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Sample records for babybig botulism immune

  1. [Infant botulism].

    PubMed

    Falk, Absalom; Afriat, Amichay; Hubary, Yechiel; Herzog, Lior; Eisenkraft, Arik

    2014-01-01

    Infant botulism is a paralytic syndrome which manifests as a result of ingesting spores of the toxin secreting bacterium Clostridium botulinum by infants. As opposed to botulism in adults, treating infant botulism with horse antiserum was not approved due to several safety issues. This restriction has led to the development of Human Botulism Immune Globulin Intravenous (BIG-IV; sells under BabyBIG). In this article we review infant botulism and the advantages of treating it with BIG-IV.

  2. Clinical mimics of infant botulism.

    PubMed

    Francisco, Ann Marie O; Arnon, Stephen S

    2007-04-01

    Since 1992, Human Botulism Immune Globulin has been provided by the California Department of Health Services to infants with probable infant botulism, the intestinal toxemia form of human botulism. Human Botulism Immune Globulin became available in California in 1992-1997 within a randomized, controlled, double-blinded, pivotal clinical trial and subsequently became available nationwide in 1998-2003 in an open-label study until its licensure in October 2003 as BabyBIG. Thereafter, Human Botulism Immune Globulin remained available nationwide as an approved orphan-drug product. To achieve prompt neutralization of circulating botulinum toxin, the decision to treat with Human Botulism Immune Globulin has been based on clinical criteria that include a consistent history and physical findings of bulbar palsies, hypotonia, and weakness. After licensure, the charts of patients who did not have laboratory-confirmed infant botulism were reviewed to identify their actual diagnoses. The approximately 5% of 681 patients treated with Human Botulism Immune Globulin who did not have infant botulism fell into 5 categories: spinal muscular atrophy, metabolic disorders, other infectious diseases, miscellaneous, and probable infant botulism lacking laboratory confirmation.

  3. Equine botulinum antitoxin for the treatment of infant botulism.

    PubMed

    Vanella de Cuetos, Elida E; Fernandez, Rafael A; Bianco, María I; Sartori, Omar J; Piovano, María L; Lúquez, Carolina; de Jong, Laura I T

    2011-11-01

    Infant botulism is the most common form of human botulism in Argentina and the United States. BabyBIG (botulism immune globulin intravenous [human]) is the antitoxin of choice for specific treatment of infant botulism in the United States. However, its high cost limits its use in many countries. We report here the effectiveness and safety of equine botulinum antitoxin (EqBA) as an alternative treatment. We conducted an analytical, observational, retrospective, and longitudinal study on cases of infant botulism registered in Mendoza, Argentina, from 1993 to 2007. We analyzed 92 medical records of laboratory-confirmed cases and evaluated the safety and efficacy of treatment with EqBA. Forty-nine laboratory-confirmed cases of infant botulism demanding admission in intensive care units and mechanical ventilation included 31 treated with EqBA within the 5 days after the onset of signs and 18 untreated with EqBA. EqBA-treated patients had a reduction in the mean length of hospital stay of 23.9 days (P = 0.0007). For infants treated with EqBA, the intensive care unit stay was shortened by 11.2 days (P = 0.0036), mechanical ventilation was reduced by 11.1 days (P = 0.0155), and tube feeding was reduced by 24.4 days (P = 0.0001). The incidence of sepsis in EqBA-treated patients was 47.3% lower (P = 0.0017) than in the untreated ones. Neither sequelae nor adverse effects attributable to EqBA were noticed, except for one infant who developed a transient erythematous rash. These results suggest that prompt treatment of infant botulism with EqBA is safe and effective and that EqBA could be considered an alternative specific treatment for infant botulism when BabyBIG is not available.

  4. Equine Botulinum Antitoxin for the Treatment of Infant Botulism

    PubMed Central

    Vanella de Cuetos, Elida E.; Fernandez, Rafael A.; Bianco, María I.; Sartori, Omar J.; Piovano, María L.; Lúquez, Carolina; de Jong, Laura I. T.

    2011-01-01

    Infant botulism is the most common form of human botulism in Argentina and the United States. BabyBIG (botulism immune globulin intravenous [human]) is the antitoxin of choice for specific treatment of infant botulism in the United States. However, its high cost limits its use in many countries. We report here the effectiveness and safety of equine botulinum antitoxin (EqBA) as an alternative treatment. We conducted an analytical, observational, retrospective, and longitudinal study on cases of infant botulism registered in Mendoza, Argentina, from 1993 to 2007. We analyzed 92 medical records of laboratory-confirmed cases and evaluated the safety and efficacy of treatment with EqBA. Forty-nine laboratory-confirmed cases of infant botulism demanding admission in intensive care units and mechanical ventilation included 31 treated with EqBA within the 5 days after the onset of signs and 18 untreated with EqBA. EqBA-treated patients had a reduction in the mean length of hospital stay of 23.9 days (P = 0.0007). For infants treated with EqBA, the intensive care unit stay was shortened by 11.2 days (P = 0.0036), mechanical ventilation was reduced by 11.1 days (P = 0.0155), and tube feeding was reduced by 24.4 days (P = 0.0001). The incidence of sepsis in EqBA-treated patients was 47.3% lower (P = 0.0017) than in the untreated ones. Neither sequelae nor adverse effects attributable to EqBA were noticed, except for one infant who developed a transient erythematous rash. These results suggest that prompt treatment of infant botulism with EqBA is safe and effective and that EqBA could be considered an alternative specific treatment for infant botulism when BabyBIG is not available. PMID:21918119

  5. Infant botulism and indications for administration of botulism immune globulin.

    PubMed

    Pifko, Elysha; Price, Amanda; Sterner, Sarah

    2014-02-01

    Infant botulism is caused by the ingestion of Clostridium botulinum spores and leads to a life-threatening descending motor weakness and flaccid paralysis in infant children. This disease presents with symptoms such as constipation, weakness, and hypotonia and can lead to respiratory failure. Botulism immune globulin (BIG) was created to treat this deadly disease and functions by neutralizing all systemically circulating botulism toxins. It is indicated in children with clinically diagnosed infant botulism, before diagnostic confirmation, and has been shown to lead to a significant reduction in intensive care unit and hospital stay for these patients. This review article discusses the epidemiology, clinical presentation, history of BIG, and indications for administration of BIG.

  6. Immunization of ducks for type C botulism.

    PubMed

    Martinez, R; Wobeser, G

    1999-10-01

    A single subcutaneous immunization with a vaccine used for protecting ranch mink (Mustela vison) against type C botulism reduced morbidity and mortality in mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) and northern pintail (Anas acuta) ducks challenged with approximately 4.5 x 10(4) and 2.25 x 10(4) mouse lethal doses (MLD50), respectively, of botulinum toxin at 10 and 15 days post-immunization (pi). There was no significant protection at 5 days pi. Protection persisted in mallards for 90 days pi. To simulate use of vaccine as a part of treatment of sick birds in the field, mallards were exposed to toxin and, when clinical signs were evident, each bird was treated by intraperitoneal injection of type C botulinum antitoxin and one-half of the birds were immunized. Immunization had no significant effect on recovery from intoxication. At 10 days posttreatment, all birds were challenged with toxin. Clinical signs and mortality were significantly less frequent among immunized birds than among non-immunized birds after the second exposure. Immunization might be useful as part of the treatment regimen in botulism outbreaks.

  7. Infant botulism in Andalusia (Southern Spain).

    PubMed

    López-Laso, Eduardo; Roncero-Sánchez-Cano, Inés; Arce-Portillo, Elena; Ley-Martos, Myriam; Aguirre-Rodríguez, Javier; García-Ron, Adrián; Mora-Navarro, David; Méndez-García, Mario; Camino-León, Rafael

    2014-05-01

    Infant botulism (IB) is caused by the intestinal colonization by Clostridium botulinum in the first year of life and its subsequent production of neurotoxins. Traditionally, IB has been associated to honey consumption. IB cases tend to cluster in geographic regions. In Europe, IB is a rare disorder. From 1976 through 2006, 65 cases were identified in 13 European countries. In Spain, in the last 15 years, most of the cases have been reported in one region, Andalusia (Southern Spain). A specific treatment for IB type A and type B (BabyBIG) is available outside of the United States since 2005. and aims: We performed a retrospective review of IB cases detected in Andalusia since 1997 and compare them with the cases of IB reported in Europe. We identified 11 confirmed cases of IB in Andalusia since 1997, and 14 cases in Spain. Nine out of 11 cases were detected since 2007; none of these infants had been exposed to honey consumption. One case in 1997 and another in 2000 were associated to honey. Two cases were treated with BabyBIG in 2007. In the period 2006-2012 the cases of IB reported in Europe were 54. We identified a considerable increase in the incidence of IB since 2006. A tendency to a reduction in the number of cases of IB linked to honey consumption has also been identified. An increase in the exposure to these bacteria from the environment could be presumed. Clinicians should maintain a high index of suspicion for this treatable disorder. Copyright © 2014 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Medical treatment for botulism.

    PubMed

    Chalk, Colin; Benstead, Tim J; Keezer, Mark

    2011-03-16

    Botulism is an acute paralytic illness caused by a neurotoxin produced by Clostridium botulinum. Supportive care, including intensive care, is key but the role of other medical treatments is unclear. To assess the effects of medical treatments on mortality, duration of hospitalization, mechanical ventilation, tube or parenteral feeding and risk of adverse events in botulism. We searched the Cochrane Neuromuscular Disease Group Specialized Register (10 January 2011), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (10 January 2010 in The Cochrane Library, Issue 4 2010), MEDLINE (January 1966 to January 2011) and EMBASE (January 1980 to January 2011). We reviewed bibliographies, and contacted authors and experts. We included randomized and quasi-randomized controlled trials examining the medical treatment of any of the four major types of botulism (infant intestinal botulism, food-borne botulism, wound botulism and adult intestinal toxemia). Medical treatments included equine serum trivalent botulism antitoxin, human-derived botulinum immune globulin, plasma exchange, 3,4-diaminopyridine and guanidine. Two authors selected studies, assessed risk of bias and extracted data independently onto data extraction forms.Our primary outcome was in-hospital death from any cause occurring within four weeks. Secondary outcomes were death occurring within 12 weeks, duration of hospitalization, mechanical ventilation, tube or parenteral feeding and risk of adverse events. A single randomized controlled trial met the inclusion criteria. This trial evaluated human-derived botulinum immune globulin for the treatment of infant botulism. This study included 59 treatment patients and 63 control patients. There were no deaths in either group making any treatment effect on mortality inestimable. There was a significant benefit in the treatment group on duration of hospitalization (mean difference (MD) 3.10 weeks, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.68 to 4.52), mechanical

  9. Medical treatment for botulism.

    PubMed

    Chalk, Colin H; Benstead, Tim J; Keezer, Mark

    2014-02-20

    Botulism is an acute paralytic illness caused by a neurotoxin produced by Clostridium botulinum. Supportive care, including intensive care, is key but the role of other medical treatments is unclear. This is an update of a review first published in 2011. To assess the effects of medical treatments on mortality, duration of hospitalization, mechanical ventilation, tube or parenteral feeding and risk of adverse events in botulism. On 30 March 2013, we searched the Cochrane Neuromuscular Disease Group Specialized Register (30 March 2013), CENTRAL (2013, Issue 3) in The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE (January 1966 to March 2013) and EMBASE (January 1980 to March 2013). We reviewed bibliographies and contacted authors and experts. Randomized and quasi-randomized controlled trials examining the medical treatment of any of the four major types of botulism (infant intestinal botulism, food-borne botulism, wound botulism and adult intestinal toxemia). Potential medical treatments included equine serum trivalent botulism antitoxin, human-derived botulinum immune globulin, plasma exchange, 3,4-diaminopyridine and guanidine. Two authors independently selected studies, assessed risk of bias and extracted data onto data extraction forms.Our primary outcome was in-hospital death from any cause occurring within four weeks. Secondary outcomes were death occurring within 12 weeks, duration of hospitalization, mechanical ventilation, tube or parenteral feeding and risk of adverse events. A single randomized controlled trial met the inclusion criteria. We found no additional trials when we updated the searches in 2013. This trial evaluated human-derived botulinum immune globulin (BIG) for the treatment of infant botulism and included 59 treatment participants as well as 63 control participants. The control group received a control immune globulin which did not have an effect on botulinum toxin. In this trial there was some violation of intention-to-treat principles, and possibly some

  10. Efficacy of a type C botulism vaccine in green-winged teal.

    PubMed

    Rocke, T E; Samuel, M D; Swift, P K; Yarris, G S

    2000-07-01

    We tested the efficacy of a single dose of Botumink toxoid for protecting wild green-winged teal (Anas crecca) during botulism epizootics caused by Clostridium botulinum type C. We challenged control and immunized ducks with four different doses of type C botulinum toxin to determine the LD50 for this species and to evaluate vaccine protection. Fewer immunized ducks were affected with botulism than control ducks, indicating that a single dose of Botumink toxoid could increase the survival of ducks during epizootics. However, the frequency of immunized ducks with signs of botulism increased with the challenge dose of botulinum toxin. Even at doses of botulinum toxin approximately 2 to 4 green-winged teal LD50, about 50% of the immunized ducks were affected. We believe an improved vaccine or a better delivery system is required to justify immunization of wild birds for experimental survival studies.

  11. Efficacy of a type C botulism vaccine in green-winged teal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rocke, T.E.; Samuel, M.D.; Swift, P.K.; Yarris, G.S.

    2000-01-01

    We tested the efficacy of a single dose of Botumink toxoid for protecting wild green-winged teal (Anas crecca) during botulism epizootics caused by Clostridium botulinum type C. We challenged control and immunized ducks with four different doses of type C botulinum toxin to determine the LD50 for this species and to evaluate vaccine protection. Fewer immunized ducks were affected with botulism than control ducks, indicating that a single dose of Botumink toxoid could increase the survival of ducks during epizootics. However, the frequency of immunized ducks with signs of botulism increased with the challenge dose of botulinum toxin. Even at doses of botulinum toxin approximately 2 to 4 green-winged teal LD50, about 50% of the immunized ducks were affected. We believe an improved vaccine or a better delivery system is required to justify immunization of wild birds for experimental survival studies.

  12. Infant botulism type Ba: first culture-confirmed case in the United Arab Emirates.

    PubMed

    Fathalla, Waseem M; Mohammed, Khalid A; Ahmed, Elamin

    2008-09-01

    We report on a 3-month-old girl with culture-confirmed infant botulism caused by a rare double toxin-producing Clostridium botulinum type Ba. This case was not related to honey-feeding. The clinical course was prolonged, with minimal spontaneous improvement at onset, and a period of fluctuating motor weakness and nasogastric feeding dependence afterward. Neurophysiologic studies produced normal results. Human botulism immune globulin was administered empirically on day 23 of presentation, with rapid full recovery. This case highlights the importance of pursuing diagnoses of infant botulism despite normal results of neurophysiologic testing and no history of honey-feeding. Our case also demonstrates a favorable response to human botulism immune globulin, despite the relatively late treatment.

  13. Global occurrence of infant botulism, 1976-2006.

    PubMed

    Koepke, Ruth; Sobel, Jeremy; Arnon, Stephen S

    2008-07-01

    To summarize the worldwide occurrence of reported infant (intestinal toxemia) botulism cases since first recognition of the disease in 1976. We collected information on infant botulism cases by active and passive surveillance, by provision of therapeutic Human Botulism Immune Globulin to suspected cases, and by searching the medical literature. We defined a case as laboratory-confirmed botulism that occurred in an infant botulism among their residents. The United States, Argentina, Australia, Canada, Italy, and Japan, in this order, reported the largest number of cases. A history of honey exposure was significantly more common among case subjects hospitalized outside of the United States than among those who were recently hospitalized in California. Most countries have not yet reported cases of infant botulism. This limited reporting of the disease to date contrasts with the known global occurrence of Clostridium botulinum spores in soils and dust and suggests that infant botulism may be under-recognized, underreported, or both. When bulbar palsies, hypotonia, and weakness are present, physicians should consider the possibility of infant botulism even if the patient has not been fed honey. Publication of additional case reports and surveillance summaries will enhance understanding of the occurrence and extent of this under-recognized disease.

  14. Foodborne botulism treated with heptavalent botulism antitoxin.

    PubMed

    Hill, Stanley E; Iqbal, Raza; Cadiz, Christine L; Le, Jennifer

    2013-02-01

    To report a case of foodborne botulism and subsequent use of the investigational heptavalent botulism antitoxin (H-BAT). A 60-year-old man was hospitalized with blurred vision, diplopia, and dysarthria. On hospital day 2, the patient was transferred to the intensive care unit for progressive fatigable weakness with ptosis, dysphagia, dysarthria, and nausea. Secondary to worsening respiratory distress, the patient was intubated and placed on a ventilator. The patient could open his eyes only with assistance but still had normal strength in all extremities. H-BAT was administered 48 hours after presentation for possible botulism. The patient then revealed that he consumed home-canned corn several days prior to admission. On hospital day 8, botulinum neurotoxin was confirmed in the patient's serum and the home-canned corn. The patient slowly regained muscle strength and was discharged to a long-term acute care facility on hospital day 22. Foodborne botulism is caused by a neurotoxin from Clostridium botulinum and usually occurs after the consumption of improperly prepared home-canned food. Botulism is characterized by symmetrical descending paralysis that may progress to respiratory arrest. The standard confirmatory test for botulism is a mouse bioassay to prove the presence of botulinum neurotoxin. Outside of supportive care, the treatment options for botulism are limited. Individuals with botulism often require intensive care unit monitoring and potentially ventilatory support. H-BAT, the only treatment available for botulism in patients older than 1 year, is a purified and despeciated equine-derived immunoglobulin active against all known botulinum neurotoxins. H-BAT's despeciation significantly reduces the risk of hypersensitivity reactions, anaphylaxis, and serum sickness. In a confirmed case of foodborne botulism treated with H-BAT, the patient tolerated H-BAT and did not develop any hypersensitivity reactions or serum sickness.

  15. Infant botulism: case reports and review.

    PubMed

    Krishna, S; Puri, V

    2001-04-01

    Infant Botulism (IB) is a relatively uncommon, though potentially life-threatening neuroparalytic illness caused by the toxins elaborated by Clostridium botulinum (C botulinum). We describe two cases of Infant Botulism. Both these infants presented with a sepsis-like picture and were unsuspectingly treated with the conventional antibiotics ampicillin and gentamicin. The neuroparalytic syndrome of both infants was probably potentiated by the use of gentamicin. We suggest that cefotaxime be carefully considered instead of gentamicin in the initial management of infants presenting with a sepsis-like clinical picture and associated history of constipation, recent onset of hypotonia, poor feeding and/or drooling. Clinical trials evaluating human Botulism Immune Globulin (BIG) are under way by the California Department of Health. This article comes at a very timely moment because once FDA approved, BIG will be the only specific treatment available for this illness.

  16. Clinical spectrum of botulism.

    PubMed

    Cherington, M

    1998-06-01

    Botulism is a paralyzing disease caused by the toxin of Clostridium botulinum. The toxin produces skeletal muscle paralysis by producing a presynaptic blockade to the release of acetylcholine. Recent studies have pinpointed the site of action of the several types of botulinum neurotoxin at the nerve terminal. Since the discovery of the toxin about 100 years ago, five clinical forms of botulism have been described: 1) classic or foodborne botulism; 2) wound botulism; 3) infant botulism; 4) hidden botulism; 5) inadvertent botulism. A clinical pattern of descending weakness is characteristic of all five forms. Almost all human cases of botulism are caused by one of three serotypes (A, B, or E). Classic and wound botulism were the only two forms known until the last quarter of this century. Wound botulism was rare until the past decade. Now there are increasing numbers of cases of wound botulism in injecting drug users. Infant botulism, first described in 1976, is now the most frequently reported form. In infant botulism spores of Clostridium botulinum are ingested and germinate in the intestinal tract. Hidden botulism, the adult variant of infant botulism, occurs in adult patients who usually have an abnormality of the intestinal tract that allows colonization by Clostridium botulinum. Inadvertent botulism is the most recent form to be described. It occurs in patients who have been treated with injections of botulinum toxin for dystonic and other movement disorders. Laboratory proof of botulism is established with the detection of toxin in the patient's serum, stool, or wound. The detection of Clostridium botulinum bacteria in the stool or wound should also be considered evidence of clinical botulism. Electrophysiologic studies can provide presumptive of botulism in patients with the clinical signs of botulism. Electrophysiologic testing can be especially helpful when bioassay studies are negative. The most consistent electrophysiologic abnormality is a small evoked

  17. [Practice of botulism].

    PubMed

    Ikeguchi, Kunihiko

    2011-07-01

    Botulism is a rare but potentially life-threatening motor and autonomic paralytic syndrome caused by the action of neurotoxins released by Clostridium botulinum. The modern syndromes of botulism have 6 forms: 4 naturally occurring syndromes and 2 human-induced syndromes. Food-borne botulism is caused by ingestion of foods contaminated with botulinum toxin. Wound botulism is caused by C. botulinum infection of a wound and in situ toxin production. Infant botulism and adult intestinal botulism are caused by intestinal colonization and in situ toxin production. Air-borne botulism results from aerosolization of botulinum toxin, whereas iatrogenic botulism occurs due to injection of a large dose of the toxin. Another human-induced form may occur when the aerosolized toxin is released as an act of bioterrorism. All forms of botulism produce a similar syndrome: symmetrical cranial motor nerve palsies followed by descending, symmetrical motor weakness, which may progress to respiratory failure requiring intubation and respiratory support. The clinical diagnosis can be confirmed by electrophysiological studies. Laboratory diagnosis includes serum analysis of toxin by bioassay in mice. Analysis of stool, vomitus, and suspected food items may reveal the toxin. In wound botulism, isolation of C. botulinum from the wound site is diagnostic. The mainstays of therapy are meticulous intensive care including respiratory support, when necessary, and timely administration of the antitoxin.

  18. Botulism

    MedlinePlus

    ... bacterium called Clostridium botulinum. It occurs naturally in soil. There are several kinds of botulism. Foodborne botulism ... baby consumes the spores of the bacteria from soil or honey. All forms can be deadly and ...

  19. [Food-borne botulism].

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Yuko; Sawada, Mikio; Ikeguchi, Kunihiko; Nakano, Imaharu

    2012-08-01

    Botulism is a neuroparalytic disease caused by neurotoxins produced by Clostridium botulinum, and classically presents as palsies of cranial nerves and acute descending flaccid paralysis. Food-borne botulism is the most common form of botulism, and caused by preformed neurotoxins produced by Clostridium botulinum. Electrophysiological studies play an important role in the early diagnosis. Confirmation of the diagnosis is based on the detection of botulinum toxins in the patient's serum or stool. In Japan, decades ago, botulism type E occurred, though only sporadically, almost every year, but in recent years, has dramatically decreased in frequency. Botulism is a curable disease when treated early and adequately. Differential diagnosis of cranial nerves and limb muscle palsies with rapid exacerbation should include food-borne botulism.

  20. Botulism

    MedlinePlus

    ... know that these spores can be found in honey. Do not feed honey to children younger than 12 months because it ... Wound botulism also has been reported following traumatic injuries, such as motorcycle crashes and surgeries. About Botulism ...

  1. Wound botulism.

    PubMed

    Burningham, M D; Walter, F G; Mechem, C; Haber, J; Ekins, B R

    1994-12-01

    Wound botulism is a rare infectious and toxicologic complication of trauma and i.v. drug abuse. Only 39 cases have been reported in detail in the English literature. This case report describes a patient with wound botulism who presented to four medical facilities before receiving definitive diagnosis and treatment. Although his history and physical examination were consistent with wound botulism, diagnosis and therapy were delayed because this rare disease was not considered initially in the differential diagnosis. Wound botulism should be considered in trauma patients and i.v. drug abusers who present with cranial nerve palsies and descending paresis.

  2. [Botulism disease].

    PubMed

    Marcus, Nir; Hourvitz, Ariel

    2002-05-01

    Botulism is caused by a neurotoxin produced from the anaerobic, spore forming bacteria--clostridium botulinum. The disease is usually caused by toxins type A, B and E. Since the disease was first recognized in the beginning of the nineteenth century as food poisoning, different forms of intoxication were described. Infantile botulism, wound botulism, infectious botulism and inadvertent botulism are all clinical syndromes caused by the same toxin. The attempt to use the botulinum toxin as biological warfare agent is well known. Recently the potential terrorist use of botulinum toxin has become a real concern. Botulism is characterized by its classic triad: 1) symmetric descending flaccid paralysis with prominent bulbar palsies 2) afebrile patient 3) clear sensorium. The paralysis usually begins in the cranial nerves where blurred vision, dysarthia and dysphagia are the initial complaints. Diagnosis is based on clinical findings, history of suspicious exposure and supportive ancillary testing to rule out other causes of neurologic dysfunction that mimic botulism such as the Guillain-Barre syndrome, Myasthenia Gravis or cerebrovascular stroke. Laboratory confirmation of suspected cases is usually delayed and treatment should begin before confirmation is completed. The treatment includes supportive care, and the administration of antitoxin which reduces mortality if given early. Since community and emergency room physicians may be the first to treat patients with any type of botulinum intoxication, they must know how to diagnose and treat this rare but potentially lethal disease.

  3. Infant botulism.

    PubMed

    Fenicia, Lucia; Anniballi, Fabrizio

    2009-01-01

    Infant botulism is a rare disease that affects infant less than 12 months of age. The illness results from absorption of botulinum toxin produced in situ by neurotoxigenic clostridia that can temporarily colonize the intestinal tract of infants. To date, all inhabited continents except Africa have reported cases of infant botulism. Recognition of cases seem directly related to physician awareness and clinical suspicion. This review summarizes microbiological, clinical and epidemiological features of infant botulism.

  4. Infantile botulism.

    PubMed

    Gay, C T; Marks, W A; Riley, H D; Bodensteiner, J B; Hamza, M; Noorani, P A; Bobele, G B

    1988-04-01

    We present the first two known cases of infantile botulism in Oklahoma. The first case was due to type B toxin; the second was due to type A toxin. Both cases demonstrate most of the classic features of what now appears to be the most common form of botulism. Infantile botulism is an underrecognized but reversible cause of hypotonia. In most cases, the prognosis is excellent with institution of appropriate supportive care. The recognition of cranial nerve palsies or a history of constipation should raise the suspicion of infantile botulism. Aminoglycoside antibiotics and other agents that may precipitate or exacerbate neuromuscular blockade should be used with extreme caution in hypotonic infants until the cause of the hypotonia is clearly identified.

  5. [Food-borne botulism].

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Yuko; Sawada, Mikio; Ikeguchi, Kunihiko; Nakano, Imaharu

    2011-09-01

    Botulism is a neuroparalytic disease caused by neurotoxins produced by Clostridium botulinum. Food-borne botulism is a kind of exotoxin-caused food intoxication. Although this disease is rarely reported in Japan now, it is a cause of great concern because of its high mortality rate, and botulism cases should be treated as a public health emergency. Botulism classically presents as acute symmetrical descending flaccid paralysis. Its diagnosis is based on the detection of botulinum toxins in the patient's serum or stool specimens. Electrophysiologic tests of such patients show reduced compound muscle action potentials (CMAPs), low amplitudes and short durations of motor unit potentials (MUPs), and mild waning in repetitive low-frequency stimulations. Single fiber electromyography (EMG) is particularly useful for the diagnosis of botulism. We report a case of food-borne botulism that we had encountered. An 83-year-old man with rapidly progressive diplopia, dysphagia, and tetraplegia was hospitalized; he required intensive care, including artificial ventilatory support. Electrophysiologic tests yielded findings compatible with botulism. We made a clinical diagnosis of food-borne botulism and administered antitoxin on the seventh disease day. The patient's motor symptoms started ameliorating several days after the antitoxin injection. Subsequently, botulinum toxin type A was detected in the patient's serum specimen by using a bioassay, and the type A gene and silent B gene were detected in his serum specimen by using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). C. botulinum was also obtained from stool culture on the 17th and 50th disease days. Botulism is a curable disease if treated early. Although it is a rare condition, it should always be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with rapid onset of cranial nerve and limb muscle palsies.

  6. [Botulism--actual epidemiologic and clinical problem].

    PubMed

    Moniuszko, Anna; Czupryna, Piotr; Pancewicz, Sławomir Andrzej; Kondrusik, Maciej; Grygorczuk, Sambor; Zajkowska, Joanna Maria

    2009-07-01

    Botulism incidence in Poland is the highest in whole European Union. Polish emigrants suffer from botulism as well. This phenomenon is supposed to be caused by Polish custom of preparing home-made food. The most frequent clinical forms of botulism are: foodborne botulism, wound botulism and infant botulism. The diagnosis is mostly made on case history, physical examination and it is confirmed by toxin detection in food remains, vomits and stool. In treatment of adult's botulism antitoxin derived from hyperimmunizated horses, but in infant botulism human immunoglobulin should be used.

  7. Immunoproteomics Approach for Screening of Vaccine Candidates against Intestinal Botulism.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Arti; Rani, Sarita; Alam, Syed Imteyaz; Ponmariappan, Sarkaraisamy

    2017-01-01

    Intestinal botulism is an infectious form of botulism in which disease results from ingesting spores, which is followed by spore germination and intraluminal production of botulinum neurotoxins over an extended period. Botulinum neurotoxin is produced by endospore forming bacteria called C. botulinum. Immunoproteomic study was used to screen the cross reactive immunogenic proteins of Clostridium botulinum type B using C. botulinum type B live spore antiserum. The whole cell proteins were separated by two dimensional gel electrophoresis and transferred to polyvinylidene difluoride membranes. Further, the Western blotting was performed with mouse pups immune serum against C. botulinum type B live spores. Eight predominant cross immunoreactive proteins were identified by mass spectrometry. These immunogenic proteins might be used to develop novel subunit vaccine candidates against the intestinal botulism. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  8. Avian botulism

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rocke, T.E.; Friend, M.

    1999-01-01

    Avian botulism is a paralytic, often fatal, disease of birds that results when they ingest toxin produced by the bacterium, Clostridium botulinum. Seven distinct types of toxin designated by the letters A to G have been identified (Table 38.1). Waterfowl die-offs due to botulism are usually caused by type C toxin; sporadic die-offs among fish-eating birds, such as common loons and gulls, have been caused by type E toxin. Type A botulinum toxin has also caused disease in birds, most frequently in domestic chickens. Types B, D, F, and G are not known to cause avian botulism in North America.

  9. Oral vaccination with an adenovirus-vectored vaccine protects against botulism

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shan; Xu, Qingfu; Zeng, Mingtao

    2013-01-01

    We have previously shown that an adenovirus vectored vaccine delivered intramuscularly or intranasally was effective in protection against botulism in a mouse model. The adenoviral vector encodes a human codon-optimized heavy chain C-fragment (HC50) of botulinum neurotoxin type C (BoNT/C). Here, we evaluate the same vaccine candidate as an oral vaccine against BoNT/C in a mouse model. To elicit protective immunity, the mice were orally vaccinated with a single dose of 1×104 to 1×107 plaque forming units (pfu) of the adenoviral vector. The immune sera, collected six weeks after oral vaccination with 2×107 pfu adenovirus, has shown an ability to neutralize the biological activity of BoNT/C in vitro. Additionally, animals receiving a single dose of 2×106 pfu adenovirus or greater were completely protected against challenge with 100×MLD50 of BoNT/C. The data demonstrated the feasibility to develop an adenovirus-based oral vaccine against botulism. PMID:23295065

  10. [Botulism: Diagnosis and Therapy].

    PubMed

    Wendt, Sebastian; Eder, Ines; Wölfel, Roman; Braun, Peggy; Lippmann, Norman; Rodloff, Arne

    2017-09-01

    Background  Botulism is a rare, life-threatening, time-critical neuroparalytic disease that is frequently a subject of differential diagnostic considerations. But there is much uncertainty regarding diagnosis and therapy. Rapid diagnosis, early antitoxin dose, consistent food hygiene and the sensitization of the population can help to reduce incidence, morbidity and mortality. Methods  This overview is based on an epidemiological data inquiry (RKI, ECDC, CDC, WHO) and a selective literature research (pubmed till March 2017). Additionally, the German botulism guideline (2012) and own diagnostical experiences were taken into account. Results  The incidence of botulinum toxin intoxication induced by ubiquitous spore-forming Clostridium botulinum (main representative) is < 0.01/100 000 EU citizens. Foodborne botulism is a pure intoxication syndrome (most common form) due to improperly prepared or incorrectly stored food. Wound and infant botulism are kinds of "toxico-infections". A "bulbar" neuroparalysis is a main symptom progressing to a flaccid tetraparesis up to respiratory paralysis. Infant botulism is presented non-specific and is treated only symptomatically; but a special human-derived antitoxin is available at international pharmacies. In case of suspected foodborne or wound botulism antitoxin must be administered as soon as possible, which may also be effective 24 hours after symptoms onset. There is no evidence for adjuvant treatment except of intensive care unit (ICU) therapy. Conclusion  Despite typical symptomatology botulism is often diagnosed too late. Early antitoxin administration and ICU therapy are crucial for survival. A consultant laboratory should be contacted for advice. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. Food-borne botulism: still actual topic.

    PubMed

    Brola, Waldemar; Fudala, Malgorzata; Gacek, Szymon; Gruenpeter, Pawel

    2013-02-06

    Even though since the mid-1990s the number of food-borne botulism cases has systematically decreased and it now occurs in Poland relatively rarely, it is still a real epidemiological problem. There are about 30 cases of botulism in Poland a year, which ranks Poland the first among the European Union. In most cases the symptomatology of botulism is typical, however it does not always fully coincide with the one described in medical manuals which emphasise the dramatic clinical course of botulism with its frequent fatal consequences. Diagnosis of botulism may be difficult because of its rare prevalence and a variable clinical course, especially in old patients. Authors of this paper describe two cases of botulism and diagnostic problems associated with it.

  12. Food-borne botulism: still actual topic

    PubMed Central

    Brola, Waldemar; Fudala, Malgorzata; Gacek, Szymon; Gruenpeter, Pawel

    2013-01-01

    Even though since the mid-1990s the number of food-borne botulism cases has systematically decreased and it now occurs in Poland relatively rarely, it is still a real epidemiological problem. There are about 30 cases of botulism in Poland a year, which ranks Poland the first among the European Union. In most cases the symptomatology of botulism is typical, however it does not always fully coincide with the one described in medical manuals which emphasise the dramatic clinical course of botulism with its frequent fatal consequences. Diagnosis of botulism may be difficult because of its rare prevalence and a variable clinical course, especially in old patients. Authors of this paper describe two cases of botulism and diagnostic problems associated with it. PMID:23391950

  13. Notes from the field: infant botulism caused by Clostridium baratii type F - Iowa, 2013.

    PubMed

    Moodley, Amaran; Quinlisk, Patricia; Garvey, Ann; Kalas, Nicholas; Barash, Jason R; Khouri, Jessica M

    2015-04-17

    In June 2013, a male newborn aged 9 days (delivered after a full-term pregnancy) was brought to a hospital emergency department with a 2-day history of constipation, fussiness, and poor feeding. The mother reported her son's symptoms as excessive crying, reluctance to suck, and difficulty in swallowing milk. Within hours of arrival, the infant became less responsive and "floppy," and was intubated for respiratory failure. Infant botulism was suspected and Botulism Immune Globulin Intravenous (Human) (BIG-IV), licensed for the treatment of infant botulism types A and B, was administered on hospital day 2. Results of preliminary stool studies were reported positive for botulinum toxin type F on hospital day 3. Clostridium baratii type F was subsequently isolated in stool culture.

  14. Infantile botulism: pitfalls in electrodiagnosis.

    PubMed

    Sheth, R D; Lotz, B P; Hecox, K E; Waclawik, A J

    1999-03-01

    Botulism in infants, unless recognized early, is associated with high mortality and morbidity. The diagnosis is suspected when infants present with sudden onset of weakness, respiratory failure, and constipation and is confirmed by demonstration of botulinum toxin in stool several weeks later. Electrodiagnosis allows quick and reliable confirmation of botulism. Low-amplitude compound muscle action potentials, tetanic or post-tetanic facilitation, and the absence of post-tetanic exhaustion support the diagnosis. Two infants with confirmed botulism did not exhibit the characteristic electrodiagnostic features, demonstrating the pitfalls in electrodiagnosis of infantile botulism.

  15. Infant botulism: review and clinical update.

    PubMed

    Rosow, Laura K; Strober, Jonathan B

    2015-05-01

    Botulism is a rare neuromuscular condition, and multiple clinical forms are recognized. Infant botulism was first identified in the 1970s, and it typically occurs in infants younger than 1 year of age who ingest Clostridium botulinum spores. A specific treatment for infant botulism, intravenous botulism immunoglobulin (BIG-IV or BabyBIG®), was developed in 2003, and this treatment has substantially decreased both morbidity and hospital costs associated with this illness. This article will review the pathogenesis of infant botulism as well as the epidemiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment of this condition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Foodborne Botulism in the Republic of Georgia

    PubMed Central

    Katsitadze, Guram; Moiscrafishvili, Maia; Zardiashvili, Tamar; Chokheli, Maia; Tarkhashvili, Natalia; Jhorjholiani, Ekaterina; Chubinidze, Maia; Kukhalashvili, Teimuraz; Khmaladze, Irakli; Chakvetadze, Nelli; Imnadze, Paata; Sobel, Jeremy

    2004-01-01

    Foodborne botulism is a potentially fatal, paralytic illness that can cause large outbreaks. A possible increase in botulism incidence during 2001 in the Republic of Georgia prompted this study. We reviewed surveillance data and abstracted records of patients with botulism who were hospitalized from 1980 to 2002. During this period, 879 botulism cases were detected. The median annual incidence increased from 0.3 per 100,000 during 1980 to 1990 to 0.9 per 100,000 during 1991 to 2002. For 706 botulism patients hospitalized from 1980 to 2002, 80% of their cases were attributed to home-preserved vegetables. Surveillance evaluation verified that botulism incidence varied greatly by region. Georgia has the highest nationally reported rate of foodborne botulism in the world. A strategy addressing individual behaviors in the home is needed to improve food safety; developing this strategy requires a deeper understanding of why botulism has increased and varies by region. PMID:15498162

  17. Botulism in Italy, 1986 to 2015.

    PubMed

    Anniballi, Fabrizio; Auricchio, Bruna; Fiore, Alfonsina; Lonati, Davide; Locatelli, Carlo Alessandro; Lista, Florigio; Fillo, Silvia; Mandarino, Giuseppina; De Medici, Dario

    2017-06-15

    Botulism is a rare but severe neuroparalytic disease caused by botulinum toxins. Because of its high potential impact on public health, botulism is a closely monitored communicable disease in Europe. In Italy, which has one of the highest incidence rates in Europe (0.03 cases per 100,000 population), botulism is monitored through a case-based passive surveillance system: the front-line physician who diagnoses a suspected case must notify the Local Health Units immediately, and the Ministry of Health's office within 12 hours. From 1986 to 2015, 466 confirmed cases of botulism were recorded in Italy (of 1,257 suspected cases). Of these, 421 were food-borne (the most frequently seen form of botulism due to the consumption of improperly home-canned foods), 36 were infant botulism, which accounts for ca 50% of all these types of cases registered in Europe, six were wound-related and three were due to adult intestinal colonisation. This scenario suggests that stronger efforts should be made towards raising public awareness of the risk of food-borne botulism, especially with respect to home-preserved foods, as well as improving the training of front-line medical personnel, to ensure that a quick and accurate diagnosis of botulism can be made. This article is copyright of The Authors, 2017.

  18. Botulism in Italy, 1986 to 2015

    PubMed Central

    Anniballi, Fabrizio; Auricchio, Bruna; Fiore, Alfonsina; Lonati, Davide; Locatelli, Carlo Alessandro; Lista, Florigio; Fillo, Silvia; Mandarino, Giuseppina; De Medici, Dario

    2017-01-01

    Botulism is a rare but severe neuroparalytic disease caused by botulinum toxins. Because of its high potential impact on public health, botulism is a closely monitored communicable disease in Europe. In Italy, which has one of the highest incidence rates in Europe (0.03 cases per 100,000 population), botulism is monitored through a case-based passive surveillance system: the front-line physician who diagnoses a suspected case must notify the Local Health Units immediately, and the Ministry of Health's office within 12 hours. From 1986 to 2015, 466 confirmed cases of botulism were recorded in Italy (of 1,257 suspected cases). Of these, 421 were food-borne (the most frequently seen form of botulism due to the consumption of improperly home-canned foods), 36 were infant botulism, which accounts for ca 50% of all these types of cases registered in Europe, six were wound-related and three were due to adult intestinal colonisation. This scenario suggests that stronger efforts should be made towards raising public awareness of the risk of food-borne botulism, especially with respect to home-preserved foods, as well as improving the training of front-line medical personnel, to ensure that a quick and accurate diagnosis of botulism can be made. PMID:28661393

  19. Avian botulism

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friend, Milton; Locke, Louis N.; Kennelly, James J.

    1985-01-01

    What is avian botulism? Avian botulism, or Western duck sickness, is one of the three most important disease problems of wild migratory birds. Each year, many birds are paralyzed or die after exposure to a toxin produced by the botulinum bacterium. Two of the seven toxin types that have been identifies cause mortality in wild birds; one of these types, type C, is most often associated with dieoffs of ducks, while type E primarily affects gulls and loons.

  20. Botulism mortality in the USA, 1975–2009

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Kelly A.; Mahon, Barbara E.; Copeland, John; Fagan, Ryan P.

    2017-01-01

    Botulism had mortality rates >60% before the 1950s. We reviewed confirmed botulism cases in the USA during 1975–2009 including infant, foodborne, wound, and other/unknown acquisition categories, and calculated mortality ratios. We created a multivariate logistic regression model for non-infant cases (foodborne, wound, and other/unknown). Overall mortality was 3.0% with 109 botulism-related deaths among 3,618 botulism cases [18 (<1%) deaths among 2,352 infant botulism cases, 61 (7.1%) deaths among 854 foodborne botulism cases, 18 (5.0%) deaths among 359 wound botulism cases, and 12 (22.6%) deaths among 53 other/unknown botulism cases]. Mortality among all cases increased with age; it was lowest among infants (0.8%) and highest among persons ≥80 years old (34.4%). Toxin type F had higher mortality (13.8%) than types A, B, or E (range, 1.4% to 4.1%). Efforts to reduce botulism mortality should target non-infant transmission categories and older adults. PMID:28603554

  1. Production of recombinant botulism antigens: a review of expression systems.

    PubMed

    Moreira, G M S G; Cunha, C E P; Salvarani, F M; Gonçalves, L A; Pires, P S; Conceição, F R; Lobato, F C F

    2014-08-01

    Botulism is a paralytic disease caused by intoxication with neurotoxins produced by Clostridium botulinum. Despite their similar mechanism of action, the botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT) are classified in eight serotypes (A to H). As to veterinary medicine, the impact of this disease is essentially economic, since different species of production animals can be affected, especially by BoNT/C and D. In human health, botulism is feared in a possible biological warfare, what would involve mainly the BoNT/A, B, E and F. In both cases, the most effective way to deal with botulism is through prevention, which involves vaccination. However, the current vaccines against this disease have several drawbacks on their process of production and, besides this, can be dangerous to producers since it requires certain level of biosafety. This way, recombinant vaccines have been shown to be a great alternative for the development of vaccines against both animal and human botulism. All BoNTs have a 50-kDa light chain (LC) and a 100-kDa heavy chain (HC). The latter one presents two domains of 50 kDa, called the N-terminal (HN) and C-terminal (HC) halves. Among these regions, the HC alone seem to confer the proper immune response against intoxication. Since innumerous studies describe the expression of these distinct regions using different systems, strategies, and protocols, it is difficult to define the best option for a viable vaccine production. Thereby, the present review describes the problematic of botulism and discusses the main advances for the viable production of vaccines for both human and veterinary medicine using recombinant antigens. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Botulism

    MedlinePlus

    ... foil-wrapped baked potatoes and oil infused with garlic. When you eat food containing the toxin, it ... not at room temperature. Store oils infused with garlic or herbs in the refrigerator. Infant botulism To ...

  3. Botulism

    MedlinePlus

    ... potatoes cooked in foil, carrot juice, and chopped garlic in oil. Infant botulism occurs when a baby ... the refrigerator, not at room temperature. Oils with garlic or other herbs should also be refrigerated as ...

  4. An outbreak of foodborne botulism in Ontario

    PubMed Central

    Loutfy, Mona R; Austin, John W; Blanchfield, Burke; Fong, Ignatius W

    2003-01-01

    Botulism is a rare paralytic illness resulting from a potent neurotoxin produced by Clostridium botulinum. Botulism in Canada is predominately due to C botulinum type E and affects mainly the First Nations and Inuit populations. The most recent outbreak of botulism in Ontario was in Ottawa in 1991 and was caused by C botulinum type A. We report an outbreak of foodborne type B botulism in Ontario, which implicated home-canned tomatoes. The outbreak was characterized by mild symptoms in two cases and moderately severe illness in one case. The investigation shows the importance of considering the diagnosis of botulism in patients presenting with cranial nerve and autonomic dysfunction, especially when combined with gastrointestinal complaints; it also highlights the importance of proper home canning technique. PMID:18159458

  5. Trends in Outcomes and Hospitalization Charges of Infant Botulism in the United States: A Comparative Analysis Between Kids' Inpatient Database and National Inpatient Sample.

    PubMed

    Opila, Tamara; George, Asha; El-Ghanem, Mohammad; Souayah, Nizar

    2017-02-01

    New therapeutic strategies, including immune globulin intravenous, have emerged in the past two decades for the management of botulism. However, impact on outcomes and hospitalization charges among infants (aged ≤1 year) with botulism in the United States is unknown. We analyzed the Kids' Inpatient Database (KID) and National Inpatient Sample (NIS) for in-hospital outcomes and charges for infant botulism cases from 1997 to 2009. Demographics, discharge status, mortality, length of stay, and hospitalization charges were reported from the two databases and compared. Between 1997 and 2009, 504 infant hospitalizations were captured in KID', and 340 hospitalizations from NIS, for comparable years. A significant decrease was observed in mean length of stay for 'KID (P < 0.01); a similar decrease was observed for the NIS. The majority of patients were discharged to home. Despite an initial decrease after 1997, an increasing trend was observed for 'KID/NIS mean hospital charges from 2000 to 2009 (from $57,659/$56,309 to $143,171/$106,378; P < 0.001/P < 0.001). A linear increasing trend was evident when examining mean daily hospitalization charges for both databases. In conducting a subgroup analysis of the 'KID database, the youngest patients with infantile botulism (≤1.9 months) displayed the highest average number of procedures during their hospitalization (P < .001) and the highest rate of mechanical ventilation (P < .001), compared with their older counterparts. Infant botulism cases have demonstrated a significant increase in hospitalization charges over the years despite reduced length of stay. Additionally, there were significantly higher daily adjusted hospital charges and an increased rate of routine discharges for immune globulin intravenous-treated patients. More controlled studies are needed to define the criteria for cost-effective use of intravenous immune globulin in the population with infant botulism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All

  6. A case of botulism in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Smyth, Duncan; Deverall, Eamonn; Balm, Michelle; Nesdale, Annette; Rosemergy, Ian

    2015-11-20

    We describe the first case of food-borne botulism seen in New Zealand for 30 years. Botulism is an important diagnosis to consider in a patient with rapidly progressive descending paralysis and normal sensorium. Early recognition, timely institution of intensive care support and administration of botulism antitoxin are the most important aspects of management.

  7. Botulism: update and review.

    PubMed

    Cherington, Michael

    2004-06-01

    Botulism is both an old and an emerging disease. Over 100 years ago, the classic food-borne type was found to be caused by ingesting contaminated food containing the toxin produced by a bacteria. In the first half of the 20th century a second form, wound botulism, was discovered. Three additional forms (infant, hidden, and inadvertent) were first described in the last quarter of the 20th century. Our understanding of how botulinum toxin blocks the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction has been clarified in the past 10 years. In the past 20 years, we have witnessed one of the strangest of all ironies in the history of medicine. The very lethal botulinum toxin is now being used as a treatment in an expanding list of disorders. Research is advancing in several directions. These new avenues include improved methods of preventing and treating botulism and additional novel uses of botulinum toxin as a therapeutic agent. In this article, the five clinical forms of botulism, the actions of botulinum toxins, electrodiagnostic methods, treatments, and possible future directions are discussed. Copyright 2004 Thieme Medical Publishers, Inc.

  8. Botulism toxemia following laparoscopic appendectomy.

    PubMed

    Nystrom, Susan C; Wells, Eden V; Pokharna, Hiren S; Johnson, Laura E; Najjar, Mazen A; Mamou, Fatema M; Rudrik, James T; Miller, Corinne E; Boulton, Matthew L

    2012-02-15

    We describe a case of botulism infection in a patient who had undergone laparoscopic appendectomy, an occurrence not previously described in the literature. This case exemplifies the need for coordination between clinical and public health personnel to ensure the immediate recognition and treatment of suspected botulism cases.

  9. Botulism

    MedlinePlus

    ... if a baby younger than 1 year eats honey, so it's important that babies don't eat honey until they're older. What Does Botulism Do? ... remind grown-ups that babies shouldn't have honey. There's one more thing kids can do to ...

  10. Asymmetric type F botulism with cranial nerve demyelination.

    PubMed

    Filozov, Alina; Kattan, Jessica A; Jitendranath, Lavanya; Smith, C Gregory; Lúquez, Carolina; Phan, Quyen N; Fagan, Ryan P

    2012-01-01

    We report a case of type F botulism in a patient with bilateral but asymmetric neurologic deficits. Cranial nerve demyelination was found during autopsy. Bilateral, asymmetric clinical signs, although rare, do not rule out botulism. Demyelination of cranial nerves might be underrecognized during autopsy of botulism patients.

  11. Vaccines against Botulism.

    PubMed

    Sundeen, Grace; Barbieri, Joseph T

    2017-09-02

    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT) cause the flaccid paralysis of botulism by inhibiting the release of acetylcholine from motor neurons. There are seven serotypes of BoNT (A-G), with limited therapies, and no FDA approved vaccine for botulism. An investigational formalin-inactivated penta-serotype-BoNT/A-E toxoid vaccine was used to vaccinate people who are at high risk of contracting botulism. However, this formalin-inactivated penta-serotype-BoNT/A-E toxoid vaccine was losing potency and was discontinued. This article reviews the different vaccines being developed to replace the discontinued toxoid vaccine. These vaccines include DNA-based, viral vector-based, and recombinant protein-based vaccines. DNA-based vaccines include plasmids or viral vectors containing the gene encoding one of the BoNT heavy chain receptor binding domains (HC). Viral vectors reviewed are adenovirus, influenza virus, rabies virus, Semliki Forest virus, and Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis virus. Among the potential recombinant protein vaccines reviewed are HC, light chain-heavy chain translocation domain, and chemically or genetically inactivated holotoxin.

  12. Vaccines against Botulism

    PubMed Central

    Sundeen, Grace; Barbieri, Joseph T.

    2017-01-01

    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT) cause the flaccid paralysis of botulism by inhibiting the release of acetylcholine from motor neurons. There are seven serotypes of BoNT (A-G), with limited therapies, and no FDA approved vaccine for botulism. An investigational formalin-inactivated penta-serotype-BoNT/A-E toxoid vaccine was used to vaccinate people who are at high risk of contracting botulism. However, this formalin-inactivated penta-serotype-BoNT/A-E toxoid vaccine was losing potency and was discontinued. This article reviews the different vaccines being developed to replace the discontinued toxoid vaccine. These vaccines include DNA-based, viral vector-based, and recombinant protein-based vaccines. DNA-based vaccines include plasmids or viral vectors containing the gene encoding one of the BoNT heavy chain receptor binding domains (HC). Viral vectors reviewed are adenovirus, influenza virus, rabies virus, Semliki Forest virus, and Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis virus. Among the potential recombinant protein vaccines reviewed are HC, light chain-heavy chain translocation domain, and chemically or genetically inactivated holotoxin. PMID:28869493

  13. Botulism in the United States: a clinical and epidemiologic review.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, R L; Hatheway, C; Swerdlow, D L

    1998-08-01

    Botulism is caused by a neurotoxin produced from the anaerobic, spore-forming bacterium Clostridium botulinum. Botulism in humans is usually caused by toxin types A, B, and E. Since 1973, a median of 24 cases of foodborne botulism, 3 cases of wound botulism, and 71 cases of infant botulism have been reported annually to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). New vehicles for transmission have emerged in recent decades, and wound botulism associated with black tar heroin has increased dramatically since 1994. Recently, the potential terrorist use of botulinum toxin has become an important concern. Botulism is characterized by symmetric, descending, flaccid paralysis of motor and autonomic nerves, usually beginning with the cranial nerves. Blurred vision, dysphagia, and dysarthria are common initial complaints. The diagnosis of botulism is based on compatible clinical findings; history of exposure to suspect foods; and supportive ancillary testing to rule out other causes of neurologic dysfunction that mimic botulism, such as stroke, the Guillain-Barré syndrome, and myasthenia gravis. Laboratory confirmation of suspected cases is performed at the CDC and some state laboratories. Treatment includes supportive care and trivalent equine antitoxin, which reduces mortality if administered early. The CDC releases botulism antitoxin through an emergency distribution system. Although rare, botulism outbreaks are a public health emergency that require rapid recognition to prevent additional cases and to effectively treat patients. Because clinicians are the first to treat patients in any type of botulism outbreak, they must know how to recognize, diagnose, and treat this rare but potentially lethal disease.

  14. Asymmetric Type F Botulism with Cranial Nerve Demyelination

    PubMed Central

    Kattan, Jessica A.; Jitendranath, Lavanya; Smith, C. Gregory; Lúquez, Carolina; Phan, Quyen N.; Fagan, Ryan P.

    2012-01-01

    We report a case of type F botulism in a patient with bilateral but asymmetric neurologic deficits. Cranial nerve demyelination was found during autopsy. Bilateral, asymmetric clinical signs, although rare, do not rule out botulism. Demyelination of cranial nerves might be underrecognized during autopsy of botulism patients. PMID:22257488

  15. Infant botulism: clinical spectrum and epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Thompson, J A; Glasgow, L A; Warpinski, J R; Olson, C

    1980-12-01

    Between 1977 and 1979, 12 cases of infant botulism were diagnosed in Utah, and 87 control patients (normal, nonbotulism neurologic disease, and nonbotulism systemic disease) were evaluated. Observations from these patients suggest an expanded clinical spectrum of infant botulism including asymptomatic carriers of organism; mild hypotonia and failure to thrive; typical cases with constipation, bulbar weakness, and hypotonia; and children with a picture compatible with sudden infant death syndrome. Clostridium botulinum was isolated from the stools of three normal control infants and nine control infants who had neurologic diseases that were clearly not infant botulism. These infants were termed "asymptomatic carriers" of the organism. The occurrence of the asymptomatic carrier state suggests that a diagnosis of infant botulism cannot be made on a basis of culture results alone, but must rest in historical documentation and physical confirmation of progressive bulbar and extremity weakness with ultimate complete resolution of symptoms and findings over a period of several months. A common set of environmental features characterizes the home environment of children with infant botulism and "asymptomatic carriers" and includes: nearby constructional or agricultural soil disruption, dusty and windy conditions, a high water table, and alkaline soil conditions.

  16. Characterizing the fecal microbiota of infants with botulism.

    PubMed

    Shirey, T Brian; Dykes, Janet K; Lúquez, Carolina; Maslanka, Susan E; Raphael, Brian H

    2015-11-23

    Infant botulism is the most prevalent form of botulism in the USA, representing 68.5 % of cases reported from 2001-2012. Infant botulism results when botulinum toxin-producing clostridia (BTPC) colonize the infant gut with concomitant in vivo production of the highly potent botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT). The gut microbiota of infants with botulism is largely uncharacterized; therefore, it remains unclear whether the microbiota profile of these patients are distinct in composition, abundance, or diversity. To address this uncertainty, we employed 16S rRNA gene profiling to characterize the fecal microbiota in 14 stool samples among laboratory-confirmed and non-confirmed infant botulism cases. Seven bacterial phyla were identified among all 14 infant stool samples examined. Compared to samples from non-confirmed cases, the fecal microbiota of infant botulism patients displayed significantly higher Proteobacteria abundance. Of the 20 bacterial families identified, Enterobacteriaceae was significantly more abundant in samples from infants with botulism. Firmicutes abundance and the abundance ratio of Firmicutes/Proteobacteria was significantly lower in samples from infants with botulism. Lactobacillus spp. abundance was notably reduced in 12 of the 14 samples. Clostridium botulinum and Clostridium baratii were identified in low relative abundances in confirmed and non-confirmed samples based on their 16S rRNA gene profiles, although their toxigenicity remained undetermined. No significant differences were observed in the number of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) observed or in fecal microbiota diversity between laboratory-confirmed and non-confirmed samples. Correlations between individual phylum abundances and infant age were variable, and no significant differences were shown in number of OTUs observed or in fecal microbiota diversity between samples delineated by overall mean age. Significant differences in Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Enterobacteriaceae

  17. [Type B botulism: a family outbreak].

    PubMed

    Lamboley, G; Mandel, R; Müller, S; Douard, P; Métral, S; Durand, P

    2001-03-01

    Three cases of an outbreak of familial foodborne botulism are reported. The food incriminated could not be identified despite a careful investigation into the food history of the patients. The outcome was good following endotracheal ventilation and botulism antitoxin trivalent therapy. In France, foodborne botulism is an uncommon public health disease, and with a good prognosis when the diagnosis is promptly performed. The value of emergency electromyographic findings is emphasized, particularly when the repetitive stimulation of the motor nerve shows a presynaptic block of neuromuscular transmission. Management depends on the symptomatology, and trivalent antitoxin therapy is the only specific treatment.

  18. Diplopia as the primary presentation of foodborne botulism.

    PubMed

    Khakshoor, Hamid; Moghaddam, Ali Akbar Saber; Vejdani, Amir Hossein; Armstrong, Blair K; Moshirfar, Majid

    2012-05-01

    Foodborne botulism is a serious condition caused by Clostridium botulinum neurotoxin. Clinically, botulism presents as bilateral cranial nerve neuropathy and descending paralysis. We report a unique presentation of botulism to remind clinicians of this potentially fatal condition. In this observational case report initial evaluation showed only esodeviation. This progressed to unilateral cranial nerve six (CN VI) paresis along with systemic signs. Clinical diagnosis was made based on in-depth history and concurrent symptoms in three other patients. Foodborne botulism presenting as diplopia and unilateral motility deficits is rare and can represent a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge to the ophthalmologist.

  19. Diplopia as the primary presentation of foodborne botulism

    PubMed Central

    Khakshoor, Hamid; Moghaddam, Ali Akbar Saber; Vejdani, Amir Hossein; Armstrong, Blair K.; Moshirfar, Majid

    2012-01-01

    Foodborne botulism is a serious condition caused by Clostridium botulinum neurotoxin. Clinically, botulism presents as bilateral cranial nerve neuropathy and descending paralysis. We report a unique presentation of botulism to remind clinicians of this potentially fatal condition. In this observational case report initial evaluation showed only esodeviation. This progressed to unilateral cranial nerve six (CN VI) paresis along with systemic signs. Clinical diagnosis was made based on in-depth history and concurrent symptoms in three other patients. Foodborne botulism presenting as diplopia and unilateral motility deficits is rare and can represent a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge to the ophthalmologist. PMID:22993467

  20. Infant botulism

    MedlinePlus

    ... and certain foods (such as honey and some corn syrups). Infant botulism occurs mostly in young infants ... spores. Clostridium spores are found in honey and corn syrup. These foods should not be fed to ...

  1. Botulism, where are we now?

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiu-Cong; Sun, Li; Nie, Qing-He

    2010-11-01

    Botulism is a neuroparalytic illness caused by botulinum toxin, a product of the Clostridium botulinum bacteria and characteristically presents as an acute, symmetrical, descending flaccid paralysis. Albeit it is the most poisonous substance known, which even poses a major threat as biological weapons, purified and highly diluted botulinum toxin can be used to treat a wide variety of conditions associated with muscular hyperactivity, glandular hypersecretions and pain. There are six clinical presentations associated with current occurring botulism, each results from absorption of botulinum toxin into the bloodstream. The aim of this review is to summarize the current knowledge on the microbiology, epidemiology, vaccine research and clinical management of human botulism. Early diagnosis and management rely on history and physical examination. Delay in treatment may allow progression of paralysis, protracted hospitalization and deaths of long-term mechanical ventilation and intensive care unit care. The clinicians must take this disease into consideration of a possible outbreak. Awaiting laboratory confirmation is an egregious error, while awareness of the clinical sign and symptoms of botulism is critical for early diagnosis. Rapid management and followed public health surveillance may greatly alleviate disease severity and decrease mortality rates.

  2. Avian botulism--another perspective.

    PubMed

    Wobeser, G

    1997-04-01

    Waterfowl botulism is unique among intoxications because toxin produced within its victims leads to secondary poisoning of other birds. Because of this phenomenon, the epizootiology of the carcass-maggot cycle of botulism resembles that of an infectious disease and the reproductive rate (R) of the disease could be defined as the average number of secondary intoxications attributable to a single carcass introduced into a marsh. I propose that toxin production and botulism occur commonly at a low level in many marshes and that factors which influence R determine when the disease expands into a large epizootic. A model that incorporates the number of carcasses occurring in a marsh, the probability of a carcass containing spores, the probability of a carcass persisting until toxin-bearing maggots emerge, and the contact rate between live birds and toxin, may be useful for predicting the extent of secondary poisoning, for identifying questions for research, and as a theoretical basis for management.

  3. [Clostridia: toxin masters. Botulism: from botox to sausages?].

    PubMed

    Buzzi, Marta; Rossel, Anne; Coen, Matteo; Kaiser, Laurent; Abbas, Mohamed

    2016-04-13

    Clostridia are ubiquitous Gram-positive bacteria whose toxins are responsible for serious diseases. In this article we report a case of foodborne botulism we have recently managed. Moreover, we briefly describe the major clinical syndromes caused by different species of Clostridium (except for C. difficile infections, as this subject has been previously extensively reviewed in this journal). Botulism causes a flaccid paralysis starting with cranial nerves. Administration of botulism anti-toxin should be rapidly considered as soon as botulism is suspected, as prognosis is largely dependent on timely treatment; alerting the public health authorities is equally important. In Switzerland botulinum antitoxin can be obtained from the pharmacy of the Swiss Army.

  4. Infant botulism due to C. butyricum type E toxin: a novel environmental association with pet terrapins.

    PubMed

    Shelley, E B; O'Rourke, D; Grant, K; McArdle, E; Capra, L; Clarke, A; McNamara, E; Cunney, R; McKeown, P; Amar, C F L; Cosgrove, C; Fitzgerald, M; Harrington, P; Garvey, P; Grainger, F; Griffin, J; Lynch, B J; McGrane, G; Murphy, J; Ni Shuibhne, N; Prosser, J

    2015-02-01

    We describe two cases of infant botulism due to Clostridium butyricum producing botulinum type E neurotoxin (BoNT/E) and a previously unreported environmental source. The infants presented at age 11 days with poor feeding and lethargy, hypotonia, dilated pupils and absent reflexes. Faecal samples were positive for C. butyricum BoNT/E. The infants recovered after treatment including botulism immune globulin intravenous (BIG-IV). C. butyricum BoNT/E was isolated from water from tanks housing pet 'yellow-bellied' terrapins (Trachemys scripta scripta): in case A the terrapins were in the infant's home; in case B a relative fed the terrapin prior to holding and feeding the infant when both visited another relative. C. butyricum isolates from the infants and the respective terrapin tank waters were indistinguishable by molecular typing. Review of a case of C. butyricum BoNT/E botulism in the UK found that there was a pet terrapin where the infant was living. It is concluded that the C. butyricum-producing BoNT type E in these cases of infant botulism most likely originated from pet terrapins. These findings reinforce public health advice that reptiles, including terrapins, are not suitable pets for children aged <5 years, and highlight the importance of hand washing after handling these pets.

  5. Infantile botulism: a case report and review.

    PubMed

    Brown, Nicole; Desai, Sameer

    2013-12-01

    Infantile botulism is the result of ingestion of Clostridium botulinum spores, and is the most common form of infection with botulism in the United States. Ninety percent of cases occur in infants <6 months old. The infants typically present with vague symptoms such as hypotonia and poor feeding. This article reports an infant with confirmed infantile botulism that presented to the Emergency Department (ED) with complaints of decreased feeding and absence of bowel movements for >1 week. Review a case of infantile botulism, its diagnosis, and treatment. A 4-month-old healthy Caucasian male presented to the ED with a 6-day history of decreased feeding after referral from the pediatrician. He had not had a bowel movement for 9 days, and his parents were also concerned about increasing weakness, as he was no longer able to hold his head up on his own. In the ED, he was minimally interactive. His vital signs were within normal limits, and he had hypoactive bowel sounds and decreased tone throughout. He was admitted to the Children's Hospital and eventually transferred to the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit requiring intubation and mechanical ventilation. The botulism immunoglobulin was administered, and a diagnosis was confirmed with positive botulinum toxin in the stool samples. Full recovery was made by the infant. Awareness of the symptoms of botulism and a high degree of clinical suspicion is needed to make a prompt diagnosis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Foodborne botulism in Poland in 2012.

    PubMed

    Czerwiński, Michał; Czarkowski, Mirosław P; Kondej, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this article is to assess the epidemiology of foodborne botulism in Poland in 2012 compared to previous years, using national surveillance data. We reviewed surveillance data published in the annual bulletin "Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2012" and in previous publications, and botulism case reports for 2012 sent to the Department of Epidemiology NIPH-NIH by Sanitary-Epidemiological Stations. In 2012, a total of 22 foodborne botulism cases (including 9 laboratory confirmed cases) was reported, corresponding to the lowest annual incidence rate (0.06 per 100 000 population) since the introduction of botulism as mandatory notifiable disease. The highest incidence in the country was reported in Lubelskie (0.23) and Wielkopolskie (0.20). Incidence in rural areas (0.07 per 100 000 population) was slightly higher than the incidence in urban areas (0.05). Men had more than 2 times higher incidence than women; the highest incidence rate (0.20 per 100 000 population) was observed among men in the age group of 30-39 years. Most cases were associated with consumption of different types of commercially canned meat. Commercially canned fish was also a common vehicle. All cases were hospitalized. One death related to the disease was reported. In 2012, in Poland a downward trend in the incidence of foodborne botulism was maintained. From the point of view of national surveillance, it is necessary to increase the percentage of cases investigated with laboratory tests.

  7. Wound botulism acquired in the Amazonian rain forest of Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Reller, Megan E; Douce, Richard W; Maslanka, Susan E; Torres, Darwin S; Manock, Stephen R; Sobel, Jeremy

    2006-04-01

    Wound botulism results from colonization of a contaminated wound by Clostridium botulinum and the anaerobic in situ production of a potent neurotoxin. Between 1943, when wound botulism was first recognized, and 1990, 47 laboratory-confirmed cases, mostly trauma-associated, were reported in the United States. Since 1990, wound botulism associated with injection drug use emerged as the leading cause of wound botulism in the United States; 210 of 217 cases reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention between 1990 and 2002 were associated with drug injection. Despite the worldwide distribution of Clostridium botulinum spores, wound botulism has been reported only twice outside the United States, Europe, and Australia. However, wound botulism may go undiagnosed and untreated in many countries. We report two cases, both with type A toxin, from the Ecuadorian rain forest. Prompt clinical recognition, supportive care, and administration of trivalent equine botulinum antitoxin were life-saving.

  8. Botulism in children: a diagnostic dilemma in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Khan, Muhammad Rehan; Maheshwari, Prem Kumar; Ibrahim, Shahnaz Hamid; Haque, Anwarul

    2013-06-01

    Botulism is a well-known disease of the neuromuscular junction. It is a rare but curable cause of paralysis in paediatric population. In addition to classical clinical signs and symptoms, the diagnosis of botulism requires laboratory confirmation of intoxication by various biological tests. These include demonstration of botulinum toxin in serum or isolation of the Clostridium botulinum from stool/gastric aspirates. However, it is not always possible to confirm intoxication due to unavailability of technical facilities, especially in resource limited countries like Pakistan. Under these circumstances, electrophysiological studies serve as an excellent diagnostic tool. These studies can provide quick diagnosis of botulism so that early administration of botulism immunoglobulin, if available, can reduce morbidity, mortality and length of stay in hospital. We report a case of botulism from Pakistan diagnosed on the basis of electrophysiological studies.

  9. [Infant botulism: case report and review].

    PubMed

    Arriagada S, Daniela; Wilhelm B, Jan; Donoso F, Alejandro

    2009-04-01

    Botulism is a rare disease in Chile and of the known clinical presentation, infant botulism is the most common. We report the case of a previously healthy seven month old male infant with a two weeks history of rinorrea, cough, fatigue, constipation and progressive weakness after the consumption of honey. Stool cultures were positive for Clostridium botulinum group 1 type A and electromyography was compatible with the diagnosis. The patient evolved with arterial hypertension, interpreted as secondary to autonomic dysfunction, which responded to calcium channel blockers. Muscle tone improved progressively during the following four weeks. Infant botulism is a potentially fatal disease; diagnosis can be difficult given the broad clinical manifestations. Prevention should focus on education of parents of infants as well as medical personnel.

  10. Infant botulism following honey ingestion

    PubMed Central

    Abdulla, C O; Ayubi, A; Zulfiquer, F; Santhanam, G; Ahmed, M A S; Deeb, J

    2012-01-01

    An apparently well baby girl born at term was presented with signs and symptoms suggestive of acute onset of generalised floppiness at the age of 3 months. Clinically, the baby had lower motor neuron type of muscle weakness; detailed investigation lead to the diagnosis of neuromuscular junction disorder secondary to botulism toxicity. Further tests confirmed the botulism toxicity secondary to honey ingestion. The baby was treated with specific anticlostridium antibodies; she recovered remarkably, now growing and developing normally. PMID:22962382

  11. [Botulism in Osterdalen in 1831].

    PubMed

    Schjønsby, Hans Petter

    2002-12-10

    The earliest report we have had of an outbreak of botulism in Norway is from 1934, of five cases caused by contaminated salted and dried ham. All patients survived. This paper describes an early outbreak of botulism in the county of Hedmark in 1831 on the basis of a previously unknown report to the county governor from district public health officer Peter Heiberg (1778-1849). Two cases were reported, one of them fatal. The contaminated food was salted and fermented trout or char.

  12. Foodborne botulism in Poland in 2111.

    PubMed

    Czerwiński, Michał; Czarkowski, Mirosław P; Kondej, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of this article is to assess the epidemiology of foodborne botulism in Poland in 2011, using national surveillance data. We reviewed surveillance data published in the annual bulletin "Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland" from 2005 to 2011, and botulism case reports from 2011 sent to the Department of Epidemiology NIPH-NIH by Sanitary-Epidemiological Stations. In 2011, a total of 35 foodborne botulism cases (including 21 laboratory confirmed cases) was reported, corresponding to the one of the lowest annual incidence rate (0.09 per 100,000 population) since the introduction of botulism as mandatory notifiable disease. The higher incidence rates compared to the previous year were in the Warmińsko-Mazurskie, Kujawsko-Pomorskie, Lubelskie, Podkarpackie, Mazowieckie and Dolnoślaskie. Incidence in rural areas (0.13 per 100,000 population) was higher than the incidence in urban areas (0.07). Men, had more than 3,5 times higher incidence than women; the highest incidence rate (0.23 per 100,000 population) was observed among men in the age group of 60 + years. Most cases were associated with consumption of commercially canned meat (including pork and other types of meat). Home canned foods containing meats or vegetables and meats were also a common vehicle. Almost all cases were hospitalized (33 cases). One death related to the disease was reported. In 2011, in Poland epidemiology of the foodborne botulism remains stable. From the point of view of national surveillance, it is necessary to increase the percentage of cases investigated with laboratory tests.

  13. Foodborne botulism in Poland in 2013.

    PubMed

    Czerwiński, Michał; Czarkowski, Mirosław P; Kondej, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study is to assess the epidemiology of foodborne botulism in Poland in 2013. We reviewed surveillance data published in the annual bulletin "Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2013" and in previous publications, and botulism case reports for 2013 sent to the Department of Epidemiology NIPH-NIH by Sanitary-Epidemiological Stations. In 2013, a total of 24 foodborne botulism cases (including 8 laboratory confirmed cases) was reported, corresponding to the lowest annual incidence rate (0.06 per 100,000 population) since the introduction of botulism as mandatory notifiable disease. The highest incidence in the country was reported in Kujawsko-Pomorskie (0.19). Incidence in rural areas (0.09 per 100,000 population) was more than 2-fold higher than the incidence in urban areas (0.04). Men, had more than 3 times higher incidence than women; the highest incidence rate (0.29 per 100,000 population) was observed among men in the age group of 40-49 years. Most cases were associated with consumption of different types of commercially canned meat. Commercially canned fish was also a common vehicle. All cases were hospitalized. No deaths related to the disease were reported. In 2013, in Poland a downward trend in the incidence of foodborne botulism was maintained. Insufficient laboratory capacity remains a major weakness in national surveillance resulting in disproportionate reporting of cases meeting only clinical criteria and an epidemiological link. This situation clearly speaks for the need to improve laboratory capacity for surveillance.

  14. Use of sentinel mallards for epizootiologic studies of avian botulism

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rocke, T.E.; Brand, C.J.

    1994-01-01

    Captive-reared mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) were used as sentinels to study the epizootiology of avian botulism at the Sacramento National Wildlife Refuge, Willows, California (USA) from 1986 to 1989. Sentinel mallards were wing-clipped, and 40 to 50 birds were confined in 1.6-ha enclosures in 11 selected wetlands (pools). Enclosures were searched intensively three to four times weekly from July through October. Sick and dead wild and sentinel birds were collected, necropsied, and tested for type C botulism toxin. Botulism epizootics occurred in sentinel mallards in 1986, 1987, and 1989, but only a few isolated cases of botulism were detected in 1988. In most epizootics, botulism also was detected simultaneously in wild birds using the same pool outside the enclosure. Epizootics in sentinels were initiated and perpetuated in the absence of vertebrate carcasses. A sex-specific trend in the probability of intoxication was detected, with males contracting botulism at a higher rate than females. Daily mortality rates of sentinels during botulism epizootics ranged from 0.0006 to 0.0600, with a mean of 0.0190. These rates would result in the daily loss of 0.6 to 60 birds per thousand at risk. The use of sentinel birds provided an effective means of gathering site-specific epizootiologic data.

  15. Brain acetycholinesterase activity in botulism-intoxicated mallards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rocke, T.E.; Samuel, M.D.

    1991-01-01

    Brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in captive-reared mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) that died of botulism was compared with euthanized controls. AChE levels for both groups were within the range reported for normal mallards, and there was no significant difference in mean AChE activity between birds that ingested botulism toxin and died and those that did not.

  16. Botulism with Unusual Rapid Progression to Complete Paralysis in a Child.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Hui-Ju; Liang, Wen-Chen; Wang, Chien-Hua; Chou, Po-Ching; Hsu, Jong-Hau; Huang, Chia-Tsuan; Jong, Yuh-Jyh

    2015-12-01

    Botulism is a severe neuroparalytic illness which is difficult to diagnose accurately, especially in children. We report a child with type A botulism intoxication, with very rapid progression to coma-like consciousness and respiratory failure. Careful physical examinations led to the suspicion of botulism, and electrophysiologic examinations, including electroencephalogram and repetitive nerve stimulation tests, further supported the diagnosis. Hospitalization due to botulism had a great emotional impact on the patient and psychological support was crucial. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Cases of type C botulism in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Dohms, J E; Allen, P H; Rosenberger, J K

    1982-01-01

    Twenty-seven cases of type C botulism were studied in integrated broiler operations on the Delmarva Peninsula. Single and repeated outbreaks in broiler flocks were observed. No botulinum toxin was found in litter and feed samples despite repeated testing. Clostridium botulinum type C was cultured from litter, feed, and tissues of morbid and clinically normal chickens sampled from farms in which flocks experienced botulism. Clostridium botulinum type C could not be cultured from tissues of clinically normal chickens taken from a farm without a flock history of botulism or from caged broilers reared in semi-isolation.

  18. Foodborne botulism in a six-month-old infant caused by home-canned baby food.

    PubMed

    Armada, Manuel; Love, Suzanne; Barrett, Elizabeth; Monroe, John; Peery, Dave; Sobel, Jeremy

    2003-08-01

    Previously reported cases of botulism in infants have been diagnosed as infant botulism; that is, botulism caused by intestinal colonization by Clostridium botulinum with intraluminal production and absorption of toxin. Foodborne botulism is caused by ingestion of preformed toxin. We describe an unusual case of foodborne botulism in a 6-month-old infant caused by the ingestion of improperly prepared home-canned baby food. This represents the youngest age of onset for foodborne botulism in the United States of which we are aware and illustrates the need to rule out foodborne botulism, which represents a public health emergency, regardless of the patient's age. The diagnosis could have been readily missed or delayed in this case because the weakness was rapidly progressive rather than insidious, as is typical of infant botulism.

  19. Laboratory Diagnostics of Botulism

    PubMed Central

    Lindström, Miia; Korkeala, Hannu

    2006-01-01

    Botulism is a potentially lethal paralytic disease caused by botulinum neurotoxin. Human pathogenic neurotoxins of types A, B, E, and F are produced by a diverse group of anaerobic spore-forming bacteria, including Clostridium botulinum groups I and II, Clostridium butyricum, and Clostridium baratii. The routine laboratory diagnostics of botulism is based on the detection of botulinum neurotoxin in the patient. Detection of toxin-producing clostridia in the patient and/or the vehicle confirms the diagnosis. The neurotoxin detection is based on the mouse lethality assay. Sensitive and rapid in vitro assays have been developed, but they have not yet been appropriately validated on clinical and food matrices. Culture methods for C. botulinum are poorly developed, and efficient isolation and identification tools are lacking. Molecular techniques targeted to the neurotoxin genes are ideal for the detection and identification of C. botulinum, but they do not detect biologically active neurotoxin and should not be used alone. Apart from rapid diagnosis, the laboratory diagnostics of botulism should aim at increasing our understanding of the epidemiology and prevention of the disease. Therefore, the toxin-producing organisms should be routinely isolated from the patient and the vehicle. The physiological group and genetic traits of the isolates should be determined. PMID:16614251

  20. Infant botulism, type F, presenting at 54 hours of life.

    PubMed

    Keet, Corinne A; Fox, Christine K; Margeta, Marta; Marco, Elysa; Shane, Andi L; Dearmond, Stephen J; Strober, Jonathan B; Miller, Steven P

    2005-03-01

    We report a case of botulism in a 54-hour-old infant with rapidly progressive fulminant paralysis and rapid spontaneous recovery atypical for infant botulism. Clostridium baratii and type F botulinum neurotoxin were isolated from the patient's stool. This unique presentation with rapid recovery is consistent with pharmacokinetics of type F botulinum neurotoxin. Interestingly, a muscle biopsy also revealed pathologic changes early in the disease course. This article reports the youngest known case of infant botulism and only the third reported case of this disease caused by type F neurotoxin. Botulism should be considered in patients of any age with subacute or acute neuromuscular weakness.

  1. Fatal outbreak of botulism in Greenland.

    PubMed

    Hammer, Tóra Hedinsdottir; Jespersen, Sanne; Kanstrup, Jakob; Ballegaard, Vibe Cecilie; Kjerulf, Anne; Gelvan, Allan

    2015-03-01

    Botulism commonly occurs when the anaerobic, gram-positive bacterium Clostridium botulinum, under suitable conditions, produces botulinum neurotoxins. Named A-F, these toxins are the immediate causative agent of the clinical symptoms of symmetrical, descending neurological deficits, including respiratory muscle paralysis. We present five cases of foodborne botulism occurring in Greenland, two with fatal outcome, caused by ingestion of tradionally preserved eider fowl. In the cases of the survivors, antitoxin and supportive care, including mechanical ventilation, were administered. In these cases recovery was complete. Microbiological assays, including toxin neutralization bioassay, demonstrated the presence of neurotoxin E in two survivors. The third survivor was shown by PCR to have the BoNT type E gene in faeces. This is the first report of cases of fatal botulism in Greenland. It underscores the importance of prompt coordinated case management effort in a geographically isolated area such as Greenland.

  2. Water and sediment characteristics associated with avian botulism outbreaks in wetlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rocke, Tonie E.; Samuel, Michael D.

    1999-01-01

    Avian botulism kills thousands of waterbirds annually throughout North America, but management efforts to reduce its effects have been hindered because environmental conditions that promote outbreaks are poorly understood. We measured sediment and water variables in 32 pairs of wetlands with and without a current outbreak of avian botulism. Wetlands with botulism outbreaks had greater percent organic matter (POM) in the sediment (P = 0.088) and lower redox potential in the water (P = 0.096) than paired control wetlands. We also found that pH, redox potential, temperature, and salinity measured just above the sediment-water interface were associated (P ≤ 0.05) with the risk of botulism outbreaks in wetlands, but relations were complex, involving nonlinear and multivariate associations. Regression models indicated that the risk of botulism outbreaks increased when water pH was between 7.5 and 9.0, redox potential was negative, and water temperature was >20°C. Risk declined when redox potential increased (>100), water temperature decreased (10-15°C), pH was 9.0, or salinity was low (<2.0 ppt). Our predictive models could allow managers to assess potential effects of wetland management practices on the risk of botulism outbreaks and to develop and evaluate alternative management strategies to reduce losses from avian botulism.

  3. What not to say: risk communication for botulism.

    PubMed

    Glik, Deborah C; Drury, Allison; Cavanaugh, Clint; Shoaf, Kimberley

    2008-03-01

    This formative research study used qualitative methods to test the suitability of messages about botulism for the general public. Nine focus group interviews and 27 cognitive interviews were conducted with diverse audiences to pretest radio, television, and fact sheet messages predicated on a hypothetical terrorist attack using botulinum toxin. Narrative data were collected, transcribed, coded, and analyzed using content domains based on risk and health communication theories. While participants accepted the need for materials, the messages produced contained images and references describing botulism as a toxin-caused illness spread both by food and water contamination as well as by airborne means. The audience's lack of understanding of the term toxin and an imperfect understanding of airborne transmission of a toxic substance meant that some people interpreted botulism as being an infectious disease rather than a type of poisoning. The communication materials did not clearly show how the set of botulism symptoms are unique and described the anti-toxin as "not a cure," thus compounding the audience's misunderstanding. Using models from cognitive and developmental psychology, our findings were interpreted to show that certain terms evoke or elicit long-held conceptual frameworks that lay audiences use to explain medical phenomena. Relevant to botulism, poisoning events are distinct from infectious diseases, but prepared messages did not reinforce these distinctions. Ignoring how people organize preexisting health information when trying to communicate new information is a prescription for failure, especially in a crisis risk communication scenario. Findings from this study have been used by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to reformulate pre-event crisis risk communication materials for botulism.

  4. [Botulism, a clinical diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Delbos, Valérie; Abgueguen, Pierre; Fanello, Serge; Brenet, Olivier; Alquier, Philippe; Granry, Jean-Claude; Pichard, Eric

    2005-03-26

    Foodborne botulism results from the effect of a neurotoxin produced by a sporulated anaerobic bacillus called Clostridium botulinum. The mode of contamination occurs through the consumption of foodstuff, already contaminated by the neurotoxin. Following an incubation period that varies from 2 hours to 8 days, the symptoms start with intestinal problems. Then paralysis of the cranial nerve pairs sets in, classically manifested by diplopia, dysphagia, dysphonia, areactive mydriasis and ptosis. The onset of motor disorders occurs in descending order with possible involvement of the respiratory muscles, hence requiring reanimation measures and sometimes mechanical ventilation. The diagnosis of botulism is clinical. Identification of the botulinum toxin in the blood or faeces of the patients or in the contaminating food stuff confirms the diagnosis.

  5. [Sudden death of twins: botulism because of contamination by pap vegetables].

    PubMed

    Fischer, D; Freislederer, A; Jorch, G

    2004-01-01

    Botulism is caused by the blockage of the neural transmission in the cholinergic synapses by botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) which is produced by Clostridium botulinum or other Clostridia. The classic form of botulism occurs after the ingestion of food contaminated by BoNT. The course of the infection can be asymptomatic, mild with subtle paralysis ("failure to thrive") oder severe with generalized paralysis ("floppy infant"). Infected infants can also die sudden and unexpectedly. These deaths often are attributed to Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS), unless a thorough postmortem examination reveals Botulism. The rate of fatal Botulism falsely attributed to SIDS is not known, because it is difficult in most cases to show the causal relationship between contamination, disease and death. We report the sudden and unexpected simultaneous death of twins of 22 months which could be attributed to Botulism. Contamination of food, colonization of the gut by Clostridia and infection with specific pathomorphological changes could be proven. The initial suspicion of infanticide could be excluded. lt could be shown, that Botulism is a potential cause of simultaneous unexpected deaths in twins.

  6. Foodborne botulism in Canada, 1985-2005.

    PubMed

    Leclair, Daniel; Fung, Joe; Isaac-Renton, Judith L; Proulx, Jean-Francois; May-Hadford, Jennifer; Ellis, Andrea; Ashton, Edie; Bekal, Sadjia; Farber, Jeffrey M; Blanchfield, Burke; Austin, John W

    2013-06-01

    During 1985-2005, a total of 91 laboratory-confirmed outbreaks of foodborne botulism occurred in Canada; these outbreaks involved 205 cases and 11 deaths. Of the outbreaks, 75 (86.2%) were caused by Clostridium botulinum type E, followed by types A (7, 8.1%) and B (5, 5.7%). Approximately 85% of the outbreaks occurred in Alaska Native communities, particularly the Inuit of Nunavik in northern Quebec and the First Nations population of the Pacific coast of British Columbia. These populations were predominantly exposed to type E botulinum toxin through the consumption of traditionally prepared marine mammal and fish products. Two botulism outbreaks were attributed to commercial ready-to-eat meat products and 3 to foods served in restaurants; several cases were attributed to non-Native home-prepared foods. Three affected pregnant women delivered healthy infants. Improvements in botulism case identification and early treatment have resulted in a reduction in the case-fatality rate in Canada.

  7. Notes from the field: botulism from drinking prison-made illicit alcohol - Arizona, 2012.

    PubMed

    2013-02-08

    During November 24-27, 2012, the Arizona Department of Health Services (ADHS) was notified that eight male inmates of prison A, a maximum security prison, had been hospitalized for treatment of an acute neurologic condition suspected to be botulism. Botulism is a serious paralytic illness caused by a nerve toxin produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum. All eight patients reported drinking pruno, an illicitly brewed alcoholic beverage that has been associated with botulism outbreaks in prisons. This was the second outbreak of botulism in prison A during 2012; in August, four inmates were hospitalized for botulism after drinking pruno. Pinal County Health Services (PCHS), ADHS, and CDC investigated to identify the outbreak source, learn about pruno production, and provide recommendations for preventing future outbreaks of botulism in prisons.

  8. Botulism from chopped garlic: delayed recognition of a major outbreak.

    PubMed

    St Louis, M E; Peck, S H; Bowering, D; Morgan, G B; Blatherwick, J; Banerjee, S; Kettyls, G D; Black, W A; Milling, M E; Hauschild, A H

    1988-03-01

    Diagnosis of botulism in two teenaged sisters in Montreal led to the identification of 36 previously unrecognized cases of type B botulism in persons who had eaten at a restaurant in Vancouver, British Columbia, during the preceding 6 weeks. A case-control study implicated a new vehicle for botulism, commercial chopped garlic in soybean oil (P less than 10(-4)). Relatively mild and slowly progressive illness, dispersion of patients over at least eight provinces and states in three countries, and a previously unsuspected vehicle had contributed to prolonged misdiagnoses, including myasthenia gravis (six patients), psychiatric disorders (four), stroke (three), and others. Ethnic background influenced severity of illness: 60% of Chinese patients but only 4% of others needed mechanical ventilation (P less than 10(-3]. Trypsinization of serum was needed to show toxemia in one patient. Electromyography results with high-frequency repetitive stimulation corroborated the diagnosis of botulism up to 2 months after onset. Although botulism is a life-threatening disease, misdiagnosis may be common and large outbreaks can escape recognition completely.

  9. Early diagnosis and treatment in a child with foodborne botulism.

    PubMed

    Proverbio, Maria Renata; Lamba, Marta; Rossi, Alessandro; Siani, Paolo

    2016-06-01

    Foodborne botulism is a neuroparalytic disease caused by ingestion of food contaminated with botulinum toxins. Despite rare the mortality rate is high if untreated. Diagnosis of botulism is still a challenge for clinician, due to the variability of clinical manifestations and disease course. We report on a child with type B botulin intoxication who was early diagnosed and treated underlining that clinical suspicion is crucial to start prompt treatment. An 11-year-old boy presented with bilateral ptosis and mydriasis, dry mouth, difficulty in swallowing, dysphonia, urine retention and constipation. Clear sensorium and no fever were observed. Immediately the suspicion of botulism was risen and botulinum antitoxin was administered. 3 days later serum and rectal samples tested positive for Clostridium botulinum. The patient completely recovered when discharged from hospital. Foodborne botulism is still possible in developed countries. The confirmation test of botulism requires some days. To avoid long delays between intoxication and diagnosis prompt clinical suspicion is thus crucial. The outcome depends on rapid implementation of appropriate management with intensive respiratory care and antitoxin administration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Therapeutic management of botulism in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Pandian, S Jegaveera; Subramanian, M; Vijayakumar, G; Balasubramaniam, G A; Sukumar, K

    2015-11-01

    To report the successful recovery of few dairy cattle from botulism in response to a modified therapeutic strategy. Seventy four naturally-occurring clinical cases of bovine botulism encountered during the period of 2012-2014 which were confirmed by mouse lethality test became material for this study. Affected animals were made into three groups based on the treatment modifications made during the course of study. With the modified therapeutic regimen, 17 animals recovered after 7-10 days of treatment. Clinical recovery took 2-30 days. Animals which were not given intravenous fluid and calcium recovered uneventfully. Cattle which were already treated with intravenous fluids, calcium borogluconate, and antibiotics did not recover. They were either died or slaughtered for salvage. In cattle with botulism, administration of Vitamin AD3E and activated charcoal aid the clinical recovery. Besides, strictly avoiding anti-clostridial antibiotics, fluid therapy, and calcium therapy may facilitate the clinical recovery. Upon fluid administration, the pulmonary congestion existed in the ailing cattle might have worsened the anoxia. Administration of antibiotics like penicillin, aminoglycosides, and tetracyclines further worsen the neuronal paralysis by increasing the availability of botulinum neurotoxin. Cattle in early botulism have fair chances of recovery with the modified therapy.

  11. Therapeutic management of botulism in dairy cattle

    PubMed Central

    Pandian, S. Jegaveera; Subramanian, M.; Vijayakumar, G.; Balasubramaniam, G. A.; Sukumar, K.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To report the successful recovery of few dairy cattle from botulism in response to a modified therapeutic strategy. Materials and Methods: Seventy four naturally-occurring clinical cases of bovine botulism encountered during the period of 2012-2014 which were confirmed by mouse lethality test became material for this study. Affected animals were made into three groups based on the treatment modifications made during the course of study. Results and Discussion: With the modified therapeutic regimen, 17 animals recovered after 7-10 days of treatment. Clinical recovery took 2-30 days. Animals which were not given intravenous fluid and calcium recovered uneventfully. Cattle which were already treated with intravenous fluids, calcium borogluconate, and antibiotics did not recover. They were either died or slaughtered for salvage. Conclusion: In cattle with botulism, administration of Vitamin AD3E and activated charcoal aid the clinical recovery. Besides, strictly avoiding anti-clostridial antibiotics, fluid therapy, and calcium therapy may facilitate the clinical recovery. Upon fluid administration, the pulmonary congestion existed in the ailing cattle might have worsened the anoxia. Administration of antibiotics like penicillin, aminoglycosides, and tetracyclines further worsen the neuronal paralysis by increasing the availability of botulinum neurotoxin. Cattle in early botulism have fair chances of recovery with the modified therapy. PMID:27047034

  12. Avian botulism: geographic expansion of a historic disease

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Locke, Louis N.; Friend, Milton

    1989-01-01

    Avian botulism is a paralytic, often fatal disease of birds resulting from ingestion of toxin produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum. Waterfowl die-offs from the botulism are usually caused by type C toxin; sporadic die-offs among fish-eating birds, such as common loons (Gavia immer) and gulls, have been caused by type E toxin.

  13. Accuracy of a Mouse Bioassay for the Diagnosis of Botulism in Horses.

    PubMed

    Johnson, A L; McAdams-Gallagher, S C; Aceto, H

    2016-07-01

    The laboratory diagnosis of botulism in horses traditionally has relied upon the mouse bioassay (MBA). The accuracy of this test for the diagnosis of botulism in horses is unknown. Our goal was to determine the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of the MBA on laboratory-processed fecal and gastrointestinal samples for foals and adult horses. Cases included all horses with a final clinical diagnosis of botulism that were admitted between 1986 and 2011 and had MBA testing performed. Controls included horses without botulism that were admitted during the same time period and had MBA testing performed. Retrospective study. Horses suspected of having botulism had fecal or (less commonly) gastrointestinal content samples tested using MBA. For every hospitalized botulism suspect, control samples were obtained from ≥1 additional hospitalized horses not suspected to have botulism. One hundred and twenty-nine adult horses and 253 adult controls were identified. Overall sensitivity of the MBA was only 32% but specificity was 97%. Forty-three foal cases and 21 foal controls were evaluated; sensitivity of the MBA was 53% and specificity was 100%. Positive predictive value was substantially higher (100% for foals and 89% for adults) than negative predictive value (51% for foals and 67% for adults). Mouse bioassay has low sensitivity but high specificity for the diagnosis of botulism in horses. Positive results are highly suggestive of botulism but negative results do not exclude the diagnosis. Unaffected horses and foals rarely shed C. botulinum in their feces. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  14. Botulism: cause, effects, diagnosis, clinical and laboratory identification, and treatment modalities.

    PubMed

    Dembek, Zygmunt F; Smith, Leonard A; Rusnak, Janice M

    2007-11-01

    Botulism is a neuroparalytic disease caused by neurotoxins produced by the bacteria Clostridium botulinum. Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are among the most potent naturally occurring toxins and are a category A biological threat agent. The 7 toxin serotypes of BoNTs (serotypes A-G) have different toxicities, act through 3 different intracellular protein targets, and exhibit different durations of effect. Botulism may follow ingestion of food contaminated with BoNT, from toxin production of C botulinum present in the intestine or wounds, or from inhalation of aerosolized toxin. Intoxication classically presents as an acute, symmetrical, descending flaccid paralysis. Early diagnosis is important because antitoxin therapy is most effective when administered early. Confirmatory testing of botulism with BoNT assays or C botulinum cultures is time-consuming, and may be insensitive in the diagnosis of inhalational botulism and in as many as 32% of food-borne botulism cases. Therefore, the decision to initiate botulinum antitoxin therapy is primarily based on symptoms and physical examination findings that are consistent with botulism, with support of epidemiological history and electrophysiological testing. Modern clinical practice and antitoxin treatment has reduced botulism mortality rates from approximately 60% to < or =10%. The pentavalent botulinum toxoid is an investigational product and has been used for more than 45 years in at-risk laboratory workers to protect against toxin serotypes A to E. Due to declining immunogenicity and potency of the pentavalent botulinum toxoid, novel vaccine candidates are being developed.

  15. Infant botulism: is there an association with thiamine deficiency?

    PubMed

    Ringe, Hannelore; Schuelke, Markus; Weber, Sven; Dorner, Brigitte G; Kirchner, Sebastian; Dorner, Martin B

    2014-11-01

    Infant botulism is an acute life-threatening condition and diagnosis is frequently delayed. Therefore, the best time window to administer specific antibodies, at present the only etiology-based therapy, is often missed, entailing long periods of hospitalization in the PICU. Here we present a 3-month-old boy with infant botulism and respiratory failure, who quickly and favorably responded to thiamine supplementation. From the feces we isolated Clostridium botulinum serotype A2. In addition to producing botulinum neurotoxin A, this strain carried the thiaminase I gene and produced thiaminase I. Accordingly, the child's feces were positive for thiaminase I activity. Because C botulinum group I strains are capable of producing thiaminase I, we speculate that thiamine degradation might further aggravate the paralytic symptoms caused by botulinum neurotoxins in infant botulism. Thus, supportive supplementation with thiamine could be beneficial to speed up recovery and to shorten hospitalization in some patients with infant botulism. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  16. New targets in the search for preventive and therapeutic agents for botulism.

    PubMed

    Anniballi, Fabrizio; Lonati, Davide; Fiore, Alfonsina; Auricchio, Bruna; De Medici, Dario; Locatelli, Carlo Alessandro

    2014-09-01

    Botulism is a severe neuroparalytic disease resulting from exposure to one of the most poisonous toxins to humans. Because of this high potency and the use of toxins as biological weapons, botulism is a public health concern and each case represents an emergency. Current therapy involves respiratory supportive care and anti-toxins administration. As a preventive measure, vaccination against toxins represents an effective strategy but is undesirable due the rarity of botulism and the effectiveness of toxins in treating several neuromuscular disorders. This paper summarizes the current issues in botulism treatment and prevention, highlighting the challenge for future researches.

  17. AAEM case report 16. Botulism. American Association of Electrodiagnostic Medicine.

    PubMed

    Maselli, R A; Bakshi, N

    2000-07-01

    Early diagnosis of botulism is essential for effective treatment. Electrophysiologic testing can be of major help to establish a prompt diagnosis, but the classic electrodiagnostic features of botulism are often elusive. Decrement or increment of compound muscle action potential (CMAP) amplitudes to slow or fast rates of nerve stimulation are often unimpressive or totally absent. Reduction of CMAP amplitudes, denervation activity, or myopathic-like motor unit potentials in affected muscles are found more frequently but they are less specific. In general, the electrophysiologic findings taken together suggest involvement of the motor nerve terminal, which should raise the possibility of botulism. The case reported here illustrates a common clinical presentation of botulism. This study emphasizes realistic expectations of the electrodiagnostic testing, the differential diagnosis, and the potential pitfalls often encountered in the interpretation of the electrophysiologic data. Copyright 2000 American Association of Electrodiagnostic Medicine.

  18. The workshop on animal botulism in Europe.

    PubMed

    Skarin, Hanna; Tevell Åberg, Annica; Woudstra, Cédric; Hansen, Trine; Löfström, Charlotta; Koene, Miriam; Bano, Luca; Hedeland, Mikael; Anniballi, Fabrizio; De Medici, Dario; Olsson Engvall, Eva

    2013-09-01

    A workshop on animal botulism was held in Uppsala, Sweden, in June 2012. Its purpose was to explore the current status of the disease in Europe by gathering the European experts in animal botulism and to raise awareness of the disease among veterinarians and others involved in biopreparedness. Animal botulism is underreported and underdiagnosed, but an increasing number of reports, as well as the information gathered from this workshop, show that it is an emerging problem in Europe. The workshop was divided into 4 sessions: animal botulism in Europe, the bacteria behind the disease, detection and diagnostics, and European collaboration and surveillance. An electronic survey was conducted before the workshop to identify the 3 most needed discussion points, which were: prevention, preparedness and outbreak response; detection and diagnostics; and European collaboration and surveillance. The main conclusions drawn from these discussions were that there is an urgent need to replace the mouse bioassay for botulinum toxin detection with an in vitro test and that there is a need for a European network to function as a reference laboratory, which could also organize a European supply of botulinum antitoxin and vaccines. The foundation of such a network was discussed, and the proposals are presented here along with the outcome of discussions and a summary of the workshop itself.

  19. Foodborne Botulism in Canada, 1985–2005

    PubMed Central

    Leclair, Daniel; Fung, Joe; Isaac-Renton, Judith L.; Proulx, Jean-Francois; May-Hadford, Jennifer; Ellis, Andrea; Ashton, Edie; Bekal, Sadjia; Farber, Jeffrey M.; Blanchfield, Burke

    2013-01-01

    During 1985–2005, a total of 91 laboratory-confirmed outbreaks of foodborne botulism occurred in Canada; these outbreaks involved 205 cases and 11 deaths. Of the outbreaks, 75 (86.2%) were caused by Clostridium botulinum type E, followed by types A (7, 8.1%) and B (5, 5.7%). Approximately 85% of the outbreaks occurred in Alaska Native communities, particularly the Inuit of Nunavik in northern Quebec and the First Nations population of the Pacific coast of British Columbia. These populations were predominantly exposed to type E botulinum toxin through the consumption of traditionally prepared marine mammal and fish products. Two botulism outbreaks were attributed to commercial ready-to-eat meat products and 3 to foods served in restaurants; several cases were attributed to non-Native home-prepared foods. Three affected pregnant women delivered healthy infants. Improvements in botulism case identification and early treatment have resulted in a reduction in the case-fatality rate in Canada. PMID:23735780

  20. [Two horses with neurological symptoms: could this be equine botulism?].

    PubMed

    Roest, H I J; de Bruijn, C M; Picavet, M T J E; Prins, B; Parmentier, D; de Zwart, G M A M; Dijkstra, Y E; van Zijderveld, F G

    2009-10-01

    Symptoms, diagnosis and therapy of equine botulism are discussed by the presentation of two detailed reports of horses with neurological symptoms and the results of laboratory investigations over the period 2003-2008 in the Netherlands. In addition a brief summary of the available literature is presented. Prevailing symptoms of botulism in horses include paralysis of the tongue, salvation, dysphagia and paresis and paralysis of the skeletal muscles, as well as signs of colic. Symptoms and prognosis vary with the amount of botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) involved. For early clinical diagnosis of botulism thorough investigation of the facial nerves is important, for instance by the use of the 'Tongue Stress Test'. Laboratory results often remain negative, probably due to the sampling time, the high sensitivity of horses for botulinum neurotoxin or treatment with antitoxins. Most clinical cases in horses are caused by botulinum neurotoxin B (BoNT/B). For therapy to be successful antiserum needs to be administered in the earliest possible stage of the disease and this should be supported by symptomatic therapy. Botulism is a feed-related intoxication caused by either carcasses in the roughage or BoNT/B production after poor conservation of grass silage. This is the main source of botulism in horses due to the popularity of individually packed grass silage as feed for horses. As long as no vaccine is available in the Netherlands quality control of silage and haylage is strictly recommended in order to reduce the risk of botulism in horses.

  1. First Report of an Infant Botulism Case Due to Clostridium botulinum Type Af

    PubMed Central

    de Jong, Laura I. T.; Fernández, Rafael A.; Pareja, Virtudes; Giaroli, Gabriel; Guidarelli, Sergio R.; Dykes, Janet K.

    2014-01-01

    Most infant botulism cases worldwide are due to botulinum toxin types A and B. Rarely, Clostridium botulinum strains that produce two serotypes (Ab, Ba, and Bf) have also been isolated from infant botulism cases. This is the first reported case of infant botulism due to C. botulinum type Af worldwide. PMID:25502535

  2. Takotsubo-like Myocardial Dysfunction in a Patient with Botulism.

    PubMed

    Tonomura, Shuichi; Kakehi, Yoshiaki; Sato, Masatoshi; Naito, Yuki; Shimizu, Hisao; Goto, Yasunobu; Takahashi, Nobuyuki

    2017-11-01

    Botulinum toxin A (BTXA) can disrupt the neuromuscular and autonomic functions. We herein report a case of autonomic system dysfunction that manifested as Takotsubo-like myocardial dysfunction in a patient with botulism. Takotsubo syndrome results in acute cardiac insufficiency, another fatal complication of botulism in addition to respiratory muscle paralysis, particularly in patients with cardiovascular disease.

  3. Takotsubo-like Myocardial Dysfunction in a Patient with Botulism

    PubMed Central

    Tonomura, Shuichi; Kakehi, Yoshiaki; Sato, Masatoshi; Naito, Yuki; Shimizu, Hisao; Goto, Yasunobu; Takahashi, Nobuyuki

    2017-01-01

    Botulinum toxin A (BTXA) can disrupt the neuromuscular and autonomic functions. We herein report a case of autonomic system dysfunction that manifested as Takotsubo-like myocardial dysfunction in a patient with botulism. Takotsubo syndrome results in acute cardiac insufficiency, another fatal complication of botulism in addition to respiratory muscle paralysis, particularly in patients with cardiovascular disease. PMID:28924131

  4. Foodborne botulism in Poland in 2014

    PubMed

    Czerwiński, Michał; Czarkowski, Mirosław P; Kondej, Barbara

    The aim of the study is to assess the epidemiology of foodborne botulism in Poland in 2014 compared to previous years. We reviewed (1) surveillance data published in the annual bulletin “Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2014” and in previous publications, and (2) unpublished data retrieved from botulism case reports for 2014 sent to the Department of Epidemiology NIPH-NIH by Sanitary-Epidemiological Stations. In 2014, a total of 29 foodborne botulism cases (including 17 laboratory confirmed) was reported; the annual incidence rate (0.08 per 100,000 population) increased slightly in comparison to previous year, but was similar to the median incidence for years 2008 to 2012. The highest incidence in the country was reported in Lubelskie province (0.33). Incidence in rural areas (0.09) was only slightly higher than the incidence in urban areas (0.06). Men, had more than 4 times higher incidence than women; the highest incidence rate (0.31) was observed among men in the age group of 20-24 years. Most cases were associated with consumption of different types of commercially canned meat. Home-made vegetable meat preserves were also a common vehicle. All cases were hospitalized. Two deaths related to the disease were reported. Since 2008, the epidemiological situation of foodborne botulism in the country remains stable with an average 30 cases per year and corresponding incidence rate of 0.08 per 100,000 population. However, in 2014 draws attention a significant number of cases with undetermined food vehicle and relatively high percentage of cases with no laboratory confirmation. Therefore, it is important to enhance epidemiological investigation as well as laboratory capacity for surveillance.

  5. Avian botulism E=epizootiology on sewage oxidation ponds in Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moulton, Daniel W.; Jensen, Wayne I.; Stewart, Sondra K.

    1976-01-01

    In the microenvironment concept of avian botulism epizootiology, it is hypothesized that invertebrate carcasses may serve both as a substrate for toxin production by Clostridium botulinum type C and as a vehicle for toxin transmission to water birds. We field-tested that hypothesis by attempting to induce botulism in wing-clipped mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) on sewage oxidation ponds in Utah. The experimental ponds were inoculated with C. botulinum spores in June 1974. Aquatic insect populations were monitored throughout the summer. Rotenone was used in August to kill insects in two ponds (one served as control), thereby providing potential substrate for clostridial growth and toxin production. Botulism was not detected among the birds even though they routinely ingested invertebrate carcasses. Samples of dead invertebrates contained no botulinum toxin. We concluded that the microenvironment concept, as it now stands, cannot always be a sufficient explanation of how type C botulism epizootics are initiated in nature. Other microbes may inhibit the growth of clostridial cells or destroy botulinum toxin.

  6. First Report Worldwide of an Infant Botulism Case Due to Clostridium botulinum Type E▿

    PubMed Central

    Lúquez, Carolina; Dykes, Janet K.; Yu, Patricia A.; Raphael, Brian H.; Maslanka, Susan E.

    2010-01-01

    Clostridium botulinum type E has been associated with botulism in adults but never in infants. Infant botulism type E cases have been associated with neurotoxigenic strains of C. butyricum. We report the first infant botulism case due to C. botulinum type E worldwide. PMID:19906896

  7. Investigation of serology for diagnosis of outbreaks of botulism in cattle.

    PubMed

    Mawhinney, I; Palmer, D; Gessler, F; Cranwell, M; Foyle, L; Otter, A; Payne, J; Strugnell, B

    2012-06-01

    Serology has been used to diagnose retrospectively types C and D outbreaks of botulism in cattle in Australia and this study has investigated whether the approach would be applicable in England and Wales. Three hundred sera from routine surveillance submissions in England and Wales were used as a negative control population. Some stored sera were available from a small number of clinical cases of botulism and 125 samples were collected from cohort groups of clinical cases in four new outbreaks of botulism. Three of these outbreaks were identified as being caused by type D Clostridium botulinum toxin. Sera were tested by antibody ELISA in laboratories in Australia and Germany. There was no increase in the proportion of animals seropositive to type C or D antibody in the botulism-associated cattle. The proportion of samples which were seropositive to type D antibodies was <2% in both the negative control and outbreak populations. It was concluded that single time serology is unlikely to be helpful for retrospective diagnosis of outbreaks of type D botulism in England and Wales. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Botulinum Neurotoxins and Botulism: A Novel Therapeutic Approach

    PubMed Central

    Thanongsaksrikul, Jeeraphong; Chaicumpa, Wanpen

    2011-01-01

    Specific treatment is not available for human botulism. Current remedial mainstay is the passive administration of polyclonal antibody to botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) derived from heterologous species (immunized animal or mouse hybridoma) together with supportive and symptomatic management. The antibody works extracellularly, probably by blocking the binding of receptor binding (R) domain to the neuronal receptors; thus inhibiting cellular entry of the holo-BoNT. The antibody cannot neutralize the intracellular toxin. Moreover, a conventional antibody with relatively large molecular size (150 kDa) is not accessible to the enzymatic groove and, thus, cannot directly inhibit the BoNT zinc metalloprotease activity. Recently, a 15–20 kDa single domain antibody (VHH) that binds specifically to light chain of BoNT serotype A was produced from a humanized-camel VH/VHH phage display library. The VHH has high sequence homology (>80%) to the human VH and could block the enzymatic activity of the BoNT. Molecular docking revealed not only the interface binding between the VHH and the toxin but also an insertion of the VHH CDR3 into the toxin enzymatic pocket. It is envisaged that, by molecular linking the VHH to a cell penetrating peptide (CPP), the CPP-VHH fusion protein would be able to traverse the hydrophobic cell membrane into the cytoplasm and inhibit the intracellular BoNT. This presents a novel and safe immunotherapeutic strategy for botulism by using a cell penetrating, humanized-single domain antibody that inhibits the BoNT by means of a direct blockade of the groove of the menace enzyme. PMID:22069720

  9. Infant botulism in Costa Rica: first report from Central America.

    PubMed

    Hernández-de Mezerville, Marcela; Rojas-Solano, Mariela; Gutierrez-Mata, Alfonso; Hernández-Con, Laura; Ulloa-Gutierrez, Rolando

    2014-01-15

    Clostridium botulinum is known to cause descending paralysis in infants throughout the world. The subject of this study was a three-month-old Costa Rican boy who was hospitalized because of poor suction and feeding, hypotonia, and constipation. Clinical history and physical examination findings suggested infant botulism. Samples were sent to the Winnipeg Public Health Laboratory, where Clostridium botulinum toxin A was identified by PCR and culture from the stools, making this the first report of infant botulism in Central America. Although infant botulism is a known disease, the limitations in identifying it in Central America contributes to the misdiagnosis and under-reporting of this disease.

  10. First Case of Infant Botulism Caused by Clostridium baratii Type F in California

    PubMed Central

    Barash, Jason R.; Tang, Tania W. H.; Arnon, Stephen S.

    2005-01-01

    In late 2003 a severely hypotonic neonate, just 38 h old at onset of illness, was found to have infant botulism caused by neurotoxigenic Clostridium baratii type F. Environmental investigations failed to identify a source of this strain. This is the youngest patient reported to have infant botulism and the fifth instance of infant botulism caused by C. baratii type F. PMID:16082001

  11. First report of an infant botulism case due to Clostridium botulinum type Af.

    PubMed

    de Jong, Laura I T; Fernández, Rafael A; Pareja, Virtudes; Giaroli, Gabriel; Guidarelli, Sergio R; Dykes, Janet K; Lúquez, Carolina

    2015-02-01

    Most infant botulism cases worldwide are due to botulinum toxin types A and B. Rarely, Clostridium botulinum strains that produce two serotypes (Ab, Ba, and Bf) have also been isolated from infant botulism cases. This is the first reported case of infant botulism due to C. botulinum type Af worldwide. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  12. The status of botulism as a world health problem

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, K. F.

    1956-01-01

    The author reviews the international literature and brings up to date the published statistical data on botulism—a disease which, owing to its spectacular nature and high case-fatality rate, appears to occupy a place out of proportion to its frequency as a cause of death in some regions. Without exception, botulism is caused by carelessness in the preparation and preservation of vegetable and animal foods. Local customs of eating such food uncooked, in the form of salads, watery conserves, poorly cured or inadequately smoked pork and salted fish products create the botulism problem. The risk of botulism exists wherever the telluric incidence of Type A, B, and E spores is high. Surveys to appraise the extent of Clostridium botulinum in the soils of Asia and Africa are urgently needed so that the magnitude of the potential problem in these areas can be properly evaluated. Food processors must not relax in the use of properly calculated thermal processes now available for every food commodity. Agencies that promote or give instruction in preservation of food in the home should be thoroughly familiar with the most effective, practical, and inexpensive methods of preventing botulism. PMID:13383365

  13. [A case report of infant botulism without a history of honey ingestion].

    PubMed

    Morikawa, Y; Shishida, N; Toshima, M; Yoshioka, Y; Nukina, M

    1994-02-01

    A 66-day-old female with infant botulism is reported. She was admitted to our hospital with respiratory failure. Laboratory examinations detected botulinal toxin type A in her feces. This was the first case with no history of honey ingestion among the 13 cases of infant botulism reported in Japan. It is possible that other cases, in which honey had not been consumed, remain undiagnosed. Further studies may be needed to clarify the factors necessary to cause infant botulism.

  14. The hazards of honey: infantile botulism

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Jennifer K; Burns, Sarah; Cunningham, Steve; Freeman, Julie; McLellan, Ailsa; McWilliam, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    Infantile botulism is a rare cause of neuromuscular weakness resulting from ingestion of Clostridium botulinum—an anaerobic Gram-positive bacillus found universally in soil. The only definite food source known to cause infantile botulism is honey; previously, links to formula milk have been postulated but not definitely sourced. We present an interesting case report of a 2-month-old infant with this rare condition, including the diagnostic difficulties that ensued. A brief overview of the condition follows. This is the first case in the UK in which C botulinum was successfully isolated from both the patient and the suspected source—a jar of honey. The importance of food labelling as a public health message is highlighted. PMID:22778374

  15. [Descending paralysis caused by wound botulism. A case report].

    PubMed

    Hiersemenzel, L P; Jermann, M; Waespe, W

    2000-02-01

    We report on the history and clinical findings of an injecting drug abuser in the Canton of Zurich who presented with multiple deep abscesses in the arms and legs. A diagnosis of wound botulism was made based on his clinical presentation with a rapidly progressing descending paralysis starting at the cranial nerves, a neuromuscular junction disorder on neurophysiologic testing, and normal findings on lumbar puncture. Several cases of wound botulism have occurred in i.v. drug abuse in Switzerland since 1997. We suspect subcutaneous injections of contaminated heroin containing Clostridium spores as sites of entry. Wound botulism caused by Clostridium botulinum is a rare cause of rapidly progressing, generalized, flaccid paralysis and should be considered in patients with a history of i.v. drug abuse presenting with descending paralysis.

  16. Botulism from Drinking Pruno

    PubMed Central

    Mase, Sundari R.; Cole, Barbara; Stiles, John; Rosenberg, Jon; Velasquez, Linda; Radner, Allen; Inami, Greg

    2009-01-01

    Foodborne botulism occurred among inmates at 2 prisons in California in 2004 and 2005. In the first outbreak, 4 inmates were hospitalized, 2 of whom required intubation. In the second event, 1 inmate required intubation. Pruno, an alcoholic drink made illicitly in prisons, was the novel vehicle for these cases. PMID:19116055

  17. Neuronal Functions Associated with Endo- and Exocytotic Events-cum-Molecular Trafficking May Be Cell Maturation-Dependent: Lessons Learned from Studies on Botulism

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    Clostridium botulinum type A progenitor toxins . Infect Immun 64:1589–1594 Li L, Singh BR (1999) Structure -function relationship of clostridial...experimental design and demonstration of the validity of the targeted neurologic therapeutic delivery approach based on recombinant botulinum toxin ...Endocytosis Exocytosis Molecular trafficking Cell maturation Botulism Targeted therapeutic Background Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are produced by

  18. Infant botulism: advice on avoiding feeding honey to babies and other possible risk factors.

    PubMed

    Grant, Kathie A; McLauchlin, Jim; Amar, Corinne

    2013-07-01

    Botulism is a rare, but extremely serious, disease and Public Health England is responsible for its diagnosis and surveillance in the UK. Over the past five years (2008-2013), the most common form of the disease recognised in the UK has been infant botulism. The aim of this article is to raise awareness of infant botulism and highlight advice for parents and carers of infants that honey should not be fed to infants under 12 months old. Other possible risk factors for infant botulism are also discussed in this article, including household pet reptiles and herbal teas.

  19. Recurrent wound botulism among injection drug users in California.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Jean; Inami, Gregory; Mohle-Boetani, Janet; Vugia, Duc J

    2011-04-01

    Botulism is an acute neurologic illness characterized by cranial nerve palsies and descending flaccid paralysis. Botulism is a rare disease and recurrent botulism even more rare. We review cases of recurrent wound botulism (WB) among injection drug users (IDUs) in California from 1993 through 2006 and describe 2 case patients. From botulism surveillance data for 1993-2006, we identified patients with >1 episode of clinical WB, defined as acute descending paralysis with a visible wound or recent history of injection drug use. For each patient, ≥1 of their WB episodes was laboratory confirmed. We extracted demographic, clinical, and laboratory information from case and laboratory reports and compared clinical characteristic frequency of initial and second WB episodes. During 1993-2006, 17 IDUs had recurrent WB, 14 with 1 recurrence and 3 with 2 recurrences. Of 25 laboratory-confirmed episodes, 22 were confirmed through serum testing and 3 through wound testing. Patients were 32-61 years old, and 94% were male. All patients reported heroin injections; 88% specified black tar heroin use and 76% reported subcutaneous injection. The most common presentations were having a visible wound, speech difficulty, double vision, respiratory difficulty, and trouble swallowing. There were no significant differences in clinical presentation between initial and second episodes. As the California epidemic of WB among IDUs continues, WB episodes are recurring. Both clinicians and IDUs should be aware of the potential for WB to recur among IDUs to enable timely diagnosis and early botulinum antitoxin administration and supportive care. © The Author 2011. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved.

  20. [Clinical analysis of three cases with infant botulism and review of literature].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jie; Xu, Wenrui; Zhao, Manman; Wu, Ye; Zhang, Xin; Zhang, Chunyu; Wang, Ying; Liu, Xueqin; Lu, Shan; Xu, Xuefang

    2016-03-01

    To analyze the clinical characteristics and diagnosis of three cases with infant botulism. Clinical data of three clinically diagnosed cases with infant botulism in May 2015 in Peking University First Hospital were retrospectively analyzed. Literature search at databases of PubMed, Wanfang, China National Knowledge Infrastructure and VIP with the key words"infant AND botulism". The date of literature retrieval was from the database founding to November 2015. The characteristics of infant botulism were summarized through review of literature. Three patients were infants of 4-8 months of age, and all had acute onsets of anorexia and poor response. All of them had normal psychomotor development previously, and without clear history of exposure to poisons. The main findings on physical examination were reduced muscle strength and hypotonia, dullness or disappeared pupillary light reflex, reduced facial expression, weak crying and dysphagia. Unexpectedly their states of consciousness were relatively normal. Finally, through identification and PCR genotyping of bacteria in stool, 2 cases were confirmed as Clostridium (C.) botulinum type B infection. Totally 446 reports were retrieved from foreign language literature and 52 reports from Chinese literature. More than 3,000 cases of infant botulism cases were reported in the world. Rare cases were reported in China and only 1 case was reported in 2000. Most cases of infant botulism had no clear exposure history. The main clinical manifestations are hypotonia, cranial nerve paralysis, flaccid paralysis, but different patients may have different presentations. Detection of C. Botulinum and its toxin in stool can help to confirm the diagnosis. Infant botulism is relatively rare in China, which may be related to the insufficient understanding and inspection level of the disease. It might be underestimated in China.

  1. Botulism in foals less than 6 months of age: 30 cases (1989-2002).

    PubMed

    Wilkins, Pamela A; Palmer, Jonathan E

    2003-01-01

    Botulism has been recognized as a clinical entity in foals since the 1960s. Also known as "Shaker foal" disease, the toxicoinfectious form of botulism affects foals, with the highest incidence in the United States seen in Kentucky and the mid-Atlantic region. The disease is characterized by progressive muscular weakness caused by the action of botulism neurotoxin at cholinergic neuromuscular junctions. Increased number of episodes and duration of recumbency, muscular trembling, and dysphagia are seen in affected foals. Left untreated, the disease can be rapidly fatal, with death occuring secondary to respiratory muscle paralysis within 24 to 72 hours of the onset of clinical signs. Very mildly affected foals can survive with minimal treatment Despite advances made in treatment of these foals, including administration of botulism antitoxin early in the course of the disease, there is still an impression that the disease carries a high mortality rate. The purpose of this study was to evaluate outcome in 30 foals <6 months of age diagnosed with botulism between 1989 and 2002 at the George D. Widener Large Animal Hospital, New Bolton Center. Two foals were euthanized for economic reasons early in the disease course, and I died while being treated. Survival of treated cases was greater than 96%. Approximately 50% of the cases required oxygen therapy, whereas 30% required mechanical ventilation. All foals, excepting 1 mildly affected foal, received botulism antitoxin. Mean duration of hospitalization was 14 days. With appropriate treatment, foals with botulism have a high survival rate.

  2. Botulism Type E Outbreak Associated with Eating a Beached Whale, Alaska

    PubMed Central

    Sobel, Jeremy; Lynn, Tracey; Funk, Elizabeth; Middaugh, John P.

    2004-01-01

    We report an outbreak of botulism that occurred in July 2002 in a group of 12 Alaskan Yu'pik Eskimos who ate blubber and skin from a beached beluga whale. Botulism death rates among Alaska Natives have declined in the last 20 years, yet incidence has increased. PMID:15498179

  3. Food-borne botulism in Japan in March 2012.

    PubMed

    Momose, Yoshika; Asakura, Hiroshi; Kitamura, Masaru; Okada, Yumiko; Ueda, Yutaka; Hanabara, Yutaro; Sakamoto, Tomohiro; Matsumura, Tsuyoshi; Iwaki, Masaaki; Kato, Haru; Shibayama, Keigo; Igimi, Shizunobu

    2014-07-01

    In March 2012, two patients were transported urgently to the hospital in Tottori Prefecture, Japan, because of symptoms suggestive of botulism. Botulinum neurotoxin type A was detected in the clinical specimens and the food consumed by the two patients (vacuum packed adzuki-batto, a sweet adzuki bean soup containing noodles). We were able to make a prompt diagnosis of food botulism associated with the consumption of adzuki-batto, from which the causative pathogen Clostridium botulinum Ab was cultured. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Botulism as a food poisoning: what is it?

    PubMed

    El-Bahnasawy, Mamdouh M; Aly, Nagwa Zein-El-Abdeen; Abdel-Fattah, Magda Abdel Hameed; Morsy, Tosson A

    2014-04-01

    Botulism is a rare but potentially life-threatening neuroparalytic syndrome resulting from the action of a neurotoxin elaborated by the microorganism Clostridium botulinum. This disease has a lengthy history; the first investigation of botulism occurred in the 1820s with a case report on hundreds of patients with "sausage poisoning" in a southern German town. Several decades later in Belgium, the association was demonstrated between a neuromuscular paralysis and ham infected by a spore forming bacillus that was isolated from the ham. The organism was named Bacillus botulinus after the Latin word for sausage, botulus.

  5. Two cases of foodborne botulism with home-preserved asparagus.

    PubMed

    Zanon, P; Pattis, P; Pittscheider, W; Roscia, G; De Giorgi, G; Sacco, G; Vötter, K; Stockner, I; De Giorgi, F; Wiedermann, C J

    2006-03-01

    Botulism is a rare but potentially fatal disease caused by toxins produced by Clostridium botulinum. We report botulism in two adult females, one of them just tasting from "bad" asparagus and the other eating the full portion. Both patients survived after intermittent mechanical ventilation and trivalent antitoxin administration. The diagnosis was confirmed by detection of botulinum toxin. Acute onset of bilateral cranial neuropathies associated with symmetric descending weakness as well as some key features of the botulism syndrome including absence of fever, symmetric neurologic deficits, the patients remaining responsive and no sensory deficits, with the exception of blurred vision, led to the clinical diagnosis in the first presenting case which was then easily made in the second. Despite the fact that amount of toxin ingested, time-to-symptom development, and time-to-recovery markedly differed in the two patients, their maximal disease severity was similar.

  6. Molecular and Epidemiological Characterization of Infant Botulism in Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Dong, Yin Ping; Wang, Wei; Jiang, Tao; Xu, Jin; Han, Chun Hui; Yan, Shao Fei; Fanning, Séamus; Li, Ying; Ma, Xiao Chen; Zhang, Di; Zhao, Yao; Zeng, Biao; Li, Feng Qin

    2017-06-01

    Laboratory-based pathogen isolation, identification, and toxicity determination were performed on samples from a suspected case of infant botulism. Mice injected with cultures generated from the enema sample and ingested Powered infant formula (PIF) presented typical signs of botulism. Antitoxins to polyvalent botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) and monovalent BoNT type B antitoxin had protective effects. Clostridium botulinum isolated from the enema and residual PIF samples were positive for type B toxin. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) revealed that the two strains of C. botulinum isolated from the two samples produced indistinguishable pulsotypes. These findings confirmed this case of type B infant botulism associated with the ingestion of PIF contaminated by type B C. botulinum spores. Copyright © 2017 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  7. Infantile botulism: a case report.

    PubMed

    Lavoie, Danielle; Pawar, Gauri; Khan, Atiya

    2006-01-01

    Although rare, botulism should be a consideration in the differential diagnosis of hypotonia in children. The pattern of clinical presentation and physical examination should raise the suspicion to make the appropriate diagnosis. Prompt clinical diagnosis and immediate appropriate treatment reduce morbidity and/or mortality in this disease.

  8. Hematologic and biochemistry values for black-faced spoonbills (Platalea minor) with and recovering from botulism.

    PubMed

    Chou, Shih-Jen; Shieh, Yao-Ching; Yu, Chang-You

    2008-07-01

    Type C1 botulism outbreaks in Black-faced Spoonbills (Platalea minor) occurred in Taiwan from 2002 to 2003, and hematologic and biochemistry parameters from botulism-paralyzed birds and recovered birds were compared. Values for creatinine and uric acid were higher (P<0.0025) in birds with botulism than in recovered birds. Lower white blood cell counts (P<0.005) and values for alkaline phosphatase, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and triglycerides (P<0.025) were observed in recovered birds. Based on these observations, we suggest that hematologic and biochemistry analyses should be performed to assess the health condition of birds recovering from botulism.

  9. Black Tar Heroin Skin Popping as a Cause of Wound Botulism.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, Ihtesham A; Qureshi, Mohtashim A; Rauf Afzal, Mohammad; Maud, Alberto; Rodriguez, Gustavo J; Cruz-Flores, Salvador; Kassar, Darine

    2017-12-01

    Botulism is a rare potentially fatal and treatable disorder caused by a bacteria-produced toxin that affects the presynaptic synaptic membrane resulting in a characteristic neuromuscular dysfunction. It is caused by either the ingestion of the toxin or the bacteria, inhalation, or wound infection. We present our observations with a descriptive case series of wound botulism secondary to black tar heroin (BTH) injection. We report a retrospective single-center case series of 15 consecutive cases of wound botulism presenting to University Medical Center of El Paso. Medical records where reviewed to obtain demographic information, clinical presentation, treatment, and outcome. We identified fifteen patients with mean age of 47 years: twelve men, and three women. All had administered BTH through skin popping and had abscesses in the administration areas. By history, the most common symptoms were dysphagia (66%), proximal muscle weakness of upper and lower extremity (60%), neck flexor muscle weakness (33%), ophthalmoplegia (53%), bilateral ptosis (46%), dysarthria (53%), double vision (40%), blurred vision (33%), and dry mouth (20%). During the examination, the most common features noted were: proximal muscle weakness of upper and lower extremities (73%), ophthalmoplegia (53%), ptosis (46%). In patients with documented wound botulism, the pupils were reactive in 46%. All patients required mechanical ventilation and were treated with the trivalent antitoxin. Eleven patients (73.3%) were discharged home, two were transferred to a skill nursing facility, and two were transferred to long-term acute care facility. In our patients, BTH injection, involving the action of injecting under the skin acetylated morphine derivatives (mostly 6-monoacetylmorphine and 3-monoacetylmorphine), was associated with the development of botulism. The availability of BTH at the US-Mexican border is not surprising since it is frequently produced in Latin America. Its association with the

  10. Links between type E botulism outbreaks, lake levels, and surface water temperatures in Lake Michigan, 1963-2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lafrancois, Brenda Moraska; Riley, Stephen C.; Blehert, David S.; Ballmann, Anne E.

    2011-01-01

    Relationships between large-scale environmental factors and the incidence of type E avian botulism outbreaks in Lake Michigan were examined from 1963 to 2008. Avian botulism outbreaks most frequently occurred in years with low mean annual water levels, and lake levels were significantly lower in outbreak years than in non-outbreak years. Mean surface water temperatures in northern Lake Michigan during the period when type E outbreaks tend to occur (July through September) were significantly higher in outbreak years than in non-outbreak years. Trends in fish populations did not strongly correlate with botulism outbreaks, although botulism outbreaks in the 1960s coincided with high alewife abundance, and recent botulism outbreaks coincided with rapidly increasing round goby abundance. Botulism outbreaks occurred cyclically, and the frequency of outbreaks did not increase over the period of record. Climate change scenarios for the Great Lakes predict lower water levels and warmer water temperatures. As a consequence, the frequency and magnitude of type E botulism outbreaks in the Great Lakes may increase.

  11. Foodborne Botulism in the United States, 1990–2000

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, Nicole; Sulka, Alana; McLaughlin, Joseph; Maslanka, Susan

    2004-01-01

    Foodborne botulism, a potentially lethal neuroparalytic disease, is caused by ingesting preformed Clostridium botulinum neurotoxin. We reviewed surveillance data and reports from 1990 to 2000. Of 263 cases from 160 foodborne botulism events (episode of one or more related cases) in the United States, 103 (39%) cases and 58 events occurred in Alaska. Patients' median age was 48 years; 154 (59%) were female; the case-fatality rate was 4%. The median number of cases per event was 1 (range 1–17). Toxin type A caused 51% of all cases; toxin type E caused 90% of Alaska cases. A particular food was implicated in 126 (79%) events. In the lower 49 states, a noncommercial food item was implicated in 70 (91%) events, most commonly home-canned vegetables (44%). Two restaurant-associated outbreaks affected 25 persons. All Alaska cases were attributable to traditional Alaska Native foods. Botulism prevention efforts should be focused on those who preserve food at home, Alaska Natives, and restaurant workers. PMID:15498163

  12. A childhood-onset intestinal toxemia botulism during chemotherapy for relapsed acute leukemia.

    PubMed

    Ohyama, Noriko; Torio, Michiko; Nakashima, Kentaro; Koga, Yuuki; Kanno, Shunsuke; Nishio, Hisanori; Nishiyama, Kei; Sasazuki, Momoko; Kato, Haru; Asakura, Hiroshi; Akamine, Satoshi; Sanefuji, Masafumi; Ishizaki, Yoshito; Sakai, Yasunari; Ohga, Shouichi

    2017-09-18

    Botulism is a potentially fatal infection characterized by progressive muscle weakness, bulbar paralysis, constipation and other autonomic dysfunctions. A recent report suggested that cancer chemotherapy might increase the risk for the intestinal toxemia botulism in both adults and children. We report a 5-year-old boy, who developed general muscle weakness, constipation, ptosis and mydriasis during the third induction therapy for relapsed acute myeloid leukemia. He had recent histories of multiple antibiotic therapy for bacteremia and intake of well water at home. Repeated bacterial cultures identified Clostridium botulinum producing botulinum neurotoxin A. Botulinum toxin A was isolated from his stools at 17, 21, and 23 days after the onset. Symptoms were self-limiting, and were fully recovered without anti-botulinum toxin globulin therapy. This is the second report of a pediatric case with cancer chemotherapy-associated intestinal toxemia botulism. Our case provides further evidence that the immunocompromised status due to anti-cancer treatments increases the risk for the development of botulism at all ages in childhood.

  13. Outbreak of type A foodborne botulism at a boarding school, Uganda, 2008.

    PubMed

    Viray, M A; Wamala, J; Fagan, R; Luquez, C; Maslanka, S; Downing, R; Biggerstaff, M; Malimbo, M; Kirenga, J B; Nakibuuka, J; Ddumba, E; Mbabazi, W; Swerdlow, D L

    2014-11-01

    Botulism has rarely been reported in Africa. In October 2008, botulism was reported in three Ugandan boarding-school students. All were hospitalized and one died. A cohort study was performed to assess food exposures among students, and clinical specimens and available food samples were tested for botulinum toxin. Three case-patients were identified; a homemade, oil-based condiment was eaten by all three. In the cohort study, no foods were significantly associated with illness. Botulinum toxin type A was confirmed in clinical samples. This is the first confirmed outbreak of foodborne botulism in Uganda. A homemade, oil-based condiment was the probable source. Consumption of homemade oil-based condiments is widespread in Ugandan schools, putting children at risk. Clinicians and public health authorities in Uganda should consider botulism when clusters of acute flaccid paralysis are seen. Additionally, schools should be warned of the hazard of homemade oil-based condiments, and take steps to prevent their use.

  14. Livers provide a reliable matrix for real-time PCR confirmation of avian botulism.

    PubMed

    Le Maréchal, Caroline; Ballan, Valentine; Rouxel, Sandra; Bayon-Auboyer, Marie-Hélène; Baudouard, Marie-Agnès; Morvan, Hervé; Houard, Emmanuelle; Poëzevara, Typhaine; Souillard, Rozenn; Woudstra, Cédric; Le Bouquin, Sophie; Fach, Patrick; Chemaly, Marianne

    2016-04-01

    Diagnosis of avian botulism is based on clinical symptoms, which are indicative but not specific. Laboratory investigations are therefore required to confirm clinical suspicions and establish a definitive diagnosis. Real-time PCR methods have recently been developed for the detection of Clostridium botulinum group III producing type C, D, C/D or D/C toxins. However, no study has been conducted to determine which types of matrices should be analyzed for laboratory confirmation using this approach. This study reports on the comparison of different matrices (pooled intestinal contents, livers, spleens and cloacal swabs) for PCR detection of C. botulinum. Between 2013 and 2015, 63 avian botulism suspicions were tested and 37 were confirmed as botulism. Analysis of livers using real-time PCR after enrichment led to the confirmation of 97% of the botulism outbreaks. Using the same method, spleens led to the confirmation of 90% of botulism outbreaks, cloacal swabs of 93% and pooled intestinal contents of 46%. Liver appears to be the most reliable type of matrix for laboratory confirmation using real-time PCR analysis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. An outbreak of type C botulism in waterbirds: Incheon, Korea.

    PubMed

    Shin, Na-Ri; Byun, Seong Hwan; Chun, Jeong Hoon; Shin, Jeong Hwa; Kim, Yun Jeong; Kim, Jeong-Hee; Rhie, Gi-Eun; Chung, Hyen Mi; Mo, In-Pil; Yoo, Cheon-Kwon

    2010-07-01

    Five outbreaks of botulism in waterbirds were encountered over a 5-yr period from 2004 to 2008 in Korea. In October 2008, an outbreak of avian type C botulism affected approximately 2,000 wild waterbirds in the Namdong flood control basin, Incheon, South Korea. Ecologic conditions, clinical signs exhibited by moribund birds, and lack of gross pathology and microbial evidence of infectious disease, suggested botulinum intoxication. Type C botulinum toxin was demonstrated in duck sera, liquid culture of intestinal tissue, and an extract of maggots taken from the carcasses. Additionally, 34 of 40 (85.0%) sediment samples from the same area were positive for botulinum toxin by mouse bioassay using multivalent (types A-F) antiserum, indicating that toxigenic Clostridium botulinum was present in the environment. This is the most severe case of avian botulism documented in Korea.

  16. Staphylococcal food poisoning and botulism

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, R. J.

    1974-01-01

    Staphylococcal food poisoning and botulism are caused by the ingestion of food containing exotoxins. Outbreaks of both are still a problem in many countries. This paper attempts to summarize information relating to these illnesses, together with advice on how their incidence may be reduced, or better still prevented. PMID:4619651

  17. Infant botulism: first two confirmed cases in Slovenia and literature review.

    PubMed

    Radšel, Anja; Andlovic, Alenka; Neubauer, David; Osredkar, Damjan

    2013-11-01

    In Europe, infant botulism is a rare but probably under-diagnosed disease. With the intent to spread the awareness of this potentially life-threatening disease, we present a review of the literature with the emphasis on European epidemiology and a practical approach to diagnosis. We also report the first two confirmed cases of infant botulism in Slovenia and describe our way to the final diagnosis in a clinical setting where all appropriate diagnostic tests and treatment options are not readily available. The second case is particularly interesting, presenting with profound diarrhea following initial constipation, an unlikely symptom for an infant with botulism and possibly caused by Bacteroides fragilis. Copyright © 2013 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Occurrence of avian botulism in Korea during the period from June to September 2012.

    PubMed

    Jang, Il; Kang, Min-Su; Kim, Hye-Ryoung; Oh, Jae-Young; Lee, Jae-Il; Lee, Hee-Soo; Kwon, Yong-Kuk

    2014-12-01

    Botulism is a paralytic disease caused by the botulinum neurotoxin produced by Clostridium botulinum. In the summer season in Korea, intensive outbreaks of avian botulism were reported in both poultry and wild birds, including five Korean native chicken farms (HanHyup NO.3), one pheasant (Phasianus colchicus karpowi) farm, and one community of spot-billed ducks (Anas poecilorhyncha). The affected domestic birds showed 24.5% to 58.3% mortality, with specific clinical signs including ataxia, limber neck, and diarrhea. To confirm the botulinum toxin, neutralization tests were performed on sera (four Korean native chicken farms and one pheasant farm) or culture supernatant (spot-billed ducks). Additionally, the contents of the cecum and liver from poultry presenting signs suggestive of botulism were inoculated to isolate the pathogen. The toxin genes were then detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Through the neutralization tests, it was possible to diagnose the botulism and, except in the case of one Korean native chicken farm, to identify the type of pathogen. Using detection by PCR, except in two cases of the Korean native chicken farms, the botulinum toxin gene was found. Additionally, in four cases, it was possible to identify the C/D mosaic type using PCR. This paper reports the first occurrence of avian botulism in domestic birds and the first detection of botulism caused by this mosaic type in Korea.

  19. Botulism in 2 urban dogs

    PubMed Central

    Uriarte, Ane; Thibaud, Jean-Laurent; Blot, Stéphane

    2010-01-01

    Two dogs from the same owner were referred for ascending weakness and paresis of 2 to 3 days duration. Electromyography and electroneurography determined that there were normal F-waves, decreased compound action potential, and decreased activity on repetitive nerve stimulation. These findings were valuable in diagnosing botulism in the dogs. PMID:21197207

  20. Complete paralytic botulism mimicking a deep coma in a child.

    PubMed

    Azapağası, Ebru; Kendirli, Tanıl; Öz-Tuncer, Gökçen; Albayrak, Pelin; Teber, Serap; Deda, Gülhis

    2017-01-01

    Botulism is a rare cause of neuroparalysis. Delay in diagnosis and treatment exerts adverse impact on mortality and morbidity. We report a child with complete flaccid paralysis followed by progression to coma-like consciousness. The patient required mechanical ventilation. As serological tests could not be performed, detailed history and physical examinations led to the suspicion of botulism, and repetitive nerve stimulation tests supported the diagnosis. Botulinum antitoxin was administered. The patient`s neuromuscular function improved rapidly.

  1. Outbreak of Botulism After Consumption of Illicit Prison-Brewed Alcohol in a Maximum Security Prison--Arizona, 2012.

    PubMed

    Yasmin, Seema; Adams, Laura; Briggs, Graham; Weiss, Joli; Bisgard, Kris; Anderson, Shoana; Tsang, Clarisse; Henke, Evan; Vasiq, Muhammad; Komatsu, Ken

    2015-10-01

    The authors investigated the second botulism outbreak to occur in a maximum security prison in Arizona within a 4-month period. Botulism was confirmed in eight men aged 20 to 35 years who reported sharing a single batch of pruno made with potatoes. Initial symptoms included blurred vision, slurred speech, muscle weakness, ptosis, and dysphagia. All patients received heptavalent botulinum antitoxin, seven required mechanical ventilation, and all survived. The median incubation period was 29 hours. Sera from all patients and leftover pruno tested positive for botulinum toxin type A. Botulism should be considered among prisoners with cranial nerve palsies and descending, symmetric flaccid paralysis. Prison-brewed alcohol, particularly when made with potatoes, can be a vehicle for botulism and is associated with outbreaks of botulism in prisons. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. [Familial occurrence of botulism - a case report].

    PubMed

    AmbroŽová, Helena; DŽupová, Olga; Smíšková, Dita; Roháčová, Hana

    2014-06-01

    Botulism, a life-threatening condition, is very rare in the Czech Republic. Since 1960, a total of 155 cases have been reported; between 2010 and 2012, not a single case was identified. This is a case report of familiar occurrence of botulism following consumption of home-made pork and liver pâté in three family members admitted to the Department of Infectious, Tropical and Parasitic Diseases, Na Bulovce Hospital in Prague in May 2013. The neurological symptoms were dominated by diplopia and dysarthria. After administration of an antitoxin, all patients recovered. Given the poor availability of the antitoxin, a decision was made following this small family epidemic to have an emergency reserve of life-saving anti-infective drugs for the Czech Republic in the Toxicological Information Center in Prague.

  3. Intestinal toxemia botulism in 3 adults, Ontario, Canada, 2006-2008.

    PubMed

    Sheppard, Yolanda D; Middleton, Dean; Whitfield, Yvonne; Tyndel, Felix; Haider, Shariq; Spiegelman, Jamie; Swartz, Richard H; Nelder, Mark P; Baker, Stacey L; Landry, Lisa; Maceachern, Ross; Deamond, Sherri; Ross, Lorrie; Peters, Garth; Baird, Michelle; Rose, David; Sanders, Greg; Austin, John W

    2012-01-01

    Five cases of intestinal toxemia botulism in adults were identified within an 18-month period in or near Toronto, Ontario, Canada. We describe findings for 3 of the 5 case-patients. Clinical samples contained Clostridium botulinum spores and botulinum neurotoxins (types A and B) for extended periods (range 41-61 days), indicative of intestinal toxemia botulism. Patients' clinical signs improved with supportive care and administration of botulinum antitoxin. Peanut butter from the residence of 1 case-patient yielded C. botulinum type A, which corresponded with type A spores found in the patient's feces. The food and clinical isolates from this case-patient could not be distinguished by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Two of the case-patients had Crohn disease and had undergone previous bowel surgery, which may have contributed to infection with C. botulinum. These cases reinforce the view that an underlying gastrointestinal condition is a risk factor for adult intestinal toxemia botulism.

  4. Mechanical ventilation and management of an adult horse with presumptive botulism.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Sandra D; Toth, Balazs; Townsend, Wendy M; Bentley, Robin Timothy

    2014-01-01

    To describe the clinical course, management, and outcome of a horse with a presumptive diagnosis of botulism treated with long-term mechanical ventilation. A 6-year-old Quarter Horse gelding with a history of esophageal obstruction was evaluated for progressive tetraparesis. Generalized and progressive skeletal muscle weakness characterized by recumbency, decreased tongue, tail, eyelid, and anal tone, and respiratory failure was observed. Anticholinergic signs including decreased salivation, xerophthalmia, and ileus were also noted. A presumptive diagnosis of botulism was made, although mouse inoculation and spore identification testing were negative. Pentavalent botulism antitoxin was administered on Day 3. The horse was maintained on a water mattress and was managed with mechanical ventilation for 2 weeks. Complications encountered included necrotic rhinitis, intertrigo, decubital ulceration, jugular and cephalic vein thrombophlebitis, corneal ulceration, and transient ventricular tachycardia. The horse showed marked improvement in skeletal muscle strength and parasympathetic nervous system function, allowing it to be successfully weaned from the ventilator but suffered large colon volvulus on Day 21 and was euthanized. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of successful weaning from long-term mechanical ventilation and management of recumbency using a water mattress in an adult horse with presumptive botulism. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2014.

  5. Type E botulism outbreaks: a manual for beach managers and the public

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    2012-01-01

    The Great Lakes basin has undergone a resurgence of Type E botulism (often referred to as avian botulism) in recent years, characterized by dead birds and fish along the shores of the Great Lakes. The number of deaths and areas affected appear to be increasing to levels that induce concern about the ecological health of the Great Lakes nearshore waters.

  6. Avian morbidity and mortality from botulism, aspergillosis, and salmonellosis at Jamaica Bay Wildlife Refuge, New York, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brand, C.J.; Windingstad, R.M.; Siegfried, Lynne M.; Duncan, R.M.; Cook, R.M.

    1988-01-01

    During the summers of 1981 and 1982, studies were conducted at Jamaica Bay Wildlife Refuge, Long Island, New York, to determine whether annual water-level drawdowns used to create shorebird habitat also led to the occurrence of avian botulism (Clostridium botulinum type C). Low levels of morbidity and mortality from avian botulism occurred on the two ponds throughout both summers, but there was no apparent relationship between the occurrence or rates of botulism losses and drawdowns of the ponds. Botulism also occurred throughout both summers on other areas of the refuge. Botulinal toxin was found in fly larvae associated with avian carcasses, including birds that did not die from botulism. Toxin was not found in other samples of aquatic biota in the ponds, although it was demonstrated in a single sample of decomposing sea lettuce (Ulva lactuca) in Jamaica Bay. Aspergillosis (Aspergillus fumigatus) and salmonellosis (Salmonella spp.) were also frequently-diagnosed causes of morbidity and mortality. We believe that botulinal toxin present in carcasses of birds dying from botulism, or produced postmortem in birds dying from other causes, on the two ponds and other areas in Jamaica Bay were a major source of botulinal toxin. Toxin could be ingested by birds through direct scavenging on carcasses, or by consumption of toxic fly larvae associated with carcasses. Diligent carcass pickup at the two ponds is recommended to reduce mortality from avian botulism.

  7. Is there a link between infant botulism and sudden infant death? Bacteriological results obtained in central Germany.

    PubMed

    Böhnel, H; Behrens, S; Loch, P; Lube, K; Gessler, F

    2001-10-01

    Despite the fact that botulism was described in Germany for the first time by Kerner in 1820, the disease is almost forgotten in this country. Only about 10-20 cases of classical botulism (intoxication) are recorded every year, including 1-2 cases of clinical infant botulism. As we assumed a high incidence of botulism to be connected with cases of sudden infant death (SID), we undertook the research work presented here. From every case of unexpected infant death up to 12 months of age, standardised specimens (blood, liver and intestine) were taken at autopsy. They were tested for the presence of botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) and/or bacterial forms of Clostridium botulinum with subsequent BoNT neutralisation tests by the international standard mouse bioassay. Age, sex, pathological findings and season were recorded. Over a 5-year period, 75 samples including 57 SID cases were tested. Free toxin was found in nine and bacterial forms were detected in six samples. Toxin neutralisation revealed the definite presence of BoNT/BoNT producing bacteria (mainly type E), whereas another 11 toxin tests were inconclusive. According to international literature, these 15 cases are to be interpreted as infant botulism. the results show a remarkable incidence of infant botulism without any known previous medical history, partly hidden as sudden infant death. We propose to systematically search for botulism in connection with sudden infant death.

  8. Use of enzyme-linked immunoassays for antibody to types C and D botulinum toxins for investigations of botulism in cattle.

    PubMed

    Gregory, A R; Ellis, T M; Jubb, T F; Nickels, R J; Cousins, D V

    1996-02-01

    The development of specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) for antibody to types C and D Clostridium botulinum toxins for investigation of botulism in cattle is described. Partially purified type C and D toxins were used as antigens to develop these ELISAs. Specificity of the ELISAs was evaluated on sera from 333 adult beef and dairy cattle from areas with no history or evidence of botulism in animals or water birds. The test was also evaluated on sera from 41 herds that included herds vaccinated against botulism, confirmed botulism cases and herds from areas where the disease is considered endemic. The ELISAs detected the presence of antibody to botulinum toxins in samples from vaccinated cattle and both convalescent and clinically normal animals from unvaccinated herds with outbreaks of botulism. Antibody was also found in unvaccinated animals from herds in which there had been no diagnosed botulism cases in areas where botulism was considered endemic. Sera from some unvaccinated cattle with high ELISA reactivity was shown to be protective for mice in botulinum toxin neutralisation tests. The use of these tests in investigations of botulism in cattle is discussed.

  9. Parainfectious meningo-encephalo-radiculo-myelitis (cat scratch disease, Lyme borreliosis, brucellosis, botulism, legionellosis, pertussis, mycoplasma).

    PubMed

    Greenblatt, Daniel; Krupp, Lauren B; Belman, Anita L

    2013-01-01

    Parainfectious disorders of the nervous system encompass those meningo-encephalo-radiculomyelitic conditions that are temporally associated with a systemic infection, antigenic stimuli, or toxin exposure, in the absence of evidence of direct neuronal infection or invasion of the central nervous system (CNS) or peripheral nervous system (PNS). Pathogenetic mechanisms can be due to immune-mediated processes (such as bystander activation, molecular mimicy) or the inciting insult can be due to toxic factors, as in the case of botulism. A myriad of clinical manifestations can occur including headache, seizures, and mental status changes, ranging from mood and behavioral disturbances to varying levels of alteration in consciousness. Focal neurological deficits can include aphasia, hemiparesis, or paraparesis. The PNS can also be affected leading to cranial nerve involvement, focal or multifocal neuropathies, and dysfunction of the autonomic nervous system. Diagnosis is based not only on the history, examination, laboratory, and neuroimaging data but also on epidemiological factors. The parainfectious disorders covered in this review are cat scratch disease, Lyme borreliosis, legionellosis, brucellosis, botulism, pertussis, and mycoplasma. Each is associated with a distinct organism, has both systemic and neurological manifestations, and has a different epidemiological profile. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Foodborne botulism associated with home-preserved turnip tops in Italy.

    PubMed

    Anniballi, Fabrizio; Chironna, Elisa; Astegiano, Sara; Fiore, Alfonsina; Auricchio, Bruna; Buonincontro, Giuseppina; Corvonato, Maria; Segala, Vincenzo; Mandarino, Giuseppina; De Medici, Dario; Decastelli, Lucia

    2015-01-01

    In Italy, foodborne botulism is a rare disease mainly due to home-preserved food. In the case reported here, clinical diagnosis was performed on the basis of clinical signs and referred consumption of home-preserved turnip tops in oil. Definitive diagnosis was performed by detection of botulinum toxin in sera and neuro-toxigenic organisms in stools and leftover food. This case report highlights the need of a high medical awareness, prompt clinical diagnosis, and synergic collaboration among the health authorities for a correct management of botulism as well as disease containment.

  11. The first case of type B infant botulism in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kakinuma, H; Maruyama, H; Takahashi, H; Yamakawa, K; Nakamura, S

    1996-10-01

    A six-month-old girl with a 5 consecutive day history of constipation and poor feeding developed generalized weakness, poor head control, difficulties in sucking and swallowing, and cranial nerve dysfunction within a few days. These characteristic manifestations and clinical course prompted examination of the possibility of infant botulism, although no history of eating honey was obtained. Mouse bioassay performed with enema effluent demonstrated type B botulinum toxin. Culture of the effluent was positive for Clostridium botulinum type B. This is the first case of type B infant botulism in Japan.

  12. Botulism associated with commercially canned chili sauce--Texas and Indiana, July 2007.

    PubMed

    2007-08-03

    On July 7 and July 11, 2007, public health officials in Texas and Indiana, respectively, reported to CDC four suspected cases of foodborne botulism, two in each state. Investigations conducted by state and local health departments revealed that all four patients had eaten brands of Castleberry's hot dog chili sauce before illness began. Botulinum toxin type A was detected in the serum of one Indiana patient and in a leftover chili mixture obtained from his home. CDC informed the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) of the apparent link between illness and consumption of the chili sauce. On July 18, FDA issued a consumer advisory, and the manufacturer, Castleberry's Food Company (Augusta, Georgia), subsequently recalled the implicated brand and several other products produced in the same set of retorts (commercial-scale pressure cookers for processing canned foods) at the same canning facility. Examination of the canning facility in Georgia during the outbreak investigation had identified deficiencies in the canning process. On July 19, the U.S. Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) issued a press release that announced a recall of chili and certain meat products from the Castleberry canning facility and provided recommendations to consumers. That recall was expanded on July 21 to include additional canned products. A fifth case of botulism potentially linked to one of the recalled products is under investigation in California. This report describes the ongoing investigation by members of OutbreakNet and others and the measures undertaken to control the outbreak, which is the first outbreak of foodborne botulism in the United States associated with a commercial canning facility in approximately 30 years. Clinicians should be vigilant for symptoms of botulism, including symmetric cranial nerve palsies, especially if accompanied by descending flaccid paralysis. Consumers should not eat any of the recalled chili sauce or other recalled

  13. Rapid detection of foodborne botulism outbreaks facilitated by epidemiological linking of cases: implications for food defense and public health response.

    PubMed

    Newkirk, Ryan W; Hedberg, Craig W

    2012-02-01

    The main objective of this study was to develop an understanding of the descriptive epidemiology of foodborne botulism in the context of outbreak detection and food defense. This study used 1993-2008 data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Annual Summaries of Notifiable Diseases, 2003-2006 data from the Bacterial Foodborne and Diarrheal Disease National Case Surveillance Annual Reports, and 1993-2008 data from the Annual Listing of Foodborne Disease Outbreaks. Published outbreak investigation reports were identified through a PubMed search of MEDLINE citations for botulism outbreaks. Fifty-eight foodborne botulism outbreaks were reported to CDC between 1993 and 2008. Four hundred sixteen foodborne botulism cases were documented; 205 (49%) were associated with outbreaks. Familial connections and co-hospitalization of initial presenting cases were common in large outbreaks (>5 cases). In these outbreaks, the time from earliest exposure to outbreak recognition varied dramatically (range, 48-216 h). The identification of epidemiologic linkages between foodborne botulism cases is a critical part of diagnostic evaluation and outbreak detection. Investigation of an intentionally contaminated food item with a long shelf life and widespread distribution may be delayed until an astute physician suspects foodborne botulism; suspicion of foodborne botulism occurs more frequently when more than one case is hospitalized concurrently. In an effort to augment national botulism surveillance and antitoxin release systems and to improve food defense and public health preparedness efforts, medical organizations and Homeland Security officials should emphasize the education and training of medical personnel to improve foodborne botulism diagnostic capabilities to recognize single foodborne botulism cases and to look for epidemiologic linkages between suspected cases.

  14. Cluster of botulism among Dutch tourists in Turkey, June 2008.

    PubMed

    Swaan, C M; van Ouwerkerk, I M; Roest, H J

    2010-04-08

    In June 2008, three Dutch tourists participating in a mini-cruise in Turkey needed urgent repatriation for antitoxin treatment because of symptoms of botulism. Because there was a shortage of antitoxin in the Netherlands, an emergency delivery was requested from the manufacturer in Germany. An outbreak investigation was initiated into all nine cruise members, eight of whom developed symptoms. C. botulinum type B was isolated in stool culture from four of them. No other patients were notified locally. Food histories revealed locally purchased unprocessed black olives, consumed on board of the ship, as most likely source, but no left-overs were available for investigation. C. botulinum type D was detected in locally purchased canned peas, and whilst type D is not known to be a cause of human intoxication, its presence in a canned food product indicates an inadequate preserving process. With increasing tourism to areas where food-borne botulism is reported regularly special requests for botulism antitoxin may become necessary. Preparing an inventory of available reserve stock in Europe would appear to be a necessary and valuable undertaking.

  15. [Food-borne botulism: review of five cases].

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Teresa; Costa, Manuela; Almeida, H Cristina; Guimarães, Mário

    2004-01-01

    Food-borne botulism is a disease caused by the ingestion of food contaminated with botulinum toxin, often present in smoked meat, canned food and preserved food; it can occur as sporadic case or as an outbreak. In the last decades there has been an increasing incidence of food-borne botulism in Portugal. The authors do a review of five cases of food-borne botulism, three isolated cases and 2 familiar. Four were associated with the ingestion of smoked ham and one of canned tunafish. The incubation period was 48 hours in one patient and 4 days in another, in the remaining patients it was not possible to determine this period. The clinical picture was dominated in all patients by diplopy, dysphagia, dizziness, blurred vision, dry mouth and constipation, and in two patients there were gastrointestinal complains. In one patient the electromyography findings were compatible with pre-synaptic neuromuscular blockage. A toxin type B was found in the serum of one patient and in the food involved in the two familiar cases. All patients experienced complete recovery with only symptomatic treatment. With this article the authors intend to call attention to this diagnosis, which is not rare, but difficult for someone not familiar with its presentation, being of notice that the diagnosis is essentially clinic with a strong epidemiological history, confirmed by typical electromyography findings and by the identification of the toxin involved. In Portugal there is only descriptions of clinical cases associated with the type B and the type E toxins, not being necessary the resource to the antitoxin therapy.

  16. Garlic-in-oil associated botulism: episode leads to product modification.

    PubMed Central

    Morse, D L; Pickard, L K; Guzewich, J J; Devine, B D; Shayegani, M

    1990-01-01

    In February 1989, three cases of botulism occurred in persons who consumed garlic bread made from a garlic-in-oil product. Testing of leftover garlic-in-oil showed it to have a pH of 5.7 and to contain high concentrations of Clostridium botulinum organisms and toxin. This was the second episode of botulism associated with a low acid garlic-in-oil product which needs constant refrigeration. In response, the Food and Drug Administration has taken steps to prevent a recurrence by requiring that microbial inhibitors or acidifying agents be added to such products. PMID:2240308

  17. Botulism outbreak causes high mortality in Scottish cattle.

    PubMed

    2017-11-11

    SAc C VS disease Surveillance report for july 2017 Botulism in finishing cattleSeasonal dermatitis in Cheviot ewes Streptococcus suis type 2 meningitis and septicaemia in pigletsRodenticide toxicity in chickens. British Veterinary Association.

  18. Type F botulism due to neurotoxigenic Clostridium baratii from an unknown source in an adult.

    PubMed

    McCroskey, L M; Hatheway, C L; Woodruff, B A; Greenberg, J A; Jurgenson, P

    1991-11-01

    Type F botulism was confirmed in a 54-year-old male with signs compatible with botulism who reported to the emergency unit of a hospital. Botulinal neurotoxin was detected in the patient's serum and fecal specimens, and a neurotoxigenic organism whose physiologic characteristics correspond to those of Clostridium baratii was isolated. The toxin produced by the isolate was neutralized by type F botulinal antitoxin and cross-neutralized with lower efficiency by type E antitoxin. The patient's food history was not suggestive of botulism, and it seems likely that the illness was due to colonization of the gut.

  19. Type F botulism due to neurotoxigenic Clostridium baratii from an unknown source in an adult.

    PubMed Central

    McCroskey, L M; Hatheway, C L; Woodruff, B A; Greenberg, J A; Jurgenson, P

    1991-01-01

    Type F botulism was confirmed in a 54-year-old male with signs compatible with botulism who reported to the emergency unit of a hospital. Botulinal neurotoxin was detected in the patient's serum and fecal specimens, and a neurotoxigenic organism whose physiologic characteristics correspond to those of Clostridium baratii was isolated. The toxin produced by the isolate was neutralized by type F botulinal antitoxin and cross-neutralized with lower efficiency by type E antitoxin. The patient's food history was not suggestive of botulism, and it seems likely that the illness was due to colonization of the gut. PMID:1774272

  20. Dry mouth as an initial sign of food-borne botulism: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Manfredi, Maddalena; Scoditti, Umberto; Angelini, Monica; de Giampaulis, Piero; Borrini, Bianca Maria; Macaluso, Guido Maria; Pavesi, Giovanni; Vescovi, Paolo

    2011-04-01

    Botulism is a rare neuroparalytic disease caused by a potent neurotoxin produced by Clostridium botulinum. There are different clinical types of botulism. Early diagnosis of the condition is essential for effective treatment. We report a case of food-borne botulism in identical twins characterized by severe initial oral involvement and a review of the literature about the condition. Copyright © 2011 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. [Wound botulism in heroin addicts in Germany].

    PubMed

    Kuhn, J; Gerbershagen, K; Schaumann, R; Langenberg, U; Rodloff, A C; Mueller, W; Hartmann-Klosterkoetter, U; Bewermeyer, H

    2006-05-05

    5 heroin addicts (aged 31-44 years; 1 female, 4 men) presented with a history of blurred vision and diplopia followed by dysarthria. 3 of the patients also developed respiratory failure requiring long-term ventilatory support. Physical examination revealed cranial nerve deficits and abscesses at injection sites in 3 of them. In 4 patients wound botulism was diagnosed on the basis of symptoms, course of the illness and response to specific treatment. Clostridium botulinum was grown from wound swab in one patient. Two of the patients, having been injected with antitoxin immediately after admission, were discharged almost symptom-free after only a few days. Adjuvant antibiotics and, in 3 patients, surgical débridement of the abscesses were needed. Progressive cranial nerve pareses in addicts who inject drugs intravenously or intramuscularly should raise the suspicion of wound botulism and require hospitalization. While indirect demonstration of toxin supports the diagnosis, false-negative results are common.

  2. Toxicoinfectious botulism in foals and adult horses.

    PubMed

    Swerczek, T W

    1980-02-01

    Toxicoinfectious botulism was proved to be the cause of a neuromuscular paralytic syndrome in foals and adult horses. In eight successive cases, Clostridium botulinum type B was isolated at necropsy. Foals were either found dead without premonitory signs of illness or, most often, they had signs of progressive and symmetric motor paralysis. Stilted gait, muscular tremors, and the inability to stand longer than 4 to 5 minutes were the salient clinical signs. Other clinical manifestations included dysphagia, constipation, mydriasis, and frequent urination. As the disease progressed, dyspnea with extension of the head and neck, tachycardia, and respiratory arrest occurred. Death occurred most often 24 to 72 hours after the onset of clinical signs. The most consistent postmortem findings were congestion and edema of the lungs and excessive pericardial fluid, which contained free-floating strands of fibrin. Gastric ulcers, foci of necrosis in the liver, abscesses in the navel and lungs, and wounds of the skin and muscle were predisposing sites for development of toxicoinfectious botulism.

  3. Clostridium botulinum and the ophthalmologist: a review of botulism, including biological warfare ramifications of botulinum toxin.

    PubMed

    Caya, J G

    2001-01-01

    The anaerobic bacterium Clostridium botulinum causes disease by elaborating an extremely potent neurotoxin that inhibits release of acetylcholine at presynaptic nerve endings, thereby resulting in a descending flaccid paralysis and autonomic nervous system dysfunction. Possible ophthalmological effects of this neurotoxin are many and typically constitute the earliest manifestations of botulism. This review summarizes the medical literature on botulism with regard to historical perspective, epidemiology, clinical manifestations, and treatment. Ophthalmological findings of botulism are tabulated and their frequencies are provided. Finally, the bioterrorism/biologic warfare ramifications of botulinum toxin are briefly discussed.

  4. Effective and rapid treatment of wound botulism, a case report.

    PubMed

    Schulte, M; Hamsen, U; Schildhauer, T A; Ramczykowski, T

    2017-10-26

    The latest news shows several cases of contaminated heroin that is found in different parts all over Europe. This information can be helpful for the emergency doctors to find the correct diagnosis of wound botulism in patients who are intravenous drug users. We describe a case of a 40-year-old man who presented to the emergency department in 2016. He suffered from mild dysarthria, diplopia, dysphagia and ptosis since two days. The CT-scan of the cerebrum and the liquor were without any pathological results. We found out that the patient is an intravenous drug user and the clinical examination showed an abscess in the left groin. So we treated him with the suspected diagnosis of wound botulism. In the emergency operation we split the abscess, made a radical debridement and complementary treated him with a high dose of penicillin g and two units of botulism antitoxin. The suspected diagnosis was confirmed a few days later by finding the Toxin B in the abscess and in the patient's serum. In the following days the neurological symptoms decreased and the wound healing was without any complications. The patient left the hospital after nine days; the antibiotic therapy with penicillin g was continued for several days. In a following examination, 14 days after the patient's discharge of the hospital, no further symptoms were found and the abscess was treated successfully without any problems. Because wound botulism is a very rare disease it can be challenging to the attending physician. This case shows a fast treatment with full recovery of the patient without any further disabilities, which can be used for the future.

  5. Three outbreaks of foodborne botulism caused by unsafe home canning of vegetables--Ohio and Washington, 2008 and 2009.

    PubMed

    Date, Kashmira; Fagan, Ryan; Crossland, Sandra; Maceachern, Dorothy; Pyper, Brian; Bokanyi, Rick; Houze, Yolanda; Andress, Elizabeth; Tauxe, Robert

    2011-12-01

    Foodborne botulism is a potentially fatal paralytic illness caused by ingestion of neurotoxin produced by the spore-forming bacterium Clostridium botulinum. Historically, home-canned vegetables have been the most common cause of botulism outbreaks in the United States. During 2008 and 2009, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and state and local health departments in Ohio and Washington State investigated three outbreaks caused by unsafe home canning of vegetables. We analyzed CDC surveillance data for background on food vehicles that caused botulism outbreaks from 1999 to 2008. For the three outbreaks described, patients and their family members were interviewed and foods were collected. Laboratory testing of clinical and food samples was done at the respective state public health laboratories. From 1999 to 2008, 116 outbreaks of foodborne botulism were reported. Of the 48 outbreaks caused by home-prepared foods from the contiguous United States, 38% (18) were from home-canned vegetables. Three outbreaks of Type A botulism occurred in Ohio and Washington in September 2008, January 2009, and June 2009. Home-canned vegetables (green beans, green bean and carrot blend, and asparagus) served at family meals were confirmed as the source of each outbreak. In each instance, home canners did not follow canning instructions, did not use pressure cookers, ignored signs of food spoilage, and were unaware of the risk of botulism from consuming improperly preserved vegetables. Home-canned vegetables remain a leading cause of foodborne botulism. These outbreaks illustrate critical areas of concern in current home canning and food preparation knowledge and practices. Similar gaps were identified in a 2005 national survey of U.S. adults. Botulism prevention efforts should include targeted educational outreach to home canners.

  6. Prevention and Treament of Botulism

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    Rationale for Antitoxin Treatment Although in use for more than four decades, equine antitoxins are still the only postexposure products available for...levels ofBoNT in humans as a function of time ,, I 13 Prevention and Treatment of Botulism Table 13.1 Botulinum antitoxins Product Source Years used ...components, the seven antitoxin sera- types are blended into a heptavalent product and filled into single- use vials for in- travenous (i.v.) infusion. The

  7. Clostridium botulinum and the clinical laboratorian: a detailed review of botulism, including biological warfare ramifications of botulinum toxin.

    PubMed

    Caya, James G; Agni, Rashmi; Miller, Joan E

    2004-06-01

    This review article is designed to thoroughly familiarize all health care professionals with the history, classification, epidemiology, clinical characteristics, differential diagnosis, diagnostic evaluation (including laboratory-based testing), treatment, and prognosis of botulism. It is especially targeted toward clinical laboratorians and includes a detailed enumeration of the important clinical laboratory contributions to the diagnosis, treatment, and monitoring of patients with botulism. Finally, the bioterrorism potential for botulism is discussed, with an emphasis on the clinical laboratory ramifications of this possibility. Included medical periodicals and textbooks accessioned from computerized and manual medical literature searches. More than 1000 medical works published from the 1800s through 2003 were retrieved and reviewed in this process. Pertinent data are presented in textual and tabular formats, the latter including 6 tables presenting detailed information regarding the clinical parameters, differential diagnosis, diagnostic studies, laboratory testing, and therapeutic approaches to botulism. Because botulism is such a rare disease, a keen awareness of its manifestations and prompt diagnosis are absolutely crucial for its successful treatment. The bioterrorism potential of botulism adds further urgency to the need for all health care professionals to be familiar with this disease, its proper evaluation, and timely treatment; the need for such urgency clearly includes the clinical laboratory.

  8. [Botulism. Summary based on six cases].

    PubMed

    Adorján, T; Farkas, M; Boros, L; Czeglédi, Z

    1998-10-18

    Botulism is a rare neuroparalytic disease caused by neurotoxins of Clostridium species. In Hungary it most commonly occurs as a foodborne illness with ocular and bulbar paralysis, muscle weakness and gastrointestinal symptoms. Six cases of botulism were observed by the authors, first in 1993 five members of a family, then in 1997 a patient with sporadic illness. The diagnosis was confirmed by toxin tests in addition to the symptoms and food history. Recognition of the epidemiologic associations proved very useful in the confirmation of outbreak-related cases. The illness was moderately serious at three patients and mild at two patients. One of the patients had a cirrhosis of the liver, and her status became critical because of the repeated bleeding from oesophagus varicose vein. The patient with sporadic illness had a serious gastric dilatation and palsy of bowels causing paralytic ileus at the start of the illness. The symptoms regressed slowly, roughly in three weeks, at all patients. Death did not happened. After the case reports the authors review the disease-microorganism, toxin, clinical entities, incidence, symptoms, diagnosis, differential-diagnosis, and finally the treatment.

  9. [Botulism an a 38-year-old man after ingestion of garlic in chilli oil].

    PubMed

    Lohse, Nicolai; Kraghede, Poul G; Mølbak, Kåre

    2003-07-21

    Botulism is a rare but potentially fatal disease caused by toxins produced by Clostridium botulinum. We report a case of botulism in a 38-year-old man after eating canned "garlic in chilli-oil". The patient was treated with antiserum. The diagnosis was confirmed by detection of botulinum B toxin by a bio-assay and growth of Clostridium botulinum from the food left-overs.

  10. Examination of feces and serum for diagnosis of infant botulism in 336 patients.

    PubMed Central

    Hatheway, C L; McCroskey, L M

    1987-01-01

    In the 12-year period 1975 to 1987, feces from 336 infants were examined for botulinal neurotoxin and Clostridium botulinum. All the infants had illnesses which prompted their physicians to consider infant botulism in the diagnosis. Stool specimens from 113 of the infants yielded organisms that produced botulinal neurotoxins assumed to be responsible for the illness. The types of botulinal toxin in the confirmed cases were distributed as follows: 38 A, 69 B, 2 atypical B, 1 E, 1 F, 1 A + B, and 1 B + F. The type A and B toxins in a single infant were produced by two different strains of organism, and the type B and F toxins in another infant were produced by a single strain. The physiological characteristics of all the isolated toxigenic organisms except two were consistent with those of group I (proteolytic) C. botulinum. The toxigenic isolate from the infant with type E botulism was identified as C. butyricum, and that from the infant with type F botulism was identified as C. barati. Toxin of the same type as produced by the isolated organisms was identified in feces of 98 of 111 culture-positive infants. Botulinal toxin was identified in the serum of 9 of 67 culture-positive infants (8 of 22 infants with type A organisms; 1 of 43 infants with type B organisms; neither of 2 infants with A + B or atypical type B organisms). Botulinal toxin was not detected in feces (206 infants) or in serum (114 infants) of the culture-negative infants. The culture-positive infants had clinical features and a course of illness consistent with those of infant botulism. Most of the culture-negative infants probably had illnesses other than botulism, but specimens might have been obtained late in some infants' illnesses, when the organism had disappeared. PMID:3323228

  11. A brief history of botulism in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Cameron, C M

    2009-03-01

    When looking back into the history of botulism and contemplating the final understanding of the syndrome and the ultimate solutions, there are four facets that stand out clearly. The first is that much of the solution was guided by astute observations, curious travellers, committed veterinarians and particularly farmers themselves who were able to relate the occurrence of the condition to climatic and grazing conditions. Secondly, there was the identification of the osteophagia and pica syndrome which led to the feeding of bone-meal as a successful mitigating measure as well as the establishment that botulism was not due to a plant poisoning. Thirdly, the solution of the problem depended on the integration of experience and knowledge from diverse disciplines such as soil science, animal behaviour and husbandry, nutrition, botany and ultimately advanced bacteriology and the science of immunology. Finally it required the technical advancement to produce toxoids in large quantities and formulate effective aluminium hydroxide precipitated and oil emulsion vaccines.

  12. A case of type F botulism in southern California.

    PubMed

    Richardson, William H; Frei, Shermane S; Williams, Saralyn R

    2004-01-01

    Botulism caused by type F botulinum toxin accounts for less than 0.1% of all human botulism cases and is rarely reported in the literature. A 45-year-old woman presented to an emergency department complaining of blurred vision, difficulty focusing, and dysphagia. The treating physician initially considered the possibility of paralytic shellfish poisoning due to a report of shellfish ingestion, which was later determined to be frozen shrimp and a can of tuna, but no gastroenteritis or paresthesias were present. During the emergency department observation, the patient developed respiratory distress with hypercapnea and required intubation and mechanical ventilation. Within hours, ptosis, mydriasis, and weakness in the arms and legs developed. Bivalent (A, B) botulinum antitoxin was administered approximately 24 h from the onset of initial symptoms, but over the next two days complete paralysis progressed to the upper and lower extremities. Shortly thereafter a stool toxin assay demonstrated the presence of type F botulinum toxin. The patient subsequently received an experimental heptavalent botulinum antitoxin on hospital day 7 but paralysis was already complete. Her three-week hospital course was complicated by nosocomial pneumonia and a urinary tract infection, but she gradually improved and was discharged to a rehabilitation facility. Anaerobic cultures and toxin assays have yet to elucidate the source of exposure. We report a rare case of type F botulism believed to be foodborne in etiology. Administration of bivalent botulinum antitoxin did not halt progression of paralysis.

  13. The first case of a major avian type C botulism outbreak in Poland.

    PubMed

    Wlodarczyk, Radoslaw; Minias, Piotr; Kukier, Elibieta; Grenda, Tomasz; Smietanka, Krzysztof; Janiszewski, Tomasz

    2014-09-01

    Major outbreaks of avian type C botulism have been rarely reported from Central Europe. In this paper, we report the first severe outbreak of avian type C botulism in Poland. In 2011-12, two epizootics caused by Clostridium botulinum took place at Jeziorsko dam reservoir and affected an estimated number of 5500 birds in 2011 and 1600 birds in 2012. In total, 24 species ofwaterbirds were affected, including mainly waterfowl (37.0%), shorebirds (27.0%), rallids (25.7%), and larids (9.1%). Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) and coots (Fulica atra) were most commonly represented among all affected species (27.5% and 25.0% of all recorded carcasses, respectively). Laboratory analyses confirmed the presence of type C botulinum toxin in the internal organs of paralyzed birds. This case study from the Jeziorsko dam reservoir demonstrates that this type of shallow-water habitat is especially prone to avian botulism outbreaks in the climatic conditions of Central Europe.

  14. A report on the pathology of type A botulism.

    PubMed

    Toyoda, H; Omata, K; Fukai, K; Akai, K

    1980-05-01

    An autopsy case of type A botulism, a sacrifice during the first outbreak in Japan, was presented. The patient exhibited typical neuromuscular symptoms and died on the 8th day from the onset of illness. Type A Clostridium botulinum was demonstrated from the stools and the toxin from the blood serum during the course of disease. The infection source of botulinus bacilli, however, was not clarified. The autopsy diagnoses were made as follows; 1) type A botulism, 2) bronchopneumonia, 3) respirator brain, 4) congestion, 5) hemorrhage in vagal nerve, myocardium and endometrium, 6) gastric erosion, 7) cloudy swelling of kidneys, 8) enterocolitis, 9) focal necrosis of liver and adrenals, 10) demyelination of cranial nerves, and 11) focal hyaline degeneration of striated and smooth muscles and myocardium. The botulinus toxin was confirmed from the samples of cardiac blood or autopsy.

  15. Differences in the Vulnerability of Waterbird Species to Botulism Outbreaks in Mediterranean Wetlands: an Assessment of Ecological and Physiological Factors

    PubMed Central

    Anza, I.; Vidal, D.; Feliu, J.; Crespo, E.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Avian botulism kills thousands of waterbirds every year, including endangered species, but information about the differences between species in vulnerability to botulism outbreaks and the capacity to act as carriers of Clostridium botulinum is still poorly known. Here, we estimated the vulnerability to botulism of 11 waterbird species from Mediterranean wetlands by comparing the number of affected birds with the census of individuals at risk. The capacity of different species to act as carriers was studied by detecting the presence of the C. botulinum type C/D botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) gene in fecal samples and prey items of waterbirds in the wild and by the serial sampling of cloacal swabs of birds affected by botulism. We found differences among species in their vulnerabilities to botulism, probably related to feeding habits, season of arrival, turnover, and, possibly, phylogenetic resilience. The globally endangered white-headed duck (Oxyura leucocephala) showed mortality rates in the studied outbreaks of 7% and 17% of the maximum census, which highlights botulism as a risk factor for the conservation of the species. Invasive water snails, such as Physa acuta, may be important drivers in botulism epidemiology, because 30% of samples tested positive for the BoNT gene during outbreaks. Finally, our results show that birds may excrete the pathogen for up to 7 days, and some individuals can do it for longer periods. Rails and ducks excreted C. botulinum more often and for longer times than gulls, which could be related to their digestive physiology (i.e., cecum development). IMPORTANCE Botulism is an important cause of mortality in waterbirds, including some endangered species. The global climate change may have consequences in the ecology of wetlands that favor the occurrence of botulism outbreaks. Here, we offer some information to understand the ecology of this disease that can be useful to cope with these global changes in the future. We have found

  16. The Short-Lived Epidemic of Botulism From Commercially Canned Foods in the United States, 1919 to 1925.

    PubMed

    Kazanjian, Powel

    2018-04-17

    In 1919, three deadly outbreaks of botulism caused by consumption of canned olives packed in California captured national headlines. In all of the outbreaks, which occurred in separate locales, unsuspecting people died after consuming tainted food during a banquet or family meal. The press's sensational portrayal of canned food as hazardous aroused alarm among consumers at a time when commercial canning was becoming more common. Intent on restoring the image of their product as safe and wholesome, canning industry leaders funded a "botulism commission" of scientific experts in 1919 to investigate how to systematically eliminate the threat of botulism that had imperiled their business. The commissioners identified the scientific reasons for the outbreaks, and on the basis of their findings, the California Department of Public Health issued explicit recommendations for sterilization procedures intended to ensure safety. However, the department did not mandate inspections for all canneries. When commercially packed fruits and vegetables continued to cause botulism, industry leaders voluntarily backed a cannery inspection act to legally require all California canners to possess appropriate equipment and follow scientifically validated sterilization procedures. After the California legislature approved the act in 1925, canneries were inspected, regulations were enforced, and no further outbreaks occurred. This botulism epidemic is an example of a disease outbreak that was controlled when business interests became aligned with public health goals. The press's portrayal of afflicted persons as innocent victims and worthy citizens galvanized businessmen to implement safeguards to protect consumers from botulism intoxication. To preserve their customer base and salvage their corporations, leaders of the canning industry acknowledged the public health threat of their unregulated procedures and acted on the recommendations of scientists.

  17. Survival analysis for respiratory failure in patients with food-borne botulism.

    PubMed

    Witoonpanich, Rawiphan; Vichayanrat, Ekawat; Tantisiriwit, Kanit; Wongtanate, Manas; Sucharitchan, Niwatchai; Oranrigsupak, Petchdee; Chuesuwan, Aphinya; Nakarawat, Weeraworn; Tima, Ariya; Suwatcharangkoon, Sureerat; Ingsathit, Atiporn; Rattanasiri, Sasivimol; Wananukul, Winai

    2010-03-01

    Botulism is a rare presynaptic neuromuscular junction disorder caused by potent toxins produced by the anaerobic, spore-forming, Gram-positive bacterium Clostridium botulinum. Food-borne botulism is caused by the ingestion of foods contaminated with botulinum toxin. In March 2006, there was a large outbreak of food-borne botulism associated with the ingestion of home-canned bamboo shoots in Thailand. The survival analyses for respiratory failure in these patients were studied and are reported here. A prospective observational cohort study was conducted on this outbreak. The primary outcome of interest was the time to respiratory failure. The secondary outcome was the time to weaning off ventilator. The prognostic factors associated with respiratory failure and weaning off ventilator are presented. A total of 91 in-patients with baseline clinical characteristics were included. Most cases first presented with gastrointestinal symptoms followed by neurological symptoms, the most striking of which being difficulty in swallowing. Common clinical features included ptosis, ophthalmoplegia, proximal muscle weakness, pupillary abnormality, and respiratory failure. Forty-two patients developed respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation and the median duration on ventilator was 14 days. The median length of hospital stay for all patients was 13.5 days. Difficulty in breathing, moderate to severe ptosis, and dilated and fixed pupils were associated with respiratory failure. Among patients who were on ventilators, a short incubation period and pupillary abnormality were associated with a longer period of mechanical ventilation. All patients had antitoxin injection and there was no mortality in this outbreak. The history of difficult breathing and the findings of moderate to severe ptosis and pupillary abnormality were associated with severe illness and respiratory failure. A long incubation time was associated with a better prognosis. Although botulism is a

  18. Foodborne botulism in southwest Romania during the post-communism period 1990-2007.

    PubMed

    Neghina, Adriana Maria; Marincu, Iosif; Moldovan, Roxana; Iacobiciu, Ioan; Neghina, Raul

    2010-02-01

    This study was a retrospective investigation of botulism cases over a period of 18 years following major political and economic changes, addressing the question of whether this disease is still an important health concern in southwest Romania. The medical records of botulism cases were used as the source of data. Patients from five southwest Romanian counties were hospitalized at Victor Babes Hospital of Infectious Diseases in Timisoara during the period 1990-2007. The median annual incidence of botulism cases in southwest Romania decreased from 0.1 per 100 000 persons during 1990-1998, to 0.05 per 100 000 persons during 1999-2007. Most of the cases (18.6%) were diagnosed in 1990, immediately following the communism period. The median age of the patients was 38 years (range 16-73 years); 24 (55.8%) were male; the case fatality rate was 2.3%. A significantly higher incidence rate of 2.7 cases per 100 000 persons occurred in rural areas, even though most of the cases (53.5%) were inhabitants of urban areas. The clinical pattern included: difficulty swallowing (79.1%), double and/or blurred vision (69.8%), dry mouth (60.5%), drooping eyelids (51.2%), vomiting (39.5%), mydriasis (37.2%), constipation (27.9%), abdominal pain (23.3%), and slurred speech (18.6%). All cases were attributed to contaminated food sources, mainly home-prepared traditional pork products. Although the botulism cases decreased over the study period in southwest Romania, this life-threatening disease continues to be an important concern. A strategy addressing individual behaviors in the home is needed to improve food safety. Copyright 2009 International Society for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Initial recovery and rebound of type f intestinal colonization botulism after administration of investigational heptavalent botulinum antitoxin.

    PubMed

    Fagan, Ryan P; Neil, Karen P; Sasich, Randy; Luquez, Carolina; Asaad, Hakam; Maslanka, Susan; Khalil, Wajahat

    2011-11-01

    Investigational heptavalent botulinum antitoxin (HBAT) is now the primary antitoxin for US noninfant botulism patients. HBAT consists of equine Fab/F(ab')2 IgG fragments, which are cleared from circulation faster than whole immunoglobulins. Rebound botulism after antitoxin administration is not previously documented but occurred in our patient 10 days after HBAT administration.

  20. Environmental characteristics associated with the occurrence of avian botulism in wetlands of a northern California refuge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rocke, Tonie E.; Euliss, Ned H.; Samuel, Michael D.

    1999-01-01

    Avian botulism is an important disease affecting many species of waterbirds in North America, but the environmental conditions that initiate outbreaks are poorly understood. To determine wetland attributes associated with outbreaks of avian botulism in waterbirds at the Sacramento National Wildlife Refuge (SNWR), California, we compared environmental characteristics between wetlands where outbreaks occurred (outbreak wetlands) and did not occur (nonoutbreak wetlands). In June through October, 1987 89, we monitored the occurrence of avian botulism via observations for sick or dead sentinel mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) placed in 4 wetland enclosures. During this same time period, we collected environmental data from the water column and sediments of each wetland enclosure at 10 14-day sampling intervals. Multivariate analysis was used to reduce 22 environmental variables to 7 factors for inclusion in subsequent statistical analyses. We found that outbreak wetlands had significantly lower redox potential than nonoutbreak wetlands. The probability of botulism in sentinel mallards was associated with increasing temperature, increasing invertebrate abundance or biomass, and decreasing turbidity. However, because these factors were not consistently higher in outbreak wetlands compared to nonoutbreak wetlands, they may have a more proximate effect in initiating an outbreak.

  1. Environmental characteristics associated with the occurrence of avian botulism in wetlands on a northern California refuge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rocke, Tonie E.; Euliss, Ned H.; Samuel, Michael D.

    1999-01-01

    Avian botulism is an important disease affecting many species of waterbirds in North America, but the environmental conditions that initiate outbreaks are poorly understood. To determine wetland attributes associated with outbreaks of avian botulism in waterbirds at the Sacramento National Wildlife Refuge (SNWR), California, we compared environmental characteristics between wetlands where outbreaks occurred (outbreak wetlands) and did not occur (nonoutbreak wetlands). In June through October 1987-89, we monitored the occurrence of avian botulism via observations for sick or dead sentinel mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) placed in 4 wetland enclosures. During this same time period, we collected environmental data from the water column and sediments of each wetland enclosure at 10-14-day sampling intervals. Multivariate analysis was used to reduce 22 environmental variables to 7 factors for inclusion in subsequent statistical analyses. We found that outbreak wetlands had significantly lower redox potential than nonoutbreak wetlands. The probability of botulism in sentinel mallards was associated with increasing temperature, increasing invertebrate abundance or biomass, and decreasing turbidity. However, because these factors were not consistently higher in outbreak wetlands compared to nonoutbreak wetlands, they may have a more proximate effect in initiating an outbreak.

  2. Food-borne botulism cases in Van region in eastern Turkey: importance of electromyography in the diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Anlar, O; Irmak, H; Tombul, T; Akdeniz, H; Caksen, H; Kose, D; Ceylan, A

    2003-09-01

    Food-borne botulism is an acute form of poisoning that results from ingestion of a toxin produced by Clostridium botulinum. Botulism toxin causes its major effect by blocking neuromuscular transmission in autonomic and motor nerve terminals. In this study, we present the features of eleven cases of food-borne botulism admitted to our hospital in 2001. All of the cases were caused by home-prepared foods; green beans. In these cases, the main symptoms and signs were generalized muscular weakness, dry mouth, dysphagia, disponea and diplopia. Electrophysiological studies were performed on four patients. Motor conduction studies showed that compound muscle action potentials were decreased with normal latencies and conduction velocities. The needle electromyography showed signs of denervation potentials like fibrillation and positive waves in four patients. Repetitive nerve stimulation with high frequency (20 Hz) induced an increment close to 100% in the amplitudes in 2 of 4 patients. Although toxin could not be detected in the patients, the electromyographic findings supported our diagnosis. We concluded that electromyography has an important role in diagnosis of botulism, especially in the condition that serologic tests are negative or cannot be performed.

  3. A Qualitative Inquiry About Pruno, an Illicit Alcoholic Beverage Linked to Botulism Outbreaks in United States Prisons.

    PubMed

    Walters, Maroya Spalding; Sreenivasan, Nandini; Person, Bobbie; Shew, Mark; Wheeler, Daniel; Hall, Julia; Bogdanow, Linda; Leniek, Karyn; Rao, Agam

    2015-11-01

    Since 2011, 3 outbreaks of botulism in US prisons have been attributed to pruno, which is an alcoholic beverage made by inmates. Following 1 outbreak, we conducted a qualitative inquiry to understand pruno brewing and its social context to inform outbreak prevention measures. We interviewed staff, inmates, and parolees from 1 prison about pruno production methods, the social aspects of pruno, and strategies for communicating the association between botulism and pruno. Twenty-seven inmates and parolees and 13 staff completed interviews. Pruno is fermented from water, fruit, sugar, and miscellaneous ingredients. Knowledge of pruno making was widespread among inmates; staff were familiar with only the most common ingredients and supplies inmates described. Staff and inmates described inconsistent consequences for pruno possession and suggested using graphic health messages from organizations external to the prison to communicate the risk of botulism from pruno. Pruno making was frequent in this prison. Improved staff recognition of pruno ingredients and supplies might improve detection of brewing activities in this and other prisons. Consistent consequences and clear messages about the association between pruno and botulism might prevent outbreaks.

  4. Botulism-like syndrome after injections of botulinum toxin.

    PubMed

    Cobb, D B; Watson, W A; Fernandez, M C

    2000-06-01

    Botulinum type A toxin (BTA) is an orphan drug used to treat several disorders of muscle spasticity. We report the first known case of systemic botulism-like syndrome induced by BTA therapy which resulted in respiratory arrest. Clinicians should be aware that systemic effects may occur with localized BTA therapy and may be life-threatening.

  5. Type C botulism in pelicans and other fish-eating birds at the Salton Sea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rocke, T.E.; Nol, P.; Pelizza, C.; Sturm, K.K.

    2004-01-01

    In 1996, type C avian botulism killed over 10,000 pelicans and nearly 10,000 other fish-eating birds at the Salton Sea in southern California. Although botulism had been previously documented in waterbirds at the Sea, this die-off was unusual in that it involved primarily fish-eating birds. The American White Pelican (Pelecanus erythrorynchos) was the species with the greatest mortality in 1996. Since 1996, mortality has recurred every year but losses have declined (<2,000 birds/year), with relatively more Brown Pelicans (P. occidentalis) than White Pelicans afflicted. In 2000, morbidity and mortality of Brown Pelicans with type C botulism (1311) approached the numbers afflicted in 1996 (2034). In recent years, mortality reached a peak earlier in the summer, July and August, in contrast to 1996 when mortality reached a peak in September. An exotic fish species, tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus), has been implicated as the source of toxin for birds at Salton Sea, but the source of toxin for fish is unknown.

  6. Suspected botulism in dairy cows and its implications for the safety of human food.

    PubMed

    Cobb, S P; Hogg, R A; Challoner, D J; Brett, M M; Livesey, C T; Sharpe, R T; Jones, T O

    2002-01-05

    A large outbreak of suspected botulism occurred on a dairy farm. The affected animals were listless and showed signs ranging from hindlimb unsteadiness to lateral recumbency, although the most common presentation was sternal recumbency with an apparent hindlimb weakness when stimulated to rise. Postmortem examinations revealed no conclusive gross pathology or histopathology. The affected cattle were found to have neutrophilia and hyperglycaemia with no other consistent haematological or biochemical abnormalities. The combination of clinical signs, disease epidemiology and the ruling out of other differential diagnoses strongly supported a diagnosis of unconfirmed botulism; however, the source of toxin was not demonstrated. Botulism is a severe disease in human beings and there are uncertainties about the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of Clostridium botulinum toxins. In such circumstances, a precautionary approach to food safety is essential. Restrictions were placed on the movement of livestock and sale of milk from the farm premises until 14 days after the onset of the last clinical case.

  7. Differences in the Vulnerability of Waterbird Species to Botulism Outbreaks in Mediterranean Wetlands: an Assessment of Ecological and Physiological Factors.

    PubMed

    Anza, I; Vidal, D; Feliu, J; Crespo, E; Mateo, R

    2016-05-15

    Avian botulism kills thousands of waterbirds every year, including endangered species, but information about the differences between species in vulnerability to botulism outbreaks and the capacity to act as carriers of Clostridium botulinum is still poorly known. Here, we estimated the vulnerability to botulism of 11 waterbird species from Mediterranean wetlands by comparing the number of affected birds with the census of individuals at risk. The capacity of different species to act as carriers was studied by detecting the presence of the C. botulinum type C/D botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) gene in fecal samples and prey items of waterbirds in the wild and by the serial sampling of cloacal swabs of birds affected by botulism. We found differences among species in their vulnerabilities to botulism, probably related to feeding habits, season of arrival, turnover, and, possibly, phylogenetic resilience. The globally endangered white-headed duck (Oxyura leucocephala) showed mortality rates in the studied outbreaks of 7% and 17% of the maximum census, which highlights botulism as a risk factor for the conservation of the species. Invasive water snails, such as Physa acuta, may be important drivers in botulism epidemiology, because 30% of samples tested positive for the BoNT gene during outbreaks. Finally, our results show that birds may excrete the pathogen for up to 7 days, and some individuals can do it for longer periods. Rails and ducks excreted C. botulinum more often and for longer times than gulls, which could be related to their digestive physiology (i.e., cecum development). Botulism is an important cause of mortality in waterbirds, including some endangered species. The global climate change may have consequences in the ecology of wetlands that favor the occurrence of botulism outbreaks. Here, we offer some information to understand the ecology of this disease that can be useful to cope with these global changes in the future. We have found that some species (i

  8. New insight in the epidemiology of avian botulism outbreaks: necrophagous flies as vectors of Clostridium botulinum type C/D.

    PubMed

    Anza, Ibone; Vidal, Dolors; Mateo, Rafael

    2014-12-01

    Avian botulism outbreaks spread through the bird carcass-maggot cycle, in which Clostridium botulinum and blowflies interact to ensure their reproduction in a mutualistic relationship where neurotoxin/spore-bearing maggot is one of the keystones. Here we investigated the hypothesis that adult blowflies may also play a significant role in botulism outbreaks by carrying C. botulinum cells between carcasses. We carried out a field experiment placing bird carcasses free of C. botulinum type C/D in containers only accessible to necrophagous flying insects in wetlands where avian botulism outbreaks were occurring and in control sites. Additionally, we performed laboratory trials to evaluate if blowflies may carry C. botulinum type C/D and for how long. Maggots bearing C. botulinum type C/D developed in 27.5% of carcasses placed in wetlands during botulism outbreaks. Calliphoridae flies in laboratory trials were able to transfer C. botulinum between two points and excreted it in their spots for up to 24 h after an infective feeding. Our results confirm that adult necrophagous flies play a role in the spreading of botulism outbreaks, which have implications in the epidemiology of this disease. © 2014 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. [Botulism in infancy - survey of literature based on a case report].

    PubMed

    Berkes, Andrea; Szegedi, István; Szikszay, Edit; Gulyás, Márta; Oláh, Eva

    2007-06-17

    The authors have drawn attention to a rare disease called infant botulism, which raises some difficulties with regard to differential diagnosis. In the case of the six-month-old infant portrayed, infant botulism and food-born botulism appeared together. As a result of the severity of the disease and due to its rapid course observed in the presented case as well, the diagnosis has to be raised relying on the accurate patient's history and on the clinical examination, then it should be confirmed by appropriate examinations. In relation to presenting a case, the authors examine the microbiological background of the disease, its symptomatology, its epidemiological characteristics, the appropriate methods of electrophysiological examination and laboratory analysis as recommended in current literature, together with the difficulties that arise in differential diagnosis and also the possibilities of treatment. They pay special attention to the particular characteristics of the infant form of the disease, to the difficulties of making a diagnosis due to the characteristics of the age group and also to the questions in relation to the guiding principles of therapy. The rapid and fatal process observed in the presented case warns us that serious complications can occur even when up-to-date therapy is used. Therefore, despite the improvement in prognosis we have to strive to prevent the disease by spreading the proper regulations of nutritional hygiene.

  10. A Qualitative Inquiry About Pruno, an Illicit Alcoholic Beverage Linked to Botulism Outbreaks in United States Prisons

    PubMed Central

    Sreenivasan, Nandini; Person, Bobbie; Shew, Mark; Wheeler, Daniel; Hall, Julia; Bogdanow, Linda; Leniek, Karyn; Rao, Agam

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. Since 2011, 3 outbreaks of botulism in US prisons have been attributed to pruno, which is an alcoholic beverage made by inmates. Following 1 outbreak, we conducted a qualitative inquiry to understand pruno brewing and its social context to inform outbreak prevention measures. Methods. We interviewed staff, inmates, and parolees from 1 prison about pruno production methods, the social aspects of pruno, and strategies for communicating the association between botulism and pruno. Results. Twenty-seven inmates and parolees and 13 staff completed interviews. Pruno is fermented from water, fruit, sugar, and miscellaneous ingredients. Knowledge of pruno making was widespread among inmates; staff were familiar with only the most common ingredients and supplies inmates described. Staff and inmates described inconsistent consequences for pruno possession and suggested using graphic health messages from organizations external to the prison to communicate the risk of botulism from pruno. Conclusions. Pruno making was frequent in this prison. Improved staff recognition of pruno ingredients and supplies might improve detection of brewing activities in this and other prisons. Consistent consequences and clear messages about the association between pruno and botulism might prevent outbreaks. PMID:26378846

  11. Infant botulism in the United States: an epidemiologic study of cases occurring outside of California.

    PubMed Central

    Morris, J G; Snyder, J D; Wilson, R; Feldman, R A

    1983-01-01

    Data were obtained for the 96 hospitalized cases of infant botulism reported to the Centers for Disease Control between 1976-1980 from all states other than California. Forty-one cases were associated with Clostridium botulinum type A, 53 with type B, one with type F, and one with a strain of C. botulinum capable of producing both type B and F toxin. Cases occurred in 25 states; the disease was more common in the western part of the United States, with the highest attack rates reported for Utah and New Mexico. Birth-weights of hospitalized infants with infant botulism tended to be high compared with birth-weights in the United States population. Mothers of infants with infant botulism tended to be older and better educated than mothers in the general population. Seventy per cent of infants had been predominantly breast-fed; breast-feeding in type B cases was associated with a significantly older age at onset of illness. Images FIGURE 2 PMID:6638233

  12. Dual Toxin-Producing Strain of Clostridium botulinum Type Bf Isolated from a California Patient with Infant Botulism

    PubMed Central

    Barash, Jason R.; Arnon, Stephen S.

    2004-01-01

    A retrospective study of Clostridium botulinum strains isolated from patients from California with infant botulism identified the fourth known C. botulinum strain that produces both type B and type F botulinum toxins. This unique strain represented 0.12% of the California infant botulism case isolates from 1976 to 2003. The relative concentrations of type B and F toxins produced were temperature dependent. PMID:15071029

  13. The First Case(s) of Botulism in Vienna in 21 Years: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Vossen, Matthias Gerhard; Gattringer, Klaus-Bernhard; Wenisch, Judith; Khalifeh, Neda; Koreny, Maria; Spertini, Verena; Allerberger, Franz; Graninger, Wolfgang; Kornschober, Christian; Lagler, Heimo; Reitner, Andreas; Sycha, Thomas; Thalhammer, Florian

    2012-01-01

    We describe two linked cases of botulinum toxin intoxication to provide the clinician with a better idea about how botulism cases may present since early diagnosis and treatment are crucial in botulism. Botulinum toxin is the strongest neurotoxin known. We review the available literature, the compiled clinical data, and observations. After a slow onset of clinical signs a married couple living in Vienna presented with dysphagia, difficulties in accommodation, inability to sweat, urinary and stool retention, dizziness, and nausea. They suffered intoxication with botulinum toxin type B. Botulism is a rarely occurring disease in Austria. In the last 21 years there were only twelve reported cases. Both patients went to a general practitioner as well as several specialists before they were sent to and correctly diagnosed at our outpatient department. To avoid long delays between intoxication and diagnosis we think it is crucial to advert to the complex symptoms a nonsevere intoxication with botulinum toxin can produce, especially since intoxications have become rare occurrences in the industrialized societies due to the high quality of industrial food production.

  14. The First Case(s) of Botulism in Vienna in 21 Years: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Vossen, Matthias Gerhard; Gattringer, Klaus-Bernhard; Wenisch, Judith; Khalifeh, Neda; Koreny, Maria; Spertini, Verena; Allerberger, Franz; Graninger, Wolfgang; Kornschober, Christian; Lagler, Heimo; Reitner, Andreas; Sycha, Thomas; Thalhammer, Florian

    2012-01-01

    We describe two linked cases of botulinum toxin intoxication to provide the clinician with a better idea about how botulism cases may present since early diagnosis and treatment are crucial in botulism. Botulinum toxin is the strongest neurotoxin known. Methods: We review the available literature, the compiled clinical data, and observations. Results: After a slow onset of clinical signs a married couple living in Vienna presented with dysphagia, difficulties in accommodation, inability to sweat, urinary and stool retention, dizziness, and nausea. They suffered intoxication with botulinum toxin type B. Botulism is a rarely occurring disease in Austria. In the last 21 years there were only twelve reported cases. Conclusion: Both patients went to a general practitioner as well as several specialists before they were sent to and correctly diagnosed at our outpatient department. To avoid long delays between intoxication and diagnosis we think it is crucial to advert to the complex symptoms a nonsevere intoxication with botulinum toxin can produce, especially since intoxications have become rare occurrences in the industrialized societies due to the high quality of industrial food production. PMID:22779015

  15. Vaccination of cattle with a recombinant bivalent toxoid against botulism serotypes C and D.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Carlos E P; Moreira, Gustavo M S G; Salvarani, Felipe M; Neves, Monique S; Lobato, Francisco C F; Dellagostin, Odir A; Conceição, Fabricio R

    2014-01-03

    Cattle botulism is a fatal intoxication caused by botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) produced by Clostridium botulinum serotypes C and D resulting in economic losses. Vaccination is the most effective way to control botulism. However, the commercially available vaccines are difficult and hazardous to produce. Neutralizing antibodies against the C-terminal fragment of the BoNT heavy chain (HC) are known to protect against lethal doses of BoNTs. We report the vaccination of cattle with a previously tested recombinant chimera consisting of Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin B subunit and the HC of BoNTs C and D. Vaccinated animals produced neutralizing antibodies against serotypes C and D averaging 5±0 and 6.14±1.06IU/mL, respectively. For BoNT D, the titers were greater than those measured for the commercial vaccine, which induced titers of 5±0 and 2.85±1.35 against the respective serotypes, suggesting that this chimera is effective against cattle botulism. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Acute paralysis following "a bad potato": a case of botulism.

    PubMed

    Bhutani, Mohit; Ralph, Edward; Sharpe, Michael D

    2005-04-01

    Intensivists often encounter patients with respiratory failure as a result of neuromuscular disease, however, acute neuro-muscular syndromes are less common. We present a case of food borne Clostridium botulism and discuss the diagnostic and therapeutic considerations. A 35-yr-old healthy male presented with abdominal pain and blurred vision 12 hr after ingesting a "bad" potato. During the next 17 hr, the patient demonstrated a gradual descending paralysis which ultimately resulted in no cranial nerve function and 0/5 strength in all extremities. Sensation was intact. The patient required intubation and mechanical ventilation. His blood count, biochemical profile, computerized tomography and magnetic resonance imaging of the head were normal. A lumbar puncture revealed no abnormalities. Due to the rapid deterioration and presentation of 'descending' paralysis, botulism was suspected. The patient was treated empirically with botulinum anti-toxin. Samples of blood, stool and gastric contents were cultured for the presence of Clostridium botulinum and its toxin and these tests were positive for botulinum toxin A 12 days later. The patient's neuromuscular function gradually improved over a prolonged period of time. Six and one-half months after his initial presentation, the patient was discharged home after completing an aggressive rehabilitation program. Botulism is a rare syndrome and presents as an acute, afebrile, descending paralysis beginning with the cranial nerves. If suspected, botulinum anti-toxin should be considered, particularly within the first 24 hr of onset of symptoms. Confirmation of the presence of botulinum requires days therefore the diagnosis and management rely on history and physical examination.

  17. Infant botulism due to consumption of contaminated commercially prepared honey. First report from the Arabian Gulf States.

    PubMed

    van der Vorst, Maria M J; Jamal, Wafaa; Rotimi, Vincent O; Moosa, Alie

    2006-01-01

    To report the first case of infant botulism in Arabian Gulf States. A 6-week-old infant, presenting with signs of sepsis, was intubated and ventilated due to progressive weakness. Infant botulism was suspected with acute flaccid paralysis and a history of honey consumption. An electromyogram showed decreased amplitude of compound muscle action potential in all motor nerves, preserved sensory responses; the motor terminal latencies and motor conduction velocities were normal. Blood, stool and honey samples were sent for culture. Stool and honey cultures showed two identical strains of Clostridium botulinum. This case shows that the infant botulism occurred from the ingested contaminated honey. Hence vigilance should be maintained when a baby is fed honey and shows signs of progressive weakness because the disease can quickly progress to respiratory failure.

  18. Presynaptic Disorders: Lambert-Eaton Myasthenic Syndrome and Botulism.

    PubMed

    Gable, Karissa L; Massey, Janice M

    2015-08-01

    Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome (LEMS) and botulism are acquired presynaptic nerve terminal disorders of the neuromuscular junction. Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome is an idiopathic or paraneoplastic autoimmune syndrome in which autoantibodies of the P/Q-type voltage-gated calcium channel play a role in decreasing the release of acetylcholine, resulting in clinical symptoms of skeletal muscle weakness, diminished reflexes, and autonomic symptoms. Paraneoplastic LEMS is most often associated with small cell lung cancer. Diagnosis is confirmed by positive serologic testing and electrophysiological studies, which display characteristic features of low compound muscle action potentials, a decrement at 3Hz repetitive nerve stimulation, and facilitation with exercise or high-frequency repetitive stimulation. Treatment involves cancer monitoring and treatment, 3,4-diaminopyridine, immunosuppressive medications, and acetylcholinesterase inhibitors. Botulism is another presynaptic disorder of neuromuscular transmission. Clinical features classically involve cranial and bulbar palsies followed by descending weakness of the limbs, respiratory failure, and autonomic dysfunction. Electrodiagnostic testing is important in the evaluation and diagnosis. Treatment is supportive, and administration of antitoxin is beneficial in selected cases. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  19. An outbreak of type E botulism among common loons (Gavia immer) in Michigan's Upper Peninsula

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brand, Christopher J.; Schmitt, Stephen; Duncan, Ruth M.; Cooley, Thomas M.

    1988-01-01

    An epizootic of type E botulism (Clostridium botulinum) occurred among common loons (Gavia immer) along the Lake Michigan shore of Michigan's Upper Peninsula (USA) during October and November 1983. An estimated 592 dead loons washed ashore along the Garden Peninsula. Type E botulinal toxin was demonstrated in blood samples and stomach contents of dead loons, and in samples of three species of dead fish found on the Lake Michigan shore. We suspect that loons acquired botulism by ingesting sick or dead fish containing type E toxin.

  20. Emergency department identification and critical care management of a Utah prison botulism outbreak.

    PubMed

    Williams, Benjamin T; Schlein, Sarah M; Caravati, E Martin; Ledyard, Holly; Fix, Megan L

    2014-07-01

    We report botulism poisoning at a state prison after ingestion of homemade wine (pruno). This is an observational case series with data collected retrospectively by chart review. All suspected exposures were referred to a single hospital in October 2011. Twelve prisoners consumed pruno, a homemade alcoholic beverage made from a mixture of ingredients in prison environments. Four drank pruno made without potato and did not develop botulism. Eight drank pruno made with potato, became symptomatic, and were hospitalized. Presenting symptoms included dysphagia, diplopia, dysarthria, and weakness. The median time to symptom onset was 54.5 hours (interquartile range [IQR] 49-88 hours) postingestion. All 8 patients received botulinum antitoxin a median of 12 hours post-emergency department admission (IQR 8.9-18.8 hours). Seven of 8 patients had positive stool samples for type A botulinum toxin. The 3 most severely affected patients had respiratory failure and were intubated 43, 64, and 68 hours postingestion. Their maximal inspiratory force values were -5, -15, and -30 cm H2O. Their forced vital capacity values were 0.91, 2.1, and 2.2 L, whereas the 5 nonintubated patients had median maximal inspiratory force of -60 cm H2O (IQR -60 to -55) and forced vital capacity of 4.5 L (IQR 3.7-4.9). Electromyography abnormalities were observed in 1 of the nonintubated and 2 of the intubated patients. A pruno-associated botulism outbreak resulted in respiratory failure and abnormal pulmonary parameters in the most affected patients. Electromyography abnormalities were observed in the majority of intubated patients. Potato in the pruno recipe was associated with botulism. Copyright © 2013 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Genetic Characterization of Clostridium botulinum Associated with Type B Infant Botulism in Japan▿

    PubMed Central

    Umeda, Kaoru; Seto, Yoshiyuki; Kohda, Tomoko; Mukamoto, Masafumi; Kozaki, Shunji

    2009-01-01

    The 15 proteolytic Clostridium botulinum type B strains, including 3 isolates associated with infant botulism in Japan, were genetically characterized by phylogenetic analysis of boNT/B gene sequences, genotyping, and determination of the boNT/B gene location by using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) for molecular epidemiological analysis of infant botulism in Japan. Strain Osaka05, isolated from a case in 2005, showed a unique boNT/B gene sequence and was considered to be a new BoNT/B subtype by phylogenetic analysis. Strain Osaka06, isolated from a case in 2006, was classified as the B2 subtype, the same as strain 111, isolated from a case in 1995. The five isolates associated with infant botulism in the United States were classified into the B1 subtype. Isolates from food samples in Japan were divided into the B1 and the B2 subtypes, although no relation with infant botulism was shown by PFGE genotyping. The results of PFGE and Southern blot hybridization with undigested DNA suggested that the boNT/B gene is located on large plasmids (approximately 150 kbp, 260 kbp, 275 kbp, or 280 kbp) in five strains belonging to three BoNT/B subtypes from various sources. The botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) of Osaka05 was suggested to have an antigenicity different from the antigenicities of BoNT/B1 and BoNT/B2 by a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with the recombinant BoNT/B-C-terminal domain. We established a multiplex PCR assay for BoNT/B subtyping which will be useful for epidemiological studies of type B strains and the infectious diseases that they cause. PMID:19571018

  2. BOTULISM E IN LAKE ERIE: ECOLOGY AND LOWER FOOD WEB TRANSFER

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project will determine the environmental conditions that favor botulism Type E bacteria in Lake Erie and explore whether quagga mussels are altering bottom sediment conditions to favor C. botulinum growth. Analysis of environmental parameters, including water chemistry, alg...

  3. Avian botulism and avian chlamydiosis in wild water birds, Benton Lake National Wildlife Refuge, Montana, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Docherty, Douglas E.; Franson, J. Christian; Brannian, Roger E.; Long, Renee R.; Radi, Craig A.; Krueger, David; Johnson, Robert F.

    2012-01-01

    In 1999, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Wildlife Health Center, Madison, Wisconsin, conducted a diagnostic investigation into a water bird mortality event involving intoxication with avian botulism type C and infection with avian chlamydiosis at the Benton Lake National Wildlife Refuge in Montana, USA. Of 24 carcasses necropsied, 11 had lesions consistent with avian chlamydiosis, including two that tested positive for infectious Chlamydophila psittaci, and 12 were positive for avian botulism type C. One bird tested positive for both avian botulism type C and C. psittaci. Of 61 apparently healthy water birds sampled and released, 13 had serologic evidence of C. psittaci infection and 7 were, at the time of capture, shedding infectious C. psittaci via the cloacal or oropharyngeal route. Since more routinely diagnosed disease conditions may mask avian chlamydiosis, these findings support the need for a comprehensive diagnostic investigation when determining the cause of a wildlife mortality event.

  4. Electrophysiological diagnosis and patterns of response to treatment of botulism with neuromuscular respiratory failure.

    PubMed

    Kongsaengdao, Subsai; Samintarapanya, Kanoksri; Rusmeechan, Siwarit; Sithinamsuwan, Pasiri; Tanprawate, Surat

    2009-08-01

    In this study we describe the electrophysiological findings in botulism patients with neuromuscular respiratory failure from major botulism outbreaks in Thailand. High-rate repetitive nerve stimulation testing (RNST) of the abductor digiti minimi (ADM) muscle of 17 botulism patients with neuromuscular respiratory failure showed mostly incremental responses, especially in response to >20-HZ stimulation. In the most severe stage of neuromuscular respiratory failure, RNST failed to elicit a compound muscle action potential (CMAP) of the ADM muscle. In the moderately severe stage, the initial CMAPs were of very low amplitude, and a 3-HZ RNST elicited incremental or decremental responses. A 10-HZ RNST elicited mainly decremental responses. In the early recovery stage, the initial CMAP amplitudes of the ADM muscle improved, with initially low amplitudes and an incremental response to 3- and 10-HZ RNSTs. Improved electrophysiological patterns of the ADM muscle correlated with improved respiratory muscle function. Incremental responses to 20-HZ RNST were most useful for diagnosis. The initial electrodiagnostic sign of recovery following treatment of neuromuscular respiratory failure was an increased CMAP amplitude and an incremental response to 10-20-HZ RNST. Muscle Nerve 40: 271-278, 2009.

  5. Investigation of a type C/D botulism outbreak in free-range laying hens in France.

    PubMed

    Souillard, R; Le Maréchal, C; Ballan, V; Rouxel, S; Léon, D; Balaine, L; Poëzevara, T; Houard, E; Robineau, B; Robinault, C; Chemaly, M; Le Bouquin, S

    2017-04-01

    In 2014, a botulism outbreak in a flock of laying hens was investigated in France. In the flock of 5020 hens, clinical signs of botulism occurred at 46 weeks of age. A type C/D botulism outbreak was confirmed using the mouse lethality assay for detection of botulinum toxin in serum and a real-time PCR test to detect Clostridium botulinum in intestinal contents. The disease lasted one week with a mortality rate of 2.6% without recurrence. Botulism in laying hens has rarely been reported. Five monthly visits were made to the farm between December 2014 and May 2015 for a longitudinal study of the persistence of C. botulinum in the poultry house after the outbreak, and to assess egg contamination by C. botulinum. Several samples were collected on each visit: in the house (from the ventilation circuit, the egg circuit, water and feed, droppings) and the surrounding area. Thirty clean and 30 dirty eggs were also swabbed at each visit. In addition, 12 dirty and 12 clean eggs were collected to analyse eggshell and egg content. The samples were analysed using real-time PCR to detect type C/D C. botulinum. The bacterium was still detected in the house more than 5 months after the outbreak, mostly on the walls and in the egg circuit. Regarding egg contamination, the bacteria were detected only on the shell but not in the content of the eggs. Control measures should therefore be implemented throughout the egg production period to avoid dissemination of the bacteria, particularly during egg collection.

  6. Outbreak of type E foodborne botulism linked to traditionally prepared salted fish in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Walton, Ryan N; Clemens, Alexander; Chung, Jackson; Moore, Stephen; Wharton, Deborah; Haydu, Liz; de Villa, Eileen; Sanders, Greg; Bussey, Jeff; Richardson, David; Austin, John W

    2014-10-01

    On April 17, 2012, two adult females presented to the hospital with symptoms of botulism. Patient A displayed shortness of breath, increasing lethargy, ptosis, and fixed and dilated pupils, and was intubated after admission. Patient B presented with shortness of breath, vomiting, and stridor. Both patients consumed a meal consisting of a traditionally prepared salted fish, fesikh, on the evening of April 16 during a gathering to celebrate Sham el-Nessim, an Egyptian holiday marking the beginning of spring. Foodborne botulism was suspected based on symptoms and consumption of potentially hazardous food. Antitoxin was administered to both patients on April 18. Another attendee of the Sham el-Nessim gathering (patient C), who also consumed the implicated food, developed symptoms consistent with botulism on April 18. Clinical specimens from all three symptomatic attendees tested positive for either Clostridium botulinum or type E botulinum neurotoxin. Fesikh remaining from the shared meal contained both type E botulinum neurotoxin and C. botulinum type E organisms. Unsold fesikh shad and fesikh sardines tested positive for C. botulinum type E, while unsold fesikh mullet pieces in oil tested positive for both C. botulinum type E and type E botulinum neurotoxin. After consultation with public health investigators, all fesikh products were voluntarily withheld from sale by the manufacturer prior to laboratory confirmation of contamination. Additional illnesses were likely prevented by these precautionary holds, which underscores the importance of timely public health action based on epidemiological evidence available in advance of laboratory results. This is the first documented outbreak of foodborne botulism associated with fesikh to occur in Canada.

  7. Rapid geographical clustering of wound botulism in Germany after subcutaneous and intramuscular injection of heroin.

    PubMed

    Galldiks, Norbert; Nolden-Hoverath, Silke; Kosinski, Christoph M; Stegelmeyer, Ulrike; Schmidt, Sylvia; Dohmen, Christian; Kuhn, Jens; Gerbershagen, Kathrin; Bewermeyer, Heiko; Walger, Peter; Biniek, Rolf; Neveling, Michael; Jacobs, Andreas H; Haupt, Walter F

    2007-01-01

    Wound infections due to Clostridium botulinum in Germany are rare and occur predominantly in heroin injectors, especially after subcutaneous or intramuscular injection of heroin ("skin popping"), which is contaminated with spores of C. botulinum. We report a rapid geographical clustering of cases in Germany in a region between Cologne, Bonn, and Aachen with wound botulism and consecutive systemic C. botulinum intoxication in intravenous drug users (IDUs) within 6 weeks in October and November 2005. A group of 12 IDUs with wound botulism after "skin popping." Clinical data were available in 11 (92%) of 12 patients; in 7 (58%) of the 12 cases, there was cranial nerve involvement including mydriasis, diplopia, dysarthria, and dysphagia, followed by progressing symmetric and flaccid paralysis of proximal muscles of the neck, arms, trunk, and respiratory muscles. Mechanical respiratory support was necessary. Five of the IDUs were treated with antitoxin, but mechanical respiratory support could not be avoided. The mean ventilation duration was 27.4 days (range 6-77 days). In 4 patients (33%), mechanical ventilation could be avoided; two were treated with antitoxin. This report describes rapid geographical clustering of wound botulism with severe respiratory complications in IDUs after "skin popping," which has not previously been reported either in Germany or any other European country. Based on these observations and those in other European countries, we conclude that there is a trend towards "skin popping," suggesting a change in injection practices in IDUs. Secondly, we conclude that the total number of cases with wound botulism is likely to increase because "skin popping" is the main risk factor.

  8. Multiple-locus variable number of tandem repeat analysis as a tool for molecular epidemiology of botulism: The Italian experience.

    PubMed

    Anniballi, Fabrizio; Fillo, Silvia; Giordani, Francesco; Auricchio, Bruna; Tehran, Domenico Azarnia; di Stefano, Enrica; Mandarino, Giuseppina; De Medici, Dario; Lista, Florigio

    2016-12-01

    Clostridium botulinum is the bacterial agent of botulism, a rare but severe neuro-paralytic disease. Because of its high impact, in Italy botulism is monitored by an ad hoc surveillance system. The National Reference Centre for Botulism, as part of this system, collects and analyzes all demographic, epidemiologic, microbiological, and molecular data recovered during cases and/or outbreaks occurred in Italy. A panel of 312 C. botulinum strains belonging to group I were submitted to MLVA sub-typing. Strains, isolated from clinical specimens, food and environmental samples collected during the surveillance activities, were representative of all forms of botulism from all Italian regions. Through clustering analysis isolates were grouped into 12 main clusters. No regional or temporal clustering was detected, demonstrating the high heterogeneity of strains circulating in Italy. This study confirmed that MLVA is capable of sub-typing C. botulinum strains. Moreover, MLVA is effective at tracing and tracking the source of contamination and is helpful for the surveillance system in terms of planning and upgrading of procedures, activities and data collection forms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Frozen, Fully-Cooked Products and Botulism--Food Safety Advisory

    MedlinePlus

    ... Administrative Forms Standard Forms Skip Navigation Z7_0Q0619C0JGR010IFST1G5B10H1 Web Content Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... / Topics / ... Frozen Fully-cooked Products and Botulism Z7_0Q0619C0JGR010IFST1G5B10H3 Web Content Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... Z7_ ...

  10. Regional variations in home canning practices and the risk of foodborne botulism in the Republic of Georgia, 2003.

    PubMed

    Tarkhashvili, N; Chokheli, M; Chubinidze, M; Abazashvili, N; Chakvetadze, N; Imnadze, P; Kretsinger, K; Varma, J; Sobel, J

    2015-04-01

    Foodborne botulism is a severe, paralytic illness caused by ingestion of preformed neurotoxins produced by Clostridium botulinum. In 2003, we conducted a population-based household survey of home canning practices to explore marked regional variations in botulism incidence in the Republic of Georgia (ROG). We designed a cluster sampling scheme and subdivided each of the 10 regions of the ROG into a variable number of strata. Households were selected from each stratum using a two-step cluster sampling methodology. We administered a questionnaire about home canning practices to household members responsible for food preparation. Using multivariate logistic regression analysis, we modeled high (eastern ROG) against low (western ROG) incidence areas. Overall, we surveyed 2,742 households nationwide. Home canning with a capping device hermetically sealing the lid covering the jar was practiced by 1,909 households (65.9%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 59.8 to 72.1%). Canning was more prevalent in regions of low botulism incidence (34 versus 32%; P < 0.01). When compared with low-botulism areas, the following practices were associated with an increased risk in high-botulism areas: ≥ 6 months between canning vegetables and consuming them (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 2.1; 95% CI: 1.3 to 3.5) and adding any of the following ingredients to the jar at time of preparation: >1 tablespoon of salt per liter (aOR = 5.1; 95% CI: 1.2 to 22.6); vinegar (aOR = 2.2; 95% CI: 1.3 to 3.7), and greens (aOR = 5.6; 95% CI: 1.7 to 18.2). The following practices were associated with a decreased risk in high-botulism areas: >57 jars canned per household annually (aOR = 0.5; 95% CI: 0.3 to 0.9), covering or immersing vegetables in boiling water before placing them into the jar (aOR = 0.3 95% CI: 0.2 to 0.6), covering or immersing vegetables in boiling water after placing them into the jar (aOR = 0.4; 95% CI: 0.2 to 0.9), or adding garlic (aOR = 0.2; 95% CI: 0.1 to 0.5) or aspirin (aOR = 0.1; 95

  11. [Familiar outbreak of botulism at Ceará state, Brazil: case report].

    PubMed

    Barboza, Morgana Maria de Oliveira; Santos, Norival Ferreira dos; Sousa, Oscarina Viana de

    2011-01-01

    Report of a family outbreak of botulism food poisoning involving a death, where gaps in the completion of medical records were identified. The study aimed to describe the pathology and emphasize to health professionals the need to provide adequate information relevant to epidemiological investigation of compulsory notification diseases.

  12. Chronic botulism in a Saxony dairy farm: sources, predisposing factors, development of the disease and treatment possibilities.

    PubMed

    Krüger, Monika; Neuhaus, Jürgen; Herrenthey, Anke Große; Gökce, M Mourat; Schrödl, Wieland; Shehata, Awad A

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate Clostridium botulinum at a Saxony dairy farm with 159 cows and 18 heifers. The animals exhibited clinical symptoms of chronic botulism. To determine the source of the infection, feces, blood, organs, and gastrointestinal fluids of dead or euthanized cows; as well as soil, water, silage and manure were tested for C. botulinum spores and BoNTs using ELISA. BoNT/C and C. botulinum type C were detected in 53% and 3% of tested animals, respectively, while BoNT/D and C. botulinum type D were detected in 18% of the animals. C. botulinum also was detected in organs, gastrointestinal fluids, drinking water and manure. To evaluate possible treatments, animals were given Jerusalem artichoke syrup (JAS), Botulism vaccine (formalinised aluminum hydroxide gel adsorbed toxoid of C. botulinum types C and D) or a suspension of Enterococcus faecalis. After four weeks treatment with JAS, BoNT/C and C. botulinum type C were not detected in feces. In contrast, BoNT/D and C. botulinum type D were not significantly influenced by the JAS treatment. Vaccination with botulism vaccine and the E. faecalis suspension significantly decreased BoNT/D and C. botulinum type D. A significant increase of Enterococci was detected in animals treated with E. faecalis. Interestingly, there was a negative correlation between the detection of both BoNT and C. botulinum with the concentration of Enterococci in feces. Although C. botulinum C and D antibodies increased significantly (p < 0.0001) after vaccination with the botulism vaccine, the reduction of C. botulinum and BoNT in feces did not result in recovery of the animals because they were deficient of trace elements [manganese (Mn), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu) and selenium (Se)]. Animals treated with trace elements recovered. It appears that intestinal microbiota dysbiosis and trace element deficiency could explain the extensive emergence of chronic Botulism. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  13. Outbreak of Type C Botulism in Commercial Layer Chickens.

    PubMed

    Sato, Yuko; Wigle, William L; Gallagher, Susan; Johnson, Amy L; Sweeney, Raymond W; Wakenell, Patricia S

    2016-03-01

    This report describes an outbreak of type C botulism in two organic, free-range commercial layer farms in the Midwest. Hens affected were 64-wk-old Hy-Line brown hens and 34-wk-old Hy-Line brown hens owned by the same company, but housed on different premises, with approximately 20,000 birds per house. Mortality over the 2 wk of investigation was estimated to be up to 8% and 2.8%, respectively, with birds acting listless, lethargic, and depressed. Clinical signs consisted of progressive paralysis, and severely affected birds were moribund and laterally recumbent. Hens had ruffled feathers that easily epilated, with loss of muscular tone in the neck, tail, and wings. Hens had closed eyes and were reluctant to move. There were no significant gross or histopathologic lesions. Intestinal samples were submitted to the University of Pennsylvania Botulism Diagnostic Laboratory for real-time PCR and were positive for Clostridium botulinum organisms containing the Type C neurotoxin gene. Speculations on the source of the botulinum toxins include poor mortality removal leading to cannibalism of decomposing carcasses, as well as birds on the farm having access to putrid carcasses in the compost pile from a hole in their outdoor access fence.

  14. Occurrence of C. botulinum in healthy cattle and their environment following poultry botulism outbreaks in mixed farms.

    PubMed

    Souillard, R; Le Maréchal, C; Hollebecque, F; Rouxel, S; Barbé, A; Houard, E; Léon, D; Poëzévara, T; Fach, P; Woudstra, C; Mahé, F; Chemaly, M; Le Bouquin, S

    2015-10-22

    Ten cattle farms located in an area with a recent history of poultry botulism outbreaks were investigated to evaluate the occurrence of toxigenic C. botulinum in healthy cattle. Environmental samples in the 10 cattle farms and bovine fecal contents in farms with a confirmed environmental contamination were collected. Detection of C. botulinum toxin genes C, D, C/D, D/C and E was performed using real-time PCR. 4.9% (7/143) of the environmental samples collected in the 10 investigated cattle farms were positive for C. botulinum type C/D. Theses samples (boot-swabs in stalls and on pasture and water of a stream) were collected in 3 different farms. One cow dung sample and 3 out of 64 fecal contents samples collected in a single farm were also positive for C. botulinum type C/D. This study demonstrates that cattle are probably indirectly contaminated via poultry botulism in the area and that they can be intermittent carrier of C. botulinum type C/D after poultry botulism outbreaks in mixed farms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Regional Variations in Home Canning Practices and the Risk of Foodborne Botulism in the Republic of Georgia, 2003

    PubMed Central

    TARKHASHVILI, N.; CHOKHELI, M.; CHUBINIDZE, M.; ABAZASHVILI, N.; CHAKVETADZE, N.; IMNADZE, P.; KRETSINGER, K.; VARMA, J.; SOBEL, J.

    2015-01-01

    Foodborne botulism is a severe, paralytic illness caused by ingestion of preformed neurotoxins produced by Clostridium botulinum. In 2003, we conducted a population-based household survey of home canning practices to explore marked regional variations in botulism incidence in the Republic of Georgia (ROG). We designed a cluster sampling scheme and subdivided each of the 10 regions of the ROG into a variable number of strata. Households were selected from each stratum using a two-step cluster sampling methodology. We administered a questionnaire about home canning practices to household members responsible for food preparation. Using multivariate logistic regression analysis, we modeled high (eastern ROG) against low (western ROG) incidence areas. Overall, we surveyed 2,742 households nationwide. Home canning with a capping device hermetically sealing the lid covering the jar was practiced by 1,909 households (65.9%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 59.8 to 72.1%). Canning was more prevalent in regions of low botulism incidence (34 versus 32%; P < 0.01). When compared with low-botulism areas, the following practices were associated with an increased risk in high-botulism areas: ≥6 months between canning vegetables and consuming them (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 2.1; 95% CI: 1.3 to 3.5) and adding any of the following ingredients to the jar at time of preparation: >1 tablespoon of salt per liter (aOR = 5.1; 95% CI: 1.2 to 22.6); vinegar (aOR = 2.2; 95% CI: 1.3 to 3.7), and greens (aOR = 5.6; 95% CI: 1.7 to 18.2). The following practices were associated with a decreased risk in high-botulism areas: >57 jars canned per household annually (aOR = 0.5; 95% CI: 0.3 to 0.9), covering or immersing vegetables in boiling water before placing them into the jar (aOR = 0.3 95% CI: 0.2 to 0.6), covering or immersing vegetables in boiling water after placing them into the jar (aOR = 0.4; 95% CI: 0.2 to 0.9), or adding garlic (aOR = 0.2; 95% CI: 0.1 to 0.5) or aspirin (aOR = 0.1; 95

  16. National outbreak of type a foodborne botulism associated with a widely distributed commercially canned hot dog chili sauce.

    PubMed

    Juliao, Patricia C; Maslanka, Susan; Dykes, Janet; Gaul, Linda; Bagdure, Satish; Granzow-Kibiger, Lynae; Salehi, Ellen; Zink, Donald; Neligan, Robert P; Barton-Behravesh, Casey; Lúquez, Carolina; Biggerstaff, Matthew; Lynch, Michael; Olson, Christine; Williams, Ian; Barzilay, Ezra J

    2013-02-01

    On 7 and 11 July 2007, health officials in Texas and Indiana, respectively, reported 4 possible cases of type A foodborne botulism to the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Foodborne botulism is a rare and sometimes fatal illness caused by consuming foods containing botulinum neurotoxin. Investigators reviewed patients' medical charts and food histories. Clinical specimens and food samples were tested for botulinum toxin and neurotoxin-producing Clostridium species. Investigators conducted inspections of the cannery that produced the implicated product. Eight confirmed outbreak associated cases were identified from Indiana (n = 2), Texas (n = 3), and Ohio (n = 3). Botulinum toxin type A was identified in leftover chili sauce consumed by the Indiana patients and 1 of the Ohio patients. Cannery inspectors found violations of federal canned-food regulations that could have led to survival of Clostridium botulinum spores during sterilization. The company recalled 39 million cans of chili. Following the outbreak, the US Food and Drug Administration inspected other canneries with similar canning systems and issued warnings to the industry about the danger of C. botulinum and the importance of compliance with canned food manufacturing regulations. Commercially produced hot dog chili sauce caused these cases of type A botulism. This is the first US foodborne botulism outbreak involving a commercial cannery in >30 years. Sharing of epidemiologic and laboratory findings allowed for the rapid identification of implicated food items and swift removal of potentially deadly products from the market by US food regulatory authorities.

  17. Evaluation of fluorescent-antibody tests as a means of confirming infant botulism.

    PubMed Central

    Glasby, C; Hatheway, C L

    1984-01-01

    Fluorescent-antibody techniques were evaluated for confirming infant botulism. Seventy-seven stool specimens from suspected cases were examined. All 34 specimens containing viable Clostridium botulinum at time of study gave positive results (29 on direct smears and 34 on enrichments). Two false-positive reactions were observed. Images PMID:6394626

  18. Therapeutic efficacy of equine botulism antitoxin in Rhesus macaques

    PubMed Central

    Emanuel, Andrew; Takla, Teresa; Hua, Yi; Hobbs, Charles; LeClaire, Ross; O’Donnell, Denise C.

    2017-01-01

    Background There are currently no licensed vaccines available for prevention of botulism in humans. The vaccination is not desirable due to expanding therapeutic indications of botulinum toxins. The only available specific treatment for botulism is antitoxin to remove circulating toxin, thus, preventing further neuronal damage. BAT® (Botulism Antitoxin Heptavalent (A, B, C, D, E, F, G)—(Equine)) has been developed and its therapeutic efficacy evaluated against botulinum neurotoxin serotype A (BoNT/A) in Rhesus macaques. Methods and findings In a post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) study, animals were exposed to 4x LD50/kg of BoNT/A and administered intravenously with either BAT (1x or 0.1x scaled human dose), or placebo at 4 hours post-exposure. The animals were monitored for 14 days. For the therapeutic intervention studies, animals were exposed to a 1.7x LD50/kg of BoNT/A and treated intravenously with either placebo or BAT at a 1x scaled human dose at the onset of clinical signs. Animals were monitored on an hourly basis for 14 or 21 days. In the PEP study, all animals tolerated equine based antitoxin without any adverse clinical signs. A 100% survival was observed in groups treated with the BAT compared to 0% survival in those treated with the placebo (p<0.001, Fisher’s exact test). BAT antitoxin prevented the development of signs of neurotoxicity of botulinum toxin. In a therapeutic study, treatment with the BAT at scaled 1x human dose after the onset of clinical signs significantly enhanced survival compared to the placebo (46.6% vs. 0%, p<0.0001, Fisher’s exact test). Additionally, treatment with the BAT delayed the progression of signs (muscular weakness, respiratory distress, oral/nasal discharge) of toxin intoxication and reduced the severity of the disease. Conclusions A single dose of BAT, when administered to symptomatic monkeys, resulted in a statistically significant survival benefit compared to the placebo. Additionally, BAT completely protected

  19. Therapeutic efficacy of equine botulism antitoxin in Rhesus macaques.

    PubMed

    Kodihalli, Shantha; Emanuel, Andrew; Takla, Teresa; Hua, Yi; Hobbs, Charles; LeClaire, Ross; O'Donnell, Denise C

    2017-01-01

    There are currently no licensed vaccines available for prevention of botulism in humans. The vaccination is not desirable due to expanding therapeutic indications of botulinum toxins. The only available specific treatment for botulism is antitoxin to remove circulating toxin, thus, preventing further neuronal damage. BAT® (Botulism Antitoxin Heptavalent (A, B, C, D, E, F, G)-(Equine)) has been developed and its therapeutic efficacy evaluated against botulinum neurotoxin serotype A (BoNT/A) in Rhesus macaques. In a post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) study, animals were exposed to 4x LD50/kg of BoNT/A and administered intravenously with either BAT (1x or 0.1x scaled human dose), or placebo at 4 hours post-exposure. The animals were monitored for 14 days. For the therapeutic intervention studies, animals were exposed to a 1.7x LD50/kg of BoNT/A and treated intravenously with either placebo or BAT at a 1x scaled human dose at the onset of clinical signs. Animals were monitored on an hourly basis for 14 or 21 days. In the PEP study, all animals tolerated equine based antitoxin without any adverse clinical signs. A 100% survival was observed in groups treated with the BAT compared to 0% survival in those treated with the placebo (p<0.001, Fisher's exact test). BAT antitoxin prevented the development of signs of neurotoxicity of botulinum toxin. In a therapeutic study, treatment with the BAT at scaled 1x human dose after the onset of clinical signs significantly enhanced survival compared to the placebo (46.6% vs. 0%, p<0.0001, Fisher's exact test). Additionally, treatment with the BAT delayed the progression of signs (muscular weakness, respiratory distress, oral/nasal discharge) of toxin intoxication and reduced the severity of the disease. A single dose of BAT, when administered to symptomatic monkeys, resulted in a statistically significant survival benefit compared to the placebo. Additionally, BAT completely protected monkeys from the clinical signs of intoxication

  20. National Outbreak of Type A Foodborne Botulism Associated With a Widely Distributed Commercially Canned Hot Dog Chili Sauce

    PubMed Central

    Juliao, Patricia C.; Maslanka, Susan; Dykes, Janet; Gaul, Linda; Bagdure, Satish; Granzow-Kibiger, Lynae; Salehi, Ellen; Zink, Donald; Neligan, Robert P.; Barton-Behravesh, Casey; Lúquez, Carolina; Biggerstaff, Matthew; Lynch, Michael; Olson, Christine; Williams, Ian; Barzilay, Ezra J.

    2015-01-01

    Background On 7 and 11 July 2007, health officials in Texas and Indiana, respectively, reported 4 possible cases of type A foodborne botulism to the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Foodborne botulism is a rare and sometimes fatal illness caused by consuming foods containing botulinum neurotoxin. Methods Investigators reviewed patients’ medical charts and food histories. Clinical specimens and food samples were tested for botulinum toxin and neurotoxin-producing Clostridium species. Investigators conducted inspections of the cannery that produced the implicated product. Results Eight confirmed outbreak associated cases were identified from Indiana (n = 2), Texas (n = 3), and Ohio (n = 3). Botulinum toxin type A was identified in leftover chili sauce consumed by the Indiana patients and 1 of the Ohio patients. Cannery inspectors found violations of federal canned-food regulations that could have led to survival of Clostridium botulinum spores during sterilization. The company recalled 39 million cans of chili. Following the outbreak, the US Food and Drug Administration inspected other canneries with similar canning systems and issued warnings to the industry about the danger of C. botulinum and the importance of compliance with canned food manufacturing regulations. Conclusions Commercially produced hot dog chili sauce caused these cases of type A botulism. This is the first US foodborne botulism outbreak involving a commercial cannery in >30 years. Sharing of epidemiologic and laboratory findings allowed for the rapid identification of implicated food items and swift removal of potentially deadly products from the market by US food regulatory authorities. PMID:23097586

  1. A penicillin- and metronidazole-resistant Clostridium botulinum strain responsible for an infant botulism case.

    PubMed

    Mazuet, C; Yoon, E-J; Boyer, S; Pignier, S; Blanc, T; Doehring, I; Meziane-Cherif, D; Dumant-Forest, C; Sautereau, J; Legeay, C; Bouvet, P; Bouchier, C; Quijano-Roy, S; Pestel-Caron, M; Courvalin, P; Popoff, M R

    2016-07-01

    The clinical course of a case of infant botulism was characterized by several relapses despite therapy with amoxicillin and metronidazole. Botulism was confirmed by identification of botulinum toxin and Clostridium botulinum in stools. A C. botulinum A2 strain resistant to penicillins and with heterogeneous resistance to metronidazole was isolated from stool samples up to 110 days after onset. Antibiotic susceptibility was tested by disc agar diffusion and MICs were determined by Etest. Whole genome sequencing allowed detection of a gene cluster composed of blaCBP for a novel penicillinase, blaI for a regulator, and blaR1 for a membrane-bound penicillin receptor in the chromosome of the C. botulinum isolate. The purified recombinant penicillinase was assayed. Resistance to β-lactams was in agreement with the kinetic parameters of the enzyme. In addition, the β-lactamase gene cluster was found in three C. botulinum genomes in databanks and in two of 62 genomes of our collection, all the strains belonging to group I C. botulinum. This is the first report of a C. botulinum isolate resistant to penicillins. This stresses the importance of antibiotic susceptibility testing for adequate therapy of botulism. Copyright © 2016 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Management of animal botulism outbreaks: from clinical suspicion to practical countermeasures to prevent or minimize outbreaks.

    PubMed

    Anniballi, Fabrizio; Fiore, Alfonsina; Löfström, Charlotta; Skarin, Hanna; Auricchio, Bruna; Woudstra, Cédric; Bano, Luca; Segerman, Bo; Koene, Miriam; Båverud, Viveca; Hansen, Trine; Fach, Patrick; Tevell Aberg, Annica; Hedeland, Mikael; Olsson Engvall, Eva; De Medici, Dario

    2013-09-01

    Botulism is a severe neuroparalytic disease that affects humans, all warm-blooded animals, and some fishes. The disease is caused by exposure to toxins produced by Clostridium botulinum and other botulinum toxin-producing clostridia. Botulism in animals represents a severe environmental and economic concern because of its high mortality rate. Moreover, meat or other products from affected animals entering the food chain may result in a public health problem. To this end, early diagnosis is crucial to define and apply appropriate veterinary public health measures. Clinical diagnosis is based on clinical findings eliminating other causes of neuromuscular disorders and on the absence of internal lesions observed during postmortem examination. Since clinical signs alone are often insufficient to make a definitive diagnosis, laboratory confirmation is required. Botulinum antitoxin administration and supportive therapies are used to treat sick animals. Once the diagnosis has been made, euthanasia is frequently advisable. Vaccine administration is subject to health authorities' permission, and it is restricted to a small number of animal species. Several measures can be adopted to prevent or minimize outbreaks. In this article we outline all phases of management of animal botulism outbreaks occurring in wet wild birds, poultry, cattle, horses, and fur farm animals.

  3. Two outbreaks of type C and type D botulism in sheep and goats in south Africa.

    PubMed

    Van der Lugt, J J; De Wet, S C; Bastianello, S S; Kellerman, T S; Van Jaarsveld, L P

    1995-06-01

    Two outbreaks of botulism in sheep and goats are described; in one, 329 out of 900 sheep in a feedlot died within 9 d of the onset of the disease and in the other, 100 sheep and goats out of 330 succumbed over a period of about 3 weeks. Animals were found dead or died suddenly, without exhibiting clinical signs. Others stood with lowered heads and showed drooling of saliva or a stiff gait. Paresis and/or paralysis were frequent signs in the terminal stages of the disease. Gross lesions such as the accumulation of fluids in body cavities, pulmonary oedema, foam in the trachea, epicardial haemorrhages and congestion of the mucosa of the small intestine, suggestive of heart failure, were present in animals from both outbreaks. Botulism was confirmed via the mouse toxicity test, by the demonstration of Type C and Type D toxins in the feed and intestinal contents of sheep from the first outbreak and Type D toxin in intestinal contents of sheep from the second. The clinical signs and macropathology in the outbreaks of botulism in sheep and goats in South Africa may resemble "krimpsiekte" and cardiac glycoside and ionophore poisoning, as well as other conditions causing heart failure.

  4. Sensitivity of mouse bioassay in clinical wound botulism.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, Charlotte; Inami, Gregory; Mohle-Boetani, Janet; Vugia, Duc

    2009-06-15

    California has an ongoing epidemic of wound botulism (WB) among injection drug users (IDUs). We retrospectively studied a cohort of patients with WB and determined the sensitivity of the mouse bioassay-the gold standard laboratory test for confirmation of botulism-in verifying WB. We defined a clinical case of WB as an acute, bilateral, descending, flaccid paralysis starting with 1 cranial nerve palsies in an IDU with no other explainable diagnosis. We calculated the sensitivity of the mouse bioassay as the proportion of clinical WB cases that had positive serum toxin test results by mouse bioassay. We compared serum toxin-positive with serum toxin-negative patients. Of 73 patients with WB, 50 tested serum toxin positive, yielding a sensitivity of 68%. Serum toxin-positive patients did not differ significantly from serum toxin-negative patients with respect to demographic characteristics or injection drug use practices or in days from patient symptom onset to collection of specimens for testing. Patients did not differ significantly by clinical characteristics, except that serum toxin-positive patients were more likely than serum toxin-negative patients to have required mechanical ventilation during their hospital courses (74% vs. 43%; P = .01). In this study, the mouse bioassay failed to detect botulinum toxin in the serum samples of nearly one-third of IDUs with characteristic WB. Such patients should be considered to have probable WB. Physicians should be aware of the test's limitations and base their final diagnosis of suspected WB on clinical criteria when the mouse bioassay produces negative results.

  5. Cortical recovery of swallowing function in wound botulism.

    PubMed

    Teismann, Inga K; Steinstraeter, Olaf; Warnecke, Tobias; Zimmermann, Julian; Ringelstein, Erich B; Pantev, Christo; Dziewas, Rainer

    2008-05-07

    Botulism is a rare disease caused by intoxication leading to muscle weakness and rapidly progressive dysphagia. With adequate therapy signs of recovery can be observed within several days. In the last few years, brain imaging studies carried out in healthy subjects showed activation of the sensorimotor cortex and the insula during volitional swallowing. However, little is known about cortical changes and compensation mechanisms accompanying swallowing pathology. In this study, we applied whole-head magnetoencephalography (MEG) in order to study changes in cortical activation in a 27-year-old patient suffering from wound botulism during recovery from dysphagia. An age-matched group of healthy subjects served as control group. A self-paced swallowing paradigm was performed and data were analyzed using synthetic aperture magnetometry (SAM). The first MEG measurement, carried out when the patient still demonstrated severe dysphagia, revealed strongly decreased activation of the somatosensory cortex but a strong activation of the right insula and marked recruitment of the left posterior parietal cortex (PPC). In the second measurement performed five days later after clinical recovery from dysphagia we found a decreased activation in these two areas and a bilateral cortical activation of the primary and secondary sensorimotor cortex comparable to the results seen in a healthy control group. These findings indicate parallel development to normalization of swallowing related cortical activation and clinical recovery from dysphagia and highlight the importance of the insula and the PPC for the central coordination of swallowing. The results suggest that MEG examination of swallowing can reflect short-term changes in patients suffering from neurogenic dysphagia.

  6. Nanotechnology Laboratory Collaborates with Army to Develop Botulism Vaccine | Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    The Nanotechnology Characterization Laboratory (NCL) is collaborating with the Army to develop a candidate vaccine against botulism. Under a collaboration agreement between the National Cancer Institute and the U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of

  7. Adeno-Associated Virus Transfer of a Gene Encoding SNAP-25 Resistant to Botulinum Toxin A Attenuates Neuromuscular Paralysis Associated with Botulism

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-04-02

    Associated with Botulism Arvind Raghunath ,1 Francesc Perez-Branguli,1 Leonard Smith,2 and J. Oliver Dolly1 1International Centre for Neurotherapeutics...NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Raghunath A Branguli FP Smith L Dolly JO 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION...Neurosci., April 2, 2008 • 28(14):3683–3688 Raghunath et al. • Botulism Combated by Gene Transfer of Mutated S25 horns, containing the cell bodies

  8. Type B botulism associated with roasted eggplant in oil--Italy, 1993.

    PubMed

    1995-01-20

    In August and October 1993, public health officials in Italy were notified of seven cases of type B botulism from two apparently unrelated outbreaks in different communities. Investigations were initiated by the Regional Health Observatory of Campania and the Italian National Institute of Health. This report summarizes the outbreak investigations, which indicated that illness was associated with eating commercially prepared roasted eggplant in oil.

  9. THE INFLUENCE OF CALCIUM CHLORIDE UPON EXPERIMENTAL BOTULISM

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Ivan C.; Davis, Nelson C.

    1923-01-01

    1. Calcium chloride given subcutaneously, intraperitoneally, or intravenously has been found to have no effect upon the production of botulism following the injection of Bacillus botulinus (Strain 80B) into the peritoneal cavity of guinea pigs. 2. Treatment of Bacillus botulinus with alcohol has been found markedly to decrease its toxicity for guinea pigs. This is in conformity with the work of Bronfenbrenner and Schlesinger. 3. Toxin-free spores of Bacillus botulinus have been found pathogenic for guinea pigs. 4. No prejudice as to possible results in rabbits should be based upon the above conclusions. PMID:19868746

  10. Equine grass sickness, but not botulism, causes autonomic and enteric neurodegeneration and increases soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment receptor protein expression within neuronal perikarya.

    PubMed

    McGorum, B C; Scholes, S; Milne, E M; Eaton, S L; Wishart, T M; Poxton, I R; Moss, S; Wernery, U; Davey, T; Harris, J B; Pirie, R S

    2016-11-01

    Equine grass sickness (EGS) is of unknown aetiology. Despite some evidence suggesting that it represents a toxico-infection with Clostridium botulinum types C and/or D, the effect of EGS on the functional targets of botulinum neurotoxins, namely the soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment receptor (SNARE) proteins, is unknown. Further, while it is commonly stated that, unlike EGS, equine botulism is not associated with autonomic and enteric neurodegeneration, this has not been definitively assessed. To determine: 1) whether botulism causes autonomic and enteric neurodegeneration; and 2) the effect of EGS on the expression of SNARE proteins within cranial cervical ganglion (CCG) and enteric neuronal perikarya. Descriptive study. Light microscopy was used to compare the morphology of neurons in haematoxylin-eosin stained sections of CCG and ileum from 6 EGS horses, 5 botulism horses and 6 control horses. Immunohistochemistry was used to compare the expression of synaptosomal-associated protein-25, synaptobrevin (Syb) and syntaxin within CCG neurons, and of Syb in enteric neurons, from horses with EGS, horses with botulism and control horses. The concentrations of these SNARE proteins in extracts of CCG from EGS and control horses were compared using quantitative fluorescent western blotting. EGS, but not botulism, was associated with autonomic and enteric neurodegeneration and with increased immunoreactivity for SNARE proteins within neuronal perikarya. Quantitative fluorescent western blotting confirmed increased concentrations of synaptosomal-associated protein-25, Syb and syntaxin within CCG extracts from EGS vs. control horses, with the increases in the latter 2 proteins being statistically significant. The occurrence of autonomic and enteric neurodegeneration, and increased expression of SNARE proteins within neuronal perikarya, in EGS but not botulism, suggests that EGS may not be caused by botulinum neurotoxins. Further investigation of the

  11. Genomic Epidemiology of Clostridium botulinum Isolates from Temporally Related Cases of Infant Botulism in New South Wales, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Timothy J.; Wang, Qinning; Ng, Jimmy; Hicks, Leanne; Nguyen, Trang; Yuen, Marion; Hill-Cawthorne, Grant A.; Sintchenko, Vitali

    2015-01-01

    Infant botulism is a potentially life-threatening paralytic disease that can be associated with prolonged morbidity if not rapidly diagnosed and treated. Four infants were diagnosed and treated for infant botulism in NSW, Australia, between May 2011 and August 2013. Despite the temporal relationship between the cases, there was no close geographical clustering or other epidemiological links. Clostridium botulinum isolates, three of which produced botulism neurotoxin serotype A (BoNT/A) and one BoNT serotype B (BoNT/B), were characterized using whole-genome sequencing (WGS). In silico multilocus sequence typing (MLST) found that two of the BoNT/A-producing isolates shared an identical novel sequence type, ST84. The other two isolates were single-locus variants of this sequence type (ST85 and ST86). All BoNT/A-producing isolates contained the same chromosomally integrated BoNT/A2 neurotoxin gene cluster. The BoNT/B-producing isolate carried a single plasmid-borne bont/B gene cluster, encoding BoNT subtype B6. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based typing results corresponded well with MLST; however, the extra resolution provided by the whole-genome SNP comparisons showed that the isolates differed from each other by >3,500 SNPs. WGS analyses indicated that the four infant botulism cases were caused by genomically distinct strains of C. botulinum that were unlikely to have originated from a common environmental source. The isolates did, however, cluster together, compared with international isolates, suggesting that C. botulinum from environmental reservoirs throughout NSW have descended from a common ancestor. Analyses showed that the high resolution of WGS provided important phylogenetic information that would not be captured by standard seven-loci MLST. PMID:26109442

  12. Two fatal cases of type E adult food-borne botulism with early symptoms and terminal neurologic signs.

    PubMed Central

    Badhey, H; Cleri, D J; D'Amato, R F; Vernaleo, J R; Veinni, V; Tessler, J; Wallman, A A; Mastellone, A J; Giuliani, M; Hochstein, L

    1986-01-01

    Type E botulism, one of the least common forms of botulinal intoxication on the East Coast of the United States, is described for two elderly patients with chronic underlying disease. Both patients consumed tainted kapchunka, a salted, ungutted whitefish. Gastrointestinal symptoms and signs were prominent, but neurologic complaints, although noted soon after the consumption of the fish in one patient, did not progress until late in the course of the patient's illness. One patient exhibited both urinary retention, which was reported mainly in one outbreak of type E botulism (M.G. Koenig, A. Spickard, M.A. Cardella, and D.E. Rogers, Medicine [Baltimore] 43:517-545, 1964), and muscular fasciculations, which have been rarely reported. PMID:3514662

  13. Type C botulism losses at Horicon National Wildlife Refuge, 1978

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Windingstad, R.M.; Duncan, R.M.; Drieslein, R.L.

    1980-01-01

    Avian botulism was responsible for the death of over 6,000 waterfowl at Horicon National Wildlife Refuge in Wisconsin in 1978. The outbreak occurred in early fall on a flooded 250 hectare fallow agricultural area on the northeast end of the refuge. The species most severely affected was the green-winged teal (Anas carolinensis), which made up almost 45% of the total birds found. Carcass pick-up, mouse toxicity tests, and antitoxin injections of waterfowl are discussed.

  14. Could blackbird mortality from avicide DRC-1339 contribute to avian botulism outbreaks in North Dakota?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goldberg, Diana R.; Samuel, M.D.; Rocke, T.E.; Johnson, K.M.; Linz, G.

    2004-01-01

    Blackbird (family lcteridae) depredation on sunflower (Helianthus annuus) crops in the prairie states of the United States has motivated the proposed use of an avicide, DRC-1339 (3-chloro-4-methylaniline), to decrease their numbers. The resulting mortality of blackbirds at wetland roosts could increase the potential of avian botulism occurring in affected marshes. To assess this possibility, we seeded (artificially placed) blackbird carcasses in selected wetlands in Stutsman County, North Dakota, during August-September 2000 and July-September 2001 to evaluate their rate of decomposition and role in initiating avian botulism outbreaks. We monitored carcasses to determine their persistence, the frequency and amount of maggots produced, and the presence of type C botulinum toxin. In 10 of our 12 study wetlands, blackbird carcasses were not rapidly removed by scavengers, thus providing substrate for maggot growth and potential production of Clostridium botulinum toxin. Decomposition of carcasses occurred rapidly, and maggot production averaged 4a??5 g per carcass within 9 days. We were unable to detect C. botulinum type C toxin in any of the 377 blackbird carcasses or the 112 samples of maggots we collected in 2000 or 2001. None of the 25 blackbird carcasses we tested contained botulinum spores, the most probable explanation for the absence of botulinum toxin production. Our results indicate that the likelihood of DRC-1339-poisoned blackbirds causing botulism outbreaks would be minimal in North Dakota wetlands during late summer and early autumn.

  15. Cortical recovery of swallowing function in wound botulism

    PubMed Central

    Teismann, Inga K; Steinstraeter, Olaf; Warnecke, Tobias; Zimmermann, Julian; Ringelstein, Erich B; Pantev, Christo; Dziewas, Rainer

    2008-01-01

    Background Botulism is a rare disease caused by intoxication leading to muscle weakness and rapidly progressive dysphagia. With adequate therapy signs of recovery can be observed within several days. In the last few years, brain imaging studies carried out in healthy subjects showed activation of the sensorimotor cortex and the insula during volitional swallowing. However, little is known about cortical changes and compensation mechanisms accompanying swallowing pathology. Methods In this study, we applied whole-head magnetoencephalography (MEG) in order to study changes in cortical activation in a 27-year-old patient suffering from wound botulism during recovery from dysphagia. An age-matched group of healthy subjects served as control group. A self-paced swallowing paradigm was performed and data were analyzed using synthetic aperture magnetometry (SAM). Results The first MEG measurement, carried out when the patient still demonstrated severe dysphagia, revealed strongly decreased activation of the somatosensory cortex but a strong activation of the right insula and marked recruitment of the left posterior parietal cortex (PPC). In the second measurement performed five days later after clinical recovery from dysphagia we found a decreased activation in these two areas and a bilateral cortical activation of the primary and secondary sensorimotor cortex comparable to the results seen in a healthy control group. Conclusion These findings indicate parallel development to normalization of swallowing related cortical activation and clinical recovery from dysphagia and highlight the importance of the insula and the PPC for the central coordination of swallowing. The results suggest that MEG examination of swallowing can reflect short-term changes in patients suffering from neurogenic dysphagia. PMID:18462489

  16. Reoccurrence of botulinum neurotoxin subtype A3 inducing food-borne botulism, Slovakia, 2015.

    PubMed

    Mad'arová, Lucia; Dorner, Brigitte G; Schaade, Lars; Donáth, Vladimír; Avdičová, Mária; Fatkulinová, Milota; Strhársky, Jozef; Sedliačiková, Ivana; Klement, Cyril; Dorner, Martin B

    2017-08-10

    A case of food-borne botulism occurred in Slovakia in 2015. Clostridium botulinum type A was isolated from three nearly empty commercial hummus tubes. The product, which was sold in Slovakia and the Czech Republic, was withdrawn from the market and a warning was issued immediately through the European Commission's Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed (RASFF). Further investigation revealed the presence of botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) subtype BoNT/A3, a very rare subtype implicated in only one previous outbreak (Loch Maree in Scotland, 1922). It is the most divergent subtype of BoNT/A with 15.4% difference at the amino acid level compared with the prototype BoNT/A1. This makes it more prone to evading immunological and PCR-based detection. It is recommended that testing laboratories are advised that this subtype has been associated with food-borne botulism for the second time since the first outbreak almost 100 years ago, and to validate their immunological or PCR-based methods against this divergent subtype. This article is copyright of The Authors, 2017.

  17. Genomic Epidemiology of Clostridium botulinum Isolates from Temporally Related Cases of Infant Botulism in New South Wales, Australia.

    PubMed

    McCallum, Nadine; Gray, Timothy J; Wang, Qinning; Ng, Jimmy; Hicks, Leanne; Nguyen, Trang; Yuen, Marion; Hill-Cawthorne, Grant A; Sintchenko, Vitali

    2015-09-01

    Infant botulism is a potentially life-threatening paralytic disease that can be associated with prolonged morbidity if not rapidly diagnosed and treated. Four infants were diagnosed and treated for infant botulism in NSW, Australia, between May 2011 and August 2013. Despite the temporal relationship between the cases, there was no close geographical clustering or other epidemiological links. Clostridium botulinum isolates, three of which produced botulism neurotoxin serotype A (BoNT/A) and one BoNT serotype B (BoNT/B), were characterized using whole-genome sequencing (WGS). In silico multilocus sequence typing (MLST) found that two of the BoNT/A-producing isolates shared an identical novel sequence type, ST84. The other two isolates were single-locus variants of this sequence type (ST85 and ST86). All BoNT/A-producing isolates contained the same chromosomally integrated BoNT/A2 neurotoxin gene cluster. The BoNT/B-producing isolate carried a single plasmid-borne bont/B gene cluster, encoding BoNT subtype B6. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based typing results corresponded well with MLST; however, the extra resolution provided by the whole-genome SNP comparisons showed that the isolates differed from each other by >3,500 SNPs. WGS analyses indicated that the four infant botulism cases were caused by genomically distinct strains of C. botulinum that were unlikely to have originated from a common environmental source. The isolates did, however, cluster together, compared with international isolates, suggesting that C. botulinum from environmental reservoirs throughout NSW have descended from a common ancestor. Analyses showed that the high resolution of WGS provided important phylogenetic information that would not be captured by standard seven-loci MLST. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  18. Historical notes on botulism, Clostridium botulinum, botulinum toxin, and the idea of the therapeutic use of the toxin.

    PubMed

    Erbguth, Frank J

    2004-03-01

    Food-borne botulism probably has accompanied mankind since its beginning. However, we have only few historical sources and documents on food poisoning before the 19th century. Some ancient dietary laws and taboos may reflect some knowledge about the life-threatening consumption of poisoned food. One example of such a dietary taboo is the 10th century edict of Emperor Leo VI of Byzantium in which manufacturing of blood sausages was forbidden. Some ancient case reports on intoxications with Atropa belladonna probably described patients with food-borne botulism, because the combination of dilated pupils and fatal muscle paralysis cannot be attributed to an atropine intoxication. At the end of the 18th century, some well-documented outbreaks of "sausage poisoning" in Southern Germany, especially in Württemberg, prompted early systematic botulinum toxin research. The German poet and district medical officer Justinus Kerner (1786-1862) published the first accurate and complete descriptions of the symptoms of food-borne botulism between 1817 and 1822. Kerner did not succeed in defining the suspected "biological poison" which he called "sausage poison" or "fatty poison." However, he developed the idea of a possible therapeutic use of the toxin. Eighty years after Kerner's work, in 1895, a botulism outbreak after a funeral dinner with smoked ham in the small Belgian village of Ellezelles led to the discovery of the pathogen Clostridium botulinum by Emile Pierre van Ermengem, Professor of bacteriology at the University of Ghent. The bacterium was so called because of its pathological association with the sausages (Latin word for sausage = "botulus") and not-as it was suggested-because of its shape. Modern botulinum toxin treatment was pioneered by Alan B. Scott and Edward J. Schantz. Copyright 2004 Movement Disorder Society

  19. Early, Real-Time Medical Diagnosis of Botulism by Endopeptidase-Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Osnat; Feldberg, Liron; Gura, Sigalit; Brosh-Nissimov, Tal; Guri, Alex; Zimhony, Oren; Shapiro, Eli; Beth-Din, Adi; Stein, Dana; Ozeri, Eyal; Barnea, Ada; Turgeman, Amram; Ben David, Alon; Schwartz, Arieh; Elhanany, Eytan; Diamant, Eran; Yitzhaki, Shmuel; Zichel, Ran

    2015-12-15

    Botulinum toxin was detected in patient serum using Endopeptidase-mass-spectrometry assay, although all conventional tests provided negative results. Antitoxin was administered, resulting in patient improvement. Implementing this highly sensitive and rapid assay will improve preparedness for foodborne botulism and deliberate exposure. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Clinical findings and treatment of 30 cattle with botulism.

    PubMed

    Braun, U; Feige, K; Schweizer, G; Pospischil, A

    2005-04-02

    The clinical signs, the results of haematological and biochemical analyses and the treatment of 30 cattle with botulism are described, and the signs of the 13 cattle that survived are compared with those of the 17 that were euthanased owing to the disease. The cattle originated from 11 farms that had experienced an outbreak of botulism. The most important clinical sign in all the cattle was a reduction in the strength of the tongue; excessive salivation and difficulty in swallowing were observed in 20 of the animals, and the ears of 15 of them drooped. In 21 of the cattle, reaction to pricking of the head and body with a hypodermic needle was either absent or slight. Twelve of the animals had an unsteady, slow, difficult gait, and nine were unable to stand. A significantly higher proportion of the cattle which were euthanased had marked changes in behaviour and condition, anorexia, severely reduced skin turgor, weak tongues, a low rectal temperature, a high heart rate and a low blood pH; 11 were euthanased immediately after a clinical examination and six were euthanased one to five days after the initiation of treatment because their condition had deteriorated. Thirteen of the animals were treated for three to 23 days and were healthy when they were discharged. The treatment consisted of an intravenous infusion of 10 to 20 litres of glucose saline per day and the daily administration of fresh ruminal juice. Follow-up by telephone several months later revealed that all 13 animals had recovered completely.

  1. Delayed Antitoxin Treatment of Two Adult Patients with Botulism after Cosmetic Injection of Botulinum Type A Toxin.

    PubMed

    Fan, Kit-Ling; Wang, Yan-Li; Chu, Gary; Leung, Ling-Pong

    2016-12-01

    Injection of botulinum toxin type A for cosmetic purposes is common. It is believed to be safe, but adverse reactions have been reported, including dysphagia, generalized paralysis, respiratory depression, and death caused by focal injection of the toxin. Early administration of antitoxin in patients with adverse reactions is the mainstay of management, but the time window for its clinical efficacy is not well defined. Two female adult patients with clinical botulism after botulinum toxin type A injection are described. Both patients had received intramuscular injection of botulinum toxin type A in their calves at beauty shops for cosmetic reasons. They developed clinical botulism about 3 days postinjection. They presented late to the emergency department. Monovalent type A botulinum antitoxin was administered 7 and 9 days from symptom onset, respectively. Both patients showed clinical improvement after the antitoxin treatment. WHY SHOULD AN EMERGENCY PHYSICIAN BE AWARE OF THIS?: Patients may present to the emergency department with systemic effects of botulinum toxin type A after cosmetic injection. Clinical efficacy of botulinum antitoxin treatment was observed in two patients who were given the drug 7 and 9 days after the occurrence of symptoms of botulism after cosmetic injection of botulinum toxin type A. It may be worthwhile to commence antitoxin treatment even if patients present late. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. A bovine botulism outbreak associated with a suspected cross-contamination from a poultry farm.

    PubMed

    Souillard, R; Le Maréchal, C; Ballan, V; Mahé, F; Chemaly, M; Le Bouquin, S

    2017-09-01

    In October 2014, an outbreak of botulism type D/C occurred on two cattle farms in close proximity. A poultry farm located nearby with no history of botulism had transferred poultry manure to both bovine farms before the beginning of the outbreak. Given this context, epidemiological investigation was conducted to determine if the poultry farm was a reservoir of C. botulinum type D/C and to identify the source of contamination on the cattle farms. Environmental samples were collected at three houses on the poultry farm (boot swabs from the surroundings, swabs from the ventilation system, boot swabs from the poultry litter and darkling beetles samples), and on the two cattle farms (silage samples, boot swabs from the cattle stalls, boot swabs from the cattle pasture and poultry manure samples). These samples were analyzed using real-time PCR after an enrichment step to detect C. botulinum type D/C. On the poultry farm, three boot swabs from the surroundings, two swabs from the ventilation system, one boot swab from the litter and one sample of darkling beetles were detected positive. On one cattle farm, C. botulinum type D/C was identified in a sample of silage made from grass grown on a field on which the poultry manure had previously been stored and in a boot swab from a pasture. On the other cattle farm, C. botulinum type D/C was detected in a sample of poultry manure stored on the cattle farm and in a boot swab from a pasture. This investigation shows that the healthy poultry farm might have been the reservoir of C. botulinum type D/C and that cross-contamination between poultry and cattle likely occurred, resulting in the botulism outbreak on the two cattle farms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Wound botulism from heroin skin popping.

    PubMed

    Davis, Larry E; King, Molly K

    2008-11-01

    Following the introduction of black tar heroin mainly from Mexico in the 1980s, cases of wound botulism dramatically increased in the western United States. Contamination with spores of Clostridium botulinum of black tar heroin occurs along the distribution line. The heating of heroin powder to solubilize it for subcutaneous injection ("skin popping") does not kill the spores. The spores germinate in an anaerobic tissue environment and release botulinum toxin type A or B. Unless skin abscesses are found in the patient, the clinical diagnosis is often challenging. Facilitation of the compound muscle action potential by repetitive nerve stimulation at 20 to 50 Hz is an important and rapid diagnostic test. Definite diagnosis is made by detection of botulinum toxin in serum or isolation of C botulinum from the abscess. Early treatment with equine ABE botulinum antitoxin obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention often shortens the time on a ventilator.

  4. Fatal course of foodborne botulism in an eight-month old infant

    PubMed Central

    Lonati, Davide; Locatelli, Carlo Alessandro; Fenicia, Lucia; Anniballi, Fabrizio; Landri, Paolo; Giampreti, Andrea; Petrolini, Valeria Margherita; Vecchio, Sarah; Manzo, Luigi

    2011-01-01

    An 8-month old girl, weighing 9 kg, was brought by her parents at 8.15 am to the Emergency Department (ED) for a progressive worsening of weakness and acute respiratory failure. On admission, the baby presented with poor oral intake, a weak cry and extremely weak muscular body control. Poor gag and suck, unreactive mydriasis, hypotonia, lethargy and absence of peristalsis were noted. Laboratory data showed severe respiratory acidosis. Chest X-ray, electroencephalography, encephalic CT scan and MRI were all normal, as were cerebrospinal fluid analysis and viral tests. Orotracheal intubation and continuous mechanical ventilation were applied. The patient received fluids, corticosteroids, aerosol therapy, large-spectrum antibiotics and enteral-nutrition. Further investigation revealed ingestion of an improperly prepared home-canned homogenized turkey meal. Type A botulinum neurotoxin was identified. Trivalent botulinum antitoxin, prostigmine and oral activated charcoal were administered. Generalized flaccid paralysis, areflexic bilateral mydriasis, gastric stasis and deep coma persisted for the duration of the hospital stay, and the patient died of severe respiratory failure and cardiac arrest 12 days after ED admission. Botulism poisoning should be suspected in any infant presenting with feeding difficulties, constipation, descendent paralysis or acute respiratory failure. Supportive treatment and antidotal therapy should be performed as soon as a clinical diagnosis is made. We describe a case of foodborne botulism in an 8-month old infant caused by ingestion of an improperly prepared home-canned homogenized turkey meal, representing the youngest fatal case reported in medical literature. PMID:22355516

  5. Type C botulism in a commercial turkey farm: a case report.

    PubMed

    Popp, Christina; Hauck, Rüdiger; Gad, Wael; Hafez, Hafez M

    2012-12-01

    Botulism is an intoxication caused by exotoxins of Clostridium botulinum. The case of botulism described here occurred on a commercial meat turkey farm with two houses. Toms and hens were maintained in two separate houses, toms in house A and hens in house B. At 10 wk of age, an increase in mortality was observed in the toms located in house A. Clinically the animals presented with paralysis of the legs, wings, and neck. Affected birds were sitting and reluctant to move. Necropsy failed to find any specific lesions. In liver, heart, muscles, crop, and gizzard as well as in intestinal contents, DNA of C. botulinum type C was detected by PCR. The result was confirmed by a mouse lethality neutralization test. During the 2 wk after the onset of the clinical signs the mortality was about 12%. The hens kept in house B did not show any symptoms and remained healthy. Investigations of environmental samples to detect the source of the toxin were not successful. After 2 wk clinical signs and mortality abated. At 16 wk of age, toms again showed the same clinical signs accompanied by raised mortality. Again C. botulinum toxin type C was detected. Within 2 wk the total mortality reached roughly 50%. Based on the "precautionary principle" and in agreement with the local authorities, the birds were euthanatized using CO2 in order to not compromise food safety.

  6. [Familial microepidemic of food-borne botulism in the Region of Madrid].

    PubMed

    Jalda, D; Junco, A; Alvarez-Moreno, M; Rodero, I; Carneado-Ruiz, J

    2016-07-01

    Botulism is a syndrome caused by the toxin of the bacillus Clostridium botulinum. The toxin acts by blocking the presynaptic cholinergic endings of the neuromuscular junction and of the parasympathetic nervous system, and gives rise to a flaccid paralysis and parasympathetic failure. The most common way to catch the disease is by ingestion of the preformed toxin present in badly sterilised home-made preserves, although other mechanisms are also possible. Its incidence in Spain today is very low. We report the case of three members of a family living together who presented a clinical picture of food-borne botulism. The initial clinical symptoms showed a predilection for ocular paresis and for dysautonomic symptoms of little specificity, and the familial aggregation was the fundamental evidence that suggested the diagnosis. Later, the patients' state got worse and two of them presented involvement of the respiratory function and required a lengthy stay in the intensive care unit. After a period of convalescence the three patients recovered without any sequelae. Botulinum toxin was detected by bioassay in some food samples, which allowed the diagnosis to be categorised as confirmed. The familial microepidemic reported here is a case of predominantly ocular and dysautonomic involvement. Likewise, it illustrates several aspects that are typical of the disease: the suspected diagnosis in cohabiting patients who visit at the same time for a similar clinical picture, the characteristic complications of the process and its treatment, the laboratory diagnosis and its natural history towards resolution.

  7. Determination of the median toxic dose of type C botulism in lactating dairy cows

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moeller, R.B.; Puschner, B.; Walker, R.L.; Rocke, Tonie E.; Galey, F.D.; Cullor, J.S.; Ardans, A.A.

    2003-01-01

    Because of the difficulty in identifying botulinum toxin in cattle, it is hypothesized that cattle are sensitive to levels of toxin below the detection limits of current diagnostic techniques (the mouse protection bioassay and the immunostick enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay [ELISA] for type C botulinum toxin). Using an up-down method for toxicologic testing, the median toxic dose (MTD50) for cattle was determined. Four lactating Holstein cows were dosed at 0.125 or 0.25 ng/kg with Clostridium botulinum type C toxin and failed to develop clinical signs of botulism during the 7-day observation period. Three cows given 0.50 ng/kg of toxin developed clinical signs of botulism. From these results, the MTD50 was calculated at 0.388 ng/kg (3.88 mouse lethal doses/kg) using the trim-logit method. These results suggest that cattle are 12.88 times more sensitive to type C botulinum toxin than a mouse on a per kilogram weight basis. The mouse protection bioassay and the immunostick ELISA for type C botulinum toxin failed to identify the presence of the toxin in the serum, blood, and milk samples taken from all 7 animals.

  8. A relationship between avian carcasses and living invertebrates in the epizootiology of avian botulism

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duncan, Ruth M.; Jensen, Wayne I.

    1976-01-01

    A survey of the sources of Clostridium botulinum type C toxin possibly utilized as food by aquatic birds in an epizootic area of avian botulism in northern Utah showed that living aquatic and terrestrial invertebrates normally found in close association with dead, decomposing birds commonly carried the toxin. Of 461 samples associated with 21 species of avian carcasses, 198 were toxin-positive. Invertebrate species not normally scavengers of vertebrate tissues were less commonly and less highly toxic, particularly when captured 30 cm or more from a carcass; six of 237 samples of such aquatic invertebrates contained low-level toxin. Of the species tested, blow fly larvae (Calliphoridae) were the most consistently and highly toxic, although others, particularly adult and larval stages of several species of beetles (Coleoptera), contained toxin at levels probably significant in the epizootiology of the disease. An estimated 0.05 to 0.25 g of the most toxic fly larvae or 15 g of the most toxic beetles tested carried a mediam lethal dose for an adult mallard duck. Examination of stomach contents of aquatic birds dead of botulism showed that some had consumed invertebrates.

  9. Evaluation of Potential Risk of Botulism from Seafood Cocktails

    PubMed Central

    Lerke, Peter

    1973-01-01

    Clostridium botulinum E could not be detected in 35 samples of commercial seafood cocktails, ranging in pH from 4.10 to 4.85. At 30 C, toxinogenesis in homogenates acidified with a citric-acetic acid mixture was prevented at pH 4.86 or lower for crabmeat and at 5.03 or lower for shrimp. Measurements of the rate of acid penetration into the centers of large pieces of flesh indicated that the already small risk of botulism from seafood cocktails could be completely eliminated by using a cocktail sauce at a maximum pH of 3.70 and by cooling the final product to at least 10 C for 24 h. PMID:4577180

  10. Wound botulism presenting as a deep neck space infection.

    PubMed

    Gouveia, Christopher; Mookherjee, Somnath; Russell, Matthew S

    2012-12-01

    Otolaryngologists commonly evaluate patients with findings suspicious for deep space soft tissue infections of the neck. In this case, a woman with a history of injection drug use (IDU) presented with dysphagia, odynophagia, and neck pain. Multiple neck abscesses, too small to drain, were seen on imaging. Despite broad-spectrum intravenous antibiotics, she unexpectedly and rapidly developed respiratory failure requiring intubation. Further work-up diagnosed wound botulism (WB). To our knowledge, this is the first report of WB presenting as a deep neck space infection, and illustrates the importance of considering this deadly diagnosis in patients with IDU history and bulbar symptoms. Copyright © 2012 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.

  11. Type A and type B botulism in the North: first reported cases due to toxin other than type E in Alaskan Inuit.

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, D. H.; Eisenberg, M. S.; Bender, T. R.; Burks, J. M.; Hatheway, C. L.; Dowell, V. R.

    1977-01-01

    Botulism outbreaks shown to be due to type A and type B toxin occurred in Alaska, a region previously known for only type E botulism. The outbreak due to type A toxin involved three people, two of whom died. The outbreak due to type B toxin involved nine people, none of whom died. Both outbreaks were in Inuit villages, and native foods were incriminated. The occurrence of these outbreaks strongly suggests that Clostridium botulinum, types A and B are indigenous to Alaska. The outbreaks underscore the need for initial treatment of patients with antitoxin that is trivalent (ABE), even in Arctic regions. PMID:332309

  12. A bibliography of references to avian botulism

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, Jack E.; Wilson, Sonoma S.

    1977-01-01

    This bibliography, first compiled in 1970 in response to many requests for information on avian botulism, has been updated to include the literature published through 1975.In general, only articles dealing primarily with the avian disease are included, as opposed to those concerned with various aspects of the biology of Clostridium botulinum, either type C or type E. A few exceptions, such as Bengton’s report of the first isolation and description of the type C organism, are included for their historical interest. Progress reports and other administrative documents not available for distribution or request are excluded, as are textbook accounts, which are generally summaries of work published elsewhere.Although Mr. Allen and Mrs. Wilson have attempted to list every important reference, they make no claim to complete coverage of the published literature. The authors will be grateful to users of the bibliography who call attention to errors or omissions.

  13. Waterbird mortality from botulism type E in Lake Michigan: An update

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brand, Christopher J.; Duncan, Ruth M.; Garrow, Scott P.; Olson, Dan; Schumann, Leonard E.

    1983-01-01

    Three outbreaks of botulism type E occurring in waterbirds on Lake Michigan since autumn 1976 are discussed. Natural ingestion of food containing type E toxin by Ring-billed Gulls (Larus delawarensis) and the presence of type E toxin in blood from moribund gulls were demonstrated. Concurrent presence of type C and type E botulinal toxins was found in a die-off of Common Loons (Gavia immer). In combination with previous reported outbreaks, these incidents suggest that this disease is geographically widespread in Lake Michigan, and that environmental conditions conducive to type E botulinal toxin production and consumption occur in both summer and autumn.

  14. Avian botulism: a case study in translocated endangered Laysan ducks (Anas laysanensis) on Midway Atoll

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Work, Thierry M.; Klavitter, John L.; Reynolds, Michelle H.; Blehert, David S.

    2010-01-01

    Laysan Ducks are endemic to the Hawaiian archipelago and are one of the world’s most endangered waterfowl. For 150 yr, Laysan Ducks were restricted to an estimated 4 km2 of land on Laysan Island in the northwestern Hawaiian Islands. In 2004 and 2005, 42 Laysan Ducks were translocated to Midway Atoll, and the population increased to approximately 200 by 2007. In August 2008, mortality due to botulism type C was identified, and 181 adult, fledgling, and duckling carcasses were collected from August to October. Diseased birds were found on two islands within Midway Atoll at multiple wetlands; however, one wetland contributed most carcasses. The epidemic was discovered approximately 14–21 days after the mortality started and lasted for 50 additional days. The details of this epidemic highlight the disease risk to birds restricted to small island populations and the challenges associated with managing newly translocated endangered species. Frequent population monitoring for early disease detection and comprehensive wetland monitoring and management will be needed to manage avian botulism in endangered Laysan Ducks. Vaccination may also be beneficial to reduce mortality in this small, geographically closed population.

  15. Outbreak of Foodborne Botulism Associated with Improperly Jarred Pesto--Ohio and California, 2014.

    PubMed

    Burke, Patrick; Needham, Michael; Jackson, Brendan R; Bokanyi, Rick; St Germain, Eric; Englender, Steven J

    2016-02-26

    On July 28, 2014, the Cincinnati Health Department was notified of suspected cases of foodborne botulism in two women admitted to the same hospital 12 days apart. Patient A had been treated for 12 days for suspected autoimmune disease. When patient B, the roommate of patient A, was evaluated at the same medical center for similar symptoms, it was learned that on July 13, patient A and patient B had shared a meal that included prepackaged pesto from a jar; clinicians suspected botulism and notified the local health department. The pesto had been purchased from company A's farm stand in San Clemente, California. Laboratory testing detected botulinum toxin type B by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in leftovers of pasta with pesto. A culture of these food samples yielded Clostridium spp. that produced botulinum toxin type B; polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing also was positive for type B toxin gene. Environmental assessment of company A identified improper acidification and pressurization practices and lack of licensure to sell canned products commercially, including products in hermetically-sealed jars. On July 30, the vendor voluntarily recalled all jarred products, and the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) warned the public not to consume company A's jarred foods. This report describes the two cases and the public health investigation that traced the source of the outbreak.

  16. An outbreak of type C botulism in herring gulls (Larus argentatus) in southeastern Sweden.

    PubMed

    Neimanis, A; Gavier-Widén, D; Leighton, F; Bollinger, T; Rocke, T; Mörner, T

    2007-07-01

    From 2000 to 2004, over 10,000 seabirds, primarily Herring Gulls (Larus argentatus), died from an undetermined cause in the Blekinge archipelago in southeastern Sweden. In June 2004, 24 affected Herring Gulls were examined clinically, killed humanely, and 23 were examined by necropsy. Seven and 10 unaffected Herring Gulls collected from a local landfill site and from Iceland, respectively, served as controls. All affected birds showed similar neurologic signs, ranging from mild incoordination and weakness to severe flaccid paralysis of legs and wings, but generally were alert and responsive. All affected gulls were in normal nutritional condition, but were dehydrated and had empty stomachs. No gross or microscopic lesions, and no bacterial or viral pathogens were identified. Type C botulinum toxin was detected in the sera of 11 of 16 (69%) affected gulls by mouse inoculation. Type C botulism was the proximate cause of disease in 2004. Sera from 31% of birds tested from outbreaks in 2000 to 2003 also had detectable type C botulinum toxin by mouse inoculation. No large-scale botulism outbreak has been documented previously in this area. The source of toxin, initiating conditions, and thus, the ultimate cause of this outbreak are not known. This epidemic might signal environmental change in the Baltic Sea.

  17. An outbreak of type C botulism in Herring Gulls (Larus argentatus) in Southeastern Sweden

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neimanis, A.; Gavier-Widen, D.; Leighton, F.; Bollinger, T.; Rocke, Tonie E.; Morner, T.

    2007-01-01

    From 2000 to 2004, over 10,000 seabirds, primarily Herring Gulls (Larus argentatus), died from an undetermined cause in the Blekinge archipelago in southeastern Sweden. In June 2004, 24 affected Herring Gulls were examined clinically, killed humanely, and 23 were examined by necropsy. Seven and 10 unaffected Herring Gulls collected from a local landfill site and from Iceland, respectively, served as controls. All affected birds showed similar neurologic signs, ranging from mild incoordination and weakness to severe flaccid paralysis of legs and wings, but generally were alert and responsive. All affected gulls were in normal nutritional condition, but were dehydrated and had empty stomachs. No gross or microscopic lesions, and no bacterial or viral pathogens were identified. Type C botulinum toxin was detected in the sera of 11 of 16 (69%) affected gulls by mouse inoculation. Type C botulism was the proximate cause of disease in 2004. Sera from 31% of birds tested from outbreaks in 2000 to 2003 also had detectable type C botulinum toxin by mouse inoculation. No large-scale botulism outbreak has been documented previously in this area. The source of toxin, initiating conditions, and thus, the ultimate cause of this outbreak are not known. This epidemic might signal environmental change in the Baltic Sea.

  18. Ineffectiveness of 3,4-diaminopyridine as a therapy for type C botulism.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Siegel, L.S.; Price, J.I.

    1987-01-01

    Clostridium botulinum neurotoxins inhibit acetylcholine release at neuromuscular junctions. Agents stimulating neurotransmitter efflux, such as 3,4-diaminopyridine (3,4-DAP), could be useful for botulism therapy. Treatment with 3,4-DAP (8 mg/kg hourly, beginning 3 hr after toxin injection) failed to increase the survival times of mice receiving 10, 20 or 40 LD50 type C, but did prolong the survival of those receiving 20 LD50 type A. This difference in 3,4-DAP efficacy may reflect variations in the molecular mechanism of action of types A and C botulinum neurotoxins.

  19. Barbiturate ingestion in three adult captive tigers (Panthera tigris) and concomitant fatal botulism of one.

    PubMed

    Williams, J H; Bester, L; Venter, L; Pretorius, D; Greyling, F

    2011-12-01

    Zoo animals, including tigers, have been reported to suffer from barbiturate intoxication, with pentabarbitone being most commonly recorded. Clinical signs range from mild ataxia to general anaesthesia with recovery over hours to days with several factors affecting hepatic barbiturate metabolism and tissue partitioning. Botulism is an often fatal intoxication in man, animals, birds and certain fish. The occurrence in carnivores is uncommon to rare, with only 2 reports found of botulism in felids. This report relates to 3 adult captive cohabiting tigers that simultaneously developed signs of abdominal discomfort, progressive ataxia, recumbency and comatose sleep resembling stage 2 anaesthesia, alternating with periods of distracted wakefulness and ataxic movements. These signs occurred 4 days after being fed the carcass of a horse that had ostensibly died of colic and not been euthanased. The male tiger that was the dominant animal in the feeding hierarchy was worst affected and had to be given intravenous fluids. The female that was lowest in hierarchy was unaffected. After 48-72 hours of treatment at the Onderstepoort Veterinary Academic Hospital the females could eat and made an uneventful recovery. The male tiger showed partial recovery but died during the night a few hours after drinking water on his return to the owner. Necropsy revealed severe oesophageal dilation and impaction with decaying grass; some of this material and water were present in the pharynx and trachea, and had been aspirated causing acute widespread bronchopneumonia. Colon content tested negative for common pesticides but, together with liver, tested positive for barbiturate. Serum taken on the day of admission had tested negative for barbiturate and the residual serum from the 3 animals later tested negative for botulinum toxin. Colon and oesophageal content from the male at necropsy were positive for Clostridium botulinum toxin type C by the mouse bioassay neutralisation test, confirming

  20. Toxin Detection in Patients' Sera by Mass Spectrometry during Two Outbreaks of Type A Botulism in France

    PubMed Central

    Mazuet, Christelle; Ezan, Eric; Volland, Hervé; Becher, François

    2012-01-01

    In two outbreaks of food-borne botulism in France, Clostridium botulinum type A was isolated and characterized from incriminated foods. Botulinum neurotoxin type A was detected in the patients' sera by mouse bioassay and in vitro endopeptidase assay with an immunocapture step and identification of the cleavage products by mass spectrometry. PMID:22993181

  1. Alcohol Production, Prevention Strategies, and Inmate Knowledge About the Risk for Botulism From Pruno Consumption in a Correctional Facility—Arizona, 2013

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Laura E.; Yasmin, Seema; Briggs, Graham; Redden, Kore; Silvas, Suzanne; Anderson, Shoana; Weiss, Joli; Tsang, Clarisse A.; Henke, Evan; Francies, Jessica; Herrick, Kristen; Lira, Rosa; Livar, Eugene; Thompson, Gerald; Sunenshine, Rebecca; Robinson, Byron F.; Bisgard, Kristine M.; Komatsu, Kenneth K.

    2017-01-01

    During July to November 2012, two botulism outbreaks (12 cases total) occurred in one all-male prison; both were associated with illicitly brewed alcohol (pruno) consumption. Inmate surveys were conducted to evaluate and develop prevention and education strategies. Qualitative surveys with open-ended questions were performed among inmates from rooms where outbreaks occurred to learn about pruno consumption. Quantitative surveys assessed knowledge gained after the outbreaks and preferred information sources. For the quantitative surveys, 250 inmates were randomly selected by bed from across the correctional facility and 164 inmates were interviewed. Only 24% of inmates reported any botulism knowledge before the outbreaks and education outreach, whereas 73% reported knowledge after the outbreaks (p < .01). Preferred information sources included handouts/fliers (52%) and the prison television channel (32%). PMID:26285594

  2. Alcohol Production, Prevention Strategies, and Inmate Knowledge About the Risk for Botulism From Pruno Consumption in a Correctional Facility--Arizona, 2013.

    PubMed

    Adams, Laura E; Yasmin, Seema; Briggs, Graham; Redden, Kore; Silvas, Suzanne; Anderson, Shoana; Weiss, Joli; Tsang, Clarisse A; Henke, Evan; Francies, Jessica; Herrick, Kristen; Lira, Rosa; Livar, Eugene; Thompson, Gerald; Sunenshine, Rebecca; Robinson, Byron F; Bisgard, Kristine M; Komatsu, Kenneth K

    2015-10-01

    During July to November 2012, two botulism outbreaks (12 cases total) occurred in one all-male prison; both were associated with illicitly brewed alcohol (pruno) consumption. Inmate surveys were conducted to evaluate and develop prevention and education strategies. Qualitative surveys with open-ended questions were performed among inmates from rooms where outbreaks occurred to learn about pruno consumption. Quantitative surveys assessed knowledge gained after the outbreaks and preferred information sources. For the quantitative surveys, 250 inmates were randomly selected by bed from across the correctional facility and 164 inmates were interviewed. Only 24% of inmates reported any botulism knowledge before the outbreaks and education outreach, whereas 73% reported knowledge after the outbreaks (p < .01). Preferred information sources included handouts/fliers (52%) and the prison television channel (32%). © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. Neurotoxins from Clostridium botulinum (serotype A) isolated from the soil of Mendoza (Argentina) differ from the A-Hall archetype and from that causing infant botulism.

    PubMed

    Caballero, P; Troncoso, M; Patterson, S I; López Gómez, C; Fernandez, R; Sosa, M A

    2016-10-01

    The type A of neurotoxin produced by Clostridium botulinum is the prevalent serotype in strains of Mendoza. The soil is the main reservoir for C.botulinum and is possibly one of the infection sources in infant botulism. In this study, we characterized and compared autochthonous C. botulinum strains and their neurotoxins. Bacterial samples were obtained from the soil and from fecal samples collected from children with infant botulism. We first observed differences in the appearance of the colonies between strains from each source and with the A Hall control strain. In addition, purified neurotoxins of both strains were found to be enriched in a band of 300 kDa, whereas the A-Hall strain was mainly made up of a band of ∼600 kDa. This finding is in line with the lack of hemagglutinating activity of the neurotoxins under study. Moreover, the proteolytic activity of C. botulinum neurotoxins was evaluated against SNARE (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor-attachment protein receptor) proteins from rat brain. It was observed that both, SNAP 25 (synaptosomal-associated protein 25) and VAMP 2 (vesicle-associated membrane protein) were cleaved by the neurotoxins isolated from the soil strains, whereas the neurotoxins from infant botulism strains only induced a partial cleavage of VAMP 2. On the other hand, the neurotoxin from the A-Hall strain was able to cleave both proteins, though at a lesser extent. Our data indicate that the C.botulinum strain isolated from the soil, and its BoNT, exhibit different properties compared to the strain obtained from infant botulism patients, and from the A-Hall archetype. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Two-family outbreak of botulism associated with the consumption of smoked ribs in Sichuan Province, China.

    PubMed

    Feng, Ling; Chen, Xueping; Liu, Shujie; Zhou, Zengrong; Yang, Rong

    2015-01-01

    On September 22, 2013, two patients from Sichuan Province, China presented with symptoms of food-borne botulism, a rare but fatal illness caused by the consumption of foods containing Clostridium botulinum neurotoxins. Investigators reviewed the medical charts and food consumption histories, and interviewed patients and family members. Food samples and clinical specimens were tested for botulinum toxin and neurotoxin-producing Clostridium species by standard methods. The first two index cases presented with cranial neuropathies and flaccid paralysis, and required mechanical ventilation. There were 12 confirmed outbreak-associated cases. Botulinum toxin type A was identified in the smoked ribs, and all of the patients had consumed the smoked ribs from the same local restaurant. The smoked ribs contained no added salt, sugar, or preservative. Botulinum toxin production likely resulted from the cold-smoking preparation method and inappropriate refrigeration. Smoked ribs produced by a local restaurant, contaminated with type A botulism, was the contributor to this outbreak. The supervision of food safety should be strengthened to prevent future outbreaks in China. Copyright © 2014 International Society for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Avian botulism type E in waterbirds of Lake Michigan, 2010–2013

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chipault, Jennifer G.; White, C. LeAnn; Blehert, David S.; Jennings, Susan K.; Strom, Sean M.

    2015-01-01

    During 2010 to 2013, waterbird mortality surveillance programs used a shared protocol for shoreline walking surveys performed June to November at three areas in northern Lake Michigan. In 2010 and 2012, 1244 total carcasses (0.8 dead bird/km walked) and 2399 total carcasses (1.2 dead birds/km walked), respectively, were detected. Fewer carcasses were detected in 2011 (353 total carcasses, 0.2 dead bird/km walked) and 2013 (451 total carcasses, 0.3 dead bird/km walked). During 3 years, peak detection of carcasses occurred in October and involved primarily migratory diving and fish-eating birds, including long-tailed ducks (Clangula hyemalis; 2010), common loons (Gavia immer; 2012), and red-breasted mergansers (Mergus serrator; 2013). In 2011, peak detection of carcasses occurred in August and consisted primarily of summer residents such as gulls (Larus spp.) and double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus). A subset of fresh carcasses was collected throughout each year of the study and tested for botulinum neurotoxin type E (BoNT/E). Sixty-one percent of carcasses (57/94) and 10 of 11 species collected throughout the sampling season tested positive for BoNT/E, suggesting avian botulism type E was a major cause of death for both resident and migratory birds in Lake Michigan. The variety of avian species affected by botulism type E throughout the summer and fall during all 4 years of coordinated surveillance also suggests multiple routes for bird exposure to BoNT/E in Lake Michigan.

  6. Biodiversity of Clostridium botulinum Type E Associated with a Large Outbreak of Botulism in Wildlife from Lake Erie and Lake Ontario ▿

    PubMed Central

    Hannett, George E.; Stone, Ward B.; Davis, Stephen W.; Wroblewski, Danielle

    2011-01-01

    The genetic relatedness of Clostridium botulinum type E isolates associated with an outbreak of wildlife botulism was studied using random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD). Specimens were collected from November 2000 to December 2008 during a large outbreak of botulism affecting birds and fish living in and around Lake Erie and Lake Ontario. In our present study, a total of 355 wildlife samples were tested for the presence of botulinum toxin and/or organisms. Type E botulinum toxin was detected in 110 samples from birds, 12 samples from fish, and 2 samples from mammals. Sediment samples from Lake Erie were also examined for the presence of C. botulinum. Fifteen of 17 sediment samples were positive for the presence of C. botulinum type E. Eighty-one C. botulinum isolates were obtained from plants, animals, and sediments; of these isolates, 44 C. botulinum isolates produced type E toxin, as determined by mouse bioassay, while the remaining 37 isolates were not toxic for mice. All toxin-producing isolates were typed by RAPD; that analysis showed 12 different RAPD types and multiple subtypes. Our study thus demonstrates that multiple genetically distinct strains of C. botulinum were involved in the present outbreak of wildlife botulism. We found that C. botulinum type E is present in the sediments of Lake Erie and that a large range of bird and fish species is affected. PMID:21115703

  7. Toxicity of Clostridium botulinum type E neurotoxin to Great Lakes fish: implications for avian botulism.

    PubMed

    Yule, Adam M; Barker, Ian K; Austin, John W; Moccia, Richard D

    2006-07-01

    Since 1999, large-scale mortalities of fish-eating birds have been observed on the Great Lakes, and more specifically on Lake Erie. Type E botulism has been established as the primary cause of death. The mechanism of type E botulism exposure in fish-eating birds is unclear. Given that these birds are thought to eat live fish exclusively, it seems likely that their prey play a key role in the process, but the role of fish as potential transport vectors of botulinum neurotoxin type E (BoNT/E) to birds has not been adequately investigated. Between June 2003 and April 2004 a methodological model for exposing fish to Clostridium botulinum was developed and used to compare the sensitivity of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), round goby (Neogobius melanostomas), walleye (Stizostedion vitreum), and yellow perch (Perca flavescens) to four doses (0, 800, 1,500, and 4,000 Mouse Lethal Doses) of Clostridium botulinum type E neurotoxin. Each fish species expressed unique changes in both behavior and skin pigmentation prior to death. Yellow perch survived significantly longer (P < 0.05) than the three other species at all toxin treatments. Results of this study suggest that live fish can represent a significant vector for transfer of BoNT/E to birds.

  8. Is downer cow syndrome related to chronic botulism?

    PubMed

    Rulff, R; Schrödl, W; Basiouni, S; Neuhaus, J; Krüger, M

    2015-01-01

    The present work was directed to investigate the relationship between Downer cow syndrome (DCS) and chronic botulism in dairy cattle. For this purpose, a total of 52 fresh calving downer cows and 206 apparently healthy cows at 14 dairy farms were investigated for Clostridium botulinum ABE and CD antibody levels, C. botulinum and botulinum neurotoxin in rumen fluids as well as in faeces. Results indicated that the downer cows had higher IgG titers for C. botulinum ABE and CD than the healthy cows. All tested rumen fluids were negative for BoNT and C. botulinum. BoNT/D, however, and C. botulinum type D spores were detected in faecal samples of healthy and downer cows in the selected farms. In conclusion, the presence of a significantly higher C. botulinum ABE and CD antibody levels in DCS cows than in the healthy animals suggests that chronic C. botulinum toxico-infection could be a predisposing factor for DCS.

  9. A large outbreak of bovine botulism possibly linked to a massive contamination of grass silage by type D/C Clostridium botulinum spores on a farm with dairy and poultry operations.

    PubMed

    Relun, A; Dorso, L; Douart, A; Chartier, C; Guatteo, R; Mazuet, C; Popoff, M R; Assié, S

    2017-12-01

    Type D bovine botulism outbreaks associated with poultry litter are increasingly reported in European countries, but the circumstances of exposure to Clostridium botulinum toxins remain unclear. In spring 2015, a large type D/C bovine botulism outbreak affected a farm with dairy and poultry operations. Epidemiological and laboratory investigations strongly suggest that the outbreak was caused by feeding cattle with insufficiently acidified grass silage that was contaminated by type D/C C. botulinum spores. The source of the spores remains unclear, but could have been a stack of poultry litter stored in the grass silage pasture before harvesting. The presence of putrefied poultry carcasses mixed in with the litter is relatively unlikely considering the careful daily removal of poultry carcasses. These findings reinforce the importance of proper ensiling of feed materials and highlight the need for safe disposal of poultry litter, even in the case of good management of poultry deadstock, in order to prevent bovine botulism.

  10. Linden flower (Tilia spp.) as potential vehicle of Clostridium botulinum spores in the transmission of infant botulism.

    PubMed

    Bianco, M I; Lúquez, C; De Jong, L I T; Fernández, R A

    2009-01-01

    Infant botulism is an intestinal toxemia caused principally by Clostridium botulinum. Since the infection occurs in the intestinal tract, numerous food products have been investigated for the presence of C. botulinum and its neurotoxins. In many countries, people use linden flower (Tilia spp) tea as a household remedy and give it to infants as a sedative. Therefore, to help provide a clear picture of this disease transmission, we investigated the presence of botulinum spores in linden flowers. In this study, we analyzed 100 samples of unwrapped linden flowers and 100 samples of linden flowers in tea bags to determine the prevalence and spore-load of C. botulinum. Results were analyzed by the Fisher test. We detected a prevalence of 3% of botulinum spores in the unwrapped linden flowers analyzed and a spore load of 30 spores per 100 grams. None of the industrialized linden flowers analyzed were contaminated with botulinum spores. C. botulinum type A was identified in two samples and type B in one sample. Linden flowers must be considered a potential vehicle of C. botulinum, and the ingestion of linden flower tea can represent a risk factor for infant botulism.

  11. Toxicoinfectious botulism in commercial caponized chickens

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Trampel, D.W.; Smith, Susan; Rocke, Tonie E.

    2005-01-01

    During the summer of 2003, two flocks of commercial broiler chickens experienced unusually high death losses following caponizing at 3 wk of age and again between 8 and 14 wk of age. In September, fifteen 11-wk-old live capons were submitted to the Iowa State University Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory for assistance. In both flocks, the second episode of elevated mortality was associated with incoordination, flaccid paralysis of leg, wing, and neck muscles, a recumbent body posture characterized by neck extension, and diarrhea. No macroscopic or microscopic lesions were detected in affected chickens. Hearts containing clotted blood and ceca were submitted to the National Wildlife Health Center in Madison, WI. Type C botulinum toxin was identified in heart blood and ceca by mouse bioassay tests. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay tests on heart blood samples were also positive for type C botulinum toxin. Clostridium botulinum was isolated from the ceca and genes encoding type C botulinum toxin were detected in cecal contents by a polymerase chain reaction test. Chickens are less susceptible to botulism as they age, and this disease has not previously been documented in broilers as old as 14 wk of age. Wound contamination by spores of C. botulinum may have contributed to the unusually high death losses following caponizing.

  12. A case of type B botulism in a pregnant bitch.

    PubMed

    Lamoureux, A; Pouzot-Nevoret, C; Escriou, C

    2015-05-01

    A two-year-old pregnant Gordon setter presented with acute onset of flaccid tetraparesis and respiratory distress. Neurological examination revealed diffuse lower motor neuron dysfunction. Clostridium botulinum neurotoxin B was isolated from the dog's serum. The dog was hospitalised and received supportive care; respiratory function was monitored but positive-pressure ventilation was not required. Recovery was complete within 1 month and parturition occurred without complication 49 days after admission. The puppies delivered lacked any obvious congenital defects and development during the first few months of life was normal. The source of contamination was suspected to be poorly conserved dry food. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of C. botulinum neurotoxin B isolation in a dog and the first report of botulism in a pregnant bitch. © 2014 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  13. Lobotomies and Botulism Bombs: Beckett's Trilogy and the Cold War.

    PubMed

    Piette, Adam

    2016-06-01

    The article argues that Beckett's Trilogy stages the effects of a lobotomy operation on a potentially politically subversive writer, and that the consequences of the operation can be traced in both the retreat of the narrator(s) of the Trilogy into the mind and into comatose mental states and in the detail of the operation itself, based on the 'icepick' lobotomies performed by neurologist Walter Freeman in the late 1940s and early 1950s. To write about extreme psychiatric situations in the post-war period is necessarily to invoke the political uses of psychosurgery with which this article engages. The article goes on to consider the figure of the brain-damaged mind as a Cold War trope in the references to botulism and the motif of the penetrated skull in The Unnamable.

  14. A cluster of three cases of botulism due to Clostridium baratii type F, France, August 2015.

    PubMed

    Tréhard, Hélène; Poujol, Isabelle; Mazuet, Christelle; Blanc, Quentin; Gillet, Yves; Rossignol, Frédérique; Popoff, Michel-Robert; Jourdan Da Silva, Nathalie

    2016-01-01

    A cluster of three cases of food-borne botulism due to Clostridium baratii type F occurred in France in August 2015. All cases required respiratory assistance. Consumption of a Bolognese sauce at the same restaurant was the likely source of contamination. Clostridium baratii was isolated both from stool specimens from the three patients and ground meat used to prepare the sauce. This is the second episode reported in France caused by this rare pathogen.

  15. Infantile botulism: clinical and laboratory observations of a rare neuroparalytic disease.

    PubMed

    Urdaneta-Carruyo, E; Suranyi, A; Milano, M

    2000-04-01

    A 3-month-old male infant was admitted to the University Hospital of Los Andes with a history of constipation, weak crying, poor feeding, flaccidity and later bilateral ptosis and hyporeflexia. The admission diagnosis was septicaemia until an electrophysiological study reported postetanic facilitation with 50 Hz/seg stimulations four days later. The Clostridium botulinum toxin type B was isolated from the infant's stool samples and the organism grew in anaerobic cultures. The patient recovered completely and was discharged 2 months later. Although infant botulism is an uncommon disease in our environment, this diagnosis must be suspected in all afebrile infants with constipation, affected cranial nerves and generalized hypotonia. The principal differential diagnoses are Landry-Guillain-Barré syndrome, poliomyelitis, myasthenia gravis and infant muscular atrophy.

  16. Emergence of suspected type D botulism in ruminants in England and Wales (2001 to 2009), associated with exposure to broiler litter.

    PubMed

    Payne, J H; Hogg, R A; Otter, A; Roest, H I J; Livesey, C T

    2011-06-18

    Scanning surveillance by the Veterinary Laboratories Agency revealed the emergence of suspected botulism in ruminants in 2003, presented as flaccid paralysis. From 2003 to 2009, 168 cattle and 19 sheep incidents were recorded, with mortality between 5 and 80 per cent. All sheep incidents and 95 per cent of cattle incidents had proximity to broiler litter. From July 2006, the gut contents collected from 74 affected cattle and 10 affected sheep were tested for Clostridium botulinum toxins using mice bioassays and for organisms by culture. Type D toxin was identified in 32 per cent of cattle and 18 per cent of sheep samples. C botulinum type D organisms were identified in 40 per cent of cattle and 30 per cent of sheep samples, but broth from one sample reacted with C and D antisera. Type C botulism has previously been reported more commonly than type D in the UK and has been associated with the use of poultry litter as fertiliser, bedding or feed. The almost exclusive association with C botulinum type D toxins or organisms in the gut contents in this survey suggests a change in the source or epidemiology of botulism in the UK. The source of C botulinum type D was uncertain. Broilers may carry C botulinum type D in their gut flora subclinically. The emergence of a new type D strain, or changes in broiler husbandry and nutrition, medication and other enteric infections may have affected colonisation with C botulinum. Further investigation of poultry and farm environments for sources of type D awaits the development of tests for C botulinum toxins that do not require the use of mice.

  17. [Intussusception in infant with diagnostic botulism: A case report].

    PubMed

    Spini, Roxana G; Ferraris, Verónica; Glasman, María P; Orofino, Guillermina; Casanovas, Alejandra; Debaisi, Gustavo

    2015-10-01

    Botulism is an important public health problem in Argentina. It is a potentially fatal disease, and its diagnosis may be difficult. There are rare presentation forms of the disease, such as acute abdomen. We present a 4-month baby with a 3-day constipation condition, associated with weakness and abnormal eating attitude in the last 12 hours. The baby presented preserved muscle tone, with no changes in sucking or deglutition according to the mother's observations. Altered sensorium and acute abdomen were found; the patient was entered into the operating room with presumptive diagnosis of intussusception, which was confirmed by pneumatic desinvagination. During hospitalization, the patient did not make good progress and presented weak cry, progressive hypotonia and respiratory failure requiring intensive care. Clostridium botulinum was isolated from the stool sample and botulinum toxin type A was isolated from serum. The patient was treated with equine botulinum toxin. Twenty five days after admission, he was totally recovered.

  18. Single-tube nested PCR assay for the detection of avian botulism in cecal contents of chickens.

    PubMed

    Jang, Il; Lee, Jae-Il; Kwon, Yong-Kuk; Kang, Min-Su; Kim, Hye-Ryoung; Park, Ji-Young; Lee, Song-Hyun; Lee, Hee-Soo; Bae, You-Chan

    2015-10-01

    This paper describes a novel diagnostic method for the detection of avian botulism caused by Clostridium botulinum type C and C/D, using single-tube nested PCR assay. This assay was developed to overcome the disadvantages of bioassays used in experiments with mice. Three primer pairs including an antisense primer were designed to target the N-terminal of the toxin gene from C. botulinum types C and C/D. The specificity of the PCR assay was confirmed by using 33 bacterial strains and chicken cecal contents from farms that experienced botulism outbreaks. The detection limit for purified DNA was 1.1 fg/μl, and for bacterial spores was 4.3 spores/200 mg of cecal contents. While checking for specificity of the PCR assay, the reactions with the templates form C. botulinum type C and C/D which were tested became positive, but the rest of the reactions turned negative. However, the results for all clinical samples (n = 8) were positive. The PCR assay results for cecal samples obtained from 300 healthy chickens (150 Korean native chickens and 150 broilers) were all negative. This assay is rapid and straightforward and evades ethical issues associated with mouse bioassay. Moreover, it is more economical than real-time PCR. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Inhibition of botulinum neurotoxins interchain disulfide bond reduction prevents the peripheral neuroparalysis of botulism.

    PubMed

    Zanetti, Giulia; Azarnia Tehran, Domenico; Pirazzini, Marcon; Binz, Thomas; Shone, Clifford C; Fillo, Silvia; Lista, Florigio; Rossetto, Ornella; Montecucco, Cesare

    2015-12-01

    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) form a growing family of metalloproteases with a unique specificity either for VAMP, SNAP25 or syntaxin. The BoNTs are grouped in seven different serotypes indicated by letters from A to G. These neurotoxins enter the cytosol of nerve terminals via a 100 kDa chain which binds to the presynaptic membrane and assists the translocation of a 50 kDa metalloprotease chain. These two chains are linked by a single disulfide bridge which plays an essential role during the entry of the metalloprotease chain in the cytosol, but thereafter it has to be reduced to free the proteolytic activity. Its reduction is mediated by thioredoxin which is continuously regenerated by its reductase. Here we show that inhibitors of thioredoxin reductase or of thioredoxin prevent the specific proteolysis of VAMP by the four VAMP-specific BoNTs: type B, D, F and G. These compounds are effective not only in primary cultures of neurons, but also in preventing the in vivo mouse limb neuroparalysis. In addition, one of these inhibitors, Ebselen, largely protects mice from the death caused by a systemic injection. Together with recent results obtained with BoNTs specific for SNAP25 and syntaxin, the present data demonstrate the essential role of the thioredoxin-thioredoxin reductase system in reducing the interchain disulfide during the nerve intoxication mechanism of all serotypes. Therefore its inhibitors should be considered for a possible use to prevent botulism and for treating infant botulism. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The epizootiology of type C botulism in fish-eating birds at Salton Sea, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nol, P.

    2002-01-01

    During 1996, type C avian botulism killed over 15,000 fish-eating birds at the Salton Sea in southern California. Amont those affected were nearly 10,000 western white pelicans (Pelecanus erythrorhynchos) and over 1,200 endangered California brown pelicans (Pelecanus occidentalis californicus). Since 1996, smaller epizootics have occurred every year. Type C botulism is not typically associated with fish-eating birds. In the case of the Salton Sea, Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) are the suspected source of type C toxin, although the mechanism by which the fish acquire the toxin is still unknown. The goals of this study were to: 1) Determine presence/absence of active Clostridium botulinum type C and type C botulinum toxin in tilapia in the Salton Sea. 2) Use geospatial analyses to evaluate relationships between patterns of mortality in birds and fish and presence/absence of toxin and/or toxin-producing bacteria in sediments and fish. We investigated a method of detecting C. botulinum type C cells in the intestinal contents of Mozambique tilapia. This method involved extraction of predominantly cellular DNA and uses a polymerase chain reaction assay to detect presence of type C toxin gene. We collected sick, dead and healthy fish from various sites throughout the Sea during the summers of 1999 to 2001 in order to test them for the presence of active C. botulinum type C by PCR and for the presence of type C toxin by ELISA and mouse test. The results demonstrate that the tilapia population in the Salton Sea harbors C. botulinum type C cells within their gastrointestinal tract and the prevalence of this organism varies from year to year. The total number of fish with toxin-producing bacteria was significantly greater in 2000 than in 2001. No difference in the numbers of positives was detected between sick and dead fish compared to live fish, and there were no differences noted with regard to location of fish collection. The prevalence of active type C

  1. Bibliography of references to avian botulism: Update

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, Sonoma S.; Locke, Louis N.

    1982-01-01

    This bibliography, first compiled in 1970 (Allen and Wilson 1977) and published in 1977 in response to many requests for information on avian botulism, has been updated to include the literature published through 1980.In general, only articles dealing primarily with the avian disease are included, as opposed to those concerned with the various aspects of the biology of Clostridium botulinum, either type C or E. A few exceptions, such as Bengtson's report of the first isolation and description of the type C organism, are included for their historical interest. Progress reports and other administrative documents not available for distribution on request are excluded, as are most textbook accounts, which are generally summaries of work published elsewhere.This bibliography was a cooperative effort by the National Wildlife Health Laboratory, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and the U.S. National Park Service. The National Park Service provided partial funding for the work through Contract No. 89100-0491.Although the authors attempted to list every important reference, they make no claim to complete coverage of the published literature. The authors will be grateful to users of the bibliography who call attention to errors or omissions.Wayne I. Jensen (Retired)Milton Friend, Director, National Wildlife Health Laboratory

  2. Characterization of Clostridium botulinum Type B Neurotoxin Associated with Infant Botulism in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Kozaki, Shunji; Kamata, Yoichi; Nishiki, Tei-ichi; Kakinuma, Hiroaki; Maruyama, Hiromi; Takahashi, Hiroaki; Karasawa, Tadahiro; Yamakawa, Kiyotaka; Nakamura, Shinichi

    1998-01-01

    The neurotoxin of strain 111 (111/NT) associated with type B infant botulism showed antigenic and biological properties different from that (Okra/NT) produced by a food-borne botulism-related strain, Okra. The specific toxicity of 111/NT was found to be about 10 times lower than that of Okra/NT. The monoclonal antibodies recognizing the light chain cross-reacted with both neurotoxins, whereas most of the antibodies recognizing the carboxyl-terminal half of the heavy chain of Okra/NT did not react to 111/NT. Binding experiments with rat brain synaptosomes revealed that 125I-labeled 111/NT bound to a single binding site with a dissociation constant (Kd) of 2.5 nM; the value was rather lower than that (0.42 nM) of 125I-Okra/NT for the high-affinity binding site. In the lipid vesicles reconstituted with ganglioside GT1b, 125I-Okra/NT interacted with the amino-terminal domain of synaptotagmin 1 (Stg1N) or synaptotagmin 2 (Stg2N), fused with the maltose-binding protein, in the same manner as the respective full-length synaptotagmins, and the Kd values accorded with those of the low- and high-affinity binding sites in synaptosomes. However, 125I-111/NT only exhibited a low capacity for binding to the lipid vesicles containing Stg2N, but not Stg1N, in the presence of ganglioside GT1b. Moreover, synaptobrevin-2, an intracellular target protein, was digested to the same extent by the light chains of both neurotoxins in a concentration-dependent manner. These findings indicate that the 111/NT molecule possesses the receptor-recognition site structurally different from Okra/NT, probably causing a decreased specific toxicity. PMID:9746583

  3. Investigations into an Outbreak of Botulism Caused by Clostridium botulinum Type C/D in Laying Hens.

    PubMed

    Skarin, Hanna; Lindgren, Ylva; Jansson, Désirée S

    2015-06-01

    This case report describes a recent botulism outbreak in commercial laying hens with a history of increased mortality and flaccid paralysis. Routine diagnostic gross examination and microscopy from seven hens were inconclusive, but botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) in peripheral blood was neutralized with both type C and type D antitoxins in the mouse bioassay. During a farm visit, 10 additional hens from a 34-wk-old flock on the farm were selected for clinical examination and further sampling. Nine hens were observed in sternal recumbency, with flaccid paralysis of the neck, drooping wings and tail, inability to escape, and bilateral ptosis, and one hen showed nonspecific clinical signs. Samples from cecum and liver were collected, and the gene coding for BoNT was detected by PCR in all 10 cecal samples and in four of the liver samples. Clostridium botulinum mosaic type C/D was isolated from 5 out of 10 hens from either cecum or liver, and the isolates were subjected to pulsed-field gel electrophoresis subtyping. All five isolates produced the same banding pattern, which was identical or showed >90% similarity to isolates from three different outbreaks on broiler farms in Sweden and Denmark during the 2007-10 period. However, they were clearly distinguishable from the predominantly reported pulsotype associated with avian botulism outbreaks in Europe. The authors are unaware of any previous report of C. botulinum mosaic type C/D isolates from laying hens.

  4. [Three infants with constipation and muscular weakness: infantile botulism].

    PubMed

    Thomasse, Y; Arends, J P; van der Heide, P A; Smit, L M E; van Weerden, T W; Fock, J M

    2005-04-09

    Two previously healthy infants, a boy of 10 weeks and a girl of 4 months presented with apathy and muscle weakness. A third previously healthy child, a girl of 6 weeks old was admitted with respiratory insufficiency. None of the three had had a bowel movement for a number of days. After extensive investigations which revealed few abnormalities Clostridium botulinum toxin was obtained in serum from all three children. Type-B-toxin was shown in the faeces of the older girl and boy; both recovered quickly. The other girl had type-A toxin; she died. Two of the three children were given honey to comfort them. Infantile botulism must be considered in every infant with symptoms of constipation and hypotonia. The diagnosis can quickly be confirmed by electromyography with repetitive 50-Hz-stimulation. Honey is a well-known source of the C. botulinum spore and should not be given to children under the age of 12 months. These three children are the first cases to be described in the Netherlands.

  5. Production and Evaluation of a Recombinant Chimeric Vaccine against Clostridium botulinum Neurotoxin Types C and D

    PubMed Central

    Gil, Luciana A. F.; da Cunha, Carlos Eduardo P.; Moreira, Gustavo M. S. G.; Salvarani, Felipe M.; Assis, Ronnie A.; Lobato, Francisco Carlos F.; Mendonça, Marcelo; Dellagostin, Odir A.; Conceição, Fabricio R.

    2013-01-01

    Bovine botulism is a fatal disease that is caused by botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) produced by Clostridium botulinum serotypes C and D and that causes great economic losses, with nearly 100% lethality during outbreaks. It has also been considered a potential source of human food-borne illness in many countries. Vaccination has been reported to be the most effective way to control bovine botulism. However, the commercially available toxoid-based vaccines are difficult and hazardous to produce. Neutralizing antibodies targeted against the C-terminal fragment of the BoNT heavy chain (HC) are known to confer efficient protection against lethal doses of BoNTs. In this study, a novel recombinant chimera, consisting of Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin B subunit (LTB), a strong adjuvant of the humoral immune response, fused to the HC of BoNT serotypes C and D, was produced in E. coli. Mice vaccinated with the chimera containing LTB and an equivalent molar ratio of the chimera without LTB plus aluminum hydroxide (Al(OH)3) developed 2 IU/mL of antitoxins for both serotypes. Guinea pigs immunized with the recombinant chimera with LTB plus Al(OH)3 developed a protective immune response against both BoNT/C (5 IU/mL) and BoNT/D (10 IU/mL), as determined by a mouse neutralization bioassay with pooled sera. The results achieved with guinea pig sera fulfilled the requirements of commercial vaccines for prevention of botulism, as determined by the Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Food, Supply. The presence of LTB was essential for the development of a strong humoral immune response, as it acted in synergism with Al(OH)3. Thus, the vaccine described in this study is a strong candidate for the control of botulism in cattle. PMID:23936080

  6. Botulism in the ICU: Nursing care plan.

    PubMed

    Zariquiey-Esteva, G; Galeote-Cózar, D; Santa-Candela, P; Castanera-Duro, A

    Botulism is a rare disease in Europe, caused by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum, notifiable, non-transmissible person-to-person and potentially fatal (between 5 and 10%) if not treated quickly. The favourable opinion of the Clinical Research Ethics Committee was obtained. We present the nursing care plan of a 49-year-old man with a diagnosis of bacterial intoxication caused by Clostridium botulinum, secondary to ingestion of beans in poor condition, who was admitted to the ICU for a total of 35 days. Holistic nursing evaluation during the first 24hours, with prioritisation of the systems that were deteriorating fastest: neurological and respiratory. Nine diagnoses were prioritised according to the NANDA taxonomy: Risk for allergy response, Ineffective breathing pattern, impaired oral mucous membrane, Impaired physical mobility, Risk for disuse syndrome, Risk for dysfunctional gastrointestinal motility, Impaired urinary elimination, Risk for acute confusion and Risk for caregiver role strain. The nursing care plan, standardised and organised with the NANDA taxonomy and prioritised with the outcome-present state-test (OPT) model, guaranteed the best care based on evidence, as the NOC scores improvement demonstrated. It was impossible to compare the nursing intervention with other case reports. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Enfermería Intensiva y Unidades Coronarias (SEEIUC). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Cluster of wound botulism in California: clinical, electrophysiologic, and pathologic study.

    PubMed

    Maselli, R A; Ellis, W; Mandler, R N; Sheikh, F; Senton, G; Knox, S; Salari-Namin, H; Agius, M; Wollmann, R L; Richman, D P

    1997-10-01

    Over a period of 15 months we have seen 6 patients with long-standing history of subcutaneous heroin injections who experienced acute blurred vision, dysphagia, dysarthria, and generalized weakness. Decreased or absent deep tendon reflexes, pupillary abnormalities, incremental responses to fast repetitive nerve stimulation, and positive serology for Clostridia botulinum toxin A were found, but not in all cases. Muscle biopsies showed variable signs of neurogenic atrophy. In vitro electrophysiology studies revealed decreased end-plate potentials quantal content, confirming the presynaptic nature of the disorder. Mechanical ventilation was required in 5 patients. Half of the patients were treated with polyvalent antitoxiin. Prognosis was favorable, though recovery was slow. In conclusion, acute bulbar weakness with visual symptoms in patients with subcutaneous heroin abuse strongly suggets the possibility of wound botulism. High diagnostic suspicion combined with histology and in vitro electrophysiology confirmation of presynaptic failure, especially in seronegative cases, may significantly improve morbidity.

  8. Outcome of adult horses with botulism treated at a veterinary hospital: 92 cases (1989-2013).

    PubMed

    Johnson, A L; McAdams-Gallagher, S C; Aceto, H

    2015-01-01

    There are no studies evaluating a large population of adult horses treated for botulism. Reported survival rates in outbreak situations are low; however, many horses in outbreaks do not receive treatment. That adult horses treated at a veterinary hospital would have improved survival compared to outbreak situations. Additional aims included identification of predictors of nonsurvival. All horses greater than 6 months of age with a final diagnosis of botulism admitted to a veterinary teaching hospital between 1989 and 2013 were included. Retrospective study. Historical, admission, and hospitalization data were retrieved from medical records and associations between variables and nonsurvival were identified using logistic regression. Two multivariable models were developed pertaining to (1) information available at admission and (2) clinical findings during hospitalization. Ninety-two records met inclusion criteria. Retained variables for the two models indicated that higher rectal temperature (OR, 1.94; CI, 1.19-3.17) and dysphagia (OR, 4.04; CI, 1.01-16.17) observed at admission increased the odds of survival, as did treatment with antitoxin (OR, 121.30; CI, 9.94-1,480.65). Horses with abnormal respiratory effort or inability to stand had decreased odds of survival. Overall survival was 48% but was significantly higher (67%, P = .011) for horses that arrived standing, and even higher (95%, P < .001) for horses that remained able to stand throughout hospitalization. Complications occurred in 62% of horses but were not associated with nonsurvival. Horses that lose the ability to stand have a poor chance of survival. Complications are common in treated horses but do not reduce survival. Copyright © 2014 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  9. Cargo-Delivery Platforms for Targeted Delivery of Inhibitor Cargos Against Botulism

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Brenda A.; Ho, Mengfei

    2015-01-01

    Delivering therapeutic cargos to specific cell types in vivo poses many technical challenges. There is currently a plethora of drug leads and therapies against numerous diseases, ranging from small molecule compounds to nucleic acids to peptides to proteins with varying binding or enzymatic functions. Many of these candidate therapies have documented potential for mitigating or reversing disease symptoms, if only a means for gaining access to the intracellular target were available. Recent advances in our understanding of the biology of cellular uptake and transport processes and the mode of action of bacterial protein toxins have accelerated the development of toxin-based cargo-delivery vehicle platforms. This review provides an updated survey of the status of available platforms for targeted delivery of therapeutic cargos, outlining various strategies that have been used to deliver different types of cargo into cells. Particular emphasis is placed on the application of toxin-based approaches, examining critical issues that have hampered realization of post-intoxication antitoxins against botulism. PMID:25335885

  10. Cargo-delivery platforms for targeted delivery of inhibitor cargos against botulism.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Brenda A; Ho, Mengfei

    2014-01-01

    Delivering therapeutic cargos to specific cell types in vivo poses many technical challenges. There is currently a plethora of drug leads and therapies against numerous diseases, ranging from small molecule compounds to nucleic acids to peptides to proteins with varying binding or enzymatic functions. Many of these candidate therapies have documented potential for mitigating or reversing disease symptoms, if only a means for gaining access to the intracellular target were available. Recent advances in our understanding of the biology of cellular uptake and transport processes and the mode of action of bacterial protein toxins have accelerated the development of toxin-based cargo-delivery vehicle platforms. This review provides an updated survey of the status of available platforms for targeted delivery of therapeutic cargos, outlining various strategies that have been used to deliver different types of cargo into cells. Particular emphasis is placed on the application of toxin-based approaches, examining critical issues that have hampered realization of post-intoxication antitoxins against botulism.

  11. Application of PCR to a clinical and environmental investigation of a case of equine botulism.

    PubMed

    Szabo, E A; Pemberton, J M; Gibson, A M; Thomas, R J; Pascoe, R R; Desmarchelier, P M

    1994-08-01

    PCR for the detection of botulinum neurotoxin gene types A to E was used in the investigation of a case of equine botulism. Samples from a foal diagnosed with toxicoinfectious botulism in 1985 were reanalyzed by PCR and the mouse bioassay in conjunction with an environmental survey. Neurotoxin B was detected by mouse bioassay in culture enrichments of serum, spleen, feces, and intestinal contents. PCR results compared well with mouse bioassay results, detecting type B neurotoxin genes in these samples and also in a liver sample. Other neurotoxin types were not detected by either test. Clostridium botulinum type B was shown to be prevalent in soils collected from the area in which the foal was raised. Four methods were used to test for the presence of botulinum neurotoxin-producing organisms in 66 soil samples taken within a 5-km radius: PCR and agarose gel electrophoresis (types A to E), PCR and an enzyme-linked assay (type B), hybridization of crude alkaline cell lysates with a type B-specific probe, and the mouse bioassay (all types). Fewer soil samples were positive for C. botulinum type B by the mouse bioassay (15%) than by any of the DNA-based detection systems. Hybridization of a type B-specific probe to DNA dot blots (26% of the samples were positive) and PCR-enzyme-linked assay (77% of the samples were positive) were used for the rapid analysis of large numbers of samples, with sensitivity limits of 3 x 10(6) and 3,000 cells, respectively. Conventional detection of PCR products by gel electrophoresis was the most sensitive method (300-cell limit), and in the present environmental survey, neurotoxin B genes only were detected in 94% of the samples.

  12. Application of PCR to a clinical and environmental investigation of a case of equine botulism.

    PubMed Central

    Szabo, E A; Pemberton, J M; Gibson, A M; Thomas, R J; Pascoe, R R; Desmarchelier, P M

    1994-01-01

    PCR for the detection of botulinum neurotoxin gene types A to E was used in the investigation of a case of equine botulism. Samples from a foal diagnosed with toxicoinfectious botulism in 1985 were reanalyzed by PCR and the mouse bioassay in conjunction with an environmental survey. Neurotoxin B was detected by mouse bioassay in culture enrichments of serum, spleen, feces, and intestinal contents. PCR results compared well with mouse bioassay results, detecting type B neurotoxin genes in these samples and also in a liver sample. Other neurotoxin types were not detected by either test. Clostridium botulinum type B was shown to be prevalent in soils collected from the area in which the foal was raised. Four methods were used to test for the presence of botulinum neurotoxin-producing organisms in 66 soil samples taken within a 5-km radius: PCR and agarose gel electrophoresis (types A to E), PCR and an enzyme-linked assay (type B), hybridization of crude alkaline cell lysates with a type B-specific probe, and the mouse bioassay (all types). Fewer soil samples were positive for C. botulinum type B by the mouse bioassay (15%) than by any of the DNA-based detection systems. Hybridization of a type B-specific probe to DNA dot blots (26% of the samples were positive) and PCR-enzyme-linked assay (77% of the samples were positive) were used for the rapid analysis of large numbers of samples, with sensitivity limits of 3 x 10(6) and 3,000 cells, respectively. Conventional detection of PCR products by gel electrophoresis was the most sensitive method (300-cell limit), and in the present environmental survey, neurotoxin B genes only were detected in 94% of the samples. Images PMID:7989554

  13. Botulism outbreak associated with poultry litter consumption in three Brazilian cattle herds.

    PubMed

    Ortolani, E L; Brito, L A; Mori, C S; Schalch, U; Pacheco, J; Baldacci, L

    1997-04-01

    One hundred fifty-five of 201 cattle from 3 different farms showed clinical signs and died of botulism after eating the same batch of poultry litter contaminated with poultry and rodent carcasses. The cattle had access to poultry litter for only 1 d; afterwards it was removed from the diet. Death occurred over a period of 17 d after the poultry litter intake. The peak mortality was on day 4; 20 animals died within 10 d of the ingestion. The greater the intake of poultry litter, the higher the cattle mortality. Three steers which died on the first day had peracute effects while the remaining cattle showed classical signs. Twenty-five of the 46 surviving cattle had mild clinical signs, but recovered in a few days. Type C Clostridium botulinum toxin was found in extracts of the poultry litter, carcasses and cattle intestinal contents. Nutrient composition of the poultry litter was normal but pH was lower (6.9) than usual (7.5 to 9.3).

  14. Direct biosensor detection of botulinum neurotoxin endopeptidase activity in sera from patients with type A botulism.

    PubMed

    Lévêque, Christian; Ferracci, Géraldine; Maulet, Yves; Mazuet, Christelle; Popoff, Michel; Seagar, Michael; El Far, Oussama

    2014-07-15

    Botulinum neurotoxin A (BoNT/A) has intrinsic endoprotease activity specific for SNAP-25, a key protein for presynaptic neurotransmitter release. The inactivation of SNAP-25 by BoNT/A underlies botulism, a rare but potentially fatal disease. There is a crucial need for a rapid and sensitive in vitro serological test for BoNT/A to replace the current in vivo mouse bioassay. Cleavage of SNAP-25 by BoNT/A generates neo-epitopes which can be detected by binding of a monoclonal antibody (mAb10F12) and thus measured by surface plasmon resonance (SPR). We have explored two SPR assay formats, with either mAb10F12 or His6-SNAP-25 coupled to the biosensor chip. When BoNT/A was incubated with SNAP-25 in solution and the reaction products were captured on a mAb-coated chip, a sensitivity of 5 fM (0.1LD50/ml serum) was obtained. However, this configuration required prior immunoprecipitation of BoNT/A. A sensitivity of 0.5 fM in 10% serum (0.1 LD50/ml serum) was attained when SNAP-25 was coupled directly to the chip, followed by sequential injection of BoNT/A samples and mAb10F12 into the flow system to achieve on-chip cleavage and detection, respectively. This latter format detected BoNT/A endoprotease activity in 50-100 µl serum samples from all patients (11/11) with type A botulism within 5h. No false positives occurred in sera from healthy subjects or patients with other neurological diseases. The automated chip-based procedure has excellent specificity and sensitivity, with significant advantages over the mouse bioassay in terms of rapidity, required sample volume and animal ethics. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Distribution and foraging patterns of common loons on Lake Michigan with implications for exposure to type E avian botulism

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kenow, Kevin P.; Houdek, Steven C.; Fara, Luke; Gray, Brian R.; Lubinski, Brian R.; Heard, Darryl J.; Meyer, Michael W.; Fox, Timothy J.; Kratt, Robert

    2018-01-01

    Common loons (Gavia immer) staging on the Great Lakes during fall migration are at risk to episodic outbreaks of type E botulism. Information on distribution, foraging patterns, and exposure routes of loons are needed for understanding the physical and ecological factors that contribute to avian botulism outbreaks. Aerial surveys were conducted to document the spatiotemporal distribution of common loons on Lake Michigan during falls 2011–2013. In addition, satellite telemetry and archival geolocator tags were used to determine the distribution and foraging patterns of individual common loons while using Lake Michigan during fall migration. Common loon distribution observed during aerial surveys and movements of individual radiomarked and/or geotagged loons suggest a seasonal pattern of use, with early fall use of Green Bay and northern Lake Michigan followed by a shift in distribution to southern Lake Michigan before moving on to wintering areas. Common loons tended to occupy offshore areas of Lake Michigan and, on average, spent the majority of daylight hours foraging. Dive depths were as deep as 60 m and dive characteristics suggested that loons were primarily foraging on benthic prey. A recent study concluded that round gobies (Neogobius melanostomus) are an important prey item of common loons and may be involved in transmission of botulinum neurotoxin type E. Loon distribution coincides with the distribution of dreissenid mussel biomass, an important food resource for round gobies. Our observations support speculation that energy transfer to higher trophic levels via gobies may occur in deep-water habitats, along with transfer of botulinum neurotoxin.

  16. Genetic Characterization and Comparison of Clostridium botulinum Isolates from Botulism Cases in Japan between 2006 and 2011

    PubMed Central

    Sekizuka, Tsuyoshi; Yamamoto, Akihiko; Iwaki, Masaaki; Komiya, Takako; Hatakeyama, Takashi; Nakajima, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Motohide; Kuroda, Makoto; Shibayama, Keigo

    2014-01-01

    Genetic characterization was performed for 10 group I Clostridium botulinum strains isolated from botulism cases in Japan between 2006 and 2011. Of these, 1 was type A, 2 were type B, and 7 were type A(B) {carrying a silent bont/B [bont/(B)] gene} serotype strains, based on botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) production. The type A strain harbored the subtype A1 BoNT gene (bont/A1), which is associated with the ha gene cluster. The type B strains carried bont/B5 or bont/B6 subtype genes. The type A(B) strains carried bont/A1 identical to that of type A(B) strain NCTC2916. However, bont/(B) genes in these strains showed single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) among strains. SNPs at 2 nucleotide positions of bont/(B) enabled classification of the type A(B) strains into 3 groups. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) also provided consistent separation results. In addition, the type A(B) strains were separated into 2 lineages based on their plasmid profiles. One lineage carried a small plasmid (5.9 kb), and another harbored 21-kb plasmids. To obtain more detailed genetic information about the 10 strains, we sequenced their genomes and compared them with 13 group I C. botulinum genomes in a database using whole-genome SNP analysis. This analysis provided high-resolution strain discrimination and enabled us to generate a refined phylogenetic tree that provides effective traceability of botulism cases, as well as bioterrorism materials. In the phylogenetic tree, the subtype B6 strains, Okayama2011 and Osaka05, were distantly separated from the other strains, indicating genomic divergence of subtype B6 strains among group I strains. PMID:25192986

  17. [The men of the Andrée expedition probably died of botulism. A new hypothesis explains these mysterious deaths].

    PubMed

    Personne, M

    2000-03-22

    The last camp of the three members of the 1897 Swedish Andrée balloon expedition to the North Pole was found in Svalbard in 1930. The human remains and the paraphernalia of the expedition including diaries were brought to Sweden and are presently housed in a museum. The cause of the deaths has never been determined, but several hypotheses have been put forward over the years. Trichinosis, scurvy, and poisoning by carbon-monoxide, vitamin-A or lead are some of them. In this article it is argued that botulism is a plausible explanation which is in better accord with known facts.

  18. Polar poisons: did Botulism doom the Franklin expedition?

    PubMed

    Horowitz, B Zane

    2003-01-01

    In 1845 the Franklin expedition left London with 2 ships and 134 men on board in an attempt to find the route through the Northwest Passage. The ships were built with state-of-the-art technology for their day, but provisioned with supplies from the lowest bidder. After taking on fresh provisions in the Whalefish Islands, off the coast of Greenland, the entire crew was never heard from again. Graves found on remote Beechey Island indicate that three able-bodied seamen died during the first winter. A note written on a ship's log, later found in a cairn, indicate that the expedition's leader, Sir John Franklin, died during the second winter entrapped on the ice, by which time 24 men had also perished. The remaining crew failed in their attempt to walk out of the Arctic by an overland route. In 1981 Owen Beattie, from the University of Alberta, exhumed the remains of the sailors from the three graves on Beechey Island. Elevated lead levels were found in all three sailors. While lead poisoning has been a leading theory of the cause of the crew's deaths, blamed on the crudely tinned provisions the ships carried with them from England, chronic lead exposure may only have weakened the crew, not necessarily killed them. One of three exhumed sailors also had in his intestine the spores of an unspecified Clostridium species. The theory put forth by this article is that Botulism, type E, which is endemic in the Arctic, may have been responsible for their deaths.

  19. Eutrophication and Bacterial Pathogens as Risk Factors for Avian Botulism Outbreaks in Wetlands Receiving Effluents from Urban Wastewater Treatment Plants

    PubMed Central

    Vidal, Dolors; Laguna, Celia; Díaz-Sánchez, Sandra; Sánchez, Sergio; Chicote, Álvaro; Florín, Máximo; Mateo, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    Due to the scarcity of water resources in the “Mancha Húmeda” Biosphere Reserve, the use of treated wastewater has been proposed as a solution for the conservation of natural threatened floodplain wetlands. In addition, wastewater treatment plants of many villages pour their effluent into nearby natural lakes. We hypothesized that certain avian pathogens present in wastewater may cause avian mortalities which would trigger avian botulism outbreaks. With the aim of testing our hypothesis, 24 locations distributed in three wetlands, two that receive wastewater effluents and one serving as a control, were monitored during a year. Sediment, water, water bird feces, and invertebrates were collected for the detection of putative avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC), Salmonella spp., Clostridium perfringens type A, and Clostridium botulinum type C/D. Also, water and sediment physicochemical properties were determined. Overall, APEC, C. perfringens, and C. botulinum were significantly more prevalent in samples belonging to the wetlands which receive wastewater. The occurrence of a botulism outbreak in one of the studied wetlands coincided with high water temperatures and sediment 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), a decrease in water redox potential, chlorophyll a, and sulfate levels, and an increase in water inorganic carbon levels. The presence of C. botulinum in bird feces before the onset of the outbreak indicates that carrier birds exist and highlights the risk of botulinum toxin production in their carcasses if they die by other causes such as bacterial diseases, which are more probable in wastewater wetlands. PMID:24795377

  20. Induction of protective neutralizing antibody responses against botulinum neurotoxin serotype C using plasmid carried by PLGA nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Ruwona, Tinashe B; Xu, Haiyue; Li, Junwei; Diaz-Arévalo, Diana; Kumar, Amit; Zeng, Mingtao; Cui, Zhengrong

    2016-05-03

    Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) is a lethal neurotoxin, for which there is currently not an approved vaccine. Recent efforts in developing vaccine candidates against botulism have been directed at the heavy chain fragment of BoNT, because antibodies against this region have been shown to prevent BoNT from binding to its receptor and thus to nerve cell surface, offering protection against BoNT intoxication. In the present study, it was shown that immunization with plasmid DNA that encodes the 50 KDa C-terminal fragment of the heavy chain of BoNT serotype C (i.e., BoNT/C-Hc50) and is carried by cationic poly (lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) nanoparticles induces stronger BoNT/C-specific antibody responses, as compared to immunization with the plasmid alone. Importantly, the antibodies have BoNT/C-neutralizing activity, protecting the immunized mice from a lethal dose of BoNT/C challenge. A plasmid DNA vaccine encoding the Hc50 fragments of BoNT serotypes that cause human botulism may represent a viable vaccine candidate for protecting against botulinum neurotoxin intoxication.

  1. Evaluation of coproexamination as a diagnostic test for avian botulism

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jensen, Wayne I.

    1981-01-01

    Fecal extracts and blood sera from 113 ducks showing clinical signs of botulism were examined for Clostridium botulinum type C toxin by means of the mouse toxicity test to evaluate coproexamination as a diagnostic procedure, as compared with demonstration of toxin in serum. When death of test mice unprotected with type specific antitoxin (while protected controls survived) was the criterion, 78.8% of the sera and 5.3% of the fecal extracts were positive. When characteristic signs of intoxication in the unprotected mice was included as evidence of toxin in the specimens, these percentages increased to 86.7 and 6.2, respectively.Fecal specimens were collected hourly for the first 6 h after peroral dosing of eight mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) with 1.0 LD50, of type C toxin and at 24, 48, and 72 h from birds surviving that long. From 2 to 4 toxin-positive specimens were passed by all eight ducks during the first 6 h, five specimens were positive at 24 h, and three were positive at 48 h. Only three specimens were collected at 72 h, all of which were negative. These findings suggest that attempts to detect toxin in the feces of wild ducks might have been more successful had the birds been captured earlier in the course of the disease.

  2. Adeno-associated virus transfer of a gene encoding SNAP-25 resistant to botulinum toxin A attenuates neuromuscular paralysis associated with botulism.

    PubMed

    Raghunath, Arvind; Perez-Branguli, Francesc; Smith, Leonard; Dolly, J Oliver

    2008-04-02

    Advances in viral gene therapy have opened new possibilities for treating a range of motor neuron diseases, but these have not yet been translated into clinically applicable therapies because of difficulties in delivery to susceptible/damaged neurons, ambiguities in the identity of gene(s) implicated, and a paucity of means to quantify any physiological improvement. Most of these hurdles can be overcome by using the neuromuscular paralysis induced by botulinum neurotoxin type A (BoNT/A) as a prototype disease. Furthermore, because human botulism, occasionally fatal, causes prolonged muscle disablement as a result of the intraneuronal persistence of the toxin's SNAP-25 (S25)-cleaving protease, development of a genetic approach could lead to a potential treatment for this debilitating disease. Adeno-associated viral delivery of a cleavage-resistant S25 gene (S25-R198T) to chromaffin cells in vitro yielded exocytotically active S25-R198T that diminished subsequent blockade by BoNT/A of evoked catecholamine release. Evaluation in vivo, by administering this virus into rat spinal cord before injecting BoNT/A, showed a decreased inhibition of acetylcholine release as reflected in elevated retention of neuromuscular transmission. A similar, although smaller, protection of synaptic transmission from the toxin was seen after peripherally injecting the therapeutic virus. Such therapy also curtailed nerve sprouting normally induced by BoNT/A. This first demonstration of the utility of a DNA-based therapy for botulism paves the way for further advances in its treatment and for application to genetic disorders of motor neurons.

  3. Evidence for a natural humoral response in dairy cattle affected by persistent botulism sustained by non-chimeric type C strains.

    PubMed

    Bano, Luca; Drigo, Ilenia; Tonon, Elena; Berto, Giacomo; Tavella, Alexander; Woudstra, Cedric; Capello, Katia; Agnoletti, Fabrizio

    2015-12-01

    Bovine botulism is a sporadic acute disease that usually causes catastrophic losses in the herds. The unusual clinical evolution of a persistent mild outbreak in a dairy herd, prompted us to characterize the neurotoxin gene profile of the strain involved and to evaluate whether seroconversion had occurred. Diagnosis was based on mild classical symptoms and was supported by PCR and bacteriological findings, which revealed the involvement of a non-mosaic type C strain. An in-house ELISA was developed to detect antibodies to botulinum neurotoxin type C and its performance was evaluated in a vaccination study. Fifty days after the index case, fecal and serum samples were collected from the 14 animals of the herd and screened for Clostridium botulinum and anti-botulinum neurotoxin antibodies type C, respectively. The in-house developed ELISA was also used to test 100 sera samples randomly collected from 20 herds. Strong ELISA reactions were observed in 3 convalescent and 5 asymptomatic animals involved in the studied outbreak. The ELISA-positive cows all tested positive for non-mosaic C. botulinum type C in the feces and the same strain was also detected in the alfalfa hay, suspected to be the carrier source. Ten out of the 100 randomly collected sera tested positive for anti-botulinum neurotoxin type C antibodies: 7 had borderline values and 3 from the same herd showed titers three times higher than the cut-off. We concluded that type C botulism in cattle may occur with variable severity and that prolonged exposure to sublethal doses of botulinum neurotoxin C may occur, resulting in detectable antibodies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Characterization of Clostridium Baratii Type F Strains Responsible for an Outbreak of Botulism Linked to Beef Meat Consumption in France.

    PubMed

    Mazuet, Christelle; Legeay, Christine; Sautereau, Jean; Bouchier, Christiane; Criscuolo, Alexis; Bouvet, Philippe; Trehard, Hélène; Jourdan Da Silva, Nathalie; Popoff, Michel

    2017-02-01

    A second botulism outbreak due to Clostridium baratii occurred in France in August 2015 and included three patients who had their meal in a restaurant the same day. We report the characterization of C. baratii isolates including whole genome sequencing (WGS). Four C. baratii isolates collected in August 2015 from the outbreak 2 were analysed for toxin production and typing as well as for genetic characterization. WGS was done using using the NEBNext Ultra DNA Library Prep kit for Illumina (New England Biolabs) and sequenced on MiSeq machine (Illumina) in paired-end reads of 250 bases. The phylogenetic tree was generated based on the UPGMA method with genetic distances computed by using the Kimura two-parameter model. Evolutionary analyses were conducted in Bionumerics (V.6.6 Applied Maths). Three C. baratii isolates for patient's stools and one isolate from meat produced botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) type F and retained a bont/F7 gene in OrfX cluster. All isolates were identical according to the WGS. However, phylogeny of the core genome showed that the four C. baratii strains were distantly related to that of the previous C. baratii outbreak in France in 2014 and from the other C. baratii strains reported in databanks. The fact that the strains isolated from the patients and meat samples were genetically identical supports that the meat used for the Bolognese sauce was responsible for this second botulism outbreak in France. These isolates were unrelated to that from the first C. baratii outbreak in France in 2014 indicating a distinct source of contamination. WGS provided robust determination of genetic relatedness and information regarding BoNT typing and toxin gene locus genomic localization.

  5. Anthrax Vaccination and Self-reported Symptoms, Functional Status, and Medical Conditions in the National Health Survey of Gulf War Era Veterans and Their Families

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-04-01

    botulism, immune globulin , plague, and meningncocu.s). Among the 11,441 Culf War veterans, a total of 4601 Gulf veterans (40.2%)) self-reported (S-R...administered (typhoid, borulinum toxoid, immune globulin , plague, and meningococus). This variable was coded as the sum of the number of vaccines...parametric Wilcoxon signecl- ranks test was used to assess whether the prc\\lalencc in S-R yes group was the same as the prevalcncc in the S-R n o

  6. Improvement in laboratory diagnosis of wound botulism and tetanus among injecting illicit-drug users by use of real-time PCR assays for neurotoxin gene fragments.

    PubMed

    Akbulut, D; Grant, K A; McLauchlin, J

    2005-09-01

    An upsurge in wound infections due to Clostridium botulinum and Clostridium tetani among users of illegal injected drugs (IDUs) occurred in the United Kingdom during 2003 and 2004. A real-time PCR assay was developed to detect a fragment of the neurotoxin gene of C. tetani (TeNT) and was used in conjunction with previously described assays for C. botulinum neurotoxin types A, B, and E (BoNTA, -B, and -E). The assays were sensitive, specific, rapid to perform, and applicable to investigating infections among IDUs using DNA extracted directly from wound tissue, as well as bacteria growing among mixed microflora in enrichment cultures and in pure culture on solid media. A combination of bioassay and PCR test results confirmed the clinical diagnosis in 10 of 25 cases of suspected botulism and two of five suspected cases of tetanus among IDUs. The PCR assays were in almost complete agreement with the conventional bioassays when considering results from different samples collected from the same patient. The replacement of bioassays by real-time PCR for the isolation and identification of both C. botulinum and C. tetani demonstrates a sensitivity and specificity similar to those of conventional approaches. However, the real-time PCR assays substantially improves the diagnostic process in terms of the speed of results and by the replacement of experimental animals. Recommendations are given for an improved strategy for the laboratory investigation of suspected wound botulism and tetanus among IDUs.

  7. Molecular epidemiology of infant botulism in California and elsewhere, 1976-2010.

    PubMed

    Dabritz, Haydee A; Hill, Karen K; Barash, Jason R; Ticknor, Lawrence O; Helma, Charles H; Dover, Nir; Payne, Jessica R; Arnon, Stephen S

    2014-12-01

    Infant botulism (IB), first identified in California in 1976, results from Clostridium botulinum spores that germinate, multiply, and produce botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) in the immature intestine. From 1976 to 2010 we created an archive of 1090 BoNT-producing isolates consisting of 1012 IB patient (10 outpatient, 985 hospitalized, 17 sudden death), 25 food, 18 dust/soils, and 35 other strains. The mouse neutralization assay determined isolate toxin type (56% BoNT/A, 32% BoNT/B). Amplified fragment-length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis of the isolates was combined with epidemiologic information. The AFLP dendrogram, the largest to date, contained 154 clades; 52% of isolates clustered in just 2 clades, 1 BoNT/A (n=418) and 1 BoNT/B (n=145). These clades constituted an endemic C. botulinum population that produced the entire clinical spectrum of IB. Isolates from the patient's home environment (dust/soil, honey) usually located to the same AFLP clade as the patient's isolate, thereby identifying the likely source of infective spores. C. botulinum A(B) strains were identified in California for the first time. Combining molecular methods and epidemiological data created an effective tool that yielded novel insights into the genetic diversity of C. botulinum and the clinical spectrum, occurrence, and distribution of IB in California. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Recombinant Botulinum Neurotoxin Hc Subunit (BoNT Hc) and Catalytically Inactive Clostridium botulinum Holoproteins (ciBoNT HPs) as Vaccine Candidates for the Prevention of Botulism

    PubMed Central

    Webb, Robert P.; Smith, Theresa J.; Smith, Leonard A.; Wright, Patrick M.; Guernieri, Rebecca L.; Brown, Jennifer L.; Skerry, Janet C.

    2017-01-01

    There are few available medical countermeasures against botulism and the discontinuation of the pentavalent botulinum toxoid vaccine by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in 2011 has resulted in the need for a safe and effective prophylactic alternative. Advances in genetic engineering have resulted in subsequent vaccine efforts being primarily focused on the production of highly purified recombinant protein antigens representing one or more domains of the botulinum neurotoxin. Recombinant subunit vaccines based on the carboxy one-third of the toxin (Hc) developed in our lab against serotypes A-F have been shown to be safe and effective. However, in response to the identification of an ever increasing number of BoNT subtypes with significant amino acid heterogeneity, we have developed catalytically inactive BoNT holoproteins (ciBoNT HPs) in an attempt to elicit greater protective immunity to address these toxin variants. Here we report the production of ciBoNT/B1 HP, ciBoNT/C1 HP, ciBoNT/E1 HP and ciBoNT/F1 HP and compare the immunological and protective abilities of ciBoNT HPs and BoNT/A Hc, BoNT/B Hc, BoNT/C Hc, BoNT/E Hc and BoNT/F Hc vaccines when challenged with homologous and heterologous toxins. Our results suggest the ciBoNT HP vaccines exhibit superior potency after single vaccinations but multiple vaccinations with BoNT/Hc antigens resulted in increased survival rates at the toxin challenge levels used. PMID:28869522

  9. The same clade of Clostridium botulinum strains is causing avian botulism in southern and northern Europe.

    PubMed

    Anza, Ibone; Skarin, Hanna; Vidal, Dolors; Lindberg, Anna; Båverud, Viveca; Mateo, Rafael

    2014-04-01

    Avian botulism is a paralytic disease caused by Clostridium botulinum-produced botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs), most commonly of type C/D. It is a serious disease of waterbirds and poultry flocks in many countries in Europe. The objective of this study was to compare the genetic relatedness of avian C. botulinum strains isolated in Spain with strains isolated in Sweden using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Fifteen strains were isolated from Spanish waterbirds using an immunomagnetic separation technique. Isolates were characterized by PCR, and all were identified as the genospecies Clostridium novyi sensu lato and eight harboured the gene coding for the BoNT type C/D. PFGE analysis of the strains revealed four highly similar pulsotypes, out of which two contained strains from both countries. It also showed that outbreaks in wild and domestic birds can be caused by the same strains. These results support a clonal spreading of the mosaic C. botulinum type C/D through Europe and give relevant information for future epidemiological studies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Botulism challenge studies of a modified atmosphere package for fresh mussels: inoculated pack studies.

    PubMed

    Newell, C R; Ma, Li; Doyle, Michael

    2012-06-01

    A series of botulism challenge studies were performed to determine the possibility of production of botulinum toxin in mussels (Mytilus edulis) held under a commercial high-oxygen (60 to 65% O(2)), modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) condition. Spore mixtures of six strains of nonproteolytic Clostridium botulinum were introduced into mussel MAP packages receiving different packaging buffers with or without the addition of lactic acid bacteria. Dye studies and package flipping trials were conducted to ensure internalization of spores by packed mussels. Inoculated mussel packages were stored at normal (4°C) and abusive (12°C) temperatures for 21 and 13 days, respectively, which were beyond the packaged mussels' intended shelf life. Microbiological and chemical analyses were conducted at predetermined intervals (a total of five sampling times at each temperature), including total aerobic plate counts, C. botulinum counts, lactic acid bacterial counts, package headspace gas composition, pH of packaging buffer and mussel meat, and botulinum toxin assays of packaging buffer and mussel meat. Results revealed that C. botulinum inoculated in fresh mussels packed under MAP packaging did not produce toxin, even at an abusive storage temperature and when held beyond their shelf life. No evidence was found that packaging buffers or gas composition influenced the lack of botulinum toxin production in packed mussels.

  11. Type C botulism in dairy cattle from feed contaminated with a dead cat

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Galey, F.D.; Terra, R.; Walker, R.; Adaska, J.; Etchebarne, M.A.; Puschener, B.; Whitlock, R.H.; Rocke, T.E.; Willoughby, D.; Tor, E.

    2000-01-01

    Four hundred twenty-seven of 441 adult Holstein dairy cattle from a 1,200-cow dairy died over a 1-week period during early spring 1998. Affected animals were from 4 late lactation pens, one of which included the bull string. Signs included weakness, recumbency, watery diarrhea, and death. Eighty animals from the 4 pens were dead approximately 8 hours after the first ill cows were noted. Affected cows would collapse on stimulation and extend all 4 limbs with moderate rigidity. Several lacked lingual tonus and had abdominal breathing patterns. The animals had been fed a load of total mixed ration that included a rotten bale of oat hay containing a dead cat. No common toxicants were identified, and pathologic examination revealed no consistent lesions. Testing of tissue from the cat carcass found in the feed sample using mouse protection bioassay identified the presence of type C botulinum toxin. Samples of feed, tissue from affected animals, cat tissue from feed, milk, and serum were also tested using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) specific for type C botulinum. Two samples of rumen contents were tested and found to be positive for botulism by ELISA, and 1 of 3 liver samples had a weak positive finding. No botulinum toxin was found in milk or sera using the ELISA.

  12. Waterfowl botulism--a brief summary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pearson, G.; Jensen, W.

    1994-01-01

    If toxin production cannot be controlled by reducing the quantity of suitable media, another step is to prevent the ingestion of the toxic food items. Birds may be chased or lured from areas of toxin source or areas can be made less attractive by rapid and complete drainage, or draw down to a stable shoreline, where wind flooding does not occur. Removal of vertebrate carcasses, especially those of birds dying during the outbreak, reduces the availability of toxic maggots but carcass removal must be carried out frequently and diligently.Prevention of the effects of the toxin can be accomplished in some instances. Some degree of active immunity can be produced by injections of specific toxoi

  13. Research and Preparation of an Equine Heptavalent Botulinal Antitoxin

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-02-01

    Equine Heptavalent Botulinal Antitoxin". Hyperimmune plasma was obtained by plasmapheresis of two Army horses : a thoroughbred, First Flight, and a black...4x1. II. Materials and Methods A. Immunization of Horses For the purpose of producing equine heptavalent botulInum antitoxin, two horses were...Minnesota these horses were fed specially formulated high protein grain pellets and also a daily ration of hay. Routine health care maintainance, including

  14. Foodborne botulinum type E intoxication associated with dried bean curd: first case report in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Lai, Lung-Shiang; Wang, Yi-Mei; Lin, Chin-Hsien

    2011-06-01

    Botulism type E intoxication is a rare condition among human botulism. We aim to describe a first case of botulism type E intoxication in Taiwan. We report a 36-year-old young man with foodborne botulism type E associated with commercially vacuum packaged dried bean curd. He developed bilateral ptosis, diplopia and dysphagia 4 days after taking the dried bean curd. Electrophysiologic findings demonstrated waxing responses to 3 Hz repetitive nerve stimulation and decreased compound muscle action potentials on peripheral nerve conduction study. A bioassay for botulism in mice demonstrated that the patient had botulism caused by type E botulinum toxin. Antibodeis to C. botulinum type E were identified from his serum, confirming the diagnosis. This is the first known case of foodborne type E botulism in Taiwan. The potential source of this foodborne botulism should consider contaminated food made of soy beans.

  15. Immune response

    MedlinePlus

    Innate immunity; Humoral immunity; Cellular immunity; Immunity; Inflammatory response; Acquired (adaptive) immunity ... normal and usually does not react against them. INNATE IMMUNITY Innate, or nonspecific, immunity is the defense ...

  16. Testicular defense systems: immune privilege and innate immunity

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Shutao; Zhu, Weiwei; Xue, Shepu; Han, Daishu

    2014-01-01

    The mammalian testis possesses a special immunological environment because of its properties of remarkable immune privilege and effective local innate immunity. Testicular immune privilege protects immunogenic germ cells from systemic immune attack, and local innate immunity is important in preventing testicular microbial infections. The breakdown of local testicular immune homeostasis may lead to orchitis, an etiological factor of male infertility. The mechanisms underlying testicular immune privilege have been investigated for a long time. Increasing evidence shows that both a local immunosuppressive milieu and systemic immune tolerance are involved in maintaining testicular immune privilege status. The mechanisms underlying testicular innate immunity are emerging based on the investigation of the pattern recognition receptor-mediated innate immune response in testicular cells. This review summarizes our current understanding of testicular defense mechanisms and identifies topics that merit further investigation. PMID:24954222

  17. BOTULISM. STUDIES ON THE MANNER IN WHICH THE TOXIN OF CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM ACTS UPON THE BODY

    PubMed Central

    Dickson, Ernest C.; Shevky, Richard

    1923-01-01

    A survey of the results of these experiments shows, we believe conclusively, that in botulinus intoxication in cats, dogs, and rabbits there is a specific effect upon the portions of the autonomic nervous system which Gaskell (14) described as the bulbosacral and prosomatic outflows of connector fibers respectively, which results in a blocking of the nerve impulses of these nerves. The experimental as well as the clinical evidence indicates that there is no damage to the nerves of the thoracicolumbar outflow. The exact location of the damage has not been ascertained nor has the mechanism by which the nerve impulse is blocked been determined. The experiments show, however, that the lesions in these portions of the nervous system are not of central distribution but are peripheral, and that the block cannot be due to an organic break in the conduction apparatus but must be due to some derangement which is relatively unstable. If it were otherwise it would not be possible to induce a physiological response even by massive stimulation, nor could the response be subsequently repeated by stimuli which lie within the limits of normal intensity. The application of the results of these experiments to the clinical manifestations of botulism will be discussed in a later report after the effect of the toxin upon the skeletal motor nerves has been described. PMID:19868755

  18. Descending polyneuropathy in an intravenous drug user.

    PubMed

    O'Sullivan, Jean M; McMahon, Geraldine

    2005-10-01

    A 27-year-old male intravenous drug user presented to the Emergency Department of St James's Hospital with a 1-week history of progressive dysphasia, dysphagia and difficulty 'holding his head up' and 'keeping his eyes open'. He also complained of increasing weakness in his upper limbs, as a result of which he kept dropping things. He was on a methadone program but was using both intravenous heroin and cocaine at the time of presentation. Examination of his motor function revealed generalized hypotonia, hyporeflexia and reduced power in both upper limbs. No sensory loss was observed. Co-ordination was intact. The clinical picture of a proximal symmetrical descending weakness and an absence of sensory loss was suggestive of botulism. Clostridium botulinum is a spore-forming, obligate anaerobe. The three forms of human botulism are food-borne, wound and intestinal. A fourth man-made form is produced from aerosolized botulinum toxin and results in inhalational botulism. A little as 1 g of aerosolized botulinum toxin has the potential to kill 1.5 million people. Toxin is detected in serum or stool specimens in only approximately 46% of clinically diagnosed cases. Treatment involves supportive care and early passive immunization with equine antitoxin. Patients should be regularly assessed for loss of gag and cough reflex, control of oropharyngeal secretions, oxygen saturation, vital capacity and inspiratory force. When respiratory function begins to deteriorate, anticipatory intubation is indicated. Early symptom recognition and early treatment with antitoxin are essential in order to prevent mortality, and to prevent additional cases, it is important to ascertain the presence of similar symptoms in contacts of the patient and local public health officials must be notified as one case may herald an outbreak. Given the continued threat of bioterrorism, the Centre for Disease Control Surveillance System in the United States must also be notified of any cases of botulism.

  19. Maternal immunity enhances systemic recall immune responses upon oral immunization of piglets with F4 fimbriae.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Ut V; Melkebeek, Vesna; Devriendt, Bert; Goetstouwers, Tiphanie; Van Poucke, Mario; Peelman, Luc; Goddeeris, Bruno M; Cox, Eric

    2015-06-23

    F4 enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) cause diarrhoea and mortality in piglets leading to severe economic losses. Oral immunization of piglets with F4 fimbriae induces a protective intestinal immune response evidenced by an F4-specific serum and intestinal IgA response. However, successful oral immunization of pigs with F4 fimbriae in the presence of maternal immunity has not been demonstrated yet. In the present study we aimed to evaluate the effect of maternal immunity on the induction of a systemic immune response upon oral immunization of piglets. Whereas F4-specific IgG and IgA could be induced by oral immunization of pigs without maternal antibodies and by intramuscular immunization of pigs with maternal antibodies, no such response was seen in the orally immunized animals with maternal antibodies. Since maternal antibodies can mask an antibody response, we also looked by ELIspot assays for circulating F4-specific antibody secreting cells (ASCs). Enumerating the F4-specific ASCs within the circulating peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and the number of F4-specific IgA ASCs within the circulating IgA(+) B-cells revealed an F4-specific immune response in the orally immunized animals with maternal antibodies. Interestingly, results suggest a more robust IgA booster response by oral immunization of pigs with than without maternal antibodies. These results demonstrate that oral immunization of piglets with F4-specific maternal antibodies is feasible and that these maternal antibodies seem to enhance the secondary systemic immune response. Furthermore, our ELIspot assay on enriched IgA(+) B-cells could be used as a screening procedure to optimize mucosal immunization protocols in pigs with maternal immunity.

  20. U.S. Immunization program adult immunization activities and resources.

    PubMed

    Woods, LaDora O; Bridges, Carolyn B; Graitcer, Samuel B; Lamont, Brock

    2016-04-02

    Adults are recommended to receive vaccines based on their age, medical conditions, prior vaccinations, occupation and lifestyle. However, adult immunization coverage is low in the United States and lags substantially below Healthy People 2020 goals. To assess activities and resources designated for adult immunization programs by state and local health department immunization programs in the United States, we analyzed 2012 and 2013 data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) Program Annual Reports and Progress Assessments (PAPA) survey of CDC-funded immunization programs. Fifty-six of 64 funded US immunization programs' responses were included in the analysis. Eighty-two percent of (n = 46) programs reported having a designated adult immunization coordinator in 2012 and 73% (n = 41) in 2013. Of the 46 coordinators reported in 2012, 30% (n = 14) spent more than 50% of their time on adult immunization activities, and only 24% (n = 10) of the 41 adult coordinators in 2013 spent more than 50% of their time on adult immunization activities. In 2012, 23% (n = 13) of the 56 programs had a separate immunization coalition for adults and 68% (n = 38) included adult issues in their overall immunization program coalition. In 2013, 25% (n = 14) had a separate adult immunization coalition while 57% (n = 32) incorporated adult immunizations into their overall immunization program coalition. The results indicate substantial variation across the US in public health infrastructure to support adult immunizations. Continued assessment of adult immunization resources and activities will be important in improving adult immunization coverage levels though program support. With many programs having limited resources dedicated to improving adult immunization rates in the in US, efforts by the health departments to collaborate with providers and other partners in their jurisdictions to increase awareness, increase the use of proven strategies to improve vaccination of

  1. U.S. Immunization program adult immunization activities and resources

    PubMed Central

    Woods, LaDora O.; Bridges, Carolyn B.; Graitcer, Samuel B.; Lamont, Brock

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Adults are recommended to receive vaccines based on their age, medical conditions, prior vaccinations, occupation and lifestyle. However, adult immunization coverage is low in the United States and lags substantially below Healthy People 2020 goals. To assess activities and resources designated for adult immunization programs by state and local health department immunization programs in the United States, we analyzed 2012 and 2013 data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) Program Annual Reports and Progress Assessments (PAPA) survey of CDC-funded immunization programs. Fifty-six of 64 funded US immunization programs' responses were included in the analysis. Eighty-two percent of (n = 46) programs reported having a designated adult immunization coordinator in 2012 and 73% (n = 41) in 2013. Of the 46 coordinators reported in 2012, 30% (n = 14) spent more than 50% of their time on adult immunization activities, and only 24% (n = 10) of the 41 adult coordinators in 2013 spent more than 50% of their time on adult immunization activities. In 2012, 23% (n = 13) of the 56 programs had a separate immunization coalition for adults and 68% (n = 38) included adult issues in their overall immunization program coalition. In 2013, 25% (n = 14) had a separate adult immunization coalition while 57% (n = 32) incorporated adult immunizations into their overall immunization program coalition. The results indicate substantial variation across the US in public health infrastructure to support adult immunizations. Continued assessment of adult immunization resources and activities will be important in improving adult immunization coverage levels though program support. With many programs having limited resources dedicated to improving adult immunization rates in the in US, efforts by the health departments to collaborate with providers and other partners in their jurisdictions to increase awareness, increase the use of proven strategies to improve

  2. Development and Validation of a New Reliable Method for the Diagnosis of Avian Botulism.

    PubMed

    Le Maréchal, Caroline; Rouxel, Sandra; Ballan, Valentine; Houard, Emmanuelle; Poezevara, Typhaine; Bayon-Auboyer, Marie-Hélène; Souillard, Rozenn; Morvan, Hervé; Baudouard, Marie-Agnès; Woudstra, Cédric; Mazuet, Christelle; Le Bouquin, Sophie; Fach, Patrick; Popoff, Michel; Chemaly, Marianne

    2017-01-01

    Liver is a reliable matrix for laboratory confirmation of avian botulism using real-time PCR. Here, we developed, optimized, and validated the analytical steps preceding PCR to maximize the detection of Clostridium botulinum group III in avian liver. These pre-PCR steps included enrichment incubation of the whole liver (maximum 25 g) at 37°C for at least 24 h in an anaerobic chamber and DNA extraction using an enzymatic digestion step followed by a DNA purification step. Conditions of sample storage before analysis appear to have a strong effect on the detection of group III C. botulinum strains and our results recommend storage at temperatures below -18°C. Short-term storage at 5°C is possible for up to 24 h, but a decrease in sensitivity was observed at 48 h of storage at this temperature. Analysis of whole livers (maximum 25 g) is required and pooling samples before enrichment culturing must be avoided. Pooling is however possible before or after DNA extraction under certain conditions. Whole livers should be 10-fold diluted in enrichment medium and homogenized using a Pulsifier® blender (Microgen, Surrey, UK) instead of a conventional paddle blender. Spiked liver samples showed a limit of detection of 5 spores/g liver for types C and D and 250 spores/g for type E. Using the method developed here, the analysis of 268 samples from 73 suspected outbreaks showed 100% specificity and 95.35% sensitivity compared with other PCR-based methods considered as reference. The mosaic type C/D was the most common neurotoxin type found in examined samples, which included both wild and domestic birds.

  3. Development and Validation of a New Reliable Method for the Diagnosis of Avian Botulism

    PubMed Central

    Le Maréchal, Caroline; Rouxel, Sandra; Ballan, Valentine; Houard, Emmanuelle; Poezevara, Typhaine; Bayon-Auboyer, Marie-Hélène; Souillard, Rozenn; Morvan, Hervé; Baudouard, Marie-Agnès; Woudstra, Cédric; Mazuet, Christelle; Le Bouquin, Sophie; Fach, Patrick; Popoff, Michel; Chemaly, Marianne

    2017-01-01

    Liver is a reliable matrix for laboratory confirmation of avian botulism using real-time PCR. Here, we developed, optimized, and validated the analytical steps preceding PCR to maximize the detection of Clostridium botulinum group III in avian liver. These pre-PCR steps included enrichment incubation of the whole liver (maximum 25 g) at 37°C for at least 24 h in an anaerobic chamber and DNA extraction using an enzymatic digestion step followed by a DNA purification step. Conditions of sample storage before analysis appear to have a strong effect on the detection of group III C. botulinum strains and our results recommend storage at temperatures below -18°C. Short-term storage at 5°C is possible for up to 24 h, but a decrease in sensitivity was observed at 48 h of storage at this temperature. Analysis of whole livers (maximum 25 g) is required and pooling samples before enrichment culturing must be avoided. Pooling is however possible before or after DNA extraction under certain conditions. Whole livers should be 10-fold diluted in enrichment medium and homogenized using a Pulsifier® blender (Microgen, Surrey, UK) instead of a conventional paddle blender. Spiked liver samples showed a limit of detection of 5 spores/g liver for types C and D and 250 spores/g for type E. Using the method developed here, the analysis of 268 samples from 73 suspected outbreaks showed 100% specificity and 95.35% sensitivity compared with other PCR-based methods considered as reference. The mosaic type C/D was the most common neurotoxin type found in examined samples, which included both wild and domestic birds. PMID:28076405

  4. Immunization Information System and Informatics to Promote Immunizations: Perspective From Minnesota Immunization Information Connection.

    PubMed

    Muscoplat, Miriam Halstead; Rajamani, Sripriya

    2017-01-01

    The vision for management of immunization information is availability of real-time consolidated data and services for all ages, to clinical, public health, and other stakeholders. This is being executed through Immunization Information Systems (IISs), which are population-based and confidential computerized systems present in most US states and territories. Immunization Information Systems offer many functionalities, such as immunization assessment reports, client follow-up, reminder/recall feature, vaccine management tools, state-supplied vaccine ordering, comprehensive immunization history, clinical decision support/vaccine forecasting and recommendations, data processing, and data exchange. This perspective article will present various informatics tools in an IIS, in the context of the Minnesota Immunization Information Connection.

  5. How do plants achieve immunity? Defence without specialized immune cells.

    PubMed

    Spoel, Steven H; Dong, Xinnian

    2012-01-25

    Vertebrates have evolved a sophisticated adaptive immune system that relies on an almost infinite diversity of antigen receptors that are clonally expressed by specialized immune cells that roam the circulatory system. These immune cells provide vertebrates with extraordinary antigen-specific immune capacity and memory, while minimizing self-reactivity. Plants, however, lack specialized mobile immune cells. Instead, every plant cell is thought to be capable of launching an effective immune response. So how do plants achieve specific, self-tolerant immunity and establish immune memory? Recent developments point towards a multilayered plant innate immune system comprised of self-surveillance, systemic signalling and chromosomal changes that together establish effective immunity.

  6. Immunotherapy for Infectious Diseases: Past, Present, and Future.

    PubMed

    Manohar, Akshay; Ahuja, Jasmine; Crane, John K

    2015-01-01

    Passive immunotherapy for established infections, as opposed to active immunization to prevent disease, remains a tiny niche in the world of antimicrobial therapies. Many of the passive immunotherapies currently available are directed against bacterial toxins, such as botulism, or are intended for agents of bioterrorism such as anthrax, which fortunately has remained rare. The emergence of Ebola virus and multi-drug resistant pathogens, however, may breathe new life into the immunotherapy field as researchers seek non-antibiotic interventions for infectious diseases.

  7. [Intoxication of botulinum toxin].

    PubMed

    Chudzicka, Aleksandra

    2015-09-01

    Botulinum toxin is an egzotoxin produced by Gram positive bacteria Clostridium botulinum. It is among the most potent toxins known. The 3 main clinical presentations of botulism are as follows: foodborne botulism, infant botulism and wound botulism. The main symptom of intoxication is flat muscles paralysis. The treatment is supportive care and administration of antitoxin. In prevention the correct preparing of canned food is most important. Botulinum toxin is accepted as a biological weapon. © 2015 MEDPRESS.

  8. Impact of pharmacists providing immunizations on adolescent influenza immunization.

    PubMed

    Robison, Steve G

    2016-01-01

    To determine if the Oregon law change in 2011 to allow pharmacists to immunize adolescents 11 to 17 years of age increased influenza immunizations or changed existing immunization venues. With the use of Oregon's ALERT Immunization Information System (IIS), 2 measures of impact were developed. First, the change in adolescent age 11-17 influenza immunizations before (2007-2010) and after (2011-2014) the pharmacy law change was evaluated against a reference cohort (aged 7-10) not affected by the law. Community pharmacies were also compared with other types of influenza immunization sites within one of the study influenza seasons (2013-2014). From 2007 to 2014, adolescent influenza immunizations at community pharmacies increased from 36 to 6372 per year. After the 2011 pharmacy law change, adolescents aged 11 to 17 were more likely to receive an influenza immunization compared with the reference population (odds ratio, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.19-1.22). Analysis of the 2013-2014 influenza season suggests that community pharmacies immunized a different population of adolescents than other providers. The 2011 change in Oregon law allowed pharmacists to increase the total of influenza immunizations given to adolescents. Copyright © 2016 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Integrated Immune

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crucian, Brian; Mehta, Satish; Stowe, Raymond; Uchakin, Peter; Quiriarte, Heather; Pierson, Duane; Sams, Clarnece

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the program to replace several recent studies about astronaut immune systems with one comprehensive study that will include in-flight sampling. The study will address lack of in-flight data to determine the inflight status of immune systems, physiological stress, viral immunity, to determine the clinical risk related to immune dysregulation for exploration class spaceflight, and to determine the appropriate monitoring strategy for spaceflight-associated immune dysfunction, that could be used for the evaluation of countermeasures.

  10. Assessing immune competence in pigs by immunization with tetanus toxoid.

    PubMed

    Gimsa, U; Tuchscherer, A; Gimsa, J; Tuchscherer, M

    2018-01-01

    Immune competence can be tested by challenging organisms with a set of infectious agents. However, disease control requirements impose restrictions on the infliction of infections upon domestic pigs. Alternatively, vaccinations induce detectable immune responses that reflect immune competence. Here, we tested this approach with tetanus toxoid (TT) in young domestic pigs. To optimize the vaccination protocol, we immunized the pigs with a commercial TT vaccine at the age of 21 or 35 days. Booster immunizations were performed either 14 or 21 days later. TT-specific antibodies in plasma as well as lymphoproliferative responses were determined both 7 and 14 days after booster immunization using ELISA and lymphocyte transformation tests, respectively. In addition, general IgG and IgM plasma concentrations and mitogen-induced proliferation were measured. The highest TT-specific antibody responses were detected when blood samples were collected 1 week after a booster immunization conducted 21 days after primary immunization. The pigs' age at primary immunization did not have a significant influence on TT-specific antibody responses. Similarly, the TT-specific proliferative responses were highest when blood samples were collected 1 week after booster immunization, while age and time of primary and booster immunization were irrelevant in our setup. While general IgG and IgM plasma levels were highly age dependent, there were no significant age effects for TT-specific immune responses. In addition, mitogen-induced proliferation was independent of immunization as well as blood sampling protocols. In summary, our model of TT vaccination provides an interesting approach for the assessment of immune competence in young pigs. The detected vaccination effects were not biased by age, even though our data were acquired from immune systems that were under development during our tests.

  11. A novel strategy for development of recombinant antitoxin therapeutics tested in a mouse botulism model.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Jean; Tremblay, Jacqueline M; Leysath, Clinton E; Ofori, Kwasi; Baldwin, Karen; Feng, Xiaochuan; Bedenice, Daniela; Webb, Robert P; Wright, Patrick M; Smith, Leonard A; Tzipori, Saul; Shoemaker, Charles B

    2012-01-01

    Antitoxins are needed that can be produced economically with improved safety and shelf life compared to conventional antisera-based therapeutics. Here we report a practical strategy for development of simple antitoxin therapeutics with substantial advantages over currently available treatments. The therapeutic strategy employs a single recombinant 'targeting agent' that binds a toxin at two unique sites and a 'clearing Ab' that binds two epitopes present on each targeting agent. Co-administration of the targeting agent and the clearing Ab results in decoration of the toxin with up to four Abs to promote accelerated clearance. The therapeutic strategy was applied to two Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) serotypes and protected mice from lethality in two different intoxication models with an efficacy equivalent to conventional antitoxin serum. Targeting agents were a single recombinant protein consisting of a heterodimer of two camelid anti-BoNT heavy-chain-only Ab V(H) (VHH) binding domains and two E-tag epitopes. The clearing mAb was an anti-E-tag mAb. By comparing the in vivo efficacy of treatments that employed neutralizing vs. non-neutralizing agents or the presence vs. absence of clearing Ab permitted unprecedented insight into the roles of toxin neutralization and clearance in antitoxin efficacy. Surprisingly, when a post-intoxication treatment model was used, a toxin-neutralizing heterodimer agent fully protected mice from intoxication even in the absence of clearing Ab. Thus a single, easy-to-produce recombinant protein was as efficacious as polyclonal antiserum in a clinically-relevant mouse model of botulism. This strategy should have widespread application in antitoxin development and other therapies in which neutralization and/or accelerated clearance of a serum biomolecule can offer therapeutic benefit.

  12. Integrated Circuit Immunity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sketoe, J. G.; Clark, Anthony

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a DOD E3 program overview on integrated circuit immunity. The topics include: 1) EMI Immunity Testing; 2) Threshold Definition; 3) Bias Tee Function; 4) Bias Tee Calibration Set-Up; 5) EDM Test Figure; 6) EMI Immunity Levels; 7) NAND vs. and Gate Immunity; 8) TTL vs. LS Immunity Levels; 9) TP vs. OC Immunity Levels; 10) 7805 Volt Reg Immunity; and 11) Seventies Chip Set. This paper is presented in viewgraph form.

  13. Immunization Program

    Science.gov Websites

    Department home page Immunizations Search: Search Toggle navigation Medical Services Disease Control Facebook Contacts CoverageRates Diseases Immunization Homepage Immunization Honor Roll HPV NDIIS Medical Providers

  14. Integrated Immune Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crucian, Brian

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews NASA's Integrated Immune Experiment. The objectives include: 1) Address significant lack of data regarding immune status during flight; 2) Replace several recent immune studies with one comprehensive study that will include in-flight sampling; 3) Determine the in-flight status of immunity, physiological stress, viral immunity/reactivation; 4) Determine the clinical risk related to immune dysregulation for exploration class spaceflight; and 5) Determine the appropriate monitoring strategy for spaceflight-associated immune dysfunction, that could be used for the evaluation of countermeasures.

  15. Addressing immunization registry population inflation in adolescent immunization rates.

    PubMed

    Robison, Steve G

    2015-01-01

    While U.S. adolescent immunization rates are available annually at national and state levels, finding pockets of need may require county or sub-county information. Immunization information systems (IISs) are one tool for assessing local immunization rates. However, the presence of IIS records dating back to early childhood and challenges in capturing mobility out of IIS areas typically leads to denominator inflation. We examined the feasibility of weighting adolescent immunization records by length of time since last report to produce more accurate county adolescent counts and immunization rates. We compared weighted and unweighted adolescent denominators from the Oregon ALERT IIS, along with county-level Census Bureau estimates, with school enrollment counts from Oregon's annual review of seventh-grade school immunization compliance for public and private schools. Adolescent immunization rates calculated using weighted data, for the state as a whole, were also checked against comparable National Immunization Survey (NIS) rates. Weighting individual records by the length of time since last activity substantially improved the fit of IIS data to county populations for adolescents. A nonlinear logarithmic (ogive) weight produced the best fit to the school count data of all examined estimates. Overall, the ogive weighted results matched NIS adolescent rates for Oregon. The problem of mobility-inflated counts of teenagers can be addressed by weighting individual records based on time since last immunization. Well-populated IISs can rely on their own data to produce adolescent immunization rates and find pockets of need.

  16. Measuring polio immunity to plan immunization activities.

    PubMed

    Voorman, Arend; Lyons, Hil M

    2016-11-21

    The Global Polio Eradication Initiative is closer than ever to achieving a polio-free world. Immunization activities must still be carried out in non-endemic countries to maintain population immunity at levels which will stop poliovirus from spreading if it is re-introduced from still-infected areas. In areas where there is no active transmission of poliovirus, programs must rely on surrogate indicators of population immunity to determine the appropriate immunization activities, typically caregiver-reported vaccination history obtained from non-polio acute flaccid paralysis patients identified through polio surveillance. We used regression models to examine the relationship between polio vaccination campaigns and caregiver-reported polio vaccination history. We find that in many countries, vaccination campaigns have a surprisingly weak impact on these commonly used indicators. We conclude that alternative criteria and data, such as routine immunization indicators from vaccination records or household surveys, should be considered for planning polio vaccination campaigns, and that validation of such surrogate indicators is necessary if they are to be used as the basis for program planning and risk assessment. We recommend that the GPEI and similar organizations consider or continue devoting additional resources to rigorously study population immunity and campaign effectiveness in at-risk countries. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. The flip side of immune surveillance: immune dependency.

    PubMed

    Prehn, Richmond T; Prehn, Liisa M

    2008-04-01

    The growths of many and perhaps all tumors may be stimulated rather than inhibited by a quantitatively low level of immunity. The reason tumors have antigens may be that tumors do not develop in vivo in the absence of at least a minimal immune reaction; in this sense, cancer may be considered an autoimmune disease. This review, based largely on the work of our own laboratory, outlines the data showing that the titration of anti-tumor immunity exhibits the phenomenon of hormesis, i.e. the dose-response curve is non-linear such that low levels of immunity are generally stimulatory but larger quantities of the same immune reactants may inhibit tumor growth. Evidence is also reviewed that suggests that the immune response may vary qualitatively and quantitatively during progression, such that there seems to be, during oncogenesis, a very low level of immune reaction that aids initial tumor growth, followed by a larger reaction that may cause remission of early neoplasms, followed, if the neoplasm survives, by a relative immunologic tolerance to the tumor that may be dependent, at least in part, on suppressor cells. This knowledge may help to explain some clinical observations concerning the relationships among tumor types and the organ distribution of metastases.

  18. Chronic Clostridium botulinum infections in farmers.

    PubMed

    Rodloff, Arne C; Krüger, Monika

    2012-04-01

    Although botulism is usually an acute, often lethal disease that is caused by the ingestion of botulinum neurotoxin, there are also recognized forms like infant botulism, wound botulism, or "botulism of undefined origin" that are characterized by the fact that Clostridium botulinum colonizes the host and produces its toxin in the host. Evidence is presented here that a disease in cattle and in human care takers of diseased animals that has evolved over the past two decades, may be a chronic, visceral form of C. botulinum infection. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Immunizations challenge healthcare personnel and affects immunization rates.

    PubMed

    Strohfus, Pamela K; Kim, Susan C; Palma, Sara; Duke, Russell A; Remington, Richard; Roberts, Caleb

    2017-02-01

    This study measured 1. medical office immunization rates and 2. health care personnel competency in managing vaccine practices before and after evidence-based immunization education was provided. This descriptive study compared 32 family medicine and pediatric offices and 178 medical assistants, licensed practical nurses, registered nurses, nurse practitioners, and physicians in knowledge-based testing pre-education, post-education, and 12-months post-education. Immunization rates were assessed before and 18-months post-education. Immunization rates increased 10.3% - 18months post-education; knowledge increased 7.8% - 12months post-education. Family medicine offices, licensed practical nurses, and medical assistants showed significant knowledge deficits before and 12-months post-education. All demographic groups scored less in storage/handling 12-months post-education. This study is one of the first studies to identify competency challenges in effective immunization delivery among medical assistants, licensed practical nurses, and family medicine offices. Formal and continuous education in immunization administration and storage/handling is recommended among these select groups. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Toll immune signal activates cellular immune response via eicosanoids.

    PubMed

    Shafeeq, Tahir; Ahmed, Shabbir; Kim, Yonggyun

    2018-07-01

    Upon immune challenge, insects recognize nonself. The recognition signal will propagate to nearby immune effectors. It is well-known that Toll signal pathway induces antimicrobial peptide (AMP) gene expression. Eicosanoids play crucial roles in mediating the recognition signal to immune effectors by enhancing humoral immune response through activation of AMP synthesis as well as cellular immune responses, suggesting a functional cross-talk between Toll and eicosanoid signals. This study tested a cross-talk between these two signals. Two signal transducing factors (MyD88 and Pelle) of Toll immune pathway were identified in Spodoptera exigua. RNA interference (RNAi) of either SeMyD88 or SePelle expression interfered with the expression of AMP genes under Toll signal pathway. Bacterial challenge induced PLA 2 enzyme activity. However, RNAi of these two immune factors significantly suppressed the induction of PLA 2 enzyme activity. Furthermore, RNAi treatment prevented gene expression of cellular PLA 2 . Inhibition of PLA 2 activity reduced phenoloxidase activity and subsequent suppression in cellular immune response measured by hemocyte nodule formation. However, immunosuppression induced by RNAi of Toll signal molecules was significantly reversed by addition of arachidonic acid (AA), a catalytic product of PLA 2 . The addition also significantly reduced the enhanced fungal susceptibility of S. exigua treated by RNAi against two Toll signal molecules. These results indicate that there is a cross-talk between Toll and eicosanoid signals in insect immunity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Control of adaptive immunity by the innate immune system.

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, Akiko; Medzhitov, Ruslan

    2015-04-01

    Microbial infections are recognized by the innate immune system both to elicit immediate defense and to generate long-lasting adaptive immunity. To detect and respond to vastly different groups of pathogens, the innate immune system uses several recognition systems that rely on sensing common structural and functional features associated with different classes of microorganisms. These recognition systems determine microbial location, viability, replication and pathogenicity. Detection of these features by recognition pathways of the innate immune system is translated into different classes of effector responses though specialized populations of dendritic cells. Multiple mechanisms for the induction of immune responses are variations on a common design principle wherein the cells that sense infections produce one set of cytokines to induce lymphocytes to produce another set of cytokines, which in turn activate effector responses. Here we discuss these emerging principles of innate control of adaptive immunity.

  2. Immunity by equilibrium.

    PubMed

    Eberl, Gérard

    2016-08-01

    The classical model of immunity posits that the immune system reacts to pathogens and injury and restores homeostasis. Indeed, a century of research has uncovered the means and mechanisms by which the immune system recognizes danger and regulates its own activity. However, this classical model does not fully explain complex phenomena, such as tolerance, allergy, the increased prevalence of inflammatory pathologies in industrialized nations and immunity to multiple infections. In this Essay, I propose a model of immunity that is based on equilibrium, in which the healthy immune system is always active and in a state of dynamic equilibrium between antagonistic types of response. This equilibrium is regulated both by the internal milieu and by the microbial environment. As a result, alteration of the internal milieu or microbial environment leads to immune disequilibrium, which determines tolerance, protective immunity and inflammatory pathology.

  3. Trained immunity: a program of innate immune memory in health and disease

    PubMed Central

    Netea, Mihai G.; Joosten, Leo A.B.; Latz, Eicke; Mills, Kingston H.G.; Natoli, Gioacchino; Stunnenberg, Hendrik G.; O’Neill, Luke A.J.; Xavier, Ramnik J.

    2016-01-01

    The general view that only adaptive immunity can build immunological memory has recently been challenged. In organisms lacking adaptive immunity as well as in mammals, the innate immune system can mount resistance to reinfection, a phenomenon termed trained immunity or innate immune memory. Trained immunity is orchestrated by epigenetic reprogramming, broadly defined as sustained changes in gene expression and cell physiology that do not involve permanent genetic changes such as mutations and recombination, which are essential for adaptive immunity. The discovery of trained immunity may open the door for novel vaccine approaches, for new therapeutic strategies for the treatment of immune deficiency states, and for modulation of exaggerated inflammation in autoinflammatory diseases. PMID:27102489

  4. A Novel Strategy for Development of Recombinant Antitoxin Therapeutics Tested in a Mouse Botulism Model

    PubMed Central

    Leysath, Clinton E.; Ofori, Kwasi; Baldwin, Karen; Feng, Xiaochuan; Bedenice, Daniela; Webb, Robert P.; Wright, Patrick M.; Smith, Leonard A.; Tzipori, Saul; Shoemaker, Charles B.

    2012-01-01

    Antitoxins are needed that can be produced economically with improved safety and shelf life compared to conventional antisera-based therapeutics. Here we report a practical strategy for development of simple antitoxin therapeutics with substantial advantages over currently available treatments. The therapeutic strategy employs a single recombinant ‘targeting agent’ that binds a toxin at two unique sites and a ‘clearing Ab’ that binds two epitopes present on each targeting agent. Co-administration of the targeting agent and the clearing Ab results in decoration of the toxin with up to four Abs to promote accelerated clearance. The therapeutic strategy was applied to two Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) serotypes and protected mice from lethality in two different intoxication models with an efficacy equivalent to conventional antitoxin serum. Targeting agents were a single recombinant protein consisting of a heterodimer of two camelid anti-BoNT heavy-chain-only Ab VH (VHH) binding domains and two E-tag epitopes. The clearing mAb was an anti-E-tag mAb. By comparing the in vivo efficacy of treatments that employed neutralizing vs. non-neutralizing agents or the presence vs. absence of clearing Ab permitted unprecedented insight into the roles of toxin neutralization and clearance in antitoxin efficacy. Surprisingly, when a post-intoxication treatment model was used, a toxin-neutralizing heterodimer agent fully protected mice from intoxication even in the absence of clearing Ab. Thus a single, easy-to-produce recombinant protein was as efficacious as polyclonal antiserum in a clinically-relevant mouse model of botulism. This strategy should have widespread application in antitoxin development and other therapies in which neutralization and/or accelerated clearance of a serum biomolecule can offer therapeutic benefit. PMID:22238680

  5. Immune evasion, immunopathology and the regulation of the immune system.

    PubMed

    Sorci, Gabriele; Cornet, Stéphane; Faivre, Bruno

    2013-02-13

    Costs and benefits of the immune response have attracted considerable attention in the last years among evolutionary biologists. Given the cost of parasitism, natural selection should favor individuals with the most effective immune defenses. Nevertheless, there exists huge variation in the expression of immune effectors among individuals. To explain this apparent paradox, it has been suggested that an over-reactive immune system might be too costly, both in terms of metabolic resources and risks of immune-mediated diseases, setting a limit to the investment into immune defenses. Here, we argue that this view neglects one important aspect of the interaction: the role played by evolving pathogens. We suggest that taking into account the co-evolutionary interactions between the host immune system and the parasitic strategies to overcome the immune response might provide a better picture of the selective pressures that shape the evolution of immune functioning. Integrating parasitic strategies of host exploitation can also contribute to understand the seemingly contradictory results that infection can enhance, but also protect from, autoimmune diseases. In the last decades, the incidence of autoimmune disorders has dramatically increased in wealthy countries of the northern hemisphere with a concomitant decrease of most parasitic infections. Experimental work on model organisms has shown that this pattern may be due to the protective role of certain parasites (i.e., helminths) that rely on the immunosuppression of hosts for their persistence. Interestingly, although parasite-induced immunosuppression can protect against autoimmunity, it can obviously favor the spread of other infections. Therefore, we need to think about the evolution of the immune system using a multidimensional trade-off involving immunoprotection, immunopathology and the parasitic strategies to escape the immune response.

  6. Universal immunity to influenza must outwit immune evasion

    PubMed Central

    Quiñones-Parra, Sergio; Loh, Liyen; Brown, Lorena E.; Kedzierska, Katherine; Valkenburg, Sophie A.

    2014-01-01

    Although an influenza vaccine has been available for 70 years, influenza virus still causes seasonal epidemics and worldwide pandemics. Currently available vaccines elicit strain-specific antibody (Ab) responses to the surface haemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) proteins, but these can be ineffective against serologically-distinct viral variants and novel subtypes. Thus, there is a great need for cross-protective or “universal” influenza vaccines to overcome the necessity for annual immunization against seasonal influenza and to provide immunity to reduce the severity of infection with pandemic or outbreak viruses. It is well established that natural influenza infection can provide cross-reactive immunity that can reduce the impact of infection with distinct influenza type A strains and subtypes, including H1N1, H3N2, H2N2, H5N1, and H7N9. The key to generating universal influenza immunity through vaccination is to target functionally-conserved regions of the virus, which include epitopes on the internal proteins for cross-reactive T cell immunity or on the HA stem for broadly reactive Ab responses. In the wake of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic, broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) have been characterized and isolated from convalescent and vaccinated individuals, inspiring development of new vaccination techniques to elicit such responses. Induction of influenza-specific T cell responses through vaccination has also been recently examined in clinical trials. Strong evidence is available from human and animal models of influenza to show that established influenza-specific T cell memory can reduce viral shedding and symptom severity. However, the published evidence also shows that CD8+ T cells can efficiently select immune escape mutants early after influenza virus infection. Here, we discuss universal immunity to influenza viruses mediated by both cross-reactive T cells and Abs, the mechanisms of immune evasion in influenza, and propose how to counteract

  7. An alternative approach to combination vaccines: intradermal administration of isolated components for control of anthrax, botulism, plague and staphylococcal toxic shock

    PubMed Central

    Morefield, Garry L; Tammariello, Ralph F; Purcell, Bret K; Worsham, Patricia L; Chapman, Jennifer; Smith, Leonard A; Alarcon, Jason B; Mikszta, John A; Ulrich, Robert G

    2008-01-01

    Background Combination vaccines reduce the total number of injections required for each component administered separately and generally provide the same level of disease protection. Yet, physical, chemical, and biological interactions between vaccine components are often detrimental to vaccine safety or efficacy. Methods As a possible alternative to combination vaccines, we used specially designed microneedles to inject rhesus macaques with four separate recombinant protein vaccines for anthrax, botulism, plague and staphylococcal toxic shock next to each other just below the surface of the skin, thus avoiding potentially incompatible vaccine mixtures. Results The intradermally-administered vaccines retained potent antibody responses and were well- tolerated by rhesus macaques. Based on tracking of the adjuvant, the vaccines were transported from the dermis to draining lymph nodes by antigen-presenting cells. Vaccinated primates were completely protected from an otherwise lethal aerosol challenge by Bacillus anthracis spores, botulinum neurotoxin A, or staphylococcal enterotoxin B. Conclusion Our results demonstrated that the physical separation of vaccines both in the syringe and at the site of administration did not adversely affect the biological activity of each component. The vaccination method we describe may be scalable to include a greater number of antigens, while avoiding the physical and chemical incompatibilities encountered by combining multiple vaccines together in one product. PMID:18768085

  8. Immunity's fourth dimension: approaching the circadian-immune connection.

    PubMed

    Arjona, Alvaro; Silver, Adam C; Walker, Wendy E; Fikrig, Erol

    2012-12-01

    The circadian system ensures the generation and maintenance of self-sustained ~24-h rhythms in physiology that are linked to internal and environmental changes. In mammals, daily variations in light intensity and other cues are integrated by a hypothalamic master clock that conveys circadian information to peripheral molecular clocks that orchestrate physiology. Multiple immune parameters also vary throughout the day and disruption of circadian homeostasis is associated with immune-related disease. Here, we discuss the molecular links between the circadian and immune systems and examine their outputs and disease implications. Understanding the mechanisms that underlie circadian-immune crosstalk may prove valuable for devising novel prophylactic and therapeutic interventions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The twilight of immunity: emerging concepts in aging of the immune system.

    PubMed

    Nikolich-Žugich, Janko

    2018-01-01

    Immunosenescence is a series of age-related changes that affect the immune system and, with time, lead to increased vulnerability to infectious diseases. This Review addresses recent developments in the understanding of age-related changes that affect key components of immunity, including the effect of aging on cells of the (mostly adaptive) immune system, on soluble molecules that guide the maintenance and function of the immune system and on lymphoid organs that coordinate both the maintenance of lymphocytes and the initiation of immune responses. I further address the effect of the metagenome and exposome as key modifiers of immune-system aging and discuss a conceptual framework in which age-related changes in immunity might also affect the basic rules by which the immune system operates.

  10. Small Molecules Showing Significant Protection of Mice against Botulinum Neurotoxin Serotype A

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-13

    Botulinum neurotoxin serotype A (BoNTA) causes a life-threatening neuroparalytic disease known as botulism that could afflict large, unprotected...that is effective for treating infant botulism at a cost of US $45,300 per treatment regimen. Antibodies can neutralize the extracellular but not the...Inhibitors, Therapeutics, Antidotes, Countermeasures, Botulism , Botulinum Neurotoxins, In Vivo Study, and Mouse Protection. Yuan-Ping Pang, Jon Davis

  11. Immune modulation following immunization with polyvalent vaccines in dogs.

    PubMed

    Strasser, Alois; May, Bettina; Teltscher, Andrea; Wistrela, Eva; Niedermüller, Hans

    2003-08-15

    A decline in T-cell-mediated immunity and transient state of immunosuppression after immunization has been reported in dogs. Nevertheless, dogs are still routinely vaccinated with polyvalent live vaccines and severe disease does not generally occur. In order to investigate these effects on the canine immune system and to elucidate possible mechanisms we determined the following immune parameters in the blood of 33 clinically sound German shepherd dogs before and after standard vaccination with a polyvalent vaccine against distemper, parvovirus, viral hepatitis, leptospirosis, kennel cough and rabies: white and differential blood cell count, the serum concentrations and/or activities of IL-1, IL-2, IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, neopterin and IgG, natural killer (NK) cell activity, bactericidal activity and complement hemolytic activity, lymphocyte proliferation test (LPT) and nitroblue tetrazolium test (NBT). Our major findings were that significant postvaccinal decreases in T-cell mitogenic response to PHA and in neutrophil function and neopterin serum concentration were accompanied by simultaneous increase in plasma IgG and hemolytic complement activity. This suggests a transient shift in the balance between cell-mediated and humoral (T(H)1/T(H)2) immunity rather than immunosuppression. These results do not imply that dogs should not receive live vaccines, as the response to vaccines just seems to create a state of altered homeostasis when immunization elicits protection by humoral and cell-mediated immunity. However, these recognized compromises of immune function should be considered and vaccines still be applied only in healthy animals and strictly according to the rules and regulations given by the manufacturer.

  12. Immune-Modulating Perspectives for Low Frequency Electromagnetic Fields in Innate Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Rosado, Maria Manuela; Simkó, Myrtill; Mattsson, Mats-Olof; Pioli, Claudio

    2018-01-01

    In recent years, the effects of electromagnetic fields (EMFs) on the immune system have received a considerable interest, not only to investigate possible negative health impact but also to explore the possibility to favorably modulate immune responses. To generate beneficial responses, the immune system should eradicate pathogens while “respecting” the organism and tolerating irrelevant antigens. According to the current view, damage-associated molecules released by infected or injured cells, or secreted by innate immune cells generate danger signals activating an immune response. These signals are also relevant to the subsequent activation of homeostatic mechanisms that control the immune response in pro- or anti-inflammatory reactions, a feature that allows modulation by therapeutic treatments. In the present review, we describe and discuss the effects of extremely low frequency (ELF)-EMF and pulsed EMF on cell signals and factors relevant to the activation of danger signals and innate immunity cells. By discussing the EMF modulating effects on cell functions, we envisage the use of EMF as a therapeutic agent to regulate immune responses associated with wound healing. PMID:29632855

  13. Immune-Modulating Perspectives for Low Frequency Electromagnetic Fields in Innate Immunity.

    PubMed

    Rosado, Maria Manuela; Simkó, Myrtill; Mattsson, Mats-Olof; Pioli, Claudio

    2018-01-01

    In recent years, the effects of electromagnetic fields (EMFs) on the immune system have received a considerable interest, not only to investigate possible negative health impact but also to explore the possibility to favorably modulate immune responses. To generate beneficial responses, the immune system should eradicate pathogens while "respecting" the organism and tolerating irrelevant antigens. According to the current view, damage-associated molecules released by infected or injured cells, or secreted by innate immune cells generate danger signals activating an immune response. These signals are also relevant to the subsequent activation of homeostatic mechanisms that control the immune response in pro- or anti-inflammatory reactions, a feature that allows modulation by therapeutic treatments. In the present review, we describe and discuss the effects of extremely low frequency (ELF)-EMF and pulsed EMF on cell signals and factors relevant to the activation of danger signals and innate immunity cells. By discussing the EMF modulating effects on cell functions, we envisage the use of EMF as a therapeutic agent to regulate immune responses associated with wound healing.

  14. Immune oncology, immune responsiveness and the theory of everything.

    PubMed

    Turan, Tolga; Kannan, Deepti; Patel, Maulik; Matthew Barnes, J; Tanlimco, Sonia G; Lu, Rongze; Halliwill, Kyle; Kongpachith, Sarah; Kline, Douglas E; Hendrickx, Wouter; Cesano, Alessandra; Butterfield, Lisa H; Kaufman, Howard L; Hudson, Thomas J; Bedognetti, Davide; Marincola, Francesco; Samayoa, Josue

    2018-06-05

    Anti-cancer immunotherapy is encountering its own checkpoint. Responses are dramatic and long lasting but occur in a subset of tumors and are largely dependent upon the pre-existing immune contexture of individual cancers. Available data suggest that three landscapes best define the cancer microenvironment: immune-active, immune-deserted and immune-excluded. This trichotomy is observable across most solid tumors (although the frequency of each landscape varies depending on tumor tissue of origin) and is associated with cancer prognosis and response to checkpoint inhibitor therapy (CIT). Various gene signatures (e.g. Immunological Constant of Rejection - ICR and Tumor Inflammation Signature - TIS) that delineate these landscapes have been described by different groups. In an effort to explain the mechanisms of cancer immune responsiveness or resistance to CIT, several models have been proposed that are loosely associated with the three landscapes. Here, we propose a strategy to integrate compelling data from various paradigms into a "Theory of Everything". Founded upon this unified theory, we also propose the creation of a task force led by the Society for Immunotherapy of Cancer (SITC) aimed at systematically addressing salient questions relevant to cancer immune responsiveness and immune evasion. This multidisciplinary effort will encompass aspects of genetics, tumor cell biology, and immunology that are pertinent to the understanding of this multifaceted problem.

  15. [Plant immune system: the basal immunity].

    PubMed

    Shamraĭ, S N

    2014-01-01

    Plants have an efficient system of innate immunity which is based on the effective detection of potentially harmful microorganisms and rapid induction of defense responses. The first level of plant immunity is the basal immunity which is induced by the conserved molecular structures of microbes such as bacterial flagellins or fungal chitin, or molecules that result from the interaction of plants with pathogens, for example oligosaccharides and peptides ("danger signals"). Plants recognize these inducers through receptors localized to the plasma membrane, represented mainly receptor-like protein kinases or receptor-like proteins. Activation of the receptor by a ligand triggers a complex network of signaling events which eventually cause an array of plant defense responses to prevent further spread of the pathogen.

  16. DNA Immunization

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shixia; Lu, Shan

    2013-01-01

    DNA immunization was discovered in early 1990s and its use has been expanded from vaccine studies to a broader range of biomedical research, such as the generation of high quality polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies as research reagents. In this unit, three common DNA immunization methods are described: needle injection, electroporation and gene gun. In addition, several common considerations related to DNA immunization are discussed. PMID:24510291

  17. Cranial Neuropathies and Neuromuscular Weakness: A Case of Mistaken Identity

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Daniel Z.; King, Andrew; Kaide, Colin

    2017-01-01

    We describe a case of wound botulism initially thought to represent Miller-Fisher variant Guillain-Barré syndrome (MFS). Botulism classically presents with the so-called “four D’s” (diplopia, dysarthria, dysphagia, dry mouth) with symmetric, descending weakness. MFS presents with a triad of limb-ataxia, areflexia, and ophthalmoplegia, with variable cranial nerve and extremity involvement. The distinction can be difficult but is important as early initiation of botulinum antitoxin is associated with improved patient outcomes in cases of botulism. Furthermore, it is important to recognize intravenous drug use as a risk factor in the development of botulism, especially given an increase in injection drug use. PMID:29849352

  18. Cranial Neuropathies and Neuromuscular Weakness: A Case of Mistaken Identity.

    PubMed

    Adams, Daniel Z; King, Andrew; Kaide, Colin

    2017-08-01

    We describe a case of wound botulism initially thought to represent Miller-Fisher variant Guillain-Barré syndrome (MFS). Botulism classically presents with the so-called "four D's" (diplopia, dysarthria, dysphagia, dry mouth) with symmetric, descending weakness. MFS presents with a triad of limb-ataxia, areflexia, and ophthalmoplegia, with variable cranial nerve and extremity involvement. The distinction can be difficult but is important as early initiation of botulinum antitoxin is associated with improved patient outcomes in cases of botulism. Furthermore, it is important to recognize intravenous drug use as a risk factor in the development of botulism, especially given an increase in injection drug use.

  19. Immunization in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Gruslin, Andrée; Steben, Marc; Halperin, Scott; Money, Deborah M; Yudin, Mark H; Boucher, Marc; Cormier, Beatrice; Ogilvie, Gina; Paquet, Caroline; Steenbeek, Audrey; Van Eyk, Nancy; van Schalkwyk, Julie; Wong, Thomas

    2008-12-01

    To review the evidence and provide recommendations on immunization in pregnancy. Outcomes evaluated include effectiveness of immunization, and risks and benefits for mother and fetus. The Medline and Cochrane databases were searched for articles published up to June 2007 on the topic of immunization in pregnancy. The evidence obtained was reviewed and evaluated by the Infectious Diseases Committee of the Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada (SOGC) under the leadership of the principal authors, and recommendations were made according to guidelines developed by the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care. Implementation of the recommendations in this guideline should result in more appropriate immunization of pregnant and breastfeeding women, decreased risk of contraindicated immunization, and better disease prevention. Recommendations 1. All women of childbearing age should be evaluated for the possibility of pregnancy before immunization. (III-A) 2. Health care providers should obtain an immunization history from all women accessing prenatal care. (III-A) 3. In general, live and/or live-attenuated virus vaccines are contraindicated during pregnancy, as there is a, largely theoretical, risk to the fetus. (II-3) 4. Women who have inadvertently received immunization with live or live-attenuated vaccines during pregnancy should not be counselled to terminate the pregnancy because of a teratogenic risk. (II-2) 5. Non-pregnant women immunized with a live or live-attenuated vaccine should be counselled to delay pregnancy for at least four weeks. (III) 6. Inactivated viral vaccines, bacterial vaccines, and toxoids are considered safe in pregnancy. (II-1) 7. Women who are breastfeeding can still be immunized (passive-active immunization, live or killed vaccines). (II-1) 8. Pregnant women should be offered the influenza vaccine when pregnant during the influenza season. (II-1).

  20. Immunization Action Coalition

    MedlinePlus

    ... Email CDC: nipinfo@cdc.gov Contact: State Immunization Managers Email IAC: admin@immunize.org This page was ... STATE INFORMATION State Websites State Laws State Immunization Managers >> view all SUBSCRIBE SUPPORT IAC TECHNICALLY SPEAKING TRANSLATE ...

  1. Immune System Quiz

    MedlinePlus

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Quiz: Immune System KidsHealth / For Kids / Quiz: Immune System Print How much do you know about your immune system? Find out by taking this quiz! About Us ...

  2. Assessing barriers to immunization.

    PubMed

    Niederhauser, Victoria; Ferris, Catherine

    2016-05-03

    Parental barriers to childhood immunizations vary among countries, states and communities. There is a plethora of studies that exist to examine barriers to immunizations including many intervention studies designed to improve immunization rates in children. Often, intervention studies designed to minimize barriers and increase immunization uptake among children lack the inclusion of a standardized instrument to measure accurately parental barriers to childhood immunizations before and after interventions. The Searching for Hardships and Obstacles To Shots (SHOTS) survey is a standardized survey instrument to measure parental barriers to childhood immunizations. In several studies, the SHOTS survey has demonstrated consistent reliability and has been validated in diverse populations. The inclusion of the SHOTS survey instrument in studies to examine barriers to childhood immunization will provide researchers and clinicians with a better understanding of parents' individualized barriers to immunizations. Furthermore, use of the SHOTS survey instrument to collect information about parental barriers to immunizations can lead to targeted interventions to minimize these obstacles at the individual and community level and to help us to achieve our national, state and community childhood immunization goals.

  3. Immune Receptors and Co-receptors in Antiviral Innate Immunity in Plants.

    PubMed

    Gouveia, Bianca C; Calil, Iara P; Machado, João Paulo B; Santos, Anésia A; Fontes, Elizabeth P B

    2016-01-01

    Plants respond to pathogens using an innate immune system that is broadly divided into PTI (pathogen-associated molecular pattern- or PAMP-triggered immunity) and ETI (effector-triggered immunity). PTI is activated upon perception of PAMPs, conserved motifs derived from pathogens, by surface membrane-anchored pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). To overcome this first line of defense, pathogens release into plant cells effectors that inhibit PTI and activate effector-triggered susceptibility (ETS). Counteracting this virulence strategy, plant cells synthesize intracellular resistance (R) proteins, which specifically recognize pathogen effectors or avirulence (Avr) factors and activate ETI. These coevolving pathogen virulence strategies and plant resistance mechanisms illustrate evolutionary arms race between pathogen and host, which is integrated into the zigzag model of plant innate immunity. Although antiviral immune concepts have been initially excluded from the zigzag model, recent studies have provided several lines of evidence substantiating the notion that plants deploy the innate immune system to fight viruses in a manner similar to that used for non-viral pathogens. First, most R proteins against viruses so far characterized share structural similarity with antibacterial and antifungal R gene products and elicit typical ETI-based immune responses. Second, virus-derived PAMPs may activate PTI-like responses through immune co-receptors of plant PTI. Finally, and even more compelling, a viral Avr factor that triggers ETI in resistant genotypes has recently been shown to act as a suppressor of PTI, integrating plant viruses into the co-evolutionary model of host-pathogen interactions, the zigzag model. In this review, we summarize these important progresses, focusing on the potential significance of antiviral immune receptors and co-receptors in plant antiviral innate immunity. In light of the innate immune system, we also discuss a newly uncovered layer of

  4. Inhalational botulism in rhesus macaques exposed to botulinum neurotoxin complex serotypes A1 and B1.

    PubMed

    Sanford, Daniel C; Barnewall, Roy E; Vassar, Michelle L; Niemuth, Nancy; Metcalfe, Karen; House, Robert V; Henderson, Ian; Shearer, Jeffry D

    2010-09-01

    A recombinant botulinum vaccine (rBV A/B) is being developed for protection against inhalational intoxication with botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) complex serotype A, subtype A1 (BoNT/A1), and BoNT serotype B, subtype B1 (BoNT/B1). A critical component for evaluating rBV A/B efficacy will be the use of animal models in which the pathophysiology and dose-response relationships following aerosol exposure to well-characterized BoNT are thoroughly understood and documented. This study was designed to estimate inhaled 50% lethal doses (LD(50)) and to estimate 50% lethal exposure concentrations relative to time (LCt(50)) in rhesus macaques exposed to well-characterized BoNT/A1 and BoNT/B1. During the course of this study, clinical observations, body weights, clinical hematology results, clinical chemistry results, circulating neurotoxin levels, and telemetric parameters were documented to aid in the understanding of disease progression. The inhaled LD(50) and LCt(50) for BoNT/A1 and BoNT/B1 in rhesus macaques were determined using well-characterized challenge material. Clinical observations were consistent with the recognized pattern of botulism disease progression. A dose response was demonstrated with regard to the onset of these clinical signs for both BoNT/A1 and BoNT/B1. Dose-related changes in physiologic parameters measured by telemetry were also observed. In contrast, notable changes in body weight, hematology, and clinical chemistry parameters were not observed. Circulating levels of BoNT/B1 were detected in animals exposed to the highest levels of BoNT/B1; however, BoNT/A1 was not detected in the circulation at any aerosol exposure level. The rhesus macaque aerosol challenge model will be used for future evaluations of rBV A/B efficacy against inhalational BoNT/A1 and BoNT/B1 intoxication.

  5. Convergent and Divergent Signaling in PAMP-Triggered Immunity and Effector-Triggered Immunity.

    PubMed

    Peng, Yujun; van Wersch, Rowan; Zhang, Yuelin

    2018-04-01

    Plants use diverse immune receptors to sense pathogen attacks. Recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) by pattern recognition receptors localized on the plasma membrane leads to PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI). Detection of pathogen effectors by intracellular or plasma membrane-localized immune receptors results in effector-triggered immunity (ETI). Despite the large variations in the magnitude and duration of immune responses triggered by different PAMPs or pathogen effectors during PTI and ETI, plasma membrane-localized immune receptors activate similar downstream molecular events such as mitogen-activated protein kinase activation, oxidative burst, ion influx, and increased biosynthesis of plant defense hormones, indicating that defense signals initiated at the plasma membrane converge at later points. On the other hand, activation of ETI by immune receptors localized to the nucleus appears to be more directly associated with transcriptional regulation of defense gene expression. Here, we review recent progress in signal transductions downstream of different groups of plant immune receptors, highlighting the converging and diverging molecular events.

  6. [The effect of active immunization with Acanthamoeba culbertsoni in mice born to immune mother].

    PubMed

    Kong, H H; Seo, S A; Shin, C O; Im, K I

    1993-06-01

    Acanthamoeba culbertsoni is a pathogenic free-living amoeba causing primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAME) in human and mouse. Several reports on the immune responses in mice with this amoebic infection have been published, but the effects of transferred passive immunity on the active immunization in offspring mice have not been demonstrated. This experiment was done to observe the effect of active immunization with Acanthamoeba culbertsoni in mice born to immune mothers. Acanthamoeba culbertsoni was cultured in the CGV medium axenically. Female BALB/c mice weighing about 20g were immunized through the intraperitoneal injection of Acanthamoeba culbertsoni trophozoites 1 x 10(6) each three times at the interval of one week. Offspring mice were immunized two times. The mice were inoculated intranasally with 1 x 10(4) trophozoites under secobarbital anesthesia. There was a statistical difference in mortality between the transferred immunity group and the active immunization group. Statistical differences were not demonstrated in antibody titer between both groups. But L3T4+ T cell/Ly2+ T cell ratio was increased in the transferred immunity group more than active immunization group of the offspring mice at the age of 5 weeks. There was no differences statistically in mortality between both groups. It was recognized that active immunization in offspring mice born to immune mother could modulate the immune status according to the time of immunization.

  7. Nucleic Acid Immunity.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, G

    2017-01-01

    Organisms throughout biology need to maintain the integrity of their genome. From bacteria to vertebrates, life has established sophisticated mechanisms to detect and eliminate foreign genetic material or to restrict its function and replication. Tremendous progress has been made in the understanding of these mechanisms which keep foreign or unwanted nucleic acids from viruses or phages in check. Mechanisms reach from restriction-modification systems and CRISPR/Cas in bacteria and archaea to RNA interference and immune sensing of nucleic acids, altogether integral parts of a system which is now appreciated as nucleic acid immunity. With inherited receptors and acquired sequence information, nucleic acid immunity comprises innate and adaptive components. Effector functions include diverse nuclease systems, intrinsic activities to directly restrict the function of foreign nucleic acids (e.g., PKR, ADAR1, IFIT1), and extrinsic pathways to alert the immune system and to elicit cytotoxic immune responses. These effects act in concert to restrict viral replication and to eliminate virus-infected cells. The principles of nucleic acid immunity are highly relevant for human disease. Besides its essential contribution to antiviral defense and restriction of endogenous retroelements, dysregulation of nucleic acid immunity can also lead to erroneous detection and response to self nucleic acids then causing sterile inflammation and autoimmunity. Even mechanisms of nucleic acid immunity which are not established in vertebrates are relevant for human disease when they are present in pathogens such as bacteria, parasites, or helminths or in pathogen-transmitting organisms such as insects. This review aims to provide an overview of the diverse mechanisms of nucleic acid immunity which mostly have been looked at separately in the past and to integrate them under the framework nucleic acid immunity as a basic principle of life, the understanding of which has great potential to

  8. Mucosal Vaccination Overcomes the Barrier to Recombinant Vaccinia Immunization Caused by Preexisting Poxvirus Immunity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belyakov, Igor M.; Moss, Bernard; Strober, Warren; Berzofsky, Jay A.

    1999-04-01

    Overcoming preexisting immunity to vaccinia virus in the adult population is a key requirement for development of otherwise potent recombinant vaccinia vaccines. Based on our observation that s.c. immunization with vaccinia induces cellular and antibody immunity to vaccinia only in systemic lymphoid tissue and not in mucosal sites, we hypothesized that the mucosal immune system remains naive to vaccinia and therefore amenable to immunization with recombinant vaccinia vectors despite earlier vaccinia exposure. We show that mucosal immunization of vaccinia-immune BALB/c mice with recombinant vaccinia expressing HIV gp160 induced specific serum antibody and strong HIV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses. These responses occurred not only in mucosal but also in systemic lymphoid tissue, whereas systemic immunization was ineffective under these circumstances. In this context, intrarectal immunization was more effective than intranasal immunization. Boosting with a second dose of recombinant vaccinia was also more effective via the mucosal route. The systemic HIV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte response was enhanced by coadministration of IL-12 at the mucosal site. These results also demonstrate the independent compartmentalization of the mucosal versus systemic immune systems and the asymmetric trafficking of lymphocytes between them. This approach to circumvent previous vaccinia immunity may be useful for induction of protective immunity against infectious diseases and cancer in the sizable populations with preexisting immunity to vaccinia from smallpox vaccination.

  9. [Immune system and tumors].

    PubMed

    Terme, Magali; Tanchot, Corinne

    2017-02-01

    Despite having been much debated, it is now well established that the immune system plays an essential role in the fight against cancer. In this article, we will highlight the implication of the immune system in the control of tumor growth and describe the major components of the immune system involved in the antitumoral immune response. The immune system, while exerting pressure on tumor cells, also will play a pro-tumoral role by sculpting the immunogenicity of tumors cells as they develop. Finally, we will illustrate the numerous mechanisms of immune suppression that take place within the tumoral microenvironment which allow tumor cells to escape control from the immune system. The increasingly precise knowledge of the brakes to an effective antitumor immune response allows the development of immunotherapy strategies more and more innovating and promising of hope. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  10. CMV immune evasion and manipulation of the immune system with aging.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Sarah E; Redeker, Anke; Arens, Ramon; van Baarle, Debbie; van den Berg, Sara P H; Benedict, Chris A; Čičin-Šain, Luka; Hill, Ann B; Wills, Mark R

    2017-06-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) encodes numerous proteins and microRNAs that function to evade the immune response and allow the virus to replicate and disseminate in the face of a competent innate and acquired immune system. The establishment of a latent infection by CMV, which if completely quiescent at the level of viral gene expression would represent an ultimate in immune evasion strategies, is not sufficient for lifelong persistence and dissemination of the virus. CMV needs to reactivate and replicate in a lytic cycle of infection in order to disseminate further, which occurs in the face of a fully primed secondary immune response. Without reactivation, latency itself would be redundant for the virus. It is also becoming clear that latency is not a totally quiescent state, but is characterized by limited viral gene expression. Therefore, the virus also needs immune evasion strategies during latency. An effective immune response to CMV is required or viral replication will cause morbidity and ultimately mortality in the host. There is clearly a complex balance between virus immune evasion and host immune recognition over a lifetime. This poses the important question of whether long-term evasion or manipulation of the immune response driven by CMV is detrimental to health. In this meeting report, three groups used the murine model of CMV (MCMV) to examine if the contribution of the virus to immune senescence is set by the (i) initial viral inoculum, (ii) inflation of T cell responses, (iii) or the balance between functionally distinct effector CD4+ T cells. The work of other groups studying the CMV response in humans is discussed. Their work asks whether the ability to make immune responses to new antigens is compromised by (i) age and HCMV carriage, (ii) long-term exposure to HCMV giving rise to an overall immunosuppressive environment and increased levels of latent virus, or (iii) adapted virus mutants (used as potential vaccines) that have the capacity to

  11. Immunization Schedule

    MedlinePlus

    ... third dose may be needed, depending on the brand of vaccine used in previous Hib immunizations. PCV ... third dose may be needed, depending on the brand of vaccine used in previous RV immunizations. 6 ...

  12. Impact of Pharmacist Immunization Authority on Seasonal Influenza Immunization Rates Across States.

    PubMed

    Drozd, Edward M; Miller, Laura; Johnsrud, Michael

    2017-08-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the impact on immunization rates of policy changes that allowed pharmacists to administer influenza immunizations across the United States. Influenza immunization rates across states were compared before and after policy changes permitting pharmacists to administer influenza immunizations. The study used Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) survey data on influenza immunization rates between 2003 and 2013. Logistic regression models were constructed and incorporated adjustments for the complex sample design of the BRFSS to predict the likelihood of a person receiving an influenza immunization based on various patient health, demographic, and access to care factors. Overall, as states moved to allow pharmacists to administer influenza immunizations, the odds that an adult resident received an influenza immunization rose, with the effect increasing over time. The average percentage of people receiving influenza immunizations in states was 35.1%, rising from 32.2% in 2003 to 40.3% in 2013. The policy changes were associated with a long-term increase of 2.2% to 7.6% in the number of adults aged 25 to 59 years receiving an influenza immunization (largest for those aged 35-39 years) and no significant change for those younger or older. These findings suggest that pharmacies and other nontraditional settings may offer accessible venues for patients when implementing other public health initiatives. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of maternal immunization with oral poliovirus vaccine on neonatal immunity.

    PubMed

    Linder, N; Handsher, R; Fruman, O; Shiff, E; Ohel, G; Reichman, B; Dagan, R

    1994-11-01

    During the summer of 1988, an outbreak of poliomyelitis caused by poliovirus 1 occurred in Israel, during which a national mass immunization campaign with oral poliovirus was undertaken. This prospective study was undertaken to assess the effect of maternal oral poliovirus immunization during the third trimester of pregnancy on neonatal immunity against poliovirus. Cord blood specimens of 88 neonates, born 2 to 7 weeks after maternal immunization, were examined for antipoliovirus antibodies and compared with 100 samples obtained from neonates 7 months before the outbreak. Blood samples were also obtained from the 62 mothers of neonates who had been immunized 2 to 5 weeks before delivery. Sera were tested for neutralizing antibodies to the 3 poliovirus types using a microneutralization technique. The geometric mean titer to poliovirus type 1 was significantly higher in neonates whose mothers were immunized during pregnancy (87.1) than in the offspring of the nonvaccinated group (53.0), P < 0.05. Two to 3 weeks after immunization, geometric mean titers against all 3 poliovirus types were higher in maternal blood than in cord blood whereas 4 to 5 weeks after vaccination a significant difference was found for type 3 only. Although oral poliovirus immunization during pregnancy resulted in higher neonatal antibody titers to poliovirus type 1, the proportion of newborns with titers of < 1:8 to the 3 poliovirus types did not change significantly.

  14. Induction of protective immunity against toxoplasmosis in mice by immunization with Toxoplasma gondii RNA.

    PubMed

    Dimier-Poisson, Isabelle; Aline, Fleur; Bout, Daniel; Mévélec, Marie-Noëlle

    2006-03-06

    Toxoplasma gondii enters the mucosal surfaces of the host, and so immunity at these sites is of major interest. Due to the compartmentalization of the immune response, systemic immunization does not induce high levels of immunity at mucosal surfaces. Intranasal immunization has been shown to be very effective in inducing both systemic and mucosal immune responses. Immunization with mRNA can induce both humoral and cell-mediated immune responses, both of which are important in conferring immunity to T. gondii. The efficacy of RNA vaccination by the nasal route with T. gondii RNA was evaluated. We assessed the percentage of cumulative survival after an oral challenge with a lethal dose of T. gondii cysts (40 cysts), and the number of brain cysts following a challenge with a sublethal dose of T. gondii 76 K cysts (15 cysts). Vaccinated mice were found to be significantly better protected than non-immunized mice after a challenge with a lethal dose of cysts; and a challenge with a sublethal dose also resulted in fewer brain cysts than in non-immunized mice. Sera and intestinal secretions of immunized mice recognized T. gondii antigens, suggesting that a specific humoral immune response may occur. Moreover, a specific lymphoproliferative response observed in cervical lymph nodes may confer protection. These preliminary findings suggest that RNA vaccination by a mucosal route could be feasible.

  15. Immunization coverage among Hispanic ancestry, 2003 National Immunization Survey.

    PubMed

    Darling, Natalie J; Barker, Lawrence E; Shefer, Abigail M; Chu, Susan Y

    2005-12-01

    The Hispanic population is increasing and heterogeneous (Hispanic refers to persons of Spanish, Hispanic, or Latino descent). The objective was to examine immunization rates among Hispanic ancestry for the 4:3:1:3:3 series (> or = 4 doses diphtheria, tetanus toxoids, and pertussis vaccine; > or = 3 doses poliovirus vaccine; > or = 1 doses measles-containing vaccine; > or = 3 doses Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine; and > or = 3 doses hepatitis B vaccine). The National Immunization Survey measures immunization coverage among 19- to 35-month-old U.S. children. Coverage was compared from combined 2001-2003 data among Hispanics and non-Hispanic whites using t-tests, and among Hispanic ancestry using a chi-square test. Hispanics were categorized as Mexican, Mexican American, Central American, South American, Puerto Rican, Cuban, Spanish Caribbean (primarily Dominican Republic), other, and multiple ancestry. Children of Hispanic ancestry increased from 21% in 1999 to 25% in 2003. These Hispanic children were less well immunized than non-Hispanic whites (77.0%, +/-2.1% [95% confidence interval] compared to 82.5%, +/-1.1% (95% CI) > in 2003). Immunization coverage did not vary significantly among Hispanics of varying ancestries (p=0.26); however, there was substantial geographic variability. In some areas, immunization coverage among Hispanics was significantly higher than non-Hispanic whites. Hispanic children were less well immunized than non-Hispanic whites; however, coverage varied notably by geographic area. Although a chi-square test found no significant differences in coverage among Hispanic ancestries, the range of coverage, 79.2%, +/-5.1% for Cuban Americans to 72.1%, +/-2.4% for Mexican descent, may suggest a need for improved and more localized monitoring among Hispanic communities.

  16. Mesenchymal stem cells: immune evasive, not immune privileged

    PubMed Central

    Ankrum, James A.; Ong, Joon Faii; Karp, Jeffrey M.

    2014-01-01

    The diverse immunomodulatory properties of mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) may be exploited for treatment of a multitude of inflammatory conditions. MSCs have long been reported to be hypoimmunogenic or ‘immune privileged’; this property is thought to enable MSC transplantation across major histocompatibility barriers and the creation of off-the-shelf therapies consisting of MSCs grown in culture. However, recent studies describing generation of antibodies against and immune rejection of allogeneic donor MSCs suggest that MSCs may not actually be immune privileged. Nevertheless, whether rejection of donor MSCs influences the efficacy of allogeneic MSC therapies is not known, and no definitive clinical advantage of autologous MSCs over allogeneic MSCs has been demonstrated to date. Although MSCs may exert therapeutic function through a brief ‘hit and run’ mechanism, protecting MSCs from immune detection and prolonging their persistence in vivo may improve clinical outcomes and prevent patient sensitization toward donor antigens. PMID:24561556

  17. Plant immunity against viruses: antiviral immune receptors in focus

    PubMed Central

    Calil, Iara P.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background Among the environmental limitations that affect plant growth, viruses cause major crop losses worldwide and represent serious threats to food security. Significant advances in the field of plant–virus interactions have led to an expansion of potential strategies for genetically engineered resistance in crops during recent years. Nevertheless, the evolution of viral virulence represents a constant challenge in agriculture that has led to a continuing interest in the molecular mechanisms of plant–virus interactions that affect disease or resistance. Scope and Conclusion This review summarizes the molecular mechanisms of the antiviral immune system in plants and the latest breakthroughs reported in plant defence against viruses. Particular attention is given to the immune receptors and transduction pathways in antiviral innate immunity. Plants counteract viral infection with a sophisticated innate immune system that resembles the non-viral pathogenic system, which is broadly divided into pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered immunity and effector-triggered immunity. An additional recently uncovered virus-specific defence mechanism relies on host translation suppression mediated by a transmembrane immune receptor. In all cases, the recognition of the virus by the plant during infection is central for the activation of these innate defences, and, conversely, the detection of host plants enables the virus to activate virulence strategies. Plants also circumvent viral infection through RNA interference mechanisms by utilizing small RNAs, which are often suppressed by co-evolving virus suppressors. Additionally, plants defend themselves against viruses through hormone-mediated defences and activation of the ubiquitin–26S proteasome system (UPS), which alternatively impairs and facilitates viral infection. Therefore, plant defence and virulence strategies co-evolve and co-exist; hence, disease development is largely dependent on

  18. Plant immunity against viruses: antiviral immune receptors in focus.

    PubMed

    Calil, Iara P; Fontes, Elizabeth P B

    2017-03-01

    Among the environmental limitations that affect plant growth, viruses cause major crop losses worldwide and represent serious threats to food security. Significant advances in the field of plant-virus interactions have led to an expansion of potential strategies for genetically engineered resistance in crops during recent years. Nevertheless, the evolution of viral virulence represents a constant challenge in agriculture that has led to a continuing interest in the molecular mechanisms of plant-virus interactions that affect disease or resistance. This review summarizes the molecular mechanisms of the antiviral immune system in plants and the latest breakthroughs reported in plant defence against viruses. Particular attention is given to the immune receptors and transduction pathways in antiviral innate immunity. Plants counteract viral infection with a sophisticated innate immune system that resembles the non-viral pathogenic system, which is broadly divided into pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered immunity and effector-triggered immunity. An additional recently uncovered virus-specific defence mechanism relies on host translation suppression mediated by a transmembrane immune receptor. In all cases, the recognition of the virus by the plant during infection is central for the activation of these innate defences, and, conversely, the detection of host plants enables the virus to activate virulence strategies. Plants also circumvent viral infection through RNA interference mechanisms by utilizing small RNAs, which are often suppressed by co-evolving virus suppressors. Additionally, plants defend themselves against viruses through hormone-mediated defences and activation of the ubiquitin-26S proteasome system (UPS), which alternatively impairs and facilitates viral infection. Therefore, plant defence and virulence strategies co-evolve and co-exist; hence, disease development is largely dependent on the extent and rate at which these opposing

  19. Chapter 2: Innate Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Turvey, Stuart E.; Broide, David H.

    2009-01-01

    Recent years have witnessed an explosion of interest in the innate immune system. Questions about how the innate immune system senses infection and empowers a protective immune response are being answered at the molecular level. These basic science discoveries are being translated into a more complete understanding of the central role innate immunity plays in the pathogenesis of many human infectious and inflammatory diseases. It is particularly exciting that we are already seeing a return on these scientific investments with the emergence of novel therapies to harness the power of the innate immune system. In this review we explore the defining characteristics of the innate immune system, and through more detailed examples, we highlight recent breakthroughs that have advanced our understanding of the role of innate immunity in human health and disease. PMID:19932920

  20. Immunization in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Gruslin, Andrée; Steben, Marc; Halperin, Scott; Money, Deborah M; Yudin, Mark H

    2009-11-01

    To review the evidence and provide recommendations on immunization in pregnancy. Outcomes evaluated include effectiveness of immunization, risks and benefits for mother and fetus. The Medline and Cochrane databases were searched for articles published up to June 2008 on the topic of immunization in pregnancy. The evidence obtained was reviewed and evaluated by the Infectious Diseases Committee of the Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada (SOGC) under the leadership of the principal authors, and recommendations were made according to guidelines developed by the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care. Implementation of the recommendations in this guideline should result in more appropriate immunization of pregnant and breastfeeding women, decreased risk of contraindicated immunization, and better disease prevention. The quality of evidence reported in this document has been assessed using the evaluation of evidence criteria in the Report of the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care (Table 1). (1) All women of childbearing age should be evaluated for the possibility of pregnancy before immunization. (III-A). (2) Health care providers should obtain a relevant immunization history from all women accessing prenatal care. (III-A). (3) In general, live and/or live-attenuated virus vaccines should not be administered during pregnancy, as there is a, largely theoretical, risk to the fetus. (II-3B). (4) Women who have inadvertently received immunization with live or live-attenuated vaccines during pregnancy should not be counselled to terminate the pregnancy because of a teratogenic risk. (II-2A). (5) Non-pregnant women immunized with a live or live-attenuated vaccine should be counselled to delay pregnancy for at least four weeks. (III-B). (6) Inactivated viral vaccines, bacterial vaccines, and toxoids can be used safely in pregnancy. (II-1A). (7) Women who are breastfeeding can still be immunized (passive-active immunization, live or killed

  1. The Immune System: Basis of so much Health and Disease: 2. Innate Immunity.

    PubMed

    Scully, Crispian; Georgakopoulou, Eleni A; Hassona, Yazan

    2017-03-01

    The immune system is the body’s primary defence mechanism against infections, and disturbances in the system can cause disease if the system fails in defence functions (in immunocompromised people), or if the activity is detrimental to the host (as in auto-immune and auto-inflammatory states). A healthy immune system is also essential to normal health of dental and oral tissues. This series presents the basics for the understanding of the immune system, this article covering innate immunity. Clinical relevance: Modern dental clinicians need a basic understanding of the immune system as it underlies health and disease.

  2. The Immune System: Basis of so much Health and Disease: 3. Adaptive Immunity.

    PubMed

    Scully, Crispian; Georgakopoulou, Eleni A; Hassona, Yazan

    2017-04-01

    The immune system is the body’s primary defence mechanism against infections, and disturbances in the system can cause disease if the system fails in defence functions (in immunocompromised people), or if the activity is detrimental to the host (as in auto-immune and auto-inflammatory states). A healthy immune system is also essential to normal health of dental and oral tissues. This series presents the basics for the understanding of the immune system; this article covers adaptive immunity. Clinical relevance: Dental clinicians need a basic understanding of the immune system as it underlies health and disease.

  3. In immune defense: redefining the role of the immune system in chronic disease.

    PubMed

    Rubinow, Katya B; Rubinow, David R

    2017-03-01

    The recognition of altered immune system function in many chronic disease states has proven to be a pivotal advance in biomedical research over the past decade. For many metabolic and mood disorders, this altered immune activity has been characterized as inflammation, with the attendant assumption that the immune response is aberrant. However, accumulating evidence challenges this assumption and suggests that the immune system may be mounting adaptive responses to chronic stressors. Further, the inordinate complexity of immune function renders a simplistic, binary model incapable of capturing critical mechanistic insights. In this perspective article, we propose alternative paradigms for understanding the role of the immune system in chronic disease. By invoking allostasis or systems biology rather than inflammation, we can ascribe greater functional significance to immune mediators, gain newfound appreciation of the adaptive facets of altered immune activity, and better avoid the potentially disastrous effects of translating erroneous assumptions into novel therapeutic strategies.

  4. Immune system and melanoma biology: a balance between immunosurveillance and immune escape.

    PubMed

    Passarelli, Anna; Mannavola, Francesco; Stucci, Luigia Stefania; Tucci, Marco; Silvestris, Francesco

    2017-12-01

    Melanoma is one of the most immunogenic tumors and its relationship with host immune system is currently under investigation. Many immunomodulatory mechanisms, favoring melanomagenesis and progression, have been described to interfere with the disablement of melanoma recognition and attack by immune cells resulting in immune resistance and immunosuppression. This knowledge produced therapeutic advantages, such as immunotherapy, aiming to overcome the immune evasion. Here, we review the current advances in cancer immunoediting and focus on melanoma immunology, which involves a dynamic interplay between melanoma and immune system, as well as on effects of "targeted therapies" on tumor microenvironment for combination strategies.

  5. Passive immunization of mice pups through oral immunization of dams with a plant-derived vaccine.

    PubMed

    Walmsley, Amanda M; Kirk, Dwayne D; Mason, Hugh S

    2003-03-03

    Passive immunization plays an important role in protecting young mammals against pathogens before the maturation of their own immune systems. Although many reports have shown active immunization of animals and human through the use of plant-derived vaccines, only one report has given evidence of passive immunization of offspring through oral immunization of parents using plant-derived vaccines. In this case, a challenge alone provided the evidence of passive immunization and the mechanism through which this occurred was not investigated. This report describes the first step in elucidating the mechanism of passive immunization of offspring through actively immunizing the female parent through an orally delivered, plant-derived vaccine. The authors found passive immunization of offspring was caused by transfer of antigen-specific IgG through either transplacental transfer or ingesting colostrum. Future studies will investigate the roles of transplacental antibody transfer and ingesting colostrum in passive immunization and the possible involvement of IgA in this immunization route.

  6. Immune System

    EPA Science Inventory

    A properly functioning immune system is essential to good health. It defends the body against infectious agents and in some cases tumor cells. Individuals with immune deficiencies resulting from genetic defects, diseases (e.g., AIDS, leukemia), or drug therapies are more suscepti...

  7. γδ T cell and other immune cells crosstalk in cellular immunity.

    PubMed

    He, Ying; Wu, Kangni; Hu, Yongxian; Sheng, Lixia; Tie, Ruxiu; Wang, Binsheng; Huang, He

    2014-01-01

    γδ T cells have been recognized as effectors with immunomodulatory functions in cellular immunity. These abilities enable them to interact with other immune cells, thus having the potential for treatment of various immune-mediated diseases with adoptive cell therapy. So far, the interactions between γδ T cell and other immune cells have not been well defined. Here we will discuss the interactivities among them and the perspective on γδ T cells for their use in immunotherapy could be imagined. The understanding of the crosstalk among the immune cells in immunopathology might be beneficial for the clinical application of γδ T cell.

  8. Cancer immunoediting by the innate immune system in the absence of adaptive immunity

    PubMed Central

    O’Sullivan, Timothy; Saddawi-Konefka, Robert; Vermi, William; Koebel, Catherine M.; Arthur, Cora; White, J. Michael; Uppaluri, Ravi; Andrews, Daniel M.; Ngiow, Shin Foong; Teng, Michele W.L.; Smyth, Mark J.; Schreiber, Robert D.

    2012-01-01

    Cancer immunoediting is the process whereby immune cells protect against cancer formation by sculpting the immunogenicity of developing tumors. Although the full process depends on innate and adaptive immunity, it remains unclear whether innate immunity alone is capable of immunoediting. To determine whether the innate immune system can edit tumor cells in the absence of adaptive immunity, we compared the incidence and immunogenicity of 3′methylcholanthrene-induced sarcomas in syngeneic wild-type, RAG2−/−, and RAG2−/−x γc−/− mice. We found that innate immune cells could manifest cancer immunoediting activity in the absence of adaptive immunity. This activity required natural killer (NK) cells and interferon γ (IFN-γ), which mediated the induction of M1 macrophages. M1 macrophages could be elicited by administration of CD40 agonists, thereby restoring editing activity in RAG2−/−x γc−/− mice. Our results suggest that in the absence of adaptive immunity, NK cell production of IFN-γ induces M1 macrophages, which act as important effectors during cancer immunoediting. PMID:22927549

  9. [Mucosal immunity with emphasis on urinary tract immunity and diabetes].

    PubMed

    Krejsek, J; Kudlová, M; Kolácková, M; Novosad, J

    2008-05-01

    Protective immune response in urinary tract is frequently impaired in patients with diabetes. Immunity in this mucosal compartment displays unique characteristics; e.g. absence of physiological microflora and lack of mucus. Pathogens are identified by the PRR receptors expressed on both epithelial and immune cells. Inflammatory response characterised by the acumulation ofgranulocytes is followed. Both protective and harm characteristics of inflammatory response are inseparable linked and delineated by gene polymorphisms in PRR receptors.

  10. Validation of Procedures for Monitoring Crewmember Immune Function SDBI-1900, SMO-015 - Integrated Immune

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crucian, Brian; Stowe, Raymond; Mehta, Satish; Uchakin, Peter; Nehlsen-Cannarella, Sandra; Morukov, Boris; Pierson, Duane; Sams, Clarence

    2007-01-01

    There is ample evidence to suggest that space flight leads to immune system dysregulation. This may be a result of microgravity, confinement, physiological stress, radiation, environment or other mission-associated factors. The clinical risk from prolonged immune dysregulation during space flight are not yet determined, but may include increased incidence of infection, allergy, hypersensitivity, hematological malignancy or altered wound healing. Each of the clinical events resulting from immune dysfunction has the potential to impact mission critical objectives during exploration-class missions. To date, precious little in-flight immune data has been generated to assess this phenomenon. The majority of recent flight immune studies have been post-flight assessments, which may not accurately reflect the in-flight condition. There are no procedures currently in place to monitor immune function or its effect on crew health. The objective of this Supplemental Medical Objective (SMO) is to develop and validate an immune monitoring strategy consistent with operational flight requirements and constraints. This SMO will assess the clinical risks resulting from the adverse effects of space flight on the human immune system and will validate a flight-compatible immune monitoring strategy. Characterization of the clinical risk and the development of a monitoring strategy are necessary prerequisite activities prior to validating countermeasures. This study will determine, to the best level allowed by current technology, the in-flight status of crewmembers immune system. Pre-flight, in-flight and post-flight assessments of immune status, immune function, viral reactivation and physiological stress will be performed. The in-flight samples will allow a distinction between legitimate in-flight alterations and the physiological stresses of landing and readaptation which are believed to alter landing day assessments. The overall status of the immune system during flight (activation

  11. Immunization Equity.

    PubMed

    Hinman, Alan R; McKinlay, Mark A

    2015-12-01

    Health inequities are the unjust differences in health among different social groups. Unfortunately, inequities are the norm, both in terms of health status and access to, and use of, health services. Childhood immunizations reduce the incidence of vaccine-preventable diseases and represent a cost-effective way to foster health equity. This paper reflects a 2015 review of data from surveys conducted in developing countries from 2005 to 2011 that show significant inequities in immunization coverage and discusses several initiatives currently underway (including Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance) that are directed at increasing childhood immunizations or reducing or abolishing overall health inequities. These initiatives have already had a significant impact on disease burden and childhood mortality and give rise to optimism that health disparities may further be reduced and health equity achieved as a result of investments made in immunization. Copyright © 2015 2015 by American Journal of Preventive Medicine and Els. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Instant Childhood Immunization Schedule

    MedlinePlus

    ... Recommendations Why Immunize? Vaccines: The Basics Instant Childhood Immunization Schedule Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Get ... date. See Disclaimer for additional details. Based on Immunization Schedule for Children 0 through 6 Years of ...

  13. Unsolved Puzzles Surrounding HCV Immunity: Heterologous Immunity Adds Another Dimension.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Babita; Singh, Shakti; Gupta, Nancy; Li, Wen; Vedi, Satish; Kumar, Rakesh

    2017-07-27

    Chronic infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) afflicts 3% of the world's population and can lead to serious and late-stage liver diseases. Developing a vaccine for HCV is challenging because the correlates of protection are uncertain and traditional vaccine approaches do not work. Studies of natural immunity to HCV in humans have resulted in many enigmas. Human beings are not immunologically naïve because they are continually exposed to various environmental microbes and antigens, creating large populations of memory T cells. Heterologous immunity occurs when this pool of memory T cells cross-react against a new pathogen in an individual. Such heterologous immunity could influence the outcome when an individual is infected by a pathogen. We have recently made an unexpected finding that adenoviruses, a common environmental pathogen and an experimental vaccine vector, can induce robust cross-reactive immune responses against multiple antigens of HCV. Our unique finding of previously uncharacterized heterologous immunity against HCV opens new avenues to understand HCV pathogenesis and develop effective vaccines.

  14. Origins of adaptive immunity.

    PubMed

    Liongue, Clifford; John, Liza B; Ward, Alister

    2011-01-01

    Adaptive immunity, involving distinctive antibody- and cell-mediated responses to specific antigens based on "memory" of previous exposure, is a hallmark of higher vertebrates. It has been argued that adaptive immunity arose rapidly, as articulated in the "big bang theory" surrounding its origins, which stresses the importance of coincident whole-genome duplications. Through a close examination of the key molecules and molecular processes underpinning adaptive immunity, this review suggests a less-extreme model, in which adaptive immunity emerged as part of longer evolutionary journey. Clearly, whole-genome duplications provided additional raw genetic materials that were vital to the emergence of adaptive immunity, but a variety of other genetic events were also required to generate some of the key molecules, whereas others were preexisting and simply co-opted into adaptive immunity.

  15. Immunity, ageing and cancer

    PubMed Central

    Derhovanessian, Evelyna; Solana, Rafael; Larbi, Anis; Pawelec, Graham

    2008-01-01

    Compromised immunity contributes to the decreased ability of the elderly to control infectious disease and to their generally poor response to vaccination. It is controversial as to how far this phenomenon contributes to the well-known age-associated increase in the occurrence of many cancers in the elderly. However, should the immune system be important in controlling cancer, for which there is a great deal of evidence, it is logical to propose that dysfunctional immunity in the elderly would contribute to compromised immunosurveillance and increased cancer occurrence. The chronological age at which immunosenescence becomes clinically important is known to be influenced by many factors, including the pathogen load to which individuals are exposed throughout life. It is proposed here that the cancer antigen load may have a similar effect on "immune exhaustion" and that pathogen load and tumor load may act additively to accelerate immunosenescence. Understanding how and why immune responsiveness changes in humans as they age is essential for developing strategies to prevent or restore dysregulated immunity and assure healthy longevity, clearly possible only if cancer is avoided. Here, we provide an overview of the impact of age on human immune competence, emphasizing T-cell-dependent adaptive immunity, which is the most sensitive to ageing. This knowledge will pave the way for rational interventions to maintain or restore appropriate immune function not only in the elderly but also in the cancer patient. PMID:18816370

  16. Immunization of complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pastor-Satorras, Romualdo; Vespignani, Alessandro

    2002-03-01

    Complex networks such as the sexual partnership web or the Internet often show a high degree of redundancy and heterogeneity in their connectivity properties. This peculiar connectivity provides an ideal environment for the spreading of infective agents. Here we show that the random uniform immunization of individuals does not lead to the eradication of infections in all complex networks. Namely, networks with scale-free properties do not acquire global immunity from major epidemic outbreaks even in the presence of unrealistically high densities of randomly immunized individuals. The absence of any critical immunization threshold is due to the unbounded connectivity fluctuations of scale-free networks. Successful immunization strategies can be developed only by taking into account the inhomogeneous connectivity properties of scale-free networks. In particular, targeted immunization schemes, based on the nodes' connectivity hierarchy, sharply lower the network's vulnerability to epidemic attacks.

  17. [Relationship between BCG immunization coverage and the immunization delivery system in the Tama area of Tokyo].

    PubMed

    Sugishita, Yoshiyuki; Hayashi, Kunihiko; Mori, Toru; Horiguchi, Itsuko; Marui, Eiji

    2012-03-01

    The BCG immunization has long been performed in Japan. Although the BCG immunization service is the responsibility of the municipality, the manner in which the BCG immunization is delivered differs from municipality to municipality. The purpose of this study was to clarify how the different manner of the BCG immunization delivery systems influenced the BCG immunization coverage. The study of BCG immunization coverage was conducted in the Tama area located in the western suburbs of Tokyo in 2004. The birth data and the immunization history by the age of 3 years were collected in the three-year-old health check-up from a total of 2,341 children residing in the Tama area. Based on the age at immunization for each child, the BCG immunization coverage was calculated according to the types of the BCG immunization delivery system. The immunization types were defined as follows; the BCG immunization given on the occasion of the mass health check-up (Group 1); the exclusive mass BCG immunization in a monthly service (Group 2); the exclusive mass BCG immunization in a bimonthly service (Group 3); the exclusive mass BCG immunization in services of fewer than every two months (Group 4); and the immunization given on an individual basis by a general practitioner (Group 5). A univariate analysis was performed to examine the relationship between the BCG immunization coverage by the age of 6 months and the difference among the BCG immunization delivery systems, followed by a multivariate regression analysis to adjust for the factors related to the demography, health care services and the socio-economic status of the municipalities. Unadjusted odds ratios and adjusted odds ratios for BCG unimmunized children under the age of 6 months by the BCG immunization delivery manner groups were OR 1 reference, adj. OR 1 reference in Group 1; OR 1.42 CI 0.87-2.29, adj. OR 4.01 CI 2.24-7.11 in Group 2; OR 4.96 CI 3.66-6.82, adj. OR 15.59 CI 10.10-24.49 in Group 3;OR 18.60 CI 13.77-25.49, adj

  18. Immune system

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This chapter is an update on the swine Immune System. It will be Chapter 16 in the 11th Edition (2018) of Diseases of Swine. The chapter outlines all aspects of the swine immune system in development and in responses to infection and vaccination. It illustrates the tremendous influence that the immu...

  19. Immune Disorder HSCT Protocol

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-11-17

    Immune Deficiency Disorders; Severe Combined Immunodeficiency; Chronic Granulomatous Disease; X-linked Agammaglobulinemia; Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome; Hyper-IgM; DiGeorge Syndrome; Chediak-Higashi Syndrome; Common Variable Immune Deficiency; Immune Dysregulatory Disorders; Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis; IPEX; Autoimmune Lymphoproliferative Syndrome; X-linked Lymphoproliferative Syndrome

  20. Innate immune memory in plants.

    PubMed

    Reimer-Michalski, Eva-Maria; Conrath, Uwe

    2016-08-01

    The plant innate immune system comprises local and systemic immune responses. Systemic plant immunity develops after foliar infection by microbial pathogens, upon root colonization by certain microbes, or in response to physical injury. The systemic plant immune response to localized foliar infection is associated with elevated levels of pattern-recognition receptors, accumulation of dormant signaling enzymes, and alterations in chromatin state. Together, these systemic responses provide a memory to the initial infection by priming the remote leaves for enhanced defense and immunity to reinfection. The plant innate immune system thus builds immunological memory by utilizing mechanisms and components that are similar to those employed in the trained innate immune response of jawed vertebrates. Therefore, there seems to be conservation, or convergence, in the evolution of innate immune memory in plants and vertebrates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Immune drug discovery from venoms.

    PubMed

    Jimenez, Rocio; Ikonomopoulou, Maria P; Lopez, J Alejandro; Miles, John J

    2018-01-01

    This review catalogues recent advances in knowledge on venoms as standalone therapeutic agents or as blueprints for drug design, with an emphasis on venom-derived compounds that affects the immune system. We discuss venoms and venom-derived compounds that affect total immune cell numbers, immune cell proliferation, immune cell migration, immune cell phenotype and cytokine secretion. Identifying novel compounds that 'tune' the system, up-regulating the immune response during infectious disease and cancer and down-regulating the immune response during autoimmunity, will greatly expand the tool kit of human immunotherapeutics. Targeting these pathways may also open therapeutic options that alleviate symptoms of envenomation. Finally, combining recent advances in venomics with progress in low cost, high-throughput screening platforms will no doubt yield hundreds of prototype immune modulating compounds in the coming years. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Immune Antibody Libraries: Manipulating The Diverse Immune Repertoire for Antibody Discovery.

    PubMed

    Lim, Theam Soon; Chan, Soo Khim

    2016-01-01

    Antibody phage display is highly dependent on the availability of antibody libraries. There are several forms of libraries depending mainly on the origin of the source materials. There are three major classes of libraries, mainly the naïve, immune and synthetic libraries. Immune antibody libraries are designed to isolate specific and high affinity antibodies against disease antigens. The pre-exposure of the host to an infection results in the production of a skewed population of antibodies against the particular infection. This characteristic takes advantage of the in vivo editing machinery to generate bias and specific immune repertoire. The skewed but diverse repertoire of immune libraries has been adapted successfully in the generation of antibodies against a wide range of diseases. We envisage immune antibody libraries to play a greater role in the discovery of antibodies for diseases in the near future. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  3. Immune-based therapies.

    PubMed

    Lein, B

    1995-12-01

    Several immune-based HIV therapy studies presented at the Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents Chemotherapy (ICAAC) are summarized. These studies involve the following therapies: HIV-IT, a gene therapy approach to augmenting the body's anti-HIV responses; interferon-alpha n3, a new formulation of alpha interferon with fewer toxicities; transfer of immune responses from one individual to another, also called passive immune therapy; and interleukin-2 (IL-2) in combination with protease inhibitors.

  4. Your Child's Immunization Record

    MedlinePlus

    Your Child’s Immunization Record It’s important to keep up-to-date records of all your child’s immunizations, beginning at birth and continuing through ... receives a vaccination by filling in the date. Record of Immunizations Date Given: Where Given: Reaction: Hepatitis ...

  5. Immunometabolic circuits in trained immunity.

    PubMed

    Arts, Rob J W; Joosten, Leo A B; Netea, Mihai G

    2016-10-01

    The classical view that only adaptive immunity can build immunological memory has recently been challenged. Both in organisms lacking adaptive immunity as well as in mammals, the innate immune system can adapt to mount an increased resistance to reinfection, a de facto innate immune memory termed trained immunity. Recent studies have revealed that rewiring of cellular metabolism induced by different immunological signals is a crucial step for determining the epigenetic changes underlying trained immunity. Processes such as a shift of glucose metabolism from oxidative phosphorylation to aerobic glycolysis, increased glutamine metabolism and cholesterol synthesis, play a crucial role in these processes. The discovery of trained immunity opens the door for the design of novel generations of vaccines, for new therapeutic strategies for the treatment of immune deficiency states, and for modulation of exaggerated inflammation in autoinflammatory diseases. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Immune Dysfunction in Cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Noor, Mohd Talha; Manoria, Piyush

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Cirrhosis due to any etiology disrupts the homeostatic role of liver in the body. Cirrhosis-associated immune dysfunction leads to alterations in both innate and acquired immunity, due to defects in the local immunity of liver as well as in systemic immunity. Cirrhosis-associated immune dysfunction is a dynamic phenomenon, comprised of both increased systemic inflammation and immunodeficiency, and is responsible for 30% mortality. It also plays an important role in acute as well as chronic decompensation. Immune paralysis can accompany it, which is characterized by increase in anti-inflammatory cytokines and suppression of proinflammatory cytokines. There is also presence of increased gut permeability, reduced gut motility and altered gut flora, all of which leads to increased bacterial translocation. This increased bacterial translocation and consequent endotoxemia leads to increased blood stream bacterial infections that cause systemic inflammatory response syndrome, sepsis, multiorgan failure and death. The gut microbiota of cirrhotic patients has more pathogenic microbes than that of non-cirrhotic individuals, and this disturbs the homeostasis and favors gut translocation. Prompt diagnosis and treatment of such infections are necessary for better survival. We have reviewed the various mechanisms of immune dysfunction and its consequences in cirrhosis. Recognizing the exact pathophysiology of immune dysfunction will help treating clinicians in avoiding its complications in their patients and can lead to newer therapeutic interventions and reducing the morbidity and mortality rates. PMID:28507927

  7. Immunity in the spleen and blood of mice immunized with irradiated Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites.

    PubMed

    Zorgi, Nahiara Esteves; Galisteo, Andrés Jimenez; Sato, Maria Notomi; do Nascimento, Nanci; de Andrade, Heitor Franco

    2016-08-01

    Toxoplasma gondii infection induces a strong and long-lasting immune response that is able to prevent most reinfections but allows tissue cysts. Irradiated, sterilized T. gondii tachyzoites are an interesting vaccine, and they induce immunity that is similar to infection, but without cysts. In this study, we evaluated the cellular immune response in the blood and spleen of mice immunized with this preparation by mouth (v.o.) or intraperitoneally (i.p.) and analyzed the protection after challenge with viable parasites. BALB/c mice were immunized with three i.p. or v.o. doses of irradiated T. gondii tachyzoites. Oral challenge with ten cysts of the ME-49 or VEG strain at 90 days after the last dose resulted in high levels of protection with low parasite burden in the immunized animals. There were higher levels of specific IgG, IgA and IgM antibodies in the serum, and the i.p. immunized mice had higher levels of the high-affinity IgG and IgM antibodies than the orally immunized mice, which had more high-affinity IgA antibodies. B cells (CD19(+)), plasma cells (CD138(+)) and the CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell populations were increased in both the blood and spleen. Cells from the spleen of the i.p. immunized mice also showed antigen-induced production of interleukin-10 (IL-10), interferon gamma (IFN-γ) and interleukin 4 (IL-4). The CD4(+) T cells, B cells and likely CD8(+) T cells from the spleens of the i.p. immunized mice proliferated with a specific antigen. The protection was correlated with the spleen and blood CD8(+) T cell, high-affinity IgG and IgM and antigen-induced IL-10 and IL-4 production. Immunization with irradiated T. gondii tachyzoites induces an immune response that is mediated by B cells and CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells, with increased humoral and cellular immune responses that are necessary for host protection after infection. The vaccine is similar to natural infection, but free of tissue cysts; this immunity restrains infection at challenge and can be an

  8. Estimation of immunization providers' activities cost, medication cost, and immunization dose errors cost in Iraq.

    PubMed

    Al-lela, Omer Qutaiba B; Bahari, Mohd Baidi; Al-abbassi, Mustafa G; Salih, Muhannad R M; Basher, Amena Y

    2012-06-06

    The immunization status of children is improved by interventions that increase community demand for compulsory and non-compulsory vaccines, one of the most important interventions related to immunization providers. The aim of this study is to evaluate the activities of immunization providers in terms of activities time and cost, to calculate the immunization doses cost, and to determine the immunization dose errors cost. Time-motion and cost analysis study design was used. Five public health clinics in Mosul-Iraq participated in the study. Fifty (50) vaccine doses were required to estimate activities time and cost. Micro-costing method was used; time and cost data were collected for each immunization-related activity performed by the clinic staff. A stopwatch was used to measure the duration of activity interactions between the parents and clinic staff. The immunization service cost was calculated by multiplying the average salary/min by activity time per minute. 528 immunization cards of Iraqi children were scanned to determine the number and the cost of immunization doses errors (extraimmunization doses and invalid doses). The average time for child registration was 6.7 min per each immunization dose, and the physician spent more than 10 min per dose. Nurses needed more than 5 min to complete child vaccination. The total cost of immunization activities was 1.67 US$ per each immunization dose. Measles vaccine (fifth dose) has a lower price (0.42 US$) than all other immunization doses. The cost of a total of 288 invalid doses was 744.55 US$ and the cost of a total of 195 extra immunization doses was 503.85 US$. The time spent on physicians' activities was longer than that spent on registrars' and nurses' activities. Physician total cost was higher than registrar cost and nurse cost. The total immunization cost will increase by about 13.3% owing to dose errors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. General recommendations on immunization --- recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP).

    PubMed

    2011-01-28

    This report is a revision of the General Recommendations on Immunization and updates the 2006 statement by the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) (CDC. General recommendations on immunization: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices [ACIP]. MMWR 2006;55[No. RR-15]). The report also includes revised content from previous ACIP recommendations on the following topics: adult vaccination (CDC. Update on adult immunization recommendations of the immunization practices Advisory Committee [ACIP]. MMWR 1991;40[No. RR-12]); the assessment and feedback strategy to increase vaccination rates (CDC. Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices: programmatic strategies to increase vaccination rates-assessment and feedback of provider-based vaccination coverage information. MMWR 1996;45:219-20); linkage of vaccination services and those of the Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC program) (CDC. Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices: programmatic strategies to increase vaccination coverage by age 2 years-linkage of vaccination and WIC services. MMWR 1996;45:217-8); adolescent immunization (CDC. Immunization of adolescents: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices, the American Academy of Pediatrics, the American Academy of Family Physicians, and the American Medical Association. MMWR 1996;45[No. RR-13]); and combination vaccines (CDC. Combination vaccines for childhood immunization: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices [ACIP], the American Academy of Pediatrics [AAP], and the American Academy of Family Physicians [AAFP]. MMWR 1999;48[No. RR-5]). Notable revisions to the 2006 recommendations include 1) revisions to the tables of contraindications and precautions to vaccination, as well as a separate table of conditions that are commonly misperceived as contraindications and precautions; 2

  10. Immunizations for foreign travel.

    PubMed Central

    Hill, D. R.

    1992-01-01

    One of the most important aspects of preparing travelers for destinations throughout the world is providing them with immunizations. Before administering any vaccines, however, a careful health and immunization history and travel itinerary should be obtained in order to determine vaccine indications and contraindications. There are three categories of immunizations for foreign travel. The first category includes immunizations which are routinely recommended whether or not the individual is traveling. Many travelers are due for primary vaccination or boosting against tetanus-diphtheria, measles-mumps-rubella, pneumococcal pneumonia, and influenza, for example, and the pre-travel visit is an ideal time to administer these. The second category are immunizations which might be required by a country as a condition for entry; these are yellow fever and cholera. The final category contains immunizations which are recommended because there is a risk of acquiring a particular disease during travel. Typhoid fever, meningococcal disease, rabies, and hepatitis are some examples. Travelers who are pregnant or who are infected with the human immunodeficiency virus require special consideration. Provision of appropriate immunizations for foreign travel is an important aspect of preventing illness in travelers. PMID:1337807

  11. Rebuilding immunity with Remune.

    PubMed

    Whitfield, L

    1998-01-01

    Remune, an immune response therapy composed of inactivated HIV, is designed to enhance the immune system's ability to recognize and kill HIV proteins. Developed by Dr. Jonas Salk, researchers hope Remune's actions can alter the course of HIV infection and slow disease progression. Remune has gained Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval to enter the critical Phase III trial stage. Two clinical trials are tracking Remune's immunogenicity (ability to provoke an immune response), its immunogenicity relative to dose level, and its effect on viral load. An ongoing trial, approved in February of 1996, enrolled 2,500 patients at 74 sites. The manufacturer, Immune Response Corporation (IRC), announced earlier this year that treatment with Remune induces an immune response to HIV that cross-reacts with different strains of the virus. This immune response is crucial for developing an effective worldwide treatment. Remune decreases levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-a). IRC recently began a Phase I clinical trial in Great Britain that combines Remune with a protease inhibitor, two antiviral nucleoside analogues, and Interleukin-2. The trial is designed to determine the role that the drug may play in restoring immune response.

  12. HIV-associated chronic immune activation

    PubMed Central

    Paiardini, Mirko; Müller-Trutwin, Michaela

    2013-01-01

    Summary Systemic chronic immune activation is considered today as the driving force of CD4+ T-cell depletion and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). A residual chronic immune activation persists even in HIV-infected patients in which viral replication is successfully inhibited by antiretroviral therapy, with the extent of this residual immune activation being associated with CD4+ T-cell loss. Unfortunately, the causal link between chronic immune activation and CD4+ T-cell loss has not been formally established. This article provides first a brief historical overview on how the perception of the causative role of immune activation has changed over the years and lists the different kinds of immune activation that have been observed to be characteristic for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. The mechanisms proposed to explain the chronic immune activation are multiple and are enumerated here, as well as the mechanisms proposed on how chronic immune activation could lead to AIDS. In addition, we summarize the lessons learned from natural hosts that know how to ‘show AIDS the door’, and discuss how these studies informed the design of novel immune modulatory interventions that are currently being tested. Finally, we review the current approaches aimed at targeting chronic immune activation and evoke future perspectives. PMID:23772616

  13. Posttransplant Immune Activation

    PubMed Central

    Bamoulid, Jamal; Crepin, Thomas; Rebibou, Jean-Michel; Courivaud, Cecile; Saas, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is a major cause of morbidity, disability, and mortality in kidney transplant patients. Cumulative reports indicate that the excessive risk of cardiovascular events is not entirely explained by the increased prevalence of traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease, and it has been postulated that posttransplant immune disturbances may explain the gap between the predicted and observed risks of cardiovascular events. Although concordant data suggest that innate immunity contributes to the posttransplant accelerated atherosclerosis, only few arguments plead for a role of adaptive immunity. We report and discuss here consistent data demonstrating that CD8+ T cell activation is a frequent posttransplant immune feature that may have pro-atherogenic effects. Expansion of exhausted/activated CD8+ T cells in kidney transplant recipients is stimulated by several factors including cytomegalovirus infections, lymphodepletive therapy (e.g., antithymocyte globulins), chronic allogeneic stimulation, and a past history of renal insufficiency. This is observed in the setting of decreased thymic activity, a process also found in elderly individuals and reflecting accelerated immune senescence. PMID:29113470

  14. Project BioShield: Authorities, Appropriations, Acquisitions, and Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-15

    obligate approximately $2 billion to acquire countermeasures against anthrax, botulism , radiation, and smallpox. The HHS has also employed the...these contracts to purchase treatments for botulism and internal radioactive particle contamination. See U.S. Government Accountability Office

  15. A Tumor Profile in Primary Immune Deficiencies Challenges the Cancer Immune Surveillance Concept.

    PubMed

    Satgé, Daniel

    2018-01-01

    Under the concept of cancer immune surveillance, individuals with primary immune deficiencies would be expected to develop many more malignancies and show an excess of all types of cancers, compared to people with a normal immune system. A review of the nine most frequent and best-documented human conditions with primary immune deficiency reveals a 1.6- to 2.3-fold global increase of cancer in the largest epidemiological studies. However, the spectrum of cancer types with higher frequencies is narrow, limited mainly to lymphoma, digestive tract cancers, and virus-induced cancers. Increased lymphoma is also reported in animal models of immune deficiency. Overstimulation of leukocytes, chronic inflammation, and viruses explain this tumor profile. This raises the question of cancers being foreign organisms or tissues. Organisms, such as bacteria, viruses, and parasites as well as non-compatible grafts are seen as foreign (non-self) and identified and destroyed or rejected by the body (self). As cancer cells rarely show strong (and unique) surface antibodies, their recognition and elimination by the immune system is theoretically questionable, challenging the immune surveillance concept. In the neonatal period, the immune system is weak, but spontaneous regression and good outcomes occur for some cancers, suggesting that non-immune factors are effective in controlling cancer. The idea of cancer as a group of cells that must be destroyed and eliminated appears instead as a legacy of methods and paradigms in microbiological medicine. As an alternative approach, cancer cells could be considered part of the body and could be controlled by an embryonic and neonatal environment.

  16. Immune remodeling: lessons from repertoire alterations during chronological aging and in immune-mediated disease.

    PubMed

    Vallejo, Abbe N

    2007-03-01

    Immunological studies of aging and of patients with chronic immune-mediated diseases document overlap of immune phenotypes. Here, the term "immune remodeling" refers to these phenotypes that are indicative of biological processes of deterioration and repair. This concept is explored through lessons from studies about the changes in the T-cell repertoire and the functional diversity of otherwise oligoclonal, senescent T cells. Immune remodeling suggests a gradual process that occurs throughout life. However, similar but more drastic remodeling occurs disproportionately among young patients with chronic disease. In this article, I propose that immune remodeling is a beneficial adaptation of aging to promote healthy survival beyond reproductive performance, but acute remodeling poses risk of premature exhaustion of the immune repertoire and, thus, is detrimental in young individuals.

  17. The effect of maternal and paternal immune challenge on offspring immunity and reproduction in a cricket.

    PubMed

    McNamara, K B; van Lieshout, E; Simmons, L W

    2014-06-01

    Trans-generational immune priming is the transmission of enhanced immunity to offspring following a parental immune challenge. Although within-generation increased investment into immunity demonstrates clear costs on reproductive investment in a number of taxa, the potential for immune priming to impact on offspring reproductive investment has not been thoroughly investigated. We explored the reproductive costs of immune priming in a field cricket, Teleogryllus oceanicus. To assess the relative importance of maternal and paternal immune status, mothers and fathers were immune-challenged with live bacteria or a control solution and assigned to one of four treatments in which one parent, neither or both parents were immune-challenged. Families of offspring were reared to adulthood under a food-restricted diet, and approximately 10 offspring in each family were assayed for two measures of immunocompetence. We additionally quantified offspring reproductive investment using sperm viability for males and ovary mass for females. We demonstrate that parental immune challenge has significant consequences for the immunocompetence and, in turn, reproductive investment of their male offspring. A complex interaction between maternal and paternal immune status increased the antibacterial immune response of male offspring. This increased immune response was associated with a reduction in son's sperm viability, implicating a trans-generational resource trade-off between investment into immunocompetence and reproduction. Our data also show that these costs are sexually dimorphic, as daughters did not demonstrate a similar increase in immunity, despite showing a reduction in ovary mass. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2014 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  18. The cell-mediated immunity of Drosophila melanogaster: hemocyte lineages, immune compartments, microanatomy and regulation.

    PubMed

    Honti, Viktor; Csordás, Gábor; Kurucz, Éva; Márkus, Róbert; Andó, István

    2014-01-01

    In the animal kingdom, innate immunity is the first line of defense against invading pathogens. The dangers of microbial and parasitic attacks are countered by similar mechanisms, involving the prototypes of the cell-mediated immune responses, the phagocytosis and encapsulation. Work on Drosophila has played an important role in promoting an understanding of the basic mechanisms of phylogenetically conserved modules of innate immunity. The aim of this review is to survey the developments in the identification and functional definition of immune cell types and the immunological compartments of Drosophila melanogaster. We focus on the molecular and developmental aspects of the blood cell types and compartments, as well as the dynamics of blood cell development and the immune response. Further advances in the characterization of the innate immune mechanisms in Drosophila will provide basic clues to the understanding of the importance of the evolutionary conserved mechanisms of innate immune defenses in the animal kingdom. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Project BioShield: Authorities, Appropriations, Acquisitions, and Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-07

    obligate approximately $2 billion to acquire countermeasures against anthrax, botulism , radiation, and smallpox. The HHS has also employed the...used these contracts to purchase treatments for botulism and internal radioactive particle contamination. See U.S. Government Accountability Office

  20. Pandemic Flu and Medical Biodefense Countermeasure Liability Limitation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-12

    covering countermeasures against other strains of influenza (including H1N1), anthrax, botulism , small pox, and acute radiation syndrome...Secretary of HHS has issued additional declarations covering various countermeasures against anthrax, botulism , acute radiation syndrome, smallpox, and

  1. Exercise and immunity

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007165.htm Exercise and immunity To use the sharing features on this page, ... know exactly if or how exercise increases your immunity to certain illnesses. There are several theories. However, ...

  2. Immune System and Kidney Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Badri Man

    2017-01-01

    The immune system recognises a transplanted kidney as foreign body and mounts immune response through cellular and humoral mechanisms leading to acute or chronic rejection, which ultimately results in graft loss. Over the last five decades, there have been significant advances in the understanding of the immune responses to transplanted organs in both experimental and clinical transplant settings. Modulation of the immune response by using immunosuppressive agents has led to successful outcomes after kidney transplantation. The paper provides an overview of the general organisation and function of human immune system, immune response to kidney transplantation, and the current practice of immunosuppressive therapy in kidney transplantation in the United Kingdom.

  3. The immune system as a biomonitor: explorations in innate and adaptive immunity

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Niclas; Heather, James; Pollara, Gabriel; Simpson, Nandi; Matjeka, Theres; Shawe-Taylor, John; Noursadeghi, Mahdad; Chain, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    The human immune system has a highly complex, multi-layered structure which has evolved to detect and respond to changes in the internal microenvironment of the body. Recognition occurs at the molecular or submolecular scale, via classical reversible receptor–ligand interactions, and can lead to a response with great sensitivity and speed. Remarkably, recognition is coupled to memory, such that responses are modulated by events which occurred years or even decades before. Although the immune system in general responds differently and more vigorously to stimuli entering the body from the outside (e.g. infections), this is an emergent property of the system: many of the recognition molecules themselves have no inherent bias towards external stimuli (non-self) but also bind targets found within the body (self). It is quite clear that the immune response registers pathophysiological changes in general. Cancer, wounding and chronic tissue injury are some obvious examples. Against this background, the immune system ‘state’ tracks the internal processes of the body, and is likely to encode information regarding both current and past disease processes. Moreover, the distributed nature of most immune responses (e.g. typically involving lymphoid tissue, non-lymphoid tissue, bone marrow, blood, extracellular interstitial spaces, etc.) means that many of the changes associated with immune responses are manifested systemically, and specifically can be detected in blood. This provides a very convenient route to sampling immune cells. We consider two different and complementary ways of querying the human immune ‘state’ using high-dimensional genomic screening methodologies, and discuss the potentials of these approaches and some of the technological and computational challenges to be overcome. PMID:24427535

  4. Project BioShield: Authorities, Appropriations, Acquisitions, and Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-02

    market to obligate approximately $2 billion to acquire countermeasures against anthrax, botulism , radiation, and smallpox. The HHS has also...Acquisitions”). The HHS used these contracts to purchase treatments for botulism and internal radioactive particle contamination. See U.S. Government

  5. Protective immunity against Trypanosoma cruzi provided by oral immunization with Phytomonas serpens: role of nitric oxide.

    PubMed

    Pinge-Filho, P; Peron, J P S; de Moura, T R; Menolli, R A; Graça, V K; Estevão, D; Tadokoro, C E; Jankevicius, J V; Rizzo, L V

    2005-01-31

    We have previously demonstrated that Phytomonas serpens, a tomato parasite, shares antigens with Trypanosoma cruzi, the protozoa that causes Chagas' disease. These antigens are recognized by human sera and induce protective immunity in Balb/c mice. In the present study, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) knockout (KO) mice and C57BL/6 mice treated with the nitric oxide inhibitor, aminoguanidine (AG, 50 mg kg(-1)) infected with T. cruzi, were used to demonstrate the role of nitric oxide (NO) to host protection against T. cruzi infection achieved by oral immunization with live P. serpens. A reduction in parasitaemia and an increase in survival were observed in C57BL/6 infected mice and previously immunized with P. serpens, when compared to non-immunized mice. iNOS (KO) mice immunized and C57BL/6 immunized and treated with AG presented parasitaemia and mortality rates comparable to those of infected and non-immunized mice. By itself, immunization with P. serpens did not induce inflammation in the myocardium, but C57BL/6 mice so immunized showed fewer amastigotes nests in the heart following an acute T. cruzi infection than those in non-immunized mice. These results suggest that protective immunity against T. cruzi infection induced by immunization with P. serpens is dependent upon enhanced NO production during the acute phase of T. cruzi infection.

  6. Immunity in urogenital protozoa.

    PubMed

    Malla, N; Goyal, K; Dhanda, R S; Yadav, M

    2014-09-01

    Innate and adaptive immunity play a significant role in urogenital infections. Innate immunity is provided by the epithelial cells and mucus lining along with acidic pH, which forms a strong physical barrier against the pathogens in female reproductive tract. Cells of innate immune system, antimicrobial peptides, cytokines, chemokines and adaptive immunity in the reproductive tract are evolved during infection, and a pro-inflammatory response is generated to fight against the invading pathogen Trichomonas vaginalis, a primary urogenital protozoa, the etiological agent of human trichomoniasis, a curable sexually transmitted infection. The involvement of the urogenital tract by other protozoal infections such as P. falciparum, Trypanosoma, Leishmania, Toxoplasma, Entamoeba histolytica and Acanthamoeba infection is rarely reported. Trichomonas induce pro-inflammatory and immunosuppressive responses in infected subjects. Multifactorial pathogenic mechanisms including parasite adherence, cysteine proteases, lipophosphoglycan, free radical, cytokine generation and Toll-like receptors appear to interplay with the induction of local and systemic immune responses that ultimately determine the outcome of the infection. However, the involvement of urogenital pathogen-specific immune mechanisms and effect of normal local resident flora on the outcome (symptomatic vs. asymptomatic) of infection are poorly understood. Moreover, immune interactions in trichomoniasis subjects co-infected with bacterial and viral pathogens need to be elucidated. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Rapid Link of Innate Immune Signal to Adaptive Immunity by Brain–Fat Axis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min Soo; Yan, Jingqi; Wu, Wenhe; Zhang, Guo; Zhang, Yalin; Cai, Dongsheng

    2015-01-01

    Innate immunity signals induced by pathogen/damage-associated molecular patterns are essential for adaptive immune responses, but it is unclear if the brain plays a role in this process. Here we show that while tumor necrosis factor (TNF) quickly increased in the brain of mice following bacterial infection, intra-brain TNF delivery mimicked bacterial infection to rapidly increase peripheral lymphocytes, especially in the spleen and fat. Multiple mouse models revealed that hypothalamic responses to TNF were accountable for this increase of peripheral lymphocytes in response to bacterial infection. Finally, hypothalamic induction of lipolysis was found to mediate the brain's action in promoting this increase in peripheral adaptive immune response. Thus, the brain-fat axis is important for rapidly linking innate immunity to adaptive immunity. PMID:25848866

  8. Is there still an immunity gap in high-level national immunization coverage, Iran?

    PubMed

    Zahraei, Seyed Mohsen; Eshrati, Babak; Gouya, Mohammad Mehdi; Mohammadbeigi, Abolfazl; Kamran, Aziz

    2014-10-01

    As there is a significant number of Iranian immigrant and illegal refugees living in marginal areas of large cities that might induce immunization gap in these areas.  The aim of this study was to provide reliable information on vaccination status of these people. A cross sectional study was conducted on children 24-47 month old who lived in the suburb areas of five large cities of Iran in 2013. Proportional cluster sampling method was used in each city and standard questionnaire of the World Health Organization applied for the purpose of data collection. The survey counts immunizations based on immunization card plus the history of vaccination according to the mother's memory. All gathered data were analyzed using SPSS software (version 16). Overall, 4502 children (49.2% female) aged 24-47 month participated in this survey among which 88.1% were Iranian and 11.9% were Afghan or other nationalities. Totally, 4479 (99.4%, CI 95%: 99.2%-99.6%) of the children had a vaccination card while 828 (18.5%, CI 95%; 15.8%-21.1%) could not present it to the interviewers. 96.8% of children were fully immunized, 3.2% were partially immunized and 0.1% were not immunized. There was no significant difference in terms of vaccine coverage among males and females. The prevalence of partially immunization in non-Iranian children was six fold of Iranian children (11.9% vs. 2%). Immunization program is implemented appropriately with high coverage rates in suburb areas of the country. However, there is still an immunity gap in non-Iranian immigrants, which should be a health system considered as a high-risk group by the health system.

  9. Neural circuitry and immunity

    PubMed Central

    Pavlov, Valentin A.; Tracey, Kevin J.

    2015-01-01

    Research during the last decade has significantly advanced our understanding of the molecular mechanisms at the interface between the nervous system and the immune system. Insight into bidirectional neuroimmune communication has characterized the nervous system as an important partner of the immune system in the regulation of inflammation. Neuronal pathways, including the vagus nerve-based inflammatory reflex are physiological regulators of immune function and inflammation. In parallel, neuronal function is altered in conditions characterized by immune dysregulation and inflammation. Here, we review these regulatory mechanisms and describe the neural circuitry modulating immunity. Understanding these mechanisms reveals possibilities to use targeted neuromodulation as a therapeutic approach for inflammatory and autoimmune disorders. These findings and current clinical exploration of neuromodulation in the treatment of inflammatory diseases defines the emerging field of Bioelectronic Medicine. PMID:26512000

  10. Immune-related neurological toxicities among solid tumor patients treated with immune checkpoint inhibitors: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Eltobgy, Mostafa; Oweira, Hani; Petrausch, Ulf; Helbling, Daniel; Schmidt, Jan; Mehrabi, Arianeb; Schöb, Othmar; Giryes, Anwar; Decker, Michael; Abdel-Rahman, Omar

    2017-07-01

    Immune-related neurologic toxicities are uncommon but serious adverse events that may be associated with the use of immune checkpoint inhibitors. The objective of this review is to assess the incidence and risk of neurologic toxicities which are potentially immune-related and occur with immune checkpoint treatment of solid tumors. Areas covered: PubMed database has been searched till January 2017. Clinical trials, case series and case reports reporting the occurrence of immune-related neurologic toxicities in solid tumor patients treated with immune checkpoint inhibitors were included. Eighteen trials with 4469 participants were included. The most common neurologic toxicities reported with these agents included sensory and motor peripheral neuropathies. Moreover, 17 case reports describing immune-related neurological events occurring with 22 patients were included. Expert commentary: Immune-related neurological toxicities occur uncommonly in cancer patients treated immune checkpoint inhibitors. Further studies are needed to better describe the course of these events (i.e. time to onset, time to resolution and responsiveness to different immunosuppressives).

  11. False contraindications to childhood immunization.

    PubMed Central

    Kinder, J; Teare, L; Rao, M; Bridgman, G; Kurian, A

    1992-01-01

    An immunization advisory clinic was set up in mid-Essex in 1988 to provide a referral facility for professionals and parents who were unsure about the eligibility of certain children to receive immunization. This paper describes four typical cases. The history and management of each case are described and the fact that all the children were successfully immunized is highlighted. It is hoped that by sharing the experiences of the immunization advisory clinic with other professional staff, more positive decisions regarding immunizations will be made. PMID:1586553

  12. False contraindications to childhood immunization.

    PubMed

    Kinder, J; Teare, L; Rao, M; Bridgman, G; Kurian, A

    1992-04-01

    An immunization advisory clinic was set up in mid-Essex in 1988 to provide a referral facility for professionals and parents who were unsure about the eligibility of certain children to receive immunization. This paper describes four typical cases. The history and management of each case are described and the fact that all the children were successfully immunized is highlighted. It is hoped that by sharing the experiences of the immunization advisory clinic with other professional staff, more positive decisions regarding immunizations will be made.

  13. The discontinuity theory of immunity

    PubMed Central

    Pradeu, Thomas; Vivier, Eric

    2017-01-01

    Some biological systems detect the rate of change in a stimulus rather than the stimulus itself only. We suggest that the immune system works in this way. According to the discontinuity theory of immunity, the immune system responds to sudden changes in antigenic stimulation and is rendered tolerant by slow or continuous stimulation. This basic principle, which is supported by recent data on immune checkpoints in viral infections, cancers, and allergies, can be seen as a unifying framework for diverse immune responses. PMID:28239677

  14. The Immune System Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Work, Kirsten A.; Gibbs, Melissa A.; Friedman, Erich J.

    2015-01-01

    We describe a card game that helps introductory biology students understand the basics of the immune response to pathogens. Students simulate the steps of the immune response with cards that represent the pathogens and the cells and molecules mobilized by the immune system. In the process, they learn the similarities and differences between the…

  15. Project BioShield: Authorities, Appropriations, Acquisitions, and Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-22

    obligate approximately $2 billion to acquire countermeasures against anthrax, botulism , radiation, and smallpox. The HHS has also employed the...see “Acquisitions”). The HHS used these contracts to purchase treatments for botulism and internal radioactive particle contamination. See U.S

  16. Arkansas community pharmacists' opinions on providing immunizations.

    PubMed

    Pace, Anne C; Flowers, Schwanda K; Hastings, Jan K

    2010-10-01

    To determine community pharmacists' attitudes and knowledge on providing immunizations including perceived barriers to immunizing. The study also examined the percentage of Arkansas pharmacists providing immunizations and the utilization of student pharmacists. Survey. Arkansas community pharmacies from February to March 2009. Community pharmacists. Mailed survey. Perceived barriers to providing immunizations, pharmacists' attitudes regarding immunizations, number of immunization-certified pharmacists, immunization administration rates within the last year, and senior student pharmacists utilization. A total of 350 surveys were mailed, and 129 were returned. In all, 79% of the respondents believed administering immunizations has advanced or significantly advanced the profession. Being certified and attitude toward providing immunizations were correlated; 37% of the respondents held certification to immunize, of which 77% reported immunizing within the last year. Commonly reported barriers included time (76%) followed by reimbursement and legal liability. Only half the respondents realized fourth year student pharmacists could immunize and only 33% of certified pharmacists utilized student pharmacists to immunize. Pharmacists perceive many barriers to providing immunizations. Training student pharmacists to give immunizations may not result in them providing immunizations upon graduation. Additional education on overcoming potential barriers and using senior student pharmacists to administer immunizations is needed.

  17. Immunization alters body odor.

    PubMed

    Kimball, Bruce A; Opiekun, Maryanne; Yamazaki, Kunio; Beauchamp, Gary K

    2014-04-10

    Infections have been shown to alter body odor. Because immune activation accompanies both infection and immunization, we tested the hypothesis that classical immunization might similarly result in the alteration of body odors detectable by trained biosensor mice. Using a Y-maze, we trained biosensor mice to distinguish between urine odors from rabies-vaccinated (RV) and unvaccinated control mice. RV-trained mice generalized this training to mice immunized with the equine West Nile virus (WNV) vaccine compared with urine of corresponding controls. These results suggest that there are similarities between body odors of mice immunized with these two vaccines. This conclusion was reinforced when mice could not be trained to directly discriminate between urine odors of RV- versus WNV-treated mice. Next, we trained biosensor mice to discriminate the urine odors of mice treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS; a general elicitor of innate immunological responses) from the urine of control mice. These LPS-trained biosensors could distinguish between the odors of LPS-treated mouse urine and RV-treated mouse urine. Finally, biosensor mice trained to distinguish between the odors of RV-treated mouse urine and control mouse urine did not generalize this training to discriminate between the odors of LPS-treated mouse urine and control mouse urine. From these experiments, we conclude that: (1) immunization alters urine odor in similar ways for RV and WNV immunizations; and (2) immune activation with LPS also alters urine odor but in ways different from those of RV and WNV. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Immune dysfunction in cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Sipeki, Nora; Antal-Szalmas, Peter; Lakatos, Peter L; Papp, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Innate and adaptive immune dysfunction, also referred to as cirrhosis-associated immune dysfunction syndrome, is a major component of cirrhosis, and plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of both the acute and chronic worsening of liver function. During the evolution of the disease, acute decompensation events associated with organ failure(s), so-called acute-on chronic liver failure, and chronic decompensation with progression of liver fibrosis and also development of disease specific complications, comprise distinct clinical entities with different immunopathology mechanisms. Enhanced bacterial translocation associated with systemic endotoxemia and increased occurrence of systemic bacterial infections have substantial impacts on both clinical situations. Acute and chronic exposure to bacteria and/or their products, however, can result in variable clinical consequences. The immune status of patients is not constant during the illness; consequently, alterations of the balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory processes result in very different dynamic courses. In this review we give a detailed overview of acquired immune dysfunction and its consequences for cirrhosis. We demonstrate the substantial influence of inherited innate immune dysfunction on acute and chronic inflammatory processes in cirrhosis caused by the pre-existing acquired immune dysfunction with limited compensatory mechanisms. Moreover, we highlight the current facts and future perspectives of how the assessment of immune dysfunction can assist clinicians in everyday practical decision-making when establishing treatment and care strategies for the patients with end-stage liver disease. Early and efficient recognition of inappropriate performance of the immune system is essential for overcoming complications, delaying progression and reducing mortality. PMID:24627592

  19. Immune dysfunction in cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Sipeki, Nora; Antal-Szalmas, Peter; Lakatos, Peter L; Papp, Maria

    2014-03-14

    Innate and adaptive immune dysfunction, also referred to as cirrhosis-associated immune dysfunction syndrome, is a major component of cirrhosis, and plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of both the acute and chronic worsening of liver function. During the evolution of the disease, acute decompensation events associated with organ failure(s), so-called acute-on chronic liver failure, and chronic decompensation with progression of liver fibrosis and also development of disease specific complications, comprise distinct clinical entities with different immunopathology mechanisms. Enhanced bacterial translocation associated with systemic endotoxemia and increased occurrence of systemic bacterial infections have substantial impacts on both clinical situations. Acute and chronic exposure to bacteria and/or their products, however, can result in variable clinical consequences. The immune status of patients is not constant during the illness; consequently, alterations of the balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory processes result in very different dynamic courses. In this review we give a detailed overview of acquired immune dysfunction and its consequences for cirrhosis. We demonstrate the substantial influence of inherited innate immune dysfunction on acute and chronic inflammatory processes in cirrhosis caused by the pre-existing acquired immune dysfunction with limited compensatory mechanisms. Moreover, we highlight the current facts and future perspectives of how the assessment of immune dysfunction can assist clinicians in everyday practical decision-making when establishing treatment and care strategies for the patients with end-stage liver disease. Early and efficient recognition of inappropriate performance of the immune system is essential for overcoming complications, delaying progression and reducing mortality.

  20. Child Indicators: Immunization of Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewit, Eugene M.; Mullahy, John

    1994-01-01

    Focuses on the immunization status of children aged 19 to 35 months. Recommended immunizations are described and contrasted with the actual status of immunization. In response to unacceptably low levels of immunization among very young children, the government is aiming at 90% immunization by the year 2000. (SLD)

  1. Male pregnancy and biparental immune priming.

    PubMed

    Roth, Olivia; Klein, Verena; Beemelmanns, Anne; Scharsack, Jörn P; Reusch, Thorsten B H

    2012-12-01

    In vertebrates, maternal transfer of immunity via the eggs or placenta provides offspring with crucial information on prevailing pathogens and parasites. Males contribute little to such transgenerational immune priming, either because they do not share the environment and parasite pressure of the offspring or because sperm are too small for transfer of immunity. In the teleost group of Syngnathids (pipefish, seahorses, and sea dragons), males brood female eggs in a placenta-like structure. Such sex-role-reversed species provide a unique opportunity to test for adaptive plasticity in immune transfer. Here, males and females should both influence offspring immunity. We experimentally tested paternal effects on offspring immunity by examining immune cell proliferation and immune gene expression. Maternal and paternal bacterial exposure induced offspring immune defense 5 weeks after hatching, and this effect persisted in 4-month-old offspring. For several offspring immune traits, double parental exposure (maternal and paternal) enhanced the response, whereas for another group of immune traits, the transgenerational induction already took place if only one parent was exposed. Our study shows that sex role reversal in connection with male pregnancy opens the door for biparental influences on offspring immunity and may represent an additional advantage for the evolution of male pregnancy.

  2. Immune response at birth, long-term immune memory and 2 years follow-up after in-utero anti-HBV DNA immunization.

    PubMed

    Fazio, V M; Ria, F; Franco, E; Rosati, P; Cannelli, G; Signori, E; Parrella, P; Zaratti, L; Iannace, E; Monego, G; Blogna, S; Fioretti, D; Iurescia, S; Filippetti, R; Rinaldi, M

    2004-03-01

    Infections occurring at the end of pregnancy, during birth or by breastfeeding are responsible for the high toll of death among first-week infants. In-utero DNA immunization has demonstrated the effectiveness in inducing specific immunity in newborns. A major contribution to infant immunization would be achieved if a vaccine proved able to be protective as early as at the birth, preventing the typical 'first-week infections'. To establish its potential for use in humans, in-utero DNA vaccination efficiency has to be evaluated for short- and long-term safety, protection at delivery, efficacy of boosts in adults and effective window/s for modulation of immune response during pregnancy, in an animal model suitable with human development. Here we show that a single intramuscular in-utero anti-HBV DNA immunization at two-thirds of pig gestation produces, at birth, antibody titers considered protective in humans. The boost of antibody titers in every animal following recall at 4 and 10 months demonstrates the establishment of immune memory. The safety of in-utero fetus manipulation is guaranteed by short-term (no fetus loss, lack of local alterations, at-term spontaneous delivery, breastfeeding) and long-term (2 years) monitoring. Treatment of fetuses closer to delivery results in immune ignorance without induction of tolerance. This result highlights the repercussion of selecting the appropriate time point when this approach is used to deliver therapeutic genes. All these findings illustrate the relevance of naked DNA-based vaccination technology in therapeutic efforts aimed to prevent the high toll of death among first-week infants.

  3. [Effect of vitamine A on mice immune response induced by specific periodontal pathogenic bacteria-immunization].

    PubMed

    Lin, Xiao-Ping; Zhou, Xiao-Jia; Liu, Hong-Li; DU, Li-Li; Toshihisa, Kawai

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of vitamine-A deficiency on the induction of specific periodontal pathogenic bacteria A. actinomycetetemcomitans(Aa) immunization. BALB/c mice were fed with vitamine A-depleted diet or control regular diet throughout the whole experiment period. After 2 weeks, immunized formalin-killed Aa to build immunized models, 6 weeks later, sacrificed to determine specific antibody-IgG, IgM and sub-class IgG antibody titers in serum, and concentration of IL-10, IFN-γ, TNF-α and RANKL in T cell supernatant were measured by ELISA and T cell proliferation was measured by cintilography. SPSS 11.5 software package was used for statistical analysis. The levels of whole IgG and IgM antibody which were immunized by Aa significantly elevated, non-immune group was unable to produce any antibody. Compared with Aa immunized+RD group, the level of whole IgG in Aa immunized+VAD group was significantly higher (P<0.05); The levels of IgG2a increased obviously, whereas the levels of IgG1 subtype antibody conspicuous decreased, with a significant difference (P<0.05). Aa immunized group could induce body to produce a strong specific T-cell immune response, but Aa immunized+VAD group had a higher T cell proliferate response compared with Aa immunized+RD group, with a statistically significant difference (P<0.05); The expression of RANKL, IFN-γ and TNF-α supernatant increased, while the expression of IL-10 decreased (P<0.05). The lack of vitamin-A diet can increase the immunized mice's susceptibility to periodontal pathogenic bacteria and trigger or aggravate immune inflammatory response. Adequate vitamin A is an important factor in maintaining body health. Supported by Natural Science Foundation of Liaoning Province (Grant No.20092139) and Science and Technology Program of Shenyang Municipality (Grant No.F10-149-9-32).

  4. Self-eating and self-defense: autophagy controls innate immunity and adaptive immunity.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guangwei; Bi, Yujing; Wang, Ruoning; Wang, Xianghui

    2013-04-01

    Autophagy (macroautophagy; "self-eating") is a degradation process, in which cytoplasmic content is engulfed and degraded by the lysosome. And, immunity is an important mechanism of the "self-defense" system. Autophagy has long been recognized as a stress response to nutrient deprivation. This will provide energy and anabolic building blocks to maintain cellular bioenergetic homeostasis. Thus, autophagy plays critical roles in regulating a wide variety of pathophysiological processes, including tumorigenesis, embryo development, tissue remodeling, and most recently, immunity. The latter shows that a self-eating (autophagy) process could regulate a self-defense (immune) system. In this review, we summarize the recent findings regarding the regulatory and mechanistic insights of the autophagy pathway in immunity.

  5. Agouron and immune response to commercialize remune immune-based treatment.

    PubMed

    James, J S

    1998-06-19

    Agouron Pharmaceuticals agreed in June to collaborate with The Immune Response Corporation on the final development and marketing of an immune-based treatment for HIV. Remune, the vaccine developed by Dr. Jonas Salk, is currently in Phase III randomized trials with 2,500 patients, and the trials are expected to be completed in April 1999. Immune-based treatments have been difficult to test, as there is no surrogate marker, like viral load, to determine if the drug is working. Agouron agreed to participate in the joint venture after reviewing encouraging results from preliminary trials in which remune was taken in combination with highly active antiretroviral drugs.

  6. The Scaffold Immune Microenvironment: Biomaterial-Mediated Immune Polarization in Traumatic and Nontraumatic Applications.

    PubMed

    Sadtler, Kaitlyn; Allen, Brian W; Estrellas, Kenneth; Housseau, Franck; Pardoll, Drew M; Elisseeff, Jennifer H

    2017-10-01

    The immune system mediates tissue growth and homeostasis and is the first responder to injury or biomaterial implantation. Recently, it has been appreciated that immune cells play a critical role in wound healing and tissue repair and should thus be considered potentially beneficial, particularly in the context of scaffolds for regenerative medicine. In this study, we present a flow cytometric analysis of cellular recruitment to tissue-derived extracellular matrix scaffolds, where we quantitatively describe the infiltration and polarization of several immune subtypes, including macrophages, dendritic cells, neutrophils, monocytes, T cells, and B cells. We define a specific scaffold-associated macrophage (SAM) that expresses CD11b + F4/80 + CD11c +/- CD206 hi CD86 + MHCII + that are characteristic of an M2-like cell (CD206 hi ) with high antigen presentation capabilities (MHCII + ). Adaptive immune cells tightly regulate the phenotype of a mature SAM. These studies provide a foundation for detailed characterization of the scaffold immune microenvironment of a given biomaterial scaffold to determine the effect of scaffold changes on immune response and subsequent therapeutic outcome of that material.

  7. A plant effector-triggered immunity signaling sector is inhibited by pattern-triggered immunity.

    PubMed

    Hatsugai, Noriyuki; Igarashi, Daisuke; Mase, Keisuke; Lu, You; Tsuda, Yayoi; Chakravarthy, Suma; Wei, Hai-Lei; Foley, Joseph W; Collmer, Alan; Glazebrook, Jane; Katagiri, Fumiaki

    2017-09-15

    Since signaling machineries for two modes of plant-induced immunity, pattern-triggered immunity (PTI) and effector-triggered immunity (ETI), extensively overlap, PTI and ETI signaling likely interact. In an Arabidopsis quadruple mutant, in which four major sectors of the signaling network, jasmonate, ethylene, PAD4, and salicylate, are disabled, the hypersensitive response (HR) typical of ETI is abolished when the Pseudomonas syringae effector AvrRpt2 is bacterially delivered but is intact when AvrRpt2 is directly expressed in planta These observations led us to discovery of a network-buffered signaling mechanism that mediates HR signaling and is strongly inhibited by PTI signaling. We named this mechanism the ETI-Mediating and PTI-Inhibited Sector (EMPIS). The signaling kinetics of EMPIS explain apparently different plant genetic requirements for ETI triggered by different effectors without postulating different signaling machineries. The properties of EMPIS suggest that information about efficacy of the early immune response is fed back to the immune signaling network, modulating its activity and limiting the fitness cost of unnecessary immune responses. © 2017 The Authors.

  8. Pharmacists as immunizers: a survey of community pharmacists' willingness to administer adult immunizations.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Nicholas; Gorman Corsten, Erin; Kiberd, Mathew; Bowles, Susan; Isenor, Jennifer; Slayter, Kathryn; McNeil, Shelly

    2015-04-01

    Adult immunization rates worldwide fall below desired targets. Pharmacists are highly accessible healthcare providers with the potential to increase immunization rates among adults by administering vaccines in their practice setting. To determine the attitudes of community-based Canadian pharmacists with respect to expanding their scope of practice to include administration of immunizations. An internet-based survey was emailed to community pharmacists across Canada. The survey was piloted through focus groups for qualitative feedback, tested for content validity, and test-retest reliability prior to dissemination. There were 495 responses to the survey. The majority (88 %) agreed that pharmacists as immunizers would increase public access, improve rates (84 %), and be acceptable to the public (72 %). However, only 68 % agreed that pharmacists should be permitted to immunize. The majority of respondents (90 %) agreed that certification in vaccine administration should be required for pharmacists to administer vaccines. Pharmacists identified education, reimbursement, and negative interactions with other providers as barriers to pharmacists administering vaccines. Canadian pharmacists are willing to expand their scope of practice to include immunization. However, implementation requires professional development and certification in vaccine administration.

  9. Insect Immunity to Entomopathogenic Fungi.

    PubMed

    Lu, H-L; St Leger, R J

    2016-01-01

    The study of infection and immunity in insects has achieved considerable prominence with the appreciation that their host defense mechanisms share many fundamental characteristics with the innate immune system of vertebrates. Studies on the highly tractable model organism Drosophila in particular have led to a detailed understanding of conserved innate immunity networks, such as Toll. However, most of these studies have used opportunistic human pathogens and may not have revealed specialized immune strategies that have arisen through evolutionary arms races with natural insect pathogens. Fungi are the commonest natural insect pathogens, and in this review, we focus on studies using Metarhizium and Beauveria spp. that have addressed immune system function and pathogen virulence via behavioral avoidance, the use of physical barriers, and the activation of local and systemic immune responses. In particular, we highlight studies on the evolutionary genetics of insect immunity and discuss insect-pathogen coevolution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The National Immunization Information Hotline.

    PubMed

    Gust, D A; Gangarosa, P; Hibbs, B; Wilkins, C; Ford, K; Stuart, M; Brown-Bryant, R; Wallach, G; Chen, R T

    2004-01-01

    The National Immunization Information Hotline (NIIH) has been providing information regarding immunizations to the public and to health care professionals since March 1997. We describe the operations of the NIIH, its experience over the first two and a half years of operation and lessons learned for other immunization hotlines. From 1998-2000, the hotline answered 246,859 calls. Calls concerning immunization information requests totaled 175,367; data about the calls were collected from 35,102. Approximately a third of the 35,102 calls were from health care providers. Of the remaining calls from the public, the greatest number of calls concerned childhood immunizations. Immunization schedule queries from the public increased 323.0% from 1998 to 2000. While the major goal of the NIIH is to provide accurate and reliable information to the public and to health care providers, data from the hotline can be used to monitor changes over time in calls concerning inquiries about the immunization schedule in addition to other variables of interest.

  11. Immune System Dysfunction in the Elderly.

    PubMed

    Fuentes, Eduardo; Fuentes, Manuel; Alarcón, Marcelo; Palomo, Iván

    2017-01-01

    Human aging is characterized by both physical and physiological frailty that profoundly affects the immune system. In this context aging is associated with declines in adaptive and innate immunity established as immunosenescence. Immunosenescence is a new concept that reflects the age-associated restructuring changes of innate and adaptive immune functions. Thus elderly individuals usually present chronic low-level inflammation, higher infection rates and chronic diseases. A study of alterations in the immune system during aging could provide a potentially useful biomarker for the evaluation of immune senescence treatment. The immune system is the result of the interplay between innate and adaptive immunity, yet the impact of aging on this function is unclear. In this article the function of the immune system during aging is explored.

  12. The most common friend first immunization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nian, Fu-Zhong; Hu, Cha-Sheng

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, a standard susceptible-infected-recovered-susceptible(SIRS) epidemic model based on the Watts-Strogatz (WS) small-world network model and the Barabsi-Albert (BA) scale-free network model is established, and a new immunization scheme — “the most common friend first immunization” is proposed, in which the most common friend’s node is described as being the first immune on the second layer protection of complex networks. The propagation situations of three different immunization schemes — random immunization, high-risk immunization, and the most common friend first immunization are studied. At the same time, the dynamic behaviors are also studied on the WS small-world and the BA scale-free network. Moreover, the analytic and simulated results indicate that the immune effect of the most common friend first immunization is better than random immunization, but slightly worse than high-risk immunization. However, high-risk immunization still has some limitations. For example, it is difficult to accurately define who a direct neighbor in the life is. Compared with the traditional immunization strategies having some shortcomings, the most common friend first immunization is effective, and it is nicely consistent with the actual situation. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61263019), the Program for International Science and Technology Cooperation Projects of Gansu Province, China (Grant No. 144WCGA166), and the Program for Longyuan Young Innovation Talents and the Doctoral Foundation of Lanzhou University of Technology, China.

  13. Project BioShield: Authorities, Appropriations, Acquisitions, and Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-23

    obligate approximately $2 billion to acquire countermeasures against anthrax, botulism , radiation, and smallpox. The HHS has also employed the...BioShield funds described later in this report (see “Acquisitions”). The HHS used these contracts to purchase treatments for botulism and internal

  14. Immune Repertoire after Immunization As Seen by Next-Generation Sequencing and Proteomics

    PubMed Central

    VanDuijn, Martijn M.; Dekker, Lennard J.; van IJcken, Wilfred F. J.; Sillevis Smitt, Peter A. E.; Luider, Theo M.

    2017-01-01

    The immune system produces a diverse repertoire of immunoglobulins in response to foreign antigens. During B-cell development, VDJ recombination and somatic mutations generate diversity, whereas selection processes remove it. Using both proteomic and NGS approaches, we characterized the immune repertoires in groups of rats after immunization with purified antigens. Proteomics and NGS data on the repertoire are in qualitative agreement, but did show quantitative differences that may relate to differences between the biological niches that were sampled for these approaches. Both methods contributed complementary information in the characterization of the immune repertoire. It was found that the immune repertoires resulting from each antigen had many similarities that allowed samples to cluster together, and that mutated immunoglobulin peptides were shared among animals with a response to the same antigen significantly more than for different antigens. However, the number of shared sequences decreased in a log-linear fashion relative to the number of animals that share them, which may affect future applications. A phylogenetic analysis on the NGS reads showed that reads from different individuals immunized with the same antigen populated distinct branches of the phylogram, an indication that the repertoire had converged. Also, similar mutation patterns were found in branches of the phylogenetic tree that were associated with antigen-specific immunoglobulins through proteomics data. Thus, data from different analysis methods and different experimental platforms show that the immunoglobulin repertoires of immunized animals have overlapping and converging features. With additional research, this may enable interesting applications in biotechnology and clinical diagnostics. PMID:29085363

  15. Inborn Errors in Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Lionakis, M.S.; Hajishengallis, G.

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, the study of genetic defects arising from inborn errors in immunity has resulted in the discovery of new genes involved in the function of the immune system and in the elucidation of the roles of known genes whose importance was previously unappreciated. With the recent explosion in the field of genomics and the increasing number of genetic defects identified, the study of naturally occurring mutations has become a powerful tool for gaining mechanistic insight into the functions of the human immune system. In this concise perspective, we discuss emerging evidence that inborn errors in immunity constitute real-life models that are indispensable both for the in-depth understanding of human biology and for obtaining critical insights into common diseases, such as those affecting oral health. In the field of oral mucosal immunity, through the study of patients with select gene disruptions, the interleukin-17 (IL-17) pathway has emerged as a critical element in oral immune surveillance and susceptibility to inflammatory disease, with disruptions in the IL-17 axis now strongly linked to mucosal fungal susceptibility, whereas overactivation of the same pathways is linked to inflammatory periodontitis. PMID:25900229

  16. Autophagy genes in immunity

    PubMed Central

    Virgin, Herbert W; Levine, Beth

    2009-01-01

    In its classical form, autophagy is a pathway by which cytoplasmic constituents, including intracellular pathogens, are sequestered in a double-membrane–bound autophagosome and delivered to the lysosome for degradation. This pathway has been linked to diverse aspects of innate and adaptive immunity, including pathogen resistance, production of type I interferon, antigen presentation, tolerance and lymphocyte development, as well as the negative regulation of cytokine signaling and inflammation. Most of these links have emerged from studies in which genes encoding molecules involved in autophagy are inactivated in immune effector cells. However, it is not yet known whether all of the critical functions of such genes in immunity represent ‘classical autophagy’ or possible as-yet-undefined autophagolysosome-independent functions of these genes. This review summarizes phenotypes that result from the inactivation of autophagy genes in the immune system and discusses the pleiotropic functions of autophagy genes in immunity. PMID:19381141

  17. Behavioral Immunity in Insects

    PubMed Central

    de Roode, Jacobus C.; Lefèvre, Thierry

    2012-01-01

    Parasites can dramatically reduce the fitness of their hosts, and natural selection should favor defense mechanisms that can protect hosts against disease. Much work has focused on understanding genetic and physiological immunity against parasites, but hosts can also use behaviors to avoid infection, reduce parasite growth or alleviate disease symptoms. It is increasingly recognized that such behaviors are common in insects, providing strong protection against parasites and parasitoids. We review the current evidence for behavioral immunity in insects, present a framework for investigating such behavior, and emphasize that behavioral immunity may act through indirect rather than direct fitness benefits. We also discuss the implications for host-parasite co-evolution, local adaptation, and the evolution of non-behavioral physiological immune systems. Finally, we argue that the study of behavioral immunity in insects has much to offer for investigations in vertebrates, in which this topic has traditionally been studied. PMID:26466629

  18. Cytokines in Drosophila immunity.

    PubMed

    Vanha-Aho, Leena-Maija; Valanne, Susanna; Rämet, Mika

    2016-02-01

    Cytokines are a large and diverse group of small proteins that can affect many biological processes, but most commonly cytokines are known as mediators of the immune response. In the event of an infection, cytokines are produced in response to an immune stimulus, and they function as key regulators of the immune response. Cytokines come in many shapes and sizes, and although they vary greatly in structure, their functions have been well conserved in evolution. The immune signaling pathways that respond to cytokines are remarkably conserved from fly to man. Therefore, Drosophila melanogaster, provides an excellent platform for studying the biology and function of cytokines. In this review, we will describe the cytokines and cytokine-like molecules found in the fly and discuss their roles in host immunity. Copyright © 2015 European Federation of Immunological Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Evolution and immunity.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, Jim

    2010-08-01

    This report describes a meeting organized by Ken Smith and Jim Kaufman, entitled Evolution and Immunity, which took place at the University of Cambridge on 24 September 2009 to honour the anniversaries of the birth of Darwin and the first publication of The Origin of Species. Ten internationally-known speakers described the effects of evolution on immunity, ranging in timescales from the deep-time evolution of adaptive immune systems in vertebrates and invertebrates to the evolution of pathogens and lymphocytes within a single individual. The final talk explored the application of phylogenetic analysis to non-biological systems.

  20. Evolution and immunity

    PubMed Central

    Kaufman, Jim

    2010-01-01

    This report describes a meeting organized by Ken Smith and Jim Kaufman, entitled Evolution and Immunity, which took place at the University of Cambridge on 24 September 2009 to honour the anniversaries of the birth of Darwin and the first publication of The Origin of Species. Ten internationally-known speakers described the effects of evolution on immunity, ranging in timescales from the deep-time evolution of adaptive immune systems in vertebrates and invertebrates to the evolution of pathogens and lymphocytes within a single individual. The final talk explored the application of phylogenetic analysis to non-biological systems. PMID:20465576

  1. Lipid antigens in immunity

    PubMed Central

    Dowds, C. Marie; Kornell, Sabin-Christin

    2014-01-01

    Lipids are not only a central part of human metabolism but also play diverse and critical roles in the immune system. As such, they can act as ligands of lipid-activated nuclear receptors, control inflammatory signaling through bioactive lipids such as prostaglandins, leukotrienes, lipoxins, resolvins, and protectins, and modulate immunity as intracellular phospholipid- or sphingolipid-derived signaling mediators. In addition, lipids can serve as antigens and regulate immunity through the activation of lipid-reactive T cells, which is the topic of this review. We will provide an overview of the mechanisms of lipid antigen presentation, the biology of lipid-reactive T cells, and their contribution to immunity. PMID:23999493

  2. Barriers to Immunizations and Strategies to Enhance Immunization Rates in Adults with Autoimmune Inflammatory Diseases.

    PubMed

    Kirchner, Elizabeth; Ruffing, Victoria

    2017-02-01

    For as long as there have been immunizations, there have been barriers to them. Immunization rates in the United States are below target. Rheumatologists and rheumatology practitioners need to understand the issues of immunizations in patients with autoimmune inflammatory disease to identify and overcome barriers to immunization. Several strategies for overcoming these barriers are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Induction of innate immune signatures following polyepitope protein-glycoprotein B-TLR4&9 agonist immunization generates multifunctional CMV-specific cellular and humoral immunity

    PubMed Central

    Dasari, Vijayendra; Smith, Corey; Schuessler, Andrea; Zhong, Jie; Khanna, Rajiv

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that a successful subunit human cytomegalovirus (CMV) vaccine requires improved formulation to generate broad-based anti-viral immunity following immunization. Here we report the development of a non-live protein-based vaccine strategy for CMV based on a polyepitope protein and CMV glycoprotein B (gB) adjuvanted with TLR4 and/or TLR9 agonists. The polyepitope protein includes contiguous multiple MHC class I-restricted epitopes with an aim to induce CD8+ T cell immunity, while gB is an important target for CD4+ T cell immunity and neutralizing antibodies. Optimal immunogenicity of this bivalent non-live protein vaccine formulation was dependent upon the co-administration of both the TLR4 and TLR9 agonist, which was associated with the activation of innate immune signatures and the influx of different DC subsets including plasmacytoid DCs and migratory CD8-DEC205+CD103-CD326- langerin-negative dermal DCs into the draining lymph nodes. Furthermore these professional antigen presenting cells also expressed IL-6, IL-12p70, TNFα, and IFNα which play a crucial role in the activation of adaptive immunity. In summary, this study provides a novel platform technology in which broad-based anti-CMV immune responses upon vaccination can be maximized by co-delivery of viral antigens and TLR4 and 9 agonists which induce activation of innate immune signatures and promote potent antigen acquisition and cross-presentation by multiple DC subsets. PMID:24463331

  4. [Humoral immune diseases: Cutaneous vasculitis and auto-immune bullous dermatoses].

    PubMed

    Wechsler, Janine

    2018-02-01

    Humoral immunity is the cause of multiple diseases related to antibodies (IgA, IgG, IgM) produced by the patient. Two groups of diseases are identified. The first group is related to circulating antigen-antibody complexes. The antigens are various. They are often unknown. These immune complexes cause a vascular inflammation due to the complement fixation. Consequently, this group is dominated by inflammatory vasculitis. In the second group, the pathology is due to the fixation in situ of antibodies to a target antigen of the skin that is no more recognized by the patient. This group is represented by the auto-immune bullous dermatoses. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  5. The Concordance of Parent and Child Immunization.

    PubMed

    Robison, Steve G; Osborn, Andrew W

    2017-05-01

    A substantial body of work has related survey-based parental vaccine hesitancy to noncompliant childhood immunization. However little attention has been paid to the connection between parents' own immunization behavior and the immunizations their children receive. Using the Oregon ALERT Immunization Information System, we identified adult caregiver-child pairs for children between 9 months and 17 years of age. The likelihood of adult-child concordance of influenza immunization per influenza season from 2010-2011 through 2014-2015 was assessed. The utility of adult immunization as a predictor was also assessed for other, noninfluenza recommended immunizations for children and adolescents. A total of 450 687 matched adult caregiver-child pairs were included in the study. The children of immunizing adults were 2.77 times more likely to also be immunized for seasonal influenza across all seasons (95% confidence interval, 2.74-2.79), with similar results applying within each season. Adult immunization status was also significantly associated with the likelihood of children and adolescents getting other noninfluenza immunizations, such as the human papillomavirus vaccine (HPV). When adults improved their own behavior from nonimmunizing to immunizing across influenza seasons, their children if not immunized in the previous season were 5.44 times (95% confidence interval, 5.35-5.53) more likely to become immunized for influenza. Children's likelihood of following immunization recommendations is associated with the immunization behavior of their parents. Encouraging parental immunization is a potential tool for increasing children's immunization rates. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  6. Drug-induced immune hemolytic anemia

    MedlinePlus

    Immune hemolytic anemia secondary to drugs; Anemia - immune hemolytic - secondary to drugs ... In some cases, a drug can cause the immune system to mistake your own red blood cells for foreign substances. The body responds by making ...

  7. THE STATE OF IMMUNITY IN GUINEA-PIGS IMMUNIZED WITH LIVE BRUCELLOSIS VACCINE AND EXPOSED TO RADIATION

    SciTech Connect

    Shevtsova, Z.V.

    1960-01-01

    On immunization with 19-BA live brucellosis vaccine on the 3rd and 10th days after exposure to radiation in a dose of 200 r, guinea pigs died 4 and 2 times more frequently than unvaccinated guinea pigs. If immunization was carried out on the 30th day after irradiation the mortality among irradiated animals showed only a slight increase compared with the mortality among unvaccinated control animals. Immunization carried out before exposure to radiation had no influence upon the mortality of the animals caused by radiation sickness. Guinea pigs immunized after exposure to radiation were insusceptible when infected with the doses ofmore » virulent strains of Brucella usually employed to challenge immunity (2-4 infective doses). If, however, the animals were infected with a dose twice as high (8 infective doses) the degree of immunity proved to be lower in guinea pigs exposed to radiation, than in guinea pigs immunized and not exposed to radiation. Exposure of guinea pigs to radiation at a time when immunity had already developed had no influence upon the degree of immunity on infection with 4 infective doses of the virulent strain. (auth)« less

  8. Immunostimulatory Oligodeoxynucleotides Containing the CpG Motif are Effective as Immune Adjuvants in Tumor Antigen Immunization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiner, George J.; Liu, Hsin-Ming; Wooldridge, James E.; Dahle, Christopher E.; Krieg, Arthur M.

    1997-09-01

    Recent advances in our understanding of the immune response are allowing for the logical design of new approaches to cancer immunization. One area of interest is the development of new immune adjuvants. Immunostimulatory oligodeoxynucleotides containing the CpG motif (CpG ODN) can induce production of a wide variety of cytokines and activate B cells, monocytes, dendritic cells, and NK cells. Using the 38C13 B cell lymphoma model, we assessed whether CpG ODN can function as immune adjuvants in tumor antigen immunization. The idiotype served as the tumor antigen. Select CpG ODN were as effective as complete Freund's adjuvant at inducing an antigen-specific antibody response but were associated with less toxicity. These CpG ODN induced a higher titer of antigen-specific IgG2a than did complete Freund's adjuvant, suggesting an enhanced TH1 response. Mice immunized with CpG ODN as an adjuvant were protected from tumor challenge to a degree similar to that seen in mice immunized with complete Freund's adjuvant. We conclude that CpG ODN are effective as immune adjuvants and are attractive as part of a tumor immunization strategy.

  9. Induction of pneumococcal polysaccharide-specific mucosal immune responses by oral immunization.

    PubMed

    VanCott, J L; Kobayashi, T; Yamamoto, M; Pillai, S; McGhee, J R; Kiyono, H

    1996-04-01

    Liposome and cholera toxin (CT) are considered to be effective antigen delivery vehicles and adjuvants for mucosal vaccines. The effect of these antigen delivery systems on adjuvant responses to mucosally administered pneumococcal polysaccharide (Pnup) was investigated in this study. Both mucosal (e.g. oral) and systemic (i.p.) immunization of mice with purified preparations of Pnup type 23F induced antigen-specific IgM responses in sera. Interestingly, oral immunization of as little as 10 micrograms of Pnup type 23F was sufficient to induce systemic IgM responses. Pnup-specific IgM antibodies peaked by day 7 and no booster responses were evident after a second dose on day 14. In order to examine whether IgG and IgA Pnup-specific immune responses are induced by mucosal immunization, the mucosal adjuvant CT was mixed with Pnup type 23 as an oral vaccine. Co-oral administration of CT and Pnup type 23F resulted in the induction of Pnup-specific faecal IgA antibodies. These results were confirmed by detecting antigen-specific IgA-spot-forming cells in mononuclear cell suspensions prepared from the intestine of immunized mice. These findings suggest that oral immunization with Pnup in the presence of mucosal adjuvants, such as CT, could induce Pnup-specific IgA responses whereas Pnup alone did not. In an attempt to further enhance antigen-specific antibody responses, Pnup type 23F was encapsulated in liposomes and used as mucosal vaccine. However, immunogenicity of Pnup was not improved.

  10. Student pharmacists' perceptions of immunizations.

    PubMed

    Kubli, Kara; McBane, Sarah; Hirsch, Jan D; Lorentz, Sarah

    2017-05-01

    The primary aim of this study was to explore changes in knowledge level, perceived importance and apprehension of immunizations by first year pharmacy students pre- vs. post-immunization education and training. First year pharmacy students at the University of California San Diego Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences (UC San Diego SSPPS) completed a pre- and post-immunization training course questionnaire. Knowledge base and perceived importance level of immunizations including hepatitis B, influenza, measles, mumps, rubella (MMR), varicella, tetanus, diphtheria, pertussis (Tdap), meningococcal and human papilloma virus (HPV) were assessed. In addition, apprehension of needle administration and fears regarding safety and efficacy were evaluated. Of 120 students, 85 (71%) completed pre- and post-course questionnaires for this study. Mean knowledge test scores increased from 56% pre-course to 83% post-course. Pre-course, 73% of participants considered immunizations as very important in preventing future disease outbreaks. Post-course, this percentage climbed to 94%. Prior to taking the course, 52% of students were apprehensive about administering injections; however, after completing the course this percentage declined to 33%. The majority of students who had been fearful prior to the course retained their fears of receiving needle injections. The proportion of students believing immunizations should be a personal choice, not mandatory, did not significantly change from pre-course (49%) to post-course (44%). The UC San Diego SSPPS immunization course increased student knowledge of immunization facts and the perceived importance of immunizations. However, a substantial portion of students retained apprehension about administering and receiving needle injections and the proportion believing immunizations should be a personal choice, almost half, did not change appreciably. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Plant Immunity Inducer Development and Application.

    PubMed

    Dewen, Qiu; Yijie, Dong; Yi, Zhang; Shupeng, Li; Fachao, Shi

    2017-05-01

    Plant immunity inducers represent a new and rapidly developing field in plant-protection research. In this paper, we discuss recent research on plant immunity inducers and their development and applications in China. Plant immunity inducers include plant immunity-inducing proteins, chitosan oligosaccharides, and microbial inducers. These compounds and microorganisms can trigger defense responses and confer disease resistance in plants. We also describe the mechanisms of plant immunity inducers and how they promote plant health. Furthermore, we summarize the current situation in plant immunity inducer development in China and the global marketplace. Finally, we also deeply analyze the development trends and application prospects of plant immunity inducers in environmental protection and food safety.

  12. Parental hesitation in immunizing children in Utah.

    PubMed

    Luthy, Karlen E; Beckstrand, Renea L; Callister, Lynn Clark

    2010-01-01

    To determine why parents in a Utah community hesitated in immunizing their children. Cross-sectional descriptive study. Data were collected from a convenience sample of 86 parents of under-immunized children in the county health department and local pediatric and family practice offices. Participants were asked to complete an immunization hesitancy survey including questions regarding why parents hesitated to immunize their children, parental concerns regarding immunizations, and what advice they would give to a friend or family member who had concerns about childhood vaccines. Parents could also write in any other comment, concern, or suggestion they had regarding childhood immunizations. 2 major themes were identified: concerns regarding immunization safety and lack of perceived need. The most commonly reported concerns regarding immunization safety included autism, immune system overload, and other adverse reactions. Many parents did not recognize the need for childhood immunizations, especially multiple immunizations given simultaneously on a strict timeline. The manner in which immunization information is shared with hesitant parents can be particularly important. There is a need for health care providers to assess and increase parental knowledge regarding immunizations.

  13. Emerging Concepts in Innate Immunity.

    PubMed

    Pelka, Karin; De Nardo, Dominic

    2018-01-01

    This review introduces recent concepts in innate immunity highlighting some of the latest exciting findings. These include: the discovery of the initiator of pyroptosis, Gasdermin D, and mechanisms of inflammatory caspases in innate immune signaling; the formation of oligomeric signalosomes downstream of innate immune receptors; mechanisms that shape innate immune responses, such as cellular homeostasis, cell metabolism, and pathogen viability; rapid methods of cell-to-cell communication; the interplay between the host and its microbiome and the concept of innate immunological memory. Furthermore, we discuss open questions and illustrate how technological advances, such as CRISPR/Cas9, may provide important answers for outstanding questions in the field of innate immunity.

  14. Incomplete Early Childhood Immunization Series and Missing Fourth DTaP Immunizations; Missed Opportunities or Missed Visits?

    PubMed

    Robison, Steve G

    2013-01-01

    The successful completion of early childhood immunizations is a proxy for overall quality of early care. Immunization statuses are usually assessed by up-to-date (UTD) rates covering combined series of different immunizations. However, series UTD rates often only bear on which single immunization is missing, rather than the success of all immunizations. In the US, most series UTD rates are limited by missing fourth DTaP-containing immunizations (diphtheria/tetanus/pertussis) due at 15 to 18 months of age. Missing 4th DTaP immunizations are associated either with a lack of visits at 15 to 18 months of age, or to visits without immunizations. Typical immunization data however cannot distinguish between these two reasons. This study compared immunization records from the Oregon ALERT IIS with medical encounter records for two-year olds in the Oregon Health Plan. Among those with 3 valid DTaPs by 9 months of age, 31.6% failed to receive a timely 4th DTaP; of those without a 4th DTaP, 42.1% did not have any provider visits from 15 through 18 months of age, while 57.9% had at least one provider visit. Those with a 4th DTaP averaged 2.45 encounters, while those with encounters but without 4th DTaPs averaged 2.23 encounters.

  15. Soy isoflavones and immunity.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Tohru; Kogiso, Mari

    2008-08-01

    The amount of soy products consumed in Japan is much greater than that in Western countries. Recent evidence indicates that soy isoflavones play a beneficial role in obesity, cancer, osteoporosis, and cardiovascular disease. The soybean isoflavone genistein is present at high levels in soy products. Genistein is structurally similar to 17beta-estradiol (E2), and genistein has been suggested to be act as E2 or an antagonist against E2. Genistein suppresses antigen-specific immune response in vivo and lymphocyte proliferation response in vitro. However, genistein enhances the cytotoxic response mediated by NK and cytotoxic T cells and the cytokine production from T cells. Thus, the effect of genistein on immunity is immune cell-dependent. Due to its unique effect on immune function, genistein has been used for the treatment of the diseases in animal models and it has been found that genistein inhibits allergic inflammatory responses. In this review, we summarize current studies related to the effect of isoflavone genistein on the immune system.

  16. Advances in Meningeal Immunity.

    PubMed

    Rua, Rejane; McGavern, Dorian B

    2018-06-01

    The central nervous system (CNS) is an immunologically specialized tissue protected by a blood-brain barrier. The CNS parenchyma is enveloped by a series of overlapping membranes that are collectively referred to as the meninges. The meninges provide an additional CNS barrier, harbor a diverse array of resident immune cells, and serve as a crucial interface with the periphery. Recent studies have significantly advanced our understanding of meningeal immunity, demonstrating how a complex immune landscape influences CNS functions under steady-state and inflammatory conditions. The location and activation state of meningeal immune cells can profoundly influence CNS homeostasis and contribute to neurological disorders, but these cells are also well equipped to protect the CNS from pathogens. In this review, we discuss advances in our understanding of the meningeal immune repertoire and provide insights into how this CNS barrier operates immunologically under conditions ranging from neurocognition to inflammatory diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Shot by a Gun … Missed by a Provider.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Eddie; Zaid, Abdul H; Calello, Diane P; McHugh, Lisa; Arzumanov, Grant; Asrar, Najaf; Sapin, Ari; Fless, Kristin G

    2018-04-01

    Botulism is a paralytic disease caused by the neurotoxin produced by Clostridium botulinum. The majority of cases are due to ingestion or injection drug use. Wound botulism from traumatic injury is exceedingly rare, with only one to two cases reported each year in the United States. A 27-year-old man presented to the Emergency Department with diplopia, dysphagia, and progressive weakness 10 days after sustaining a gunshot wound to his right lower leg. He had been evaluated for the same complaints at a different facility the day prior and was discharged. His wound appeared well-healing, but a high suspicion for wound botulism led to rapid consultation with the state Poison Control Center and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The patient developed worsening respiratory insufficiency and required mechanical ventilation. Expeditious treatment with equine heptavalent botulinum antitoxin resulted in significant recovery of strength in 4 days. Serum toxin bioassay tested positive for botulinum neurotoxin type A. WHY SHOULD AN EMERGENCY PHYSICIAN BE AWARE OF THIS?: Wound botulism now accounts for the majority of adult botulism in the United States. It should be considered in any patient with signs of neuromuscular disease and a recent injury, even if the wound appears uninfected. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Clostridium botulinum in cattle and dairy products.

    PubMed

    Lindström, Miia; Myllykoski, Jan; Sivelä, Seppo; Korkeala, Hannu

    2010-04-01

    The use of plastic-wrapped and nonacidified silage as cattle feed has led to an increasing number of botulism outbreaks due to Clostridium botulinum Groups I-III in dairy cattle. The involvement of Groups I and II organisms in cattle botulism has raised concern of human botulism risk associated with the consumption of dairy products. Multiplication of C. botulinum in silage and in the gastrointestinal tract of cattle with botulism has been reported, thus contamination of the farm environment and raw milk, and further transmission through the dairy chain, are possible. The standard milk pasteurization treatment does not eliminate spores, and the intrinsic factors of many dairy products allow botulinal growth and toxin production. Although rare, several large botulism outbreaks due to both commercial and home-prepared dairy products have been reported. Factors explaining these outbreaks include most importantly temperature abuse, but also unsafe formulation, inadequate fermentation, insufficient thermal processing, post-process contamination, and lack of adequate quality control for adjunct ingredients were involved. The small number of outbreaks is probably explained by a low incidence of spores in milk, the presence of competitive bacteria in pasteurized milk and other dairy products, and growth-inhibitory combinations of intrinsic and extrinsic factors in cultured and processed dairy products.

  19. New Players in Immunity to Tuberculosis: The Host Microbiome, Lung Epithelium, and Innate Immune Cells

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Nancy; Kumar, Rakesh; Agrawal, Babita

    2018-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a highly contagious infection and devastating chronic disease, causing 10.4 million new infections and 1.8 million deaths every year globally. Efforts to control and eradicate TB are hampered by the rapid emergence of drug resistance and limited efficacy of the only available vaccine, BCG. Immunological events in the airways and lungs are of major importance in determining whether exposure to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) results in successful infection or protective immunity. Several studies have demonstrated that the host microbiota is in constant contact with the immune system, and thus continually directs the nature of immune responses occurring during new infections. However, little is known about its role in the eventual outcome of the mycobacterial infection. In this review, we highlight the changes in microbial composition in the respiratory tract and gut that have been linked to the alteration of immune responses, and to the risk, prevention, and treatment of TB. In addition, we summarize our current understanding of alveolar epithelial cells and the innate immune system, and their interaction with Mtb during early infection. Extensive studies are warranted to fully understand the all-inclusive role of the lung microbiota, its interaction with epithelium and innate immune responses and resulting adaptive immune responses, and in the pathogenesis and/or protection from Mtb infection. Novel interventions aimed at influencing the microbiota, the alveolar immune system and innate immunity will shape future strategies of prevention and treatment for TB. PMID:29692778

  20. New Players in Immunity to Tuberculosis: The Host Microbiome, Lung Epithelium, and Innate Immune Cells.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Nancy; Kumar, Rakesh; Agrawal, Babita

    2018-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a highly contagious infection and devastating chronic disease, causing 10.4 million new infections and 1.8 million deaths every year globally. Efforts to control and eradicate TB are hampered by the rapid emergence of drug resistance and limited efficacy of the only available vaccine, BCG. Immunological events in the airways and lungs are of major importance in determining whether exposure to Mycobacterium tuberculosis ( Mtb ) results in successful infection or protective immunity. Several studies have demonstrated that the host microbiota is in constant contact with the immune system, and thus continually directs the nature of immune responses occurring during new infections. However, little is known about its role in the eventual outcome of the mycobacterial infection. In this review, we highlight the changes in microbial composition in the respiratory tract and gut that have been linked to the alteration of immune responses, and to the risk, prevention, and treatment of TB. In addition, we summarize our current understanding of alveolar epithelial cells and the innate immune system, and their interaction with Mtb during early infection. Extensive studies are warranted to fully understand the all-inclusive role of the lung microbiota, its interaction with epithelium and innate immune responses and resulting adaptive immune responses, and in the pathogenesis and/or protection from Mtb infection. Novel interventions aimed at influencing the microbiota, the alveolar immune system and innate immunity will shape future strategies of prevention and treatment for TB.

  1. Immunization of Epidemics in Multiplex Networks

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Dawei; Wang, Lianhai; Li, Shudong; Wang, Zhen; Wang, Lin; Gao, Bo

    2014-01-01

    Up to now, immunization of disease propagation has attracted great attention in both theoretical and experimental researches. However, vast majority of existing achievements are limited to the simple assumption of single layer networked population, which seems obviously inconsistent with recent development of complex network theory: each node could possess multiple roles in different topology connections. Inspired by this fact, we here propose the immunization strategies on multiplex networks, including multiplex node-based random (targeted) immunization and layer node-based random (targeted) immunization. With the theory of generating function, theoretical analysis is developed to calculate the immunization threshold, which is regarded as the most critical index for the effectiveness of addressed immunization strategies. Interestingly, both types of random immunization strategies show more efficiency in controlling disease spreading on multiplex Erdös-Rényi (ER) random networks; while targeted immunization strategies provide better protection on multiplex scale-free (SF) networks. PMID:25401755

  2. Immunization of epidemics in multiplex networks.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Dawei; Wang, Lianhai; Li, Shudong; Wang, Zhen; Wang, Lin; Gao, Bo

    2014-01-01

    Up to now, immunization of disease propagation has attracted great attention in both theoretical and experimental researches. However, vast majority of existing achievements are limited to the simple assumption of single layer networked population, which seems obviously inconsistent with recent development of complex network theory: each node could possess multiple roles in different topology connections. Inspired by this fact, we here propose the immunization strategies on multiplex networks, including multiplex node-based random (targeted) immunization and layer node-based random (targeted) immunization. With the theory of generating function, theoretical analysis is developed to calculate the immunization threshold, which is regarded as the most critical index for the effectiveness of addressed immunization strategies. Interestingly, both types of random immunization strategies show more efficiency in controlling disease spreading on multiplex Erdös-Rényi (ER) random networks; while targeted immunization strategies provide better protection on multiplex scale-free (SF) networks.

  3. Ambient ozone and pulmonary innate immunity

    PubMed Central

    Al-Hegelan, Mashael; Tighe, Robert M.; Castillo, Christian; Hollingsworth, John W.

    2013-01-01

    Ambient ozone is a criteria air pollutant that impacts both human morbidity and mortality. The effect of ozone inhalation includes both toxicity to lung tissue and alteration of the host immunologic response. The innate immune system facilitates immediate recognition of both foreign pathogens and tissue damage. Emerging evidence supports that ozone can modify the host innate immune response and that this response to inhaled ozone is dependent on genes of innate immunity. Improved understanding of the complex interaction between environmental ozone and host innate immunity will provide fundamental insight into the pathogenesis of inflammatory airways disease. We review the current evidence supporting that environmental ozone inhalation: (1) modifies cell types required for intact innate immunity, (2) is partially dependent on genes of innate immunity, (3) primes pulmonary innate immune responses to LPS, and (4) contributes to innate-adaptive immune system cross-talk. PMID:21132467

  4. Inability of spleen cells from chancre-immune rabbits to confer immunity to challenge with Treponema pallidum.

    PubMed Central

    Baughn, R E; Musher, D M; Simmons, C B

    1977-01-01

    Although several lines of evidence suggest that cellular immune mechanisms play a role in controlling infection due to Treponema pallidum, recent studies have shown that induction of acquired cellular resistance by antigenically unrelated organisms fails to protect rabbits against syphilitic infection, thereby casting doubt on this hypothesis. In the present paper we describe attempts to transfer immunity to syphilis by using spleen cells from chancre-immune rabbits. Intravenous infusion of 2 X 10(8) spleen lymphocytes was capable of transferring acquired cellular resistance to Listeria and delayed hypersensitivity to tuberculin. However, in eight separate experiments using outbred or inbred rabbits, 2 X 10(8) spleen cells from syphilis-immune animals failed to confer resistance to T. pallidum whether by intravenous or intradermal challenge. Mixing immune lymphocytes with treponemes immediately before intradermal inoculation also failed to confer resistance. Despite the fact that syphilitic infection stimulates cellular immune mechanisms and induces acquired cellular resistance to antigenically unrelated organisms, cellular immunity may not play an important role in immunity to syphilis. PMID:143456

  5. Regulation of cancer immune escape: The roles of miRNAs in immune checkpoint proteins.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qin; Cao, Wenjie; Wang, Zi; Zhang, Bin; Liu, Jing

    2018-09-01

    Immune checkpoint proteins (ICPs) are regulators of immune system. The ICP dysregulation silences the host immune response to cancer-specific antigens, contributing to the occurrence and progress of various cancers. MiRNAs are regulatory molecules and function in mRNA silencing and post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression. MiRNAs that modulate the immunity via ICPs have received increasing attention. Many studies have shown that the expressions of ICPs are directly or indirectly repressed by miRNAs in multiple types of cancers. MiRNAs are also subject to regulation by ICPs. In this review, recent studies of the relationship between miRNAs and ICPs (including the PD-1, PD-L1, CTLA-4, ICOS, B7-1, B7-2, B7-H2, B7-H3, CD27, CD70, CD40, and CD40L) in cancer immune escape are comprehensively discussed, which provide critical detailed mechanistic insights into the functions of the miRNA-ICP axes and their effects on immune escape, and will be beneficial for the potential applications of immune checkpoint therapy and miRNA-based guidance for personalized medicine as well as for predicting the prognosis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Therapeutic potential of helminths in autoimmune diseases: helminth-derived immune-regulators and immune balance.

    PubMed

    Wang, Meng; Wu, Linxiang; Weng, Rennan; Zheng, Weihong; Wu, Zhongdao; Lv, Zhiyue

    2017-08-01

    Helminths have accompanied human throughout history by releasing immune-evasion molecules that could counteract an aberrant immune response within the host. In the past decades, helminth infections are becoming less prevalent possibly due to the developed sanitation. Meanwhile, the incidence of autoimmune diseases is increasing, which cannot be exclusively explained by the changes of susceptibility genes. While the hygiene hypothesis casts light on the problem. The infections of helminths are believed to interact with and regulate human immunity with the byproduct of suppressing the autoimmune diseases. Thus, helminths are potential to treat or cure the autoimmune diseases. The therapeutic progresses and possible immune suppression mechanisms are illustrated in the review. The helminths that are studied most intensively include Heligmosomoides polygyrus, Hymenolepis diminuta, Schistosoma mansoni, Trichinella spiralis, and Trichuris suis. Special attentions are paid on the booming animal models and clinical trials that are to detect the efficiency of immune-modulating helminth-derived molecules on autoimmune diseases. These trials provide us with a prosperous clinical perspective, but the precise mechanism of the down-regulatory immune response remains to be clarified. More efforts are needed to be dedicated until these parasite-derived immune modulators could be used in clinic to treat or cure the autoimmune diseases under a standard management.

  7. The immune-neuro-endocrine interactions.

    PubMed

    Tomaszewska, D; Przekop, F

    1997-06-01

    This article reviews data concerning the interactions between immune, endocrine and neural systems in physiological, pathophysiological and stress conditions in animals and humans. Numerous studies have provided evidence that these systems interact with each other in maintaining homeostasis. This interaction may be classified as follows: immune, endocrine and neural cell products coexist in lymphoid, endocrine and neural tissue. Endocrine and neural mediators modulate immune system activity. Immune, endocrine and neural cells express receptors for cytokines, hormones, neuropeptides and transmitters.

  8. Methods to study Drosophila immunity.

    PubMed

    Neyen, Claudine; Bretscher, Andrew J; Binggeli, Olivier; Lemaitre, Bruno

    2014-06-15

    Innate immune mechanisms are well conserved throughout evolution, and many theoretical concepts, molecular pathways and gene networks are applicable to invertebrate model organisms as much as vertebrate ones. Drosophila immunity research benefits from an easily manipulated genome, a fantastic international resource of transgenic tools and over a quarter century of accumulated techniques and approaches to study innate immunity. Here we present a short collection of ways to challenge the fruit fly immune system with various pathogens and parasites, as well as read-outs to assess its functions, including cellular and humoral immune responses. Our review covers techniques for assessing the kinetics and efficiency of immune responses quantitatively and qualitatively, such as survival analysis, bacterial persistence, antimicrobial peptide gene expression, phagocytosis and melanisation assays. Finally, we offer a toolkit of Drosophila strains available to the research community for current and future research. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The immune complex CTA1-DD/IgG adjuvant specifically targets connective tissue mast cells through FcγRIIIA and augments anti-HPV immunity after nasal immunization.

    PubMed

    Fang, Y; Zhang, T; Lidell, L; Xu, X; Lycke, N; Xiang, Z

    2013-11-01

    We have previously reported that CTA1-DD/IgG immune complexes augment antibody responses in a mast cell-dependent manner following intranasal (IN) immunizations. However, from a safety perspective, mast cell activation could preclude clinical use. Therefore, we have extended these studies and demonstrate that CTA1-DD/IgG immune complexes administered IN did not trigger an anaphylactic reaction. Importantly, CTA1-DD/IgE immune complexes did not activate mast cells. Interestingly, only connective tissue, but not mucosal, mast cells could be activated by CTA1-DD/IgG immune complexes. This effect was mediated by FcγRIIIA, only expressed on connective tissue mast cells, and found in the nasal submucosa. FcγRIIIA-deficient mice had compromised responses to immunization adjuvanted by CTA1-DD/IgG. Proof-of-concept studies revealed that IN immunized mice with human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 L1 virus-like particles (VLP) and CTA1-DD/IgG immune complexes demonstrated strong and sustained specific antibody titers in serum and vaginal secretions. From a mast cell perspective, CTA1-DD/IgG immune complexes appear to be safe and effective mucosal adjuvants.

  10. Immune Responses and Protection of Aotus Monkeys Immunized with Irradiated Plasmodium vivax Sporozoites

    PubMed Central

    Jordán-Villegas, Alejandro; Perdomo, Anilza Bonelo; Epstein, Judith E.; López, Jesús; Castellanos, Alejandro; Manzano, María R.; Hernández, Miguel A.; Soto, Liliana; Méndez, Fabián; Richie, Thomas L.; Hoffman, Stephen L.; Arévalo-Herrera, Myriam; Herrera, Sócrates

    2011-01-01

    A non-human primate model for the induction of protective immunity against the pre-erythrocytic stages of Plasmodium vivax malaria using radiation-attenuated P. vivax sporozoites may help to characterize protective immune mechanisms and identify novel malaria vaccine candidates. Immune responses and protective efficacy induced by vaccination with irradiated P. vivax sporozoites were evaluated in malaria-naive Aotus monkeys. Three groups of six monkeys received two, five, or ten intravenous inoculations, respectively, of 100,000 irradiated P. vivax sporozoites; control groups received either 10 doses of uninfected salivary gland extract or no inoculations. Immunization resulted in the production low levels of antibodies that specifically recognized P. vivax sporozoites and the circumsporozoite protein. Additionally, immunization induced low levels of antigen-specific IFN-γ responses. Intravenous challenge with viable sporozoites resulted in partial protection in a dose-dependent manner. These findings suggest that the Aotus monkey model may be able to play a role in preclinical development of P. vivax pre-erythrocytic stage vaccines. PMID:21292877

  11. Polio immunity and the impact of mass immunization campaigns in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    PubMed

    Voorman, Arend; Hoff, Nicole A; Doshi, Reena H; Alfonso, Vivian; Mukadi, Patrick; Muyembe-Tamfum, Jean-Jacques; Wemakoy, Emile Okitolonda; Bwaka, Ado; Weldon, William; Gerber, Sue; Rimoin, Anne W

    2017-10-09

    In order to prevent outbreaks from wild and vaccine-derived poliovirus, maintenance of population immunity in non-endemic countries is critical. We estimated population seroprevalence using dried blood spots collected from 4893 children 6-59months olds in the 2013-2014 Demographic and Health Survey in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). Population immunity was 81%, 90%, and 70% for poliovirus types 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Among 6-59-month-old children, 78% reported at least one dose of polio in routine immunization, while only 15% had three doses documented on vaccination cards. All children in the study had been eligible for at least two trivalent oral polio vaccine campaigns at the time of enrollment; additional immunization campaigns seroconverted 5.0%, 14%, and 5.5% of non-immune children per-campaign for types 1, 2, and 3, respectively, averaged over relevant campaigns for each serotype. Overall polio immunity was high at the time of the study, though pockets of low immunity cannot be ruled out. The DRC still relies on supplementary immunization campaigns, and this report stresses the importance of the quality and coverage of those campaigns over their quantity, as well as the importance of routine immunization. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Pulmonary immunity and extracellular matrix interactions.

    PubMed

    O'Dwyer, David N; Gurczynski, Stephen J; Moore, Bethany B

    2018-04-09

    The lung harbors a complex immune system composed of both innate and adaptive immune cells. Recognition of infection and injury by receptors on lung innate immune cells is crucial for generation of antigen-specific responses by adaptive immune cells. The extracellular matrix of the lung, comprising the interstitium and basement membrane, plays a key role in the regulation of these immune systems. The matrix consists of several hundred assembled proteins that interact to form a bioactive scaffold. This template, modified by enzymes, acts to facilitate cell function and differentiation and changes dynamically with age and lung disease. Herein, we explore relationships between innate and adaptive immunity and the lung extracellular matrix. We discuss the interactions between extracellular matrix proteins, including glycosaminoglycans, with prominent effects on innate immune signaling effectors such as toll-like receptors. We describe the relationship of extracellular matrix proteins with adaptive immunity and leukocyte migration to sites of injury within the lung. Further study of these interactions will lead to greater knowledge of the role of matrix biology in lung immunity. The development of novel therapies for acute and chronic lung disease is dependent on a comprehensive understanding of these complex matrix-immunity interactions. Copyright © 2017 International Society of Matrix Biology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Project BioShield: Authorities, Appropriations, Acquisitions, and Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-03

    anthrax, botulism , radiation, and smallpox. The HHS has also employed the emergency use authority several times, including during the 2009 H1N1 influenza...report (see “Acquisitions”). The HHS used these contracts to purchase treatments for botulism and internal radioactive particle contamination. See U.S

  14. Project BioShield: Authorities, Appropriations, Acquisitions, and Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-22

    against anthrax, botulism , radiation, and smallpox. The HHS has also employed the emergency use authority several times, including during the 2009 H1N1...described later in this report (see “Acquisitions”). The HHS used these contracts to purchase treatments for botulism and internal radioactive particle

  15. Current methods for detecting the presence of botulinum neurotoxins in food and other biological samples

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Current methods for detecting the presence of botulinum neurotoxins in food and other biological samples Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs), the causative agents of botulism, are among the most lethal human bacterial toxins and the causative agent of botulism. BoNTs are also classified as Select Agents ...

  16. Melatonin: Buffering the Immune System

    PubMed Central

    Carrillo-Vico, Antonio; Lardone, Patricia J.; Álvarez-Sánchez, Nuria; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Ana; Guerrero, Juan M.

    2013-01-01

    Melatonin modulates a wide range of physiological functions with pleiotropic effects on the immune system. Despite the large number of reports implicating melatonin as an immunomodulatory compound, it still remains unclear how melatonin regulates immunity. While some authors argue that melatonin is an immunostimulant, many studies have also described anti-inflammatory properties. The data reviewed in this paper support the idea of melatonin as an immune buffer, acting as a stimulant under basal or immunosuppressive conditions or as an anti-inflammatory compound in the presence of exacerbated immune responses, such as acute inflammation. The clinical relevance of the multiple functions of melatonin under different immune conditions, such as infection, autoimmunity, vaccination and immunosenescence, is also reviewed. PMID:23609496

  17. Immunity to community: what can immune pathways tell us about disease patterns in corals?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mydlarz, L. D.; Fuess, L.; Pinzon, J. C.; Weil, E.

    2016-02-01

    Predicting species composition and abundances is one of the most fundamental questions in ecology. This question is even more pressing in marine ecology and coral reefs since communities are changing at a rapid pace due to climate-related changes. Increases in disease prevalence and severity are just some of the consequences of these environmental changes. Particularly in coral reef ecosystems, diseases are increasing and driving region-wide population collapses. It has become clear, however, that not all reefs or coral species are affected by disease equally. In fact, the Caribbean is a concentrated area for diseases. The patterns in which disease manifests itself on an individual reef are also proving interesting, as not all coral species are affected by disease equally. Some species are host to different diseases, but seem to successfully fight them reducing mortality. Other species are disproportionately infected on any given reef and experience high mortality due to disease. We are interested in the role immunity can play in directing these patterns and are evaluating coral immunity using several novel approaches. We exposed 4 species of corals with different disease susceptibilities to immune stimulators and quantified of coral immunity using a combination of full transcriptome sequencing and protein activity assays for gene to phenotype analysis. We also mapped gene expression changes onto immune pathways (i.e. melanin-cascade, antimicrobial peptide synthesis, complement cascade, lectin-opsonization) to evaluate expression of immune pathways between species. In our preliminary data we found many immune genes in the disease susceptible Orbicella faveolata underwent changes in gene expression opposite of the predictions and may disply `dysfunctional' patterns of expression. We will present expression data for 4 species of coral and assess how these transcriptional and protein immune responses are related to disease susceptibility in nature, thus scaling up

  18. Long lasting dysautonomia due to botulinum toxin B poisoning: clinical-laboratory follow up and difficulties in initial diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Potulska-Chromik, Anna; Zakrzewska-Pniewska, Beata; Szmidt-Sałkowska, Elżbieta; Lewandowski, Jacek; Siński, Maciej; Przyjałkowski, Witold; Kostera-Pruszczyk, Anna

    2013-10-30

    Botulism is an acute form of poisoning caused by one of four types (A, B, E, F) toxins produced by Clostridium botulinum, ananaerobic, spore forming bacillus. Usually diagnosis of botulism is considered in patients with predominant motor symptoms: muscle weakness with intact sensation and preserved mental function. We report a case of 56-year-old Caucasian female with a history of arterial hypertension, who presented with acute respiratory failure and bilateral ptosis misdiagnosed as brainstem ischemia. She had severe external and internal ophtalmoplegia, and autonomic dysfunction with neither motor nor sensory symptoms from upper and lower limbs. Diagnosis of botulinum toxin poisoning was made and confirmed by serum antibody testing in the mouse inoculation test. Ophtalmoplegia, autonomic dysfunction and respiratory failure can be caused by botulism. Early treatment and intensive care is essential for survival and recovery. The electrophysiological tests are crucial to correct and rapid diagnosis. Botulism (especially type B) should be considered in any case of acute or predominant isolated autonomic dysfunction.

  19. The immune response to human CMV

    PubMed Central

    La Rosa, Corinna; Diamond, Don J

    2012-01-01

    This review will summarize and interpret recent literature regarding the human CMV immune response, which is among the strongest measured and is the focus of attention for numerous research groups. CMV is a highly prevalent, globally occurring infection that rarely elicits disease in healthy immunocompetent hosts. The human immune system is unable to clear CMV infection and latency, but mounts a spirited immune-defense targeting multiple immune-evasion genes encoded by this dsDNA β-herpes virus. Additionally, the magnitude of cellular immune response devoted to CMV may cause premature immune senescence, and the high frequencies of cytolytic T cells may aggravate vascular pathologies. However, uncontrolled CMV viremia and life-threatening symptoms, which occur readily after immunosuppression and in the immature host, clearly indicate the essential role of immunity in maintaining asymptomatic co-existence with CMV. Approaches for harnessing the host immune response to CMV are needed to reduce the burden of CMV complications in immunocompromised individuals. PMID:23308079

  20. Drosophila immunity research on the move.

    PubMed

    Eleftherianos, Ioannis; Schneider, David

    2011-01-01

    Drosophila has been established as useful model for infectious diseases because it allows large numbers of whole animals to be studied and provides powerful genetic tools and conservation with signaling and pathogenesis mechanisms in vertebrates. During the past twenty years, significant progress has been made on the characterization of innate immune responses against various pathogenic organisms in flies (Fig. 1). In this year's Drosophila Research Conference, which was held in San Diego (March 30-April 3) and sponsored by the Genetics Society of America, the immunity and pathogenesis session comprised seven platform presentations and 34 posters that highlighted the latest advances in Drosophila infection and immunity field. The presented work covered a wide range of studies from immune signaling pathways and the molecular basis of humoral and cellular immune mechanisms to the role of endosymbionts in fly immune function and effects of immune priming. Here, we give an overview of the presented work and we explain how these findings will open new avenues in Drosophila immunity research.