a polymer removed from diapers, and with shredded diapers. The establishment of a plant cover was faster in soil amended with polymer from diapers, and 85 days after sowing the soil was completely covered in all treatments except control. The concentrations of trace elements in plant shoots decreased in amended soil. The activities of soil acid phosphatase, beta-glucosidase, protease and cellulase were greatest in soil amended with the polyacrylate polymer or with polymer removed from diapers, while the application of shredded diapers leads to values that were in general intermediate between these treatments and unamended control. Basal- and substrate-induced respirations, and dehydrogenase were greatest in soil amended with polymers, but the presence of a plastic film and fibrous materials from shredded diapers prevented any improvement in these parameters compared with unamended soil. In the second experiment, we evaluated the risk of downward movement of polymers in columns of a sandy soil. Polymer from diapers, with or without Cu, was placed at a 10 cm-depth. Five leaching cycles with artificial rain took place and leachates were analyzed for organic matter and Cu. At the end of the experiment, the soil columns were sliced and each layer was analyzed separately. Some repacking of soil and polymer particles took place, but there was no indication that polymers moved to any great depth in soil columns. PMID:20207477

  17. Baby-Crying Acceptance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, Tiago; de Magalhães, Sérgio Tenreiro

    The baby's crying is his most important mean of communication. The crying monitoring performed by devices that have been developed doesn't ensure the complete safety of the child. It is necessary to join, to these technological resources, means of communicating the results to the responsible, which would involve the digital processing of information available from crying. The survey carried out, enabled to understand the level of adoption, in the continental territory of Portugal, of a technology that will be able to do such a digital processing. It was used the TAM as the theoretical referential. The statistical analysis showed that there is a good probability of acceptance of such a system.

  18. Mapping the Baby Universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wanjek, Christopher

    2003-01-01

    In June, NASA plans to launch the Microwave Anisotropy Probe (MAP) to survey the ancient radiation in unprecedented detail. MAP will map slight temperature fluctuations within the microwave background that vary by only 0.00001 C across a chilly radiation that now averages 2.73 C above absolute zero. The temperature differences today point back to density differences in the fiery baby universe, in which there was a little more matter here and a little less matter there. Areas of slightly enhanced density had stronger gravity than low-density areas. The high-density areas pulled back on the background radiation, making it appear slightly cooler in those directions.

  19. Diaper dermatitis: a therapeutic dilemma. Results of a double-blind placebo controlled trial of miconazole nitrate 0.25%.

    PubMed

    Concannon, P; Gisoldi, E; Phillips, S; Grossman, R

    2001-01-01

    Diaper dermatitis, an acute inflammation of the skin in the diaper area, is the most common dermatologic disorder of infancy. This placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group trial compared the efficacy and safety of miconazole nitrate 0.25% in a zinc oxide/petrolatum base with that of the ointment base alone in treating acute diaper dermatitis in infants and evaluated the role of Candida albicans in the response to treatment. Infants age 2-13 months with diaper rash were treated with either miconazole nitrate 0.25% (N = 101) or ointment base (N = 101) for 7 days. Although improvement in rash from baseline was seen in both treatment groups on days 3, 5, and 7, patients receiving miconazole nitrate 0.25% had significantly fewer rash sites and lower mean total rash scores on days 5 and 7 (p < 0.001). In the miconazole nitrate 0.25% group, improvement was most marked among those with moderate or severe diaper dermatitis at baseline and among patients whose baseline rashes were positive for C. albicans. Treatment with miconazole nitrate 0.25% was as safe as with ointment base alone. Miconazole nitrate 0.25% ointment is a safe and effective treatment for diaper dermatitis in infants.

  20. Feeding Tips For Your Baby with CHD

    MedlinePlus

    ... with a combination of breast- and bottle-feeding. Breast-Feeding Your Baby If your baby is diagnosed with ... use too. If your baby needs surgery after breast-feeding has been established, you can pump your breasts ...

  1. Your baby in the birth canal

    MedlinePlus

    ... baby's head to pass through the pelvis. Internal Rotation As your baby's head descends further, the head ... rotates under and around the pubic bone. External Rotation As the baby's head is delivered, it will ...

  2. MACHINERY RESONANCE AND DRILLING

    SciTech Connect

    Leishear, R.; Fowley, M.

    2010-01-23

    New developments in vibration analysis better explain machinery resonance, through an example of drill bit chattering during machining of rusted steel. The vibration of an operating drill motor was measured, the natural frequency of an attached spring was measured, and the two frequencies were compared to show that the system was resonant. For resonance to occur, one of the natural frequencies of a structural component must be excited by a cyclic force of the same frequency. In this case, the frequency of drill bit chattering due to motor rotation equaled the spring frequency (cycles per second), and the system was unstable. A soft rust coating on the steel to be drilled permitted chattering to start at the drill bit tip, and the bit oscillated on and off of the surface, which increased the wear rate of the drill bit. This resonant condition is typically referred to as a motor critical speed. The analysis presented here quantifies the vibration associated with this particular critical speed problem, using novel techniques to describe resonance.

  3. Baby universes with induced gravity.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Yihong; Gao, Hongbo

    1989-12-01

    Some quantum effects of baby universes with induced gravity are discussed. The authors prove that the interactions between the baby-parent universes are non-local, and argue that the induced low-energy cosmological constant is zero. This argument does not depend on the detail of the induced potential.

  4. Jacquet erosive diaper dermatitis in a young girl with urinary incontinence.

    PubMed

    Hara, M; Watanabe, M; Tagami, H

    1991-06-01

    We report a case of Jacquet erosive diaper dermatitis (dermatitis syphiloides posterosiva) in a 9-year-old girl suffering from urinary incontinence due to an ectopic opening of a left double ureter into the vaginal vestibule. The toilet paper that she used as an absorbent was thought to be one of the factors causing the eruption. The lesions cleared with topical application of a nonsteroidal antiinflammatory ointment and zinc oxide ointment, in conjunction with the use of sanitary napkins.

  5. Metabolic alkalosis secondary to baking soda treatment of a diaper rash.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, J; Hogg, R J

    1981-06-01

    A 4-month-old infant was seen with hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis that was associated with prior application of liberal amounts of sodium bicarbonate (baking soda) to a diaper rash. After exclusion of other etiologies of the infant's acid-base disturbance, a complete resolution occurred following discontinuation of the baking soda applications. This case report provides a reminder of the significant side effects that may result from the excessive use of a seemingly harmless household substance. PMID:7232046

  6. Metabolic alkalosis secondary to baking soda treatment of a diaper rash.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, J; Hogg, R J

    1981-06-01

    A 4-month-old infant was seen with hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis that was associated with prior application of liberal amounts of sodium bicarbonate (baking soda) to a diaper rash. After exclusion of other etiologies of the infant's acid-base disturbance, a complete resolution occurred following discontinuation of the baking soda applications. This case report provides a reminder of the significant side effects that may result from the excessive use of a seemingly harmless household substance.

  7. Beginning at the bottom: evidence-based care of diaper dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Heimall, Lauren M; Storey, Beth; Stellar, Judith J; Davis, Katherine Finn

    2012-01-01

    Diaper dermatitis (DD), an acute inflammatory reaction of skin in the perineal area, is an extremely common pediatric condition. Nurses' practice of preventing and treating DD is inconsistent and often not evidence-based. In addition, a 2008 Skin Injury Prevalence Study at our hospital revealed that 24% of inpatients had DD. The authors developed a project to determine a consistent and evidence-based approach to DD prevention and treatment including the availability of products. A complete literature review was conducted in addition to benchmarking with other pediatric hospitals, consultation with topic experts, and evaluation of current nursing practice prior to revising the existing perineal skin care nursing standard. The evidence supports frequent diaper changes, use of super absorbent diapers, and protection of perineal skin with a product containing petrolatum and/or zinc oxide. As supported by the literature, we revised the standard to include improvements in practice as well as product updates for prevention and treatment. Hospital-wide implementation of the revised standard included training "Skin Care Champions" to educate staff and support practice improvements. Ongoing education and monitoring by the Skin Care Champions is necessary to further improve the prevention and treatment of DD for our patients.

  8. Electrometric assessment of the effect of a zinc oxide paste in diaper dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Xhauflaire-Uhoda, E; Henry, F; Piérard-Franchimont, C; Piérard, G E

    2009-10-01

    Diaper dermatitis affects nearly 50% of infants as well as some bed-ridden adults particularly in the elderly people. This condition is induced by irritation and maceration, and may be further exacerbated by Candida sp. colonization and infection. A key factor in the pathogenesis is the alteration in both the barrier function and the water-holding capacity of the stratum corneum. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of an unmedicated zinc oxide-petrolatum paste and to observe for possible shielding and restoring effects on the water-holding capacity of the stratum corneum altered by diaper dermatitis. The paste appeared to load the hollow skin microrelief. It was inferred that this effect was responsible for a reticulated shielding effect. Compared with healthy skin and untreated diaper dermatitis, the application of the anhydrous paste resulted in a trend to normalize electrometric properties of skin reflecting the combination of transepidermal water loss and the water-holding capacity of the stratum corneum.

  9. Beginning at the bottom: evidence-based care of diaper dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Heimall, Lauren M; Storey, Beth; Stellar, Judith J; Davis, Katherine Finn

    2012-01-01

    Diaper dermatitis (DD), an acute inflammatory reaction of skin in the perineal area, is an extremely common pediatric condition. Nurses' practice of preventing and treating DD is inconsistent and often not evidence-based. In addition, a 2008 Skin Injury Prevalence Study at our hospital revealed that 24% of inpatients had DD. The authors developed a project to determine a consistent and evidence-based approach to DD prevention and treatment including the availability of products. A complete literature review was conducted in addition to benchmarking with other pediatric hospitals, consultation with topic experts, and evaluation of current nursing practice prior to revising the existing perineal skin care nursing standard. The evidence supports frequent diaper changes, use of super absorbent diapers, and protection of perineal skin with a product containing petrolatum and/or zinc oxide. As supported by the literature, we revised the standard to include improvements in practice as well as product updates for prevention and treatment. Hospital-wide implementation of the revised standard included training "Skin Care Champions" to educate staff and support practice improvements. Ongoing education and monitoring by the Skin Care Champions is necessary to further improve the prevention and treatment of DD for our patients. PMID:22072018

  10. Shaken baby syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Blumenthal, I

    2002-01-01

    Shaken baby syndrome is the most common cause of death or serious neurological injury resulting from child abuse. It is specific to infancy, when children have unique anatomic features. Subdural and retinal haemorrhages are markers of shaking injury. An American radiologist, John Caffey, coined the name whiplash shaken infant syndrome in 1974. It was, however, a British neurosurgeon, Guthkelch who first described shaking as the cause of subdural haemorrhage in infants. Impact was later thought to play a major part in the causation of brain damage. Recently improved neuropathology and imaging techniques have established the cause of brain injury as hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy. Diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging is the most sensitive and specific method of confirming a shaking injury. Families of children with subdural haemorrhages should be thoroughly investigated by social welfare agencies. PMID:12509690

  11. [Shaken baby syndrome].

    PubMed

    Reith, W; Yilmaz, U; Kraus, C

    2016-05-01

    The shaken baby syndrome (SBS) or shaking trauma describes the occurrence of subdural hematoma, retinal hemorrhage and diffuse injury to the brain by vigorous shaking of an infant that has a poor prognosis. Rapid cranial acceleration and deceleration leads to tearing of bridging veins, retinal hemorrhages and diffuse brain injuries. In addition to clinical symptoms, such as irritability, feeding difficulties, somnolence, apathy, seizures, apnea and temperature regulation disorders, vomiting also occurs due to increased intracranial pressure. Milder forms of SBS often go undiagnosed and the number of unreported cases (grey area) is probably much higher. Up to 20 % of patients die within days or weeks due to SBS and survivors often show cognitive deficits and clinical symptoms, such as physical disabilities, impaired hearing, impaired vision up to blindness, epilepsy and mental retardation as well as a combination of these conditions; therefore, prevention is very important.

  12. [Shaken baby syndrome].

    PubMed

    Reith, W; Yilmaz, U; Kraus, C

    2016-05-01

    The shaken baby syndrome (SBS) or shaking trauma describes the occurrence of subdural hematoma, retinal hemorrhage and diffuse injury to the brain by vigorous shaking of an infant that has a poor prognosis. Rapid cranial acceleration and deceleration leads to tearing of bridging veins, retinal hemorrhages and diffuse brain injuries. In addition to clinical symptoms, such as irritability, feeding difficulties, somnolence, apathy, seizures, apnea and temperature regulation disorders, vomiting also occurs due to increased intracranial pressure. Milder forms of SBS often go undiagnosed and the number of unreported cases (grey area) is probably much higher. Up to 20 % of patients die within days or weeks due to SBS and survivors often show cognitive deficits and clinical symptoms, such as physical disabilities, impaired hearing, impaired vision up to blindness, epilepsy and mental retardation as well as a combination of these conditions; therefore, prevention is very important. PMID:27118366

  13. In re Baby M.

    PubMed

    1988-02-01

    In 1985 William Stern and Mary Beth Whitehead signed a surrogate parenting agreement which provided that Whitehead would be inseminated with Stern's semen and would surrender any resulting child to him and his wife, at which time she would be paid $10,000. Whitehead subsequently tried to keep the child, but the New Jersey Superior Court (Chancery Division/Family Part, Bergen County) awarded temporary custody of "Baby M" to the Sterns and then ruled on 31 March 1987 that the surrogacy contract was valid and that Stern should have sole custody, with Whitehead's parental rights to be terminated and Mrs. Stern given the right to adopt the child. In the current decision, the New Jersey Supreme Court upholds the awarding of custody to Mr. Stern as in the child's best interest, but holds the contract to be unenforceable and restores Whitehead's parental rights, leaving the terms of her visitation rights as noncustodial parent to be established by the trial court.

  14. Isorotating baby Skyrmions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halavanau, A.; Shnir, Ya.

    2013-10-01

    We discuss how internal rotation with fixed angular frequency can affect the solitons in the baby Skyrme model in which the global O(3) symmetry is broken to the SO(2). Two particular choices of the potential term are considered, the “old” potential and the “new” double vacuum potential, We do not impose any assumptions about the symmetry on the fields. Our results confirm existence of two types of instabilities determined by the relation between the mass parameter of the potential μ and the angular frequency ω. It is shown that multi-Skyrmions in the model with old potential at some critical value of the angular frequency become unstable with respect to decay into single Skyrmion constituents.

  15. 30 CFR 56.14204 - Machinery lubrication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Machinery lubrication. 56.14204 Section 56... MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Machinery and Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 56.14204 Machinery lubrication. Machinery...

  16. 30 CFR 57.14204 - Machinery lubrication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Machinery lubrication. 57.14204 Section 57... MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Machinery and Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 57.14204 Machinery lubrication. Machinery...

  17. Rourke Baby Record 2014

    PubMed Central

    Riverin, Bruno; Li, Patricia; Rourke, Leslie; Leduc, Denis; Rourke, James

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To update the 2011 edition of the Rourke Baby Record (RBR) by reviewing current best evidence on health supervision of infants and children from birth to 5 years of age. Quality of evidence The quality of evidence was rated with the former (until 2006) Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care classification system and GRADE (grading of recommendations, assessment, development, and evaluation) approach. Main message New evidence has been incorporated into the 2014 RBR recommendations related to growth monitoring, nutrition, education and advice, development, physical examination, and immunization. Growth is monitored with the World Health Organization growth charts that were revised in 2014. Infants’ introduction to solid foods should be based on infant readiness and include iron-containing food products. Delaying introduction to common food allergens is not currently recommended to prevent food allergies. At 12 months of age, use of an open cup instead of a sippy cup should be promoted. The education and advice section counsels on injuries from unstable furniture and on the use of rear-facing car seats until age 2, and also includes information on healthy sleep habits, prevention of child maltreatment, family healthy active living and sedentary behaviour, and oral health. The education and advice section has also added a new environmental health category to account for the effects of environmental hazards on child health. The RBR uses broad developmental surveillance to recognize children who might be at risk of developmental delays. Verifying tongue mobility and patency of the anus is included in the physical examination during the first well-baby visit. The 2014 RBR also provides updates regarding the measles-mumps-rubella, live attenuated influenza, and human papillomavirus vaccines. Conclusion The 2014 RBR is the most recent update of a longstanding evidence-based, practical knowledge translation tool with related Web-based resources

  18. Colostrum: Your Baby's First Meal

    MedlinePlus

    ... Life Family Life Family Life Medical Home Family Dynamics Media Work & Play Getting Involved in Your ... Your Baby's First Meal Page Content Article Body Colostrum provides all the nutrients and fluid that your newborn needs in the early days, ...

  19. Shaken Baby Syndrome: a review.

    PubMed

    Mian, Maha; Shah, Janki; Dalpiaz, Amanda; Schwamb, Richard; Miao, Yimei; Warren, Kelly; Khan, Sardar

    2015-06-01

    Shaken Baby Syndrome occurs in infants as a result of the brain pushing against the skull due to severe acceleration-deceleration forces. Symptoms of Shaken Baby Syndrome include subdural, subarachnoid, and retinal hemorrhages. MRI and ocular examinations are used to determine the extent of mental and visual damage and β-amyloid precursor protein immunohistochemical staining is used to detect axonal injuries. Surgeries such as Subdural hemorrhage (SDH) evacuation surgery and the Burr hole craniotomy are used to treat Shaken Baby Syndrome; however, the prognosis is poor in many cases. Because of the severity of Shaken Baby Syndrome and its traumatic and sometimes fatal effects, it is important to educate new parents, nurses, and doctors on the syndrome in order to prevent incidents.

  20. Comparing the effects of Bentonite & Calendula on the improvement of infantile diaper dermatitis: A randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Mahmoudi, Mansoreh; Adib-Hajbaghery, Mohsen; Mashaiekhi, Mahdi

    2015-01-01

    Background & objectives: Infantile diaper dermatitis is a common, acute inflammatory reaction of the skin around diaper among infants. This study was undertaken to compare the effect of topical application of Bentonite and Calendula creams on the improvement of infantile diaper dermatitis. Methods: This double blind randomized controlled trial was undertaken on 100 patients of infantile diaper dermatitis. The 100 participants were randomly assigned into two groups of 50 each, and were prescribed the coded medicine. The mothers were trained to apply the cream and level of improvement was judged by observing the affected area on the first visit and then after three days of receiving treatment. Results: The mean age of infants was 6.45±5.53 months in Calendula group and 7.35±6.28 months in Bentonite group. Overall, 88 per cent of lesions in the Bentonite group started improving in the first six hours while this rate was 54 per cent in Calendula group (P<0.001). The risk ratio for the improvement in the first six hours was 2.99 folds in the Bentonite group. Also, lesions in 86 per cent infants in the Bentonite group and 52 per cent in the Calendula group were completely improved in the first three days after treatment (P<0.001). Interpretation & conclusions: Our results showed that in comparison with Calendula, Bentonite had faster healing effect and was more effective on the improvement of infantile diaper dermatitis (IRCT ID: IRCT 2012112811593N1). PMID:26831423

  1. The Baby Boomers’ Intergenerational Relationships

    PubMed Central

    Fingerman, Karen L.; Pillemer, Karl A.; Silverstein, Merril; Suitor, J. Jill

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: As Baby Boomers enter late life, relationships with family members gain importance. This review article highlights two aspects of their intergenerational relationships: (a) caregiving for aging parents and (b) interactions with adult children in the context of changing marital dynamics. Design and Methods: The researchers describe three studies: (a) the Within Family Differences Study (WFDS) of mothers aged 65–75 and their multiple grown children (primarily Baby Boomers) ongoing since 2001; (b) the Family Exchanges Study (FES) of Baby Boomers aged 42–60, their spouses, parents, and multiple grown children ongoing since 2008; and (c) the Longitudinal Study of Generations (LSoG) of 351 three-generation families started when the Baby Boomers were teenagers in 1971, with interviews every 3–5 years from 1985 to 2005. Results: These studies show that the Baby Boomers in midlife navigate complex intergenerational patterns. The WFDS finds aging parents differentiate among Baby Boomer children in midlife, favoring some more than others. The FES shows that the Baby Boomers are typically more involved with their children than with their aging parents; Boomers’ personal values, family members’ needs, and personal rewards shape decisions about support. The LSoG documents how divorce and remarriage dampen intergenerational obligations in some families. Moreover, loosening cultural norms have weakened family bonds in general. Implications: Reviews of these studies provide insights into how the Baby Boomers may negotiate caregiving for aging parents as well as the likelihood of family care they will receive when their own health declines in the future. PMID:22250130

  2. DEVELOPMENT, VALIDATION AND FIELD USE OF NOVEL METHOD FOR EXTRACTING AND ANALYZING ORGANOPHOSPHATE (OP) AND PYRETHROID PESTICIDE METABOLITES AND CREATININE FROM COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE DISPOSABLE DIAPERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ability to efficiently extract urine from disposable diapers ensures an easy to use urine collection protocol and ready compliance for caregivers of very young children. The use of disposable diapers is also desirable because of their high capacity- urine is retained effecti...

  3. Mother-baby package.

    PubMed

    Tamburlini, G

    1995-07-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) Maternal Health and Safe Motherhood Programme developed the Mother-Baby package to facilitate the development of national strategies and plans of action. It was presented at an international meeting in Geneva in April 1994. The goals of the package are by the year 2000 to reduce maternal mortality by half and perinatal and neonatal mortality by 30-40% of 1990 levels. The package comprises: 1) a section on the technical basis and underlying strategies, 2) a section describing intervention before and during pregnancy, and during and after delivery, and 3) detailed recommendations on operating the program. The underlying strategy aims to reduce the number of high-risk and unwanted pregnancies; the number of obstetric complications; and the case fatality rate in women with complications. Interventions are based on a fourfold approach of family planning, quality antenatal care, clean and safe delivery, and access to essential obstetric care for high-risk pregnancies and complications. The district health system is the basic unit for planning and implementing the interventions. Midwives who live in the community are best equipped to provide appropriate community-based care to pregnant women. Pregnancy and obstetric complications requiring surgery and anesthesia should be available in the district hospital with an adequate referral system. Upgrading the skills of traditional birth attendants is also essential. National authorities should undertake a series of steps to carry out the interventions. A basic infrastructure, the upgrading of peripheral facilities, the development of human resources for safe motherhood, the effective delegation of responsibility, information, education, and communication (IEC), the involvement of nongovernmental organizations and women's groups, and the monitoring of results are other important elements in carrying out the interventions.

  4. ["Baby cradle coop slots" for abandoned (anonymous) babies: legal problems].

    PubMed

    Riedel, U

    2006-04-01

    It is illegal to propagate or offer anonymous births or to "cradle" abandoned babies in anonymous coop slots ("Babyklappen" in German). Such offers must be rescinded. Offers concerning anonymity of births are ill-suited, since they do not save life. They are unnecessary, because women and children can be assisted even if they are in dire straits, by utilising available help as offered by statutory German child and adolescent aid institutions. Those illegal offers do not solve any problems but create new difficulties and result in lifelong misery for children and parents. Offers for anonymousness create a previously non-existent demand and discredit legal help facilities. Persons assisting anonymous deliveries or recovering "baby cradle" ("Babyklappen") children are obliged to report this to the local registrar's office (in hospitals by the hospital director). Anonymous babies must be immediately reported by hospitals or institutions to local police authorities, and they should be reported to the municipal Youth Office.

  5. Tractor & Machinery Safety. 1984 Revision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montana State Office of Public Instruction, Helena. Dept. of Vocational Education Services.

    This curriculum guide is intended for use in teaching an instructional unit in tractor and machinery safety that is geared toward college freshmen. Addressed in the individual lessons of the unit are the following topics: understanding the importance of safe and efficient tractor operation, understanding the characteristics of tractors, preparing…

  6. Quantum entanglement of baby universes

    SciTech Connect

    Essman, Eric P.; Aganagic, Mina; Okuda, Takuya; Ooguri, Hirosi

    2006-12-07

    We study quantum entanglements of baby universes which appear in non-perturbative corrections to the OSV formula for the entropy of extremal black holes in type IIA string theory compactified on the local Calabi-Yau manifold defined as a rank 2 vector bundle over an arbitrary genus G Riemann surface. This generalizes the result for G=1 in hep-th/0504221. Non-perturbative terms can be organized into a sum over contributions from baby universes, and the total wave-function is their coherent superposition in the third quantized Hilbert space. We find that half of the universes preserve one set of supercharges while the other half preserve a different set, making the total universe stable but non-BPS. The parent universe generates baby universes by brane/anti-brane pair creation, and baby universes are correlated by conservation of non-normalizable D-brane charges under the process. There are no other source of entanglement of baby universes, and all possible states are superposed with the equal weight.

  7. Baby Solar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Currie, Thayne; Grady, Carol

    2012-01-01

    What did our solar system look like in its infancy,...... when the planets were forming? We cannot travel back in time to take an image of the early solar system, but in principle we can have the next best thing: images of infant planetary systems around Sun-like stars with ages of 1 to 5 million years, the time we think it took for the giant planets to form. Infant exoplanetary systems are critically important because they can help us understand how our solar system fits within the context of planet formation in general. More than 80% of stars are born with gas- and dust-rich disks, and thus have the potential to form planets. Through many methods we have identified more than 760 planetary systems around middle-aged stars like the Sun, but many of these have architectures that look nothing like our solar system. Young planetary systems are important missing links between various endpoints and may help us understand how and when these differences emerge. Well-known star-forming regions in Taurus, Scorpius. and Orion contain stars that could have infant planetary systems. But these stars are much more distant than our nearest neighbors such as Alpha Centauri or Sirius, making it extremely challenging to produce clear images of systems that can reveal signs of recent planet formation, let alone reveal the planets themselves. Recently, a star with the unassuming name LkCa 15 may have given us our first detailed "baby picture" of a young planetary system similar to our solar system. Located about 450 light-years away in the Taurus starforming region. LkCa 15 has a mass comparable to the Sun (0.97 solar mass) and an age of l to 5 million years, comparable to the time at which Saturn and perhaps Jupiter formed. The star is surrounded by a gas-rich disk similar in structure to the one in our solar system from which the planets formed. With new technologies and observing strategies, we have confirmed suspicions that LkCa 15's disk harbors a young planetary system.

  8. 'Dodo' and 'Baby Bear' Trenches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Surface Stereo Imager took this image on Sol 11 (June 5, 2008), the eleventh day after landing. It shows the trenches dug by Phoenix's Robotic Arm. The trench on the left is informally called 'Dodo' and was dug as a test. The trench on the right is informally called 'Baby Bear.' The sample dug from Baby Bear will be delivered to the Phoenix's Thermal and Evolved-Gas Analyzer, or TEGA. The Baby Bear trench is 9 centimeters (3.1 inches) wide and 4 centimeters (1.6 inches) deep.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  9. Designer babies--why not?

    PubMed

    Evans, M

    2001-02-01

    Though many objections can be levelled against the idea of the practice of genetic intervention to produce 'designer babies', upon examination they are shown to hinge on features which concern parental intentions towards their children, rather than features specific to the means involved. These intentions may be pursued by a variety of social practices which may, though need not, involve a measure of 'traditional' genetic selection (i.e. in terms of the identity and characteristics of the reproducing partners). This paper reviews a number of these objections and, by parity of reasoning, rejects their claim to count specifically or decisively against genetic intervention in pursuit of 'designer babies'. Rejecting these objections does not lead to the endorsement of 'designing babies, but it shows that any unease must be grounded elsewhere and defended by other arguments.

  10. Magnetothermodynamics of BPS baby skyrmions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, C.; Romanczukiewicz, T.; Sanchez-Guillen, J.; Wereszczynski, A.

    2014-11-01

    The magnetothermodynamics of skyrmion type matter described by the gauged BPS baby Skyrme model at zero temperature is investigated. We prove that the BPS property of the model is preserved also for boundary conditions corresponding to an asymptotically constant magnetic field. The BPS bound and the corresponding BPS equations saturating the bound are found. Further, we show that one may introduce pressure in the gauged model by a redefinition of the superpotential. Interestingly, this is related to non-extremal type solutions in the so-called fake supersymmetry method. Finally, we compute the equation of state of magnetized BSP baby skyrmions inserted into an external constant magnetic field H and under external pressure P , i.e., V = V ( P, H), where V is the "volume" (area) occupied by the skyrmions. We show that the BPS baby skyrmions form a ferromagnetic medium.

  11. Designer babies--why not?

    PubMed

    Evans, M

    2001-02-01

    Though many objections can be levelled against the idea of the practice of genetic intervention to produce 'designer babies', upon examination they are shown to hinge on features which concern parental intentions towards their children, rather than features specific to the means involved. These intentions may be pursued by a variety of social practices which may, though need not, involve a measure of 'traditional' genetic selection (i.e. in terms of the identity and characteristics of the reproducing partners). This paper reviews a number of these objections and, by parity of reasoning, rejects their claim to count specifically or decisively against genetic intervention in pursuit of 'designer babies'. Rejecting these objections does not lead to the endorsement of 'designing babies, but it shows that any unease must be grounded elsewhere and defended by other arguments. PMID:15586985

  12. "Babies Grow a Long Time": A Preschool Project about Babies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Andromahi

    2012-01-01

    This article describes a project related to babies undertaken by preschoolers in a university-affiliated child care center in the Midwest. Following a description of the class, the author discusses the three phases of the project. Photographs taken during the project are included throughout the article. The article concludes with the author's…

  13. Having a Baby (Especially for Teens)

    MedlinePlus

    ... FAQs Having a Baby (Especially for Teens) Patient Education Pamphlets - Spanish Having a Baby (Especially for Teens) Especially for ... Your Practice Patient Safety & Quality Payment Reform (MACRA) Education & Events Annual ... Pamphlets Teen Health About ACOG About Us Leadership & ...

  14. Surviving the Sudden Death of a Baby

    MedlinePlus

    ... Funds Request Information Get Involved Surviving the Sudden Death of a Baby Home Grieving Families Surviving the ... Candle on For Families Who Have Experienced the Death of a Baby The numbers are staggering. Every ...

  15. Feeding patterns and diet - babies and infants

    MedlinePlus

    ... a day). Feed your baby when they seems hungry. Signs include smacking lips, making suckling movements, and ... to feed her. This means she is very hungry. Your baby should not sleep more than 4 ...

  16. Babies' Sleep 'Twitching' May Aid Their Development

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160211.html Babies' Sleep 'Twitching' May Aid Their Development Tiny movements help ... 2, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- When parents watch babies sleep, they often assume that the tiny twitches they ...

  17. Breastfeeding FAQs: Sleep - Yours and Your Baby's

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Breastfeeding FAQs: Sleep - Yours and Your Baby's KidsHealth > For ... sleep sooner. continue My baby falls asleep while nursing. What can I do? Newborns often fall asleep ...

  18. Spring and Baby Poultry are Here!

    MedlinePlus

    ... Button Past Emails CDC Features Spring and Baby Poultry are Here! Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... do people get Salmonella infections from live baby poultry? Live poultry may have Salmonella germs in their ...

  19. 46 CFR 130.450 - Machinery alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Machinery alarms. 130.450 Section 130.450 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Automation of Unattended Machinery Spaces § 130.450 Machinery alarms....

  20. 46 CFR 130.450 - Machinery alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Machinery alarms. 130.450 Section 130.450 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Automation of Unattended Machinery Spaces § 130.450 Machinery alarms....

  1. 46 CFR 130.450 - Machinery alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Machinery alarms. 130.450 Section 130.450 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Automation of Unattended Machinery Spaces § 130.450 Machinery alarms....

  2. 46 CFR 130.450 - Machinery alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Machinery alarms. 130.450 Section 130.450 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Automation of Unattended Machinery Spaces § 130.450 Machinery alarms....

  3. 46 CFR 130.450 - Machinery alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Machinery alarms. 130.450 Section 130.450 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Automation of Unattended Machinery Spaces § 130.450 Machinery alarms....

  4. 46 CFR 176.804 - Machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Machinery. 176.804 Section 176.804 Shipping COAST GUARD... CERTIFICATION Material Inspections § 176.804 Machinery. At each initial and subsequent inspection for... ready for inspections of machinery, fuel, and piping systems, including the following: (a) Operation...

  5. Relationship between skin barrier function in early neonates and diaper dermatitis during the first month of life: a prospective observational study.

    PubMed

    Yonezawa, Kaori; Haruna, Megumi; Shiraishi, Mie; Matsuzaki, Masayo; Sanada, Hiromi

    2014-01-01

    Diaper dermatitis, a common skin problem in newborn infants, is characterized by poor functioning of the skin barrier. This study aimed to elucidate the relationship between skin barrier function in 4-day-old infants and the occurrence of diaper dermatitis during the first month of life. We recruited healthy Japanese infants born at 35 weeks of gestation or more. We measured indicators of skin barrier function, namely skin pH and transepidermal water loss, in 4-day-old infants on four places on the body. Individual characteristics were recorded from the infants' medical charts. The presence of diaper dermatitis was judged using the diaper rash and erythema scoring scale, which was based on daily recording of the infants' skin condition by their parents. The parents also filled out a questionnaire 1 month after birth regarding stool frequency and certain external factors. The association between diaper dermatitis and skin barrier function was assessed using multiple logistic regression analysis. The analysis included 88 infants. The incidence of diaper dermatitis was 25.0%. After adjusting for stool frequency for 1 month we noted that high pH on the inner arm skin in 4-day-old infants increased the risk of diaper dermatitis during the first month of life (adjusted odds ratio 3.35 [95% confidence interval = 1.12, 10.04]). Early neonatal skin pH may predict the risk of diaper dermatitis during the first month of life. Our results may be useful in devising strategies to prevent diaper dermatitis.

  6. 7 CFR 319.56-43 - Baby corn and baby carrots from Zambia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Baby corn and baby carrots from Zambia. 319.56-43... § 319.56-43 Baby corn and baby carrots from Zambia. (a) Immature, dehusked “baby” sweet corn (Zea mays L..., which is a field, where the corn has been grown must have been inspected at least once during...

  7. 7 CFR 319.56-43 - Baby corn and baby carrots from Zambia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Baby corn and baby carrots from Zambia. 319.56-43... § 319.56-43 Baby corn and baby carrots from Zambia. (a) Immature, dehusked “baby” sweet corn (Zea mays L..., which is a field, where the corn has been grown must have been inspected at least once during...

  8. 7 CFR 319.56-43 - Baby corn and baby carrots from Zambia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Baby corn and baby carrots from Zambia. 319.56-43... § 319.56-43 Baby corn and baby carrots from Zambia. (a) Immature, dehusked “baby” sweet corn (Zea mays L..., which is a field, where the corn has been grown must have been inspected at least once during...

  9. 7 CFR 319.56-43 - Baby corn and baby carrots from Zambia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Baby corn and baby carrots from Zambia. 319.56-43... § 319.56-43 Baby corn and baby carrots from Zambia. (a) Immature, dehusked “baby” sweet corn (Zea mays L..., which is a field, where the corn has been grown must have been inspected at least once during...

  10. 7 CFR 319.56-43 - Baby corn and baby carrots from Zambia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Baby corn and baby carrots from Zambia. 319.56-43... § 319.56-43 Baby corn and baby carrots from Zambia. (a) Immature, dehusked “baby” sweet corn (Zea mays L..., which is a field, where the corn has been grown must have been inspected at least once during...

  11. The Musical Dimension of Daily Routines with Under-Four Children during Diaper Change, Bedtime and Free-Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Addessi, Anna Rita

    2009-01-01

    This paper deals with an action-research project currently being undertaken at the University of Bologna concerning the observation of music making during daily routines with under-four children during diaper change, bedtime and free-play. Several observational protocols were carried out in natural and spontaneous contexts. The data analysis was…

  12. Newborn Screening Tests for your Baby

    MedlinePlus

    ... decides which tests are required. Ask your baby’s health care provider which tests your baby will have. If your baby has ... state requires different tests, so ask your baby’s health care provider which tests your baby will have. You also can visit ...

  13. Understanding How Babies Build Language Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honig, Alice Sterling

    2006-01-01

    Language is a great communication system. Through language, humans can express logical reasoning, grief, happiness, wishes, descriptions, and a rich array of feelings and ideas. Every baby deserves the gift of language power! In this article, the author discusses how babies build language skills and presents activities to help babies build…

  14. Shaken Baby Syndrome. The Arc Q & A.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Susan

    This fact sheet uses a question-and-answer format to summarize what is known about shaken baby syndrome, brain damage resulting from forceful shaking of an infant or young child. Questions and answers address the following topics: what shaken baby syndrome is and other names for the condition; the diagnosis of shaken baby syndrome; the incidence…

  15. How to Care for Your Baby's Teeth

    MedlinePlus

    ... twice a day as soon as the first tooth appears. Until your child is 1 year old, you can use a wet washcloth or gauze to clean your baby's teeth and gums. Start using a soft baby toothbrush and a small dab of toothpaste that does not have fluoride in it when your baby is between 1 ...

  16. Rash - child under 2 years

    MedlinePlus

    ... The most common skin problem in infants is diaper rash. Diaper rash is an irritation of the skin caused ... dampness, urine, or feces. Most babies who wear diapers will have some type of diaper rash. Other ...

  17. Compassionate Roots Begin with Babies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez-Mena, Janet

    2010-01-01

    Long before babies understand words, they understand touch. The first experience of compassion infants receive is gentle, caring touch, which gives a strong message, especially when accompanied by eye contact and a soft tone of voice. The kind of relationship a compassionate caregiver strives to develop with an infant creates attachment, an…

  18. The Baby Boomers' Intergenerational Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fingerman, Karen L.; Pillemer, Karl A.; Silverstein, Merril; Suitor, J. Jill

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: As Baby Boomers enter late life, relationships with family members gain importance. This review article highlights two aspects of their intergenerational relationships: (a) caregiving for aging parents and (b) interactions with adult children in the context of changing marital dynamics. Design and Methods: The researchers describe three…

  19. Babies, Toddlers and the Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenichel, Emily, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    "Zero to Three" is a single-focus bulletin of the National Center for Infants, Toddlers, and Families providing insight from multiple disciplines on the development of infants, toddlers, and their families. Noting that America's babies and toddlers live in a world full of television sets, VCRs, computers, videogames, and interactive toys, this…

  20. Drug Affected Babies: A Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portland Public Schools, OR. Dept. of Research, Evaluation, and Testing.

    This 42-item annotated bibliography, represents a comprehensive effort to gather information on the educational problems of infant children of substance-abusing parents. Extensive searches were conducted in databases in the fields of education, medicine, social sciences, and the humanities. In particular, studies on the problems of "crack babies"…

  1. Baby Signs: How To Talk with Your Baby before Your Baby Can Talk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acredolo, Linda; Goodwyn, Susan

    Based on research in infant sign language, this book teaches parents methods of communicating with their infants through the use of simple bodily movements that signify objects, events, and needs. Noting that communication between parent and child can flourish between 9 months and 30 months, when a baby's desire to communicate outstrips the…

  2. Topical miconazole nitrate ointment in the treatment of diaper dermatitis complicated by candidiasis.

    PubMed

    Spraker, Mary K; Gisoldi, Elvira M; Siegfried, Elaine C; Fling, John A; de Espinosa, Zila D; Quiring, John N; Zangrilli, Stephanie G

    2006-02-01

    Diaper dermatitis (DD) complicated by candidiasis is a common problem in diaper-wearing infants and children. We report a double-blind, vehicle-controlled, parallel-group study evaluating the efficacy and safety of a low concentration of miconazole nitrate in a zinc oxide/petrolatum ointment for the treatment of DD complicated by candidiasis. Patients (N=330) who had DD with a severity score of 3 or higher were enrolled. Those patients with a baseline potassium hydroxide (KOH) preparation and a baseline culture specimen that both tested positive for Candida were retained for efficacy analysis (n=236). Miconazole nitrate 0.25% ointment or a zinc oxide/petrolatum vehicle control were applied to all clinically affected areas of patients with DD for 7 days at each diaper change and after bathing. A follow-up test-of-cure visit was conducted at day 14. Among the patients completing the study, the overall rate of cure (clinical cure plus microbiologic cure) was 23% for the miconazole nitrate group and 10% for the vehicle control group (P=.005); the rate of clinical cure (complete rash clearance, DD severity score=0 at day 14) was 38% for the miconazole nitrate group and 11% for the vehicle control group (P<.001); and the rate of microbiologic cure (no culture growth of Candida) was 50% for the miconazole nitrate group and 23% for the vehicle control group. The vehicle control resulted in mild improvement at day 3 but little or no subsequent improvement. The discontinuation rate due to clinical failure was substantially lower for the miconazole nitrate group (4%) than the vehicle control group (47%). The mean DD severity index score for the miconazole nitrate group was significantly lower from day 3 through day 14 compared with that of the vehicle control group (P<.001). Adverse events were assessed as either unlikely to be related to study medication or unrelated to study medication. By including only those patients with microbiologically confirmed Candida infection, the

  3. The baby boom, the baby bust, and the housing market.

    PubMed

    Mankiw, N G; Weil, D N

    1989-05-01

    This paper explores the impact of demographic changes on the housing market in the US, 1st by reviewing the facts about the Baby Boom, 2nd by linking age and housing demand using census data for 1970 and 1980, 3rd by computing the effect of demand on price of housing and on the quantity of residential capital, and last by constructing a theoretical model to plot the predictability of the jump in demand caused by the Baby Boom. The Baby Boom in the U.S. lasted from 1946-1964, with a peak in 1957 when 4.3 million babies were born. In 1980 19.7% of the population were aged 20-30, compared to 13.3% in 1960. Demand for housing was modeled for a given household from census data, resulting in the finding that demand rises sharply at age 20-30, then declines after age 40 by 1% per year. Thus between 1970 and 1980 the real value of housing for an adult at any given age jumped 50%, while the real disposable personal income per capita rose 22%. The structure of demand is such that the swelling in the rate of growth in housing demand peaked in 1980, with a rate of 1.66% per year. Housing demand and real price of housing were highly correlated and inelastic. If this relationship holds in the future, the real price of housing should fall about 3% per year, or 47% by 2007. The theoretical model, a variation of the Poterba model, ignoring inflation and taxation, suggests that fluctuations in prices caused by changes in demand are not foreseen by the market, even though they are predictable in principle 20 years in advance. As the effects of falling housing prices become apparent, there may be a potential for economic instability, but people may be induced to save more because their homes will no longer provide the funds for retirement.

  4. ["Designer baby" changed to French for "double hope baby"].

    PubMed

    Fagniez, P-L; Loriau, J; Tayar, C

    2005-10-01

    Scientific advances during the last decades regarding potential intervention on embryos arouse many questions in society to prepare the ground concerning the limits that should be set for these practices. For the first time in 1994, a parliamentary proceeding allowed the definition of a French model of bioethics through laws of the same name. These laws, among others, authorized in a well and strictly defined setting the practice of preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD). Because of technical progress concerning PGD, new questions arose, especially concerning the accomplishment of designer babies. The French Chamber of Representatives came in with a new law that banishes the concept of designer babies and replaces it with another concept: double hope babies, in French "bébé du double espoir". A first hope of a pregnancy giving birth to a healthy child and the second being that this child conceived with the aid of PGD could help treat an elder brother. Because of the issuing of two specific laws in a ten years interval, France occupies a privileged place in a Europe where bioethical issues continue to be debated, particularly PGD.

  5. ["Designer baby" changed to French for "double hope baby"].

    PubMed

    Fagniez, P-L; Loriau, J; Tayar, C

    2005-10-01

    Scientific advances during the last decades regarding potential intervention on embryos arouse many questions in society to prepare the ground concerning the limits that should be set for these practices. For the first time in 1994, a parliamentary proceeding allowed the definition of a French model of bioethics through laws of the same name. These laws, among others, authorized in a well and strictly defined setting the practice of preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD). Because of technical progress concerning PGD, new questions arose, especially concerning the accomplishment of designer babies. The French Chamber of Representatives came in with a new law that banishes the concept of designer babies and replaces it with another concept: double hope babies, in French "bébé du double espoir". A first hope of a pregnancy giving birth to a healthy child and the second being that this child conceived with the aid of PGD could help treat an elder brother. Because of the issuing of two specific laws in a ten years interval, France occupies a privileged place in a Europe where bioethical issues continue to be debated, particularly PGD. PMID:16139550

  6. DIAPER Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. DeLauro, Rosa L. [D-CT-3

    2011-10-06

    11/18/2011 Referred to the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Elementary, and Secondary Education. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  7. Diaper Rash

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2006-2013 Logical Images, Inc. All rights reserved. Advertising Notice This Site and third parties who place ... would like to obtain more information about these advertising practices and to make choices about online behavioral ...

  8. Baby universes in string theory

    SciTech Connect

    Dijkgraaf, Robbert; Gopakumar, Rajesh; Ooguri, Hirosi; Vafa, Cumrun

    2006-03-15

    We argue that the holographic description of four-dimensional Bogomol'nyi-Prasad-Sommerfield black holes naturally includes multicenter solutions. This suggests that the holographic dual to the gauge theory is not a single AdS{sub 2}xS{sup 2} but a coherent ensemble of them. We verify this in a particular class of examples, where the two-dimensional Yang-Mills theory gives a holographic description of the black holes obtained by branes wrapping Calabi-Yau cycles. Using the free fermionic formulation, we show that O(e{sup -N}) nonperturbative effects entangle the two Fermi surfaces. In an Euclidean description, the wave function of the multicenter black holes gets mapped to the Hartle-Hawking wave function of baby universes. This provides a concrete realization, within string theory, of effects that can be interpreted as the creation of baby universes. We find that, at least in the case we study, the baby universes do not lead to a loss of quantum coherence, in accord with general arguments.

  9. Comparative outcome of low birth weight babies.

    PubMed

    Das, B K; Mishra, R N; Mishra, O P; Bhargava, V; Prakash, A

    1993-01-01

    One hundred and fifty six babies with birth weight between 1500-2000 g and 103 full term-appropriate for gestational age (FT-AGA) babies delivered at University Hospital, District Hospital and village homes were included for a comparative study of mortality, morbidity and growth pattern. The low birth weight (LBW) babies from the three centres had similar birth weight and gestational age. Neonatal mortality rates for the LBW babies were similar at the three centres. The main cause of death were infections and aspiration with rates again being similar. Diarrhea and respiratory tract infections were common causes of morbidity. The mortality rates for the LBW babies were significantly higher as compared to FT-AGA babies irrespective of the place of delivery. The incidence of morbidities like diarrhea and respiratory infections were also higher in LBW babies. However, the differences were statistically significant mostly in the preterm group. The weight gain of all LBW babies was similar up to 3 months of age. The findings of an identical outcome for the LBW babies at village level to those managed at hospitals is an encouraging trend to increasing domiciliary care for LBW babies. PMID:8406701

  10. 5. FIRST FLOOR INTERIOR, NITROGEN MACHINERY, MACHINERY ROOM (SEE N4) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. FIRST FLOOR INTERIOR, NITROGEN MACHINERY, MACHINERY ROOM (SEE N-4) FROM EASTERN ENTRANCE, LOOKING EAST. - Oakland Naval Supply Center, Cold Storage Warehouse, South of C Street between First & Second Street, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  11. Field trials of the Baby Check score card: mothers scoring their babies at home.

    PubMed

    Thornton, A J; Morley, C J; Green, S J; Cole, T J; Walker, K A; Bonnett, J M

    1991-01-01

    The Baby Check score card has been developed to help parents and health professionals grade the severity of acute illness in babies. This paper reports the results of two field trials in which mothers used Baby Check at home, 104 mothers scoring their babies daily for a week and 56 using it for six months. They all found Baby Check easy to use, between 68% and 81% found it useful, and 96% would recommended it to others. Over 70% of those using it daily used it very competently. Those using it infrequently did less well, suggesting that familiarity with the assessment is important. The scores obtained show that Baby Check's use would not increase the number of mothers seeking medical advice. With introduction and practice most mothers should be able to use Baby Check effectively. It should help them assess their babies' illnesses and make appropriate decisions about seeking medical advice.

  12. Can Babies Learn to Read? A Randomized Trial of Baby Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neuman, Susan B.; Kaefer, Tanya; Pinkham, Ashley; Strouse, Gabrielle

    2014-01-01

    Targeted to children as young as 3 months old, there is a growing number of baby media products that claim to teach babies to read. This randomized controlled trial was designed to examine this claim by investigating the effects of a best-selling baby media product on reading development. One hundred and seventeen infants, ages 9 to 18 months,…

  13. Quantitation of baby wipes lotion transfer to premature and neonatal skin.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Md Monir; Jones, Jennifer M; Dey, Swatee; Carr, Gregory J; Visscher, Marty O

    2015-10-01

    Exposure to topically applied substances occurs routinely in premature and hospitalized infant care. Safety determinations are most accurate when exposures are based on appropriately designed studies to capture variations in practice patterns and population heterogeneity. Current safety assessments may not reflect actual practice resulting in overly conservative or understated default assumptions for toxicological determinations. We quantified the amount of baby wipes lotion transferred to premature and term neonatal skin as grams/kg body weight/day. We observed the soil type and number of wipes used for skin cleansing and measured lotion transfer from one wipe applied to freshly clean, dry skin. A Bayesian imputation approach was applied to compute lotion exposure and produce summary statistics. Model covariates were age and weight at evaluation, gender, soil type, soil amount, and number of diaper changes per day. Lotion transfer was measured for 66 premature and 55 term neonates with 449 and 254 evaluations, respectively. The wipes per day was 12.52 overall (all infants and soils), 12.78 for premature and 12.21 for term neonates. Lotion transfer was 0.20 g/kg/day (95th percentile) overall, 0.21 for premature and 0.19 for term neonates. The statistical and experimental methodology represents an effective strategy for determining exposure and assessing risk. PMID:26285167

  14. Quantitation of baby wipes lotion transfer to premature and neonatal skin.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Md Monir; Jones, Jennifer M; Dey, Swatee; Carr, Gregory J; Visscher, Marty O

    2015-10-01

    Exposure to topically applied substances occurs routinely in premature and hospitalized infant care. Safety determinations are most accurate when exposures are based on appropriately designed studies to capture variations in practice patterns and population heterogeneity. Current safety assessments may not reflect actual practice resulting in overly conservative or understated default assumptions for toxicological determinations. We quantified the amount of baby wipes lotion transferred to premature and term neonatal skin as grams/kg body weight/day. We observed the soil type and number of wipes used for skin cleansing and measured lotion transfer from one wipe applied to freshly clean, dry skin. A Bayesian imputation approach was applied to compute lotion exposure and produce summary statistics. Model covariates were age and weight at evaluation, gender, soil type, soil amount, and number of diaper changes per day. Lotion transfer was measured for 66 premature and 55 term neonates with 449 and 254 evaluations, respectively. The wipes per day was 12.52 overall (all infants and soils), 12.78 for premature and 12.21 for term neonates. Lotion transfer was 0.20 g/kg/day (95th percentile) overall, 0.21 for premature and 0.19 for term neonates. The statistical and experimental methodology represents an effective strategy for determining exposure and assessing risk.

  15. Stop experimenting on my baby!

    PubMed

    Holzman, I R

    1999-09-01

    Having a small sick baby in a neonatal intensive care unit can be an extremely difficult experience for any family. A minority family brings to this setting the additional burden of a concern that racism may affect the care their child receives. While the technology may be overwhelming, the unique rules and an apparent disparity in the enforcement of these rules can suggest discrimination. In some cases, these parental perceptions lead to a charge of experimentation. An increased understanding by health care providers of the cultural differences and life experiences that families bring to stressful situations can improve communication.

  16. Water Babies: an evolutionary parable.

    PubMed

    Beatty, John; Hale, Piers J

    2008-12-01

    The nineteenth-century Anglican theologian Charles Kingsley was immediately impressed by Darwin's Origin of Species. Whilst many in Victorian Britain reacted against the idea of natural selection, Kingsley saw in the contingency of selection a divinely ordained imperative for human endeavour, not least the pursuit of scientific knowledge. Here, Kingsley believed, was a crucial insight into the seemingly indifferent laws of nature, one that humankind could use to elevate themselves to ever-greater heights. Kingsley chose to teach these lessons about the moral nature of evolution through 'Water Babies', one of the most charming and enduring of children's fairy tales.

  17. Water Babies: an evolutionary parable.

    PubMed

    Beatty, John; Hale, Piers J

    2008-12-01

    The nineteenth-century Anglican theologian Charles Kingsley was immediately impressed by Darwin's Origin of Species. Whilst many in Victorian Britain reacted against the idea of natural selection, Kingsley saw in the contingency of selection a divinely ordained imperative for human endeavour, not least the pursuit of scientific knowledge. Here, Kingsley believed, was a crucial insight into the seemingly indifferent laws of nature, one that humankind could use to elevate themselves to ever-greater heights. Kingsley chose to teach these lessons about the moral nature of evolution through 'Water Babies', one of the most charming and enduring of children's fairy tales. PMID:18995909

  18. 46 CFR 169.241 - Machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Machinery. 169.241 Section 169.241 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Inspection and Certification Inspections § 169.241 Machinery. (a) At each inspection for certification and periodic...

  19. 46 CFR 169.241 - Machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Machinery. 169.241 Section 169.241 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Inspection and Certification Inspections § 169.241 Machinery. (a) At each inspection for certification and periodic...

  20. 46 CFR 169.241 - Machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Machinery. 169.241 Section 169.241 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Inspection and Certification Inspections § 169.241 Machinery. (a) At each inspection for certification and periodic...

  1. 46 CFR 169.241 - Machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Machinery. 169.241 Section 169.241 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Inspection and Certification Inspections § 169.241 Machinery. (a) At each inspection for certification and periodic...

  2. 46 CFR 115.804 - Machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Machinery. 115.804 Section 115.804 Shipping COAST GUARD....804 Machinery. At each initial and subsequent inspection for certification of a vessel, the owner or managing operator shall be prepared to conduct tests and have the vessel ready for inspections of...

  3. 46 CFR 58.01-45 - Machinery space, ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Machinery space, ventilation. 58.01-45 Section 58.01-45... MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS General Requirements § 58.01-45 Machinery space, ventilation. Each machinery space must be ventilated to ensure that, when machinery or boilers are operating at full power in...

  4. 46 CFR 58.01-40 - Machinery, angles of inclination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Machinery, angles of inclination. 58.01-40 Section 58.01... AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS General Requirements § 58.01-40 Machinery, angles of inclination. (a) Propulsion machinery and all auxiliary machinery essential to the propulsion and safety of the vessel must...

  5. 46 CFR 58.01-45 - Machinery space, ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Machinery space, ventilation. 58.01-45 Section 58.01-45... MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS General Requirements § 58.01-45 Machinery space, ventilation. Each machinery space must be ventilated to ensure that, when machinery or boilers are operating at full power in...

  6. 46 CFR 58.01-45 - Machinery space, ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Machinery space, ventilation. 58.01-45 Section 58.01-45... MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS General Requirements § 58.01-45 Machinery space, ventilation. Each machinery space must be ventilated to ensure that, when machinery or boilers are operating at full power in...

  7. 46 CFR 58.01-45 - Machinery space, ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Machinery space, ventilation. 58.01-45 Section 58.01-45... MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS General Requirements § 58.01-45 Machinery space, ventilation. Each machinery space must be ventilated to ensure that, when machinery or boilers are operating at full power in...

  8. 46 CFR 58.01-45 - Machinery space, ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Machinery space, ventilation. 58.01-45 Section 58.01-45... MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS General Requirements § 58.01-45 Machinery space, ventilation. Each machinery space must be ventilated to ensure that, when machinery or boilers are operating at full power in...

  9. Libraries Are for Babies, Too! [Videotape.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Library Association Video/Library Video Network, Towson, MD.

    This video, produced and shot in Maine libraries, provides a tour of five different approaches to library services for babies. Highlights include: "Finger Fun for Babies" at the Portland Public Library; "Small Is Beautiful" at the Wells Library; unique outreach activities sponsored by the Casco Library and Warren Library in Westbrook; and a…

  10. Motor Development Programming in Trisomic-21 Babies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanz, Teresa; Menendez, Javier; Rosique, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    The present study contributes to the understanding of gross motor development in babies with Down's syndrome. Also, it facilitates the comprehension of the efficiency of the early motor stimulation as well as of beginning it as early as possible. We worked with two groups of babies with Down's syndrome, beginning the early motor training in each…

  11. Finding a Doctor for Your New Baby

    MedlinePlus

    ... About Zika & Pregnancy Finding a Doctor for Your New Baby KidsHealth > For Parents > Finding a Doctor for Your New Baby Print A A A Text Size What's ... recommendations. If you've recently moved to a new area, you may not have personal or social ...

  12. Welcoming a New Baby into Your Family

    MedlinePlus

    ... Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Welcoming a New Baby Into Your Family KidsHealth > For Kids > Welcoming a New Baby Into Your Family Print A A A ... familia If you're going to have a new brother or sister, you'll want to know ...

  13. Designer Babies: Eugenics Repackaged or Consumer Options?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baird, Stephen L.

    2007-01-01

    "Designer babies" is a term used by journalists and commentators--not by scientists--to describe several different reproductive technologies. These technologies have one thing in common: they give parents more control over what their offspring will be like. Designer babies are made possible by progress in three fields: (1) Advanced Reproductive…

  14. Visiting your baby in the NICU

    MedlinePlus

    ... you are having a hard time with your emotions, ask for the social worker in the NICU. Or, talk to your doctor. It is ok to ask for help. By taking care of yourself, you are taking care of your baby too. Your baby needs your love and touch to grow and improve.

  15. Baby Blues’ highbush blueberry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Baby Blues’ is a new highbush blueberry from the U.S. Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service (USDA-ARS) breeding program in Corvallis, OR, released in cooperation with Oregon State University’s Agricultural Experiment Station. ‘Baby Blues’ is a vigorous, high-yielding, very small-f...

  16. Rich Responses Help Babies Learn and Thrive

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillespie, Linda; Parlakian, Rebecca

    2009-01-01

    This article reminds infant care teachers of the ways thoughtful interactions between adults and very young children teach babies and toddlers who they are as individuals. "When teachers take the time to respond respectfully and thoughtfully, babies and young children learn and thrive."

  17. The "baby lung" became an adult.

    PubMed

    Gattinoni, Luciano; Marini, John J; Pesenti, Antonio; Quintel, Michael; Mancebo, Jordi; Brochard, Laurent

    2016-05-01

    The baby lung was originally defined as the fraction of lung parenchyma that, in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), still maintains normal inflation. Its size obviously depends on ARDS severity and relates to the compliance of the respiratory system. CO2 clearance and blood oxygenation primarily occur within the baby lung. While the specific compliance suggests the intrinsic mechanical characteristics to be nearly normal, evidence from positron emission tomography suggests that at least a part of the well-aerated baby lung is inflamed. The baby lung is more a functional concept than an anatomical one; in fact, in the prone position, the baby lung "shifts" from the ventral lung regions toward the dorsal lung regions while usually increasing its size. This change is associated with better gas exchange, more homogeneously distributed trans-pulmonary forces, and a survival advantage. Positive end expiratory pressure also increases the baby lung size, both allowing better inflation of already open units and adding new pulmonary units. Viewed as surrogates of stress and strain, tidal volume and plateau pressures are better tailored to baby lung size than to ideal body weight. Although less information is available for the baby lung during spontaneous breathing efforts, the general principles regulating the safety of ventilation are also applicable under these conditions. PMID:26781952

  18. Binocular Fixation in the Newborn Baby

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slater, Alan M.; Findlay, John M.

    1975-01-01

    Three experiments are reported in which 15 babies were presented with visual stimuli which varied in shape and distance from the eye. Results indicated that the majority of subjects binocularly fixated all three stimuli and it was concluded that the newborn baby has the basic requirements for binocular vision. (Author/GO)

  19. Infants and Toddlers: Soothing and Comforting Babies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honig, Alice Sterling

    2004-01-01

    Babies thrive on security. In early months, secure feelings stem from being warm, cuddled closely, and comfortable in their tummies (and in having clean bottoms!). In this article, the author discusses how to soothe infants and toddlers. The strategies to help ease babies' distress are described. Some of the recommended strategies include: (1) to…

  20. Resuscitating the Baby after Shoulder Dystocia

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background. To propose hypovolemic shock as a possible explanation for the failure to resuscitate some babies after shoulder dystocia and to suggest a change in clinical practice. Case Presentation. Two cases are presented in which severe shoulder dystocia was resolved within five minutes. Both babies were born without a heartbeat. Despite standard resuscitation by expert neonatologists, no heartbeat was obtained until volume resuscitation was started, at 25 minutes in the first case and 11 minutes in the second. After volume resuscitation circulation was restored, there was profound brain damage and the babies died. Conclusion. Unsuspected hypovolemic shock may explain some cases of failed resuscitation after shoulder dystocia. This may require a change in clinical practice. Rather than immediately clamping the cord after the baby is delivered, it is proposed that (1) the obstetrician delay cord clamping to allow autotransfusion of the baby from the placenta and (2) the neonatal resuscitators give volume much sooner. PMID:27493815

  1. The microRNA Machinery.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Thomas C

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short (~22 nucleotides) single-stranded RNA molecules that primarily function to negatively regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. miRNAs have thus been implicated in the regulation of a wide variety of normal cell functions and pathophysiological conditions. The miRNA machinery consists of a series of protein complexes which act to: (1) cleave the precursor-miRNA hairpin from its primary transcript (i.e. DROSHA and DGCR8); (2) traffic the miRNA hairpin between nucleus and cytoplasm (i.e. XPO5); (3) remove the loop sequence of the hairpin by a second nucleolytic cleavage reaction (i.e. DICER1); (4) facilitate loading of the mature miRNA sequence into an Argonaute protein (typically AGO2) as part of the RNA-Induced Silencing Complex (RISC); (5) guide the loaded RISC complex to complementary, or semi-complementary, target transcripts and (6) facilitate gene silencing via one of several possible mechanisms. PMID:26662984

  2. Diapers in war zones: ethnomedical factors in acute childhood gastroenteritis in Peshawar, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Zaidi, Saira H; Smith-Morris, Carolyn

    2015-01-01

    This article considers ethnomedical knowledge and practices among parents related to contraction of acute gastroenteritis among children in Peshawar, Pakistan. Research methods included analysis of the Emergency Pediatric Services' admission register, a structured interview administered to 47 parents of patients seen in the Khyber Medical College Teaching Hospital, semi-structured interviews of 12 staff, and four home visits among families with children treated at the hospital. The use of native research assistants and participant observation contributed to the reliability of the findings, though the ethnographic, home-visit sample is small. Our research indicated that infection rates are exacerbated in homes through two culturally salient practices and one socioeconomic condition. Various misconceptions propagate the recurrence or perserverance of acute gastroenteritis including assumptions about teething leading to poor knowledge of disease etiology, rehydration solutions leading to increased severity of disease, and diaper usage leading to the spread of disease. In our Discussion, we suggest how hospital structures of authority and gender hierarchy may impact hospital interactions, the flow of information, and its respective importance to the patient's parents leading to possible propagation of disease. These ethnographic data offer a relatively brief but targeted course of action to improve the effectiveness of prevention and treatment efforts.

  3. Efficacy of Traditional Medicine Product Henna and Hydrocortisone on Diaper Dermatitis in Infants

    PubMed Central

    Keshavarz, Abdollah; Zeinaloo, Ali Akbar; Mahram, Manoochehr; Mohammadi, Navid; Sadeghpour, Omid; Maleki, Mohammad Reza

    2016-01-01

    Background Diaper dermatitis (DD) is a common inflammatory disorder in infants, including newborns. Objectives This study aimed to compare the effects of a traditional medicine product (containing natural henna oil 25%) and hydrocortisone 1% cream on DD in infants. Patients and Methods In a triple-blind, randomized trial, 82 children aged two years or less were randomly divided into two groups of 41 children each to receive either hydrocortisone ointment or henna medicinal product. Infants were treated 3 times a day for 5 days. The severity of dermatitis was assessed on the first, third, and fifth days using a six-point scale. The study was conducted in 2013 in a children teaching hospital in Qazvin, Iran. Results Both groups showed an improvement in the severity of DD (mean DD severity on the first, third and fifth days, respectively, was 3.20, 1.39, and 1.20 in the henna group versus 3.20, 2.05, and 1.90 in the hydrocortisone group; P < 0.001). The henna group showed a better response when compared with the hydrocortisone group: the rate of improvement on the fifth day of treatment was 90.2% (37 of 41 children without erythema) in the former versus 61% (25 of 41 patients) in the latter (P = 0.042). No significant side effects were observed in both the groups. Conclusions Henna, a traditional medicine product, can be considered an effective and appropriate treatment for DD in infants and children. PMID:27478628

  4. Diapers in War Zones: Ethnomedical Factors in Acute Childhood Gastroenteritis in Peshawar, Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Zaidi, Saira H.; Smith-Morris, Carolyn

    2015-01-01

    This article considers ethnomedical knowledge and practices among parents related to contraction of acute gastroenteritis among children in Peshawar, Pakistan. Research methods included analysis of the Emergency Pediatric Services’ admission register, a structured interview administered to 47 parents of patients seen in the Khyber Medical College Teaching Hospital, semi-structured interviews of 12 staff, and four home visits among families with children treated at the hospital. The use of native research assistants and participant observation contributed to the reliability of the findings, though the ethnographic, home-visit sample is small. Our research indicated that infection rates are exacerbated in homes through two culturally salient practices and one socioeconomic condition. Various misconceptions propagate the recurrence or perserverance of acute gastroenteritis including assumptions about teething leading to poor knowledge of disease etiology, rehydration solutions leading to increased severity of disease, and diaper usage leading to the spread of disease. In our Discussion, we suggest how hospital structures of authority and gender hierarchy may impact hospital interactions, the flow of information, and its respective importance to the patient’s parents leading to possible propagation of disease. These ethnographic data offer a relatively brief but targeted course of action to improve the effectiveness of prevention and treatment efforts. PMID:25768117

  5. Diapers in war zones: ethnomedical factors in acute childhood gastroenteritis in Peshawar, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Zaidi, Saira H; Smith-Morris, Carolyn

    2015-01-01

    This article considers ethnomedical knowledge and practices among parents related to contraction of acute gastroenteritis among children in Peshawar, Pakistan. Research methods included analysis of the Emergency Pediatric Services' admission register, a structured interview administered to 47 parents of patients seen in the Khyber Medical College Teaching Hospital, semi-structured interviews of 12 staff, and four home visits among families with children treated at the hospital. The use of native research assistants and participant observation contributed to the reliability of the findings, though the ethnographic, home-visit sample is small. Our research indicated that infection rates are exacerbated in homes through two culturally salient practices and one socioeconomic condition. Various misconceptions propagate the recurrence or perserverance of acute gastroenteritis including assumptions about teething leading to poor knowledge of disease etiology, rehydration solutions leading to increased severity of disease, and diaper usage leading to the spread of disease. In our Discussion, we suggest how hospital structures of authority and gender hierarchy may impact hospital interactions, the flow of information, and its respective importance to the patient's parents leading to possible propagation of disease. These ethnographic data offer a relatively brief but targeted course of action to improve the effectiveness of prevention and treatment efforts. PMID:25768117

  6. Vibrational diagnostics of rotating machinery malfunctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muszynska, A.

    The diagnostics of rotating machinery malfunction, using vibration data in correlation with operational process data is outlined. The advantages of vibration monitoring systems as a part of preventive/predictive maintenance programs are emphasized. The basic principles of machinery diagnostics, and several specific malfunction symptoms supported by simple mathematical models are given. These malfunctions include unbalance, excessive radial preload, rotor to stator rubbing, fluid induced vibrations, loose stationary and rotating parts, coupled torsional/lateral vibration excitation, and rotor cracking. The experimental results and actual field data illustrate the rotor vibration responses for individual malfunctions. Application of synchronous and nonsynchronous perturbation testing used for identification of basic dynamic characteristics of machinery is presented. Future advancements in vibration monitoring and diagnostics of rotating machinery health are discussed. The basic instrumentation for machine monitoring is outlined.

  7. Babies, Television and Videos: How Did We Get Here?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wartella, Ellen; Richert, Rebekah A.; Robb, Michael B.

    2010-01-01

    Baby media have exploded in the past decade, and children younger than 2 are showing increased use of these baby media. This paper examines the historical evidence of babies' use of television since the 1950s as well as the various factors that have given rise to the current increase in screen media for babies. We also consider the ubiquitous role…

  8. Music Therapy Helps Preemie Babies Thrive

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160627.html Music Therapy Helps Preemie Babies Thrive Mom's singing helps ... of over a dozen clinical trials, found that music therapy helped stabilize premature newborns' breathing rate during ...

  9. Minding the baby a reflective parenting program.

    PubMed

    Slade, Arietta; Sadler, Lois; De Dios-Kenn, Cheryl; Webb, Denise; Currier-Ezepchick, Janice; Mayes, Linda

    2005-01-01

    Minding the Baby, an interdisciplinary, relationship based home visiting program, was initiated to help young, at-risk new mothers keep their babies (and themselves) "in mind" in a variety of ways. The intervention--delivered by a team that includes a nurse practitioner and clinical social worker--uses a mentalization based approach; that is, we work with mothers and babies in a variety of ways to develop mothers' reflective capacities. This approach--which is an adaptation of both nurse home visiting and infant-parent psychotherapy models--seems particularly well suited to highly traumatized mothers and their families, as it is aimed at addressing the particular relationship disruptions that stem from mothers' early trauma and derailed attachment history. We discuss the history of psychoanalytically oriented and attachment based mother-infant intervention, the theoretical assumptions of mentalization theory, and provide an overview of the Minding the Baby program. The treatments of two teenage mothers and their infants are described.

  10. Preparing Your Family for a New Baby

    MedlinePlus

    ... for a new sibling include Look at picture books about a new baby . At the very least, ... he starts asking about mom's growing "stomach." Picture books for preschoolers can be very helpful. So can ...

  11. Questions Parents Ask about Baby Shots

    MedlinePlus

    ... baby against these diseases? No. Breastfeeding offers temporary immunity against some minor infections like colds, but it ... preferable to “artificial” vaccination, leading to a “natural” immunity. Some even arrange chickenpox “parties” to ensure their ...

  12. Why lions roar like babies cry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titze, Ingo

    2012-11-01

    When an angry lion roars, the sounds it emits can terrify anyone within earshot. But, as Ingo Titze explains, the properties of a lion's roar have some surprising similarities with those of a crying baby.

  13. Help Protect Babies from Whooping Cough

    MedlinePlus

    ... cough infographic . Keep Your Baby's Whooping Cough Vaccine Current Getting the whooping cough vaccine during pregnancy provides ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Past Emails Language: English Español (Spanish) File Formats Help: How do ...

  14. Abusive Head Trauma (Shaken Baby Syndrome)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ones & When? Smart School Lunches Emmy-Nominated Video "Cerebral Palsy: Shannon's Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & ... problems with memory and attention severe mental retardation cerebral palsy Even in milder cases, in which babies look ...

  15. Mineral profile of Spanish commercial baby food.

    PubMed

    Mir-Marqués, Alba; González-Masó, Anna; Cervera, M Luisa; de la Guardia, Miguel

    2015-04-01

    Commercial baby foods are an important part of the daily intake of babies from 6 to 12 months. The mineral profile of commercial baby foods in Spain was determined to establish levels of essential and non-essential elements, and their contribution to adequate intake (AI) and estimated average requirement (EAR). Thirty-five jars of commercial foods containing meat, fish, vegetables and fruit were obtained from the Spanish market and the mineral composition determined for 14 elements. In general, the baby foods analysed were sufficient for an adequate mineral intake, but contributions to AI and EAR for iron, zinc and calcium were very low (5-20%, 10-60% and 10-70%, respectively). This deficiency could be associated with growth problems or diseases in adulthood, and fortification of commercial products is recommended.

  16. Your Baby's Development: The First Trimester

    MedlinePlus

    ... During this stage, the baby is called an embryo. What changes occur during the embryonic stage? During ... parts begin to develop. The cells of the embryo (called embryonic stem cells) multiply and change into ...

  17. Will Stress during Pregnancy Affect My Baby?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Research Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications Will stress during pregnancy affect my baby? Skip sharing on ... health care provider during your prenatal visits. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and Pregnancy PTSD is a more ...

  18. Healthy Family 2009: Bringing in Baby

    MedlinePlus

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Healthy Family 2009 Bringing in Baby Past Issues / Winter 2009 ... Down syndrome and other common genetic disorders, inherited family conditions, such as Duchenne muscular dystrophy, or disorders ...

  19. Protect Your Baby from Group B Strep!

    MedlinePlus

    ... from spreading to your baby. The antibiotic (usually penicillin) is given to you through an IV (in ... vein) during childbirth. If you are allergic to penicillin, there are other antibiotics to help treat you ...

  20. Protect Yourself and Your Baby from Dengue

    MedlinePlus

    ... prevent dengue virus infection during pregnancy » Use mosquito repellents with up to 50% DEET, picaridin, IR3535 or ... For babies over 2 months of age, use repellents with up to 30% DEET, picaridin or IR3535. ...

  1. 46 CFR 174.195 - Bulkheads in machinery spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Bulkheads in machinery spaces. 174.195 Section 174.195... in machinery spaces. (a) The bulkhead in each machinery space of each OSV must be watertight to the bulkhead deck. (b) Each penetration of, and each opening in, a bulkhead in a machinery space must— (1)...

  2. 46 CFR 45.149 - Machinery space openings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Machinery space openings. 45.149 Section 45.149 Shipping... Assignment § 45.149 Machinery space openings. (a) Machinery space openings in position 1 or 2 must be framed... funnel or machinery space ventilator that must be kept open for the essential operations of the ship...

  3. 46 CFR 42.15-35 - Machinery space openings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Machinery space openings. 42.15-35 Section 42.15-35... BY SEA Conditions of Assignment of Freeboard § 42.15-35 Machinery space openings. (a) Machinery space..., funnel, or machinery space ventilators in an exposed position on the freeboard or superstructure...

  4. 46 CFR 58.01-35 - Main propulsion auxiliary machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Main propulsion auxiliary machinery. 58.01-35 Section 58... AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS General Requirements § 58.01-35 Main propulsion auxiliary machinery. Auxiliary machinery vital to the main propulsion system must be provided in duplicate unless the...

  5. 46 CFR 58.01-35 - Main propulsion auxiliary machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Main propulsion auxiliary machinery. 58.01-35 Section 58... AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS General Requirements § 58.01-35 Main propulsion auxiliary machinery. Auxiliary machinery vital to the main propulsion system must be provided in duplicate unless the...

  6. 46 CFR 58.01-35 - Main propulsion auxiliary machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Main propulsion auxiliary machinery. 58.01-35 Section 58... AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS General Requirements § 58.01-35 Main propulsion auxiliary machinery. Auxiliary machinery vital to the main propulsion system must be provided in duplicate unless the...

  7. 46 CFR 58.01-35 - Main propulsion auxiliary machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Main propulsion auxiliary machinery. 58.01-35 Section 58... AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS General Requirements § 58.01-35 Main propulsion auxiliary machinery. Auxiliary machinery vital to the main propulsion system must be provided in duplicate unless the...

  8. 46 CFR 58.01-35 - Main propulsion auxiliary machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Main propulsion auxiliary machinery. 58.01-35 Section 58... AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS General Requirements § 58.01-35 Main propulsion auxiliary machinery. Auxiliary machinery vital to the main propulsion system must be provided in duplicate unless the...

  9. 46 CFR 58.01-50 - Machinery space, noise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Machinery space, noise. 58.01-50 Section 58.01-50... MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS General Requirements § 58.01-50 Machinery space, noise. (a) Each machinery space must be designed to minimize the exposure of personnel to noise in accordance with IMO...

  10. 46 CFR 174.195 - Bulkheads in machinery spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bulkheads in machinery spaces. 174.195 Section 174.195... in machinery spaces. (a) The bulkhead in each machinery space of each OSV must be watertight to the bulkhead deck. (b) Each penetration of, and each opening in, a bulkhead in a machinery space must— (1)...

  11. 46 CFR 45.149 - Machinery space openings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Machinery space openings. 45.149 Section 45.149 Shipping... Assignment § 45.149 Machinery space openings. (a) Machinery space openings in position 1 or 2 must be framed... funnel or machinery space ventilator that must be kept open for the essential operations of the ship...

  12. 46 CFR 42.15-35 - Machinery space openings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Machinery space openings. 42.15-35 Section 42.15-35... BY SEA Conditions of Assignment of Freeboard § 42.15-35 Machinery space openings. (a) Machinery space..., funnel, or machinery space ventilators in an exposed position on the freeboard or superstructure...

  13. 46 CFR 45.149 - Machinery space openings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Machinery space openings. 45.149 Section 45.149 Shipping... Assignment § 45.149 Machinery space openings. (a) Machinery space openings in position 1 or 2 must be framed... funnel or machinery space ventilator that must be kept open for the essential operations of the ship...

  14. 46 CFR 42.15-35 - Machinery space openings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Machinery space openings. 42.15-35 Section 42.15-35... BY SEA Conditions of Assignment of Freeboard § 42.15-35 Machinery space openings. (a) Machinery space..., funnel, or machinery space ventilators in an exposed position on the freeboard or superstructure...

  15. 46 CFR 45.149 - Machinery space openings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Machinery space openings. 45.149 Section 45.149 Shipping... Assignment § 45.149 Machinery space openings. (a) Machinery space openings in position 1 or 2 must be framed... funnel or machinery space ventilator that must be kept open for the essential operations of the ship...

  16. 46 CFR 174.195 - Bulkheads in machinery spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Bulkheads in machinery spaces. 174.195 Section 174.195... in machinery spaces. (a) The bulkhead in each machinery space of each OSV must be watertight to the bulkhead deck. (b) Each penetration of, and each opening in, a bulkhead in a machinery space must— (1)...

  17. 46 CFR 42.15-35 - Machinery space openings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Machinery space openings. 42.15-35 Section 42.15-35... BY SEA Conditions of Assignment of Freeboard § 42.15-35 Machinery space openings. (a) Machinery space..., funnel, or machinery space ventilators in an exposed position on the freeboard or superstructure...

  18. 46 CFR 45.149 - Machinery space openings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Machinery space openings. 45.149 Section 45.149 Shipping... Assignment § 45.149 Machinery space openings. (a) Machinery space openings in position 1 or 2 must be framed... funnel or machinery space ventilator that must be kept open for the essential operations of the ship...

  19. 46 CFR 174.195 - Bulkheads in machinery spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Bulkheads in machinery spaces. 174.195 Section 174.195... in machinery spaces. (a) The bulkhead in each machinery space of each OSV must be watertight to the bulkhead deck. (b) Each penetration of, and each opening in, a bulkhead in a machinery space must— (1)...

  20. 46 CFR 174.195 - Bulkheads in machinery spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Bulkheads in machinery spaces. 174.195 Section 174.195... in machinery spaces. (a) The bulkhead in each machinery space of each OSV must be watertight to the bulkhead deck. (b) Each penetration of, and each opening in, a bulkhead in a machinery space must— (1)...

  1. Disposable baby wipes: efficacy and skin mildness.

    PubMed

    Odio, M; Streicher-Scott, J; Hansen, R C

    2001-04-01

    The results of a series of four clinical studies demonstrated that disposable baby wipes were milder to the skin than use of a cotton washcloth and water, recognized as a "gold standard" for skin mildness. Importantly, the baby wipes caused no significant change from the baseline value in any of the skin parameters examined. This observation verified that the test wipes are minimally disruptive to the epidermal barrier and thus suitable for use on intact or compromised, irritated skin. PMID:11917305

  2. Exact BPS bound for noncommutative baby Skyrmions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domrin, Andrei; Lechtenfeld, Olaf; Linares, Román; Maceda, Marco

    2013-11-01

    The noncommutative baby Skyrme model is a Moyal deformation of the two-dimensional sigma model plus a Skyrme term, with a group-valued or Grassmannian target. Exact abelian solitonic solutions have been identified analytically in this model, with a singular commutative limit. Inside any given Grassmannian, we establish a BPS bound for the energy functional, which is saturated by these baby Skyrmions. This asserts their stability for unit charge, as we also test in second-order perturbation theory.

  3. The ART of marketing babies.

    PubMed

    Qadeer, Imrana

    2010-01-01

    New legislation can be oppressive for a significant population depending upon the politics of its drafters. The current upsurge of the surrogacy trade in India, and the label of a "win-win" situation that it has acquired, points towards an unfettered commercialisation of assisted reproductive technology and the practice of surrogacy that is blinding its middle class users as well as providers, policy makers and law makers, and charging an imagination that is already caught up in spiralling consumerism. This paper analyses the Draft Assisted Reproductive Technology (Regulation) Bill and Rules, 2008, in the Indian socioeconomic context. It identifies the interests of the affected women, and examines the contradictions of the proposed Bill with their interests, as well as with current health and population policies, confining itself to the handling of surrogacy and not the entire content of the Bill. The bases of the analytical perspective used are: the context of poverty and the health needs of the Indian population; the need to locate surrogacy services within the overall public health service context and its epidemiological basis; the need to restrain direct human experimentation for the advancement of any technology; the use of safer methods; and, finally, the rights of surrogate mothers and their babies, in India, as opposed to the compulsion or dynamics of the medical market and reproductive tourism. PMID:22106569

  4. The ART of marketing babies.

    PubMed

    Qadeer, Imrana

    2010-01-01

    New legislation can be oppressive for a significant population depending upon the politics of its drafters. The current upsurge of the surrogacy trade in India, and the label of a "win-win" situation that it has acquired, points towards an unfettered commercialisation of assisted reproductive technology and the practice of surrogacy that is blinding its middle class users as well as providers, policy makers and law makers, and charging an imagination that is already caught up in spiralling consumerism. This paper analyses the Draft Assisted Reproductive Technology (Regulation) Bill and Rules, 2008, in the Indian socioeconomic context. It identifies the interests of the affected women, and examines the contradictions of the proposed Bill with their interests, as well as with current health and population policies, confining itself to the handling of surrogacy and not the entire content of the Bill. The bases of the analytical perspective used are: the context of poverty and the health needs of the Indian population; the need to locate surrogacy services within the overall public health service context and its epidemiological basis; the need to restrain direct human experimentation for the advancement of any technology; the use of safer methods; and, finally, the rights of surrogate mothers and their babies, in India, as opposed to the compulsion or dynamics of the medical market and reproductive tourism.

  5. When to transfuse preterm babies

    PubMed Central

    Bell, EF

    2009-01-01

    The physiological anaemia experienced by preterm babies is exacerbated by common care practices such as early clamping of the umbilical cord at birth and gradual exsanguination by phlebotomy for laboratory monitoring. The need for subsequent transfusion with red blood cells can be reduced by delaying cord clamping for 30–60 s in infants who do not require immediate resuscitation. The need for transfusions can be further reduced by limiting phlebotomy losses, providing good nutrition, and using standard guidelines for transfusion based on haemoglobin or haematocrit. What those guidelines should be is not clear. Analysis of two recent large clinical trials comparing restrictive and liberal transfusion guidelines leads to several conclusions. Restrictive transfusion guidelines may reduce the number of transfusions given, but there is no reduction in donor exposures if a single-donor transfusion programme is used. There is some evidence that more liberal transfusion guidelines may help to prevent brain injury, but information on the impact of transfusion practice on long-term outcome is lacking. Until further guidance emerges, transfusion thresholds lower than those used in the two trials should not be used, as there is no evidence that lower thresholds are safe. PMID:18653585

  6. Breast is best for babies.

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Alexander K. C.; Sauve, Reginald S.

    2005-01-01

    Breastfeeding is the optimal method of infant feeding. Breast milk provides almost all the necessary nutrients, growth factors and immunological components a healthy term infant needs, Other advantages of breastfeeding include reduction of incidences and severity of infections; prevention of allergies; possible enhancement of cognitive development; and prevention of obesity, hypertension and insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Health gains for breastfeeding mothers include lactation amenorrhea, early involution of the uterus, enhanced bonding between the mother and the infant, and reduction in incidence of ovarian and breast cancer. From the economic perspective, breastfeeding is less expensive than formula feeding. In most cases, maternal ingestion of medications and maternal infections are not contraindications to breastfeeding. Breastfeeding, however, is contraindicated in infants with galactosemia. The management of common breastfeeding issues, such as breast engorgement, sore nipples, mastitis and insufficient milk, is discussed. Breastfeeding should be initiated as soon after delivery as possible. To promote, protect and support breastfeeding, the World Health Organization (WHO) and the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) developed the Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI) 10 Steps to Successful Breastfeeding. Healthcare professionals have an important role to play in promoting and protecting breastfeeding. PMID:16080672

  7. ADJUSTMENT, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF CROP HARVESTING MACHINERY. AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY--SERVICE OCCUPATIONS, MODULE NUMBER 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center for Vocational and Technical Education.

    ONE OF A SERIES DESIGNED FOR HELPING TEACHERS PREPARE POSTSECONDARY-LEVEL STUDENTS FOR AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY SERVICE OCCUPATIONS AS PARTS MEN, MECHANICS, MECHANIC'S HELPERS, AND SERVICE SUPERVISORS, THIS GUIDE AIMS TO DEVELOP STUDENT COMPETENCY IN ADJUSTING, REPAIRING, AND MAINTAINING CROP HARVESTING MACHINERY. SUGGESTIONS FOR INTRODUCTION OF THE…

  8. ORGANIZATION AND MANAGEMENT OF MACHINERY DEALERSHIPS. AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY--SERVICE OCCUPATIONS, MODULE NUMBER 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center for Vocational and Technical Education.

    ONE OF A 16-UNIT SERIES DESIGNED TO HELP TEACHERS PREPARE POSTSECONDARY STUDENTS FOR AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY OCCUPATIONS AS PARTS MEN, MECHANICS, MECHANIC'S HELPERS, AND SERVICE SUPERVISORS, THIS MODULE AIMS TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE IMPORTANCE, METHODS, JOBS, AND JOB FUNCTIONS OF RETAIL AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY DEALERSHIPS. IT WAS DESIGNED…

  9. A Randomized Comparative Trial on the Therapeutic Efficacy of Topical Aloe vera and Calendula officinalis on Diaper Dermatitis in Children

    PubMed Central

    Panahi, Yunes; Sharif, Mohamad Reza; Sharif, Alireza; Beiraghdar, Fatemeh; Zahiri, Zahra; Amirchoopani, Golnoush; Marzony, Eisa Tahmasbpour; Sahebkar, Amirhossein

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. Diaper dermatitis (DD) is a common inflammatory disorder among children and infants. The objective of the present randomized and double-blind trial was to compare the therapeutic efficacies of Aloe vera cream and Calendula officinalis ointment on the frequency and severity of DD in children. Methods. Sixty-six infants with DD (aged < 3 years) were randomized to receive either Aloe cream (n = 32) or Calendula ointment (n = 34). Infants were treated with these drugs 3 times a day for 10 days. The severity of dermatitis was graded at baseline as well as at the end of trial using a 5-point scale. The adverse effects of study medications were assessed during the trial. Results. Although improvement in the severity of DD was observed in both treatment groups (P < 0.001), patients receiving Calendula ointment had significantly fewer rash sites compared to Aloe group (P = 0.001). No adverse effect was reported from either of the medications. Discussion. The evidence from this study suggests that topical Aloe and in particular Calendula could serve as safe and effective treatment for the treatment of diaper dermatitis in infants. PMID:22606064

  10. Fathers & Babies: How Babies Grow and What They Need from You, from Birth to 18 Months.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marzollo, Jean

    This book provides fathers with specific developmental theory and practical skills and advice concerning how babies grow and what they need from fathers from the time they are born until they turn 18 months. Each chapter provides information and theory on age appropriate play activities and specific information on a baby's growth and developmental…

  11. Bringing Up Baby with Baby Signs: Language Ideologies and Socialization in Hearing Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pizer, Ginger; Walters, Keith; Meier, Richard P.

    2007-01-01

    This article presents an analysis of the functional roles of "baby signing" in three hearing families in the United States, as well as a discussion of the social and ideological implications of the practice. Baby signing fits neatly into the parenting ideologies prevalent in the professional class in the United States that value early…

  12. Baby Culture and the Curriculum of Consumption: A Critical Reading of the Film "Babies"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maudlin, Julie G.; Sandlin, Jennifer A.; Thaller, Jonel

    2012-01-01

    We focus on the recently emerging "baby culture" that is fostering a curriculum of consumption and consumerism among parents-to-be and infants aged zero-to-three. To gain insight into how the cultural artifacts, practices, and trends emerging from this demographic are shaping the way we think and act in a consumer culture, we investigate "Babies,"…

  13. Liver transplantation in small babies.

    PubMed

    Vázquez, J; Gámez, M; Santamaría, M L; Murcia, J; Díaz, M C; Camarena, C; Jara, P; Tovar, J A

    1993-08-01

    Pediatric liver transplantation is an effective treatment for end-stage liver disease with 1- and 5-year survivals approaching 90% and 70%, respectively. Survival is influenced by the recipient's age, weight, primary disease, vascular malformations, and nutritional status. Younger patients weighing less than 13 kg are considered to be a high-risk group. The aim of this article is to evaluate the impact of this group of patients on the overall results of our pediatric liver transplant program. From January 1986 through January 1992 we performed 76 liver transplants in 59 pediatric patients. Sixteen received a second graft and a third was required in one. Fourteen patients weighed less than 13 kg (mean, 11 kg; range, 6 to 13 kg). Their mean age was 12 months, with a range of 8 to 36 months. Indications for transplantation were: biliary atresia (9), Byler's disease (1), tyrosinemia (3), and alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency (1). The incidence of rejection in this group (52%) was not significantly different from that in other patients (61%). Ten episodes of acute rejection required only steroids: in one monoclonal antibodies were added. Five patients had a new graft implanted, four for hepatic artery thrombosis and one for primary liver nonfunction. Nine patients are alive (64%) with the follow-up time ranging from 2 to 56 months (mean, 31). Five patients died of multiorgan failure (3), portal vein thrombosis (1), and primary liver nonfunction (1). Four-year graft and patient survival rates were 47% and 64%, respectively. Small babies are a high-risk group in a pediatric liver transplant program.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. Babies behind bars; an Irish perspective.

    PubMed

    Enright, F; Boyle, T; Murphy, J

    2007-01-01

    In the Irish Prison service prison is not deemed suitable for babes. Rarely are mothers separated from their children in Ireland as they get temporary release renewed weekly to keep her at home with her baby. The governor explained the system of the prison which I detail below. The women's prison is now known as the Dochas Centre meaning hope, named so by the women themselves. We found that 14 babies lived in the centre with their mothers in the last 4 years. Their length of stay ranged from 2 days to 3 months. Of the 14 babies in prison, five were born to women who were pregnant on admission and the other nine brought their babies with them. Six women are separated from their children, in total 24, due to her incarceration. The implications are that a formal system is needed to plan the baby's admission, stay and discharge with formal links with HSE health and child protection systems where necessary. The HSE and the Irish prison's service are looking at further amalgamation or integration of health care into the prison system.

  15. Baby factories taint surrogacy in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Makinde, Olusesan Ayodeji; Makinde, Olufunmbi Olukemi; Olaleye, Olalekan; Brown, Brandon; Odimegwu, Clifford O

    2016-01-01

    The practice of reproductive medicine in Nigeria is facing new challenges with the proliferation of 'baby factories'. Baby factories are buildings, hospitals or orphanages that have been converted into places for young girls and women to give birth to children for sale on the black market, often to infertile couples, or into trafficking rings. This practice illegally provides outcomes (children) similar to surrogacy. While surrogacy has not been well accepted in this environment, the proliferation of baby factories further threatens its acceptance. The involvement of medical and allied health workers in the operation of baby factories raises ethical concerns. The lack of a properly defined legal framework and code of practice for surrogacy makes it difficult to prosecute baby factory owners, especially when they are health workers claiming to be providing services to clients. In this environment, surrogacy and other assisted reproductive techniques urgently require regulation in order to define when ethico-legal lines have been crossed in providing surrogacy or surrogacy-like services. PMID:26602942

  16. Six children with allergic contact dermatitis to methylisothiazolinone in wet wipes (baby wipes).

    PubMed

    Chang, Mary Wu; Nakrani, Radhika

    2014-02-01

    Methylchloroisothiazolinone/methylisothiazolinone (MCI/MI) is a combination preservative used in personal care and household products and is a common cause of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). Recently, MI alone, without MCI, has been increasingly used in consumer products in attempts to minimize allergic reactions. Wet wipes are extensively tested and traditionally believed to be innocuous. MI in wet wipes ("baby wipes") has not been previously reported to cause ACD in children in the United States. Only 1 previous report of ACD in a child in Belgium has been recently reported. We report 6 children with chronic, perianal/buttock, and facial eczematous dermatitis, refractory to multiple topical and oral antibiotics and corticosteroids. All tested positive to MCI/MI on patch testing. None wore diapers. All patients had been using wet wipes containing MI (without MCI) to affected areas. Discontinuation of wipes resulted in rapid and complete resolution. This is the first report of pediatric ACD to MI in wet wipes in the United States, and the largest series to date. ACD to MI in wet wipes is frequently misdiagnosed as eczema, impetigo, or psoriasis. Wet wipes are increasingly marketed in personal care products for all ages, and MI exposure and sensitization will likely increase. Dermatitis of the perianal, buttock, facial, and hand areas with a history of wet wipe use should raise suspicion of ACD to MI and prompt appropriate patch testing. Rapid resolution occurs after the allergen exposure is eliminated. All isothiozolinones should be avoided in personal care and household products for these patients. PMID:24420805

  17. EARNINGS IN THE MACHINERY INDUSTRIES, MID-1966.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BAUER, FREDERICK L.

    RESULTS OF A MID-1966 NATIONWIDE SURVEY BY THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS SHOWED THAT THE EARNINGS OF PRODUCTION AND RELATED NONELECTRICAL MACHINERY WORKERS IN 21 LARGE OCCUPATIONAL AREAS VARIED BY OCCUPATION, SIZE OF ESTABLISHMENT, AND COMMUNITY, INDUSTRY, LABOR-MANAGEMENT CONTRACT STATUS, AND LOCATION. THE AVERAGE HOURLY WAGE WAS $2.84. HIGHER…

  18. AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY--POWER. TEACHERS COPY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HILL, DURWIN; VENABLE, BENNY MAC

    THE PURPOSE OF THIS DOCUMENT IS TO PROVIDE A STUDY GUIDE FOR STUDENTS PREPARING FOR AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY OCCUPATIONS IN A VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE COOPERATIVE EDUCATION PROGRAM. THE MATERIAL WAS DESIGNED BY SUBJECT MATTER SPECIALISTS ON THE BASIS OF STATE ADVISORY COMMITTEE RECOMMENDATIONS, TRIED IN OPERATIONAL PROGRAMS, AND REFINED BY A TEACHER.…

  19. Measuring Leakage From Large, Complicated Machinery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bottemiller, S.

    1987-01-01

    Test chamber improvised from large bag. Cumulative sizes of leaks in large, complicated machinery measure with relatively simple variation of helium leak-checking technique. When used to check Space Shuttle main engine, new technique gave repeatable and correct results within 0.5 stdin.3/min (1.4 x 10 negative to the seventh power stdm3/s).

  20. Crying - excessive (0 to 6 months)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Discomfort or irritation from a wet or dirty diaper, excessive gas, or feeling cold Hunger or thirst ... or discomfort in a crying baby. When cloth diapers are used, look for diaper pins that have ...

  1. Baby Skyrme models without a potential term

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashcroft, Jennifer; Haberichter, Mareike; Krusch, Steffen

    2015-05-01

    We develop a one-parameter family of static baby Skyrme models that do not require a potential term to admit topological solitons. This is a novel property as the standard baby Skyrme model must contain a potential term in order to have stable soliton solutions, though the Skyrme model does not require this. Our new models satisfy an energy bound that is linear in terms of the topological charge and can be saturated in an extreme limit. They also satisfy a virial theorem that is shared by the Skyrme model. We calculate the solitons of our new models numerically and observe that their form depends significantly on the choice of parameter. In one extreme, we find compactons while at the other there is a scale invariant model in which solitons can be obtained exactly as solutions to a Bogomolny equation. We provide an initial investigation into these solitons and compare them with the baby Skyrmions of other models.

  2. VTR module: weaning foods for baby.

    PubMed

    1993-01-01

    Weaning should start when the baby turns 4 months old. At this stage (4 to 6 months), milk is no longer enough. Parents should introduce new foods which can meet the fast-increasing nutrition needs of the child. Among the latest materials produced by the Video Radio Production Division of the Nutrition Center of the Philippines is a VTR training module entitled "Karagdagang Pagkain ni Baby" (Weaning Foods for Baby), designed to strengthen this important aspect of child care. Specifically, the module seeks to encourage parents to introduce foods in addition to breastmilk to their 4 to 6 month old children and to start giving them "complete" meals from 6 months onward. It provides suggestions on the kinds of foods or food combinations to give to the baby and encourages home food production (backyard gardening, poultry-raising etc) to supply food requirements of growing children. Contents of the module include how-to's on weaning food preparation (mashing, straining, flaking, chopping, scraping, etc), prescriptions on the kinds and amounts of foods for babies; and food combinations (porridge or rice and a viand from the 3 basic food groups: energy-giving, body building and regulating). For instance, at 4 months old, the baby may be given lugao (porridge), soup and fruits; at 5 months, eggs, vegetables and beans; at 6 months, fish/meat, oil or gata (coconut oil). With a running time of 18 minutes, the module uses computer graphics to highlight food items, recommended amounts, and age group requirements in the text, and applies digital multi-effects to ensure smooth traditions. PMID:12287620

  3. VTR module: weaning foods for baby.

    PubMed

    1993-01-01

    Weaning should start when the baby turns 4 months old. At this stage (4 to 6 months), milk is no longer enough. Parents should introduce new foods which can meet the fast-increasing nutrition needs of the child. Among the latest materials produced by the Video Radio Production Division of the Nutrition Center of the Philippines is a VTR training module entitled "Karagdagang Pagkain ni Baby" (Weaning Foods for Baby), designed to strengthen this important aspect of child care. Specifically, the module seeks to encourage parents to introduce foods in addition to breastmilk to their 4 to 6 month old children and to start giving them "complete" meals from 6 months onward. It provides suggestions on the kinds of foods or food combinations to give to the baby and encourages home food production (backyard gardening, poultry-raising etc) to supply food requirements of growing children. Contents of the module include how-to's on weaning food preparation (mashing, straining, flaking, chopping, scraping, etc), prescriptions on the kinds and amounts of foods for babies; and food combinations (porridge or rice and a viand from the 3 basic food groups: energy-giving, body building and regulating). For instance, at 4 months old, the baby may be given lugao (porridge), soup and fruits; at 5 months, eggs, vegetables and beans; at 6 months, fish/meat, oil or gata (coconut oil). With a running time of 18 minutes, the module uses computer graphics to highlight food items, recommended amounts, and age group requirements in the text, and applies digital multi-effects to ensure smooth traditions.

  4. Migration of bisphenol A from plastic baby bottles, baby bottle liners and reusable polycarbonate drinking bottles.

    PubMed

    Kubwabo, C; Kosarac, I; Stewart, B; Gauthier, B R; Lalonde, K; Lalonde, P J

    2009-06-01

    Human exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) has recently received special attention. It has been shown that exposure to BPA may occur through the consumption of beverages or foods that have been in contact with polycarbonate (PC) plastic containers or epoxy resins in food packaging. A BPA migration study was conducted using a variety of plastic containers, including polycarbonate baby bottles, non-PC baby bottles, baby bottle liners, and reusable PC drinking bottles. Water was used to simulate migration into aqueous and acidic foods; 10% ethanol solution to simulate migration to low- and high-alcoholic foods; and 50% ethanol solution to simulate migration to fatty foods. By combining solid-phase extraction, BPA derivatization and analysis by GC-EI/MS/MS, a very low detection limit at the ng l(-1) level was obtained. Migration of BPA at 40 degrees C ranged from 0.11 microg l(-1) in water incubated for 8 h to 2.39 microg l(-1) in 50% ethanol incubated for 240 h. Residual BPA leaching from PC bottles increased with temperature and incubation time. In comparison with the migration observed from PC bottles, non-PC baby bottles and baby bottle liners showed only trace levels of BPA. Tests for leachable lead and cadmium were also conducted on glass baby bottles since these represent a potential alternative to plastic bottles. No detectable lead or cadmium was found to leach from the glass. This study indicated that non-PC plastic baby bottles, baby bottle liners and glass baby bottles might be good alternatives for polycarbonate bottles.

  5. [Severe hypernatraemic dehydration in collodion baby].

    PubMed

    Magid, Tobias; Fenger-Grøn, Jesper; Nymann, Peter; Hansen, Bo Mølholm

    2007-03-26

    Case report on severe hypernatraemic dehydration in a non-recognised collodion baby who also suffered from hydrops fetalis caused by supraventricular tachycardia. Excessive transcutaneous fluid loss caused s-Na+ reaching 182 mmol/l within 36 hours of birth. The infant was cautiously rehydrated during the following three days. No sign of neurologic impairment was observed. It is emphasized that early observation of the collodion baby must take place in a humidified incubator. Major weight changes in the newborn should always result in analysis of serum sodium.

  6. Bathing or washing babies after birth?

    PubMed

    Henningsson, A; Nyström, B; Tunnell, R

    One group of healthy full-term newborn babies was washed after birth and another was bathed to remove vernix caseosa and clean the skin. Few infections, none of them serious, occurred in either group. Bacterial colonisation of the umbilical cord on the third day of life was similar in both groups. The rectal temperature fell further and more infants cried during washing than during bathing. Thus bathing the baby after birth makes it calmer, quieter, and more comfortable than washing and causes less heat-loss. Clinical signs of infection and bacterial colonisation rates are no higher after bathing than after washing. PMID:6118769

  7. Hyperbiliverdinemia in the bronze baby syndrome.

    PubMed

    Purcell, S M; Wians, F H; Ackerman, N B; Davis, B M

    1987-01-01

    The bronze baby syndrome is an unusual complication of phototherapy for hyperbilirubinemia in the neonate. The pigment or pigments responsible for the discoloration in this syndrome have not yet been identified. Suspected pigments include photodegradation products of bilirubin and copper-porphyrins. We present here the case of a neonate with bronze baby syndrome whose serum had increased spectral absorbance in the region of maximum absorbance for biliverdin. We suggest that biliverdin pigments may also contribute to the "bronze" color associated with this syndrome.

  8. Taking babies' temperatures: science versus social taboos in battle over Baby Check.

    PubMed

    Handysides, S

    1993-09-11

    Baby Check, a scoring system for assessing the severity of illness in babies under 6 months old, has not met with the success its developers expected. The inclusion of rectal temperature in the assessment was strongly opposed by the Royal College of Midwives, which refused to alter its view despite evidence of the safety and accuracy of rectal thermometry. British parents appear not to like rectal thermometers either. Most other medical bodies have supported Baby Check and the reason for midwives' opposition may have more to do with professional pique at not being consulted than clinical wisdom. PMID:8401058

  9. Field trials of the Baby Check score card in hospital.

    PubMed

    Thornton, A J; Morley, C J; Cole, T J; Green, S J; Walker, K A; Rennie, J M

    1991-01-01

    The Baby Check score card was used by junior paediatric doctors to assess 262 babies under 6 months old presenting to hospital. The duty registrar and two consultants independently graded the severity of each baby's illness without knowledge of the Baby Check score. The registrars assessed the babies at presentation while the consultants reviewed the notes. The consultants and registrars agreed about the need for hospital admission only about 75% of the time. The score's sensitivity and predictive values were similar to those of the registrars' grading. The score's specificity was 87%. Babies with serious diagnosis scored high, while minor illnesses scored low. The predictive value for requiring hospital admission increased with the score, rising to 100% for scores of 20 or more. The appropriate use of Baby Check should improve the detection of serious illness. It could also reduce the number of babies admitted with minor illness, without putting them at increased risk.

  10. 'Baby-Led' Weaning Doesn't Raise Choking Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... 19, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Babies who feed themselves solid foods early on may not be at increased ... known as "baby-led" weaning: Instead of introducing solid foods the traditional way -- spoon-feeding rice cereal, ...

  11. Babies Often Put to Sleep in Unsafe Positions

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_160434.html Babies Often Put to Sleep in Unsafe Positions About 3,500 U.S. infants ... Despite decades of warnings from the "Back to Sleep" campaign, many parents are still putting their babies ...

  12. Why at Least 39 Weeks Is Best for Your Baby?

    MedlinePlus

    ... may need to have a c-section. A c-section can cause problems for your baby. Babies ... through the vagina, also called the birth canal.) C-sections can cause problems in future pregnancies. Once ...

  13. 46 CFR 30.10-42 - Machinery space-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... related equipment including Category A machinery spaces, propelling machinery, boilers, oil fuel units, steam and internal combustion engines, generators and centralized electrical machinery, oil...

  14. 44. Looking south towards Sullivan Machinery Company complex from the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    44. Looking south towards Sullivan Machinery Company complex from the north side of the Sugar River. The footbridge was built in 1920. - Sullivan Machinery Company, Main Street between Pearl & Water Streets, Claremont, Sullivan County, NH

  15. 60. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST TOWARDS WINDING MACHINERY: View towards the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    60. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST TOWARDS WINDING MACHINERY: View towards the southeast looking down the tension runs towards the winding machinery. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  16. 4. MACHINERY SHED AND STORAGE ROOM ADDITION, SOUTH AND WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. MACHINERY SHED AND STORAGE ROOM ADDITION, SOUTH AND WEST WALL LOOKING NORTHEAST SEED STORAGE BUILDING (1963) BEHIND - Tucson Plant Material Center, Machinery Shed, 3241 North Romero Road, Tucson, Pima County, AZ

  17. Infants & Toddlers: How Babies Use Gestures to Communicate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honig, Alice Sterling

    2004-01-01

    Evolution has provided babies with wonderful ways to get the loving attention and care that they need from adults. When a baby is distressed, his cry is the most primitive and powerful tool for bringing help. By the time a baby is 2 or 3 months old, his dazzling smile and crooked grin evokes tenderness, smiles, and nurturance from adults who are…

  18. Portrait of Promise: Preventing Shaken Baby Syndrome. [Videotape.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Junior League of St. Paul, MN.

    Shaken baby syndrome describes the serious injuries that can occur when a very young child is severely or violently shaken, causing the brain to move back and forth inside the skull. The syndrome usually originates when a parent or other caregiver shakes a baby out of anger or frustration, often because the baby would not stop crying or…

  19. Shaken Baby Syndrome: What Caregivers Need To Know.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiggins, Paula

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the causes of shaken baby syndrome and how to recognize, respond to, and prevent it. Identifies horseplay to avoid and recommends never shaking baby even for apnea. Offers 12 tips for working with crying babies and includes ten discussion questions to test knowledge of the syndrome. (DLH)

  20. Infant & Toddlers: How to Calm an Exuberant Baby

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honig, Alice Sterling

    2006-01-01

    It is important to understand that babies differ in temperament. Some are sensationally exuberant and loud. Others are more withdrawn and quiet. Babies also differ in tempo and style. Some eat with gusto. Others deliberately scoop a bit of cooked cereal onto a spoon and slowly munch on their food. Helping a baby learn to modulate voice tones means…

  1. Implementing the Fussy Baby Network[R] Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilkerson, Linda; Hofherr, Jennifer; Heffron, Mary Claire; Sims, Jennifer Murphy; Jalowiec, Barbara; Bromberg, Stacey R.; Paul, Jennifer J.

    2012-01-01

    Erikson Institute Fussy Baby Network[R] (FBN) developed an approach to engaging parents around their urgent concerns about their baby's crying, sleeping, or feeding in a way which builds their longer-term capacities as parents. This approach, called the FAN, is now in place in new Fussy Baby Network programs around the country and is being infused…

  2. 29 CFR 1910.214 - Cooperage machinery. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Cooperage machinery. 1910.214 Section 1910.214 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Machinery and Machine Guarding § 1910.214 Cooperage machinery....

  3. 29 CFR 1910.214 - Cooperage machinery. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Cooperage machinery. 1910.214 Section 1910.214 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Machinery and Machine Guarding § 1910.214 Cooperage machinery....

  4. 46 CFR 185.352 - Ventilation of gasoline machinery spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ventilation of gasoline machinery spaces. 185.352... machinery spaces. The mechanical exhaust for the ventilation of a gasoline machinery space, required by § 182.460(a)(1)(ii) of this chapter, must be operated prior to starting gasoline engines for the...

  5. 46 CFR 185.352 - Ventilation of gasoline machinery spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ventilation of gasoline machinery spaces. 185.352... machinery spaces. The mechanical exhaust for the ventilation of a gasoline machinery space, required by § 182.460(a)(1)(ii) of this chapter, must be operated prior to starting gasoline engines for the...

  6. 46 CFR 185.352 - Ventilation of gasoline machinery spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ventilation of gasoline machinery spaces. 185.352... machinery spaces. The mechanical exhaust for the ventilation of a gasoline machinery space, required by § 182.460(a)(1)(ii) of this chapter, must be operated prior to starting gasoline engines for the...

  7. 46 CFR 58.01-50 - Machinery space, noise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...) (incorporated by reference, see 46 CFR 58.03-1). No person may encounter a 24-hour effective noise level greater... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Machinery space, noise. 58.01-50 Section 58.01-50... MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS General Requirements § 58.01-50 Machinery space, noise. (a) Each...

  8. 46 CFR 111.103-3 - Machinery space ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Machinery space ventilation. 111.103-3 Section 111.103-3...-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Remote Stopping Systems § 111.103-3 Machinery space ventilation. (a) Each machinery space ventilation system must have two controls to stop the ventilation, one of which may be the...

  9. 46 CFR 171.095 - Machinery space bulkhead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Machinery space bulkhead. 171.095 Section 171.095... PERTAINING TO VESSELS CARRYING PASSENGERS Additional Subdivision Requirements § 171.095 Machinery space... transverse watertight bulkheads to separate the machinery space from the remainder of the vessel....

  10. 46 CFR 58.01-20 - Machinery guards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Machinery guards. 58.01-20 Section 58.01-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MAIN AND AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS General Requirements § 58.01-20 Machinery guards. Gears, couplings, flywheels...

  11. 46 CFR 185.352 - Ventilation of gasoline machinery spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ventilation of gasoline machinery spaces. 185.352... (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) OPERATIONS Miscellaneous Operating Requirements § 185.352 Ventilation of gasoline machinery spaces. The mechanical exhaust for the ventilation of a gasoline machinery space, required...

  12. 29 CFR 1910.214 - Cooperage machinery. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cooperage machinery. 1910.214 Section 1910.214 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Machinery and Machine Guarding § 1910.214 Cooperage machinery....

  13. 46 CFR 122.208 - Accidents to machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accidents to machinery. 122.208 Section 122.208 Shipping... Voyage Records § 122.208 Accidents to machinery. The owner, managing operator, or master shall report damage to a boiler, unfired pressure vessel, or machinery that renders further use of the item...

  14. 46 CFR 185.208 - Accidents to machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accidents to machinery. 185.208 Section 185.208 Shipping...) OPERATIONS Marine Casualties and Voyage Records § 185.208 Accidents to machinery. The owner, managing operator, or master shall report damage to a boiler, unfired pressure vessel, or machinery that...

  15. 30 CFR 57.14205 - Machinery, equipment, and tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Machinery, equipment, and tools. 57.14205... NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Machinery and Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 57.14205 Machinery, equipment, and...

  16. 46 CFR 97.30-5 - Accidents to machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accidents to machinery. 97.30-5 Section 97.30-5 Shipping... Reports of Accidents, Repairs, and Unsafe Equipment § 97.30-5 Accidents to machinery. (a) In the event of an accident to a boiler, unfired pressure vessel, or machinery tending to render the further use...

  17. 46 CFR 196.30-5 - Accidents to machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accidents to machinery. 196.30-5 Section 196.30-5... Reports of Accidents, Repairs, and Unsafe Equipment § 196.30-5 Accidents to machinery. (a) In the event of an accident to a boiler, unfired pressure vessel, or machinery tending to render the further use...

  18. 30 CFR 56.14205 - Machinery, equipment, and tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Machinery, equipment, and tools. 56.14205... NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Machinery and Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 56.14205 Machinery, equipment, and tools....

  19. 46 CFR 78.33-5 - Accidents to machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accidents to machinery. 78.33-5 Section 78.33-5 Shipping... Accidents, Repairs, and Unsafe Equipment § 78.33-5 Accidents to machinery. (a) In the event of an accident to a boiler, unfired pressure vessel, or machinery tending to render the further use of the...

  20. 46 CFR 109.419 - Report of unsafe machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Report of unsafe machinery. 109.419 Section 109.419... OPERATIONS Reports, Notifications, and Records Reports and Notifications § 109.419 Report of unsafe machinery. If a boiler, unfired pressure vessel, or other machinery on a unit is unsafe to operate, the...

  1. 46 CFR 171.095 - Machinery space bulkhead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Machinery space bulkhead. 171.095 Section 171.095... PERTAINING TO VESSELS CARRYING PASSENGERS Additional Subdivision Requirements § 171.095 Machinery space... transverse watertight bulkheads to separate the machinery space from the remainder of the vessel....

  2. 33 CFR 157.39 - Machinery space bilges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Machinery space bilges. 157.39... Vessel Operation § 157.39 Machinery space bilges. (a) A tank vessel may discharge an oily mixture from a machinery space bilge that is combined with an oil cargo residue if the vessel discharges in compliance...

  3. 46 CFR 111.103-3 - Machinery space ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Machinery space ventilation. 111.103-3 Section 111.103-3...-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Remote Stopping Systems § 111.103-3 Machinery space ventilation. (a) Each machinery space ventilation system must have two controls to stop the ventilation, one of which may be the...

  4. 46 CFR 185.352 - Ventilation of gasoline machinery spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ventilation of gasoline machinery spaces. 185.352... machinery spaces. The mechanical exhaust for the ventilation of a gasoline machinery space, required by... sufficient to insure at least one complete change of air in the space served....

  5. 46 CFR 58.01-50 - Machinery space, noise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...) (incorporated by reference, see 46 CFR 58.03-1). No person may encounter a 24-hour effective noise level greater... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Machinery space, noise. 58.01-50 Section 58.01-50... MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS General Requirements § 58.01-50 Machinery space, noise. (a) Each...

  6. 46 CFR 171.095 - Machinery space bulkhead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Machinery space bulkhead. 171.095 Section 171.095... PERTAINING TO VESSELS CARRYING PASSENGERS Additional Subdivision Requirements § 171.095 Machinery space... transverse watertight bulkheads to separate the machinery space from the remainder of the vessel....

  7. 46 CFR 171.095 - Machinery space bulkhead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Machinery space bulkhead. 171.095 Section 171.095... PERTAINING TO VESSELS CARRYING PASSENGERS Additional Subdivision Requirements § 171.095 Machinery space... transverse watertight bulkheads to separate the machinery space from the remainder of the vessel....

  8. 46 CFR 111.103-3 - Machinery space ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Machinery space ventilation. 111.103-3 Section 111.103-3...-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Remote Stopping Systems § 111.103-3 Machinery space ventilation. (a) Each machinery space ventilation system must have two controls to stop the ventilation, one of which may be the...

  9. 46 CFR 58.01-50 - Machinery space, noise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...) (incorporated by reference, see 46 CFR 58.03-1). No person may encounter a 24-hour effective noise level greater... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Machinery space, noise. 58.01-50 Section 58.01-50... MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS General Requirements § 58.01-50 Machinery space, noise. (a) Each...

  10. 46 CFR 58.01-50 - Machinery space, noise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...) (incorporated by reference, see 46 CFR 58.03-1). No person may encounter a 24-hour effective noise level greater... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Machinery space, noise. 58.01-50 Section 58.01-50... MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS General Requirements § 58.01-50 Machinery space, noise. (a) Each...

  11. 46 CFR 111.103-3 - Machinery space ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Machinery space ventilation. 111.103-3 Section 111.103-3...-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Remote Stopping Systems § 111.103-3 Machinery space ventilation. (a) Each machinery space ventilation system must have two controls to stop the ventilation, one of which may be the...

  12. 46 CFR 111.103-3 - Machinery space ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Machinery space ventilation. 111.103-3 Section 111.103-3...-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Remote Stopping Systems § 111.103-3 Machinery space ventilation. (a) Each machinery space ventilation system must have two controls to stop the ventilation, one of which may be the...

  13. 46 CFR 171.095 - Machinery space bulkhead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Machinery space bulkhead. 171.095 Section 171.095... PERTAINING TO VESSELS CARRYING PASSENGERS Additional Subdivision Requirements § 171.095 Machinery space... transverse watertight bulkheads to separate the machinery space from the remainder of the vessel....

  14. 29 CFR 1915.165 - Ship's deck machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ship's deck machinery. 1915.165 Section 1915.165 Labor... (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT Ship's Machinery and Piping Systems § 1915.165 Ship's deck machinery. (a) Before work is performed on the anchor windlass or any...

  15. 29 CFR 1915.165 - Ship's deck machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Ship's deck machinery. 1915.165 Section 1915.165 Labor... (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT Ship's Machinery and Piping Systems § 1915.165 Ship's deck machinery. (a) Before work is performed on the anchor windlass or any...

  16. 29 CFR 1915.165 - Ship's deck machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Ship's deck machinery. 1915.165 Section 1915.165 Labor... (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT Ship's Machinery and Piping Systems § 1915.165 Ship's deck machinery. (a) Before work is performed on the anchor windlass or any...

  17. 29 CFR 1915.165 - Ship's deck machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Ship's deck machinery. 1915.165 Section 1915.165 Labor... (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT Ship's Machinery and Piping Systems § 1915.165 Ship's deck machinery. (a) Before work is performed on the anchor windlass or any...

  18. With Babies and Banners: Illustrated Historical Booklet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldfarb, Lyn; Gray, Lorraine

    Background reading materials are provided in this booklet developed to be used in conjunction with the award winning color documentary film "With Babies and Banners." The film records the role that the women of Flint, Michigan, played in the great General Motors sit-down strike of 1937. The readings are suitable for college audiences and for…

  19. Evaluation of products for treating babies' napkins.

    PubMed Central

    Gaya, H.; Thirlwall, J.; Shaw, E. J.; Hassam, Z.

    1979-01-01

    A test is described for assessing the sanitizing effect of napkin treatment products on naturally urine-wetted and faecally-contaminated napkins. This test defines in-use conditions which closely resemble typical domestic situations. One napkin treatment product ('Napisan'), tested at two different concentrations and with challenges of different numbers of babies' napkins, performed satisfactorily under the conditions used. PMID:448064

  20. Health Behaviors among Baby Boomer Informal Caregivers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Geoffrey J.; Lee, Jihey; Mendez-Luck, Carolyn A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: This study examines health-risk behaviors among "Baby Boomer" caregivers and non-caregivers. Design and Methods: Data from the 2009 California Health Interview Survey of the state's non-institutionalized population provided individual-level, caregiving, and health behavior characteristics for 5,688 informal caregivers and…

  1. Social Early Stimulation of Trisomy-21 Babies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aparicio, Maria Teresa Sanz; Balana, Javier Menendez

    2003-01-01

    This study was initiated with twenty Down's syndrome babies to verify whether subjects undergoing social early stimulation would benefit from this type of treatment. An experimental study was designed with two training groups: visual or written instructions. The analyses of the results established statistically significant differences in the…

  2. Got Diabetes? Thinking about Having a Baby?

    MedlinePlus

    ... suh-lin) if ordered by your doctor. 4 Monitor your blood sugar often • Be aware that your blood sugar can ... you begin to take care of your baby. ✓ Monitor and control your blood sugar. ✓ See your doctor regularly. Usually twice a year, ...

  3. Completion Agenda for Baby Boomers. Commentary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fishman, Seth

    2011-01-01

    In the article, "Completion Agenda for Baby Boomers", Moltz highlights how community colleges are currently implementing programs, such as the American Association of Community Colleges' Plus 50 Completion strategy, to encourage older learners to return to America's college campuses. The effects of the recent recession and the educational desires…

  4. Back to School for Retired Baby Boomers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bumgardner, Stan

    2009-01-01

    Across the nation, schools increasingly are tapping into a vast resource pool--retired educators. The potential effects of the retirement boom--baby boomers reaching retirement age--have been well documented. An April 2009 "New York Times" article estimates that by 2013, more than one-third of the nation's 3.2 million teachers could retire. One…

  5. The Baby Boom--Entering Midlife.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bouvier, Leon F.; De Vita, Carol J.

    1991-01-01

    The U.S. baby-boom generation, born between 1946 and 1964, is the largest generation in the nations's history. Numbering over 80 million people in 1990, this giant generation has indelibly changed U.S. society, requiring adjustments in schools, labor markets, housing markets, and government programs. Perhaps more than any other institution,…

  6. [New documentation on the Robert baby bottle].

    PubMed

    Julien, P

    1996-01-01

    The author makes known about a dozen unpublished documents (puzzle-cards, invoice, advertisements, post card, stamped tin signs printed in colors, catalogue, prospectuses) which shed light on the history of the manufacture Robert baby bottles (located successively in Dijon, Paris and in Martres-de-Veyre) and on the practice of bottle feeding. PMID:11624777

  7. The Autophagic Machinery in Enterovirus Infection.

    PubMed

    Lai, Jeffrey K F; Sam, I-Ching; Chan, Yoke Fun

    2016-01-27

    The Enterovirus genus of the Picornaviridae family comprises many important human pathogens, including polioviruses, rhinovirus, enterovirus A71, and enterovirus D68. They cause a wide variety of diseases, ranging from mild to severe life-threatening diseases. Currently, no effective vaccine is available against enteroviruses except for poliovirus. Enteroviruses subvert the autophagic machinery to benefit their assembly, maturation, and exit from host. Some enteroviruses spread between cells via a process described as autophagosome-mediated exit without lysis (AWOL). The early and late phases of autophagy are regulated through various lipids and their metabolizing enzymes. Some of these lipids and enzymes are specifically regulated by enteroviruses. In the present review, we summarize the current understanding of the regulation of autophagic machinery by enteroviruses, and provide updates on recent developments in this field.

  8. The Autophagic Machinery in Enterovirus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Jeffrey K. F.; Sam, I-Ching; Chan, Yoke Fun

    2016-01-01

    The Enterovirus genus of the Picornaviridae family comprises many important human pathogens, including polioviruses, rhinovirus, enterovirus A71, and enterovirus D68. They cause a wide variety of diseases, ranging from mild to severe life-threatening diseases. Currently, no effective vaccine is available against enteroviruses except for poliovirus. Enteroviruses subvert the autophagic machinery to benefit their assembly, maturation, and exit from host. Some enteroviruses spread between cells via a process described as autophagosome-mediated exit without lysis (AWOL). The early and late phases of autophagy are regulated through various lipids and their metabolizing enzymes. Some of these lipids and enzymes are specifically regulated by enteroviruses. In the present review, we summarize the current understanding of the regulation of autophagic machinery by enteroviruses, and provide updates on recent developments in this field. PMID:26828514

  9. Opportunities for on-line machinery sensing

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, S.F.; Ling, F.F.

    1996-11-01

    While most engineers were concerned with progress in the development of robots and robotic devices, there has been a revolution going on in sensor technology. Micro-sensor devices, so small that they could be encapsulated easily, and so light they could resist high g forces and impacts, are being developed for a variety of applications especially aerospace, automotive and consumer durables. In the field of tribology, the ability of sensors to gather and process information promises real advances in monitoring and sensing potential problems with machinery and with tools. Yet, there are many critical applications where no failure detection devices are being used or even considered. There is a need for more training and better dissemination of know-how for the various types of sensors. This paper is a review of the recent literature on in-situ micro-sensors that might have relevance to machinery condition sensing.

  10. Machinery Vibration Monitoring Program at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Potvin, M.M.

    1990-01-01

    The Reactor Maintenance's Machinery Vibration Monitoring Program (MVMP) plays an essential role in ensuring the safe operation of the three Production Reactors at the Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WRSC) Savannah River Site (SRS). This program has increased machinery availability and reduced maintenance cost by the early detection and determination of machinery problems. This paper presents the Reactor Maintenance's Machinery Vibration Monitoring Program, which has been documented based on Electric Power Research Institute's (EPRI) NP-5311, Utility Machinery Monitoring Guide, and some examples of the successes that it has enjoyed.

  11. Low Back Pain in Port Machinery Operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    BOVENZI, M.; PINTO, I.; STACCHINI, N.

    2002-05-01

    The occurrence of several types of low back pain (LBP) was investigated by a standardized questionnaire in a group of 219 port machinery operators exposed to whole-body vibration (WBV) and postural load and in a control group of 85 maintenance workers employed at the same transport company. The group of port machinery operators included 85 straddle carrier drivers, 88 fork-lift truck drivers, and 46 crane operators. The vector sum of the frequency-weighted r.m.s. acceleration of vibration measured on the seatpan of port vehicles and machines averaged 0·90 m/s2 for fork-lift trucks, 0·48 m/s2 for straddle carriers, 0·53 m/s2 for mobile cranes, and 0·22 m/s2 for overhead cranes. The 12-month prevalence of low back symptoms (LBP, sciatic pain, treated LBP, sick leave due to LBP) was significantly greater in the fork-lift truck drivers than in the controls and the other two groups of port machinery operators. After adjusting for potential confounders, the prevalence of low back symptoms was found to increase with the increase of WBV exposure expressed as duration of exposure (driving years), equivalent vibration magnitude (m/s2), or cumulative vibration exposure (yr m2/s4). An excess risk for lumbar disc herniation was observed in the port machinery operators with prolonged driving experience. In both the controls and the port machinery operators, low back complaints were strongly associated with perceived postural load assessed in terms of frequency and/or duration of awkward postures at work. Multivariate analysis showed that vibration exposure and postural load were independent predictors of LBP. Even though the cross-sectional design of the present study does not permit firm conclusions on the relationship between WBV exposure and low back disorders, the findings of this investigation provide additional epidemiological evidence that seated WBV exposure combined with non-neutral trunk postures, as while driving, is associated with an increased risk of long

  12. Passive smoking in babies: The BIBE study (Brief Intervention in babies. Effectiveness)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background There is evidence that exposure to passive smoking in general, and in babies in particular, is an important cause of morbimortality. Passive smoking is related to an increased risk of pediatric diseases such as sudden death syndrome, acute respiratory diseases, worsening of asthma, acute-chronic middle ear disease and slowing of lung growth. The objective of this article is to describe the BIBE study protocol. The BIBE study aims to determine the effectiveness of a brief intervention within the context of Primary Care, directed to mothers and fathers that smoke, in order to reduce the exposure of babies to passive smoking (ETS). Methods/Design Cluster randomized field trial (control and intervention group), multicentric and open. Subject: Fathers and/or mothers who are smokers and their babies (under 18 months) that attend pediatric services in Primary Care in Catalonia. The measurements will be taken at three points in time, in each of the fathers and/or mothers who respond to a questionnaire regarding their baby's clinical background and characteristics of the baby's exposure, together with variables related to the parents' tobacco consumption. A hair sample of the baby will be taken at the beginning of the study and at six months after the initial visit (biological determination of nicotine). The intervention group will apply a brief intervention in passive smoking after specific training and the control group will apply the habitual care. Discussion Exposure to ETS is an avoidable factor related to infant morbimortality. Interventions to reduce exposure to ETS in babies are potentially beneficial for their health. The BIBE study evaluates an intervention to reduce exposure to ETS that takes advantage of pediatric visits. Interventions in the form of advice, conducted by pediatric professionals, are an excellent opportunity for prevention and protection of infants against the harmful effects of ETS. Trial Registration Clinical Trials.gov Identifier

  13. 46 CFR 30.10-42 - Machinery space-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Machinery space-TB/ALL. 30.10-42 Section 30.10-42...-42 Machinery space—TB/ALL. The term machinery space means any space that contains machinery and related equipment including Category A machinery spaces, propelling machinery, boilers, oil fuel...

  14. 46 CFR 30.10-42 - Machinery space-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Machinery space-TB/ALL. 30.10-42 Section 30.10-42...-42 Machinery space—TB/ALL. The term machinery space means any space that contains machinery and related equipment including Category A machinery spaces, propelling machinery, boilers, oil fuel...

  15. 46 CFR 30.10-42 - Machinery space-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Machinery space-TB/ALL. 30.10-42 Section 30.10-42...-42 Machinery space—TB/ALL. The term machinery space means any space that contains machinery and related equipment including Category A machinery spaces, propelling machinery, boilers, oil fuel...

  16. 46 CFR 30.10-42 - Machinery space-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Machinery space-TB/ALL. 30.10-42 Section 30.10-42...-42 Machinery space—TB/ALL. The term machinery space means any space that contains machinery and related equipment including Category A machinery spaces, propelling machinery, boilers, oil fuel...

  17. Reconsideration of methods and standards: Digestion of diaper wipes and use of matrix-matched calibration standards for dust lead analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Orlova, A.O.; Losh, L.N.; Bannon, D.I.; Lees, P.S.J.; Chisolm, J.J. Jr.; Farfel, M.R.

    1999-12-15

    Diaper wipes are widely used for sampling residential dust for lead analysis. A thicker type of diaper wipe was incompletely digested and had low recoveries of lead on stock solution spikes using existing protocols. A modified protocol was applied to various quality control samples prepared with thicker diaper wipes in 134 batches of field samples. Modifications included a larger reagent volume, more concentrated acid, 3 h on the hot plate, and squeezing wipe residues during filtration. Seventeen batches were reanalyzed using matrix-matched standards. Acceptable lead recoveries were obtained for stock solution spikes (88%) and spikes prepared with leaded dust-SRM 2582 (88%), SRM 2589 (96%), and CRMO 14-050 (99%). Matrix-matched calibration standards increased mean lead recoveries by an additional 8%. Their protocol may provide a basis for a standard operational procedure for wipe digestion and analysis. Differences in estimates of dust lead loadings attributable to the type of wipe and to sample preparation and calibration procedures have implications for risk assessment, clearance testing, and comparability of laboratory data. Reconsideration of current protocols for wipe materials, wipe digestion, and judging laboratory performance is warranted.

  18. The antiabortion movement and Baby Jane Doe.

    PubMed

    Paige, C; Karnofsky, E B

    1986-01-01

    In the early 1980s, the leadership of the antiabortion movement became involved in a campaign to establish legal rights to extraordinary medical care for seriously handicapped newborns. Armed with political contacts in the Reagan administration and Congress, and allied with advocates for the disabled, the antiabortion movement searched for a test case to guide through the courts. Antiabortion advocate Lawrence Washburn found such a case in Baby Jane Doe, who was being treated at Stony Brook Medical Center. The movement went on to amend the Child Abuse Act to include protections for handicapped newborns. Activists in the movement chose the issue of Baby Jane Doe because they believed it would attract welcome publicity, give them the appearance of supporting civil rights, and enhance their argument as to the legal rights of the fetus and thus strengthen the case against abortion. The movement was partially successful in obtaining its goals.

  19. The antiabortion movement and Baby Jane Doe.

    PubMed

    Paige, C; Karnofsky, E B

    1986-01-01

    In the early 1980s, the leadership of the antiabortion movement became involved in a campaign to establish legal rights to extraordinary medical care for seriously handicapped newborns. Armed with political contacts in the Reagan administration and Congress, and allied with advocates for the disabled, the antiabortion movement searched for a test case to guide through the courts. Antiabortion advocate Lawrence Washburn found such a case in Baby Jane Doe, who was being treated at Stony Brook Medical Center. The movement went on to amend the Child Abuse Act to include protections for handicapped newborns. Activists in the movement chose the issue of Baby Jane Doe because they believed it would attract welcome publicity, give them the appearance of supporting civil rights, and enhance their argument as to the legal rights of the fetus and thus strengthen the case against abortion. The movement was partially successful in obtaining its goals. PMID:3745839

  20. Traumatic brain injury and shaken baby syndrome.

    PubMed

    Paiva, Wellingson S; Soares, Matheus S; Amorim, Robson L O; de Andrade, A Ferreira; Matushita, Hamilton; Teixeira, Manoel J

    2011-01-01

    Shaken baby syndrome is a serious form of physical child abuse, which is frequently overlooked. It is defined as vigorous manual shaking of an infant who is being held by the extremities or shoulders, leading to whiplash-induced intracranial and intraocular bleeding and no external signs of head trauma. This syndrome is seen most commonly in children under 2 years, mainly in children under 6 months. This article summarizes issues related to clinical presentation, diagnosis, risk factors, and interventions for healthcare professionals.

  1. A baby owl is found at CCAFS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    A baby owl, possibly a screech owl, displays its wings at the photographer snapping its picture. The owl was found on the stairs inside Hangar G, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. It had apparently tried to fly from a nest near the ceiling but couldn't get back to it. Workers called an Audubon rescue center near Orlando, which captured it and will ensure the bird is returned to the wild when it's ready.

  2. A baby owl is found at CCAFS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    A baby owl, possibly a screech owl, stares at the photographer snapping its picture. The owl was found on the stairs inside Hangar G, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. It had apparently tried to fly from a nest near the ceiling but couldn't get back to it. Workers called an Audubon rescue center near Orlando, which captured it and will ensure the bird is returned to the wild when it's ready.

  3. A baby owl is found at CCAFS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    A baby owl, possibly a screech owl, shows its fear and resentment of the photographer snapping its picture. The owl was found on the stairs inside Hangar G, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. It had apparently tried to fly from a nest near the ceiling but couldn't get back to it. Workers called an Audubon rescue center near Orlando, which captured it and will ensure the bird is returned to the wild when it's ready.

  4. Misshapen Heads in Babies: Position or Pathology?

    PubMed Central

    Bronfin, Daniel R.

    2001-01-01

    A newborn's skull is highly malleable and rapidly expanding. As a result, any restrictive or constrictive forces applied to a baby's head can result in dramatic distortions. These changes can be mild, reversible deformations or severe, irreversible malformations that can result in brain injury. This paper reviews the anatomy and physiology of normal and abnormal brain and skull growth, the etiology of cranial deformation, the types of craniosynostosis most commonly seen in infants, and the importance of early diagnosis and treatment. PMID:21765737

  5. Community Colleges Offer Baby Boomers an Encore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emeagwali, N. Susan

    2007-01-01

    A 2005 MetLife Foundation/Civic Ventures New Face of Work Survey found that many baby boomers are eager to make career changes that can launch a new chapter in their working lives while they make social contribution. The survey found that 50 percent of Americans age 50 to 70 want jobs that contribute to the greater good. It found that more than 53…

  6. The baby killers are still at large.

    PubMed

    Power, J

    1994-08-12

    This newspaper editorial reports that the UN Children's Fund's (UNICEF) executive director and recent US Presidential Medal of Freedom recipient believes that 1.5 million infants would survive annually if breast feeding declines worldwide were reversed. UNICEF adopted the International Code of Marketing of Breast Milk Substitutes in the World Health Assembly in 1981. The code restricts direct advertising, inadequate labels, saleswomen dressed as nurses, and promotion of free samples. The Baby Food Action Network is reported to have released a report which states that baby food companies are still donating free supplies of infant formula to hospitals. The UNICEF position is that provision of free supplies is the most important disincentive to breast feeding. 81 governments adopted the guidelines, but 41 countries have hospitals which accept free samples. 28 of these 41 countries adopted the ban. The Nestle Company, which was cited 20 years age for this practice, won the legal battle and today defies the guidelines in 22 countries, including China, Zimbabwe, and Bangladesh. A US company, Mead Johnson, uses advertising on its label that shows Beatrice Potter's Peter Rabbit being bottle fed. The International Code restricts idealization of bottle feeding. Nutrician, a large conglomerate ownership of US and European infant formula companies, brazenly advertises in the Peruvian daily newspapers with photos of baby milk boxes being donated to hospitals. Dr. Derek Jelliffe, an infant nutritionist, is credited with being the first to publicize the dangers of commercialized malnutrition 21 years ago. PMID:12319575

  7. The dynamics of aloof baby Skyrmions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salmi, Petja; Sutcliffe, Paul

    2016-01-01

    The aloof baby Skyrme model is a (2+1)-dimensional theory with solitons that are lightly bound. It is a low-dimensional analogue of a similar Skyrme model in (3+1)-dimensions, where the lightly bound solitons have binding energies comparable to nuclei. A previous study of static solitons in the aloof baby Skyrme model revealed that multi-soliton bound states have a cluster structure, with constituents that preserve their individual identities due to the short-range repulsion and long-range attraction between solitons. Furthermore, there are many different local energy minima that are all well-described by a simple binary species particle model. In this paper we present the first results on soliton dynamics in the aloof baby Skyrme model. Numerical field theory simulations reveal that the lightly bound cluster structure results in a variety of exotic soliton scattering events that are novel in comparison to standard Skyrmion scattering. A dynamical version of the binary species point particle model is shown to provide a good qualitative description of the dynamics.

  8. Bronze baby syndrome: an animal model.

    PubMed

    Jori, G; Reddi, E; Rubaltelli, F F

    1990-01-01

    We evaluated the appropriateness of an animal model for the bronze baby syndrome. Ligation of the common bile duct in adult Wistar rats induces an accumulation of porphyrins and copper in the liver and a 20% conversion of protoporphyrin IX into (Cu(II)-protoporphyrin IX. Upon irradiation of these animals with super-blue lamps, the plasma content of Cu(II)-protoporphyrin increases by about 30%. Cholestasis also increases the recovery of porphyrins in the urine, although light treatment of ligated rats further increases urinary porphyrin excretion. The spectroscopic changes induced by irradiation of sera of ligated rats are consistent with the formation of products that have the typical spectrum found in bronze baby syndrome patients, i.e. a reduced absorbance in the visible region and an increased absorption in near-UV and red spectral regions. The products responsible for the brown discoloration found in bronze baby syndrome seem to result from phototransformation of copper-porphyrins subsequent to an electron transfer between photoexcited bilirubin and the copper ion.

  9. The dynamics of aloof baby Skyrmions

    DOE PAGES

    Salmi, Petja; Sutcliffe, Paul

    2016-01-25

    The aloof baby Skyrme model is a (2+1)-dimensional theory with solitons that are lightly bound. It is a low-dimensional analogue of a similar Skyrme model in (3+1)- dimensions, where the lightly bound solitons have binding energies comparable to nuclei. A previous study of static solitons in the aloof baby Skyrme model revealed that multi-soliton bound states have a cluster structure, with constituents that preserve their individual identities due to the short-range repulsion and long-range attraction between solitons. Furthermore, there are many different local energy minima that are all well-described by a simple binary species particle model. In this paper wemore » present the first results on soliton dynamics in the aloof baby Skyrme model. Numerical field theory simulations reveal that the lightly bound cluster structure results in a variety of exotic soliton scattering events that are novel in comparison to standard Skyrmion scattering. A dynamical version of the binary species point particle model is shown to provide a good qualitative description of the dynamics.« less

  10. Importing Mitochondrial Proteins: Machineries and Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Chacinska, Agnieszka; Koehler, Carla M.; Milenkovic, Dusanka; Lithgow, Trevor; Pfanner, Nikolaus

    2014-01-01

    Most mitochondrial proteins are synthesized on cytosolic ribosomes and must be imported across one or both mitochondrial membranes. There is an amazingly versatile set of machineries and mechanisms, and at least four different pathways, for the importing and sorting of mitochondrial precursor proteins. The translocases that catalyze these processes are highly dynamic machines driven by the membrane potential, ATP, or redox reactions, and they cooperate with molecular chaperones and assembly complexes to direct mitochondrial proteins to their correct destinations. Here, we discuss recent insights into the importing and sorting of mitochondrial proteins and their contributions to mitochondrial biogenesis. PMID:19703392

  11. Local Geometrical Machinery for Complexity and Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivancevic, Vladimir G.; Reid, Darryn J.

    2015-11-01

    In this Chapter, we present local geometrical machinery for studying complexity and control, consisting of dynamics on Kähler manifolds, which combine three geometrical structures-Riemannian, symplectic and complex (Hermitian)-in a mutually compatible way. In other words, every Kähler manifold is simultaneously Riemannian, symplectic and complex (Hermitian). It is well known that Riemannian manifolds represent the stage on which Lagrangian dynamics is set, symplectic manifolds represent the stage for Hamiltonian dynamics, and complex (Hermitian) varieties comprise the stage for quantum dynamics. Therefore, Kähler manifolds represent the richest dynamical stage available where Lagrangian, Hamiltonian, and quantum dynamics all dance together.

  12. Infant and Newborn Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... Newborns have many needs, like frequent feedings and diaper changes. Babies can have health issues that are different from older children and adults, like diaper rash and cradle cap. Your baby will go ...

  13. Baby-led weaning: transitioning to solid foods at the baby's own pace.

    PubMed

    Rapley, Gill

    2011-06-01

    Baby-led weaning is an approach to the introduction of solid foods that is being followed by increasing numbers of parents, but what is it, and should health visitors be encouraging it? This paper aims to refresh practitioners' background knowledge of complementary feeding and to outline the key features of baby-led weaning, as well as to explore the evidence that supports this approach as a logical adjunct to the move to six months for the introduction of solid foods. The more common concerns of parents and professionals, such as choking and iron intake, are addressed. Tips for implementing baby-led weaning are included and some of the potential benefits identified.

  14. Molecular machinery and mechanism of cell secretion.

    PubMed

    Jena, Bhanu P

    2005-05-01

    Secretion occurs in all living cells and involves the delivery of intracellular products to the cell exterior. Secretory products are packaged and stored in membranous sacs or vesicles within the cell. When the cell needs to secrete these products, the secretory vesicles containing them dock and fuse at plasma membrane-associated supramolecular structures, called porosomes, to release their contents. Specialized cells for neurotransmission, enzyme secretion, or hormone release use a highly regulated secretory process. Similar to other fundamental cellular processes, cell secretion is precisely regulated. During secretion, swelling of secretory vesicles results in a build-up of intravesicular pressure, allowing expulsion of vesicular contents. The extent of vesicle swelling dictates the amount of vesicular contents expelled. The discovery of the porosome as the universal secretory machinery, its isolation, its structure and dynamics at nanometer resolution and in real time, and its biochemical composition and functional reconstitution into artificial lipid membrane have been determined. The molecular mechanism of secretory vesicle swelling and the fusion of opposing bilayers, that is, the fusion of secretory vesicle membrane at the base of the porosome membrane, have also been resolved. These findings reveal, for the first time, the universal molecular machinery and mechanism of secretion in cells.

  15. Cell secretion machinery: studies using the AFM.

    PubMed

    Jena, Bhanu P

    2006-01-01

    A new field in biology, 'nano-cell biology', has emerged from the successful use of force microscopy in understanding the structure and dynamics of cells and biomolecules, at nm resolution and in real time. Atomic force microscopy, in combination with conventional tools and approaches (electron microscopy, electrophysiology, X-ray diffraction, photon correlation spectroscopy, mass spectroscopy, biochemistry, and molecular biology), has revealed for the first time, the universal molecular machinery and mechanism of secretion in cells. Secretion occurs in all living cells and involves the delivery of intracellular products to the cell exterior. Secretory products are packaged and stored in membranous sacs or vesicles within the cell. When the cell needs to secrete these products, the secretory vesicles containing them, dock and fuse at plasma membrane-associated supramolecular structures called Porosome, to release their contents. Specialized cells for neurotransmission, enzyme secretion, or hormone release utilize a highly regulated secretory process. During secretion, swelling of secretory vesicles results in a build-up of intravesicular pressure, allowing expulsion of vesicular contents. The extent of vesicle swelling dictates the amount of vesicular contents expelled. The discovery of the porosome as the universal secretory machinery, its isolation, its structure and dynamics at nm resolution and in real time, its biochemical composition and functional reconstitution into artificial lipid membrane, have been determined. The molecular mechanism of secretory vesicle swelling, and the fusion of opposing bilayers, i.e., the fusion of secretory vesicle membrane at the base of the porosome membrane, has also been resolved.

  16. The Ubiquitination Machinery of the Ubiquitin System

    PubMed Central

    Callis, Judy

    2014-01-01

    The protein ubiquitin is a covalent modifier of proteins, including itself. The ubiquitin system encompasses the enzymes required for catalysing attachment of ubiquitin to substrates as well as proteins that bind to ubiquitinated proteins leading them to their final fate. Also included are activities that remove ubiquitin independent of, or in concert with, proteolysis of the substrate, either by the proteasome or proteases in the vacuole. In addition to ubiquitin encoded by a family of fusion proteins, there are proteins with ubiquitin-like domains, likely forming ubiquitin's β-grasp fold, but incapable of covalent modification. However, they serve as protein-protein interaction platforms within the ubiquitin system. Multi-gene families encode all of these types of activities. Within the ubiquitination machinery “half” of the ubiquitin system are redundant, partially redundant, and unique components affecting diverse developmental and environmental responses in plants. Notably, multiple aspects of biotic and abiotic stress responses require, or are modulated by, ubiquitination. Finally, aspects of the ubiquitin system have broad utility: as components to enhance gene expression or to regulate protein abundance. This review focuses on the ubiquitination machinery: ubiquitin, unique aspects about the synthesis of ubiquitin and organization of its gene family, ubiquitin activating enzymes (E1), ubiquitin conjugating enzymes (E2) and ubiquitin ligases, or E3s. Given the large number of E3s in Arabidopsis this review covers the U box, HECT and RING type E3s, with the exception of the cullin-based E3s. PMID:25320573

  17. What midwives need to know about baby massage.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, Cheryl

    2012-09-01

    Baby massage has become increasingly popular in the West among parents and healthcare practitioners alike, with numerous studies continuing to hail the benefits of taking time to massage and bond with your baby. Newborn and infant massage is of particular interest to midwives in their primary role, helping families to bond and heal the pain of traumatic births, but now many midwives are offering baby massage sessions privately in their spare time also. Here's the low down. PMID:23082398

  18. Decision support for green supply chain operations by integrating dynamic simulation and LCA indicators: diaper case study.

    PubMed

    Adhitya, Arief; Halim, Iskandar; Srinivasan, Rajagopalan

    2011-12-01

    As the issue of environmental sustainability is becoming an important business factor, companies are now looking for decision support tools to assess the fuller picture of the environmental impacts associated with their manufacturing operations and supply chain (SC) activities. Lifecycle assessment (LCA) is widely used to measure the environmental consequences assignable to a product. However, it is usually limited to a high-level snapshot of the environmental implications over the product value chain without consideration of the dynamics arising from the multitiered structure and the interactions along the SC. This paper proposes a framework for green supply chain management by integrating a SC dynamic simulation and LCA indicators to evaluate both the economic and environmental impacts of various SC decisions such as inventories, distribution network configuration, and ordering policy. The advantages of this framework are demonstrated through an industrially motivated case study involving diaper production. Three distinct scenarios are evaluated to highlight how the proposed approach enables integrated decision support for green SC design and operation.

  19. Baby Minds: Brain-Building Games Your Baby Will Love. Birth to Age Three.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acredolo, Linda; Goodwyn, Susan

    Recent research points to the inborn abilities of infants and shows how early experiences influence cognitive skills. This book presents activities for parents and their infants--building on activities babies instinctively love--to develop their unique abilities. The book is organized around six intellectual skills: (1) problem solving; (2)…

  20. Manual Activity and Onset of First Words in Babies Exposed and Not Exposed to Baby Signing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seal, Brenda C.; DePaolis, Rory A.

    2014-01-01

    Support for baby signing (BS) with hearing infants tends to converge toward three camps or positions. Those who advocate BS to advance infant language, literacy, behavioral, and cognitive development rely heavily on anecdotal evidence and social media to support their claims. Those who advocate BS as an introduction to another language, such as…

  1. We want what’s best for our baby: Prenatal Parenting of Babies with Lethal Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Côté-Arsenault, Denise; Krowchuk, Heidi; Hall, Wendasha Jenkins; Denney-Koelsch, Erin

    2015-01-01

    This article reports on qualitative research into the experience of couples who chose to continue their pregnancies after receiving a lethal fetal diagnosis, and to embrace the parenting of their baby in the shortened time they have. This analysis of interview data is part of a larger research project describing parents’ experiences of continuing pregnancy with a known lethal fetal diagnosis (LFD). PMID:26594107

  2. Leaching of bisphenol A from new and old babies' bottles, and new babies' feeding teats.

    PubMed

    Tan, B L L; Mustafa, A M

    2003-01-01

    Bisphenol A is the monomer used in the manufacture of polycarbonate. Bisphenol A is also known to mimic the female hormone estrogen. In this study, the possibility of the leaching of bisphenol A from polycarbonate babies' bottles and feeding teats was investigated. Bisphenol A was extracted from water samples exposed to the bottles and teats using liquid-liquid extraction. Bisphenol A was analysed by gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer with quadrapole detector in selected ion monitoring mode. Mean leaching of bisphenol A from 100 used babies' bottles when filled with water at 25 degrees C and 80 degrees C were 0.71 +/- 1.65 ng/cm2 (mean +/- standard deviation) and 3.37 +/- 5.68 ng/cm2 respectively. Mean leaching of bisphenol A from 30 new babies' bottles when filled with water at 25 degrees C and 80 degrees C were 0.03 +/- 0.02 ng/cm2 and 0.18 degrees 0.30 ng/cm2 respectively. Bisphenol A was observed to have leached from babies' feeding teats into 37 degrees C water ranged from non-detectable to 22.86 ng/g. The technique employed in this study is fast, reliable and economical. PMID:15038686

  3. The SNARE Machinery in Mast Cell Secretion.

    PubMed

    Lorentz, Axel; Baumann, Anja; Vitte, Joana; Blank, Ulrich

    2012-01-01

    Mast cells are known as inflammatory cells which exert their functions in allergic and anaphylactic reactions by secretion of numerous inflammatory mediators. During an allergic response, the high-affinity IgE receptor, FcεRI, becomes cross-linked by receptor-bound IgE and antigen resulting in immediate release of pre-synthesized mediators - stored in granules - as well as in de novo synthesis of various mediators like cytokines and chemokines. Soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein (SNAP) receptors (SNARE) proteins were found to play a central role in regulating membrane fusion events during exocytosis. In addition, several accessory regulators like Munc13, Munc18, Rab GTPases, secretory carrier membrane proteins, complexins, or synaptotagmins were found to be involved in membrane fusion. In this review we summarize our current knowledge about the SNARE machinery and its mechanism of action in mast cell secretion.

  4. On the mechanochemical machinery underlying chromatin remodeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yusufaly, Tahir I.

    This dissertation discuss two recent efforts, via a unique combination of structural bioinformatics and density functional theory, to unravel some of the details concerning how molecular machinery within the eukaryotic cell nucleus controls chromatin architecture. The first, a study of the 5-methylation of cytosine in 5'-CG-3' : 5'-CG-3' base-pair steps, reveals that the methyl groups roughen the local elastic energy landscape of the DNA. This enhances the probability of the canonical B-DNA structure transitioning into the undertwisted A-like and overtwisted C-like forms seen in nucleosomes, or looped segments of DNA bound to histones. The second part focuses on the formation of salt bridges between arginine residues in histones and phosphate groups on the DNA backbone. The arginine residues are ob- served to apply a tunable mechanical load to the backbone, enabling precision-controlled activation of DNA deformations.

  5. The SNARE Machinery in Mast Cell Secretion

    PubMed Central

    Lorentz, Axel; Baumann, Anja; Vitte, Joana; Blank, Ulrich

    2012-01-01

    Mast cells are known as inflammatory cells which exert their functions in allergic and anaphylactic reactions by secretion of numerous inflammatory mediators. During an allergic response, the high-affinity IgE receptor, FcεRI, becomes cross-linked by receptor-bound IgE and antigen resulting in immediate release of pre-synthesized mediators – stored in granules – as well as in de novo synthesis of various mediators like cytokines and chemokines. Soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein (SNAP) receptors (SNARE) proteins were found to play a central role in regulating membrane fusion events during exocytosis. In addition, several accessory regulators like Munc13, Munc18, Rab GTPases, secretory carrier membrane proteins, complexins, or synaptotagmins were found to be involved in membrane fusion. In this review we summarize our current knowledge about the SNARE machinery and its mechanism of action in mast cell secretion. PMID:22679448

  6. [Outcome after a shaken baby syndrome].

    PubMed

    Lind, K; Laurent-Vannier, A; Toure, H; Brugel, D-G; Chevignard, M

    2013-04-01

    The Shaken Baby Syndrome (SBS) is a severe inflicted brain injury due to an adult violently shaking an infant. Diagnostic guidelines have been recently published by the "Haute Autorité de santé". The mortality rate after SBS is 21.6 % and the long-term outcome is good for only 8 to 36 % patients followed over more than 5 years. The aim of this article is to describe sequelae after a SBS, their mechanisms, prognostic factors and recommendations for a better long-term care of the patients.

  7. Infertility trial outcomes: healthy moms and babies.

    PubMed

    Silver, Robert

    2014-05-01

    Traditionally, the primary outcome of infertility trials has been a positive pregnancy test or a clinically recognized pregnancy. However, parents desire a healthy baby that grows up to be a healthy adult, rather than a positive pregnancy test. Too often results of infertility trials are lacking in crucial obstetric details. This is problematic because treatments for infertility have the capacity to increase the risk for a variety of adverse obstetric outcomes. This review will outline important obstetric variables that should be included when reporting infertility research. The rationale for including these data, precise definitions of the variables, and cost-effective strategies for obtaining these obstetric details will be highlighted.

  8. Inspecting baby Skyrmions with effective metrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibbons, G. W.; Goulart, E.

    2014-05-01

    In the present paper we investigate the causal structure of the baby Skyrme model using appropriate geometrical tools. We discuss several features of excitations propagating on top of background solutions and show that the evolution of high frequency waves is governed by a curved effective geometry. Examples are given for which the effective metric describes the interaction between waves and solitonic solutions such as kinks, antikinks, and hedgehogs. In particular, it is shown how violent processes involving the collisions of solitons and antisolitons may induce metrics which are not globally hyperbolic. We argue that it might be illuminating to calculate the effective metric as a diagnostic test for pathological regimes in numerical simulations.

  9. Advising parents on washing babies' clothes.

    PubMed

    Scowen, P

    1996-01-01

    Detergents and other laundry products are generally effective and safe for all the family, but use carefully according to the maker's instructions and keep out of the reach of children. Rinse thoroughly to remove detergent residue from fabrics. If handwashing clothes, dissolve detergent before immersing hands. Wear rubber gloves if possible. Wash, rinse and dry hands thoroughly after contact with detergent. If a baby or parent has eczema, it may be necessary to try different products to see which one the client can tolerate. A non-perfumed, non-enzyme product may be found less irritating. PMID:9077252

  10. Perceptions of baby talk, frequency of receiving baby talk, and self-esteem among community and nursing home residents.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, B P; Rigby, H

    1996-03-01

    Community-living seniors (n = 113) and nursing home residents (n = 43) provided their impressions of baby-talk and neutral-talk scenarios and completed measures of functional health, need for succorance, and self-esteem. Two orthogonal dimensions were found in perceptions of baby talk: Warmth and Superiority. The personality trait of need for succorance was consistently associated with perceptions of warmth in baby talk, whereas functional health, age, and institutionalization were associated with perceptions of superiority. Significant interactions were found between perceptions of baby talk and frequency of receiving baby talk in the prediction of self-esteem, providing suggestive evidence for previously expressed concerns about potentially harmful effects of receiving baby talk on self-esteem among seniors who have negative perceptions of baby talk. However, older persons with positive perceptions of baby talk reported higher self-esteem when they frequently received baby talk, in accordance with person-environment theory. The self-esteem interaction for men occurred on the Superiority dimension, whereas the interaction for women occurred on the Warmth dimension.

  11. Let Baby Set the Delivery Date: Wait Until 39 Weeks if You Can

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Human Services Latest Issue This Issue Features Autism Spectrum Disorder Let Baby Set the Delivery Date Health Capsules ... the lifelong health of that baby.” search Features Autism Spectrum Disorder Let Baby Set the Delivery Date Wise Choices ...

  12. 29 CFR 1910.215 - Abrasive wheel machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Machinery and Machine Guarding § 1910.215 Abrasive wheel machinery. (a) General requirements—(1) Machine guarding. Abrasive wheels shall be used only on machines provided with... omitted; and (ii) The spindle end, nut, and outer flange may be exposed on machines designed as...

  13. 29 CFR 1910.213 - Woodworking machinery requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Machinery and Machine Guarding § 1910.213 Woodworking machinery requirements. (a) Machine construction general. (1) Each machine shall be so constructed... machine be provided with a disconnect switch that can be locked in the off position. (11) The frames...

  14. Occupational incidents with self-propelled machinery in Austrian agriculture.

    PubMed

    Mayrhofer, Hannes; Quendler, Elisabeth; Boxberger, Josef

    2013-01-01

    Tractors, self-propelled harvesting machinery, and material handling machinery are the most commonly used self-propelled machineries in Austrian agriculture, and they have similarities in main accident scenarios. Statistical data of all occupational incidents with these machines reported between 2008 and 2010 were analyzed to obtain information about the circumstances of the incidents, and about the victims and their work environments. Criteria of recognized occupational incidents provided by the Austrian Social Insurance Institution for Farmers were analyzed according to machinery category by means of cross-tabulation and chi-square tests. The results were discussed and evaluated in the context of the literature. The results of the analysis of the databases show that 786 occupational incidents with tractors, self-propelled harvesting machinery, and material handling machinery occurred in Austrian agriculture between 2008 and 2010. There were 231 occupational incidents in 2008; the number rose to 268 in 2009 and to 286 in 2010. A total of 41 incidents were fatal. For the machinery categories analyzed, the majority of injured victims were male, older than 40 years, Austrian citizens, and managers of a mixed-agricultural farm. A large number of the incidents occurred in all machinery categories by loss of control during operating a vehicle.

  15. 46 CFR 130.460 - Placement of machinery alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Placement of machinery alarms. 130.460 Section 130.460 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Automation of Unattended Machinery Spaces § 130.460...

  16. 46 CFR 111.103-9 - Machinery stop stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Machinery stop stations. 111.103-9 Section 111.103-9...-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Remote Stopping Systems § 111.103-9 Machinery stop stations. (a) Each forced draft... service pump, and any other fuel oil pumps must have a stop control that is outside of the...

  17. 46 CFR 111.103-9 - Machinery stop stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Machinery stop stations. 111.103-9 Section 111.103-9...-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Remote Stopping Systems § 111.103-9 Machinery stop stations. (a) Each forced draft... service pump, and any other fuel oil pumps must have a stop control that is outside of the...

  18. 46 CFR 111.103-9 - Machinery stop stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Machinery stop stations. 111.103-9 Section 111.103-9...-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Remote Stopping Systems § 111.103-9 Machinery stop stations. (a) Each forced draft... service pump, and any other fuel oil pumps must have a stop control that is outside of the...

  19. 46 CFR 111.103-9 - Machinery stop stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Machinery stop stations. 111.103-9 Section 111.103-9...-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Remote Stopping Systems § 111.103-9 Machinery stop stations. (a) Each forced draft... service pump, and any other fuel oil pumps must have a stop control that is outside of the...

  20. Post-stressed concrete foundation may reduce machinery vibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fistedis, S. H.

    1967-01-01

    Post-stressing concrete mat foundation reduces excessive vibrations in machinery. The mat is stressed in compression after the machinery is mounted, thus closing any cracks in it, altering the distribution of the soil subgrade reaction on the mat, and changing the mat-subgrade natural frequency.

  1. 46 CFR 169.625 - Compartments containing diesel machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Section 169.625 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Machinery and Electrical Ventilation § 169.625 Compartments containing diesel machinery..., and be installed so that the ordinary collection of water in the bilge will not trap the duct....

  2. 46 CFR 169.625 - Compartments containing diesel machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Section 169.625 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Machinery and Electrical Ventilation § 169.625 Compartments containing diesel machinery..., and be installed so that the ordinary collection of water in the bilge will not trap the duct....

  3. 46 CFR 169.625 - Compartments containing diesel machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Section 169.625 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Machinery and Electrical Ventilation § 169.625 Compartments containing diesel machinery..., and be installed so that the ordinary collection of water in the bilge will not trap the duct....

  4. 46 CFR 58.20-15 - Installation of refrigerating machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... refrigerating machinery. (a) Where refrigerating machines are installed in which anhydrous ammonia is used as a... a solution of aqua ammonia and machines using carbon dioxide are exempt from this requirement...) Machinery compartments containing equipment for ammonia shall be fitted with a sprinkler system providing...

  5. 46 CFR 58.20-15 - Installation of refrigerating machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... refrigerating machinery. (a) Where refrigerating machines are installed in which anhydrous ammonia is used as a... a solution of aqua ammonia and machines using carbon dioxide are exempt from this requirement...) Machinery compartments containing equipment for ammonia shall be fitted with a sprinkler system providing...

  6. 46 CFR 58.20-15 - Installation of refrigerating machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... refrigerating machinery. (a) Where refrigerating machines are installed in which anhydrous ammonia is used as a... a solution of aqua ammonia and machines using carbon dioxide are exempt from this requirement...) Machinery compartments containing equipment for ammonia shall be fitted with a sprinkler system providing...

  7. 46 CFR 58.20-15 - Installation of refrigerating machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... refrigerating machinery. (a) Where refrigerating machines are installed in which anhydrous ammonia is used as a... a solution of aqua ammonia and machines using carbon dioxide are exempt from this requirement...) Machinery compartments containing equipment for ammonia shall be fitted with a sprinkler system providing...

  8. 4. FIRST FLOOR INTERIOR, AMMONIA COMPRESSION DYNAMOS IN MACHINERY ROOM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. FIRST FLOOR INTERIOR, AMMONIA COMPRESSION DYNAMOS IN MACHINERY ROOM ALONG SOUTH SIDE OF WESTERN PORTION OF BUILDING, FROM EASTERN ENTRANCE TO MACHINERY ROOM, LOOKING WEST. - Oakland Naval Supply Center, Cold Storage Warehouse, South of C Street between First & Second Street, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  9. 46 CFR 169.625 - Compartments containing diesel machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Compartments containing diesel machinery. 169.625 Section 169.625 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Machinery and Electrical Ventilation § 169.625 Compartments containing diesel...

  10. 46 CFR 169.625 - Compartments containing diesel machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Compartments containing diesel machinery. 169.625 Section 169.625 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Machinery and Electrical Ventilation § 169.625 Compartments containing diesel...

  11. 33 CFR 157.39 - Machinery space bilges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CFR 155.380. ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Machinery space bilges. 157.39... Vessel Operation § 157.39 Machinery space bilges. (a) A tank vessel may discharge an oily mixture from...

  12. 46 CFR 130.460 - Placement of machinery alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... paragraph (a)(4) of this section must be installed in— (1) Each space below the deepest load waterline that..., AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Automation of Unattended Machinery Spaces § 130.460 Placement...) Centralized displays must be installed in the machinery spaces to allow rapid evaluation of each...

  13. 46 CFR 130.460 - Placement of machinery alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... paragraph (a)(4) of this section must be installed in— (1) Each space below the deepest load waterline that..., AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Automation of Unattended Machinery Spaces § 130.460 Placement...) Centralized displays must be installed in the machinery spaces to allow rapid evaluation of each...

  14. 46 CFR 130.460 - Placement of machinery alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... paragraph (a)(4) of this section must be installed in— (1) Each space below the deepest load waterline that..., AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Automation of Unattended Machinery Spaces § 130.460 Placement...) Centralized displays must be installed in the machinery spaces to allow rapid evaluation of each...

  15. 46 CFR 130.460 - Placement of machinery alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... paragraph (a)(4) of this section must be installed in— (1) Each space below the deepest load waterline that..., AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Automation of Unattended Machinery Spaces § 130.460 Placement...) Centralized displays must be installed in the machinery spaces to allow rapid evaluation of each...

  16. 52. VIEW NORTHEAST ACROSS WINDING MACHINERY: Overall view towards northwest ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    52. VIEW NORTHEAST ACROSS WINDING MACHINERY: Overall view towards northwest of the winding machinery on the first floor of the Washington and Mason Streets powerhouse and car barn. Photograph taken from museum mezzanine looking along the tension runs. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  17. 46 CFR 109.205 - Inspection of boilers and machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Inspection of boilers and machinery. 109.205 Section 109.205 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 109.205 Inspection of boilers and machinery. The chief...

  18. 46 CFR 109.205 - Inspection of boilers and machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Inspection of boilers and machinery. 109.205 Section 109.205 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 109.205 Inspection of boilers and machinery. The chief...

  19. 46 CFR 109.205 - Inspection of boilers and machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Inspection of boilers and machinery. 109.205 Section 109.205 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 109.205 Inspection of boilers and machinery. The chief...

  20. 46 CFR 109.205 - Inspection of boilers and machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Inspection of boilers and machinery. 109.205 Section 109.205 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 109.205 Inspection of boilers and machinery. The chief...

  1. 46 CFR 109.205 - Inspection of boilers and machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Inspection of boilers and machinery. 109.205 Section 109.205 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 109.205 Inspection of boilers and machinery. The chief...

  2. 46 CFR 42.15-35 - Machinery space openings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... strong covers of steel or other equivalent material permanently attached in their proper positions and... Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES DOMESTIC AND FOREIGN VOYAGES BY SEA Conditions of Assignment of Freeboard § 42.15-35 Machinery space openings. (a) Machinery...

  3. Industrial Machinery Maintenance and Repair. Florida Vocational Program Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University of South Florida, Tampa. Dept. of Adult and Vocational Education.

    This vocational program guide is intended to assist in the organization, operation, and evaluation of a program in industrial machinery maintenance and repair in school districts, area vocational centers, and community colleges. The following topics are covered: job duties of millwrights, maintenance mechanics, and machinery erectors; program…

  4. 29 CFR 1910.213 - Woodworking machinery requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Woodworking machinery requirements. 1910.213 Section 1910... Woodworking machinery requirements. (a) Machine construction general. (1) Each machine shall be so constructed... with the specific requirements of § 1910.219. (10) It is recommended that each power-driven...

  5. 33 CFR 157.39 - Machinery space bilges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... CFR 155.380. ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Machinery space bilges. 157.39... Vessel Operation § 157.39 Machinery space bilges. (a) A tank vessel may discharge an oily mixture from...

  6. 33 CFR 157.39 - Machinery space bilges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... CFR 155.380. ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Machinery space bilges. 157.39... Vessel Operation § 157.39 Machinery space bilges. (a) A tank vessel may discharge an oily mixture from...

  7. 33 CFR 157.39 - Machinery space bilges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... CFR 155.380. ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Machinery space bilges. 157.39... Vessel Operation § 157.39 Machinery space bilges. (a) A tank vessel may discharge an oily mixture from...

  8. 46 CFR 119.465 - Ventilation of spaces containing diesel machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ventilation of spaces containing diesel machinery. 119... MACHINERY INSTALLATION Specific Machinery Requirements § 119.465 Ventilation of spaces containing diesel machinery. (a) A space containing diesel machinery must be fitted with adequate means, such as...

  9. 46 CFR 119.465 - Ventilation of spaces containing diesel machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ventilation of spaces containing diesel machinery. 119... MACHINERY INSTALLATION Specific Machinery Requirements § 119.465 Ventilation of spaces containing diesel machinery. (a) A space containing diesel machinery must be fitted with adequate means, such as...

  10. Baby Galaxies in the Adult Universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1

    This artist's conception illustrates the decline in our universe's 'birth-rate' over time. When the universe was young, massive galaxies were forming regularly, like baby bees in a bustling hive. In time, the universe bore fewer and fewer 'offspring,' and newborn galaxies (white circles) matured into older ones more like our own Milky Way (spirals).

    Previously, astronomers thought that the universe had ceased to give rise to massive, young galaxies, but findings from NASA's Galaxy Evolution Explorer suggest that may not be the case. Surveying thousands of nearby galaxies with its highly sensitive ultraviolet eyes, the telescope spotted three dozen that greatly resemble youthful galaxies from billions of years ago. In this illustration, those galaxies are represented as white circles on the right, or 'today' side of the timeline.

    The discovery not only suggests that our universe may still be alive with youth, but also offers astronomers their first close-up look at what appear to be baby galaxies. Prior to the new result, astronomers had to peer about 11 billion light-years into the distant universe to see newborn galaxies. The newfound galaxies are only about 2 to 4 billion light-years away.

  11. Japan's baby bust: an economic issue?

    PubMed

    1998-09-01

    This brief article articulates that the solution to the declining birthrate in Japan is to change the corporate culture and societal values and begin putting the family first. At the present rate of fertility decline, Japan could well have just over 67 million total population in another 100 years, which is 50% of the present total. In 1990, the Finance Minister tried to convince Japanese couples to have more babies by abandoning policies that led women to higher education. The implication is that women would then want to stay at home and have babies. The prosperity of the late 1980s and early 1990s did not encourage higher fertility. The likely reason for low fertility is the male-dominated, corporate culture where male workers leave home early in the morning and work till late at night. Wives are left to care for children and maintain a full-time job. The total fertility rate (TFR) was 3.65 in 1950 and 1.39 in 1998. Both Germany and Italy have lower fertility but higher rates of immigration. The decline in the TFR is responsible for many of the current economic policies. New taxes were introduced in 1997 to pay for social security of the aged, and then the economy stalled. Life expectancies continue to rise. The elderly are a larger proportion of total population than children aged under 15 years. Women marry late, and the divorce rate is high. PMID:12348885

  12. Massage Changes Babies' Body, Brain and Behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishikawa, Chihiro; Shiga, Takashi

    Tactile stimulation is an important factor in mother-infant interactions. Many studies on both human and animals have shown that tactile stimulation during the neonatal period has various beneficial effects in the subsequent growth of the body and brain. In particular, massage is often applied to preterm human babies as “touch care”, because tactile stimulation together with kinesthetic stimulation increases body weight, which is accompanied by behavioral development and the changes of endocrine and neural conditions. Among them, the elevation of insulin-like growth factor-1, catecholamine, and vagus nerve activity may underlie the body weight gain. Apart from the body weight gain, tactile stimulation has various effects on the nervous system and endocrine system. For example, it has been reported that tactile stimulation on human and animal babies activates parasympathetic nervous systems, while suppresses the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenalcortical (HPA) axis, which may be related to the reduction of emotionality, anxiety-like behavior, and pain sensitivity. In addition, animal experiments have shown that tactile stimulation improves learning and memory. Facilitation of the neuronal activity and the morphological changes including the hippocampal synapse may underlie the improvement of the learning and memory. In conclusion, it has been strongly suggested that tactile stimulation in early life has beneficial effects on body, brain structure and function, which are maintained throughout life.

  13. Motivations of Baby Boomer Doctoral Learners: A Grounded Theory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Julia J.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a substantive theory of the motivations of Baby Boomer doctoral learners, using the grounded theory approach. These Baby Boomers possess a wealth of wisdom. Their experiences, coupled with educational credentials, could take their leadership abilities to the next level. The grounded theory method developed by…

  14. Baby Boomers and Community College: A Study of Motivations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, DiAnne H.

    2009-01-01

    Scope and method of study. This descriptive case study was designed to describe the critical issues surrounding Baby Boomers and their motivations to attend community college, in addition to their perceptions of learning and curriculum needs. Additionally the study explored what these Baby Boomers plan to do after completing their courses and…

  15. Hepatitis B Shots Are Recommended for All New Babies

    MedlinePlus

    Hepatitis B Shots Are Recommended for All New Babies. Hepatitis B Vaccine Helps Protect Your Baby’s Future! What is hepatitis B and why do I need to protect my baby now? Hepatitis B is a serious disease caused by the ...

  16. Babies' Self-Regulation: Taking a Broad Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliot, Enid; Gonzalez-Mena, Janet

    2011-01-01

    Self-regulation is a complex process that involves coordinating various systems of the body and mind, including feelings. It's not only about emotions but also about cognition. Self-regulation has an impact on social development, influencing how babies and toddlers get along with others. Through self-regulation, babies and toddlers learn to pay…

  17. CDC Vital Signs: Hepatitis C: Testing Baby Boomers Saves Lives

    MedlinePlus

    ... tested for hepatitis C. Doctors, nurses and other health care providers can: Test all baby boomers and people with other risks ... hepatitis C and all doctors, nurses, and other health care providers should test all their patients who are baby boomers for ...

  18. Infants & Toddlers "What's Going On? How to Hold Squriming Babies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honig, Alice Sterling

    2005-01-01

    Using Simple strategies, caregivers can learn to effectively communicate with infants through touch. This article offers suggestions and techniques for calming squirming babies of all types and ages who seem to be unable to find a comfortable position while being held. She begins by suggesting that care givers of very small babies be patient and…

  19. Baby Boom Equals Career Bust. Monographs on Career Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Charles Guy

    Presenting the Baby Boom (1946-1965) as both a potential social problem and opportunity for American leadership, this monograph discusses the following aspects of this population concern: (1) its immediate and long-term impact on career opportunities for those college graduates who make up the baby boom generation; (2) its impact on those whose…

  20. Baby Care Basics: What Every Infant Caregiver Needs To Know.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Child Care, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Presents information on caring for infants in a child care setting. Suggestions include responding quickly to crying, setting the schedule to baby's pace, talking to the baby, using proper hand-washing procedures, checking the room daily for safety, going outdoors every day, and building partnerships with parents. Includes a sample form for…

  1. The Effects of Baby Sign Training on Child Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Vannesa; Sepulveda, Amanda; Rodriguez, Sarai

    2014-01-01

    Although Baby Sign is gaining in popularity, there is a scarcity of research supporting its use. The research that has been conducted is conflicting. In the current study, nine families with children ranging in age from six months to two years and five months participated in a baby sign workshop. A pre--post-test design was used to assess the…

  2. Pedagogy with Babies: Perspectives of Eight Nursery Managers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elfer, Peter; Page, Jools

    2015-01-01

    The last 30 years have seen a significant increase in babies attending nursery, with corresponding questions about the aims and organisation of practice. Research broadly agrees on the importance of emotionally consistent, sensitive and responsive interactions between staff and babies. Policy objectives for nursery and expectations of parents and…

  3. Early Mother/Baby Contact: Consequences/Implications for Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vorster, de Wet

    To assess the effect of early mother-infant proximity on later stress and behavior, two studies were made which involved a sample of mother-baby pairs that was larger than samples utilized in previous studies. In Study 1, involving 300 consecutive mother-baby couples at the Maternity Hospital in Plymouth, England clinical medical officers used a…

  4. Better Baby Care: A Book for Family Day Care Providers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nash, Margaret; Tate, Costella

    A resource for child caregivers providing family day care for infants and toddlers, this book is designed to provide information and suggestions in a format that is easy to follow, and in language that is easy to read. Chapter 1 gives tips on "baby-proofing" the home, as well as ideas for toys, equipment, and how to integrate a baby into the…

  5. Baby Boom Caregivers: Care in the Age of Individualization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guberman, Nancy; Lavoie, Jean-Pierre; Blein, Laure; Olazabal, Ignace

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Many Baby Boomers are faced with the care of aging parents, as well as that of disabled or ill spouses or children. This study examines how Baby Boomers in Quebec, Canada, perceive and play their role as caregivers and how this might differ from their parents' generation. Design and methods: This was a qualitative and empirical study…

  6. Teenagers and Their Babies: A Perinatal Home Visitor's Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardone, Ida; Gilkerson, Linda; Wechsler, Nick

    2008-01-01

    "Teenagers and Their Babies" is a self-study and preparation guide for paraprofessional home-based visitors to engage expectant and new parents in an exploration of their baby's development and their expectations for parenthood. The guide includes service interventions--strategies, techniques, and activities--for home visitors and doulas to use…

  7. Talking with Your Baby: Family as the First School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honig, Alice Sterling; Brophy, Holly Elisabeth

    Noting that children s first words are exciting for parents to hear, this book describes how babies can "talk" before they learn to say actual words and shows ways parents can help babies learn language. The book addresses a neglected area in child development--how to help low literacy parents and parents for whom English is a Second Language…

  8. The total thermal insulation of the new-born baby

    PubMed Central

    Hey, E. N.; Katz, G.; O'Connell, Bridget

    1970-01-01

    1. One hundred and seventeen healthy new-born babies weighing between 0·9 and 4·8 kg at delivery have been studied during the first ten days of life, and sixteen of these babies have been studied serially for 6 weeks after birth. The babies lay supine in a draught-free environment (air speed 4-5 cm/sec) of moderate humidity. The operative temperature was between 26 and 38° C for the babies who were studied naked. 2. Total non-evaporative heat loss was calculated from simultaneous measurements of oxygen consumption, evaporative water loss and the concomitant change in mean body temperature. 3. Approximately 10% of the total body surface area was in contact with the mattress or floor. Conductive heat loss accounted for only about 5% of all non-evaporative heat loss when the naked baby was lying on a thick foam mattress, but for as much as 25% when the baby was lying in a water-jacketed chamber with a floor of clear plastic ∼ 5 mm thick. 4. Insulation to heat loss by convection and radiation varied with environmental temperature. Total specific insulation was low in a warm environment when the naked baby vasodilated, and rose by between 16 and 25% to a maximum in an environment of 31° C. It decreased significantly when the baby became physically active in environments with a temperature less than this. 5. Total specific insulation in an environment of 31° C varied with body size: it averaged 0·156° C.m2.hr/kcal in seven naked babies weighing 0·9-1·2 kg, rose to 0·190° C.m2.hr/kcal in twelve babies weighing 1·8-2·2 kg, and averaged 0·201° C.m2.hr/kcal in the thirty-four babies who weighed over 3 kg. Tissue insulation accounted for 23% of this total specific insulation in the smaller babies, and about 28% of the total in babies weighing over 3 kg. 6. Clothing ten babies in a vest, napkin and long cotton nightdress increased the total specific insulation by an average of 0·23° C.m2.hr/kcal. PMID:5503276

  9. A comparative study of bifidobacteria in human babies and adults

    PubMed Central

    KHONSARI, Shadi; SUGANTHY, Mayuran; BURCZYNSKA, Beata; DANG, Vu; CHOUDHURY, Manika; PACHENARI, Azra

    2015-01-01

    The composition and diversity of the gut microbiota are known to be different between babies and adults. The aim of this project was to compare the level of bifidobacteria between babies and adults and to investigate the influence of lifestyle factors on the level of this bacterium in the gut. During this study, the levels of bifidobacteria in 10 human babies below 2 years of age were compared with that of 10 human adults above 40 years. The level of bifidobacteria proved to be significantly higher in babies in comparison with adults. This investigation concluded that a combination of several factors, such as age, diet, and BMI, has an important effect on the level of bifidobacteria in adults, while in babies, a combination of diet and age may influence the level of intestinal bifidobacteria. PMID:27200263

  10. 7 CFR 319.56-48 - Conditions governing the entry of baby squash and baby courgettes from Zambia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... vertebratus, Diaphania indica, Helicoverpa armigera, and Spodoptera littoralis. (a) Approved greenhouses. The baby squash and baby courgettes must be grown in Zambia in insect-proof, pest-free greenhouses approved jointly by the Zambian national plant protection organization (NPPO) and APHIS. (1) The greenhouses...

  11. 7 CFR 319.56-48 - Conditions governing the entry of baby squash and baby courgettes from Zambia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... be equipped with double self-closing doors. (2) Any vents or openings in the greenhouses (other than the double self-closing doors) must be covered with 1.6 mm screening in order to prevent the entry of... identity of the greenhouse. While packing the baby squash or baby courgettes for export to the...

  12. 7 CFR 319.56-48 - Conditions governing the entry of baby squash and baby courgettes from Zambia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... be equipped with double self-closing doors. (2) Any vents or openings in the greenhouses (other than the double self-closing doors) must be covered with 1.6 mm screening in order to prevent the entry of... identity of the greenhouse. While packing the baby squash or baby courgettes for export to the...

  13. 76 FR 81467 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Importation of Baby...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-28

    ... Collection; Importation of Baby Corn and Baby Carrots From Zambia AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection... with regulations for the importation of baby corn and baby carrots from Zambia. DATES: We will consider...: For information on regulations for the importation of baby corn and baby carrots from Zambia,...

  14. Global Design Optimization for Fluid Machinery Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shyy, Wei; Papila, Nilay; Tucker, Kevin; Vaidyanathan, Raj; Griffin, Lisa

    2000-01-01

    Recent experiences in utilizing the global optimization methodology, based on polynomial and neural network techniques for fluid machinery design are summarized. Global optimization methods can utilize the information collected from various sources and by different tools. These methods offer multi-criterion optimization, handle the existence of multiple design points and trade-offs via insight into the entire design space can easily perform tasks in parallel, and are often effective in filtering the noise intrinsic to numerical and experimental data. Another advantage is that these methods do not need to calculate the sensitivity of each design variable locally. However, a successful application of the global optimization method needs to address issues related to data requirements with an increase in the number of design variables and methods for predicting the model performance. Examples of applications selected from rocket propulsion components including a supersonic turbine and an injector element and a turbulent flow diffuser are used to illustrate the usefulness of the global optimization method.

  15. [Baby online to support the mother-baby relationship in neonatalogy].

    PubMed

    Durand, Marie-France; Biondini, Christophe; Boyer, Christelle

    2012-01-01

    Neonatal separations are always harmful to the development of the parent/baby relationship. At Alès general hospital, the Bébé online scheme enables live images to be transmitted remotely and safely between maternity wards and neonatalogy, physically distant from each other. Supervised by the nursing team, it supports the attachment process by giving parents the possibility of maintainingvisual contact with their newborn.

  16. Facial aesthetics: babies prefer attractiveness to symmetry.

    PubMed

    Samuels, C A; Butterworth, G; Roberts, T; Graupner, L; Hole, G

    1994-01-01

    The visual preferences of human infants for faces that varied in their attractiveness and in their symmetry about the midline were explored. The aim was to establish whether infants' visual preference for attractive faces may be mediated by the vertical symmetry of the face. Chimeric faces, made from photographs of attractive and unattractive female faces, were produced by computer graphics. Babies looked longer at normal and at chimeric attractive faces than at normal and at chimeric unattractive faces. There were no developmental differences between the younger and older infants: all preferred to look at the attractive faces. Infants as young as 4 months showed similarity with adults in the 'aesthetic perception' of attractiveness and this preference was not based on the vertical symmetry of the face. PMID:7845772

  17. Facial aesthetics: babies prefer attractiveness to symmetry.

    PubMed

    Samuels, Curtis A; Butterworth, George; Roberts, Tony; Graupner, Lida; Hole, Graham

    2013-01-01

    The visual preferences of human infants for faces that varied in their attractiveness and in their symmetry about the midline were explored. The aim was to establish whether infants' visual preference for attractive faces may be mediated by the vertical symmetry of the face. Chimeric faces, made from photographs of attractive and unattractive female faces, were produced by computer graphics. Babies looked longer at normal and at chimeric attractive faces than at normal and at chimeric unattractive faces. There were no developmental differences between the younger and older infants: all preferred to look at the attractive faces. Infants as young as 4 months showed similarity with adults in the 'aesthetic perception' of attractiveness and this preference was not based on the vertical symmetry of the face. PMID:24601036

  18. Power outages, power externalities, and baby booms.

    PubMed

    Burlando, Alfredo

    2014-08-01

    Determining whether power outages have significant fertility effects is an important policy question in developing countries, where blackouts are common and modern forms of family planning are scarce. Using birth records from Zanzibar, this study shows that a month-long blackout in 2008 caused a significant increase in the number of births 8 to 10 months later. The increase was similar across villages that had electricity, regardless of the level of electrification; villages with no electricity connections saw no changes in birth numbers. The large fertility increase in communities with very low levels of electricity suggests that the outage affected the fertility of households not connected to the grid through some spillover effect. Whether the baby boom is likely to translate to a permanent increase in the population remains unclear, but this article highlights an important hidden consequence of power instability in developing countries. It also suggests that electricity imposes significant externality effects on rural populations that have little exposure to it.

  19. Malnutrition and hypernatraemia in breastfed babies.

    PubMed

    Paul, A C; Ranjini, K; Muthulakshmi; Roy, A; Kirubakaran, C

    2000-09-01

    Despite the well-known advantages of breast-feeding to both mother and infant, malnutrition of breastfed infants does occur. We report two term neonates who presented in the 3rd week of life with severe wasting, hypernatraemic dehydration and pre-renal failure while being exclusively breastfed. Breast-milk sodium levels were markedly elevated on admission. Both infants recovered following adequate hydration and showed excellent catch-up growth during follow-up while exclusive breast-feeding was maintained. The critical malnutrition in both cases was detected by the family physician during routine postnatal visits. Both mothers were well motivated toward breast-feeding and were unaware of the severity of the baby's illness.

  20. Facial aesthetics: babies prefer attractiveness to symmetry.

    PubMed

    Samuels, Curtis A; Butterworth, George; Roberts, Tony; Graupner, Lida; Hole, Graham

    2013-01-01

    The visual preferences of human infants for faces that varied in their attractiveness and in their symmetry about the midline were explored. The aim was to establish whether infants' visual preference for attractive faces may be mediated by the vertical symmetry of the face. Chimeric faces, made from photographs of attractive and unattractive female faces, were produced by computer graphics. Babies looked longer at normal and at chimeric attractive faces than at normal and at chimeric unattractive faces. There were no developmental differences between the younger and older infants: all preferred to look at the attractive faces. Infants as young as 4 months showed similarity with adults in the 'aesthetic perception' of attractiveness and this preference was not based on the vertical symmetry of the face.